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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ
ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
TEACHER’S BOOK

НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЕ ДЕЛО
КНИГА ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ

Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением по образованию


в области лингвистики Министерства образования и науки
Российской Федерации в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов старших курсов и магистрантов высших учебных
заведений, обучающихся по геологическим, нефтяным
и нефтегазовым специальностям, включая направление «Экономика
на предприятиях нефтяной и газовой промышленности»

Под редакцией
Л.М. Болсуновской, Р.Н. Абрамовой, И.А. Матвеенко

Издательство
Томского политехнического университета
2011
УДК 622.323(076)
ББК 33.36я7
H58
Авторы
Л.М. Болсуновская, Р.Н. Абрамова, И.А. Матвеенко,
Д.А. Терре, Т.Ф. Долгая, Т.В. Васильченко, Т.В. Бочарова,
И.В. Шендерова, Е.М. Вершкова, Д.С. Малюкова, Н.В. Сухорукова

Petroleum Engineering. Teacher’s book = Нефтегазовое


H58 дело. Книга для учителя: учебное пособие / Л.М. Болсуновская,
Р.Н. Абрамова, И.А. Матвеенко, Д.А. Терре, Т.Ф. Долгая,
Т.В. Васильченко, Т.В. Бочарова, И.В. Шендерова, Е.М. Вершкова,
Д.С. Малюкова, Н.В. Сухорукова / под ред. Л.М. Болсуновской,
Р.Н. Абрамовой, И.А. Матвеенко; Томский политехнический уни-
верситет. – Томск: Изд-во Томского политехнического универси-
тета, 2011. – 286 с..

ISBN 978-5-98298-915-4 (книга для учителя)


ISBN 978-5-98298-913-0

Книга для учителя предназначена для обеспечения методической поддержки


при работе с учебно-методическим пособием «Petroleum Engineering». В книге приве-
дены ключи и методические рекомендации, способствующие преподавателю эффек-
тивно выстроить практические занятия по профессиональному иностранному языку,
а также организовать самостоятельную работу студентов по данной дисциплине.

УДК 622.323(076)
ББК 33.36я7

Рецензенты
Доктор геолого-минералогических наук, профессор
заведующий кафедрой геоэкологии и геохимии ИПР ТПУ
Л.П. Рихванов

Кандидат филологических наук,


доцент кафедры английской филологии ТГУ
О.В. Нагель

ISBN 978-5-98298-915-4 (книга для учителя) © ФГБОУ ВПО НИ ТПУ, 2011


ISBN 978-5-98298-913-0 © Коллектив авторов, 2011
© Оформление. Издательство Томского
политехнического университета, 2011
TEACHER’S BOOK

CONTENTS

Part I Introduction to Petroleum Engineering


Unit 1 Petroleum Engineering ………………………………………. 5
Unit 2 Oil Companies ……………………………………………….. 12
Unit 3 Oil Formation ………………………………………………... 21
Unit 4 HSE (Health, Safety, Environment) …………………………. 28

Part II Upstream and Downstream


Chapter 1. Geophysics
Д.А. Терре
Unit 1 Geophysics. General Information…………………………… 35
Unit 2 Geophysical Methods in Petroleum Exploration……………. 43
Unit 3 Seismology and Seismic Survey…………………………….. 81

Chapter 2. Oil Exploration


Т.Ф. Долгая
Unit 1 Oil Exploration……………………………………………….. 94
Unit 2 Oil Extraction………………………………………………... 98
Unit 3 Reservoir Rock Properties…………………………………… 101
Unit 4 Formation Evaluation………………………………………… 106

Chapter 3. Drilling
Т.В. Васильченко, Т.В. Бочарова
Unit 1 Life of a Well………………………………………………… 109
Unit 2 Types of Wells……………………………………………….. 116
Unit 3 Companies and People………………………………………. 119
Unit 4 Drilling………………………………………………... 121
Unit 5 Casing. Cementing…………………………………………… 128

Chapter 4. Pipeline Engineering


Р.Н. Абрамова, Т.В. Васильченко
Unit 1 Pipeline Construction………………………………………… 130
Unit 2 Fluid Mechanics……………………………………………… 150
Unit 3 Joining Pipes…………………………………………………. 154
Unit 4 Pipeline Corrosion…………………………………………… 158
Unit 5 Oil Storage …………………………………………………... 165

3
Chapter 5. Economics and management in petroleum
engineering
Л.М. Болсуновская, И.В. Шендерова, Е.М. Вершкова,
Д.С.Малюкова
Unit 1 Introduction to Economics and Management ……………….. 172
Unit 2 Finance ………………………………………………………. 182
Unit 3 Stock …………………………………………………………. 194
Unit 4 The Economy of Petroleum Industry ………………………... 205
Unit 5 Taxation and Audit …………………………………………... 218
Unit 6 Production and Costs ………………………………………... 225
Unit 7 Business Plan ………………………………………………... 233
Unit 8 International Business Etiquette and Ethics …………………. 234

Part III Ecological Control in Petroleum Engineering


Chapter 1. Hydrogeology
Н.В. Сухорукова
Unit 1 Water – Nature’s Treasure or…?.............................................. 241
Unit 2 Hydrogeology……………………………………………....... 243
Unit 3 Circulation of Water in the Interior of the Earth……………... 249

Chapter 2. Geoecology
И.А. Матвеенко
Unit 1 Geoecology…………………………………………………... 256
Unit 2 Impact of Mining and Oil Extraction on the Environment…... 261
Unit 3 Problems of Power Generation………………………………. 268
Unit 4 Greenhouse Effect……………………………………………. 279
Unit 5 Impact of Chemical Elements on Human Organism…………. 282

4
Part I
INTRODUCTION TO PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
UNIT 1

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Petroleum Engineering and make collective mind map
(spidergram) on the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see
how T. draws out the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is
that Ss do not think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by
moving between its various aspects.

The next stage in this procedure may be division of all items suggested into
groups and explanation of Ss’ associations.

This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 1.

Exercise 4. Match English terms in column “A” with their Russian


equivalents in column “B”.

1. G, 2. D, 3. J, 4. F, 5. A, 6. H, 7. B, 8. C, 9. E, 10. I.

Exercise 5. Find the synonyms to the following words in the text.

To deal with = to be concerned with (in the 6th paragraph), to put into
operation = to implement (in the 4th paragraph), simulation = modeling (in
the 2nd and 7th paragraphs), to improve = to enhance (in the 2nd and 5th
paragraphs), to exhaust = to deplete (in the 2nd paragraph), to finish = to
complete (in the 1st paragraph “well completion”), evaluating =
estimating (in the 7th and 10th paragraphs), observation = surveillance (in
the 9th paragraph), to be responsible for = to be in charge of (in the 11th
paragraph).

Exercise 6. Find the antonyms to the following words in the text.

Outflow ≠ inflow (in the 9th paragraph), above ≠ beneath (in the 1st
paragraph), downstream ≠ upstream (in the 1st paragraph), to minimize ≠

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to maximize (in the 8th paragraph), beginning ≠ completion (in the 1st
paragraph).

Exercise 7. Decipher the abbreviations.

SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission), PVT (Pressure, volume,


temperature), HTHP (High temperature, high pressure).

Exercise 8. Fill in the prepositions.

1. Easily accessible oil can be compared to low hanging fruits. 2.


Petroleum engineers are in charge of implementing high technology plans
with the use of manpower. 3. Drilling engineering is concerned with
designing and drilling oil wells. 4. The profession of petroleum
engineering is involved in exploration and extraction of oil. 5. Designing
casing strings is performed in conjunction with drilling fluid plans. 6.
Reservoir engineers optimize production of oil and gas via proper well
placement and enhanced oil recovery.

Exercise 9. Give English equivalents to Russian words.

1. Petroleum engineers are held to a high standard as mistakes may cost


too much. 2. High Temperature and High Pressure conditions have
become a commonplace in today’s oil recovery. 3. Petroleum engineering
covers a wide range of topics, including geology, geophysics, and
geochemistry. 4. Generating accurate reserves estimates is of particular
interest to reservoir engineer. 5. Petroleum engineer should be savvy in
topics as wide ranging as thermohydraulics and geomechanics. 6. The
remote partner of the petroleum engineer is a rig crew in implementing
drilling program.

Exercise 10. Match the terms with the definitions.

1. D, 2. E, 3. A, 4. H, 5. F, 6. G, 7. I, 8. B, 9. C.

Exercise 11. Classify the responsibilities of Reservoir engineer and Drilling


engineer into two groups.

Responsibilities of Reservoir engineer (according to the text): economic


maximization of hydrocarbons recovery from the subsurface, numerical

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reservoir modelling, well drilling and workover planning, PVT analysis,
production forecasting.
Responsibilities of Drilling engineer: estimation of cost to access
reserves, geologic survey, estimation of the sought reserves value,
development of contacts with vendor, wellbore plan.

Exercise 12. Complete the sentences.

1. According to the survey published in December 2006 the average


income of a petroleum engineer in the world was $116, 834.
2. Deepwater operations can be compared to space travel in terms of
technical challenges.
3. Such modern technologies as horizontal drilling and enhanced oil
recovery have improved the toolbox of the petroleum engineer.
4. Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of topics including
economics, geology, geochemistry, geomechanics, geophysics, oil
drilling, geopolitics, knowledge management, seismology, tectonics
thermodynamics, well logging, well completion, oil and gas
production, reservoir development, and pipelines.
5. Petroleum engineers can be divided into several types: reservoir
engineers, drilling engineers, production engineers.
6. Two areas in which reservoir engineers usually specialize are
surveillance (or production) engineering and simulation modeling.

Exercise 13. Define true or false sentences. If true, add the information on
the statement. If false, correct the sentence.

1. Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of disciplines. – True


(additional information is in the 1st paragraph).
2. Operation in HTHP environment is a rare case for petroleum engineer
today. – False (information is in the 3d paragraph).
3. Petroleum engineers are usually well paid. – True (additional
information is in the 4th paragraph).
4. Petroleum engineers deal with oil field close to the Earth’s surface. –
False (information is in the 2nd paragraph).
5. Petroleum engineers are subdivided into two types. – False
(information is in the 5th paragraph).
6. Reservoir engineering is concerned with reservoir modelling. – True
(additional information is in the 7th paragraph).
7. Drilling engineers have to perform PVT analysis of the well. – False
(information is in 7th paragraph).

7
Exercise 14.  Read the following, then listen to the tape and match the
dates with the stages of petroleum engineering development.

Part I. Tapescript.

Petroleum engineering was recognized as a new and separate field of


practice during the first decade of the last century. As the volume of
drilling activity grew, professionals were attracted to it from other fields
of engineering and science, and its transition from a craft to an
engineering profession got under way.

A better understanding of the profession’s development can be derived


from considering how its various functions unfolded. Until the 1930’s,
petroleum engineering centered on the drilling, completing and producing
activities associated with individual wells. Improvements in technology
took place through activities to upgrade specific techniques and methods
in these areas.

During the 1930s, the primary emphasis on production from the individual
well gave way to the recognition that the characteristics of the oil
reservoir had to be taken into consideration. Leading companies
established working groups for reservoir engineering and the topic began
to appear as an item in petroleum engineering curricula.

By the mid of the last century the focus on reservoir engineering


accelerated establishment of petroleum industry research laboratories.
Major research attention was directed toward the principles, processes and
methods for improvement of oil recovery that included waterflooding;
high-pressure-gas injection; miscible processes; use of carbon dioxide,
nitrogen and other gases; and development of surfactants. This expansion
and growth of reservoir engineering principles and their successful
applications offered petroleum engineering a new identity and a better
way in which the profession could be differentiated from other branches
of engineering.

At the end of the XX century, consolidation and integration of four major


elements of petroleum engineering have occupied the profession. The
following lists these elements:

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1. extending the capabilities to gain access to, to couple and to
operate within a greater portion of the subsurface environment
(offshore locations, acidising, hydrofracturing, etc);
2. developing methods for detailed characterization of subsurface
formations, their fluids and their surroundings (well logging,
geophysical measurements, etc);
3. recovering a greater proportion of the petroleum within reservoirs
that have been accessed and understanding the transfer operations
that accompany the recovery (phased fluid-injection programs
horizontal wells, etc);
4. systematizing technological management and coupling it with
business decision making (risk analysis, reservoir management,
etc).

Keys: 1. D, 2. E, 3. A, 4. C, 5. B.

Part II. Listen to the second part of the text once more; give the examples
on the methods of each element.

At the end of the XX century, consolidation and integration of four major


elements of petroleum engineering have occupied the profession. The
following lists these elements:

5. extending the capabilities to gain access to, to couple and to


operate within a greater portion of the subsurface environment
(offshore locations, acidising, hydrofracturing, etc);
6. developing methods for detailed characterization of subsurface
formations, their fluids and their surroundings (well logging,
geophysical measurements, etc);
7. recovering a greater proportion of the petroleum within reservoirs
that have been accessed and understanding the transfer operations
that accompany the recovery (phased fluid-injection programs
horizontal wells, etc);
8. systematizing technological management and coupling it with
business decision making (risk analysis, reservoir management,
etc).

Elements Examples of methods

1. Extending the capabilities offshore locations, acidising,


hydrofracturing

9
2. Development of methods for well logging, geophysical
detailed study of subsurface measurements
formations and surroundings
3. Recovering a greater portion of phased fluid-injection programs
the oil within reservoir horizontal wells
4. Development of technological risk analysis, reservoir
management and its introduction management
into business decision making

Exercise 15. Find the answers to the following questions.

1. Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of topics including


economics, geology, geochemistry, geomechanics, geophysics, oil
drilling, geopolitics, knowledge management, seismology, tectonics,
thermodynamics, well logging, well completion, oil and gas
production, reservoir development, and pipelines.
2. The toolbox of the petroleum engineer has been drastically improved
due to improvements in computer modeling, materials and the
application of statistics, probability analysis, and new technologies like
horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery.
3. Yes, we can. As mistakes may be measured in millions of dollars,
petroleum engineers are held to a high standard.
4. The knowledge of wide range of disciplines such as thermohydraulics,
geomechanics, and intelligent system is vital for the petroleum
engineer.
5. Petroleum engineers are the highest paid discipline because they must
implement high technology plans with use of manpower, highly
coordinated and often in dangerous conditions.
6. Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types: reservoir
engineers, drilling engineers, production engineers.
7. There are three main branches of petroleum engineering: reservoir
engineering, drilling engineering, production engineering.
8. Reservoir engineers often specialize in two areas: surveillance (or
production) engineering and simulation modeling.
9. Drilling engineers are involved in the design and drilling of production
and injection wells.
10. Drilling engineers are responsible for the process of planning and
drilling oil wells.

Exercise 16. Work in pairs.

10
Ss are to compose the dialogues using the information and expressions
from the text.

Exercise 17. Discussion.

T can ask Ss to find some additional information on each of the points.

Exercise 18. Role-play.

T should bear in mind that the students who take a TV/Radio Presenter
role should be involved into the discussion actively using the vocabulary
of the unit and also facts learnt from the text.

Exercise 19. Prepare a poster-presentation of your specialty according to


the model given in the text.

If Ss are of the same specializations as those mentioned in the text, they


may be given the task to extend the subject and to find additional
information. If the Ss are of different specializations (e.g. pipelines,
geoecologists etc) they prepare their presentation according to the model
given in the text.

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UNIT 2

OIL COMPANIES

Lead-in. T. elicits the information from the Ss related to the theme of the
Unit. At the same time it is connected with their future job.

Exercise 2. Read the following word-formations, translate them into


Russian.

Market (n) – marketer (n) – marketing (n): Рынок – торговец – торговля,


маркетинг
Refine (verb) – refinery (n) – refinement (n): очищать –
перерабатывающий завод – очистка
Explore (verb) – exploration (n) – exploratory (adj): разведывать –
разведка – разведочный
Produce (verb) – producer (n) – production (n): производить –
производитель – производство
Dominate (verb) – dominance (n) – dominated (part. II): доминировать –
доминирование – доминирующий

Exercise 4. State whether the sentences are true or false. If true, add the
information on the statement. If false, correct the sentence.

1. T
2. T
3. F – Upstream includes exploration, recovery and production.
4. F – Midstream is included in the downstream sector (category).
5. T
6. T
7. F – Service companies work as contractors to the oil companies.

Exercise 6. Translate the following word groups into Russian.

Oil refinery – нефтеперегонный завод, pipeline company –


трубопроводная компания, market value – рыночная стоимость,
production activity – производственная деятельность, oil and gas
exploration – разведка нефти и газа, groundwater industry –
гидрогеологическая промышленность, software and information
management – управление программным и информационным

12
обеспечением, market leader – лидер рынка, private sector energy
corporation – частная энергетическая компания.

Exercise 7. Give the synonyms to the words from the text.

the whole = entire, to provide = to supply, to look for = to search for, to


include = to comprise, survey = acquisition, manufacturer= producer,
corporation = company, estimation = evaluation, benefit = profit.

Exercise 8. Classify the words into Business terms and Petroleum


Engineering terms.

Business terms: retail outlet, joint venture, market value, profit, share,
headquarters, vendor, offshore location, consumer, revenue.

Petroleum engineering terms: crude oil, refinery, pipelines, formation


evaluation, artificial lift, seismic acquisition, well completion, raw natural
gas.

Exercise 9. Translate from Russian into English.

сырая нефть – crude oil, вся нефтяная промышленность – the entire oil
industry, нефтеперерабатывающий завод – refinery, предприятия
розничной торговли – retail outlets, центральный офис – headquarters,
удобрения – fertilizers, синтетический каучук – synthetic rubber,
определение параметров пласта – formation evaluation,
принадлежащий государству – owned by the government, совместное
предприятие – joint venture, рыночная стоимость – market value,
наклонно-направленное бурение – directional drilling, сейсмическая
обработка – seismic processing, филиал – subsidiary.

Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with necessary prepositions.

1. The oil industry is often divided into three major sectors.


2. The downstream oil sector is a term commonly used to refer to the
refining of crude oil and the selling and distribution of natural gas and
products derived from crude oil.
3. The upstream sector includes the searching for potential underground
or underwater oil and gas fields
4. Midstream operations are usually simply included in the downstream
category

13
5. The process of oil production, transportation, refinery and sale is
managed by oil companies
6. These are deeply involved in the oil business providing services that
help oil companies to carry out their operations.
7. The company's main business is the exploration for and the
production, processing, transportation and marketing of hydrocarbons.
8. Shell is incorporated in the UK with its corporate headquarters in The
Hague, its tax residence is in the Netherlands, and its primary listings
on the London Stock Exchange.
9. Shell's revenues of $318.8 billion in 2006 made it the second-largest
corporation in the world by revenues behind only Exxon Mobil. It
operates in over 140 countries
10. Rosneft conducts oil and gas exploration and production activities on
Sakhalin island, in Siberia, in the Timan-Pechora province, and in
southern Russia, including Chechnya.
11. Its plant in Tuapse, on the Black Sea, focuses on refining high-gravity
oil from western Siberia.
12. According to its website, it seems to be completely owned by the
Russian Federation.

Exercise 11. What do the following abbreviations stand for.

RTS – Russian Trading System


NYSE – New-York Stock Exchange
ABO – Asset Based Organisation
NLG – Natural gas liquids
GD – General director
HSE – Health, Safety and Environment
LSE – London Stock Exchange
HR – Human resource department

Exercise 12. Read the following statements and decide if they are correct or
not. Use (C) for correct sentences and (F) for false ones, give your correct
variant.

1. False. It is the downstream oil sector that touches consumers through


thousands of products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil,
asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers, antifreeze,
pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas and propane.
2. False. It is oil companies or producers that manage oil production,
transportation, refinery and sale.

14
3. Correct.
4. False. Shell tax residence is in the Netherlands.
5. Correct.
6. False. Shell has five core businesses: besides Exploration and
Production, Refining and Marketing, Chemicals, and Trading/Shipping
it has also Gas and Power business.
7. Correct.
8. False. Although Rosneft is an open joint stock company, according to
its website, it seems to be completely owned by the Russian
Federation.
9. False. Schlumberger Limited is the world's largest oilfield services
corporation operating in approximately 80 countries, with about 70,000
people of 140 nationalities.
10.Correct

Exercise 13.  Listen to the tape and answer the questions given below.

1. C
2. B
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. A
8. A

Tapescript

ConocoPhillips uses its pioneering spirit to responsibly deliver energy to


the world. This purpose transcends all of ConocoPhillips’ operations. As
the third-largest integrated energy company in the United States, based on
market capitalization, oil and natural gas reserves, the company
understands its responsibility to deliver energy in a safe, environmentally
and socially responsible manner. ConocoPhillips is known worldwide for
its technological expertise in reservoir management and exploration, 3-D
Seismic technology and sulfur removal.

Approximately 32,500 ConocoPhillips employees work worldwide. With


operations in nearly 40 countries, ConocoPhillips is committed to
contributing to social, economic and environmental improvements.

15
ConocoPhillips centers its business on one core purpose: to responsibly
deliver energy to the world. To do this, the company finds, produces,
refines, markets and ultimately supplies energy resources to individuals
and businesses worldwide.

The company’s four core worldwide activities include:


Exploration and Production As of June 30, 2007, the company had
exploration operations in 22 countries and production in 16 countries.
Refining, Marketing, Supply and Transportation
Natural Gas Gathering, Processing and Marketing
Chemicals and Plastics

Headquartered in Houston, Texas, the company has assets of $173 billion.


ConocoPhillips stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the
symbol "COP."

ConocoPhillips has had a presence in Russia since January 1992 when the
Polar Lights Company was established. As part of a larger strategic
alliance, ConocoPhillips entered into an agreement with LUKOIL in 2004
to create Naryanmarneftegaz, a joint venture to develop oil and gas
resources in the northern part of Russia’s Timan-Pechora province. As of
Dec. 31, 2006, ConocoPhillips had a 20 percent ownership interest in
LUKOIL based on its authorized and issued shares.

Two key people of the company are: John A. Carrig, who is an


Executive Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer and who
joined the company in London in 1978 as a tax attorney; and Ames J.
Mulva who is a Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer at the
same time.

16
Exercise 14. Fill in the chart with the information on domestic and foreign
oil companies. Use additional resources: for example, www. Wikipedia.ed.

Name Type Founded Headquarters Industry Products Description


Mobil Public 1999 Irving, Texas Oil and Fuels,
1911 gas Lubricants
1911 Petro-
1870 chemicals

Exercise 15. b.  Listen to seven people talking about their work and
decide which department each one works for.

1 E Finance 5 F Production
2 G Research and Development 6 D Personnel or Human Resources
or R& D
3 A Marketing 7 C Information Technology or IT
4 B Public Relation or P

Tapescript

Speaker 1:
Every six months we produce a report showing how the company is
doing. This past week, we’ve been busy with our accountants preparing
the results that will be included in our next report.

Speaker 2:
I’m a member of a team of engineer and we’ve just finalized the design of
our new portable computer. This model will be more powerful and more
adaptable than our previous one. We’re constantly looking for new ideas
and experimenting with new products.

Speaker 3:
Before selling our latest product, our department must decide in which
regions it will be the most successful and what types of consumers we
want to reach.

17
Speaker 4:
Communication is a key aspect of my department’s work. We answer
enquiries made by our customers and are also in contact with the press to
inform them of our new products and changes within the company.

Speaker 5:
We’ve been having problems with the quality of certain electronic parts
made in our factories. So several members of the department have got
together to talk about ways of improving some of our manufacturing
techniques.

Speakers 6:
Our company is going through a difficult period and we have to reduce
the number of employees in several departments and to review salaries
throughout the organization.

Speaker 7:
In today’s changing work environment, computer systems play an
essential role in how the company is run. In our department we not only
ensure that all systems are working properly, but we also design and
develop new applications to make it easier for our employees to exchange
and share information.

Exercise 17. Match the job title with the definition.

A. 6 F. 3
B. 8 G. 9
C. 5 H. 10
D. 2 I. 4
E. 1 J. 7

Exercise 21. Read the text and discuss the after-text questions. See
Appendix 3 (pg. 63–64 ).

The given text contains a number of unknown words that can be explained
by the T.:

Comments

18
Revenue is a business term for the amount of money that a company
receives from its activities in a given period, mostly from sales of
products and/or services to customers. It is not to be confused with the
terms "profits" or "net income" which generally mean total revenue minus
total expenses in a given period. In Europe (including the UK) the term is
turnover. For individuals, the equivalent term is income.

Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs
and expenses from the total revenue. Net income can be distributed among
holders of common stock as a dividend or held by the firm as retained
earnings. Net income is primarily an accounting term used in the US; in
other countries (such as the UK) profit. Additionally, in the US net
income is often (though ambiguously) called just income.
The items deducted will typically include tax expense, financing expense
(interest expense), and minority interest. Likewise, preferred stock
dividends will be subtracted too, though they are not an expense. For a
merchandising company, subtracted costs may be the cost of goods sold,
sales discounts, and sales returns and allowances. For a product company
advertising, manufacturing, and design and development costs are
included.

Profit generally is the making of gain in business activity for the benefit
of the owners of the business.

RDSA/RDSB are the ticker (stock market) codes for two types of shares
that can be bought in Royal Dutch Shell. These shares have the same
value but RSDA shares are subject to Dutch tax law and RDSB shares are
subject to British tax law. The reason for this double share offering is that
until 2006 “Shell” contained two companies (Royal Dutch and Shell
Trading) that both traded separately on the stock exchange. In 2006 these
two companies merged under the name Royal Dutch Shell but because the
majority of the shareholders either pay Dutch or British tax the two types
of shares were issued.

Exercise 21. Discuss the questions.

19
1. What does an Asset Based Organization consist of? An Asset Based
organization consists of asset teams looking after and responsible for
all assets.
2. What does a Functional Based Organization consist of? A Functional
Based organization consists of several departments where all
specialists of one function work together and support the company’s
assets.
3. What are advantages and disadvantages of an integrated asset based
organization? Integrated teams are more effective than the functional
approach. The Asset based organization allows management to
allocate budget, set targets and manage improvements more effectively
because each Asset Manager is responsible for his Asset. The
disadvantage of an Asset based organization is that it is difficult to
maintain the technical level of functional specialists
4. What are advantages and disadvantages of a functional based
organization? The advantage of this system is that by working closely
together within the function, specialists maintain a high level of
technical expertise. The disadvantage is that integrated team work is
absent and responsibility for a single asset is held only at the General
Director level this system is that by working closely together within
the function, specialists maintain a high level of technical expertise.
The disadvantage is that integrated team work is absent and
responsibility for a single asset is held only at the General Director
level
5. Give your own examples of organizations of both types.

20
UNIT 3

OIL FORMATION

Exercise 4. Read the following word combinations and give Russian


equivalents.

complex mixture of hydrocarbons – cложная смесь углеводородов


sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen – cера, азот и кислород
different depths in the same oilfield – разные глубины одного и того же
месторождения
from light coloured to thick – от светлых до густых
depending on the number – в зависимости от количества
many different properties – различные свойства
used for cooking – используемый для приготовления пищи
be altered in shape – можно менять форму
tarry residue left after – смолы, остающиеся после
organic material mixed with – органика, смешанная с…
exerted intense pressure and heat – произвели огромное давление и
температуру
distilled into – превратили
trap between – захватить в ловушку между

Exercise 5. Find English equivalents to the following terms and phrases.

Незначительное количество – minor proportions,


компоненты смеси – different parts of the mixture,
из пласта – from the ground,
различаются от …… до – vary from,
содержат смеси – contain different mixtures,
способ соединения атомов – the way in which the atoms combine,
могут располагаться – can be arranged,
на более мелкие – into smaller ones,
для производства других материалов – for making other materials,
остатки крошечных растений и животных – the remains of tiny plants
and animals,
за многие годы – over the years,
органика – organic material,
мелкозернистый сланец – fine – grained shale,
пористый известняк – porous limestone,

21
непроницаемая порода – impermeable rock,
температура и давление – heat and pressure,
осадок – sediment,
азот – nitrogen,
сложное химическое соединение – compound

Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences.

1. Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with minor


proportions of other chemicals such as compounds of sulphur,
nitrogen and oxygen.
2. Different parts of the mixture can be used only after they are
separated from each other.
3. Different depths in one and the same oilfield contain different
mixtures of hydrocarbons and other compounds.
4. Hydrocarbons are difficult to pump from the ground because of
viscosity.
5. Hydrocarbon structure depends on the number of carbon atoms
and the way in which the hydrogen atoms combine with them.
6. Two main chemical families of hydrocarbons the alkanes and the
alkenes.
7. Hydrocarbon molecules are chemical feedstock for making other
materials.
8. Thick black tarry residue left after distillation is bitumen.
9. Bitumen is used in tarmac for road surfacing, and for roofing.
10. The smaller the hydrocarbon molecules, the better the fuels.

Exercise 8. Work in pairs.

Student A – a lecturer and Student B – a petroleum geology student.


Student A – write 6–8 questions on the text “Forming Oil”. Student B-
be ready to answer.Use as many expressions under study as possible.
Use the expressions of agreement and disagreement
Possible variants

Exercise 10. Give Russian equivalents to the following English ones.

Gasoline – бензин
Opening up – вскрытие скважины
Oil = petroleum – нефть
Mixture – смесь

22
Decompose – разлагаться
Hydrocarbons – углеводороды
Organic matter – органическая материя
Kerogen – кероген (органическое вещество битуминозных сланцев)
Specific conditions – особые условия
Sediment – осадок
Accumulate – накапливаться
Fold – складка
Fault – сброс, сдвиг
Thrust faults – взброс, надвиг
Unconformity – несогласное напластование
Salt dome – соляной купол
Fracture – разлом
Cavity – полость
Trap – ловушка

Exercise 11. Give the definitions to the following terms.

Petroleum (literally rock oil, from the Greek petra – for rock and Latin –
oleum for oil) is a general term used to refer to all forms of oil and natural
gas that is mined from the earth.
Crude oil – the liquid mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons.
Natural gas – is a gaseous mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons are complex molecules that are formed from long strings
of hydrogen and carbon, such as propane (C3H8) or butane (C4H10).
Kerogen – the organic matter which becomes buried and begins to
decompose.
Porous – having microscopic holes.
Permeable – allowing for the flow of liquids.
Source rock – the rock where kerogen was created in.
Migrate – to move, to flow through.
Trap – a natural reservoir where petroleum is accumulated.

Exercise 12. State whether the following statements are true or false.

1. False – The area that the kerogen collects must be a restricted basin.
2. False – When the oxygen is gone, the decomposition stops and the
remaining matter are preserved.
3. True
4. True
5. False – Students must attend lectures in structural geology.

23
6. False – There are three types of structural traps.
7. True
8. True
9. True
10. False – Long chains of hydrocarbon are oil; shorter chains are gas,
generally methane (CH4) and condensates such as ethane, propane and
butane.

Exercise 13. Put the facts into the correct order which shows how oil
becomes oil.

9, 3, 6, 2, 11, 7, 1, 4, 5, 12, 8, 10.

Exercise 14.  You will hear a lecture on petroleum. For questions 1-5,
choose the best answer A, B, or C.

1. B
2. A
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. C

Tapescript

Petroleum (Latin Petroleum derived from Latin petra – rock + Latin


oleum – oil) or crude oil is a naturally occurring liquid found in
formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons
(mostly alkanes) of various lengths. The approximate length range is
C5H12 to C18H38. Any shorter hydrocarbons are considered natural gas or
natural gas liquids, while long-chain hydrocarbons are more viscous, and
the longest chains are paraffin wax. In its naturally occurring form, it may
contain other nonmetallic elements such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. It
is usually black or dark brown (although it may be yellowish or even
greenish) but varies greatly in appearance, depending on its composition.
Crude oil may also be found in semi-solid form mixed with sand where it
may be referred to as crude bitumen.

Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and gasoline
(petrol), both important "primary energy" sources. 84 % of the
hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels

24
(petroleum-based fuels), including gasoline, diesel, jet, heating, and other
fuel oils, and liquefied petroleum gas.

Due to its high energy density, easy transportability and relative


abundance, it has become the world's most important source of energy
since the mid-1950s. Petroleum is also the raw material for many
chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics;
the 16 % not used for energy production is converted into these other
materials.

Petroleum is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some


areas of the Earth's crust. There is also petroleum in oil sands. Known
reserves of petroleum are typically estimated at around 1.2 trillion barrels
without oil sands, or 3.74 trillion barrels with oil sands. However, oil
production from oil sands is currently severely limited. Consumption is
currently around 84 million barrels per day, or 4.9 trillion liters per year.
Because of reservoir engineering difficulties, recoverable oil reserves are
significantly less than total oil-in-place. At current consumption levels,
and assuming that oil will be consumed only from reservoirs, known
reserves would be gone in about 32 years, around 2039, potentially
leading to a global energy crisis. However, this ignores any new
discoveries, changes in consumption, using oil sands, using synthetic
petroleum, and other factors.

Exercise 15. Discuss the following questions.

1. What product do we get out of the ground? – Oil and gas are the
products that we get out of the ground.
2. What collects on the ocean bottoms all over the world? – These
organisms live all over the oceans and their bodies fall and collect on
the ocean bottom all over the world.
3. Is there abundance of dead organisms? – Yes, there are.
4. What is needed for these organisms to be transformed into petroleum?
– Some special conditions are needed to be met.
5. Are there any conditions for the oil to be made? – First, the area that
the kerogen collects must be a restricted basin, a depression where
sediment can accumulate and where there is poor water circulation.
There needs to be a trap, something that is non-porous and non-
permeable that will hold the petroleum in the reservoir and prevent it
from migrating further. Finally, there needs to be enough heat and
pressure to sufficiently cook the oil and gas out of the kerogen.

25
6. How do structural traps work? – Structural traps work by folding or
breaking the reservoir rock and placing it adjacent to an impermeable
rock layer, like shale.
7. What are structural traps? – One of the most common is a trap from the
folding of the rocks.
8. Is there any difference between structural and stratigraphic traps? –
The differences between stratigraphic and structural traps are that these
traps occur by the nature of how the sediment was deposited and not
whether it was broken or folded.
9. Can you name some of the stratigraphic traps? – For example,
sandstone lenses and sandstone pinch-outs are the result of the changes
in deposition of the sediment.
10. What are salt domes for? – Salt domes can push up through buried
sediment and deform the overlying layers of rock. This causes folds
and fractures to form in the rock. Trapping the oil salt domes are the
primary places where the oil is found.

Exercise 16. Scan the text given bellow and describe main oil properties
based on the information you learn.

The purpose of this task is to let students know the main properties of oil.
So, T can ask some questions after reading the text or give the task to
complete the table. Ss describe the properties of oil in short.

Property Characteristic features


Color Oil colors vary in a very wide range
from oilfield to oilfield: from pale
yellow, yellow and even colourless to
dark grey, green and dark brown
shades.
Density The SI unit is kg/m3 at a reference
temperature, typically 150 °C.
Density of oils range from 0.65 to
1.0 g/cm3 and more at 200 °C.
According to density, oils may be
light, medium and heavy.
Viscosity A property of fluids that indicates
their resistance to flow, defined as
ratio of shear stress to shear rate.
Crude oils range in consistency from
water-like to tar-like solids.

26
Thermal expansion The degree of expansion is expressed
as the coefficient of thermal
expansion. Thermal expansion is
useful to determine the size of
container needed when the oil is
heated. Thermal expansion is
expressed as the ratio of volume
change to initial volume after heating
10 °C.
Composition base Crude oils are complex mixtures
containing hundreds of different
hydrocarbon compounds that vary in
appearance and composition from oil
field to oil field, therefore, in various
oil fields the oil composition can vary
significantly. All hydrocarbons are
divided into two groups: saturated
hydrocarbons and unsaturated
hydrocarbons.

27
UNIT 4

HSE

Lead-in. Discuss the questions.


T. elicits the information from the Ss related to the theme of the Unit as well
as prepare them to perceive the information.

Exercise 3. Read the following word-formations, translate into Russian.

Lead – leader – leadership – вести – лидер – лидерство (руководство)


Pass – passable – impassable – проходить – проходимый –
непроходимый
Prevent – prevention – preventer – предотвращать – предотвращение
(профилактика) – страховка
Manage – manager – management – руководить – менеджер –
менеджмент, управление
Employ – employer – employee – employment – устраивать на работу
(нанимать) – наниматель (работодатель) – служащий (работник) –
устройство на работу.

Exercise 4. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below.

Performance appropriate remediation


PPE impact preventer
risk assessment near misses

1. The authorities of our company pay great attention to remediation of


affect to the environment after finishing the production activity.
2. Before starting oil exploration a company should perform risk
assessment including identification of risks and hazards as well as the
ways of removing them.
3. The accident took place because of the absence of preventer and other
necessary equipment at the workplace.
4. Labour protection includes application of PPE in the process of
operation.
5. The personnel of our company are specially trained in safety method of
work performance.
6. At the beginning of field development an oil company should assess
the possible impact to the environment.

28
7. The drivers are required to hold the appropriate driving licenses.
8. To prevent accidents from occurring again it is necessary to investigate
not only incidents, but also near misses.

Exercise 5. Fill in correct preposition, then choose two items and make
sentences.

1. to prevent sb. from doing sth. 5. to carry out the work


2. to be in motion 6. to be responsible for sth.
3. to protect sb. from sb./sth. 7. in case of emergency
4. in practice 8. under the circumstances

Exercise 6. Match the problems with the ways of their solution.

1. D
2. E
3. A
4. B
5. C

Exercise 7. Compose collocations from the following words.

1. to wear PPE 5. to meet requirements


2. to discharge waste water 6. first aid kit
3. greenhouse gas emissions 7. escape plan
4. fire extinguisher 8. near misses

Exercise 8. Match the items with their function.

1. D
2. E
3. A
4. B
5. F
6. C

Exercise 9. Classify the words into 2 categories. Guess what these


categories are. Add more items to each category.

The possible categories of classification are problems in HSE and ways of


solution of these problems.

29
The problems: greenhouse gas emissions, major incidents, disturbed
land, contamination of water sources, impassable obstacles.
The ways of solution: risk assessment, personal protective equipment,
incident investigation, near misses, environmental monitoring.

Exercise 10.  Study the definitions given in Appendix 2. Listen to the


tape and find the right term for the definitions given on the tape:

1). B 5). B
2). A 6). A
3). A 7). C
4). C 8). A

Tapescript

1) How would you call a schedule of actions required to develop,


implement and maintain the HSE Management System?
a) Toolbox talk
b) Action plan
c) Lost time accident

2) What term is used to describe disabling injuries and occupational


illnesses causing subsequent death, permanent injury or incapacity
from work estimated to exceed 3 months, or property damage and loss
exceeding $10,000?
a) Serious Accident
b) Minor Accident
c) Fatal Accident

3) What is the name of the equipment which is designed to protect the


person against the consequences of workplace hazards, for example
hard hat, boots, respirator, etc
a) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
b) While at Work
c) Accident

4) If a person(s) is involved in an accident from which they sustain


injuries which cause death within 24 hours of the accident, what would
it be?
a) Lost Time Accident

30
b) Serious Accident
c) Fatality

5) How would you call being on Company premises, on Company


business, and while travelling on Company business, and being on a
location not owned by the Company where all or nearly all of the work is
being performed for the Company and the Company has a full-time
representative on site.
a) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
b) While at Work
c) Accident

6) A meeting on an operational site which takes place prior to an activity


which is especially hazardous or which is unfamiliar to the workers is

a) Toolbox talk
b) Action plan
c) Lost time accident

7) How would you call an injury that requires first aid, but is not
disabling injury or occupational illnesses which, following treatment,
do not result in lost time, or property damage and loss in excess of
$10,000?
a) Major Accident
b) Minor Incident
c) Minor Accident

8) An accident causing injury or occupational illness such that the person


concerned is unable to resume normal duties the next day or shift
(irrespective of field breaks, leave or holidays) is?
a) Lost Time Accident
b) Lost Time Incident
c) Fatality

31
Exercise 12. Read the introduction to BP’s 8 golden rules. Find the words
in the text that mean the same as the words and phrases below.

T. elicits what students know about the BP (British Petroleum) company.


Then T. tells students that they will be looking at BP’s 8 golden rules.
First, they should discuss in small groups what they think are important
safety rules for people working in the oil, gas and petrochemical industries
and note them down.

Conduct feedback. Discuss some of the students’ ideas with the whole
group.

Find words in the text that mean the same as the words and phrases
below.

- Ask students to read the introduction to the golden rules. Ask


comprehension questions to ensure general understanding, e.g. What
does the policy state? What happens before work is started? What must
be worn? When must people stop work?
- Set the task to find words and phrases in the text for individual work
and pairwork checking.
- Conduct feedback. Elicit answers with the whole group. Deal with any
other unfamiliar words such as conduct, potential, obligation, and
scenario.

Answers:

1. Harm
2. Enforced
3. Risk assessment
4. Competent
5. Site requirements
6. Emergency response plans
7. Commencement
8. Obligation

32
13. Write in a safety rule next to explanation.

- Refer Ss to the word box. Point out that this is formal language, e.g. in
general spoken English we would replace confined space entry with
going into small spaces.
- Set the task for individual reading. Advise Ss to scan the rules to look
for key words that they associate with them. Do the first one together.
The word permit is in line 3. Reassure Ss that they do not need to
understand every word to have a general understanding of the text.
- Conduct feedback.
- Allow Ss to choose five words from the text that are unfamiliar to them
and check the meanings in a dictionary. Pool their findings with the
whole group.

Answers:

1. Permit to work
2. Working at heights
3. Energy isolation
4. Confined space entry
5. Lifting operations
6. Management of change (MOC)
7. Driving safety
8. Ground disturbance

Exercise 14. A.  Listen to Bob describing an incident. Think of questions


you would like to ask about it.

Tapescript:

Bob: I cut my hand when I was working. I was changing a valve, and
while I was removing it, my pipe wretch slipped and cut into my hand. I
wrapped my hand in my handkerchief and got someone to take me to the
medical block. The doctor said I needed stitches, and I thought “Oh no!”
Then, when he was stitching up my hand, I fainted!

T. plays the recording for Ss to listen and compares their questions. Then,
T. elicits the questions Ahmed asked by giving prompts if necessary.

33
While eliciting T uses Past Continuous Tense in the second question. Why
were you changing the valve? T. highlights the form, drawing attention to
the use of the auxiliary were and the use of –ing.

Answers:

When did it happen?


Why were you changing the valve?
Who took you to the medical block?
Did it hurt?
What did the doctor do when you fainted?

B.  Listen to Ahmed asking Bob about the incident. Were his questions
the same as yours?

Tapescript:

Ahmed: When did it happen?


Bob: Yesterday evening, just before the end of my shift.
Ahmed: Why were you changing the valve?
Bob: Oh, it was old and faulty.
Ahmed: Who took you to the medical block?
Bob: One of the roustabouts.
Ahmed: Did it hurt?
Bob: Not at first. It started hurting when I had the stitches, and it’s quite
sore now.
Ahmed: What did the doctor do when you fainted?
Bob: I don’t know! When I woke up, I was lying on the couch!

C. Work with a partner. Ask each other questions about the incident. One
person plays the role of Bob and one person plays the role of Ahmed.

T. sets the task for pairwork and monitors where necessary. Then asks
some pairs to repeat their dialogues for the class. Then T. Asks Ss to write
down the dialogues from memory.

34
Part II
UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM

Chapter 1

GEOPHYSICS
Д.А. Терре

UNIT 1

GEOPHYSICS. GENERAL INFORMATION

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Geophysics and make collective mind map (spidergram) on
the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out
the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is that Ss do not
think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by moving
between its various aspects.

The next stage in this procedure may be division of all items suggested into
groups and explanation of Ss’ associations.

This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 1.

Exercise 4. Form adjectives from the following words.

seismology-seismic; elasticity-elastic; remanence-remanent;


homogeneity-homogenous; density-dense; accuracy-accurate;
detection-detective; quantity-quantitative; prospecting-prospective;
physics-physical; magnetics-magnetic; exploration-exploratory.

Exercise 5. Match the words from the first column with their synonyms
from the second.

1. H 2. E 3. F 4. I. 5. B 6. G 7. A 8. C 9. D

Exercise 6. Match the verb with the noun to form collocations. Add a
preposition where necessary.

locate bodies consider factors


measure dimensions utilize natural fields of force

35
consist of measurements survey ground
necessitate introduction cover depth/ distance
decide a drilling programme give indication
determine properties be of irregular shape

Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps.

1. (to measure dimensions)


2. (particular features)
3. (detection and determination of physical properties)
4. (geological both)
5. (geophysical survey)
6. (economics, logistics)
7. (elasticity, electrical conductivity, density, magnetic susceptibility,
remanence, electrical polarizability)
8. (degree of radioactivity)

Exercise 8. Make up sentences using the following words.

1. Many geophysical factors govern the choice of method for particular


survey.
2. Magnetic survey can be a preliminary stage for seismic shooting in oil
prospecting.
3. Economic and scientific factors are considered in deciding a drilling
programme.
4. A combination of magnetic and gravity data help to detect
concentrations of valuable metallic ores.
5. Geophysics is not necessary for civil engineering which deals with
small depths.
6. Exploratory drilling on a large scale requires much money.

Exercise 9. Give English equivalents of the given Russian words.

1. of both/ and; 2. necessitates; 3. bedrock depth/ sites; 4. particular/


heterogeneity; 5. remanence/ determined to a greater extent; 6. electrical
conductivity/ indication; 7. on the other hand/ inaccuracy/ substantial/
carry out exploratory drilling); 8. seismic surveys/ same / prospecting/
civil engineering.

36
Exercise 10. Replace the underlined words or word-combinations with their
synonyms from your active vocabulary. In some instances you have to
change the structure of the sentence.

1. The accuracy of measurements is very essential for surveys.


2. Some subsurface rocks are characterized as materials with high
electrical conductivity.
3. The homogeneity of the formation determines the choice of
geophysical method.
4. One more method of seismic survey is called seismic shooting.
5. Geophysical exploration makes use of phenomena which can be
interpreted through the fundamental laws of physics.
6. Great depth and simple geology of the formation necessitate
application of geophysical survey.
7. Employment of more than one survey method in oil prospecting helps
to detect indications of valuable metallic ores.
8. Irregular shape of rock of complex structure makes it difficult to make
quantitative interpretation of a particular structure.

Exercise 11. Fill in the gaps with the given words.

1. prospecting; 2. necessitates; 3. deciding; 4. makes use; 5. essential; 6.


electrical conductivity; 7. quantitative interpretation; 8. civil engineering;
9. substantial, seismic survey; 10. particular

Exercise 12. Translate into English.


(Suggested translation)

1. The extensive application of seismic surveys is evidence of their


essential role in prospecting for oil. 2. In choosing sites for spudding
wildcats almost every oil company makes use of results from seismic data
interpretation. 3. Although in many instances the results of seismic survey
allow to detect geological structures but not to find oil directly, the
possibility of a success is substantial enough to cover expenses for seismic
operations. 4. Seismic surveys are of the same importance for
underground water prospecting in the civil engineering. 5. By using them
it is possible to measure bedrock depth, the knowledge of which is
necessary for constructions of big buildings, highways and ports. 6. They
are also applied to determine whether you will need shootings while
building roads in case if you can meet such potential dangers as caverns,
abandoned mines below the chosen prospects. 7. During these operations

37
the specialists detect if in the profile there are disjunctive interruptions
which can be dangerous for atomic power stations. 8. On the other hand,
seismic methods are rarely applied in direct mineral prospecting as they
cannot give sufficiently reliable results when the boundaries between the
rocks are extremely irregular.

Exercise 13. Comment on the sentenses.


(Suggested answers)

1. Geophysical survey is essential for oil production.


Oil production is impossible without prospecting for hydrocarbons. In
this respect it is difficult to overestimate the importance of geophysical
survey. It is aimed to locate subsurface geological structures or bodies,
to measure their dimensions and necessary physical properties. It can
help to detect such structures as anticlines that are usually associated
with oil and give information on bedrock depth which is essential for
site constructions.

2. Geophysicists should take a lot of measurements.


To tell the truth, geophysical survey represents particular
measurements that are conducted on land, at sea, in the air, and in a
borehole. The processing and interpretation of this data helps to define
the strategy for oil extraction and field development.

3. There exist different kinds of geophysical survey.


There are gravitational and magnetic surveys that use the natural field
of force. Geophysical survey involves seismic and electrical surveys
which necessitate introducing energy into the ground. Airborne
magnetics and radiometry that make use of particular properties of
rocks. Sometimes it is necessary to combine all these methods to detect
indications of ore deposits.

4. There are a lot of rock properties substantial for geophysical works.


Geophysical survey methods are based on detection of characteristic
and contrasting properties of rocks such as elasticity, electrical
conductivity and so on.

5. We should think a lot before doing a geophysical survey.


In prospecting and site investigation there is always a choice between
exploratory drilling and geophysical survey as the later costs a lot and
requires complex technique. In civil engineering where the accuracy

38
should be high it will be more cost effective to do without geophysical
survey. On the other hand, where a large area must be covered in detail
(especially in oil prospecting) but high accuracy is not essential,
geophysical survey can be used. Besides, the choice of the particular
geophysical method requires consideration of a number of geological,
economic, safety, security factors and taking into account
environmental concerns.

Exercise 15. State which words the following nouns are formed from.

Seismology-seismic, volcanology-volcano, meteorology-meteo,


oceanology-ocean, measurement-measure, composition-compose,
difference-differ, determination-determine, formation-form.

Exercise 16. Form adjectives from the following nouns.

Gas-gaseous, density-dense, gravitation-gravitational, magnetism-


magnetic, essence-essential, subsurface-subsurface, elasticity-elastic,
seismology-seismic, atmosphere-atmospheric, detection-detectable,
volcano-volcanic, ocean-oceanic, geophysics-geophysical, conductivity-
conductive, application-applicable-physics-physical, significance-
significant, suit-suitable.

Exercise 17. See the correct arrangement of the text in exercise 21.

Exercise 18.  You are going to listen to an interview with Steve


Holbrook, Professor of University of Wyoming (UW), Geology Geophysics
Department. The notes on the information from the interview are given
below. For gaps (1–10) you should fill in words that are missing. No more
than two words can be used.

1.active source, 2. earth makes, 3. acoustic, 4. enthusiastic, 5.methane


hydride, 6. climate change, 7. composition, 8. oceanography, 9. image, 10.
fine arts, cultural
Tapescript

My name is Steve Holbrook. I am a geophysicist here at the department


and the kind of work I do – is seismology, particularly active source
seismology which means … the two types of seismologists, the kinds that
listen for the sounds that the Earth makes, earth seismologists. The second
kind which I am, which is the kind of seismologists who do not wait for

39
the sounds but make their own sound. They listen for the acoustics to
come back, their way back to figure out what’s down. That’s what I do.

What I like about working here? Well, a lot of things. I like the people.
First of…. formers… We’re really high-quality department. We have a lot
of really good students and the students who could be anywhere but who
have chosen to be here. And they are really enthusiastic that just brings a
lot of energy to the whole place, you know, having motivated faculty,
motivated students around working together or after small class research.
We have great facilities. The research that my group does and right now I
have I think four graduate students. The things that we want to do now are
gas hydrides, methane hydrides. This is a form of methane and it is very
widespread in the world’s oceans and might have played a role in the
climate change cause methane is a very risky gas.

We have a big project on array now in Costa Rico (right there) looking at
the volcanic arch. I’m trying to figure out what its origins are, what the
composition of the magma is, magma flux and things like that.

Recently we’ve just taken a very exciting turn into so-called seismic
oceanography. When conducting a seismic survey in the ocean sending
sound waves down typically through the ocean into the Earth to image the
Earth it turns out if you listen carefully enough, turn on the volume up,
you can record subtle weak echoes coming from inside the ocean.

Laramie for me is a very good place to live. I love living here. If you like
outdoor stuff which I do then it just has. But for the town of the science it
is luck on Earth because of University, it’s really science university. So
there are a lot of fine arts events, cultural events and suppose enough
indoor games too. Get down and catch a ball game and that sort of thing.

Exercise 20. Tell about geophysical survey according to the given plan
using words in brackets.

1. Geophysical survey is used to locate subsurface structures and


determine their dimensions. It also detects anticlines as oil is usually
accumulated there. Most geological formations have irregular shape as
a result in geophysical surveys the emphasis is on detection of both
their structural and physical properties.

40
2. For geophysical survey it is necessary to take measurements
systematically on land, at sea and in a borehole. When geophysicists
choose the particular methods for the survey they consider
homogeneity of the formation and contrasting properties of rocks.

3. The most use of such rock properties as elasticity, electrical


conductivity, density is made in geophysical survey. To a lesser extent
such property as radioactivity is utilized. Gravitational and magnetic
surveys use natural fields of force. Seismic and electrical methods
necessitate the introduction of some energy into the ground.

4. Many factors such as geological, economic and non-geological ones


determine the choice of particular type of survey. In many instances
geophysicists have to use different methods in combination. Gravity
and airborne magnetics can serve as a preliminary activity for seismic
shooting. Exploration for valuable ore deposits requires considering
results of electromagnetic, magnetic and gravity surveys.

5. We have to consider that geophysical survey costs a lot and does not
give very accurate results. In civil engineering where high accuracy is
required it is better to use exploratory drilling instead. In some cases
where area is large, depth is great and geology is simple, it would be
essential to do geophysical survey. In other instances when the cost of
drilling seems to be too high relative to the cost of geophysics but
penalties of inaccuracy are substantial it may be still cheaper to drill.

Exercise 22. Geophysics is a comprehensive, non-destructive, cost-effective,


efficient, and proven method of exploration. Explain each benefit of
geophysics with your own words.

“Benefits of Geophysics”. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics


offers a unique window into the earth as a means of detecting sub-surface
conditions, and its relevancy lies in the concrete and cost-effective
benefits it delivers. These include:

Comprehensive – Combinations of methods (i.e. multi-disciplinary


methods) provide the means of applying different techniques to solve
complex problems. The more physical properties that are evaluated, the
less ambiguous the interpretation becomes;

Non-destructive – It is ideal for use in populated areas, such as cities,


where many of today's environmental and engineering issues arise. It also

41
means an archeological site can be examined without destroying it in the
process;

Cost-effective – Geophysics does not require excavation or direct access


to subsurface (except in the case of borehole methods where access is
typically by drilled holes). This means vast volumes of earth can be
evaluated at far less cost than excavation or even grid-drilling methods;

Efficient – It provides a means of evaluating large areas of the subsurface


rapidly;

Proven – The majority of techniques have been in existence for more than
a half-century and are mature, yet still relatively undiscovered and
underutilized by decision-makers who face complex environmental and
engineering problems.

42
UNIT 2

GEOPHYSICAL METHODS IN PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Lead-in. T. elicits the information from the Ss related to Oil Exploration.


This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 2.
Look at the pictures and describe some operations or processes
associated with oil exploration.
(Pictures from the top and then to the right)
Drilling is directly connected with exploration operations as there exists so-
called exploratory drilling. Besides in seismic survey shot holes is a
necessary part of the whole process that is why seismic crew can include
from one up to four drillers.
Seismic survey is the most effective method for detecting hydrocarbon
reserves but it is very expensive and time consuming.
Elements of petroleum prospect must be present to initiate any type of
hydrocarbon exploration activities.
Electrical survey is one of geophysical methods of oil prospecting but its
application is limited as it cannot give enough information on the basis of
which it would be possible to conclude about the presence of hydrocarbon
deposits. It should be used in combination with other geophysical methods.
Name other activities, equipment that are necessary for oil exploration.
Activities:
регистрация данных – data acquisition
предварительная обработка – preliminary processing
интерпретация – interpretation
разбивка профилей – defining of seismic profiles
привязка сейсмических профилей на местности – seismic profile fixation
картирование площади – area mapping
фильтрация и усиление сигнала – filtration and signal amplification
Equipment:
gravimeters, magnetometers, seismogram equipment (сейсмозаписывающая
аппаратура), magnetic tapes, Vibroseis trucks, air gun arrays, seismometer
cable assembly (коса) and others.
Name occupations that are involved into petroleum exploration.
Seismic crew unites a group of people involved into different types of
exploration activities.
Seismic crew supervisor manages the acvitivity of a crew and reports to a
regional superintendent.
Geophysical engineer is in charge of quality and control of all survey costs.

43
Shooter blows up explosives at a predetermined time and cleans the well area
after the explosion.
Senior operator or observer is to monitor the accuracy of observation
schemes and quality of initial data.
Topographer is responsible for defining seismic profiles.
Calculator or seismic engineer in a local processing center prepares stacking
charts (схемы суммирования) and other materials for the conduct of the
subsequent interpretation.

Exercise 5. Form all possible nouns from the following words, use suffixes:
-ity, -or, -er, -ment, -ion, -sion, -tion, -ive.

Generate-generation/ generator, transmit-transmission/ transmitter, detect-


detection/ detector/ detective, attract-attraction, record-recorder, reflect-
reflection/ reflector, refract-refractor/ refraction, digitize-digitizer,
explore-explorer/ exploration, measure-measurement, dense-density, act-
action/ actor, susceptible-susceptibility, penetrate-penetration/ penetrator,
interpret-interpretation/ interpreter, explode-explosion/ explosive.

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences using correct prepositions where


necessary.

1. by 2. on, of, in, to, of, of 3. into 4. out, from 5. by 6. for 7. from 8. in 9.
on, in, on, at, on.

Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps.

1. seismic, magnetic, and gravity


2. magnetic
3. the air aeromagnetics or from a ship
4. reflection seismology and refraction seismology
5. analog signals

Exercise 8. Fill in the gaps with words which are derived from the word
given at the end of each line.

1. refraction
2. attraction
3. subsequent
4. predetermined
5. penetration

44
6. actuated
7. propagation
8. receivers
9. generation
10. explosives

Exercise 9. Give English equivalents to the following phrases.

1. Denser rocks have greater gravitational attraction than less dense rocks.
2. The exploration for valuable mineral deposits is carried out on land.
3. Sedimentary rocks have less magnetic susceptibility than igneous rocks.
4. Downward propagation of the sound wave made it possible to
determine location of the ship. 5. The air gun array generates seismic
waves which are reflected off the interface. 6. The modern technology of
collecting and processing data requires their digitizing. 7. Events can
penetrate deep into the Earth’s subsurface and subsequently yield
information about its interior. 8. The starting device embedded into
explosives was actuated at midnight. 9. The pull of gravity/ gravitational
attraction is determined by the mass of a body. 10. The thumping device
yielded energy of the required power.

Exercise 10. State whether the following sentences are true or false, correct
the false ones.

1. F – vice versa
2. F – magnetic method is the oldest one.
3. F – the gravity method is based on the measurements of the variations
in the pull of gravity from the rocks in the upper layers of the earth's
surface.
4. T
5. F – on land; At sea, a source such as an array of air guns is actuated
every few seconds as the ship moves over a predetermined course.
6. T

Exercise 11. Reconstruct the jumbled sentences.

1. The data are transmitted to a central recording unit.


2. Gravitational attraction is defined by the density of rocks.
3. In marine survey array of air guns is actuated.
4. The seismic waves are result of downward propagation of the source
energy.

45
5. Reflection seismology is based on measurements of the arrival times of
the events reflected from subsurface interfaces.
6. A central recording unit digitizes analog signals and records them for a
subsequent analysis.
7. A structural uplift of denser rocks will be shown as an anomaly on
gravity map.
8. Seismic energy may be generated by arrays of chemical explosions or
thumping device.

Exercise 13.  Listen to Khoi Pham who works for Geophysical Service
Incorporated. He tells about his position as a crew manager in marine
survey. Answer the questions given below.

1. He is in charge of all acquisition operations. His goal is to optimize


production and minimize the cost. He has to ensure safety and to
retreat streamers and maintain all the embedded gears.
2. Great. He started off as an observer and now he is a party manager.
3. An observer is in charge of all recording aspects of seismic, logging
data, keeping all the observations, monitoring the data quality.
4. An observer should have basic computer skills, organizational skills,
communications.
5. He can travel around the world, enjoy sea life.
6. He normally works twelve hours shift a day, seven days a week. Their
rotations range from six weeks on six weeks off plus-minus a week. It
depends but that’s a part of the job.
7. After shift he has full access to the Internet. There is gym facility, but
that’s honour. Lot of time he can just lie on the whole deck, go for
walks around the deck.
8. He was able to save a lot of money and buy two sports cars and do
enough smart applications to his cars.

Tapescript

My name is Knoi Pham. I work for GSI (Geophysical service


incorporated). Currently I’m on board of GSI Pacific. I’m a party manager
on board at the moment.

As a party chief I am in charge of all acquisition operation to the interest


of the client. My goal is to optimize production and minimize the cost. I
work together with the captain to ensure HSC procedures and how safety

46
is kept while on board. I tend to have to retreat streamers and deploy
streamers or responsible for maintaining all the embedded gears.

I started off as an observer. What observers do during acquisition, we’re


in charge of all recording aspects of seismic, logging, keeping any
observations that we see that are not normal, make sure the cable is
inspected or not, all the data is of quality. For an observer is important to
have basic computer skills, organizational skills, communications.

What makes this job interesting is that you get to travel around the world,
just being on the ship at sea, seeing sunrise, sunset, sea life.

We normally work twelve hour shift a day, seven days a week. Our
rotations range from six weeks on six weeks off plus-minus a week. It
depends but that’s a part of the job. On board after shift what we do for
spare time, we have full access to the Internet. There is gym facility, that’s
honour. Lot of time you can just lie on the whole deck, go for walks
around the deck. The off-time for six weeks is yours. You do whatever
you want. I often travel. I used all my time to travel.

Since working offshore with GSI I’ve been able to save a lot of money
and have bought a condominium. I mean I have two sports cars and do
enough smart applications to my cars, so I spend a lot of money there. I
have the luxury of buying all the gadgets and toys that I like. The money
scraped while you are offshore you can save and use it or put towards
anything you want.

47
Exercise 14. Tell about prospecting for oil using the following pictures.

Geophysical Prospecting: How to find oil!


1. In ancient times, oil was
collected at the surface.
2. In the 19th century, holes were
drilled to depths of several
dozen meters.
3. Today, drillholes reach as far
down as several thousand
meters.

From the time of high antiquity, in ancient Mesopotamia, oil that had
seeped to the surface was collected for medicinal use, as well as lighting
fuel and caulking for boats. Today, now that we have been producing
from accessible reservoirs for 150 years, it is increasingly hard to find
hydrocarbon-impregnated rock. Explorers now have to look hundreds and
even thousands of meters below ground.

1. Map
2. Hammer
3. Acids
4. Magnifying glass
5. Logbook

The geologist's job is to observe, explore and scrupulously record any


clue to the possible presence of hydrocarbons below ground. Geologists
are people of action and naturalists. They examine rocks and take samples
to ascertain their nature and date the strata from which they were taken.
They then seek to reconstitute a scenario that may have been written 4
billion years ago.

48
1. Aerial shot.
2. Satellite shot.

Combined with aerial and satellite photographs, the geologist's


observations then serve to formulate initial hypotheses: yes, there could
be oil down there, below ground, and it could be worthwhile looking
further.

Now it's the geophysicist's turn to study the physical properties of the
subsoil. A variety of methods are used at this stage, and a comparison of
their results serves to enrich the geologist's findings. Gravimetry measures
gravity, to give some idea of the nature and depth of strata depending on
their density. Magnetometry (generally performed from the air) measures
variations in the magnetic field. This gives an idea of the depth
distribution of crystalline terrains which have no chance of containing any
oil.

1. Signal emitted by vibrator


truck
2. Reflected waves received by
geophones
3. Data transmitted to laboratory
truck

A surface shock generates sound waves which are refracted and reflected
underground. The way in which the waves are propagated varies as they

49
pass through the different strata. Using a highly-sensitive microphone
known as a "geophone," the geophysicist at the surface listens to the echo
of these waves and records them.

1. Isochrons
2. 3D seismic Maps

The geophysicist's seismic recordings are fed into powerful computers.


The terrain is mapped by means of isochronic lines linking points on the
ground at which the waves take exactly the same length of time to be
reflected back to the surface. This method yields two and three-
dimensional images of the underground strata, and the resulting seismic
maps serve to determine whether certain strata are likely to contain
hydrocarbons.

1. Seismic vessel
2. Hydrophones

In the oil man's jargon, exploration and production at sea is known as


"offshore." Because it is not practicable to survey the terrain at sea,
seismic methods are used systematically. And since ships can travel easily
in all directions, seismic measurement is in fact easier at sea than on land.

The geophysicist can thus obtain more data offshore than onshore and a
more precise three-dimensional image, once the data have been processed.

50
All these results are aggregated and studied. Geologists, geophysicists,
petroleum architects, together with drilling, production and reservoir
engineers all supply data to economists and financial planners. By
juggling figures, parameters and probabilities, they seek to work out a
possible strategy for developing the reservoir in the event of confirmation
of the presence of hydrocarbons.

1. Geophysicist
2. Geologist

Each member of the exploration team has contributed to the performance


of the mission. By collating and comparing their experience, know-how
and findings, their ultimate conclusions are the result of a team effort.
Those conclusions are stated briefly:
• No: the chances of a result are too slim; or...
• Yes: the "prospect", i.e. this highly promising reservoir, is worth taking
a gamble. The team is prepared to "pay to see," making the decision to
drill.

Geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers have concluded there is


a "prospect" or possible producing zone. But to find out whether there
really are hydrocarbons trapped in the rock, they are going to have to drill
down to that zone.

51
1. Drilling is usually set up
directly over the thickest layer
of hydrocarbons.

Some fields lie at depths equivalent to twelve times the height of the Eiffel
Tower...
The site of the drill rig is determined
based on the existing state of knowledge
of underground conditions and the
topography of the terrain. This is
generally sited vertically above the
thickest part of the stratum thought to
contain hydrocarbons. The drilling team
often operates under difficult conditions.
This narrow-bore hole (with a diameter
of 20–50 centimeters) is generally sunk to a depth of between 2,000 and
4,000 meters. In a few cases it may go beyond 6,000 meters, and one has
even gone to a depth of 10 kilometers, or 30,000 feet.

1. Well casing
2. Cable retaining the downhole probe
3. Downhole Probe
4. First probe sensor
5. Second probe sensor
6. Third probe sensor
7. Measurements obtained by the sensors

Once a certain depth has been reached, the exploration crew conducts a
series of measurements known as well-logging. An electronic probe is
lowered into the well to measure the physical properties of the rocks
traversed. These actual measurements either confirm or disprove the
hypotheses formulated prior to drilling, and generally provide more
accurate data. The sides of the well are then consolidated by

52
means of steel tubes screwed together, and the casing is cemented to the
terrain to keep the strata separate from each other.

1. Coring tool
2. Core sample
3. Indications concerning height of beds
4. Clues concerning type of rock

The cuttings brought up the surface do not supply sufficient information


for a thorough understanding of the rocks traversed: that's where core
sampling comes in. The drill-bit is replaced by a hollow bit called a coring
tool, which extracts a cylindrical sample of rock several meters long.
A study of the resulting core sample yields information about the nature of
the rock, its slope, structure, permeability, porosity, fluid content, fossils
present, etc.

1. In this example, one hole in five


struck oil

Drilling progresses very gradually, at a speed of a few meters per hour,


slowing to just one meter an hour by the time one is down to 3,000 meters
below the surface. Snags are encountered from time to time, and the entire
drill-string has to be pulled out regularly for a change of drill-bit.

An exploratory well takes from three to six months to drill. Four wells out
of five, or even six out of seven in pioneer zones, fail to yield
commercially viable quantities of oil or gas. Sometimes, though, the drill-
bit strikes a hydrocarbon-impregnated rock, in which case the drilling
crew conducts extensive well-logging to find out more.

53
1. Economic data
2. Choice of operating methods
3. Geological data

The exploratory phase has been successful: a reservoir has been identified,
with the prospect of producing profitably. Based on assumptions as to
future oil or gas prices, the next step is to determine whether sales of
products extracted from the reservoir will be sufficient to cover the high
cost of studies, development, construction and funding, as well as
production costs proper. The decision to bring a reservoir onstream is a
major one, as the investment outlay can run into several hundred million,
indeed a billion dollars.
The content and images on this page are courtesy of ELF Aquitaine

Exercise 17. Complete the sentences with your own ideas. Use words from
your vocabulary.
(Suggested answers)

1. The hinged beam in this device did not sustain the pressure.
2. Latitude determines the necessity of planetary correction/ variations of
gravity.
3. The astatizing mechanism involves application of labilizing force and
restoring force.
4. The pendulum is used to measure relative gravity .
5. The assumptions should be modified because new data about depth,
shape and density of the subsurface bodies was detected .
6. Discrepancies between two quantities were reduced as a result of field
operations.
7. In our work we give preference to accurate values over plausible
assumptions.
8. A helical spring is suspended from taut horizontal suspension wire.

54
Exercise 18. Replace the underlined words or word-combinations with their
synonyms from your active vocabulary. In some instances you have to
change the structure of the sentence.
1. The planetary correction occurs due to variations of gravity with
latitude.
2. The reflection seismology method is commonly applied in petroleum
exploration.
3. Magnetic surveys are usually carried out from the air or from a ship.
4. Air gun arrays are necessary to produce a source energy for seismic
marine survey.
5. An anomaly can indicate a structural uplift.
6. Different rocks generate local variations in Earth’s magnetic field and
so yield different readings from a magnetometer.
7. A recording truck picks up the data that are transmitted by receivers.
8. The gravity method is based on the measurements of the variations in
the gravitational attraction of the rocks of different density.

Exercise 19. Fill in the blanks with correct prepositions.


1. to, of, with 2. by 3. on 4. on 5. by, in 6. of 7. between, by.

Exercise 20. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Static gravimeter methods superseded dynamic pendulum methods.


2. Gravity methods are particularly suitable for location of structures in
stratified formations.
3. Terrain correction is calculated from elevation along radial line and
concentric circles around the station.
4. Quantitative interpretation has indirect nature.
5. Pendulum determines not only time but gravity as well.
6. Torsion balance measures gravitational force per unit of horizontal
distance.
Exercise 21. State whether the following sentences are true or false; correct
the false ones.

1. F – gravity too
2. F – the most common
3. T
4. F – using gravimeter
5. F – planetary correction
6. F – north and east

55
7. T
8. T

Exercise 22. Match the parts of the sentences.


1. B, 2. F, 3. H, 4. J, 5. G, 6. E, 7. I, 8. C, 9. D, 10. A.

Exercise 25. Remember some facts about pendulums and gravimeters.


Determine their common features and differences.
PENDULUM GRAVIMETER
Common 1. measure relative gravity
2. are applied for location of subsurface structures in
stratified formations
Different 1) Pendulums are kept as long 1) We should use
as possible in length, so that corrections.
variations in period indicate
changes in gravity only. 2) In measurements with
2) In measurements with gravimeter gravity is
pendulum compared with an elastic
gravity can be compared with spring force.
chronometer or another 3) There are different types
pendulum of nearly equal of gravimeters:
period. Threlfall and Pollock
(a thin horizontal bar
suspended from a horizontal
torsion wire);
Hartley gravimeter
(a horizontal hinged beam
suspended from two helical
springs);
Ising gravimeter
(a vertical quartz rod is
suspended from a taut
horizontal quartz fiber).

Exercise 26.  Listen to a report on new equipment for geophysical


survey. You will hear the text twice. For questions 1–10, choose the correct
answer (A, B or C).

1. C, 2. B, 3. A, 4. C, 5. C, 6. A, 7. C, 8. A, 9.B, 10. A.

56
Tapescript
Blue Qube

Based in Houston, Texas and also in Cambridge, England, ARKEX is a


geophysical company that uses proven technology to deliver a whole new
methodology for geological surveying. That system is called BLUE
QUBE (BQ).

BQ is a powerful new imaging tool that can either stand alone or set
alongside seismic and EM (electromagnetics). It provides geophysicists,
geologists and exploration managers with an accurate picture of the
subsurface geology. BQ acquisition includes world leading gravity
gradient imaging instrumentation together with high resolution magnetics,
video and radar. BQ measures the rate of change of rock density in the
form of gravity gradients. The increased band units and higher signal-to-
noise ratio over conventional gravity systems means that smaller or more
deeply buried features can be surveyed and imaged in more detail. The
result is a more accurate Earth’s model than has ever been possible before.
BQ is combined with other technologies to build up a much more detailed
picture of what’s underground.

Standard 2D seismic shows a vertical section into the ground, but no


lateral coverage. In order to get a fuller picture, expensive and often
difficult 3D seismic may have to be carried out. In contrast BQ is
airborne. The airplane flies a crisscross search pattern, measuring gravity
gradients at high resolution quickly and inexpensively with no ground
impact. The resulting data are then carefully processed and interpreted to
give a 3D map like the one you see here. By combining the 2D seismic
data with gravity gradient data, the real decisions can then be made about
whether to lease, where to locate 3D seismic or even where to drill.

Exercise 27.  Listen to the report on new satellite GOCE for measuring
gravity field of the Earth and state if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).
1. T
2. F – rotation of the Earth
3. T
4. T
5. F – by satellite
6. F – less /20 months
7. F – gradiometer

57
8. F – low orbit because gravitational signal is stronger when the
satellite is closer to the Earth

Tapescript
Earth’s Gravity Field

When we think of gravity we think of it literally as a force that keeps our


feet on the ground. Although it is invisible, it provides us with the sense of
the horizontal and vertical. Most of us take the Earth’s constant pull of
gravity for granted. But if studied in detail gravity on earth turns out to be
more complex than most people assume. Gravity is not the same all over
the world. It is a force that varies from place to place on the surface of the
planet depending on a number of different factors.

Firstly, the distance between the center of the Earth and its surface is
smaller at the poles than at the equator. This flattening is due to the
Earth’s rotation making the pull of gravity slightly stronger at the poles.

Secondly, the surface of the Earth is not even with high mountains, ocean
trenches causing the value of gravity to vary.

Thirdly, the material composition inside the Earth varies and matter is not
even distributed, all of which affect gravitational pull. Even smaller
changes in topography such as ice-sheet movements, sea-level changes,
volcanic eruptions and erection of large buildings can certainly affect the
local gravity field. All these factors taken together form a gravity field
that is very different from the smooth globe we traditionally think of the
Earth. Right at satellite era gravity had not been measured accurately
across the world. What we had looked is a fragmented world map of the
gravity field of uneven quality. GOCE satellite due to be launched in 2006
is the first easier satellite solely dedicated to measuring the Earth’s
gravity. It will make uniform high accuracy measurements of gravity field
once rotating round the Earth at particularly low orbit height of only two
hundred and fifty kilometers. During its twenty months mission GOCE
will build detailed and precise picture of the earth’s gravitational field
using an incredibly sensitive new instrument called a gradiometer.

GOCE has been designed to fly in low orbit of two hundred and fifty
kilometers because the gravitational signal is stronger closer to the Earth.
However, the remaining atmosphere in low altitudes creates a demanding
environment for the satellite, presents a real challenge for its design.

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Exercise 28. Using the diagram describe the general principle of gravity
survey.

Suggested answer
The diagram shows how the force of gravity affects the weight suspended
from a coiled spring. The length of a coiled spring varies with the force of
gravity exerted by the rocks beneath. In cases B and C we observe that
differences in density of rocks affect the normal gravimetric readings.
Dense igneous rocks in case B cause high readings from the gravimeter,
low density salt dome brings about low readings. As a consequence, if we
analyze the readings received from the gravimeters and know
relationships between the gravity value and properties of the rocks, we can
make conclusions about what type of geological formation is located
beneath the surface.

Exercise 29. Work in groups and answer the questions given below. Give
your explanations.

1. Let's ignore the physics and imagine that, one day, the planet's gravity
turned off, and suddenly there was no force of gravity on planet Earth.
This would turn out to be a pretty bad day. We depend on gravity to hold
so many things down – cars, people, furniture, pencils and papers on
your desk, and so on. Everything not stuck in place would suddenly have
no reason to stay down, it would start floating. But it's not just furniture
and the like that would start to float. Two of the more important things
held on the ground by gravity are the atmosphere and the water in the
oceans, lakes and rivers. Without gravity, the air in the atmosphere has no
reason to hang around, and it would immediately leap into space. This is
the problem the moon has – the moon doesn't have enough gravity to keep
an atmosphere around it, so it's in a near vacuum. Without an atmosphere,
any living thing would die immediately and anything liquid would boil
away into space. In other words, no one would last long if the planet didn't
have gravity.

2. Gravity is one of those things we take completely for granted. And


there are two things about it that we take for granted: the fact that it is
always there, and the fact that it never changes. If the Earth's gravity were
ever to change significantly, it would have a huge effect on nearly
everything because so many things are designed around the current state

59
of gravity. Before looking at changes in gravity however, it is helpful to
first understand what gravity is. Gravity is an attractive force between any
two atoms. Let's say you take two golf balls and place them on a table.
There will be an incredibly slight gravitational attraction between the
atoms in those two golf balls. If you use two massive pieces of lead and
some amazingly precise instruments, you can actually measure an
infinitesimal attraction between them. It is only when you get an gigantic
number of atoms together, as in the case of the planet Earth, that the force
of gravitational attraction is significant. The reason why gravity on Earth
never changes is because the mass of the Earth never changes. The only
way to suddenly change the gravity on Earth would be to change the mass
of the planet. A change in mass great enough to result in a change in
gravity isn't going to happen anytime soon.

3. If gravity were to suddenly double, It would be almost as bad, because


everything would be twice as heavy. There would be big problems with
anything structural. Houses, bridges, skyscrapers, table legs, support
columns and so on are all sized for normal gravity. Most structures would
collapse fairly quickly if you doubled the load on them. Trees and plants
would have problems. Power lines would have problems. The air pressure
would double and that would have a big effect on the Earth’s surface.

4. Measuring Earth's weight is derived from the gravitational attraction


that the Earth has for objects near it.
It would be more proper to ask, "What is the mass of planet Earth?"1 The
quick answer to that is: approximately 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
(6E+24) kilograms.
The interesting sub-question is, "How did anyone figure that out?" It's not
like the planet steps onto the scale each morning before it takes a shower.
The measurement of the planet's weight is derived from the gravitational
attraction that the Earth has for objects near it.
It turns out that any two masses have a gravitational attraction for one
another. If you put two bowling balls near each other, they will attract one
another gravitationally. The attraction is extremely slight, but if your
instruments are sensitive enough you can measure the gravitational
attraction that two bowling balls have on one another. From that
measurement, you could determine the mass of the two objects. The same
is true for two golf balls, but the attraction is even slighter because the
amount of gravitational force depends on mass of the objects.
Newton showed that, for spherical objects, you can make the simplifying
assumption that all of the object's mass is concentrated at the center of the

60
sphere. The following equation expresses the gravitational attraction that
two spherical objects have on one another:
F = G * M1 * M2 / R2
R is the distance separating the two objects.
G is a constant that is 6.67259x10–11 m3/s2 kg.
M1 and M2 are the two masses that are attracting each other.
F is the force of attraction between them.
Assume that Earth is one of the masses (M1) and a 1-kg sphere is the
other (M2). The force between them is 9.8 kg*m/s2 – we can calculate this
force by dropping the 1-kg sphere and measuring the acceleration that the
Earth's gravitational field applies to it (9.8 m/s2).
The radius of the Earth is 6,400,000 meters (6,999,125 yards). If you plug
all of these values in and solve for M1, you find that the mass of the Earth
is 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilograms (6E+24 kilograms /
1.3E+25 pounds).
1
It is "more proper" to ask about mass rather than weight because weight is a force
that requires a gravitational field to determine. You can take a bowling ball and weigh
it on the Earth and on the moon. The weight on the moon will be one-sixth that on the
Earth, but the amount of mass is the same in both places. To weigh the Earth, we
would need to know in which object's gravitational field we want to calculate the
weight. The mass of the Earth, on the other hand, is a constant.

5. Differences in gravity can be mapped by tracking the movement of two


orbiting satellites. As the Earth’s gravitational pull increases and
decreases, the position of the satellites also changes.
For example, if two satellites were flying above a large mountain, the
scientists explain, the first satellite would be pulled closer to the
mountain. The mountain has more mass, so there is a stronger
gravitational pull. As the first satellite is pulled toward the mountain, it
moves farther away from the second satellite – the distance between the
satellites increases. As the second satellite approaches the mountain it is
pulled in and the distance between the satellites decreases again. The
changes in distance between the satellites can be translated into a map of
the Earth's gravitational field.

Exercise 30. Work in groups and enumerate all the possible solutions to the
problem. Discuss and give the explanations.

Two theories have been proposed to account for this anomaly. But before we
go over them, it's important to first consider what creates gravity. At a basic
level, gravity is proportional to mass. So when the mass of an area is
somehow made smaller, gravity is made smaller. Gravity can vary on

61
different parts of the Earth. Although we usually think of it as a ball, the
Earth actually bulges at the Equator and gets flatter at the poles due to its
rotation. The Earth's mass is not spread out proportionally, and it can shift
position over time. So scientists proposed two theories to explain how the
mass of the Hudson Bay area had decreased and contributed to the area's
lower gravity.
One theory centers on a process known as convection occurring in the Earth's
mantle. The mantle is a layer of molten rock called magma and exists
between 60 and 124 miles (100 to 200 km) below the surface of the Earth .
Magma is extremely hot and constantly whirling and shifting, rising and
falling, to create convection currents. Convection drags the Earth's
continental plates down, which decreases the mass in that area and decreases
the gravity.
A new theory to account for the Hudson Bay area's missing gravity concerns
the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of present-day Canada and the
northern United States. This ice sheet was almost 2 miles (3.2 km) thick in
most sections, and in two areas of Hudson Bay, it was 2.3 miles (3.7 km)
thick. It was also very heavy and weighed down the Earth. Over a period of
10,000 years, the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted, finally disappearing 10,000
years ago. It left a deep indentation in the Earth.
To get a better idea of what happened, think about what happens when you
lightly press your finger into the surface of a cake or a piece of really springy
bread. Some of it moves to the sides and there's an indentation. But when you
remove your finger, it bounces back to normal. A similar thing happened
with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the theory proposes – except the Earth isn't so
much "bouncing" back as it is rebounding very slowly (less than half an inch
per year). In the meantime, the area around Hudson Bay has less mass
because some of the Earth has been pushed to the sides by the ice sheet. Less
mass means less gravity.

Exercise 35. Which words from your active vocabulary are given here?
coincide; spontaneous; induce; arisefrom; supplement; disposition;
eliminate; superimposed

Exercise 36. Choose the suitable word from the given variants
1. required
2. assume
3. arise from
4. supplemented by
5. affect

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6. are subject to
7. supplement
8. intensity
9. superimposed
10. induce

Exercise 37. Compile sentences, add words if necessary.


1. Magnetic content, heat, mechanical stresses, disintegration are factors,
which affect magnetic characteristics of rocks.
2. Structural forces may alter the disposition of magnetic formations.
3. Correction for temperature of instrument arises from the fact that
magnets lose their strength with an increase in temperature.
4. Results of magnetic exploration are generally represented in the form
of lines and curves.

Exercise 39. Change the sentence using the given word. The meaning of a
new sentence should be approximately the same.

1. An important factor when we interpret magnetic methods is that rock


magnetism is of bipolar nature.
2. Fields of geologic bodies are superimposed upon a normal field of the
Earth.
3. Magnetic prospecting requires less accurate measurements.
4. The general expression for magnetic field is gauss.
5. The vertical component exhibits the clearest relation between the
magnetic anomaly and the place where the geologic body is located.
6. In magnetic prospecting we prefer to measure magnetic vertical
intensity.
7. Magnetic anomalies of geologic bodies depend on their magnetic
susceptibility and remanent magnetism.
8. Such factors as magnetic content, grain size, mechanical stress and
others influence\determine magnetic characteristics of rocks.

Exercise 40. Complete the given sentences.

1. (utilize natural and spontaneous fields of force);


2. (to magnetic bodies but not to geologic bodies);
3. (to change with latitude);
4. (is of bipolar nature);
5. (into its vertical and horizontal components);
6. (measurements of the magnetic vertical intensity);

63
7. (gauss(line per centimeter in the air));
8. (one thousandth of this unit and is used for convenience);
9. (less than in gravity survey);
10. (igneous and iron ores that are strongly magnetic and sedimentary
rocks that are weak in magnetization).

Exercise 41. Place the sentences according to the order of their appearance
in the text.

12; 7; 1; 4; 9; 5; 10; 2; 6; 3; 8; 11.

Exercise 42. State whether these sentences are true or false. Correct the
false sentences. Give additional information on the subject.

1. F – magnetometers. There are different types of magnetometers such


as Schmidt, horizontal, vertical. The former measures horizontal
intensity and later the vertical component of the magnetc field.
2. F – Magnetic survey requires accuracy but it is less than in
gravitational survey Besides, magnetometers give accurate enough
information. We shouldn’t forget about corrections which are applied
such as ……
3. F – Correction for temperature of an instrument arises from the fact
that magnets lose their strength when temperature increases\ or
planetary correction eliminates the variation of earth’s magnetic field
with latitude.
4. F – We can carry out magnetic survey far from such natural handicaps
as fences, bridges and pipelines as it is difficult to eliminate their
influence on magnetic field variations.
5. F – Results of magnetic survey are registered in the form of lines –
isanomalic lines or in the form of curves for profiles.
6. F – The scientists give quantitative and qualitative interpretation of
magnetic anomalies. In the qualitative interpretation fifty to several
hundred gammas are associated with some topographical features or
compositions of igneous rocks. In quantitative interpretation the
magnetic effect of the assumed body is calculated according to field
curves and are based on some assumptions about the reasons of such
magnetic anomalies.

64
Exercise 44.  Listen to the interview with Chris Leech, geophysicist and
director of Geomatrix Earth Sciences Ltd, who is talking about
archeological geophysics. Answer the following questions by saying
whether each of the following statements are 1 – True (T) or 2 – False (F).

1. F, 2. F, 3. T, 4 F, 5. T, 6. F, 7. F, 8. T, 9. T, 10. T.

Tapescript
Seeing Secrets Underground
Chris L: Geophysics is really the science of trying to find what is down
below the ground without actually having to dig a hole. We’re looking for
changes in the physical properties of the ground. If you’ve got a 10
hectare site that you’re interested in and you think there might be
archaeology underneath it you’re going to have to dig an awful lot of
holes in the ground if you don’t do geophysics first. With the geophysics
it allows you to very rapidly, relatively cost-effectively narrow-down the
area which is of great interest to the real archaeologists.
Interviewer: What are the techniques used?
Chris L: There are several techniques which are useful for archaeological
geophysics. We tend to look for the magnetic signatures of the ground.
We tend to look for the electrical properties of the ground. Also we use
the growing technique of ground-penetrating radar therefore looking at the
electromagnetic properties of the ground.
Interviewer: The equipment that you have strapped to yourself here is
basically a horizontal pole with two vertical poles attached at either side
and a rucksack that’s strapping you into it, really. Which technique does
this piece of equipment use?
Chris L: This is a magnetometer. Therefore we are actually measuring
precisely changes in the Earth’s magnetic field at this point. The two
vertical poles are actually two separate magnetometers so you can
measure the Earth’s magnetic field in two places at the same time. The
horizontal pole you described feeds the data back into a small data logger.
By having two magnetometers we can speed up our operation. We can
acquire two lines of data right at the same time.
Interviewer: How does a magnetometer actually measure the magnetic
field beneath it?

65
Chris L: Each of the tubes which we mentioned earlier contains two
fluxgate sensors. These measure very precisely the Earth’s magnetic field
in the vertical component. By measuring it in two different places we can
get a measure of the change in the magnetic field over that distance which
is 1m between each sensor. We’re measuring the vertical gradient of the
Earth’s magnetic field in two places simultaneously.
Interviewer: How does this then translate to tell you where things are
located?
Chris L: All materials have got a magnetic signature be it different types
of soils or manmade objects such as bricks or artefacts of some
description. If we can measure the magnetic field with sufficient accuracy
and sufficient resolution as we go over the ground we can see very small
changes in the Earth’s magnetic field.

Exercise 45.  Listen to the interview with Dr. Michio Kaku, Professor of
Theoretical Physics telling about leaks in the Earth’s magnetosphere.
Choose the correct answer to the given questions.

1. C; 2. A; 3. A; 4. B; 5. B; 6. C

Tapescript
Leaks in the Earth’s Magnetic Field

TV Presenter: They could be bigger and more immediate than the threat
of global warming they say. Earth’s magnetic field which acts as our
protective shield in space has holes in it and that could put a lot of our
earthly functions at risk. Dr. Michio Kaku, Professor of the theoretical
physics is back with us. Professor, how are you? Good morning to you.
Professor: Glad to be on the show.
TV Presenter: What is this, solar shield?
Professor: Well, every eleven years the sun has scintillation and releases
a shock wave. Tsunami or radiation can wipe our communication, weather
satellites, GPS, space satellites, you name it. It’s up there in outer space.
TV Presenter: You say, you say my blackberry (беспроводное
мобильное устройство) also?
Professor: The internet box, television, our cables, satellite TV, all of it
could get wiped at around twenty twelve that’s when we have the peak of
the sunspot cycle. That’s when the sun’s magnetic field flips North Pole

66
and South Pole flip releasing a shock wave radiation which then hits the
Earth minutes later potentially wiping out good chunks of our satellite
communications. We’re watching it very carefully now.
TV Presenter: This happens how often you say?
Professor: Every eleven years.
TV Presenter: Why in eleven year cycle?
Professor: It takes eleven years for the magnetic field of the sun to build
up enough intensity to begin the flip process because it slowly revolves in
a circle like winding up the windings of the clock. If you wind up the
main spring of the clock too much, its boi-on-on comes out of control.
Same things with the sun’s magnetic field. It literally flips every eleven
years releasing a shock wave or radiation and that means we have to start
to think about reinforcing satellites, building redundant systems cause that
means GPS, the powered grid, weather satellites, communication
satellites, satellite television, all of that could get disrupted peaking
around twenty twelve.
TV Presenter: So, your point is, we can’t do anything in space, but we
can do something here on Earth: backup systems our companies’re really
doing that?
Professor: Well, they gonna have to do it because we scientists made a
mistake. We found the next cycle was gonna be quiet.
Well, some of our data was off by a factor of twenty and that’s why we’re
issuing this alert now. We made a mistake the next cycle peaking around
twenty twelve will be much more serious than we previously thought. In
the past we didn’t lodge the bullet because we didn’t have that many
satellites up there than eleven twenty years ago. Back in nineteen ninety
we did not have that many space satellites
TV Presenter: Well, that makes sense, but listen, aren’t they just a tactic
to put a lot of fear in lot of people? That’s really no danger in the end?
Professor: Let’s hope that it doesn’t, let’s hope that nothing happens.
However, what if our communication systems are wiped out, billions of
economic activity could be stopped.
TV Presenter: Could you think it could be taken seriously?
Professor: I think we’re gonna have to. The physicists are now sounding
alert. We made a mistake. We made the wrong projection. The next solar
cycle will be more intense than previously thought. An ounce of

67
prevention is a pound of cure and now it’s time to begin to create
redundant systems, reinforce the satellites, build backup systems.
TV Presenter: Thank you, professor. Nice to know.

Exercise 47. Give the explanation to the following diagram.

Suggested answer
Different rocks produce local variations in Earth’s magnetic field and so
yield different readings from a magnetometer. In the picture we can see
that country rocks produce regional magnetism, topsoil produce
background magnetism, ores just below the surface and deeply buried ore
are relatively strong in magnetism. So interpretation of magnetic survey
results can indicate certain types of subsurface rocks, for example, buried
iron ores. Because iron is often found with sulfides, magnetometers may
lead indirectly to non-ferrous metals, too.

Exercise 49. Work in groups. Think over, give your idea and justify your
opinion.

1. In a sense, yes. You probably know that the Earth is stratified. In radius
it is composed of layers having different chemical composition and
different physical properties. The crust of the Earth has some permanent
magnetization, and the core of the Earth, the outer part of which is liquid
iron and the inner of which is solid iron, generates its own magnetic field,
sustaining the main part of the field we measure at the surface. So we
could say that the Earth is, therefore, a ‘magnet’. But there is no giant bar
magnet near the Earth’s center, despite the depictions you may have seen
in elementary textbooks on geology and geophysics. Permanent
magnetization cannot occur at high temperatures, like temperatures above
650 degrees centigrade or so, when the thermal motion of atoms becomes
sufficiently vigorous to destroy the ordered orientations needed to
establish permanent magnetization. The core of the Earth has a
temperature of several thousand degrees, and so, even though the core is
the source of most of the geomagnetic field, it is not, itself, permanently
magnetized.

68
2. This is explained, in general terms, in the Introduction to Geomagnetism
page given on the website http://geomag.usgs.gov/intro.php. Briefly, then,
as the result of radioactive heating and chemical differentiation, the outer
core is in a state of turbulent convection. This sets up a process that is a bit
like a naturally occurring electrical generator, where the convective kinetic
energy is converted to electrical and magnetic energy. Basically, the
motion of the electrically conducting iron in the presence of the Earth's
magnetic field induces electric currents. Those electric currents generate
their own magnetic field, and, as the result of this internal feedback, the
process is self-sustaining, so long as there is an energy source sufficient to
maintain convection. The depiction of the geodynamo shown here is only
schematic; in fact, the fluid motion and the form of the magnetic field
inside the core are still the subject of intensive research.

3. Models and charts of the magnetic field at the Earth’s surface need to be
periodically updated because the field is constantly changing in time. The
same fluid motion in the Earth’s core that sustains the main part of the
magnetic field also causes the field to slowly change in spatial form, a
time-dependence known as ‘secular variation’. This variation can be seen
in all vectorial parts of the magnetic field, but it was first noticed in
declination several hundred years ago, since it is that quantity that is so
important for navigation. In fact, the demands of navigators helped to
motivate, centuries ago, some of the original studies of the Earth's
magnetic field. On average the declination at the Earth’s surface changes
by about a fifth of a degree per year.

69
4. Yes. We know this from an examination of the geological record. When
lavas are deposited on the Earth’s surface, and subsequently freeze, and
when sediments are deposited on ocean and lake bottoms, and
subsequently solidify, they often preserve a signature of the ambient
magnetic field at the time of deposition. This type of magnetization is
known as 'paleomagnetism'. Careful measurements of oriented samples of
faintly magnetized rocks taken from many geographical sites allow
scientists to work out the geological history of the magnetic field. We can
tell, for example, that the Earth has had a magnetic field for at least 3.5
billion years, and that the field has always exhibited a certain amount of
time-dependence, part of which is normal secular variation, like that which
we observe today, and part of which is an occasional reversal of polarity.
Incredible as it may seem, the magnetic field occasionally flips over! The
geomagnetic poles are currently roughly coincident with the geographic
poles, because the rotation of the Earth is an important dynamical force in
the core, where the main part of the field is generated. Occasionally,
however, the secular variation becomes sufficiently large such that the
magnetic poles end up being located rather distantly from the geographic
poles; we say that the poles have undergone an ‘excursion’ from their
preferred state. Now, we know from physics that the Earth’s dynamo is
just as capable of generating a magnetic field with a polarity like that
which we have today as it is capable of generating a field with the opposite
polarity. The dynamo has no preference for a particular polarity.
Therefore, after an excursional period of enhanced secular variation, the
magnetic field, upon returning to its usual state of rough alignment with
the Earth’s rotational axis, could just as easily have one polarity as
another. The consequences of polarity reversals for the compass are
dramatic. Nowadays, the compass points roughly north, or, more precisely,
the north end of the compass points roughly north at most geographical
locations. However, before the last reversal, which was about 780,000
years ago, the polarity was reversed compared to today's, and the compass
would have pointed roughly south, and before that reversed state the
polarity was like that which we have today, and the compass would have
pointed roughly north, and so on. The timings of reversals forms the so-
called 'geomagnetic polarity timescale', shown here at the right. During a
reversal, between polarities, the geometry of the magnetic field is much
more complicated than it is now, and a compass could point in almost any
direction depending on one’s location on the Earth and the exact form of
the mid-transitional magnetic field. One of the things that is interesting
about reversals is that there is no apparent periodicity to their occurrence.

70
Reversals are random events. They can happen as often as every 10
thousand years or so, and as infrequently as every 50 million years or
more. Questions about reversals are very popular with the general public,
and further information can be found in the references given in the Further
Reading page of the given website.

Nothing causes the magnetic field to reverse is polarity. That answer might
surprise you, but the fact that the field occasionally reverses is simply a
property of the continuous, on-going behavior of the Earth's dynamo.
There is no ‘cause’ per se. In answering the previous question we
discussed the phenomenology of polarity reversals, what they are and how
they might affect a (hypothetical) compass, but with respect to the physics
of the process itself, some lessons can be learned from the laboratory. It is
possible, for example, to design a machine, an electrical-magnetic-
mechanical dynamo consisting of spinning metal disks and coils of wire
which, when supplied with mechanical energy, sustains its own magnetic
field. Depending on the details of the apparatus, the magnetic field can be
steady, with no time dependence at all, or it can reverse periodically, like
the Sun’s magnetic field does every eleven years, or it can reverse
randomly, bouncing back and forth in an orbit around two preferred states
(opposite polarities) like the Earth’s magnetic field does. It is also possible
to write down the mathematical equations that describe the behavior of this
laboratory system – the equations describe what is popularly known as
‘chaos’, and, even though the laboratory system is relatively simple, its
equations have some similarity to those describing the dynamics of the
Earth’s core. In summary, then, nature allows for different kinds of
dynamos, some of which just simply have the property that they undergo
occasional random reversals. The Earth' core happens to be one of those
dynamo types.

5. One of the most important jobs that a scientist has is to determine, from
among all the possible causes and effects in nature, which are the most
important and strictly and necessarily causally related, and which are
simply insignificant and essentially unrelated. Although extremely
unlikely, we will admit that it might be possible for a reversal of the
Earth’s magnetic field to be triggered by a meteorite or cometary impact,
or even for it to be caused by something more ‘gentle’, such as the
melting of the polar ice caps, as you suggest. But remember, from our
discussion following the previous question, self-contained dynamical
systems, some of which can be built in the laboratory, can exhibit

71
randomly reversing behavior. They can do this without any outside
influence. The Earth's dynamo is a natural example of such a self-
contained, randomly-reversing dynamical system. Therefore, invoking an
external mechanism for causing the Earth’s polarity reversals is, quite
simply, a ‘solution’ to a non-problem. Reversals would happen anyway.

6. Almost certainly not. Direct historical measurements of the intensity of


the geomagnetic field have been possible ever since Gauss invented the
magnetometer in the 1830’s. Since then the average intensity of the field
at the Earth’s surface has decreased by about ten percent. And we know,
from paleomagnetic records, that the intensity of the field does indeed
decrease, by as much as ninety percent, at the Earth’s surface during a
reversal. But those same paleomagnetic records also show that the field
intensity has often exhibited significant variation, with both decreases
and increases in intensity, without there always being a coincident
reversal. So, an intensity low does not necessarily mean that a reversal is
about to occur. Moreover, the recent decrease in intensity is not really
that dramatic of a departure from normality, and for all we know the field
may actually get stronger at some point in the not-so-distant future. It's
worth remarking that predicting the occurrence of a reversal based upon a
knowledge of the current state of the magnetic field is about as easy as
predicting the next bull market on Wall Street; you don’t know it’s
happening until it’s half over!

7. The magnetic field of the Earth does protect us from fast-moving


charged particles streaming from the Sun, but so does the atmosphere. It is
not clear whether or not the radiation that would make it to the Earth’s
surface during a polarity transition, when the magnetic field is relatively
weak, is sufficient to affect evolution, either directly or indirectly, and
cause extinctions, such as that of the dinosaurs. But it seems that the
radiation is probably insufficient. This conclusion is supported by the fact
that reversals happen rather frequently, every million years or so,
compared to the occurrence of mass extinctions, every hundred million
years or so. In other words, many reversals and, in fact, most reversals,
appear to be of no consequence for extinctions.

8. The USGS supports an important National Earthquake Hazards


Program. As a small part of that effort there have been studies attempting
to correlate magnetic variations, or more precisely, electro-magnetic
variations, with earthquakes. Electromagnetic variations have been
observed after earthquakes for many years now, but What is less clear is

72
whether or not there are detectable electro-magnetic precursors to
earthquakes. It is worth acknowledging that geophysicists would actually
dearly love to demonstrate the reality of such precursors, especially if they
could be used for reliably predicting earthquakes! Unfortunately, no
convincing evidence of electro-magnetic precursors to earthquakes has
been found, despite decades of work. And it should be emphasized that
isolated coincidences are not sufficient to demonstrate a relationship. What
is needed to confirm an extraordinary claim is, of course, an extraordinary
amount of evidence, which in this case would mean many repeated
correlations of earthquakes with specific and identifiable precusory field
variations. Such evidence simply doesn't exist.

9. Not directly, no. High-altitude pilots can experience enhanced levels of


radiation during magnetic storms, but the hazard is due to the radiation,
not the magnetic field itself. Direct effects on human health by the
magnetic field at the Earth’s surface are, quite frankly, insignificant. The
primary effects of geomagnetism are on the health of electrically-based
technological systems that are critically important to the modern
civilization of humanity, not the humans themselves.

10. Yes. There is evidence that some animals, probably most notably sea
turtles, have the ability to sense the Earth’s magnetic field (although
probably not consciously) and to use this sense, along with their several
other senses, for purposes of orientation. We acknowledge that this is an
interesting subject, and inquisitive acquaintances have posed this question
to us on many occasions. However, the issue of magnetic orientation by
animals is really more a matter of biophysics rather than geophysics, and
we will, therefore, refer the curious reader to the following authoritative
articles:
Lohmann, K. J., Hester, J. T. & Lohmann, C. M. F., 1999. Long-distance
navigation in sea turtles, Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 11, 1–23.
Skiles, D. D., 1985. The geomagnetic field: Its nature, history and
biological relevance, In Magnetite Biomineralization and
Magnetoreception by Living Organisms: A New Biomagnetism, Ed:
Kirschvink, J. L., Jones, D. S. & MacFadden, B. J., Plenum Publishing
Corporation, New York.
Walker, M. M., Dennis, T. E. & Kirschvink, J. L., 2002. The magnetic
sense and its use in long-distance navigation by animals, Current Opinion
in Neurobiology, 12, 735–744.
Wiltschko, R. & Wiltschko, W., 1995. Magnetic orientation in animals,
Zoophysiology, 33, Springer Verlag, Berlin.

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11. A magnetic storm is a period of rapid magnetic field variation. The
causes of magnetic storms are explained, in general terms, in the
Introduction to Geomagnetism page given on the website
http://geomag.usgs.gov/faqs.php#qfourteen. Briefly, then, magnetic storms
have two basic causes. First of all, let us be reminded that the Sun is
always emitting a wind of charged particles that flows outward into space
away from the Sun itself. Occasionally the Sun emits a strong surge of
solar wind, something called a coronal mass ejection. When this gust of
solar wind impacts upon the outer part of the Earth’s magnetic field, the
magnetosphere, the field is disturbed and it undergoes a complex
oscillation. This causes the generation of associated electric currents in the
near-Earth space environment, which, in turn, generate additional
magnetic-field variations – all of which constitute a 'magnetic storm'. The
second cause of magnetic storms is the occasional direct linkage of the
Sun’s magnetic field with that of the Earth’s. This direct magnetic
connection is not the normal state of affairs, but when it occurs, charged
particles, traveling along magnetic-field lines, can easily enter the
magnetosphere, generate currents, and cause the magnetic field to undergo
time-dependent variation. On occasion, the Sun emits a coronal mass
ejection at a time when the magnetic-field lines of the Earth and Sun are
directly connected. Then we can experience a truly large magnetic storm.
The infrastructure and activities of our modern technologically-based
society can be adversely affected by rapid magnetic-field variations
generated by electric currents in the near-Earth space environment,
particularly in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. This is especially true
during so-called ‘magnetic storms’. Because the ionosphere is heated and
distorted during storms, long-range radio communication, which relies on
sub-ionospheric reflection, can be difficult or impossible and global-
positioning systems (GPS), which relies on radio transmission through the
ionosphere, can be degraded. Ionospheric expansion can enhance satellite
drag and thereby make their orbits difficult to control. During magnetic
storms, satellite electronics can be damaged through the build up and

74
subsequent discharge of static-electric charges, and astronaut and high-
altitude pilots can be subjected to increased levels of radiation. There can
even be deleterious effects on the ground: pipe-line corrosion can be
enhanced, and electric-power grids can experience voltage surges that
cause blackouts. The reason why space-based effects can have
consequences down here on the Earth’s surface is related, at least in part,
to our answer to the first question, ‘What is a magnetic field?’. Electric
currents in one place can induce electric currents in another place, this
action at a distance is accomplished via a magnetic field. So, even though
rapid magnetic-field variations are generated by currents in space, very
real effects, such as unwanted electric currents induced in electric-power
grids, can result down here on the Earth’s surface. More generally, the
hazardous effects associated with geomagnetic activity, which are
discussed more fully in the Further Reading page of this website, are one
reason why the USGS Geomagnetism Program is part of the Central
Region Geohazards Team.

Aurorae are a luminous glow of the upper atmosphere caused by energetic


particles descending from the Earth’s magnetosphere or coming directly
from the Sun. These energetic particles are mostly electrons, but protons
can also be involved, and their energetic rain into the atmosphere is
greatest during magnetic storms. As the particles descend, they collide
with molecules in the atmosphere, causing an excitation of the oxygen and
nitrogen molecular electrons. The molecules can return to their original,
unexcited state by emitting a bit of light, a photon. This light, a
photograph of which appears in the banner of this website, is the aurora
that we see. Since electrically-charged particles tend to follow magnetic-
field lines, and since magnetic-field lines are oriented in and out of the
Earth and its atmosphere, near the magnetic poles, aurorae tend to be seen
at high latitudes.

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12. Both satellites and ground-based magnetometers are important for
making measurements of the Earth’s magnetic field. They are not
redundant, but are, instead, complementary. After executing several orbits
of the Earth, satellites can provide good geographical coverage for data
collection. On the other hand, ground-based magnetometers are much less
expensive than satellites, they are much easier to install and control than
satellites, and, with an array of magnetometers, they can provide coverage
from numerous locations simultaneously. Another consideration is that
satellites orbit the Earth either inside or above the ionosphere, the
electrically conducting part of the Earth’s atmosphere. Since currents in
the ionosphere contribute to the magnetic field, this means that the field
measured by a satellite is somewhat different than the field measured at
the surface. Finally, don’t forget that it is at the surface of the Earth,
where we live, that many of the effects of space weather are most
important, so measurements from ground-based observatories will always
play a critical role in space-weather studies.

Exercise 54. Which word-combination is out of place here? And why?

a) electrode spacing (the rest are current types);


b) induce (the rest have the meaning “доставлять”);
c) refraction (the rest are methods of electrical survey);
d) formation boundaries (the rest are derivatives);
e) pressure solution (the rest are frequency bands);
f) inductive (the rest are nouns that denote some notions);
g) field intensity (the rest are devices used in electrical survey);
h) flux line (the rest are different methods of electrical survey).

Exercise 57. Fill in the gaps with correct prepositions.

1. to, by, by
2. into, of, into
3. in, with
4. of, to, of, of
5. until
6. for, of
7. to, by, at, to, with

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Exercise 58. Fill in the gaps with terms from the text.
1. inductive; 2. “treasure-finders”; 3. resistivity; 4. resistivity; 5. electric;
6. self-potential; 7. radio; 8. inductive.

Exercise 59. State whether the following sentences are true or false, correct
the false ones.

1. F – 3 groups
2. F – due to lack of depth penetration
3. F – resistivity and potential-drop-ratio methods
4. T
5. F – suited
6. F – applicable to depth determinations of horizontal strata and the
mapping of dipping formations
7. T
8. F – parallel with the strike

Exercise 62. Read the text and decide which of the headings (1-6) best
summarizes each part (A-D) of the text. There is one extra heading that you
do not need to use.

A – 6; B – 1; C – 3; D – 2; E – 4.

Exercise 63.  Listen to the report on the resistivity survey conducted at


Sulfurbank Mercury Mine Superfund site and identify the steps of the
investigation.
1.E, 2. B, 3. I, 4. C, 5. F, 6. A, 7. D, 8. G, 9. H

The geophysical survey determined flow paths for mercury rich acid
waters.

Electromagnetic conductivity survey was carried out over twelve


kilometer area.

Four magnetic and ore-conductive anomalies were identified.

One anomaly was chosen for detailed ground electromagnetic


conductivity survey.

77
The conductive zones of probable pathways for ground water flow were
detected.

The near surface areas containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals


were identified.

The samples were taken from every three meters along the constructed
lines.

There were about 1.5 million irregularly spaced samples obtained.

The wire metric mapping was done with CTAX software.

Tapescript
Electrical Resistivity Survey

Electrical resistivity surveys offer the ability to inexpensively collect vast


quantities of 3 dimensional subsurface data. Environmental sciences,
mining, archeology and many other disciplines can benefit from these
measurement techniques. However, the large irregular data sets offer
significant challenges related to analysis and visualization. CTAX EVS
and MVS excel in their ability to address these complex issues. Airborne
geophysical reconnaissance was used to identify potential flow paths for
mercury rich acid water entering clear lake at the Sulfur bank of Mercury
Mine. Magnetic and electromagnetic conductivity surveys were conducted
over its twelve square kilometer area that included the ox arm of clear
lake and Sulfur bank Mercury Mine. These surveys identified four
magnetic and ore conductive anomalies that may represent ground water
conduits towards or away from inherent impoundment. An anomaly that
extended from inherent impoundment through a waste rock down into
clear lake selected for a more detailed ground electromagnetic
conductivity survey. The combined results of the airborne and ground
surveys provided detailed lateral depiction of conductive zones which are
the most probable pathways for ground water flow. These surveys also
identified near surface areas that may contain elevated concentrations of
sulfide minerals that weathered to produce acid ground water. The Sulfur
bank Mercury Mine was an excellent example site to evaluate geophysical
techniques because the extensive network of ground water monitoring
wells had already been established there as a part of remedial
investigation and feasibility study. Full grow airborne services through the

78
airborne geophysical reconnaissance of the ox arm of clear lake including
SBEN on August, ninth through the seventeenth, 2 thousand. The spacing
between each flank line was roughly fifteen meters with samples every
three meters along each line and every one meter in depth. This resulted in
nearly one point five million irregularly spaced samples. CTAX software
processed this massive data set to provide a wiremetric mapping of the
resistivity data that was conformal to topography and geology. The
preliminary dataset for Sulfur bank Mercury Mine Superfund site was
provided by courtesy of Geosciences division of the water and energy
team at the US department of energies, national energy technology
laboratory. The effort was funded by ASCPA mine waste technology
program.

Exercise 64. Listen to the presentation on electromagnetic instrumentations


and match the comments on slides (1–5) with the images (A–E). One
comment is extra.

A – 6; B – 4; C – 2; D – 3; E – 1; 5 – extra

Tapescript

EM31 instrument has an approximate depth of investigation of 18 feet and


records a ground water conductivity as well as in-phase data which
respond to the presence of buried metal. EM31 survey is commonly used
to delineate and characterize land field soils and buried wastes. The
survey can also detect changes in soil conditions and lithology. This slide
shows the results of EM31 survey which was conducted to locate and
characterize buried wastes at a site in North Carolina. The top contour plot
represents the conductivity results which delineate the parameter of buried
waste in associated leachate. The middle contour plot shows the areas
containing buried metal as defined by EM31 in-phase data. Contour
shaded in orange and red in both plots identify the areas containing
highest concentration of wastes, leachate and metal. The bottom plot is a
composite map showing the limits of the landfield in the portions that
contain buried metal waste based on the survey results.
As the name implies EM61 metal detection instrument is used to locate
and delineate buried metal, tanks, drams, conduits and other metal objects.
Within the depth involved observed by EM the instrument records several
levels of sensitivity during each survey which helps in differentiating
between larger objects and smaller objects. This slide shows the results of
EM61 metal detection survey. The early time gate respond shown in the

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top plot is the most sensitive component and detects all metal objects
regardless of size. The early time gate is used to locate buried conduits
and areas containing miscellaneous (смешанный, неоднородный,
разный) debris. Differential response shown in the bottom plot identifies
areas containing large metal objects such as drams and tanks and ignores
the small miscellaneous metal debris.

Exercise 65. Using the diagram describe the general principle of electrical
survey.

Suggested answer
In electrical survey some electrodes are placed into the ground and
electrical current is conducted. The mineral deposit, especially an ore
deposit, affects natural ground currents that flow between buried
electrodes. A millivoltmeter registers voltages at the electrodes and as a
result of received data analysis different ore deposits can be indicated.

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UNIT 3

SEISMOLOGY AND SEISMIC SURVEY

Lead in. Listen to the song “Seismic waves” and fill in the gaps with the
words from the tape.
1. happening, 2.terror, 3. drama, 4. building, 5. rebuild, 6. focus,
7. faster, 8. Richter

T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things that can serve as
the answers to the questions given below. This activity will prepare Ss to
work with the topic of the Unit 3.
Is there any difference between seismology and seismic survey?
They represent different activities but seismology is actually a predecessor of
seismic survey. Their fundamental principles are the same. Unlike
seismology in seismic survey energy sources are controlled and they can be
easily relocated. Besides, the distance or spacing between shot points and
receiving points are relatively small. For seismic wave generation explosives
or vibrating machines are used. The generated vibrations are then registered
by means of special arrays of receivers.
What is the main aim of seismic survey?
The main aim of seismic survey is to get information about rocks, especially
the mode of their occurrence by timing wave arrival time and amplitude
variations as well as by determining frequency and signal type.
What devices are used for registration of vibrations?
The generated vibrations are registered by means of special recording
systems which may include seismometer cable assembly, arrays of receivers
arranged in different ways, central recording units, or recording trucks.
What types of waves do you know?
There are two major types of seismic or shock waves. They are body and
surface waves. The body waves travel through the interior of the Earth and
they are divided into primary or P-waves and secondary or S- waves. The
surface waves travel along the surface and they demonstrate the greatest
destructive power during the earthquakes. There two types of such waves:
love-waves or L-waves and Rayleigh waves or R-waves. Seismic survey is
mostly concerned with measuring body waves.
What is a seismogram?
Seismogram is data recorded on paper or tape during seismic survey, which
consist of several traces, each of which shows the ground vibration variations
registered by one receiver array depending on time that was required for the
energy to return to the surface.

81
Exercise 5. Form nouns from the following verbs.

Reflect–reflection/ reflector, form–form/ formation, interpret–


interpretation/ interpreter, explore–exploration/ explorer, determine–
determination, record–record/ recorder, process–process/ processing,
produce–producer/ production, require–requirement, characterize–
characteristics/ characterization, influence–influence, calculate–
calculation/ calculator, apply–application, describe–description.

Exercise 6. Match the words in the right column with their synonyms in the
left one.

1. F , 2. E, 3. I, 4. G, 5. C, 6. H, 7. D, 8. A, 9. B.

Exercise 7. Match the words in A with the words in B to form collocations.

1.D; 2. K; 3. B; 4. J; 5. G; 6. E; 7. I; 8. A; 9. C; 10. H; 11. F.

Exercise 8. Choose the most suitable word or word-combination.

1. travel time, receptor; 2. reflection profiles; 3. propagates, encounters; 4.


source array, acquisition project; 5. data sets; 6. impact 7. variables; 8.
exponentially; 9. medium; 10. transition zone.

Exercise 9. Compile sentences.

1. Geophysicists use seismic technology to interpret data to map


structural maps.
2. Hydrophones and geophones are used to record the reflected energy
waves.
3. Non-geophysical issues are terrain, explosive use and storage
environmental concerns.
4. Seismic survey may reduce the number of unsuccessful wells.
5. We need to know the average velocity for absolute depth
determination.

Exercise 10. Reconstruct the order of operations that are performed in


seismic survey.

4; 2; 5; 3; 7; 1; 6.

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Exercise 11. State if these sentences are true or false. Add more
information if they are true and correct them if they are false.

1. F – Not necessarily to find oil because it gives information only on


subsurface structure of rock formations and can detect structural traps
that could potentially contain hydrocarbons.
2. F – It has been improved exponentially with development of 3D
modeling systems, satellite systems and so on.
3. F – The general principle of reflection seismology consists in recording
reflected sound waves using geophones or hydrophones onto a tape
over a predetermined period of time.
4. T – The most difficult of which is survey in the transition zone as it has
some characteristics of both land and marine environment and it
requires complex methods.
5. T – Because different parameters require particular techniques or a
combination of several methods.
6. F – In the land environment the choice of source array is made
between dynamite shot holes or mechanical vibrators.
7. T – As well as amount of energy and power required, security and
environmental protection issues.
8. F – all these should be taken into account because operations with
explosives in surveys can threat a number of injuries and sometimes
cause air or water pollution and so on.

Exercise 12. Match the pictures with the extract for illustration of which
they can serve.

A 6 (shows the general principle); B 7(shows how reflection rays


propagate); C 2 (shows vibroseis truck); D 4 (shows air gun array); E 1
(shows structural trap); F 9 (shows impedance equation); G 5 (shows
seismic survey in a borehole); H 8 (shows how distance (depth) is related
to velocity or time); I 3 (shows marine survey)

Exercise 14. Describe the method of geophysical exploration shown in the


diagram.

Suggested answer
In seismic survey sound energy waves are sent into the ground by means
of dynamite or Vibroseis. When they encounter the boundaries, different
rock layers within the Earth’s crust reflect back the energy. Then
hydrophones and geophones record the reflected energy waves over a

83
predetermined set of time. The reflected signals are output onto a storage
medium. After that the recorded data are processed with special software.
As a result of data analysis seismic profiles are produced. These profiles
or data sets are then interpreted for possible hydrocarbon reserves.

Exercise 16. Render the information from the text into English
Suggested answer
Refraction method
The main difference between reflection and refraction methods grounds in
the fact that in refraction seismology the distance between shot point and
receptors is greater than the depth of mapping limits, while it is smaller or
equal to the depth of reflection boundaries in reflection seismology. That
accounts for the fact that in refraction surveys wave propagation lines are
mainly vertical. The head waves or refracted waves encounter a layer
characterized by high velocity leaving it at a critical angle. Analysis of
refracted wave propagation line can only detect a layer in which the wave
velocity is substantially lower than in overlying beds. In this respect the
refraction method has more limited application than reflection method.

As refracted waves are usually registered on much greater distances than


reflected waves, much more powerful source arrays are required in this
method. The arrangement of receivers along observation line results in
weakening of head waves that are affected by displacement factor. As a
consequence the receivers are arranged radially or perpendicular to the
line that crosses the shot and receiving points.

Exercise 17. Compare and contrast the methods shown in the pictures.
Mention such aspects as characteristics of wave propagation, source arrays
and application:

Suggested answer

The first picture shows the reflection method while the second illustrates
the refraction method.

The reflection method differs from the refraction one in the way that the
distance between the shot point and receptors exceeds the depth value of
mapping limits. In the refraction method the distance is the same or
smaller than the depth of reflection boundary. As a result a wave

84
propagation line or incidence is vertical in reflection seismology and
predominantly horizontal in refraction seismology.

Because refractions are registered on the large distance, the energy source
should be more powerful than in reflection method.

As head waves are greatly influenced by displacement factor, they


become weaker in refraction method, so the receivers are usually placed
radially or perpendicular to the observation line. In reflection method they
are grouped along observation line.

The refraction method has much more narrow application than the
reflection one because it can only help to detect layer which is
characterized by much lower wave velocity than overlying bed. The
reflection seismology can be applied for hydrocarbon and mineral
exploration. The refraction seismology is commonly used to determine the
thickness of unconsolidated materials overlying bedrock (overburden
thickness) and depth to the water table. This method is used for
characterizing the geological framework of ground-water contamination
studies and for assessing geologic hazards and archaeological studies.

Exercise 20. Expand the given sentences in any way you can. Give details,
describe the definite situation.

Suggested answers

1. The capabilities of reflection seismology increased as a result of a


number of recent innovations.
2. This highly effective device reduces uncertainties of calculations in
seismic data interpretations.
3. Gas chimneys of industrial enterprises plaque the surrounding area.
4. The hand becomes insensitive to temperature when it is frozen.
5. The terrible event broke the natural continuity of historical
development.
6. The full-vector wave-field imaging was performed on the basis of
shear and compressional wave recordings.
7. The ground penetrating radar captured wrong data due to its
unqualified application.
8. 3D seismic technology advanced efficiency of reservoir modeling.

85
Exercise 22. Match the words in A with the words in B to make
collocations.

1. H, 2. D, 3. A, 4. F, 5. B, 6. I, 7. J, 8. E, 9. C, 10. G.

Exercise 23. Fill in the blanks with correct prepositions.

1. for, of; 2. for, up to; 3. across, of; 4. by, in; 5. among, in.

Exercise 24. Compile sentences.

1. Reflection seismology is at present the most accurate method.


2. 3D-seismic technology is applied to reduce uncertainties.
3. Full-vector wave-field imaging includes shear and compressional
waves.
4. Gas chimneys plague economically important areas.
5. Reflection seismology is extensively used in exploration for
hydrocarbons.

Exercise 25. Fill in the gaps with words which are made from the word
given at the end of each line.

1. advancement;
2. uncertainty;
3. acquisition;
4. insensitive;
5. executive;
6. capabilities;
7. compressional;
8. valuable;
9. continuous;
10.inaccuracy

Exercise 26. State whether the following sentences are true or false, correct
the false ones.

1. F – 3D-seismic technology
2. F – gas chimneys plaque them
3. F – shallow
4. F – the most accurate
5. T

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6. F – combining P- and S- waves
7. T

Exercise 27.  You will hear the report on seismic waves. Match the terms
with their descriptions. One of them is extra.

1. C, 2. F, 3. D, 4. E, 5. A, 6. B, G is extra (it is about surface waves)

Tapescript
Seismic Waves
Earthquakes generate two main types of seismic or shock waves: body
waves and surface waves.

Body waves travel through the interior of the Earth. The fastest of these
are primary or P-waves. These compressional waves move faster in dense
rock and slower in fluids thus their speed and direction change. Because
they are deflected by the Earth core, P-waves are not seen in the so-called
shadow zone.

The slowest body waves are secondary or S-waves. S-waves are elastic
shear waves that move sideways at right angles to the direction of travel.
Because S-waves travel only through solids, they do not penetrate the
Earth’s outer molten core. For this reason there is also an S-wave shadow
zone.

The slowest seismic surface waves do not penetrate the Earh interior but
follow the surface. One type of surface waves, the love-wave travels in a
circular motion and causes downage by displacing surface material or
residing. Love-waves can be very damaging. This crack pavement and this
twisted railway clearly demonstrate their destructive power. Earthquake
downage also results from rayleigh waves, surface waves which deform
material vertically.

Exercise 29. For the gaps 1–5, 6–10, choose one of the words on the right
(1–6) that best completes the gap in the text. You can use each word only
once. For every 5 gaps, there is one extra word.
1–3 (conductivity);
2–2 (decreases);
3–6 (strength);
4–4 (penetrate);
5–1 (limestone);

87
6–3(high-frequency);
7–4(encounters);
8–5 (variations);
9–6 (reflection);
10–2 (impedances).

Exercise 34. Choose the necessary word from the given ones.
1. undertook;
2. submerged;
3. two-way travel time;
4. trough;
5. spaced;
6. convention;
7. deflection;
8. bursts.

Exercise 35. Give English equivalents of the words in the brackets.


1. conventions;
2. trough, peaks;
3. is intercepted;
4. sequence, vessel;
5. bursts, separation;
6. common depth point;
7. echo-sounding was undertaken;
8. plotted.

Exercise 36. Fill in the gaps using the terms from the text.
1. geological structures,
2. gravity and magnetic surveys,
3. echo-sounding,
4. bursts,
5. two-way time,
6. ray path,
7. wiggle traces,
8. magnitude of geophone movements,
9. right, black,
10. shades of gray

88
Exercise 40. Read the text and state if the sentences are true or false.
1.T; 2. F; 3. T; 4. F; 5. T; 6.T; 7. F; 8. T; 9. F; 10. T.

Exercise 42. Match the terms with their definitions.


1. F, 2. I, 3. J, 4. C, 5. B, 6.E, 7. D, 8. G, 9. A, 10. H
Multiple A repeated reflection within a rock formation
Ringing Reflections between the water surface and the seabed
Diffractions Hyperbolic reflections from the broken end of a
reflector which mimic arched formations
Random noise Unwanted reflections from within rock layers,
horizontally propagated and refracted sound, bubble
pulsations from the airguns
Deconvolution Processing technique which aims to counteract the
blurring of reflected sound by 'recompressing' the
sound to the clean 'spike' emitted from the source.
Muting Technique that cuts out parts of traces embodying
major defects such as non-reflected signals
Fltering Processing step which removes undesirable noise to
enhance the best reflections
Migration Technique that corrects distortions caused by plotting
inclined reflectors
CDP gather Wiggle traces from a single CDP collected into groups
and displayed side by side in sequence
Normal move Correction which is needed to bring the pulses to a
out (NMO).. horizontal alignment, as if they all came from vertically
below the sound source

Exercise 50. Replace the underlined words or word-combinations with


synonyms from the vocabulary.

1. slantwise;
2. deduced;
3. adjacent;
4. 'isopach' maps;
5. multiple;
6. drained;
7. enable;
8. revealed;

89
9. interrelationship;
10. installed.

Exercise 51. Reconstruct the jumbled sentences.

1. Improved resolution and reduced acquisition time enabled shooting


seismic at different time intervals over the same area.
2. Modern streamers have multiple global positioning system sensors that
constantly record the position of the streamers.
3. It can be economic to permanently install an array of hydrophone
beneath the seafloor.
4. The paravane reduces the drag of the streamer array, which can be
sufficient to stop a powerful vessel.
5. These techniques allow to acquire a swath of seismic data in a short
time.
6. Increased computing capacity led to the first reliable seismic images.
7. Seismic sections are digitized and the digital files entered into a
gridding and contouring program.
8. The dynamic changes with time will clarify how a field is behaving.

Exercise 52. Match the parts of sentences.

1. B, 2 C, 3. E, 4. A, 5 G, 6 D, 7 F, 8. I, 9. H.

Exercise 53. Reconstruct the order of sentences.

1. I, 2. F, 3. D, 4. J, 5. A, 6. B, 7. H, 8. E, 9. G

Seismic sections picked by hand are digitised and the digital files entered
into a gridding and contouring program.

Some rock layers produce wiggles with a distinctive character that can be
followed right across a section.

Other layers may be identified by comparison with synthetic


'seismograms'.
The interpreter studies the maps to identify areas that are shallower and
form an anticline or a shallow area surrounded by faults.

90
Initially 3D seismic surveys were used to help to improve the position of
production wells, and so enable the fields to be drained with maximum
efficiency.

Exploration in the North Sea shifted to smaller and more subtle traps in
the early 1990's and 3D seismic surveys were used for exploration work.

3D survey meant that computer workstations were an essential tool for


interpreting the data quickly.

With a computer an interpreter can map a specific reflector by moving the


cursor along it on the screen.

Visualisation software is an additional tool that allows the interpreter to


view the whole 3D data set as a cube and rotate or cut it at any angle.

Exercise 54. Read the text and choose the correct variant.

1. B; 2. C; 3. C; 4. A, 5. C.

Exercise 55. Fill in the gaps with the words derived from those at the end of
each line.

1. noticeably;
2. digital;
3. reflector;
4. enable, acquisition;
5. reliable;
6. relative to;
7. dimensional;
8. visualization;
9. transmission.

Exercise 56. Complete the sentences based on the information from the
text.

1. Latest advancements in computing capacity allow to apply migration


process before stack.
2. The greatly improved seismic resolution of 3D seismic imaging makes
it possible to reduce the cost and time of 3D data acquisition

91
3. In the past the processing of the recordings from a 3D survey could
take up to 24 months.
4. By using multiple seismic vessels we can record 3D seismic data in the
same time that was necessary (it previously took) to record a single 2-
dimensional line.
5. Specially designed survey vessels deploying up to ten multiple
streamers at a time cut the acquisition time.
6. The design of paravanes reduces the drag of the streamer array, which
ordinarily would be sufficient to stop even quite a powerful vessel.
7. Modern streamers have multiple global positioning system (GPS)
sensors that constantly record the position of the streamers relative to
the vessel and the earth.
8. New techniques of data compression help to transmit the raw seismic
records from the acquisition vessel to the shore for immediate
processing.

Exercise 59. Discuss, give your ideas.

Additional information:

Seismic reflection surveys are used for determining the thickness and
structure of subsurface geology and are commonly applied in hydrocarbon
and mineral exploration, earthquake and tectonic studies, and in the
marine enviromant for resolving stratigraphic details (for example, the
location and thickness of beach-sand deposits).

Seismic refraction surveys are commonly used to determine the


thickness of unconsolidated materials overlying bedrock (overburden
thickness) and depth to the water table. They are used for characterizing
the geological framework of ground-water contamination studies and for
assessing geologic hazards and archaeologic studies.

Very often the formation dip is rather low and profiling direction as a rule
can nearly coincide with direction of formation dip or formation strike. In
this case it is convenient to use 2D model of the formation structure.

4D seismic is the term used for 3D sets with identical spatial


configurations that are shot at different times for the purpose of examining
the change in a reservoir over time. Sometimes the term "4-component
seismic" is used, which means the geophones record not only vertical
earth movements, but two directions of horizontal movement, as well as

92
pressure within the sediment or water column. 4-component seismic is
used in acquiring marine data only.

1. G, 2. D, 3. E, 4. C, 5. F, 6. A, 7. B, 8. A.

Exercise 63. Form nouns from the following verbs.


Survey–survey/ surveying, vary–variation/ variable, limit–limit/
limitation, refract–refraction/ refractor, displace–displacement,
accelerate–acceleration/ accelerator, receive–receiver, connect–
connection/ connector, characterize–characteristics/ characterization,
travel–traveling/ traveler, navigate–navigation, detect–detection/ detector,
reduce–reduction, record–recorder/ recording, accomplish–
accomplishment, discriminate–discrimination, digitize–digitizer, control–
control/ controller, shoot–shot/ shooting.

Exercise 64. Fill in the blanks with correct prepositions.

1. in; 2. from, to; 3. between, from, two; 4. to; 5. of, at; 6. in, from, to.

Exercise 65. Compile sentences.

1. Minimum offset is the distance from the source to the nearest receiver.
2. Short intervals are distances between holes.
3. Multiple is a repeat reflection from the same interface.
4. Intrabed multiple bounces between two reflectors.
5. There are two kinds of seismic sources.
6. Geophones respond to vertical displacement and rotational motion.
7. Derivative of displacement is acceleration.
8. Multiple receivers are used to enhance the signal and to reduce noise.

Exercise 66. Match the term with its definition.


1. I, 2. G , 3. B, 4. E, 5. H, 6. C, 7. F, 8. D, 9. J, 10. A.

93
Chapter 2
OIL EXPLORATION
Т.Ф. Долгая

UNIT 1
OIL EXPLORATION
Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Oil exploration and make collective mind map (spidergram)
on the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out
the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is that Ss do not
think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by moving
between its various aspects.
This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 1.

Exercise 4. Translate the following Russian sentences into English.

1. Oil seeps, natural gas seeps, pockmarks provide basic evidence of


hydrocarbon generation.
2. Highly sophisticated technology helps to detect and determine the
extent of these deposits.
3. Areas thought to contain hydrocarbons are initially subjected to a
gravity survey or magnetic survey to detect large scale features of the
sub-surface geology.
4. Oil exploration is an expensive, high-risk operation.
5. For a prospect to work there should be the following features: a source
rock, migration, trap, seal or cap rock and a reservoir.

Exercise 12. Give Russian equivalents to the following terms.

Поиск в прибрежной зоне Время, затраченное на выход


волн
Быть перспективной Подсчитать пройденное
расстояние
Геологические экспедиции Отражающая порода
Окаменелости прошлых Нефть и газ в количествах,
геологических эпох достаточных для промышленной
разработки
Породы сложены в пласты Малая вероятность
Исследуемая территория Прогрессивная технология

94
Вычислить толщину Неблагоприятная среда
(мощность)
Напряжённость Пробуриваемая формация
гравитационного поля горных пород
Получить больше информации
Получить картину
геологических структур,
залегающих на большой
глубине

Exercise 13. Give English equivalents to the Russian terms.

Photographs from aircraft and satellites, oil might be found, an area shows
promise, work closely together, decisions to drill, small samples of rock,
what rocks are made of, ancient times, sedimentary layers which may
contain oil, the thickness of the sedimentary layers, a pattern of lines,
exploratory well or a wildcat well, quantities worth developing, today’s
technology, deep water drilling, hostile environments, a string of steel
pipes, derrick, the drill pipe and bit, mud, the sides of the hole, rock debris,
to stop gushers, the flow of fluids, Christmas tree, well head.

Exercise 19.  Listening

Lecture
Crude Oil

Crude oil is a thick, dark – brown liquid found deep in the Earth’s crust.
It’s a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Molecules made of hydrogen
and carbon. Some molecules in the mixture are very small, just a few
atoms joined together. Others are far more complex with many atoms
forming long – chain molecules. But other mixture it’s useless.

The different hydrocarbons need separating. The technique used is


distillation. This simple operation is set up in a fume cupboard. Mineral
ball stops the mixture spitting when it is heated. Crude oil is dropped into
the bottom of the tube. A collecting bottle is put in place. And the
thermometer level with the side arm monitors temperature. The final step
is too gently heat the mixture by nursing the tube in a hot water bath.

The hydrocarbons with low boiling points begin to vaporize immediately.


They are flammable. So, it is safely not to heat with a naked flame. As

95
the vapor rises, it is in the side arm where it cools and condenses. This
happens at about 40 degrees Celsius. The hydrocarbons, which boil at this
temperature, drip down the side arm and form the first fraction. It is a
colorless liquid. The temperature stays at around 40 until all the
hydrocarbons with this boiling point are vaporized.
The hydrocarbons left behind are not hot enough to vaporize. Their
boiling points must be higher. Once the first fraction has been collected, it
is safe to start heating with a bung stem. As the temperature rises, other
hydrocarbons begin to boil. A new fraction is collected at about 60
degrees Celsius. It is slightly yellow in color. And the process continues.

By carefully heating the oil and collecting the liquids which condense at a
number of different temperatures, many different hydrocarbons and crude
oil can be separated. This is known as fractional distillation. On a larger
scale a fractionating column is used. The oil is heated with an electrical
heater for safety.

The vapor is condensed by a libic condenser and is collected in a conical


flask. Hot vapor rises up the fractional column. It is a long way to go. And
the further from the heat source, the cooler it gets. Most of the vapor
condenses on the glass spiral inside the column and drips back into the
mixture. Only the hydrocarbons which are still vaporous at the very top of
the column enter the side down and condense to liquid.

Industry uses the same process, but on a mammoth scale in huge


fractional distillation columns. The hotter oil enters near the bottom at
the temperature of 330 degrees Celsius. The column becomes cooler
towards the top. Fractions which remain as vapor at 85 degrees go straight
to the top and are piped away.

Different hydrocarbons condense at different temperatures from the


offered various levels. Those with lower boiling points are collected on
the top. Those with higher boiling points run off near the bottom. The
longer the molecules the higher the boiling point. Industrial distillation
separates crude oil into useful fractions, each containing molecules of the
similar size.

Exercise 19 B. Fill in the gaps with the terms you hear.

to vaporize

96
flammable
a naked flame
vapor, condenses
drip down
a colorless liquid

Exercise 19 C. State whether the following statements are T (True) or F


(False). Correct the false ones.

1. F
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. F
7. T
8. F

97
UNIT 2

OIL EXTRACTION

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Oil extraction and make collective mind map (spidergram) on
the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out
the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is that Ss do not
think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by moving
between its various aspects.

Exercise 2.

эксплуатация
нагнетать
границы пласта
эксплуатационное оборудование
бурить под наклоном
фонтанные (самотёчные) скважины
тонкие пропластки
рентабельно, экономически перспективно
забой скважины
коэффициент нефтеотдачи пласта

Exercise 10. Match the words with their definitions.

Recovery The amount of oil that can be economically


factor extracted.
Economically Quantity, quality and safety transportation of oil to a
viable refinery.
Reservoir A porous and permeable underground formation
containing natural accumulation of producible
hydrocarbons.
Refinery A plant where crude oil is separated and transformed
into marketable products.
Pipeline Means of oil transportation.
Produce Recover, extract
Trap Underground reservoir that prevents the escape of oil
contained in it.

98
Exercise 12.  Listening.

Petroleum Engineers Job Description

The world’s demand for oil and natural gas is unceasing. To find new
supplies of these vital resources we depend on petroleum engineers. They
search the world for reservoirs containing oil or natural gas and work with
geologists and other specialists to extract it.

This is not a simple matter of plunging a drill into the ground. First, the
team develops the map of the underground and devises a drilling method,
designing equipment and processes for that particular target, whether it’ll
be under a mountain, under a desert or under the ocean. To get the most
from each reservoir, petroleum engineers also develop enhanced recovery
methods such as injecting water, steam, chemicals or gases into the
reservoir to force out the oil and natural gas.

Computer modeling is often used to explore drilling and extraction


options in techniques. This work requires a combination of complex
knowledge for the willingness to travel. The work takes sure where oil
and gas is found. From America’s west and southwest, overseas to the
Middle East and up to the frozen North. You might work for a major oil
company, a government agency, a small consulting firm. To begin with,
you’ll need creative and practical problem solving skills and the patience
to work with the team on highly detailed plans.

A Bachelor’s degree in engineering is generally required. Two or four -


year technology programs mainly to similar jobs. But the individual can’t
register as a professional engineer under the same term as graduates with
the degree in engineering.

a) You will hear a lecture on Petroleum Engineers Job. For statements


1–10 complete the notes that summarize what the speaker says. You will
need to write a word or a short phrase in each box.

1. To find new supplies of these we depend on


petroleum engineers.

2. They the world for reservoirs containing


oil or natural gas.

99
3. They with geologists and other specialists to
extract oil.

4. The the map of the underground.

5. The a drilling method.

6. Petroleum engineers also develop

7. are used to force out the oil


and natural gas.

8. is often used to explore drilling and extraction


options in techniques.

9.You’ll need
problem solving skills.

10. You’ll need with the team on


highly detailed plans.

Answers:

1. vital resources
2. search
3. work
4. develop
5. team, devises
6. enhanced recovery methods
7. water injection, steam, chemicals
8. Computer modeling
9. creative and practical
10. the patience to work

100
UNIT 3

RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Reservoir rock properties and make collective mind map
(spidergram) on the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see
how T. draws out the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is
that Ss do not think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by
moving between its various aspects.

Exercise 3. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Сorrect
according to the text.

1. F.
2. T.
3. F.
4. F.
5. T.
6. T.
7. T.
8. F.

Exercise 8. Give Russian equivalents to the following English ones.

Слои глины и сланца


Поток флюида
Герметически закупоренная углеводородная ловушка
Уплотнённые непроницаемые сланцы
Рыхлые, мелко – зернистые осадки
Из осадков, расположенных глубже
Уменьшение пористости
Увеличение массы
Зёрна крепко сжаты друг с другом (спрессованы)
Более плотное образование
Сильно отличаются
Внутри границ большой поры
Через сужение поровой горловины
На входе в породу пласта
Согласно плотности (по плотности)
Смоляная яма.

101
Exercise 12. Put a preposition into the following gaps.

1. in
2. from, to
3. after, through
4. of, until, due to
5. of, in, in
6. at, of
7. to, of

Exercise15. Find the synonyms to the following terms.

Pore space – void space


Effective porosity – intercommunicating
Primary porosity – matrix
Intergranular – interparticle
Secondary porosity – induced
Sorting – gradation of grains
Absolute porosity – total
Grain size – sphere diameter

Exercise 19. Find the words to the following definitions and translate them
into Russian.

Permeability to flow through interconnected pores


Size distribution sorting
Standard a fluid flow equation
mathematical tools
Water a single fluid
Primary matrix permeability
Increase to grow
Transportation movement
low permeability “tight” reservoirs
value reservoir
Sedimentary rock a rock formed from material derived from pre-
existing rocks by the accumulation and
cementation of mineral grains transported by
wind, water, or ice to the site of deposition or by
chemical precipitation at the depositional site.

102
Sandstone a medium – grained clastic rock formed from
sand on a beach, in a river bed or in a desert.
Hydrocarbons chemical compounds formed only of carbon and
hydrogen.
Capillary pressure the difference in pressure between two
immiscible fluids across a curved interface at
equilibrium
Secondary porosity induced porosity
Lithification hardening

Exercise 20. Match the word phrases in the left column with the word
phrases in the right. Find them in the text and check. Give Russian
equivalent to the English ones.

1. a fluid flow – e
2. the degree – g
3. the ratio – b
4. large and flat – a
5. reservoirs – c
6. the location – f
7. both permeability and porosity – d

Exercise 21. Fill in the gaps with the missing words.

1. reservoir
2. petroleum
3. pores
4. clay
5. water
6. primary
7. matrix
8. secondary
9. reduce
10. increase
11. tight
12. magnitude
13. cementation

103
Exercise 26. Read the sentences and decide whether they are True (T) or
False (F).

1. F.
2. F.
3. T.
4. F.
5. F.
6. T.

Exercise 28. Complete the sentences using the terms of the text.

1. wettability, to wet
2. fractional, spotted, heterogeneous
3. Fractional
4. mixed, invade, brine
5. electrostatic forces
6. preferentially, imbibe, displacing
7. ruptures
8. core

Exercise 31.  Listening. You will hear a Lecture “The Science behind
the Drilling for Oil and Energy Exploration”. Do the exercises after.

The Science behind the Drilling for Oil and Energy Exploration

It’s buried deep within the faults of the Earth, thousands of feet
underground or far beneath the ocean floor. And sometimes there is not a
single clue above the ground of what might lie below. Finding packets of
oil and natural gas under layers and layers of solid rock beneath the ocean
floor has always been a challenge.

But through a combination of scientific expertise in a kind of advanced


technology NASA uses to explore outer space. We are solving the
mystery. Electronic sensors, peering the Earth, measuring natural activity
and electronic and magnetic response. Then, being the data, via satellite
back to the surface. The collecting data is only half the story.

104
Taking full advantage of the latest events is in computer power.
Geoscientists integrate the information into increasingly sophisticated
looks – it what waits down below.

But the proof is in the physical evidence – the smell of oil, the essence of
natural gas, the energy that powers our world.

105
UNIT 4

FORMATION EVALUATION

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Formation evaluation and make collective mind map
(spidergram) on the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see
how T. draws out the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is
that Ss do not think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by
moving between its various aspects.

This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 4.

Formation evaluation tools


Tools to detect oil and gas have been evolving for over a century.
The simplest and most direct tool is well cuttings examination.

Mud logging
Mud logging is a well logging process in which drilling mud and drill bit
cuttings from the formation are evaluated during drilling and their properties
recorded on a strip chart as a visual analytical tool and stratigraphic cross
sectional representation of the well.

Coring – is the central and most important part of anything. In the oil and gas
industry it may be defined as “the cutting and removal of a cylindrical sample
of rock from the well bore.”

Exercise 8. Complete the sentences using the text terminology.

1. acoustic velocity, conductivity, resistivity


2. drilling mud
3. gamma-ray logs
4. acoustic logs
5. density log
6. induction electrical logs
7. velocity
8. sonde, drilling mud

106
Exercise 15. Give synonyms to the following words.

oil pools – oil sands


deposits of petroleum – underground lakes
drive – force
push through – force through
exist – occur
help – assist
part – portion
need – require
make – create
extraction – production – recovery
uncontrolled pressure well – gusher
decrease – drop

Exercise 17. State whether the following statements are true or false.
Correct the false ones.

1. T.
2. F.
3. T.
4. F.
5. F.
6. F.
7. T.
8. F.

Exercise 20.  Listening. You will hear a part of a lecture on Petroleum


Products.

Petroleum Products
The story ends here, at the pump or here, in your home or in skies
overhead. It ends with oil and natural gas products. They give us the
personal mobility, comfort and security, that are fundamental to the
quality of our lives and to the growth of our economy. True technology
and innovation, America’s oil and natural gas producers will continue to
be a reliable source. For the fuels – they keep our nation moving forward,
for the electricity – that keeps our homes and working places warm in
winter and cool in summer, for the chemicals – they contribute to the
manufacture of everything from medicines to clothing and footwear, to
home building and furnishers, to soft drink and packaging, to the latest

107
computers and microchips. Technology and a “know – how” to use it
effectively enable us to achieve the goal at the heart of this remarkable
adventure, providing oil and natural gas products where they are needed,
when they are needed every single day.

a) For statements 1–7 complete the notes that summarize what the
speaker says. You will need to write a word or a short phrase in each
box.

1. Oil and natural gas products give us.

2. will continue to be
a reliable source.

3. The electricity – warm in winter


and cool in summer.

4. – they contribute to the manufacture of everything from


medicines to clothing and .

5. To the latest computers and

6. Technology provides us with .

7. It provides us with them

Answers:

1. the personal mobility, comfort and security


2. true technology and innovation, America’s oil and natural gas
producers
3. that keeps our homes and working places
4. The chemicals, footwear
5. microchips
6. oil and natural gas products
7. every single day

108
Chapter 3

DRILLING
Т.В. Васильченко
Т.В. Бочарова

Unit 1

LIFE OF A WELL

Lead in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Life of a well and make collective mind map on the board as
the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out the aspects of
the topic.

Answers:
Planning
Drilling
Completion
Production
Abandonment

Exercise 6. Find Russian equivalents to the English terms.

1. l
2. h
3. m
4. o
5. i
6. b
7. c
8. g
9. n
10. d
11. e
12. k
13. j
14. a
15. f

109
Exercise 7. Match the term with its synonym.

Repair work remedial work


Failure washout
Subsoil subsurface
Pulling units workover rigs
Side lateral
Elimination removal
Pipe tubular
Raise, lift hoist
To tie, to fix to secure
Drip, ooze leak

Exercise 8. Match the words in the right column with the definitions in the
left one.

1. –b
2. –f
3. –a
4. –i
5. –h
6. –g
7. –e
8. –d
9. –c

Exercise 9. Compose collocations from the following words.

drilling rig
flow path
recoverable oil
artificial methods
depleted field
production zone
drill bit
steel pipe
steam flooding
secondary recovery
reservoir rock

110
Exercise 10. Put a preposition into the following gaps.

1. with
2. by
3. for, with
4. through, for, into
5. to, of
6. out, of
7. with

Exercise 11. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable words or terms from the
text.

1. production
2. cement, integrity
3. screens
4. workovers
5. recoverable oil
6. drilling rig
7. production zone

Exercise 12. Give English equivalents to the Russian words in brackets.

1. is fitted
2. waterflooding, steam injection
3. drilling rig, drilling site
4. is abandoned
5. hydrocarbons
6. production zone/ formation, formation pressure
7. cuttings, is pumped

Exercise 13. Read the conversations and underline the process they are
talking about.

1. abandonment
2. workovers
3. planning
4. completion

111
Exercise 14.  Listening. Match the questions about “well life” on the left
with the answers on the right.

Tapescript
The world’s dependence on oil and gas is a given. Without these fuels life
as we know will gride to stop. Many people believe that once oil or gas is
found, simply punching a hole in the ground will allow it to flow. In
reality drilling a well is a complex process involving ten to thirty different
service companies each one adherent to stringe it around the clock
scheduling, safety and environmental practices. Understanding how a well
is drilled causes a long way of understanding why producing oil and gas
takes so much time and money. The first task is to prepare the location.
This starts with building a road for access to the site, clearing the area
where the rig will sit and providing infrastructure for water and electricity.
To prevent contamination of the soil or water table during drilling an
earthing pit is dug in line with a thick layer of plastics to hold rock
cuttings and drilling mud. Next a pilot hole is dug at the precise location
marked by the survey crew for the main hole, two other holes, the
mousehole and rathole, are also dug in a close proximity to the main hole
to hold pieces of equipment and pipe during the drilling process. It is then
time to bring in rig equipment to rig up. A rig that can drill a ten thousand
for dwell requires fifty to seventy five people and thirty five to forty five
CI tracks to move and assemble the rig, normally in about three and a half
days. The rig is then inspected to make sure it meets all specifications and
safety standards. Rig-up operations continue twenty-four seven typically
ceasing only one day per year on Christmas. Two shifts of complete crews
are assigned to the drill site for the entire project. Drilling happens in
stages: drilling, running and cementing new casing, then drilling again
until the bit reaches the depth of the target observed. A bit generally lasts
for forty five hundred to sixty five hundred feet of drilling. Replacing the
bit requires removal of the entire string of drill pipe called tripping out. It
is a process that can take several hours. Before this is done derrickhands
mud up or circulate drilling fluid through the hole to cool the bit and keep
the walls of the well intact. To help keep cuttings from plugging the hole
this mud passes through shakers that separate the cuttings and send them
to the bit. Additional mud system equipment, desanders, desilters and
degassers, remove smaller particles and gas from the mud. The clean mud
is then recirculated back down into the hole. The blowout preventer or
BOP is installed on top of the casing head before drilling commences. It
contains high-pressure safety valves designed to seal the wellhole and

112
block the escape of underground gases or fluids in order to prevent
blowout from occurring. Drilling begins with a hole of a designated
surface depth usually about fifty to one hundred feet below the water
table. Special carriers taken prevent contamination of the ground water by
isolating the water table from the well with cement and steel casing. The
bit is a cutting element used in rotary drilling. As the bit turns it crushes
the rock efficiently, then shoots fluid out to loosen and carry these rock
chips up to the surface. New section of pipe is added to the drill string as
the bit drills deeper. When the hole reaches the designated depth, the
derrickhands circulate fluid through the hole to condition it for the
logging, the process of measuring and recording the characteristics of the
well. The logging information lets the oil company determine if the well
indeed can produce oil or gas. At this point the company will decide
whether the well is to be completed or plugged, then abandoned. If the
well is designated as a producer the crew inserts the pipe back into the
hole to ensure that the hole is still intact and circulates mud through it
again to test the casing. If everything tests positively they remove the drill
pipe and rack it. At this point the crew inserts the last string of production
casing that runs the entire length of the hole and cements the casing in the
hole. The production crew then brings in the workover unit and rigs it up
to prepare the hole for production. The crew runs small-diameter tubing
into the hole’s conduit of oil or gas to flow up the well. Next the workover
unit trips out of the hole and picks up a perforating gun which the crew
lowers into the well to the production depth using a thin metal cable called
a wireline. An electrical signal is sent down the wireline, firing the gun
and igniting explosive charges. These chargers create hole through the
cement, casing and formation, connecting the wellbore to the reservoir to
stimulate the flow of hydrocarbons. Sometimes it is necessary to frac the
well. This involves pumping air, sand and fluids under the extreme
pressure down the production tubing and out through the perforations. The
process fractures or forces cracks into the formation. The remaining
particles will hold the cracks open releasing the oil or gas. Monitoring the
flow enables the crew to determine the best location for the choke, the
device that controls the flow of the oil or gas. Hydrocarbons were created
from organically-rich deposits subjected to tremendous heat and pressure.
The same pressure has kept the hydrocarbons locked in the formation for
millions of years. Once the pressure is released the hydrocarbons are
allowed to escape through the fractured zones and flow into the wellbore.
The oil and gas can outtravel up the casing string. The wellbore is isolated
from the surrounding formations with casing and cement preventing any
contamination. The final step is to install a pump jack or production well

113
head called a Christmas tree on the well. It is then time to produce the
well and plan for any future field development. Many other factors can
affect the oil and gas drilling process but the bottom line is this – to meet
our growing energy needs we must increase supply and drilling for oil and
gas will help meet this need.

Keys to Exercise. 14 A

0. dependence
1. environmental practices
2. the mousehole
3. cementing new casing
4. separate the cuttings
5. block the escape
6. rotary drilling
7. recording the characteristics
8. production casing
9. perforating gun
10. stimulate the flow

Keys to Exercise. 14 B

1. A
2. C
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. A
7. C
8. B

Exercise 15. Match the questions about “well life” on the left with the
answers on the right.

1. H, 2. D, 3. A, 4. F, 5. G, 6. B, 7. C, 8. E.

114
Exercise 16. The life of a well includes several stages. Put the following key
words according the stages and describe each of them.

Stage 1: hole, rotation, integrity, circulation, cuttings.


Stage 2: production zone, hydrocarbons, reservoir pressure, perforation,
artificial lift.
Stage 3: recoverable oil, recovery, workovers, coil tubing.
Stage 4: concrete, cement, shut down, losses, expensive.

115
UNIT 2

TYPES OF WELLS

Lead in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Types of wells and make collective mind map on the board as
the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out the aspects of
the topic.

Exercise 5. Match the verb with its synonym.

assess – estimate
produce – recover
confirm – corroborate
prospect – explore
complete – finish
exhaust – empty
drown – soak

Exercise 6. Match the terms with the corresponding definitions.

1. C, 2. E, 3. G, 4. F, 5. K, 6. H, 7. I, 8.A, 9.D.

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions.

1. by; 2. on, in; 3. from, for; 4. in, in; 5. by, in, to; 6. by, at; 7. from, to.

Exercise 8. Fill in the blanks with the correct words.

1. by product, 2. producing formation, 3. offshore, 4. frontier, 5. wellhead, 6.


well site, 7. pay zone.

Exercise 9. Compile sentences using the following words.

1. Production wells are used primarily for oil or gas recovery.


2. Drilling an onshore well is cheaper than an offshore one.
3. Gas producer is for producing gaseous hydrocarbons.
4. Assessment of the producing formation is made by appraisal wells.
5. Water injection can help to maintain reservoir pressure.
6. There are many classifications of wells based on different aspects.

116
Exercise 10. Read the conversations and underline the types of the wells
they are talking about.

1 – c, 2 – b, 3 – b, 4 – a.

Exercise 12.  Listening. Listen to the introduction of the Corn River oil
field and mark the statement with T if it is True and with F if it is False.
Tapescript
Corn River prolific oil field.
This is Corn River, home of one of America’s oldest and most prolific oil
fields. Oil was first discovered here in eighteen ninety nine when two men
noticed oil seeping along the river bank. They dug a shallow well by hand
in the sandy desert soil and touched off an oil boom. “There was a stream
right here, a one point in a last three to five million years, it was right
there”. We brought four blockers to Corn River so that can see for
themselves how new technology is extending the life of this field. “Single
pass steam generator, fifteen million btus an hour.” Corn River pumped
up its two billions barrels of oil in two thousand seven. Because the oil is
thick and heavy it is coaxed from the ground using a process called steam
flooding. “Look at this steam generator that’s phoning natural gas to
create steam from soft water. This is a steam injection well that’s
receiving steam from our steam generation equipment through a
transmition system and delivering it down into the reservoir thousand feet
below. This is a producing well with a pumping unit that is operating a
pump down on a very bottom of this well and lifting fluids, oil and water
to the surface. Jeff says oil production on Corn River has appeared to pick
and decline several times during the field’s one hundred and ten year
history. But technologies help to find more oil and bring it to the surface.
Today Corn River is a forest of pump Jackson steam piping spread over
twenty square miles and producing about eighty thousand barrels of oil a
day for more than nine thousand wells. The oil exists in nine layers of
sediment laid down by the Corn River over the past several millions of
years. Dale Beeson’s 3D computer modeling keeps track of the oil and
packers of sand and sandstone from five hundred to more than a thousand
feet below the surface. We use this information to predict where we have
barrels of oil remained behind and this filed that has produced for over a
hundreds years. We then can target those barrels of oil that are not
currently introduced by our active borehole completions. Efficiency and
environmental protection are critical to the successful operation on the
Corn River field. Co-generation powers the field and feeds the electricity

117
into the grid for California consumers and businesses and the water that is
lifted with the oil is filtered and cleaned using other processes and is used
to irrigate farms and ward yards. Jeff says Corn River is a win-win
situation for California and the nation. It provides energy, well-paying
jobs, it promotes agriculture and it encourages innovations that’s being
used on other oil fields elsewhere in the world.

Keys to Exercise 12.

1. T
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. F
6. T
7. T
8. T
9. F
10.T

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UNIT 3

COMPANIES AND PEOPLE

Lead in T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Life of a well and make collective mind map on the board as
the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out the aspects of
the topic.

Exercise 4. Compose collocations from the following words.

Drilling contractor
Spare part
Supply company
Hole logging
Casing crew
Cement band
Rig components
Safety equipment

119
Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable words or terms from the
text.

1. well logging company


2. drilling contractor
3. casing crew
4. independent
5. well logs
6. major
7. operating company
8. supply company

Exercise 6. Match the two parts of the sentences.

1. d
2. f
3. a
4. g
5. c
6. b
7. e

Exercise 9. Match the words in the right column with the definitions in the
left one.

1. C, 2. D, 3. A, 4. J, 5. K, 6. L, 7. F, 8. E, 9. G, 10. I, 11. B, 12. H.

Exercise 11. Match the questions about companies, people and their duties
on the left with the answers on the right.

1. I, 2. E, 3. H, 4. B, 5. A, 6. D, 7. C, 8. G, 9. F

120
UNIT 4

DRILLING

Part I. DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS. RIGGING UP

Lead in. Looking at the diagram, describe your variant of the oil well drilling
preparation procedure. T. elicits the information from the Ss related to the
theme of the Unit. At the same time it is connected with their future job.

Exercise 4.

1. C, 2. G, 3. I, 4. F, 5. J, 6. A, 7. D, 8. K, 9. E, 10. B.

Exercise 5.

Kelly – pipe that transfers rotary motion to the turntable and drill string
Mud pit – pit where drilling mud is mixed and recycled
Derrick – support construction that holds drilling equipment
Swivel – handle that lets the string to rotate and makes a seal on the hole
Drill bit – a circulating element that destroys the rock during rotation
Hose – connects pump to drilling equipment
Bottom hole – the point to which a well is drilled
Blowout preventer – a device for well emergency shut in when there is a
danger of oil and gas blowout
Pump – sucks mud from the mud pits and pumps it to the drilling
apparatus.

Exercise 6.

1. F,
2. F,
3. T,
4. F,
5. F,
6. F,
7. F,
8. T,
9. F,
10.F.

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Exercise 9. Drilling Rig.

2 – equipment, 3 – water, 4 – oil, 5 – natural gas, 6 – deposits, 7 – mobile,


8 – penetrate, 9 – mud, 10 – cuttings, 11 – crews.

Exercise 10.  Listening.

Tapescript
Reservoir engineer’s job.
The world’s demand for oil and natural gas is unceasing. To find new
supplies of these vital resources we depend on petroleum engineers. They
search the world for reservoirs containing oil or natural gas and work with
geologists and other specialists to extract it. This is not a simple matter of
plunging a drill into the ground. First the team develops a map of the
underground and devices a drilling methods designing equipment and
processes for that particular target whether it be under the mountain, under
the desert or under the ocean. To get the most from each reservoir,
petroleum engineers also develop enhanced recovery methods such as
injecting water, steam, chemicals or gases into the reservoir to force out
the oil and natural gas. Computer modeling is often used to explore
drilling and extraction options and techniques. This is work that requires a
combination of complex knowledge with a willingness to travel. The work
takes you where oil and gas is found from America’s west and south west,
overseas to the Middle East and up to the frozen North. You might work
for a major oil company, a government agency or a small consulting firm.
To begin with you’ll need creative and practical problem solving skills
and the patience to work with a team on highly detailed plans. A
bachelor’s degree in Engineering is generally required. Two- or four-year
technology programs mainly to similar jobs but the individual can’t
register as a professional engineer under the same terms as graduates with
a degree in Engineering.

Key to Exercise 11.

1. vital resources
2. oil or natural gas
3. develops a map
4. enhanced recovery methods
5. extraction options

122
6. willingness to travel
7. the Middle East
8. a government agency
9. problem solving skills
10.a professional engineer

Exercise 13.

1. derrick
2. substructure
3. derrick/ mast
4. substructure
5. rig floor
6. mast
7. derrick
8. raising mast/ derrick

RIG SYSTEMS

Exercise 1.

2 – fuel
3 – drilling
4 – rig
5 – be transferred
6 – circulate
7 – driller

Exercise 2.

1. T
2. F – On virtually every drilling rig, the power comes from internal-
combustion engines.
3. F – The bigger the rig, the deeper it can drill and the more power it
needs – it’s not the proportion.
4. T
5. F – Big rigs have three or four prime movers.

123
Exercise 3. Lab. Assignment: ”Power Systems and Instrumentations”.

Exercise 5.

drawworks drum
auxiliary brake
crown block
drilling line
makeup cathead
fast line
heavy loads
wire rope

Exercise 6.

1. crown block, clamped


2. reeving
3. drawworks
4. traveling block
5. friction cathead
6. lines
7. slowing and stopping

Exercise 7.

1. D, 2. G, 3. J, 4. F, 5. I, 6. B, 7. H, 8. C, 9.E.

Exercise 10.

1. swivel
2. kelly
3. rotary table
4. top drive
5. drill string
6. tool joints
7. drill bit

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Exercise 11.

1. kelly
2. drilling pipes and collars
3. swivel
4. top drive
5. drill bit
6. tool joints

Exercise 12.

1. D
2. L
3. G
4. K
5. B
6. J
7. A
8. F
9. E
10.H
11.C

Exercise 13.  Listening.

Tapescript
Top Drive System

Some rigs use a top drive system to rotate a drill string in bed. A top drive
has a powerful motor or motors and a drive shaft. The crew attaches the
drill string to the drive shaft when the motor rotates the drive shaft. The
attached drill string in bed also rotates. Crew members attach the top drive
to guide rails or tracks which keeps the whole unit from rotating. With a
top drive the rotary table does not rotate the drill string. Click on the play
button to see a video of a top drive in action. The most important benefit
of a top drive is that it reduces drilling time, it also rotates the drill string
more efficiently than a kelly and rotary table system. Further it handles
stands of pipes more efficiently. A top drive system provides more
variable rotating power than a rotary table. It allows drill string rotation
and circulation at any point in a hole when tripping in, drilling or tripping
out. These features help prevent hole problems, it provides rapid response

125
to well kicks during tripping or running casing. The driller can make up
and remotely shut a built IBOP to stop drill string flow faster than a crew
can set slips, stab and close a full-opening safety valve. In highly deviated
holes it helps to prevent a pipe from getting stuck by allowing the driller
to immediately ream or backream the drill stem. If the crew can make up
three-joint stands of pipes before drilling starts, a top drive can drill triple
stands instead of just one joint as it’s necessary on a kelly drive rig.
Making-up three-joint stands reduces the number of connections required
to one-third. In many cases on large offshore rigs the crew no longer
needs to lay down pipe between wells that is the crew can set stands back
vertically in a derrick and the rig can be moved a short distance without
the pipe being laid down.

Top drives have a few disadvantages. They are more expensive to


maintain and they are very large because of the additional weight. The
rig’s drilling line wears faster they are more difficult to move on land rigs
that must be disassembled. The top drive does not use a kelly or the
rotating components of the rotary table. The top drive includes the
traveling block and an integrated swivel. The rotary hose conducts drilling
mud to the integrated swivel via an S-pipe assembly. A passage inside the
swivel drive shaft directs mud into the drill string. The top drive motor
connects to the traveling equipment and the integrated swivel assembly.

Keys:

1. A
2. C
3. A.
4. C
5. D

Exercise 16.

1. T
2. F – The shaker screens out the larger cuttings and, in some cases,
dump them into the reserve pit.
3. F – the clean mud drains back into the mud tanks.
4. T
5. T

126
Exercise 18.  Listening.

Tapescript
Circulation System.
The rig uses many pieces of equipment to circulate and treat or condition
the mud. Mud circulation begins here in mud tanks, sometimes called the
pits. Crew members prepare the mud in these tanks and make it ready for
circulation. The heart of the circulating system is a mud pump. Often rigs
have two pumps, one primary pump and one for back-up, or, if hole
conditions require it, the driller can compound or combine the two pumps
to circulate large volumes of mud. In fact on deep wells the rig may have
three or four compound pumps. The powerful pump or pumps pick up
mud from the mud tanks and send it to the drill string in bed. The pump
moves the mud into the discharge line up to the stand pipe and into the
rotary hose. The stand pipes take the mud about half way up the mast. The
rotary hose is attached to the stand pipe. The rotary hose is a strong,
flexible hose that moves with a swivel as it goes up and down in the mast.
From the rotary hose the pump moves mud through the swivel and then
down the kelly and drill string. On rigs with a top drive the mud moves
through a passage in the top drive and then into the drill string. The pump
moves the mud down the drill string to the bit and at the bit the mud jets
out of the opening or nozzles in the bits. The jets of mud move cuttings
away from the bit, mud then continues up the annulus carrying the
cuttings with it from the annulus. The mud with cuttings in it goes through
the return line sometimes called the flow line to the shale shaker. The
shale shaker removes the cuttings from the mud. The mud then falls into
the mud tanks with a mud pump can pick it up and continue the
circulating process.

Keys:

1. T
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. T

127
UNIT 5

CASING. CEMENTING

Lead in

There are many reasons for casing off formations:


• prevent unstable formations from caving in;
• protect weak formations from the high mud weights that may be
required in subsequent hole sections;
• isolate zones with abnormally high pore pressure from zones which
may be normally pressured;
• seal off lost circulation zones;
• allow selective access for production \ injection \ control;
• provide structural support for the wellhead and BOPs.

Exercise 2.

a) – production casing
b) – surface casing
c) – liner
d) – conductor casing
e) – casing head
f) – intermediate casing

Exercise 4.

1. B, 2. A, 3. A, 4. C, 5. C, 6. A.

Exercise 5.  Listening.

Tapescript
Well completion process .

To complete the well for oil or gas recovery, production casing is set and
cemented at the bottom of the well in contact with the oil-bearing
sediments. Shell-shaked explosives perforate the casing and cement
allowing oil and gas to flow into a wellbore. In primary recovery natural
pressure forces the hydrocarbons up the wellbore to the surface. When the
pressure drops it is both add bar the injection of gas or water in what’s

128
known as secondary recovery. In even the best run oil fields it is not
possible to recover all of the hydrocarbons trapped in a reservoir. Up to
ninety per cent of gas and forty five per cent of oil is collective. The
wellhead area on a production platform can contain numerous
combinations of valves, pipes and gadgets called Christmas trees. These
represent individual production wells drawing oil and gas from one large
field. The wells make large stand up to five kilometers from the wellhead.
The well can be turned off by high-powered valves.

Keys:

1. A
2. D
3. B
4. D
5. C

Exercise 6.

1. E
2. G
3. A
4. C
5. F
6. B
7. D

129
Chapter 4

PIPELINE ENGINEERING
Р.Н. Абрамова, Т.В. Васильченко

UNIT 1

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

Lead in.
Making a spidergram is a strategy for writing down \ scribbling (писать
быстро и небрежно) words about the topic and developing those ideas as the
mind makes associations. This strategy can be used to explore almost any
topic.
TOPIC: Pipeline engineering
PREPARATION: this activity is best carried out quite simply with
blackboard and chalk, so that students grasp the idea of drawing a
spidergram.
IN CLASS:
1. ask students to close their eyes and think of Pipeline Engineering. They
should jot down all the things associated with the above-mentioned
topic that come to their mind. Set a definite time limit (1–2 minutes).
Let them write down things in their first language if they do not know
the English words. They can then start sharing what they have jotted
down. As they listen to other students making suggestions and to your
explanations and corrections, they learn the English terms for the ideas
they have tried to put down.
2. elicit (выявлять, устанавливать) ideas from the students as they
suggest things and make a collective spidergram on the broad. The
reasoning behind spidergrams is that we do not think in an ordered or
linear way, but rather explore a topic by moving between its various
aspects.
3. branches can be drawn and added as students suggest new ideas or add
ideas to already established aspects. The end result is a number of sub-
topics or aspects radiating from the central topic. Where there are
links, a line can be drawn associating them.
4. when the spidergram is reasonably full, you can lead a class discussion
on the topic.

130
Exercise 2. Read the following word formations and learn their
pronunciation. Pay special attention to the stress.

REVISION: Stress within words

Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are called content words because
they carry the meaning.
One-syllable words
Some content words have one syllable or sound. This is always stressed.
Examples: ′ lease, ′ steel, ′ crude

Two-syllable words
Some content words have two syllables. Two-syllable nouns and
adjectives are often stressed on the first syllable. Two-syllable verbs are
often stressed on the second syllable.
Examples:
Nouns: ′ alloy, ′ supply′
Adjectives: ′ ductile, ′ rigid
Verbs: re′ fine, lo′ locate

Exceptions: nouns: e′ ffect, fa′ tigue

Multi-syllable words
Some content words have three or more syllables. Multi-syllable words
are normally stressed three syllables from the end.

Examples:
Ooo oOoo ooOoo

This is true for most words ending in:


-ize ′ summarize, ′ mechanize
-sis a′ nalysis, hy′ pothesis
-ate ′ accurate ′calculate
-ify ′ classify ′ specify
-phere ′ atmosphere
-ical me′ chanical ′physical
-ity ela′sticity pla′sticity
-ular par′ticular ′regular
-ium alu′minium equi ′librium
-al ma′terial ′manual

131
Exceptions:
Multi-syllable words ending in the following letters are normally stressed
two syllables from the end.

-ic e′ lastic ′ plastic


-tion con′ dition di′ rection
-cian elec′ trician
-sion com′ pression
-ent com′ ponent

Exercise 4. Match English terms with Russian ones.

1.gathering system e. система нефтесбора


2.pump station l. насосная станция
3.crude trunkline d. магистральный трубопровод
4.crude tank farm i. резервуарный парк \ нефтебаза
5.tanker j. танкер
6.marine terminal c. портовая нефтебаза
7.refinery k. НПЗ – нефтеперерабатывающий
8.petrochemical plant h.нефтехимический завод
9.product line b. промышленный трубопровод
10.processing m. переработка
11.distribution center g. распределительная база
12. oil tankage f. нефтехранилище
13. destination a. пункт назначения

Exercise 5. Give the explanation (definition) to the following purposes of


the pipeline system.
DEFINITIONS

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OR EXPLANATION OF THE PRECISE


MEANING OF A TERM

When we describe things, especially in academic writing, it must be


perfectly clear what is meant.
There are three types of definitions:
1. simple
2. academic
3. extended

132
1. SIMPLE (REAL) DEFINITION that explains precisely the essential,
intrinsic (свойственный) characteristics of an object.

STRUCTURE of a SIMPLE DEFINITION

Things to be defined

Verb

General class word

Wh-word
WHO-persons
WHICH-inanimate
objects/animals

Particular Characteristics

2. ACADEMIC (NOMINAL) DEFINITION that helps to determine the


meaning of the term.

The wh-word is omitted. A definition written in this way uses a reduced


relative clause.
Academic subjects may be more cautiously defined.

STRUCTURE of an ACADEMIC DRFINITION

Things to be defined

Verb

What-description

133
Wh-word
omitted

Participle II (verb+ed/V3)
Particular characteristics – relative clause

3. EXTENDED DEFINITION defines an academic subject more specifically


(when more information is given). A definition may be extended in order to
be more precise/ to give more information about the subject.

STRUCTURE of an EXTENDED DEFINITION

Things to be defined

Verb (may be defined)

As…/ wh-word (relative clause)

It is concerned with…

Extra information

STRUCTURE AND VOCABULARY AID

A. Frequently used verb forms for definitions


Present Simple (Active / Passive)
is…….
means…
X is defined as…
is used….
describes…

134
B. Relative clauses
Relative clauses are often used to qualify or give extra information

C. Useful verbs:

is concerned with
deals with
relates to
involves

D. Defining an object

is
is equal to (noun with attribute)
equals (noun without attribute)
A is equivalent to B = (noun + genitive)
corresponds to (noun + preposition +
is said to be object)
may be said to be

E. Defining an object by assigning it to a category and specifying it.

B + specification:
called (relative clause)
is termed (prepositional phrase)
A is thought of as (to + infinitive)
may be referred to as participle clause (ing/ed)
defined as participle clause +to infinitive /
for+gerund

F. Sentence patterns:

is called
defined by.. is said to be
A determined is expressed as Z
by… is expressed in
the form of
is termed

135
Gathering – the process of bringing oil, gas or both from a well in a field to a
point for delivery to a pipeline or other transport system.
Gathering system – pipelines and other equipment needed to transport oil, gas
or both from wells to the gathering station. An oil gathering system includes
oil and gas separators, gathering tanks, and similar equipment.

Distributing (distribution system) – a system of pipelines and other


equipment by which natural gas or other products are distributed to
customers, to lease operations or to other points of consumption, i.e. the
mains, services and equipment that carry or control the supply of gas from
the point of local supply to and including the sales meters.

Transporting (transportation) – movement of goods through a pipe. Most


commonly, liquid and gases are sent.

6. Here is the diagram of Russian pipeline gathering system, using the above-
mentioned terms, give a short explanation. (Note* the differences).

gas 4

2. pipelines from oil fields separator-1st 3 water

refinery 6 – pump station 7 crude trunkline 8

separator 2nd 9 crude tank farm


refinery\transport

136
Exercise 8. Read the following word formations and learn their
pronunciation. Pay special attention to the stress

WORD FORMATION

A common way of making new words in English is by adding standard


combinations of letters to existing words, either at the beginning (prefixes) or
at the end (suffixes). By noting these carefully, you will find it easy to
increase your vocabulary.
SUFFIXES
A suffix is a syllable or syllables put at the end of a word to change its word
class and \ or its meaning. Suffixes can briefly be divided into:
• Noun suffixes
• Adjective suffixes
• Verb suffixes
NOUN SUFFIXES:
thesis (тезис) – theses
radius (радиус) – radii
formula (формула) – formulae, formulas
analysis (анализ) – analyses
axis (ось) – axes
basis (база) – bases
criterium (критерий) – criteria
medium (среда) – media
indice (индекс) – index
Следует помнить, что норма русского языка иногда требует перевода
английского существительного во множественном числе соответствую-
щим русским существительным в единственном числе, и, наоборот,
английское существительное, имеющее форму единственного числа,
иногда следует переводить существительным во множественном числе.

ADJECTIVE SUFFIX NOUN


round -ness roundness
oblique -ity obliquity

ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES:
1. Noun or verb + suffix-adjectives can be formed from nouns or verbs
adding these suffixes.

137
NOUN|VERB SUFFIX ADJECTIVE
structure -a(l) structural
derive -ive derivative
compression -able \ ible compressible
friction -less frictionless

Here is a list of common suffixes in alphabetical order, their meaning or


function and some examples.

SUFFIX MEANING \FUNCTION EXAMPLE


-able \ -ible 1. forms adjective from verb admissible
2. with verb means «can be» variable
-age 1. forms noun from verb storage
2. forms abstract noun with idea of
aggregation
-a\ -al 1. forms adjective from noun rotational
2. forms noun of action from verb
-ence forms noun from verb reference
-ant (-ent) forms noun and adjective from verb different
-ation forms noun from verb denotation
-cy froms noun from adjective accuracy
-er forms noun from verb:used for computer
things which do a particular job
-hood forms abstract nouns especially likelihood
family terms
-ify forms verb from noun or adjective specify
-ing forms noun from verb folding
-ion (-tion \ froms noun from verb dimension \
sion) construction
-ise (-ize) forms verb from adjective specialise\ize
-ity forms abstract noun from adjective elasticity
-ive forms adjective from verb derivative
-less forms adjective from noun frictionless
-ment forms noun from verb requirement
-ness forms abstract noun from adjective brittleness
-ous forms adjective continuous

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Exercise 9. You are going to learn some vocabulary to help you understand
the text. Study the following dictionary entries, paying attention to specific
term definitions.

disrupt interrupt the progress, movement or


procedure of
install connect or set in position and prepare for
use
prevent keep from doing something
ensure make sure \ certain
exceed go beyond the limits of
permit afford opportunity or possibility for
warn notify or make aware in advance of
something

Exercise 11. Match the terms with their functions.

1. h 5. e
2. d 6. g
3. b 7. c
4. f 8. a

Exercise 12. Give Russian equivalents to the following terms.

1. corrosion resistant – 13. permit – допускать


коррозионно устойчивый
14. coating – защитное покрытие
2. launching – запуск
15. allowable pressure – допустимое
3. retrieval – извлечение давление

4. receiving – прием 16. exceed – превышать;


переступать пределы, границы;
выходить за пределы

5. loading – загрузка 17. monitoring – текущий контроль

6. disrupt (ing) – разрывать, 18. remote operation –


разрушать дистанционное управление

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7. shut down – временное 19. warn – предупреждать;
прекращение предостерегать
8. emergency – авария 20. install – устанавливать;
монтировать

9. leak – утечка 21. line pipe – труба

10. slug – пробка 22. pipeline – трубопровод

11. backup – резервное 23. steel – сталь


устройство
24. prevent – предотвращать,
12. alloy – сплав предупреждать

Exercise 13. Pipeline networks are composed of several pieces of


equipment that operate together to move products from location to location.
Describe the pipeline schematically.

– Initial Injection Station – Known also as Supply or Inlet station, is


basically the beginning of the system, this is where the product is injected
into the line. Storage facilities, such as tank terminals, as well as other
devices to push the product through the line, like pumps or compressor are
usually located at these locations.

– Compressor/Pump Stations – Pumps for liquid pipelines and


Compressors for gas pipelines, are located along the line to help move the
product through the pipeline. The location of these stations is defined by
the topography of the terrain, the type of product being transported, or
operational conditions of the network.

– Partial Delivery Station – Known also as Intermediate Stations, these


facilities allow the pipeline operator to deliver part of the product being
transported.

– Block Valve Station – These are the first line of protection for pipelines.
With these valves the operator can isolated any segment of the line to
perform some specific maintenance work or isolate a rupture or leak.
Block valve stations are usually located every 20 to 30 miles, depending
on the type of pipeline. Even though it is not a design rule, it is a very

140
usual practice in liquid pipelines. Overall the location of these stations
depends exclusively on the nature of the product being transported, the
trajectory of the pipeline and/or the operational conditions of the line.

– Regulator Station – This is a special type of valve station, where the


operator can release some of the pressure built into the line. Regulators
are usually located at the downhill side of a peak.

– Final Delivery Station – Known also as Outlet stations or Terminals,


this is where the product will be distributed to the final consumer. It could
be a tank terminal for liquid pipelines or a connection to a distribution
network for gas pipelines.

Exercise 16. Read the text “PIPE (MATERIAL)” and fill in the missing
information.

(2) by the internal diameter (ID)


(3) by the outside diameter (OD)

(4) more specific sizes and tolerances than pipe


(5) a non-cylindrical nature (i.e. square tubing)

(6) a level of rigidity and permanence.

(7) nominal, outside, or inside diameter and wall thickness

Exercise 17. Make a table and record the information from the text
according to the following items: type, material, purpose.

TYPE MATERIAL PURPOSE


Metal pipes Black steel Pipeline construction;
plumbing

Plastic pipes plastics Pipeline construction,


drilling, domestic

ceramic pipes ceramic + different low pressure applications


compositions such as gravity flow or
drainage.

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Concrete pipes in many types of
construction – water lines;
transportation

Exercise 19. Match the terms with Russian ones.There is one extra term.

1. k 9. q 17. a
2. x 10. m 18. j
3. l 11. p 19 g
4. v 12. b 20. f
5. s 13. u 21. i
6. r 14. h 22. o
7. y 15. t 23. c
8. d 16. e 24. n
25. w

Exercise 20. Find Russian equivalents to the following English words and
phrases. There is one extra Russian word.

a. изгородь 3. fence
b. толщина 4. thickness
c. подъём-уровня 9. elevation
d. ручная сварка 12. manual welding
e. ограничение 10. constraints
f. сплошной 16. uniform
g. врезка в магистральный
трубопровод
h. проход 5. passes
i. место 1. room
j. длина окружности 15. circumference
k. колено трубопроводa 11. pipe bends
l. штабель 8. stockpile
m. илистые отложения 2. low silt
n. глубина залегания 7. burial depth
o. пахотный слой 6. topsoil
p. опорная рама- для сварки 13. skid
трубопровода
q. лотковая опора трубопровода 23. cradle
r. вершина сварного шва 20. root

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s. прочность 19. strength
t. передний край 24. leading end
u. лесоматериал 14. timber
v. гладкий конец, ненарезанный 18. plain end
конец
w. обрез 22. bevel
x. трубная головка 21. cap

y. устойчивость 17. consistency

Exercise 21. Match the verb with the noun and the corresponding
translation. There can be several answers

1. to deposit excavated soil (i. размещать)


2. to lay pipe sections \ two pipes (h.прокладывать)
3. to accommodate elevation changes (j.урегулировать)
4. to trim pipe end (d. обрезать кромки)
5. to grind pipe ends (f. зашлифовать)
6. to align pipe (a. выравнивать)
7. to fuse two pipes (g. соединять)
8. to lubricate drill string (k. cмазывать)
9. to incorporate swivel joint (b. включать)
10.to slide line pipe (c. скользить)
11.to verify weld integrity (e. проверять)

Exercise 22. Read the following word formations and translate the
sentences that include these words.

Существенное в роли определения (правила ряда): существительных


в роли определения к другому (главному) существительному может
быть несколько. Поэтому при чтении текста следует помнить
правило ряда, которое можно сформулировать следующим образом –
если после артикля (другого определителя существительного) стоит
ряд слов, чаще всего существительных в единственном числе и без
предлога, то только последнее из них будет тем словом, к которому
относится артикль и с которого надо начинать перевод этого ряда,
мысленно ставя после него вопрос «какой?». Все остальные слова
являются его определениями.

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It is desirable to find a minimal order Желательно найти систему
linear time-invariant differential feed (какую?) управления,
back control system. инвариантную во времени,
дифференциальную, с
обратной связью,
минимального порядка.

• Часто внутри самого ряда встречаются существительные,


определяющие одно из слов этого ряда, а не последнее;
• Связь между словами определяется из их лексического значения,
при этом можно вводить множественное число, использовать
разные падежи и даже предлоги, но во всех случаях
определяемым словом будет последнее;
• Ряд, состоящий из двух слов – всегда помнить, что если между
двумя существительными нет предлога, то второе из них –
основное, определяемое (и с него надо начинать перевод), а
первое является определением к нему;

The particle velocity скорость (какая?) частиц частичная


скорость
• Часто ряд состоит из трех слов, среднее из которых может быть
прилагательным, причастием или герундием. Перевод такого
ряда, как обычно, следует также начинать с последнего слова и
продолжать в строго обратном порядке, причем при переводе
должна быть соблюдена грамматическая форма среднего слова.
Если среднее слово в таком ряду выражено прилагательным, то
при переводе обычно следует вводить предлог;

The rock-feeding system (feeding- система (устройство),
Part. 1) подающая горную породу

• Первые два слова часто соединяются дефисом, который помогает


определить ряд, но на перевод не влияет;
• Если в ряду первым стоит прилагательное, то оно обычно
относится к последнему слову;

The important measurement Эти важные параметры


parameters are presented in Table измерения представлены а
1. таблице 1.

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• Встречаются очень сложные ряды, иногда включающие несколько
глагольных форм, однако во всех случаях определяемым словом
будет последнее.

The tactical air-to-ground Модель (какая?) эффективности


systems effectiveness model тактических систем «воздух-земля»

1. Working space for the construction equipment is used to install the


pipeline.
Рабочая площадка для размещения оборудования,
предназначенного для строительства трубопровода, используется
во время прокладывания трубопровода.
2. Line pipe used for the road crossing has a thicker external coating to
provide extra protection during installation.
Трубы, используемые для прокладки через дорогу, имеют более
плотное наружное покрытие, обеспечивающее дополнительную
защиту вo время строительных работ.
3. For installing the line pipe, a cap is connected to the leading end of the
pipe string.
Установка линейный трубы происходит за счет присоединения
трубной головки к переднему краю колонны труб.
4. How many welds are inspected varies depending on the code to which
the pipeline is designed.
Количество сварочных швов, подлежащих тестированию, зависит
от существующих требований к проектированию трубопроводов.
5. NDT inspection is performed after the pipe has been welded and the
field-joint coating applied.
Неразрушающие испытания производятся после сварки труб и
изоляции швов.
6. After NDT inspection, field-joint coating is applied to the bare sections
at the pipe welds covering the exposed pipe and the weld.
Способ покрытия открытых участков труб, включающий
изоляцию соответствующих швов, применяется после завершения
неразрушающих испытаний.
7. Together the root and hot passes provide the required fusion and
strength to join the pipes permanently.
Вершина сварочного шва и «горячие» проходки обеспечивают
необходимую прочность соединения труб.

145
8. The ditch will be excavated in two passes with a first pass removing
topsoil and the second pass excavating the remaining soil to the
required pipeline burial depth.
Процесс подготовки траншеи состоит из 2-х проходок: снятия
чернозема, извлечения грунта на глубину, необходимую для
прокладки трубопровода.
9. Line pipe is lifted onto skids made of timber and stockpiles along the
ROW so that the entire circumference is accessible.
Трубы укладываются вдоль полосы отчуждения на опорные рамы,
изготовленные из лесоматериала, так чтобы длина окружности
была доступна.
10.Tie-in welding is also required at road crossings, river crossings and
other intersections along the ROW where the main production welding
crew cannot access the pipe.
Соединение секций труб необходимо также вдоль полосы
отчуждения при пересечении с дорогами, реками и др. объектами,
где отсутствует доступ для бригад сварщиков.
11.The swivel joint is connected to the reamer and the drilling rig again
pulls the reamer back through the hole from the pipe side to the rig
side, along with the pipe string connected to the reamer.
Квадратное соединение прикрепляется к расширителю. Даже при
помощи буровой установки расширитель, соединенный с
колонной труб, заново вытаскивается через скважину.
12.Crews attach a reaming device to enlarge the pilot hole to
accommodate the line pipe.
Для установки трубы бригада прикрепляет расширитель,
увеличивающий диаметр направляющей скважины.

Exercise 23. Form nouns from the following verbs or nouns–ing- and give
the definitions to these terms.

1. setting out – put in a stable position


2. clearing – process to remove something (soil, rocks, etc)
3. grading – process of providing a smooth and even work area to
facilitate the movement of equipment onto and along a ROW.
4. laying – operation of placing pipes in a horizontal position on a rack
5. bending – process which applies some force to change the pipe shape
6. skidding – process to move or haul equipment with ease.
7. welding –
8. padding – screened \ sifted dirt, clean gravel or foam placed in a

146
ditch to protect pipe from damage caused by rocky or rough soils.
9. lowering –process of laying pipe in a ditch in pipeline construction.
10. backfilling – technique for covering a completed pipeline so that
adequate fill material is provided underneath the pipe as well as above.
11. trenching – process to excavate a ditch in which to lay pipes.
12. stringing – process of delivering and distributing line pipe where
and when it is needed on the ROW.
13. testing – means of determining the quality
14. coating – a material that forms a continuous film over a metal
surface to prevent corrosion damage

Exercise 24. Match the definitions with the following terms.

1. h 7. c
2. l 8. g
3. i 9. e
4. f 10. k
5. a 11. d
6. b 12. j

Exercise 25. Number these instructions for installing a pipeline by HDD


(Horizontal Directional Drilling) across a river. Describe this process by
putting the statements in the logical order.

HDD is often the preferred method for constructing the pipeline across
such obstacles as streams or wetlands. On a typical river crossing – on the
near side (rig side), the trailer-mounted drilling rig is positioned near an
excavation filled with water to contain and settle the spoil or cuttings that
result from the operation. The tanks hold a mixture of drilling mud and
water that is pumped into the hole, lubricating the drillstring. The
drillstring, sections of pipe that make the hole, contain a survey
instrument near the head or cutting ed.

Operators on the drilling rig electronically control the instrument to guide


the cutting head in both vertical and horizontal directions. The drill moves
to the opposite bank under the bottom of the river and deep enough to
protect the pipeline from future river-bottom changes. This first drill
forms the “pilot” hole. With drill pipe through to the far side (pipe side),
crews attach a reaming device to enlarge the pilot hole to accommodate
the line pipe. The rig reverses to pull the reamer back, cutting and

147
enlarging the opening. This operation is called “pre-reaming”. Drill pipe is
attached to the far side of the reamer so that it can be pulled back from the
near side, once the pre-reaming operation is complete. The line pipe string
to be installed has been welded; NDT inspected, tested and is supported
by steel cradles that incorporate rollers, allowing the line pipe string to
slide. This string of pipe may be very long, depending on the width of the
crossing. Multiple strings may be required for the widest crossings and
when the first string has been nearly pulled through the crossing, the next
string will be lifted and placed on the cradles and manually welded to the
last pipe in the first string. For installing the line pipe, a cap incorporating
a swivel joint is connected to the leading end of the pipe string. The
swivel joint is connected to the reamer and the drilling rig again pulls the
reamer back through the hole from the pipe side to the rig side, along with
the pipe string connected to the reamer. This final operation is the pull
back and installs the line pipe under the river.

Keys:

1. N, 2. C, 3. A 4. K, 5. H, 6. M, 7. J, 8. E, 9. B, 10. I, 11. D, 12. L, 13. F,


14. O, 15. G.

Exercise 26. Which steps in 22 do these diagrams show?

1. Meanwhile, Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is easy and


understandable. The unit of directed drilling is placed in a point of
pipeline entry (on a river bank, on the one side of the road). It drills a
pilot borehole on the predetermined path and comes out on the other
side of the obstacle with high accuracy.
2. Widening of the well is made in several stages subject to needed
diameter of the well for one or more pipes or pipe-cases. Needed
pipes are pulled into the well with the help of special drilling agent,
which works as an oiling and forming a pipe material.
3. Advantages of work of drilling facilities are unquestionable. They
pass all the ground and underground obstacles: city districts, highways,
railways, rivers, dams, channels. The equipment won’t be stopped
neither by rocks, nor ravines or broken country. The construction
volume, which is performed in some months with trench method, is
made just in a few days with Horizontal Directional Drilling.
Environmental protection is also very important: untouched plants and
lay of land, preserved fertile soil. The usage of this technology
considerably raises operating efficiency. As a rule only one drilling rig

148
and a team of 3–4 people are involved on the object. This provides a
great economy of financial means: approximately 30 %. Horizontal
Directional Drilling is a unique technology which will be out of
competition in the construction of underground pipeline in the nearest
future.

Exercise 27. Refer to the instructions in 22 again and circle T (true) and F
(False).

1. F – The trailer-mounted drilling rig is filled with water to contain and


settle the spoil and cuttings
2. F – A reaming device is attached to enlarge the “pilot” hole
3. T
4. T
5. F – The first drill forms the “pilot” hole
6. T
7. F – The line string is welded
8. T

Exercise 25. Discussion

1. Discuss the items – Technical & Professional Communication


2. Role play – Technical & Professional Communication
3. Presentation – Technical & Professional Communication

149
UNIT 2

FLUID MECHANICS

Lead in.
Free writing: Write down everything that comes to your mind about FLUID
Mechanics. Write only words. If you don’t know the English term, put down
the Russian one. You have ONLY 1 minute to do it!

Exercise 4. Find terms which are used with the following words.

• Flow – reverse, pipe, open – channel, developing, fully – developed,


turbulent, laminar, transitional.
• Valve – control, isolation, check, relief, air.
• Fluid – mechanics, motion

Exercise 5. Compose collocations from the following words.

laminar flow cross section


turbulent flow velocity profile
entrance region fully developed flow
boundary layer fluid motion

Exercise 6. Match the definitions with the following terms.

1. e, 2. f, 3. h, 4. i, 5. a, 6. k, 7. b, 8. j, 9. d, 10. c, 11. g

Exercise 7. Replace the underlined words with a suitable variant from the
text.

1. Fluid mechanics is the discipline concerned with behavior (the


movement or conduct)of liquids and gases at rest or in motion.
2. Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system include the
pipes themselves, fittings to form the desired system, valves and the
pumps.
3. For the situation open- channel flow, gravity alone is the driving force
for fluid. For pipe flow, gravity may be important, but the main driving
force is likely to be a pressure gradient along the pipe.
4. The region of flow near where the fluid enters the pipe is termed the
entrance region.

150
5. The primary valve types are control valves, isolation valves and check
valves.

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions.

Possible variants

1. What is the difference between the following terms:


• Pipe – a closed conduit( a long, hallow cylinder, usually steel,
through which fluids are conducted).
• Conduit – a pipe (synonym).
• Duct – pipe is of round cross section.
2. What are the pipe system components and give their definitions?
• Outlet – выпуск : a passage for escape or exit; a vent.
• Pipe – труба: a long, hallow cylinder, usually steel, through
which fluids are conducted.
• Valve – клапан: a device used to control the rate of flow in a
line to open or shut off a line completely \ to serve as an
automatic or semi-automatic safety device.
• Tee – тройник (сидинг): a pipe fitting that is shaped like a
letter. A pipe or fitting can be attached to each end of the tee,
since the tee ends are threaded.
• Elbow – коленo: a fitting that allows two pipes to be joined at
an angle of less than 180°.
• Inlet – пуск: an opening providing a means of entrance or intake.
• Pump – насос: a device that increases the pressure on a fluid or
raises it to a higher level.
3. What is the difference between pipe flow and open-channel flow?
Give examples.
• There are two situations where one pipe is completely filled with
the fluid being transported (pipe flow) and one through which
rainwater flows without completely filling the pipe (open-
channel flow). The difference between open-channel flow and
pipe flow is in the fundamental mechanism that drives the flow.
For open-channel flow, gravity alone is the driving force. For
pipe flow, gravity may be important, but the main driving force
is likely to be a pressure gradient along the pipe.
4. What factors can affect the Reynolds number during the transition
from laminar to turbulent flow?

151
• How much the flow is disturbed by vibrations of the pipe,
roughness of the entrance region, etc.
5. Why is velocity profile important in understanding different flows?
• The details of velocity profile are different for laminar and
turbulent flows. The nature of the pipe flow is strongly
dependent on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. This is a
direct consequence of the differences in the nature of shear
stress in laminar and turbulent flows.
6. What is a valve? Give examples, indicating their functions.
• Mechanical devices that are installed in pipelines to control flow
or pressure. Valves are an important part of piping systems and
if not properly selected and operated, they can cause operation
problems.
7. What are the most important criteria for control valves?
• Cavitation and pressure transients.

Exercise 9. Discussion.

1. Complete the following diagrams and give all necessary explanations:

pipe system

flow

152
Pipe system – cross-section (conduit, pipe, duct), fitting, valve (control,
block, release, check), pump\turbine.
Flow – reverse, developing, fully – developed, turbulent, laminar, pipe, open-
channel.

2. Presentations – Technical & Professional Communication

153
UNIT 3

JOINING PIPES

Lead in.

Small diameter pipes

a. Each pipe is pushed into the connector; the connector is soldered to the
pipes.

b. The pipes are pushed into the coupling; then the nuts are screwed on.

c. Each pipe is screwed into the threaded coupling.

Large diameter pipes

d. The flanges are bolted onto the pipe. Then they are screwed together.

e. The ends of the two pipes are welded together.

f. The flanges are bolted. Then are welded.

g. The two flanges are bolted together. Then the clamps are clamped
together.

Exercise 1. What are the joining processes?

Threading – продевание, welding – сварка, soldering – сварка, crimping


(grooving) – гофрирование, cementing – склеивание, compressing –
набивка \ уплотнение.

Exercise 2. What are the joining devices and materials?

Flanges, sockets, fittings, rings, couplings, bolts, sleeve, gasket


Fiberglass, brass, cast iron, copper, filter metal, plastic, vinyl, polyolefin

Exercise 4. Find the synonyms to the following words

1. K, 2. G, 3. J, 4. I, 5. B, 6. H, 7. C, 8. D, 9. E, 10. F, 11. A.

154
Exercise 5. Solve the following crossword.

ACROSS DOWN
1.socket 1.fitting
2. flange 2. solvent
3. union 3. soldered
4. groove 4. cast
5. resin 5. crimp
6. tapered 6. brazing
7. thread 7. welded

Exercise 6. Complete the table using the terms and fill in the missing gaps
in the following passage.

Mechanical threaded
crimped\grooved
Joining methods Thermal welded
soldered
compression
Adhesive cemented

Pipes can be joined by three basic methods: (1) mechanical, (2) thermal
and (3) adhesive. Both the mechanical and (4) thermal methods can be
further divided. The former method includes (5) threading and (6)
crimping. The latter method can be broken down into (7) welding and (8)
soldering.

Exercise 7. Match the methods with the description

1. F,
2. E,
3. D,
4. A,
5. B,
6. C.

155
Exercise 8. Read the mini-text “Metal Properties” and complete the table.
Use the symbols √ ( yes) and x (no). Use the information from Exercise 3
(pg. 410).

METAL PROPERTIES

Ductile Malleable Corrosion Good


resistant conductor of
electricity
cast x x x x
(ductile)
iron

malleable √ √ √ x
(wrought)
iron

copper √ x √ √

lead x √ √ x

brass √ x √ √

cast steel x x √ x

plastic √ √ √ x

fiberglass x x √ √

Exercise 10. The topic of our discussion is “Pipe jointings”. The


monitoring packet includes four parts. Fulfill the tasks. Afterwards you
have 10–15 minutes to make a mini-report and present it.

The monitoring packet includes four parts:


Part 1 – checks vocabulary by means of reading comprehension
Part 2 – detail reading – questions that ask for specific details
Part 3 – main idea – checks the student’s comprehension of the topic
Part 4 – interpretative questions – requires the students to understand,
analyze and infer from the text

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Exercise 12. Discuss the following quotation and state your own opinion.

The following phrases and expressions could be used for oral


communication

Let me think дайте сообразить


By the way между прочим
First of all прежде всего
To come back to возвращаясь………..
To my mind по-моему
If you ask me если вы хотите знать мое мнение
I don't quite follow you я не совсем вас понимаю
I mean to say я имею в виду
Do you mean to say вы хотите сказать, что
I am inclined to think я склонен думать
It's not to the point это не по существу
You've got it all wrong вы совершенно неправильно это поняли
Keep to the point говорите по существу
Suppose предложим
As far as I know насколько мне известно
As a matter of fact по сути дела
The matter дело в том, что
(thing\fact\point) is that
On the whole подводя итоги
In short короче говоря
Oh, well just simply просто
You see (you know) видите ли
So to say так сказать

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UNIT 4

PIPELINE CORROSION

Lead-in
Cubing: Cubing involves looking at an idea from six different points of view,
each representing one of the six sides of a cube. You will look quickly at
your subject from these six angles so that you have several perspectives on
the subject available to you. You should spend 3-4 minutes examining your
subject from each of the following angles:
• Describe it (What does it look like? What do you see?)
• Compare it (What is it similar to? What is it different to?)
• Analyze it (What is it made of? What are its parts?)
• Associate it (What does it remind you of? What do you associate it
with?)
• Apply it (What can you do with it? What can you use it for?)
• Argue for or against (Take either position. Give reasons, even crazy
ones)
When you have finished, reread what you wrote to find ideas that you like.
Write those ideas down and look them over. Perhaps one of them is
particularly interesting and may be a good perspective for an essay on the
subject

Exercise 4. Replace the underlined words with


a suitable variant from the text.

1. Buried steel pipes suffer from external corrosion.


2. DC flows between the pipe and an anode ground bed via the soil.
3. Transformer stations are monitored by output voltage readings.
4. Corrosion control measures include water removal and drying.
5. A sacrificial anode method relies upon the installation of anodes on or
near the pipeline.
6. The severity of corrosion depends on the operating temperature.

Exercise 5. Match the terms with Russian equivalents.

1. F, 2. J, 3. I, 4. A, 5. H, 6. B, 7. C, 8. D, 9. G, 10. E, 11. M, 12. N, 13. O,


14. K, 15. L.

158
Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with the correct term.

There are essentially two methods: (1)impressed method and (2)sacrificial


anode method. For (3)onshore pipelines it is common to use an impressed
current method. In this system, (4)DC is supplied to the pipeline. The
current is adjusted to generate higher (5)driving potentials. A (6)
sacrificial anode method (7)relies upon the installation of (8) anodes on or
near the pipeline. The pipeline becomes the cathode of the system and the
anodes (9)corrode corrosion of the pipeline. When water is present on the
transported fluid, corrosion of the internal pipe surfaces can also occur.

Exercise 8. Match the corrosion types in the right column with their
Russian equivalents in the left one.

1. K, 2. J, 3. H, 4. I, 5. C, 6. G, 7. L, 8. F, 9. E, 10. B, 11. D, 12. A.

Exercise 9. Look at the photos. Define the corrosion type and describe it.

1. continuous 7. pitting
2. penetration 8.
3. 9. point
4. corrosion striation

Example:

Pitting corrosion

Certain conditions, such as low availability of oxygen or high


concentrations of species such as chloride which compete as anions, can
interfere with a given alloy's ability to re-form a passivating film. In the
worst case, almost all of the surface will remain protected, but tiny local
fluctuations will degrade the oxide film in a few critical points. Corrosion
at these points will be greatly amplified, and can cause corrosion pits of
several types, depending upon conditions. While the corrosion pits only
nucleate under fairly extreme circumstances, they can continue to grow
even when conditions return to normal, since the interior of a pit is
naturally deprived of oxygen. In extreme cases, the sharp tips of extremely
long and narrow pits can cause stress concentration to the point that
otherwise tough alloys can shatter, or a thin film pierced by an invisibly
small hole can hide a thumb sized pit from view. These problems are
especially dangerous because they are difficult to detect before a part or

159
structure fails. Pitting remains among the most common and damaging
forms of corrosion in passivated alloys, but it can be prevented by control
of the alloy's environment, which often includes ensuring that the material
is exposed to oxygen uniformly (i.e. eliminating crevices).

For other corrosion types there may be possible answers.

Exercise 10. What is IT in each of these sentences?

1. erosion occurs in fast flowing liquids that have a


high level of turbulence
2. uniform\ general occurs over the whole surface
3. crevice occurs in or around a break in the material
4. pitting occurs as pits in the metal surface
5. intergranular occurs at or near the grain boundaries of the
metal
6. SCC occurs as cracks
7. induced occurs as the joint action of mechanical
stresses and corrosion.

Exercise 12. Match the questions about corrosion on the left with the
answers on the right.

1. Do we have any problems? e. Maybe, some corrosion


4. What section is damaged? b. Somewhere, about 1km. from here.
5. Can you identify the area of d. How can I do it?
corrosion on this section?
7. How long do you think it’ll f. Had I time, even now.
take to test and measure it?
6. If you are so eager, tell me c. H’m, well I think, maybe, like the
what does it look like? Moon surface.
2. I see, now what can be done? g. Let’s paint it.
3. That’s crazy. It’s time to work. a. That’s what I’m doing.

Put the dialogue in the right order and answer the questions.

1. Where does this conversation take place? (pipeline area)


2. What is the situation? (inspection of the pipeline)
3. Who is involved? (foreman and student)

160
Exercise 13. Read the following text and answer the questions

1. What types of cracks exist?


2. What factors cause the formation of cracks?
3. What materials are more affected by cracks?
4. What types of cracks are shown on these photos?
5. What caused their formation?

Exercise 14. Read the information about “Applied coatings” and then the
statements and circle T(true) or F (false).

1. F – Plating, painting, and the application of enamel are the most


common anti-corrosion treatments
2. T
3. F – Platings usually fail only in small sections
4. T
5. F – The primary purpose of the coating is to protect the pipe surface
from its external environment
6. T
7. F – From the early 1960s to the early 1980s, polyethylene tape coatings
were field applied

Exercise 15. Match the questions about ”Cathodic protection” on the left
with the answers on the right.

1. E, 2. G, 3. D, 4. A, 5. F, 6. B, 7. C.

Exercise 16. Describe the CP application by writing the following sentences


in the correct order.

A. driving force for corrosion reaction is stopped 3


B. metal surface becomes uniform potential 2
C. steel surface is polarized 1
D. current flow is driven by electrochemical potential 4
difference

161
Exercise 21. Role play.

Conference organization (Here is an example – 4th SEEITA Conference


pp)

1. prepare application form for the future participants (sender-receiver)


2. proposals (presentation, poster-presentation, report)
3. invitation (refusal\ confirmation)
4. Conference session
5. business card for the Conference

All necessary instruction for writing can be found in the booklet


“Technical and Professional Communication”.

We are approaching the 4-th SEEITA Conference,


and 3-rd MASIT Open Days event.
4th SEEITA Conference & 3rd Just to remind you, the first SEEITA conference
MASIT Open Days was held in Ohrid (Oct’2002) and the second and
third conferences, and MASIT Open Days in
Skopje (Nov’2003, and Feb’2005).
Conference of the SEE IT In the meantime, jointly we established an
Associations and Businesses excellent regional cooperation framework. We
expect this conference to focus on business
networking, identifying growth markets in the
Southeast European region and initiate new
11-12 of May, 2006, Skopje, collaborative projects.
Macedonia The event is under the patronage of the
Government of the Republic of Macedonia. MAIN
CONFERENCE OBJECTIVES
Information Update: 4.0
 Regional cooperation promotion
 Regional ICT solutions promotion
Skopje, 04.April.2006
 Business Networking
 Implementation of international quality and
management standards
 Human resources development
 How to develop the SEE IT region into a
globally competitive marketplace

162
DATE
 11-12 May, 2006.
PLACE
 Skopje, Macedonia –
Skopje, MBC Center, Skopje Fair

IMPORTANT DATES - DEADLINES


 20.04.2006 Submitting PROPOSAL for PRESENTATION
 27.04.2006 Sending the final PRESENTATION file

BUSINESS CHARACTER
 We encourage IT companies from the SEE region to participate. The
conference is an excellent opportunity for business networking, finding growth
markets and industries, and establishing business relationships.
 All SEE markets are experiencing rapid growth, both as IT markets and as
suppliers to multinational companies around the globe. Please see
http://www.businesweek.com/extras – edition 12 December 2005.
 Macedonia became an EU candidate on 17 December 2005. On the way to
the EU, Macedonia will try to improve many legislative requirements. The Macedonian
government will initiate many IT projects to support these changes. Government
implementation, healthcare and judicial system are only the tip of the iceberg, coming
in next several years. We belong to the emerging markets countries, and this premier
event is an excellent opportunity for the large multinational IT vendors to present their

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

 Official language of the conference is English.

PARTICIPATION FEE
 Standard Participation Fee is 80 EUR and includes conference materials,
CD with recorded presentations, lunches and refreshments.
 10 % discount (72 Euro) for early registration and payment till 20.04.2006.

163
MAIN CONFERENCE TOPICS
 Regional cooperation (Survey on the IT industries from the SEE region, proposals
for joint venture projects, case studies, business environment, governmental support,
donor programs, etc.)
 Corporate Excellence (QA procedures and methodologies, CMMI/IT Mark, SW
testing, project management, certification, consulting services, best practice cases)
 Education and Human Resources Development (Survey on the educational
programs from the region, training programs introduction… etc.)
 B2B cooperation (outsourcing, SW development, IT services, available resources,
case studies, proposals for outsourcing consortiums)
 IT Solutions from the region (e-Government, e-Business, e-Learning, e-Health etc.,
EU-funded ICT infrastructure development projects, case studies, possibilities for joint
venture projects)
CALL FOR PRESENTATIONS
 You are welcome to send us proposals for presentations.
 1 chief moderator per panel session
 1 assistant moderator per panel session
 up to 5 slides for each panel – up to 25 slides in total by each Association
 At least two company presentations / country
 You can register your presentation On-line (will be available soon), or by emailing
us the presentation abstract. Please make sure presentations are areas of interest
for most of the participants.
SESSION PRESENTATIONS
 Conference information newsletters will inform you and your members regularly
about the proposed presentations.
 Please check the final dates for sending the presentation proposals.
REGISTRATION
 You can register your participation on the Web, by Email or Fax. Please send one
application form per Participant.
 Submit your proposal for presentation on the Web, by Email or Fax. Please send one
application form per Presentation.
HOTEL ACCOMODATION
 The conference organizer will book rooms for the participants at special discounted
price. Please book your room at the registration.
CONTACT

164
UNIT 5

OIL STORAGE

Lead-in. (BRAINSTORMING – is an activity which aims to help


students with this important pre-writing stage of getting ideas together. In
this task, it is a pair-work activity.)

STAGE 1:
Group work responding to a text discussion. During this stage, each group
will discuss its own topic.

GROUP A GROUP B

STAGE 2: Sharing ideas of response to the text. Divide the students into
two new groups, so that each group has a member with different
information.
A B A B

Now the members of each new group will share their ideas.
STAGE 3: Now each student must jot down all the information he\she
remembers.
I. Jig-saw plan (1-2 minute) short one-point talk- What is stress?
II. Multi-point conversation (5 minutes).

Exercise 4. Match the verbs with the corresponding nouns.

1. erect f. bolted tanks


2. flush h. solids
3. provide k. storage capacity
4.reduce m. vapour loss
5. meet e. requirements
6. fabricate c. API specifications
7. remove a. water
8. design l. field-welded tanks
9. replace d. tank bottom
10. calculate j. tank-shell thickness

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11. exceed b. design pressure
12. attach i. fixed roof
13.furnish g. protection coating

Exercise 5. Compose collocations from the following words.

tank roof pressure coating


shop-welded fixed atmospheric protection
bolted-steel floating design factory-baked
field-welded equivalent painted
cone bottom galvanized
above-
ground
shop-
fabricated

Exercise 6. Divide these words into two categories. Give your examples with
these words.

PREFIXES
A prefix is a syllable, 2 syllables or sometimes even a word, put at the
beginning of a word to change its meaning or to make another word.
Prefixes are often used to give an adjective or a noun a negative meaning,
but there are also lots of other prefixes with specific meanings.
Prefixes with the meaning “not”.
The most common prefixes used to give a negative meaning to adjectives,
and some verbs and nouns:

PREFIX USE EXAMPLE

Un- Used with many different words undeformed


undiminished
Im- Used before words beginning with m or p immovable
Il- Used with some words beginning with l illegible
Ir- Used before some words beginning with irreversible
r
In- Used before a limited number of words incompressibility
\ invariance
Dis- Used before some adjectives and a few displacement
verbs

166
Non- «not» non-stationary
non-polar
De- «taken away from» deformation
Inter- «between» intersection
interrelated
Re- «again, back» refilled

** Unfortunately, there is no easy way of knowing which prefix any adjective


will use to form its negative. So when you learn a new adjective, note down
whether it has an opposite formed with a prefix and, if so, what it is.
The prefix in- does not always have a negative meaning; often it gives the
idea of inside or into.
Verb prefixes un – and dis- have two meanings. They can have a negative meaning,
but they can also mean «the opposite of an action or to reverse an action».

Non prefix re- prefix re-

reduce re-place

relate re-move
require re-erect

Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps using the word formations. Make all necessary
changes. REVISION: PASSIVE VOICE \ ACTIVE VOICE

fabricate fabrication fabricated

1. The tanks are fabricated according to Standard API specifications.

2. The internal tank walls are painted during fabrication.

3. Shop fabricated permits testing in a sop for leaks.

erect erection re-erect

167
1. API Standard includes material, design, fabrication and erection for
welded steel storage tanks.

2. Bolted steel tanks can be easily dismantled and re-erected in a new


location.

3. Floating roof tanks are erected in areas of heavy snowfalls.

install installation

1. When a tank bottom is damaged, a new connection is installed without


danger.

2. Tank installation is performed in four stages.

exist existence non-existent

1. The installation of wooden tanks is nearly non existent.

2. Floating roofs can be installed in existing tanks.

3. The existence of different tanks makes it possible to apply them in


various environments.

Exercise 8. Complete the text using the words and phrases in the list.

0. storage 6. re-erected
1. bolted steel 7. tank bottom
2. segmental 8. corrosion
3. on location 9. sheet
4. API specification 10. manually
5. dismantled 11. galvanized
12. gauge steel

168
Exercise 9. The pictures show the installation process of tanks. Read the
information and number the steps.

Tank installation is to be performed in the following sequence:

1. d. tank bottom is assembled on the prefabricated foundation from


separate steel plates;
2. a. separate steel plates which are welded to each other;
3. i. system of hydraulic lifting jacks forming a conductor is set up
around the whole perimeter;
4. f. tank wall is assembled of the steel belts up to 3 m wide;
5. b. assembled circular belts are installed by the method of top-down
construction;
6. h. a fixed roof is installed upon the assembly of the first belts;
7. e. then fixed roof is lifted up together with the tank shell;
8. c. tank is to be lowered down on the bottom elements upon assembly
of the last belt;
9. g. the rims are welded to the tank bottom.

Exercise 10. Answer the following questions.

What is top-down construction method?

1. What is chime welding?


2. How many hydraulic lifting jacks are set up around the whole
perimeter?
• A series of hydraulic jacks connected to each other with high
pressure hoses is tied-in to high pressure pump providing for
synchronous jack operation.
A guide with a lifting holder transfer the lifting forces to the lugs
welded to the shell plates. A conductor keeps the shell belt in the
required position during lifting operations.
• Guide supports on the tank bottom provide for fixing of shell panels
in exact position required for installation and serve as support
structures during welding.
• Structures are welded following purpose-developed and approved
procedures. Bottom structures, roof and horizontal circular welds
are made by semi-automatic welding by powder wire. Vertical
welds are performed manually.

169
• Particularly important is that heavy-lifting equipment is not
required for installation. 15–20 Mt capacity cranes can be applied.

3. What is the maximum distance between the jacks?

Required number of jacks is determined in accordance with the tank sizes


and weight. Maximum distance between the jacks is 5 m.

4. What are circular belts?

tank wall is assembled of the steel belts up to 3 m wide.

5. Why must the steel belts be up to 3 m wide? If not then state the width
of these belts?

The assembled circular belts are lifted by the jacks followed by


installation of the next belt instead of the previous one.

6. What are the advantages of top-down construction?


• this erection method is applicable for various tank types and sizes;
• welding and installation are performed mainly at the ground level
providing the greatest safety and erection accuracy;
• all operations are duly secured and safe for personnel;
• major welding is carried out inside the tank and does not depend on
weather conditions;
• the method considerably reduces the installation time;
• welding is easily accessible for inspection;
• once the roof is fixed on the top shell belt at the beginning of the
installation, the tank is provided with wind load stability.

Exercise 11. Read the statements. Circle T (true) and F (false).

1. T
2. T
3. F – The cone-bottom in either the bolted or the welded tank offers a
means of draining and removing water or water-cut oil, from only the
bottom of the tank, leaving the marketable oil above
4. F – Floating roof storage tanks may be tank type, used primarily for
storage near atmosphere pressure
5. T
6. F – Fixed roofs are permanently attached to the tank shell

170
7. F – Field-welded tanks provide large storage capacities in a single unit
8. T
9. F – Shop-welded tanks fabricated to API specifications provide the oil
production industry with tanks of adequate safety and reasonable
economy
10.T
11.T

Exercise 14. Role play: Pipeline engineering department is discussing the


possible variants of steel tanks with fixed roofs or floating roofs for the
East Siberia Pacific Pipeline System project. (Appendix 3)

Role play – Technical and Professional Communication

Exercise 15. Label and describe the following diagrams. Read the
necessary information in APPENDIX 4.

171
Chapter 5

ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT IN PETROLEUM


ENGINEERING
Л.М. Болсуновская, И.В. Шендерова, Е.М. Вершкова, Д.С.Малюкова

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Economics and Management and make collective mind map
(spidergram) on the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see
how T. draws out the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is
that Ss do not think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by
moving between its various aspects.
The next stage in this procedure is discussing the questions connected with
the topic and Ss’ future specialty.
This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 1.

Exercise 1. Read and learn the pronunciation.

Exercise 2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

T. comments on pronunciation of the words. Pay special attention to the


word stresses and elicit all the mistakes connected with mispronunciation
of the sounds by reading the words aloud.

Exercise 3. Before reading the text tick what statement you think is true.

Comment on the three general statements and ask Ss’ opinion about them.
After reading the text from Ex. 4, turn back to these questions and ask Ss
again. Discuss their previous and present answers.

Exercise 4. Read the text, do the exercises.

Before reading the text ask Ss about the difference in two notions
Economy and Economics. Which of them has broader meaning.
Read the text and while reading find the answer.

172
Economy – is the whole thing, it is not the science, it’s a system for the
management, use and control of the money, goods and other resources of
a country, community or household.

Economics – is a science which studies economy.

Exercise 5. Answer the following questions.

1. To what branch of science does economics belong to? – social science


2. Does economics have deep roots in social philosophy? – yes
3. What problems does economics deal with? – economics attempts to
find laws and principles of economic functioning of society; deals with
problems like inflation and unemployment; the problem of
distributional justice; etc.
4. Why, do you think, some people are poor and others are rich? – the
answer to this question is not given in the text. Discuss it in the group.
5. Which two main divisions of economics do you know? –
macroeconomy and microeconomy
6. What do micro- and macroeconomics deal with? – Microeconomics
deals with the functioning of individual industries and the behaviour of
individual economic decision making units: single business firms and
households. Macroeconomics explores the decisions that individual
businesses and consumers make.
7. Which issue of economics is of great importance to philosophers and
why? – distributional justice; the answer to the question Why is not
given in the text. Discuss it in the group.
8. What would you do to cope with inequality? – the answer to this
question is not given in the text. Discuss it in the group.

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences.

1. Economics studies a wide range of questions.


2. Economics is closely tied with social philosophy.
3. Many social philosophers were trying to solve a questions of
distributional justice.
4. Economics is subdivided into microeconomy and macroeconomy.
5. Microeconomics deals with individual industries.
6. A household can be considered as an individual economic decision
making unit.
7. The firm must make a choice what to produce.
8. Microeconomics doesn’t deal with the questions of output distribution.

173
9. The functioning of national economic complex is the sphere of
macroeconomy.

Exercise 7. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases
from the text.

Изучать экономику – to study economy, иметь глубокие корни в – to


have deep roots in, национальная экономика – national economy,
отдельная самостоятельная экономическая единица – separate
economic unit, изучать проблему – to study the problem, домашнее
хозяйство – householding, отдельная предпринимательская фирма –
individual enterprise, получить представление – to imagine,
функционирование отдельных отраслей промышленности –
functioning of individual industries, социальная философия – social
philosophy.

Exercise 8. Match synonyms in columns A and B.

A. B.
range - scope
part - piece
to produce - to manufacture
to deal with - to consider
to explore - to examine
unemployment - lack of jobs
discipline - subject
firm - company
wealthy - well - to do
province - outside the sphere
understanding - comprehension
a number - several
tie - connection
issue - question

174
Exercise 9. Translate the following chains of words. Determine the part of
speech and the way of word – building.

economy (n) – economics (n) – economist (n)


экономика в целом – экономика как наука – экономист

economic (adj) – economical(adj) – economically(adv)


экономический – экономный – экономно

economize(v) – economizer(n)
экономить – экономайзер

science(n) – scientist(n) – scientific(adj)


наука – учёный – научный

employ(v) – employment(n) – unemployment(n) – employer(n) –


employee(n)
нанимать – работа – безработица – работодатель – работник

organize(v) – organizer(n) – organization(n) – organizational(adj)


организовывать – организатор – организация – организационный

produce(v) – producer(n) – production(n) – productive(adj) –


productivity(adv)
производить – производитель – производство – продуктивный –
продуктивность

Exercise 10. Translate the following sentences into Russian using the
dictionary. Translate only separate word phrases. Ask Ss to guess the rest
of the meaning of the words in the sentence.

1. on the peaceful principles – на принципах мира и согласия


2. objective need – объективная необходимость
equality – равенство
mutual benefit – взаимная выгода
3. efficient economy – эффективная экономика
least – наименее
possible cost – возможная цена
4. raw materials – сырьё
5. foreign trade – зарубежный рынок

175
6. exceed – превышать
7. invisible – невидимый
unfavorable – нежелательный

Exercise 11. Translate the following definitions into English.

Economics – a science which includes two disciplines: microeconomy and


macroeconomy.
Microeconomics – a unit which deals with the functioning of individual
industries, consumers and markets. It also studies the influence of
government’s behaviour (regulation and taxes) on separate markets.
Microeconomy attempts to find laws and principles of prices, salary and
income.
Macroeconomy – a unit which studies economy as a whole thing.
Particularly it deals with common numbers of production, inflation and
unemployment.

Exercise 12.  Listening.

Ss listen to the story about what the life was before the industrial
revolution. While listening Ss tick the words which are necessary

1. length of live √
2. housing √
3. illnesses – not mentioned
4. work – not mentioned
5. food √
6. having children √

Tapescript

Before economic growth came to Europe, life was very short and very
hard. In those days, terrible diseases were very normal. This meant that
life was very short. In fact, life expectancy — which means how long
people live — was only 25 years. People lived simple, subsistence level
lives. They tried to grow just enough food to live, but often there was not
enough. Many children died because they didn't have the food they
needed. One in every three babies born died before they were five years
old. There were few doctors, and even fewer medicines. Having children
was dangerous for the child and for the mother. One in ten women died
giving birth to their children. Then, about 250 years ago, the Industrial

176
Revolution started, and this brought about new ways of thinking. Societies
became more democratic. Education became available to more people. The
miracle of economic growth had begun.

Mach the description with the numbers.


Answers: 1. C, 2. D, 3. B, 4. A

Exercise 13. Discuss the following questions before reading the text.

Before asking the questions it is recommended to study the words which


are given after the text in Exercise 13.
While reading, help Ss with difficult extracts explaining and translating
some words, if necessary. Ask different Ss to read and translate.

Exercise 15. Answer the following questions.

1. What is an economic system? – a system for the management, use and


control of the money, goods and other resources of a country,
community or household.
2. What distinguishes an economic system from another one? – the
control of the factor of production and the interaction of business,
government and consumers.
3. What types of economic system do you know? – capitalism (or pure
capitalism), mixed capitalism and communism (socialism).
4. In whose hands are the factors of production in capitalism? – in private
hands.
5. Who makes economic decisions under capitalism? Does the
marketplace have influence on them? – economic decisions are made
freely according to the market forces of supply and demand.
6. Whose interests do producers and consumers pursue in the market? –
their own self-interests.
7. If a company produces a defective product, will it be sold or rejected
by consumers? – it will be rejected by consumers in case when the
price for this product is high. What do you think of it? – the answer to
this question is not given in the text. Discuss it in the group.
8. Are you for or against the government’s regulation of economic
conduct in Russia? – the answer to this question is not given in the
text. Discuss it in the group.

177
Exercise 16. Give English equivalents for the following words and phrases
from the text.

Экономическая система – economic system, труд – labour,


преследовать собственные интересы – to pursue self-interests,
снижать цены – to reduce prices, распределять ресурсы – to allocate
resources, удовлетворять общественные потребности – to satisfy
social needs, чистый капитализм – pure capitalism, факторы
производства – production factors, взаимодействие производителей и
покупателей – interaction of producers and customers, отвергнуть
товар – to reject goods, регулировать предпринимательство – to
regulate entrepreneurship.

Exercise 17. Translate into English.

1. The market is regulated by the interaction of customers and producers.


2. Economic system – method, which is used by society to allocate its
resources.
3. We are told that economics of Russia is recovering.
4. The rate of country’s economical development is defined by the level
and character of production forces and production relations.
5. In capitalism, economic decisions are taken in accordance with the
market laws of supply and demand.
6. Economic system is regulated by the market.
7. A product is rejected by customers if it is defective or charged too
much.
8. A great number of goods are produced by the industries every year.

Exercise 18. Match synonyms in columns A and B.

A B
doldrums - depression
progress - advance
country - state
to distinguish - to define
to allocate - to distribute
to demand - to require
to recover - to get better
to produce - to manufacture
to buy - to purchase
defective - faulty

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to reduce - to lower
behaviour - conduct

Exercise 19.  Listening

A. Before listening ask Ss to look at the diagram of Supply and


Demand. Ask Ss to fill in the blank spaces with the words from the
table.

B. Listen and check if you were right.

Some useful vocabulary

vertical axis – вертикальная ось


horizontal axis – горизонтальная ось
equilibrium point – точка равновесия

Tapescript

In the chart you can see how supply and demand work together. Along the
vertical axis, the line going up, we have price. Along the horizontal axis,
the line at the bottom from left to right, we have the amount of the product
or service bought and sold. The chart has two curves: a blue curve and a
green curve. The blue curve is the demand curve. You can clearly see that
people buy less of something when it is more expensive, and more of
something as it becomes cheaper. The green line is called the supply
curve. To understand how this works, imagine you are a producer,
somebody who makes things, to produce more of something, you need
more materials and more workers. This all costs you, the producer, much
more. For this reason, you will ask for a higher price. You can see this on
the green supply Curve. The more you supply to the market, the higher the
price you ask for each product or unit. So you can clearly see that there is
a problem here. Consumers buy more when things are cheaper, but
producers ask a higher price when they supply more. The role of the
market is to find the price that both consumers and producers are happy
with. This is called the equilibrium point.

179
Answers:

1. Price; 2. Amount bought and sold; 3. Demand curve; 4. Supply curve;


5. Equilibrium point.

Exercise 20. Match the terms with the definitions.

Capitalism – is an economic system where the factors of production are in


private hands and economic decisions are made freely according to the
market forces of supply and demand.

Economy – is a system for the management, use and control of the money,
goods and other resources of a country, community or household.

Microeconomics – deals with the functioning of individual industries and


the behaviour of individual economic decision making units: single
business firms and households.

Macroeconomics – explores the decisions that individual businesses and


consumers make.

Exercise 21. Translate the words in brackets into English.

1. The most important economic questions (затронуты – are touched) in


the Financial Times and the Economist.
2. Adam Smith (по праву считается – is considered to be) the founder
of political economics.
3. A lot of questions (задают и отвечают – are asked and answered) at
the lectures on economics.
4. The United Kingdom is considered one of the world’s (мировой лидер
производства товаров – the world’s leader in producing goods).
5. About two per cent of the population of the UK (вовлечены/заняты –
are involved in) in agriculture.
6. Today gold is mostly (добывается – is obtained) by mining.
7. Every country is interested in (экспорте – export of) its manufactured
goods.
8. What questions (обсуждаются – are discussed) during business
talks?
9. The Leipzig Fair, which is (проводится – held) twice a year, is very
popular with businessmen of different countries.

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10. Foreign firms are interested in (внедрение – introducing) their goods
to new markets.

Exercise 22. Discuss.

In group discuss the following questions based on the material of Unit 1.

1. The significance of economics nowadays.


2. The reasons why some people are rich while some are poor.
3. The main types of economic systems.
4. Future of Russian economics.

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UNIT 2

FINANCE

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Finance and make collective mind map (spidergram) on the
board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out the
aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is that Ss do not think in
an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by moving between its
various aspects.
The next stage in this procedure is discussing the questions connected with
financial institutions.
This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 2.

Exercise 1. Read and learn the pronunciation.

Exercise 2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

T. comments on pronunciation of the words. Pay special attention to the


word stresses and elicit all the mistakes connected with mispronunciation
of the sounds by reading the words aloud.

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions.

1. What are the businesses called that distribute or deal in money? –


financial institutions.
2. What are the most familiar financial institutions? – commercial banks,
savings banks, savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks,
credit unions, investment banks and so on.
3. What services does a commercial bank offer to its customers? –
checking and savings accounts, loans, and credit cards. It also deals in
some brokerage, insurance, and financial advice.
4. What do the borrowers do sometimes to back up the loan? – borrowers
pledge collateral to back up the loan.
5. What types of accounts do commercial banks offer to their customers?
– demand deposits and time deposits.
6. What does the interest rate depend on? – it depends on financial
reputation of a person or a company.
7. What kind of technology are banks using now? – computer
technology.

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8. What are the electronic funds transfer doing with money? – it transfers
money from individuals to the bank, from bank to bank, and from city
to city through an electronic system.
9. What new services are the automatic teller machines providing for the
customer? – customer can get cash, make loan payments, or transfer
money from one account to another at any time of the day or night.
10. What innovation makes it easy for the customer to handle all kinds of
financial transactions outside his home state? – electronic funds
transfer.
11. What process in modern banking is urging the banks to diversify? –
competition.
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with adjectives many and much:

1. __many__insurance companies protect their customers against risk.


2. It takes one__much__money to join a credit union.
3. Starting a business without financial support from the bank may cause
you __much__trouble.
4. Banks in the USA are subject to_many_government regulations.
5. Savings and Loan Associations attract_many_small savers who do not
want to have any risk.
Exercise 6. Substitute.
Statement: There are many commercial banks that offer their customers a
wide range of financial services.
Example: There are a lot of commercial banks that offer their customers
a wide range of financial services.

financial institution clients individuals and businesses


provide for banking render
different were a number of

Possible variant:

There are many financial institutions that provide for individuals and
businesses a number of financial services.

Statement: Banks are now using computer technology to perform various


financial transactions.

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Example: Financial institutions are now using computer technology to
perform various financial transactions.

business electronic
numerous employing
deals these methods
at present handle

Possible variant:
Banks at present are employing electronic methods to handle numerous
financial transactions.

Exercise 7. Translate into English.

1. Are there any free bank services? No, there are no free bank services. 2.
Many banks charge fee for their service. 3. Companies with good
financial position are given the prime rate. 4. Is there much money on
your checking account? Yes, there is much. 5. There is one commercial
bank and three insurance companies in my note book.

Exercise 8.  Listening.

A. Before listening discuss the following statements. How do you think


whether they are true or false?

1. The earliest kind of money was used about 3,000 years ago.
2. Shells were used a kind of fiat money.
3. The first metal coins appeared in Greece.
4. The first coins were round.
5. Paper money first appeared in China.
6. The idea of paper money traveled quickly to Europe.

B. Now listen to someone talking about the history of money and check
your answers.

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Some useful vocabulary:

shells – ракушки
cowry – раковины, до сих пор заменяющие деньги у некоторых
народов Азии и Африки
fiat – признанный, узаконенный
lump – кусок

Tapescript

One of the earliest kinds of money that we know about were shells called
cowries. Over 3,000 years ago, the people who lived around the Pacific and
Indian Oceans started to use cowries as a kind of fiat money. They were
still being used until quite recently in some societies. The first modern coins
appeared about 2,500 years ago around the Mediterranean in what is now
Turkey. At first they were just lumps of silver, but someone somewhere
made a round, flat coin and the design stayed! It took a long time for paper
money to appear. It was invented by the Chinese about 1,200 years ago,
probably because there wasn't enough metal available for coins. It took
many more centuries before the idea reached the rest of the world. For
example, the first paper notes in Europe appeared in the 17th century in
Sweden.

Answers:
1. T, 2. T, 3. F, 4. F, 5. T, 6. F

Exercise 9. Read the dialogue.

Before reading the dialogue study Words and phrases. Read the dialogue
in pairs. Ask Ss how they understand the word pool.

Pool – a kind of credit union which is formed from the investments of


persons who work at one department, company, etc. Those who make
investments into the pool can ask for a loan (financial support) if
necessary.

185
Exercise 10. Make up similar dialogues.

Work in group and make up dialogues according to the following topics:

1. You are starting a new business and apply for funds to a commercial bank.
2. Your company has a good reputation and a commercial bank provides
the prime rate for you.
3. You deposit some of your money into a bank which offers you
accounts of two types. Choose one of them.

Exercise 11. Translate the following sentences.

1. Government regulations reduce the range of services a bank can offer.


2. State bank does not allow to pay interest in checking account.
3. Financial institutions offer new types of deposits.
4. Some banks do experiments with accounts.
5. Many companies install teller machines in their buildings.
6. Federal government uses electronic system of money transfer.

Exercise 12. Put the verb in brackets into the right form.

1. Large commercial banks (install) automatic teller machines


nowadays.
2. Customers usually (use) their debit cards to transfer money from their
checking account to the merchant's account.
3. As a rule a customer (pays) a fee of forty cents for each transaction
outside the state.
4. Financial supermarkets (appear) all over the USA these days.
5. The customers often (look) around for the highest return on their
savings or the lowest rate they can get on a loan.
6. Small banks now (compete) with larger banks by finding a special
need and meeting it.

Exercise 13. Make up sentences according to the following models.

Before doing this exercise T explains the difference between the phrases
I am thinking of and I am going to.

Model: to open a checking account


I am thinking of opening a checking account.

186
1. to use the electronic funds transfer system.
2. to transfer money outside the state.
3. to provide new services to my customers.
4. to buy 100 shares of stock.
5. to sell some bonds.
6. to plan a number of financial transactions.
7. to assign my major customers a personal banker.

Model: to balance my checkbook at last


I am going to balance my checkbook at last.

1. to drop unprofitable services.


2. to ask for financial advice
3. to wait on customers
4. to install an automatic teller machine in my shopping center
5. to attract more customers by providing less expensive services
6. to pay a fee of a dollar for this banking transaction
7. to use my debit card to a better purpose

Exercise 14. Read the text.

Before reading the text study Words and expressions which are given
below. While reading, help Ss with difficult extracts explaining and
translating some words, if necessary. Ask different Ss to read and
translate.

Exercise 15. Answer the questions.

1. Was financial management always a major problem for business? –


financial management was not a major concern for a business. A
company used to establish relations with a local bank.
2. What did a bank do in the past to help a company operate? – The
bank handled the financing and the company took care of producing
and selling.
3. What does financial management start and end with? – Financial
management begins with the creation of a financial plan and ends
with the company's objectives.
4. What does the financial plan include? – The plan includes timing and
amount of funds and the inflow and outflow of money.
5. What happens to the company if the outflow of funds exceeds the

187
inflow? – If cash outflow exceeds cash inflow the company will run
out of cash.
6. What are the major financing techniques? – short-term and long-term
financing.
7. What are the most popular outside sources of short term funds? –
The most popular outside sources of short term funds are trade credit,
loans, factors, sales finance companies, and government sources.
8. What is a line of credit? – the amount a customer can borrow without
making a new request, simply by notifying the bank.
9. What firms are able to sell commercial papers? – only firms with a
good financial reputation can sell it.
10. When does a business need long term sources of funds? – When a
business needs funds to construct a new assembly line or to do
extensive research and development which may not begin to bring in
revenues for several years.
11. What are the two ways of increasing the company's debt? – by
getting loans or by selling bonds.
12. What does a company do if it wants to be free from the lender's
restrictions? – it may issue bonds.
13. Why is it difficult to sell debentures? – It is difficult, if not
impossible, to find investors who are willing to buy bonds which are
not backed up by collateral.
14. What makes it possible to retire bonds before they mature? –
company may retire bonds before they mature if the indenture
agreement contains a call provision.
15. What does the conversion privilege allow the bondholders to do? – It
allows bondholders to convert their investment into a stated number
of shares of common stock.
16. When do the investors profit from conversion? – If the price of the
company's common stock is going up, the investors can profit from
conversion.

Exercise 16. Study the figure below and describe the process of financial
management.

Make up sentences according to the scheme given on Figure 1.

E.g. Before starting any enterprise, company should state the objectives.
Then it must determine its money needs. If company needs exceed
revenues the company will have excess of investments. In case when it is

188
the objective of the company, the financial plan will work and the
company will move ahead.

1. Company
Objectives

Determine
Money Needed

Yes
Needs Invest
Exceed Revenues? Excess
No
Yes
Can Outflows be
Reduced?

No

Find Sources of Funding

No
Revise Are Objectives Being
Plan Achieved?

Yes

Financial Plan is Working


and Firm is Moving Ahead

Fig. 1

189
Exercise 17. Translate into English.

1. The seasonal financial needs of a company may be covered by short


term sources of funds. 2. The company must pay the debts within one
year. 3. Businesses spend short-term financing funds in case of
emergency. 4. Company can use trade credit, loans, factors and
government sources. 5. About 60 % of all business transactions involve
trade credit. 6. Normally the buyer does not pay for goods and service. 7.
Invoice requesting payment within a settled time period. 8. The buyer
uses goods and services without paying for them. 9. A company can use
the trade credit as a source of savings. 10. If a buyer pays within 20 days
instead of 40, he gets a 2 percent discount. 11. Commercial banks offer
their customers unsecured loans. 12. Only customers with an excellent
credit rating can get an unsecured loan. 13. A company can pledge
collateral to back up the loan. 14. Sometimes a company might sell its
unpaid debts to a factor. 15. When customers make the payments on their
accounts, the money goes directly to the factor. 16. Sometimes companies
sell commercial papers.

Exercise 18.  Listening.

A. Before listening read the summary which explains what open market
operations are. Try to complete the gaps with your own words.

The government can create (1) shortages of money for commercial


banks by (2) selling securities. Securities are a way to (3) lend money
to the government at an agreed rate of interest. This is what is known
as open market operations. When people buy securities the money
supply (4) decreases. This causes (5) shortages in the commercial
banks’ (6) reserve accounts, so they have to (7) borrow money from
the central bank.

B. Listen and check your answers.

Tapescript

So how can the government make sure that commercial banks have a
shortage of cash at the end of each day? One way is for the government to
sell something that's very expensive. When the government sells
something, the people or companies that buy it will take large amounts of

190
money out of their commercial bank accounts and give it to the
government.
So what does the government have to sell? Well, it sells securities.
Securities are a way to lend money to the government. When you buy a
security, the government promises to pay you back after a certain time,
perhaps a year, and with an agreed rate of interest.
The selling and buying of government securities are called 'open market
operations'. As a result of these open market operations, the money supply
will decrease, and the banks will have less money in their reserve
accounts. In other words, they will have a shortage of cash and they will
have to borrow from the central bank.

Exercise 19. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form

1. Our company (established) an effective system for recording financial


transactions last year.
2. The financial manager (obtained) the needed funds for the next year
yesterday.
3. The financial officer (found) sources of the funds for his company last
week.
4. The corporation (determined) its overall needs for the next period of
time this morning.
5. The Board of Directors (worked out) a system of financial control to
back up the company yesterday.
6. Last year most successful firms (used) new promising steps in planning
and controlling their finances.
7. I though that you (arrived) at some decision.
8. I believed that a long term loan (was) absolutely necessary for that
program.
9. They said they (worked) seven hours a day.
10. Did he say that there (were) a lot of problems with this agreement?
11. Did he find out that a commercial loan (was) for a smaller amount that
his business (had wanted)?
12. I was sure that the bank (had arranged) a line of credit for our
corporation.
13. She discovered that LTC corporation (used) both loans and bonds for
long term financing.
14. The manager said that we (needed) to reduce the amount of corporate
income tax.
15.I hoped that the bond (was) backed up by some collateral.

191
Exercise 20. Substitute.

Statement: When the company wants to borrow a large amount of money


or has an unsatisfactory credit rating, it pledges collateral to
back up the loan.

Example: When the firm wants to borrow a large amount of money or


has an unsatisfactory credit rating, it pledges collateral to back
up the loan.

sum cash puts up


needs credit obtain
is known for if big
bad financial reputation
some of its support capital

Possible variant:

If the firm needs to get financial support or it has bad reputation, it


pledges collateral to back up the loan.

Exercise 21. Study the following and fulfill the exercise.

1. Direct speech: The customer said, "My business is


running out of cash."
Indirect speech: The customer said that his business was
running out of cash.
2. Direct speech: The manager said, "We usually sell on
credit."
Indirect speech: The manager said that they usually sold
on credit.
3. Direct speech: The banker said, "We have just signed a
contract."
Indirect speech: The banker said that they had just signed
a contract.
4. Direct speech: The buyer said, "I bought a large amount
from you but it didn't work."
Indirect speech: The buyer said that he had bought a large
amount from me but it hadn't worked.

192
Change the direct speech into indirect speech.

1. The manager said that they hadn't made the necessary arrangements
yet.
2. The retailer said that you could buy machinery and tools on an open
account.
3. The customer said that he had bought a new car at the shop and that it
needed repair.
4. The banker said that he was opening a credit account for us.
5. The businessman said that as a rule, they sold their goods abroad.
6. The manager said that they hadn't raised enough money to expand.
7. The wholesaler said that he had sold a large amount of tools to retailer'
shops but they were not paying him in due time.

Exercise 22. Read the dialogue.


A. Before reading the dialogue study Words and phrases. Ask Ss how
they recommend to solve the problem which is covered in the dialogue.

A company is about to launch an expensive program while its revenues


are too small to cover the expenses. The manager is consulting with his
financial adviser.

B. Read the dialogue in pairs.

Exercise 23. Make up dialogues of your own.

Work in group and make up dialogues according to the following topics:

1. Your company is planning to construct a new building that would


take up lots of money.
2. A bondholder is talking to the manager of the company about the
advantages of bonds.

193
UNIT 3

STOCK

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things connected
with the Stock Market and make collective mind map (spidergram) on the board
as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out the aspects of
the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is that Ss do not think in an ordered
or linear way, but rather explore a topic by moving between its various aspects.
The next stage in this procedure is discussing the questions connected with
stock, bonds and securities.
This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 3.

Exercise 1. Read and learn the pronunciation.

Exercise 2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

T. comments on pronunciation of the words. Pay special attention to the


word stresses and elicit all the mistakes connected with mispronunciation
of the sounds by reading the words aloud.

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions.

1. Where are securities bought and sold? – Securities are bought and sold
at two types of securities markets: primary markets and secondary
markets.
2. What is the difference between primary markets and secondary
markets? – Primary markets issue new securities, and secondary
markets buy and sell previously issued securities.
3. Who does a company negotiate with if it wants to issue stock? – It
usually negotiates with an investment bank, or underwriter, who sells
the securities for it.
4. What does an underwriter usually do? – The underwriter buys the
securities from the corporation and resells then to individual investors
through the secondary market.
5. What is the main purpose of securities exchanges? – Securities
exchanges have been developed to make the buying and selling of
securities easier.
6. Who are the participants of securities exchanges? – The securities
exchanges consist of the individual investors, brokers, and
intermediaries who deal in the purchase and sale of securities.

194
7. Do the exchanges buy or sell securities? – Securities exchanges do not
buy or sell securities; they simply provide the location and services for
the brokers who buy and sell.
8. Who are stock transactions handled by? – Stock transactions are
handled by a stockbroker.
9. What do stockbrokers receive from clients? – Securities and fee for
successful transaction.
10.What is the first thing you do to become a broker? – You should
purchase a “seat” which is a membership in the securities exchange.
11.What does the member do when a stockbroker calls in an order to
sell? – The member representing the broker looks for a buyer at the
price requested.
12.What is the largest stock exchange in the USA? – New York Stock
Exchange (NYSE) or "Big Board".
13.How many seats are there on the "Big Board"? – There are 1,300 seats.
14.What requirements does a firm have to meet in order to be on the
NYSE?
– Pretax earnings of at least $2.5 million in the previous year.
– Tangible assets of at least $16 million.
– At least 1 million shares of stock publicly held, and others.
15.What are the major differences between the NYSE and AMEX? –
AMEX operates in much the same way as NYSE, but smaller
companies may qualify for listing.
16.What is OTC and how many brokers participate in it? – The over the
counter market. About 5,000 brokers.
17. Where are options bought and sold in the USA? – Options are traded
on the major stock exchanges, but also on a special market for options,
the Chicago Bond Options Exchange (СВОЕ).

Exercise 5. Substitute.

Statement: Exchanges are simply auctions where investors get together


to bid for stocks and bonds.
Example: Exchanges are simply places where investors get together to
bid for stocks and bonds.

security markets gather


trade securities
just businessmen

195
Possible variant:

Security markets are just trades where businessmen gather to bid for
securities.

Exercise 6. Transform the sentences according to the model.

Model: Securities exchanges provide the location for the brokers.


The location for the brokers is provided by securities exchanges.

1. Securities markets buy and sell securities. – The securities are bought
and sold at the securities markets.
2. The company issues new stock through an underwriter. – New stock is
issued by the company through an underwriter.
3. The exchanges trade listed corporation securities only. – Corporation
securities are only listed by the exchanges trade.
4. Several underwriters form an underwriting syndicate. – An
underwriting syndicate is formed by several underwriters.
5. The underwriter buys securities from the corporations. – Securities are
bought from the corporations by the underwriter.
6. The individual used to sell stocks over the counter originally. – Stocks
are originally used to be sold over the counter by the individual.
7. The National Association of Security Dealers developed the
computerized communications system NASDAQ (National
Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) in the early
1970s. – The computerized communications system NASDAQ was
developed in the early 1970s by the National Association of Security
Dealers.
8. NASDAQ ties the OTC market together in one vast electronic stock
market. – OTC market is tied together in one vast electronic stock
market by NASDAQ.
9. The individuals trade the majority of stocks in a true bid auction. –
Stocks are traded in a true bid auction by the individuals.

Exercise 7. Read the dialogue.

John Simpson is talking to his friend, Martin Walker, about his progress in
business.

196
Before reading the dialogue, study Words and expressions. Read the
dialogue in pairs.

Exercise 8. Make up dialogues of your own.

Work in group and make up dialogues according to the following topics:

1. You employ a broker to commit business transactions for you.


2. Your firm doesn't meet either NYSE or AMEX requirements so you
come into contact with one of the OTC brokers to discuss the
possibilities of cooperation.
3. Your computer is out of order. Contact your broker and discuss the
situation.

Exercise 9. Transform the following sentences according to the model.

Model: – We can do it.


– It can be done.

1. They must introduce telecommunication on the OTC market. –


Telecommunication on the OTC market must be introduced.
2. We can't trade unlisted securities. – Unlisted securities can’t be traded.
3. We should buy and sell unlisted stocks and bonds by phone. – Unlisted
stocks and bonds should be bought and sold by phone.
4. I have to pay special attention to the major security markets of the
world. – Major security markets of the world have to be paid special
attention.
5. They ought to close trading at the Tokyo exchange. – Trading at the
Tokyo exchange ought to be closed.
6. We must replace face to face buying and selling of securities by
telecommunication. – Face to face buying and selling of securities
must be replaced by telecommunication.
7. We must watch the foreign exchange closely. – The foreign exchange
must be watched closely.
8. We should keep customers up to date on the latest prices. – Customers
should be kept up to date on the latest prices.
9. We have to look through the NASDAQ national market quotations in
the daily stock sections of national newspapers. – The NASDAQ
national market quotations have to be looked through in the daily stock
sections of national newspapers.

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10.I should have my stock listed on regional and national exchanges. –
My stock should have been listed on regional and national exchanges.

Exercise 10. Translate into English.

1. Securities are bought and sold at primary and secondary markets. 2. If a


company wants to issue new stock, it usually negotiates with an
investment bank, or underwriter. 3. The underwriter buys the securities
from the corporation and resells then to individual investors through the
secondary market. 4. Securities exchanges make the buying and selling of
securities easier. 5. The securities exchanges consist of the individual
investors, brokers, and intermediaries who deal in the purchase and sale of
securities. 6. Stock transactions are handled by a stockbroker.
7. Stockbrokers receive a fee. 8. Stockbrokers act on the clients' orders.
9. To trade on the exchange, a "seat" must be purchased by the broker.
10. The members represent stockbrokers. 11. The largest and best known
exchange in the USA is the New York Stock Exchange (the "Big Board").
12. In order to be listed on the exchange, a firm has to meet some
requirements. 13. American Stock Exchange has about 500 full members
and 400 associate members. 14. The over the counter market sells and
buys unlisted securities. 15. The prices of the securities are established by
supply and demand. 16. Options are traded on the major stock exchanges,
but also on a special market for options in Chicago.

Exercise 11. Read the following text.

Before reading the text, study Words and expressions below.


While reading, help Ss with difficult extracts explaining and translating
some words, if necessary. Ask different Ss to read and translate.

Exercise 12. Answer the following questions.

1. How does the trading of stocks begin? – Trading stock begins with an
investor placing an order, that is informing the stockbroker as to what
stock and how much he wants the broker to buy or sell.
2. What is a market order? – An order to buy or sell stock at the best
possible price at the present time is called a market order.
3. Who does the broker convey the market order to? – The broker
conveys the order to an exchange member on the trading floor, who
attempts to get a better price for the buyer by offering a little less.

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4. What is a limit order? – Limit order specifies the highest or lowest
price at which the broker may buy or sell.
5. What is an open order? – Open order instructs the broker to leave the
order on the books until it is executed or canceled.
6. What is a discretionary order? – Discretionary order allows the broker
to exercise judgment in making money.
7. What is an odd lot and how does it differ from a round lot? – An odd
lot is any number of shares less than 100. One hundred shares
comprises a round lot.
8. What is a block sale? – A purchase of 10,000 shares is sometimes
called a block sale.
9. What is margin trading and how is the margin trading regulated? –
Sometimes investors pay less than the full amount when they buy
stock. This is called margin trading. The FRS determines the minimum
margin required.
10.What does a broker do to protect his interests in case the stock falls
down in price? – If the stocks were to plummet, the broker would call
the investor and request that he put up more money or have the stock
sold.
11.What is a bull market? – Active buyers of stock are called bulls. They
believe that the prices of stocks are going to rise. During the mid
1980s, the US witnessed a very long bull market.
12.What is a bear market? – A bear is an investor who makes a profit
when the prices are going to fall.
13.What is the selling short procedure? – Selling short is a high risk
strategy which bears use in order to do that. They sell borrowed stock
in the hope of later buying it on the open market at a lower price.
14.What is a put option? – A put option grants the owner the right to sell a
security.
15.What is a call option? – A call option grants its owner the right to buy
a certain amount of stock at a predetermined price within a fixed
period of time.
Exercise 13. Change the following sentences according to the example.

Example: If an investor wants to keep the order on the books, she can
issue an open order.
If an investor wanted to keep the order on the books, she could
issue an open order.

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1. If the investor wants to sell or buy at the current price, he can issue a
market order. – If the investor wanted to sell or buy at the current
price, he could issue a market order.
2. If someone sells at the offered price, the broker will settle the
transaction. – If someone sold at the offered price, the broker would
settle the transaction.
3. If the investor specifies the highest price at which the broker may buy,
the broker will commit to the deal. – If the investor specified the
highest price at which the broker may buy, the broker would commit to
the deal.
4. If the investor pays the ten percent commission, the broker will work
harder. – If the investor paid the ten percent commission, the broker
would work harder.
5. If the investor absconds with the funds, the broker will go bankrupt. –
If the investor absconded with the funds, the broker would go
bankrupt.

Exercise 14. Translate into English.

1. Trading stock begins with an investor placing an order that is informing


the stockbroker as to what stock and how much he wants the broker to buy
or sell. 2. The broker conveys the order to buy or sell to an exchange
member on the trading floor, who attempts to get a better price for the
buyer. 3. The final sale will then be relayed to the broker who placed the
order. 4. The investor relays the order to the broker limited the highest at
which the broker may buy a stock. 5. Sometimes the investor might give a
discretionary order which allows the broker to exercise judgment in
making money. 6. The FRS determines the minimum margin required.
7. Fearing that the investor might abscond with the funds, the broker
keeps stock certificates. 8. Active buyers of stock are called “bulls”, active
sellers – “bears”. 9. Options are contracts that allow an investor to either
buy or sell a security at a predetermined price within a certain time.

Exercise 15.  Listening.

You’re going to hear someone talking about the foreign exchange


markets. As you listen, complete the notes:

Other names: (1)………… (2)…………


Main trading centres: (3)………… (4)………… (5)…………
Most traded currencies: (6)………... (7)………… (8)…………

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Amount traded daily: (9)…………
Trading hours: (10)…………
Main traders: (11)………… (12)………… (13)…………
(14)………...

Tapescript

The foreign exchange market, which is also called the Forex or FX


market, is where the world's currencies – dollars, yen, euros and so many
others – are bought and sold.
Of course, there isn't only one place where this happens. Currencies are
exchanged over the counter in thousands of banks and exchange centres
all over the world. However, there are three very important places where
the big money moves: New York, London and Tokyo. And it's no surprise
that amongst the world's most traded currencies are the dollar, the pound
and the yen. The Forex market is the biggest market in the world. And it
really is huge. The amounts of money that are traded every day are simply
impossible to understand. Daily, some 2.9 trillion dollars worth of
currencies are traded around the world. And the buying and selling never
stops. When trading finishes in Tokyo, it's just beginning in London. This
means that trading goes on 24 hours a day. But who is doing all the
dealing? There are four main traders. The first and most important are
central banks. Then come the commercial banks – these are the high street
banks that we use to save our money. Large companies also buy foreign
currencies to help them make investments or large purchases. Finally,
there are speculators. These are companies which simply make money by
selling money.

Answers:
(1) Forex, (2) FX market, (3) New York, (4) London, (5) Tokyo, (6)
dollar, (7) pound (sterling), (8) yen, (9) 2.9 trillion, (10) 24 hours a day,
(11) central banks, (12) commercial banks, (13) large companies, (14)
speculators

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Exercise 16. Study the fig.1 and make a report about Stock Market and
Over-the-Counter Quotations.

This task is recommended to be given as a home task. Ask Ss to make a


kind of presentation report about Stock Market and Over-the-Counter
Quotations.

Exercise 17. Read the text.

Before reading the text, study Words and expressions below.

Exercise 18. Answer the following questions.

1. What reason do investors buy stock for? – Investors buy stock for
one simple reason: to make money.
2. What is the surest way to make money in the stock market? – The
surest way to earn money from investing is to create as diverse a
portfolio as possible and hang on to it for a long time.
3. What do investors need in order to succeed at making money? – To
succeed at making money investors need good sources of infor-
mation.
4. Who supplies information about the market? – Much information is
supplied by stockbrokers.
5. Where do the stockbrokers obtain information from? – They study
market reports and get information on the forecasted financial
performance of companies.
6. What do stockbrokers charge for information? – Brokers usually
recommend opportunities or provide special services such as
newsletters. For this brokers charge additional fees.
7. What do investors do if they want to avoid brokerage fees? –
Sometimes investors prefer to avoid high brokerage fees. They
implement their own investment strategy.
8. What is the serious investors' approach to studying the market? –
Serious investors subscribe to investment newsletters and carefully
study the stock market.
9. What is the simplest investment strategy? – A simpler investment
strategy is to choose some reliable blue chip stocks and stick to them.
10.What are common mistakes usually made by investors? – Investors
should avoid making common mistakes which are: 1) failure to
diversify, 2) paying too much for a stock which would not go up,

202
3) not knowing when to sell a stock going down, 4) paying too much
attention to rumors and tips.
11.What is the fundamental market analysis? – Most investors begin
with fundamental analysis, which is the process of comparing a
company's current financial position and future prospects with those
of other firms in the same or different industries.
12.How do the "chartists" predict stock's behavior? – Some investors
usually called "chartists" try to identify a specific stock's behavior
charting it over time and then predicting its future price movement.
13.What is a "random walk theory"? – The random walk theory is based
on the assumption that future stock prices are independent of past
stock prices.
14.What is contrarianism based upon theoretically? – A group of
investors has adopted an unusual approach, contrarianism, which
holds that the market will move in the direction opposite to that
predicted by the general public. In other words, these investors do the
opposite of what the general public does.

Exercise 19. Read the dialogue.

Lorna McCourt, a stockbroker, is consulting with Brian Lowman, an


investor in IBM

Before reading the dialogue, study Words and expressions. Read the
dialogue in pairs.

Exercise 20. Make up dialogues of your own.

Work in group and make up dialogues according to the following topics:

You consult a broker about possible mistakes in the investment policy in


order to avoid them. Choose between major techniques of predicting stock
market activity

Exercise 21. Translate into English.

1. The surest way to earn money at the stock market is to create as diverse
a portfolio. 2. To succeed at making money investors need good sources
of information. 3. Stockbrokers study market reports and get information
on the forecasted financial performance of companies. 4. Brokers charge
additional fees for newsletters. 5. If investors prefer to avoid high

203
brokerage fees, they implement their own investment strategy. 6. Most of
investors become an expert in a particular industry. 7. A simpler
investment strategy is to choose some reliable “blue chip”. 8. Major
mistakes of investors are: failure to diversify, paying too much attention to
rumors and tips, not knowing when to sell a stock going down. 9. Serious
investors begin with fundamental market analysis. 10. They compare
different company's current financial position in different industries.
11. "Chartists" try to identify a specific stock's behavior. 12. Other
investors choose stocks randomly.

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UNIT 4

THE ECONOMY OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with the Petroleum Industry and make collective mind map
(spidergram) on the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see
how T. draws out the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is
that Ss do not think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by
moving between its various aspects.
The next stage in this procedure is discussing the questions connected with
Russian petroleum industry.
This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 4.

Exercise 1. Read and learn the pronunciation.

Exercise 2. Pay attention to the stress in the following words.

T. comments on pronunciation of the words. Pay special attention to the


word stresses and elicit all the mistakes connected with mispronunciation
of the sounds by reading the words aloud.

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions.

1. How does Russia carry out a policy of search and exploration of oil
and gas fields? – Russia has been carrying out a persistent policy of
search and exploration of oil and gas fields in accordance with the
long-term interests of the national economy.
2. How much liquid hydrocarbons and gas have been extracted so far? –
Already 15 bln MT of liquid hydrocarbons and 12 trln m3 of gas have
been extracted from the depths.
3. How many oil and gas deposits are found in Russia? – At the moment
about 3000 oil and gas deposits are to be found in Russia.
4. What are the main centres of oil and gas industry? – Western Siberia
and the Urals-Volga region are the main centres of oil and gas
industry.
5. How is oil and gas extraction regulated? – The rules of depths usage
were stipulated by federal laws "On depths", "On production division
agreements", "On continental shelf of the Russian Federation",
Regulation on the procedure of issuing licenses for depths use and
several other federal, territorial and ministerial regulations.

205
6. How long can the license for geological research be valid? – The right
to use the depths can be rendered on the base of a license for
geological research of the depths for 5 years.
7. In what way can economical difficulties be solved in oil and gas
industry? – It can be generally stated that despite prolonged activity of
the oil and gas production industries and economical difficulties in the
last years there are large reserves of hydrocarbon raw materials. The
raw materials are of different qualities and unevenly distributed,
unevenly worked out and still there are considerable geological and
technological possibilities to improve production of oil and gas.
8. What are the main components of a long-term strategy of oil and gas
complex development? – Objective evaluation of presence in the
depths of Russia of large profitable oil and gas resources as well as
economical, technical, social, political and ecological factors form the
bases of a long-term strategy of development of the Russian oil and gas
complex.
9. What makes Russia attractive for foreign investments? – Russia has a
large potential of unexplored oil, gas and condensate resources.
10.Is Russia open for international cooperation? Prove it using
information from the text and your general knowledge. – Russian
economic importance is extremely high and will increase considerably
in the future along with increases of energy consumption in Russia and
in the world. This opens the way for different forms of large
international projects in the sphere of geological exploration of oil and
gas fields in Russia. The projects may be of different term and
investment share of foreign companies. Russia is interested to make
this co-operation stable and long-term.

Exercise 5. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. F – Russian oil and gas resources are almost exhausted.


2. T
3. F – There is only one federal law regulating the rules of depths usage.
4. F – The raw materials are very similar all over the country.
5. T

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences.

1. The gas-production industry has more resources than that of oil-


production.
2. The amount of investments can be as great as 60 bln USD.

206
3. Most oil resources are to be found in Russia.
4. 74 % of gas is located in the Yamalo-Nenetskii autonomous region.
5. Exploration and production of hydrocarbons are carried out on the
basis of long-term interests.
6. With technical and technological modernization of oil and gas deposits
it is possible to improve production of oil and gas.
7. A long-term strategy of oil and gas complex development is based on
objective evaluation of large profitable oil and gas resources as well as
economical, technical, social, political and ecological factors.
8. Worldwide increase of energy consumption opens the ways of oil, gas
and condensate resources exploration in Russia.

Exercise 7. Talking Point.

a) Think and say. Do you find the speech of the Minister optimistic? Pick
out some facts and prove that the future of oil and gas industry is
favourable.
If you don’t share the optimism of B.A. Yaskevich, explain why. What
are the negative effects of oil and gas production?
b) Pair work.
You are a foreign journalist of “The Economist”, Mr. Yaskevich is
giving a press conference. Ask him questions about oil and gas
development prospects in Russia.

Exercise 8. Discuss the following questions before reading the text.

Before discussion and text reading it is recommended to look through the


Words and expressions.

1. Are the USA rich in oil and gas? Where are oil and gas extracted?
(name some regions) What American oil and gas companies have you
heard of?
2. What kinds of oil and gas companies do you know? (according to their
main activities)

Special terms:

flooding – заводнение (пласта)


mature – зрелый
mature production – поздняя стадия разработки месторождений
overhead – накладные (общие) расходы производства

207
to exploit – эксплуатировать, разрабатывать месторождения
to deplete – истощать, исчерпывать (запасы), хищнически
эксплуатировать

Now try to guess the meaning of the terms “the exploitationist” and “the
depletionist” in reference to oil companies.

“the exploitationist” – companies which have the prime aim to explore the
field and to get much profit by applying modern and expensive
technologies in order to aviod risk connected with oil field development.

“the depletionist” – has virtually no technical staff. He is able to operate


wells much cheaper than either the major oil companies or the
exploitationist. The depletionist is risk-averse.

Exercise 9. Comprehension check.

– Did you find the explanation of the terms “the exploitationist”, “the
depletionist” in the text? What were you right/wrong in?
– Can you state the difference between these companies now? Give a
detailed answer. – The exploitationist has a full staff of engineers,
geologists, landmen, and accountants. He is familiar with and has
participated in most of the new technology: 3D seismic, horizontal
drilling, CO2 flooding, and so forth. In addition, he is capable of drilling
wells very cheaply and has very low overhead. I like to think that my
company, Henry Petroleum Corp., is an exploitationist. The
exploitationist is willing to take some risks but does very little pure
exploration.

The second type of company, the depletionist, is much different from the
exploitationist. A depletionist has virtually no technical staff. With his
low overhead he is able to operate wells much cheaper than either the
major oil companies or the exploitationist. He will nurse wells along and
pay close attention to them but does not have the technical staff to
operate waterfloods and CO2 floods or to conduct 3D seismic. The
depletionist is risk-averse. Independent operators must decide whether
they will be exploitationists or depletionists. There is little room for
compromise between the types. You can be either an exploitationist with
a large technical staff or a depletionist with very little, if any, technical
staff; you can’t be both.

208
Exercise 10. Answer the following questions.

1. What stage in the production life of its petroleum resource has the U.S.
reached? – The trends reflect the advanced stage that the U.S. has
reached in the production cycle of its petroleum resource.
2. Why have major oil companies sold off their properties? – Major oil
companies have sold off many of their low-return properties and
shifted their financial resources and human resources to core
properties.
3. How do independent companies appear? – The operating divisions of
major oil companies in the U.S. are becoming more like independents.
Independents are filling the void left by major oil companies.
4. What kind of independents are they? – These independents are either
exploitationists or depletionists.
5. What are the three ages in the life of U.S. oil industry? – The first,
exploration. The stage coinciding with the middle age is exploitation.
The depletion stage.
6. What kind of companies prefer to work during the first exploration
stage? Why? – This stage favors the major oil companies, with their
vast financial and human resources. The main players are geologists
and geophysicists. During this stage, large risks are taken.
7. What specialists do the companies mainly need during the second
exploitation stage? Why? – Again, it favors the major oil companies
because they own the large fields and have the financial and human
resources to install and operate large waterfloods. The principal players
in this stage are engineers.
8. Why does the author call the third depletion stage a stage of
innovation? – Depletion is a stage of innovation, where many ways are
found to do things cheaper and more efficiently. During this stage we
see the widespread application of new technology such as 3D seismic,
horizontal drilling, and СО2 flooding.
9. What companies operate during depletion stage? – Depletion favors
independents, with their much lower overhead. And it favors two types
of independents: the exploitationist and the depletionist.
10.In your opinion, what companies get the greatest profit? – The
exploitationist has a full staff of engineers, geologists, landmen, and
accountants. He is familiar with and has participated in most of the
new technology: 3D seismic, horizontal drilling, CO2 flooding, and so
forth. In addition, he is capable of drilling wells very cheaply and has
very low overhead.

209
Exercise 11. Translate into English.

1. The production life of the field has three stages.


2. Major oil companies have vast resources.
3. Major oil companies take large risk at the stage of field discovering.
4. Economic risk at the exploitation stage is not as large as at the stage of
exploration.
5. Independent companies are looking for much cheaper and more
effective ways of field exploitations.
6. Independent companies have lower production costs than major oil
companies do.

Exercise 12. Give English equivalents to the following words and phrases
from the text.

Пользоваться преимуществом чего-то – to take advantage of,


переводить активы – to shift assets, нефтедобывающие страны – oil
producing country, деловая практика – business practice,
производственный цикл – production cycle, широкое применение
новых технологий – vast application of new technologies, трехмерные
сейсмические исследования – 3D seismic research, горизонтальное
бурение – horizontal drilling, технический персонал – technical staff.

Exercise 13. Think of the nouns from the text which can be used with these
verbs. Make up some sentences.

ex: to change – to change trends.


Major trends of business in oil and gas industry are changing.

To take advantage of, to reach, to sell, to shift, to divide, to favor, to take,


to waterflood, to find, to apply, to participate in, to conduct, to pay
attention to.

210
Exercise 14. Quick reading.

Before discussion and text reading it is recommended to look through the


Words and expressions.

You may need some terms to grasp the main ideas of the text.

E&P spending (spending on exploration and production) – затраты на


поиск и добычу
to overspend – потратить больше, чем было запланировано
a survey – опрос, обследование, обзор
growth rate – темп роста

Questions

1. What is the main tendency of global exploration and production


spending? – After “extremely strong growths” of 20 % in 2005 and
30 % in 2006, global exploration and production spending is expected
to rise slower: rate of 9 % to $300 billion in 2007.
2. Will growth rate be quicker or slower in 2007 as compared to that one
in 2005 and 2006? – Slower.
3. Who made E&P Spending Survey? – analysts at Lehman Bros. Inc.,
New York.
4. Does Canada keep to this growth tendency? – Canadian spending will
be down 8 % next year however, compared with a 19 % increase in
2006.
5. What companies will have the largest spending growth? – National oil
companies will lead the 2007 increase in international spending with
the largest spending growth among the Russian companies.
6. What companies showed insignificant change in E&P spending? –
Anadarko, Cabot Oil&Gas Marathon Oil Corp., Newfield Exploration
Co., and Plains Exploration & Production Co.
7. Why will US E&P expenditures slow down in 2007? – The surveyed
companies plan a substantial slowdown in the growth rate of their US
E&P expenditures in 2007 due to concerns about cash flow and
perception of lower gas prices.
8. What is the expected oil price range? – Over half view the longterm
real price, of oil at $ 50–70/bbl, with half expecting the price to be
$ 50–70/bbl for the long term and half expecting crude to be
$ 60–70/bbl.

211
Exercise 15. Talking Point.

Imagine that you are an oil and gas analyst. Prepare a short report on the
problems and perspectives in oil and gas industry development.

It is recommended to give this exercise for the home task. Ask Ss to


choose any oil company and make presentation on problems and
perspectives of its development.

Exercise 16.  Listening.

A. Discuss the following with your partner


An embargo happens when a country stops trading with another. In
1973, there was an embargo on oil. What effects do you think this had
on the world’s economies?

B. Listen and complete the notes

1. After …………, industrial nations enjoyed economic growth.


2. They used huge amounts of ………….
3. A lot of oil came from countries in the ………….
4. The embargo began on the …………, 1973.
5. Prices of oil rose to …………times higher than before.
6. The New York Stock Exchange lost …………dollars in a few
weeks.
7. The embargo ended in ………….

Tapescript

One of the most dramatic supply shocks in the history of economics was
the 1973 Oil crisis. After the end of the Second World War the world's
industrial nations enjoyed steady economic growth. This growth was
possible through using huge amounts of energy, and in particular the use
of oil. Much of this oil came from poorer countries, such as the Arab na-
tions of the Middle East.
On 17th October, 1973 the Arab nations stopped supplying oil to the
West. This was because of the West's support for Israel in the Arab-Israeli
war that was happening at this time. At the same time, the Arab nations
raised the price of the oil they sold to the rest of the world. Within a few

212
months, the price was four times higher than it had been before the crisis
began.
The shortage of oil in many western countries, especially the USA, had a
huge effect on the economy. Within a few weeks, the New York Stock
Exchange had lost 597 billion. People were queuing up for petrol at petrol
stations. A recession began and unemployment and inflation both grew.
The embargo lasted until March 1974, less than a year, but its effects on
the world economy lasted until the middle of the 1980s.

Answers:

1. World War 2
2. Energy/oil
3. Middle East
4. 17th October
5. four
6. 97 billion
7. March 1974

Exercise 17. Discuss.

Before doing this exercise study the key words which are given below.

1. What well-know foreign oil and gas companies have you heard of?
Can you give any names? What countries were they set up? What
countries do they operate in?
2. What Russian oil and gas companies do you know? What regions of
the country do they operate in? What are their main activities? Do you
know any facts from their history?

Key words: global energy provider, listed company, shareholder,


petroleum refining, drill bit, down hole tool, joint venture, lubricant, cost-
cutting program, licence, stake, proven reserves.

Exercise 18. Read the text.

It is recommended to read not the whole text at once, but separate


abstracts concerning definite companies. Study Words and expressions
before reading.

213
Exercise 19. Answer the following questions.

1. What spheres does Total operate in? – Total’s operations span the
entire oil and gas chain, from exploration, development and production
to midstream gas, refining and marketing, and crude oil and petroleum
product trading and shipping. Total is also a world-class chemicals
producer, as well as having interests in coal mines, cogeneration and
power generation.
2. Does Total operate only in France? – Operations in more than 130
countries.
3. When was Total created? – in December 31, 2005.
4. What does the abbreviation S.A. (Total S.A.) stand for? – Total S.A. is
a French société anonyme (limited company) created in March 1924.
5. When was Halliburton established? – it was established in 1919.
6. In what way did Halliburton expand? – Halliburton has expanded
through internal growth and acquisition.
7. How many countries does Halliburton operate in? – in over 120
countries.
8. What are the key goals of the company? –
• Technological Leadership
• Operational Excellence
• Innovative Business Relationships
• Dynamic Workforce
9. Can we say that British Petroleum operates worldwide? – The BP
group operates across six continents, and our products and services are
available in more than 100 countries.
10.Does BP form joint ventures in many countries? (Give some
examples). – Yes. In Africa, China, Russia, Canada, Brazil.
11.Where are BP’s corporate headquarters located? – London is where
BP’s corporate headquarters are located.
12.What is TNK-BP? What does the abbreviation TNK stand for? – In
Russia we have an important joint venture through our 50 per cent
ownership of TNK-BP, a major oil company with the majority of its
assets in Russia. Tjumenskaya Neftenaja Compania.
13.What are the major activities of BP? – exploration and production,
pipeline, refining, selling lubricants and other oil products, chemical
plants.
14.How was Rosneft established? – Rosneft was one of the last vertically
integrated oil companies to emerge from the reorganization and large-
scale privatization of Russia’s oil industry in the years following the
dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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15.Was Rosneft a successful company from the start? – Rosneft endured a
series of rapid management changes that undermined the practical
control which successive Moscow-based executives were able to exert
over the Company’s assets. This undermined the coordination between
Rosneft’s various businesses and, thus, did significant harm to the
Company’s overall operational performance with production declining
and the limited utilization of refining capacity throughout the period.
16.Do you consider Rosneft’s growth and expansion very impressive? –
By 2000, Rosneft was again realizing profits. That year also marked
the start of a new period of growth, with average oil production
increases in excess of 11 % annually.
17.How many subsidiaries does Rosneft have? – Rosneft completed the
consolidation of 12 of the Company’s upstream and downstream
subsidiaries.
18.What are the main activities of LUKOIL? – Main activities of the
Company are exploration and production of oil & gas, production of
petroleum products and petrochemicals, and marketing of these
outputs.
19.What were the companies that founded LUKOIL? – The company was
founded by three West-Siberian oil and gas plants:
“Langepasneftegas”, “Urayneftegas” and “Kogalimneftegas”.
20.Does LUKOIL carry out international projects? – LUKOIL is carrying
out international exploration and production projects in Kazakhstan,
Egypt, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Columbia,
Venezuela and Iraq.
21.What is the total capacity of LUKOIL facilities in Russia and abroad?
– Total capacity of LUKOIL facilities in Russia is 41.8 mln tons of oil
per year. LUKOIL also has refineries in Ukraine, Bulgaria, and
Romania, with total capacity of 16.7 mln tons per year.

Exercise 20. Complete the sentences.

1. Rosneft emerged as a result of reorganization and large-scale


privatization of Russia’s oil industry.
2. Bad management coordination did significant harm to the Company’s
overall operational performance.
3. New acquisitions and international operations made Rosneft second
largest oil producer.
4. Easten Siberia is viewed as one of Russia’s most significant new oil
and gas production bases.
5. LUKOIL main resource base is in Western Siberia.

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6. LUKOIL sells its products in 17 countries of the world.
7. LUKOIL has refineries both in Russia and abroad.
8. BP products and services can be found in more than 100 countries.
9. London is the center for BP’s trading, legal, finance and other
mainstream business functions.
10.BP forms a lot of joint ventures in the countries where they operate.
11.The major part of Total’s investors are from France.
12.Halliburton provides services in the energy services and engineering
and construction (E&C) industries.

Exercise 21. There are some abbreviations in the abstracts, given above.
Match each abbreviation with its full version. Then, translate it into
Russian, if possible and try to explain what it means.

1. OJSC a) Open Joint Stock Company


2. PSA b) Production Sharing Agreement
3. LLC c) Limited Liability Company
4. IPO d) Initial Public Offering
5. bcf e) billion cubic feet
6. LNG g) Liquefied Natural Gas
7. DJ h) Dow Jones

Exercise 22.  Listening.

A. Discuss the following with your partner.

Russia is the second largest oil producer in the world. It also produces
huge amounts of natural gas. How many other oil producing nations
can you name?

B. Listen to someone talking about Russia’s oil and gas industry.


Complete the notes with the correct number.

Russia’s gas reserves: (1)………… cubic meters.


Russia’s gas output: (2)……… cubic meters per day.
Russia’s oil reserves: (3) ………barrels.
Russia’s oil output: (4)…………barrels per day.
Proportion of European oil and gas bought from Russia: (5)…………
Proposed pipeline to connect Russia with China and South Korea:
Length of pipeline: (6)………… km.
Cost of proposed pipeline: (7)…………$.

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Tapescript

Russia's reserves of Oil and gas are still not known for sure, but they are
certainly enormous. There are probably 50 trillion cubic metres of gas
hidden under Russian soil, and 600 million cubic metres of gas is piped
out to the world everyday. Along with that, 75 billion barrels of oil are
held in reserve and every day 10 million barrels of oil flow through
Russia's pipelines. But where does it all go? At the moment, most of it
goes west. About a quarter of the oil and gas that Europe consumes comes
from Russia. However, Russia is now beginning to look to customers in
the East. For years, Asian countries have relied on supplies of oil from the
Middle East. Now they are looking for alternatives. Russia is stepping in.
A new pipeline to transfer Russian oil to China and South Korea Is
planned. The pipeline will be some 4.100 km long and will cost about
$6.5 billion to build. However, it will strengthen Russia's position as
energy supplier to the world.

Answers:

1. 50 trillion;
2. 600 million;
3. 75 billion;
4. 10 million;
5. a quarter;
6. 4.100;
7. 6.5 billion.

Exercise 23. Talking point.

a) Imagine that you are a PR representative of one of the oil companies.


You are asked to make a press release about main activities and
historical background of your company.
b) Pair work. You were invited for a job interview. You are an applicant
and talk to an interviewer of an oil company. Find out as much
information as possible.

217
UNIT 5

TAXATION AND AUDIT

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with Taxation and Audit, make collective mind map on the board
as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out the aspects
of the topic.
This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 5.

Discuss.

1. What does the word “tax” mean? – To tax (from the Latin taxo; "I
estimate", which in turn is from tangō; "I touch") is to impose a
financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal
entity) by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure
to pay is punishable by law.

What kind of taxes do you know? There are different types of taxes,
for example: Sales taxes are levied when a commodity is sold to its
final consumer. A capital gains tax is the tax levied on the profit
released upon the sale of a capital asset. In many cases, the amount of a
capital gain is treated as income and subject to the marginal rate of
income tax. Corporate tax refers to a direct tax levied by various
jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations and
often includes capital gains of a company. An income tax is a tax
levied on the financial income of persons, corporations, or other legal
entities.

Where do taxes taken by governments go to? – Taxes go to the


Bursary.

2. Do you think all people should pay equal taxes? Ss offer they own
answers.
How much is income tax in Russia now? The income tax in Russia is
13 % now.
In your opinion, is it fair when oil and gas companies pay taxes on the
usage of natural resources? Ss offer they own answers.

218
Exercise 1. Read the text and do the exercises.

While reading help Ss with difficult extracts, explain and translate some
words if necessary. Ask different Ss to read and translate.

Exercise 2. Think over and answer the questions.

1. Types of taxes are direct or indirect.


2. “Налоги – платежи, взимаемые государством с предприятий и
организаций, населения. Являются одной из форм финансовых
отношений, обеспечивающих распределение и перераспределение
национального дохода в соответствии с задачами экономического
и социального развития”.
“Taxes are payments, levied by the state from enterprises and
organization, population. Taxes are one of the financial relation form,
providing distribution and redistribution of national income according
to economical and social development aims”.

Exercise 3. Determine whether the statements are true or false.

1. F – There are problems with the classification and it is not very useful.
2. F – Thus the incidence, or loss, of an indirect tax is normally shared by
three groups, manufacturer, retailers and wholesalers and final
purchaser.
3. T
4. F – The consensus used to be that an individual tax or the whole
system was equitable if it contained a strong element of progression,
that is the higher income groups paid a larger percentage of their
income in tax than the lower income groups.
5. F – Another principle that is important is that taxes should not distort
the economy to any serious extent unless that is the deliberate intention
as demerit goods are taxed.
6. F – One important application of the principle of non-distortion is that
taxation should not adversely affect the willingness of people to work.

Exercise 4. Talking Point.

T. can offer Ss to pick up one type of tax per person and make up a short
presentation.

219
Exercise 5. Read the article.

While reading, help Ss with difficult extracts explaining and translating


some words, if necessary. Ask different Ss to read and translate.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions.

1. Who is likely to be interested in this information? – Companies,


planning to cooperate with Kazakhstan.
2. Are alterations in tax regime favorable for foreign oil and gas
companies? – No, it is not (The most fundamental change introduced
by the recent amendments is the creation of a completely new tax
which applies to exports of crude oil. The tax will apply to taxpayers
who export crude oil, apart from those who are parties to PSAs.)
3. Is everything clear and well thought over in the new oil tax regime? –
No, it is not. (The new rules provide that the Government may publish
separately, rates for solid minerals, but is completely silent on how the
base for dry gas will be calculated. Presumably, one should apply the
conversion factor specified for associated gas and then apply the
sliding scale for oil, but this is not clearly stated anywhere. There is
also considerable uncertainty about how the sliding scale should
actually be applied).
4. Write out the names of taxes which should be paid by “subsurface
users” according to Model I. Are the same taxes paid according to
Model II? What is different? – According to Model 1 taxes are –
Bonuses, Royalties, Excess Profits Tax and Rent Tax on Export of
Crude Oil. According to Model 2 taxes are Rent Tax on Export of
Crude Oil, Excise Tax on Crude Oil (including gas condensate),
Excess Profits Tax, Land Tax and Property Tax. Difference is that the
Model 1 has less tax to be paid.
5. Find those parts of the text where the author says about some
uncertainties in the new tax application. Comment on them. – See
question 3.
6. Find the conclusion the author made on the economic viability of
projects in Kazakhstan. Do you agree with it? – Author considers that
the project, made by Kazakh government is not worked out properly.
(Which transportation costs are not explained, nor is it indicated
whether these are only the costs incurred by the producer or whether
one can take into account the costs of shipping crude to a location
comparable with one where the benchmark crudes are traded).

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Exercise 7. Quick Reading.

1. Does the first sentence of the text have the same meaning as the title? –
Yes.
2. What problem is discussed? – The problem of diverse fiscal systems,
which make companies work more complicated.
3. Is it a local or a global issue? – Yes, it is.
4. What kinds of fiscal systems are mentioned in the text? – Royalty/tax
systems, contractual systems, production sharing contract, service or
risk service agreements.

Exercise 8. Study the figures below to be able to speak about.

1. The difference between definitions of reserves “booked” (fig. 1) The


main difference is that in the Royalty/tax definition we find “Net-
revenue-interest” as an extra member of the equation, and in the
Production sharing definition, we find that “Government profit oil” is
subtracted from the equation.
2. Classification of petroleum fiscal systems (fig. 2) consists of
concessionary royalty/tax system and contractual system which is
subdivided into service contracts and production sharing contracts.

Exercise 9. Discuss.

Ss share their ideas and information with the other group mates. This task
may be given as a homework, so Ss will be able to find out some
interesting facts.

Exercise 10. Answer the following questions.

1. What do auditors do? – They usually review the financial records of a


company.
2. Audits are planned actions, aren’t they? – Yes, as they are usually
performed at fixed intervals – quarterly, semiannually or annually.
3. What did the presence of an auditor in a company suggest in the
past? – It suggested that a company was having financial difficulties
or that irregularities had been discovered in the records.
4. What is auditors’ duty? – Their duty is to reduce the possibility of
misappropriation, to identify mistakes or detect fraudulent transactions.

221
5. In what form do the auditors make their report? – Auditors make their
reports in written form.
6. What is the difference between internal and independent auditors? –
Internal auditors maintain a continuous internal audit by their own
accounting departments. Independent auditors are employed on a part-
time basis.

Exercise 11. Decide whether the statements are true or false.

1. F – Auditors are usually independent certified accountants who


review the financial records of a company.
2. F – They are usually performed at fixed intervals – quarterly,
semiannually or annually.
3. T
4. T
5. T

Exercise 12. Read the text and find information on:

1. The name of the auditing company – KPMG Limited. The name of the
audited company – ОАО АК Transneft and its subsidiaries.
2. The reason of Transneft’s changing its auditor – because it expressed
an unqualified opinion on those statements.
3. The names of the documents to be complied with while conducting
audit – International Standards on Auditing as issued by the
International Federation of Accountants
4. Characteristics of an emerging market – the existence of a currency
that is not freely convertible in most countries outside the Russian
Federation, restrictive currency controls, and relatively high inflation.

Exercise 13. Translate the terms into Russian.

Assets Активы
Non-current assets Внеоборотные активы
Intangible assets Нематериальные активы
Property, plant and Cобственность, здания и оборудование,
equipment, net недвижимость и оборудование
Investments Капиталовложение
Available-for sale Доступные для продажи
Total non-current assets Суммарные внеоборотные активы

222
Current assets Оборотные активы
Inventories, net Запасы
Receivables and Дебиторская задолженность и
prepayments, net предоплата
VAT assets НДС
Prepaid profit tax Предоплата по налогу на прибыль
Available-for-sale short- Доступные для продажи краткосрочные
term капиталовложения
investments
Cash and cash equivalents Денежные средства и их эквиваленты
Total current assets Суммарные оборотные активы
Total assets Суммарные активы
Shareholders’ Equity, Собственный капитал, доля
Minority меньшинства и денежные обязательства
interests and liabilities
Shareholders’ equity Собственный капитал
Share capital Акционерный капитал
Retained earnings Нераспределенная прибыль
Total shareholders’ equity Суммарный собственный капитал
Minority interests Доля меньшинства
Non-current liabilities Внеоборотные денежные обязательства
Borrowings Займы
Deferred taxes Отложенный налог на прибыль
Provisions for liabilities Резервы на выплаты по обязательствам
and charges и издержки
Total non-current Суммарные внеоборотные денежные
liabilities обязательства
Current liabilities Оборотные денежные обязательства
Trade and other payables Товарооборот и прочие платежи
Profit tax liabilities Обязательства по налогу на прибыль
Borrowings Займы
Total current liabilities Суммарные оборотные денежные
обязательства
Total liabilities Суммарные денежные обязательства
Total shareholders’ Суммарный собственный капитал, доля
equity, minority Interests меньшинства и денежные обязательства
and liabilities

Ask Ss to compare the numbers in the table, comment on them,


according to the following scheme:

223
Analyzing Consolidated Balance sheet derived from the consolidated
financial statements – year ended 31 December 2003 of Transneft
Company, we came to the conclusion that 2003 year is more profitable
than the year 2002, as number of Total assets is more on 52 752 millions
of roubles. Such difference is composed of difference in Total current
assets and Total non-current assets on 16 898 and 35 854 correspondingly.
This may mean that the productive activity is increasing. However
number of receivables and prepayments increased on 44 448 millions of
roubles, this tendency is rather negative and Transneft managers should
take measures to reduce receivables number.

224
UNIT 6

PRODUCTION AND COSTS

Lead-in. Elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things connected
with Production and Costs, make collective mind map on the board as the
ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out the aspects of the
topic. This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 6.

Discuss

1. What types of costs do you know? – There are the following types of
costs: direct and indirect material costs, production costs, etc.
2. Who manages production costs at enterprises? Production costs are
managed by several departments, because as the prices for material, as
salary paid to workers can equally influence production cost.
3. How production costs affect the final cost of the goods? Production
cost affects the final cost of the good a lot, because depending on it,
producer decides how much he would mark up the price.
4. How to reduce production costs? To reduce production cost one should
try to find cheaper materials, to use new technologies, to save
materials, labour of workers. Moreover, one can save production cost
by using new ways of storing and proper integrated products
management.
5. Which production costs prevail in petroleum industry? – Petroleum
industry is resource-demanding and labour-intensive sector.

Exercise 1. Read the text and do the exercises.

While reading, help Ss with difficult extracts explaining and translating


some words, if necessary. Ask different Ss to read and translate.

Exercise 2. Decide whether these statements are True (T) or False (F).

1. F – It deals with the relationship between the factors of production and


the output of goods and services
2. T
3. F – As the number of workers increases, they make better use of their
machinery and resources. This results in increasing returns (or
increasing marginal products) for the first five workers hired.

225
4. F – Keep in mind that whenever an additional worker is added, the
marginal revenue computation remains the same.
5. T

Exercise 3. Study the explanation of special terms.

output (n) the amount of goods or выпуск продукции


services produced by a person,
machine, factory, company,
etc.
input (n) ideas, advice, effort, money вклад
that you put into something to
help it succeed
factor of something that is needed to фактор
production produce a particular product производства
diminishing the idea that a point can be сокращающийся
return reached where the advantage or доход
profit you are getting, stops
increasing in relation to the
effort you are making
marginal (аdj) relating to a change in a cost, предельный,
value, etc. when one more небольшой
thing Is produced, one more
dollar is earned, etc
costs (n) money that a business or an затраты
individual must regularly spend
fixed costs costs to a business that do not постоянные
change when the amount of затраты
goods or services produced
does
incur (v) if you incur a cost, a debt, or a нести, терпеть
fine, you do something that убытки
means that you lose money or
have to pay money
overhead costs costs not directly related to a накладные
particular product or service, расходы
but related to general costs for
buildings, equipment, etc.
interest (n) an amount paid by a borrower доля, участие
to a lender, for example to a

226
bank by someone borrowing
money for a loan or by a bank
to depositor
charges (n) an amount of money paid for расходы
services or goods
rent payment money paid for the use of a арендная плата
house, office, etc.
lease (v) to give somebody the right to брать в аренду
use something for a particular
period of time in return for
payment
depreciation decreasing in value over a обесценивание
(n) period of time
variable costs costs that change when the переменные
amount of something produced расходы
changes
rate of capacity of work done by a норма загрузки
operation company or machine производственных
мощностей
marginal cost the extra cost of producing one предельные
more of something затраты
self-service (n) a self-service shop, restaurant, самообслуживание
etc. is one in which customers
get the goods themselves and
then go and pay for them
lot (n) an area of land on which участок земли
nothing has been built and
which may be available to rent,
or build on
revenue (n) money that a business or доход, выручка
organization receives over a
period of time, especially from
selling goods or services
break-even when a company is neither безубыточный
(adj) making a profit nor a loss

227
Exercise 4. Give English equivalents to the following words and
expressions.

фиксированные затраты – fixed costs


cамообслуживание – self-service
безубыточный – break-even
норма загрузки
производственных мощностей – rate of operation
доход, выручка – profit, income
переменные издержки – variable costs
накладные расходы – overhead costs
износ – deterioration
сокращающийся доход – diminishing return
фактор производства – factor of production

Exercise 5. Choose the appropriate word or expression from the box to


complete the following sentences.

1. Commercial returns have decreased significantly since their peak in


1997.
2. The East Moline foundry has been operating at less than 50 % capacity
and has incurred significant operating losses.
3. The interest is the added output resulting from employing one more
worker.
4. Their retail branches are a leased so the more business they put
through them the better.
5. Delay in construction could increase costs significantly.
6. Chrysler might run out of money to pay fixed cost on its bonds.
7. The proposed site of the factory may lead to depreciation of property
value in the immediate vicinity.
8. The local authority rents him the property.

Exercise 6.  Listening.

A. Discuss the following with your partner


Price in not only the cost of something. Every purchase has a hidden
cost. What do you think this is?

B. You’re going to hear someone talking about another kind of cost


called opportunity cost. Listen and choose the best answer for each
question.

228
1. What is opportunity cost?
a) Something you have to give up in order to have something else.
b) Something a company can charge people for goods or services.
d) Something that companies pay when they first start business.

2. What could be the opportunity cost of watching television?


a) Getting sore eyes.
b) The cost of buying a television.
c) Not sunbathing in the garden.

3. What is the opportunity cost of Alice’s decision?


a) ₤ 3,000
b) ₤ 39,000
c) ₤ 13,000

Tapescript

You can't have everything. That's a fact of life and it's also 3 rule of
economics. If you spend an hour watching television, you might enjoy
yourself. However, you will lose an hour that you could have spent
sunbathing in the garden. The hour lost is an example of what
economists call the ‘opportunity cost’, livery time we buy something,
the total cost to us is the money that we pay, plus the utility value of
something else we could have bought instead. Here's another example.
Alice had a job as a sales assistant in a shop. She earned £13,000 a
year, last year she decided to stop work for three years and study at
university. What will this decision cost her? Well, she has to pay
£1,000 a year for three years for her course. That's £3,000. But that's not
all. She is also giving up her salary for three years. That's an
opportunity cost of £13,000 for three years – £39,000. Of course, she
will also have to rent a flat for three years and pay for her food and
other needs. But these are not opportunity costs. Why? Because she
would have to pay them anyway if she was still working.

Answers:

1. А, 2. С, З. В.

229
Exercise 7. Discussion.

1. Comment on the statement: Profit is maximized when the marginal


costs of production equal the marginal revenue from sales.
2. Explain the use of marginal analysis for break-even and profit-
maximizing decisions.
3. Many oil-processing plants shift workers to maintain operations. How
do you think a plant's fixed and variable costs affect its decision to
operate around the clock?

Exercise 8. Prepare presentation on the following topics.

1 Costs in the petroleum engineering


2 Costs in the oil and gas exploration
3 Costs in the oil and gas transportation
4 Costs in the pipeline constructions

Exercise 9. Read the article and do the exercises.

While reading, help Ss with difficult extracts explaining and translating


some words, if necessary. Ask different Ss to read and translate.

Exercise 10. Answer the questions.

1. What human benefits did Schumacher have in view when he coined


the phrase "small is beautiful"? – As a company adds more people in
more locations the sheer task of holding this lot together becomes an
end in itself. The economic advantages of scale will be eroded by the
disadvantages of a loss of intimacy.
2. Did other economists and industrialists share his opinion? –
Schumacher was largely ignored outside Europe.
3. How did industrialists intend to minimize possible human error or deviance
in a large company? – At the time a prevailing view was that large
companies could be very profitable if structures were crystal clear and
rational. Through these means human error or deviance could be minimized.
4. What other strategy besides controlling size did IBM use to reinvest
itself in 1990s? – IBM did clean out 50 per cent of its workforce – but
controlling size was not the main way the company reinvented itself.
Its most important decision was to offload its entire hardware and
components manufacturing.

230
5. Was outsourcing strategy an efficient measure? – Outsourcing was its
most spectacular strategy.
6. What is the logic of this strategy? – The logic of outsourcing is that by
shedding assets companies can concentrate on the interesting work.
Employees are remotivated to develop product or services, discover
solutions and be innovators or supply chain integrators.

Exercise 11. Put the sentences in the logical order.

A___ In the 1970s the British economist E. F. Schumacher coined the


phrase "small is beautiful.
B___ Schumacher was largely ignored outside Europe
C___ Yet the IBM staff still believed that creative, structural solutions
would save the day.
D___ Outsourcing was its most spectacular strategy.
E___ First, by outsourcing manufacturing IBM made possible a massive
strategic shift.
F___ They rightly question the general assumption that outsourcing is
always best.
G___ Small in this sense is beautiful.

Exercise 12. Match up the words and definitions.

1) economies of scale; h) spread over a great distance;


2) to erode; e) to wear or to be worn away gradually, esp. by
slow action of water, wind, etc.;
3) deviance; a) something that is different from what is
socially acceptable;
4) exponent; b) a person who expresses support, performs, or
is an example of a stated thing;
5) outsourcing; f) if a company, organization, etc. employs
another company to do a part of its contract;
6) to outperform; d) to perform better than anyone else;
7) far-flung; c) the advantages that a big factory, shop, etc.
has over a smaller one because it can spread its
fixed costs over a larger number of units and
therefore produce or sell things more cheaply;
8) ambiguity. g) a situation, when there is more than one
possible meaning or interpretation; unclear.

231
Exercise 13. Translate into English.

Essence and structure of production costs

Production of any good is connected with definite costs. Material


resources costs, monetary funds’ costs, which producers incur on goods
production, are called production costs.
As in market economics the main aim of producer is to gain profit,
production costs, as one of its restraint, is always at the center of
producer’s attention.
One should distinguish the following production costs:
a) Direct and indirect;
b) External and internal;
c) Fixed and variable;
d) Short-term and long-term.

Direct costs are costs on output of products, which producer incurs.


In economic theory they are called “cost price”.
They are composed of the following elements at the factories with hired
workforce:
• Raw material and basic and subsidiary materials;
• Fuel and energy;
• Amortization;
• Salary and payments to social insurance;
• Other costs.

State incurs indirect costs on output of production. These are costs on


education, medicine, sport (financing by state) and etc. As a rule, these
costs provide workforce production on qualitatively new basis and create
conditions for normal production functioning. The main source of
cancellation of these costs is surplus produce, incurred by the state in the
form of taxes and obligatory payment. That is why it is not prime cost to
be primary in goods and services price, but social costs on output of
production.

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UNIT 7

BUSINESS PLAN

Lead-in. Elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things connected
with Business plan, its organization, functions, make collective mind map on
the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out
the aspects of the topic.
The next stage in this procedure is discussing of Business plan usage and
benefit. T. May divide Ss into groups and discussion can be organized.
This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 7.

Exercise 1. Read the text and comment on the principles of a Business Plan.

While reading, help Ss with difficult extracts explaining and translating


some words, if necessary. Ask to read and translate different Ss.

Exercise 2. Study the example of the Engineering Consulting Business


Plan.

Exercise 3. Using the information from Business Plan fulfill the following
tasks.

1. Create a company and imagine the sphere of your business. Make a


business plan summary pointing out the principles of your activity and
urgency of your business.

It is important to indicate the main point in the Business plan structure,


and to highlight the variation of structure, depending on the company’s
features.

2. Make a Power Point presentation of your business plan.

Make sure, Ss are aware of Power Point techniques (if not – give some
tips), specialize the presentation size.

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UNIT 8

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ETIQUETTE AND ETHICS

Lead-in. Elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things connected
with International business etiquette and ethics, make collective mind map
(spidergram) on the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see
how T. draws out the aspects of the topic. Discuss each point in detail.
Ask Ss to give examples of business etiquette they are familiar with, ask
about the difference between polite and rude behaviour. This activity will
prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 8.

Exercise 1. Read the text and fulfill the exercises.

Start reading and translating the text, ask different Ss to read short
paragraph.

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions.

1. What is business etiquette? – It is in essence about building


relationships with people and a means of maximizing your business
potential.
2. What role does a comfort zone play? – If you feel comfortable around
someone and vice versa, better communication and mutual trust will
develop. This comfort zone is realized through presenting yourself
effectively.
3. What are the things round which the business etiquette revolves? –
Firstly, thoughtful consideration of the interests and feelings of others
and secondly, minimizing misunderstandings. Both are dependent
upon self conduct. Business etiquette polishes this conduct.
4. Is it necessary to concentrate deeply on business etiquette? – Business
etiquette varies from region to region and country to country. For the
international business person, focusing too deeply on international
business etiquette would leave no time for business.
5. What are the main principles of business etiquette? – They are
concentrated on the following fields: Behaviour, Honesty, Character.
Sensitivity, Diplomacy, Appearance.
6. Among all the principles, what do you think is the major one? Why?
Ss give they own example and opinion.

234
Exercise 3. Match synonyms in columns A and B.

1. in essence b) basis
2. vice versa a) on the contrary
3. to revolve f) to circle
4. pillar d) in the main
5. uncouth g) strange
6. trait e) characteristic feature
7. integrity j) honesty
8. arrogant c) self sure
9. astray i) lost
10. prosper h) develop

Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Бизнес этикет поможет вам избежать непонимания и ложной


интерпретации некоторых вопросов, а так же заложит основу
прочным партнёрским взаимоотношениям. – By avoiding
misunderstandings and misinterpretations through business etiquette
you lay foundations for a strong business relationship.
2. Для увеличения потенциала развития вашего бизнеса, просто
необходимо владеть основами бизнес этикета. – To increase
potential of your business development you just have to know
etiquettes basics.
3. Избежание бессмысленных слов и действий защитит вас от
негативных последствий. – Avoiding thoughtless words and actions
protects you from negative consequences.
4. Бизнес этикет учит вас, как выгодно представить себя и чего
избегать. – Business etiquette teaches you how to suitably present
yourself and what to avoid.
5. Ваш характер отражает то, что вы как личность привнесёте в
бизнес. – Your character refers to what you as an individual bring to
the business table.

Exercise 5. Talking point.

Listen to each S very carefully and comment on speech and behavior


mistakes, if there were any.

235
Exercise 6. Watch the film “Guide to International Business Etiquette” and
do the quiz.

Choose the right variant (sometimes several variants are possible):

1. Good first impression includes communicating well and


a) understanding the protocols of business
b) knowing foreign languages
c) being a well-paid person.

2. Every culture has it’s own way of


a) making money
b) doing business
c) making conversation

3. Always say good bye


a) when leaving the room
b) to every person you met
c) if you said hello to somebody.

4. According to the video “People are most valuable resource because…


a) help reach your goals,
b) are easily motivated
c) become your friends , customers , employers, suppliers

5. Standing straight makes you feel


a) healthier
b) happier
c) more power

6. Slouching Poor Eye contact , crossing arms are


a) negative signals
b) impolite behavior
c) poor education

7. Introduction is started from


a) the first person you see
b) the closest person to you
c) the most important person

236
8. Why should you hold a glass of red wine by the bottom
a) because it is the most comfortable way
b) not to spill the wine
c) because it is better when it is warm

9. What are tree things to remember when starting a small talk


a) find out the commonalities
b) ask names
c) complimenting

10.Why a business card should be given with the right hand?


a) because most persons are right-handed
b) because it is a hand of respect in most cultures
c) because it is very polite

Exercise 7. Read the text.

Start reading and translating the text, ask different Ss to read short
paragraph.

Exercise 8. Read the explanations of the words and try to guess the
translation.

sue (smb for to make a legal claim, especially преследовать


smth) (v) for an amount of money, because
of some loss or damage that one
has suffered
charge (with) to bring an especially criminal обвинять,
(v) charge against; accuse осуждать

kickback - money paid, usually secretly or отстегивать,


(slang) dishonestly, to someone in return давать откат
for doing something
bribe (n) something especially money, взятка
offered or given in bribing
illicit (adj) (done) against a law or a rule незаконный
embezzle (v) to steal (money that is placed in проматывать,
one's care) растрачивать
forbid (v) to refuse to allow; command запрещать
against, especially officially or

237
with the right to be obeyed
govern (v) to control and direct the affairs управлять
conceal (v) to hide; keep from being seen or скрывать
known
penalize (v) to punish for breaking a law or наказывать,
rule карать законом
hazardous (adj) (especially of an activity) which опасный,
contains risks or danger рискованный
weed smb/smth to get rid of (people or things of очищать,
out (phr v) unacceptable quality) in order to отбирать
improve smth.

Exercise 9. Complete the sentences using the active vocabulary.

1. She was to be included in the investigation for accepting a bribe


2. The new tax laws weed out people who earn less than $ 7,000 a year.
3. The manager embezzles $ 1,000 from the bank where he worked.
4. He was penalized for the robbery.
5. If you do not return our property we will sue for you
6. The country was governed by a small elite of military officers.
7. They were convicted of racketeering and were ordered to repay $ 100
million in victim profits.
8. It was a hazardous occupation for him.

Exercise 10. Give synonyms to the following words and word combinations

in cash by cash,
vendor vender, shop-assistant
transaction bargain, deal
lay off stop
enforcement compulsion
lawbreakers criminals, offender , delinquent , wrongdoer
to govern their conduct to manage their behaviour
ethical performance ethic behaviour
abuse insult
remote distant
pricey expensive
ethical injunction forced ethical education

238
Exercise 11. Work in groups and discuss the problem of major ethical
principles that can be violated by the employees and employers.

T can offer to discuss such problems as: improper behaviour of business


partners, salary and other payments questions, improper appearance at
work, etc. T can divide Ss into groups and organize competition – the one
who states more principles wins.

Exercise 12. Discuss these questions before reading the article.

Ask for Ss’ personal opinion.

Exercise 13. Scan the article and analyze your previous answers.

Exercise 14. Match up these words from the article with their meanings.

1) to hinder j) to stop or delay the advance or development of


a person or activity;
2) mucky d) dirty;
3) hefty price i) large amount of money;
4) reckoning f) calculation;
5) zealous a) keen;
6) to allege g) to state or declare without proof or before finding
proof;
7) indictment e) charging someone officially with an offence in
law;
8) to bolster b) to support, strengthen or increase;
9) litigant h) a person on one side or the other in a noncriminal
case being decided by a law court;
10) to grouse c) to complain, grumble.

Exercise 15. After reading the article, test your memory.

1. What new danger does the oil industry face? – It faces a new danger
largely of its own creation. High-profile bribery scandal; the growing
political sensitivity of the oil industry; changing attitudes to corporate
governance; and some potentially explosive lawsuits.

239
2. What did the grand jury in New York issue against two Americans? –
It issued indictments against them. And why? Because Swiss
investigators were reported to have added a bribery and money-
laundering probe involving, among others, Credit Agricole, a French
bank, to continuing American investigations into alleged Caspian
corruption.
3. What is the largest investigation by American authorities called? What
can it involve and provide? – It involves well-known Russian
businessmen and politicians, payments for speedboats and fur coats,
and – if only because they too were involved in bidding for Kazakh
contracts – other big oil firms besides Mobil, including firms with
connections to senior Bush administration officials other than Miss
Rice.
4. How did the American firms work after introducing the Foreign
Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) in 1977? – Many American oil firms
groused that the law handicapped them against foreign competitors
when dealing in the undemocratic and unscrupulous parts of the world
where oil is often found.
5. Does 'big oil' face legal troubles? – Exxon is being accused of
complicity in abuses committed by the Indonesian military in Aceh,
and Unocal stands accused of benefiting from forced labour deployed
by the military government in Myanmar. What are their
characteristics? – Firms deny wrongdoing, the law proceedings take
time.
6. What cases became tests of ATCA? – Exxon is being accused of
complicity in abuses committed by the Indonesian military in Aceh,
and Unocal stands accused of benefiting from forced labour deployed
by the military government in Myanmar.

240
Part III
ECOLOGICAL CONTROL IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Chapter 1
HYDROGEOLOGY
Н.В. Сухорукова

UNIT 1

WATER – NATURE’S TREASURE OR …?

Lead in

Quiz. Test yourself. The first letter is given.

1. snow,
2. slush,
3. ice,
4. sleet,
5. hail,
6. dew,
7. frost,
8. puddle/ pond/ lake/ sea/ ocean,
9. brook/ creek/ steam/ river,
10.plain water

Exercise 3. Work in pairs. Here are the answers to some questions about
the text. What are the questions?

1. How can you define water?


2. What is water made of?
3. In what forms does water exist?
4. When does water change from the liquid to the solid? (freezes)
5. What happens at 100 degrees centigrade?
6. What does water reach when it expands?
7. Why is water never pure as it occurs in nature?
8. How do we call a process when visible water is changed to the
invisible water gas?
9. When does the little puddle of water (formed from the melting ice)
finally disappear?

241
10.What form of water is called water vapor?
Exercise 5.  Listen to the text about water and decide if you would agree
with the following statements. Write “Yes” or “No” in the box next to each
statement and be ready to explain your answers.

Tapescript
Three-quarters of the Earth is covered in water. This makes water the
most common substance on Earth . Like other substances water can exist
as a liquid, as a gas, or as a solid. Water in the form of a gas (water
vapour) is commonly called steam. Solid water is ice. We can change one
form into another form by simply changing the conditions, for example by
heating it up or cooling it down. The change from one form to another is
usually called a change of state. Changes of state are examples of the
physical change. They do not involve making new substances. Single
substances are either compounds or elements. What about water? From
the chemical point of view water has many points of interest, because it
enters into chemical reactions which are of fundamental importance.
Water not only reacts with many substances, but it also has a marked
influence upon many chemical reactions. Well, water can be decomposed.
So it can’t be an element, can it? Decomposition of water can be made by
electric current. In this way two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of
oxygen are obtained. So we can say that water is a compound of hydrogen
and oxygen. The chemical name of water is hydrogen oxide. Right? Is it
possible to make water from its elements? The answer is – yes! In fact, it
is quite easy to do (but dangerous). Hydrogen’s the water former,
remember? When it is burnt in air, water is formed. The “artificial water”
formed in this way is exactly the same as “natural water”. The experiment
can be made in the laboratory, but by the teacher, and with strict safety
precautions.

Keys:

1. Water is the most abundant substance on the Earth. Yes


2. We can not change one form of water into another by simply changing
the conditions.No
3. The three forms of water are all the same chemical substances. Yes
4. A change of state involves making new substances.No
5. Water can be decomposed into its elements by electrolysis. Yes
6. Water vapour is usually defined as steam. Yes
7. Water’s chemical symbol is H2O.Yes
8. Water can be synthesized by burning hydrogen in the air.Yes

242
UNIT 2

HYDROGEOLOGY

Lead-in

Look at the following words in the clouds. The letters are scrambled. Can
you guess what the words are? Use all letters.

Hydrogeology, groundwater, aquifer, watershed, artesian well.

Exercise. 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition.

1 with, of, of, 2 for, 3 into, 4 in, 5 from

Exercise. 5. Complete the sentences.


1. Taking into account the interplay of the different facets of a multi-
component system often requires knowledge in several diverse fields at
both the experimental and theoretical levels.
2. As stated above , hydrogeology, is a branch of the earth sciences
dealing with the flow of water through aquifers and other shallow porous
media (typically less than 450 m or 1,500 ft below the land surface.).
3. Traditionally, the movement of groundwater has been studied
separately from surface water, climatology, and even the chemical and
microbiological aspects of hydrogeology (the processes are uncoupled).

4. As the field of hydrogeology matures, the strong interactions between


groundwater, surface water, water chemistry, soil moisture and even
climate are becoming more clear.

5. Because hydrogeology deals with water in a complex subsurface


environment, it is a complex science.

6. On the other hand, much of its basic terminology and principles can be
understood readily by non-hydrogeologists.

243
Exercise 6. Give English equivalents to Russian words.

1. area, deals with, commonly


2. minor distinction
3. account for
4. interaction
5. taking into account
6. as states above, branch, media
7. viscous, empirically derived laws, viscosity
8. Laplace equation
9. the movement of groundwater, climatology
10.as the field of hydrogeology matures.

Exercise 7. What are the subjects of the following sciences?


Hydrology deals with all aspects of the waters of the Earth: their
circulation; their chemical and physical properties; and their reaction with
the environment, including their relation to living things
Hydrogeology deals with flow of water through aquifers and other
shallow porous media.

Topography is concerned with describing an area of land, or making maps


of it.
Civil engineering deals with planning, building and repair of roads,
bridges, large buildings.
Agriculture is a science of farming.

Exercise 10. Read the text ‘Joseph Lucas and the term “Hydrogeology”
and decide if the given statements are true or false.

1. T
2. F – Jean-Baptiste Lamarck is known as the founder of invertebrate
paleontology
3. T
4. T
5. F – Prestwich was a member of the Royal Commission on Water
Supply.
6. T

244
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. F – Joseph Lucas certainly made an innovative contribution which
probably deserves more recognition than it has received.

Exercise 11. These dates are the stages of hydrogeology term development.
What do they stand for?

1802

(The first use of the word hydrogeolgy by Lamark)

1874

(Lucas used the term hydrogeology again.)

1876

(In 1876 Prestwich produced a further report, this time on Oxford, which
included a "Hydro-geological map of the basin of the Thames above
Oxford".)

Exercise 15. Read the texts once more carefully and choose the correct
alternative for these words and word combinations.

1. laterally
2. outwash
3. intercept

245
4. sandwich
5. artesian aquifer
6. precipitation
7. evapotranspiration
8. water table aquifer

Exercise 16. Find in the texts words with the opposite meaning to the
suggested.

1. impermeable
2. unconfined aquifer
3. unsaturated zone
4. hillslope

Exercise 17. Match the words in the right column with the words in the left
one.

1. saturated zone
2. artesian aquifer
3. permeability layers
4. atmospheric pressure
5. impermeable bedrock
6. depositional sequences
7. unconcolidated materials
8. fractured limestone
9. water table
10.glacial outwash

Exercise 19. Match the English term with the Russian one.

1. E, 2. A, 3. J, 4. L, 5. I, 6. B, 7. G, 8. C, 9. D, 10. F, 11. H, 12. K.

Exercise 20. Match the terms with the definitions.

1. F, 2. H, 3. A, 4. B, 5. J, 6. C, 7. L, 8. D, 9. E, 10. K, 11. J, 12. G.

246
Exercise 21.  Listen to the text where a commentator is talking about a
hydrologist job. You will hear it twice. Answer the questions by saying
whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F).

Mark it on the answer sheet. You have 30 seconds to read the questions.

LISTENING

1 (T)
2 (F)
3 (T)
4 (T)
5 (T)

Tapescript
Hydrologists Job Description

Water is one of the precious resources. Hydrologists help protect that


resourse. Hydro means ‘water’. Ologist means ‘one of studies’. So,
hydrologists are scientists who study the water in our environment. They
use sophisticated techniques and equipment to monitor changes in water
cycles.

They study precipitation, its movements through the Earth, and its return
to the ocean and the atmosphere. The work of hydrologists is especially
important in flood control, as work in Katrina showed flooding is a major
hazard in parts of our country.

Environmental preservation is another crucial area. These scientists


analyze the ground water that surrounds us, looking for contamination.
Many hydrologists survive businesses and government agencies who must
comply with environmental policy.

A good part of the job especially for junior workers is spent in the field in
all types of weather. Tracking through rough country, climbing
embedments and getting wet is not in common. More experienced
hydrologists tend to spend much of their time in the lab. Here they
conduct tests, run experiments, record results and compile data.
Knowledge of computer, math and related sciences is essential. So being

247
able to present your findings to others. So good people and
communication skills are a plus.

Entry level positions require a bachelor’s degree. Certification in


hydrology is recommended for most advanced employments. If you’re
over first for knowledge about the environment, consider a job as a
hydrologist.

Keys:

1. precious
2. environment
3. major hazard
4. sophisticated techniques
5. flood control
6. precipitation
7. preservation
8. more experienced hydrologists
9. run experiments
10. certification

248
UNIT 3

THE CIRCULATION OF WATER


IN THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH

Lead-in

Work in pairs. Look at the following pictures. What do they show? How
would you entitle them?

The hydrologic circulation of water


Interrelationship of (I) hydrologic, (II) geologic water circulation in the Earth

Look at the figure of the hydrologic cycle below. What do the given values
mean?

The values given are the corresponding amounts of the world water balance:
without parentheses – in km3, inside parentheses – mm (after M.I.L’vovich).

What do the arrows on the figure mean? Match the terms (in clouds) with
the arrows.

1 precipitation, 2 surface runoff, 3 underground runoff, 4 evaporation

Exercise 3. Match the English term with the Russian one.

1. C, 2. I, 3. H, 4. J, 5. F, 6. A,7. B, 8. D, 9. C, 10. G

Exercise 4. Match the terms with their definitions.

1. D, 2. B, 3. A, 4. C, 5. D.

Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with the missing words. Don’t change the form
given.

Water in liquid and solid form covers most of the (1) crust of the Earth.
By a complex process powered by (2) gravity and the action of solar
energy, an endless exchange of water, in (3) vapor, liquid, and solid
forms, takes place between the (4) atmosphere, the oceans, and the crust.
Water(5)circulates in the air and in the oceans, as well as over and below

249
the surface of landmasses. The (6) distribution of water in the planet is
uneven. General patterns of circulation are present in the atmosphere, the
oceans, and the landmasses, but regional features are very irregular and
seemingly random in detail. Therefore, while causal relations underlie the
overall process, it is believed that important elements of chance affect
local (7) hydrological events.

Exercise 6. For questions 1–10 read the text below. Use the words in the
box to the right of the text to form one word that fits in the same numbered
space in the text. The exercise begins with an example (0).

1. endless, 2. recirculatory, 3. movement, 4. various, 5. hydrological,


6. separate, 7. concentration, 8. humidity, 9. compartment, 10. evaporation.

Exercise 7.  You are going to hear a report about the hydrologic cycle.
Before you listen, discuss the following questions.

1. Try to guess what percentage of water is concentrated in oceans,


glaciers and ice caps. (97 % in the oceans, about 2 % in glaciers and
ice caps)
2. The world per capita use of water in 1975 was about 185,000 gal/yr.
And the total human use of water was about 10 1 5 gal/yr. What do you
think is world use of water nowadays? (Today, world use of water is
about 6,000, which is a significant fraction of the naturally available
freshwater.)

Exercise 8.  Listen to the tape to see if you were right. For questions 1–7
decide whether the statements are true or false.

1. T
2. False – The water in the atmosphere – only 0.001 % of the total on
Earth – cycles quickly to produce rain and runoff for our water
resources.
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. False – the fundamental hydrological unit of the landscape is the
drainage basin (also called a watershed or catchment).
7. False – Together, the oceans, ice caps and glaciers account for more
than 99 % of the total water, and both are generally unsuitable for

250
human use because of salinity (seawater) and location (ice caps and
glaciers).
8. T
9. T
10.False – Depending on the specific location, the residence time may
vary from a few days to many thousands of years.

Tapescript

Especially important from an environmental perspective is that rates of


transfer on land are small relative to what's happening in the ocean. For
example, most of the water that evaporates from the ocean falls again as
precipitation into the ocean. On land, most of the water that falls as
precipitation comes from evaporation of water from land. This means that
regional land-use changes, such as the building of large dams and reservoirs,
can change the amount of water evaporated into the atmosphere and change
the location and amount of precipitation on land – water we depend on to
raise our crops and supply water for our urban environments. Furthermore, as
we pave over large areas of land in cities, storm water runs off quicker and in
greater volume, thereby increasing flood hazards. Bringing water into semi-
arid cities by pumping groundwater or transporting water from distant
mountains through aqueducts may increase evaporation, thereby increasing
humidity and precipitation in a region.

Approximately 60 % of water that falls by precipitation on land each year


evaporates to the atmosphere. A smaller component (about 40 %) returns to
the ocean surface and subsurface runoff. This small annual transfer of water
supplies resources for rivers and urban and agricultural lands. Unfortunately,
distribution of water on land is far from uniform. As human population
increases, water shortages will become more frequent in arid and semi-arid
regions, where water is naturally nonabundant.

251
At the regional and local level, the fundamental hydrological unit of the
landscape is the drainage basin (also called a watershed or catchment). A
drainage basin is the area that contributes surface runoff to a particular stream
or river. The term drainage basin is usually used in evaluating the hydrology
of an area, such as the stream flow or runoff from hill slopes. Drainage basins
vary greatly in size, from less than a hectare (2.5 acres) to millions of square
kilometers. A drainage basin is usually named for its main stream or river,
such as the Mississippi River drainage basin.

The main process in the cycle is the global transfer of water from the
atmosphere to the land and oceans and back to the atmosphere. Together, the
oceans, ice caps and glaciers account for more than 99 % of the total water,
and both are generally unsuitable for human use because of salinity
(seawater) and location (ice caps and glaciers). Only about 0.001 % of the
total water on Earth is in the atmosphere at any one time. However, this
relatively small amount of water in the global water cycle, with an average
atmospheric residence time of only about 9 days, produces all our freshwater
resources through the process of precipitation.

On a global scale, then, total water abundance is not the problem; the prob-
lem is water's availability in the right place at the right time in the right form.
Water can be found in either liquid, solid, or gaseous form at a number of
locations at or near Earth's surface. Depending on the specific location, the
residence time may vary from a few days to many thousands of years.
However, as mentioned, more than 99 % of Earth's water in its natural state is
unavailable or unsuitable for beneficial human use. Thus, the amount of
water for which all the people, plants, and animals on Earth compete is much
less than 1% of the total.

As the world's population and industrial production of goods increase, the


use of water will also accelerate. The world per capita use of water in 1975
was about 185,000 gal/yr. And the total human use of water was about
10 1 5 gal/yr. Today, world use of water is about 6,000, which is a significant
fraction of the naturally available freshwater.

252
Exercise 9.  You are going to hear a conversation between two students.
Listen and choose the best title. The notes and terms will help you to
understand the conversation better.

THE WATER
CYCLE

Exercise 10.  Look at these incomplete sentences from the conversation


between Susan and Nick and try to remember who said each one. Write S
for Susan and N for Nick. Then listen to the complete sentences and fill in
the missing words.

1. N. getting down on paper.


2. S. book published recently
3. S. water circulation
4. S. evaporates from oceans
5. N. soil and plants
6. S. sublimes from snow
7. S. evaporation and sublimation
8. S. snow or rain
9. S. hail and dew
10.N. thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes

Exercise11.  Listen to the dialogue for the third time if necessary and
answer the following questions.

1. What article is Nick writing? (Nick is writing an article on water)


2. What information does Susan give to Nick? (Susan gives information
about water circulation. She shares information from the book
published recently)
3. What are the forms of water that Susan names? (solid, liquid, vapour)
4. What figures does Susan cite? (Susan points out that the quantity of
water vapour in the atmosphere at any time is relatively small. It’s only
about 0.001 percent of the total water on earth. However, the quantity
of water that passes through the atmosphere in a year is large.)
5. When will Nick’s article go to press? (End of the week... is the
deadline.)

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Tapescript

SUSAN: Look, Nick... about the article you've got to write...


NICK: On water? Well, I'm working on it right now. Getting down on
paper the most essential facts... kind of... common knowledge. Why?
SUSAN: Good. You know what? There's something that might be of
interest. It's from a book published recently. I've made a copy but I can't
find it.
NICK: Pity. Wait a minute... while I get a paper and a pen. Perhaps you
should tell me about it. Later I could check out the details.
SUSAN: OK

(Pause)

NICK: Right you are. Fire away.


SUSAN: Well, try to get the figures. They're important.
NICK: Yes, I will.
SUSAN: Mind you, it's about water circulation. And as you know, the
Earth's water passes through a great cycle. But how does it happen? First,
it evaporates from oceans, lakes, rivers, soil and plants...
NICK: Wait a tick. Did you say soil and plants?
SUSAN: That's right... and sublimes from snow and ice into the
atmosphere.
NICK: Where did you say it sublimes into?
SUSAN: I said it sublimes into the atmosphere.
NICK: Right.
SUSAN: Second. The sun supplies the energy needed for evaporation
and sublimation. Winds move the water vapour around.
NICK: I've got that... go on, will you.
SUSAN: Well... water then returns to the Earth as snow or rain...
NICK: Only in two forms?
SUSAN: You see, you may also write as hail and dew if you like. Third.
When water vapour condences to liquid water or deposits as solid ice,
energy is released.
NICK: Yes, what happens then?
SUSAN: In fact, the transfer of energy by evaporation and condensation of
water are major facts on the weather.
NICK: What about energy release by thunderstorms, tornadoes, and
hurricanes? Does it happen?
SUSAN: I think it's obvious. However the quantity of water vapour in the
atmosphere at any time is relatively small.

254
NICK: How small did you say it is?
SUSAN: I didn't. I'm just going to tell you about this, – only about 0.001
percent of the total water on earth. However, the quantity of water that
passes through the atmosphere in a year is large. I mean much greater than
the total volume of fresh water on the Earth. That's it.
NICK: That's incredible, Susan.
SUSAN: Did you get it all down?
NICK: Yeah... I think so... thank you, Susan.
SUSAN: My pleasure. I hope you'll get that article finished soon. When's
it to go to press?
NICK: End of the week... is the deadline. One of the copies is yours.
SUSAN: O.K. I can't wait to see it published.
NICK: Thanks again.
SUSAN: Have a good day.

255
Chapter 2

GEOECOLOGY
И.А. Матвеенко

UNIT 1

GEOECOLOGY

The unit presents an introduction to the problems discussed in the following


units. It gives the basic terms and concepts of Geoecology. That’s why it
contains an easy text for reading and discussion, and may take not much time
to learn it.

Lead-in. T. elicits the ideas from the students as they suggest things
connected with geoecology and make collective mind map (spidergram) on
the board as the ideas are suggested, so that they can see how T. draws out
the aspects of the topic. The reasoning behind mind map is that Ss do not
think in an ordered or linear way, but rather explore a topic by moving
between its various aspects.

The next stage in this procedure may be division of all items suggested into
groups and explanation of Ss’ associations.

This activity will prepare Ss to work with the topic of the Unit 1.

Exercise 3. Find the synonyms for the following words in the text.

To influence = to affect, to include = to comprise, large = vast, to emerge


= to appear, to change = to transform, to modify, mankind = humankind,
to release = to give off, field of science = branch of science, to be
concerned with = to deal with.

Exercise 4. Translate the following word groups.

Global satellite observations – наблюдения со спутника,


industrial world economy – мировая промышленная экономика,
tropical forest region – район тропических лесов,
living organisms interaction – взаимодействие живых организмов,
life organization levels – уровни организации жизни,
atmosphere layers – слои атмосферы,

256
nature balance – природный баланс,
population growth – рост населения.

Exercise 5. Suggest as many word combinations as possible.

This exercise may be performed with translation of the suggested word


combinations.
It also can be done in the form of competition between two groups of
students. The team which will do the task quicker and will suggest some
more collocations, will be the winner.

(A) Thick layer, layer of water, the layer around the Earth, layer of gas,
outer layer, thin layer, the layer containing living matter;
(B) Clear environment, physical environment, parts of environment,
modified environment, healthy environment, biotic environment,
damaged environment, intact environment;
(C) Interactions between humankind and nature, stable interactions,
interaction of communities, global interaction, constant interaction,
living organisms interaction, interaction with environment.

Exercise 7. Translate it into English.

The sentences are not just from the text, but they are slightly changed to
make Ss translate them by themselves.

a) The present-day concept (idea) of biosphere was developed by the


Russian scientist V.I. Vernadsky more than 50 years ago.
Biosphere is a layer around the Earth containing living organisms,
transformed by living organisms.
Biosphere is a layer around the Earth containing all living organisms
on our globe (planet).
The life emerged about and 3.8 billion years ago.

b) The biosphere is a complex system of energy transformation and


material cycling.
Biosphere runs on energy flowing to it from the Sun.
The thickness of layer containing the highest concentration of living
matter varies from a few meters to hundreds of meters.

c) Geoecology is an interdisciplinary science based on ecology, geology,


biology and many other sciences.

257
Interaction of a man with the nature is of global and constant character.
Man affects and changes the environment.
Biosphere reacts to these actions.

d) Today environment is radically transformed as a result of human


activity.
About 60 % of land surface ecosystems is to some extent damaged by
agricultural, industrial, and other human activities.
No more than 40 % of land remains intact.

Exercise 8. Read the text below, use the word given in capitals at the end of
each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

Example: 0 – impossible.

These days it is (0) … to open a newspaper without possible


reading about the
damage we are doing to the environment.
The Earth is being (1) threatened and the future threat
looks bad. What can each of us do?
We cannot clean up our (2) polluted rivers and seas pollution
overnight.
Nor can we stop the (3) disappearance of plants and appear
animals.
But we can stop adding to the problem while (4) science
scientists search for answers, and laws are passed in defend
nature’s (5) defence.
It may not be easy to change your lifestyle (6) complete
completely, but some steps are easy to take: cut down drive
the amount of (7) driving you do, or use as little
plastic as possible.
It is also easy to save energy, which also reduces (8) house
housing bills.
We must all make a personal (9) decision to work for decide
the future of our planet if we want to (10) ensure a ensure
better world for our grandchildren.

258
Exercise 9. What are the subjects of the following sciences?

1. b, 2. d, 3. e, 4. c, 5. a, 6. f.

Exercise 10. Here are some definitions. What are they? Complete the
sentences.

Biosphere is the layer around the Earth in which all living organisms
exist.
Hydrosphere is the sum total of all liquid and frozen water on or near the
Earth’s surface.
Atmosphere is a region of gases, airborne particles, and water vapour
enveloping the Earth.
Lithosphere is the solid Earth with rocks, soils, and sediments on its
crust.

Exercise 11. Answer the questions.

1. How do you define biosphere? – Biosphere is a relatively thin life-


supporting layer around the Earth containing living organisms, which
is strongly influenced in its composition, structure and energetic by the
living organisms.
2. What is biota? – Biota is the biotic part of the biosphere consisting of
fauna and flora.
3. When did the first living cells appear on the planet? – The first living
cell emerged between 4 billion and 3.8 billion years ago.
4. What are the limits of the “film of life”? – “Film of life” varies from a
few meters in deserts and tundra to a hundred meters in a tropical
forest region and oceans.
5. What does modern ecology deal with? – Modern ecology deals with
environmental problems caused by human activities.
6. What is geoecology? – Geoecology is an interdisciplinary science
studying the interactions and interrelations abundant in our
environment.
7. What fields can geologist work in? – Geoecologists can work in such
fields as environmental analytics, waste disposal, contaminated sites
remediation as well as agriculture and forestry.
8. What major factor has increased the intensity and scale of the
biosphere transformations over the past two centuries? – The
population growth along with the industrial world economy over the

259
past two centuries has increased the magnitude and scale of biosphere
transformations.
9. Do you think the biosphere transformations caused by human activity
are reversible? This question is for Ss’ discussion and expressing their
opinions on the basis of the text information and their knowledge of
speciality. A lot of variants of answers to this question are possible.
This discussion will help T. to pass to the next task Exercise 11.

Exercise 13. Work in pairs. Discuss the following quotations about


ecological problems.

Here T. can elicit the information from Ss. on modern ecological


problems and what way of solution Ss can suggest.

T. can set the discussion either with the whole group, or divide the group
into two teams, or divide the group into pairs and choose a quotation for
each to make up a dialogue.

260
UNIT 2

THE IMPACT OF MINING AND OIL EXTRACTION


ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Lead-in

Discuss the questions.


T. elicits the information Ss know on this topic. T. can write down on the
board the basic terms Ss pronounce, draw some spidergram or scheme on the
problems of the unit.

Comment upon the following statements. How do you think they are
connected with the theme of the lecture?
T’s task is to connect the ideas in the quotations with the theme of the Unit to
predict the problems mentioned in the texts of the unit.

Exercise 3. Translate the words paying attention to the word formation.

Извлекать, добывать – добыча – извлекаемый, добываемый –


добываемый, добывающий (об отраслях промышленности)
Результат – приводить к – проистекать из – получающийся в
результате, проистекающий
Распространение, изобилие – распространенный
Концентрировать(ся) – концентрат – концентрация
Осаждать(ся) – осаждение – улавливатель, осадитель,
фильтр
Обогащать – обогащенный – обогащение

Exercise 4. Give Russian equivalents to the following set-expressions.

To play a major role – играть главную роль


To bear witness – свидетельствовать о чем-л., содержать
доказательства
To be fitted with – быть снабженным чем-л.
To be likely – вероятно
To carry risk – быть сопряженным с риском, приводить к риску
To be heavily regulated – быть строго контролируемым
(pегулируемым)
To be referred to – именоваться, называться
To have impact – влиять, воздействовать

261
Exercise 5. Match the synonyms.

In the vicinity = Close to


Impact = Influence
Cause =Reason
Enrichment = Beneficiation
Environment = Medium
Objective = Purpose
Various = Different

Exercise 6. Translate the following word groups.

Рудные минералы, зерна минералов руды, поверхностное извлечение


(добыча с поверхности), метод открытой добычи, вынос ветром,
труба плавильной печи, материал пустой породы, поверхностный
сток, загрязнение подземных вод, методы добычи минералов, рост
населения.

Exercise 7. Complete the sentences translating the Russian words.

1. Extensive mineral extraction is still the cause of concern in many


countries due to environmental pollution it causes. 2. The process of
extraction is heavily regulated to decrease the degree of contamination of
the surrounding soils. 3. Significant increase in concentration of some
chemical compound is observed in the vicinity of local mineral deposits.
4. Many Kemerovo regions bear witness to virtually uncontrolled coal
extraction. 5. The mined ore is finely crushed to enable concentration of
the sought after ore mineral. 6. Ancient extraction technologies resulted
in serious environmental pollution.

Exercise 8. Match the words with their definitions.

1. С, 2. A, 3. F, 4. E, 5. D, 6. B.

Exercise 9. Answer the questions.

1. How is mineral deposit concentration reflected in the chemistry of


environment? – Naturally occurring high concentrations of deposits are
reflected in the chemistry of the soils, waters, sediments, plants, etc.,
close to the deposit, the measurement of the concentrations of various
metals and non-metals in the media is used to locate mineral deposits.

262
2. What stages of mineral extraction are considered the sources of
environment contamination? – Mining itself and beneficiation.
3. Why have mining increased through time? – The mining and
processing of minerals have increased through time due to population
growth and the greater utilization of raw materials for manufacture.
4. What witness to the extraction of minerals do areas bear? – Many areas
of past mining activity bear witness to these extractions in the form of
abandoned workings and extensive waste tips.
5. Has the situation changed from that time? – Yes, it has. Modern
mineral extraction technology is generally far more efficient than past
practices, and in many countries such processes are heavily regulated
to limit the degree of contamination from extractive industries.
6. What are the stages of mining and processing? – The extraction and
subsequent processing of ores can be summarized as follows: mining
→ crushing/grinding; → concentration of ore mineral; →
smelting/refining.
7. What is the effect of open pit surface techniques and solution mining?
– Open pit surface techniques, or in a few cases by solution mining,
which carries with it risk of groundwater pollution.
8. Why is crushing necessary for mineral processing? – The crushing and
grinding (comminution) of mineral processing is necessary because it
has the objective of separating the ore minerals from the waste,
generally referred to as gangue to enable concentration of the sought
after ore mineral.
9. What consequences of crushing do you know? – The very fine waste
material left after crushing is referred to as tailings, and this material
can contain, along with the gangue minerals, residual amounts of the
ore minerals and can be a serious source of pollution. The tailings are
very fine and are subject to wind ablation and can be easily transported
by surface runoff. At many mine sites tailings have been left open to
the environment resulting in serious contamination of surrounding soil
and water.
10.What is smelting? – Pyrometallurgical smelting involves roasting of
the ore concentrate at high temperatures with the subsequent emission
of large quantities of elements.
11.Why are modern smelters fitted with electrostatic precipitators? –
Modern smelter stacks are fitted with electrostatic precipitators and
other dust recovery mechanisms to retain most of the harmful
particulates.
12.What are the consequences of smelting? – Some gaseous and aerosolic
emissions are released into the atmosphere. Although any larger

263
particulates released are deposited close to the source, aerosols and
gases can be transported long distances and as a result the smelting of
ores has far wider aerial impact than the mining and processing of
these ores.

Exercise 10. State whether the sentences are true or false. If true, add the
information you know, correct the false ones.

a. True.
b. False – Mining and subsequent beneficiation of minerals do not affect
the environment.
c. False – Mineral extraction is a modern human activity.
d. True.
e. False – The major cause of concern is mineral extraction such as clays
and silica.
f. True.
g. True.
h. False – Aerosols and gases can be deposited close to the source.

Exercise 11. Read through the text and find the answers to these questions.
Remember, you do not have to understand every word to answer the
questions.

A.
1. How are pollutants generally treated? Name four different processes
referred to in the text. – Scrubbing, filtration, absorption, adsorption.
2. What are the main causes of air pollution? – The internal combustion
engine, industrial fuel combustion (especially utility power plants).
3. What is the usual way to control emissions of gas and particles into the
atmosphere? – Emissions are usually limited to a specified weight per
hour.
4. Which gas is mentioned as being particularly difficult to control? –
Sulphur dioxide.
5. What industries are affected by regulations to control the emissions of
this gas? – Copper smelting; coal-fired utility plants.

264
B. Read the text again carefully. While reading, look for the answers to
these questions.

1. Are these statements true or false?

- Environmental problems require the expertise of people with differing


scientific backgrounds. – True.
- There are many devices on the market which can be used to solve all
kinds of air and water problems. – False.
- Liquid wastes can be largely recycled after treatment. – True.
- Mining industry is no longer allowed to leave the land surface in a
disturbed condition. – True.
- The highest proportion of atmospheric pollutants produced by man
comprises carbon monoxides. – True.
- 30 % of air pollutants have natural causes. – False (20 % do).
- Regulations are concerned with emissions into the atmosphere of gases
rather than solids. – False (particle emissions are controlled).
- Limestone slurries and caustic solutions are used to control sulphur
oxide gas emissions. - True.
- Useful by-products can be obtained by treating gas streams from
modern copper smelting operations. – True (the by-products are
sulphur, liquid sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid).
- New methods of producing copper by chemical means have been
highly successful. – False (there have been many operational
problems).

2. Classify the following items into four lists according to their role in
environmental engineering. Then find a heading for each list.

The final list should look like this:

Atmospheric pollutants
- hydrocarbons;
- nitrogen oxide gases;
- sulphur dioxide gas;

Retention equipment for reducing air pollution


- fabric arrester;
- electrostatic precipitator;

265
Copper-producing methods
- hydrometallurgical plant;
- flash furnace;
- liquid ion exchange;
- elecrowinnig;

Products of modern copper-smelting operations


- liquid sulphur dioxide;
- sulphuric acid;
- electrolytic grade copper.

3. Discuss the following points

No key is possible.

Exercise 13. Read the text, tell about the impact of different stages of oil
extraction on environment.

No key is possible.

Exercise 14. Say in what content these figures are mentioned in the text.

14 – per cent of oil were collected by skimming and other waste recovery
from poured oil out of Exxon Valdez ruptured tanks.
3 – billion was sent to clean up in the vicinity of Prince William Sound.
1989 – a year when the accident happened to supertanker Exxon Valdez,
carrying crude oil.
20 – per cent of spilled oil evaporated in the atmosphere. Or 20 thousand
barrels per hour spilled into the sound.
250 000 – a total barrels of oil spilled into the sound.
28 – per cent of the sea otters killed by the spill.
645,000 seabirds died.
50 – per cent of spilled oil was % was deposited on the shoreline.
1 200 000 – barrels of crude oil was carried by supertanker Exxon Valdez.

Exercise 15. Complete the sentences according to the text.

1. Oil and natural gas burn cleaner than coal but are heavy polluters, too.
2. Oil and gas are preferred fuels because coal is so polluting, and
because it is less useful for many kinds of engines.

266
3. It now seems that natural soil bacteria are capable of decomposing
most oil.
4. A thick substance that comes out of the ground from a typical oil well
is a mixture of many chemicals from very heavy tars to very light
gasoline and natural gas.
5. A famous example of oil pollution during delivery was on March 24,
1989, when the supertanker Exxon Valdez, carrying 1.2 million barrels
of crude oil, ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound,
Alaska, and broke open.
6. Of the 11 million gallons of spilled oil, about 20 % evaporated and
50 % was deposited on the shoreline.
7. There is no evidence that the Ocean’s ecosystems are seriously
threatened by oil spills.
8. We now also have new techniques to collect oil at sea, using floating
barriers and skimmers (oil is lighter than water and so floats on water),
but even the best methods are difficult to use in high winds and rough
seas.

Exercise 21. Discuss the following quotation from the standpoint of the
ecological problems in mining and oil production

Here T. can elicit the information from Ss. on ecological problems in


mining and oil production and what way of solution Ss can suggest.

T. can set the discussion either with the whole group, or divide the group
into two teams, or divide the group into pairs and choose a quotation for
each to make up a dialogue.

Exercise 22. Write a paragraph on one of the topics, be ready to discuss it


in group.

This is the task for the final lesson on this topic. The purpose of this task
is to summarize all the knowledge the Ss have got in the course of
working at the Unit. After each report T should stimulate the discussion
on the considered problems.

267
UNIT 3

THE PROBLEMS OF POWER GENERATION

Lead-in. T. elicits information from the Ss related to the theme of the Unit.

Exercise 3. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and set-


expressions.

To make a significant contribution – делать значительный вклад


To be strictly regulated – быть строго контролируемым
(регулируемым)
To result in – приводить к
To be of particular concern – быть предметом особого беспокойства
To pose a serious threat – представлять серьезную угрозу
To be associated with – быть связанным с чем-л.
To achieve notoriety – получить дурную славу
To be prone to – быть склонным (предрасположенным) к чему-л.

Compose your own sentences with two of the expressions.

Exercise 4. Match the synonyms.

1. D, 2. F, 3. A, 4. B, 5. G, 6. C, 7. E.

Exercise 5. Match the antonyms.

1. C, 2. A, 3. E, 4. B, 5. D.

Exercise 6. Fill in the correct word from the list below.

1. Radioactivity has achieved notoriety after Chernobyl accident.


2. The analysis of air composition showed the elevated concentration of
trace elements harmful for human health.
3. Exposure to lead is known to damage the brains of young children.
4. Combustion of fossil fuels produces large volume of carbon dioxide.
5. City dwellers are known to be more prone to heart diseases than
countrymen.
6. After inundating of large areas they were stated to contain high
concentration of mercury.

268
Exercise 7. Fill in the necessary preposition.

1. Combustion of sulphur-containing fuels results in production of


sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide.
2. Harmful consequence of fossil fuel combustion derives from many
trace elements contained in it.
3. Coal combustion makes a significant contribution to atmospheric
deposition of harmful substances.
4. Geothermal areas are associated with volcanic activity.
5. Ecological problem of hydroelectric power generation results from
flooding of areas.
6. As a result of exposure to radioactivity humans are prone to increased
incidents of cancer.

Exercise 8. Read the examples, join the sentences in every possible way.

Example 1: They tried hard to clean up the lake, but/yet it remains


polluted.
Example 2: They tried hard to clean up the lake; however/nevertheless it
remains polluted.
Example 3: Although/though/even though they tried hard to clean up the
lake, it remains polluted.
Example 4: In spite of/Despite their trying hard to clean up the lake, it
remains polluted.

1. Technological progress has stimulated the utilization of solar energy,


however/nevertheless the use of it poses some problems in gathering
the heat from the sun.
2. In spite of/Despite rapid running out the fossil fuel, some huge reserves
remain untouched.
3. Although/though/even though there are some difficulties in using solar
energy, this energy is used directly as heat to produce high temperature
for metallurgical operations.
4. The air in our region is much polluted, but/yet toxic gases are still
released into it.
5. Although/though/even though the efficiency in the production and
transformation of energy increases, the energy problem remains.
6. In spite of/Despite intensification of the utilization of fossil fuel, the
reserves are increasing both overall and per capita.

269
Exercise 9. Join the sentences using the words in brackets. Think of other
ways of joining them.

1. Nuclear energy is an unlimited source for generating thermonuclear


energy; however it presents some danger for environment.
2. Despite fining the energy station, it is still releasing toxic gases into the
air.
3. The generation of electric power is accompanied by a great loss of
energy. In addition, some losses take place when transmitting and
using it.
4. The production of nuclear energy is connected with both the danger of
accidents and the problem of burning nuclear waste.

Exercise 10. Translate the sentences, mind Subjective Infinitive


Construction.

1. Известно, что сжигание ископаемого топлива производит


большое количество диоксида углерода, который способствует
парниковому эффекту на земле.
2. Полагают, что сжигание угля вносит значительный вклад в
отложение свинца в атмосфере в Великобритании.
3. Хотя часто допускают (полагают), что геотермальная энергия
является «чистой» формой производства энергии, во многих
теплых источниках активно осаждается мышьяк, ртуть и другие
вредные вещества.
4. Было обнаружено, что элементы, обогащающие нефть, такие как
ванадий, присутствуют в повышенных концентрациях вблизи
нефтеочистительных заводов.
5. Было найдено, что источником нефти является заболоченная
почва, где этот элемент преобразуется в метилированную форму.
6. Предполагается, что сжигание высоко серосодержащего топлива
приводит к выработке диоксида серы и триоксида серы, что, в
свою очередь, приводит к кислотным дождям.

Exercise 11. Translate the sentences using Subjective Infinitive


Construction.

1. Most part of energy is known to be produced from fossil fuel.


2. Fuel combustion is thought (believed) to be a cause of greenhouse
effect.
3. Fly ash seems to contain some harmful substances.

270
4. Elevated concentration of mercury is reported to be present in some
types of oil.
5. Radioactivity has been found to influence negatively the human health.

Exercise 12. Complete the sentences according to the text.

1. Though the specialists have predicted the running out of natural


resources, their reserves are increasing both overall and per capita.
2. Burning of fossil fuels has achieved notoriety because of the large
volumes of carbon dioxide produced, the consequent buildup of
this gas in the atmosphere, and its possible contribution to the
greenhouse effect on the Earth.
3. An additional environmental effect of fossil fuel combustion is
concentration of variable amounts of inorganic constituents
retained in the ash left after the combustion process with some
emitted in fine combustion products into the atmosphere.
4. Radionuclides released from nuclear power stations pose a great
problem because radioactive elements such as americium and
plutonium released from nuclear power station may be retained in
nearby areas.
5. The Chernobyl accident seriously affected the environment with
radioactivity spreading over much of Europe and many other
parts of the world.
6. Radioactive iodine is of particular concern because it moves through
the food chain rapidly.
7. Although geothermal energy is assumed to be ecologically friendly, it is
associated with volcanic activity and many of the hot springs
actively precipitate arsenic, antimony, mercury, and thallium,
whereas some geothermal waters contain very high concentrations
of boron.
8. Generation of hydroelectric power is associated with the problem of
flooding areas where it has been found that fish contain elevated
concentrations of mercury.

Exercise 13. Answer the questions.

1. What is the problem with energy generation? – The intensive


utilization of oil, gas and coal, and the pessimistic forecasts that fossil
fuel will soon run out.

271
2. What energy source is the most popular nowadays? Why? – Fossil fuel
(coal, oil, peat) combustion provides most of the power generated for
industrial and domestic use because they are abundant and efficient.
3. Why has the fossil fuel combustion achieved notoriety? – Burning of
these fuels has achieved notoriety due to the large volumes of carbon
dioxide (CO2) produced, the consequent buildup of this gas in the
atmosphere, and its possible contribution to the greenhouse effect on
the Earth.
4. What trace elements are detected in fossil fuels? – Variable amounts of
inorganic constituents were detected in the ash left after the
combustion process with some emitted in fine combustion products
into the atmosphere.
5. Why are they considered to be harmful elements? – Because they can
impact the soil, water, and biosphere in the vicinity of the power plant
and influence people’s health.
6. What is the impact of nuclear power generation on the environment? –
Accidental leakages and permitted effluent released from nuclear
power plants have impacted the environment. For example, radioactive
iodine moves through the food chain rapidly and causes thyroid cancer.
7. Is geothermal energy really “clean” form of power generation? Prove
it. – No, it isn’t. Many geothermal areas are associated with volcanic
activity and many of the hot springs actively precipitate arsenic,
antimony, mercury, and thallium, whereas some geothermal waters
contain very high concentrations of boron.
8. What ecological problems has hydroelectric power generation led to? –
It has led to problems resulting from flooding of areas where soils have
been inundated; it has been found that fish contain elevated
concentrations of mercury.

Exercise 14. Read the text, suggest the title to it.

Possible titles:
- Perspectives of using (utilizing) oil as a source of energy.
- Problems of Oil utilization today and tomorrow. Etc.

Exercise 15. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What is the difference between the terms “resource” and “reserves”? –


A mineral resource is the entire amount on Earth – sometimes called
the total resource. A reserve is what we can get at now economically,
the portion of the resource that we can extract now at a profit.

272
2. Why is it so important to know when we will reach oil peak
production? – Because after we reach peak production, less oil will be
available, leading to shortages and price shocks.
3. Why do economists argue that we will never entirely run out of crude
oil? – Because we will reach a point where finding it and extracting it
will cost much more than it can sell for, and when that happens it will
no longer be used as a fuel, but as a mineral to be made into
comparatively expensive products.
4. Why does oil available reserve grow? – The increase is due primarily
to discoveries in the Middle East, Venezuela, and Kazakhstan.
5. What problems did the discovery of oil cause in the Middle East? –
Because so much of the world’s oil is in the Middle East, oil revenues
have flowed into that area, causing huge trade imbalances and many
political consequences.
6. What are the other sources of oil? – Two other sources of oil play a
minor role: oil shale and oil sands. Both are sediments that contain low
concentrations of oil, but because they are massive, in total they
contain a lot of energy.

Exercise 16. Explain the meaning of the following terms in your own
words.

Resource is the entire amount on Earth – sometimes called the total


resource.
Reserve is what we can get at now economically, the portion of the
resource that we can extract now at a profit.
Proven reserve is what we can get at now economically, the portion of the
resource that we can extract now at a profit.
Peak production is the maximum in oil production after which less oil will
be available, leading to shortages and price shocks.
Oil revenue is an income from oil production.
Oil shale is a fine-grained shale containing oil.
Oil sand is sandstone impregnated with hydrocarbons.

273
Exercise 19. Working in pairs, discuss one of the energy source, its
advantages and disadvantages, its perspectives:

- fossil fuels. Main advantages: abundant and efficient. Disadvantages:


cause environmental problems, they are running out (nonrenewable).
- nuclear power. Main advantages: produces large amount of energy,
renewable. Disadvantages: environmental problems in case of
accident, radioactive wastes, radioactive pollution.
- geothermal energy. Main advantages: renewable. Disadvantages:
produces thermal pollution, emissions of gas;
- hydroelectric power. Main advantages: renewable, environmentally
friendly (no greenhouse gases, radioactive waste, sulphur oxides).
Disadvantages: displacing people and their farms and town,
threatening habitats of fish and other wildlife, flooding areas.

Exercise 20. Organize a students’ conference “The modern problems of


energy generation.

Make a report on one of the source of energy (4–5 min).


Consider some alternative sources of energy.
Discuss their perspectives for the future.

T helps to organise a Students’ conference, to choose the topics for


reports, to find the information for the reports. Then T distributes the roles
among the students including a speaker, a participant, an interpreter, and a
chair.

Preparation:

- Give to students a list of the possible topics for their reports, but
encourage them to think of their own ones.
- Give the task to carry out research and prepare a written report.
- Help Ss to make a list of terms.
- Look through the papers prepared by the Ss in advance.
- Hand out the role cards according to Ss’ desires and abilities.

Student scientific conference

Do you know how to take part in a conference? If you don’t, here are
some bits of advice. The only way of participating in an international

274
congress is to do so whole-heartedly and intelligently. It is the behavior
and active participation of the congress-goers which above all ensures the
success of a congress. Don’t be the type of participant who cannot adapt
himself.

Think about what you hope from the meeting. Remember that its duration
is limited to a few days. Remember that the other participants expect you
to contribute something. Be active, ready to listen to the ideas of others.
Don’t be self-centred or quick-tempered. Familiarize yourself with the
rules of the congress, but with a view of respecting them, not to causing
difficulties.

Do not stay in an ivory tower, but do not take part in discussions just for
the pleasure of hearing your own voice or of having your name written
down in the minutes.

Make sure that by your own behavior you are helping the chairperson and
other organizers in their difficult task of guiding the proceedings
successfully to concrete conclusions, in an atmosphere of cooperation and
friendship among the participants of each country. Contact with other
participants.

If you wish to draw the greatest benefit from an international congress,


make contact with persons who you already know but also make a point
of meetings as large number of unfamiliar faces as possible.

Take advantage of meals, receptions and excursion, change to another


group instead of staying with your countrymen, or at the same table, or in
the same coach.

Discretion is all very well, but timidity is useless and annoying.


Remember that others are in the same position as you, and many may be
even more isolated. Introduce yourself to other people and make as many
introductions as possible among other participants. Take part in a
discussion, be clear and brief. Don’t overstep your allotted time. This may
annoy the chairperson and other participants. Make use of your notes but
don’t simply read them out. A well-prepared impromptu speech will
interest listeners far more than one read from notes.

275
Speak in the working congress language you know best and don’t try to
display your multilingual talents. It should never be necessary for you to
be translated into your mother tongue.

Don’t change your mind without good reason.

1) Make up your own communication on a scientific problem that you are


interested in and speak in front of your fellow students bearing in mind
the information you’ve got from the above text (see Appendix 3 for topics
and information)

2) Make up a discussion on some problem using the following as phrase-


openings:

Chairman Participant

1. I would like to propose this 1. I’d like to ask a question.


subject for discussion.
2. Who would care to comment 2. Let me say a few words.
on it?
3. Would anybody like to 3. I wish to make some remarks
comment on it? concerning…
4. Are there any further 4. I’d like to emphasize…
comments?
5. Could I have an opinion 5. As far as I can understand…
from…?
6. I welcome all the comments. 6. In conclusion I would like to say…
7. So much for the discussion.

Sometimes you will need to write a letter to inquire about anything you
need in your work as well as to reply to information inquiry. Two letters
below will help you to write letters of these kinds:

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Letter 1 (Information Inquiry)

Dear Dr. Reading,


I should be grateful if you would send me information about the regu-
lations for admission to the University of Bradford Chemistry Centre. I
would like to work for you making research in organic chemistry and
teaching students. Could you inform of the arrangements I should make?
Could you also tell me whether the Centre arranges accommodation for
overseas academics 1?

Yours faithfully,
Dr. Igor Ivanov

Letter 2 (Reply to Information Inquiry)

Dear Dr. Ivanov,


Thank you for your letter inquiring about the possibility of doing re-
search in the Department of Chemistry at our University.
I am most interested in your research and would be happy to help
you in any way I can. I have spoken to my colleague, Professor David
Miller who specializes in your field and is, therefore, very familiar with
the sort of arrangements that can be made. We would suggest you to apply
to the British Council in Moscow for financial support. However, in doing
so you should send them a full resume, and, of course, a well-defined
research proposal. It would also be probably worth writing to the FCO in
London to ask whether any help might be available from the Know-How-
Fund, which has been specifically set up to assist academics and
practitioners in the countries such as your own.
In the meantime I would find it most helpful if you could send me a
copy of your resume, so that if I am approached by the ВС or the FCQ 2,
then I will be in a good position to support your application.
I hope it will be possible to arrange something and therefore hope
you will keep in touch.

Yours sincerely,
Dr. Edward Reading

1
Academics = Scientists
2
FCO = Foreign and Commonwealth Office

277
ASSIGNMENTS

Write similar letters. The following words and expressions will help you:

Information inquiry

1. May I; would you kindly; will you be so kind as.


2. Ask you (for); request you (for); make a request about; (to approach)
you with a request about.
3. Advice; help; information (to) give me; send me; supply me with; help
me with; inform me about.

Reply to information inquiry

1. In reply (according to your letter of…) to your request; in accordance


with your request; as requested by you; thank you for your letter of
(date).
2. I am sending you; I have the pleasure of sending to you; I shall send
you; I am very glad to supply you with (inform me about); I apologize
for the lengthy delay in responding to your letter of…(date).
3. Clearly; it would be useful; contact me.

278
UNIT 4

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

Lead-in. Discussing the quotations, T. draws Ss. attention to the fact that the
problem of greenhouse effect is closely connected with human
(anthropogenic) activity mentioned in the quotations.

Exercise 3. Complete the table with the appropriate word-formations.

Verb Noun Adjective


Reduce reduction reductive
Distribute distribution distributable
Radiate radiation radioactive
Compress compression compressible

Exercise 4. Give Russian equivalents to the words and set expressions.

1. compared to – по сравнению с
2. to hold in check – сдерживать, контролировать
3. to move in a cyclic manner – двигаться циклично, цикличным
образом
4. to be a matter of controversy – быть предметом разногласий
5. to be of particular interest – представлять особый интерес
6. to be known for sure – быть известным наверняка
7. to escape into space – улетучиваться в космос

Exercise 5. Translate from Russian into English.

Incident radiation, absorb, to trap, runaway process, to be responsible


for, to scatter radiation, to influence=to affect, to be of particular
interest, fertilization, sewage disposal, significant depletion, to increase=
to raise the temperature, combustion, to escape into space, deleterious
effect, as well as, to estimate, emission of greenhouse gasses,
anthropogenic origin, fossil fuel, large perturbation.

Exercise 6. Fill in each gap with only one word.

Gases pollute the atmosphere because they are produced 1). too
quickly to be cleared away naturally 2). by rain, winds or plant life.
These poisonous gases 3). are from several sources such as oil

279
producers, industries which burn fuel, and motor vehicle. When the
gases are released, they have two deleterious effects. 4). Firstly, some
of the gases are caught by rain clouds and fall as acid rain, 5). hence
damages the environment. Secondly, if the amount of carbon dioxide
increases, a larger fraction of the incident solar radiation is trapped,
keeping the heat of the sun close 6). to the Earth’s surface just 7). as a
greenhouse keeps heat in. The increase of carbon dioxide is 8). getting
worse by the cutting down 9). rain forests. Trees use carbon dioxide,
and the fewer trees 10). are, the more of this gas remains 11). in the
air. The USA is now leading an international effort to limit
deforestation. In 1996, Washington set goals for industry, and several
international agreements 12). have already been effective in reducing
the production 13). of harmful gases. Only international cooperation
can 14). solve this problem which, if 15). not controlled, may threaten
all life on earth.

Exercise 7. Match the definitions.

1. B, 2. C, 3. D, 4. A, 5. F, 6. E.

Exercise 10. Answer the questions.

1. What are the functions of atmosphere?


2. What gases absorb the radiation?
3. What happened to the energy absorbed by the atmospheric gases?
4. Why does the temperature rise on the Earth?
5. What can it result in?
6. What are the reasons of increasing the concentration of CO2?
7. What other gases that can affect the heat balance of the earth can you
name?
8. How do they appear in the environment?
9. What is the result of reaction N2O with ozone?
10.What are the forecasts for the further increase in the atmospheric
warming?

Exercise 11. Put the sections of the article from the New Scientist into the
correct order. The first section is “ a” and the last is “g”.

Keys: A, E, F, B, D, C, G.

280
Exercise 15. Discuss the following facts and figures.

Ss. discuss the facts using the vocabulary and facts known from the text of
the Unit developing the ideas: what are the ways of problem solution,
what should be done to prevent the problems.

Exercise 16. Discuss the following problems. Find some additional


information to prove your point of view.

This task should be done with the help of Teacher on Geoecology.

281
UNIT 5

THE IMPACT OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS


ON HUMAN ORGANISM

Lead-in. T. elicits information from the Ss related to the theme of the Unit.

Exercise 4. Read the following word-formations, translate into Russian.

Toxicology – toxicity – detoxify – toxic – toxicologically


To act – active – inactive – activity – activation
To produce – product – production
To absorb – absorption – absorptive
To transport – transportation – transportive
To metabolize – metabolite – metabolism

Exercise 5. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and set-


expressions.

To play an essential role – играть значительную роль


To result from – проистекать, вытекать из
To expand the scope – расширять границы
To provide the framework – обеспечить основу
Regardless of smth. – независимо от чего-либо
In response to – в ответ на что-либо
From the standpoint of – с точки зрения
Peculiar to – свойственный чему-либо

Exercise 6. Match the synonyms.

1. E, 2. F, 3. D, 4. A, 5. G, 6. C, 7. B.

Exercise 8. Match the words with their definitions.

1. E, 2. D, 3. A, 4. C, 5. B.

Exercise 9. State whether each of the following sentences is true or false, if


false, explain why.

1. False - Momentum for its development as an independent discipline


has come from food safety, chemical warfare defence, product safety,

282
radiation biology, pesticide research, environmental medicine, and
immunology.
2. True.
3. True.
4. False – It is supposed that there are two mechanisms developed in
response to selection pressures indicating either of two biological
needs: to detoxify and excrete harmful substances ingested in foods
and to metabolize endogenous chemical compounds.
5. False – It indicates the entry of xenobiotic in the body.
6. False – The most common opportunities for exposure are skin contact
and breathing in the agent.
7. True.
8. True.

Exercise 10. Read the text again and make notes under the following
headings. Find some additional information on each of the topics. Talk
about the process of toxicokinetics.

This task is for the final lesson. The purpose of this task is to summarize
all the knowledge the Ss have got in the course of working at the Unit.
After each report T should stimulate the discussion on the considered
problems.

Exercise 11. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. What is biomagnification? – Biomagnification is the accumulation or


increase in the concentration of a substance in living tissue as it moves
through a food web (also known as bioaccumulation).
2. Give the examples of biomagnification of some elements. – The
examples are given in the text describing cadmium, mercury.
3. What are the main sources of contamination with heavy metals in
the environment? – They are by-products of the mining, refining, and
use of other elements.
4. Find some more information on the impact of some elements.

This task is for self-doing work. It may be checked either at the lesson or
in written form.

283
Exercise 12. Work in pairs. Write 6 questions on the text above.
Act your dialogue using the expressions of agreement and disagreement.

Before this exercise T. revises the expressions of agreements and


disagreements which Ss have to learn in the course of General English and
after it. T. may write them on the board for visual support of the
dialogues.

Exercise 14.

a). Name the organs involved in each stage of toxicokinetics.

The exercise is a preparation stage for the next task.

Absorption may occur through lungs, mouth, skin, sometimes blood.


Distribution takes place through heart, capillary, blood.
Metabolism takes place in ventricle (stomach), liver, and pancreas.
Excretion occurs in kidneys, bowels (кишечник), lungs (expired air), gall
bladder (желчный пузырь).

b). Describe the processes of toxicokinetics using the picture.

284
Учебное издание

БОЛСУНОВСКАЯ Людмила Михайловна


АБРАМОВА Раиса Николаевна
МАТВЕЕНКО Ирина Алексеевна
ТЕРРЕ Дина Анатольевна
ДОЛГАЯ Татьяна Федоровна
ВАСИЛЬЧЕНКО Татьяна Валерьевна
БОЧАРОВА Татьяна Викторовна
ШЕНДЕРОВА Инна Владимировна
ВЕРШКОВА Eлена Михайловна
МАЛЮКОВА Дарья Сергеевна
СУХОРУКОВА Надежда Витальевна

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
TEACHER’S BOOK

НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЕ ДЕЛО
КНИГА ДЛЯ УЧИТЕЛЯ
Учебное пособие

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