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( )

.., .. ,
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III

2007

530.1 (075.8)
22.3

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.., .., .., ..

. .3. /
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, 2007
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.. 2007


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3.

24

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4.

38

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5.

45

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1.
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3. . .
4. .
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, II ).
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7

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2

1 2s
2

v t

= 0,

(1.1)

v (. ), s = s =

2s
x 2

2s
y 2

2s
z 2

( ).
v
- , ,
,
= x / v ,
. , ,
(1.1) ,
,
(. , II )

s ( x, t ) = A sin(t

s ( x, t ) = A cos(t

(t ) = t x / v + 0 = t

x
+ 0 )
v

(1.2)

x
+ 0 ) .
v

(1.2/)

+ 0

.
,
, .
,
.

y
x
. 1.1

,
.
. ,
,
, (. 1.1).
,
() : = vT .

k ,

k = 2 / . ,
2 ; [k]=-1. (1.2)

s ( x, t ) = A sin(t kx + 0 ) .

(1.3)

(1.2) (1.2/) ,
,
~

(Re s )
~

s = Ae i (t kx +1 ) ,

(1.4)

1 = 0 / 2 . (1.4)

e i = cos + i sin .

v
, (t ) = t kx + 0 = const ,

kx = t + 0

v = dx / dt = / k .

(1.5)

,
, .
,
,
,
.
.

. v
, v ,

,
()

w = w + w =

dW dW 1
+
= v 2 + v 2 2 . (1.6)
dV
2
dV

s
, v = s / t , v = x / t , = s / x = v / v .

,
.
.
(
)

U=

w v1,

(1.7)
v1 .
,
d w dS
dS ,
(. 1.2)

U=

d w
.
dS

(1.8)


dW = wdV = wv1dtdS cos = w v1 dS dt


d w = w v1 dS = U dS , S

w = U dS .
S

dS=dSn dS
dS
v1dt
. 1.2
10

v1

(1.9)

, ,
I = < U > .
,
.
1.2. .
()
, .. ,
:
,
,
() , ,
.

. ,
, ,

, .. .
.
,
,
() ,
, ,
.

,

(. 1.3, , . , II
)

s = s1 + s 2 = A0 cos(t kx ) + A0 cos([ d ]t [k dk ]x ) =
dt xdk
= 2 A0 cos
cos(t kx ) = A cos(t kx ).
2

(1.10)

s
x
. 1.3

11


,
- , , =0 =20, ..
td xdk = const ,

u=

dx d
=
dt dk

(1.11)

, ( ~ A2)
.
,
(1.11) (1.5) d = vk

k = 2 / dk = 2d / 2 :

u=

dv
dv
d d ( vk )
2 dv
.
=
= v+k
= v+
= v
2d
dk
d
dk
dk
2

(1.12)

.. ,
v (, , v):
v f ( , v ) .
1.3. .
,
,
.
: (2t k 2 x + 2 ) (1t k1 x + 1 ) = const , 2 = 1 , k 2 = k1 .



.

s1 = A1 sin(t kr1 + 1 ) = A1 sin 1 ,


s2 = A2 sin(t kr2 + 2 ) = A2 sin 2 ,
(ri i-
) ,
(. , II
, (14.20), (14.21)),
s = s1 + s2 = A sin ,
12

A2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos( 2 1 ) ,


A sin 1 + A2 sin 2
.
tg = 1
A1 cos 1 + A2 cos 2

(1.13)
(1.14)


(1.13) , ,

A = A2 + A1 (max), A = A2 A1 (min):

2 1 = k (r2 r1 ) + ( 2 1 ) .
123

(1.15)

(1.15) (1.13)

A2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos[k ( 2 1 )].


k ( 2 1 ) = 2m , m z ( A = A2 + A1 max),
k = 2 /

= m +

2 1
.
2

(1.16)

(1.16) 2 = 1
= m .
(1.17)
( A = A2 A1 )

= (2m + 1)

2 1
+

2
2

(1.18)

2 = 1

= (2m + 1)

(1.19)


,
. ,
, ,
,
.

s = s1 + s2 = A0 sin (t kx ) + A0 sin (t + kx + 0 ) =
= 2 A0 cos(kx + 0 / 2 ) sin (t + 0 / 2) = A sin (t + 0 / 2 ) . (1.20)
13

, =0, ,
=20 (. 1.4).

A
2A0 0

x
. 1.4

() ,
, = / 2 .
, , ,
, ,
.

v = s / t = 2 A0 cos(kx + 0 / 2 ) cos(t + 0 / 2 ) ,

= s / x = 2 A0 k sin (kx + 0 / 2) cos(t + 0 / 2 + / 2 ) .


v / 2 . ,
v=0, , ..
, .

.
.
,
, ,
.
1.4.

, 16 <v<20000
.
v ( ) ,

. , ()
, .
.
1. v
, (. 1.5, ),
() v.
, v
14

, .. ()
= 0 m v T .
, + . = v / v
T = 1 / , ,

v=

v00
v0
=
.
0 m v T 1 m v
v

vT

(1.21)

)
. 1.5

2. , ()
v , (. 1.5, ).

T = 0 / v v . +

, . T = 1 / v 0 = v / v0

v
.
v = v0 1
v

(1.22)


, (1.21) (1.22),

v = v0

v
v .

v
1 m
v

(1.23)

, (1.23)

,
,

v = v0

v cos

v
.
v cos
1m
v
15

(1.23/)

2.
1. . .
2.
. .
3. .
2.1. . .
()
(), .. ,

. H E (. 2.1),
.
. .
.

E ,
. ,

E H ,
, , , ..
,
, ,
, .. , ,
, .

, H ( ),
.
.

()

E . ,
- .

. 2.1

16

2 E 0 0

2 H 0 0

2 E
t 2
2

(2.1)

= 0.

(2.2)

H
t

= 0,


H = 0 /( 0 ) E .
(2.3)
(2.1), (2.2) (1.1), ,

v = 1 / 0 0 = c / = c / n ,
(2.4)

,
c = 1 / 0 0 =(299792,462 0,018) / 3108 /

=1).

()

( =1,

2.1
( )

3104

104103

103102

10210

101

()

(
:


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)

10,1
0,10,01
10-210-3
10-3510-5
10-3200010-9
(20001500)10-9
(1500780)10-9
(780620)10-9
(620585)10-9


(585550)10-9
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(550510)10-9

(510480)10-9

(480450)10-9

(450380)10-9

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()

(315280)10-9

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610-12
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17


() , , ,
() v ( ).
,

(. 2.1).
() ,
,
(0 ).

.
- ( -)
,
, .. - ,
, .

(.
(4.15), (11.11), II )

w = w + w =

0 E 2
2

0 H 2 ( 2.3), ( 2.4)
=

0 0 EH =

EH
. (2.5)
v

(
) (1.7)


U = w v = E H

(2.6)

.
2.2.
.


n21 = n2 / n1 ,
(2.7)
n1, n2 ,
(2.4). ( 1)

n21 = 2 / 1 .

(2.8)


,
18

. (
0) (
),
( ). ( 1 = 2 =1)



E0 + E = E ,
(2.9)

H 0 + H = H ,

(2.10)

1 (E0 n + En ) = 2 En ,

(2.11)

H 0n + H n = H n .

(2.12)

,

1)
, ;
2) ( )
(. ).
(2.9)(2.12)
, ,
. (2.9)(2.12)
:

1) s-, E ,

H ;
2) -, s- :

E , H .

E ,
s- -
:

sin (i r )
,
sin (i + r )
tg(i r )
Ap = A0 p
,
tg(i + r )
2 cos i sin r
As = A0 s
,
sin (i + r )
2 cos i sin r
Ap = A0 p
,
sin (i + r ) cos(i r )
As = A0 s

19

(2.13)
(2.14)
(2.15)
(2.16)

i
, r
. , (i=r=0):

n 1
n21 1
, Ap = A0 p 21
,
n21 + 1
n21 + 1
2
2
, Ap = A0 p
.
= A0 s
n21 + 1
n21 + 1

As = A0 s
As

(2.13)(2.16) 0
i r,
.

, : E

, H

, .

E s- i
n21 2.2.

s-
-

2.2
(i+r)> /2 i>i
n21>1 i>r
n21<1 i<r

(i+r)< /2 i<i
n21>1 i>r
n21<1 i<r

i,
, . i=i
i+r= /2
tgi = n21 .
(2.17)
(2.13)(2.16) , i=i, =0, .. , .

R = I / I 0 = A / A0 2 ,

(2.18)

Ik .
(2.13)(2.16)

Rs =

sin 2 (i r )

sin (i + r )

Rp =

tg 2 (i r )

tg (i + r )
2

(2.19)

(2.20)

(i=r=0)
20

n 1
Rs = R p = 21 .
n21 + 1

(2.21)

, ,

R=

I s + I p
I0

Rs I 0 s + R p I 0 p
I 0s + I 0 p

(2.22)

Ik s- - .

2

A
A
= n21 .
T=
= 2
1 A0
I0
A0
I

(2.23)

s- - (2.13)(2.16)

Ts =
Tp =

4 cos 2 i sin i sin r


sin (i + r )
2

(2.24)

4 cos 2 i sin i sin r


sin 2 (i + r ) cos 2 (i r )

(2.25)

(i=r=0)

Ts = T p =

4n21

(n21 + 1)

(2.26)

n21 = n2 / n1 < 1, :
sin r = sin i / n21 r > i . ,

/2, i = arcsin n21 .

i i , ,
.. (R=1).
.
2.3.
( . . 1.4 )
, ( ).

21

(1.23).
u
,
.
() S S/,
S u
S. S/
/, S (. 2.2, ).
t/
(. 2.2, ), S
1 t1. t2/= t1/+/ (/
S/)
. S 2
t2.

z S

0
y/

z/ u
0

S/

x1,t1 x2,t2

c
c(t1 - t2 )

x/ 0
x

x
u(t1 - t2 )

)
. 2.2


. . 2.2,
c(t1 t2 ) + u (t1 t2 ) = ,
(2.27)
S. , x2x1=u(t2 t1),
(2.27)
(c + u )(t2 t1 ) = .
(2.28)
, t2 t1,
(. 6, . I ,
(6.6)):
/

t +

ux /

t=
1

22

c2 .
u2
c2

t2 t1 =

(t

t1

(
)+

u x /2 x1/

c2
2

)
.

(2.29)

c2

(2.29) , S/
, .. 2/= 1/ t2/t1/=/.

T/

t2 t1 =

(2.30)

c2

(2.30) (2.28)
=/v T/=1/v/, , v,

u, v/,
:

v=

v/ 1
u
1+
c

u
c.

(2.31)

()
/

v<v/ > , ..

.
,
. 1929
. (18891953)
(Big Bang Theory).

(), . ,
,
.
(2.31)
() u u

v=

v/ 1 +
u
1
c
23

u
c.

(2.31)

3.
1. .
2. .
3. .
3.1.

,
,
, .

, ,

.
, -
(. ). ()
.
.
: ()
;
() ()
.
:
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
:
( ), , .
:
MN,
; (. 3.1).

1
2

N.3.1
24

: ,
N, ,
;
,
n21
(. 3.1):
sin / sin = n21 .
(3.1)

:
n21=n2/n1.
(3.2)
n,

v (. (2.4)):
n=c/v.
(3.3)
n21>1, ,
(n2>n1) < , n21<1 .

= arcsin n21

/ 2 . , < < / 2

,
. , , ,
.


S (. 3.2):
= 1 + 2 .

S
S

1 2

. 3.2
n
v v ()
() :
, . (
) (. spectrum )
.
25

3.2.
(. lens ) ,
( )
.
(. 3.3, 1), (4), (2),
(5), - (3) - (6).

. 3.3
,
( . 3.3, 1, 2, 3).
,
( . 3.3, 4, 5, 6).
,
.

(. 3.4).

P
M
O1

O2

N
. 3.4
, 1, 2
.
0,
O12, .
26

MN,
0 .
, 0,
.
F ,
,
. F.
N,
.
.
N ,
,
.
.
F 0
F 0F.

(. 3.5).

P
M
O1

O2

N
. 3.5
, 1, 2
.
0,
O12, .
MN,
0 .
, 0,
.
F ,

,
. F.
27

N,
.

.
N ,

,
.
.
F 0
F 0F.
, ,
:

1
1
1
,
= (n 1)

F
R
R

1
2

(3.4)

n ; Ri
,
, ,
.
F
, d , f
(. 3.6):

1 1 1
= ,
F d f

(3.5)

F ,
;
d , ;
f , ,
h ,
, h
.

h
2F F

f
. 3.6

28

h ( ) , ,
;
( ) , ,
.
H , h , . .,
.
(), h ,
.. .
,
.
, ,
, ,
().

h:
= H / h.
(3.6)
> 1 => , < 1=> , >0 =>
, <0 => ().
D ,
:
D = 1/ F .
(3.7)
[D]=1/=. D , .
D=1 F=1 .
(3.4)
D>0.
:
1. 1, ,
;
2. 2, ,
.
3. 3, ,
.

(. 3.7):
) 2F>d>F, : (>1), , ;
) d>2F, : (<1), , ;
) F>d>0, : (>1), , .

(. 3.8):
) d>2F, : (<1), , ;
) 2F>d>F, : (<1), , ;
) F>d>0 .

29

2
1

3
2
1
)

d
h
2F F 0

F
H

23
1

d
h

F
2F F 0

H
f

2
1
3
)

1 2

h
0 F
2F F d
. 3.7

1
2


, () ,
:
()
180, .
()
(. 3.9).
1. ,
1 2.

30

2. 1' 2'.

,
, .

1
h

2
13
)

H
2F F f 0 2 F
1

3
hH
2F F f 0 2 F 3
1
. 3.8

A
2A
/
1
/

2
1

. 3.9

3. 1' 2' ,
. ,
.
4. .
' . .
31


(, , ,
..). ,
, .
/

2 1

A
1

B
/

2
2

1/
A/

B/

. 3.10
(.
3.10).
,

.
.

:
.
:
- ;
- ( );
- =1.
, 2- ,
S ,
(. 3.11).
S1 - S1/
S1// . S2. S1//, S2/
.
(
) (
).
,
.
,
(. 3.12, ). ,
32

, F
. (FO)
. 1 , 2 .

S1

S2/

S1//
/
1

S2

. 3.11
.
, .
.
(.
3.12, ).

1
C

1
O

. 3.12

(. 3.13) (. 3.14).
(. 3.13, ): 1
, , 1/
; 2 , ,
. / .
33

// (. 3.13, )
.

2 1/

C 2
/
B/ 1

O
F

2/

A/

. 3.13
,
. .
:

1 1
1 2
+ / = = ,
d d
f R

(3.8)

R ; f=OF ; OB = d
; OB/ = d/ .
:

= A / B / / AB .

(3.9)

AB / A / B / = d / d / = .
( ):
- ;
- ;
- ( < 1).

1
2

1/
A/
O
F

2/
. 3.14

, . d d/
. f
.
34


(. 3.14): 1
1/ ; 2
.
. , ,
/.

1
2
3

n1 n2

. 3.15
, ,
(), , . ,
, . 3.15,
(
): 1
,
, ; 2
, ; 3 ,
; 4 ,
1. ,
, (.
3). 3 . 3.15, ,

2( ) = 180 o ,

= 90 o + / 2 ;
n2 = sin / sin = sin / sin( 90 o + / 2) .

3.3.
(. 3.15).
, .
// (. 3.16, ).
F2. //,
,
.
,
(. 3.16, ). 1 2,
35

. ( ) 1/
2/, (. 3.16, );
,
1 2
.
. 1 2
////, .

1
2

A
) B
A
) B

F1

F1
1
2

B
F2

F1

F2

F1

2/ 1 1/
2 F2
F1

//

F2

B//
. 3.16
.

F1 (F1<0) F2 (F2>0),
12, ,
.
, .
, , ,
(.3.17).
1, 12,
F1,
.
. ,
2
36

MN F2.
1, . - ,
F,
.

1
F1

2
F1

M
K
1
B
F2/
F 2
2 L
F2
O1 O2 F F2 F1
1
2
l
N
F1
F

. 3.17
, 1 2 ,
F1.
d2= F1 +l (l )
.
: f2=F. (3.5)
:

1
1
1
.
=
+
F F1 l F2

1
1
1
1
1
1

=
+ . ,
=
+
F2 F1 + l F
F2 d 2 f 2

F1<0,

(l=0, l << F1 )
: D=|D1|+D2.
, . . D1=|D1|.
, , F>F2.

- .
.
,
,
:
D=D1+D2+...+Dn.
(3.10)
,
F=1/D.
, , ,
. , 1 . 3.3
2 ..
37

4.
1. . .
.
2. .. ..
3. . .
4.1. . .

,
,
, .
(, , , )
.
,
.
() .
, ,
.

(,
). ,

, .

, (),
.
,

().
,
.

.
,

,
.
( ) , ,
.
, .. / 2 .

,
/ 2 2 :
38

= 2 / .

(4.1)

t <<
. ,
,

l = v = 2 v / ,

(4.2)
v .
~10-14 c, l~10-6 ,

~10-5 c, l~103 .

,
,
, .
,
,
.
,

, , (.
. 3.11), , (.
), ..
< l

< v .
, , ,
,
. ,
,
.
,

= (2m 1), m z
2

(4.3)

= m, m z

(4.4)

.

().

39

V =

I max I min
,
I max + I min

(4.5)

Imax Imin .
V>0,1, .. Imin<0,82Imax.
4.2. 2. .. .
( )
,
(. 4.1, ).

S2/

O1
O
O2

x-d/2
x
x+d/2

S1
S2

S1/

. 4.1
l>>d (d ).
,
(. (4.4)).
:

S12 = l 2 + ( x d / 2)2 , S 22 = l 2 + ( x + d / 2 )2

S 22 S12 = (S 2 + S1 )(S 2 S1 ) = 2 xd .
d<< l, S 2 + S1 2l , S 2 S1 ,
= xd / l .

(4.6)
(4.3),
,

xm =

(2m 1) l , m z .
d

(4.7)


(4.3),

x m = m

l
, m z.
d


40

(4.8)

x = x m x m1 =

l
.
d

(4.9)

(4.9) ,
d (),
,
l>>d. ,
.
, , ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
> .
,
,

(. 4.2).

. 4.2
d 0 ,

= 2d + / 2 ,
(4.10)
/ 2
(
n 1 ),
,
( )
/ 2.
, d=0 = / 2 ,
().
( m=1) (4.4) = .
(4.10)
d = / 4 . ()
d = 3 / 4 .. ,
,
. ,
41


, d = const .
,
.
(
) ,
(R=10100 )
(. 4.3).

//

R-b
, n>1 D
b
O

1/

A
B

. 4.3

. , ,
, , -
.
1/ 1//, , .
r DC R>>b

r 2 = R 2 ( R b) 2 = 2 Rb b 2 2 Rb . 2b r 2 / R
2

= 2b + / 2 = r / R + / 2 . ()
() (4.3) (4.4) m 0

r = (m 1 / 2) R , m=0, 1, 2,

(4.11)

r = mR , m=0, 1, 2,

(4.12)


, , .
4.3. .

,
, ,
.
42

, , ,

, (. 4.4).

n1

1 A
n2 O

1/

//

n1< n2

2/ /

2/

. 4.4

1/ 1// , , ,
:

( OD + DB ) 2 OA + 1 ,
1

(4.13)

i i-. (4.13) . 4.4


(1.15) 1 = 2 .
1 / 2 (4.13) ,

( n 2 > n1 )
,
1 / 2 .
(4.13)
v, :
1 =v1/v=c/(vn1), 2 =v2/v=c/(vn2),

n1 OA + 1 =
(n2 l 2 n1l1 ) =

2
2
(s 2 s1 ) = 2 ,
=
(4.14)

n2 ( OD + DB )

li ,
i-, si=nili i-,
.
43


(4.3) (4.4) .
OD = DB ,

(.

4.4):

OD = DB = d / cos ,
OA = OB sin ,
OB = 2dtg ,

OA = 2dtg sin . , (4.14), n1=1


( ), n2=n

2dn
2dn 2d sin sin
2dtg sin =

.
cos
cos
cos
sin = n sin ,

2dn 1 sin 2
=
= 2dn cos = 2d n 2 n 2 sin 2 =
cos
= 2d n 2 sin 2 .

(4.15)
,
( 2/ 2//).
, 1 / 2 .
,
, .
,
R<<1,
. R ,
,
, ..
, , ..
()
.
,
550 ,
.
(, , ..)
,
.
,
,
I1=I2 R1=R2.
()

n = n ,
(4.16)
n (, , ..).
44

5.
1. . -.
2. . .
3. .
() . . .
4. .
5.1. . -
( . difractus )
, ,
. ,

, .
( ) (
). ,

.
( ),
, ,
.

. 5.1

,
,
.
. 5.1 , , ,
.

,
..

, , ,
.

45

,

.
, ,
,
. ,

.
5.2. .

S
( ).
(, , I~A2)
b .
,
/ 2 (. 5.2).

b+ 2/2
b+ /2

. 5.2

/ 2 , .

=12+34++m
(5.1)
m m- ,
S m = S m S m1 .
S m = 2ahm . . 5.3

rm = a (a hm )
2

= b + m b m .
2
2

, :

a 2 a 2 + 2ahm hm2 = b 2 + bm + m 2 2 / 4 b 2 2bhm hm2 .

46

bm
. .. S m = 2ahm ,
2(a + b)
ab
= S m S m1 =
f ( m) .
a+b

m 2 2 / 4 , , hm =
S m

(5.2)

b+ m/2
b
M

a r
am

hm
. 5.3
(5.2) , .
m m ,
,

: 1>2>3>

Am+1 Am1
, (5.1)
2
A A
A
A Am
A A
A = 1 + 1 A2 + 3 + 3 A4 + 5 + ... = 1
,
2 2
2 2
2
2

Am =

(5.3)

+ m, m.
. (5.3) ,

, r1
.
,
.
,

. ,
,
, () .


( < ) ( ),

.

47

,
.

/ 2 ,

5.3. .
() .
-.

( ), ,
,
(
, . 5.4).

I
..

P
. 5.4
.
= a sin .
,
m:

= a sin = m .
2

(5.4)

m , , ,
.
, I
.

,
b . d=a+b
.

,
. ,
(5.4)
48


= d sin = m .

(5.5)

m , ,
.
(5.4) m.
(5.5) m d / ,
( ) ,
,
.

,
.
, ..

, ,
()
.

1
2

/2 /2
. 5.5

d
(. 5.5), 1 2

= 2d sin = k ,
(5.5)
k=1, 2, 3, .

() d
,
(5.5), ()
.
,


. , ,
(5.5)
d
.
49

5.4.
(holos . , grapho )
. . 1948 . (
1971 .).


. ()
1 (. 5.7, ) 2 ( )
( ).
() ,
1 2,
.
( , . 5.7, )
,

).
1,
,
2.

. 5.7

,
: Red . , Green
Blue RGB-.
, , ,
()
.
,
(),
.


,

.
50

6.
1. (, , ,
).
2. . .
3. . . .
. .
.
4. (-).
6.1.
(, , , )

,

() : , ,

,
,
(. ), , ,
,
.
, ,
.
.

,

() ,
, .
,

I = I 0 e x ,

(6.1)

I0 , ,
, > 0
( < 0 , . ),
, ,
.
(..
,
) ,
.
,
..
,
. ,
51


()
-
.
( ) ,
, , (
) .
() A( ) (
. Absorption )
,
.
,

(..
) .
,
, ,
.

(
),
( ).
,
( ),
.
.
:

I ~ 4 ,

(6.2)

.
6.2. .

n
v v
() ()
: ,
. ( )
(. spectrum )
(. . 3.2 ).
n v
. v n,

52

, v n
, .

,
(
).
() n(v)
(. 6.1)

1
v0

. 6.1
,
. ,
n ,
, ( ).
,
() v0,
n(v)
v0i,
. ,
, .
6.3. . . .
. .

(. . 2.1 ).
, ,
, ,
.

P=

I max I min
,
I max + I min
53

(6.3)

Imax Imin
, .
Imax=Imin =1, Imin=0 =1.

(
) .
,
,
(. 6.2).
, ,

tg = n21 = n2 / n1 ,

/2

(6.4)

n1
n2

. 6.2
,
.
, (6.4) .
sin / sin = n21 ,
(. 6.2).

(
) .
, ,
,
. ..
.

,
,
( ).
, .
54

(, , )
.
,
:
( , 1 . 6.3),
( , 2 . 6.3).
. ,

.

( E )
,
(. 6.3).

2
1
. 6.3

, d
= (n n )d

(n n )d ( 0 ).


= (n n )d = u0 , u=1/4
( = / 2 ), u=1/2
( = ). ,
,
, . ,
.
,
()
.
I0,
I

I = I 0 cos 2 ,

55

(6.5)

(
) .
(, , )

.

- d

= [ ]d ,

(6.6)

[ ] ,
, ;
- d

= [ ]d .

(6.7)

[ ]
, .
6.4. (-)
.. (
..) 1934
.. .. ( 1958 .
).
(, , )
-,
.
.

, .
.
() : ,
.

56

7.
1. .
. , .
2. , - .
. .
3. .
7.1. .
. ,
,
(. ),
() .
(, ,
), ,
, .
,
() .
,
(0 ).
:
1)
( );
2)
(
);
3)

);
4)
(
);
5)
( );
6)
(
, ) .
(
(0 )),
( ) ,
().
, ..

,
.

( )

[/(2)]=[/2]

57

Rv,T =

dWv,v + dv
dv

(7.1)

dWv ,v + dv ,
v v+dv.
,
()

RT = Rv,T dv .

(7.2)


()

Av,T =

dW
dv

dWdv

(7.3)

,
, ,

.
,
,

(). Av ,T

= 1.

,
.
D d 0,1D;

.
, .

(),
A

CT

= const < 1

.
7.2. , - .
.
, .
Rv ,T Av ,T
.. (18241887) 1859 .
,
v :
58

Rv,T
Av,T

= rv,T ,

(7.4)

rv ,T . rv,T = R v ,T , ..

.
(7.4) :

1) Rv ,T < R v ,T

2) ( Av ,T = 0 ),
( Rv ,T = 0 ).
. (1835
1893) 1879 , . (18441906)
1884
()

RT
8

= f (T ) = rv,T dv = T 4 ,

(7.5)

= 5,67 10 /( )= 5,67 10 /(24)


. (7.5)
() () .
1893
. (18641928)
.
,
( ),
..
, ,
, .
, max ,
,
(. . 7.1):
max = b / T ,
(7.6)
2

b = 2,9 10 .
(7.6)
( ).
(7.5) (7.6) ,

, , .. rv ,T = f (v, T )

r ,T = f ( , T ) .
59

r ,T

T1>T2>T3
T1
T
T2
T3
max

. 7.1

... (18421919) .. (1877


1946) 1900
():

rv,T =

2v 2
c

< >=

2v 2
2

kT ,

(7.7)

c
, < >= kT

v (. II
, ). , (7.7)
v .
(7.7) (7.5)
:

RT

= rv,T dv =

2kT
c

(7.5) R

dv = ,

(7.8)

~ T 4 .


.

v , , rv ,T 1900
.... (18581947)
.
= hv ,

h = 6,63 10 34 . ,

.
(. )
() . 14 1900

60

rv,T =

2v 2
c

< >=

2v 2
c

hv
.
hv
exp 1
kT

(7.9)

14 1900
, (7.9), ,
. (7.9)
() (7.5) (7.7).
7.3.

. Rv ,T RT
.
,
:
1)
(7.5)

T p = 4 RT / ;

(7.10)


( ), R

= T 4

R = T 4 T p = 4 T ;
T

Av,T < 1, , ,
Tp < T ;
2)
(7.6) ,

= b / max ;
(7.11)
(
),
( ,
,
);
3)
(7.4):
,

, r ,T = R ,T ;
T < T , Av,T < 1.
61

8.
1. . .
. , .
2. - .
. ...
3. ..
8.1. . ,
. . ,



() .
() .

.. (18571894) 188687
, 189798 .. (18561940) ( )
,
.

, 1888 ..
(18391896)
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ( ,
) .
,
:
1) ( )
;
2)
;
3) v, ..
v .
, ,
, ..

, ..
.
.
, ,

62


.
1905 . .
(14 1900 ,
) (
) :

mv 2max
= hv = A +
,
2

(8.1)

= hv , ,

( , )
. , v
.
, ,
(N
) :

mv 2max
N = Nhv = A +
.
2

(8.2)

(8.1) (8.2)
- .
, hv,
,

v = A / h
(8.3)
.
U0
, ..

mv 2max
= eU 0 ,
2

(8.4)

I2
I1

U0

0
. 8.1
63

(8.1) (8.3) (8.4)


eU 0 = h(v v ) ,

(8.5)

- (. 8.1).
Ii ,

.

, ,
.
()
,
.
(),
50100 , . ,
,
(
). .
n

K = (n
), 109 1011,
.
.

(
, ),
( ).

),
( )
. ( I )
- .
,
,
(, , , )


).
. , ,
- ().

64

. , ,
: , ,
() ,
( )
.

( ).
(
- )
().

.
( . ).

(
), .
,
-
( , , ,
..), (
, ..).

(, ) (.
II ), .

(. )
: ,
().
,
.


(, ), , ,
( )
(, ).
8.2. - .
. ..
, ,
0 = hv , ( ) ,
.

65

m = 0 / c 2 = hv / c 2 ,

(8.6)

0 = hv = p c , c = v
k = 2 / , h /( 2 ) = h ,
p =

0
c

hv h
= = hk .
c

(8.7)

(8.6) (8.7)
v ( ) ( . )
m , p , 0 . , ( )
, , ,
.
: ?
: , ,
,
. ,
(, ,
, ), (
, ,
, , v
0 , c = v 0 = hv , , .
).

, ,

.

,
.. (18661912) 1901 , 1909
( ),
..
5 10

3,7 10

... (760 .. 1 . 101325 ).




0,010,1 .
,
(

66

). ,
.
R
( N
), RN , R(1N)
. ()
(, . I
, )
.
, S
t

P=

p
hv
hv
hv
= 2 RN + (1 N ) R = N (1 + R) = N 0 (1 + R) . (8.9)
c
c
St
c
c

(8.9) ()
..
8.3. .
()
,

.. (18921962) 192223 (
1927 , ,
).

. 8.2

6 1012 < < 2 10 9 ) (, , ..)

, (
)
0 . , = 0
(
, . 8.2)

= 0 = 2k sin 2 ( / 2 ) ,
67

(8.10)

12

k = h /( me c) = 2,43 10

, me .
,
, .

. (1900 .).

() , ..
:

We0 + W0 = We + W ,

(8.11)

p 0 = p e + p ,

(8.12)

We 0 = me c , W0 = hv0 = h
( h /( 2 ) = h , = 2v ) , W = cp
; 0
() ,
0 ( )
, , .
2

2 2

We = c pe + m c

(8.11)

e 2 + cp0 = c pe2 + m 2c 2 + p
pe2 + m 2c 2 + p .

e + p0 =

pe
p

(8.13)

p0

. 8.3
(. 8.3)

68

pe2 = p2 0 + p2 2 p0 p cos .

(8.14)

(8.14) (8.13)

e + p0 p =

p2 0 + p2 2 p0 p cos + m 2c 2 .

2e p0 2e p 2 p0 p = 2 p0 p cos ,
p e + p0 (1 cos ) = p0 me c .

me c
.
(8.15)
e + p0 (1 cos )
= h0 / c (8.15)

p = p0
p = h / c p 0

= 0

me c 2

e + h0 (1 cos )

(8.16)

(8.16),
, = 0 = 0 (..
2

) h << me c ,
.
( = 2c / ) (8.10),

k = h /(me c) = const ,
(8.17)
(8.10).
,
= 0
0 , ,
.

69

9. - I
1. . -.
2. - (
, , , ).
3. .
.
4. .
.
5. . .
6. .
..
9.1. . -
XX ,
-
, , ,
- .
:

E = h ,
p = 2h .

(9.1)


. ,
. ,
, . -
.
. (, ,
)
. ,
(, ,
- ),
. ,
, ,
, -
.
(
, , )
, .
-
, ,
.
70

, .
- (9.1).
. - ,
,
(
,
), ,
, ,
,
.
- (1924)

2h 2h

=
=
,

p
mv

= .

(9.2)

- ,
.
,
. , -
(..
). -
. -
,
, , ,
, .
-
. 1925 ,
-, :
! , ,
!
1926
. 1929
.
9.2.
-
( , , , )
1923
:

71

, ,
.

.
1927 .
(18811958) (18961971).
.

.
, .
.
,
. ,
1921 ,

, ,
.
d
.

. ,
, d cos = m = 1.65 .

= 2h / p = 2h /(mv) = 1.65 A , v = 2eU m

U = 54 .

.
.
..,
(18921975)( ),
(19071991) . . .

..
e
P

. 9.1

(
.. ) .
. 9.1.
72

9.3. .

. 9.2 ,
.

eA
e

2
1

. 9.2


. , , ,
.
, ,
. .
,
(.9.2, 1).
(. 9.2, 2).
! ,
!
, . ,
, . , ,
,

: .
(. 9.3).
.

2
. 9.3

. 9.4

73

1
2

, -
x = 0. , .. x.
x = 0.
- .
- .
.
,
x sin = . , p x = p sin =

sin . ,

- x . p x = 2h / x
p x = 2h = h .


h
A B h
(9.3)

, .

..

x p x h,
y p y h,

z p z h,
E t h.

(9.4)

,
, .
9.4. .

1926
. ,
.
. ,
, ,
. ,

. :
,
, .
74

()
.
-,
. ,
x,

= ae i (t kx ) .

(9.5)

E = h =

E
P
, P = hk k = .
h
h

(9.5) :

i
( px Et )
h
= ae
.

(9.6)

:

i
1
= E E = ih
,
t
h
t
2
1 2 2
2 i 2
2
.
= p p = h
2
2

h

x
x

(9.7)
(9.8)

,
E=p2/2m. ,
, (9.7) (9.8)

h 2 2

2 = ih
.
2m x
t

(9.9)


.
,
U, E
p2/2m=EU. (9.7) (9.8), :

1 h 2 2 1
= ih
U .

2m x 2 t
:

h 2 2

2 + U = ih
.
(9.10)
2m x
t
.
, ,
:

75

h2

2 + U = ih
.
2m
t

(9.11)

.
2

2
x

2
y

2
z

= .

( )
,
, ,

( x, y , z , t ) = ( x, y , z ) e

E
i t
h

.
(9.10)
E

i t
h 2 i h t 2
E i h t
h

e
+ U e
= ih i e
.
2m
h

(9.12)

exp[ i (E / h )t ] ,

(9.13)

h2 2

+ U = E
2m

2 +

2m
h

(E U )

= 0.

(9.14)

(9.11)
, U(r,t) (

).


.
-.
, , ,
.
, . :
.

76

1927 ,

,
.
,
, .
.
- .
, dP dV

2

dP = A dV = A dV ,

(9.15)

A .

( ), dP = A dV = 1 . , A = 1, ..

dP = dV = 1.

(9. 16)


.
(), ,
. -

dP = dV = 2 dV .

E
E
i t
i t
dP / dV = = e h e h

= .

,
, :

dP / dV = = 2 f (t ) .

(9.17)

,
(
, ,
..): - (-!),
, (9.17),
.
,
,
, -
.
77

(9.17),
() :
) ,
;
) ,
;
) , ..
())
);
) .. - 1
( ), (9.16).
,
.
1, 1, N,
, 1 N .
.

2x
1 cos
x
a )dx = 2 ( x a sin 2x ) =
, 2 sin 2
dx = 2 (
2
2 2
a
a
0
0

2
a
2a
2
,
= ( 0) (0 0) =
=1 =
a
2
2
x
2
( x) =
sin( ) .
a
a
2

,
, ,
.

r
r r
r
= i , F = Fi , = i .. ()
i

() :
( ), 1,
2, n, , :
= i i ,
(9.18)
i

i , , ;

2
i = 1.

.
,
(. 9.2), ()
W A = W1 = 1 1 * , (WB = W2 = 2 2 *) ,

= 1 + 2
78

W = * = 1 1 * + 2 2 * +

1 * 2 + 2 * 1

W W1 + W2 (..

, ). ,

.
9.5.



. -
.

.
( , , ),
.
(
, , ..),
f(x).
g(x):

L ( f ( x )) = g ( x ).
( x ,
, ;
).

, a, ..

A f ( x) = f ( x)
A ( f(x)),
) ) f(x)
A , .
,
, .
, ,
,

, . ,

E = ,
,
=0. ,
.
(9.6) :
79

= ae

E p
i t x
h h

= ae i (t kx) ,

(1)
=2=E/=2E/h ,
k=p/=2p/h=2/ .
(1) ; ,
x, t :
E

1 i h t h x
p

= a pe
=
ih
x
ih

ih

= p
x

( p px, .. x).
: ,
p (
, !),
(-i), .
, :

p x = ih

d
,
dx

, y z :

d
d
, p z = ih .
dy
dz
v
r
r r

p
=
i
p
+
j
p
+
k
p z ,

x
y
p y = ih

r
p = ih ,

rd r d vd
+ j +k
( 1, ,
dx
dy
dz

= i

5).
2

p 2 = p x + p y + p z = p x p x + p y p y + p z p z ,

2
2
2
d
d
d
p = ( p x ) + ( p y ) + ( p z ) = h (
+ 2 + 2 ) = h 2 ,
2
dx
dy
dz
d2
d2
d2
=
+
+
.
dx 2 dy 2 dz 2
2

:
2

p
h
E k = T =
=
.
2m
2m


(!):
80

x = x .
-

r
v
r r
r
r = i x + j y + k z = r .


()
(, ),
:
2
2

p
h
= E k + U =
+ U =
+ U ( x, y , z ) ,
2m
2m

r
U = U ( r , t ) = U ( x, y, z , t ) . H

.
?
.
,


.
.
f, (, - ,
..).
: 1, 2, n, f1, f2, , fn. ,
( ) L.
.
f
. , , ,
f

.
f1, f2, , fn .. fn
Wn .

.
, , ,
Wn n .
.
, f
, , ..

( ):
< f >= Wn f n .
n

81

= C n n , C n

(9.18),

C n =

Nn dV .

< f >= Wn f n = Cn f n .
n

(2)

(2):

< f >= CnCn * f n = Cn f n


n

< f >= Cn
n

RN

* (n )dV

* dV = C * f dV .

RN

f n n = n n ,

* ( Cnn )dV .
n

:
Cn n = ( Cn n ) = .

f
, ,

< f >=

*( )dV

(3)

RN

( , , . ).
,

|m>.
. : <m|
, - ( . bracket), |m>
-, <m| - - .
,
.

,

.
. : , ,
,

,

, .

(,
, ,
..).
82

,

. ,
.
, f
, ,

. ,


b. f b
,
.

,
,

. , n ( n = 1, 2,... )

, .

A ( B n ) = A (bn n ) = bn ( A n ) = bn an n ,
B ( A ) = B (a ) = a ( B ) = a b ,
n

n n

an , bn ,
n .

A ( B n ) = B ( A n ) .

(4)

= C n n , n


(4), :

= AB
AB
=0
= AB

(5)

( ).
,


,
(. (5)).
. ,

x ] = x ( p x ) p x ( x ) = x(ih
[ xp

p x :

) + ih ( x ) = ih 0 ,
x
x
83

(6)

.. x p x
. ,
.
(9.4)
: x p x ( y p y , z p z )
(9.4) ,
,
,
.
, .

.
..
,
.
(. 9.1).
9.1

2
= *

* dV = 1

RN

fn






f

,
f fn
f
fn

dV
*

RN

B :

B = B

84


( )
f



a
b,
B

,

n

9.6. .
.

, ,
, !
.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
, .
. ,
,
.
: , ,
, .
. ,
, , ,
(+) : (
+ ) ( + ). , , ,
, ,
( ), (
). , , ,
. .
, ,
.

, , ,
.
,
.

: ,

() .
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
, .
, ,
,
85

, ,
, , ,
()
.

.
(19021979), 1961 , ,
,
. , ,
, , 1 2.

. , ,
, 1 2. ,
? ,
. ,
1 2. ,
1 , 2, ( , ).
,
.
.
, -
, .
, 1 2.
, -, 1 , 2
( , ). ,
,
,
.
. :
: ,
? : , ( )
. , , ,
, . ,
(), .
,
, -
.
,
, ,
. , 1961
, . ,
,
86

, ,
, .
,
. , , ,
, -, ,
.
, ,
( ) .

. .
, ?
, ,
( ,
), , ,
. .
,
, . ,

( ),
,
.
,
, .
, , -
, ,
. ,
. ,
(
,
). ,
,
,
. , ,
,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
. . ,
, ,
.
1957 ,
,
, , -,
87

(
,
( ) ,
).
( ,
) ,

. , , ,
, ,
.
--. ?
, , ,
,
( ). ?
:
(),
, . .
0 ,
( , ,
, ).
( + + )
(11+221)00. 1 (
2) , (),
1 ( 2).
( + + ) ,

(111+222)0, 11 11+2222.

( ) ,
. () ,
. , 1,
1. , ,
1,
11. 2
2,
22
.
, , ,
,
.
,
, . , ,
, ,
88

( ),
.
()
, ,
. .
, , .
, ,
( ) .
, ,
, .

. , ,
.
,
, , . ,
,
,
, .
,
. ,
.

, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
, ( ) ,
. ,
,
(, ,
, ). ,
,
. ,
(11+22)00(1)0(2).
-

1111(1)1(2)+2222(1))2(2).
, , ,
, 1 (
), 2 (
). 1(1)2(2) 2(1)1(2), ,
1, 2.
89

,
.
.
, . , , . -,
, ,


. -,
, ,
, , .
,
, .
,
. , ,
.
,
,
.
.
,
.
.

, ,
. ,
,
(
) .
. , ,
. ,
- , .
, , ,
?

,
. , ,
, .
,
,
,
, ( )
. ,
( , ,
, ). .
90


,
, .

, ,
(
). , , ,
.
- ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, ; ..
.

, . ,
, (, .)

,
- . ,
, , .
.
, ()
,
(,
(. .
) .
, , .

,
, ,
.
, , . ,

.

, .
,
, , .
, ,
( )
, . (, ,
91

),
.

,
.
(, -2, 2005).
.
, ,
,
, .
.
.
, . , ,
. ,
,
, , ,
, .
, - ,

() ,
, ( !),
. ,
.
: ,
7 .
. -, ,
, ,

.
,
,
-, 1787 -:

, . ,

.

92

10. II
( )
1. .
2. .
.
3. . .
4. .
10.1. ()
, .. (),
() U ( x, y, z ) = 0 , (9.14)

2m

E = 0 .

2 2m
+ 2 E = 0 .
h
x 2

(10.1)

= y = e px , y = pe px , y = p 2 e px . (10.1) p 2 e px + k 2 e px = 0 ,
2m
p 2 = k 2 , p = ik , k 2 = 2 E . :
h
( x) = A1e i (t kx ) + A2 e i (t kx ) = A1e ikx + A2 e ikx .

E = h 2 k 2 /( 2m) = p x2 /( 2m) ,

(10.2)
(10.2)
,
, k
.
10.2. .

. .

()
() .
. ,
, .. .

93

,
. (. 10.1)
U ( x)

, x 0;

U ( x) = 0, 0 < x < a;
, x a.

U=
1

U=0
2
0

. 10.1

U=
3
a x

(10.1) 1 = 3 = 0 (
1 3). (10.1)

( x) = A sin kx + B cos kx , k = (2mE ) h 2 .


B = 0 .
:

( x = 0) = 0 ,

A2
A2 sin 2kx
2
2
2
2 1 cos( 2kx)
dx = (
x
) =
dx = A sin (kx)dx = A
2
2
4
k
0
0
0

A
A sin 2ka
) = 1.
a
2
4k
( x = a ) = 0 , A sin kx = 0 . A 0
=(

sin ka = 0 , ka = n , n = 1,2,3...
n
k = .
a

(10.3)
(10.4)

, ,

A2
2
a =1 A =
.
2
a
n
2
2
( x) =
sin kx =
sin x .
a
a
a
94

(10.5)

k =

2m

2mE

E (10.4)

En =

2h 2
2ma

h2

2n2
a2

n2 .

(10.6)

.. , En ,
n , E1
() .
k =

n
a

2a
,
n

.. ()

n
3

(x)

n
3

2
E1

a/3 a/2 2a/3 a x

E1

a/3 a/2 2a/3 a x

. 10.2
. 10.3
(10.5) n 0 (
n = 0 = 0 , .. ,
(10.3)): n=2 (
) /2, n=3 /3 2/3, . . (,

, . . 10.2 10.3).

E n = E n +1 E n =

E n E n =

95

2h 2
2ma

2n + 1

n2

(2n + 1) ,

, n lim (
n

2n + 1
2 1
)
=
(
+ 2 ) = 0 En En 0 .
lim
n n n
n2

. (1923 .):
, .. n , .

.

0, ( x, y )
(10.7)
U ( x, y ) =
,
(
x
,
y
)

0, ( x, y, z ) G,
(10.7)
U ( x, y , z ) =
, ( x, y, z ) G,
= {( x, y ) : 0 < x > a1 ,0 < y < a2 }

xy (. 10.4, ),
G = {( x, y, z ) : 0 < x < a1 ,0 < y < a2 ,0 < z < a3} (. 10.4, )
.

y
a2

y
a2
0

G
a1 x

a1 x

a3

. 3.5
x, y, z
, :
( x, y ) = 1 ( x)2 ( y ) ,
(10.8)
( x, y, z ) = 1 ( x)2 ( y )3 ( z ) .
(10.8)
(10.8) (10.1), (10.7),

( x, y ) +
2 ( y )

d 2 1 ( x)
dx

2m

+ 1 ( x)

E ( x, y ) = 0

d 2 2 ( y )
dy

1 ( x) 2 ( y ) ,

2m

E1 ( x)2 ( y )

1 d 2 1 ( x)
1 d 22 ( y )
2m
+
=

E,
2
2
2
1 ( x) dx
2 ( y ) dy
h

96

1 d 2 1 ( x)
1 d 2 2 ( y )
1 d 2 3 ( z )
2m
=

E.
+
+
1 ( x) dx 2
2 ( y ) dy 2
3 ( z ) dz 2
h2


, , z. ,
:

1 d 2 1 ( x)
2m
=

E,
2 1
1 ( x) dx 2
h

1 d 2 2 ( y )
2m
=

E ,
2 2
2 ( y ) dy 2
h
2m
1 d 2 3 ( z )
=

E3 ,
3 ( z ) dz 2
h2

E1 , E2 , E3 , E:
E = E1 + E2 ,
E = E1 + E2 + E3 .

, (10.5), (10.6)

1, n1 ( x) =

n x
2
sin 1 ,
a1
a1

2, n 2 ( y ) =

n x
2
sin 2 ,
a2
a2

3, n3 ( z ) =

n x
2
sin 3 .
a3
a3

(10.8) (10.8)

n1 , n2 ( x, y ) =
n1 , n2 , n3 ( x, y, z ) =

n x
8
n x
n x
sin( 1 ) sin( 2 ) sin( 3 ) ,
12 a3
a1
a2
a3

2h 2 n1

n2 2
2
+
(
)
(
) ,
2m a1
a2
2h 2 n1 2 n2 2 n3 2
=
( ) +( ) +( ) .
2m a1
a2
a3

En1 , n2 =
En1 , n2 , n3

4
n x
n x
sin( 1 ) sin( 2 ),
12
a1
a2

(10.9)
(10.9)

.
a = a1 = a2 ( = a3 ) . (10.9)
97

En1 , n2 =

2h 2

2
2
(
n
+
n
), n1 , n2 = 1,2,3... ,
1
2
2

2ma
h
=
(n 2 + n22 + n32 ), n1 , n2 , n3 = 1,2,3... .
2 1
2ma
2 2

En1 , n 2 , n3

,
En1 , n 2 ( En1 , n 2 , n3 ) , n1 , n2 (n3 )

n1 n2 ( n3 ) , () (
ni = 1 ) ,
n1 , n 2 n 2 , n1 ( n1 , n 2 , n3 , n 2 , n1 , n3 , n3 , n 2 , n1 ). ,
, ,
,

. , ,
.

n1 n2 2, n1 = n2 .

n1 n2 n 3
( n1 , n2 , n3 ), ( n2 , n1 , n3 ), ( n3 , n1 , n2 ), ( n3 , n2 , n1 ), ..
(. 10.1).
10.1
3

( n1 , n2 , n3 )
2

ni

i =1

1
2
3
4
5
6

(1,1,1)
(1,1,2), (1,2,1),(2,1,1)
(1,2,2), (2,1,2), (2,2,1)
(1,1,3), (1,3,1), (3,1,1)
(2,2,2)
(1,2,3), (1,3,2), (2,1,3), (2,3,1), (3,1,2), (3,2,1)

3
6
9
11
12
14

:
k 6 = 6 , k 2 = k3 = k 4 = 3 , k5 = 1 ( n1 = n2 = n3 ).
.

0, r < a,
U (r ) =
, r > a,

r . (10.1)

98

2mE

= 0, 0 r < a .

(10.10)

,

(.. ).
(
, ).
. ,

E = mc 2 , .
, ,
.
, v
F .
(, ,
), ( ), ,
, , ()
(),
.
,
, ()
r , , . ,
,
, ,
r .
, ,

1 d 2 d (r ) d 2 (r ) 2 d (r )
(r
)=
+
(r ) =
, (10.10)
2
2 dr
r
dr
dr
dr
r

d 2
dr 2

2 d 2mE
+ 2 = 0.
r dr
h

(10.11)

(0) <

(a) = 0

(
).

(r ) =

U (r )
.
r

(10.12) (10.11),

d 2U
2

2mE
2

U = 0, 0 r a ,

dr
h
U (0) = 0 U ( a ) = 0 .
99

(10.12)

nr

U n (r ) = A sin

, n = 1,2,3...

A
nr
(sin
), n = 1,2,3,... ,
a
r
2h 2 2
En =
n , n = 1,2,3,...
2
2ma

n (r ) =

, n=1, m=1,6710-27 , =10-14


Emin=E1=3,310-13 =2,1106 =2,1 .
,
,
.


. (( ,
3)):
)dV .
< f >= * (
(10.13)
RN

(10.13)
x , p E ( ):
a

1)

2
2a
nx 2
nx
x =< x >= (
sin
) xdx = x sin 2
dx =
a
a
a
a
0
0
2nx
)
a x (1 cos
2
1a
1a
2nx
a
=
dx = xdx x cos
dx =
a0
a0
a0
a
2
U = x, dU = dx
2nx
2nx =
a
=
sin
dV = cos
dx, V =
2n
a
a

a
a a
1 a 2 1 xa
2nx
2nx
sin
=

sin a dx =
a 2 a 2n
a 0
2n 0

144244
3

= 0 (sin 2n = 0 sin 0 = 0)

2nx
a
a
a
a
a
= 2 2 cos
= 2 2 (1 1) = ;
2 4 n
2
a 0 2 4 n
100

2
nx h 2 d 2 2 nx
E =< E >=
sin
(
(
sin
))dx =
2
a
a
2
m
a
a
dx
0
2nx
2 2 2 a
2 2 2 a 1 cos
2 n h
n h
2 nx
a )dx =
sin
(
=
=
dx

2
3
2
a
a a 2m 0
a m 0
a

2)

2 2 2

a
2nx
2 n 2h 2
(x
sin
) =
=
;
3
2

2
n
a
2a m
2a m
0

n h
a

3)

p =< p >=

(3.43)

2
d
2
nx
nx
sin
(ih (
sin
))dx =
a
a
dx a
a

2 n
nx
nx
ihn a 2nx
cos
= ih sin
dx = 2 sin
dx =
a a 0 14a4
a
a
a 0
42444
3
1
sin 2
2

ihn a
2nx
= 2
cos
= 0.
a 0
a 2n
10.3. .

.
, , ,
( ).

0, x < 0,
U ( x) =
U 0 , x 0,
(
) . (10.1) 1 2 (. 10.5)
:

d 2 1
dx
d 2
2

dx 2

h
2m

h2

212

k = 2mE / h
).

2m
2

E1 = 0,

( E U 0 )2 = 0.

, q = 2m( E + U 0 ) / h

101

(10.14)
(10.15)

212

(q

U
1 U0 2
E
0

. 10.5
(10.14), (10.15) :

d 2 1
2

dx
d 2 2
dx

2m
2

k 2 1 = 0 ,

(10.16)

q 2 2 = 0 .

(10.17)

h
2m
h

(10.16) ( E < U 0 )

e
:

it

1 ( x) = A1eikx + B1e ikx ,


A1 , B1 .

(10.17)

U0

2 ( x) = A2 e qx + B1e qx .
2 A2 = 0 . ,
, 1 2

, .. .
1 2:

A1 + B1 = B2 ,
1 (0) = 2 (0),

1 (0) = 2 (0),
ikA1 ikB1 = qB2 .

, Ai
. , B1

Bi

(10.18)

, A1 , B2
, 2
,
.
:
1)
102

j =
2)

hk
2
A1 ;
m

j =
3) 2:

(10.19)

hk
2
1 ;
m

(10.20)

hq
2
2 .
m

(10.21)

j =

(R . reflection)

R=

A1

(10.22)

( D P )

D=

j
j

A1

R + D = 1,
= j + j ).

(10.23)

( j

A1 = 1, (10.18) :

B1 =

2k
k iq
, B2 =
.
k + iq
k + iq

(10.24)

(10.18) k
q ; ,
. A1 = 1 (10.24) (10.22) :
2

k iq
R=
1.
k + iq
A2 = 0 (10.24)

2k qx
e .
(10.25)
k + iq
(10.25) , 2 ( x)
x , ,

2 ( x) =


E < U 0 :

103

dD
2k
2
w2 ( x) =
= ( x) =
exp(2qx) =
dx
k + iq
=

4k 2

exp(
2m(U 0 E ) x) .
h
k 2 + q2
144
42444
3

(10.26)

(10.26) U0E=1 =1,610-19 ,


8

=10-10 =10-9 , exp 0,29 exp 4,58 10


. ,

, .
, R 1 ( 1) , .. ,
( ).
2,
.
( E > U 0 )
:
1
2

d 2 1
dx 2

d 2 2
dx

+ k 2 1 = 0 , k 2 =

+ q 2 2 = 0 , q 2 =

2m

2m

h2

E,

( E U 0 ).

1 ( x) = A1e ikx + B1e ikx ,

2 ( x) = A2 e iqx + B2 e iqx .

(
),
B2 = 0 .

1 (0) = 2 (0), 1(0) = 2 (0)


A1 + B2 = A2 ,
A1 = 1,

kA1 qB1 = qA2 .


B1

k q
2k
, A2 =
.
k+q
k +q

R=

B1

A1

1 1U0 / E
k q
=
=
.
k+q
1+ 1U0 / E
104

(10.27)

, E > U 0
, ,
.. .
(10.21) (10.27)

D=
R + D = 1.

A2

A1

4kq

(k + q) 2

1U0 / E
(1 + 1 U 0 / E ) 2


( ).

0, x 0,

U ( x) = U 0 , 0 < x < l ,
0, x l.

1, 2, 3, (. 10.6) :

U
U0
E

2
0

1()

3
x

2()

3()

. 10.6

2 1
2mE
2
2
(1) 2 + k 1 = 0, k = 2 ,
h
x
2
2 + q 2 = 0, k 2 = 2m ( E U ),
(2)
0
2
h2
x 2

2
2mE
2
2
3
k
k
0
,
.
+

=
=
(3)
3

h2
x 2
1 , 2 , 3
.

105

1 (0) = 2 (0), 2 (l ) = 3 (l ),

1 (0) = 2 (0), 2 (l ) = 3 (l ).

(10.28)

(1)1 ( x) = A1e ikx + B1e ikx ,

iqx
iqx
,
(2)2 ( x) = A2 e + B2 e

ikx
ikx
(3)3 ( x) = A3e + B3e .

(10.29)

1 3 .
() A1e

ikx

A3e

ikx

,
ikx

,
1 3- , B1e
, . 3-
, 3 = 0 .
A1 , B1 , B2 , A2 , A3 .
(10.33) (10.29):
1 (0) = A1 + B1 , 2 (0) = A2 + B2 , 1 (0) = 2 (0) ,

A1 + B1 = A2 + B2 ;

(10.30)

2 (l ) = A2 e iql + B2 e iql , 3 (l ) = A3e ikl , .. 2 (l ) = 3 (l ) ,


A2 e iql + B2 e iql = A3e ikl .

(10.31)

1 (0) = ( A1e ikx ik + B1e ikx (ik )) x = 0 = ikA1 ikB1 = ik ( A1 B1 ),


2 (0) = iq ( A2 B2 ) . 1 (0) = 2 (0) ,
k ( A1 + B1 ) = q ( A2 B2 ) ;
(10.32)

2 (l ) = ( A2 e iqx iq + B2 e iqx (iq )), 3 (l ) = A3e ikl ik , .. 2 (l ) = 3 (l ) ,


iq ( A2 e iql B2 e iql ) = ikA3e ikl .

(10.33)

(10.30)(10.33):

A1 + B1 = A2 + B2 ,

iql
iql
= A3e ikl ,
A2 e + B2 e

q
A1 B1 = ( A2 B2 ),
k

k
iql
ikl
iql
( A2 e B2 e ) = A3e .
q

(10.34):

106

(10.34)

2 A1 = A2 + B2 +

q
k
q
q
A2 B2 2 A1 = (1 + ) A2 + (1 ) B2 . (10.35)
k
q
k
k

(10.34):

1
k
k
2 A2eiql = (1 + ) A3eikl A2 = A3eikl e iql (1 + ).
2
q
q

(10.36)

(3.39):

k
1
k
2 e iql = (1 ) A3e ikl B2 = (1 ) A3e ikl e iql .
q
2
q

(10.37)

(10.36) (10.37) (10.35):

q 1
k 1
q
k
2 A1 = (1 + ) A3eikl e iql (1 + ) + (1 )(1 ) A3eikl eiql =
k 2
q 2
k
q

1
q
k
q
k
= A3e ikl (1 + )(1 + )e iql + (1 )(1 )e iql =
2
k
q
k
q

k + q k + q iql k q q k iql
1
+
= A3eikl
e
e

k
q
k
q
2

4kqA1 = A3e ikl (k + q )2 e iql (k q )2 e iql ;


A3
4kqe ikl
.
=
A1 (k + q )2 e iql (k q )2 e iql

(10.38)

(10.38)

e i = cos + i sin ,
sin =

e i = cos i sin

1 i
( e e i )
2i

1
cos = (ei + e i ) ,
2
(10.39)

(10.39) (10.38) :

A3
2kqeikl
=
A1 2kq cos ql i(k + q )2 sin ql

(10.40)

(10.19), (10.20)

(10.21):

j =

hk
2
A3
m

R=

j
j

A1

; D=

(10.23).
(10.40):
107

j
j

A1

2m

1. E > U 0 , q =
A3

= A3 A3 * = e ikl e ikl
D=

A3

A1

( E U 0 ) ,

4k 2 q 2
2 2

2 2

4k q cos ql + (k + q ) sin ql

(10.23)

R = 1 D =

(k 2 q 2 ) 2
2

2 2

2 2

(k + q ) + 4k q ctg ql


: ,
, .
2. E < U 0 , q =

2m
2

( E U 0 ) .

h
1
2m(U 0 E ) ,
(10.36) q = if , f =
h
A3
4kife ikl
=
.
A1 (k + if ) 2 e fl (k if ) 2 e fl

(10.41)

( ):

1
shfl = (e fl e fl ),
2
1
chfl = (e fl + e fl ).
2

(10.41)

A3
2ikfe ikl
,
=
A1 (k 2 f 2 ) shfl + 2ikfchfl

D=

A3

A1

4k 2 f 2
2

(k f ) sh fl + 4k f ch fl

(10.42)

: E < U 0 ,
U 0 , .
(10.42)

108

e 2 fl >> 1 .

, shfl = chfl =

D=

16k 2 f 2
2

2 2

(k + f )

2 fl

= D0

1 fl
e (10.42)
2

2
l 2 m (U 0 E )
e h
,

E < U 0 . (10.43)

(10.43) ,
, . ,
, .

( ,
). ,
.
, ,
.
(. 10.7).

, . ,
, ,
, ,
.
.

E
x1

. 10.7

x2

, i- ,
, (i+1)- .

( )
( ):

2xi

D = Di exp
2m(U ( xi ) E ) =
h

2xi
2m(U ( xi ) E ) ,
= exp
h

109

xi i- , U ( xi ) .
xi 0 ,

2 x2

D = exp 2m(U ( x) E )dx .


h x1

10.4.

() ,
, ,
, . , ,
, .
. ,

, .

d 2x

k
ma = m 2 = kx , x + x = 0 x + 2 x = 0 .
m
dt

. :
x(t ) = A cos(t + 0 ) .
(10.44)
(10.44) .
, ,

d 2x
W = U = Fx dx = F = ma = m 2 = A 2 sin(t + 0 ) = 2 x =
dt

0
m 2 x 2
=
.
(10.45)
2
x

U(x)

n=3

E3
n=1 E2
E1
n=0
E0
x
0

n=2

-xmax 0 xmax x
. 10.8

. 10.9

110

, (10.45) ,
, ( ,
. 10.8). .
xmax E = U

x < xmax x > + xmax .



(),
,
xmax < x < + xmax .
,
.
.

d 2

m 2 x 2
+
(E
) = 0 .
2
dx 2 h 2
1
424
3
2m

(10.46)

U ( x)

(10.46),

m
x,
h
2E
=
,
h

d 2
d 2

+ ( 2 ) = 0 .

(10.47)
(10.48)

, (10.48)
,
= n = 2n + 1,
(10.49)
(10.47):

En =
n = 0,1,2,3,...
n = 0 E0 =

1
h
h
n =
(2n + 1) = h (n + ),
2
2
2

h
0, .. .
2


. T 0 K (
,
) , ,

().
111

T 0 K , ,
h
0 .
Emin =
2

, (.
10.9, ),
E = h 0 .

(10.50) H n ( ) .
,
0 ( n
, a1 n ).
n
2 ,
(
):

H n ( ) = (1) n e

d (e

()

n = Cn e / 2 H n ( ), = x

m
.
h

d = ,

d H n ( )
d

= 2 n n!,

n2 dx

H n2 ( )d

= Cn2

= (1)

h /( m )
n

H n2 ( )d = 1,
2

H n ( )

d n (e )
d n

d = (

m 1 / 4 n
) (2 n! ) 1 / 2 ,
h
x2
1
exp[
],
0 ( x) =
2
2 x0
x0

1
2

m
) Cn 2 ,
h

Cn = (

112

(10.51)

x0 = [h m ]

1/ 2

, 1 ( x) =

1
2 x0

x2
2x
( ) exp[
],
2
x
2 x0
0

(10.52)

)
. 10.10

2 ( x) =

1
8 x0

x2
4x2
2) exp[
(
].
2
x
2 x0

0
113

(10.53)

n 0 5
. 10.10. [ xmax ;+ xmax ] ,
.
n , E=f(n), , ,
A=f(n). . 10.10 (10.51)(10.53)
, .
x n
n . n n
. , n
1 .
[ xmax ;+ xmax ] n , ..

.
2

n , n=10, n (x)
( ),
. (1923 .). n = 10
..
(. . 10.11).
2

|10()|

|0 |

-2xmax -xmax

-xmax

+xmax +2xmaxx

+xmax x

. 10.11
, ,
,
(, ) .
U(x)
(10.45) .

, .. .
.


. ,

:
114

3
En = h (n1 + n 2 + n3) = h (n + ),
2

,
, = 0 , ,
.
, , ,
. .
,
,

, 10-43
,
. ,
, , ,
.

:
1. ,
, , ..
(), .
2. , , ..
,
,

.
2

3.

. ,
(
), .. ,
.
4. ( )
. ,
.

115

11. - .

1. ,
.
2. .
3. - : , , .
4. .
11.1. ,

( , 10-9,
. , ..,
10-9 ) .
1959 .
- (There`s plenty of
room at the bottom).
(1982 .) - (1980- .)
, .
:
,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, .., ,
.
( )

),
:

, ,
?
,
,
(
, ..).
.
,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
116

.
,
.
.
,

. ,
,
,
.

"".
, 60 .
, ,
- ,
,
. "Atom Craft
project" "Aono project". , ,
, 10
.
"".
40
, ,
( ).

,

.
2000
(top priority).
,

12
.

Pentium. ,

,
. , INTEL
1 . .
-
.
: " ",
.. , "
", .. .
117

,
,

( ). ,
2000 .
,
.
,
,

.
2006

.
11.2.

.
, .
.

- .

.
,

. -
, , .
(

, , ,
)
, -
( )
.
,
.
, ,
,

.
,

.
118


-
,
, .

.

,
. ,
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
.



.
,
(-) 0,1-0,2 ,

.

,
, ,
.

.
.

-
, .

(, , ) ,
.


, -.

,
.

119

, ,
(
)
.

( ) ,
.
,
.
.

- .
,

.

, ,
,
, .
,

, .


.
,
, .
, ,
.
. ,
(~ 0,25 ).

, ,
. ,

.
,

.

, , ,
.

.
.
.
120

,
.
(
)
, .
.

. (
).

.

.
, .
,

.

,
. : ,
, , .
, ,
.
.
,
,
-
.

.
,
.

.

.
, ,

.
,
, ,
.
.

,
121

. .
.
.
: ,
.
.
,

.
.
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
,

.

- . ,


.
.
. ,
, ,
, - .
.
, ,
,
,
.
.

,
.


.
122

, ,
- .
-.

. ,

6
.

,
.
,
.
-
- ,

.
,
, . 4.

.
5.

.
:
- ;
- ;
- ( );
- ;
- ;
- .

,
.

(). ()

.

U ( x) = U 0 eEx ,
U 0 .
.
() 1982 .
IBM .
.. ,

123

,
1986 .
z

y
z

. 11.1
z~10 , x~10-3 , y~10-3
-3

( )
(. 11.1),
U~0,11 ,
,
: IT~110 (IT=Ne).
IT (
. D
,
).
:
.


,
.

~ 0,1 .

,
( )
.
, .

0,2 .
.
,
,
. .. , .. ,
(
( ),
, , .
35 ()
IBM.
124

, - ,
().
,
(
).
.
.
,
,
.
.

, ,
.
.
.

,
.

.
,
,
, , .
,

.

.
.

.


,
.

- .
.
.
.

(
).
125


.
.
. :
- ,
;
-
;
- ,
.

-
,
- ()
( ).

(<10-9 ...).
, . 11.2.
, .

, .
( )
, , .
, ,
, .
600,
850.
.
(
10141015 )
,

.
(-),
: (
), (-),
().

.

,

, ,
,
.
126

. 11.2. :
1 , 2
, 3 , 4
, 5 , 6
, 7 , 8
, 9 ,
10 , 11
.


( ) (
).
(
) ,
,
, .

,
.
0,110 ...

.
,
, .
,
35:
Ga ( CH3 )3 + AsH3 GaAs + 3CH4 ,
In ( C2H5 )3 + PH3 In P + 3C2H6 .
127


, :
(1x)Ga ( CH3 )3 + x Al ( CH3 )3 +AsH3 Ga1-xAlxAs + 3CH4.
,
.
- ,
,

.
, .
11.3. - :
, ,

, (,
, . .). , 3D
,
. ,
. , ,
.
,
- (, )
, () ( 2 D ),
(1D ) ( 0 D ) ( ) .
- ()
.

.

, -
.
,
- , .

(
, ).

(), .
(), ,
,
. , N
.
, ,
( ..) N .
128


(
),

.
U1 = U 2 = U ,
b V0 .

.
.
( 1 = 2 )
, 1 ,

1( S , a ) = E1(0) V12 .
( )
( ) (. 11.3, )
, ( +)
.
,
U(x)

-20

2s

2
1

1
1s

d2

-20 3
-40

-40
-60

d1

-60

0
1

-80

-80
0

0 2 4 6

)
. 11.3

, , ,
b ,
n=1, 2, 3, (1s, 2s, 3s, )
(1, 2, 3, ) .

129

, ( ,
).
b ,
n .

(. 11.3, ).
,
. , ,
,
,

.
N
N . N
, N > 7
, .
N
,
E1 , E2 ,... ,
( ,
).

U(x)
0

(k)

x -2/ -/

2/

. 11.4


A = a + b (. 11.4)
,
( a U ) ( b V0 ).
r .

, .
130

h2 d 2
(
+ U ( x) qE x ) ( E , x ) = E ( E , x )
2m dx 2
U (x) .
:
1.
, n
- (. 5.7, ),
.
,
. 0
En E 0 .


(. 5.9).
r
, E .

E n
r
0
.
, E
1, .
2.
(
), .

, .
.
,
.
r
3.
.
(
).
4. ( E > (U

qE a
) )
2

a 3
1 qE h
En = qE + (2n )
2 4
2 2m

2/3

131

5.
- I = f (U ) ,
(
) (. 11.5), , .
, -
.
(510 ), ,
. A , B ,

. ,

.
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
25 ,
.


r
k F :

F =

2
(
kF

, .
: ,
1/2;
, ).
.
I

U(x)
A:
E
B:

A
0

C
C:
U

. 11.5
-
n

F = (

8 1 / 3
)
3n

132

( 3D -),

2 1 / 2
)
( 2 D -),
3n
4
( 1D -).
F = ( )
n
n , ,

F = (


,
.
, ,
- ( ).
,
,
,
, .
,

) ,
(x, y)
, , ,
.
, (),
(,
),
m0
*

mn m p , .

- ,
, z,
, ( 3D-)
(x, y)
*

m :

E = En +

p x2
2m

p 2y
2m

= En +

h 2 (k x2 + k y2 )
2m

(11.1)

p x , p y , k x , k y
. ,
En ,
En .
n
(. 11.6).

133

(11.1)
(x, y)
(
).
,
, ,
, .

, , z,
, y, ,
n1 n2 : E = E n1, n 2 .
, (),
, 1D :

E = En1, n 2 +

h 2 k x2
2m

U(z)

n=3
1

n=2

n=1

ky
(py)

k
(px)

. 11.6

,
() 0 (0D).
:
E = En1, n 2, n3 .


(
). ,
InAs In1 x Ga x As GaAs

, ,
, ,
.
134


. ,
( E )
.

,
,
. , ,
,
. -

()
( ), .
- (, , ) ,
( ,
),
3D.

)
,

.
, ,
,
-
.
11.4.


(2000 ) -
- . .. (. -).

.
, ,
. ,
,
.. , .
.
-
,
,
.
135

,
. ,
?
, , ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
. , ,
.
,
, ""
. , ,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
, . ?
,
, .
. ,
.
, , ,

. , , ,
.
.
, ,
,
.
, ,

, ,
. ,
, .
,
, .
, .
,
, ,
, . ,
. , ,
136

.
,
.
,
.
,
. , ,
,

, .
"" ,
, ,
,
(). , ,
.
,
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
. , , ,
, .
,
.
, ,
. ,
--n
, ,
.
?
.
; , .
,
, , ..
,
.
.
2- :

137

()

. 11.7

( ).
: (12 , 100 )
(40 /2).
. (, .)
(
).
, (
); ;
. , . (140% ).
GaAs.
:
( 12 0.1 ),
(40 /2);
, .
(
), ,
. ,
.

, ,
.
.
200% .
GaAs,
AlAs GaAs
.
1,3 1,5 , ,
InP.
, ,
, ,
. ,
, 99% .
, , ,
.
138

, , ,

.
: 6263 p-n
,
. ,
, , " ,
22=4, ",
, - ,
. , -, -, , ,
( 63 ,
).
,
. ,
,
66 ,
. GaAs/GaAsP,
, , , ,
,
. , 67
GaAs/GaAlAs 68
4/2. 70
, ,
, ,
"", .
, IEEE Transaction
on Electron Devices 1994 ,
, , ,
.
, , , ,
, - ,
, , , .
1970- , -

1/2.
.

.

. ,
.
,
, ,
139

, , .
- 10 ,
, . 1970

, . ,
, ,

.
,
. ,
, , ,
. , , , , ,
.
, . ,
" "
, .
, , ""
-
, .
- .
,
, ,
, " ", ?
, 1980- , ,
-
. :
, ,
..
: "

-
". , ,
, , :
", - , ". ,

. , - , ,
, - ,
?
. ,
. , ,
, 1982- ""
, ,
,
.

140

,
45 /2.
- 1020 .
. 80
89- . ? , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, (
),
. , , , ,
.
. 1993-

. ,
, .
: " . ,
.
, , ".

, ,
13
/2, 34 , .
: ;
!
,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
. ,

.
,
" ", , , ,
.
- .
,
.
,

, .

141

. 11.8
,
,

- , , .. ,

. ()
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
, .

.
90-
? ?
.
1975 - ,
. 80- ,
, , , ,
. ,

.
,
- .
, : "
". , ,
, .
, 20 .
- , -, ,
. . ?
142

, ? , ,
- .
, , , ,
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
, . , ,
,
.
,
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, ,
, .
, , , ,
. , ,

.
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.
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, .
,
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,
,
.
.
,
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. .
:
, . , .
, , :
10
,
(100 1 2).
,
, ,
.
143

Frank van der Merwe

Volmer-Weber
Stranski-Krastanow
. 11.9
,
,
, ,
.

, ,
, ,
,
. , ,
, - ,
.
:
1)
;
2) ,
;
3)
.
,

( ).
,
,
. ,
. -,
,
. , ,
,
- . , ? , ,
. , -.
, ,
,
, .
-
,
. .
144

?
. ,
. , .

, .
, ,
, . ,
. , , ,
, , .
,
.
, , , ,
. - ,
,
.

. 11.10. ,

,
"",
. GaAs , InAs -
. InAs , ,
InAs,
InAs, , ,
.
.
, , , InAs
, .

, , -
- , .
, , .
,
. : ,
, ..
.
145

12. .
..
1. . .
-. .
. .
2. .
. ..
.
.

...
12.1. . .
-. .
.

XX ,
. ,
.
1900 , ,
( -)
. ,
,
. ,
. , , .
,
.

...
,
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
, .
r
, , ,
r
F = eE
,
, (2.39):

r r 1
Eds =

0 V

dV ,

= e / VR .
146

e
er 3
E 4r =
V =
0 VR R 0 R 3
2

F = ( e )E =

e2
4 0 R

E=

e
4 0 R

r,

r = kr

, , ,

:

k
r = 0,
m
r = A cos 0 t .

m&r& = kr &r& +
:

k e
1
=
.
r R 4 0 Rm

0 =

R ,
0 1015 -1.
R10-10 . (1903 .)
.
.
,
.
.
,
. ,
.
1885 . , ,
,
. ,

= R

1
,
2
n

(n = 3, 4, 5,K) .


. 1906 . .
. ., ., .
.
:

= R

12

1
,
n2
147

(n = 2, 3, 4,K)

1
, (n = 4, 5, 6, K)
2
2
3
n
1
1

: = R
, (n = 5, 6, 7, K)
2
2
4
n
:

= R

. :

1
1

,
2
2
n
m

= R

(12.1)

m=1, 2, 3,...; n=(m + 1), (m + 2),


., (12.1)
.
R=2.071016 -1 .
T=R/n2 .

:
= T1(m) T2(n)

,
,

.
1913 ,
,
.
, , .

.
-.
(1911.) (18711937 . , )
- ( 42 2 2 ) 5
. ,
. -,
, , ,
(.. ).
.
, , .
,
- .
: - (
1 10000!, 0,01 %) ,
, .. , 90 o .
.. ~
148

,
.
.:
. ,
15- , ,
.
: .. - 5
=51,610-19 =810-13 , - ,
r0,
(. 12.1)

r0
. 12.1

2e

Ze
4 0 r0

14
= 8 10 13 Z Au = 79 r0 5 10 ;

10 1 ().
, ,
, ;
, .
: , ..
(- )?
, ,
, .
,

. (
). , ,
1913 .

,
,
.
(1913 .):
1. ,
, ,


me vr = nh .
(12.2)
-10

149

n .
,
.
2. ( ) ,
,
.
( )
, .

E = En Em = h .
m n .

,

.
.

(+) (),
.
v (rn).
(II )
:
2
2

ke
v
2 = me ,
rn
rn
m vr = nh.
e n

(12.3)

,
:

rn =

h2
2

ke me

(n = 1, 2, 3,K).

n2

(12.4)

(n=1) r0.

rn =

h2
2

ke me

0.5 10 10 ,

.
,

.
:
150


me v 2 ke 2

,
E =
2
r

2
2
me v = ke .

r
r2
,

ke 2 ke 2
ke 2

=
E=
.
2r
r
r

(12.4),

(12.5)

k 2e 4 me 1
.
E=
2h 2 n 2

,
(12.6)

n- m-, .

1
k 2e 4 me 1

h = En Em =

.
2h 2 n 2 m 2

(12.7)

k 2e 4 me 1
1
1
1
=
R
=

2h 3 m 2 n 2
m2 n2

(12.8)

,
, R =

k 2 e 4 me
2h 3

1016 c 1 .

, , ,

!
, (12.8) ,
.
. ,
. 12.2
.
,
.
, , (N = 2)
(N = 1) .
.
,
.

1
1

12 n 2

= R

151

n > 2
:

1
1

, .
22 n2

= R

n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
0

n=5
5

10 A

. 12.2

.
.

.
(1961 .)
.. :
, ( :
..).


(. 12.3) ~ 1
... (1913 .).
U
0,5

Hg

. 12.3
Ukc
, 0,5 .
152

Ukc
IA. -
(), . 12.4.
, ,
( ). N
,
0,5 .
Mi
.

M3
M2
M1
N
. 12.4


, , ,
E1 = E2 E1,
E2 = E3 E1 .. ,
,
= E1 / h 235 . ,
..
, ,
()
(
),
(.. ),

( )
(. . ), ..

153

12.2. .
. ..
. .
..

,
.

+ Z e ( Z = 1 ( ), 2, 3,).

Ze 2
U (r ) =
.
4 0 r

h2

H = (
+ U ) = E .
2m

(12.9)

h2
1 2
Ze 2

r +
L

= E .
(12.10)
2m
2mr 2
4 0 r
= r +

1
r

1 2
(r
)
2 r

r
r
1

1
2
=
(sin ) + 2

sin
sin 2

, r =
2 ,

, ,

)
L2 = h 2 , .

(12.10)
:

En =

Z 2 me 4

32 2 02h 2 n 2

, n = 1, 2,... ,

(12.11)

. (. (12.6)).
12.1

n
m
l
n lm
1

Z
( )3 / 2 exp( )
a
1

Z
( ) 3 / 2 (2 ) exp( )
2
4 2 a
1

154

1s
2s

2p
1

Z
( ) 3 / 2 exp( ) cos
2
4 2 a
2p
2
1
+1

1 Z 3/ 2
( ) exp( ) sin exp(i )
2
8 a
2p
2
1
-1

1 Z 3/ 2
( ) exp( ) sin exp(i )
2
8 a
nlm ( , , ) = xn, l ( )Yl , m (, )
2

: n, l, m.
n, l, m
(. 12.1).
n=1, 2, (. (12.11))
(
,
,
= 0 ), . ,
(
2

- ), .

.
n ,

n. n (.
12.2):
12.2
(n=)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
, l l
l=0, 1, 2, , (n1). , En
n2.
nlm ( , , ) ,
,
2
H , L (6.13),

L2 nlm = l (l + 1)h 2 nlm .



l:
L = h l (l + 1) ,
(12.12)
. (12.2),
, (12.1), L=0. l
155

.
n,
l,
l
(. 12.3)
12.3
0
s

1
p

2
d

3
f

4
g

, , 1s1 2p5
. ,
2

(, , )
90 % .
, s ( l=0
m=0) ,
.

||2

z
1s
(m=0)

1s

||2

||2
2s
(m=0)
r

156

3s
(m=0)


2p
(m=0)

||2

2p
(m=0)

2p (m=0)

||

3p r
(m=1)

3p
(m=1) r

3d (m=1)

. 12.5

2

(. 12.5).
3d-
,
. 2l+1 m=0, 1, 2,
m.
z
Lz = mh .
(12.13)
z
(. 12.6). (12.13)
, (12.12)
. (12.12) (12.13), ,
hl
h l (l + 1) , .
,

.


z .

.



. :
. 12.6
157

1) ( ):
;
2) :

( ).

. 12.4.
12.4

1
2
3
4
5

s
2
2
2
2
2

6
6
6
6

10
10
10

14
14

18

K
L
M
N
O

2
8
18
32
50

2
8
18
18
18

,
.

( ) ..
:
1.

n l
(n+l), : 3d (n=3, l=2, n+l=5) 4s
(n=4, l=0, n+l=4), 4s , 3d.
2. (n+l)
n, , 3d (n+l=5, n=3, l=2),
4 (n+l=5, n=4, l=1), 5s (n+l=5, n=5, l=0).
,
, L Lz
,
.
,
l, (. . 12.7).

158

0
-0,37
-0,54 -0,84
-1,51
-3,4

s
l=0
5
4
3
2

p
1

d
2

f
3

g
4

h
5

m=3
m=2 (ns 2p, nd 2p, n=3, 4, ...)

2s

h=En- E1
m=1 (np

-13,5 1

1s, n=2, 3, ...)

E1

1s

. 12.7

En
, - ()
n.
l
. , ,

.
=EnEm.
, .
,
. , ,

. ,
, :
l = 1.
(12.14)
.
, , 2s
1s, .
1s, .
.

,
,
.

( ).
(
159

.) (
) ( ).
,
, .
-
. ,
.
.
. . 1925
,
Ls, (. spin
).
-
.
,
, , , ..

s:
Ls = h s ( s + 1) ,
(12.15)
s=1/2, ( )
,
s=+1/2 s=1/2 ( n, l, m).
z Lsz
Lsz = ms h .
(12.16)
ms .
ms = s = 1 / 2 .
(12.17)
,
:
n (n=1, 2, 3...);
l (l = 0, 1, 2, ...n1);
m (m = l,... 1, 0, 1 ... +l);
ms (ms = +1/2, 1/2).

1s
.
( ) =21 .
.
,
.

160

13.
1. , .
2. . .
.
3. .
.
13.1. ,

,
, .
()
,
,
( ) .
,
,
. , ,
(, ,
) , .
() I
, ..
. ,
, .
, ()
U ( )
, . 13.1. r0,

, .

U
r0

. 13.1
( )
().
1916 .
, ,
, .
161

.
. ,
( ) .
(, ..).
.
,

.
,
. .
.
,


( ).

.

, ,
(), (N), () ..
() ,
N ..

13.2. . .


,
, , .
,


.
, , ,
.
: : = 1 : m / M : m / M >> >> ,
m , .

(
),
( )

162

(
).
,
. ,
()
() , ()
v dv < v < v + dv
( 9, . III )
Et h .
,
v
vvi
v+vi . vi
. ,


.
.

, .

13.3. .
.
()
10 610-12 . : 10-710-14 ( 103
10-4 ). , ,
, .
2 , 2
.
,
( ),
.

( , , -)
().

.
,
.
,
. ,
-9

163

.

,
( )

( ). 10-1610-15

.

,
,
().
. -
.
. (18871915) 1913 ():

1
1
v = R( Z ) 2 2 2 ,
n
m

(13.1)

v ;

R=

me e 4

32 2 02 h 3

= 2,07 1016 -1 ; Z

; , m=1, 2, 3,
, K, L, M, ; n=m+1, m+2,
m+3,
. (12.?????).
, ,
, ,
Ze, . ,
, - =1, n=1, m=2, 3,

.
,
, , .
.

.

164

14. I
1. .
. .

, - -.
2. .
. -. .
3.
() .
14.1. .
. .
. , - -
(
, 9, I )
(),
, ..,
. ,
, ,
0,5, .. .
, ? ,
:
( ), , 10000,
,
. ,

(), ,
() , ..
,
, ,
,
(, ).
( ),
, ,
.
, ..

, .
-
(
, , , , ..)
,
165

. ,
,
( )
exp(i ) : (..., x j ,..., xk ,...) = (..., xk ,..., x j ,...) exp(i ) .
(..., x j ,..., xk ,...) = (..., x j ,..., xk ,...) exp(2i ) ,

exp(2i ) = 1 , exp(i ) = 1 = 1 ,
,
.
, .
-
.
. ,
, , , ..
()
, ()
. , ,
, .. , ,
, , ..
: , ,
,
.
,
, :
, , ,
,
().
().
( 0 )
, , , .
,
1, 2.
1 2, ,
.
, , .
(
, )
(x, y, z)
(px, py, pz). N , N

-.
-

166

d = dxdydz dp x dp y dp z = dV dV p ,
123 14243
dV

(14.1)

dV p

dV , dVp
, (9.????)

d = dxdp x dydp y dzdp z 2h 2h 2h , ..


,

d = (2h )3 ,

(14.2)

h .

,
,
, , .

x
dx
. 14.1
( )
m. :
p2/(2m) (p ), mgx.
= p2/(2m)+ mgx.
(. 14.1),
dpdx.
( )

. N-
.

,
( -).
, ,
167

,
.

().
,
,
. ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
: , ,
, (
), , .

N g(E)
E, .
-.
,
.
. , ()
,
.
,
(
) kT EF (k ).

TF EF/k.

:
1)

, ,
; ,
;
2) :
, ,
;
3) :
, ,
.
,
,
.
168


,

-
.
, (
- ),
( ). , ,
- a
( ; + ), ( ),
+

f (a)da = 1 .

(
)
i T

f ( Ei ) =
e

Ei
kT

(14.3)

( )
-
; : = 0 (14.3)
, = 1
, = +1
.
14.2. .
. -.
, ,
. , ,
, .., , ,
,
.
.

, .., ..
.., ...

.
: , , -, ,
169

.
-,
(14.3)

f (E) =
e

E
kT

(14.4)

E
()

n = f ( E )dN ( E ) ,

(14.5)

dN(E) [E;
E+dE] , f(E)
.

(
),
2

[; +d] 4p dp .
V=1 3 ,
2

4p Vdp . ,
,
,
(14.2). ,

4p 2Vdp = 4p 2 dp (2h )3 ,

[; +d]

4p 2 dp
dN ( p ) =
(2h )3

(14.6)

[E; E+dE]
p =

2mE dp =

4 2 2mEVm

1/ 2

dN ( E ) =

(2h )3

1 2m
dE
2 E

E 1 / 2
dE
m 3 / 2 E 1 / 2 dE
2
=
.
2 2h 3

(14.4) (14.7) (14.5),

170

(14.7)

m3 / 2
n=

2 2 h 3 0

E dE
e

E
kT

(14.8)

(14.8) .
(14.8) .
> 0 , ,
,
. , 0 .
/ T < 0 , ..
, ,
.
0 0 . 0
= 0 .
(14.8), ,
, ,
, , .
(14.8)
, 0
,
. -,
-
. -.
,
, ,
, . ,
He 2,19 . :
() -.

-.
,
, ,
.
-.
-. (14.8)

m3 / 2 E 3 / 2 dE
E = Ef ( E )dN ( E ) =
.

2 2 h 3 0 Ek T
0
e 1

171

(14.9)

( (9.18), 9, I
) ,
P = 2 E /(3V ) ( V=1 3),

P=

2m3 / 2 E 3 / 2 dE

E
0 k T

2 3

3 h

(14.10)


kT
<< 1,
e
E >>

(14.11)

(14.10) ,
.
exp[ /( k T )] << 1 . E/(kT)=

3 / 2 x

dx =

3
3 / 2 ,
4

P=

2m3 / 2 (k T )5 / 2 x 3 / 2e k T e x dx

3 2h 3

kT x
1 e1
42e4
3

2m

3/ 2

(k T )

3 2 h 3

5/ 2

3/ 2

5/ 2

m (k T )
kT
e k T x 3 / 2 e x dx =
e
. (14.12)
3/ 2 3
2 2 h
0 4243
1
=3 / 4

(14.8) (14.12)
.
. -, (14.8)

E/(kT)=

xe x dx =

172

3 / 2

m3 / 2
n=

2 2 h 3 0

E dE
e

E
kT

m3 / 2 (k T )3 / 2
=

2 2 h 3 0

x1 / 2 dx

kT x
e1
2e3 1
0

3/ 2

(k T )
2 2 h 3

3/ 2

1/ 2 kT

e x dx

kT x
1 e1
2e3

m3 / 2 (k T )3 / 2 k T 1 / 2 x
=
e x e dx =
2 2 h 3
0 424
1
3
= /2

m3 / 2 (k T )3 / 2 k T
=
e .
3/ 2 3
2 2 h

(14.13)

(14.13) (14.12),

P = nk T

(14.14)

PV =

m
RT .
M

(14.15)

, (14.11) (
)
.

.
-

.
: , -, ,
, .
-,
(14.3)

f (E) =
e

E
kT

173

+1

(14.16)

,
[E; E+dE]
( V=1 3)
(14.7)

2m 3 / 2 E 1 / 2 dE
.
dN ( E ) =
2 2 h 3

(14.18)

2 ,

(g(E)=2 ).
-

(. 14.2).

f(E)
1
1/2

~kT
T>0K

T=0K
E0=

. 14.2
:
1)
/(k T ) >> 1 ( exp[ /(k T )] 0 )

=0

1
1; ,
E
exp
+1
k
T

(E<< ), f(E) 1;
f (E) =

2) E = f ( E ) =

1
1
= .
exp[0] + 1 2

, .
=0 ,
.
174

, 0
. f(E)=1/2 ,
E0=
1/2.
3) f(E)
E>> >>kT

f (E) =

E
1
exp
k T
E

exp
+1
k
T

).
=0 >0
kT.

14.3.
()
(
7, . III )
:
,
.
.
( (14.6))
,

4v 2 dv 8v 2 dv
dN (v) = 2
=
,
c3
c3

(14.19)

p = h / = hv / c ,
, 2

.


(14.19).

, < >= 2 1 / 2 k T = k T .
... (18421919) .. (1877
1946) 1900
175

(7.7). , (7.7)
v ( ) .
(7.7) (7.5)
(7.8),
(7.5) R

~ T 4 .

(. . 7.1).

.
v

rv ,T = C v 3 A exp[ Av / T ],

(14.20)

.

v , , rv ,T 1900
.... (18581947)
.
E = hv ,

h = 6,63 10 34 . ,

.

() . 14 1900
(7.9). 14
1900 ,
(7.9), ,
. (7.9)
() (7.5) (7.7).

E=hv.
,

< n( E ) >=
e

E
kT

=
1

hv
kT

(14.21)

= 0
(. (14.4)).
V=1 3
(14.19). ,
[v; v+dv]
176

8hv 3dv
dE (v) = hv dN (v) < n( E ) >=
hv

c 3 e k T 1

(14.22)

( (14.22) . (7.9)).
,

x3
4
x
dx =
15
0 e 1

hv

x
,
=

k
T
8h v 3dv
=
U = dE (v) = 3 hv
=

c 0 kT
k T
0

dv
dx
=

e
1
h

8h k T x 3dx 8 5 k 4 4
= 3
=
T = T 4 ,
x
3 3
c h 1
0 e2
31 15c h

(14.23)

= 4 / 15

8 5 k 4
(.
=
15c 3h 3

(7.5)).

177

15. II
1. . .
- .
.
2. . .
. , .
.
15.1. . .
- .

( 11.2,
11, . I 7.2, 7, . II )
1819 .. (17851838) ..
(17911820) ,
( )
( )
3R, R=8,31 /()
CV=3R25 /().
(15.1)
(15.1) .

(1864 .),
CV=3nR,
(15.2)
n .

. , 1 NA ,
() 3NA
(
).
E=3NA< >, < > .
,
kT/2.

, .. < >=kT. E=3NAkT=RT,

CV = (dE / dT )V
(15.3)
(15.1).
(15.2) , ..
.
( ), (
). 3 , ..
3kT/2. Z,
1 :
178


,
E=3NA kT+ 3ZNAkT/2=3RNA(1+Z/2).
(15.4)
(15.3) (Z=1)
CV=4,5R, 1,5 ,
(15.2).
.
, .

. (1907 .), . (1912 .).
(. 15.1,
, ).

CV

3R

. 15.1

T, K

, - ,

.
..
()
= h , ,
. , .
, ,
, .
, ,
: = ck , = sk ,
k , , s .

()

2
(
), 3 (
() ,
).
0 , .
(14.22) h = h /( 2 ) ,
s, v = 2v ,

179

E
3h
=
V 2 2 s 3

max

3 d

h
kT

(15.5)

(15.5) (14.22), .
(14.23),

E=

2 k 4
10h 3 s

4
.
T
3

(15.6)

(15.3)

CV = dE / dT =

2 2 k 4
3 3

5h s

T3.

(15.7)

(15.3)
, CV~T3,
(. 15.1).

,
, , :
1/ 3

6 2 N A s 3 h 3

= (h max ) / k =
3

Vk

(15.8)

(15.5)
= k Tx / h , d = k Tdx / h , x max = h max /(k T ) ,

h /( k T ) = x
= (h max ) / k

E=

3Vh

2 2 s 3

max

3 d
h
e k T

kT
=

2 2 s 3 h
1

3Vh

3
xmax 3
T
N A k 9k
x dx
4

=
=
T
9
RT

2 3 3
x

N A 6 s h
0 e 1

= 3RT D(T / ) .

4 xmax

x 3 dx
ex 1

/T

x 3 dx

ex 1 =
0
(15.9)

(15.9)
, (15.8),

T
D(T / ) = 3


180

/T

x 3 dx

ex 1 = ,
0

(15.10)

(
),
.
, h << ( k T ) T >> ,
x

h /(k T ) = x << 1 e 1 (1 + x) 1 = x

T
D(T / ) = 3

/T

T 1
x dx


= 1,
=
3
x
3 T

0

.. (15.3) (15.9) CV = (dE / dT )V = 3R ,
3

.
, h >> ( k T )

4
x3
T << , x
dx =

15
1
e

(15.7) ~T3, .
T = -

.
().

, .


,
. , -
.
.
,
, .. ,
..
(,
) (1927.)
. (18681951) ,
.


2

3 k n
1
=
T = V v 2 ,
2 me
3

(15.11)

ne 2
=
,
me

(15.12)

181

k ,
, n , me
, , CV , v
, .
. ()

2
2 k n

3 me

T ,

(15.13)

ne 2
=
.
2 me

(15.14)

, (15.12) (15.14) ,
.
-
( )
. . (18261899) 1853 .
,
T
( (7.11), . II
):
/ = L T .
(15.15)
8

L=const , L = 3( k / e) = 2.23 10

2/22=()/2,

L = 2 (k / e) 2 / 3 = 2.44 10 8

2/22=()/2,

() .
15.2. . .
. , .

, () , ..
. ,
,
. ,
.
,
( )
.

()
( NA=6,0221023 1),
182

(
).
:

H = E [

1
e2
h2
h2
i ) + (
k ) +
+
(
2
m
2
m
2
4

r
i 4
k 4
i j
e4
4
ij
1
424
3
1
424
3 14
42404
3

(i j )

r
r
r
r
r r r
r r r
+ Vz ( R1,..., RN ) + U (r1,...rn , R1,..., RN )] (r1,...rn , R1 ,..., RN ) =
14
4244
3 14442444
3

r
r r r
= (r1 ,...rn , R1 ,..., R N ) .
(15.16)
. >>
, ,
V << V ,
. ,

.
( ):
,
( ).
,
, ..
,
(V0 ).

, V0 = 0 , (15.16)
, , .
. , ,
():
, ,
, .
(15.16)
r
(15.17)
Wi (r i ) .
i

(15.16) ,
,
(
):
183

U i ( r i ) .

(15.18)

, (15.17) (15.18) :

h2
r
r
(

+
W
(
r
)
+
U
(
r

i
i i
i i ) = E
2
m
e
i

H = Hi = E
i

() , H = H i ,
i

= i , E = Ei , ,
i

i ( j )
i

(, j ),

i (1) H11 + ... + i (n) Hn n = ( E1 + E2 + ... + En ) i


i

i ,

Hn n
H11
+ ... +
= E1 + ... + En .
1
n
(15.19)

(15.19)

H11
= Ei
1

Hi i = Ei i , Hi , i , Ei
,
..
2
h
r
H = (
+ V (r )) = E .
2me

(15.20)

(15.20)
r
r
V (r ) . , .. V (r )
, .
: , ,
, (
r
) V (r )
r
(15.20), : V ( r )

b V0 :

184

V
V0


( )

h 2 d 2

+ V ( x) = E . (15.21)
2m dx 2

a a+b

. 15.2

0, n(a + b) < x < a + n(a + b),


V ( x) =
V0 , a + n(a + b) < x < (n + 1)(a + b).

(15.22)

, .

, .. .
,
() .
(
)

( ).
r
RT ,

r r + RT , ..

r 2
r r 2
(r ) = (r + RT ) .

(

r
r r
U ( r ) = U ( r + RT ) ),

, ( r ) = ( r + RT ) , C
).

rr

r r
r
(r + RT ) = e ik RT (r )
r
r ikrrr
k ( r ) = k ( r )e .

= 1 (

(15.23)
(15.23) . ( ). :
,
r
k (r ) ,
.
, (15.22)
(15.23).

( ) = ( )e ikx ,
( x) = ( ( x)e ikx + ( x)ike ikx ) / =
= ( x)eikx + ( x)ikeik x + ( x)ikeikx k 2 ( x)eikx .
(15.22) e
185

ikx

h2

( + 2ikx k 2 ) + V ( x) = E .
2m

(. (15.21)):

+ 2ik (k 2

2mE
h

) = 0,

(15.24)

+ 2ik (k 2 2 ) = 0,
=

2mE
h

(. (15.21)):

+ 2ik (k 2

2mE
h2

2mV0

+ 2ik (k 2 + 2 ) = 0,
=

2mE
h2

h2

) = 0,

(15.25)

(V0 E ) .

(15.24) (15.26)

+ 2ik (k 2 (i ) 2 ) = 0 .

(15.26)
(15.24) (15.26)

1 = Ae i ( k + ) x + Be i ( k ) x ,
2 = e i ( k + i ) x + De i ( k i ) x .

(15.27)

(15.28)
, , , D

():

1 = 2

1 = 2
x = n(a + b),

x = a + n(a + b).

(15.29)

(15.27), (15.28) (15.29),


,
, , D.
(),
, , , D.

2 2
cos k (a + b)
sh( b) sin(a) ch( b) cos(a ) = 0 (15.30)
2
186

e x e x
e x + e x
( shx =
, chx =
).
2
2
(15.30) = f ( E ) , = f ( E )
k = f ( , ) = f ( E ) ,
. (15.30)
, ,
. ( b 0 ) (V0 ) ,
, bV0 . ,

2 >> 2 , ( 2 ~ V0 , 2 ~ E ) b 2 , b 0 .
b 0 chb 1, shb b .
,

e x e x (1 + x) (1 x)
shx =

= x,
2
2

chx =

e +e
2

(1 + x) + (1 x)
= 1.
2

(15.31)

(15.31) (15.30)

2 2
b sin(a ) + cos(a) = cos ka ( b 0 )
2

b sin(a) + cos(a) = cos ka ,


2
2 ab sin(a)

(15.32)
+ cos(a ) = cos(ka) .
2

a
123
Q

Q = lim

b0
0

2 ab
2

,
,
.
1. Q 0 , ..
cosa = cos ka ,

(15.32)

ka = a k = =

2mE

h2

h 2k 2
E (k ) =
, .. ,
2m

187

2. Q
, , ,

E=

h 2 2 n 2

2ma

(15.33)

(15.33) (15.32) sin a = 0 ,

a 0 , a = n , n = 1,2,... ,

2mE
h2

2n2

a2

,... (..

).
2 ,

.
,
,
. () .
Q>>1
( , ), a
n (. (15.29)), ..
a = n + , << n .
(15.34)
(15.34) (15.32)

sin a
,
a
f ( x) = f ( x0 ) + f ( x0 )( x x0 ) :
x0 = n, x = n + x = ,

cos a

cosa = cos(n + ) = cos n sin n = (1) n ,


(15.35)
= 04
6
47
8
sin a sin(n) sin n cos(n)n sin(n)1
(1) n
=
. (15.36)
=
=
+
2
a
n + 12n3

n
(n)
=0

(15.35) (15.36) (15.32),

Q(1) n
Q
+ (1) n = cos ka x (1) n , + 1 = (1) n cos ka
n
n

[(1)
Q

cos ka 1 .

(15.37)

(15.37) (15.34):

1 (1) n cos ka
a = n + [(1) cos ka 1] = n[1 +
],
Q
Q
Q

,
188

2 2

2 2

a = n [1 +

1
Q2
{

cos 2 ka
Q2

2 2(1) n cos ka 2(1) n cos ka


+

]=
Q
Q
Q2
14
4244
3
0

2 2(1) n cos ka
].
= n [1 +
Q
Q
2 2

(15.38)

= 2mE / h (15.38)
:
2

E=

h 2 2 n 2

2 2(1) n cos ka
[1 +
]=
Q
Q

2ma 2
h 2 2 n 2 h 2 2 n 2 (1) n h 2 2 n 2 cos ka
=

+
=
ma 2Q
ma 2Q
2ma 2
= E(0n )

Cn
{

= 2 E n0 / Q

+ (1) n Cn cos ka .
144244
3
=

(15.39)

( 1) n E n0 2 cos ka
Q

E0n n- ;
(.
(15.39)), ,
.
n- , ..
, E=f(k).
,


,
.
( <0,1 ),

.
()
(),
(),
().

( ).
() ,
, ,
.
,

189

, .. ,
, .

. ( I ) ,
( ),
, , .. Eg=0 (gap
. , ).
,
=0 , ,
g 3 .
,

6
8
-1
~10 10 ~10-10
10-8 -1.
=f(T) :

Eg

= 0 e kT ,
, (
= 0 (1 + t ) , = 1 273,15 -1).
(
) (
) Ec ( )
(. 15.3, ) Ev ( ) (. 15.3, ).

d
v

)
GaAs, GaSb, InP,
InSb, PbS, PbTe, .

)
Si, Ge, GaP, AlAs,
AlSb, AlP, SiC, .

. 15.3
,
, g 2 3 .
,
; .
,
,
.
190

16. ,
1. .
.
2. . pn. p-n-.
, pn-
. , .
3. .
.
.
4. , .
16.1. .

() ()
, 1 %.
, ,
.
()
()
: (
) (). ni
pi. , Si, Ge.

.., .. 4
,
.
(
) ( As (V), P (V))
Si.

100

. ,
, ,
, n-.
.
,
.

,
Ed Ec. Ed~0,01 , ,
kT~0,025 Tk=300 (.
16.1). , ,
191

nn,
pn; n- nn>pn ( ).

nn

d
v

pn
. 16.1


( ) ( B (III)),

, ,
, , .

, ..
.
, ,
.

E
Ea
Ev

n
Eg

pp

. 16.2
,
Ea,
Ev, (. 16.2).
() (Ea~0,01 ) ,
(),
.
pp, pp>np
() p- (
).
192

. 1963
GaAs InP. .
, () (. .
16.3), m*1 m*2 ,
m*1<m*2, , () 1 > 2 .
,
*

(, ) m .
( ),

m* = d 2 E / dp 2
(
2
2
//
E = mv / 2 = p /( 2m) , E p = (2 p /(2m) ) p = 1 / m )

,
m0 .
.


1
*
m1
g

m*2

v
m*1 < m*2 1> 2
. 16.3
,
m*1<m0,
, m*2>m0.
1 > 2 .
() E=U/l, U
, l ( !),

j1 = ne < v >= e 1 n E (. 16.4).

>
. 0

j2 = e 2 n E0 .
. 16.4 , - ()
N N- (
193

S-). N- S-
R = U / I < 0 ,
.
, ,
, .

j1
j2

2
0

. 16.4
16.2. . pn. . p-n-.
pn-. ,


-

( 16.5, ). n , p . -

+
+
+
+
+
+

. 16.5
(. 16.5, )
, ,
, , .
.
,
194

.
.
pn- ,
,

.
(. 16.6, ) n- p-
,
0 ( ) pn-
( nn p-,
np, pp n-, pn).
,
,
. U,
. U
(
).
(. 16.6, )
: ,
(
). P-n- , ,
, , .

p-n-.

0
-

+
+
+
+
+
+

0
p

+ +

+
+
+
+
+
+

)
. 16.6

Pn- (
, n- p-) (
). (p- n-)
(n1- n2- p1- p2-).

() () ,
() (
). -

195

, , Np, Pn, NAlxGa1-xAspGaAs (


AlAs AlxGa1-xAs).
- () n-
. 16.7. ,

.
,
,
( ).

,
.
.
,

. .
,
,
.
, .
, ,
. ,

( ), ~ , ~
.

I
U
I

I 2 1

0 U U
1

. 16.7

0 U
2 I
. 16.8

2 >1

I Eg1 Eg2
U
Eg2

Eg1 I

0 U
Eg2 >Eg1

. 16.9

. 16.8 n-
.
, ,
.
. 16.9 n-
() g. ,
,
( )
.
196

. 16.5, , -
,
. ,
, .
. ,
= 0 S / . (. 16.6,
)
, ,
.
, ..
()
(, ).
(, . 16.10, )
,
, ..
(. 16.10, ).

U0

0
t, c U

R U

t, c

t, c

t, c

. 16.10

, -

(
).
(
)
(. 16.10, ).
n-, .
,
.

(, ) ,
n- ().


(, )
.
, ( ,
197

) n-
, . n ,
.
, , ,
.
,
. n-
>n, -
<. .
( ) p-n. . 16.11, n- p-,
( . 16.1 16.2). . 16.11,
. 16.11, . ,


n-p- , ,
. . 16.11
. 16.5, . . 16.5, .
16.11,
() q k .
(. 16.12, )
(.16.12, ).

n-

g
F

p-

p-

qk

E F
d n-
Ea
Ev
v

d
v

qk

n-

qk

n-

F F

Ev

Ev

. 16.11

E
p- Ea

Ea

p- Ea

Ev
)

. 16.12
. 16.12, . 16.6,
, . 16.12, . 16.6, .
198


0
An

F
d
g

n-

v = F

0
g
)

F
d

An qk

0
A

v = F

n-

v
. 16.13

n- () >n.
1025 3 10181019 3
n-,
, ,
-
104 , .

, ,
. . 16.13,
n-
>n. . 16.13,

. :
q k ,
q .
(+ , )
. 16.12, .

-
<.
, , ,
- (
) .

( ), .. . ,
~Ec ( ~EF)
.
199

p-n-

. 1948
(., ., .),
1956 .
(),
( 6, . II )
() ,
,
. p-n-

, .

,
, , ,
,
.
16.3. .

,

, , , .

. 1 1 .
(0,380,78 ),
(0,781000 ) (0,0010,38 ) .
,
: (620780 ), (585
620 ), (550585 ), (510550 ), (480510 ),
(450480 ), (380450 ).
.
- (315380 ), -
(280315 ) - (1280 ), () :
- (780 1,5 ), - (1,520 ) - (20
1 ).
3 :
1)
,
(,
);
2)
,
();
200

3)
,

( ,
).
(, ,
), ,
,
.
:
7)
( );
8)
(
);
9)

);
10)
(
);
11)
( );
12)
(
, ) .

,
,
pn-,
( ).
. 16.14
, .
1 : )
, E g ,
; )
,
.
, 1
.
2
: ) Ea; ) Ed
Ea ( ); )
Ed ; ) ,
, ( ,
,
, ),
.

201

d
) ) ) ) ) )

)
1

. 16.14

3 (), ,
,
.


.
,
.

( ),
, .

:
1)

( );

...

v
. 16.15
2)
( , , ),
202


(. 16.15).
, , ;
3)
, .
( )
,
( )
.
( ),
j = I S ( S
( ),

.

, .. .
,

, .
.
16.4. ,
1>2
(. 16.16)
( (1821 .) (17701831))
(16.1)
= T ,
, ,
.

T1

T1
n

p
T2

T
T1 >T2
. 16.16
203

T2

(.
16.17) (1834 .) .. (17851845).

T1

Q1

n
Q2

T1
p

I
T2

T2

Q2

T1 >T > T2
. 16.17

Q1, 1
. ,
,
Q2 2<.
Q = It ,
(16.2)
= , , I , t
.
,
(. 16.17).
(
, ), ,
, .

204

17.
1.
(LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation). : , ,
(, , ..).
2. .
17.1.
(LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation). : , ,
(, , ..)
(
)

(6.1).

(6.1),
. ?
,
, , ..

,
,

.
() (). ,
,
.
,
.
: ,

( )
.
, : LASER
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
.

().

..
(1907 ..) . 1951
.
,
(

205

, )
(. 16.15).
()

( , , ).
.
( ) ,

( )
. ,
, .
,

,
. ,
() ,

(..
,
).
.
()
(-, . ).
.
, ..
. ,

<0 ,
( =0 ,
).
.


- : 1233+ (1960.),
( Nd3+, Nd3+
6% ), CaF2
, Dy, Sm .,
( GaAs (1962.), GaSb, );
- : (1960.);
- : SeOCl2
(1966.).
1973 200
, :
, , .
206


1 3,3 .
24 1954
.. (1916 ..) .. (1922 ..)
(
.). -
, : Microwave
Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiaton (MASER), :
.
1961
(1927 ..). 1960
(1926..), (1903..)

.
,
.
,
, , ..
. ,

>1000 .

.
GaAs

.. 1962 .

(
)
.. (1930 ..)
2000 .
.

.

() Al2O3 0,05%
Cr2O3.
Cr3+, ,
1,621019 3.
,
.

(. 17.1).

207

3
2
1

hv

=694,3

hv
hv

. 17.1

( )

. 17.2

,
(. 17.2). -

3 2 (. 17.1).
1 3
2 ( ,
, ). 2 ,

3 (~2103 ~108 ). 2
1 (
)
1 =694,3 2 =692,9 .
1 =694,3 .
,
( , ).
( )
. ,


( ).

:
208

,
, ,
.

(. 17.2). ,
, , ( )
.
( ),
(), , ,
,
.
, ( )

.

.

:
~103 ~106 ,
~3106105 .
,
,
,
. -
,
.

(. 17.3)
130 (1 ..) 13 (0,1
..).
, ()
, .
,

. 1 2

.
, ( 2% 1%).
~12
. 632,8
() 1150 3390 .

-.
. 17.4 He Ne.
209


.
1 2 .
1 3, 3 4 ,
5 ,
1 . 5
,
1 1 3 .
2 3
1 ( ). ,
, 3 2
, 3 2,
.

.
1 3 ,
1 2 .

1

. 17.3

He

Ne

hv

hv

He

hv =632,8
=1150

5
0

=3390

Ne
. 17.4

1, 2, 3
,
. 5
210

- 5.
5,
1 5. 1
5 ,
5. 1 3

632,8 .
1
( ) 7 .
()
.
- .
, ( )
( ) ,
.
(
, ).

, , ()
j=I/S, S .

j,
(, ) .
j .
, ,
. ()

, (
) (
).
() ,
(,
) .
.
, ,

.

,
, () ( , ,
) .. DROM,
, , ..
, , ,
211

, , ,
.
,
, .
,
.
.
.
,
, .
17.2.
(
13, 14 .I )
() (, . mesos
)
.
, , , .

. ,
,
,
. 15
+55. ()
108 1013 .
.
1888 ,
.. 1968 .
-
( ) ,
, .
.

, ,
.
(),
, .
,
,

a = p n ,

212

(17.1)

p n ,


. a .

a >0
, a <0 .

3 : (. 17.5, ),
(. 17.5, ) (. 17.5, ).

, .
(nema . )
,
, .

)
)
. 17.5
,
,
( ) ,
.
,
: , -,
, ,
( ,
), ,
. ,
.

a <0

. a <0
.
, ,
.

,
.
- (twist . )
a >0 (.
17.6, ) (17.6, ).
213

a >0

(. 17.6, ),
, ..
/2.

U
)

)
. 17.6


, .

. 17.5, .
.
,
.


:

;
.

,
(,
).

214

18.
1. . ,
. . - .
2. . - -. -.
.
3. ,
.
4. ( ).
18.1. . ,
. . -

,
,
.
(1911., . 12) ,
,
;
( ),
.
( )
( ) ( ).
, ,
.
( 99,95%).
10151014 . ,
=1,60218921019 : Q=Ze.
Z .
...
( . protos )
20 XX . .
(
),
( ). mp=1,6726141027
=938,28 1836me1 ..., ...
=1,671027 , m= 9,111031 .
s=1/2 (,
).
. 660
.

, ( SI),
2, ,
215

W0 = m2.
, 1 ( 1 /2) 1
/2=106/(3108 /)21,781030 .
m= 9,111031 =0,511 .
1932 ( 1935 )
-
. (18911974) ,
n. .
. , (. )
,
.
( ) , ,
, .
,
.
194345 . , () .
- 1932
. . (1904..) .
(nucleus .
), .. .
. (1901..)
. .
mn=1,67495431027 =939,57 1838,6me1 ...
, ( ~103 ,
),
, n p + e + ~e .

e (

~e ) , ,
( ),
.
. (19001958) 1930 .
( ) -:
-
-.
,
( ) 1/212 . , ,
s=1/2 (, ).
,
,
.

(. ).
216

,
, ,
, .
.
.
( )
.
N. , (
) Z,
N=AZ.
(18.1)
,
( 1 )
, ,
(v2/c2~0,1).

R = R0 A1 / 3 , R0 (1,3 1,7) 10 15 .

(18.2)

Z X ,
..,
, Z .
Z, .
.
,
.
. , :
1

1 H ; 1 H =1 D ; 1 H = 1T .
, ,
, 1/2=12,35 .
, Z , ,
50
24 Cr .
5
6
, 2 He 3 Cr .
50
23V

, m ,
.
m .

2

, W1 = m c .
, ,

)2

W2 = Zm p + ( A Z ) mn c ,
2

( , ) . W2 W1 = W = mc > 0 ,
217

,

,
.

m = Zm p + ( A Z )mn m .

(18.3)


-,

/ Q/m.
,
:
2

F = QvB = v / R .
.
Wc/
.
: ,
. .
,
, .
.
.
, 1,1 /,
7,1 /. =5060
8,7 /.
.

. (=235 =238)
7,5 /.
()
. , ,
,
24 . =240 (Wc/=7,5 /)
=120 (Wc/=8,5 /)
Wc=(8,57,5)240 =240 . ,
C+O2 CO2+5 5 ,
67 , .
,
?
. ,
.
~1015 . 0,51015
.
218

, .. ,
.
.
, .
.
. ,
. , ..
(
). -
(. (18.2)).

. (1935 .)
. (19071981, 1949 .)

200300me, -:
0,31015 ,

+ (m+=273me, ~108c), ( m-=273me, ~108c),


0 ( m0=264me, ~1016c),
n + + , n p + , p p + 0 , n n + 0 .
p
-

Et h /(2 ) , E = m c 2 -.
,
(), ,
, , ,
.

. (18941952) . 1939 .
:

~1017 /3.
.
,
.
.
194050 .
. (19061972) .
(19071973). :
(),

).

. .
219



( ).

.
195053 .
()
: ()
,
.
, ,
.
18.2. . - -. -.


( Z )
.
(
) (
).
1896
. (18521908),
(
1903.). ,
, . 1899 .
(18711937) , ,
, . , ,
. -, , , .

1900
.

, .
., .
(18591906) (18671934)
: -
, -
, - ,
( 1903.).
1934 (19001958) (1897
1956) ( . .)
. ,
. 1932
220

. 1932 ..
.
1940 .. ..
:

-. 1982 .

151
71 Lu .

, 1984 . .
14

6 C .
.

N(t).
, , dN,
t t+dt,
N(t), t dt:
dN = N (t )dt , ,
, .
N

N0

t
dN
= dt ,
N (t )
0

N (t ) = N 0 e t ,

(18.4)

N0 t=0.
, t N,
N0 ,
t (. (18.4)):

N = N 0 N (t ) = N 0 1 e t .

(18.5)

1/2 ,
(
3107 51015 ). (18.4) N(t)=N0/2 t=1/2,
e

T1 / 2

= 1 / 2 ,
T1 / 2 = ln 2 / 0,693 / .

(18.6)


- , :

221

,
R -

ln = A + B ln R ,

(18.6/)

,
.

, : 1 =1 /,
, 1 =3,71010 . (18.4) :

a = dN / dt = N 0 e t = N .

(18.7)

(18.6) 1/2,
) (18.7) :

a = N = N ln 2 / T1 / 2 .

(18.8)


.
, .
,

232
90Th ,

235
92 U

238
92 U

207
82 Pb

208
92 Pb

237
93 Np .
208
82 Pb

209
83 Pb

.
-
238
234
4
92 U 90Th + 2 He + Q

(Q ).
- X Y- - ( ):
A
A 4
4
Z X Z 2Y + 2 He + ( hv ) .

(18.9)


+-,
- -
.
- ,
,
222

( ).
,
.
- :
- (2 2
) - . ,
- , ,
, . -
, 1036 -
() .
-, . (19011954) 1934 .

. . -
- ,
. - (-, )
,
:
A
A
Z X Z +1Y

+ e + v~e -, (18.10)

A
A
Z X Z 1Y

+ e + + ve +-, (18.11)

.
-
-: ,
:

p + 10e n + ve -. (18.12)

, .
-

n p + e + v~e ,

14
14
6 C 7 N

+ e + v~e ,

11
11
+
6 C 5 B + e

+ ve .

e (

~e ) , ,
( ),
.
. (19001958) 1930 .
223

( ) -:
-
-.
- 102
1018 .
- (-)
,
-
, . 10 5 . - - ,
- ().

(1958
.)
.. (1929.., 1961 .).
2 2 1
,
, (..
). ,

2 1,
v ( hv) -

2.
-, .. 1
2,

2,
. -
, 2
1.

, .
,
, .
-, ()
,
.
, -
, , ,
, .

, (
).
224

() - (..
) .
18.3. ,


.

.
, . ,
,
,
.
.

,
.

, ,

i=dn/dl.
(18.13)

,

S=dW/dl.
(18.14)
R
.
( -
) - ( )

. . , -
4 2,5 ,
.
- . 2
- 3,5 .
- . ,
, , - -
. -
(18.13)
i=4600 /(/v)2,
.

.
225

,
.

1
1H

1 H -, 2,23
, .
, ,
:

I = I 0e x ,

-.

(18.15)

, - , ,
, , ,
,
. - ,
0

: 1 e+ +1e .
- (18.15)

,

: = + + . . ,
,
- . -
,
.

.
D
.
W, , m:
D = W / m.
(18.16)
SI () : 1 =1 /.

t:
P = D/t.
(18.17)
SI () /=/.


. -
=1, =3,
0,5 =10, - =20.
226


D :
H = DK.
(18.18)
SI () . 1 =1
1 (=1).
De
. Q
,
( ) m:
De = Q / m .
(18.19)
SI () /.

: 1 =2,58104 /. 1 1 3
2 109 .
- 6 .
m=70 (18.16)
W=Dm=70 6 =420 .
. , 10 , 46o (
t=10o )
. ,

, ,
( ).
, . 0,5
1 .
0,1
, 2 .
35
12 . 1050
12 .
,
, 50 .

5 .
2 .

.
, .
, ,
. -,
,
.
-.

227

, ,
: (), .

.
,
.
.
:
, ,
, , ,
,

,
.

, . ,

.
, .

,
.
, , .
, .
,
,
.

cos = c /( nv) , , n
, v .
, v.

.
, .
.
, .
(18.17).

,
,

.

(. (18821945)),
. .,
228

1928 .
: ,
.
100200 ... ~100 .
,
. ( 0,5 ),
,
.
.

,
.
.
, ,
, ,
.

( ~3).
,
. , ,
( ),
.
. ,
.
,
.
, .
, p-n,
. ,
.
.
1912 . . (18691959,
1927.). , ,
, .
, . 1927 .
.. .
:
. ,
.
1952 . .
,
.
.

229

,
.
1957 . .
.
, .

.
. ,
.
1927 .
.. ... ,

. .
.
,
.
.
.
18.4. (
)

, , , ,
, . ,
, .
. ( 1938 .)
193438 .
.
:
,
.
1942 . .
,
,
.
1954 .. (19031960).
, :
.
235
1
92 U + 0 n

X 1 + X 2 + (2 3) 01n + (Q 200 MeV )


235
1
139
95
92 U + 0 n 54 Xe + 38 Sr
-

+ 201n + Q ,
-

139
139
139
139

57 La ,
56 Ba
55 Cs
54 Xe

230

(18.20)

235
1
139
94
92 U + 0 n 56 Ba + 36 Kr

+301n + Q .

. ,
. ,
,
X1 X2 (
200 ),
. , ,
. . . 1938 . .
, ,
, , =139.
.
.. . .
1939 .

. .
. . .,
,
. .
.,
. . .
. .:
,
200 ,
, . 16 1939
, .

.. 8 1939 . ,
.

, 1 1939
.
.
. .,
.. ,
. ,
=90150, 80
. ,
2:3. ,
1014 , ( 0,75%)
0,05 1 . 2,5
.

235
92 U

(0,71%).

238
92 U

238
92 U

(99,29%)


231

235

1 . 92 U
,
, .

235
92 U
238
92 U

200 ,
.
0,1 14 .
238

92 U .

238

239

92 U 92 U
.
235

: 92 U
, .
,
235

92 U . ,
.

235
, ( 92 U
239
94 P ) m.
235
92 U m= 50 ,
239
R= 8,5 , 94 P m=11 .

, ..
.


.
, ,
235

239

, 92 U , 94 P .
.
,
235

1 92 U , 2104 .

(6 1945 ) (9 1945 ).
200000 .
,
.

235
92 U

.
232

( 1 H

235
92 U

12
6C

).

200 ,

238
92 U

. ,

235
92 U

, ,
, .
238

92 U
( 7 ).

. ,
, ,
.
, ..
, , , .
,
.
,
.
( Cd B).
,
, K=Ni/Ni-1
, K<1 , K=1
, K>1 ,
, .
.

.

, ()
()
, , .
,
1013 ,
,
,
.
. W,
1013 .
W = bQ1Q2 / r .
, , , c Q1=Q2=e=1,61019, r=1013,
b=9109 2/2 W=2,31015=1,4 .

233

. ,
, (3/2)kT, k=1,381023 /:
T=2W/(3k)108 , .

(
, .. (19031960) 1953
., 1949 .
). ,
, (
),
. :
2
2
3
1
1 D + 1 D 1T + 0 p + 4 MeV ,

(18.21)

2
3
4
1
1 D + 1T 1 He + 0 n + 17,6 MeV ,

(18.22)

6
1
4
3
3 Li + 0 n1 He+ 1T

+ 4,8 MeV ,

(18.21)

(18.22) 14 ,
238

92 U , 99%
. ,
. () 2
3 , , 105106
.
,
, .
(18.22),
. ~108 ,
,
.
(1950 .,
.. (18951971) .. (1921..))
, .
: .

, ,
(, , )
, , ,
.

234

19.
1. . .
. .
2. .
19.1. . .
.


. ,
. , -
,
, ,
, ..
. , ,
.

, , , , ,
.

, , , ,
.
( ),
, , (
) , . ( )
,
2

2 2

E = c p + m0 c :

m0 =

(E

c2 p2 / c2 .

(19.1)
0=m0c2 (. ),
, ().
, .

, , +, ve v
~ v~ .. ,
v
e

: 1

0
+1 ,

(-)

.
, .
,
, .
,

0 () 0 ().
235


, .
, ,
,
.
()
-
- ( ) -
, :

10 + +01 .

:
0
0
1 + +1


, ,
, . ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
,
.
.
~
v
e
1

1 p ve 01 n (. ):

v~e +11p 01n + +10e , ve + 01n11p + 10e .

,
.

( 19.1):
()
(); (-)
.
(.
) ( ) (, 0, + ),

( + , 0 ,

), 0. , ,

. ( ),
- (
) 0, , 0, , , 0, +,
( ).
, .
236

273,1/139,57

108

264,1/134,97

1016

K+

966,2/493,68

108

K0

K
~
K0

974/497,67

1010/ 108

1074/547,3

1018

1/2

1836,2/
938,27
1838,7/
939,57
2183/1115,68

1/2

886,7

1/2

2328/1189,37

1/2

1010
1010

2343/1197,45

1/2

1010

2334/1192,64

1/2

1020

3273/1672,45

3/2

2573/1314,90

1/2

1010
1010

2586/1321,32

1/2

1010

1/0,51

1/2

1/2

,

/

19.1*

,

-
()

-
()

~
p
n~

~
0
~
+
~

~
0
~

~
0
~

0
+

+
v~

ve

+
v

v~

206,8/105,66

1/2

106

0/<0,17

1/2

v~

3487/1777,05

1/2

1013

0/<18,2

1/2

???

0/0

+
v

0/<3510

*
,
, , ,
237

() , --
(-):

P + P p + n + +

() ,
:

P + P p + 0.

. :
( ).
,
() .
s=1,
. .
, , , ,
.
s=1/2,
( ), ,

~ , v , e , e+ .
, , ve , v
e

1964 . .- . ,
,
.
.-
( 1969.)
. :
, :
.
, : u (up
), d (down ), s (strange ),
(, uud,
udd). ,
1/3 2/3 ( !).
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(charmed ), b (beauty ), t (truth )
.
. ,
,
. ,

, ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
238

:
,

(),
,
(. 1, .II ).

, ,
: , (),
, .
, ..
. ,
.

.

( ).
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, ( ).
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.
,
.

.
-, - , -
.
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10 , .
,
;
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, .
: .

(86%), (13%) (1%),
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109 1012 .

.
.
,
,

,
,

.. .
239

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.

, , ,
.

.
,
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.

600
1600 .
810 .
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.

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,
.
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, , ,

,
(, ).
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, .
.
,

. , ()
, ()
.
240

, ,
.
( )
. ,

- ( ; );
- ( ;
, );
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).

v
E
E

. 19.1
, (
) , ,
, (. 19.1, ).

.
(),
, :

/

(, ~10 ).

241

20. .

1.
.
2. . . .
3. .
.

, ,

,
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20.1.


, .
,
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,
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). , ,
,

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;
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, t >/(2m2).

. , ,
,
.

242

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. ,
, ,

.
. .., . .

, ,
-.

.
100% .

,
.
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.

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( + )
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75 /(). R
(1~3,1 10 19 ), [V]=/.

.
243

( )
~109 , ~100 .

,
.
, (
m=const), .
.
,
~1010 .
(~ 5109 ). ,
, , ~5109 .
,
,
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).


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.
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, .
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,
. .
> 3MC,
.
, . .

=>
.
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R 10 , .
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. -,
244

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.
,
,
.
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.

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;
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,
245

. 1997 . 5 (2
5)10-31 /3, .
70 %.
2007

(University of Copenhagens Dark Cosmology
Centre at the Niels Boht Institute) Space Daily
, ,

, , ,
, 1917 .
ESSENCE ( 38
).
ESSENCE 10 % - .
, ( 2 7 1-
.., .., .., , 2004)
,
.
,
. .
(1911-1985) .
11 , - ,
,
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.
(
, 2 2007 ).


;
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. 20-25
,
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,
.
,
.

246

. ( . ..,
2004

).

.
, ,
,
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,
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. ,
,
.
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,

. ( . , 1881,
1886-87, 1929 ).
,
, ,
. . (1930 .).
,
: W = c 2 p 2 + c 4 m 2 ,
.
, . 20.1.
(W+)
, .
(W--) . ,

, .
( I . 20.1, ) ()
, 2mc 2 = hv -.
,
.
247

. , , .
, , I
( ).
,
, .

.
- -
. ().
(- ..).
. ,
,
. . 20.1,) ,
( , .. - )-
- hv 2mc 2 ,
, .. ,
( II . 20.1,6).
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, ..
- .
w+

w+
hv 2mc 2

mc2
mc2

2mc 2

hv 2mc 2

I
+

)
. 20.1.

. 20.1
(). (
1931 .) 1932 .
( . , 1936 .
). ,
. ,
- .

248

20.1, ) ,
() I,
- .
, 22 .
- .
.
, ( )
,
, .
. ,
,
II (. 20.1,6).
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W = 2mc 2 ,

.
,
(

h
)
4
h
10 21
=
4W

. . , - ,

. ,
.
, , ,
, ..
.
- .
(
- ) vT =1057,864 .
, 1947 . . ,
, =1057,862 . (
10-5 %)
. .
(1955 .).
.
,
g, g-
h
,
2mc
h
).
, h ( h =
2

, =

g/2=1.

g/2-=
1,00115965240.
(),
249

,
.
, g/2= 1,00115965238. ,
109%.
.
, 1981 .
, 800 ,


.
4-
. .

- . -

, , .

; 1050%.
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, 2006. 1 2), .
250

, -
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D, D 3.
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?
r. , 3-- ,

4 3
R ,
3
2
- S = 4R ,
V =

(*)
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