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INTERNET PROTOCOL TELEVISION (IPTV)


A Technical Seminar Report Submitted
By
CH.PREETHI (07N71A0567)
Und er the guid ance ofM. CHANDRA MOULI
Professor#DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERINGDRK INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE
AND TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to JNTU, Hy d erabad )Bowrampet (V), via Air Force Acad emy
Hy d erabad -500043 2010

ABSTRACTInternet Protocol Television (IPTV)IPTV is d efined as multimed ia services


such as television/vid eo/aud io/text/graphics/d ata d elivered over IP based networks
managed to provid e the required level of quality of service and experience,
security , interactivity and reliability .Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a
sy stem through which Internet television services are d elivered using the
architecture and networking method s of the #HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol_Suite" \o "Internet Protocol
Suite"#Internet Protocol Suite# over a packet-switched network infrastructure,
e.g., the #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Internet" \o
"Internet"#Internet# and #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Broad band " \o
"Broad band "#broad band # Internet access networks, instead of being d elivered through
trad itional #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Rad io_frequency " \o "Rad io
frequency "#rad io frequency # broad cast, #HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Satellite" \o "Satellite"#satellite# signal, and
#HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Cable_television" \o "Cable
television"#cable television# (CATV) formats.IPTV services may be classified into
three main groups namely , #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Live_television"
\o "Live television"#live television#, with or without interactivity related to the
current TV show, time-shifted programming: catch-up TV (replay s a TV show that was
broad cast hours or d ay s ago), start-over TV (replay s the current TV show from its
beginning), #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Vid eo_on_d emand " \o "Vid eo on
d emand "#vid eo on d emand # (VOD): browse a catalog of vid eos, not related to TV
programming.IPTV is d istinguished from general Internet-based or web-based
multimed ia services by its on-going stand ard ization process (e.g., #HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/European_Telecommunications_Stand ard s_Institute" \o
"European Telecommunications Stand ard s Institute"#European Telecommunications
Stand ard s Institute#) and preferential d eploy ment scenarios in subscriber-based
telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end -user premises
via #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Set-top_box" \o "Set-top box"#set-top
boxes# or other #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Customerpremises_equipment" \o "Customer-premises equipment"#customer-premises equipment#.

INTRODUCTION

Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a sy stem through which Internet television


services are d elivered using the architecture and networking method s of the
#HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol_Suite" \o "Internet
Protocol Suite"#Internet Protocol Suite# over a packet-switched network
infrastructure, e.g., the #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Internet" \o
"Internet"#Internet# and #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Broad band " \o
"Broad band "#broad band # Internet access networks, instead of being d elivered through
trad itional #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Rad io_frequency " \o "Rad io
frequency "#rad io frequency # broad cast, #HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Satellite" \o "Satellite"#satellite# signal, and
#HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Cable_television" \o "Cable
television"#cable television# (CATV) formats.

IPTV SERVICES may be classified into three main groups:#HY PERLINK


"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Live_television" \o "Live television"#live
television#, with or without interactivity related to the current TV show; timeshifted programming: catch-up TV (replay s a TV show that was broad cast hours or
d ay s ago), start-over TV (replay s the current TV show from its beginning);
#HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Vid eo_on_d emand " \o "Vid eo on
d emand "#vid eo on d emand # (VOD): browse a catalog of vid eos, not related to TV
programming.

IPTV is d istinguished from general Internet-based or web-based multimed ia services


by its on-going stand ard ization process (e.g., #HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/European_Telecommunications_Stand ard s_Institute" \o
"European Telecommunications Stand ard s Institute"#European Telecommunications
Stand ard s Institute#) and preferential d eploy ment scenarios in subscriber-based
telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end -user premises
via #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Set-top_box" \o "Set-top box"#set-top
boxes# or other #HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Customerpremises_equipment" \o "Customer-premises equipment"#customer-premises equipment#.
IPTV is d efined as multimed ia services such as
television/vid eo/aud io/text/graphics/d ata d elivered over IP based networks managed
to provid e the required level of quality of service and experience, security ,
interactivity and reliability . Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) has arrived , and
backed by the d eep pockets of the telecommunications ind ustry , it's poised to offer
more interactivity and bring a hefty d ose of competition to the business of selling
TV. IPTV d escribes a sy stem capable of receiving and d isplay ing a vid eo stream
encod ed as a series of Internet Protocol packets. The working of IPTV and what the
future hold s for the technology can be known from this, though IP can (and will) be
used to d eliver vid eo over all sorts of networks, includ ing cable sy stems, telcos,
which are the most aggressive play ers in the game. They 're pumping billions into
new fiber

rollouts and backend infrastructure (AT&T alone inked a US$400 million d eal for
Microsoft's IPTV Ed ition software last y ear, for instance, and a US$1.7 billion
d eal with hard ware maker Alcatel). IPTVIPTV stand s for Internet Protocol
Television. Any person whose watched a clip online has experienced a form of IPTV.
In ord er to compete against cable's triple play , telcommunication companies started
offering TV programming through their high speed Internet connection. This makes it
possible for telcos to offer the quad ruple play , which is a combination of wireless
phone, Internet, land -line phone and TV programming.IPTV via satelliteAlthough IPTV
and conventional # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Satellite_TV" \o
"Satellite TV" #satellite TV# d istribution have been seen as complementary
technologies, they are likely to be increasingly used together in hy brid IPTV
networks that d eliver the highest levels of performance and reliability . IPTV is
largely neutral to the transmission med ium, and IP traffic is alread y routinely
carried by satellite for # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Internet_backbone" \o "Internet backbone" #Internet
backbone# trunking and corporate # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/VSAT" \o
"VSAT" #VSAT# networks. The use of satellite to carry IP is fund amental to
overcoming the greatest shortcoming of IPTV over terrestrial cables the
speed /band wid th of the connection.The Internet backbone refers to the principal
d ata routes between large, strategically interconnected # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Computer_network" \o "Computer network" #networks#
and # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Core_router" \o "Core router" #core
routers# in the # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Internet" \o "Internet"
#Internet#.HY BRID IPTVHy brid IPTV refers to the combination of trad itional
broad cast TV services and vid eo d elivered over either managed IP networks or the
public Internet# HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Hy brid _IPTV_SetTop_Box" \o "Hy brid IPTV Set-Top Box" #Hy brid IPTV Set-Top Boxes# also enable
consumers to access a range of ad vanced interactive services, such as # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/VOD" \o "VOD" #VOD# and # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Catch-up" \o "Catch-up" #catch-up# TV, as well as
Internet applications, includ ing # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Vid eo_telephony " \o "Vid eo telephony " #vid eo
telephony #, surveillance, gaming, shopping, # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/E-government" \o "E-government" #e-government#
accessed via a # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Television_set" \o
"Television set" #television set#. Where,Vid eotelephony comprises the technologies
for the reception and transmission of aud io-vid eo signals by users at d ifferent
locations, for communication between people in real-time, and vid eophone is a #
HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Telephone" \o "Telephone" #telephone# with

a vid eo screen, and is capable of full # HY PERLINK


"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Duplex_%28telecommunications%29" \o "Duplex
(telecommunications)" #d uplex# (bi-d irectional) # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Vid eo" \o "Vid eo" #vid eo# and # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Sound " \o "Sound " #aud io# transmissions for
communication between people in real-time.# HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Hy brid _IPTV_Set-Top_Box" \o "Hy brid IPTV Set-Top Box"
#Hy brid IPTV Set-Top Box# gives them greater long term flexibility by enabling them
to d eploy new services and applications as and when consumers require, most often
without the need to upgrad e equipment or for an engineer to visit and reconfigure
or swap out the d evice.Hy brid IPTV has grown in popularity in recent y ears as a
result of two major d rivers. Since the emergence of online vid eo aggregation sites,
like # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Y ouTube" \o "Y ouTube" #Y ouTube#.IPTV
Vend orsVerizon was the first telco to offer IPTV when it launched service in Keller
Texas in Sept. 2005. Verizon's service starts at $3 9.95 a month. They plan on
expand ing into the 29 states where Verizon services are provid ed . Other telcos are
taking Verizon's lead . AT&T joined the market in 2006 by offering U-Verse, which is
TV and Y ahoo! Internet access for $74 a month. Currently , the U-Verse service is
only offered in San Antonio and Houston, Texas. AT&T plans on expand ing in 2007 and
hopes to reach 19 million household by the end of 2008.BENEFITS OF IPTVIPTV has the
potential to d eliver more interactivity than cable. An all-IP solution is switched
d igital by nature, d oes not d epend on shared band wid th, and uses well-known
Internet technology , which should make for some interesting applications. Expect to
see caller ID information d isplay ed on the screen when y our phone rings, for
instance, or alerts when y ou receive new e-mail. Because IPTV d oes not require
expensive tuners, multiple picture-in-picture applications will become a reality ,
and DVRs will be able to record multiple shows at once without upping the cost of
the unit (the main constraint will be band wid th). An interactive program guid e,
pay -per-view functionality , and vid eo on d emand will all be stand ard features, and
channel changes should be much quicker.Because the set-top boxes will use Ethernet
and IP, they should be simple to integrate into the existing home network, which
includ es a user's computer. STBs will be able to pull vid eo and pictures

from a home PC and d isplay them on the television, and will also be able to easily
network with other STBs on other televisions throughout the house. This will allow
a user to own a single DVR that can be controlled from any set in any room.IPTV
DISPLAY IPTV can be viewed in several way s. A computer may be used to reassemble
protocol packets and convert them into a television signal that can be recognized
by stand ard television set. Another option is the set top box, commonly used by
cable companies. The set top box would be used in place of a computer and would d o
the same job a computer d oes.WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONCurrently , none of the large
telcos offer wireless IPTV. However, Ruckus Wireless, a wireless multimed ia company
based in California, has struck d eals with several regional telcos to offer IPTV
wirelessly . Ruckus has d eals in place to provid e wireless IPTV service in China and
Ireland but has only recently signed d eals with companies with in the United
States. WORKING OF IPTVThe Set top box will connect to the home DSL line and is
responsible for reassembling the packets into a coherent vid eo stream and then
d ecod ing the contents. Y our computer could d o the same job, but most people still
d on't have an alway s-on PC sitting besid e the TV, so the box will make a comeback
Most vid eo enters the sy stem at the telco's national head end , where network feed s
are pulled from satellites and encod ed if necessary (often in MPEG-2, though H.264
and Wind ows Med ia are also possibilities). The vid eo stream is broken up into IP
packets and d umped into the telco's core network, which is a massive IP network
that hand les all sorts of other traffic (d ata, voice, etc.) in ad d ition to the
vid eo. Here the ad vantages of owning the entire network from stem to stern (as the
telcos d o) really come into play , since quality of service (QoS) tools can
prioritize the vid eo traffic to prevent d elay or fragmentation of the signal.
Without control of the network, this would be d icey , since QoS requests are not
often recognized between operators. With end -to-end control, the telcos can
guarantee enough

band wid th for their signal at all times, which is key to provid ing the "just works"
reliability consumers have come to expect from their television sets. The vid eo
streams are received by a local office, which has the job of getting them out to
the folks on the couch. This office is the place that local content (such as TV
stations, ad vertising, and vid eo on d emand ) is ad d ed to the mix, but it's also the
spot where the IPTV mid d leware is housed . This software stack hand les user
authentication, channel change requests, billing, VoD requests, etc.basically , all
of the boring but necessary infrastructure. All the channels in the lineup are
multicast from the national head end to local offices at the same time, but at the
local office, a bottleneck becomes apparent. That bottleneck is the local DSL loop,
which has nowhere near the capacity to stream all of the channels at once. Cable
sy stems can d o this, since their band wid th can be in the neighborhood of 4.5Gbps,
but even the newest ADSL2+ technology tops out at around 25Mbps (and this speed
d rops quickly as d istance from the DSLAM [DSL Access Multiplier] grows). When a
user changes the channel on their set-top box, the box d oes not "tune" a channel
like a cable sy stem. (There is in fact no such thing as "tuning" any morethe box is
simply an IP receiver.) What happens instead is that the box switches channels by
using the IP Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) v2 to join a new multicast group.
When the local office receives this request, it checks to make sure that the user
is authorized to view the new channel, then d irects the routers in the local office
to ad d that particular user to the channel's d istribution list. In this way , only
signals that are currently being watched are actually being sent from the local
office to the DSLAM and on to the user. Simultaneous d elivery of channels is
necessary to keep IPTV competitive with cable. Obviously , multiple streams are
need ed to support picture-in-picture, but they 're also need ed by DVRs, which can
record one show while a user is watching another. For IPTV to become a viable
whole-house solution, it will also need to support enough simultaneous channels to
allow televisions in d ifferent rooms to d isplay d ifferent content, and juggling
resulting band wid th issues is one of the trickiest parts of implementing an IPTV
network that will be attractive to consumers.

PROTOCOLS USED IN IPTVIPTV covers both # HY PERLINK


"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Live_TV" \o "Live TV" #live TV# (# HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Multicasting" \o "Multicasting" #multicasting#) as
well as stored vid eo (Vid eo-on-Demand , or VoD). The play back of IPTV requires
either a # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Personal_computer" \o "Personal
computer" #personal computer# or a # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Settop-box" \o "Set-top-box" #set-top-box# connected to a TV. Vid eo content is
ty pically compressed using either a # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/MPEG2" \o "MPEG-2" #MPEG-2# or a # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/MPEG-4" \o
"MPEG-4" #MPEG-4# cod ec and then sent in an # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/MPEG_transport_stream" \o "MPEG transport stream"
#MPEG transport stream# d elivered via # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/IP_Multicast" \o "IP Multicast" #IP Multicast# in
case of live TV or via IP Unicast in case of vid eo on d emand . IP multicast is a
method in which information can be sent to multiple computers at the same time. #
HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/H.264/MPEG-4_AVC" \o "H.264/MPEG-4 AVC"
#H.264# (MPEG-4) cod ec is increasingly used to replace the old er MPEG-2 cod ec.In
stand ard s-based IPTV sy stems, the primary und erly ing protocols used are:Live TV
uses # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/IGMP" \l "IGMP_version_2." \o "IGMP"
#IGMP version 2# or # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/IGMP" \l
"IGMP_version_3 ." \o "IGMP" #IGMP version 3 # for IPv4 for connecting to a multicast
stream (TV channel) and for changing from one multicast stream to another (TV
channel change).VOD is using the # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Real_Time_Streaming_Protocol" \o "Real Time Streaming
Protocol" #Real Time Streaming Protocol# (RTSP).# HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/NPVR" \o "NPVR" #NPVR# (network-based personal vid eo
record er) is also using the # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Real_Time_Streaming_Protocol" \o "Real Time Streaming
Protocol" #Real Time Streaming Protocol# (RTSP).ADVANTAGES OF IPTVOther than
wireless communication, another ad vantage of IPTV is that if the customer has
quad ruple play (internet, television, telephone, mobile phone service) with the
same company , the cell phone can be used to sched ule the record ing of a program.
Exclud ing cell phone service and having only three services with a company is
referred to as triple play .THE ECONOMICS OF IPTVThe cable ind ustry 's expend itures
of approximately $1 Billion per y ear are based on network upd ates to accommod ate
higher d ata speed s. Most operators use 2-3 channels to support maximum d ata speed s
of 50 Mb/s to 100 Mb/s. However, because vid eo streams require a high bit rate for
much longer period s of time, the expend itures to support high amounts of vid eo
traffic will be much greater thus the ad option of IPTV for carry ing the majority of
this traffic could save the ind ustry expend iture.

INTERACTIVITY IP-based platform also allows significant opportunities to make the TV


viewing experience more interactive and personalized . The supplier may , for
example, includ e an interactive program guid e that allows viewers to search for
content by title or actors name, or a # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Picture-in-picture" \o "Picture-in-picture" #picturein-picture# functionality that allows them to channel surf without leaving the
program they re watchingVIDEO-ON-DEMANDVid eo on Demand (VOD) or Aud io Vid eo on
Demand (AVOD) are sy stems which allow users to select and watch/listen to #
HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Vid eo" \o "Vid eo" #vid eo# or # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Sound _record ing_and _reprod uction" \o "Sound record ing
and reprod uction" #aud io# content on d emand . # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/IPTV" \o "IPTV" #IPTV# technology is often used to
bring vid eo on d emand to # HY PERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Television" \o
"Television" #televisions# and # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Personal_computers" \o "Personal computers" #personal
computers#. DISADVANTAGES OF IPTVThere are some limitations to IPTV. Accord ing to
Wikiped ia, because IPTV is based on the Internet Protocol, it is sensitive to
packet loss and d elay s if the IPTV connection is not fast enough and it also d oes
not support HDTV at the moment. IPTV has strict minimum speed requirements in ord er
to facilitate the right number of frames per second to d eliver moving pictures.
This means that the limited connection speed /band wid th available for a large IPTV
customer base can red uce the service quality d elivered .CONCLUSIONIPTV has the
ability to integrate television with other IP-based services like high speed
Internet access and VoIP.A switched IP network also allows for the d elivery of
significantly more content and functionality . In a ty pical TV or satellite network,
using broad cast vid eo technology , all the content constantly flows d ownstream to
each customer, and the customer switches the content at the set-top box. The
customer can select from as many choices as the telecomms, cable or satellite
company can stuff into the pipe flowing into the home. A switched IP network
works d ifferently . Content remains in the network, and only the content the
customer selects is sent into the customers home. That frees up band wid th, and the
customers choice is less restricted by the size of the pipe into the home. This
also implies that the customer's privacy could be compromised to a greater extent
than is possible with trad itional TV or satellite networks. It may also provid e a
means to hack into, or at least d isrupt (see # HY PERLINK
"http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Denial_of_Service" \o "Denial of Service" #Denial of
Service#) the private network. REFERENCESHart, Timothy (February 15, 1998). #
HY PERLINK "http://wichita.bizjournals.com/wichita/stories/1998/02/16/focus1.html"
#"KCTU-TV earns a place in television, Internet history "#.
# HY PERLINK
"http://wichita.bizjournals.com/wichita/stories/1998/02/16/focus1.html"
#http://wichita.bizjournals.com/wichita/stories/1998/02/16/focus1.html#. #
HY PERLINK "http://www.allbusiness.com/services/motion-pictures/4827642-1.html"
#NBTel Unveils Interactive TV# # HY PERLINK
"http://www.bce.ca/en/news/releases/aliant/2000/01/24/53 .html" #NBTel lead ing the
way in North America with Aliant's new interactive information and entertainment
television service - VibeVision# # HY PERLINK
"http://find articles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2002_April_10/ai_8463 2001" #"Lucent
Technologies Introd uces First Commercial IP Vid eo Over DSL Solution, Business
Net"#. Business Wire. April 10,Securing Converged IP Networks, Ty son Macaulay ,
Auerbach 2006####INTERNET PROTOCOL TELEVISION
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