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..

1990

63.3 (5)
20


. .

20

. .
: ..,
, 1990.
278 .: .
ISBN 5-02-016958-7
() ( 1841 .),

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0503030000-121

013(02)-90

179-90

ISBN 5-02-016958-7

63.3

(5)


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. . . . ,
. 2 . ,
, [280, . 172]. :
, ,
, [306, . 172].
1870 . ,
, , , , . .
,
, (. . .) [280, . 199]:

18651868
18691872
18731876
18771980
18811984

11,0
11,6
14,04
13,88
11,39

7,15
9,35
8,22
7,74
7,93

, 1886 . , , , . , , . 18851888 .
8,76, 18891892 . 5,89 . . ., 8,57 8,23 . . .
[282, . 25]. , .
8 ,

, 1876 .
, , 1885 .

, 18681886 .
,
: 17,5% 1868 . 34,8% 1886 . ( 21,9 . 57,4 . . ). 22,0 39,8% (13,9 34,8 . . ), 12,9 29,2% (8,0 22,5 . . ) (. [37,
. 148150]).
7080- , : ,
, , , , , , ,
. , , , , , , , ,
. , , [224, . 31].

. , , , , [282,
. 144].

- .
, 1887 .
47,3% (89,1 . . ), 56,4%
(57,7 . . ) 36,5% (36,5 . .
) [37, . 148150]. 1894 .,
133,2 . . ( 82,4
50,3 . . ) [86, . 173, 177]. ,
,

[54, . 108].
1895 . 142,9, 1901 . 191,7 . . (. [37]),
, 37,3
48,9 . . . XX .


X X . *

1893
1902
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

,
.

, %

136,5
133.5
141
148
144,9
155.6
150,2
150,5
171,4
148,2
147,8

60
58
59
53
54
57
57
56
59
52
53

.
,
%
40,5
41
39
32
34
36
37
35
40
30,7
30

89,2
82,7
86,9
81,5
82,7
97,2
92,1
96,9
109
103,6
103,4

&, %

85
83
80
76,5
80
83
80,7
76
78
77
77

40
37
34
33,6
32
35
31
27,6
28
26
27

* [16, . 1 4 3 1 4 5 ] .

90- XIX . ( 1895


1901 . 42,9%45,8% 39,3% )
(. [37, . 148150]). 1895 . . ,
,
90- XIX .
,
, . .
, ,
, 18841887 . ( 3375 . , 3441 . ) [215, . 209]).
XX .
( 1910 . 33,2%).


.
, 1910 . 280,1 . . , . . 46% 1901 . (. [37, . 148150,
168170]). .
- - . , 19081912 . 40% . ,
56% (. [16, . 188192, 194197]).
,

, . ,
, ,
, , -, ,
, , .
. .
1909 .,
9 .
XX .
. 1.
, - .
, . - .
XIXXX .


,
7080- XIX ., , , , . , , .
,
,
(), 54 . . . 1857 .
, (), 1856 .
, (), .
, , 1863 .
[136, . 99].

- , , -

.
, .
. ,
, , ,
, . , , ,
. , - [229, . 235].
, , ,
.

5 . . 1864 . , . , ,
[228, . 28]. ,
1862 .
.
60-
, , , . , .
, 1866 . (),
, . 11 6. ,
, ,
, 1868 .
, . , [228, . 33].
18661873 . 12%
. 1871 .
1 . . . [228, . 33].
70- , , ,
, . , ,

,
. [230, . 147;
307, . 55].
, ( ) 1877 . . .

. 1877 . 5 . . (1604 . . .).
:
1879 . 1949,5 . . , 1881 . 4384 . .
, 1885 .
1,5 . . ., 750 . . ., 1886 .
767,2 . . . 6 8
[229, . 238].

,
, 10. , 1886 .
500 . , 1888 . 900 . .
. 1888 .,
, 20% 500 . ,
(. [255,
. 96, 97, 99, 100]).
,
, . ,
, , , , 1890 .
160 . [4, . 144, 145].
. 18751876 . 1720 . (539,7 . . .).
, 1878 .
- 3,5 . . (810), ,
, , , 10 .

11 .
,
, -

(, , , , ). ,
-,
1895 . -,
- , [51, . 219].
, -
,
, . , ,
- . 1890 .
10 ., XX . 15 . .12 [229, . 236].
, 50% ,
, . ,
, .
[179, . 1].
90- XIX . ,
. , (. [246, . 53;
284, . 9697]). -

, ,
, , , ,
, ,
[11, . 255].
: 1885 . 37,45% , 20,2% , 28,7% , , 10% , 3,55%
( 2,3 . ).
5 . [255, . 175].
18941895 .
230 . [50, . 60].

. -

.
: 1894 . 10,9 . 7%
1895 . 3 . . . (. [54, . 118; 229,
. 2371).
16 . . . ( 5%
, 36 ; 4,5%,
45 ) [271, . 48]. , - , .
, .

, ,
.
1898 . -
, , 4
1898 .,
, (. . .)
[272, . 48] . 1898 .
( , ) ,
,
. .
( 2,3 . . . 5% )
, 1899 . . . , 9
19 (. [59, . 67; 454, . 116; 272, . 34]).
,
, ,
.
9 1903 . ,

3,25 . . . ( 2,88 .) ( 1907 . 650 . . .). , ,

. 50 , . .
7 1907 . 1,5 . . .
. - 35 .
(. [271, . 53, 55, 61]). 1908 .

1,5 . . ., 1914 .
375 . . . (. [41; 167, . 416418]).
, 13.
, XX .
-
. . , ,
. . , ,
.
, .
XIXXX . . ,
, . 1877 .
, (). 1881 .
12
13 . ,
1893 . 22 (. [51, . 220; 11,
. 232]). . 1861 .
0
1 . . 1865 .

, , 9482 [131,
. 1, . 108].
. ,
5.

65

1872 . 19
28 . ,
,
. , .

.
. 1866 . () 14 ,
.
18611895 .
20 ,
[51, . 220]. , ,
, 1883 . , 4 8 . [51, . 232]15.

, , , - 52,5% 1868 . 81,1% 1877 .
85,7% 1887 . 16.
,
.

. ( 17 ).
, .
. . 18 .
1857 . . , ,
1863 . ,
. . . .
.
60- ,
. . , ,
, 18791880 .
, . 1894 . 6 , 1,5 . .
(. [136, . 101; 230, . 98]). XIX .
4,5 . . -

, , . . ,
1895 . ( 22 , )
[51, . 221].
1894 . , , 30% (8 . ) [51, 224].

, 1885 .
, . ,
[246, . 82]. , XIX .
, .
, [282, . 118].
.

, - . 1886 .
1884 .
, , 750 . [11, . 48]19.
, , , .
XIX . [247,
]:

, . .
, .

, . .
, .

1888 .

1892 .

.
.

5,1
64,6

6,4
75,8

6,5
8,8

. .
. .

2,5
2,5

2,6
2,7

2,9
3,6

48,0
370,7
12,7

45,2
3192,1
13,5

59,6
3767,4
16,1

.
.

, . . .
, . .
, .
5*

1896 .

67

1895 .
775 . , 1036 .
1047 . [247, ]. ,

, - . - .
XIX .
, 20 .

, 1844 . 25
11 [237,
. 1, . 238].

, 30- XIX . [255, . 242].

, (
. .). 1868 . 0, (. [4, . 242
244]). . ( 1861 .),
(1865),
(1875 .) [4, . 244].
, XIX .
.
,
.

. , ,
, , , , , ,
.
. , , . ,

.
18941895 .

. 17 1895 . -

.
,

,
.


. ,
21 .
. , , . 1897 .
, . () 14 . [50, . 7172]. , , 1898 . . ,
. [50, . 99].
1895 . , ,
, , 22 .
, , ,
. .
. , .
70- XIX . . , , , . ,
4 , .
, ,
,
(. [108, . 112114]). . , ,

. 1889 .
X. . .
.

, , ,
, (. [230,. 193194]).
1890 . X. . , 600
[136, . 108109].
, .
, ,
750 . .
( ,
1885 .
,
), , , , (),
(, ), 1899 .
(
).

. 1887 . .
1884 .
.
. 1898 .
,
.
,
, (. [4, . 242244]). , . ,
, , 8090- .
80- . ,
, . , , ( ), 1876 .,
.
. ) (. [4, . 242244]).
,
. 80- , , , . ,
[224, . 33].

,
,
.
XIX . .
.
.
, ,

[284, . 122].
.

: - ( 1890 .,
, 50 . ),
(1901 .; 350 . . . ;
); (1903 .; 2 ; 250 . .
); , , ,
, , , , (. [4, . 219
222]). 1913 . 15 , 2,54 . ., 29 14 283 (1309 ) (133 ). , , , ,
(. [146, . 639643]). XIX . ,
:
.
.
XIXXX .
.
, .
, , , .
,
.
XX . - .

3

1020- XX .

-
XX .


.
.
, . 1920 .
17,5 . .
, 1934 . 51,29 . . , 1920 .
50 . . [11, . 263]. .
, .
, . - , . , ,
. , ( ) 2 .
, .
, ,
,
.
,
3 . ,
, -

,
.
, . 1915 .
- ,

( ). 1905 . ,

- , 4.
30- ,
.
, ,
, 30-
(. [227, . 120, 121, 197]).

. ,
; ( , ). ,
. ,
5 [227, . 154].
.
. ( 80% 19201930 .) [11, . 263].

20- 30- :
11,5%, 40,3, 9,5, 9,5,
4,6, 3,3,
2,3, 2, 1,7,
11,4, 3,9% [11,
. 264].
,

, .

19251927 .
. ,
. 18 1912 . 1,2 . . ., -
[271, . 239, 258].
(25 . . .) ,
27 1913 .
[228, . 126, 135]. 1920 .

, ,
, .
.
, 1914 . 7,3 ., 1922 .
12,9 . . . [228, . 152].
.
. :
(1914 .), (1915 .), (1926 .).
,
, 6 . 1924
1925 . 60 . . . .
. . , , , , , ,
.
. 1930 . .
20- ( ),
, , , 33 . . 1935 . . .
[11, . 6465].
, . 1921 .
7 [, . 46, 48].

1930 . 10 . [11, . 46, 48].


. 1920 .
, . [11, . 49].

, 1924 . ( ), , .
. , , .
XX . ,
1910 . 20,9 . (17557 ), 1920 .21,5 .
(21 498 ) 1930 .37,9 . (28 374 ) (. [22]).
,
. 1910 . 434 ., 1920 . 630,3 .,
1930 . 838,8 .

,
. , 1915 .
( 1900
1908 . 3 .). , , , 1924 ., 70 , 50% [224, . 44]. .

. , , ,
( . ., , , , .).
,
1919 . 46% .
1929 . 2/3 : 1 [224, . 34, 46].

. , ,
21,4 21,8% 1918 ., 26,4 24,6%
1928 . ( 14 ,
20 796 , 20,
22 343 ). 30-

42
(94 734 ) 87 (155641 ) [4, . 239].
XX .
3132% [4, . 11].
, 1908 ., , , 100 [4, . 6067]8. ,
,
.
, . , , 16 . .
9 .
.
14 1911.
14 1949 ., . : 1,6 . 1911 ., 2,2 . 1920 .

( 29 . 1911 . 73 . 1914 .), 7090 .
[167, . 643].
, ,
. , ,
.
1937 ., . .
.
,

. , .
1925 .
, .
14

1927 . ,
(. [167,
. 640, 643; 224, . 56]).
, 1914 .
1,4 . .
, , 20- , [167, . 646]. (. . .) [224, . 56]:

. . .
...
...

1918 .

12435,5
8 660,8
326,1

1919 .

13083,3
7 600,2
571,8

XX , .
, ,
( 1903-1904 .;
1906 .; 1907 .;
1919 .;
, 1921 . . .). ,
. ( ), .

. ,
. , . (, 1924 . -
).
- , 20- , , , , - .


, 1910 . 280,1 . . , 1920 .
295,7 ., 1921 .384 ., 1928 .408,2 . .
. - 19251926 . (
417 . . 1924 . 291 . 1925 .
218,2 . 1926 .), 1928 . . 19291930 370 . . , , , (. [37, . 148150]).
, 1910 . 62,7 . . ,
1921 . 78,2 ., 1930 . 60,3 . . .
20- ( 1931 . 1921 ., 7%, 43,75% [241] (. [37, . 148
150; 233, . 291]). , , , .
[224, . 601].
XIXXX . (33,2% 1910 ., 22,6% 1920 17% 1930 .).
37, 20,9 16,6%, 28,5, 25,1
17,6%.
: 1930 .
2,2 %10.
2030- . ,
, . ,
, , .

- - . ,
: , 57,8% 1900 .
49,6% 1930 . (. [22]).

1927 . [27, . 8]:

. . .

. .

. . . . .

,
. . .

.
. . .

88,9

63,4

25,9
9,45
5,9

39,6
0,7
2,5
3,5
0,13
0,4
5,1
2,5
2,9
0,2
0,8
0,4
1,0

9.1

1,8
1,0
10,9
6,2
1,7
1,0
2,0
0,7
9,5

,
. . .

152,3

100,0

65,5
10,2
8,4
12,6
1,93
1,4
16
8,7
4,6
1,2
2,8
1.1
10,5

43,0
6,6
5,5
8,2
1,3
1,0
10,5
5,7
3,0
0,8
1,8
0,7
6,9

XX . - .
, .
,
XX . - : (1900 .),
(1904 .), (1916 .). , ,
.
, ,
.
, 1 1919 . , , . ,
,
.

, ,
( , ,
). .

.
-

". , . , ,
- , .
3 1917 . ,
. . . , , .
1921 . .
,
, . -
, , , , .
, . 1928 .
9, 8 ( 6 , ).

.

1926 . ,
.
. ,
.
.
, . XX .
12.
XX .
, :
, , .

.
. .


.
.
.
.

1912 .
.

14
1912 . (. [3, . 165, . 2, 5, 13, 151).
,
. , 1915 .
, [166, . 1, . 159]. , (21 , ) 13.
. ,
, . , ,
8 1914 .
. ,
. - , , . , ,
, , , [126, . 3,
. 433, 436].
14 .
4 1919 ., , . 6

. 3

81

,

. . ,
, .
, , -, . . , ,
[113, . 109].
, .
. ,
- . , [113, . 111].

. , , , .
[113, . ].
1919 .
,
.
1919 .
. .
1- 3- ,
. , , .
( ),

[113, . 114115].
,
, .
. 10-
, , , .
, 1916 . ,

, . 1918 . ,
,
. 1920 . , ,

, .
. ,
,
.
, (
. ), , .

. , XX . .
, ,
. , ,
15 .

. ,
() ,
(, ) [267, . 65].
20- ,
, .


(), (), (),
(), ( ), (), (, ),
, .
,
. , . . ,


, 12 , . 6*

83

, .

, .
, , , .

, . , , () , () . .
XX .
.
, 1922 . .
, (
). 20
30 . ., 4,5 9 . . ,
0,18 0,24 . . ,
7 12 . . [183, . 534].
, ,
16.
.
- , .
, .
(, ).
. .
,
1020 . [183, . 535].

,
4 , 1920 ., 30% , , , - [39, . 26].
-

1921 .

(. [139, . 7 0 7 8 ] ) . , , .

. 17 1921 .
.
4 1921 .
:
10 50%. , . , , 12
1922 ., 24- .
. 1500 90 ,
6500 123 [183, . 538].

, ,
.
, (), , ,
, ,
. ,
. , ,
.
20 . .
,
, .

.
. .
17.
.
.

. , 16 -


; , 17 , 15%
, .
,
, .

. .
.
. 27 30 . [183, . 543].
-.
( ),
( "),
.

. , 15 6 . , , .
: 10 168 ,
260 .
( 76 127 . )
(. [138, . 97; 183, . 543]).
. . 1 . . .
. . , 2 , 3, 5 (. [183, . 543
5441).
- , .
, . 15 .
- , 3040%, , .
[183, . 545].


, .
16 .

, .
, ,

,
4 . . , . . , , ,
. , .
, .
.
, .
, . ( 1909 .),
.
, , .
, , . .
,
28 .
, , .
, , , , , , . .
,
, , .
100 . 2 1922 . ,
.
, . 4 .
6, .
,
. -


. .
, 5 , ,
( 1 . ), 30%,
20%. , , 15%. 50%
[183, . 556]. , .
. , . . ,
1923 . .
( ) .
.
,
.
,
. , , .
, .
.
, , . . 1924 .
() ,
, 2 .
. , . , , , . 1925 .
, .

.
1922 . ,

,
, , ,
. , , , [39, . 28].
250- 1214 ,
. . . ,
[39, . 23].
, , ,
, , , ,
( , , ). ( ,
, ). 1922 ., 10 , 15 , 10 ,
,
- (. [22]).
.
, , 80% I
1922 . II 1925 .
.

. ( 70 , , )
( 30 , , ). 20 , , , . [39, . 44].
,
, .

.
.
, 1925 . -

, .

4 ,
1925 . 30 , .
.

. . 23 1925 .

.
,
.
, , , . ( , , , .).

( 10 .), .
,
,
. , , , .
.
,
. ,
. , .

. 19 , , .
,
.
,
: 1)
,
, , ; 2)
; 3) ;
4) , , ,

, ; 5) 1 1925 . ; 6) , , , [39, . 55].


100 . .
. ,
. . 21 .
: 21
. , , . .
[103, . 124].
, 22
80% [103, . 126]. , ,

.
. , ,
[78, . 127].
(,
, ) , ,
, ,
, [103, . 127]. ,
,
, . . , ,
[6, . 207].
.
, . ,
, ,
.

.
23 -


. ,
. , ,
.
.
4 ,
. [103, . 128].
,
, . , ,
, [39,
. 62].
,
. 27 , . , . () ()
[103, . 131].
130 . .
, , , . 13 , .
, , .
,
.
, ,
[39, . 72]. , , .
, 2,5 7 . .
(. [39, . 7879; 19, . 79]).
: 1924 . 1925 . 28%, 34, 28%-

, ,
.
1925 . 25 . , 505 . , , 1924 . 1925 .

6,5 . , 1820 1925 . 10, 11


12 7,4, 5,0 15,4 . , 1924 . 210
156 . (
5300 ) [65, . 23].
.
, , ,
18 . 1925 . .
: . , ... , , (. [39, . 80]). 15 1925 .
19.
, .
20 . 3 . . . [103, . 132].

, , ,
.
20 1925 ., , 21 , ,
.
,
, , .
. ,

( )
.
,
, [103, . 134].
:
(
), , , ,
, ,
, [39, . 91].
, ,

. 1925 . , .
30 1925 . 2 1926 . . , . . 10
. ( 1925 .
.
. ) , 25 , . .
, [106, . 14].
, .
. 1926 .
. 0,6 . . .
.
[39, . 105].
21 1926 . ,
,
, . , . -

, ,
.
1926 . ,
. . , . , , , . , , . , ,
,
150 . .
. , - . .
III 1 1926 . . , , 1926 . .
,
.
, , .

.
,
.
(. [65,
. 29, 31; 103, . 134]).
1 1926 . . , , . . . 10 .

,
11 25% .
100 10 [103, . 134].
- 16 .
, . , ,
,
,
. , , , [184, . 194].
15 1926 .
I .
, , , , , .

1927 . . 1927 .
, 31
, 26
. , , , . , , ,
, 22 6 , , 29 7 1927 .
[27, . 16].
, , . , . ,
1928 .
,
,
, .
[325, 24.08.1928].
-

, . ,
,
.
12 1927 . ,

.
, [7, . 230].
,
.
. 15
. .

, . [78, . 69].
10 11 1927 ., . ,
, .
.
.
19251927 .
, , , , ,
, [7, . 236], ( ,
22 ). . . .
,

10 [196, . 334].
,

, .
1927 .
(. [22]). 23 .
7

. 3

97

1928 .
. , , , ,
. 24 .
, . ,
, [196,
. 354].
,
.
. ,
,
.
1930 . -
[177, . 257]. 1929 .
25 .
, , , .

,
. ,
,
( , ),
1931 . . , .
,
[196, . 258].
. ,
. ,
. 1931 .
, .
,
[81, . 44].
30-
. , , , -

.
,
. ,

, , .


XX .

1020- , , .
4 , .
, 1919 .
, - .
, . ,
, . ,
,
, , .
, . , , .
[114, . 53, 55]. , ,
. ,

, , .
14 1919 .
. ,
.
12 1921 . ,
,
. 3
.
7

99

. . , , , , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
.
.
I 20 1924 . ,
. [110, . 67].
24 1925 .
30 .
.
,
. ,
. , ,
. 1928 .
-
.
. .

- , . ,

1909 . 1927 . .
.
,
( 1928 .). 1929 . . ,

,
.
. , [107, . 7275].
, 25
1930 . , , , . , .
.

,
. ,
.
1857 .,
XX . . , 1857 . . ,
. ,
[214, . 245].
1900 . . . , . , . . .
, - (. . , . . .) ... [3, . 34, . 63]. . , 1905 .
,
, ... ,
, [3, . 34, . 2, 3].
,

, ,
, 26.
- XX . .
, , , , , .
... [3,
. 453, . 5].
1912 . .
- . 1908 ., , , , , , , , .
, [3, . 96, . 4|.
. 1909 . [3, . 81,
. 39]; . . ,
, 1910 .
, 1909 .

[3, . 81, . 40]. 1914 .
[3, . 244, . 2].
1895 . . -
15 . 2 . [3,
. 98, . 7] 1909 . ( - ).
1912 . , 1 . . .
- , , ,
[3, . 165,
. 2]. 1910 .

, 7,3 . . . [3, . 99, . 7, 9].
[3,
. 129, . 8].


, . ,
1917 . , , [3, . 127, . 5758]. .
1917 . . 11 1917 .
, . , 1 , . . .
,

-. , , 3050
, 1917 .
. . (), (. (3, . 422, . 2, 47; . 423, . 9,
12]). , ,
. . , , 1906 .,
, .
, [3, . 422, . 64]. ,
, , .

. . .
(
) 1917 .
. 1917 . .
( ) -

,
[3, . 526, . 2; .
3, . 568, . 122].
.
[3, . 568, . 44].
,
.
, , ,
, 40 , 200 , . ,
: 27 [3, . 446, . 7]. , , 350
[3, . 446, . 1213]. ,
,
, ,
.

. ,
1918 .
, (. [3, . 443, . 2, 4, 5]).
18 1918 . ,
, .
. 1919 .

, , ,
(. [3, . 451, . 10, 16, 17]).
1919 . , .

-

- [3, . 496, . 8,26].

1918 . ,
,
(
) , .
, -

.
, ,
" , (. [3, . 450,
. , 13, 17]).


.
. 1920 . . 1920 . , , , [3, . 460, . 24]. 1919 . ( , ) , .
, , 3,2 . . .
2,6 . . (. [3, . 458, . 145, 149, 209211]).
1920 .
, . ,

[3, . 458, . 198].

, 30- .
, - ,
.
30- ,
, .
-, , , . 1500 ,
1200 , , 400 .

- .
30-
, .
-, , , . , ( 1936 .),
, ( 1929 . ,

), ( 69,9 . . . 1939 .)
[266, . 375].
,
.
1931 . 849,7 ., 96,6%
. . ,
- , . . , , - , , . 1931 .,
6,4% 30 , 16%20
38,5% 10 [266, . 389].
. 1935 ., , 3,35 ., 3,4 .
. 1938 .
1,03 . 0,6 . .
30- ,
,
. 33% 1931 . ,

[266, . 391].
, , .
30- - 1 , , , , , .
50
70 . . ., [266,
. 437].
,
19291931 . 16,1%, 19331936 .
3,6 1,9% [10, . 3, . 472].
(
,
2 ), , , , , .
. 1937 .

3% 12% ,
1938 . 45 41,3% [15, . 213].

, ,
. , , , , ,
(
1938 1939 .). 19381941 .
1,8% 14,1% [15, . 63].
1937 .
.
. ,
1938 .
, 1939 .
, .
1940 .
( - ). , 24 1940 . . 17 1940 .
[47, . 104, 105].
,
, (.2).
- . : , .
, .
( ,
) , ,
. 30-
. , , 1936 . 95%
, 2% (!) [266,
. 446]. ,
.
. 1924 . 9,4 . . .,
1931 . 4,2 ., 1938 3,5 . . .
19371940

30- *,

1931 .
,

. .
. .

. .

. .

.
. .

. .

1934 .

33,6

8,8

2.6
2,0

8,3
7,8

12,2
5,7
7.4
4.5
1.6

7.0
7.1
6,8
8,0

35,2

9.3

2,6
0,9

10,9
10,6

10,6
3,7
6,2
4,2

5,1
7,8
7,1
6.4

4.5

5,1
10,8

26,9

42,7
3.7
3.0
5.1

48,0
5.3
2,5
3.5

54,2
4,7
3.4
5,0

1936 .

4,7

3,3
8.2

1998 .

37,0

12,8

45.1
4,1
1.9
2,6

3,3
3.8

8.5
6,4

2,0
4,1

6,6
9,1

13,7
8,1
5.0
4.1
3,3

4,9
7.1
5,7
6.6

12.2
10,2
4,9
3,1
1.9

8.1
8.8
5,6
5,9

4.2

5.2
9,2

7,9

3.7

6,3
8,9

* [22].

, 1767,8 .
1374,6 . . . ( 1939 . 20% 1927 .).


(. [66, . 60, 62]).

19371939 .
769 1024, , 2000 [66, . 62]. , , , , .
,
.

- .
.

1932 . , ,
.
. -

. , , . ( ) (- ).
. - , ( 1936 .) [10, . 2,
. 254]:

,
. .
.

,
. .
.

12

10,33

33,89

7
5
5
32
8

24,94
9,97
33,54
40,75
29,48

38,63
17,43
1164,73
40,51
50,05

. . .

...................


, . , .
, . 1939 . , , - ,
10 . . . 1941 . -- , 50 . .
5 . . . [216, . 3, . 66].
30- .
, . ,
, ,
,
,
.
33 . . . 1931
1932 . 2829 . . . 19341935 . [266, . 424].
19371938 .
, ,
-

, .
( 1938 .)
(17,31%), (15,93%), , , . (14,56%).
(18,54%).

5,7 9,67% [266, . 428429]. ,
( 30- , ,
40%
, , , , ).

.
( 1904, 1906, 1907,
1908, 1911, 1925 .), 1932 . -
. 1930 . , 1937 . , , ,
. , ,
.
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. - . , , , , ,
.
.

.
,
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, . 40- .

. , 1937 .
, . ,
,
, ,
.
1938 .
.
, (
). , [117, . 51].
, , 8- 4- . ,
.

.
.

2
(. [125]).
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, 8- 4-
,
,
. . , 8 1939 .
,
,
[124, . 110111].
. 30 1941 .

, ,
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, 4-
, 1939 .
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,
,
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,
19331934 . - , , , ,
[162, . 439]. . 1935 .
- , 5
1937 .
1936 . , . ,
[119, . 8486]. .

( ) 29 1936 .
,
.
, 1936 .
. .
20 .
.
.
, .
, - , 3
8

. 3

113

, (. [165, . 8891]).

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.
, ,
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.
, , , (. [312,
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1938 .
. . , ,
. . (. [163]).
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,
.


.
( ) (. [117, . 24, 27,
32]).

. 1938 .
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, , .
1938 . . , , , , , . , , ( ),
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. .
,


, ( ), .
[147,
. 185].

. , 1935 . . , , , :
.
1941 . -

(. [127]).
,
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1938 .
, ,
.
[299, 02.07.1985]. 19371938 .
, 4 .
, .
1939 . , ,
, , , ,
.
. ,
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8

115


, [216, . 3, . 145].
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,
. [43, . 85].

, (. [216, . 3,
. 249, 252]).


.
1935 .
, .
,
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, (. [194, . 12, 134, 188]).

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, ) -
.

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1941 . .
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. [82, . 151], , ,
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.
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, , , , [298,
02.03.1986].
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, ,

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[66, . 285; 134, . 154161]).
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, - , ,
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, . 1941 . . [325,
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. .
.

.
, . 1940 .
,


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X. 1940 . , . - . , 7 1941 ., , - . , ,
. , [238, . 6].

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. , . ,
,

[238, . 38].
1940 . , ,
, , , (, . .).
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18 41 ). . 1940 .
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1940 .
( ), , . . ,
,
, ...
[238, . 6].

: ... ...

[323, 25.07.1941].
, ,

5 . 15 1941 .
9 1940 .
[323, 21.02.1941].
1938 . ,
, .
1941 . 50%, 1,64 . [66, . 55].
.
. , . : . ,
,
. , .
, , ,
. , (. [323, 12.01.1940, 24.04.1940,
20.12.1940]).
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1939 .
10 . . 4 . .

. . [323, 20.12.1940].
1941 . [323, 28.02.1940].

.
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1940 .
.

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16 . . . 1938 .),
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. 9, . 78, 86]).

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31 , (. [325,
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216, . 1, . 183, . 2, . 175; 297, . 49]).
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138139]).
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131

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.

: .
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1952 . . ,
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.

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8 ( 16,4 . ) [20, . 41].

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.
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.
1946 .
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50%
(. [18, . 3841]). 1946 . (30 .) 3 , 1941 .
. 1946 .
1939 . 12 , 5, , , ,
6 , 1938 . 77,5 [18, . 24].
41
176,5 . ., . . 4,3 ,
50 3,4 . ., . . 6,8 .
210 .,
0,71,3 ., 9
[18, . 15].
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,
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1940 .), ,
(
1902 .), ,
(
1937 .), -

140

.
31
1946 . , ,

.
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[19, . 12].
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11 .

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20, . 56]).
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17 , 83 60.
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.

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,
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.
.

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, , 130% [18, . 4144].
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1946 . 141,6 . . . .
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,
.
,
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. ,

. ,
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. . 1947 . 191
, 1948 . 436.

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,
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; .

.

1949 . 8 .,
1950 . 603 . .
. (. [36]).
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[107, . 9293].
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.

.
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.
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.
,
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27 ,
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145

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.
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20 .
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,
, .
,
, .
,
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. 1948 . 120 .
225 . 5 12 .
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1948 . 516 .


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147

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[216, . 2, . 294].
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.
.
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[312, 02.11.1985]).
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. 179181; 131, . 6, . 129]).
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.
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.
,

[216, . 3, . 214].
, , , . , .
- , ,
. 1950 .
.
, .

,
(
1949 .20%, 1950 .30%).
150%, 2,3 . . . [20,
. 34].
-

200 .
1950 . ,
, , , .
50-
( 150 , , , , , , ). 1951 . 1873 ,
95 . . [23, . 33]. ,
-.

( , ).
. (187,5 . 1950 . [23, . 47]) : ,
. , . , .
, ,
.

18 1951 .
, , , .
19501951 . 7,5 . 9,3 . . .

( 100%). ( 3740%)
, 71%.

( 1951 .2,47 . . .) [23, . 4344]. 19501951 .
(. . .) [23, . 49]:

1950 .

355,7
136,1
366

1951 .

326,5
53,3
483,1
62,3

1950 .

1951 .

677.2
524,1
361.3
78,7
422,6
1001

139,3

, , . ,
.
1949 . , , 1950 .
, . , ,
, - . , ,
,
.
4050- .
. (
).

,

. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , [23,
. 14].
, .
.

40- 50- . ,
.

, :
1950 . 200 , 100.
1951 . ,
, .
. , .
.
, ( ),

.

: 1950 . 2,06 ., 1956 .2,67, 1967 . 3,87 .
:
19481958 . 1 . ., 1962 .
1 (. [89, . 105; 250, . 14, 22; 25, . 18]).
. ,

[144, . 281283]. 1951 1960 . -


5% , 6,5%. , 1600 1400 . . ( 19521953 .) [245, . 231232].
1951 1965 .
1785 8492, 93,6
357,5 . . . , 1961 . 19 2330, 1019 1293, 5099 398,
100199 242, 200499 151, 500
999 35, 10001999 24.
60- ,
5 .
(. [36]).
, , 46,9% , 38,8% .
.

.


. 19551967 . 37,3 . 137,1 . ( 367%),
1,0 . 7,9 . ( 783,5%), 57 . .
129,6 . 619,9 .
. ( 478%).
( 21 39,
314,1 . 807,9 .) ( 116 216, 23,7 .).

. 1952 .26,5%, 1957.43,34, 1962 .
42,53, 1967 . 49,96% (. [36, . 48, 63, 80, 81]).
, , , , , , (
10,5%,
14,29, 22,1 25,57%). , ( 1,3%, 1,54, 2,92 15,7%) [28, . 3].
50-
. , 1955 . ,
, . -

50-
,
, , .
.
, 1957 .
, , (
50% ), ,
, , [24, . 90]. ,
50- - , 50- 45%
[26, . 69].
. 1952 . ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
, ,
[30, . 92]. 1958 . 772 ,
.
, .
( 25% 1952 .
42,2% 1958 .) [25, . 9, 15].
, . 50
60- . , ,
.

, (), (),
(, , , ),
(, , ,
, ). .
5060-


(. . .) (. [36.. . 971041):
1952 .

1957 .

. 830,27 1131,1
. 221,06 539,0

1962 .

1967 .

1213,0
792,37

2281,9
1410,9

,
, .

, , , ,
, , , , , , , , .

, .
1952 . 4395 . , 1967 .
9526 . . 1956 .,
300 [301, . 29].

( 3 . 26 . ) (222 . 596 . ),

( 465 . 1489 . ) [36, . 14].
. , 1959 . 458 , 1,7 . [26, . 63].

60- ,
, , ,
. 1962 .
, , .
(
). - ,
( 1962 . 181 . . .,
. . 98% , 1961 .) (. [30, . 41, 73, 74, 79]).
20 ,
1962 4 ( 784 . .), 55,3%
32,7% .
. 1962 . . , ,
, ,
(. [30, . 75,

84]).
, 1968 .
16 . ,
(. [31, . 53,
55]).
,
.
. 70
, , . [30,
. 72].
60- .
,
. 1968 . 13 . [31, . 55].
6070- . , .
,
, , (
70- (. [32,
. 8889; 35]). 60- ,
, ( 250 ), 642 [35, . 55]. :
50, 56,8% , 20,4% ; ,
, 200 . . .
(
35 . . .); ( 186 . ) (. [251,
. 35, 52]).
,
,
. (
650. . ) 2 ;
( 19691973 . 8,7% 11,9% );


(, 70-

24 360 ) (. [251, . 55, 56; 259,
. 259]). , ,
, , .

,
( 50-
11,6% ), .

.
. , 3 .
70- , - . (, .), , .
, ,
:
,
, , . 60- ( 1968 .
800 . . .) [31, . 5].

. 1954 1967 . 29 75, 926 .
8162 . . . [36, . 151]. , , 50- , ,
[24, . 79].
, , , . 1967 .
5401 . . ., 19,8%, ( ) 31,4,
16,4% [36, . 152].

70-
( ) 4,3 . [186,
. 11].
144,3 . 1 . [186, . 372]. . 1947
1971 . 91 .
4891 . - [275, . 21].
1976 . 26,6%
, 1975 . 37,3 .
. . ( 1976 . 47,2 . . .), 8478 10 627 . .
( 1966 . 4602 5313 . .) [186,
. 391].
(27%) ( 1976 . 7969 , 252,8 . ), (19,5%).

8,5% (4036 , 82 250 ) 10,9%. ( 106 ,
672 71 . ) (. [186, . 405406]).
- ( 50 ). 1970 .
11 755 140 093 ; 1975 .
26 962 227 753 (
).

. 1976 .
85 480 . . .
32629 . . . (78,5% ) [32, . 12]. -
, , ,
.
,
, , , -, , , .
,
[32,
.
13].

,
70- 1,53,0 . . .
86, . 411]. ,
- .


11

161

70- (%)
[186, . 401]:

,
. .
,
. . .
-

. . . .
. . .

1970 .

1973 .

1976 .

1980 .

29,9

26,9

26,6

26,7

21,8

23

23,7

18,8

7,2

5,9

5,9

6,5

14,3
18,9

19,3
17,4

18,5
17,6

22,0
16,0

1976 .
550 . .

- .
,
19701983 . 15 25%. 80-
150 (
1393 ), 134
300 .
80- 15 10% [67, . 61].
1986 . 1961 . 211 ,
1343,2 . . . ,
, ( 2,7%
1971 . 4,8% 1981 .) [155, . 122].
4 .
,
, ,
, , ,
.
70-
.
,

70- , 1978 . , , ,
, .
, 70- .
,

. 1975 . 271 (
1730 . . .), 8,7% [32,
. 11, 14]. 1977 . 367 (
1978,5 . . .).
(46,5%), (19,9%), (7,5%), (5,2%),
(4,6%) [269, . 276].
( 15,8%) :
(36,2%), (11,9%).
, ,
402,2 .
. . [269, . 277].
, 1971 1977 .
160,7% .
. , (139,5%
), ,
(109,5% ) [269, . 290].

. 80-
15 . . . [62, . 114].
.
(- ).
19581985 . 23 . 2700 .
. ., . . 117 . 400 , 60% . -
, 80% .
,
[164,
. 10]. ,
, .
30% .
. , .
10% , 45%
[168, . 1011].
. , 11

163


, 1997 .,
.
. ,
( ) ,
( ). 1986 .
. 1983 . . ,

. ,
.
: 40%
.

(), 1977 . 11
- , , 61,9%
,
, ,
37% (. [186, . 347349]).
19671980 . 459 .
7467 . . . : 40%, 7,
19, 10, 24%. 50%
230 , 20% 140.

( 1977 .
1443 . . .,
),
( 1975 . 805 . .
., , ,
, ), (19771978 .
279,5 . . .), () ( 1976 .
1278 . . ., , ) (. [186, . 351355]).

(623% ) [186,
. 357]. ,

. 62 50%
, 25%
, 15
25% ( ),
. -

1983 . 450 . . .
, , , ( 49 , 10 819 ) [62, . 133].

, :
, . 80- : 1981 . 2 . . . (. [186, . 312, 317323]). 1982 .
47% ( 9 0 % , 50%
, ,
) [62, . 114]. 1986 . 5 . . .
.
5 . - , , . , 800 , , , , , , , 20 ( , ,
), 36 31
[223, . 5].
(1424 . . . 1982 .),
7% . 1982 .
854 , : 147 , 106 , 380 , 221 .
,
, .
40% ,

, [35, . 116].
. 210
. , 1981 .
83 . [62, . 117].
,
,
,
, . 1984 . 172 . . .
223, . 4].
, ( 1984 . 312,

268 150 . . .) [223, . 4]. 80- - . 12 ,


, . 1983 .
171 ( 103 );
1984 ., 33
598 . . . 19841986 .
( 720 .
. .) ( 1,13 . .
.). 1985 . 2,5 . . . , . . 10% [30, . 7274].

.
27%
(
, , ). , , 80- 6 ,
(. [258,
. 343, 349, 350351]).

, , , , - .
. 19691986 . 755 ,
250 . 181 200 . . . [67, . 62].
, 70-
- , , .
( 19761978 . 210 . . .;
).

. ( 1977 .
114,7 . . .), , (, , ).
(. [186, . 336337]).
( 1978 .
223 . . . [186, . 337])


.
.
. ,
,
.

. 50- 60- , . 1966 .
1984 . 6479 . . . (
26,3%); , [76, . 5455]. 12% (
, ,
). ( 19741983 . 12,7%, 7,4, 4,5, 2,9%)
(. [76, . 5455, 57]).
, . . 1985 . 307,7 . .
. [222, . 72]. (
) .
80-
, . - ;

7.

70- (,
),
,

. , 19721978 . 84 .
700 . . . [8, . 13]. , , ,, .


( ). ,
(. . 6), .
80- , . ,
1985 . ( ), 95% ,
.


. 60- , ,
,
.
. , ( 75 ) , , . . , 10 . . . 50-
120 . . . 19691971 . [275, . 59
60].

,
( 70- ,
), , . ,
1967 . , .
3 . , , -, , . [31, . 58].

: ,
, , ( -
300, 160) (.
[222, . 74, 302, 370]).
70- ,
40 , . ().

( ),
( ),
(), (
), ( ),
, ,
,
, , , , . .
19861987 ., 12,5% ( 38,2 . . .).

, -
,

, .
, , .
1955 .,
8- , , , 9
7 [28, . 2627]. ,
87% , 73%,
12% 8 , 42%
11 [186, . 280]. 712 . . (1,22,1 . .)
, 56 . .
(0,91,1 . .) 3
5 . . (0,50,9 . .) [272, . 16
17].
25% .
.
: 1953 . 707 , 1963 . 10 248 [36, . 67]. 1955 ., ,
3059 2,7% . ,
, . 1955 .
192 , [28, . 34].
. ,
,
, ( -

50- 200 . ., . . 1,3 , ) [24, . 81].


: , , .
, [210, . 72].
, , , .
60- ,
49% ( 15,817,5 . .
) , 69%
8,75 . . (. [285,. 186,
209]).
.

. , , .
. ()
, () . ( 50-
57 ) ( 100 ) .
. ,
1954 . -
2235 , 1955 . 33567 ( 145 666 ) [28, . 31].
[143, . 107].
,
. . , ,
1961 ., 1 . 64%
, 10% 5% . ,
,
( 1962 . 4,5%
) [210, . 70].
,
,

, .

. . 1962 ., , 53 .
,
[30, . 40].
,
. , , . ,
.
, . 1958
1966 . 80% (
1947 . 4050%) (. [36, . 136
137, 144; 251, . 55]).
,
, . 1958 .,
, 65%
70% 10 ,
9 ,
9,5 , [25, . 32]. 10 (60- ), 100
. , ( 1958 ., , 211).
1967 .
9,5, 1968 . 9 .
, ;
12- . 14 16 8 .
1971 . (. [31, . 2930; 32, . 36]).
, ,
( 50- 70- ),
23 ., 2 .
. , [31, . 24].
,
70- .
-


, ( 1971 .

),
(.
[235, . 251254; 236]).
, , . , , . 1967 ., ,
, . ,
1967 . ( - 171,6 165,5 . [142, . 60]) . 19681976 .

13,53 25,19% (
20%) [142, . 61].
. , - .
60
70-
.
1968 . :
700 . . . (. [31, . 2, 47]).
1973 . ( 19741975 . ) [32,
. 1].
, , ,
9,1% (, 1974 . 50 . ) (. [186, . 69;
32, . 3]) . 70- 65,3 . .
, 13 . ., 1975 . 1963 .
189,8% (. [32, . 36, 228]).
,
19741976 .
. . -

, 7080- .
,
,
. ,
, ,
. , , (, ),
, .

, , , , .
7080- .
50 ( 57,5 ) [320, 25.10.1985]. , 70- 17,1 31,5 (. [186]). - , , .

. ( 19741979 .
84%, 32%)
[186, . 247]. 1976 .
1,24 , 1,87 .
1985 . 98 . . ( 25% 115 . .) [35, . 307].
, . , ,
.

. 50- 650 . , , , . , , 1953
50 . . 1961 . , ( 511 . ,
140 . , ,

69 . , 56 . , 50 .
, , , 26 . ,
20 . , 12 . , 10 . ) [250, . 247].
50-
154 . ( 1960 . 360 .), [31, . 140].
, 1968 . 402 . .
. , , 11,2 . , ( 1964 .

2,2 . 3,3 . ) [251, . 185]. ,
500 . 1015 . . (1,82,6 . .) , , .

. , ,
, (.[211, . 248250]).

(1954 .) (1961 .) ,
, . 1962 .
61 . [30, . 180], 1968 . 125 . [31, . 9]. , 70-
20% .
. 1979 .
40% .
(180 . .
, 310 . ). 1975/
76 . . 102,9 . . .
50- 60-

. - ,
,
().

1959 ., ,
-


8 [26, . 193]. , 50- , 7 . [26, . 197].
, -
, , . , , . 50- 26, 50 461
( 370 . ), 17 ,
23 [26, . 215].

10 . [26, . 218]. (
50- 60).
.
19521967 .
7,39,6% (
173,4 . . .). 1957 . 401 , 1967 .
272 . ,
1967 ., , 38,9% , 698,5
(
) [36, . 193].
70- , ,
, 43 , .
,
10 (29,5 . ), 12 (10,6 . ) (. [254, . 134135,
137139]).
1979 . 61,2 . . .
( 180 . .)
( 90 . .); 64 599 .
,
, (. [32, . 99102]).
70-
. 1975 . 1965 . 873 767,
13 176 17 580 (. [32, . 235; 36, . 143]).

1967/68 1976/77 . . 365,5 . .


. 2733,3 . . ., , ,
[252, . 160].
80-
. 19801985 . 160,8% [35, . 311].

, [79, . 70
71]. ,
6070- , 19811983 . 30%,
[153, . 59].
300 . (45%
).
. 1985 .

9 . .,
( ) 18 . . [35, . 117].
:
39 . . ., 1740 . . . [148, . 14]. 80- ( 6,9 9,1%
), 1984 . 3 . . .
, 1979 ., 222 . , , , 1985 . 1124 ( 1979 . 1436).
( 1982 .
65 320 . ), 365 (. [148, . 10; 186, . 49; 207, . 76]).
60- .
.
1955 . 1150 37% , , [28, . 85],
, . , . 1958 . 50% (165 .)
[31, . 93]. , ( 3040 . .
), . ,

. 1961 .
150 . 515 24,5 . 10
14 (. [210, . 69; 265, . 13;
283, . 233]).
60- .
, ,
.
.
. . 60-
,
[285, . 194].
60-
( , , , , , .), ,
,
.
. , (, , , ,
[28, . 37]).
( 18
30 ) . 60- 1,5
, , (. [210, . 74; 285, . 195]).
1965 . , ,
, , , , , ,
,
.
, 60-
17 . 101 (.
[31. . 2527]). , , , ( ) 9 12 . 3

177

, , . ,

(, , ), . 1968 .
2 . , . .
, [31,
. 9495]. , .
, ,
.
, ,
,
60- .

,
, . 19601967 .
95 . 273 . . .,
393 . 662 .,
74 . 220 . ( 300%),
25 . 42,6 . (
170%) [36, . 184].
70- 30
65% [186, . 9]. , .
, 1979 . .
( 70- 9 .,
1985 . 14 .) [186, . 375]. 1972 . , 20 . (4 . ,
2,5 . 14 . ). 1985 .
33 . . 1970 .

( 3300 ). 1969 . .
20 , . 1974 . 14 .
, , , . .
70-

,
(. [32, . 7, 8, 55, 60, 232]) 10 .
5 11 , 45,6 . . ,
[35, . 101].
, . 1984 . 2,6% ( 38,7%, 35,8%).
, 91 %

.
- , 7,1% [134, . 7778].
.
, , , . , 80- , 2 . 8% (. [33, . 155, . 111]).
60- 70- .
( ), ,
. , ,
, . ,
.
( 1979 . 59%
[186, . 10]), . . ,
, , , . .
. , , .
12*

179

, 1 2 .
80-
.
.
[207,
. 186187].

.
,
,

, . ( ,
).
,
, , ,
. ( , , , , , ,
, , , ) (. [164,
. 132134]).
, , , (
, , , , ), , .
4 ( , ,
, , , ),

[164, . 136].
70- , . , (
) . , ( , . .).
. . (), ( ),
( ), ( ) [169, . 137].

,
.

: ,
, , ( ,
, , ).
,
, ,
[164, . 138139].
, - . 1964 . . 19711972 .
() [178, . 47]. , .
, 60- 70-
-
,
,
,
[250, . 363].
, ( 1956 .;
- 1966 .; 1967 .).
, .
- . , 5060- , , [240, . 287]. , , ,
1949 . . ,
, 1950 . , -
[217, . 3132]. . .
, , .
50- ,


.
40-
. ( ), . ( ") .

,
,
, . . 14 -
, 14. 1953 . ,
. 14 ,
, 14 ( , ) , (. [217]).
50- , , .
, ,
89% , 1958 . 15% [267, . 5254].
19481949 . .
, , 1953
1967 . 2 3 . , 1958 .
15,5% [25, . 353].
. , . ,
1953 . 19 053 ,
1967 . 22 683,
50 68%.
, : 20,1 . . .
1952 . 114,1 . . . 1967 . ,

( 1 465 1
355 ) [36, . 203204].
50- , . -

280 ,
.
. . 80- ,
,
( 10 .) [305, . 128], ,
(. [279, . 134; 284, . 300302].
.
1974 ., , , 309,2 , 67 46,4 (. [32, . 103105]).

. . , 19581959 . 72,5%
, 1968 . 17 148 ( 225 )
, (.
[26, . 208; 31, . 349]). 1974 .
20 . ,
.
, ,
.
[32, . 239].
, , 60- ( , ,
, .),
[24, . 175, 210].
. , 1956 . .
10 500 ,
600 . 1967 . ,
.
, . .
1973 . -

. 1700 . ,
(. [217, . 5254]). .
, .
,
, 70- . 1973 . . ,
,
.
, . ,
1969 . . 6 . . .;
, . , , . ( , , ,
), , (
, , , , , [399, 06.10.1978]).
, , ,
. : 1319 1973 ,
3070 1974 ., 4233 1975 . [32, . 238239].


.

.
, 13,
. 18 1949 .
, 12 ,
.
1950 . , - . , (
) .


, , . .
, ;
1922 .,
; , ; , ,
(. [8, . 4, 5, 8]).
, ,
, . ,
38, 38 , ,
, ,
, , [8, . 10].
30 1950 . .
,
.
. 10 1952 .
,
, , .

. ,

, 21 1951 .,
. 1 1952 .
, . .
.
4 1951 . ,
, ,
, [298, 04.09.1951] (. [8, . 23, 28]). ,
,

.
. ,
,
[8, . 28].

.
, .
1959 . , , - ,
, , , ,
, , , .
, ,
, , , , ,
, , (. [8, . 11; 164, . 130131]).
. ,
, ,
1955 . ,
,
,
- [28, . 176].
50- . 1955 . . ,
.
.

, .
, .
. , 11 1955 . , ,
,
[28, . 1213]. , 1956 .
,
. , , .

, 1016
1956 . (14 ), . 10
( ,
), . , , .
. , , . , , .
.
.
,
. , ,
. , . ,
. 11 12
100 [92, . 158159].
13
, ,
,
. ,
.
, ' 4 . .
14 ( 28) . 16 5 . . .
17 1956 . . 19
, , . . . , ,

1 1957 . .
,

14 ( (99, . 170173]).

. 6 1967 .
,
.
, 21 . . , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
, .
, . 11 (. [4, . 7689]).
, 12 13 ,
, , , . . 22 ; ,
, 200 , .
.
. 15 1967 .

[ ] [8, . 269]. ,
, , . .
17
[8, . 275].
, ,
22 , , , , , , ,
. , . 10

,24 ,

, . , . [8,
. 7376]. , .
24 . ,

(. [8, . 272
273]),
.
, ,
, .
: -
(. [8, . 273]).
, ,
, . : .
(.
[8, . 76; 250, . 356]).

. 17
, . 20
. 48
.
, , , , .
, . , , 23 [40,
. 82, 83].
,
, ^ ,
.
, , .
1967 . 36 ,

496 , 3447 [120, . 170]. ,


. , , 15 : .
10
(. . 6).
. , . 1949 .
10 . . . 1955 .
, , 385 . (16%

, 19%) , , ).
1957 ., 1958 . ,
19621967 .
. , 410 . . 1972 . 20,4 .,
20,8 . 1973 .
1974 . , , , .
, , . 19751977 . 2935 .
. 1978 . , . 1979 .
160 ., 81,7% .
.
23 1980 . . , 16 ,

. 19811984 . 914 . .
1984 . ,
, 27,8 . (. [218]).

,
,
, . (
1980 .)
, - , .

,
.
(. . 6).
- ,
.
19501987 . (. . .)
( [10, . 594; 106, . 724; 35, . 303; 132, . 2,
. 125]):

1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987

13
18
30
28
1
2
3
6
11
37
43
65

605
924
806
223
283
408
750
80

1 260
182
107
54
34
137
4 642
8 044
7 992
12 183
28 064

1
2
2
6
21
29
32
42
55
56
76
107

782
898
185
322
846
830
948
510
935
821
753
191
315
460

478
716
1 065
2 260
2782
6 665
1 5 701
18 542
2 1 137
24 415
16 376
18 783
3 2 565
41 660

,
(, 70- , , 50%, 30%, 25%).
(19541963 .
43%, 19641973 .50, 1977 .47%) [9, . 5455].
50- 60- . . ,

, 19501981 .
23,8 . . . [221, . 17]. -


, .
, 1978 . ,
1979 . 87%
[186, . 125].
1978 ., . : 10,8 . . . 1978 .
44,7 . . . 1982 . [154, . 124].
. , , ,
, ,
. ( 1980 . 20%, 22, 1982 . 32 20%)
.
, ,

(. . .) ( ino [221, . 58]):

1977 .

1978 .

1741,4
394,9
223,5
367,8
2727,6

2259,5
477,3
367,5
461,0
3565,3

29,3%

31,7%

179 .

3034,1
562,9
891,4
609,9
5026,3
31,8%

1480 .

4407,2
673,7
951,8
824,9
6857,6
36,5%

,
. 1977 . 2 . . .
. 1983 .
. (, , , , ,
, , , , , ),
, , , (. [221, . 5457]).
()
. 1981 .
91% . . :
39,45% (185 . . .), 28,3, 7,87%;


16,26 4,13% [154, . 128].
,
,
, .
10%
[221, . 178179]. ,
, ,
,
. 1985 .
(25,5% ,
11,7% 43,7% ),
(44,4% ) [35, . 303].


, ,
, , , .
1978 . .
( ) . , - ,
[221, . 33]. 13 (
, , ,
, , ,
., ,
,
, ,
[190, . 41]). 80- 63,3 . . . 102,6 .
(. [221, . 3132, 6870]).
, ,
. , . ,
1981 . 1983 . .
10 . . . [170, . 52].

. , -, ,

( 1986 . ) 16 , 13 . 3

193

, ( 1981 . 47
193), , (. [154, . 126; 221, . 3031]).
-
,
1985 . 150 [161, . 56]. , . ,
23 . , 50 , 1136
, , 101 . : , , ,
, , [154, . 127].
19771980 .
10 . . . 1985 . 5 . . .,
(. [154, . 128; 161,
. 57]).
, ,

, , , .
50 ,
50 , 6 , 13 27 .
200 . 17 , .
, ( 390 . . . 1984 .
180 . . . 1985 .),
, , [170, . 53].
, . , 1 . . .
,
,
- , ,
[170, . 5051].
, ( ,
) : -

,
,

, , , , . . ,
19791985 . 100 1190, . 44].

: , - ( ),
(
), ,
. . [161, . 56]. , ,
[161, . 57].
, , , ,
. , , , ,
[161, . 57].
(. . .) [154, . 128]:

1976
1977
1978
1979
1980

52.6
71.7
100,9
145.7
229.8

247,4
296,1
360.1
464.2
595,1

300,0
367.8
461,0
609.9
824,9

- , ,
(, .).
, , , 1997 ., .
.

,
, 1997 .,
. ,
, , . 70-

, , .
.
10 1972 .,
,
, ,
,
. , , , [8, . 279]. ,
, - , .
70- , ,

: 1997 . ,
, 1982 . [222, . 1011].
1997 .1.

, . , 1979 . . , ,
, .
,
.
[222, . 9].
1982 . - .
. , . , , 12 1983 . 2 .

.
1983 . 140
( ) ( ). ,
.

- . ( ,
, ) [222, . 15].
, .
15 ,
1 1997 .

.
. , . . ,
.
18 , . 24
1983 . 9,50 : 1 ( 7,80 : 1) [222, . 19]. , .
-

( ), , ,
, . .
,
, 1984 . . ,

-. : (20 1983 .) [222, . 21].
1983 1984 .


50 1997 . ( , , .) [222, . 2223].
. 1984 .

1984 . - . 18
,
26 , .


. , 1983 . 1984 .3.
1984 . ,
- .
, , ,
, 430
, 1815
, 1984 .
, , ,


.
29 1984 .
(. [33]).

, ,
,
.
5 10 1984 ., 19 .
.
1 1997 .
. 31 (), ,
. , . . 50 -
. , 4 . , .
, .
, . 1997 . . ,
.
- .
.

,
(, ). ,

1997 . . ,
(
).
, ,

(
), ,
.

, . ,
30 1997 . ,
, , .
2,6 . , . . . . ,
1997 .
, 5 .
, , ,
.
, , . ,
, .

,
- , ( ,
. ). ,
,

,
- ,
.
,
. 1 1988 . 1 2000 .
.
,
1997 . , ; , 1997 . .
(. [160, . 23; 298, 21.03.1987]).
.
.

, 10% . , ,
1997 ., 50%
.
, ,
.
,
.
, , ,
1997 .
- . 21
1985 . , 27
[38, . 8].


(), .
, 18 1984 . ( ) ,

(
).
21 1984 . ( ), -

( , ).
, , ,
. , .
70-
.
(
60- ), 1963.
(). . 19701975 . 500 2,5 . [252, . 158].
, . , , 1974 . .

. , 1973 . ,
,
. , ( 60-
35 . ), 4 , . . 1979/80 . . 680 .
. .,
.
, 1986 .

.
.
(10 )
70- (
, , .).


,
, 1961 . .
( 107 205 ) [31, . 288290]. 654 ( 940), 27 () . ( )

, ,
21 ( 30% ) (. [276, . 288
290]). 1960 ., . . 30
,
[186,
. 12]. , ,
- .
, , . , , , ,
. .
70- ,
9 . 1977 . . , .

, , .

. ,
,

, , .
441 . 726 . . .
, . -

1985 . 6 48 , 1988 . 12. , 6 12


, ; ( , ); ( ); ( , );
( ); ( ), , - ,

.

, ,
10 .
1985 .
, . , 1985 . :
24 ( 12) , 22 , 10 ( 56).
, - ,
(. ).
. , ,
, . .
- , ,
.
(
).
360 .
,
. , , ( 430 2,7 . )
[322, 26.04.1984]. ,

, , ",
[324, 28.04.1984]. , ( )
1987 .

: 30% 25%
.
,
,
,
[324, 18.08.1984].
,
. ,


[324, 31.07.1984]. , 1988 . . ,
,
[326, 27.08.1984].
. , , , . (. [302, 1984, 9]).
. -, .
, 1982 .
13% . ,
, . -, ,
, [313, 23.07.1984]. ,

. .
. -
20 1984 .,

.
, , .
, , [306, 14.07.1984].
, .
, ,
,
[307, 23.07.1984].

,
.
, 50%
[326, 19.08.1984].
, 40% , 87% [308,
23.08.1984]. :
,
,
, , , ,
(6376%
). , ,
:
;
, ,
; ; ; ;

; [326, 31.07.1984]. , 95% , , 38%) ,
- .
,
, ,
.
.
. , ,
.
, .
, ,
, . ,

, .
. , ,
, [296, 1984, 10, . 26].
40 .
. , .
( ). 1975 ., , - , ; ,
, ;
,
, [132, . 2, . 137, 139].
(), 1983 ., 1987 .
300, , ,
. ,
.
,
. ,
(
, , , ). , [85,
. 54]. , ,
1997 .
(
). 1983 ., . , , , ,
.
, ,
, , ,

,
.
,
, , . . , , , , , ( ,
, ).
, , () (. [157, . 141; 93, . 164, 168]).
, , 1982 . , , [198, . 160].
,
.
( ), , , , [157, . 141]; 1997 .
( ), 1982 .
, [157, . 144].
( 80-
, ), .
, ,
,
, , . , -
,
[317, 1985, 6, . 18].

10 1984 . 132
, , , ,

.
,
. , ,
14 . 3

209

,
1997 .
[296, 1984, 9, . 22].
1997 . . 1983 . 20 . ,
. ,
9% (735 . .). 1983 .
52

116 . . (67% ). , , 12 . . . [9, . 193].

, , - .
.

. 1976 . 55 . .
. 52% ,
4%, 1983 . 9,5
(470 . . .)
29%, 41, 15%.
, , (. [296, 1984, 7, . 4547]).
, ,
,
, .
:
, , , 1982 .
143
73,6 .;
, ,
. 1984 . 170 ., 1984/85 . .
9 . . ., 33%
.
, .
. , ,
. ,
, .


. , [296, 1984, . 7, . 26; 326, 21.07.1984].

. , 49 , , , , . , ,
[293, 28.08.1984].
( , ),
, . , -
, [293, 14.07.1984]. , . ,
.
: ,
, " .
. , , ,
1997 . [296, 1984, 9, . 29; 311, 20.07.1984 ; 326,
19.08.1984].

,
(
40 .), , [326,
18.08.1984]. .
( 1982 . 96 , 280 . ,
86 40 . , 1985 . 70 166,3 . 70 35,5 . ) [35, . 74; 207, . 157].
14*

211

, , . 19821985 .
80 . 157 . (
131 251).
6 , , [207, . 156].
,
20% . , , , . 1983 .
9,76% [143, . 107]. . , ,
, .
, , . .
.

: " , [313,
20.07.1984]. ,
, . ,
.
1984 .
, 1985 . 24 , 1985
1986 . 1987 . , 1988 . . ,
( 1989 .).
1990 . .
.

.

.
, , , . ,
,

, [293, 19.08.1984].
.
.
, ,
.
.
: ( ) ,
, , , . , [314, 21.07.1984].
.
, , ,
,
, . ,
( : ,
) [297, 19.07.1984; 317, 1985, 6, . 16].
,
.
, .

. , , , , [298,
06.08.1985; 317, 1985, 9, . 18].
, ,

. ,
,
1997 . : 7 ( );
( );
(
,
); ( ,
, 1997 . , ,
, , , .) [317, 1985, 7,
. 13; 218, . 26]. 1985 . , .


10 . . . ( , , , ) [327, 13.04.1985].
, , .

1997 . , , , , - , [218,
. 26].
, .
() 1985 ., () 1985 .
, ,
( 1984 .
, ,

, [316, 1984, 1]).
1985 . , .
501 237 19
. - .

. , ,
( ).
50
[218, . 31, 40].
64 (39 , 25 ) 8 .
. ,

, , ( ).
( , , ) (), , , ,
[176, . 4; 265, . 31].
. , , 5. , . ,


[317, 1985, . 9,
. 22].

, .
. ,
, , .
. . [317, 1985, 10, . 20].
, .


9 (
44% , 1 ;
, ) [317, 1985,
6, . 14]. , ,
.
.
. , ,

.
.
,
. , 1988 . ,
, (10 ) 1991 .
4 1989 .
.

, 21 , 340 [317, 1989, 6, . 58]. , 1985 .


1989 . ,
1997 ., 18%. 48% , [317, 1989, 7, . 55]. 1984
1985 . ( ), (, ),
. , . .

24 1989 .
1995 ., 1999 . 100%
2003 . [317, 1989, 6, . 59].

, ,
. 1985 . -

. 69 . 15 ,
( ),
, , , , ,
, , . 10 ,
,
, ,
. 11 .
23 . (
, ) ,
( ), - ,
( ),
( ),
, , , , ,
,
,
, ,
. , ,
, , -, , -,
10 .
,
[317, 1985, 8, . 14].
, , . ,
, ,
,
[298, 19.12.1985].
,
,

. , ,
.
.

,
[317, 1985,
9, . 18].
. , , ,
.
,
.
,
( ), (. ),
.

(),
, .
( ) . , , . (
) [298, 06.07.1985.].

. , , , ,
,
[317,
1985, 9, . 20].
, . ,
, , ,

[317, 1985, 10, . 22].


, .
18 1985 .
. 180 . 19 ,
, , ,
, , .
, , 18 ,
,

[265, . 2122].
,
. .

.
1986 . .
80 [298,
03.12.1986]. : , , ,
, , , .
1986 . 3- ,
[169, . 13].
. ,

, .
1997 ., . [141, . 6061]. 1988 .11 [141, . 63].
3-

CAP . , ,
,

;

. [115, . 34].

( , -).
,
,
[115, . 3].
, 29 1988 . [298, 29.04.1988]. 1988 .
, . 1989 .
1990 .
, ( ) ( , ),
, , - ,
, 27% 1997 . , 50% 2003 .

2007
2012 . (. [317, 1989, 2, . 36, 4, . 44]).

1989 . . .
, .
,
1997 . . .
, ,
,
, .
,

2 . [317, 1989, 7, . 49].


, 1989 .
( ) [317, 1989, 4, . 44].
,
, .

. (

),
, ,
, ,
.
.
1947 ., . , ,
1955 .

( , . ). 1958 . , 20 . ,
, 12 . , . 1978 . .
1983 . . 13 . . , .
, . ,
, , , .
(
55 ), -

(, , ). ,
,
. . , , . . 1985 .

.
,
,
, .
, . , :
, .
, . .
.
, .
20 . [326, 23.03.1985].
,
, .

( ) ( , ).
.
. . , 1967 .
,
. -


, .
80-
( ) (
).
60-

.
, . 1973 .
.
, 1978 .
, ( , ) (. [296,1987, 8]).
, ,
,
. , 1984 ., , . ,
.
,
,
. , , . ,
,
(. 296,
1984, 6]).
.

,
.
, , ,
. 1984 .
, , , ,
-

, 14 .

?
. -, , 14 , , , , , 1997 . , .
-, , ( )
, ,
. 15 .
-, 80-
. , .
, , - . .
-,
, . , . , ,
,
, 50-
. ,
, , .
14 .

, . . ,
. 1982 .
, , - -,

(. [217]).
, ,
.

20%
1 . . . .
,
:
,
- . - 60 .
28 , , ,
[74, . 62].
- - ( ) ( ). 1970 .

600 . . . .
,
.
( )

( ). ( ),
() .
90% , , ,
, (187, . 314, 316].
,
, , .

, , .
, . , , , ,
:
,
, .
, . , , . ,
, , [75,
. 127],
1500 . . ( 190 . .) .
1 5 . 3

225

. , . , . , .
. , , , , . - . 10 .
1984 . 68
[56, . 7879].
, ,
, , , , 1980 1982 . , ( ) , , , .
, , , , , [75, . 122123]. 6-
, 1975
1985 . , 7 15 , 18,8 92,6% [56, . 79].
. , 1985 . . , .
, , , :
[297, 18.03.1985].
?
3 1984 . :
, , , ( ),
, ,
(. [296, 1984, 10,
. 811]). , 2030- ? , .
, , , -

- , [149, . 72].
:
, (. [296, 1984, 10,
. 811].


.
,
: , .

. , , , , ,
. . , (
),
( ), . , . , , ,
[317, 1985, 9, . 6].
. 67%
, , 6%, 13% , , (. [218]).
, . , ,
, .
15*

227

, ,
.
,

. 1983 . -
( )
[191, . 15]. 30 [218,
. 4] (. [317, 1985, 9]).
, , .
1984 . , 1997 . , ,
, ,
(. [296, 1984, 10, . 812]).
-
() . :
,
1997 ., , ? , . ,
,
. .
4 1984 . :

,
, ,
, . ( ,
, , 1979
1984 .
88,9 . . .) (. [9, . 191, 664]).

, , ,
.
.
, 19801984 .
1,77 . . [9,
. 214].
, 40% ( 12,5 . .).
. ( 1979
1983 . 38,6 . . .
182,5 . . .) [133, . 141142].
,
.

.
20 1984 . . ,

.
. ,
.
. :
( )
[223, . 8].
. ,
.
, 1949 .

.
- . , ,
, . , -

.
.
,
. , , .
, , ,
. , ,
.
,
. ,
, , . ,
,
. .
- . ,
16 1987 . ,
, . , [299, 21.04.1987].

.
.
. XIX . ,
,
19251957 ., , ,
. , ,
, . 50- 70-
,
, .
(
) : 1978 . - ,
- ,
.
1997 .,
.
,
,
( , , ) ( , , , ,
, .).
, . ,

, .
. , . 1997 . , .

.
.

.

, , . ,
.
. ,
( , ),
.
3
, .
, .

1
,
1814 1795 . 4575 1800 .
2
( 1854 .) .
, , , .
15 , ,
. , 1854 . .
.
. .
. ,
, , , , , .
1855 . 270 ,
, . 1856 . .
3
-
.

, .
1890 . . ,
. -
. , ,
, 3 - . ,
. () ( - ) , ,

: , , ,
(.
[288, . 15]). 1894 . .
.
, .
4

.
5
XX . 31 (
6 , 7 , 10 , 2 ) ,
3 [64, . 97].
6
, . ,
. - [273, . 76]. .

4 ,
,
.
7
, 1843 . , 0 , , ,
.
(, 20 ).
8
,
, 60-
, .
9
. . . 1846 . ,
, . .
. , , ,
. [233, . 71].
10
,
( )
.
11
, 1844 . , - -
12 . [233, . 76].
12
, , , , , 1848 .,
.
13
. .
. 1845 . : 3 . ., 350 . [140, . 54]. ,
, :
, ,
. ; , , ; ,
; ,
![44, . 296]. , , , , ( 1945 .
). : (1848 .),
. (1849 .), (1851 .), -

.
. 15 1847 .
,
.
14
,
. 78
. XIX . ,

: ,
, (. [219, . 130]).
15
. , 1849 . ,
, ,
. ,
[240, . 255].
16
18591863 .
2 . . , 1895 .
70,4 . . , 1887 . 12,3 . ,
72,4 . , 1899 . 30 . . ,
[99, . 910].
17

1891 1895 ., 2551

(2161 390 ), 106 150


54 455 (, 1895 . 240 .).
1895 . 223 .
1896 . (. [97, . 9196; 234, . 105; 233, . 241; 166, . 2.
. 11]).
18
80- XIX .
. 1883 . , .
, , , . 1883 1887 . -. , , -
, .
. , 1894 . .
, ,
[233, . 216217].
19
: 1878, 1880 1882 .
20
1845 ., . ,
, , ,
. .
,
,
1857 . [98, . 104, 107]. ,
. , 31 150 , ,

[166,
. 2, . 13].
31
. 1858 .
, (
). 1847 .
,
, . 1857 ., ,
, [91, . 162].
22
20 .
.
[232, . 151].
23
( 1842 .),
( 1847 .), ( 1847 .), ( 1847 .). ( 1850 .).
( 1851 .), ( 1852 .).
2<
,
( 18501854 . 1857 .) [229, . 65],

, .
: , , - - . . - . , (- ), 1840 . , 1843 . . 30 .
,
() , -,
- () , ,
, , . 1873 ., . .
- , -, , (1867),
- (1875) . [262, . 1820].
25
, .
.
1856 . - ,
1847 . . ,
, ,
() [262, . 21].
26
.
,
. (
) .
.
27
, . 1861 .,
1862 .
1867 . . ,
, (. [262, . 77, 58, 59]). 1871 .
,
.
28
18601895 .,
( ).
1895 .

29 1884 ., 17 ,
. (. [80, . 7; 52, . 18]).
30
, . ,
,
, . , , , ( ),
1910 . , ,

( ) [88, . 139].
31
, . , . : ,
(. [52, . 55; 55, . 2627]).
32
[323, 13.07.1928].
33
1909 .,
, : , ,
. , , . 1911 .
,

1911 . [122, . 2, . 283].

, , 29 1841 .: ,
;
[281, . 108]. ,
21 1841' . , ,
, ,
(15 1841 .), , ,
(. . .)
[281, . 106].
2
, 1844 . , ,
, [233,
. 72].
3
. :
, , , ; . ; -
, ;
[42, . 224225].
4
. ,
: ;
. , ,
,
... ... , , , , [45, . 403].
5
, -

( 1850 1875 . 0,5 .).


, .
- [51, . 212].
6
110 ; 30 .,
. . .
7
, 18701885 .
, . ,
1,5 . [284, . 67].
8
.
9
1910 . , 8 1911 .
, , ,
, . 1 1912 . .
, ,
1917 1922 . 1469 946 [17, . 1132].
, ( 19101911 .
21 . . .) (. [22]).
10
, 1894 . . . . , -
18941895 . . ,
,
, ,
.
1,1
1866 . , 1879 .
, ,
, , ,
. 1866 . ,
.
-, - .
.
1890 ., ,
. , (. [228]).
12
120 . 940
950 . [228, . 3].
13
- . 1905 .

, 1908 . 5 . . .
- ( 1910 .
4,8 . . .). 1908 . -
5 . . .
(. [271, . 223; 229, . 238]).
1910 . , ,
. ( 1911 .
6 . . .). - . , , ,

[271, . 231].

.
, . , 1890 .
, , , .
1873 . (),
. , , , 1873 .
K. , , , .
. 1876 . . 1877 .
, 0
. . 1877 ., 45% , 50% , 37,5%
, .
1882 . ( 42%, 38, 20%) ( 44%, 28%) [230, . 161]. . ,
20%. 1889 .
, .
16
, ,
7 ,
. [230, . 9899].
16
79,1%,.
82,1% (. [11, . 236238]).
117
neDa ( , ).
18
. , 1846 .
-, , . . , 8 . , . , [230, . 98].
15
, 1875 ., ( ),
.
20
, XIX . - ..
18751884 . ,
,
. -
. . 1879 . . , 368 ,
1 . . [237, . 1, . 45, 48].
.
21
1861 . , , , 1866 . (. [4,

121; 255, . 12; 257, . 164]). -

, 1878 1886 . [51, . 125]. , , . 1877 . , [246, . 85].


22
1895 . [50, . 242244]. 1882 . , [50, . 126].
, 1882 .
60% , 1895 .
[257, . 164165]. 1897 1909 . 745% [11, . 162163].

( 10 . . .),
(2 .),
(2 .), - (1 .), (407 .), (2 .),
(8 .), (10 .) ( ), (4 .),
(2 .), (0,5 .),
- (1 . . .) [11, . 262].
3
1900 .
; 1907 . , .

, .
, . , , , , ,
, -
(. [200, . 113, 114, 117, 119, 122]). 30-
, ( , ), , , .
, 1940 . - -. 9 . . , .
3
, , ,
, : ,
, , ,
, .
4
, , 300 . . , 1912 ., (75%), (7%) (18%) (. [227, . 30, 54, 57, 58, 60, 69]). , (
1905 ., 1908 .,
), ,
, .
1914 . ,
-
. 16% .

1915 . 1912 .
930 5 . [227, . 70]. 1918 .
, .
- .
, 19141920 . ;
. ,
4 - , . .
, -
. . [227, . 105].
5
( - , ), , ,
, . - ,
19241925 . 10 .
, , .
. ,
19291931 . 240 . (. [227, . 185, 190]).
8
:
1897 ., 1898 . 1911 .
,
.
7
, , .
19051937 . 24,8% , 14,1% [11, . 163, 162].
8

, , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
. , .
9
28 1899 .,
1,5 . . . 5%
50 . 90% , 10%
. ,
.
(1907 .),
: 90 94%
, , 50 30 . (121 ).
(22 ) 1905 . ,
(. [104, . 192, 199, 201]).
10
, , XIX ., , 19001930 . 8,8 5% (. [37, . 168170, 175, 176]).
" , 1914 .
100 . . .
'915 . 4,5 . . .
8
.
12
7 47 16 .

241

, ,
. 1923 .
( ) . , ,
. , , , . , ,
, , , , , ,
, " ( ), . .
, 1924 . [106, . 7].
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24 , 7 [106, . 7, 11].
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[3, . 60, . 47].
, ... , , ,
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1908 . 1915 . ,
, . , ,
.
,
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... ,
, , -... , [3, . 60, . 61].
14
, 1915 . , .

. , . 1916 .
[326,
20.01.1916].

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. , , (, ) ,
. 30- ,

(. [131, . 5, . 134162]).


.
1911 .,
. .
,
, - . , . .
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()

. 1922 . 10 . ,
1930 . 12 . (. [268, . 215217]).
1930 . 2 . , . , .

1927 .
600 . . ., 13%; 1317 ( ) [325, 20.07.1928].
. , ,
, .
, 745 ,
1927 ., 241 [325, 20.07.1928].

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[183, . 535]), .
, , . ,

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. , : , .
(),

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.
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243

5070, 1438,
. 540].

146%

[183,

: 243 -
[291, 01.08.1925].
19

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, , (), (. . ) . [63, . 161168]).
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, 1928 . (
, ) ,
, , [196, . 334].
24
,
; 1929 .
, (. [196,
. 352353]).
25
1928 . [177,
. 257].
26
, 1912 .
, 25 1000
[3, . 158, . 12]. 1914 .

,
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,
, , 2 . . .
, , , , [3, . 66, . 24, 28].
27
.

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, , , .
, , , , , ,
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, , , -,
, .
2

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1936 . 2 8 1 ).
, 1934 .,
, . 1935 .,
, , 5 1935 .
, [266, . 447].

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1 3 [266,
. 453].
30- , .
3
. 1938 .
20 ,
.
4
, ( ), ( ), (
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( ), (
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278, . 11 13]).
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. , 1912 . , , . , , ( , [202205]). 1916 . .
, , . . ,
1929 ., .
7
,
, [203, . 12].
8
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. [238, . 158].
10
.
, [263, . 40].
,
[315, 1984, . 4].
.
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, , , , ,
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. . , ,
, .
, , [66, . 274].
13
, , , ,
. : , ,
, .
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,
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J121, . 54; 287, . 36]).
15
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. ! [287, . 39].
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.
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17
,
.
.
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. [70, . 118].
18
,
.
19
.
20
1933 . 100 . ,
1942 . 2,7 .
21
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.
22
, . 50 . , .

23
,
, 1943 . 800 , , , , 70%
[287, . 114120].
24
1943 .
, .
- .
25
-
[56, . 106].
26

, . 19461948 . 177 , 32 , 124
, .
,
, , .
. ,
, , , . , , (. [18, . 72; 20, . 94]).
27
- 1945
1946 . ; ,
600 1945 . 140 1946 .
[18, . 53].
28
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29
2 . , - , [18, . 59].
30
1945 . ,
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31
;
.
32
20 . . 1 . . .,

[18, . 4].
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.
34

. 13 1949 . 46 ( )

,
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35
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. , . [20, . 93].
36
,
, ,
.

(3,7% 1956 .; 2,3%


1967 .), 1961 1966 . 47,7
53,8%.
2


, ,
.
3
.
60- 20 . ,
( 1,3 .).
, . , 1958 . 1,2 . . ., 1962 .
16 ., 1968 . 31,2 . . . [30, . 53].
4
19581983 . ( , ,
, , ), , 103 . 2698 ., 454 . . . 1961 . 10 251 . . . 1983 .
[186, . 20].
( 19751982 . 7080%),
, . 19701983 . 1966 . 1594
985 . ., 1963 380 . .
, ,
(. {151, . 139, 147]).
5
1985 . 12 . . .
, 6,5 . . .
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. ,
, , , [35,
. 303].
6
, [79,
. 101].
7
-
50- ,
.
. , , , ,
[24, . 63].
, . , 19551962 . ,
, 85 . .
, [230, . 178].
[210, . 75].
10
. 19711978 . ( )
22 .
48 . [186, . 375].
11
, , 1984 ., 2600 (. [35, . 92101]).
12

.
13
, . ,

, , , [30, . 204]. , , ,
1949 .
.
15
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, . 5 . . .
40 . . . [8, . 79].
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.


. :
1) , , , ;
2) 3050 ,
- ; 3) , , ; 4) ,
; 5) , ; 6) : , , ; 7) ; 8) (. [296, 1981, 1, . 18;
301, 22.07.1982; 303, 16.03.1981; 304, 27.04.1981, 24.07.1983; 313, 24.07.1983;
317, 1980, 10, . 29; 319, 1983, 4, . 22; 326, 07.04.19821,
2
, , . , ( ) , .
,
, , .
3
1982 . .
, , , . 1983 .
1997 .
( 1982 .)
.
4
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5

1987 ., 1997 . 22% .
. 1983

17

249

1986 . 78 ., 68 ., 34 . [317,
1987, 7, . 54]. , , . , ,
( 500 . ., 400 ., 200 . .; : - 3 4 . ., 50 ., 10 . . [9, . 193]). ,
, [317, 1987, 9, . 40]. . 1988 . 45 .,
25 40 , 15 . .
. . 1989 . 175 .
. 1989 . ,
. , 1997 . 10% [317,
1989, 2, . 42].
6
19811985 .
41 37%, 50 53%
(. [35]).
7
( 20
). , , (
), ,
.
[218; 244, 19.05.1985; 304, 07.05.1985].
, , , . 50 1 . ,
100 . . (. [309, 1985, 3]).
, 1987 . 23 , 9,
, .
9
, . ,
.
. ,
, [254,
. 6871, 7281].

, . ,
. ,
. ,
- (. [254, . 136140, 187]).
10
.
, 1986 .
. ,
. 1984 .
100 . . . ,

, [299, 16.12.1986].
, , 100 . . .
[298, 06.01.1987].
11
1987 . 16
, , , , . ,

[299, 21.04.1987]. , ,
1987 .,
[317, 1987,
9, . 34]. ,
1988 . 37,7% [317, 1987, 8,
. 27]. ,
,
.
12
, ,
, 2000 . 1985 .
,
, , [326, 23.03.1985].
13

,
, , .

( ,
30% ).
14
, 1984 . , - ( ),
(), [118, . 6467].
15
. ,
,
, .
: 40% , 60%
( ). , .
. , .

[321, 27.02.1981,
02.03.1985, 08.04.1985]. 1986 .
, .
22,768 1298, 14.01.19871. 1987 . 413 , [298, 07.01.1987].

1. . . . . . . . 12.
2. . . . . . 4.

3. . 229. .
18571920.
4. . 18401948. . ., 1958.
5. ( . ) . . 18.
, 1957.
6. . (
. ) . . 3. (
). , 1975.
7. . (
. ) . 6. ( ). , 1978.
8. . ( .
). . 1. , 1984.
9. , 1986 (
). , 1985.
10. ( ) . . 3, 4. , 1981.
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10. . 1988 (
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26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
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H o n g Kong. Annual Report, 1959. H o n g Kong, 1960.


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39. . H. - (-) .
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40. . . . ., 1968.
41. .
. ., 1962.
42. .
1857, 1858, 1859 1860 . ., 1862.
43. . . ., 1962.
44. . . . . ., 1951.
45. . . . . 3. ., 1857.
46. . ., . . (1891
1901 .). ., 1970.
47. 3. . . ., 1978.
48. . . ., 1896.
49.
. . . .,
1972.
50. . . - . 18941914. .,
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51. . . . 18641894 . ., 1974.
52. . . . ., 1980.
53. . 1926.
54. . . . ., 1980.
55. . ( ). . 1987, 1.
56. . (
57. . . ( ). . 2. , 1980.
58. . (
). , 1983.
59. . ( ). . 1984, 10.
60. . (
). - . 1986, 34.
61. . ( ). , 1955.
62. . ? ( ?). (
). . 2. , 1984.
63. . . ( ). . 3. , 1983.

64. [ ]. ( ).
, 1983.
65. . (- - ). ,
1926.
66. . ( ). , 1984.
67. . (
). - . 1986,
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68. . . (
). . 5. , 1982.
69. . (
). . 1986, 1 .
70. . (
). ( ). . 4.
, 1981.
71. . . (
). . 3. , 1983.
72. . ( ). ,
1982.
73. . . (
) . . 4. , 1982.
74. . (
). . 1984, 12.
75. . ( ). . . 1. , 1984.
76. . ( ).
- . 1986, 34.
77. . ( , ). ( ). . 6. , 1984.
78. . . (
). . 4. , 1982.
79. . (- ). ( ). . 1. , 1984.
80. . ( , ). , 1971.
81. . . ( ) . . 6. . 1982.
82. Jly . ( ). . 1985, 12.
83. , .
.
( ) . . 11. , 1983.
84. Jly . (
). , 1987, 1.
85. . (
). . 1987, 3.
86. . (
. ).
( ). . 3. , 1981.
87. . ( ). (
). . 3. , 1983.
88. . ( 80 ).
( ). . 3. , 1981.
89. . (

). ( ). . 3. , 1981.
90. . ( ).
( ). . 2. , 1981.
91. . 1856 ( 1856 . ).
( ). . 2. , 1981.
92. . 1956 (
1956 .) ( ). . 1. , 1981.
93. . -
(
). ( ). . 1.
, 1981.
94. . ( ).
( ). . 4. , 1981.
95. . ( ). ( ).
. 1. , 1981.
96. . (
). (
). . 2. , 1981.
97. . ( ). (
). . 3. , 1981.
98. . ( ).
( ). . 2. , 1981.
99. . (
). ( ). . 1.
, 1981.
100. . ( , ). ( ). . 1. , 1981.
101. . ( ). ( ). . 1. , 1981.
102. . (
). ( ). . 1.
, 1981.
103. . ( ). (
). . 1. , 1981.
104. . (
). ( ). . 1. , 1981.
105. . ( ).
( ). . 10. , 1985.
106. . ( ).
( ). . 5. , 1982.
107. . (
- ). ( ). . 5. , 1983.
108. . ( 80-
XIX .). ( ). . 3.
, 1981.
109. . . (
). . 3. , 1983.
. .
( -

). ( ). . 6. 1 , 1983.
111. . (
). ( ). . 6. , 1983.
112. . ( ). ( ). . 6. , 1983.
113. . ( 4 ).
( ). . 6. , 1983.
114. .
( ,
XX .). ( ). . 6. , 1983.
115. . (
). . 1987, 3.
116. . *
( ).
( ). , 1983.
117. ( ). ,
1984.
118. . , ? ( ?). . 1984, 12.
119. My . . (
). . 10. , 1983.
120. . (). , 1985.
121. . ( ). ,
1985.
122. ( ). . 1, 2. ,
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123. (
). , 1983.
124. . ( ).
, 1952.
125. . ( ). , 1983.
126. . ( ).
. 1, 3, 7. , 19811984.
127. . . (
). . 3. , 1983.
128. . (
, ). . 1985, 5.
129. . (
). ( ). , 1982.
130. (
). , 1983.
131. ( ). . 110. ,
19811985.
132. ( ). . 1, 2. ,
1984.
133. ( ). , 1984.
134. . ( ).
( ). . 7. , 1984.
135. . (
). . 1983, 1.
136. . ( ). ( ). . 4. , 1981.

137. . ( [
]). . 1983, 4.
]38. . . (
) . . 6. , 1982.
139. .
. ( ). . 3. , 1981.
140. . 137 (
137 ). ( ). . 7. , 1984.
141. . ( ).. 1987, 3.
142. . ( ). ( ). . 2.
, 1984.
143. . (
). ( ). . 1. , 1984.
144. . ( ). ( ). . 5. , 1983.
145. . (
). , 1956.
146. . (
). , 1985.
147. . ( ). . 1986, 2.
148. . (
).
( ). . 2. , 1984.
149. . ( ). . 1984, 12.
150. , . (
). . 2. , 1980.
151. . ( ). ( ). . 2. , 1984.
152. . ? ( ?). ( ). . 1. , 1984.
153. . ( ). ( ). . 1. , 1984.
154. . (
).
( ). . 2. , 1984.
155. . ( -
). ( ). . 2. , 1984.
156. . ( ). - . 1986, 34.
157. . ( 1997 .
). (
). , 1983.
158. . ? ( ?). ( ). . 2.
, 1984.
159. . (,
. ). , 1982.
160. . ( ). . 1987, 1.

161. . , ( ). . 1987, 1 .
162. . (). , 1982.
163. .
( ) . .
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164. . ( ). (
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165. ( ) . , 1982.
166. . ( ). . 13.
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167. . ( ) . [. .],
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168. . ? ( ?). . 1986, 1 .
169. . , , ( , ). , 1987,
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170. , . , ( , ) . 1987, 1 .
171. . . (
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172. . . (
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173. . (
). , 1925.
174. . (
?). . 1987,
1
175. . ,
(
). . 1983, 10.
176. . (
). . 1986, 16 .
177. . .
( ) . . 13. , 1984.
178. . . 18411980. ( ). . 4. , 1983.
179. .
( ).
(
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180. . . ( ). . 2. , 1980.
181. . (
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182. ( ) . ,
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183. . . 19191923 ( . ). , 1983.
184. ( ) . . 1. , 1983.
185. (
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186. . ( ).
, 1982.

187. . ( ).
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188. . (
). , 1984.
189. , . ( ). - . 1986, 34.
190. . ?
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). . 1987, 2.
191. .
?
( ?). . 1986, 1 .
192. . . (
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193. . ( ). .
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194. , . ( ). ,
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195. .

( ).
( ). , 1983.
196. . . ( ). . 1. , 1980.
197. . (
). (
). . 7. , 1984.
198. . ( 1997 .). ( ). , 1983.
199. . ( ). ( ). . 10. , 1985.
200. . (
). ( ). . 7. , 1984.
201. .
( ). ( ). . 9. , 1985.
202. . ,
(
). ( ). . 8. , 1985.
203. . (
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204. . ( ). . 1984, 9.
205. . , , (
, , ). . 1984, 10.
206. ( ).
( ). . 8. , 1985.
207. . ( ). , 1983.
208. , .

( ).
( ). . 2. , 1981.
209. . . ( ) . . 1. , 1980.
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326.
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() ().
() ().
().
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().
().
().
().
().
().
().
().
().
().
().
Asiaweek (Hong Kong).
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19351941
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. 1 . .

SUMMARY

P. M. Ivanov. Hongkong:
Past and Present. The book traces more t h a n
a century and a half of the history of this British colony in China. G l a n c i n g
over the developments there prior to British rule, the author proceeds to discuss
in m o r e detail the s t a g e d evolution of the colony's administrative set-up. The
reader g e t s to know the life of H o n g k o n g in the last century, its economic pitfalls and advances, t h e social evolution of both t h e English and the Chinese
communities, and t h e b r e a k t h r o u g h s in education. There is a particular accent
on the historical role of local business g i a n t s like the H o n g k o n g - S h a n g h a i
B a n k i n g Corporation a n d the Jardine, Matheson, and Co.
A product of imperialist expansion in China, H o n g k o n g w a s critical in
d i s s e m i n a t i n g there advanced l e a r n i n g and ideas of W e s t e r n democratic institutions. The local Chinese business community often backed elements opposed
to the M a n c h u government. Remarkably, it had a special significance for Chinese revolution leader S u n Yat-sen and his followers.
The study emphasizes the "Chinese" section of H o n g - K o n g ' s history as clo
sely related to the developments in m a i n l a n d China. The chapters on the territory in the present century s t r e s s the impact on it of the Xinhai revolution of
1911, the revolution of 1925-27, and describe the g r o w t h of w o r k i n g class selfconsciousness and the rise in the late 30s and between 1945-49 of forces hostile
to the Q u o m i n t a n g .
The study next looks at the territory's t u r i n i g point as the People's Republic
of China came on the scene. W h e n the latter entered the war in Korea and
came u n d e r a W e s t e r n blockade, the colony, which had only j u s t recovered
f r o m the r a v a g e s of J a p a n e s e occupation (a gloomy period described in a separ a t e c h a p t e r ) , also felt the pinch. To survive, the colony had to push itself to
become an international t r a d i n g , financial, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n hub.
We f u r t h e r get an overview of the colony's latest industries and its t r a d i n g
r e l a t i o n s with China, the US, J a p a n , Western Europe, and S o u t h - E a s t Asia.
There is much coverage of the territory's social p r o g r a m s and the t r a i n i n g of
skilled labour to m a i n t a i n high economic g r o w t h rates.
A focal point of the study are relations between H o n g k o n g and China.
B e i j i n g h a s been m o v i n g ever deeper into all a r e a s of the H o n g k o n g economy.
The history of their political relations encompasses the conflicts of 1956 and
1966 and the d r a f i n g in the early 1980s of an accord r e s t o r i n g Chinese sover e i g n t y over the colony, due to take effect in 1997.
There is a chapter on the present situation in the territory, the political balance of power, the evolution of "pre-parties", and moves for more administrative democracy.
There are also sidelights on the d a y s of a Russian consulate in H o n g k o n g
in the first quarter of the 20th century, the operation of secret societies and
criminal g r o u p s and the policies t o w a r d s it by the T a i w a n K u o m i n t a n g .

1
, - XIX
10



-
2
XIX XX

XIXXX
3
1020- XX . . . .
- XX . .

XX . .

4






5


-


6

-








Summary

3
10
19
24
37
41
48
48
60
72
72
81
99
101
106
106
111
119
135
147
152
155
155
169
184
196
196
201
216
223
227
231
233
252
263
268
272
273
276
277

. .

. .

. .
. .

.
. .

. .

16167

29.12.89.
15.05.90. -01606.

60X90'/.
2. .

.
.
.
. 17,5. . . - . 18,0. . - . . 21,39.
4600 . . 6761. . 3.
1 . 80 .

103051, K - 5 1 . , 21
3-
107143, -143, . 28