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DYNA Link Anchor Box System


Key Features 4
Bridge Pylons and Saddles 5
Bending and Transverse Stresses 5
Slip Limit State 5
Friction Factor 5
Construction Stages 6
Service Stage 6
Seismic Design 6
Bridge Design 6
Bridge Construction 6
Cable Inspection and Maintenance 6

DYNA Link Anchor Box System

Key Features
The DYNA Link Anchor Box System is The DYNA Link Curved Anchor The key features of the DYNA Link
based on a conventional steel structure Box is economically designed using Anchor Box System are:
in which stay cables are anchored with conventional steel construction No friction problems; horizontal forces
standard DYNA Grip anchorages. standards to ensure capacity, are transferred by the anchor box
It features many advantages in serviceability and excellent fatigue
Cable anchorages located outside
comparison to conventional saddle characteristics.
permit slender pylon shapes
solutions in which strands are guided Testing is therefore not required.
through the pylon. The pylon does not need to be
Stay cable assembly is just as flexible
as in the case of common stay cables
with anchorages that are located
inside the pylon
It is even possible to replace a
complete strand bundle only on one
side of the pylon
There are no limitations in terms of
deviation radii or differential forces;
consequently, no limitations in any
national regulations need to be taken
into consideration

DYNA Link Anchor Box System

Bridge Pylons and Saddles

In many contemporary cable stayed in addition to congested passive steel up to this date (156 strands for Maumee
bridges the cables are anchored inside reinforcement. In many instances this Bridge, Ohio, USA, 2003) in addition to
the pylon section. In these bridges the substantially increased the cost and the many other bridges.
tower cross section was made hollow construction time of these pylons.
to allow access to install, stress and Although saddles offer some
service the cable anchorages. The To mitigate the issues discussed in advantages, it has become
hollow pylon section also had to be the previous paragraph, cable saddles apparent that they also create many
reinforced to transfer the local cable may be used. Their use will result in complications in the design, uncertainty
forces and resist the opposing cable compact solid pylon sections that are in the performance and reduced
forces on either side of the pylon. This more economical and faster to construct efficiency in the construction of cable
resulted in large dimensions of the tower than hollow pylons. DSI has supplied supported structures, as discussed
section and heavy reinforcement either some of the first saddles used in cable below:
by structural steel frames or, in case stayed bridges (Clark Bridge, Missouri,
of a concrete pylon, post-tensioning USA, 1993) and the largest saddle used

Bending and Transverse Stresses Slip Limit State Friction Factor

Due to the curvature of saddles, For cable supported bridges to behave Slip in saddles is prevented by friction
bending and transverse stresses are as intended, slip of strands inside a between the strands and the saddle.
introduced in the strands. The bending saddle must be completely avoided. Current design recommendations
stresses will reduce the axial strength This is an additional limit state that (such as PTI recommendations and
of the strands. The transverse stresses must be investigated and verified by fib Bulletin 30) require that the friction
may result in fretting effects between the bridge designer. This limit state factor be derived from tests on
the strand wires or between the strands in not related to the strength of the specimens representing the parameters
and the saddle that will result in reduced cable components but depends on of the actual saddles. These tests are
fatigue strength of the strands. the friction between strand and saddle conducted in the laboratory where it is
and the magnitude of the cable forces dry and under controlled conditions.
at both ends of the saddle. Additional Due to possible contamination or
load cases and combinations may need condensation the conditions in an actual
to be investigated, using advanced saddle on site may be quite different
analytical methods, to ensure that this than the test conditions. This creates
limit state would not be violated. This is uncertainty as to actual friction factor
particularly critical when seismic loads available to resist differential cable
are being investigated as discussed forces during the construction and
below. service stages of the bridge.

DYNA Link Anchor Box System

Bridge Pylons and Saddles

Construction Stages Seismic Design have considerably larger stiffness than
adjacent main spans and particularly for
Most cable supported bridges are Cable slip in saddles must be avoided cable anchored close to end supports.
constructed by the cantilever method. at all cost to maintain the stability and There is also uncertainty on what is
In this method, a structure with safety of a cable supported structure, the effective cable length to be used in
saddles is very vulnerable to slip particularly during a seismic event. the structural analysis. This uncertainty
due to unbalanced loads during the Standard seismic design methods stems from the fact that a certain length
construction stages. Considering the are not sufficient to ensure that cable of the curved strands inside the saddle
possible variability of friction the risk slip would not occur. The designer will be subjected to varying axial strains.
of slip must be carefully considered must resort to advanced analytical This effect may be significant for the
and mitigated. During the cantilever methods such as time history and shorter cables of Extradosed bridges.
construction of the Clark Bridge a heavy push over analysis to ensure the safety
counterweight was positioned on deck of the structure. To produce reliable Bridge Construction
and moved to counter the effects of results these methods require complex
unbalanced loads and preclude the and sophisticated modeling of the The use of cable saddles results in
possibility of slip in the saddles. It is structure, including the interaction of its doubling the man power and equipment
noted that unbalanced loads may be foundations with the surrounding soil. required for the installation and stressing
due to construction activities and the In addition, the designer must select of cables. In addition, saddles require
vertical components of unequal wind and use a ground motion input that that the pace of cantilever construction
loads acting on opposite cantilevers that hopefully would be similar to the future on both sides of the tower be always
may be required for some sites. seismic event. In some instances a symmetrical before a cable may be
detailed study of the seismology of the installed. This results in increased
Service Stage area and site conditions is needed so construction costs and inefficient
that a site specific ground motion may utilization of resources.
For cable supported bridges with be produced for use in the analysis.
anchorages at both tower and deck, Regardless of all the above efforts,
it is normal to investigate the live a considerable degree of uncertainty Cable Inspection and Maintenance
loading patterns that would result in remains in predicting the behavior of
the maximum and minimum forces in saddles during seismic events. Saddles do not allow the inspection of
each cable so that its axial strength stands inside them. This may be critical
and fatigue resistance may be verified. because the strands are anchored by
For cables with saddles it is required to Bridge Design friction inside the saddle pipes and are
additionally investigate loading patterns subjected to multi-axial stresses and
that would result in the largest force The use of saddles results in equal differential movements due to live and
differential in a cable at both faces of number of strands on both sides of the dynamic loads. These conditions may
the tower. This additional design effort is tower for each cable. This outcome adversely impact the design life of the
essential to preclude the occurrence of might not be the most efficient or strands and their corrosion protection
slip in the saddle during service. desirable from the economic and system; and this uncertainty may not be
behavioral aspects of the structure. acceptable to bridge owners.
This is evident for end spans that

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