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. .

: B.J1. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
O.B. , .. , J1.A. , .. ,
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. .
.. . - .: -, 2003. - 320 .: .

ISBN 5-88405-051-8
- , , , , .
,
, ,
. (,
ISDN, SDH, ATM, Frame Relay, xDSL .), , .

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,
, .

32.88

ISBN 5-88405-051-8

, 2003


( )

1. , .

7
12

1.1.

12

1.2. ,

15

\ / 2.

19

2.1.

19

2.2.

28

3.

32

3.1. :

32

3.2. -

34

3.3.

37

3.4.

41

3.5.

52

4.

56

4.1.

56

4.2. .

59

\ j 5.

63

5.1.

63

5.2.

63

5.3.
5.3.1. ,
5.3.2.

65
66
67

5.4.

69

5.5.

71

5.6.

72

6.

74

6.1.
6.1.1.
6.1.2.
6.1.3.
6.1.4. -
6.1.5.
6.1.6.

74
74
76
77
79
80
83

6.2. ISDN
6.2.1.
6.2.2.
6.2.3.
6.2.4. N-ISDN

85
85
86
88
93

6.3.

6.3.1.
6.3.2.
6.3.3. Ethernet
6.3.4.

103
103
104
105
112

6.4.
6.4.1.
6.4.2.
6.4.3.

116
116
116
119

6.5. IP
6.5.1.
6.5.2.
6.5.3.
6.5.4. IP

121
121
124
126
129

6.6. Frame Relay


6.6.1.
6.6.2. FR

131
131
134

6.7. ATM ISDN


6.7.1.
6.7.2. B-ISDN
6.7.3. B-ISDN
6.7.4. B-ISDN
ATM
6.7.5.
6.7.6. B-ISDN
6.7.7. B-ISDN
6.7.8. ATM
6.7.9. ATM
6.7.10. ATM
6.7.11.
6.7.12.
6.7.13.
6.7.14.

138
138
139
141
141
143
143
145
147
150
154
157
159
163
164

6.7.15. ATM

168

6.8.
6.8.1.
6.8.2. ATM

169
169
171

7.

177

7.1. -
7.1.1.
7.1.2.
7.1.3.
7.1.4.

177
177
181
182
185

7.2.

186

7.3.

192

8.

200

8.1.
8.1.1.
8.1.2.

200
201
202

8.2.
8.2.1.
8.2.2.
8.2.3.

207
208
216
218

9.

220

9.1. ,
9.1.1.
9.1.2
9.1.3.
9.1.4.

220
220
220
222
222

9.2.
9.2.1.
9.2.2. /
9.2.3.

227
227
228
228

9.3.
9.3.1.
9.3.2.
9.3.3. ()
9.3.4.
9.3.5.
9.3.6.
9.3.7.
LMDS MVDS
9.3.8.
()

236
236
238
239
241
243
247
248
248

10. , ,

250

10.1. . TMN

250

10.2.
10.2.1.
10.2.2. ISDN
10.2.3.
10.2.4.
10.2.5.
10.2.6.

254
254
260
262
266
266
267

10.3.
10.3.1.
10.3.2.
10.3.3.

268
268
269
269

272

272

.
.1.
.2.
..

279
279
281
283

.
.1.
.2.
..

285
285
287
288

291

293

301

313


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AT&T Broadband & Internet


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Hughes Electronics ()
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China Unicom
WorldCom Group
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TDC Tele Denmark - . , ,



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, Deutsche Telekom
.
T-Com
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. 3.6. DT 2001 .

T-Com Sales. -
.
T-Systems . T-Systems
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2000 . , 2000 .
IP- .
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, .
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- (routing): ,
(, );
- (resources handling): , , ( ,
, . .);
- (supervision): , ,
, ,
, , (,
);
- (operation and maintenance): ,
,
;
- (charging): ,
, . . ,
;
- (interworking): , ,
, ..

ISDN .. ( ,
, , ,
..);
- 2 3 (layer 2 and 3 data unit handling):

.
ISDN. (Basic EF, BEF)
(Additional EF, AEF) ,
BGF ( AGF) AGF. . 6.1
BEF, . 1.310 .
(AEF00...AEF14),
, :
AEF00 - ( ..):
(, , )
, ;
AEF05 - : ;
AEF14 - :
.
.
ISDN :
) (service request examination)
, ,
( , , ),
:
- (input): ;
- (process): ;
- (output): () .
) (Connection element selection)
. . , ( ):
- : ;
- : ()
;
- : ().
) (function set determination)
, :
- : ;
- : , ;
- : .
N-ISDN.
ISDN . 6.15 (. 1.324).
ISDN , , (, -). 4 - 8363

6.1.

BEF100

BEF101

BEF 105

BEF 107

BEF110

BEF112

BEF200

BEF310

BEF403

BEF501

BEF605

BEF700

(connection handling) BEF 100... BEF 114




(char (
acteristics of service requested
, , )
examination)


(connection , elements type determination)



(establishment
control)


(service re ,
lated authorizations examina
tion)


(,
(supplementary services compatibility ,

checking)
)

(signalling interworking)

(routing) BEF200... BEF205
ISDN ISDN
- (
(ISDN number identification)
ISDN)
(resources handling) BEF300... BEF310
(real

time clock)
(supervision) BEF400... BEF404

(detec
tion of congestion)
(operation and maintenance) BEF500... BEF501
(fault

report)
(charging ) BEF600 .. BEF605
(charg-
ing information)
()
(interworking ) BEF700... BEF703
(rate
, , adaptation)

ISDN

(Additional Low Layer Functions, ALLF)


ISDN, .
(Basic High Layer Functions, BHLF) (Additional High Layer Functions, AHLF)
ISDN (. 1.210).

-
-
(-)
(Terminal Equipment) -
BLLF (Basic Low Layer Functions) -
ALLF (Additional Low Layer Functions) -
BHLF (Basic High Layer Functions) -
AHLF (Additional High Layer Functions) -
. 6.15. N-ISDN

N-ISDN. . 6.16 N-ISDN, . 1.414. V . Q.512, S - . 1.430,1.431.


2 + D[6 - LT.
(, .)
. - 1, 2
D , , .
+ D ^ ,
(LAN)
ISDN.

, . G.962, G.963
MDF (Main Distribution Frame) - ()
. 6.16. N-ISDN

2B+D (NT),
NT1 NT2 U, - S
( ). NT1 . S
(Terminal Equipment, ),
150 . -:
1 , U, .
, , .. . NT - .
, LT NT
( 96 ), a NT
S .
U 2B+D , 192 /.
. 2B1Q ( ),
50%.
S 2B+D, (
AMI). NT , (AMI - 2B1Q), , D,
,

S. S - D,
, D NT,
, D .
- ,
D.
( ). , -
10 - .

S . 6.17. 250 48
( 192 /).
D, , (32 /
32 / - ) D, ,
(, ) 8 /.
NT

F L. 18 D Fa N 28 D S1 18 D S2 28 D L.

D L. F L. 18 L. D L. FA L. B2x8 L. D L. B1x8 L. D L. B2x8 L. D L


1 - 1;
2 - 2;
0 - 16;

- ;
- ;
N - ;

2 - ();
- - ;
L. -
( )
. 6.17. S

LT , , NT,
NT . LT
16 . LT, , 1, 2
LT 2 /, . D]6
64 /, HDLC,
DSS1. D . 10.2.2.
. 1.374 N-ISDN
B-ISDN. , (, ). :
- (, )
(, );
- ,
;
- .
,
.

(, - ).
(service component) ,
.
(, ) ,
,
.
(, ,
- ).
, .
,
- .

(control), (management).
. , ,
- . , . ,
, , , , , (4-7),
. ,
-
(User-Network Interface, UNI) (Network Node Interface, NNI),
. -
, . UNI - , , UNI .
,
, .
(call control), (connection control) (mdia control).
: (perception mdium) , ; (reprsentation
mdium) - , ;
(prsentation mdium) -
( ); .

:
- Call set-up: ;
- Call release: .

. :
- Establish connection: ;
- Join: ;
- Leave: ;
- Disconnect: .
:
- Allocate: ;
- De-allocate: .
.
, .
.
.
:
:
-
( ,
);

- ;
- , - 1 ;
- ;
- , ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
-
(, , ).
:
- (, , , );
- ;
- ;
- -.
.
. ,
:
-
;
- ;
- (,
, );
- , ,
(,
).

6.3.
6.3.1.
(, Local Area Network, LAN) -
- , ,
, ( ) .
[22, 26]:
- ;
1

point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and broadcasting connections


-, - , , , ,
.

- , ;
- ;
- (
, , . .).
:
(International Organization for Standardization, ISO),
(OSI), IEEE, ANSI
.
(Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers, IEEE) -
, . IEEE 802
: 802.1;
802.2; 802.3; 802.5 . , , Ethernet
Token Ring, .
(American National Standard
Institute, ANSI). ANSI X3T9.5 FDDI
(Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - , 50 100 /.
(Electronics Industries Association, EI )
- , -
, RS-232C.

(Telecommunication Industries Association, TIA) EIA
EIA/TIA 568. :
; () ;
; ; ; ; ; .
(European Computer Manufactures
Association, ) - ,
. -84, -85, -87
-88 - .
:
- , Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI ( ),
;
- , , ( IEEE 802.9), ( IEEE
802.11 ), ( IEEE 802.12) .

6.3.2.
OSI.
OSI -
.

IEEE 802.2 , a ANSI ISO


:
- - LLC (Logical Link Control);
- - MAC (Media Access Control).
LLC :
- ;
- , ,
, .. .
(broadcast)
Ethernet, - Token Ring FDDI.
MAC ,
, .
OSI ,
, . IEEE, , Ethernet :
- - (Physical Coding Sublayer, PCS) - MAC , ,
. PCS AUI (Attachment Unit Interface),
( - PC) (transceiver);
- (Physical Media Attachment, PMA) - . ;
- (Media Dependent Interface, MDI). .
, MAC . , ,
.

6.3.3. Ethernet
. Ethernet Xerox 1975 .
,
,
(/) (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection, CSMA/CD). 1980 . DEC, Intel Xerox
Ethernet, Ethernet DIX. IEEE IEEE
802.3. Ethernet :
I. , .
PC . , . , .

2. , ,
. PC, , (carrier sense). ( ), PC
. PC .
3. PC
. , PC
. .
( - collision). PC, (collision detection), .
4. PC , .
, . , 16 .
, ( ) Ethernet .
, . ,
Ethernet. :
- ();
- ;
- .
Ethernet
. , Fast
Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet.
Ethernet. 20 Ethernet
, OSI (IEEE) [22,
28, 30, 31]. . 6.2 Ethernet 10 / ( ISO 8028.3); - Fast Ethernet
100 /; - Gigabit Ethernet (
1 /).
6.2. Ethernet OSI, IEEE

OSI

IEEE
LLC IEEE 802.2
MAC Ethernet (CSMA/CD), IEEE 802.3
) 10Base-5, 10Base-2, 10Base-T, lOBase-F (FOIRL, lOBase-FL, lOBase-FB)
) 100Base-TX, 100Base-T4, 100Base-FX
) 1000Base-X (1 OOOBase-LX, lOOOBase-SX, 1000Base-CX, 1000Basc-T)

.
10Base-5 - Ethernet (thick) (RG-8, RG-11) 0,5
50 . (. 6.18,) ( 50 ).
PC , 2,5 .

PC AUI DB-15
. AUI 50 . . 100
. 500 .
. 2500 (5 , 4 ).
IOBase-2 - Ethernet (thin) RG-58, 0,25 50 .
l0Base-5. PC
BCN-T (. 6.18,6). PC - 30,
- 0,5 . 185 . .
925 (5 , 4 ).

PC,

PC,

PC,

RJ-45"

PC,

qp

PC,

PC,

. 6.18. Ethernet:
a - 10Base-5; - 10Base-2; - 10Base-T

10Base-5
10Base-2 :
- ;
- ,
:
- ;
- ;
- PC .
10Base-T - Ethernet IEEE 802.3i .
PC - (. 6.18, ). PC (hub) (Unshielded Twisted Pair, UTP)
, 100 . . , 3 16 /, 5 - 100 /. - ,
- . RJ-45. -

, . PC 1024,
PC - .
10Base-FL - Ethernet - (Fiber Optical, FO)
62,5/125 . 10Base-T.
PC 2000 () - , .
PC 2500 , - . FO: FOIRL ( 1000 ,
- 2500 ); 10Base-FB ( : 2000 ,
2740 ).
Ethernet. IEEE 802.3 MAC. IEEE 802.2 MAC () LLC. Ethernet
MAC LLC.
Ethernet :
- 802.3/LLC;
- RAW 802.3 ( Novell 802.3);
- Ethernet DIX ( Digital, Intel, Xerox);
- Ethernet SNAP ( IEEE).

. ( ,
, , ) .
Ethernet SNAP, :
- 802.3/LLC;
- , OSI (, ).
Ethernet SNAP . 6.19.
:
- (Preamble) - 7 - 10101010
. ;
- SFD (Start of Frame Delimiter) - 1 .
10101011 , -
MAC;
46...1500
/ \
/
1

SFD

DA

SA

MAC
I

0-1492

1
DSAP SSAP Con

|
!

LLC

OUI

SNAP

Data
I

FCS

MAC

. 6.19. Ethernet SNAP

- DA (Destination Address) - 6 . 0, (unicast) , I - (multicast) . I, (broadcast) , ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff.

- SA (Source Address) - '. 6 . 0, 00-80-66-3 l-6f-c4.


- L (Length) - , .
- LLC. DSAP SSAP 1
, , OSI
.
(Service Access Point, SAP). SAP
IEEE 802.2, , IP
SAP - 0 6, NetBIOS - O x FD. Con -
(control) 1 ,
.
- SNAP - LLC, OUI ().
2 , Ethernet. OUI ,
, .
- Data - 0 1492 . 46 ,
, 46 . .
, .
- FCS (Frame Check Sequence) - 4 .
FCS CRC-32. , FCS.
.
Ethernet , - 64 , ( SFD) - 72 . ,
. ,
Ethernet. Ethernet 1518 ( SFD). .
, Ethernet
. ,
30-40% (10 /). Ethernet
.
Fast Ethernet.
90- Ethernet 10 / .
1992 . Fast Ethernet
100 /. Fast
Ethernet Ethernet .
1

. (Organizationally Unique Identifier, OUI) .


.

1995 . IEEE 802.3 Fast Ethernet IEEE


802.3u, IEEE 802.3.
Fast Ethernet , Ethernet, - CSMA/CD.
MAC LLC Fast Ethernet , Ethernet. Fast
Ethernet , Ethernet, . Fast Ethernet , 100Base-X:
- 100Base-FX - - ;
- 100Base-TX - ( 2 );
- 100Base-T4 - ( 4 ).
Fast Ethernet
Ethernet : PCS; PMA; MDI. Fast Ethernet (. 6.20,):
- (Reconciliation Sublayer, RS), PCS
(Media Independent Interface). PCS . Fast Ethernet
( 86 100Base-T4 45
100Base-TX 100Base-FX);
- (Physical Medium Dependent, PMD), ;
- (Auto-Negotiation, AN), PC ( ), , PC (10 100 /).
100Base-TX.
. PC - UTP (Shielded Twisted Pair, STP).
, - . EIA-586
UTP IBM STP 1.
PC 100 .
100Base-T4. UTP Fast
Ethernet. 33,3 /,
100 /. . PC 100 .
100Base-FX. 62,5/125 . Fast Ethernet. ( ) 2000 , - 412 .
Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3u :
- I - , (100Base-TX,
100Base-FX, 100Base-T4) ()
;
- II - ,
, , .
, I.

Fast Ethernet I . II - 5 ( UTP). I



. Fast Ethernet I
200 , II - 205 (. 6.20,5).
.

LLC

Fiber Optic

2000 -
412

RS

PCS
PMA
PMD
AN

PHY

1
1

~|

~| MDI

0,5 "

MDI
-^ ^

PC

UTP

100 -

MAC


2. 3

MDI-X
PC PC PC

PC PC PC
6)

. 6.20. Fast Ethernet:


a - ; -

Gigabit Ethernet. 1996 . IEEE 802.3z, CSMA/CD 1000 /. 1998 . IEEE 802.3z, Gigabit Ethernet OB .
1999 . IEEE 802., Gigabit Ethernet
.
Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet Fast Ethernet :
- ;
- CSMA/CD;
- - : FO; UTP; .
Ethernet, 1000
/, MAC :
- Fiber
Channel 8/10;
- 64 512 , (100 UTP).
- 8192 - (Burst Mode).
.
Gigabit Ethernet. 802.3z : ; (twinax) .
1 OOOBase-SX (S Short Wavelength - ) 850 . -

OB 62,5/125 220 ,
OB 50/125 - 5 0 0 .
1000Base-LX (L Long Wavelength - ) OB
1300 . OB
550 , OB - 5000 .
1000Base-CX 150 . 25 .
1000Base-T 802.
UTP 5 . PC - 100 . 1000 / , 5, . (Digital Signal
Processor, DSP) .
Gigabit Ethernet . .
IEEE 802.3. 2002 . IEEE
802., Ethernet
10 / OB .

6.3.4.
Token Ring. 1985 . IEEE 802.5 Token Ring
IBM. PC ,
. Token Ring
4 16 /. Token
Ring ,
Ethernet. Token Ring Ethernet [31].
Token Ring. - ,
(. 6.21,). PC (lobe)
- (Multistation Access Unit, MAU). MAU (trunk) Ring In (RI) Ring Out (RO)
. , MAU .
PC MAU IBM: STP
Type 1, UTP Type 3 Type 6 (OB ). STP Type 1
101 260 . UTP 3 45 , 72. MAU 101 45 STP
1 UTP 3. MAU 730
365 . 4000 .
PC - 10 ; ; -
- 2,6 .

PC PC PC PC

a)

PC PC PC PC

6)
. 6.21. :
- Token Ring; - FDDI

(token) . Token Ring FDDI. , - ( 3 Token


Ring). , , ,
( ..), . , , PC . , ,
, . PC . , PC, .

, PC .
. Token Ring :
- ;
- ( );
- .
I :
SD (Start Delimiter) - , : JK0JK000.
AC (Access Control) - . PPPTMRRR,
- (8 : 0 - 7), - , -
, RRR - .
PC .
PC ,
. PC , RRR, RRR. RRR , a RRR .
I , . 1, PC 0.
= 1 ,
.

ED (End Delimiter) - , : JK1JK1 IE. I ,


( 1 = 1 ) (I = 0) . . 0 , 1 -
, ( ) .
(MAC )
(LLC ). :
SP - (1 );
- (1 );
FC (Frame Control) - (1 ). (MAC
LLC). , MAC , - LLC.
;
DA (Distribution Address) - (2 6 );
SA (Source Address) - (2 6 );
INFO - , . 4 / 4500 , 16 / - 18000 ;
FCS (Frame Check Sequence) - (4 );
ED - (1 );
FS (Frame Status) - (1 ). ACrrACrr, - , - , - .
. - SD ED. ,
.
Token Ring , Ethernet.
, .
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
Token Ring Ethernet .
Token Ring. IEEE 802.5 1999 .
Token Ring (High Speed Token Ring, HSTR).
Token
Ring (16 /).
IEEE 802.5t HSTR 100 / PC UTP 5 .
IEEE 802.5 HSTR OB 100 /.
IEEE 802.5v Gigabit Token Ring (GTR)
1000 /.
HSTR GTR MAC Token Ring. . HSTR Token Ring - HSTR 4, 16 100 /. , HSTR :

- Token Ring
(, );
- ;
- HSTR , ATM, Fast Ethernet,
.
FDDI. ANSI ISO ISO 9314. FDDI . 100 /. 45 NRZI. FDDI
(Metropolian Area Network, MAN).
FDDI OSI, . , FDDI (Station Management, SMT). MAC FDDI.
FDDI, SMT . [31].
FDDI , Token Ring, - . FDDI , Token Ring, , - . , , , Token
Ring, , - . , - .
( ) PC, , (Token Rotation Time, TRT)
.
- , .
, (TRT < ).

- TRT. TRT > ( ),
.
FDDI Token Ring. FDDI . FDDI - 4600 .
FDDI - (. 6.21, ).

. , , Thry,
(primary) .
(secondary) . , , . Wrap-. () (Dual Attachment Concentrator,
DAC) (Dual Attachment Station, DAS)
. PC 62,5 2 ,
- 100 . PC 500 1000 .
FDDI TP-PMD UTP 5 .
- 100 .

6.4.

- , ( - PC). , PC, . , ,
, PC ,
. : , , , [30, 31].

6.4.1.
(repeater) - , ()
OSI. .
, . ,
, . , Ethernet , 5 ,
, , 10Base-5 2500 .
(concentrator), (hub) - ,
. ,
, PC . (Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI). . , Ethernet
, , Token Ring , .
, .

6.4.2.
(bridge) - ,
.
OSI
. IEEE 802. Id.
. .
,
MAN WAN,
LAN.

(source routing) (transparent).
IEEE 802.1. ,
Source Routing Transparent.
IBM Token Ring. ,

PC. , , . ,
, -
(explorer frame). , . , (routing information field).
, . -
- . , -. , , -, ,
. -
- .
. , :
- ()
OSI, .. Ethernet-Ethernet, Token RingToken Ring;
- (translating bridges) () , Ethernet-Token Ring;
- (encapsulating bridges) ,
Ethernet, , FDDI.
.
- PC . -
. .
(promisguous) ,
, , .
.
: (learning),
(forwarding) (filtering) .
. . , , , , , .
, . PC , .
, ( ). , . .
. ,
, .
, , , , (, CSMA/CD)
, .. .
. ,
, (). (flooding) .
, (broadcasting). ,
, . -

( ). ,
STP (Spanning Tree Algorithm),
( ), . ,
, , . , .
(switch) - , , , PC . , , .. , . , , OSI.
. , , , , I /. 90-
. ,
, . , .. , . , , , . ,
- 5-10 . , - .
. 6.22.
.

,
. , 0
J
I 1 I ,

I I
.
. . 6.22.
, , , .
: ; ; .
,
. .
,
. - , ,
, .
. / .

, - . , ,
, . .
, , .
. .
.
, .

.
, ,
.
:
- (cut-through). ()
.
, , ;
- (store and forward switching).
, . ,
;
- (fragment-free switching)
. 64 . , , , .
- , , ,
:
- (, Ethernet FDDI, Token Ring
Fast Ethernet);
- Spanning Tree;
- ( ,
..);
- .

6.4.3.
(router) - , .
OSI.
,
(,
). :
-
;
- , - ,
;

- ,
;
- .
,
(Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI),
(.25, Frame Relay, ATM). ,
( , ).
()
, () .
, , .
, , . .
, ,
( , . .).
:
- , (. . 6.3), ,
;
- ,
, ARP, , .
. 6.23.
. , ,
. . 6.23. -
.
, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ( );
- .

,
, . : , , .


, , , . . ,
.
,
, , .
.
, .
.
, ,
.
. , , .
, . , , , , ..
, , ,
, .

6.5. IP
6.5.1.
IP TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol / Internet Protocol).
ARPAnet, . , , TCP/IP
UNIX. 30 . , [30, 31, 33, 36]:
- ;
- , ;
-
, ;
- (Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI );
- (.25, ISDN, Frame Relay,
ATM). TCP/IP OSI, SLIP ,
.

. , ,
, ,
.
(Internet Architecture Board, IAB). 2000 . 2700
(Request for Comments, RFC). RFC - ,
, , ,
,
. RFC 2026.
IAB :
- - (Internet Engineering Task Force, IETF),
RFC , ;
- (Internet Research Task Force, IRTF),
.
IAB 1983 . (Internet Society, ISOS),
.
TCP/IP. .
ISO TCP/IP -
TCP/IP. , ,
(, , ) OSI TCP/IP
- (. 6.24). TCP/IP OSI - .
TCP/IP :
- ,
SMNP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol); IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol), POP (Post Office Protocol)
X.400; NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol);
- Telnet;
- FTP (Fail Transfer Protocol),
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) NFS (Network File Systems);
- DNS (Domain
Name System) .500;
- : - ,
- NTP (Network Time Protocol), - Echo
- Finger.
90- , WWW
(World Wide Web), (Hypertext Transfer Protocol,
HTTP) URL (Universal Resource Locator) URN (Universal Resource Names).
IP- SIP (Session
Initiation Protocol), RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol), RTCP (Real-time Transport Control
Protocol), H.323 .
:
- SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol);
- RMON (Remote Monitoring).
.


ISO
TCP/IP

E-mail,
, I
SMNP, J
IMAP, j
POP,
X.400, I
NNTP !

. 1
1 Telnet

FTP,
TFTP,
NFS

NTP,
,
Echo,
Figner

1
1 1

.
1 DNS,
1 .500
1

WWW

HTTP,
URL.
URN

j
1 1 ,
1 1
1
J j SNMP,
RMON

IP-,

SIP,
.323

- - / - 4 - / - 4 - / -

:
RIP, OSPF, BGP,
EGP, IGRP,
EIGRP, RAP,
RSVP

SLIP, PPP, X.25, Frame Relay, ATM, IEEE 802.x (Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI)

(, )

7T\

. 6.24. TCP/IP

TCP UDP. TCP .


UDP (User Datagram Protocol) , .
- IP. IP , ,
, .
:
- ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), ;
- : ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) IP (MAC - ); RARP
(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) , ..
MAC IP .
:
RIP (Routing Internet Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing

Protocol), EIGRP (Enhanced IGRP), BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), RAP (Routing Access
Protocol), RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) .
TCP/IP
, IP .
290 RFC.
, , :
- ;
- ( ) IP;
- , ;
-
, . . .
IP-.

6.5.2.
IP . IP IPv4 4
: (, ) (PC, , ) . , , , 128.2.2.30. 10000000 00000010 00000010 00011110. IP
, . IP . 6.25.

16

1 |0|
1 |1|0[
1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 0

24

31

Na

|
Na



. 6.25. IP

IP ( - 0, - 10,
110, D
1110, - 11110). . 6.3 .
0 , 127
. 127.0.0.1
, OSI.
loopback.
D (multicast). .
IP 1 ( 255.255.255.255),
.

6.3. IP


1... 126
128...191
192...223

224...239
224...247

126
16384
2097151
-

16777214
65534
254
228
227

255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0

224.0.0.0
240.0.0.0

, IP (. . 6.3). - 32 ,
, . IP ,
, - .
.
IP , IP (domain
name), (, , , ). ,
a.usat.ua PC , ust, . DNS .
( ua),
- (, - ust), .. DNS
DNS , , IP . IP .
IP . IP - InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center). .
,
. -
IPv6, ,
16 .
IP . IP ( RFC 791) , , . IP
. 6.26. :
- - IP. - 4 ;
- - 4 . 20
60 ;
- - 1 , . 0 - 2 , 3-5 - : 3 - (delay), 4 - (throughput), 5 -
(reliability). 6 - 7 - ;
- IP . - 65535 .

(Maximum Transmission Unit, MTU) IP , IP ;

- 2 . ,
. ;
- - 3 . DF (Do not Fragment) () . MF (More Fragment) ,
, - ;
- - 13 ,
.
();
- - 1 . .
. , 1 ,
. 0, . , 1 ,
- ,
.
120 ;
- - 1 . (TCP, UDP, ICMP),
IP;
- - 2 . ;
- - 4 ;
- - 4 ;
- - . ,
;
- - , 32-
. .
0

16

31

24

. 6.26. IP

6.5.3.
TCP ( RFC 793). , , .
TCP IP. . , , .
.
.
(socket).

IANA
(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). , 25 110
( SMTP ), 23 -
(telnet).
TCP : .
,
-
. TCP .
TCP . TCP .
. 6.27. 20 .
0

8
16
24




|


31

. 6.27. TCP

:
- 16 ;
- 32 .
;
- 32 .
, ;
- - 4 . TCP , ;
- - 6 .
;
- - 6 . 1 :
1- URG - ;
2- - ;
3- PSH - , , , ;
4- RST - ,
;
5- SYN - , ;
6- FIN - , ,
.
- - 16 . ,
. . , . 0,
. , , ;

- - 16 . ,
, .
: IP , , IP . TCP ,
IP ;
- - 16 . ,
, .. , . , . URG.
TCP.
.
:
- , ,
TCP ;
- TCP ,
;
- TCP , ;
- ,
;
- - , .
.
(sliding window)
, , , .,
. , , , . .
()
. . TCP .
, . , , , . .
. . , - ,
, . , . RTT (Round Trip Time).
:
- . RTT
. , ;
- . TCP , , . -

.
RFC 793.
TCP .
, .
UDP ( RFC 768). ,
( ,
). UDP 8 , TCP.
: ( 2 ), (2 ), (2 ). UDP. (IP ) . , , . , . UDP ,
.

6.5.4. IP
. (. . 6.25) , .
. , , (router). IP ( ) IP . (domains).
IP , (policy routing). (Interior
Gateway Protocol, IGP), (Exterior Gateway
Protocol, EGP).
:
- (), - (distance vector) (link state);
- ,
(hop-by-hop routing)
(source specified routing).
- , (), , - . .
. RIP IGRP.
, (link state database) ,
, () . , , . 5 - 8363

. OSPF EIGRP.
. , .
. , .
RIP. RIP - , . RIP RFC 1058,
- RFC 1722 . RIP UDP ( 520).
RIP IP () . - 15. RIP 25 .
, RIP, RIP , , . RIP , 30 .
:
- ;
- - ;
- ( ), ;
- (15 );
- .
OSPF RFC 1370, 1578, 1793, 1850, 2328.
, . , . OSPF RIP. , OSPF, , , . , , , - , .
. OSPF , RIP,
.
OSPF :
- ,
;
-
, .
IGRP EIGRP. Cisco Systems [35].
IGRP -, , RIP, :
- ;
- , RIP, ;
- ;
- .

: , , , . . ,
1200 / 10 /.
EIGRP - , .
- (Distributed Update Algorithm, DUAL), . :
- ;
- DUAL;
- IP.
- , .
Hello. DUAL
,
.
EGP BGP . EGP
, .
EGP : , .. ; ;
.
EGP BGP, , , TCP. , TCP . BGP EGP. ,
.. BGP (3 ) - ,
.

6.6. Frame Relay


6.6.1.
.
. .25
( ), 70- , , :
- ( ) . , , ;
- ( 2,4 64 /).
.25 ,
, - .
(Frame Relay, FR) . -

.25 .
,
. FR , ..
.
, FR . , OSI.
,
, [34].
FR ,
. :
- , ;
- OSI;
- , - , .
.
FR :
- Frame Relay Forum (FRF);
- ANSI - , Tl.602, Tl.606, 1.607-1990, T1S1/91-695, 1.617, 1.618;
- ITU-T - ,
1.122,1.233,1.370,1.555, Q.902, Q.922, Q.931, Q.933, Q.2931.
FRF, 300 (Motorola,
3Com, Cisco, Newbridge Network .), .
. FR OSI - .
FR ITU,
ANSI: V.24, V.35, .21, BRI PRI ISDN,
1/1, SDH, .. (Data Terminal Equipment, DTE)
(Data Communication Equipment, DCE).
LAPF, ITU Q.922. LAPF - . ,
HDLC (High Level Data Link Control), HDLC
FR. , LAPD (Link Access
Protocol for D-channel) - D, ISDN.
FR HDLC , ( , HDLC).
. - () - , FR
.
, FR ,
, .

, , , , FR . FR
, , , .
. FR, ..
. LAPF . 6.28,.
-


FCS

01111110 (1 ) - )
1
2
1
2(4)
1... 1600 (4096)

- - - - FR.

. FECN
BECN

DLCI
DE

DLCI
CR
FRF 2 ) 6
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
. ITU
1
1
ANSI

. 6.28. LAPF:
- ; - FRF
4 .
.
FRF 1600 (
- 1 ). ITU
4096 .
FCS (Frame Check Sequence) -
(2 ).
FRF :
DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) - .
DLCI 10 (6 4 ) FR.
CR (Command Response) - / - 1 ,
OSI.
(Extended Address) - 1 (). ( DLCI) .
FRF - 2 , 0, - 1.
FECN (Forward Explicit Congestion Notification) - 1 ,
. 1 ,
(. 6.29). FECN ().
BECN (Backward Explicit

Congestion
Notification)
1 , . 1 ,
(.
6.29). BECN (UNI)
.
DE (Discard Eligibility) . 6.29.

. -

I ,
. DE (),
.. , . , FR
DE 1.

6.6.2. FR
- , . LAPF HDLC.
. FR
. , .
(Permanent Virtual Channel, PVC) (Switched Virtual Channel, SVC)
DLCI. DLCI
, , .. , DLCI. ANSI, ITU-T
DLC1 :
- , (Local Management Interface,
LMI), (User Network Interface, UNI);
1-15 - ;
16-991 - PVC SVC;
992-1007 - , ;
1008-1022 - , ;
1023 - , .
, FR 976 DLCI.
PVC . PVC :
- ();
- () (Committed Information
Rate, CIR);
- .
UNI PVC. PVC Frame Relay.
PVC . PVC, , . PVC , .
PVC :
- ;
- ;

- PVC , (Private Virtual


Network, PVN), (, , -).
(SVC) . FR

.
FR SVC ( FRF.4),
ITU Q.2931 ( ). FRF.4 SVC
: , , . , FR ITU . 164 .121.
IETF NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol -
).
, , IP SVC . NHRP . NHRP
SVC, IP , .
, , NHRP . . ,
, . ,
.
. FR , , , .
, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- DLCI;
- ;
- (FCS).
. FR
. FECN BECN LAPF (. . 6.29). FR ,
, ( ) BECN, .
FECN, . FECN (, ),
,
, .
(explicit) .
FR.
ANSI 1.618. - (Consolidated Link Layer Management, CLIM). PVC -

. , ANSI CLIM, LMI


DLCI, 1023, .. .
FR
(Statistic Time Division Multiplexing, STDM),

, FR.
.25. :
-
(, , );
- , , .. , .
STDM
.
:
- FR ( );
- , FR;
- CIR - , ;
- (Committed Burst Size) -
;
- BE (Excess Burst Size) - ,
.
:
1.
, , PVC.
2. FR .
3. , , CIR, . CIR,
, DE I, . ,
, .
, (CIR, , BE), FR.
CIR ( )
PVC, FR. CIR / Frame Relay ( ). CIR
. CIR PVC
.
() ,
PVC . PVC CIR . , -

, CIR, , , BC/CIR.
BE ,
PVC.
CIR (implicit)
.
(Quality of Service, QoS). FR , , ().

: , , . , QoS , , , .
, . () ( ) .
, - . QoS . FR :
- CIR ( );
- ( , , );
- ( PVC (SVC)
);
- PVC (SVC) .
FR :
- rt VBR (real time Variable Bit Rate) -
;
- nrt VBR (non-real time VBR) -
;
- ABR (Available Bit Rate) - , .. , ;
- UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) - , ( , ,
CIR).
. 6.4 QoS,
FR, , . ,
ATM , .
, FR:
I. , LAPF OSI,
. FR 2 /,

6.4.

rt VBR

nrt VBR

ABR
UBR

ITU (, G.703) 34,4


/, FR .
2. .
ISDN, .25 ATM.
3. FR , ,
- , , FR .
, , , FR
.

6.7. ATM ISDN


6.7.1.
() ATM
( - cell)
(. 6.30). 5 48 - .
ATM - , . , ATM
100 /. ATM B-1SDN.
ATM ,
. , ATM
,
, , 1 , ,
.
1

, .


64 / 2 / 34 /


64 / 2 / 34 /

(48 )

. 6.30.

ATM :
-
. , .
- . ATM .

( ATM). , .
- ATM. ATM. , .
,
, , .
- .
, , .
ATM , , , . , , ATM .

6.7.2. B-ISDN
. . 1.211, ( , , ) ( ).

.
.

, (, ).

( , ).
, .
, .
, ,
( ).
.
B-ISDN ATM , . . 6.5.
6.5. B-ISDN

()

..
B-ISDN
(, , ) , ;
, , , ,
, . B-ISDN
.
B-1SDN
.

B-ISDN - ATM
.
B-ISDN .
ATM . , : El (2,048 /), 2
(8,448 /), (34,368 /).

6.7.3. B-ISDN
B-ISDN ( /
/) ,
. B-ISDN , ()
( ).

( )
B(t). - () , , .. (burstness) {) = ()/ .
, , ( 50%
). , , , .
B-ISDN :
, , , - .
(, - ) \
(, ).
) (, ).
( , , ) \ ,(), \ ATM
(. 1.311). B-ISDN
. 6.6.

6.7.4. B-ISDN
ATM
ATM , - .
, , ,
, . , -

6.6.

100
100
100
100

0,1
0,4

3,6
14,4

0,01

12,0

0,20

10,8

5
5

1
1

100
100

0,02
0,02

0,72
0,72

54
18

10
10

540
180

0,03
0,10
0,05
0,25

0,2
2,0

*
/

64
64

1
1

64
64

0,25
300
0,6
200

0,25
300
3,0
200

64
200
0,04
30
0,20
24,0

:
- 4-6 /, - 16-24 /, - 1-4 /, - 30-60 /, - 20-100 /, - 100 /. ,
B-ISDN - . ATM ,
.
ATM ( ).
, . . 164, 25 , . 400-500 , . ,
. . 6.7.
6.7. B-ISDN


-7 -3
-7 "6
"6 10"
-5 -7
"5 -3

'
.
-3
10"6
10"8
-7
-3

tDi
25 (500)
1000(50)
1000
1000
1000





:
1. < 50 .
2. , - ATM ( ATM).

6.7.5.
ATM ATM.

: ) ; ) ; ) . (. 1.362): , , , D, . 6.8.
ATM.
6.8. B-ISDN





- () El .. ( ATM ). . , , , MPEG-, . , ,
. ,
( , CAD ) . D , ( ).

6.7.6. B-ISDN
. B-ISDN N-ISDN.
,
ATM, ATM. ( 622 /)
(AJ1) - . B-ISDN .
, SI2000
. ATM
, ..
. :
- SDSL 2048 /;
- V5.2 (Optical
LT, OLT)
;
- SDH ATM STM1.
. , . 1.414,
. 6.31. (Broadband , -1) UNI -
(Broadband NT, B-NT). 2 -2


(Broadband Terminal Adapter, -). B-NT ,
: B-NT1 (Section Termination, ST) (Path Termination, ) B-NT2 -. B-NT :
- ( )
;
- ATM (cell delineation);
- ;
- ;
- ( ..);
- ( );
- DSS 2;
- ;
- ;
- .
B-TE1

B-NT
(. I.432)
B-NT2

B-NT1

B-LT - B-ET

B-TE1
-2 2 - -


(. 1.610)

~ [

B-TE1

B-TE1 B-TE1
1
2

B-NT1

B-NT2

B-LT

B-ET

B-LT

B-ET

B-TE1

B-TE1 B-TE1
<


B-ISDN

B-NT1

( 8 |)

. 6.31.

ATM

- - NT2 . - -
, . S/T - 156,52
622,08 /.
B-ISDN
(Broadband LT, B-LT), (ST-PT).
B-LT (Broadband ET, -) VB, (Service Node Interface, SNI).
ATM (cell-based) (. 6.32,,), SDH
(SDH-based) (. 6.32,,).

MUX - ; ST (Section Termination) - ;


(Path Termination) -
. 6.32.

6.7.7. B-ISDN
B-ISDN.
B-ISDN ATM . 6.33. :

(user plane, U-plane), (control plane, C-plane) (management


plane, M-plane).
, ,
. .

,
. ( ).
.
.
. 6.33.
B-ISDN .
B-ISDN

,
, , ,
.
B-ISDN . I.321 1.413.
. OSI
. 6.9.
6.9. B-ISDN OSI

() B-ISDN




()
()


B-ISDN

ATM

OSI

ATM

.
ATM .
, , .
, , -
. ,
.
ATM
.
(Header Error Control, ), () ,

( , ),
, ,
.
, SDH PDH , , , - ,
( ).
(. 1.321): ATM
, ,
(idle cells). ATM, ,
ATM
(unassigned cells). ATM .
(cell delineation) -
(. 1.432). .
ATM. . , - ,
(Virtual Path Identifier, VPI) (Virtual Channel Identifier, VCI). ATM VPI VCI . ATM. 48-
, ATM,
( ). , 48 ATM.
- .
ATM. ATM
. , B-ISDN
(. . 6.8), , . 1.362.

, ,
,
ATM.
, ATM .

6.7.8. ATM
ATM . B-ISDN - ATM: , ,
155 /,
; 622 /,
. SDH
. , -


. : 100; 51,84 25 / S B , PDH:
34 45 1,5 2 /. 1,5 2 /
HDLC AJ1.
. 1.311 B-ISDN SDH
-. ( STM)
125 . STM-1
ATM . 6.34. (Administrative Unit,
AU) (AU Pointer)
(Virtual Container, VC). ATM 4- VC-4.
J1,..., Z5
. , STM-1 9x260x8/125x1 (3 = 149,76 /.

<
4

-4
-4

. 6.34. STM-1 ATM

(9x260 = 2340 ) (53 ).


-4 , . -4 VC-4, STM-l.
VC-4 STM-1, 9 , AU Pointer, .
STM-4 STM-1 . G.708.
STM-4 - 599,04 /.
26 ATM ,
SDH RSOH, MSON . , 27
26, 149,76 / 155,52 / 599,04 / 622,08 /, . . , STM-! STM-4.
: (F1) (F3)
1-3 00000011 F1 00001001 F3.
PDH . G.804. 1
1-15 17-31. -

(). (34,368 /) ATM. 530 . 10 ATM, 33,92 /.


. ATM ,
.
89 % .
ATM
: 2
*+ 2 ++1 2 01010101.
.
, , , . , , . , . ,

, .
. ATM
. ATM: ) ,
) ) .
(Search) , (Presynchro) .
, (Synchro).
. .
. ,
, . Search
, Presynchro
.
, , Synchro - .
. ,
. Search
, Presynchro . , , .
. . Search
40 , 32
. 1
, ( ) - Presynchro,
- Synchro. Synchro
Search, m ().

32 . , -
, .

(. 1.432) : = 6, = 7 SDH; = 8, = 7
1.
. ,
ATM ,
, . ( 1-3 00000001 4)
01101010.

6.7.9. ATM
ATM. ATM 5 48 -
. .
, . , ,
(Most Significant Bit, MSB). -
. 6.35. , .. -
ATM.
8

VPI
VCI

GFC
VPI
VCI

VCI
1

1 CLP

1
2
3
4
5

. 6.35. ATM -

GFC . ATM
(Generic Flow Control, GFC) -

. GFC . GFC
QoS , UNI 2 .
VPI/VCI . 24 : 8
VPI, 16 - VCI. VCI VPI :
- ;
- ( - unassigned) 3 ;
1

2
3

, , STM-1 Pber = 10 4 Synchro^ , 28 .


, ATM.
, (application) A T M , .

-;
(broadcast) ;
(point-to-point) ;
(F4)'.

VCI
. VCI VPI, ,
. VCI VPI
( 5 2 VPI 5 4
VCI . 6.35). 0.
. (Payload ) ,
( ) - . ,
- : F5,
.
CLP . CLP (Cell Loss
Priority), 1, , CLP = 0. .
. , , CLP = 1, - CLP = 0.
, - . , CLP
0 1, .
. ATM ( ).
NNI (Network Node Interface)
. 6.35 GFC - VPI ( 12 ).
, . .
(negotiation) . VCC (Virtual Channel Connection) ATM.
ATM ,
ATM (AAL) - AAL,
. (VCC endpoints) - ,
ATM
(.. AAL).
ATM - , (connection-oriented technique).
ATM (concatenation) ATM
AAL.
(VPI VCI) (link) , . , ATM
, VPI. 1

- 1
5 (. . 6.37).


(transmission path)

. 6.36.

^^^

(Virtual
Path Connection, VPC) no VCI
(VCI VPI

). VPI
VCI . 6.36,

- . 6.37.

. 6.37. (F1 ...F5)

- ,
, UNI NNI VCI / VPI
.
( ),
. UNI VCI ,
.

UNI
(-) :
- ;
- '
VCC
VCC ;
- - VCC
VCC, ;
- -
VCC
VCC
VPC UNI.

:
- ;
- : ) (customer) ; )
.
VCC (VPC) ,
(cell loss ratio) (cell delay variation). VCC,
VCC (traffic contract).
QoS (traffic descriptor) -
: , ..
, .
QoS .
ATM (, -, )
/ . VCI ,
VCI VPI.
VCI / VPI
.
:
-
- S B .
ATM VCC () VCI
.
- - S B
.
- - .
:
-
- SB.
ATM , VPC, . VPI ATM, -

- , .

. .
1 ,
.
- -
. , VPC , - .
(. . 6.37):
- ( VPI
) ;
- , (VPI);
- ;
-
;
- , F4 .
:
- VPI;
- , ( );
-
;
- , , F4 .
'.
- ATM AAL;
-
;
- ;
- , ;
- ;
-
;
- , F5 .
:
- VCI;
- ,
( );
-
.

6.7.10. ATM
AAL ,
, (PDU)
ATM . (C-plane) -

(M-plane). AAL

.
, ,
.


AAL-PDU
- PDU
SSCS
48- ,



es
_
PDU
SSCS-PDU
I
.

I


CPCS

AAL
(Common Part Convergence Sublayer,
CPCS) ,
_
( )
CPCS-PDU
I

I
(Service Spcifi Convergence Sublayer,
AAL

SSCS). SSCS
.
SAR

AAL . 6.38.
SAR-PDU
. AAL-1

:
- ' ;
- ;
- , ;
-
.
, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
-
(AAL Protocol Control Information, AAL-PCI);
-
.
1

( ) 1,544; 2,048; 6,312; 8,448;


32,064; 44,736 34,368 / (. .702); 64, 384, 1536 1920 / (. 1.231);
; (64 /,
, . 0.711, 64 /, . .722); .

. AAL-2
:
- ;
- ;
- ,
.
, :
- :
- ATM;
- ATM;
- ;
-
.
, ATM
, .
, AAL-1.
() . AAL 3/4
D . : .
( ) (Interface Data Unit, IDU) , .
AAL
IDU, ( SDU ).
IDU SSCS-PDU , AAL . .
.

( ).
.
. AAL-3/4 .
(4 SAR-PDU), 10 4 , SAR-PDU
, . ATM 5-
.

48- SAR-PDU, ATM .
.
( = 0) ( = 1). , AAL-5

, ,
. AAL-5 - .
.
, - ,
.
:
- , ( 1
65535 );
-
;
- , ;
- (
).
, ,
. , .

6.7.11.
, . B-ISDN
(. 6.33) (U-plane) . ,
AAL . , , , -
.
, , (Connectionless, CL),
(LAN MAN). . 1.211 B-ISDN : , ,
. B-1SDN . 1.327. () CL- .
CL- ( 2
). . ,

.
, - . CL-
,
.
QoS, (Maximum Information Rate, MIR) -

(Sustained Information Rate, SIR)


(PDUs Per Time Unit, PPTU) (
). GFC UNI
.
Frame Relay ATM. . 1.555
Frame Relay B-ISDN. Frame Relay , B-ISDN UNI.
ATM, B-ISDN .
AAL-5 : Frame Relay
B-ISDN (Frame Relay B-ISDN Access Interface, FR-BAI) (Frame Relay B-ISDN Network-to-Network Interface, FR-BNNI).
Frame Relay B-ISDN , (Frame Relay Service-Specific
Convergence Sublayer, FR-SSCS).
. Q.922, (FR-SSCS-PDU)
Frame Relay . Frame Relay
Frame Relay B-ISDN:
- FR-SSCS
.
DLCI. (many-to-one).
- . Frame Relay .
(one-to-one).
. IP-
AAL-5. , ,
, .
VPI VCI.
IP- . ,
, . ,
() , - .

, .
,
.
. LAN (LUNI - LAN Emulation Lser-to-Network Interface, , ,
LANE - LAN Emulation). LAN ATM , . -

LAN ATM, , .., .


ATM LAN ,
.
ATM LAN , LAN,
(FCS)
AAL-5 ATM . ,
ATM , LAN . LUNI LAN.
LAN (LEC - LAN Emulation Client),
.. (Media Access Control, MAC)
LAN ATM, OSI1 . () ( ATM) ATM-LAN -
MAC ATM. LAN
: LAN (LES - LAN Emulation Server), (LAN Emulation Configuration Server, LECS), a (Broadcast
and Unknown Server, BUS). ATM , : LES - , LECS - ATM, BUS - ATM-LAN.

6.7.12.
(C-plane) ,
, ( ).
. , , , . ATM NSAP (Network Service Access Point) (. 6.39).
AFI, (IDI): (DCC), (ICD, ) . . 164. IDI ,
DSP, . DSP
(RD), (Area) (ESI).
ESI 48- (MAC).
SEL
.
. .164 . 6.40.
(Country Code, ), (Nationally Significant Number,
NSN) 15 .
(National Destination Code, NDC) ( ) (Subscriber Number, SN).
1

ATM (Multiprotocol over ATM, ),


LAN, , .


AFI

DSP

DCC

DFI

! IDI !

AA

RD

rsvd

Area I

DSP

IDC

DFI

! IDI

AA

rsvd

RD

Area

ESI

SEL

HO-DSP
!
ICD

IDP
AFI

SEL

HO-DSP
!
DCC

IDP
AFI

ESI

.164

DSP
rsvd

RD

Area

ESI

SEL

IDI
NSAP . .164
AA (Administrative Authourity)
AFI (Authourity and Format Identifier)
DCC (Data Country Code)
DFI (DSP Format Identifier)
DSP (Domain Specific Part)
ESI (End System Identifier)
HO-DSP (Higher Order)
CD (International Code Designator)
IDI (Initial Domain Identifier)
IDP (Initial Domain Part)
RD (Routing Domain)
rsvd (reserved)
SEL (Selector)




DSP
, ()

DSP



. 6.39. B-ISDN ATM

15


(1...3)

. 6.40. . .164

,

DCC ICD (. 6.39). ,
-

. NSAP . .164
. . .164.

. ATM ATM. , (QoS).


,
, , QoS .
(
) ( ). (), . ( ) ; ,
ATM.
, (, ) . , ,
ATM.
ATM , . ATM (),
ATM, - . (Network Interoperability Alliance, NIA) ( ), ATM IP. ATM IP
- , .
. . 1.327, B-ISDN
, ( )
.
, ,
. - ,
, , .
, ATM
.
(Signalling Virtual Channel, SVC) :
- (point-to-point) SVC,
, ,
;
- SVC, ;
- SVC,
;
6 - 8363

SVC , - , , SVC.

. -
- .
-
B-NT2. SVC, . . 6.41,, S-AAL, AAL .
-
, SVC (MS).
. 6.41,6.

7 (7) ( -1, -2, -3)
B-ISUP B-ISDN .
7, ATM, - . 6.41 , .
3 DSS2 (Q.2931)
S-AAL
ATM
PHY

3 DSS2
S-AAL
ATM
PHY

B-ISUP
-3
MS 1

-2
-1
)

B-ISUP
-3
S-AAL
ATM
PHY

. 6.41. B-ISDN

ATM S-AAL. S-AAL


AAL-5. - , . Q.2100, Q.2M0, Q.2130
Q.2140, - S-AAL.
S-AAL, . 6.42.
UNI

NNI


SSCOP UNI (SSCFs UNI)


SSCOP NNI (SSCFs NNI)

SSCOP - ,
. 6.42. S-AAL

, SSCOP (ServiceSpecific Connection-Oriented Protocol)


.
. Q.2110 :
- , ;
- ( );

-
;
- , ,
;
- ;
- ;
- .
S-AAL SSCOP (Service Specific Coordination Functions, SSCFs). SSCFs - SSCOP Q.2931
DSS2. SSCFs
SSCOP -3 7.

6.7.13.
(M-plane) .
,
,
, (). SNMP
(Common Management Information Protocol, CMIP). , SNMP , , a CMIP - .
SNMP, , , ATM.
(Network Management Center, NMC)
, , a SNMP . , ..
.
SNMP
ILMI (Interim Local Management Interface), AAL-3/4
AAL-5 VPI = 0
VCI = 16. ILMI , ,
ATM, . TMN .

: , (
) ; NMC.
. VCI = 1
42 . . Q.2120.
- , SVC, -

.
.
. ,
(. 6.37): Fl ; F2 () ; F3
; F4 ATM; F5
ATM.

, . . . F1-F3 . F4 VCI = 4 VCI = 3 . F5 VCI VPI, ,
= 100, = 101. F4 F5 . 6.43.

GFC VCI

VPI

CLP

48

45

CRC
10

. 6.43. F4 F5

F4 F5 :
( - I ) (1000), (, ..) (0010).
, .
:
(Alarm Indication Signal, AIS, - 0000),
(Remote Defect Indication, RDI, 0001), (Far End Reporting Failure, FERF), (continuity check) - 0100,
(loopback) - 1000.

() (performance measurement) - 0000 - (continuity check) - 0001.

(forward monitoring) -
0000, (backword reporting) - 0001, (monitoring and reporting) - 0010.

6.7.14.
( .)

, .

- .
- ,
, ...
.
; ;
, ; ; .

(Fast Resource Management, FRM). FRM = 110.
FRM . 6.44. ,
, ,

.



~

-.

FRM

^
.
1
0

..

FRM
47
REQ BW
CRC
S
,

48
.
. 6.44.
6.44.

.
FRM
FRM
, .. , GRANT BW , . FRM REL BW. .
FRM
.
FRM
. , .
.
FRM REQ BUF .
,
.
.
VPC VCC. (Connection Admission
Control, ), . :
- (traffic descriptor), .. , ;
- (QoS), ();
- ( , .. - . );

- , .
() : PCR (Peak Cell Rate) SCR (Sustainable
Cell Rate) (SCR '< PCR); ;
MBS (Maximum Burst Size)'.
( ) , . , . 1.350
CLP = 0 , , CLP = 1 ;
( CLP). QoS - 1, 2, 3, 4,
, , , D B-ISDN (. . 6.8). ,
, QoS 1.
, . (Unspecified Bit Rate,
UBR), . .

(Available Bit Rate, ABR). UBR ABR
.
UNI
(Usage Parameter Control, UPC) (leaky bucket, . 1.371).
() .
SCR, . , ( ). ,
,
CLP 0 1. D ( ) MBS PCR.
- , PCR , ,
,
CLP = 0, - CLP = 1. , ,
CLP = 0 , CLP = 1 - , CLP = 0, - . , , PCR CLP = 0 ( CLP = 1), ,
, PCR ,
CLP - 1.
.
. UNI
1

MBS , TCP/IP PDU.

UPC . (Network Parameter Control, NPC) NNI .


: (), (priority control), (GFC), (traffic shaping),
(Resource Management, RM) . .
UPC .
UNI ( . . ) :
- ;
- ;
- ,
.
UPC : , , ..
( ),
, (
, ).
,
. ,

.
UPC .
,
,
, ,
.
.
CLP (0 - , I - ).
:
;
; , CLP = I ,
.
.
GFC (. 1.150) GFC UNI.
(Constant Bit Rate, CBR) , (Variable Bit Rate, VBR) - . GFC . B-NT2 .

.
.
,
. UNI -

,
NNI .
, ,
.
, , .

, ,
,
.
,
, .
, .
, , . . ,
, .

6.7.15. ATM
ATM
. ATM
, . ATM
.
, -

.
BOJ13;
ATM; ,
; .
- (),

. ATM
, ;

.
ATM . ATM
,
. .20, .36, 1.150, 1.311, 1.321, 1.413, 1.432
1.600.
, , ATM:
1. ATM , BOJ1C,
, SDH.
2.
SDH BOJIC

DWDM ATM .
3. ATM
.
4. ATM ,
ATM.

6.8.
6.8.1.
. 6 . l . l ,
, , - . 6.2.3.
(., [1, 3, 4, 39-41]). ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
1 ..


Softswitches [2, 42], ,
, , ..
,
, SI2000
". . 6.45.
,
, ,
; ;
64 / ( = 1-30)
ATM; (Modular Power
Supply, MPS).
, () ,
() .
(), ,
, ,
. () - Ethernet.

- 256 256 1 1


,
- ,
.
2
Iskratel ().


SI2000/V5

(RMLC)

NT

MLC

MLC

NT

MLC

Ethernet

AN-BB

SDSL

(ATM/

PON
STM1 =

V5.2 I

AAL1,
AAL2,
AAL5)

SG
V5.2

CPU

-
SG (Synchrogenerator) -
CPU (Central Processor Unit) -
. 6.45. SI2000

, . MLC 704
352 2B+D ( 16
32 ). MLC - ( 8 32 ), 10 El ( ). , MLC
MPS ( ), MLC.
(Access Node Broadband, AN-BB) - ATM,
, ..
. AN-BB
:
- SDSL 2048 /;
- V5.2 ( 16 2048 /)
(Optical LT, OLT) (Passive Optical
Network, PON) ;
- V5.2
;
- SDH ATM
STM1 (155 /).
:
- , ( );
- MLC (Remote MLC, RMLC), ;

- RMLC,
;
- SI2000/320 - MLC,
( 320 AAJI, El).

6.8.2. ATM
- ATM (. . 6.1.5).
, VPI VCI ,
. - ,
- , , -
, ATM ,
. . ,
ATM . .
ATM ,
.
. (
/V) , , -
. , , , . N N , , Nv, v -
. ,
. N ,
,
, . ,
.
. 6.46. :
- / / ;
- (), VPI VCI ;
- , (), ()
();
- , () () N ;
- () .
,
, VCI VPI
, , .

, , . ,

.
,
, , . .

, . , , .
.
- . N .

(First-In-First-Out, FIFO). VPI VCI , , .. . , ,
(. 6.47).

. 6.47.

.
. , , v/P , (3- .
.
. , ,
Nv, . (. . 6.1.5), N- .
, 2x2 (. . 6.5) (. 6.48):
) ( ,
);
) ( ,
).

. 6.48. 2 x 2

. 6.49
/' /. , , .

'

b i i ^

i l l

. 6.49.

, . 6.7,
,
(.. ),
-
, ,
, , . () (. . 6.49) (. 6.50).
, . ,
- ,

I
1
Lj

||

.
(FIFO)

,
N
Lj
|_|

|1|
||

. 1

1
. . .
N - ,
. 6.50.

. ,
, , . ,
- , , .

, , .
. 6.50 .
, , , ( ), . . , ,
, .
, .
, .
/V2 . 6.51.
. ,
. N , , N ,
, (
) ( ).
. , = 8 10 6 ,
[19].

N:L

"
. 6.51.

ATM ,
N.
ATM. ATM
(Newbridge, FORE Systems, Cisco, 3Com ..). ,
ATM.
36150 MainStreet ( Newbridge),
ATM, 12,8 /

( ) . . 4-
. 4 , 8
16 - . UNI
GFC CBR
VBR (AAL ). UNI:
- El TDM El
ATM ( T1 TDM 1,5 /);
- Ethernet Ethernet (10 /) ATM;
- Token Ring Token Ring (4 / 16
/) ATM;
- FDDI FDDI ATM;
- NTSC/JPEG NTSC
JPEG (
127,2, 7,8; 10,2; 12,7; 25,4; 38,2
42,4 /) ( PAL/JPEG
PAL).
(NNI) :
- LATM (Local ATM) - ATM
- 100 140 /;
- STM-1 ATM ( -3 ATM) - SDH ( SONET) (155 /,
);
- ATM/PLCP - (34 /) PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence Protocol) PDH (
ATM/PLCP 45 /).
36170 MainstreetXpress ( Newbridge)
ATM.
12,8 /.
. . 94 STM-1 (-3), 16 - STM-4 (-12), 282 - ()
6000 El (1). 102,4 /.
ForeRunner ASX-1000 ( FORE Systems)
ATM. 2,5
10 /. 2 96 ATM: STM-1 (-3), STM-4 (-12), ()
- .

7


7.1. -
7.1.1.
() (), . , .
- ,
. - ,
() , . . ,
- .
( ) - 8 2 ,
,
.
( | ).
, -
- , , .
: . ,
, (. 7.1).
|
2 . .

- -

- 0

- 0
\/

- - 0

. 7.1.

. () (! X), (). -

(MOB) , (d > ?i),


.
OB, , 6-8 50
, 125 , 250 .
. 7.2 .
, .
- . , .
().

. 7.2. :
- ; 6 - ; -

. .
, .
() OB

1/2
=#!,[_ l - 2 A ( r / f l ) u J ,
(7.1)
1 - , .. = 0; - ;
- , ; - OB.
0,003 0,01.
1, - 2, () - .
MOB, 850 1300 , , , PDH.
, Corning , (LAN), Gigabit
Ethernet,
InfiniCor 300, InfiniCor 600 InfiniCor 1000.
300, 600 1000 .
, Fast Ethernet, FDD1 155 /
ATM, , 2000 .

.
(Standard Single Mode Fiber, SSMF)
1,285-1,330 , OB , . OB 1,525-1,565 , (~0,2 /), -

16-18 /( ).
. ITU-T G.652.
, 1983 .

.
1550
(Dispersion Shifted Fiber, DSF). .
. ITU-T G.653.
, ,
. .
(Wavelength Division Multiplexing, WDM) ,
.
, ( ), , EFDA,
. WDM.
,
1550 , . ITU-T G.654. .

(Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber, NZDSF).
(Dense WDM, DWDM) . DWDM
( 100) ,
, .
,
.
, ,
, . , -

. ,
DWDM-, , ( )
. DWDM , .. . , . NZDSF, . ITU-T G.655, .

DWDM . OB 1530-1565 , 0,1-6 /( ).


.
, , 10 / ,
DWDM-.
DWDM- , . OB
, ( NZDSF+ NZDSF-),
, ,
.

- Lucent Technology, Corning Fujikura [1-3]. TrueWave Luccnt
Technologies SMF-LS Corning
.
, 1523 ,
- ,

18,0
1560 (. 7.3).
2

SC 16,0
2 6,0
Corning
X
"

NZDSF
4,0
s 2,0
LEAF [2], S


CL 0,0
0)
1540
1560 X,

-2,0
S
-4,0

-6,0
1550


10 /. . 7.3.
OB 1550
LEAF 2
. , , , , , .
DWDM, ( 1530 1565 ), ( 1565 1620 ), Lucent
Technologies Truewave RS , NZDF,
, , .
OB.

1350-1450 , -
, . Lucent Technologies AllWave,
,

1280 1625 .
\ 8, 11\\^ . 7.4.
.

, ..

1,385 ,
21
34
2
5
.
0,31 /.


-',

1,00 1,10 1,20 1,30 1,40 1,50 1,60 1,70
,

,
1,3 1,6 .
\/ ;
\/
, ,

. 7.4.

, ..
, .

7.1.2.
,
, , , .
- ,
. :
= 7", 2 -"2

= ^(* ( ) - 2 2 ) / 2 .

, .
0 < V < 2,405, , V > 2,405 - .

V = 21",
- , .
2,
X,

~ 2 /2 ~ 2 /4 .
.
. (2), (</)- ,
, , . */
. / ,
.

[4, 5] fV0 :
WQ = (0,65 +1,619v~l-S + 2,879v~ 6 ) WQ = (0,65 +1,62.v"3/2).
dMn= 2 fV0.
, , . . . , ,
.
, . - , ,
= 2naNA/2,405.
- , . . ,
, , (-).
.

7.1.3.
: ,
.
-
, , I . /.
:
=

+ + +

, | , , - , , .

[6]:
(,3-10"/ 4 )-(1 + 215),
2,55 10" 3 (4,63 103/),
7,81-10' '(-4,85 104/),
X - , , .
,
. ITU G.652 G.651,
- ( ), [6] X := 850 0,1 /,
X = 1300 X = 1550 - 0,05 0,03 /,

,
. -
, (.
7.5),
[6]:

.
, , , , .

. 7.5.

: , , . , , ( ), - , . ( ).
.
, . [6]

, . ,
. , - , / . ,
, . 5...1 10... 15 - . .
, , , . ,
, (7.1)
= 2,
0=(,^)/2 .
,
, > . ,
. 7.6, < , > -

. , < .
> :

^
1_

. 7.6.

2
= " |
/;
=


, .
,
1,3 ( ).
() . ,

, -

.
,, ..
=?(),
() - .
() .
=()(2;/),
, - , 1...3
20...40 ; - , /.
.
= ^(.).
, .. ( ).
,

1=().
() . () X.
=()(2/)(12^2)1.
12/<12 [6].
.

/ - , 1 ,
//.

,
()
.
, 2,4 / 0,1 .

. . ()

,
.
, . , . ,

, , , , .

7.1.4.
,
, .
, , , , .
( ): ; ; .
: , , , , . , , , .
- , .
, [6]. . (. 7.7): ; ; .

. ( ) .
, ( ). , .
, .

1
3
4

. 7.7. :
- ; - ; - :
1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 -

,
. 12
, 6, 8 12.
, , : () , ;
; , ; , , .
,
Lucent Technologies, Fujikura, Ericsson, Pirelli, LG, Alkatel, a
, -, ,
, .

7.2.
(),
70 % (). ().
, .
.
, xDSL . 7.3.
: ,
,
, - .
, ,
, .
, ,
(
,
). - ()
, -
(), .

, , , .
, . () .
[7, 8].

(). (). - (- ) . ,
, .
, . . . .
.
. 7.1.
7.1.

SDH

PDH

X
S
s. g.
* s
256
64
16
4
1
0
5
4
3
2
1

s
s

STM-256
STM-64
STM-16
STM-4
STM-1
STM-0
4

2
1

,
/
39173,12
9793,28
2448,32
622,08
155,52
51,84
276,176
44,76
6,312
1,544

STM-256
STM-64
STM-16
STM-4
STM-1
STM-0
DSJ5
DSJ4
DSJ3
DS2
DS1

,
/
39173,12
9793,28
2448,32
622,08
155,52
51,84
400,352
97,728
32,064
6,312
1,544

STM-256
STM-64
STM-16
STM-4
STM-1
STM-0
E5
E4
E3
E2
El

B,
/
39173,12
9793,28
2448,32
622,08
155,52
51,84
564,998
139,264
34,368
8,448
2,048

S
S
X
0)
ft.

G.707

3S
SX
.
s
CQ 01.
S

td

(SDH) (PDH) .
PDH: (), () ().
, ,
. -PDH T l , 2, ,... ( DSI, DS2, DS3,...); - El, 2, ,
4,... ( T l , DSI, E l )
() (, El), , , ().
: 2 - () ..

() (DSO, ). (Tl, DSI) 24


, (El) - 30 31 .
-PDH :
2 = 41; = 72 ..
2 = 41; = 42 ..
-PDH. : -12, -15, -30 . -120, -480,
.

SONET 1986 . [8, 9].
-PDH:
1.
( , ).
2. , .
3. .
. 7.8, ,
.

. 7.8.

(), . . ,

.
.
, .
- ( )
(). ( ) -
. ( stuffing)
, . ,
, .

. . 7.9.

1
1
1
*

. 7.9.

(.. ),
.

, () . , ,
.
,
. , , . ,

.
-SDH ,
.
N-ro STM-N.
( ) SDH:
- SM;
- - - DXC;
- .
:
) : () - SMT, / - SMA;
) SDH, SM : SM-1 (SM SDH), SM-4 (SM SDH) ..
SMT () ()
() ,
.
-SDH -PDH.
SMT , . () SM STM-N.
SMA (, ) ()
() . / SDH PDH .
. 7.10 . . (

7) () (
).
( )
.

. 7.10.
-PDH -SDH

SMA SMR, / SMA, .


DXC - - () , , ..
,
SMT, SMA , , DXC.
-SDH SDH
, , STM. . 7.2 ,
El (TVEi) (/) STM
( / ).
7.2. STM-N

SDH
STM
, /
WE.

AW

0
STM-0
0,052
-

600

1
STM-1
0,155
63
1 800

4
STM-4
0,622
252
7 500

16
STM-16
2,5
1008
30 000

64
STM-64
10
4032
120 000

256
STM-256
40
16128
480 000

-SDH ,
- WDM [8-10].
WDM F, . 7.11.
WDM
STM .
.


= 1,55 .
(C-Band)
40 DWDM. ,

STM-64,
400 /. (L-Band) . 7.11. WDM
.
[9].
-SDH (
) , :
- ;
- , ;
-
TMN
( -PDH).

.

- .
BOJIC
PPJI .
,
-SDH,

(. 7.12).


: . . , ,
-SDH . SDH - - , .
-SDH :
1) ;
2) ;
3) , - /;
4) ,
;
5) ;

6) , ATM, .
-SDH WDM
[8, 9, 15]: Siemens, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Nortel, Alcatel.

. - , , xDSL
[11] (. . 7.3). . : , .

, ,
.

, , ( , .). ,
.
- ,
10 / 1
. .
xDSL HDSL ADSL. HDSL
- (), ADSL - (DMT). ,
, , - [12-14]. , ,
.

7.3.
, , , , ,
..

, AJ1,
, , , , ,
.

.
- ,
. , . ,
.

xDSL (. 7.13).

. 7.13. xDSL

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) ,



, . [16, 17].
DSL 80- ,
2B1Q. , (binary)
(quaternary).
- .

. - (Carrierless
Amplitude Phase, ) . 7 -

8363

, .
-
(Trellis Coded - Pulse Amplitude Modulation, TC-PAM). , -
. .
.
, /
3 - 6 .
(Discrete Multi Tone, DMT), . . 7.3.
, , .
64 / 2 / ( CAP 128
MSDSL) 14
( 1,2 ). 36 150 .

, - 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 (. . 7.3).
7.3. xDSL

,
/


() (Digital Subscriber Line, DSL)

2B1Q

160

IDSL (ISDN DSL)


(ISDN)

2B1Q

128


(High bit rate DSL, HDSL)

CAP8, CAP 16,


CAP32, CAP64,
(2B1Q)


(Symmetrical DSL, SDSL)

CAP8, CAP 16,


CAP32, CAP64,
TC-PAM


, ,
/ ,
2
1,5/0,5
2
7,5...8/0,5

768, 1024 ,
2048

2; 3
4...6/0,4...0,5
18...10/1,2
1(2)

2048

3...4/4...6/0,4...0,5
10...12/1,2

(Very high bit rate


DSL, VDSL)

(CAP32, CAP64,
CAP 128),DMT

1500... 12000

2300...51000


(Asymmetric DSL, ADSL)

CAP8, CAP 16,


DMT

16...640

1554...8448

)
0,3/0,5
1
2,7/0,5

7.3

- (ADSL lite)

,
/


, ,
/ ,

CAP8, DMT

384

1554

ADSL
(Universal ADSL, UADSL)

CAP8, DMT

542

1554

(Rate adaptive DSL,


RADSL)

CAP8, DMT

128...600

1000...7000


(Multi Speed DSL,
MSDSL)

2B1Q,
CAP32, CAP64,
CAP 128, DMT

144...2300

1 ()
3,4...4,7/0,5
11...13/1,2


HDSL-2

TC-PAM

2300

1
3...3/0,4

1
3/0,4
1
3/0,4
1
3/0,5

VDSL (. ITU-T G.993) ( ) . -


( ) [17].
xDSL ,
,
, , . , IDSL. ( 128 /) , ( 40 ) [18].

. 7.14, IDSL- Telplus-2d, Telspes ().

. V.24/RS-232.
. 115,2 /,
60 /.
/ . , Telplus-2d
, 8
115,2 /.
, , . , , Ethernet. -

. 7.14.

. TCP/IP, Telnet, SNMP, IP- .


.
, .
.
. 7.4 DSL.
7.4. xDSL

DSL
IDSL
HDSL
SDSL
VDSL
ADSL
ADSL-lite
UADSL
RADSL
MSDSL
HDSL-2

ETSI

ANSI

TS
TS
TS
TS
TS
TS
TS
TS
TS

101 135 (V.5.1)


101 524-1 (VI.1.1)
101 524-2 (VI.1.1)
101 270-1 (VI.2.1)
101 270-2 (VI.1.1)
101 388 (V.2.1), ETR328
101 388 (V.2.1), ETR328
101 3881 (V. 1.2.1), ETR328
101 3881 (V. 1.2.1), ETR328

TR28

ITU-T
G.961
G.961
G.991.1
G.991.2 G.shdsl

T1 El.4-004

G.vdsl

T1.413
T1.413

G.992.1 G.dmt
G.992.2 G.lite
G.992.1
G.992.1
G.962

T1 El.4-006 (draft)

, , VoDSL, FlexDSL . [19]. VoDSL


AJI.

ATM, .
FlexDSL . FlexDSL

-,
( G.shdsl).
- , .

, WLL (Wireless Local Loop) RLL (Radio Local
Loop). ,
. , 2-10
./.. , ( 500) [20].
. 7.15 , 300 [21]. AJ1 2 / (1)
, R2D. 30 , 300 10 .
1 G703
. :
, HDSL, PPJ1 .. (), .
U- (2B1Q) ( 0,9 11 ). PPJ1, . 4 6 .
.

. 7.15.

() , . ( 0 14 ).

5 12 .
. 7.5 , [20].

7.5.

()

DECT

839...843
864,0...868,2
910...914

1,880... 1,900
1,900... 1,920

100

1728

1250

30

1000

TDMA/TDD

CDMA/FDD

FH-TDMA/TDD

GMSK

QPSK

1)8

3-L SR FSK

40

10

10

832

10

12

45 CELP
(61 QCELP)

3(10-15)

0,67 (/)/
10 /

0,72 (/)/
6 /

0,98 (/)/
9 /

1,62 (/)/
50 /

0,87 (/)/
8 /

10
10

250 (10 )
250 (10)

20
0,6-3

0,6

500
500

50

32

15 ( )

12 ( 0,2... 10 ()
)

CDMA IS-95

MGW Hopping

-2

1,428... 1,508
: 869...849 : 824...849 1,850. J ,930
Rx: 824...849 : 869...894 2,400...2,483
3,420...3,500

32 /

32 /

CELP 16 /
QCELP 7,2 /

8 /

32 /

( )


/
,
/

14,4

9,6

0,3...9,6

2,4

14,4

/
TDD,

10

80

40

, FDMA,
TDMA CDMA.
, , ,
, Bluetooth.
,
VSAT. , (point-to-multipoint).
.

8.1.

. , - . ,
:
- - - 55...60 %,
-
- 25...30 %,
-
- 1 0 . . . 15%.
, , , , .
, , .
13... 15 ,
,
.
. .
25 % ,
- 100 %. :
- ,
;
- , , , - ;
- ,
;

- , .
,
, - ( , CDMA, WLL, DECT .).

8.1.1.
() . .
2 50 . 4M

4, 6 8 .
11...39 , ,
.
. (PDH), 2,048 / (El), (SDH), 155,52 /
( STM-1). SDH
() .

/ (. ).
. ITU-R F.746. . 8.1 ,
. (155,52 / ) -64,
STM-1 . . KAM-16 -32.
8.1.


-2
-4
-16
-32
-64

21
7
3,5
1,75

41(2)
14
7
3,5

,
822)
161()
STM-0
28
14
28
14
7
28
7
14

STM-1

28

34 /
-4 , .
, , . 34 /

13 -4 KAM-16
28 14 .
.
, , , . , , 4...6 . , SDH, STM, . ITU-T G.975. , , STM-1, , , , .
SDH STM-0 51,84 /. STM-0 PDH.
STM-0 - , PDH SDH.

.
17...19, 21...23 37...39 .

8.1.2.
[I]. () 300 -
15...25 . .
(Intelsat, Inmarsat, Eutelsat, Arabsat, .),
,
.
,
. 230 -
().
Globalstar, Orbcomm, , , Teledesic.
- . (
- -) , .
,
, . . -
.
. , , .

. :
- -
, ;
- -
;
- - ,
.

, . L
(1,5/1,6 , ), (4/6 ) Ku (11/14 ,
).
.
() :
- ;
- ;
- ( ) , ;
- ,
.
.

.
, .

. 8.1.

^
8000 1-.
6000 4000 .
,
,
2000
, ,
3...5
1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009

.
Intelsat - . 8.1.
,

>

142 . Intelsat 180 . Intelsat 140 .


. : , . 19 - Intelsat.
Intelsat
. Intelsat
. VI...VIII IX .
Intelsat IDR. 64 / 45 /.
: , , , ISDN ..
IBS, . (DAMA). DAMA .
Eutelsat - . Eutelsat 46 ,
, , , , , ,
. Eutelsat 18 , 347,5 .. 48 ...
, . 347,50 ..
. - .
Eutelsat :
- ;
- Eurovision;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ( Euteltracs).
1998 .
Hot Bird, .
, .
13 .. -1--5
100 . ,
. -6 -7 ( 2002 .).
, Eutelsat. -

700, - . Eutelsat
81 . .
Eutelsat
TDMA 12 . . 22 , 53
. 3-4 .
MPEG-2.
- , 1971 .
- , . 24 .
, , , , ,
, .

, , .
, -
. .
,
, , (
1997 . (LMI)
, ).
( , 14 .. 142,5 ..) (
).
, : , -A, LMI-1.
1981 . .
, , (, ) , , .
, 1995 .

( 7 ) .
-A
, ,
,

, .
-A 2000 .
-A ,
(12 ) (5 ). , Alcatel Espace. -A , .
LMI-1 - , 75 .. 1999 . LM1-1

, , , , . 15 . LMI-1 . 8.2.
8.2. LMI-1



,

( / ),


,
(),


, /2

, /


28


16

36

27

5725...6025 /3700...4000
6425...6725/3400...3700

13750... 14000/12500... 12750

31...39

43...48

32:28

90 ( )
135 ( )
11: 8

4:2

4: 2

-97...-75

-92...-70

-9...0

-3...+2 ( )
-5.. .0 ( )

45


-100. . , ,
, 35...40 . . .

. , .
51
(15 36 , V),
15 97 .. 153,5 ..

- , , , (4...6 )
, .

, , . , , .
, 10... 16
, 8 . .
(, /, /, /) .
.
,

, , , , ,
() , , ,
.
(2655...2690 )
. , 8 .

- 111-8, 8.
. 11-8
, .
,
8. 200 .
. 8
.

8.2.
. 420 .
2000 ., 2005 . , , (. 8.2).
, 0,1...0,4.

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

. 8.2.
(. )

(FDMA) .
(. 8.3) (TDMA) (CDMA)
, , ,
( -, SMS, ..).
8.3.


- CDMA
- TDMA
- FDMA
NMT, AMPS
GSM, D-AMPS (IS-136)
CDMA (IS-95)
Globalstar, Ellipso
Inmarsat-M
ICO, Thruraya
TETRA, iDEN
Tetrapol, DigiStar
CT 2

DECT, PHS

, , 2002 .

8.2.1.
(1G) (), (NMT-450, NMT-900, AMPS .).
FDMA.
(2G) , (GSM, D-AMPS, JDC, CDMA-IS-95),
FDMA TDMA TDMA CDMA.
,
GSM. GSM - , ETSI ( GSM -

ETSI [4, 5]). GSM


1992 . GSM 25 890-915 (
) 935-960 ( ) (GSM-900).
1990 . ETSI GSM
1800 (GSM-1800).
GSM , -
, , 9600
/. , 25, . :
, , , , , ,
, .
, GSM, (),
- 100 50 (. 8.3).
GSM ETSI. GSM : (Mobile Station, MS) (Base Station Subsystem,
BSS) (Network Subsystem, NSS).

- () , (Subscriber Identity Module, SIM). SIM , , .


BSS
MS (Base Transceiver Station, BTS) (Base Station Controller, BSC). Abis, BSS , . BTS, . BSC -

MSC. BTS, , , (handover)


.
, (Mobile
services Switching Centre, MSC),
GSM .
MSC , . , ,
, , ,
. : HLR, VLR . (. . 8.3)
7. MSC (Home Location Register,
HLR) (Visitor Location Register, VLR) .
HLR MS, MSC,
, :
- (International Mobile Subscriber Number, IMSI), AUC;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , (Temporal Mobile Subscriber Identity, TMSI) VLR VLR.
HLR MSC VLR , HLR , .. HLR. HLR IMSI ISDN (MSISDN). MSC VLR
.
VLR ,
HLR . VLR , HLR,
, , VLR. GSM (Location Area, LA), (Location Area Identity, LAI). VLR
LA. LA , VLR
.
BSC BSC, BSC VLR
LA, .
LA VLR, VLR
VLR. VLR , HLR, VLR.
VLR (Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number, MSRN).

, VLR MSRN MSC, LA,


.

. AUC ,
. AUC
(Equipment Identity Register, EIR).
EIR
(International Mobile Equipment Identity, IMEI), IMEI,
:
- IMEI, , ;
- IMEI , ;
- IMEI , , , ( ).
GSM
TDMA FDMA.
25 200 , .. 124
FDMA. , ,
TDMA. (). .
GSM ,
Q.1005:
1. .
, ,
.
2. MSC. BTS
BTS.
3. MSC .
4. MSC .
, MSC ( ). , ,
. , . BSC
MSC .
,
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service).
[6, 7]
GSM . 9,6 115,2 /

,
, .
GSM, GPRS , , 2,5G.
(Wireless Application Protocol, WAP). , ,
. WAP WAP- -.
, WAP- . - WAP- , .
, WAP. ,
WAP - . WAP
, ,
, .
WAP- , ,
.

3G [8]. 2G
, 3G .
,
( ), ,
GII. 3G ,
.
3G (ETSI, RAINBOW ACTS,
U.S. Joint Technical Committee, ARIB), - ITU, 1985 . , 1996 .
IMT-2000. 2000 , - 2 .
.
: .
, IMT-2000.
3G . ETSI
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System),
IMT-2000, GSM.
(3G)
, ( 2 / 9,6 /,
2G), , . 3G
2G, , , IP-, /; ; - ; Web-, , , ( , -

, .), (
, , ), .
IMT-2000. , IMT-2000 [3]. 1997 . . IMT-2000
,
CDMA.
, ,
. , -, - (. 8.4), , .

. 8.4.
1-2000

1-2000
1,9...2,2 . 1-2000 , .
\VRC-2001
806...960, 1710... 1885 2500...2690 .
IMT-2000 (. ITU-T Q. 1701,
Q.1711, Q.1721):
- ;
- 1-2000;
- ,
;
-
1-2000.
-11 12000. : (\V-CDMA !2000), - -.

, , , .
-

IMT-2000. IMT-2000.
, , IMT-2000.
,
.
. ,
, , .
UMTS. GSM UMTS. UMTS IMT-2000 . UMTS -
UMTS
GSM,
(Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel, Siemens, Italtel).
1997 . ERC
UMTS 2002 . :
- 1920... 1980 2110...2170 - UMTS,
;
- 1900... 1920 2010...2025 - UMTS,
;
- 1980. ..2010 2170. ..2200 - UMTS.
UMTS , , 3G:
1. HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) , GSM 2G.
38,4 /, .. ,
, .
HSCSD .
2. GPRS - 2G
UMTS. GPRS GSM-IP (GSM Internet Protocol), GSM 1 15,2 / . GPRS ,
ISP online. GPRS
ADSL.
3. EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment) - UMTS.
GSM
384 /. , GSM EDGE , -

. TDMA-
GSM 200 .
4. i-mode - NTT
DoCoMo. 9,6 /, DoCoMo
IP-, GPRS. WAP, HTML (cHTML), WAP
WML (Wireless Markup Language). , DoCoMo i-mode . , 2003 2005
.
5. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone Service)
2 /.
4G .
1990- . ,
2020 .
MBS (Mobile
Broadband System), . MBS , (QoS)
-3 (155 /), .. , , .
1995 . MBS
(34 /),
.
, 50 /.
MBS TDMA,
2G,
ATM - .
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), , . ATM IPv6. 60 , 160 ,
100 . , . Wireless Strategic Initiative 40 ,
.

, , , MBS, , .
, .
, . , 3G 4G .
. 8.4 .

8.4.

3G

4G

900

1800

40 60

CDMA

OFDM


2,4 /

1980-1994 .

(
2,5)
14,4 /
(115 /
2,5)
9,6 /
(40 / 2,50)

118232

1
1995-2001 .

2 /
(10 /
3,5G)
64 /
()


IPv6

100 /

IEEE
802.11
Bluetooth

2002-2005 .

2006-2010 .

8.2.2.
( ).
. , ,
, . . .
:
- ( ,
, , , );
- , ;

- , ,
;
- .

.

, . 2000 I ...5
100 2010 . 2...3 .
. . 8.5.
8.5.


( 25 )
,
, /



,
.

TETRA
TDMA
4
150-174,450-470
380-400,410-^30
870-876,915-921
28,8
+

iDEN
TDMA
6

TETRAPOL
FDMA
2

806-821
851-866

68-88
380-512

64

19,6

25
FDMA
4
,

800
4,8


-
. iDEN, TETRAPOL .
, , .. -.
25 () - . TETRA ETSI.
60 %
.
TETRA . , . TETRA, . TETRA
-

.
.
. TDMA
( 300 ).
10 , .
TETRA
. ISO 7498-2, ,
, , , - ..
TETRA .
.

8.2.3.
.
.
. , : , , .
:
- - , ;
- , , , , , ..;
- , , ;
- , ;
- , , .

Globalstar ICO (. 8.6).
Globalstar , ,
. , 70 .

8.6.

ICO
Globalstar
-,

, , 3- ,

70 . . - 70 . .
, ,
200 -
12


750 .
500... 1000 .
0,6... 1,0 ./
2...3 ./

48 (1410 ). .
( ) Globalstar .
Globalstar. , CDMA.
, , ( , 9,6 / 3- ).
GSM. Globalstar .
:
- ;
- .
ICO (1 2 ). Globalstar 200
. .
Globalstar - 5800 .
90- , ,
. - ,
.
.
10... 15
.
,
. Teledesic [2]. 1997 . Celestry Skybridge.
, ,
.

9

9.1. ,
9.1.1.
-
, :
- , , , ,
;
- ;
- , ;
- -, ;
- , , , , , ;
- , \^,
;
- ;
- -
.

, , , , . ,
.

9.1.2.

- , ,
, , .
1- 4-3, 2000 . (), ,

(-)
6 ( 6) ( ). ( ), , , ,
, .

. ( , ..), , ,
, .
(, , , .)
,
(ENG - , SNG -
..), , .
6 (, WP)
(, TG):
6 - ;
6 - ;
6 - ;
6 - ;
6Q - ;
6R - , , ;
6S - ;
6/7 - 30 ;
6/8 - ( );
6/9 - .

-:
- : .650-2, .786, .787;
- : BR.265-8, BR.657, BR.778-1, BR.1385;
- : BS.415-2, BS.775-1, BS. 1116-1;
- : .470-6, .472-3, .601-5, .653-3, .796, .797-1, .807,
.808, .809, .810, .1117-2, . 1118-1, . 1119-2, . 1127, . 1197-1, . 1198,
. 1201, . 1208-1, . 1298, . 1358, . 1361, . 1369, . 1378, . 1380.
, , , , ,
9 (-).
9 , :
1/9 - ;
2/9 - .

-:

- Web-: J.61, J.68, J.73, J.75, J.77, J.80,


J. 81, J.82, J.83, J.84, J.85, J.86, J.91, J.94, J.112, J.150, J.163, J.183, J.184, J.200;
- : J.l 1, J.21, J.23, J.51, J.53, J.54, J.55, J.56,
J.57.
:
Web- ( IP-), , , ,
,
CD-ROM, DVD-ROM . ,
,
, - , , , .
. 9.3
[1-6].

9.1.3.
. 9.1 , 6 2001 .
,
.

/

popa^
(SNG, ENG)

()

,
,
,

(
)


()

)

. 9.1.

9.1.4.
. 9.2 , .
- , , ,
, .

. 9.2.

, - . - . , , . , , . .
.
- , -, .
, , - ,
, , . -
.
,
, , , ,
.
. , , , -, ..
,
, .
. 9.3 .
. , ( ),
(, , , ,
, ).
- . , .
. 9.4
(, , , ). , , -

,
,
.


.
. 9.5
.
, , .

. 9.3.

,

.

-
(LMDS, MMDS, MVDS). ,

.

. 9.6

-

. . 9.7

, . 9.8 - .
. 9.4.
-
SECAM, PAL NTSC, .
-
. ITU-R .470. , , D, Dl, G, , ,
Kl, I, , N.

. 9.5.

. 9.6.
- -

. 9.7.

. 9.8.

() SECAM, PAL NTSC - Enhanced SECAM, PALplus


Enhanced NTSC (Clear vision), MAC (A-MAC, B-MAC, C-MAC,
D-MAC, D2-MAC).
Enhanced SECAM, PALplus Enhanced NTSC (Clear vision),
,
, , , . .
8 - 8363

.
Enhanced NTSC , 1,5
.
, Enhanced SECAM , , ,
PAL.
MAC .

,
.
D2-MAC ,
PAL SECAM. ,
, .
,
, :
-
, , , ;
-
, , ;
-
;
-
.
:

- (Limited Definition Television, LDTV) -


);
- (Standard Definition Television, SDTV) 720x576 720x480
ITU-R .601 ( );
- (Enhanced Definition Television, EDTV) 960x576 960x480
.
ITU-R .601 ( );
- (High Definition Television, HDTV) - 1920x1080
ITU-R
.709);

- (Extra High Definition Imagery, EHRI),


:
HRO - (1920x1080 );
HR1 - 3840x2160 ;
HR2 - 5760x3240 ;
HR3 - 7680x4320 .
,
, , . 9.4.

9.2.
9.2.1.

, :
-
() , ,
;
- ;
- ;
- (OFDM, QAM, QPSK);
- ;
- , , , ,
;
-
.
. 9.9
.

a)

NTSC

01

. 9.9.
() ()

9 . 2 . 2 .
/
, , , /, , AB
. . 9.10.
(1,3 /)
SDH/STM-4 (622 /)
4:2:2 (270 /)
SDH/STM-1 (155 /)
-4 PDH- (140 /)
PAL (133 /)
T-3 PDH- (45 /)
-3 PDH- (34 /)
DVD ( 4,69 /)
AES/EBU (2-3 /)
-1 PDH- (2 /)
DAB (192-256 /)
ISDN - (64 /)

/C

/C

. 9.10. ,

- . , /.

9 . 2 . 3 .
.
,
()
.
(),
().

JPEG ( ISO/IEC 10918), Y, C R , ,
4:2:0, 8 x 8 , , DC- ( -

) - ( ).
. , . 9.1. 5 :

ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC
ISO/IEC

10918-1:
10918-2:
10918-3:
10918-4:

/ MP
/ MP
/ MP
1999

ITU-T .81: 1992- ;


ITU-T .83: 1995- ;
ITU-T .84: 1997- ;
- JPEG, SPIFF,
SPIFF, SPIFF, , SPIFF, (REGAULT);
ISO/IEC 10918-5: 2001 - MHEG .

JPEG
.
9.1. JPEG

*'


> 0,25 /
> 1 /

> 4 /

*) 8 / ( - )
, . ITU-T
.261, . JPEG MPEG-1
. , , . ITU-T H.263
,
. - ITU-T .263+. . 9.2
, .261 .263.
9.2. , ITU-T .261 .263

SQCIF
QCIF

129x96
178x144



64x48
88x72

CIF

352x288

176x144

704x576

352x288

1408x1152

704x576

4CIF
16CIF

ITU-T
.261

ITU-T
.261

MPEG-1 ISO/IEC 11172, : 11172-1: 1993 - ;


11172-2: 1993 - ; 11172-3: 1993 - ; 11172-4: 1995 - ; 11172-5: 1998 - .
MPEG-1 :

1 ...2 | 2 -1 (4095) 1 ...2 | 2 -1 (4095)


( 16);
400...(2 |8 -1)400 / ( 104,9 /);
< 60 /;
525 625 , 4:3, 16:9, ;
4:2:0, ;
;
,

MPEG-1
:


I, II III
32,44,1 48 ;
, ,

32 / 448/384/320 / I,
II III ,

32 , . III , ,
384 I, 1152 II III ( )

MPEG-1 -
, CD-ROM.
1,0 1,5 / SIF (352x288 25 / (PAL/SECAM) 352x288 30 / (NTSC)). :
, - 768x576
, /
- 1856000
,
- 30
, /
- 2534400.
, MPEG-1
MPEG-2, . 9.11. JPEG .
I- ( ), - ( ) B- ( ) (. 9.12).
MPEG-2 ISO/IEC 13818, / :
13818-1 / ITU-T .222.0 - ;
MC 13818-2 / ITU-T .262 - ;
13818-3 - ;
13818-4 - ;

13818-5 13818-6 13818-7 13818-9 13818-10-

;
- ( );
( );
;
08-.

RLC

. 9.11. MPEG


MPEG-l.

, .
MPEG-2
,

,
. 9.12. I, ,
, 1-, -, -, , ; 4:2:0 4:2:2; ( 16000 16000 ),
/ ; , ()
() .
. 9.3
, ,
.
/.

9.3. MPEG-2

(spatial)
I, , - 4:2:0

(high)
I, , - 4:2:0
4:2:2

80

100

-1440
X
X
7340032
60
1440 1152

15
1835008
15
15
720 576

X
4
475136
4
352 288
- ; / - /

4:2:2
(professional 4:2:2)
I, , - 4:2:0
4:2:2

/ (SNR)
I, , - 4:2:0

9781248

(main)
I, , - 4:2:0

19201152

(simple)
I, - 4:2:0

, /

300

60

80

20

50

MPEG-2 MPEG-1
. , . ITU-R BS.775-1
L s , Rs
L, R .

R
L
3/2 (3 / 2 ^
), . 9.13,

, ,
, , ,
.

Rs
Ls
H

. 9.13.

, 3/2
.
3/2 .
.

. 1- 8.775-1, 3/2 , 20-120 .


-
. , , ,
.
,
( 2/0 )

,
. 1- 8.775-1.
. 9.14. - 3/1, 3/0,
2/2, 2/0,1/0. ,
= 1_ + 0,71 + 0,71

= + 0,71 + 0,71
. 9.14. 3/2 1/0

.
. . . , MPEG-1, MPEG-2,
, 48 .
44,1 32 . MPEG-2
.
:
- / ( ) ;
- , , ;
-
, . . ;
- ; , , .
, . MPEG-1, MPEG-2
, , .
32 , -

. I II 32- , , . . 9.15.

(24768 /)


(2x32....2x192 /)

. 9.15. () () I II
(24- 1024 )

I MPEG, , ,
, .. , . II
I . II
, ,
, , .
. 9.16
. (PES), PES, . . 9.17
(MPEG-1, MPEG-2) (MPEG-2) .
, . ,

. .


. 9.16.


. 9.17.

,
. , CD-ROM.
MPEG-4,
, , , , ,
. MPEG-4 , .

14496-1: 1999 14496-2: 1999 14496-3: 1999 14496-4: 2000 14496-5: 2000 14496-6: 2000 -

ISO/IEC 14496:
,
,
,
,
,

(Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework, DMIF).


MPEG-7 (ISO/IEC 15938):
15938-1- ;
15938-2- ;
15938-3- ;

15938-415938-515938-615938-715938-8-

;
;
;
;
MPEG-7.

, ,
. , , .
MPEG-21 (ISO/IEC 21000).
, . , .

9.3.
9.3.1.
. .
- DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) , ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) ISDB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting) . . . 9.4
, , , , DVB , .
9.4.




MMDS (< 10 )
MVDS (> )
SMATV



ATSC

DVB-SSI

ISDB
DVD-T
DVB-DSNG
DVB-C

DVB-SI

DVB

, , ,
, .
:
- ,
;
- ;
- ;
- ;
-

, ;
-
;
- ;
- ;
- ;
-
;
-
;
-
, .
, , .
DVB ,
, , . DVB
, .
, ,
:
-
MPEG-2 , / ;
-
MPEG-2;
- , ;
- ;
- ;
-
, .
[1-9].
. 9.5 DVB .

9.5. DVB

DVB-S

QPSK
QAM-16

DVBSMATV

QAM-32
QAM-64

DVB-C

DVB-T
DVB-MVDS
DVBMMDS

QAM-16
QAM-32
QAM-64
OFDM (QPSK)
OFDM (QAM-16)
OFDM (QAM-64)
QPSK
QAM-16
QAM-32
QAM-64

11/12
0,23...0,47
0,95...2,05
0,23...0,47
0,95...2,05
0,23...0,47
0,95...2,05
0,03...2,15
0,03...2,15
0,03...2,15
0,3...3,0
0,3...3,0
0,3...3,0
40,5...42,5
<10,0
<10,0
<10,0

26,0...54,0


, /
18,7...68,0

5,9...7,9

18,9...25,2

4,7...8,0

18,9...31,9

3,9...8,0

18,9...38,1

2,0...7,9
2,0...8,0
2,0...7,9
7,6
7,6
7,6
26,0...54,0
2,0...7,9
2,0...8,0
2,0...7,9

7,0...27,3
8,7...34,6
10,4...41,3
5,0... 10,6
10,0...21,1
14,4.31,7
18,7...68,0
7,0...27,3
8,7...34,6
10,4...41,3

9.3.2.
,
: , (-, ITU-R)
(-, ITU-T);
(, ISO); (, IEC);
(ECB, EBU); (CENELEC);
(ETSI).
- 6 ( 2000 . 10 11
). 6 , ,
: - , BS , - , BR - .
- 9 . ,
, J - , N - , .900 - .
, .
, , ,
, . : 100 ,

108 - , .
/ JTC1
, ,
.
ECB, ETSI CENELEC.

9.3.3. ()

.
.
.

,
, .
/
.
,
.
, , , , [1, 2].
[7]. DVB-T
[1, 2, 5, 6]. [10].

, , , 1961 ., 1997 . 1995 .,
. - 6/8, -
.
() III / 1464... 1495 .
47...68, 87,5...108, 174...230, 230...240
1452... 1492 , 47...68, 174...240 1452... 1467 . ( T-DAB) 220...240
1,5 . 216...240 1452...1492 .
-97
174...230 ( III), 470...582 ( IV), 582...862 ( V). 216...230 .
IV/V.
I . 790...862 ,
.
470...862 . -

47...66,
77...100, 174...216 470...510 . 2020 . 174...216 , 470...862 ,
. 47...66, 77...100, 174...216 470...510
.
, -: BS.412-9, BS.707-4, BS.774-2, BS.349 -
; .417, .655-6, .798-1, .1123,
. 1125, . 1206, . 1207-1, . 1208-1, . 1299, . 1300-1, . 1301, . 1306-1 - .
DVB-T ,
EN 300 744 , 1997 . . 9.18
, COFDM,
OFDM QPSK/QAM. OFDM ,
.
.

. 9.18. DVB-T

MPEG-2.
. , .
, , QAM/QPSK,
-
. OFDM,
,
, ,
, .

OFDM: 2 8.
. 8 , . 2 1705,
8 - 6817 . , 1705 6817 , 1705 6817 .
-.
3 25% .
, . , -. 8 2 COFDM. , 8 ,
0,39 .
OFDM
, .
-. , ,
.
QAM

. , . . 9.6 COFDM [8].
9.6. COFDM

,

,
,

,
,

,

8
2
896
224
6817
1705
1116
4464
7,61
7,61
1/4,1/8,1/16,1/32
1/4,1/8,1/16,1/32
224, 112, 56, 28
56, 28, 14, 7
1120, 1008, 952, 924 280, 252, 238, 231
67; 34; 17; 8,4

17; 8,4; 4,2; 2

9.3.4.
. -

: , ,
.
,
. ,
.
[2, 6, 7]. - :
- .652-1, 0.790, 0.791, 0.793, 0.794, .795, 0.1212, . 1213,
. 1295, . 1296, 0.1297, .1444, 0.1445, 0.1503, 0.1504, 0.1505, 0.1506; , - . 1211; - 0.600-1, 0.650-2, 0.786,
0.787, .788-1, 0.792; - .651, .712-2, .789-2, . 1383.
, - , . - : 620...790, 2500...2690 , 10,7...11,7 11,7... 12,5 [8].
10... 11,7 . 11,7...12,5 , , , . 11,7...12,5 40 19,18 .
37 .. 170 .. 984 . : 23, 44, 74, 110 140 .., 36 11,7...12,5 .
, , ( ) 70
.
,
, , ,
(QPSK -4). ,
.
DVB-S EN
300 421,
,
(Fixed Satellite Service, FSS) (Broadcast Satellite
Service, BSS). DVB-S -,
(
- Satellite Master Antenna Television, SMATV) .
QPSK , - (RS). -

.
, MPEG-2 .
, .
(Time
Division Multiplex, TDM). ,

MPEG-2 .
(DTH) , , . ,
-4 .
.
,
. . 9.19.

. 9.19.

9.3.5.

- .
: , .
[2, 5, 8, 9, ].
-, ETSI.
- 9. J.
J.82, J.83, J.84 J.87, J.90,
J.93, J.94, J.97, J.llO, J . l l l , J.112, J.118, J.140, J.141, J.142, J.143, J.144, J.145, J.151, J.160,
J.161, J.162, J.163, J.164, J.165, J.166, J.167, J.180, J.181, J.182, J.183, J.184, J.185, J.186, J.190,
J.191, J.200.

. 9.20. (MATV)
/ (SMATV)

. 9.21.

5
^

dJ.

-

|
3

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-
.
>
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5
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1
5

XX

.
5
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X X
8


IEC 60728 EN 50083.
DVB:
DVB-C (EN 300 429), DVB-SMATV (EN 300 473), DVB-CATV (EN 300 800 | ITU-T J. 112, ).
IEC
60728-1. (MATV) / (SMATV) . 9.20. . 9.21. ()
, , / - , , . 9.22.
,
EN
300 429. . 9.23.

9.3.6.

(Multipoint Microwave Distribution Systems, MMDS) , 10 .
2500...2700 . MMDS [8].
MMDS
/ , .. 24 8 4...6
, , ,
, /.
MMDS 2500...2700
-, .. , . - , .
, .
.
MMDS - .

, ,
.

, , , .
DVB-MMDS .
ITU-T J. 150, EN 300 749.
, MMDS. QAM-16, QAM-32, QAM-64.

9.3.7.
LMDS MVDS
- 10 .
LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution System) 27,5...29,5
, MVDS (Multipoint Video Distribution System) - 40,5...42,5 . . J. 150 EN 300 748. QPSK.
, . [8].
27,5...29,5
, .
() 40,5...42,5 .
MVDS . -,
, . 15 .
DVB-T
- ,
MVDS , .
:
() 1 6 ;
;
; , . MVDS , QPSK..

9.3.8.

()
[8, 12]
11,7... 13,5 , 24 , .
22 , 28 . 0,95...2,05 11,7... 13,5 . 70 . 11,7... 13,5
. , , 16 4. 25, 60 90 ( ).
[12], 50
40 , ( 5 )
.

15 25 , 30 - 60
40 - 90 .
.
- [. - 11 /78 r l , /67 r l ,
18.05.1999, 10-11/19, 17.05.1999]. MVDS. MVDS,
.

1 0

,
,
10.1. .
TMN
() , . ,
() .
( ).
, .
,
. TMN (Telecommunication Management Network) - . TMN :
- ;
- , ;
- , ;
- ;
- .
TMN, . . ITU-T, :
- (B-OSF);
- (S-OSF);
- (N-OSF);
- (NE-OSF);
- (NEF).
TMN , .
TMN (), TMN () . TMN , . , , :

- (Operations System, OS),


, , TMN. TMN;
- (Network Element, NE), TMN
, TMN;
- (Work Station, WS),
TMN. WS ;
- (Mediation, MD), , OS NE;
- Q- (Q-Adapter, QA) TMN
Qx Q3 TMN
,
TMN .
, TMN. , TMN, . 10.1.
Qx- TMN,
TMN-. Qx , MD DCN.
F- - WS OS WS MD.
- -
OS,
TMN,
OS OS,
TMN.
Qx- NE MD; QA
MD; MD MD. , OS, Q 3 .
TMN
, .. , ,
,
.


.


. . 10.2
TMN.
onI
TMN
- 7 91-

. 10.2. TMN

q - (OSF), Q- (QAF),
(MF) (NEF);
f - (WSF);
- OSF TMN OSF TMN OSF .
TMN
TMN.
TMN , . - , , .
, ,
. , .
(). ,
TMN, .
- . ,
.
, , , , . , ,
TMN.
-. .
,
, . , . .
(CMIS) CMIP, . .170, .711.
TMN .
(Management Information Base, MIB). MIB (Management Information Tree, MIT). MIT
,
MIT.
, ,
, . , ,
. ,
.
TMN 10.3.
,
, , .

. 10.3. TMN

, , , , Q-.
.

TMN, (DCF). ,
, , , 1-3 OSI/ISO. DCF (WAN, MAN,
LAN, 7 ). DCF.
TMN TMN . TMN
.
TMN TMN. TMN .
, , TMN.
TMN :

(, )
, . TMN
TMN .
.

10.2.
10.2.1.
- , ,
, .
,
.

,
.
,
. ,
.
. :
(), ().

. (252 , 85...95 ),
1 .
, .
:
() , .
2 :
- - 425 ;
- - 425 ,
10,1 40,4 1,20,12 20,2
;
- - 425 , 0,3.. .0,4 ;
- - - 425 , 0,15.. .0,2 ;
- - 400...700
( , 10,1
40,4 ;
- - 950, 1400 1800 ,
0,330,07 10,25 (
1

, , , , , ..
2
-105 , ,
-155 -22 . ,
01 . 5%, 0,5 %.

, -
AJI);
- -
,
;
- - 425 ( 0,20,02 , 50,05 )
;
- - 425 0,650,35 -;
- - - , ;
- - 425 (
0,250,025 , 1,250,3 )
;
- - 202
1400 10,1
;
- -
( 425 , 0,250,025 , 0,750,075 ).
CJI, - (), ()
.
: , ,
( ), ( ), (
).
: ( ,
), , , , ( ),
, , ( ),
( ).
()
- ,
- .

.
.
DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency)
, #, *. , , ,
.
: , ( , ),
, ,
. , ,
, .

. AJ1
.
, DTMF, ,
.
(
500 ) AJ1 ( ,
).
, 3CJ1, CJ1M - . (). , , . ( , , )
. ,
() - , - , .
,
- ( ).
,
:
- ()
(in-band signalling) 2600
(, -60) , 1200 1600 ;
- (out-of-band signalling)
3825 3850 ,
, - -
2600 .

, , R2D ,
:
- 1 ( 16), 2 ( 67...70) , , 1 ( 0);
- 1 ' 2600 .
7,
, ,
, -
ISUP ISDN /
SCCP,
, ISDN
.
7.
,
.

,
, ,

,
.
7
OSI . 10.4. :
- (Message Transfer Part, );
- (Signalling Connection Control
Part, SCCP);
- ISDN (ISDN User Part, ISUP);1
- ( NMT-450) (Mobile User Part,
MUP);
- ( NMT-450
NMT-900) (Handover User Part, HUP);
- (Transaction Capabilities Application Part, TCAP);
- (Application Service Elments, ASE);
- (Intelligent Network Application Part,
INAP);
- ( GSM) (Mobile Application
Part, MAP);
- ( GSM) (Base Station System Application Part, BSSAP);
- (Opration and Maintenance Application Service Element, OMASE);
- (Opration and
Maintenance Application Part, ).

. 10.4. OSI

(Telephone UP, TUP) (Data UP, DUP), ISUP .

9 -

8363

1 1, 2
3. OSI
-3 SCCP -3,

, SCCP.
-1
64 /,
.
-2 :
- (Signal Unit, SU),
(Fill-In SU, FISU),
(Message SU, MSU), SU (01111110);
- (
);
-
;
- SU
SU ( 15 )
;
- SU;
- SU;
- 2 .
-3
-2, -2
-
,
, ,
, ,

.
SCCP 3 -3
OSI,
,
.
, 4
. 5

. Q.701...Q.704, Q.706, Q.707.


SU
- (Link Status SU, LSSU). : SIO (Status Indication Out of alignment - ),
SIOS (Status Indication Out of service - ), SIPO (Status Indication Processor Outage -
), SIB (Status Indication Busy - ), SIE (Status Indication Emergency alignment ), SIN (Status Indication Normal - ).
3
. Q.711 ...Q.714, Q.716.
4
256 , ,
, .
5
SCCP (Signalling Information Field, SIF) MSU.
2

ISUP1 ISDN
, ISDN
. :
-
, 2 , , , 3
, , ;
- ISDN;
-
;
- , , ;
- ISUP.
4 SCCP
,
-
, 5 , 6
..
(
..), (,
).
: - (Transaction SubLayer, TSL)
- (Component SubLayer, CSL). TSL - , . CSL . CSL
- ,
, .
INAP 7
IN () : (Service Switching Point, SSP);
(Service Control Point, SCP);
(Service Data Point, SDP).
(ASE).
MAP 8
GSM

' . Q.761 ...Q.764, Q.766, Q.767 (


ISUP-92, Q.767).
2
(Initial Address Message, IAM).
3
(Subsequent Address Messages, SAM).
4
. . Q.771.. .Q.775.
5
, HLR.
6
, - ,

.
7
. Q.1205, Q.1208, Q.1211, Q.1213...Q.1215, Q.1218, Q.1219, Q.1290.
8
. Q. 1051 ETSI GSM 09.02.

, - HLR VLR
,
MSC,
. ASE.
BSSAP - MSC BSC.
MUP
NMT-450 NMT-900 .
MTX
, ,
..
HUP
MTX, .
1
- , ,
,
, ,
..
OMASE.

10.2.2. ISDN
N-ISDN (DSS),
7 D, -
.
D (, , ) D- , 1-3 OSI.
(Service Access Point, SAP), (SAP Identifier, SAPI),
(, ,
). ISDN
,
.
,
(). 2 D- D (Link Access Procedure for D-channels, LAPD). . ,
3
. 2,
I . , . ( ):
(request) (command) (response) (indication) . :
1

. Q.750, Q.752...Q.755.

- 3 ;
- 2 ( - frame),
, ;
- I D,
.
D ,
(01111110). ,
,
D . , , 2
. D (8 ).
. , 2 . , , . .
D . 10.5, :
- TEI (Terminal Equipment Identifier) - .

, .. 2. TEI , 0-63
, 64-126 , a TEI = 127 , . .
.
- PD (Protocol Discriminator) - () ,
3 ( , , ).
- CR (Call Reference) - ,
, 3.
- S , D. 2
, 1 2 (. . 10.5).
, ,
. 1 c/r (command/response), , (/ = 0 -
; / = 1 - ), (SAPI), : . 1.451 (SAPI = 0); D . .25 (16); (63) (, TEI ).1 2 TEI.
( 3) .
( I) ( U)
S

SAPI = 32...47 - .

. U
2
/
SAPI
,
TEI

N(S)
N(R)
I S.
4(0)
PD

CR
5(1)
2
CR
6(2)
:


7(3)
1.

8(4)

TEI , 3
3
1
9(5)
D
>
.
2 (
1-3 (<127)
m
TEI)
/

- S 1-2
- TEI

U,

1= +7
0 | 1 | 1 1 | 1 1 1 0
- SAPI = 63
f
(- ) TEI
. 10.5. I
= 127 ( ).
- TEI -, TEI . U TEI, SAPI = 63 TEI = 127 . TEI , TEI , .
S.
2. TEI , D
U. . 2 3.
3. .
3 I ( S). N (S), N (R)
(Poll-bit) .
3: PD;
CR ( 128 ) , ( - , ..) .
D M ,
/,
2 .
6

0
1
2

1 1 1 1 1

<

10.2.3.
.
NMT GSM.
MTX NMT MSC,
BSC, HLR VLR

GSM 7 -
HUP MUP MAP BSSAP - . NMT
7 MTX R2D,
I II R, ,
I, II, , [17].
, , 7,
.
NMT. , (traffic channels), (calling channel), , ,
. .
(frame), 16 (64 ).
, 15 11 : 16 ,
166 . 1200 (Fast Frequency Shift Keying, FFSK).
1800 1200 , . . 10.6.
, (traffic area) (YIY2) , . , .. ,
( ..).
.
NI

N2

N3 |

YI

Y2

MTX


MTX

16 (64 )
. 10.6.

,
MTX. MTX () , ,
; MTX - ,
.
4000 ,
, MTX .
GSM.
NMT:
.
. , GSM-900.

(),
TDMA- ( ). 26 51 (). , , , 51 26 26 51 . 2048
1 . .
, (Traffic CHannel, ) 9 (Control CHannel, ) . - , ,
, . ,
. - (Normal Burst, NB), .
26 , 12- 25-.
(114 ), , , ,
57 , (26
), .
(. 10.7):
- (Frequency correction Burst, FB) -

(Frequency Correction CHannel, FCCH),
,
;
- (Synchronization Burst, SB) -
(Synchronization CHannel, SCH), 64-
( FB);
- (Dummy Burst, DB)
( NB, );
- (Access Burst, ),
.
- TCH/F (Full rate) 22,8 /
/ (Half rate) 11,4 /, :
1) (Common Control CHannels, )
:
- (Paging CHannel, )
;
- (Random Access CHannel, RACH)
2;

- 576,9 ; - 4,615 ; 26 -120 , 51 235,385 ; - 6,12 ; - 12533,76 .


, .

1 (); 156,25 ; 576,923

NB 3

,
57

FB 3

SB 3

1
1
26

, 57

GP

3 8,25

142

, 39
, 41

(Tail Bits) - ;

, 64

, 36

GP
, 39
3 8,25

(Checkl Bits) - ;

GP
3 8,25

GP
68,25
GP (Guard Period) -

. 10.7.

- (Access Grant CHannel, AGCH)


;
2) SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Control
CHannels)
, - ,
..:
- SDCCH/4;
- SDCCH/8;
3) (Associated Control CHannels, ) :
- (Fast , FACCH) ;
- (Slow , SACCH)
,
- ,
;
4) (Broadcast Control CHannels, ):
- FCCH;
- SCH;
- ,
.. ( DB).
.
/F, /, /4 /8
TCH/F, TCH/H, SDCCH/4 SDCCH/8 , ,
SACCH/H - , . , 26- SACCH/F 0-11 13-24 TCH/F, 12 - SACCH 25 . SACCH/H
/ 0-11 13-24, 12, - 25.

10.2.4.

.

.
, ,
,
, , , ,
.

QSIG.
QSIG ,
- , , DSS1.
, QSIG
,
.1 QSIG
QSIG-BC (Basic Call) QSIGGF (Generic Functional) . QSIG-GF
.
QSIG , OSI.
,
(Remote Operation Service Elements, ROSE), (Associated Control Service Elements,
ACSE) (Dialog Service Elements, DSE). QSIG [14].

10.2.5.
, , ,
. ,
, .
- .25,
OSI. (Data Terminal Equipment, DTE)
,
15 255 (
). DTE,

(Data Circuit Terminating Equipment, DCE)
DTE. DCE .25
DCE, DTE, ,
, . DTE . DTE
1

, , ,
, , ,
..

2B+D ISDN, DCE .25 ( )


DSS1, DCE 3 .25.
-
ATM.

UNI 7
.

10.2.6.
. Q.705.
, 7, (Signalling Point, SP)
, 14- (Signalling Point Code, SPC).
SP (National SP, NSP), (International SP, ISP)
1 , - (Signalling End Point, SEP) (Signalling Transfer Point, STP). SP ,
(Signalling Link, SL), ..
( , 64 /). + 1 2.
SP (signalling relation),
(ISUP ., . . 10.4) .
(Signalling Route
Set, SRS), .
(Associated Mode of Signalling, AMS), (Quasi-Associated Mode of Signalling,
QAMS) (Non-Associated Mode of Signalling, NAMS) .
STP
, .
, , , . .
STP, .
, STP 3
. . ,

. 7
.
, ,
, STP,


.
2
.
3
( - ).

. 1 7 SP.

10.3.
10.3.1.
(), . , , , (
)
. (), - . ,
, , .
,
.
.
(), ATM ..
/0 . /0 , ,
64 / 300 ( ,
), - 100 .. , Nmm, . Nmi1 5 .
- ()
. , \ f m - f \ / f m < 8.
, , . , . G.811 5 < 10 .

.
- (master - slave) - ,
. ,
, ,
, - .. ( , ).

. , .
, 1

SCCP, , .

, , ,
.

( ).
,
-
.

10.3.2.

,
:
1 - (Primary Reference Clock, PRC);
2 - (Stand-Alone Synchronization
Equipment, SASE);
3 - , , ATM, ..;
4-6 - (,
- - ), ..

:
- STM-N SDH ( );
- 1 (2048 /) PDH ( 100 );
- 1 SDH ( ).
',

SDH.
PRC 1 , ETS 300 462-6
. PRC

. ( ) . G.811, G.812, G.813.
PRC SASE
.

10.3.3.
- ().
(SASE PRC).
. .
(4 , 5 ). , .
1

, (Global Positioning System, GPS).

-5 , ,
1 .
:
- ;
-
;
- 1-10~6.

100 .
5- 1 .
61 . - - 1- -7 - - 3-10 1 .
(
)
(/), ,

= 0,1 . > ^ 20 /.
, . 10.1.
10.1.


,
K(f), ,

0,001

0,002

0,005

0,01

0,02

0,05

0,1

0,2

0,5

1,0

0,2

0,2

0,2

0,2

-5,8

-13,8

-19,8

-25,8

-33,8

-39,8

2048 , ,
. 10.8.
Ai
2
,
0,05
F0
F,
(). 0= 36,9
F 0 = 12-10
= 1,5
F, = 20
F2 = 2,4
= 0,2
- (488 )
F 3 = 18
F 4 = 100
. 10.8.

( 2 1 0 9 5 10 7)
:
k

5 , ( )
, .

;
;
( - 3 );
, . 7.8;
;
(AIS).


.
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .


.



.
.
() , .

.
,
, . .
- , .
, , , . .1 [1].

. .1.

, . (, ) (, , ..),
. ,

. . ,
.
.

, . (- , . .)
- . . -, , ,
. , , , ()
. ,
, .
.
. . , , . .
. , .
, , ,
, .
.
.
.
- () -
() .711
.712 (. .1): 8 , 256 ,
64 /. 700 / .
.1.

1-

,
/
64
32
32
16
12
6,8

/,
34...40
24...29
25
25
20
15

,
-

<5
<2
40...60
40...60

.722
.726, .727
0.12%
-

,
. .
. () ,
, . .
,
, .
(),
.
-, ,
. - ()
, .
CELP ,
. CELP 416 /. ,
. , .
, GSM LPC
13 / 20 . .

(). , ,
, , , ,
. ,
.
MPEG-2 [3].
MPEG-2 .
.
.
.
MPEG-2 (16-48 )
( ) . . 9.2.3.
, MPEG-2, . , , ,
, ,

..
. ,
[5]:
-
25 /;
- 25-10 /;
- 10-6 /.
.
, . , , , .
() .

(). , , -5... -6 ( ) = 10 - | ...10 - (
).
= RJF,
/(-), RK, F . ,

= 2 /(-).
, () . (), - () (KAM). () (. .2).
-4

-8

-8

-16

-32

vi

'

' + '

'

.*

. .2.

,
. , . = 432. , log 2 .
/ Eq/Nq, , (
- , N0 - ). ,

, -4,
/ ,
. , . .2.
, ( / ^ ) . > 16, , .
.2.

-4

-8

-8

-16

-32

-64

-128

-256

,
/(-)

9,6

13,5

12,0

14,0

16,1

18,5

20,9

23,5

/
/.
5

= 10 )
.

, ,
.
. . .
, , , .
, ,
.
(). , , . . , , .
: 1

( > ) , = / ( < 1).
, . ^
.

V, . ,
V = 4-8.

. . [2].
, = 1/2
(133,171). (1011011,1111001)
.
..


1/3
1/2
2/3
3/4


V=4

,
25, 33, 37
6,02
5,44
31,33
31,33,31
5,23
25, 37, 37, 37
4,78


V= 6

133, 145, 175


133,171
133, 171, 133
135, 163, 163, 163

0 ,
6,99
6,99
6,02
6,73

/
.
. . /
.
-4 . / -4. /, , , ,
4 6 .

, , , .
,

,

-.
,

.

. . ( ).
1,5-2 .
. ..

, .
[4]. . .4.

. .4.


MPEG-2 .

.
- (R = 1/2-7/8, v = 6), - (204, 188).
,
.
,
= 2 1 0 |0 ... " .
.
. .2, . ,
. - [1, 2]
- .
, . V.32 9600 /
-32 [6]. 5 . -32

. .5

, ,
. V.34 . .5.

- V.32
28,8 / [7J. - .

.

.1.
, -
. (,
), , , - , . :
- , ..
( );
- , ..
( );
- , .. ( ).
, , .
, , , .
- (). ( ,
, , ). 100 (
300).
- X
. > X,
( ). . X . (: / ^ ( / ) = 1.
-
, . , (, )
. / (/ = 0, 1, 2... )

/>, = 1\.
- ,
.
( , N
, , ). N < 100 ( 300). /' (* = 0, 1,2 ... )

- ;

- N /.

, , .
, -
:
/)=1-
^ - ( ); h - ( h ).
. ,
.
- , , k/h. , / i,
Pi{k,t) =

Cke-(k-i)'lh(\-e"lh).

/(/) , t. /'(/) , ..
(, ..) /. Y(t) /(/), .. , t, (/) ( ) - Y. , - , , , , . , ( , ),
Y. (). - ,
. v ,
. 1 , , AJ1
0,05-0,2 , .. ( 3 12 ).
(carried traffic), :
- A (potential traffic),
;
- (lost traffic), ;
- A (offered traffic), , ,
, h ( 1
, h
);
- (overflow traffic, exuberant traffic), ( 1 ,
).


, (
) .
, , .

( / /)
( , X, Y, ).
. () , , .. (burstness) kh=Bp / ( , - ) .
, .
(, ) ,
(, ), (,
).

.2.
. () :
- , , ,
;
- , , ,

( ..);
- , , , ,
.
.
,
, ()
(,
; ,
, - /).

, ,
. , ,

, .
:
- (call congestion ratio) - ,

, ,
;
- , (time congestion ratio) -
, ,

;
, > \
- (traffic congestion ratio) - ,
.
.
,
.

: FIFO (First-In - First-Out), , FILO (First-In
- Last-Out) . , ,
, , ..
: - , - .
:
- ( > 0) ( - ), ..
;
- ( > /),
, ;
;
- ;
- ;
- ',
- .
() ( > t) , , ( > 0).

, . ,
, , ,

,
(, , ..).
.
: , ,
,
.

, .
, , , ; ()
( ), ; , .. , .

.
,
, , . , , () BER - Bit Error Ratio (Rate), ..
. -

()
:
^BF.R = J i m

N?. NBER -


: PER (Packet Error Rate):
^PER - ,,
^^

^PER/^

NPER

- .

, , -
, (
). () PLR (Packet
Loss Rate) -
:
-LR =

Jim

^PLR/^IMAK-

() PIR (Packet Insertion Rate)


:
Ppir =

lim

NPIR/NInAK.

- , .
, .. , . (, ..).
() .

..
. .
, , ,
- , ,
, - . , = ,.()
, , (
), :
(.1)
V , (,
[10]). ,

(< 50 %)
.
, ( , ) , ,
^ ^ ' / ^ ^
/

(.2)

/=0

Y = AN(\-P) / [1+ (1-)].


/ [8].
(.1)
, ( )
( > 0 ) = DV{Y)

= VEY(Y)/[V-Y-YEV(Y)].

(.)

DV{Y) - .
/( > /) = DV(Y) e" ( v K) ',
,/ = 1 / (v - Y) =
= DV(Y) / (v - ), Qav = Yya, ,
, P(Q > )= ( / v ) n + / DV(Y).
, ,
() .
CJI - : v = + 3, , , [8] D
( D = 10). CJI , , . , = D mln + Q(Dav - D min ), D m i n = q{kB + \- nA) Dav = q(kB-) - ; q, kg - , ,
; - ; 0 - ,
0,7...0,9. De
.

,
(, [10]).
.
[9, 11]
(, [9]).
, , ,

,
, .
.
, /-

rouli (/) r i n , (/) /. / . /'-


, ; ,
VouU V m ;
N
;
Rm > max [rout ( (t),
(/)], - RouU > Rin i /;
. :
1. , roul(/) = rj n (/) = const = , Voul = Vm = V,
, ,
, .. N .
( ) t = VI/,
= et, , ,
Y = net. = EX(Y), -
, .
, N = ] JC / Roul [,
.
2. , Voul * Vm; rout(t) = const = r out ; r in (/) = const = r in ; rou, * r in
t = max [Koul / / roub Vm I / rm ] ; N = ] x max(r in , rout) / R0M [.
3. roul(t)* rm(t)* const, rm m, rm oub ,
, D,
. t = max [ V0UJ/rm out, Vml/rm x^\.
D = DX{Y), , ,
( N).
( ) Qav =Y DX{Y) / (x - Y).
F in = DX(Y) r m o u l / / Fout = DX{Y) -/NI . , ,
. ,
P{Q > BOUT ) = [Y/N)B'"'+]

DX{Y) .

,
.

.


.1.
, , : .
, . - ,
, , .
.
() .

.
, ,
.
, . .
() . , , ,
. . , . , .
,
. (
) ,
(, , ..).
,
( ).
,
, , .
. ( , , ,
. .) , .
,
, ( ). , .
, , ,
.
.
, . .
, .
(
). ,
. , ,
.
,
. . , , , . ,
( , ..).

.2.

( ) .
.
.
, - . (,), N - , V - .
(/', , , I, ) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
(. .6), : {(/, (/, ), (, /)... } {(1,2), (2,3), (3,4),... },
, - .
, , , - . .
, (), ( / , / ).
5
(
) .
6
, () , ,
. .
( , ). ,
, . .
, . .
. =[//] ,
:
= 1, () /' ;
= 0 .
, . .6,
0
0
= 0
0
1

10 0 0
0 0 01
10 0 0
0 10 0
1110

, , 2 .
, , , , , .
() (7

- , (7.
{0, 1}.
: (/,_/) - 1; (/,&) - 2; (,) - 3;
- 4;
(,) - 5; (5,7) - 6; (,) - 7. :
1
0
0
= 0

10 0 0
110 0
0 110
0 0 11

10 0 0 1
0 10 0 1
0 0 10 1

()
\ = / ] ,
- (), .
() 0 .
( ()),
(7 - ().
,
(), - , (2, ). ,
R, =(1,3,4,5,5,2,5);
1 2 4 5 5 2 5
R =
R 2 =(2,2,3,4,1,5,3);
2 2 3 4 1 5 3

..
, , ( ), , .
, , . . , .
, .
( ) , .
, , . , ,
,
.. h = 1.
.
, , .
.
G{N, V), N
, , V -
{/,,} . , 1
/ j.

( , ) ,

,=1 >=1
.
, .
, ( , ) , ,
(-1) .
:
0. (, V)
. / .
(-1) .
1. (/', ),
V) , / , _/
.
2. (I, _/) (, V),
. - . - 1.
. (/(, ) , . (/', _/'), V, /, , / .
, ,
(, ) , .
(,).
, /V,
V),
=1

= ^ 1) , .
.
1. = [/,], ,
:
*,. = / , ,
/
7 =1
2. {/?,} .
.
. , ,
.
10 -

8363

(), (). , , . , , . , .
.
G(N,V) , N - , V -
. s G(N, V),
/ < /, i;
( 5) :
1. L = [1] .
2.
/. s .
, s ,
.
.
G(N, V), , . , G.
, G(N,V) , ( ) 1 .
. .
.
1 . .
, 1, 2,...,
( - 1).
.
, ,
.
(-1) , (-1)!, .
, .
.

,
1859 . .


, XX ,
. :
1. ,
, .
2. .
.
, .
3. , , , .
4. , , , , . . ,

.
, ,
.
5. ,
. ,

, .
6. .
, . ; ; , , ; ; ;
; ; .
7. (, , , ) , ,
, .
8. , . , - , , . ,
, , , .
- :

1. . , , ,

ATM. , , .., .
2. . 300 / DWDM, .
3. . ; , ; - .
: , . .
, . :
- , , ;
- SDH, DWDM;
- ;
- .

xDSL, , -
. ,
xDSL.
, , . 10
, , BOJ1C,
, , ATM,
TCP/IP, xDSL, CDMA, WLL , , . ,
, . , . , , , ,
, ,
.


- , .
- , .
- , .
- (), ,
.
- , , .
- - ,
() .
- () - - .
- ,
.
() - -PDH.
-120, -120 ..
- , .
- ,

.
- , , .
-
.
- ,
, ,
, .
() - ,
( 100 ), ( ),
( , ,
) .
- ,
.. , .
(DMT) - , .
- , (,
, ).
- ,
.

- ,
.
-
.
- ,
.
- ()
.
- ,
, .
- ,
.
- ,
,
, .. .
- ,
,
, .
-
.
- ,
.
- - .
- , ,
, .
- ,
, , .
- 081,
.
- .
- .
-
, .
- - , .
- () - .
-
, ,
.
- ,
.

- ,
.
,
, , . : . , .
-
.
TMN - TMN,
, .
- (), .
- - , ,
, .
- , .
- , .
- ,
.
- ( )
() .
- , , .
(LAN) - - () ,
( ) , .
- , , ,
.
- , .
- ,
. - (),
, , (, ) ().
- ,
.
- ,
.
- ,

.
- , , , , .
- ,
.

- , (,
, , , ..) .
- .
- .
-, .
- ) , , .. ( 1
); ) (/, / ..).

1. (traffic) (traffic intensity), . .


(). ,
(carried traffic), .
(potential traffic), (offered traffic), (lost traffic) (overflow traffic) . - ,
. - , , , , . , - .
2. .
- ,
.
- ,
.
- , ,
, .
-
.
- ; , ; , ; ;
, , ..1
- .
- , .
: , .
- , .
- , , .
() - ,
.
- () - , .
() - -PDH. -30, - ..

, -
.

- ,
- ,
.
- ,
.
-
, .
() - , / .
- , .
- , .
- .
- ,
.
- OSI, , , .
- .
- , , .
(Employee Stock Ownership Plan, ESOP) - ,
.
- .
- , ,
, .
- , .
- ) (), ; ) (/) .
- () .
- , ( ,
..).
- ,
,
.
- , , .
- , ,
.
- , ().
-SDH (SMR) - , -SDH.
- ,
.

-
, .
( ) - ,
, , .
- ,
.
- OSI,
.
- ,
.
- OSI, .
- ,
.
(MAN) - - () ,
.
(TMN) - ,
,
.
- , ,
.
/ (SMA) - ,
() .
- , , , .
- , .
- - , . , ,
.
- () , .
- , .
- ,
.
() - ,
.
() -
,
625 525 .
() - , SECAM, PAL NTSC .
() - , .
() - ,
.

() - ,
.
() - , 625 525 .
- , .
- ,
.
- , - .
() - , ( ).
- , .
(SMT) - ,
() .
(WAN) - , - () LAN, MAN ,
, , , .
- ,
.
- , .
() - (),

.
- ,
.
- ,

, .
- OSI,
(, , , ).
() - -PDH. -480 ..
( ) - ,
().
- , .
- , .
(Narrowband ISDN, N-ISDN) - , 30
(64 /) , .
() - , () .
- OSI, , , , .
- , , . .

- ( ) , .
- OSI,
.
- ,
, .
- ,
.
- , , .
- , , -, .
- ,
.
() - , (), , () (),
, , ().
, ,
- ,
1. CJ1
.
(xDSL) - .
(PDH) - , .
(SDH) - ,
PDH.
- , , , .
- / , ,
.
() - ,
(ISO).
- ,
, .

, .









) ; )





( )





-
-
- ( )
/ ( - )




(- 8,448 / ..)





-

-





-



( 64 /)

/
/

( )







(- 2,048 /)



































AAL

ABR

ACSE
AEF
AF
AFI
AGCH
AGF

AHLF
AIS
AL
ALLF
AMS
ANSI
ARP
ASE
ATM

AU









; ;












Administrative Authourity
A T M Adaptation Layer
Access Burst
Available Bit Rate
Associated Control CHannels
Associated Control Service Elements
Additional Elementary Functions
Adaptation Function
Authourity and Format Identifier


A T M






Access Grant CHannel


Additional Global Functions
Alignment Header
Additional High Layer Functions
Alarm Indication Signal
Alignment
Additional Low Layer Functions
Associated Mode of Signalling
American National Standart Institute
Address Resolution Protocol
Application Service Elements
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
A T M Management
Administrative Unit






()
A T M

BASize

Buffer Allocation Size

Be
BCCH
Be
BECN

Comitted Burst Size


Broadcast Control CHannels
Excess Burst Size
Backward Explicit Congestion
Nonification
Basic Elementary Functions
Bit Error Ratio (Rate)
Broadband Exchange Termination
Basic Global Functions
Border Getenay Protocol
Basic High Layer Functions
Bit Interleaved Parity
Broadband Integrated Services
Digital Network
Broadband Integrated Services User
Part
Basic Low Layer Functions
Broadband Line Termination
Beginning of Message
Basic Rate Access
Basic Rate Interface
Base Station Controller
Base Station System Application Part
Broadband Terminal Adapter
Beginning Tag
Broadband Terminal Equipment
Broadband Network Termination
Broadcast and Unknown Server

BEF
BER
B-ET
BGF
BGP
BHLF
BIP
B-ISDN
B-ISUP
BLLF
B-LT
BOM
BRA
BRI
BSC
BSSAP
B-TA
Btag
B-TE
B-NT
BUS
CAC
CAP
CBDS
CBR
CCCH
CCH
CEQ
CC
CCS7
CE
CEI
CIR
CL
CLAI







()




( )

( 7)



( ) (2+0)







Connection Admission Control

Carrierless Amplitude-Phase modulation -
Connectionless Broadband
Data Service

Constant Bit Rate




Common Control CHannels

Control CHannel

Customer Equipment

a) Country Code

6) Continuity Check
7
Common Channel Signalling 7

Connection Element

Connection Element Identifier

Committed Information Rate

ConnectionLess

ConnectionLess Access Interface

CLLM
CLNAP
CLNI
CLNIP

Consolidated Linr Layek Manayement



ConnectionLess Network
Access Protocol

ConnectionLess Network Interface

ConnectionLess Network Interface
Protocol

Cell Loss Priority

Continuation of Message
Common Part Convergence Sublayer
( )
Common Part Indicator

call reference

Cyclic Redundancy Check
,
Connection Related Functions

CLP
COM
CPCS
CPI
CR
CRC
CRF
CS
Convergence Sublayer
CSC
Common Signalling Channel
CSI
Convergence Sublayer Indication
CSL
Component SubLayer
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access
DB
DCC
DCE
DE
DFI
DLCI
DMT
DMX
DNS
DQDB
DSE
DSL
DSP
DSS1(2)
DTE
DTMF
DWDM
EF
EFCI
EGP

EP
ESI
ET
Etag
FACCH

with Collision Detection


Dummy Burst
Data Country Code
Data Circuit Terminating Equipment
Discard Eligibility
DSP Format Identifier
Data Link Connection Identifier
Discrete Multi-Tone
DeMultipleXor
Domain Name Service
Distributed Queue Dual Bus
Dialog Service Elements
Digital Subscriber Line
Domain Specific Part










DSP (. DSP)



(), ()
1(2)
Digital Subscriber Signalling 1(2)

Data Terminal Equipment
()
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency

Dense Wave Division Multiplexing

Elementary Functions
Explicit Forward Congestion Indication
Exterior Geteway Protocol


End of Message

Executive Process

End System Identifier

Exchange Termination
End Tag


Fast Associated Control CHannel

FB
FCCH
FCS
FDDI
FEA
FECN
FERF
FFSK
FIFO
FISU
FPS
FR
FR-BAI
FR-BNNI
FRF
FRM
FTP
FTTB/C
FTTCab
FTTH
GF
GFC
GPS
GSM
HDLC
HDSL
HEC
HEL
HLPI
HLR
HO-DSP
HSTR
HUP
IAB
ICMP
IDI
IDP
IDU
IEEE
IGMP

Frequency correction Burst


Frequency Correction CHannel
Frame Check Sequence
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
Functional Entity Actions
Fornard Explicit Congvestion
Notification
Far End Reporting Failure
Fast Frequency Shift Keying
First-In - First-Out
Fill-In Signal Unit
Fast Packet Switching
Frame Relay
Frame Relay B-ISDN Access Interface
Frame Relay B-ISDN
Network-to-Network Interface
Frame Relay Forum
Fast Resource Management
File Transfer Protocol
Fibre To The Building / Curb
Fibre To The Cabinet
Fibre To The Home
Global Functions
Generic Flow Control
Global Positioning System
Global System for Mobile
Communication
High level Data Link Control
High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
Header Error Control
Header Extension Length
Higher Layer Protocol Identifier
Home Location Register
Higher Order Domain Specific Part













Frame Relay B-ISDN
Frame Relay - B-ISDN
Frame Relay








(
)






() ,
()
Token Ring





High Speed Token Ring


Handover User Part
Internet Archifectere Board
Internet Control Message Protocol
Initial Domain Identifier
Initial Domain Part
Interface Data Unit
Institute of Electricul and Electrome
chanical Engineers
Internet Group Management Protocol

IGRP

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

IN
INAP
IP
I POP
ISDN
ISO

Intelligent network
Intelligent Network Application Part
Internet Protocol
Internet Point Of Presence
Integrated Services Digital Network
International Organization
for Standartization
International Signalling Point
ISDN User Part
Information Type
Local Area Network

ISP
ISUP
IT
LAN
LANE
LAPD
LAPF
LEC
LES
LECS
LI
LLC
LMI
LSSU
LT
LUNI
MAC
MAN

( Cisco
Systems)







ISDN

(-)
LAN Emulation
LAN
Link Access Procedure for D-channels D
Link Access Protocol Frame
Frame Relay
LAN
LAN Emulation Client
LAN
LAN Emulation Server
LAN Emulation Configuration Server LAN
Length Indicator

Logical Link Control

Local Management Interface


Link Status Signal Unit
Line Termination

L A N Emulation User-to-Network
- LAN
Interface

Media Access Control
(-Metropolitan Area Network
)

MAP
MAU

Mobile Application Part


Multistation Access Unit

MBS
MDF
MID
MIR
MPOA
MSB
MSC
MSN
MSOH
MSU
MT
MTP

Maximum Burst Size


Main Distribution Frame
Multiplexing Identifier
Maximum Information Rate
Multiprotocol Over A T M
Most Significant Bit
Mobile Switching Center
Monitoring Sequence Number
Multiplex Section OverHead
Message Signal Unit
Message Type
Message Transfer Part

MTX
MUP

Mobile Telephone eXchange


Mobile User Part



()
()


A T M

( GSM)
()




( NMT)

MX

Multiplexor

NAMS
NB
NDC
NHRP
N-ISDN

Non-Associated Mode of Signalling


Normal Burst
National Destination Code
Next Hop Resolution Protocol
Narrowband Integrated Services
Digital Network
Network Management Center
Nordic Mobile Telephone

NMC
NMT
NNI
NPC
NSAP
NSN
NSP
NT
OAM
OAN
ODN
BOH
OLT
OMAP
OMASE
ONT
ONU
OSI
PAD
PADLE
PCH
PCI
PCR
PCS
PD
PDU
PER

a) Network-Network Interface
6) Network Node Interface
Network Parameter Control
Network Service Access Point
Nationally Significant Number
National Signalling Point
Network Termination
Operation, Administration
and Maintenance
Optical Access Network
Optical Distribution Network
OverHead
Optical Line Termination
Operation and Maintenance
Application Part
Operation and Maintenance Application Service Element
Optical Network Termination
Optical Network Unit
Open System Interconnection basic
reference model
a) Packet Assembler/Disassembler
6) PADding
PADding LEnght
Paging Channel
Protocol Control Information
Peak Cell Rate
Physical Coding Sublayer
Protocol Discriminator
Protocol Data Unit
Packet Error Rate

PHY

PHYsical layer

PIR

Packet Insertion Rate

PL

Physical Layer







( )
;






,









/ ;






()

( )

() ( )

PLCP
PLR
PM
PMA
PMD
POH
PON
PPTU
PRA
PRC
PRI
PT
PV
PVC
QAMS
QoS
RACH
RD
RDI
RET
RIP
RM
ROSE
RSOH
S-AAL
SACCH
SAP
SAPI
SAR
SASE
SB
SCCP
SCH
SCP
SCR
SDCCH
SDH
SDP
SDSL
SDU
SECB
SEL

Physical Layer Convergence Protocol

( PDH)
Packet Loss Rate
()
Performance Measurement

Physical Media Attachment

Physical Medium Dependent

Path OverHead

Passive Optical Network

PDUs Per Time Unit

Primary Rate Access
( N-ISDN) (30B+D)
Primary Reference Clock

Primary Rate Interface

a) Path Termination
;
6) Payload Typ

Protocol Version

Permanent Virtual Channel

Quasi-Associated Mode of Signalling

Quality of Service

Random Access CHannel

Routing Domain

Remote Defect Indication

Remote Entry Terminal

Routing Invemet Protokol

Resource Management

Remote Operation Service Elements

Regeneration Section OverHead
ATM
Signalling A T M Adaptation Layer

Slow Associated Control CHannel

Service Access Point

Service Access Point Identifier
Segmentation and Reassembly sublayer

Stand-Alone Synchronization
Equipment

Synchronization Burst

Signalling Connection Control Part

Synchronization CHannel

Service Control Point

Sustainable Cel Rate
Stand-alone Dedicated Control

Channels

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Service Data Point


Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line

Service Data Unit



Severely Errored Cell Block

Selector

SEP
SIR
SL
SM
SMA
SMDS

SMR
SMT
SMTP
SN
SNI
SNMP
SNP
SONET
SP
SPC
SPID
SRS
SSCFs
SSCOP
SSCS
SSP
ST
STB
STM
STP
STR
SU
SVC
TC
TCAP
TCH
TCP
TDM
TDMA
TO
TEI





/
Switched Multimegabit Data Service

-80
()
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

;
a) Sequence Number

6) Subscriber Number
Service Node Interface

Simple Network Management Protocol

Sequence Number Protection

Synchronous Optical NETwork
Signalling Point


Signalling Point Code
Service Profile IDentifier


Signalling Route Set
Ser vice Specific Coordination
,
Functions
Service-Specific Connection-Oriented ,
Protocol
, Service Specific Convergence

Sublayer

Service Switching Point

a) Section Termination

6) Segment Type

Set Top Box

Synchronous Transport Module

Signalling Transfer Point

Shielded Twisted Pair

Signal Unit

Signalling Virtual Channel

Transmission Convergence sublayer
Transaction Capabilities Application
Part

Traffic CHannel

Transmission Control Protocol


Time-Division Multiplexing


Time-Division Multiple Access

Terminal Equipment

Terminal Equipment Identifier

Signalling End Point


Sustained Information Rate
Signalling Link

TMN
TSL
TUC
UBR
UDP
UNI

Telecommunication Management
Network
Transaction SubLayer
Total User Cell
Unspecified Bit Rate
User Datagram Protocol
User-Network Interface

VCC
VCI
VLR
VP

Usage Parameter Control


Unshilded Twisted Pair
User to User Indication
Variable Bit Rate
a) Virtual Channel
6) Virtual Container
Virtual Channel Connection
Virtual Channel Identifier
Visitor Location Register
Virtual Path

VPC
VPI
WDM

Virtual Path Connection


Virtual Path Identifier
Wavelength Division Multiplexing

WLL

Wireless Local Loop

UPC
UTP
UU
VBR
VC

xDSL






-


-










1
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ITU-T Recommendation M.3020. TMN Interface Specification Methodology.
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