Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 132

Академия управления

при Президенте Республики Беларусь


Система открытого образования

IMPROVE YOUR SPEAKING SKILLS


IN ENGLISH

Учебно-методическое пособие
по устной практике английского языка

В двух частях

Часть I

2-е издание, исправленное и переработанное

Минск
2005
2

УДК 802.0 (07)


ББК 81.2
I56
Серия основана в 2001 году

Рекомендовано к изданию Комиссией по приемке и аттестации электронных


версий учебных и учебно-методических материалов Академии управления при
Президенте Республики Беларусь.

Составитель Л.В. Вертаева


Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук, и.о. профессора кафедры второго языка (английский) Минского
государственного лингвистического университета Т.Ф. Плеханова
канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры стилистики английского языка Минского государственного
лингвистического университета Л.С. Крохалева

                   Improve Your Speaking Skills in English : учеб.- методическое


I56     пособие по устной практике английского языка. В 2 ч. Ч. 1 / сост.
            Л.В. Вертаева. –  2-е изд., испр. и перераб. – Мн.: Акад. управления при
.
Президенте Респ. Беларусь, 2005. – 128 с. – (Система открытого
образования).
ISBN 985-457-475-X.

Целью пособия является развитие и совершенствование умений и навыков


разговорной речи на английском языке.
Пособие включает темы социально-бытового характера, аутентичный текстовый
материал, набор разнообразных коммуникативных ситуаций и комплекс как языковых, так и
речевых упражнений.
Пособие предназначено для студентов Академии управления при Президенте
Республики Беларусь и для широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык и владеющих
базовой программой средней общеобразовательной школы.

УДК 802.0(07)
ББК 81.2

© Вертаева Л.В., составление, 2004


ISBN 985-457-475-X (ч.1) © Академия управления при Президенте
Республики Беларусь, 2004
ISBN 985-457-474-1
3

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Настоящее пособие предназначено для совершенствования
навыков и умений разговорной речи на английском языке с
учетом базовой программы средней школы.
Пособие состоит из двух частей, включающих четыре
главы, предлагающих многоаспектное рассмотрение
тематического материала. Каждая из глав в свою очередь состоит
из пяти разделов.
Первый из них “Starting-Up” является введением в тему для
выяснения степени ознакомления студентов с материалом и
определения круга вопросов, а также аспектов предстоящего
более детального изучения темы.
Во втором разделе “Vocabulary Focus” акцент делается на
обогащение как активного, так и пассивного словарного запаса
студентов. Лексика вводится последовательными порциями по
тематическому принципу с учетом словообразовательных
моделей, синонимии, антонимии, сочетаемости слов и
особенностей их употребления. Предлагаемые здесь
тренировочные упражнения дают возможность обстоятельной и
всесторонней работы с лексическими единицами.
В третьем разделе “Discussion Focus” основное внимание
сосредоточено на разговорной практике. Здесь широко
используются диалогическая речь, приемы парной и групповой
работы на фоне монологических высказываний. Все виды заданий
носят, как правило, творческий характер и направлены на
активизацию речевой деятельности учащихся в различных
коммуникативных ситуациях.
Четвертый раздел “Practising Vocabulary” включает
комплекс тренировочных упражнений как языкового, так и
речевого характера для основательного закрепления
тематического словаря.
Последний раздел “Read and Discuss” посвящен обучению
говорению на основе тематических текстов различных
функциональных стилей. Чтение подчинено задаче развития
коммуникативных навыков студентов. Этой цели служат
предтекстовые и послетекстовые задания, ориентирующие
учащихся на активное самостоятельное говорение. Дискуссия
4

здесь является основной формой работы, предполагая не только


обсуждение конкретного содержания текста, но и ряда
проблемных вопросов, выходящих во внетекстовую
коммуникацию.
В данном пособии не предусмотрен автономно
оформленный обязательный список активных лексических
единиц. Активная лексика, как правило, представлена в разделе
“Vocabulary Focus” и частично в разделе “Discussion Focus”. В
результате преподаватель имеет возможность варьировать объем
лексики, подлежащей активному усвоению в зависимости от
уровня языковой подготовленности студентов.
Активная лексика подается на достаточно широком фоне
пассивного словаря, который также тематически маркирован и
составляет существенную долю общесловарного запаса студентов.
В группах с высоким уровнем владения языком преподаватель
может расширять активный лексический запас за счет перевода в
него определенной части пассивного словаря.
Учебную работу на материале данного пособия
рекомендуется вести не последовательно, т.е. постранично, а
параллельно по всем разделам, формируя определенный комплекс
заданий для каждого занятия и самостоятельной работы
студентов.
Представляется нецелесообразным изучать весь
предложенный материал в группах с недостаточно высоким
уровнем владения языком. Материал в пособии имеет разную
степень трудности. Преподаватель может по своему усмотрению
опустить отдельные задания, упражнения, тексты или изменить
порядок прохождения учебного материала.
Таким образом, данное пособие предоставляет
преподавателю максимум свободы в работе с учебным
материалом и дает возможность эффективно осуществлять
индивидуализацию учебного процесса, а также проявить
собственное творчество в обучающей деятельности.
5

UNIT I
PEOPLE AS THEY ARE

Starting – Up

We come to this world just like guests for shorter or longer visits.
And while our life travel lasts from the station ‘Birth’ to the station
‘Death’ we try to learn and understand a great many things. What are
we in this world? What for do we live here? What makes our life worth
living? What is it to be happy?
Generations come and go, but the same questions rise again and
again. What is good and evil? What is mortal and immortal in human
life? What is the value of money, power, fame, mind and spirit? Is
there anything or anyone that determines our lives? What is within our
power and what is entirely in the hands of our Lord?

A Discuss in class with your partners.


1 What is the message John Heywood, an English poet of the XVI
century, sent to his readers in the lines below. Say what you think
about it.
The loss of wealth is loss of dirt,
As sages in all times assert;
The happy man’s without a shirt.

2 Comment on the wish Jonathan Swift expressed in the following


lines.
I’ve often wished that I had clear,
For life, six hundred pounds a year,
A handsome house to lodge a friend,
A river at my garden’s end.
6

3 What do you think of the advice, given in the lines below? Explain
the ideas expressed in them.
Live for those who love you,
For those who know you true,
For the cause that lacks assistance,
For the bad that needs resistance,
For the Future in the distance,
And the good that you can do!

4 Do you know any other poetic citations, maxims, proverbs, sayings


which express certain truths resulting from age-old experience,
wisdom and common sense?
e.g. Life is not a bed of roses.
While there is life there is hope.
He is the richest who has fewest wants.
Time wasted is existence, used is life. (Ed. Young)

Vocabulary Focus

1 The first thing that catches your eye when you meet a new person
(a stranger) is his/her appearance.
A How many words do you know for describing what people look
like? Write down as many words as you can under the following
headings. You may use the words given below.
age height build hair face skin
young short stocky curly round pale

complexion distinguishing features general appearance


fair a scar good-looking

long chubby smart scruffy moustache


7

straight blond well-dressed untidy handsome


thin ginger ugly pretty clean-shaven
thick wavy muscular slender dyed
fair red athletic grey charming
auburn fat elegant mole under 30
brown stout attractive dimple in her teens
plump slim plain beard well over 50
heavy obese bald freckle wrinkle
youthful adult swarthy elderly skinny

B Make up 6 sentences with hyphenated adjectives of the type ‘red


hair – red-haired’ with the second part ~skinned, ~eyed, ~nosed,
~faced, ~cheeked, ~legged, etc.

e.g. Christine, tall, graceful, auburn-haired and a bit


snub-nosed looked pretty indeed.

C What adjectives on the right will match the nouns on the left.
chin high
nose poor
lips thick
eyes bulging
gait thin
sight bushy
forehead awkward
eyebrows double
cheeks hollow
shoulders aquiline
8

D Answer these remarks with the opposite description.


e.g. A: I thought you said he was the short, chubby one.
B: No, quite the opposite, he’s the tall, thin-faced one.

1. A: Was that his brother, the dark-skinned, wavy-haired one?


B: No, quite the opposite, his brother’s ...................................... .
2. A: She’s always quite well-dressed, so I’ve heard.
B: What! Who told you that? Every time I see her, she’s .......... .
3. A: So Charlene’s that rather plump fair-haired woman, is she?
B: No, you’re looking at the wrong one. Charlene’s ................. .
4. A: So, tell us about the new boss; good looking?
B: No, I’m afraid not; rather ....................................................... .
5. A: I don’t know why, but I expected the tour-guide to be
middle-aged or elderly.
B: No, apparently she’s only ...................................................... .

E Choose the word which best completes each sentence.


1. She sometimes wears her hair .................................................... .
A) tied B) loose C) free D) fringe
2. He has a ................................................................... complexion.
A) white B) spotted C) clear D) brown
3. Last year’s cycling accident has left him with a large
.......................................................................... on his left cheek.
A) mark B) cut C) wound D) scar
4. Mark’s hair is already ................... , which isn’t surprising as his
father lost all his hair at an early age.
A) bald B) parting C) retiring D) receding
5. People with red hair often come out in ....... when they sunbathe.
A) stubble B) moles C) freckles D) blemishes
9

F Discuss with your partner the following proverbs:

 Appearances are deceptive/deceitful.


 Never judge from appearances.
 A fair face may hide a foul heart.
 Beauty lies in lover’s eyes.
 The face is the index of the mind.

G Bring some photos of people (relatives, friends, etc.) and describe


in detail their physical characteristics.

H Suppose you write to the ‘personal’ column where people are


seeking partners. Describe your own appearance and that of a person
you would like to meet. Give as many details as possible.
2 People around us can be divided into two groups: relatives and non-
relatives. Relatives can be blood relations and relations by law.

A Give as many words as you can to describe blood relations.


e.g. mother, father, etc.

B We also have relations by marriage. Explain the following.

 What do we call a husband’s or wife’s father, mother, sister,


brother?
 Who are ‘a son-in-law’ and ‘a daughter-in-law’?
 Whom do we call a ‘step-mother’ (~ father, ~ sister, ~ brother)?
 What kind of relationship does a ‘half-sister’(~ brother)
suggest?
 Who can be called a ‘foster-father’ (~ mother)?
10

C Non-relatives can be divided into those with whom we maintain


close relations, more distant relations and no relations at all.

Sort out the following relationships to show closeness and


distance in friendship, work, love/romance and marriage.

close ------------------------------------------ more distant


friend / lover / workmate / good friend / steady boy /
girl friend / colleague / best friend / sweetheart / wife /
/ fellow student / ex-lover / partner / acquaintance / husband

N.B. ex- can be used with or without (informally) another word:


e.g. She’s my ex (-girlfriend, etc.).
Mate is a colloquial word for a good friend. It can also be
used in compounds to describe a person you share something
with.
e.g. classmate, shipmate, workmate, flatmate.
Workmate is usual in non-professional contexts; colleague
is more common among professional people.
Fiancé/ée can still be used for someone you are engaged to,
but a lot of people feel it is outdated nowadays. You will
sometimes see husband- / wife-to-be in journalistic style.
English has no universally accepted word for ‘person I live
with but am not married to’, but partner is probably the
commonest.

D Match each person from the list with a suitable description. Use
each name once only.
cousin adult orphan nephew toddler best man fiancé
11

nurse niece twin bride neighbour ancestor widow


1) The son of your brother or sister. ............................................... .
2) A woman on the day of her marriage. ....................................... .
3) A young child who is learning to walk. ..................................... .
4) What a woman calls the man she is engaged to. ........................ .
5) One of two children born at the same time. ............................... .
6) A person who lives near you. .................................................... .
7) The daughter of your brother or sister. ...................................... .
8) A person who is fully grown. ..................................................... .
9) A woman whose husband has died. ........................................... .
10) At a wedding, the friend of the bridegroom. ............................ .
11) A person from whom one is remotely descended …................ .
12) A child whose parents are dead. .............................................. .
13) A child of one’s uncle or aunt. ................................................. .
14) A woman or girl employed to look after babies or small
children. .......................................................................................... .

E Arrange the words below under the headings ‘man’ and ‘woman’.
e.g. man woman
nephew niece
spinster godmother granny fiancé bachelor
grandpa godfather uncle groom best man
auntie widower bridesmaid fiancée widow

F Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence.


1. How long has Sarah been .....................................…. with Peter?
A) going back B) going in C) going out D) going up
2. They fell in love at first ..........................................................… .
12

A) glimpse B) look C) sight D) viewing


3. How long have they been ......................................................….?
A) betrothed B) engaged C) financed D) intended
4. When are they going to …......................................................... ?
A) get married B)marry them
C) marry each other D) marry themselves
5. Peter has asked Michael to be his …................... at the wedding.
A) best man B) bridesmaid
C) eyewitness D) godfather
6. Sarah has invited all her …................................. to the wedding.
A) compatriots B) in-laws C) parents D) relations
7. Her parents have been married for 25 years and today is
their .........................................................................................................
.
A) anniversary B) birthday C) jubilee D) marriage
8. The people in the flat upstairs are always having noisy ........…. .
A) debates B) discussions C) noises D) rows
9. When her mother remarried, she got on very well with her
new ......................................................................................................... .
A) ancestor B) forefather C) foster-father D) step-father
10. A diagram that shows the members of a family and their
relationship is called a family ....................................................… .
A) branch B) line C) river D) tree

G Study the following phrases and idioms for relationships. Use them
in sentences of your own.

1) She doesn’t just like Bob, she idolises him! I can’t stand him.
[hate]
2) I really like Lisa, but her friend just turns me off. [excite hate]
13

3) Jo and I get on well with each other. [have a good relationship]


4) Adrian and Liz don’t see eye to eye. [often argue/disagree]
5) I’ve fallen out with my parents again. [had arguments]
6) Tony and Jane have broken up / split up. [ended their
relationship]
7) George is having an affair with his boss. [a sexual relationship,
usually secret]
8) Children should respect their elders. [adults/parents, etc.]
9) Let’s try and make it up. [be friends again after a row]
10) She’s my junior/I’m her senior/I’m senior to her, so she
does what she’s told. [refers to position/length of service at work]

H Read the following sentences attentively and correct the idioms


used in them.
1. Jo and Phil don’t get on eye to eye with each other.
2. I fell up with my parents last night. It wasn’t my fault.
3. We had a quarrel but now we’ve made it well.
4. Do you think Jim and Nora are making an affair? I do.
5. I see very well with all my colleagues at work.
6. She should learn to respect her elders.
7. Jo’s attractive, but her mate just turns me up completely.

I Read the quotations below. Discuss with other students.

A. What do you think each one means?

B Which do you agree with? Which do you disagree with? Why?


14

 Without a family, man, alone in the world, trembles with the


cold. André Malraux
 No matter how old a mother is, she watches her middle-aged
children for signs of improvement. Scott Maxwell
 Parents are sometimes a bit of a disappointment to their
children. They don’t fullfil the promise of their early years.
Anthony Powell
 The family is the place, where the most ridiculous and the least
respectable things in the world go on. Ugo Betti
 God gives us our relatives: thank God we can choose our
friends. Ethel Watts Mumford

3 Man is a universe of talents and inabilities, ambitions and laziness,


strengths and weaknesses, raptures and disillusionment, hopes and
despair, good and evil. And this universe is no less exciting and
mysterious than the Universe around us. Man has always been tempted
to explore the outer space, getting further and further beyond the Earth,
while his inner world has remained as enigmatic as the most remote
planets and stars.

A The following words describe intellectual ability of a person.


Arrange them under the two headings: a) having ability and b) lacking
ability:
having ability lacking ability
e.g. able e.g. simple

bright; foolish; silly; clever; capable; stupid; senseless; gifted;


brainless; dull; talented; daft; shrewd; witty; dumb; dim; brainy;
intelligent; smart; half-witted; egg-head(ed); block-head(ed)
15

B Match the headings which describe a person’s attitude towards life


and other people with the corresponding groups of adjectives. If
necessary, consult a dictionary.
I
1. Looking on either the bright a. relaxed/ pleased, carefree,
or the black side of things: comfortable;
tense/ anxious, nervous,
concerned.
2. Outward-looking or inward- b. sensitive/ tender,
looking (i.e. to the world responsive, sympathetic.
around one or to one’s inner
world)
3.Calm or not calm with regard c. optimistic/cheerful, sanguine,
to attitude to life: confident, hopeful;
pessimistic/ gloomy, sullen,
depressed, hopeless.
4. Practical, not dreamy in d. hardworking/ diligent,
approach to life: industrious, conscientious;
lazy/ idle, slack, loafing.
5. Feeling things very intensely: e. extroverted/ sociable,
gregarious, showing-off;
introverted/ self-centered,
egoistic, lonely.
6. Inclined to work hard and f. sensible/ reasonable, rational,
systematically or on the down-to-earth.
contrary:
16

II
1. Enjoying others’ company: a. impolite, rude, ill-mannered,
sharp, harsh, abusive, severe.
2. Disagreeing with others: b. honest, sincere, trustworthy,
truthful, straightforward,
aboveboard.
3. Taking pleasure in others’ c. jealous, envious, covetous,
pain: resentful, green-eyed, yellow-
eyed.
4. Relaxed in attitude to self and d. sociable, affable, cooperative,
others: friendly.
5. Not polite to others: e. easy-going, even-tempered,
composed, tranquil, self-
possessed, self-controlled,
carefree, level-headed, cool-
headed.
6. Telling the truth to others: f. cruel, sadistic, pitiless, harsh,
merciless, brutal, rough, wild.
7. Unhappy if others have what g. quarrelsome, argumentative
one does not have oneself: combative, passionate, violent.

C Some characteristics can be either positive or negative depending on


your point of view. The words in the right-hand column mean roughly
the same as the words in the left-hand column except that they have
negative rather than positive connotations.
Study and explain the meanings of these words using a dictionary if
necessary.
17

Positive Negative
determined obstinate, stubborn, pig-headed;
thrifty, economical miserly, mean, tight-fisted;
self-assured self-important, arrogant,
full of oneself (coll.);
assertive aggressive, bossy (coll.);
original peculiar, eccentric, odd;
frank, direct, open blunt, abrupt, brusque, curt;
broad-minded unprincipled, permissive;
inquiring inquisitive, nosy (coll.);
generous extravagant;
innocent naive;
ambitious pushy (coll.).

D Match these words with their opposites.

1. intelligent a. courteous
2. extroverted b. smart
3. generous c. nervous
4. comfortable d. cunning
5. rude e. tight-fisted
6. cruel f. conscientious
7. honest g. sympathetic
8. quarrelsome h. tense
9. friendly j. self-centered
10. simple k. kindly
11. relaxed l. half-witted
12. idle m. hostile

E Match the words similar in meaning.

1. thrifty a. optimistic
2. shrewd b. gregarious
18
19

3. gloomy c. brainy
4. diligent d. economical
5. reasonable e. covetous
6. cheerful f. quarrelsome
7. harsh g. reliable
8. envious h. depressed
9. carefree j. rough
10. sociable k. industrious
11. argumentative l. rational
12. trustworthy m. tranquil

F The words given below come from Greek and Latin. They describe
people’s attitudes, mental and emotional states. These borrowings
usually have academic and literary associations and have long become
international words in many European languages. Make sure you know
their meanings and use them correctly.

1) Try to match the adjectives in the left column with their definitions
on the right. Supply these adjectives with the corresponding nouns.
1. cynical a. inclined not to believe; doubting state of mind
2. elegiac b. using bitter remarks intended to wound the
feelings
3. sarcastic c. feeling wistful longing for smth. one has
known in the past; homesick
4. melancholic d. touching, affecting, moving; sad, pitiful
5. sceptical e. sorrowful; mournful; funeral
6. nostalgic f. seeing little or no good in anything; showing
this by sneering and being contemptuous
7. pathetic g. low-spirited; sad; depressed; unhappy
20

G A person’s character can be described with compound adjectives:


absent-minded (forgetful) easy-going (relaxed)
good-tempered (cheerful) warm-hearted (kind)
quick-witted (intelligent) big-headed (proud of
oneself)
two/double-faced (hypocritical) self-centred (egotistical)

The family of compound adjectives with the second part


“- minded” is quite numerous, e.g. noble-minded. The first
part cannot only be an adjective but also an adverb and a noun.

e.g. a. technically techniques


commercially - minded (mind keen on commerce
historically history

b. career
business - minded (conscious of the value or
money importance of career, etc.)

Some of these adjectives make up pairs with opposite meanings:


broad single strong
- minded - minded - minded
narrow double feeble
serious high
- minded - minded
light low
1) Now study the meanings of the ten two-part words above and try to
express them in one word:
e.g. broad-minded = tolerant; evil-minded = wicked; bad;
open-minded = unbiased.
21

2) Try to complete each of these word forks as shown in the examples.


Explain the meaning of the words you have written down.
1. possessed 2. short 3. good
self- _______ ____ - tempered ____ - natured
________ ____ ____
________ ____ ____

4. clear 5. bitter 6. warm


____ - headed ____ - tongued _____ - hearted
____ ____ _____
____ ____ _____

3) Translate the following words and expressions into English using


compound adjectives with the parts - faced, - blooded,
- tongued, - witted, -fisted:
1. двуличный, двоедушный, лицемерный;
2. наглый, бесстыжий, бесстыдный;
3. безжалостный, жестокий, бесчувственный;
4. вспыльчивый, горячий, страстный;
5. красноречивый, льстивый;
6. болтающий без удержу, с развязанным языком;
7. находчивый, смышленый;
8. скупой, прижимистый.

H People are often compared to animals.


1) Study the meanings of the following adjectives and the patterns of
their formation from the corresponding nouns. Mind that these
adjectives are mostly used in spoken English.
22

cattish, catty or bitchy (malicious-tongued);


cocky (arrogant);
dogged (stubborn);
mousy (dull, uninteresting, shy, quiet);
foxy (crafty, cunning);
ratty (bad-tempered);
sheepish (awkward, self-conscious);
wolfish (cruel, brutal).

2) Use the adjectives above to name someone who behaves as is


described below:
If someone 1. is timid, feels uncomfortable, not knowing what
to do with himself;
2. seems to hide his thoughts, intentions, plans to
get what he wants;
3. looks too much/very sure of himself, pert and
conceited;
4. does not easily give way to argument or
persuasion, obstinate;
5. speaks of other people using cruel, hateful
words;
6. is cross, irritated, annoying;
7. keeps very still, attracts no attention to
himself.

3) There are also similes comparing people to animals, birds and fish.
Here are some of them. Can you complete the phrases with proper
adjectives, selecting them from the list below?
23

cunning meek stupid cross timid


dumb obstinate mad prickly still
brave stubborn quiet blind tender

1. as …… as a mouse 7. as …… as a bear with a sore head


2. as …… as a mule 8. as …… as a lamb
3. as …… as a fox 9. as ….... as a hare
4. as …… as an owl 10. as ….. as a lion
5. as …… as a fish 11. as ….. as March Hare.
6. as ….... as a hedgehog 12. as ….. as a chicken

N.B. In 1 and 2 two adjectives are possible, but the meaning remains
the same. In 4 two different adjectives supply different meanings.

I There are many colourful idioms in English describing people, their


feelings and moods. Read the sentences below and match the
idioms in bold with their meanings on the right.

1. Everyone seemed to be in high a. very scared


spirits.
2. She seems to be keeping her b. very sick or ill
chin up.
3. He had a face as long as a fiddle. c. dizzy
4. I could eat a horse! d. lively, enjoying things
5. You’re looking a bit under the e. happy despite bad things
weather.
6. I suddenly felt as if my head f. looked very
was going round. depressed/sad
7. I was almost at death’s door g. very hungry
last week!
8. She was scared stiff / scared out h. not very well / ill
of her wits.
24

N.B. There is an element of exaggeration in these idioms; they make


comments on the situation and lighten the tone of what you are saying.
So use them only informally.

J Complete these sentences with the idioms from above.

1. Don’t creep up behind me like that! You scared me .................. .


2. I don’t need a doctor, I just feel a bit under ............................... .
3. I’ve had nothing since lunch; I could ......................................... .
4. When I met Jo again his face was smiling and he seemed to be
in ................................................................................................. .
5. Whatever happens, I try not to lose heart and keep my ............. .
6. John turned back so abruptly that he felt as if ............................ .
7. The illness got Tim in so violent a grip that a month later he
found himself at .......................................................................... .
8. On hearing the news Jill got so upset that her face became as
long ............................................................................................. .

K Match the explanations on the right with the idiomatic expressions


on the left? They are all connected with different kinds of people.
1. a new broom a. someone who expresses opinions
about things he/she knows very little
2. a wet blanket b. someone who has no fixed roots
3. a stuffed shirt c. a pompous, self-opinionated person
4. a couch potato d. a gossip who wants to know
everything that happens to other people
5. an armchair critic e. someone who stands by you only
when things are going well
6. a fair weather friend f. someone who likes to sit in comfort
and do nothing
25

7. a nosy parker g. a new person in charge who makes


changes
8. a rolling stone h. someone who does not want to join in
and spoils the fun for everybody else
9. a slow-coach i. someone who is distant, unfriendly
10. an odd-ball j. someone who is slow in action or dull
11. a pain in the neck k. someone who is peculiar, strange
12. a cold fish l. someone who is nuisance, difficult

L Work in pairs. Write a short dialogue using the expression you have
chosen above to act out in front of the class.

Discussion Focus

A Say if the speaker likes or dislikes the people he/she is talking


about.
1. They say Joan is fairly broad-minded.
2. I think Jeff can be aggressive.
3. They live comfortably because Diana is very thrifty.
4. You need not worry, Molly is so frank.
5. Jill is very original and this occupation is not for her.
6. You seem to be too nosy, my little fellow.
7. Bob looks bossy, doesn’t he?
8. I find Philip arrogant.

B Reword the sentences above to give the opposite impression.


e.g. They say Joan is rather unprincipled.

C What characteristics does the speaker imply when he/she asks the
following questions. Choose the proper word from the box.
26

e.g. If you arrange an appointment for, say, 5 o’clock,


do you arrive in time? Punctual

pessimistic assertive sensitive sociable obstinate


argumentative inquisitive punctual extravagant

1. Do you prefer to be in the company of other people?


2. Do you choose to look at the dark side of things rather than the
bright one when something goes wrong?
3. Do you find it easy to tell your boss if you feel he or she has
treated you badly?
4. Do you always look out of the window if you hear a car draw up?
5. Do you often buy your friends presents for no particular reason?
6. Do you frequently disagree with what other people say?
7. Do you lie awake at night if someone has said something
unkind to you?
8. Do you become even more determined to do something, if
people try to persuade you not to?
D Write down questions like those in the previous exercise to find
whether a person is the following:

1. sensible 2. blunt 3. eccentric 4. reliable


5. even-tempered 6. sincere 7. ambitious 8. crafty

E Choose five or six adjectives which you think best describe either
your own or a friend’s character. How do you or your friend
demonstrate these characteristics?

e.g. optimistic – I am optimistic because I prefer to hope for


the best even when I get into trouble or have bad luck.
27

F The word “gentleman” is of English origin. Historically it named a


man who was entitled to bear arms and was attached to a court or the
household of a great noble. He was usually a man of wealth and social
position, of good family and did not have to work for a living. But with
time passing these meanings went out of use and nowadays “a
gentleman” basically denotes a courteous and honourable man.

Study carefully the group of words and phrases below. Select those
which, in your opinion, describe a person as a gentleman and comment
on them.
civil polished tender well-bred
gallant mannerly impolite man of his word
mean abrupt coarse high-minded
refined violent evil gracious
wild subtle ignorant unrestrained
sharp simple harsh man of honour
G The word “decent” implies quite a number of positive human
characteristics. List as many of them as you can. You may start as
follows:
e. g. A decent person is nice, proper, honest, …
A decent person is expected to keep his/her promise, …
A decent person is not likely to let you down, …

H Read the extracts characterizing people and comment on the


meaning of the underlined phrases.
1. <…> that he is a good listener and often encourages people to speak,
that he is not much of a talker himself.
2. Samuel is indeed a man of great mental calibre <…> a scientist of an
outstanding reputation…
28

3. Mrs. Waller was a motherly soul and never took offence.


4. Lord Mountdrago <…> had intelligence, industry <…> courage,
insight and determination.
5. Unfortunately he was a horrible snob <…> and was coldly rude to
those whom he looked upon as his social inferiors.
6. Sometimes he could be enchanting and then you were surprised at
his wide knowledge and excellent taste.
7. “You know, Paris is the home for every kind of eccentricity.”
8. <…> the teacher’s personality should be pleasantly live and
attractive. This does not rule out people who are physically plain, or
even ugly, because many such people have great personal charm. But it
does rule out such types as the over-excitable, melancholy, frigid,
sarcastic, cynical, frustrated and overbearing.
9. <…> my parents are quite touchy about anything pretty personal,
especially my father. They are nice and all – I’m not saying that – but
they are also touchy as hell.
10. You never saw a little kid so pretty and smart in your whole life.
She’s really smart, I mean she’s had all A’s ever since she started
school. As a matter of fact, I’m the only dumb one in the family.

I Skim the text “Graphology” and make a list of positive and negative
characteristics mentioned in the text.

Graphology

Speed
A person who writes quickly with no interruption in the strokes
is energetic and enthusiastic, especially about things, which are in his
own interests.
29

If you write slowly you don’t take risks. You are slow to take
decisions.
Someone who writes fast and legibly is lively and likes to do
things in his own way. A fast and illegible writer is an individualist
and has a strong character. This person is talented and ambitious
and usually very imaginative.
Signature
You write your name more often than anything else and so your
signature is the most revealing part of your handwriting.
An underlined signature shows a forceful personality and
someone who has a high opinion of himself.
If you put a full stop or a dash after your signature this means
that you finish what you begin.
A very big signature shows a dominating personality.
A very small signature denotes a very shy and self-centered
personality.
A unique signature shows an unusual personality.
Of course, there are many more details regarding how to write.
But the above examples give you a few ideas on how to read
handwriting.
Sue Lake from BBC “Modern English”

1) Explain the difference in the meanings of the words “person”


vs. “personality”.

2) What sort of people can be described as forceful, dominating,


self-centred and unusual personalities?

3) Can you name anyone whose personality you admire? What


causes your admiration?
30

4) Make up sentences using the following phrases:

e. g. Samuel does not seem to be a person who


will readily take risks in a situation like that.

1. to take risks
2. to be slow (quick) to take decisions
3. to do things in one’s own way
4. to have a high opinion of oneself
5. to be an individualist

J Read the dialogue “Sweet Temper” and characterize briefly the two
people taking part in it. How can you explain the meaning of the title?
Sweet Temper
– I hate negative people
– I couldn’t agree more.
– I hate people who are miserable all the time.
– I couldn’t agree more.
– I hate people who are never satisfied.
– I couldn’t agree more.
– I hate people who are against everything.
– I couldn’t agree more.
– I hate people who criticize other people all the time.
– I couldn’t agree more.
From “BBC Five Minutes’ Instant English”

1) Try to modify the dialogue changing the verb “hate” for its
opposite.
e.g. I hate negative people. – I love agreeable people.

2) Replace “I couldn’t agree more” with other conversational


formulas.
31

e.g. I should say so.


That’s just what I think.
You can say that again.

3) Role play both the original and the modified dialogues.

4) The verbs hate, dislike, loathe, detest are synonyms but they have
different degrees of intensity of feeling.Study their meanings and try to
order them on a scale, starting from the weakest to the strongest.
detest – hate strongly; dislike – not like;
loathe – feel disgust for; hate – have violent
dislike for.
Scale
weakest ---------------------------------------------------- strongest

K Read the dialogue “At the Hairdresser’s”. What types of men are
opposed in it? Can you name any other male type?
At the Hairdresser’s

A: Oh, yes! My husband’s wonderful!


B: Really? Is he?
A: He is big, strong and handsome!
B: Well, my husband isn’t very big or strong, but he is very
intelligent.
A: Intelligent?
B: Yes, he can speak six languages.
A: Can he? Which languages can he speak?
B: He can speak French, Spanish, Italian, German, Arabic and
Japanese.
A: Oh! .… My husband’s very athletic.
B: Athletic?
32

A: Yes, he can play football, cricket, rugby, can swim, ski and
skate.
B: Can he cook?
A: Pardon?
B: Can your husband cook? My husband can’t play sports but he’s
an excellent cook. And he can sew and iron and… he is a good
husband.
A: Really? Is he English?

1) How is surprise (or slight doubt) expressed in the dialogue?

2) What does the phrase “Is he English?” hint at?

3) Try to think of a dialogue, which may take place between two men
talking about their wives (or girlfriends).

4) Role-play both the dialogues.


L Learn to discuss different people. Make use of the following.

1. What kind of person will never take a risk? (spend more than
he can afford, take anything to heart, arrest anyone’s attention, lose his
temper, do a silly thing, disobey instructions, wave in the face of
danger, fail his friend).
2. What kind of people are quick to see the point? (are usually
surrounded by people, friends, are easily forgotten, are often lonely,
think only for themselves, feel uneasy in company, keep their thoughts
to themselves, easily lose their patience, enjoy other people’s
confidence).
3. What kind of people are called business-like? (good mixers,
poor mixers, colourful, discreet, just, level-headed, sympathetic,
33

revengeful, squeamish, persistent, haughty, humble, placid, broad-


minded, vulgar, vain, ambitious).
4. What do you call a person who is unlike others? (can’t keep a
secret, can appreciate a piece of art, feels deeply, pokes his nose into
other people’s affairs, intrudes his views on others, is always sure of
himself, is mostly in high spirits, gets annoyed easily, keeps on
forgetting things, says what he thinks, has no moral principles).
5. What traits of character would you appreciate in a mother, a
father, a bosom friend, a teacher ... ?
6. What traits of character are required to make a good doctor,
economist, teacher, lawyer, journalist?

M You know that emotional condition plays a decisive role in our life.
Say when people feel good, great, proud, joyful, uneasy, anxious,
lonely, miserable, low.
N What qualities do you admire most in other people? Put these
qualities into order of importance:
ambition creativity good looks
honesty independence intelligence
loyalty sense of humour strength
tenderness understanding warmth

What other important qualities are missing from this list?

O Which of these characteristics do you and your partner consider to


be more attractive and less attractive?
ambitious enthusiastic outspoken self-confident
artistic frivolous passionate sensitive
cautious gregarious reserved serious
34

earnest introverted resourceful shy


easy-going out-going ruthless spontaneous

1) Which unattractive characteristics can you tolerate in your friends


and relations?
2) What kind of people do you get on with best?
3) What kind of people do you find it hard to get on with?
P Work in small groups. Ask your partners these questions.
1. What kind of person do you think you are?
2. What sign of the zodiac were you born under? Do you think this
affects your character?
3. How true to your nature is the description of your zodiac sign?
4. What are the essential factors that help to mould a person’s
character: background and environment; educational possibilities;
cultural standards; circumstances?
5. What are the ways and means by which a person’s character is
revealed and estimated: appearance; speech characterization; manners
and attitudes; likes and dislikes?

R Read the description below. What makes the description come to


life is the detail and examples that we give. Select the parts of the
description which give examples and details. Make notes under these
headings where information is given.
Physical appearance Character

1. Hair, eyes, complexion 1. General qualities


2. Height, build 2. Habits
3. Typical clothes 3. Abilities
4. Distinguishing features 4. Moods
35

The first thing everyone notices about him is his height – he is


tall, almost two metres. The second thing is how skinny he is. He is as
thin as a rake. He looks as if he has not eaten for months and yet he is
always eating. He never bothers much about his appearance, except for
his hair. I joke about him looking like an angry hedgehog when he gets
out of bed in the morning – his short, brown hair all spiky and sticking
out. He spends hours trying to comb it flat but with no success.
He is patient and kind. He always helps me with my maths, even
if it means giving up a night out with his friends. He is also calm. I’ve
only ever seen him angry once.
We get on each other’s nerves sometimes, but I wouldn’t change
him for the world.

S Write about either your favourite person, or your least favourite


person, or anyone else. Try using this plan.
Paragraph 1 Say who you want to describe and why
Paragraph 2 Physical description
Paragraph 3 Character description
Paragraph 4 Conclusion – sum up your feelings about this person

Practicing Vocabulary

1 Translate from English into Russian paying attention to the


underlined parts.

1) Charles has receding hair. I think he’ll be bald in a few years.


2) Is Jane that obese auburn-haired woman?
3) Cathy is a very smart and elegant woman, always well-dressed; her
husband is tall and muscular, but untidy-looking.
4) Is your sister still in her teens? When does she come of age?
5) The doctor smiled: ‘You know, Paris is full of odd people.
36

6) Ron is not likely to lend you money; he is so greedy.


7) Margaret is intelligent, determined and ambitious; it’ll help her
make a good business career.
8) Sally doesn’t get on well with her parents, she is aggressive and
argumentative.
9) ‘Oh, young men are so wild these days!’ remarked Mrs. Dobson.
10) Mark was a bright boy, and it did not take him long to do his
homework.
11) Annette was a smart and thrifty housewife; she knew very well
what she had to do.
12) You should not be so straightforward; try to be more of a diplomat.
13) How can you like Larry? He seems to be double-minded, selfish
and money-oriented.
14) Oh, Willie, be a sensible boy and stop talking nonsense!
15) You’d better choose your words carefully, as Marion is rather
touchy.

2 Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.

1) You can’t tell what someone is like just from their ................... .
A) character B) appearance C) personality D) looking
2) I was born in Scotland but I ........................ in Northern Ireland.
A) grew up B) raised C) brought up D) rose
3) Edward was named after one of his father’s distant .................. .
A) family B) brothers C) members D) relations
4) Jane and Brian got married a year after they got ....................... .
A) divorced B) proposed C) engaged D) separated
5) Graham works well in class, but his ………...... could be better.
A) rudeness B) behaviour C) politeness D) acting
6) Julie had a terrible …………............ with her parents last night.
37

A) row B) discussion C) argue D) dispute


7) I got to ….......... Steve well last year when we worked together.
A) introduce B)know C)meet D) sympathise
8) Is Brenda married or …………...........? I don’t like to ask her.
A) spinster B) alone C) bachelor D) single
9) Parents and teachers have to try hard to understand the younger .... .
A) generation B) people C) adolescents D) teenagers
10) My father likes to be called a ‘senior citizen’, not an old age …... .
A) person B) relative C) gentleman D) pensioner

3 Complete each sentence with a noun formed from a verb in the list.
acquaint bear behave celebrate die
engage greet marry relate resemble

1) All Sue’s friends and ...relations/relatives... came to her party.


2) I occasionally meet Terry, but he is more a/an ...... than a friend.
3) Mary received many cards congratulating her on the ..................... of
her baby.
4) When Paul arrived, he received a warm and friendly ................ .
5) Six months after their ................, Michael and Lisa got married.
6) There was a great .......................... in the village when their team
won the cup.
7) In an ideal ..........................., husband and wife share each other’s
problems.
8) Diana and her mother look alike. There is a strong .........................
between them.
9) There was no trouble, and the ...................... of the football fans was
excellent.
10) Tim cried when he heard about the .................... of his old dog.
38

4 The adjectives on the left are the opposites of the ones on the right.
Match them up.

1. clever 6. prejudiced a. conceited f. open-minded


2. generous 7. relaxed b. cruel g. self-confident
3. kind 8. sensible c. mean/stingy h. silly/foolish
4. modest 9. narrow-minded d. naive i. stupid
5. shy 10. sophisticated e. nervous j. tolerant
5 Decide which of the adjectives on the left have a similar meaning to
the ones on the right.

1. clever 8. two-faced a. sensible i. insincere


2. cunning 9. level-headed b. bright j. kind
3. sceptical 10. tense c. cheerful k. nervous
4. air 11. self-confident d. self-assured l. crafty
5. forgetful 12. snobbish e. absent-minded m. open
6. frank 13. reliable f. just n. stuck-up
7. jolly 14. good-natured g. trustworthy o. doubtful

6 Use a suitable prefix or suffix to form the opposite of each of the


adjectives below. Here are some examples:
un- unhappy, unpleasant in- insincere, incredible
dis- dishonest, dissatisfied im- impolite, impossible
il- illegible, illegal -less careless, harmless

agreeable discreet kind predictable


approachable efficient likeable reasonable
articulate enthusiastic logical reliable
biased flexible loyal respectful
competent friendly mature sensitive
considerate helpful obedient sociable
39

contented hospitable organised tactful


decisive imaginative patient thoughtful
dependable intelligent practical tolerant

7 Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence.


1) Children are not allowed to see this film. It’s for adults/old only.
2) By the time the vet arrived, the injured cat was already dead/died.
3) Unfortunately it rained on Nick and Helen’s wedding/marriage day.
4) David and Diana have two sons and one daughter/girl.
5) I think we should try to understand the problems of aged/old people.
6) There should be more facilities for youth/young people in this town.
7) Julie is very popular and has a wide company/circle of friends.
8) More than fifty relatives/parents were invited to Jack’s party.
9) Old Mrs Turner now lives in an old people’s home/house.
10) It’s my anniversary/birthday today. I’m eighteen years old.

8 Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence.

1) When her bicycle was stolen, Jill became extremely angry/


nervous.
2) Peter felt ashamed/embarrassed when he had to make a speech.
3) I always write thank-you letters, just to be gentle/polite.
4) You never do anything to help me! You’re so lazy/tired.
5) Sue never does anything silly. She’s very sensible/sensitive.
6) The children had to stay in the house all day and felt bored/tired.
7) Tina doesn’t worry about anything and is always cheerful/
sympathetic.
8) Mr Jackson is very annoyed/bad-tempered and often shouts at
people.
9) When he heard about the accident, Alan was very damaged/
40

upset.
10) I’ve got an important exam tomorrow and I’m a bit jealous/
nervous.

9 Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each


sentence.

1) Please don’t push. It’s very bad-tempered/rude/unsympathetic.


2) Jack hates spending money. He’s rather frank/greedy/mean.
3) Our teacher is very proud/strict/tolerant and won’t let us talk in
class.
4) Helen never does her homework. She is rather gentle/lazy/reliable.
5) I didn’t talk to anyone at the party because I felt ambitious/
lonely/shy.
6) When Harry saw his girlfriend dancing with Paul he felt
jealous/selfish/ sentimental.
7) I don’t like people who are noisy and aggressive/courageous/
sociable.
8) Thank you for bringing us a present. It was very adorable/
grateful/thoughtful of you.
9) Teresa never gets angry with the children. She is very brave/
patient/pleasant.
10) Tom always pays for everyone when we go out. He’s so
cheerful/generous/honest.
10 Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence.

1) She’s a very ….. person – always smiling and in a good mood.


A) cheerful B) delighted C) glad D) pleased
2) He’s a very ……. person – I wish he was a bit more easy-going.
A) bad-tempered B) furious C) mad D) wild
41

3) Don’t tell her off – she’s very …..…. and she may start to cry.
A) responsive B) sensible C) sensitive D) sympathetic
4) People enjoy his company because he’s extremely ………….. .
A) adorable B) likeable C) lovable D) sympathetic
5) If you’ve got a problem, go and talk to her – I’m sure she’ll be …. .
A) patient B) sympathetic C) tolerant D) warm-hearted
6) He has excellent taste in clothes and always dresses ….….…... .
A) cleanly B) healthily . C) smartly D) tastily
7) When his wife started seeing more of the tennis coach, he
became very ………………..... .
A) arrogant B) envious C) jealous D) selfish
8) The twins keep pretending to be each other – they’re such
..................................... children!
A) evil B) miserable C) naughty D) wicked
9) Thank you for my beautiful present. It was very …................. of
you to buy it for me.
A) charitable B) generous C) loyal D) reliable
10) If you give him a message make sure he writes it down
because he’s very …........................ .
A) absent B) forgetful C) mindless D) preoccupied
11) You have to be quite …..... to stand up in front of an audience.
A) self-confident B) self-conscious
C) selfish D) self-satisfied
12) She’s a very …......................... little girl – her parents give her
everything she asks for.
A) consented B) discriminating C) generous D) spoilt
13) He’s a dreadful person – I can’t ....................................…. him.
A) stand B) suffer C) support D) swallow
14) Everyone agrees that he’s a very .................................…. man.
42

A) beautiful B) gorgeous C) handsome D) pretty]


15) When she first went to work in another city, she felt very ...... .
A) abandoned B) alone C) lonely D) single
16) Most people feel …............................... before an examination.
A) absent-minded B) anxious C) eager D) nervy

11 Use the word in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that
fits in the space in the same line.

Jack’s Real Character

How easy is it to understand another


person’s character?
My friend Jack, was once a rather (1) …… ANNOY
person. He was always getting into trouble
at school because he was so (2) ………. OBEY
In class he was very (3) ……..and never TALK
stopped making jokes. The teachers all told
him he was (4) ……. because he interrupted POLITE
them. When I met him he was very (5)
…….. and didn’t want to talk to me at all. FRIEND
People told me that he stole things, and that
he was (6) …… . His school work was
terrible. He didn’t take any (7) …… in his HONEST
PROUD
writing, he never spent enough time doing
his homework, and he was not at all (8)……
CONSCIENCE
One day he saw a gang of boys attacking an
old man. Jack hated (9) …… and he fought
VIOLENT
them all until they ran away. He was
awarded a medal for (10) …… after that,
43

people changed their minds about him. BRAVE

12 Match these words with the descriptions given. Use each word
once only.
bad-tempered determined lazy reliable cheerful frank
mean selfish considerate honest punctual sympathetic

1) You always arrive on time. ........................................................ .


2) You are always happy. ............................................................... .
3) You do what you say you will do. ............................................. .
4) You say exactly what you think. ................................................ .
5) You don’t think about the needs of others. ................................ .
6) You have a strong wish to get what you want. ……….............. .
7) You are unkind, or not willing to spend money. ……............... .
8) You easily become angry with others. ……............................. .
9) You think about the needs of others. ......................................... .
10) You tell the truth and obey the law. ......................................... .
11) You understand the feelings of others. .................................... .
12) You try to avoid work if you can. ............................................ .
44

13 Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each word
once only.
ambitious greedy polite sociable brave imaginative
proud stubborn grateful kind snobbish tolerant

1) I think I’ll stay here on my own, I’m not feeling very ...... today.
2) Diana wants to get to the top in her company. She is very ........ .
3) It’s not ………….................. to stare at people and say nothing!
4) I think you have to be very ………................... to write a novel.
5) Thank you for helping me. It was very …….................... of you.
6) Peter refuses to change his mind, although he is wrong. He’s so
…………………………………………………………………..... .
7) It was very .................... of Sheila to put out the fire on her own.
8) Our neighbours look down on us. They are a bit ……............... .
9) Don’t eat all the cakes! You really are becoming ......................!
10) If you lend me the money I’ll be very ..................................... .
11) I am very ................................................ of my new motorbike.
12) My parents don’t mind my crazy hair style. They are
very ……………………………………………………………..... .

14 Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Ann Johnson – A Confidential Report

Ann Johnson has worked at this college for three years. She is a (1)
…………..... employee, and (2) ………....... on well with the other
members of the department. We have all found her to be an excellent
(3) …………........ She has always been (4) …………...... for her
lessons, and is an extremely (5) ………...... member of staff who is
able to work independently. I can always (6) ………..... on her to
45

organise the end of term play, and she has put on some extremely (7)
…………..... productions. Her students often tell me how (8)
…………..... she is, always ready with a smile, and she has been very
(9) ………...... to many of them. In (10) …………..... she is not very
talkative and seems rather (11) …………...... at first, and might not
show her true (12) ………...... in an interview. Her work is excellent,
and she is (13) …………..... to succeed. She is also quite (14)
………......, and has applied for two other positions as Director of
Studies. I think that you can count (15) ………..... Ann to make your
school a success, and I recommend her for the post of Director.

1) A) conscientious B) conscience C) consciousness D) conscious


2) A) goes B) carries C) gets D) likes
3) A) colleague B) adult C) employer D) fellow
4) A) timed B) late C) hourly D) punctual
5) A) greedy B) reliable C) stubborn D) lazy
6) A) request B) concentrate C) take D) rely
7) A) imaginary B) imagination C) imaginative D) imagined
8) A) tempered B) cheerful C) frank D) proud
9) A) kind B) aggressive C) polite D) mean
10) A) first B) times C) usual D) private
11) A) but B) shy C) however D) alone
12) person B) behaviour C) character D) part
13) A) used B) determined C) had D) supposed
14) A) obedient B) disappointed C) grateful D) ambitious
15) A) on B) for C) with D) to
46

15 Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word


underlined.

1) You can’t rely on Joe. He is very unreliable.


2) Carla has very little patience. She is very …………….............. .
3) Jack shows no interest in this subject. He is .............................. .
4) Pat is lacking in honesty. She is …………………..................... .
5) Bill doesn’t act like a friend. He is ……………….................... .
6) Lisa doesn’t have much experience of this work. She is ..…..... .
7) Peter never acts politely. He is ……….….……….................... .
8) The official did not help us very much. She was ....................... .
9) Graham doesn’t consider other people. He is ............................ .
10) Ann refused to co-operate with the police. She was ................ .

16 Complete each sentence with an adjective from the box. Use each
word once only.

ashamed annoyed disappointed excited exhausted


fascinating glad jealous selfish terrified

1) When her team lost the cup final, Sue felt very disappointed.
2) I was ………....... when Jack accepted my invitation to dinner but
didn’t come.
3) Mark was ………..…..... when he saw smoke coming from the
plane’s engine.
4) Thanks for your letter. I’m …............ to hear that you are feeling
better.
5) David was ............................ to tell his parents that he had been sent
to prison.
6) After running for fifteen kilometres, Christine felt completely .... .
47

7) Helen felt ………………... when she saw her boyfriend talking to


another girl.
8) I felt really........ while I was waiting to meet the star of the film.
9) Mrs Dobson told us about her life. She is a ……............ person.
10) Tom doesn’t think about others, and is rather ......................... .

17 Replace the words underlined in each sentence with one of the


phrases from the box.

are fond of fancy fed up with get on my nerves


give up let me down longing for put me off

1) I’m really looking forward to a few weeks’ holiday!


I’m really longing for a few weeks’ holiday! .
2) Sarah has decided to do without eating chocolate. ………...…. .
3) I wanted to study biology, but my teacher discouraged me. ..… .
4) Sports programmes on television really annoy me. ..……….… .
5) Do you feel like going to the cinema this evening? ……….... .
6) Why can’t you tell the truth? I’m tired of your excuses! …… .
7) Terry and I like going for walks in the country. …….….…… .
8) George agreed to help me, but then disappointed me. …….… .

18 Complete each sentence with a word from the box.

conscience death hand heart mood


tears temper thanks trouble voice

1) The children were happy because their teacher was in a good mood.
2) ............................. to Mr Dawson, our car was repaired in time for
our holiday.
48

3) Ruth was helpful, and went to a lot of .................. to make us


comfortable.
4) Harry was leaning out of the window and shouting at the top of his
……………………………………………..……………..…... .
5) When Alice heard the bad news, she burst into ......................... .
6) Neil is a very kind person. His .................... is in the right place.
7) If you do something bad, it will be on your ....... for a long time.
8) I was really angry, and lost my …........... and shouted at people.
9) We need some help. Could you give us a ……………............. ?
10) The first time I saw a horror film, I was scared to ................... .
19 Complete each part sentence a) to j) with an ending from l) to 10);
a) is done as an example for you.
a) I have started going – .......................6)............................... .
b) When little Tina is grown – ................................................. .
c) I wonder if you could put – .................................................. .
d) Carol doesn’t really get – ..................................................... .
e) Everyone says that Tom – .................................................... .
f) Let’s have some friends – .................................................... .
g) Do you think you could look – ............................................ .
h) Why don’t we all get – ......................................................... .
i) Ellen and Laura were brought – ........................................... .
j) If I have time I’ll drop – ....................................................... .

1) .............................................................. takes after his father.


2) ...................................... together again next Friday evening?
3) .................................... up by an aunt after their parents died.
4) ............................................................ in on Steve for a chat.
5) ............................................... after my dog while I’m away?
6) ......................................... out with George’s younger sister.
49

7) ....................................... round and play charades on Friday.


8) ............................................ on well with her mother-in-law.
9) ............................................ up she wants to be an astronaut.
10) ............................................ us up for a few days next week?

20 Read the text. Some of the lines are correct and some have a word
which should not be there. Find this word.

A What is Smart?
The British are ever generally regarded as the most
1 untidily dressed people in Europe, but I have often
2 thought that to the opposite is true. Take, for example,
3 the wearing of jeans. In many southern European
4 countries, it seems more perfectly acceptable for
5 both teachers and office staff to wear jeans, whereas
6 in Britain jeans are been considered far too
7 casual and are only acceptable if the work is so
8 dirty or unskilled. One office workers in Britain must
9 follow a very much strict dress code. Even in the hottest
10 weather, male employees are most required to wear
11 a suit and tie and female employees who must be
12 dressed in a skirt and tights. In these schools, the
13 dress code is not quite so formal, but staff still tend
14 to wear out shirts and smartish trousers or skirts.
15 The British may not be as stylish as like their European
16 counterparts, but a dress code still does then exist.
B Being Superstitious
Many people are superstitious about different things.
One particular superstition, however, which it is shared
1 by the many people of the world, is the belief that
2 the number 13 is an unlucky number. This is why some
3 buildings do not have a 13th floor, and why some of
50

4 people do not like to sit at a table with 12 other people.


5 Despite this, no one really knows why so many people
6 do not like the number 13, although there are several of
7 theories. Another of common superstition is for people
8 to touch or knock on something made of wood if
9 when they want good luck to come their way or to
10 prevent anything bad from happening to them. People
11 used to believe that certain gods lived inside trees
12 and, whenever they were faced a difficult situation,
13 they would knock on the wood of a tree to ask for
14 the god’s help and protection. Although of this practice
15 continues on today, we often just say “touch wood”.
C Loneliness
Loneliness is a disease of modern living, a result of which
people being more mobile and having more opportunities.
1 With the break-up of family units, there is little of
2 stability on which to build good relationships. Loneliness
3 isn’t something that can be solved itself simply by
4 seeing a counsellor, speaking to someone that on the
5 telephone or to being in the company of a lot of people.
6 Advice been often given includes: joining clubs, taking up a
7 sociable hobby or even by trying a part-time job if you
8 don’t work outside from the house. However, none of this
9 advice will provide with an easy answer. To ease the
10 feeling of emptiness it takes time. Friendships have
11 to be allowed to grow on and deep bonds can’t be
12 formed with just anyone. Anyone might be like a
13 victim of loneliness at some time or other in their
14 lives. If you change jobs, get married to or move,
15 you too might have had problems in a new environment.
51

21 Translate from Russian into English.

1. Филипп вполне порядочный человек. Я думаю, ему можно


доверять. 2. У Грэга скверный характер, и он плохо ладит с
людьми. 3. Боб – смышленый мальчик и все хватает на лету. 4. В
этом доме я чувствую себя неловко (не в своей тарелке). 5. Мистер
Эдвард слишком высокомерен и презирает всех, кого он считает
ниже себя. 6. Я бы на твоем месте не полагался на Тимоти. Он
способен подвести. 7. Я не люблю безответственных людей,
которые обещают и не держат своего слова. 8. Ты говоришь, он
простой парень? А мне он кажется хитрецом и пронырой. 9.
Джереми – добросовестный и прилежный студент. У него нет
проблем со сдачей экзаменов. 10. К сожалению, Патрик не
бережлив и легко тратит деньги. 11. Мэтью – спокойный,
выдержанный, рассудительный человек. В его характере больше
достоинств, чем недостатков. 12. Дядя Том – веселый и
общительный человек, хотя и вспыльчивый, но долго он злиться
не может. 13. Я завидую тем, кто целеустремлен и настойчив в
достижении поставленной цели. 14. Мне бы твою волю и
терпение! 15. Толерантность считается признаком образованного,
культурного человека. 16. Как ты можешь быть таким
лицемерным! Неужели тебе не стыдно? 17. Многие считают, что
состояние экономики скоро улучшится, но некоторые эксперты
остаются скептически настроенными. 18. У Тима явно
технический склад ума, поэтому он хочет поступать в
политехнический институт. 19. Английские жены считают
наиболее нетерпимыми недостатками своих мужей эгоизм,
недостаток ума, инертность, нежелание помогать по дому,
неопрятность, нечестность. 20. Английские мужья больше всего
52

осуждают в своих женах сварливость, глупость, сплетни,


мотовство, эгоизм.

Read and Discuss

TEXT 1

Pre-Reading

A Does your opinion of yourself fully coincide with what other people
think of you? Is it easy to be fairly objective in characterizing your
own self? Give your arguments.

B Comment on the meaning of the two American idioms.

 That’s the way the cookie crumbles.


 Chew fat with somebody.

Reading

Read the text “It’s Мe, Oh Lord!” and do the exercises that follow.
It’s Me, Oh Lord!
Hi, I’m Tom Bailey, or Thomas Millhouse Bailey, to be exact.
Thomas is my first name, or given name, or Christian name. Millhouse
is my middle name and Bailey is my family name or surname. This is
what my birth certificate says. But never mind it, nobody calls me this
way, just Tom or Tommy for short. You may very well forget my
middle name, too. God alone knows where it came from, even my
folks wouldn’t give me a straight answer. It just sounded O.K. to them,
I guess. Well, so be it, here I’m: Thomas Millhouse Bailey, whether
you like it or not.
53

I am a freshman at a Law School and have just turned 18. I do


hope it’s a turn for the better as I’m eager to do something meaningful
in the adult world. To begin with, I got into the School earlier this year
and I enjoy every minute of being there. This is some college! I hope
I’ll tell you about it later on but now let’s stick to the family topic.
Are you curious about my appearance? Well, nothing special,
just an ordinary guy. The only special thing about me is, probably, that
I’m a bit on the talkative side. Not really a chatter-box but I don’t mind
chewing some fat with peers. I’d rather say, I’m not a bad
conversationalist and a story teller. Though I chuckle it sometimes,
that’s just for fun of it, take my word. I’m not after cheating anybody, I
think I’m a good mixer, that’s all. It makes my life a bit like ‘Alice in
Wonderland’.
And so, my looks are pretty conventional. Imagine a fellow of a
medium height about 5’4’’ (five feet four), close cropped chestnut hair,
slim, blue-eyed, a big aquiline nose and long delicate fingers. That’s
me, in person. A born musician-turned-lawyer. How do you like it?
You may wonder if I am attractive. Truly speaking, I don’t give
a damn, or rather, the more polite way, I don’t care about that kind of
stuff. One might say I am, but with guys, it doesn’t really matter as
much as with girls. For them, it’s instrumental, or # 1, as I put it. This
is what they themselves say. As far as I’m concerned, I’d rather not
talk them out of that, they know better. I wouldn’t boast an exquisite
taste but I guess I know a pretty face when I see one. Anyway, this is
only natural.
Being charismatic is my other asset. People enjoy my company,
especially those who are a bit shy or awkward. They are fishing for
words each time they gonna shoot something wise, and they never
make it. It’s mostly me who does all the talking, but I take care not to
54

stick my neck out too far. I let them have their say in all matters we
discuss. All should be fair and square, right? Otherwise they might say
I’m looking down on people, which is not at all true. I just enjoy being
driving force behind each talk. Talking is indeed my cup of tea. I never
feel ill at ease with strangers, let alone with those of my age. They call
me easy-going and free-wheeling. And what’s wrong with that?
Speaking about myself first doesn’t mean I’m selfish. I’m doing
it out of convenience so that you could figure out at once what kind of
person I am, what my likes and dislikes are or whether you really can
stomach the way I’m presenting my story. I admit my language may
sound rather reckless, but that’s the way the cookie crumbles, that’s the
way things are, I can’t help it. That’s my style and my image. Let’s be
democratic, at least for some little while, O.K.?

Post-Reading

A Translate into Russian.

1) All should be fair and square. 2) I’m not looking down on people.
3) I just enjoy being driving force behind each talk. 4) I never feel ill at
ease with strangers. 5) You could figure out at once. 6) Stomach the
way I’m presenting my story. 7) a chatter-box.

B Use alternative words to say the same.

1) I’ve just turned 18. 3) It’s a turn for the better. 4) to do


something meaningful in the adult world; 5) Let’s stick to the
family topic. 6) I chuckle it sometimes. 2) a good mixer; 7) My
looks are pretty conventional. 8) I don’t give a damn. 9) being
charismatic; 10) They are fishing for words. 11) to stick one’s
55

neck out too far.

C Give synonymous words/expressions from the text for:

good-looking; quality; self-conscious; relaxed (pleasant); thing;


fellow; deceive; patronymic; appearance.

D Explain in English.

1) birth certificate; 2) my folks; 3) I’m a freshman; 4) This is some


college!; 5) a bit on the talkative side; 6) not a bad conversationalist;
7) It makes my life a bit like ‘Alice in Wonderland’; 8) a born
musician-turned-lawyer; 9) that kind of stuff; 10) For them it’s
instrumental, #1; 11) I know a pretty face when I see one.

E Give the English for:

1) великолепный вкус; 2) неловкий, неуклюжий; 3) это мой конек,


моя стихия; 4) свободный, раскрепощенный; 5) делать что-либо
из-за удобства, по расчету; 6) небрежный, грубоватый; 7) Я ничего
не могу с этим поделать; 8) достоинство, преимущество.

F Answer the following questions:

1) What does Tom do? 2) What does he look like? 3) Does he care
much about his appearance? 4) What is so special about him? 5) How
does he get on with other people?

G Write down some 200 words about yourself and present your story
in front of the class.
56

TEXT 2

Pre-Reading

A What sort of people can you call ‘eccentric’?


B Give the words similar in meaning to the adjective ‘eccentric’.
Which words convey the opposite meaning?

C Comment on the meaning of the idiom ‘an oddball’.

Reading

Read the texts ‘Calling All Eccentrics’ and ‘The Joys of Eccentricity’
and do the exercises that follow.

Calling All Eccentrics

Do you live in a cave, sleep on the floor or live entirely on


potatoes? If so, then an American doctor would like to hear from you.
According to psychologist Dr David Weeks, many Americans
believe that all British people are eccentrics. So, two years ago, he
began a study to find out more. He advertised in Britain for eccentrics
to contact him. So far, he has examined 130 of the 200 people who
answered.
According to popular belief, eccentrics are wealthy people who
can afford or indulge their eccentricities on a grand scale. But
nowadays eccentrics are just as likely to work at ordinary jobs. One
man, for example, works in a bank from 9 to 5, but in his spare time
carries a bow and arrow and thinks of his home as a leafy corner of
Sherwood Forest. He has officially changed his name to Robin Hood,
57

the name of the legendary British outlaw who lived there in the twelfth
century. Another eccentric is a social worker but lives in a cave and
does long charity walks wearing pyjamas. A third spends all his time in
bed and a fourth lives only on potatoes.
Dr Weeks has found that such oddballs have certain features in
common, they are often eldest children raised in strict homes.
Many have strange eating or sleeping habits and, although
frequently impatient with other people, are generally uncompetitive
and hate sports. They are poor conversationalists, but are often highly
educated and read far more than ordinary people. They are often
creative and inventive, especially in the scientific field. Not surprising
eccentrics tend to live alone and they are more likely to be men. They
outnumber women by two to one.
If you are an eccentric, you can take heart from Dr Week’s
study. Eccentrics are less likely to be mentally ill than more
conventional people and, in his view, provide some harmless, welcome
relief from ordinary people. But different societies treat their eccentrics
differently, so Dr Weeks has now started a new study into American
eccentrics.
Elizabeth Burke. From “BBC English”

The Joys of Eccentricity

Alan loves potatoes. He talks about them endlessly; he eats little


else. He has travelled to Peru and Bolivia to study their origins and has
written a doctoral dissertation on them. Ann’s passion are gnomes: she
has put more than a thousand plaster and concrete gnomes in the
woodland around her home in Devon. John’s passion is giant pandas.
58

To raise money for their preservation he walked over Great Britain in


pyjamas and bare feet.
But in Britain eccentricity is tolerated. It even became the
subject of a scientific study. Psychologists found that eccentrics are
more intelligent, more creative, healthier, happier and they live longer
than most people. Eccentricity often begins in childhood and may even
be inherited. The Prince of Wales is eccentric: he believes in holistic
medicine and chats with plants. One of his relatives kept a boa
constrictor as a pet and had to walk on crutches because his toenails
were 10 inches long. He spent millions building in the Mexican jungle
strange buildings and bridges that went nowhere and doors that opened
onto blank walls. But eccentric were also Benjamin Franklin, Charles
Darwin and Thomas Edison. The true eccentric’s hallmark is curiosity.
Are you one, too?
“American English”

Post-Reading

A Complete the following sentences with the right variant.

1) Dr. Weeks began his study ....................................................... .

a) to contact as many eccentrics as he could.


b) to check what he knew about eccentrics.
c) to get some new pen pals.
d) to learn more information about this sort of people.
59

2) Many eccentrics ........................................................................ .

a) are quite sociable people.


b) are keen on reading.
c) hate living alone.
d) are often likely to be mentally ill.

3) People become eccentrics because they ................................... .

a) may be born like that.


b) were brought up in big families.
c) can afford to indulge their eccentricities.
d) hate sports and are uncompetitive.

4) In Dr. Week’s view eccentrics ................................................. .

a) are less harmful than conventional people.


b) should be treated differently from other people.
c) provide a welcome variety of human nature.
d) can hardly be a subject of scientific study.

B Say if the following statements are true or false.

1. Eccentrics are not likely to work at ordinary jobs.


2. Eccentrics have certain features in common.
3. All scientists, as a rule, are eccentrics.
4. Eccentrics are often eldest children brought up in strict homes.
5. Different societies treat their eccentrics in a similar way.
6. Eccentric women outnumber men by two to one.
7. The British seem to be tolerant to eccentrics.
60

8. Psychologists have found that eccentrics are more intelligent, more


creative, healthier, happier and live longer than most people.
9. The true eccentric’s hallmark is the lack of interest to what
surrounds them.

C Different societies (primitive, underdeveloped, civilized) treat their


eccentrics differently. Comment on this statement.

D Can you give any example of eccentric behaviour from your life
experience (people whom you have met in your life)?

TEXT 3

Pre-Reading

A What distinctive features of the English character can you name?

B. Give synonymous words or expressions for the phrase ‘to be nuts’,


which is a colloquial variant for ‘mad’. Consult a dictionary if
necessary.

Reading

Read the text “Who’s Nuts? Who’s Reserved?” and do the exercises
that follow.
Who’s Nuts? Who’s Reserved?

What about the English character? Everybody says that the


English are cold, reserved and shy – I don’t agree – but the most
reserved of all Englishmen was William John Cavendish Bentick Scot,
fifth Duke of Portland.
He was so shy he lived most of his life underground in a huge
system of rooms and tunnels he had built. After inheriting a beautiful
61

country house from his father, he hired hundreds of workmen and gave
them strict orders that they must not look at him or speak to him. Any
workmen who disobeyed were dismissed immediately.
The Duke hated meeting people and never invited anyone to his
house, but ordered the workmen to build the largest ballroom in
England – underground of course, plus a splendid library and an
enormous billiard room.
The only time the Duke ever left his underground home was at
night. A female servant used to walk several yards ahead of him
holding a light – with orders never to speak or look behind. The Duke
was also a bit crazy in the way he dressed, wearing a floor-length fur
coat in midsummer and always carrying an umbrella whatever the
weather. If he saw anyone who might try to speak to him he used to put
up the umbrella and hide behind it.
Not all the English are as the Duke, but it is true to say that most
of us are crazy about animals. Francis Henry Egerton, eighth Earl of
Bridgewater, for example, was mad about dogs. He had over a dozen of
them, and used to take them riding with him in his carriage.
He disliked human company, and never invited people to dinner,
but always dined with six of his favourite dogs. They were brought to
table dressed fashionably and wearing soft leather boots. Each was
seated at his place, and a napkin tied around his neck by a servant. The
meal was served, the dogs ate off plates, and the Earl conversed with
his canine company.
And if we aren’t crazy about animals, then we’re probably mad
about sports like John Mytton who was nuts about hunting and
shooting duck, preferably stark naked, even in midwinter.

Mandy Loader
62

Post–Reading

A Don’t you think that the Duke of Portland was eccentric rather than
shy? Give your arguments.

B Some people would call Francis Henry Egerton’s way of treating


his dogs just extravagant. What about you?

C What do you think about John Mytton’s way of hunting?

D Skim the text “Many Britons Prefer Pets …” and give its summary.
Many Britons Prefer Pets to People,
Children, Money and Jobs
London. Many British people prefer their household pets to their
spouses, their children, their jobs and even money, according to a
survey published.
One in 10 people questioned by Options magazine considered
their pets more important to their happiness than their marital partners.
About one in five said pets were more important than children,
and more than a third of those questioned thought pets were more
important than a job.
Nearly half of those who responded put pets above money.
A total of 94 per cent said they would prefer to spend time with
their pets rather than watch television.
More than half of pet owners who answered the questionnaire
made it clear that given the choice between staying at home with their
four-legged friends and socializing with people, they would stay at
home.
63

E How can you account for such a passionate love of the British
for their home pets?

F Here is a description of the British as they are seen by other


Europeans: calm, reserved, open-minded, trustworthy, hidebound,
insular, superior, excellent sense of humour.

Comment on the words ‘hidebound’, ‘insular’, ‘superior’ using an


English-English dictionary.
G Sum up what you’ve learned about the British national character.
H Speak about the national character of the people in your native
country.

TEXT 4

Pre-Reading

A Do you think the question “What’s Happiness?” is philosophical?


Why?
B “Happiness is not what you want, but wanting what you have”
(James Stewart). What do you think about it?

Reading

Read the text “Happiness” and do the exercises that follow.


Happiness
Lots of different people call at my church. Some people want to
talk about getting married, or having their babies christened. Some
have very difficult personal problems and are extremely unhappy.
Some want a cup of tea. And some just want to talk.
I remember a few years ago, one of my regular visitors was what
used to be called ‘a gentleman of the road’ – today I suppose people
64

would simply call him a tramp. His name was Barney Teller. Barney
always asked for a cup of hot water – he always brought his own
teabag – and got great pleasure from discussing what he called
‘philosophical questions’.
Once the question was ‘What is happiness?’ The question caught
me by surprise; as strange as it may seem I’m not asked such questions
very often, and so I had to think about it for a long time.
‘Well’, I began, ‘I suppose that for many people happiness
means having enough to eat, a warm place to stay in winter, good
health and enough money for the basic necessities of life.’ I was just
about to go into matters of spiritual happiness, when Barney
interrupted me.
‘Ah, but’, he said, ‘why is it that so many people wish they had
more than just that? Why are they unhappy in spite of their 4-bedroom
houses, dish-washers, deep-freezers, electric tin-openers, electric tooth-
brushes, colour TV’s, big cars and two foreign holidays every year?
Are these things necessities of life?’
Then Barney added that he personally was very happy, even
though he had nothing and never looked for happiness.
‘I don’t wish I were rich or had more money. I don’t even wish I
had a warm place to sleep tonight. I’ll be happy as long as I can walk
and breathe... as long as I can be free’ he said.
This made me think of a poster I had once seen... perhaps you
have seen it, too, but just in case you haven’t I’ll describe it for you.
The poster shows a beautiful butterfly with beautiful gold and red
wings and this beautiful gold and red-winged butterfly had just landed
on someone’s shoulder... and the poster said ‘Happiness is like a
butterfly. If you try to catch it, it will fly away. But if you forget about
it and get on with your life, it may just land on your shoulder.’
65

Suddenly, as I sat there that afternoon with Barney, the tramp, I


began to think, too, of all those people I mentioned before who came to
me with their personal problems. So many were looking for happi-
ness – and never finding it. Perhaps I ought to tell them about Barney
sometimes – and perhaps I ought to tell them that they will never find
happiness if they look for it.

Post-Reading

A Say in alternative words the following.

1) to call at one’s church; 2) to christen a baby; 3) a regular visitor;


4) a gentleman of the road; 5) to catch smb. by surprise; 6) basic
necessities of life; 7) spiritual happiness; 8) to go into the matters of;
9) a tramp; 10) a teabag; 11) a tin-opener; 12) a poster; 13) to get on
with one’s life; 14) to be just about to do smth.

B Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text.

1. Он был одним из постоянных посетителей этого бара. 2. Их


приход застал меня врасплох. 3. Этих денег тебе хватит только на
самое необходимое. 4. Я как раз собирался замкнуть дверь, когда
раздался телефонный звонок. 5. Он может быть счастлив, если
просто светит солнце, небо голубое и можно спокойно дышать
свежим воздухом. 6. Я полагаю, что понятие ‘счастье’ связано
более с духовными, чем материальными ценностями.

С Discuss the following questions.


66

1. Why do people come to the priest? 2. What kind of visitor was


Barney Teller? 3. What questions was he keen on discussing?
4. Barney Teller is a happy man, isn’t he? What makes him happy?
5. What do you think of comparing happiness to a butterfly? Does it
seem convincing to you? What could you compare happiness to?

TEXT 5

Pre-Reading

The old wisdom says that if you cannot change a situation or


circumstances, you had better change your attitude to them.

What would you say to it?

Reading

Read the text “Attitude is Everything” and do the exercises that follow.
Attitude is Everything

Jerry was the kind of guy you love to hate. He was always in a
good mood and always had something positive to say. When someone
would ask him how he was doing, he would reply, “If I were any
better, I would be twins!” He was a unique manager because he had
several waiters who had followed him around from restaurant to
restaurant. The reason the waiters followed Jerry was because of his
attitude. He was a natural motivator. If an employee was having a bad
day, Jerry was there telling the employee how to look on the positive
side of the situation.
67

Seeing this style really made me curious, so one day I went up to


Jerry and asked him “I don’t get it! You can’t be a positive person all
of the time. How do you do it?”
Jerry replied, “Each morning I wake up and say to myself,
‘Jerry, you have two choices today. You can choose to be in a good
mood or you can choose to be in a bad mood.’ I choose to be in a good
mood. Each time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim
or I can choose to learn from it. I choose to learn from it. Every time
someone comes to me complaining, I can choose to accept their
complaining or I can point out the positive side of life. I choose the
positive side of life.”
“Yeah, right, but it’s not that easy,” I protested.
“Yes it is,” Jerry said. “Life is all about choices. When you cut
away all the junk, every situation is a choice. You choose how you
react to situations. You choose how people will affect your mood.”
I reflected on what Jerry said. Soon after that, I left the restaurant
industry to start my own business. We lost touch, but I often thought
about him when I made a choice about life instead of reacting to it.
Several years later, I heard that Jerry did something you are never
supposed to do in a restaurant business: he left the back door open one
morning and was held up at gunpoint by three armed robbers. While
trying to open the safe, his hand, shaking from nervousness, slipped off
the combination. The robbers panicked and shot him.
Luckily, Jerry was found relatively quickly and rushed to the
local trauma center. After 18 hours of surgery and weeks of intensive
care, Jerry was released from the hospital with fragments of the bullets
still in his body. I saw Jerry about six months after the accident. When
I asked him how he was, he replied, “If I were any better, I’d be twins.
68

Wanna see my scars?” I declined to see his wounds, but did ask him
what had gone through his mind as the robbery took place.
“The first thing that went through my mind was that I should
have locked the back door,” Jerry replied. “Then, as I lay on the floor, I
remembered that I had two choices: I could choose to live, or I could
choose to die. I chose to live.”
“Weren’t you scared? Did you lose consciousness?” I asked.
Jerry continued, “The paramedics were great. They kept telling
me I was going to be fine. But when they wheeled me into the
emergency room and I saw the expressions on the faces of the doctors
and nurses, I got really scared. In their eyes, I read, ‘He’s a dead man’.
I knew I needed to take action.”
“What did you do?” I asked.
“Well, there was a big, burly nurse shouting questions at me,”
said Jerry. “She asked if I was allergic to anything. ‘Yes,’ I replied.
The doctors and nurses stopped working as they waited for my reply, I
took a deep breath and yelled, ‘Bullets!’ Over their laughter, I told
them, ‘I am choosing to live. Operate on me as if I am alive, not dead.’

Jerry lived thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of
his amazing attitude. I learned from him that every day we have the
choice to live fully. Attitude, after all, is everything.

Post-Reading

A Use alternative words to express the following.

1) Jerry was the kind of guy you love to hate; 2) If I were any better, I
would be twins; 3) When you cut away all the junk ….... ; 4) We lost
69

touch with .......; 5) Wanna see my scars?; 6) I declined to see his


wounds; 7) an emergency room; 8) a big burly nurse; 9) Life is all
about choices; 10) lose consciousness.

B Give the English for.

1) размышлять над чем-либо; 2) интенсивная терапия; 3) хорошее


настроение; 4) любопытный; 5) иметь аллергию на что-либо;
6) паниковать; 7) собраться с духом; 8) вопить, визжать;
9) испугаться; 10) поразительный, потрясающий; 11) ограбление
(вооруженное)

C Pick up the phrases from the text which characterize Jerry as a


unique and optimistic person.

D Answer the following questions.


1. What did Jerry do? 2. Why did several waiters follow him from
restaurant to restaurant? 3. What could the story-teller hardly believe?
4. What happened to Jerry one day? 5. How different were the
paramedics and the professionals who took care of Jerry? 6. How did
Jerry reveal his sense of humour? 7. Why do you think Jerry survived
in this dangerous situation?

E Discuss the following.

1. Do you think an optimistic viewpoint of things is more preferable


than a pessimistic one? Give your arguments. 2. Do you think people
are born to be optimistic and pessimistic? Is there a chance for a
pessimist to become more optimistic? 3. Which are you? A pessimist
or an optimist?
70

UNIT 2
HOME, HOUSE AND FACILITIES

Starting-Up
There are many different types of housing in Britain, ranging
from the traditional thatched country cottage to flats in the centre of
towns. Houses are often described by the period in which they were
built (e. g., Georgian, Victorian, 1930s, or post-war) and whether they
are terraced, semi-detached or detached. As well as preferring houses
to flats, for many people a garden is also an important consideration.
Although Britain is relatively small the areas where people live vary
considerably: there are new towns and inner cities, suburbs, commuter
belts and the open countryside.

1 Read the descriptions of houses below and decide which of them is


for the English: a) the most desirable; b) second best; c) less
desirable; d) the least desirable.
a. Terraced houses are usually found in inner cities. They can be
anything up to 150 years old and were often built by industries to
house their workers near the factories. They are built in long rows
where each house is attached to the ones on either side. The back of
this type of house faces the back of another identical row of houses, so
they are often-known as ‘back to backs’. In recent years many terraced
houses have been renovated; central heating has been added and other
improvements made to what was originally a simple and sometimes
primitive home with an outside toilet and no bathroom.
b. Semi-detached houses have been built in large numbers since the
1930s, when Britain’s towns and cities expanded into suburbs. Each
71

house is part of a pair and is joined on one side to its partner. The semi
usually has a small back and front garden, three bedrooms and a small
bathroom. It is the most popular type of house in Britain and could be
called the home of ‘Mr. and Mrs. Average’. Towns in Britain have
areas which contain streets and streets of semis, often with well-kept
gardens.

c. The detached house stands by itself, usually with a garden all


around it. These houses are much more expensive than semis and are
often owned by professional people. Most detached houses are to be
found in affluent suburbs or in the ‘green belt’ – a strip of protected
open countryside around a city, where no industrial development or
major building schemes are allowed. Some large cities (particularly
London) also have a ‘commuter belt’ – so-called because the
professionals who live there travel (commute) every day to work into
the city by train or car. London is surrounded by miles and miles of
‘commuter belt’. Some commuters travel up to three or four hours a
day to get from their homes to the inner city.

d. Britain is famous for its country cottages which were often built on
the country estates of wealthy landowners. The workers on the estate
rented the cottages from the landowner and worked on the land.
Cottages were also frequently built around a village green. Cottages
have low ceilings, wooden beams and sometimes a thatched roof. In
recent years some cottages have become second homes, bought by
professionals during the economic boom of the 1980s.

e. In the 1950s and 1960s local councils cleared a lot of the slums in
the inner city areas and knocked down terraced houses in very poor
areas. The people were re-housed in tower blocks on the outskirts of
72

the city or in the centre of the city. Tower blocks can vary from 3-5
storeys high up to 10-20 storeys high. Each storey contains 5 or 6 flats
for families. In recent years local councils have tried to improve the
areas around tower blocks by creating ‘green space’, children’s
playgrounds and facilities for the community to use. Some tower
blocks in large cities like London can be very dangerous at night and
they have been criticised for their long dark corridors, which encourage
crime and vandalism.

f. A bungalow is a small house in which all the rooms are on the


ground level. Many old people live in bungalows because there are no
stairs to climb. In Britain, large groups of bungalows are often built
together on the edges of towns, or in places were people go to live
when they have retired from work, such as the south coast. Many
people find these groups of bungalows boring to look at.

g. The town house, which can be found in the inner areas of most
cities, is an exception to the general pattern. There is great variety
regarding both design and use. They often have three or more floors,
perhaps including a basement or semi-basement. Although they are
usually terraced, those that are well-preserved and in a ‘good’ area may
be thought highly desirable. Many have been broken up into flats or
rooms for rent. Most of the comparatively small number of people who
rent from private owners live in flats of this kind.
73

2 Using the information you have read above try to guess which type
of house is meant in the following sentences.
1) A …........................… house not only ensures privacy, but is also
a status symbol.
2) Most people would be happy to live in a ….....................…….. ,
reminiscent of pre-industrial age.
3) The dislike of living in ……......…..… is very strong in Britain.
4) In other countries millions of people live reasonably happily
in ......................................................................................................... .
5) ....…....................……. at the end of the row are a bit more
desirable – they are the most like a semi-detached.
6) A ……..............................… house usually has no way through to
the back except through the house itself.
7) Many older people dream of going to live in a …......................
when they retire.

3 Try to explain which of these homes is the best for the following
people.

a) an old couple; b) a couple with two young children; c) a family


of six; d) two students; e) a musician who practices at home; f) a
writer who finds it hard to sleep.

Vocabulary Focus

1 Characterize the following types of houses which have not been


mentioned previously. Use a dictionary if necessary.
74

a. caravan d. dwelling g. palace


b. castle e. hut h. tent
c. houseboat f. mansion i. cabin

2 Study the kinds of flats given below. Speak on their good and bad
points. Which one is more to your liking?

 A basement is a part of a building consisting of rooms that


are partly or completely below the level of the ground.
 A bed-sitter, (formal bed-sitting room) is a rented room
which has a bed, table, chairs and somewhere to cook in it;
a combined bedroom and living room, especially one that is
rented and serves as somebody’s residence.
 A maisonette is a small apartment on two levels which is part
of a larger building but has its own entrance.
 A penthouse is a luxurious apartment or set of rooms at the
top of a hotel or tall building.
 A self-contained flat has everything that is needed within
itself (its own kitchen, bathroom, and entrance).
 A studio (UK also studio flat, esp. US studio apartment) can
also be a small apartment designed to be lived in by one or two
people. It usually has one large room for sleeping and living in,
a bathroom and possibly a separate kitchen.
3 Draw a plan of a house and point out where the following parts
are situated.
a. attic e. ground floor i. backyard
b. loft f. basement j. gate
c. balcony g. cellar k. fence
d. first floor h. porch l. front door
75

4 All of the words below can be used instead of live. Using a


dictionary if necessary, match them with their definitions.

a. inhabit c. occupy e. settle g. lodge


b. reside d. squat f. stay h. dwell

1) to start to live in a place (after moving from somewhere else)


2) [of large groups of people or animals] to live in a country or area
3) to live in a place for a while as a visitor or guest
4) [formal] to have one’s home in a place
5) to be in (a house or room)
6) [literary or old use] to live in a place
7) to stay in someone else’s home in exchange for paying rent
8) to live in an unused building without permission and without
paying rent.

5 Complete the following sentences with the missing words which


answer the question ‘Where do they live?’.
1) Most English families live in a h……….. house
2) A king lives in a p………….…..…....……….
3) A monk lives in a m………….....…...……….
4) A nun lives in a c……………..…...………….
5) Soldiers lives in a b…………...…….………..
6) A prisoner lives in a c………..…….…………
7) A gipsy lives in a c...........................................
8) An Eskimo lives in an i………….…..……….
9) A bee lives in a h………….….…....…………
10) A bird lives in a n………….…...…..……….
11) A dog lives in a k…………..…..…..……….
12) A horse lives in a s…………....…….………
76

13) A pig lives in a s…………….…..……………


14) A spider lives in a w…………....…….………

6 Fill in the blanks with the words of the same root. The first is
given as an example.

Verb Noun Adjective Adverb


1. house house ––––––– –––––
2. dwell
3. resident
4. inhabitable
5. lodger
6. accommodate
7. comfortably
8. urban
9. rent
10. decorator
11. homeward

7 A Make two lists of words, word combinations and set expressions


with the words ‘home’ and ‘house’. Use a dictionary if needed.
e.g. home house
homework housework
home town/country/land household
homecoming housing
home-made housewife
Continue these lists as long as you can.

B Write down six sentences of your own using any items from the
lists above.

8 Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.


77

The well-known saying, ‘An Englishman’s home is his


castle’, illustrates the desire for privacy and the importance
attached to ownership which seem to be at the heart of the British
attitude to housing.
Flats are not popular just because they do not give enough
privacy. As important as privacy is the opportunity of individual
self-expression. People like to choose the colour of their own front
door and window frames, and also to choose what they are going to
do with a little bit of outside territory, however small that may be.
The possibilities of displaying individuality, offered by the
front garden, are almost endless. In any one street, some are
paved, some are full of flowerbeds with paths in between, others
are just patches of grass, others are a mixture of these.
Just as the British idea of home is a mental concept as much
as a physical reality, so is the idea of domestic comfort. The
important thing is to feel cosy – that is, to create an atmosphere
which seems warm even if it isn’t really warm.
Despite the reverence they tend to feel for ‘home’, British
people have little deep-rooted attachment to their house as an
object, or to the land on which it stands. It is the abstract idea of
‘home’ which is important, not the building. This will be sold when
the time and price is right and its occupiers will move into some
other house which they will then turn into ‘home’ – a home which
they will love just as much as they did the previous one.
Most British people do not ‘belong’ to a particular place, nor
are they usually brought up in a long-established family house to
which they can always return. Perhaps this is why they are not
usually content to rent their accommodation. Wherever they are,
78

they like to put down roots. So, the desire to own the place where
you live is almost universal in Britain.

B Give word-combinations, using the adjectives in the box and any


nouns that match them:

own private individual mental domestic cosy


particular abstract content physical universal

e.g. own (house; family; experience; duty; fate)


C Discuss with your partners what ‘privacy’ and ‘self-expression’
mean.

D Speak on the mental and physical components of the British


concept of ‘home’.
9 Comment on the following English proverbs. Give their Russian or
Belarusian equivalents.

 Men make houses and women make homes.


 An Englishman’s home is his castle.
 Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
 Charity begins at home.

Discussion Focus
1 Work in small groups and find out from your partners:
 if they like or dislike their present home
 what differences between homes in their country and Britain
are
79

 about the advantages and drawbacks of living with your


(one’s) parents

2 Which of the facilities in the list do you use often? Which ones
do you think are important? Are there any other facilities not
mentioned which you would like to have in your neighbourhood?

What Do You Need in Your Neighbourhood?

Important Useful Not important


launderette ________ _____ ___________
library ________ _____ ___________
cinema ________ _____ ___________
supermarket ________ _____ ___________
bank ________ _____ ___________
post office ________ _____ ___________
swimming pool ________ _____ ___________
tennis courts________ _____ ___________
newsagent’s ________ _____ ___________
football pitch ________ _____ ___________
basketball pitch ________ _____ ___________
park ________ _____ ___________
restaurant ________ _____ ___________
clothes shop ________ _____ ___________
art gallery ________ _____ ___________
bus stop ________ _____ ___________
video hire shop ________ _____ ___________
hairdresser ________ ______ ___________
pharmacy ________ ______ ___________
80

pub/cafe ________ ______ ___________

3 Describe the location of the house you live in. Make use of the
vocabulary given below.

A The house you live in can be located


 in a superb modern complex
 in a side street
 in a lane
 in the city centre
 in the suburb
 in a residential area of the city (select area)
 on the main road
 off the main busy road / with heavy traffic
 far from the city centre
 convenient for public transport
 near the metro station
 close to the bus stop
 about ….. metres from …..
 some minutes’ walk from .....
 handy for .....
 a stone’s throw from .....
B A house can:
 overlook the river .….
 look over the public library …..
 face the garden .….
 have a lovely/pleasant view on…

C Name essential services/facilities that make life in your


neighborhood easy and pleasant, i.e. a park, a shopping center, a
cinema, etc.

4 A Discuss with your partners what your ideal living room should
contain.
81

B Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.


We were to move in in a week and we spent every spare minute
we had in the house making preparations. We got some wallpaper and
paste, and borrowed buckets and brushes. We stripped the walls, and
papered them, and I cleaned the place out and polished the big metal
grate in the living-room. When we’d done that, on the Sunday evening,
we looked round with pride. “Of course,” Charlie said doubtfully, “it
would look better if we had a bit of furniture.” We had bed linen and
towels that Charlie’s mother had given us as a wedding present and
some odds and ends of cutlery and crockery. Joe urged us to buy our
furniture on the never-never system, and offered to lend us the money.
Even though I hated taking it we agreed to accept the loan. We got a
bed, oil-cloth for the living-room floor and a rug. That was all. We
needed a table, but decided to get one second-hand. My grandfather
gave us a chair and a small dresser. Nora and Joe gave us a little chest-
of-drawers and another chair. We had newspaper curtains and a
newspaper table-cloth but we were pretty pleased with ourselves and
our new home.
Jane Walsh

1) Make a list of the furniture items and other household things the
newly married couple got for their first home.

2) If you were in their place, would you need anything else essential
for starting a family life?

3) Do you think the never-never or hire-purchase system is really


helpful for many people, young couples in particular?
82

C Discuss with your partners the problem of flat repairs. Speak on


the advantages and drawbacks of a) doing it by yourselves, b) having
workmen to do it for you. Try to use the following words and
expressions:
to re/decorate bright blinds
to install gloomy burglar alarm
to do up outdated smoke detector
to restyle modern electrical wiring
to freshen up attractive fitted carpets
to renovate ugly utility room
to build in worn-out curtains
to finish built-in chandelier
to enlarge convenient rug
to remove shabby settee
to transform cosy cushions
5 Country or City?

A highly debatable problem of nowadays is whether it’s better to live


in the country or in a big city.

A Discuss your preferences with the partners.


B Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.
83

Back to Nature
I am one of the many city people who are always saying that
given the choice we would prefer to live in the country away from the
dirt and noise of a large city. I have managed to convince myself that if
it weren’t for my job I would immediately head out for the open spaces
and go back to nature in some sleepy village buried in the country. But
how realistic is this dream?
Cities can be frightening places. The majority of the population
live in massive tower blocks, noisy, squalid and impersonal. The sense
of belonging to a community tends to disappear when you live fifteen
floors up. All you can see from your window is the sky, or other blocks
of flats. Children become aggressive and nervous – cooped up at home
all day, with nowhere to play: their mothers feel isolated from the rest
of the world. Strangely enough, whereas in the past the inhabitants of
one street all knew each other, nowadays people on the same floor in
tower blocks don’t even say hello to each other.
Country life, on the other hand, differs from this kind of isolated
existence in that a sense of community generally binds the inhabitants
of small villages together. People have the advantage of knowing that
there is always someone to turn to when they need help. But country
life has disadvantages too.
While it is true that you may be among friends in a village, it is
also true that you are cut off from the exciting and important events
that take place in cities. There’s little possibility of going to a new
show or the latest movie. Shopping becomes a major problem, and for
anything slightly out of the ordinary you have to go on an expedition to
the nearest large town. The city-dweller who leaves for the country is
often oppressed by a sense of unbearable stillness and quiet.
84

Some people have found (or rather bought) a compromise


between the two; they have expressed their preference for the “quiet
life” by leaving the suburbs and moving to villages within commuting
distance of the large conurbations.
What then of my dreams of leaning on a cottage gate, chewing a
piece of grass and murmuring “morning” to the locals as they pass. I’m
keen on the idea, but you see there’s my cat, Toby. I’m not at all sure
that he would take to all that fresh air and exercise in the long grass. I
mean, can you see him mixing with all those hearty males down on the
farm? No, he would rather have the electric imitation-coal fire any
evening.

1) Say if you share the author’s views on the country and town life.
Does the author sound convincing in his reasoning?

2) Study the following phrases which hint at the arguments concerning


the country and town life. Develop them into full statements and sort
them out as arguments and counter-arguments:

e.g. The rush hour


You can hardly avoid the rush hour in a big city.
Quiet and peaceful
In a village you are likely to enjoy quiet and peaceful
existence.

traffic jams; overcrowded buses; quiet and peaceful; lose touch with
nature; air-conditioned existence; more chances of employment; plenty
of fresh air; high rents; high crime rate; a feeling of belonging to the
community; isolated existence; more opportunity to succeed in life;
high cost of living; dull life; a big variety of entertainment; a house of
85

your own; more stressful; packed trains; difficult to control; big stores;
the rush-hour.

6 What I like and dislike about my own town or city

A Read the interviews of four Londoners and do the tasks that follow.

Peter Wilson: ‘The most difficult part of living in London is the


appalling transport facilities, everything from roads to underground,
and we don’t seem to be doing anything about it. The problem is at the
top; they spend millions doing up the stations and nothing on the
services. I think it is dirty because the British are dirty. They drop
things. In this country there is a culture of the countryside; as soon as
you have made your pile you move out of town. I think one reason
London is such a poor place is that not enough rich people live here.
They all live outside.’

Shirley Wilson: ‘I don’t think it’s very safe, but I should not want to
live anywhere else. I am very wary when using transport but the
dangers are part of city life. I like everything in London, the theatres
and the cinemas, but the people are less friendly than elsewhere.’

Jad Adams: ‘The bad things like crime and high house prices are
exaggerated. People have always felt life was worse in the cities but if
they hated it that much they would live in Milton Keynes.’

Sallika Wijesinghe: ‘I don’t go out after six at night. When I first came
to England about 20 years ago you could walk the streets at two a.m.
without fear, but I have been mugged and abused and will not go out
alone. It is an amusing and entertaining place, but there is too much
86

liberty, no discipline. I think it is a very difficult city to manage. The


underground is alright but the bus services are awful. You wait for
hours and then 16 come together, all empty. The roads are full of pot-
holes, you are always falling into pot-holes. What is needed is stricter
administration.’

B Tick which points each speaker mentions. Explain what they said
about each point.
Entertainment Safety Transport Money Litter People
Peter .................................................................................................
Shirley …………………................……………………...………...
Jad ………............…….....………….…………………..………....
Sallika ……………….........……………………….…………….

C What is your own town or city like? Exchange the information with
your patners.
7 Over the recent years there seems to have been a swing against the
popularity of high-rise buildings

A Discuss with your patners strong and weak points of living in high-
rise houses.

B Read the text below and do the tasks that follow.

Flats in the Clouds


Blocks of “high-rise” flats have been erected in large numbers in
London and in many other big cities. Just after the Second World War
these immense twenty-to-thirty storey buildings, hundreds of feet in
height, were thought to be the ideal solution to the dual problem of
acute housing shortage and lack of space in urban areas. At first, the
87

ultramodern apartments were much sought after by city dwellers, and


hundreds of the vast blocks had been built before anyone began to
doubt that they were suitable places for people, children especially, to
live in. A well-known British architect, who personally designed many
of these buildings, now believes that they may well have inflicted a
great deal of suffering on those people who have been housed in them,
and evidence has been amassed by sociologists which suggests that
severe loneliness and deep depression are brought about by life within
these great towers. Some psychologists even maintain that an unduly
large proportion of their inhabitants suffer from mental disorders and
develop criminal tendencies.

C Say if your ideas are in any way similar to those of the author.

D Pick out the key-words/phrases to describe:


 multi-storeyed buildings
 reasons for their erection
 reasons for disappointment in them

E Read the interview with Professor Hill about the prospects of


high-rise housing.

Professor: Well, first of all, I think, we must make a clear distinction


between residential and commercial buildings. Where land is in fact
still very expensive – especially in the center of cities – high office
buildings are still being built. And some companies get prestige from
operating from a large modern beautiful building.
Well, some luxury flats are sill being built and the highest in the
world is at Lake Point Towers in Chicago. The highest in the United
88

Kingdom is the Shakespeare Tower, Barbican, in the City of London.


But in the public sector housing – that’s council flats – they’re no
longer being built at the rate they were in the 60s and early 70s. And
the reasons for this are quite numerous: people feel very isolated in
them and lonely and they have this terrible feeling of being cut off
from the real world. So many of these flats were getting vandalised and
smashed up – the windows were being broken, lifts damaged and so
on. And oddly enough perhaps this doesn’t seem to happen in
privately-owned blocks. They tend to be much more secure. But
perhaps that’s because they’ve got porters or even guards to protect
them.
Interviewer: Yes, what do you think can be done to prevent vandalism?

1) What new facts do you learn from the interview about high-rise
buildings?
2) Explain the notion of ‘vandalism’.
3) Can you guess what Professor Hill’s suggestions are? What are
your ideas about preventing vandalism?
4) Now read Professor Hill’s answer and compare it with yours.

Professor: Well, vandalism can only be prevented by encouraging the


tenants to take a pride in where they live, to feel that they own their
environment. Not housing families in these large high-rise blocks —
perhaps only single people or at least only childless couples. And ... um
... building more low-rise accommodation and, I have to say, that...
er ... in the last resort if all else fails, by blowing up the blocks which
attract the vandals.
Interviewer: That seems a wee bit drastic.
Professor: Well, in many cases, it’s the only thing that can be done.
89

8 The Place of My Dream

A Scan the three descriptions and underline all the place words you
can find. List the words under the following headings.

1) housing, e.g. flat; 2) facilities, e.g. shop;


3) communities,
e.g. town; 4) parts of a community, e.g. outskirts;
5) natural
features, e.g. mountain.

B Add any other words you know, and then compare your lists with
those of your partners.
a. My dream home would be a large flat on the top floor of a
luxury apartment block in a quiet residential area of a large
city. There would be parks and other open spaces around,
and it would be quite close to mountains. I wouldn’t want it
to be a seaside resort, but it shouldn’t be too far from the
coast.

b. If I could live anywhere I liked, I’d choose an old house in


the centre of a medium-sized town. The town would have all
the normal modem facilities like banks, cinemas and
supermarkets. Ideally it would also be of historical interest
with a castle or an old church, but it shouldn’t be too
popular with tourists. It would be close to water of some
kind - perhaps a river or a lake.

c. If I could choose, I’d live in a small cottage in a country


lane on the outskirts of a village. The village would have a
90

few small shops and a friendly pub. It would be surrounded


by countryside and be about ten miles from the nearest
town. Ideally, it would be in a hilly area close to a forest.

C Think about your dream (or nightmare) home and describe it to


your partner.

D What will the 21st century houses be like? Discuss it with your
partners.

9 People sell, buy houses and also let them for rent
A What do you think people pay attention to when buying a house?
Discuss it with your partners.

B Read the following advertisements for homes taken from a British


estate agent’s publicity. Assuming you had the money, which home, if
any, would you want to look at and why?
a. Spacious Victorian terraced house enjoying views across the city.
Handy for local shops, buses, schools, etc. Porch, entrance hall, 2
impressive reception rooms, kitchen/breakfast room, bathroom with
shower, 3 bedrooms, gas central heating, small but delightful garden.

b. A purpose-built upper floor flat located in one of the city’s prime


residential areas, some 10 minutes’ walk from the city centre and
railway station. Close to local shops and canal path walks.
Commanding superb views over the city and surrounding hills. Gas
central heating, hall, 6m x 4m living room, bathroom, 2 double
bedrooms with wardrobes, garage.

c. Southern outskirts of the city: a double-fronted pre-war semi-


detached 3 bed-roomed house in a quiet tree-lined road. Convenient
91

for local shops and city buses. Period hall, good-sized lounge, dining
room, utility room/storeroom, electric storage heaters, double-glazing,
charming mature garden, garage.

d. A very well-proportioned detached bungalow, not far from the city


centre, containing a luxury kitchen, an impressive open-plan living
room with a fireplace, 4 double bedrooms, and 2 bathrooms. Gas
central heating, fair decorative order throughout, large secluded
garden, and double garage.

C The following adjectives are all taken from the advertisements


above. Put them in the table according to whether their meanings
relate to size, distance, age or quality.

spacious fair good-sized prime superb pre-war


close period impressive luxury open-plan mature
not far secluded handy convenient charming
well-proportioned double-fronted purpose-built

Size Distance Age Quality

Practising Vocabulary
1 Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to
the underlined phrases.
1) I live in a Council House. 2) Rents are quite reasonable in this part
of the city. 3) I hope you’ve settled down comfortably in your new
home. 4) We’ve just moved in, that’s why our living room is in such a
92

mess. 5) I like built-in furniture, it’s so practical. 6) Please, wipe your


feet on the mat before you come in. 7) There’s plenty of room for a
fridge next to this kitchen cabinet. 8) The kitchen smells of gas. 9) The
tap is leaking. I’ll have to get the plumber in to have it repaired. 10)
We’ve been looking for domestic help for quite a while. 11) I do some
little repairs in the house, once in a while. 12) Is there a socket where I
can plug in the tape-recorder? 13) The waste-bin is full again. I’ll
empty it. Are there any more bin-liners? 14) We keep our skis up in the
attic during the summer. They are out of the way up there. 15) The
light-switch for the stairs is on the landing as you come out of your
bedroom.

2 Match the words from the list with the explanations.

bridge bungalow caravan castle cottage


semi-detached house terraced house tower

a) A strong building made in the past to defend people against enemies.


...castle…
b) A small house on wheels which is pulled by a car.
c) A house which is one of a pair of houses joined together.
d) A small house with only one floor.
e) This carries a road or railway over a river.
f) A house which is part of a row of houses all joined together.
g) A small house in the country.
h) A tall building standing alone, or as part of a castle or church.
93

3 Use the words given in capitals at the end of each line to form a
word that fits in the space in the same line. The first sentence is an
example.

Moving House

Moving house is said to be the third most (0) ...stressful... STRESS


experience you can have (coming after the (1) ..... DIE
of a close relative, or a divorce). The reason for
this is partly the (2) ........ involved, but also the ORGANISE
feeling of (3) ........ caused by completely changing SECURITY
your environment. Of course, a (4) ...... approach can SYSTEM
help ease the difficulties, especially on the day of
(5) ............. . Plan your packing carefully or, better, REMOVE
employ a (6) ........... company to pack and move RELY
your things.
This will (7) ......... lessen the amount of damage CERTAIN
to your (8) .............. It’s also a good idea to take POSSESS
out (9) ............... . Some worry is, of course, INSURE
(10) ....... but try to keep calm and look forward to AVOIDABLE
life in your new home.

4 Choose the correct word underlined in this sentence.

a) Will you be at home/at house later this evening?


b) Paul’s room is at the top of the stairs/steps opposite the bathroom.
c) Can you remember to clean the wash-basin/sink in the bathroom?
d) The rooms downstairs are so low I can touch the roof/ceiling.
e) Tony is a keen cooker/cook and always uses an electric cooker/cook.
94

f) You’ll find plates in the cupboard/wardrobe next to the fridge.


g) Ann was sitting at/to her desk, but Chris was sitting in/on an
armchair.
h) I won’t be long. I’m just going upstairs for a bath/a bathe.
i) Lisa didn’t like doing homework/housework, so she paid a cleaner.
j) Under the house there’s a cave/cellar where we keep our old things.
5 Replace the words underlined by one of the words from the list.

capital crowded international isolated


local neighbouring rural urban

a) It’s much healthier to live in a country area, far away from the city.
....rural....
b) Sue has just moved to a nearby town.
c) We lived in the middle of nowhere in an out of the way cottage.
d) Paris is the most important city of France.
e) There is not a lot of world news in this newspaper.
f) I do my shopping at the neighbourhood shops, not in the town
centre.
g) At weekends the town centre is always full of people.
h) There is far too much pollution nowadays in city areas.

6 Use two words from the list to make a word and use the new word to
complete the sentence. One word is used twice.
dust room book down flower stairs wash ash basin
chair bin key arm bed case dish hole tray washer

a) It’s very cold in my .................., and I find it hard to sleep.


bed+room=bedroom
95

b) Sarah spent all afternoon sitting in a large .... in front of the TV.
c) I left my socks soaking in the ........................... in the bathroom.
d) Do you think you could put all your rubbish outside in the ...... ?
e) There is a beautiful ........ full of roses right outside my window.
f) Don’t worry about the washing-up. We’ll put everything in
the ........................................................................................................ .
g) I can’t open the front door. Something is stuck in the ............... .
h) If you really insist on smoking, please use this ......................... .
i) Can you come ................ ? There’s someone at the door for you.
j) In this .......................... are the dictionaries and an encyclopedia.

7 Complete each sentence with a word from the list.


carpet curtains cushion drawer
pillow radiator settee socket

a) Is that chair comfortable, or would you like to use a ....cushion......?


b) Peter couldn’t use his computer as there wasn’t
a .................................. in the room.
c) This house has central heating, and there’s a ...... in every room.
d) I was so tired that I fell asleep as soon as my head touched
the ......................................................................................................... .
e) Could you draw the ................................ ? Someone is staring
through the window.
f) My bedroom has a fitted ........................................... which covers
the whole floor.
g) The knives and forks are in the second ...................... on the left.
h) Come over here and sit next to me on the …….....…................. .
96

8 Choose the most suitable word underlined in each sentence.

a) We arranged to meet in the centre of town in the main place/square.


b) Their cottage is in the heart of some beautiful country/countryside.
c) The children spent all day playing on the sandy beach/seaside.
d) I dropped my ice-cream on the earth/ground, so I couldn’t eat it.
e) This footpath/pavement leads across the fields to the village.
f) There was a wonderful scenery/view from my hotel room.
g) You can’t stop here. Car-park/Parking is not allowed in this street.
h) Helen decided to leave the country/land and work abroad.
i) Buses pass the bus station/stop outside my house every ten minutes.

9 Complete each sentence with a verb from the list in a suitable form.
You can use a verb more than once.

drop finish get look move put take turn

a) I’ve got nowhere to stay tonight. Can you ...put.... me up ?


b) We’ve bought a new house but we can’t ..... in until next month.
c) Adrian doesn’t ................................ on with his neighbours, because
they are so noisy.
d) Jan likes cooking, but she says it ................. up a lot of her time.
e) Don’t forget to .............. off the television before you go to bed.
f) Helen has done most of the decorating and plans
to ......................................... it off tomorrow.
g) I have a large room, and it .............. out onto a beautiful garden.
h) Karen and Mike live next door and they often ....... in for a chat.
97

10 Fill the gaps in this passage with this, their, a, the, or 0 (i.e. no
article). Give a summary of the text.

60% of families in ............ UK own ............ own homes after


borrowing money (known as ............ mortgage) from ............ building
society or bank. They have to make ............ monthly repayment
of ............ total sum (plus interest) for 20-25 years. Borrowers can
usually borrow ............ sum equivalent to three times ............ annual
salary, but need to put down ........... cash deposit of 10% of ...........
purchase price. ............ people in Britain tend to move ........... home
several times in ........... lives. ............ typical pattern is for ............
young couple to start as ‘first-time buyers’ in ............ small flat or
house, then move to ........... larger house when they have ............
family and, when ........... children have left ............ home, to move into
........... smaller house or bungalow. Usually they move into ............
other people’s houses or into ........... new home that has been built
on ............ new estate by ............ builder. Families in ............ lower
income groups are more likely to live in ............ rented
accommodation, for example in ......... council house or flat.
Moving home can be ............ stressful experience, only slightly
less traumatic than ........... bereavement or divorce. Often ........... buyer
and seller of ............ house are part of ............ ‘chain’, where ............
sale of one house depends on ............ whole series of strangers
doing ........... same thing at ............ same time. If one deal falls through
at ........... last moment, ........ whole chain breaks down and no one is
able to move.
98

11 Complete each part sentence a) to h) with one of the endings 1) to


8).

a) Please sit down and make yourself. 4) at home, while I make tea.
b) Many of our language students share …………............…….... .
c) I like Do-It-Yourself, but I’ve decided to have …...........……... .
d) Alan seems to have so many clothes that he can never find ….. .
e) If you can’t find the house you can always ask for …….....…... .
f) Susan lives on the tenth floor of ……….............................….... .
g) If you are short of money you can buy ….......................……... .
h) As we live in a semi-detached house, we hear ……........…….. .

1) room for all of them in the wardrobe.


2) a block of flats on the south side of the city.
3) directions at the bus-station.
4) at home, while I make some tea.
5) accommodation in the villages nearby.
6) the decorating done by a local firm.
7) a lot of noise through the wall from the family next door.
8) furniture from the street market near the cathedral.

12 Choose the most suitable word for each space.

A House in the Country

The house is situated among beautiful (1) .....b....., two miles from the
nearest village, surrounded by (2) .................. On a (3) .................. a
short distance from the house is a (4) ............., and a small (5)
….............. flows past the end of the garden, which also contains a
small (6) …......... The name of the house, Rose Cottage, is on the
garden (7) ..........., from which a (8) ........... leads to the (9).............
99

door. On the (10) .............. floor there is a large (11) …........... room, a
dining room, a kitchen, and (12) …...... and toilet. (13) …......... there
are three bedrooms. There is also a garage next to the house. The
village has a post (14) ............, pub and supermarket, and there is a
railway (15) ................ three miles away.
1) a) view b) scenery c) sights d) looks
2) a) grass b) flats c) earth d) fields
3) a) mountain b) peak c) hill d) summit
4) a) wood b) greenery c) jungle d) forest
5) a) river b) channel c) stream d) canal
6) a) lake b)bath c) water d)pond
7) a) gate b) door c) opening d) entrance
8) a) road b) path c) way d) pavement
9) a) forward b) front c) first d) further
10) a) bottom b) back c) ground d) earth
11) a) lounge b) seating c) saloon d) living
12) a) bath b) bathroom c) basin d) washing
13) a) Over b) Up c) Upstairs d) Higher
14) a) shop b) centre c) place d) office
15) a) station b) stop c) post d) base

13 Fill each space with a word from the list and make a compound
word.

about bridge ground path park roads side skirts

a) Our children spend a lot of time having fun at the local


play ............ground…....
b) When you reach the cross ....................., take the road to Linton.
100

c) You have to turn left when you reach the next round ................ .
d) We can’t leave the car here. We’ll have to look for a car .......... .
e) Follow this foot ........................... until you reach the main road.
f) There was an old woman selling fruit at the road ……….......... .
g) Paula lives on the out ..................................... of the town, where the
countryside begins.
h) You can cross the railway line by walking over a foot ….......... .

14 Read the following ads and write down paragraphs to describe the
houses they offer, using full grammatical sentences. The ad in italics is
given as an example.

13 Orchard Lane 13 Orchard Lane is a cottage.


Cottage It was built in 1820. It was built
Built: 1820 of stone with a thatched roof.
Stone/thatched roof Central heating was put in
Central heating: 1998 1998, and it was rewired in
Rewired: 2000 2000.

a. 44 Primrose Avenue b. 68 Jubilee Street


Detached House Town house
Built: 1935 Built: 1977
Brick/tiled roof Brick/flat roof
New roof: 1976 Sauna: January 1978
Redecorated: 1978. Repainted: May 1978

c. Kensington W.8.
Beautiful, detached house on quiet street. Fully furnished. 2 lge. recep.
rms., 3 beds., bath. Sep.W.C., kit. and util.rm., cloakrm., lge. gge,
101

avail. Full gas C.H., sm. gdn. Close shops/buses. £ 57 p.w.


d. Apartments Unfurnished – Manhattan

THREE ROOMS
85 ST 26 W. 3rm apts, hi ceils, full mod kchns & bth, frpl, lge closets,
nr subway. $ 865. See Mr.White or call 988-9128.

e. Apartments Unfurnished – Manhattan

FOUR AND SIX ROOMS


70’s EAST. LUXURY BLDG. Apts avail. for immed. occup. 1 bedrm
fr $365; 3 bedrms fr $575. No fee. Bldg.has 24-hr drmn serv. Air-cond.
Lrge livrm & dining rm. Call PL5-6797 eves.

f. House – Connecticut
WESTPORT - 9 rms, 3 bdrms, livrm w/ frplce, all air-cond, 2-car gar,
lge bsmt, lge kitch. John SMITH. Real Estate Agent (201) 637-3644

15 Each sentence contains an inappropriate word or phrase, which


is underlined. Replace it with a word or phrase from the list.
bookcase chimney fence floor
gate pane of glass step towel

a) Unfortunately the ball hit the window and broke a


glass. .......................... ... pane of glass ...
b) I washed my hands in the bathroom and dried them with a cloth.
c) There was a small wooden door leading into the garden.
d) As I sat down at the kitchen table, I knocked my cup onto the
ground.
102

e) In the corner of Joe’s room was a small library for his books.
f) All round the garden there was a high wooden wall.
g) On the roof-tops Tina could see a tall fireplace pouring out
smoke.
h) The floor of the kitchen is a bit lower, so mind the stair.

16 Read this student’s essay. There are six mistakes in making


comparisons. Find and correct them.

Some people like the city. Some like the country. I like the city
because it is more interesting from the country. The city is expensive
than the country, but it’s worth it. The restaurants are much better, and
entertainment is more available. Store hours are convenienter, so you
can go shopping any time, day or night.
I enjoy walking around the city. It is true that the country is
clean than the city, and it is also more quiet. But city streets are more
exciting. There is always something happening.
For me the city is definitely nicer that the country, and I hope to
remain here.

17 Agree with the following statements using the verb prompts. The
first one is done as an example:

1. – This room looks terrible. It really needs decorating. (do up)


– Yes, it needs doing up.
2. Look, the wallpaper isn’t sticking to the walls. (come off)
3. The fireplace is very ugly. We could remove it. (take out)
4. The flat doesn’t have any central heating. We must install it. (put in)
103

5. There are no shelves or cupboards. We could fix some to the walls.


(put up)
6. There’s a lot of rubbish in the room. It needs putting in the dustbin.
(throw out)
7. The cooker doesn’t work. It needs repairing. (to see to)
8. We must discuss it before we decide. (talk over)
9. We could start living here immediately. (move in)
10. We must consider it carefully before we decide. (think over)

18 Fill the gaps in these sentences with suitable words.

1 If I could build my own house I’d make sure it had a ................. .


2 Our n............s are always complaining about the noise we make.
3 My friends live in a small .................................. house in a street
where all the houses look alike.
4 The block of flats she lives in has five s.....................s and she lives
on the top f..................... .
5 In the city centre, an inexpensive a................................ is hard to
find because it is scarce.
6 Many new estates are being built on the o................................s of the
city and in the s..................................s.
7 I’d love to m............... to the country and live in an old ............. .
8 If someone borrows money to buy their home, they have to repay the
m..................... .
9 If someone else owns your house or flat, you have to pay
r.................... to a 1..................... .
104

10 Modern flats often don’t have enough r.......... to store things in.
11 Books are usually kept in a b..................... or on s...................s.
12 Even though their house has c..................... h..................... there is a
fireplace in the l..................... .
13 In a bedroom, clothes are kept in a ........................................... .
14 The most important thing about a house or flat is that it should
be .................................. .

19 Choose the best alternative to fill the gaps in these sentences.

1 Some houses have a basement room where things are stored


called .............................. .
a) an attic b) a cave c) a cellar d) a grave e) a loft
2 Some rooms don’t have curtains at the windows, they
have ..................................................... instead.
a) blinds b) carpets c) glass d) stores e) wallpaper
3 We haven’t got a garage, so we leave our car outside the house in
the ..................................... .
a) drive b) garden c) parking d) patio e) pavement f) porch
4 He keeps all his tools and do-it-yourself equipment in a ….....…… in
the back garden.
a) barn b) bungalow c) hut d) shack e) shed f) stable
5 In your own garden, you can sunbathe on the .......................... in the
summer.
a) field b) flowerbed c) lawn d) meadow e) pasture
20 Translate from Russian into English.

1. Приехав в Шеффилд я остановился в отеле, но вскоре начал


искать постоянное жилье. 2. Его квартира находилась в цокольном
105

этаже и зимой там было сыро. 3. Когда мои родители вышли на


пенсию, они переехали за город, где купили крошечный
одноэтажный домик. 4. В то время у нас было мало денег и
первую мебель мы купили в рассрочку. 5. Жизнь в больших
городах далеко не безопасна, так как уровень преступности
достаточно высок. 6. Отдельный дом, если только он не
расположен где-нибудь в отдаленной глубинке, не по карману
большинству англичан. 7. Около 70% населения Англии живут в
домах, владельцами которых они являются и которые, как
правило, куплены в кредит. 8. Традиционный строительный
материал для жилых домов в Англии – кирпич (для стен) и
черепица (для крыш). 9. Часть населения живет в квартирах,
которые они снимают у частных домовладельцев. 10. В последнее
время в Британии вместо домов-башен строится жилье высотой не
более 6 этажей. 11. Летом Джейсон обычно уезжает в небольшую
рыбачью деревушку и живет в простом сельском доме с видом на
прелестное озеро. 12. Час пик – неизбежная болезнь больших
городов, но люди привыкают (приспосабливаются). 13. Когда
Кристина и Кевин поженились, денег хватило только на то, что
снять небольшую однокомнатную квартиру на окраине города. 14.
У меня в подвале есть темная комната без окон, где удобно
проявлять фотопленку. 15. В новом доме достаточно большое
подсобное помещение для стиральной машины, сушилки и
морозильника.
106

Read and Discuss


TEXT I

Pre-Reading
A From the information you already know try to guess which type of
house is the most popular in Britain from the viewpoint of ownership.
Why?

B Make sure you know the meaning of the words ‘mortgage’,


‘landlord’, ‘tenant’, ‘council’, ‘security’, ‘interest’, ‘tax’, ‘incentive’.

Reading

Read through Text I and do the tasks that follow.

The desire to own the place where you live is almost universal
in Britain. However, house prices are high. This dilemma is overcome
by the mortgage system, which is probably a more established aspect
of everyday life than it is anywhere else in the world. About 70% of all
the houses in the country are occupied by their owners and almost all
of these were bought with a mortgage. At any one time, half of these
are owned by people who have borrowed 80% (or even more) of their
price and are now paying this money back month by month. The
normal arrangement is for the borrower to pay back the money over a
period of twenty to twenty-five years. The financial institutions known
as ‘building societies’ were originally set up to provide mortgages. In
the 1980s, however, regulations were relaxed, so that banks now offer
mortgages as well.
People are happy to take out mortgages because house prices
normally increase a bit faster than the general cost of living. Therefore,
most people can make a profit when they sell their house. So strong is
this expectation that phrases such as ‘first-time buyer’ and ‘second-
107

time buyer’ are well-known. The former can only afford one of the
cheaper houses available. But around ten years later, when some of
their mortgage has been paid off, they can become the latter. They sell
their house at a profit and move into a more expensive house.
Although nearly everybody wants to own their house, it is only
in the last quarter of the twentieth century that a majority of people
have done so. Before that time, most working-class people lived in
rented accommodation. At one time, most of them rented from private
landlords, some of whom exploited them badly. In the 1950s and
1960s, however, millions of homes were built by local government
authorities. By 1977, two-thirds of all tenants lived in these ‘council
houses’ (or, in some cases, flats). Council rents are subsidized, so they
are low. Each local council keeps a waiting list of households who
want to move into a council property. The order of preference is
worked out by a complicated set of priorities. Once they are given a
council house, tenants have security; that is, they do not have to move
out even if they become rich.
From 1950 to 1980 the proportion of owner-occupiers gradually
increased. The ambition to own was made easier by policies of tax
relief. Some of the interest which people paid on their mortgage could
be subtracted from the income tax they had to pay and people selling
their houses did not have to pay ‘capital gains tax’ on any profit. With
both owner-occupiers and council tenants increasing in numbers, the
percentage of people who rented from private landlords became one of
the lowest in the world — and continues to be so.
Then during the 1980s, the number of owner-occupiers
increased more sharply. A major part of the philosophy of Thatcherism
(under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher) was the idea of the
‘property-owning democracy’. Council tenants were allowed to buy
their council houses and were given financial incentives to do so. The
deregulation of mortgage-lending also encouraged house-buying. So
108

did an increase in the financial help given to owners who wanted to


make improvements to their property. At the same time, local councils
were severely limited in the number of properties which they could
build and were also encouraged to sell their properties to private
‘housing associations’. As a result, the number of council tenants
actually decreased.

Post-Reading

A Finish the following sentences with the correct variant.


1. The ‘building societies’ were originally set up .......................... .
a) to construct more council houses
b) to provide private homes
c) to provide mortgages
d) to make more profit
2. People are happy to take out mortgages because ....................... .
a) house prices normally increase
b) the general cost of living goes up
c) the standard of living becomes higher
d) house prices increase a bit faster than the general cost of
living
3. Before the last quarter of the 20th century most working-class
people lived in ............................................................................ .
a) privately-owned accommodation
b) state-owned flats
c) rented accommodation
d) the property they owned
4. The idea of the ‘property-owning democracy’ implied ............. .
a) encouraging house-buying
109

b) building more ‘council houses’


c) increasing the number of council tenants
d) limiting private ‘housing associations

B Say the following in alternative words.

1) houses bought with a mortgage; 2) paying this money back month


by month; 3) In the 1980s <...> regulations were relaxed; 4) people can
make profit; 5) They sell their house at a profit; 6) Council rents are
subsidized; 7) a waiting list of households who want to move into a
council property; 8) the order of preference; 9) an owner-occupier; 10)
Some of the interest which people paid on their mortgage could be
subtracted from the income tax; 11) the philosophy of Thatcherism .

C Find the sentences with ‘The former…’ and ‘…the latter’.


Explain their meaning.

D Give the Russian equivalents for:


1) the mortgage system; 2) the building societies; 3) rented
accommodation; 4) private landlords; 5) council houses/flats; 6)
council tenants; 7) a complicated set of priorities; 8) policies of ‘tax
relief’; 9) pay ‘capital gains tax’ on any profit; 10) give financial
incentives; 11) housing associations.

E Answer the following questions.

1. How important is the mortgage system in Britain? 2. Why are people


happy to take out mortgages? 3. What was the general background for
providing ‘council houses’ in the last quarter of the 20th century? 4.
What has encouraged an increase in the proportion of ‘owner-
110

occupiers’ since the 1950s? 5. What was the contribution of M.


Thatcher to the house-buying movement?

F Scan the two small texts below and mark the key words/phrases.
Compare your list with that of your partner.

a. Owning and renting: class

In the middle years of the twentieth century, whether you owned


or rented a house was a marker of class. If you owned your house, you
were middle class; if you lived in a council house, you were working
class. However, this is no longer true. A clear majority of skilled
manual workers are owner-occupiers, as are 40% of even unskilled
manual workers. The proportion of people (of any category) who own
their house ‘outright’ (i.e. they have finished paying off the mortgage)
or rent privately is rather small. Only among those with higher-status
jobs are there more private tenants than council tenants.
b. Finding somewhere to live
If you want to buy a house, it is very rare to deal directly with
the person selling. Instead, you go to an estate agent. These companies
exist solely to act as ‘go-betweens’ for people buying and selling
houses. They help with the various procedures – and take a fat
commission! If you are interested in one of the houses ‘on their books’,
they will arrange a ‘viewing’. You can also spot houses for sale by the
‘For sale’ signs which are put up on wooden posts outside the houses
concerned.
If you want to rent somewhere from a private landlord (not a
council), the usual place to look is in the local newspaper. Estate agents
111

do not often deal with places for rent, although there are special
lettings agencies.
Another possible way of finding somewhere to live is to ‘squat’.
Squatters are people who occupy empty houses without paying rent. If
you do not cause any damage when moving in to an empty house, you
have not broken the law. If the owner wants to get you out, he or she
has to get an order from the court to have you evicted.
Alternatively, you could become a ‘New Age Traveller’ and live
in a bus, coach or van, moving from place to place.

G Explain in English the following.

1) a marker of class; 2) skilled (unskilled) manual workers; 3) private


tenants; council tenants; 4) an estate agent; 5) ‘go-betweens’; 6) to take
a fat commission; 7) to spot houses for sale; 8) to have you evicted; 9)
letting agencies

H Discuss with your partners what facts the texts above add to the
ideas developed in Text I.

TEXT II

Pre-Reading

A Ask your partners if they have an idea about what accommodation


Britain can offer to foreign visitors and tourists.

B Find out if anyone knows what the letters ‘B and B’ stand for and
what the word ‘crown’ means in relation to hotels.
112

Reading

Read the text ‘Accommodation’ and do the tasks that follow.

Accommodation
The range of accommodation in Britain is vast, from first class
hotels to camping and caravan sites. You can book accommodation in
advance from your own country through your travel agent or directly
with the establishment you want to stay in. You can also book in
advance when you’ve arrived in Britain through certain Tourist
Information Centres (TICs). If you are travelling to the more popular
places in Britain during the peak holiday season, May-October, it is
advisable to book accommodation in advance.
The national tourist boards for England, Scotland and Wales
publish accommodation guides called Where to Stay. They are
available from bookshops and TICs.
Hotels

Hotels in Britain are not cheap, by comparison with some


countries. The prices they quote are normally per person, not per room.
It is usual for breakfast to be included in the price of a night’s
accommodation. Some hotels offer ‘half board’, accommodation,
breakfast and one other meal; or ‘full board’, accommodation,
breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Hotels, in general, like guests to check in before 18:00. If you
are likely to arrive late in the evening it is advisable to let the hotel
know. Check-out time is usually 11:00 or 12:00 on the day of
departure, although arrangements can be made to check out later.
113
114

Guest houses

Guest houses are smaller and cheaper than hotels. They will
probably have fewer facilities than most hotels: there may not be a bar,
nor private bathrooms. In addition to the bedrooms there will be a
living room for the use of guests and a dining room. Some guest houses
offer bed and breakfast only, others offer lunch and dinner.
The tourist boards inspect hotels and guest houses throughout
Britain every year and classify them according to the facilities and
services they provide. There are six classifications: ‘listed’ (included in
a list, catalog, or directory) and one to five crowns. The more crowns a
hotel or guest house has, the wider its range of facilities and services is.
‘Approved’, ‘commended’ or ‘highly commended’ alongside the
crowns means that the standards are particularly high. A leaflet
explaining the classifications is available free from TICs.

Bed and breakfast

Bed and breakfast, often shortened to ‘B and B’, is the name for
establishments which offer bed and breakfast but not usually any other
meals. B and Bs are generally cheaper than hotels and guest houses and
are found all over Britain. Some are private houses run by the families
who live there; others are pubs; and some are farm houses on working
farms. B and Bs generally give you a chance to meet British people at
home and to practise your English.
Some B and Bs offer an evening meal; you should check in
advance if you require this.
115

Youth hostels

The Youth Hostel Association has over 400 hostels in Britain.


They are very cheap and are often in buildings of special or historic
interest. Although there is no age restriction, youth hostels are mainly
used by students and the under 30s. In order to stay in a youth hostel
you must be a member. You can use British hostels by joining the
International Youth Hostel Association in your own country, or you
can apply for an International Guest card when you arrive in Britain.
Everyone staying at a youth hostel is expected to help with the
housework. Simple meals and/or self-catering facilities are provided at
some hostels. Many hostels close for part of the year. You can find out
more information by writing to:
The Youth Hostel Association
Trevelyan House
8 St Stephen’s Hill
St Albans
Hertfordshire
ALI 2DY, Tel: 0727 55215

Post-Reading
A Make a list of types of accommodation for visitors to the UK
mentioned in the text.

B Use alternative words to say the following:

1) a range of accommodation; 2) camping and caravan sites; 3) a travel


agent; 4) accommodation guides; 5) per person, not per room; 6) a
night’s accommodation; 7) arrangements can be made to check out
later; 8) to have fewer facilities; 9) the tourist boards inspect hotels.
116

C Give the English for:

1) бронировать место в гостинице; 2) разгар сезона отпусков; 3)


полу-пансион и полный пансион в гостинице; 4) время
регистрации и выписки; 5) без ограничений возраста; 6) те, кому
нет тридцати лет; 7) в условиях самообслуживания; 8) управление
по делам туризма.

D Discuss with your partners.

1. How can you get accommodation in Britain? 2. What is advisable to


know about the hotels in Britain? 3. What’s a ‘guest house’? 4. What
type of accommodation is ‘B and B’? 5. What accommodation can
Britain offer to young people? 6. Can you compare the accommodation
in Great Britain with that in your country or any other country you
have visited?

TEXT III

Pre-Reading

Sometimes old houses are a problem for the neighbourhood. Discuss


with your partners if they are worth reconstructing or should be
destroyed for new houses to be built.

Reading

Read the text “Just What We Are Looking For!!!” and do the tasks that
follow.
117

Just What We Are Looking For!!!

I left the hotel today at eight o’clock for an early appointment


with the agent, who yesterday assured me he had found me just the
house we were looking for. When I arrived he looked less convinced
than I did. Even at that time of the morning, I was already irritable and
despondent as I arrived at the first address. At first I walked past the
house. Where it should have been was a wilderness of trees and
overgrown grass. Then out of the green darkness stepped the agent.
‘Ah, there you are! It’s here,’ he said. I stepped in through the broken-
down gate, and walked up the dusty garden path. It immediately felt
cooler and calmer. The agent rattled a large bunch of keys, and tried
several in the door, talking to himself all the time, before he exclaimed,
‘Ah!’
We let ourselves in and walked into a deliciously cool, but dusty
house. He suggested I walk around by myself. I went into a gloomy
living room downstairs and switched on the light, but nothing
happened. The agent heard me clicking the switch and said, ‘Ah! No
good. The switch needs mending. I’ll have an electrician repair it
immediately.’ I peered into the darkness and made out the shape of a
window on the far side. The agent walked over to the window and
threw open the peeling shutters, the sunlight streamed in. A rather
faded sofa and two battered armchairs sat around an open fireplace
which hinted at log fires in winter. The curtains were stripy but more or
less in shreds. Outside there was a terrace and beyond the trees, the
dense undergrowth, the tall grass and the wild plants that were once the
garden, were the mountains in the distance. I walked through into what
must have been a kitchen, but only recognisable because of the
antiquated equipment which I last saw during a visit to a local
118

museum. I turned on the tap, and once again nothing happened. ‘The
water needs to be reconnected. We’ll get the plumber to do it. It’s no
problem,’ the agent said.
Upstairs there were two bedrooms and a bathroom with low
ceilings and which were, despite being hidden in the roof, still quite
cool. The bathroom had no bath and not much room, but a beautiful
view over the garden. The basin was filthy with the dirt of the years
during which the place had been unoccupied. I sat on the brass bed in
the dusty bedroom, and looked round, thinking, not bad, not bad at all.
In my mind, I could see the house with new curtains and carpets, our
own furniture, which had been in store for several months, books on
the shelves, beds made up, lengthy lunches on the terrace, endless
summers and warm winters. I could do most of the work myself.
I went down downstairs and the agent looked at me hopefully. It
was worth the lengthy search, the dusty visits to endless houses, the
depressing inspections of grim flats, to see his smile when I said to
him, ‘It’s just what we’re looking for.’

Post-Reading

A Mark all the place words you can find and list them under the
following headings.

housing natural features


e.g. house e.g. overgrown grass

B Match the words from the text with their definitions. Mind that there
are two extra definitions.
119

1. irritable a. making sad, low in spirits


2. wilderness b. having a long narrow band distinguished,
as by colour or texture, from the surrounding
material
3. to rattle c. collection of things of the same sort placed or
fastened together
4. delicious d. uncultivated waste land
5. to click e. stern, severe; without mercy; gloomy
6. to peer f. look directly and fixedly, often with wide-open eyes
7. stripy g. make short, sharp sounds quickly, one after another
8. to stream h. make a short, sharp sound (like that of a key,
turning in a lock)
9. depressing i. giving delight (esp. to the senses of taste and smell,
to the sense of humour)
10. grim j. flow freely; move continuously and smoothly in one
direction
11. bunch k. look (at, into smth.) closely, as if unable to see well
l. easily annoyed or made angry
m. make a loud noise

C Say the following in alternative words.

1) a wilderness of trees and overgrown grass; 2) the broken-down gate;


3) I <...> made out the shape of a window; 4) two battered armchairs;
5) an open fireplace; 6) the antiquated equipment; 7) The bathroom had
<...> not much room; 8) which had been in store for several months; 9)
It was worth the lengthy search; 10) depressing inspections of grim
flats.
120

D Find in the text the equivalents for the following:

1) раздраженный и унылый (подавленный); 2) пыльная садовая


тропинка; 3) греметь большой связкой ключей; 4) восхитительно
прохладный; 5) мрачная гостиная; 6) облупившиеся ставни с
отслаивающейся краской; 7) огонь из поленьев дров; 8) диван с
выцветшей обивкой; 9) грязная раковина; 10) железная кровать;
11) занавески (шторы), превратившиеся в лохмотья

E Answer the following questions.

1. What do you think of this house for sale? 2. What details create a
negative impression about the house? Give as many words and phrases
from the text as you can to support your answer. 3. What were the
positive features about the house that impressed the story-teller
favourably? 4. Why do you think the story-teller made up his mind to
buy the house?

TEXT IV

Pre-Reading

A Some people say they would like to live on an island. Do you know
why? What about you? Discuss it with your partners.

B Skim the text for the geographical names and say where these
places are situated.

C Can you give any information about such well-known figures as


Henryk Sienkiewicz, a Polish novelist, and the two Hollywood stars,
John Wayne and Marlon Brando?
121

D What do you know about Nobel prize, one of the most prestigious
international awards?

Reading
Read through the text “Master of All You Survey” and do the tasks that
follow.
Master of All You Survey.
Farhan Vladi may have just the island for you.

Thinking about an island all your own? How about a picturesque


little speck of rock and soil about half a mile off France’s Brittany
coast? It comes with a small, medieval castle equipped with telephone,
television and electricity – and, so we’re told, it’s haunted by literary
ghosts. (In 1896, Polish Nobel Prize winner Henryk Sienkiewicz
closeted himself there while writing the novel “Quo Vadis?”.) Perhaps
you would prefer a tropic isle once owned by the late John Wayne in
the Pearl Archipelago some 20 miles off the west coast of Panama. If
not, there’s Marlon Brando’s Polynesian atoll in the Pacific, but that’s
available only for leasing, not for purchase. Whatever your tastes and
your budget may be, one man to get in touch with is Farhan Vladi, a
German real-estate dealer based on Hamburg who has built a lucrative
international career as an island broker. But bring cash – lots of it.
To be sure, there are some bargains available out there. An
island in a Canadian lake can be yours for a mere $10,000. A tiny
private paradise of sand and palm trees in the Bahamas sounds like a
terrific deal for as little as $20,000. But Vladi’s islands are more likely
to fall in the $100,000 - to $300,000 price range, and top-of-the-line
retreats cost much, much more. The one with the castle off Brittany
carries a $1,4 million price tag. Last year, Vladi sold a 25-acre island
off Oahu, in Hawaii, to a Japanese client for $8,5 million. The drop in
the dollar makes islands quoted in U.S. currency a relative bargain for
some buyers, but – for whatever reason – banks are generally reluctant
122

to lend large amounts for the purchase of islands. About 80 percent of


Vladi’s transactions are in cash.
The son of a German mother and an Iranian father, Vladi, 42, got
into the islands business two decades ago when he brokered the sale of
an island in the Seychelles. In the years since then he has sold more
than 300 islands. Americans and Germans were his best customers
until a few years ago. Now the Japanese are the big buyers.
Low-key approach: Vladi prospects for islands by
photographing them from a small rented plane, then discreetly
snooping around to find out who own them - and whether they would
be willing to sell. Title deeds are usually available for public inspection
in the United States, but elsewhere they’re often treated like state
secrets. “In many countries you have to be a detective,” he says. “The
best sources of information are the fishermen.” Like real-estate brokers
everywhere, Vladi keeps an eye peeled for divorces, deaths or
bankruptcies that might result in an island’s being placed on the
market. But patience and tact are essential. “Island people are very
shy,” he says. “You have to be low key in approaching them.”
Vladi deals only in islands that are located in politically stable
areas and that place no restrictions on the buyer’s nationality. Given
rising land values and a diminishing supply, he recommends them as
an investment. “Demand is increasing because civilization is
destroying nature and people want an unpolluted environment,” says
Vladi. “They find it on an island.” But at a price.

Post-Reading

A Give the Russian equivalents for:


1) a picturesque little spec of rock and soil; 2) the late John Wayne; 3)
lucrative international career; 4) islands are more likely to fall in the
$100,000 – to $ 300,000 price range; 5) islands quoted in U.S.
123

currency; 6) Vladi prospects for islands .... ; 7) discreetly snooping


around; 8) ... Vladi keeps an eye peeled for divorces ... .

B Find in the text the words and expressions to replace those


underlined.
1) visited repeatedly by ghosts; 2) Henryk Sienkiewicz lived in
seclusion there; 3) a profitable international career; 4) a tiny private
place of perfect happiness; 5) the best available retreats; 6) banks are
generally unwilling to lend; 7) Vladi’s deals are in cash; 8) Americans
and Germans are his best clients; 9) Papers about ownership rights are
available for public inspection; 10) You have to be quiet and discreet in
approaching them

C Use alternative words and phrases to express the following.

1) medieval castle; 2) Brando’s Polynesian atoll; 3) available not only


for leasing, but for purchase; 4) Whatever your tastes <...> may be; 5) a
terrific deal; 6) a $ 1,4 million price tag; 7) the drop in the dollar; 8) he
brokered the sale of an island; 9) bankruptcies that may result in an
island’s being placed on the market; 10) place no restrictions on the
buyer’s nationality; 11) Given rising land values and a diminishing
supply, he recommends ... .

D Discuss the following with your partners.

1) What circumstances made Farhan Vladi a successful real-estate


dealer? 2) Say how resourceful F. Vladi was in devising a method of
searching an island for sale? 3) ‘Civilization is destroying nature…’,
says F. Vladi. Do you share his point of view? Give your arguments.
124

TEXT V

Pre-Reading

A Discuss the ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ of ‘Do-it-Yourself’ movement.

B Make sure you know English names of at least ten tools which can
be helpful in doing some little repairs about the house, e.g.: ladder,
hammer, nails, etc.

Reading
Read through the text ‘Do-it-Yourself’ and do the tasks that follow.

Do-It-Yourself
Some people would say that the Englishman’s home is no longer
his castle; that it has become his workshop. This is partly because the
average Englishman is keen on working with his hands and partly
because he feels, for one reason or another, that he must do for himself
many household jobs for which, some years ago, he would have hired
professional help. The main reason for this is a financial one: the high
cost of labour has meant that builders’ and decorators’ costs have
reached a level which makes them prohibitive for house-proud English
people of modest means. So, if they wish to keep their houses looking
bright and smart, they have to tackle some of the repairs and decorating
themselves. As a result, there has grown up in the post-war years what
is sometimes referred to as the ‘Do-It-Yourself Movement’.
The ‘Do-It-Yourself Movement’ began with home decorating
but has since spread into a much wider field. Nowadays there seem to
be very few things that cannot be made by the ‘do-it-yourself’ method.
A number of magazines and handbooks exist to show hopeful
handymen of all ages just how easy it is to build anything from a coffee
table to a fifteen foot (4.5 metres) sailing dinghy. All you need, it
125

seems, is a hammer and a few nails. You follow the simple instructions
step-by-step and, before you know where you are, the finished article
stands before you, complete in every detail.
Unfortunately, alas, it is not always quite as simple as it sounds!
Many a budding ‘do-it-yourselfer’ has found to his cost that one cannot
learn a skilled craftsman’s job overnight. How quickly one realises,
when doing it oneself, that a job which takes the skilled man an hour or
so to complete takes the amateur handyman five or six at least. And
then there is the question of tools. The first thing the amateur learns is
that he must have the right tools for the job. But tools cost money.
There is also the wear and tear on the nerves. It is not surprising then
that many people have come to the conclusion that the expense of
paying professionals to do the work is, in the long run, more
economical than ‘doing it oneself.
Post-Reading

A Say if the following statements are true or false.

1. Many Englishmen are fond of working with their hands. 2. To hire


professional help has become rather costly. 3. The ‘Do-It-Yourself
Movement’ is concerned mostly with some of the repairs and
decorating. 4. With the help of magazines and handbooks, giving
simple instructions, it is easy to build anything. 5. To learn to do a
skilled job properly one needs time and training. 6. All a handyman
needs is just a hammer and a few nails. 7. Paying professionals can
hardly ever be economical than ‘doing it oneself’.

B Translate into Russian.

1) the high cost of labour; 2) the house-proud English people; 3) a 15


foot sailing dinghy; 4) the finished article stands before you; 5) the
expense of paying professionals.
126

C Paraphrase the following word-combinations from the text.


1) the average Englishman; 2) people of modest means; 3) houses
looking bright and smart; 4) to tackle some of the repairs; 5) hopeful
handymen of all ages; 6) many a budding ‘do-it-yourselfer’; 7) to learn
a skilled craftsman’s job overnight; 8) the amateur handyman; 9) the
right tools for the job; 10) the wear and tear on the nerves; 11) in the
long run .

D Give the English for:


1) частично, отчасти; 2) мастерская; 3) по той или иной причине;
4) ремонтные работы по дому; 5) постепенно; 6) на свою голову;
7) экономный, бережливый; 8) непрофессионал, любитель.

E Discuss the following questions.

1. What circumstances encouraged the ‘Do-it-Yourself’ movement in


postwar Britain? 2. What feeds the popular illusion that “very few
things cannot be made by the ‘do-it-yourself’ method”? 3. What
obstacles will anyone face when entering a tricky path of a ‘do-it-
yourselfer’?
127

References
1. ACKLAM, R., BURGESS, S. Advanced Gold. Coursebook.
Longman, 2002. – 223 p.
2. ALEXANDER, L.G. Right Word, Wrong Word. Longman, 1996.
– 308 p.
3. COTTON D., FALVEY D., KENT, S. Market Leader. Course
Book. Longman, 2000. – 176 p.
4. COTTON, D., FALVEY D., KENT, S. Market Leader. Practice
File. Longman, 2000. – 124 p.
5. CROWTHER, J., ed. Oxford Guide to British and American
Culture. OUP, 1999. – 599 p.
6. DUBIN, F., OLSHTAIN, E. Reading on Purpose. Addison-
Wesley Publishing Company, 1987. – 223 p.
7. EVANS, V., DOOLEY, J. Mission 1. Coursebook. Express
Publishing, 2000. – 208 p.
8. EVANS, V., DOOLEY, J. Mission 2. Coursebook. Express
Publishing, 2000. – 216 p.
9. EVANS, V. FCE Use of English: For the Revised Cambridge
Examination. Book 1. Express Publishing, 2000. – 219 p.
10. EVANS, V. Round –Up 6: English Grammar Practice.
Longman, 2001. – 256 p.
11. GUDE, K., DUCKWORTH M. Proficiency Masterclass.
Student’s Book. OUP, 1996. – 217 p.
12. HAINES, S., STERWART, B. First Certificate Masterclass.
Student’s Book. OUP, 1995. – 201 p.
13. HAINES, S., STERWART, B. First Certificate Masterclass.
Teacher’s Book. OUP, 1995. – 160 p.
14. JONES, L. Cambridge Advanced English. Student’s Book. CUP,
1994. – 252 p.
15. JONES, L. Cambridge Advanced English. Teacher’s Book.
CUP, 1992. – 250 p.
16. JONES, L. Progress to First Certificate. CUP, 1995. – 225 p.
17. JONES, L., ALEXANDER, R. New International Business
English. Student’s Book. CUP, 1996. – 176 p.
18. JONES, L., ALEXANDER, R. New International Business
English. Teacher’s Book. CUP, 2000. – 224 p.
128

19. McCARTHY, M., O’DELL, F. English Vocabulary in Use.


Upper-Intermediate and Advanced, CUP, 1995 – 296 p.
20. O’CONNELL, S. First Certificate for the Revised Exam.
Longman, 1999. – 271 p.
21. O’DRISCOLL, J. Britain. OUP, 1997. – 224 p.
22. REDMAN, S. English Vocabulary in Use. Pre-Intermediate and
Intermediate. CUP, 1997. – 270 p.
23. SMITH, T. Market Leader Business Law. Longman, 2000. –
96 p.
24. VINCE, M. Advanced Language Practice. Heinemann, 1994. –
295 p.
25. VINCE, M. First Certificate Language Practice. Macmillan-
Heinemann, 1998. – 320 p.
26. VINCE, M. Highlight Intermediate. Heinemann, 1992. – 124 p.
27. VINCE, M. Intermediate Language Practice. Macmillan-
Heinemann, 1998. – 266 p.
28. WALMSLEY, J. Brit-Think. Ameri-Think: A Transatlantic
Survival Guide. Harrap: Edinburgh, 1986. – 173 p.
29. WATCYN, P. J. Test Your Vocabulary. Book 2. Penguin Books,
1991. – 94 p.
Dictionaries
30. BENSON, M., BENSON, E., ILSON, R. The BBI Combinatory
Dictionary of English. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1990.
– 286 p.
31. GULLAND, M. D., HINDS-HOWELL, D. The Penguin
Dictionary of English Idioms. Penguin Books, 1994. – 305 p.
32. HORNBY, A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of
Current English. OUP, 1995. – 1428 p.
33. RUNDELL, M., ed. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced
Learners. Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2002. – 1692 p.
34. SINCLAIR, J, ed. Collins Cobuild. English Usage. Harper
Collins Publishers, 1993. – 808 p.
35. SUMMERS, D., director. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary
English. Longman, 2003. – 1950 p.
129

CONTENTS

FOREWOR
........................................................................................3
UNIT I.............................................................................5

PEOPLE AS THEY ARE...................................................5

Starting – Up..........................................................5

Vocabulary Focus....................................................6

Discussion Focus..................................................24

Practicing Vocabulary............................................34

Read and Discuss..................................................51

UNIT 2...........................................................................69

HOME, HOUSE AND FACILITIES..................................69

Starting-Up...........................................................69

Vocabulary Focus..................................................72

Discussion Focus..................................................77

Practising Vocabulary............................................90

Reading.............................................................105

References..................................................................125
130

Учебное издание

Система открытого образования

Improve Your Speaking Skills in English

Учебно-методическое пособие
по устной практике английского языка
В двух частях
Часть 1
2-е издание, исправленное и переработанное

Составитель Вертаева Людмила Владимировна

В авторской редакции
Ответственный за выпуск А.Г. Храмченков
Технический редактор Т.В. Жибуль
Художник обложки О.А.Стасевич
Компьютерная верстка Н.М. Азаревич

Подписано в печать 30.08.2005.


Формат 60×84 /16. Бумага офсетная.
Гарнитура Times. Печать трафаретная.
Усл.печ.л. 7,44. Уч.-изд.л.8,0. Тираж 710 экз. Заказ 329.

Издатель и полиграфическое исполнение:


Академия управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь
ЛИ № 02330/0056905 от 01.04.2004 г.
ЛП № 02330/0056837 от 11.05.2004 г.

Отпечатано с оригинал-макета заказчика.

220007, г. Минск, ул. Московская, 17.


131
132