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.. , .. , ..

II

2006

530.1 (075.8)
22.3
:

- .-., . .. ,
..-.., . ..

.., .., ..
: . :
, 2006. 134 .
,
, .

,
.
, (34
)
.

, 2006
.., .., .., 2006
2


.
....................
4
...

1.

2.

II

16

3.

() I ...

31

4.

() II ..

39

5.

46

6.

..

58

7.

...

65

8.

() I

74

9.

() II ..

84

10.

..

89

11.

() .

95

12.

()
()
.
13. .

14.

100
103
108
108

15.

.. 121

16.

...

127

......................................................... 133


, , ;
, .
3 ,
, ,
" ",
" ", " ",
" ", "
"

2002/03 .


,
. ,
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, - .

. .

, , ,

; .
,

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,

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1. I
1.

(,
, , )).
2. . . .
. .
3. ().
( ), .

. .
( ,
).
( 1
3 5
, )

1.1. (,
, , )
,
.
, ,
( ).
,
.
()
, ,
(
).
- (-
, )

(). ,
- .
(, )

():
,
, , ,
(. 1.1).
6070 . XX .
,
,
. ,
5

(. I, , 5, 7),
.
.
III .
1.1

10-3910-40

10-18

10-8

10-310-4

10-21
10-22

10-1510-20

10-10

g G2
hc
e2
=
hc

aG =

aw =

g w2
hc

10-15

10-24

(W , Z)
,

g s2
hc
1
s=
g2
ln 2

s =

1.2. . .
. .

.
, ,
. ,
(), (, (.)
) , ,
( (. 625547 ..),
. (15441603)). (,
, . )

,
.
, ,
, . , ,
-
6

,
.
,
, . :

1. ,

;
2. (),
- ( , + ),
,
.

,
.
()
() ( : ),

. . . ,
19
, : = 1.6022 10 (1
. , . ,
1 1
).
, 1,
1 , .
, , ,
1 . ,
.
(. ),

.
( ).
- ,
( 1/3, 2/3) ,
.
() (
.. (18681953)
1909.).
me = 9.11 1031 , m p = 1.67 1027 .
.
, , .
, .
, , ,
() .
7

,
. .
.
().
, , ..
.
(, ) Q = N e , N
(), .. , N
1 Q Q
.
.
(), ..
.
,
,
:
. (),
,
.

(, )
(.
).

( ). ,
( )

(1785.) .. (17361806): F
,
, q1 q2
r12
:

q1 q2
q1 q2

,
(1.1)
F
k
F=
r

12
4 0 r123
r122
9
2
2
k = 9 10 /
0 = 8.85 1012 2 /( 2 ) = 8.85 1012 /

(SI),

([] );
III F12 = F21 (. . 1.1).

. 1.1
, . (17311810)
11 , -
..
()
, ,
( ) ,
().
,
, ,
. ,
q3 , F31 = F32 . (1.1)
x (

= 1 ): k

q1 q3

(l x)

=k

q 2 q3
x

. 1.2
q3 ,
q2,
+. ()
, .
. (XIX .):
. ,

( ) (
,
;
,
, . ,
, .).
,
.
9

1.3. ().
(
), . .

.
( ,
)
,
() , ..
, .
,
,
( ).
, (
).

(),

() ,
; , ,
, , , ().
, ,
,
( , . )
.
.
(),
.
, , ,

, .
, .
(. I, , 3)

dA = F d r = F v dt = Fds cos = dW ( x, y, z ) = dW ( r ) , (1.2)

10

r - , v , dt

, F dA ,

F dr ( v ),

0 ( 180 ), ..
cos = 1. (1.1)
r2

(1.1) r2

A = Fdr = k
r1

r1

q1 q 2
r

dr = k

q1 q 2

r2

r1

1 1
= k q1 q 2 = W ,
r1 r2

=
(1.3)

W ( ),
, , :

W =k

q1 q2
+C.
r

(1.4)

(1.3) : A
q

A = F dr = 0 .

(1.5)

() ,
,

(, . 1.3):

F = Fi (W = Wi )
i

1
647
48
(1.1)
2
2
F = F2 + F1 + F1 F4 = F2 + 2F1 F4 =

q q2
q q1
q q4

.
=k
+ 2

2
2
2 l 2
l
2 l / 2

.. q ,
:
. ,
- .
q ( ,
, ..

11

, ). F ,
q ,
( ):

W (1.4) q
F (1.1) 1 q
= k +C.
E=
=
r =
q
r
q
40 r 3

(1.6)

. 1.3

( [ E ] = / , 1 = 1 / 1 ,
),
( [ ] = ).
, U,
C, (C=0) , = 0
( ).
( r = , ).
( , ,
), ,
.
(. I, , 3) ,
:

F = gradW ( r ) .

(1.7)

.. () , (1.7)
. (1.7) q, (1.6)
:

E = grad .

(1.8)


(. H: ),
12


( ):


E =
i+
j+
k .
x
y
z

(1.9)

,
.
.
(, - ),
(, , ) (,
) (. 1.4).
,
, r (

; ).
(1.8) :

d
E=
n
dr

d = Edr ,

(1.10)

n .
1 2

r2

r2

r1

r1

= 2 1 = d = E dr .

(1.11)

. 1.4
,
,
.
,
( ).
x2
d
E=
nx = Edx .
dx
x1

(1.12)

13

(1.3), (1.6), (1.11)


r2

A12 = W1 W2 = q E dr = q (1 2 ) = q U ,

(1.13)

r1

r2

U = 1 2 = E dr .
r1

E dr

E ,

(1.5) ,
(. H: )

rot E = 0 .

(1.14)

,
.

, E
( ),

U = 1 2 = E d ,

(1.15)

d 1 2 .
, ( . (17911867))

(
( x, y, z ) = const )
,

(, ,
) .
.
.
: ,
, .
,
(,
).
,
().

, (
, ):
14

E = Ei .

(1.16)

= i .

(1.17)

E = E i ,
i

, ..
, (1.16), . 1.3,
.

( x, y, z ) = const

. 1.5
( )
. . 1.5
(
),

(), )), (),
( ).
. 1.5, ) ,
() .

15

2. II
1. .
.
2. . .
3.
.

2.1. ().


() ,
+q
-q, l r
.

l ,

l.
.

( ) pe , :

pe = q l .

(2.1)
. ,
, ,

.
()
:
1. (. 2.1,
l<<r). (1.16)

E = E + E+ (1.6)

-q l +q E E E+
A
l/2 l/2
r
. 2.1
16

E = E+ E = k

q
q
2qr
.

k
=
k
(r l / 2) 2
(r + l / 2) 2
(r 2 l 2 / 4) 2

(2.2)

(1.6), (1.16)

q
2qr
q

=k 2 2 .
r l /4
r l/2 r +l/2

= + + = k

(2.3)

(2.1) l<<r

E=k

2 pe
2 pe
k
,

=
r2
r3

(2.4)

2. ,
(. 2.2).

E pe . ..

E+ = E = k

q
, (. 2.2)
r2 + l2 / 4

. 2.2

E = 2 E+ cos = k

2q
q l
.

cos
=
k
3/ 2
2
2
r2 + l2 / 4
r +l /4

(2.5)

(2.1)

E = k

pe
.
R3

(2.6)

(1.6), (1.16)

= + + = k

q
2

r l /4
17

= 0 .
2
2
r +l /4
q

(2.7)

3. (. 2.3).

. 2.3
BC D
CD, 1 (BD),

2 (CD) (. . 2.3). E1 E2 ( pe1 pe 2 ),


(2.3)(2.6)
l<<r:

E E12 + E22 =

BCD

k
(2 pe1 ) 2 + pe22 , ..
3
r

pe1 = pe cos = ql cos , pe 2 = pe sin = ql sin ,


p
E = k 3e 3 cos 2 + 1 ,
r
2 p cos
= 1 = k e 2
.
r

(2.8)
(2.8/)

. 1.5, ).
, , ,
. ,

, ,

18

2.2. .

. ,
().
() , ,
, ,
( )
, ().
()
3
[ / ] ,

[ / 2 ] [ / ] (2.9), (2.10), (2.11)


:

q dq
=
V 0 V
dV

= lim

(2.9)

( , q = dV),
V

q
dq
=
S 0 S
dS
( ), q = dS ,

= lim

(2.10)

q dq
=
l 0 l
dl
( ), q = dl .
= lim

(2.11)

,

q = V ,
(2.12)
q = s ,
(2.12/)

q = l

.
(2.12//)
,
, ,
(
).
()
(),
().

(, = 1 ).
19

1. ( > 0 ) (. (2.12))
(, R 0 ) l,

(. 2.4).
,
dl, dq = dl ( = q / l )
(1.6):

. 2.4

dE =

dq

=k

dr

(2.13)

4 0 r 2
r2
dq
dr
=k
d = k
.
r
r

(2.13/)

.. dE dl ,
():
a +l

E = k

dr
l
1 a +l

,
k
=
= k
2
a
r
a
(
a
+
l
)
r

(2.14)


a +l

= k
a

dr
a+l
= k ln
.
r
a

(2.15)

2.

dr
1 k
=

.
(2.16)
k
=
2
a
a
r
ar
3. ( > 0 )
(, R 0 ) l,

E = k

(. 2.5).
,
dl, dq = dl ( = q / l )
(1.6):

dE =

dq

4 0 r 2

d = k
20

=k

dl
r2

dq
dl
=k
.
r
r

(2.17)

(2.17/)

.. ,
dl dq. , (2.17)
dl r.
, . . 2.5

dl =

rd
a
,r=
, (2.17) :
cos
cos

dE = k

dl
r2

=k

rd
d
d
=
=
k
k
,
r cos
a
r 2 cos

(2.18)

d = k

(2.18/)

d
.
cos

dE
dEy
A
dEx

y
x

r rd a
rd
dl
l
. 2.5

, , dE
, , ,

: dE y dE x .
dE x = dE cos , dE y = dE sin .
1 2 , :

k 2
k
cos

=
(sin 2 sin 1 ) ,
Ex =
d

a 1
a

(2.19)

k 2
k
Ey =
d
sin

=
(cos 1 cos 2 ) ,

a 1
a

(2.20)

E = Ex2 + E y2 .
21

(2.21)

, .. 2 = 180 1 , ,
, ,
( 1 = 0 2 = / 2 )
(
dl (),
,

dE y

, dE x ).
4. , ( > 0 )
(..
),

k / 2
k
E = 2 dE y = 2
sin d =2 (cos1 cos 2 ) =
a 0
a
0
k
k
/2

=2

(1 0) = 2 ,
a
a
1 0 2 .

(2.22)

.. l
,
:
2



=k ln tg 2 + ln tg 1 + .
2 4
2 4
1 cos

= k

(2.23)


= .
5. ( Q) l,
, , ,
(.
2.6).

. 2.6
.
.(2.23)
/ 4 / 2 ( = Q / l ).
22

, 1 3
. . 2.5 ( 3); 2
4 ,

2 4.

.
, (1,2,3,4) (.(2.23))
( ).
6. ( > 0 ) ,
R, 1/n ,
.
, (. 2.7).
3 (4) ()

dE x

() dE y ( 2 ):

. 2.7

k
k / n

=
cos

2
sin
E = 2 dE y = 2
d
.

R
R
n
0
0
/n

k
=
R

2R / n

dl =
0

k 2R 2k
=
.
R n
n

(2.24)

(2.25)

7. ( > 0 ) R,
(. 2.8).
23

3 (4)

2R

2R
k
E = dE y = 2
cos dl =
2
R +a
0
0
2kaR
=
.
2
2 3
R +a

(2.26)

. 2.8

() dE x .

R +a
2

2R

2Rk

R +a

dl =

(2.27)

8. ( > 0 ) R,
,
(. 2.9).
,
r r+dr dl.

. 2.9
dq = drdl
24

dE = k

drdl
dq
.
=
k
(a 2 + r 2 )
(a 2 + r 2 )

. 2.9

dE y = dE cos = k

drdla
2

2 3

(a + r )

(2.28)

(2.29)

,
, ,
r :

dE y = k
l

drdla
2

2 3

(a + r )

=k

2rdra
2

2 3

(a + r )

(2.30)

r 0 R,
a +R
a2 + r 2 = x
dx

E y = 2ak
ak
=
=

3/ 2

2
2 3
2
x
rdr
dx
=
2
0 (a + r )
a

a2
1
1 / 2
=

ak
2ak x
2

2
2
a
a2 + R2
+
a
R

rdr


a
1

1
1
=

2 0
a 2 + R 2 2 0
R2
1+ 2

(2.31)

.
8.1. a>>R. , ..
.

R2
1 1 + 2
E=
2 0
a

1 / 2

1 R 2 R 2
q

=
=
k
. (2.32)
1 1

2
2
2

2
2
a
a
4

8.2. a<<R.

R2
1 1 + 2
E=
2 0
a

25

1 / 2

.
2 0

(2.33)

2.3.

(
H: )
S r,
q.

En =

1
4 0

q
r2

(2.34)

( q>0, En>0, q<0, En<0 (,


)).

d E = En dS = E dS ,
..

(2.35)

dS (dS = dS n ) ( ). S

E = E dS =
S

(2.36)

. 2.10
,
S . dS

(. 2.10). dS

d E = E dS = E dS cos =

26

q
4 0

dS cos
q
=
d , (2.37)
4 0
r2

d , dS.
S () ,
4 (), :

E =

4 0

d =

4 0

4 =

. 2.11
(. 2.11),
dS1, dS2, dS3 ,
, (2.37). dS1

dS3 q (.. cos E , n > 0 ), dS2

q ( cos E , n < 0 ).
d ,
.
q, ,

E = E i ,
i


E = E dS = E i dS = E i dS = qi .
0 i
i S

S
S i

(2.38)


:

,
0 .
, ,
(2.9)
.:

E = E dS =
S

27

dV .

0 V

(2.39)

.
1. ( > 0 )
(, , R).
, ,
r>R. .. ,
, ,
. (2.39)
E 2rl = l / 0 , l
. (. (2.22)):

E=

2 0 r

(r R)

(2.40)

. 2.12
r R , ,
.
()
(1.11)

q
r2
r2 dr
2 1 = E dr =
=

ln
.
(2.41)

h
r
2
2
1
0 r1
0
1
2. ( > 0 )
2

(). ,
,
b. , b 0 E
, S: E 2 S = S / 0 ,
( (2.33))

28


.
2 0
x
"" x 0,

2 1 = Edx = m
x,
2 0 "+" x 0.
0
E=

(2.42)
(2.43)

3.
( 1 < 0 2 > 0 ) (), d
( ).

. 2.13

1
( 1 + 2 ) . 1 = 2 =
2 0

(2.42) : E = E1 + E2 =

E=

.
0

2 1 = Edx =
0

(2.44)

x,....0 x d .
2 0

(2.45)

. 2.14

E = E1 m E2 =

1 = 2 = x < 0 x > d E = 0 ,
29

1
( 1 m 2 ).
2 0

(0), x 0,

( x) = (0) x ( 0 ),0 x d ,
(0) x , x d .
0

(2.46)

(0) (. 4).

4. ( ) R
( Q). ,
, r R. (2.39)
E 4r =
2

4
3

R 3 / 0 = Q / 0 , ( (1.6))
E=

Q
4 0 r 2

(r R).

(2.47)

R r,
Q,

dE =

dV
4 0 r 2

(r R).

(2.48)

5. ( )
R ( Q).
(2.44). ,
.
..
E
E
E
E
E
~R

0
1
~ 1r
20
~ 12
~ 2
r
r
0 x
0
x
E=0
E=0
20
r
r
r

q
q

1
1
~ ln r 4 R
~ r

40R
0
~ r1
(0)
(0)

0
)

20

0
)

d x

)
)
)
. 2.15
2.15
() ()
(): ) ; ) ; )
; ) ; ) , . (2.39)(2.48).

30

3. () I
1. I- II- , .
. .
2. (

D ).
.
3. , . .
, . .
3.1. I- II- , .
.
,
,
. ,
, . :
) ,
(
, ,
, ..);
) ()
;
) ,
(, ,
, , ).

, . ,
.
: 1) I- ()
( )
; 2) II-
, , ()
() ,
(). (.) ,
(, , , ,
(), , ,
) . .
().

(, , ,
II IV, II VI, III V ..
.
31

,

Eg.
.
.
. .
. . .,

pe = 0 , ..
.

, ..

pe 0

V .

N 2 ). .
( O2 ,

. ()
.
,
, .
,
.
, . , ..
. .
, ,
() .
. .,
( H 2O ),
.
.

p e ,
.
, .
. .

( ):

P=

pe
i

(3.1)

V 0 (..

), P = n0 pe , n0 = n / V , n
.

32

P E .
,
2
11
E ~ e / r 10 B /

. , P E
:

P = 0 E ,

(3.2)
> 0

4R 3n
=
,
=
V
V

, (R ).

. P E ,
.. .
3. 2. (

D ).

(.) ,
. ,
. . .

E = E + E , (2.38)

E dS =

(q

.
+ q

(3.3)

(3.3) ,
, ,
.

- . , q
, S.

q .,

E . . 3.1 dS

S. E dS

dS = dS n .
dn ,
dS l, -:
33

dn = n0ldS cos , n0 . ,
, ( ,
)

. 3.1

dq
= qdn = ql n0 dS cos = n0 pe dS cos = P dS

q
= P dS .

(3.4)

(3.4) (3.3), (
.):

( 0 E + P) dS = D dS = q ,

(3.5)

( 3.2 )

D = 0 E + P = 0 E + 0 E = (1 + ) 0 E = 0 E

(3.6)

( ). E
, , ,

D ( ),
,
(, ,
). = (1 + ) > 1
,
.

1 2 (. 3.2),
ABCD (AB=CD=dl, AC = BD 0 )
(1.14)

E E 1dl E 2 dl = 0

E 1 = E 2 .
34

(3.7)

(3.6) (3.7)

D 1 1
= .
D 2 2

(3.8)

. 3.2
. (3.5),
(

), D (. 3.3)
Dn1dS Dn 2 S = 0
(3.6) (3.9)

Dn1 = Dn 2 .

(3.9)

En1 2
= .
En 2 1

(3.10)

. 3.3
.. tg1 = E 1 En1 , tg 2 = E 2 En 2 , (3.7)(3.10)

:

tg 2 En1 2

=
=
tg1 En 2 1

tg 2 = 2 tg1 .
1
35

(3.11)

3.3. , .
. , .


, ,
.
. ,
1880. . ..
(
, , , ).

-,
. .

(). ,
, , ..
. , (.
o
14, I ) 180
, , .
, 20 32 ,
, ..
( , , , ..) I .
1881. (18451921)
,
.
,
,
.

, ( ), ,
.


,
.
, ,
, ().
,

,
- .
,
36

. .

(. ).
, ,
( )
.
(
) .,
( )
() ,
, , (
NaKC4 H 4O6 4 H 2O , BaTiO3 , LiNbO3 ).
, ,
, ,
, .
( )
. ,
, ,
.
, (255 ) (297 ).
,
.

,

.

,

. E ES
,

P .

(),


( .., . . 3.4).
0 ES

PS .
(. . 3.4)
PR .
,

37

. , ,
.

. 3.4
,
, , ,
,
.

( = 1 + , . . 3.4
(3.2), (3.6)) 103 .
. .,

( ). ,
., ,
6
, E ~ 10 /.
, .
.
. (
, ). ,
.

38

4. () II
1. . ,
.
.
2. ,
, (),
. .
3. .
4.1. . ,
.

( I )
,
. (
) , ,
.

);

, .

, , .. = 0

).

..

(1.8)

E = grad ,

E = r = 0 ,

:
, .
, ,
,

.
,
,
().

(3.5) D

D dS = Dn dS = q = dS

E n = d dn ( E n

Dn = , En =

( 0 ) ,

39

= 0

d
. .
dn

1.5, ) ,
(), d dn .
,
, , .

. ,
, ,
.
.
, . .

.
, ,
. ,

, .. .
, ..
(, ,
) , . ,
, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
( ),
, , ..
(,
).

q ~ ~ E ~ A ~ .
(4.1)
,
, : q = C .
.
.. :
= q .
(4.2)
,
,
.
, , .
1 = 1 / 1 ;
, ~ , , , .
40

(1.11) (2.43)

qdr

2
4 0 r

= Er dr =
:

q
4 0 R

, (4.2) ,

= 4 0 R .

(4.3)

q.
(. 1.5, )
(. 4.1)
.
(), ,
,
. . 4.1
, ,
( ).
.

. 4.1

q
,
1 2

(4.4)

q ( ).
.. E = d / dx , (2.42) d = Edx = dx /( 0 ) .

qd
, S ,
2 1 =
=

dx
d
0 0
0
0 S

q
S
= 0 .
1 2
d
41

(4.5)

(4.5) d << S ,

(. . 4.1).
(2.40)
(. (2.41))

R2 dr
q
R2
2 1 =
=

ln
,

2 0 R1 r
2 0 h R1
q
2 0 h
.
=
=
R2
1 2
ln

(4.6)

R1
ln(R2 R1 ) = ln(1 + d R1 ) d R1

d = R2 R1 << R1
C 0 S d , .. (4.6) (4.5).
(2.43)

dr
q 1
1

,
=

4 0 R1 r 2
4 0 R2 R1
q
4 0 R1R2
.
(4.7)
=
=
1 2
R2 R1
d = R2 R1 << R1 ,
R2 R1 R

2
= 4 0 R d = 0 S / d , .. (4.7) (4.5).

2 1 =

R2

, .
, . ,
.

. 4.2
(. 4.2),
( ) q A =

qi ,

i =1

i = . ,
n

i =1

i =1

q = Ci i = Ci , ..

42

C = Ci .

(4.8)

i =1

(. 4.3),
qi = q ,
n

AB = i , ,

i =1

C =

q
n

i =1

. 4.3

1
.
C
i =1 i
n

(4.9)

4.2. ,
, (),
.
(. (1.6)),
W1 = q112
W2 = q221 . 12 = q2 (4 0 r ) 21 = q1 (4 0 r )

W = W1 = W2 = q112 = q2 21 = 1 / 2 (q112 + q2 21 ).

n . ,

W=

1 n
qii* ,
2 i =1

(4.10)

i , i-
.
, ( q)
qi
( 2),
( ), ..
. (4.10)
*

n
q
1
.
W = qi =
2
2
i =1

(4.11)

(4.2),

43

W =

q
2

C
2

q2
=
0.
2C

(4.12)

(4.12) (4.10)

W=

1 n
qi i ,
2 i =1

(4.13)

i , i-,

i-.

( 1
q1=-q,
(4.13)

2 q2=q),

q11 q2 2 q C 2 q 2
W =
+
=
=
=
.
2
2
2
2
2C

(4.14)

. W.
, . . , ,
, ,
.
C = 0 S d , = Ed

0 E 2 (3.6) ED
C 2 0 S ( Ed ) 2 0 E 2
W =
=
=
V =
V . (4.15)
( Sd ) =
2
2
2
2
d

w=

dW
W ED
=
w =
.
V
2
dV

W = wdV .

(4.16)

,
( . , ).
, ,
, ,
(, ,
).
, ,
,
x << S . .
( q = S = const ). dx

F , ,
44

A = Fdx .
dW = wSdx . A + dW = 0 , F = wS .

( ),

F = wS =

0 E 2
2

0
2

S=
S=
S.
2 0
2 0

(4.17)

( ),

2
S.
( 1) (4.17) F =
2 0
4.3.
,
. , ,
(, ),
( ).
130 /. ,
, 200
. .
, .
, .
,
,
.
.
.
6 105 . 1 40 /,
10 , 50
.

( ),
, . , .
1800 (10-6 /2).
( ) ,
.
. .
: (
)
(),
, . ,
45

. 2030
, ,
22 .

5.
1. : .
, () .
2.

() .
(). .
3. . .

.
4. .
5.1. : .
, ()

, + , .
. .

.
. () (),
. .
+-.
,
dq, S
dt,

I=

dq
.
dt

.
( )

(5.1)

[I ] = = .

I = q/t.


(5.2)
(,


), .
.
, .

46

dI (*) I
j=
=
.
dS S

(5.3)

[ j ] = A / 2 . (*) .

q < v > ,
n, dt S
dQ = nq < v > Sdt .
I = nq < v > S
j = nq < v > .
(5.4)
(5.3) (2.9)
(

j )

j dS = j dS n =

dq
d
= dV = dV ,
dt
dt V
V t

(5.5)

n dS.
.

. (,
, , ..),

. (5.5) ,

j dS = 0 ,

..

,
,
, .

().
. .
,
, , .
,
. .
( 4),

,

. 5.1
47

(), ..
. ,
(, , ), . . . .
.

1 > 2 (. 5.1),
,

F = q E = q ( grad ) 12, ,
21,
(1.13). 21 (),
,

,
,
,
, . .
, . .
,
, 12 (,

[ ] = ), :

12 = A / q = E dl ,

(5.6)

12

.. 12
, , (1.13) :

A12

= E + E dl = (1 2 ) + 12 .
(5.7)
q 12

(5.7) 12 > 0 , 1 2
, 12 < 0 ,

U =

. (
) U = (1 2 ) .
, ..
.
5.2.

() .
().
1826. . (17871854)
, ,
(. 5.2, ), :

48

I=

U
,
R

(5.8)

R , .. .
[R ] = = B / . R ,
.
S l :

R=

l 1 l
=
,
S S

(5.9)

, ,
[ ] = , [ ] = = . (5.9)

dx
.

(
x
)
S
1
2

R12 =


I =

(5.10)

(5.8)
I U,

, ..

j dS

(5.7) .

U=1 2
)
R I , r
U=1 2
)
R

, r

I
)
. 5.2

S l, (V 0 ), , j,
. (5.3), (5.9)
49

U = = El

(5.8)

jS =

El
= ES ,
l /(S )

j E

() :

j = E.

(5.11)
. (. 5.2, )
(5.7)

I=

(1 2 ) + 12
R
+r
{

(5.12)

R12

()

j = E + E .

(5.13)

. 5.2, ) (
) :

I=

R+r

(5.14)

), R ; r
.
,

(. 5.2, ) ,

R, ,
= IR .
(5.15)
, , ,
(5.14). (5.12) (5.13),

R
< 1.
R+r

(5.16)

, , ,
.

, = . ,

.
, ,
, , , dq
, dQ.
:
50

(1.13)

( 5.1)

dQ = A = Udq = IUdt .

(5.17)

U2
t = Pt ,
Q = A = IUt = I Rt =
R

(5.18)

,
[P] = = = / , Imax. (5.17)
(5.18) 1841. .
. (18181889) 1842.
.. (18041865)
.
, (5.17)
dQ = Idt ,
..

(5.7)

U = E + E dl = E dl = . .. .

12
12

.
() ,
. ,
(
)
I = P + I 2 r .
(5.19)
(5.19) ,

dP dI = 2rI + = 0 , Imax= /2r, ..


R=r (. (5.14)).
()

V 0 (5.11):

j2
1 l
dQ = I Rdt = ( jS )
dt = Vdt .

(5.20)

, ..
,

dQ j 2
w=
=
= j 2 .
Vdt

(5.21)

()
(5.11) :
w = E 2 .
(5.22)

51

5.3. . .

. ,
. , .. ,

.
(18241887),
18451847 .

. (. 5.3).
(5.5)
, , , ..
, (
. ):
(5.23)
Ii = 0.
i

. 5.3
, , ,
. ,
,
, - , - . -
, ,
. n,
, , n1.
, (. 5.4, n=2)

I1 + I 2 I 3 = 0 .
(5.24)
, .. (5.24)
1 ( , ).
(
). . k,
, ,
k. k(n+1). ..
. 5.4 k=3, (
I1, I2, I3), k(n+1)=3(21)=2
.
.
(. 5.4). I
, , .
I:
I1R1 = 1 2 + 1 ,
(5.25)
52

II:

I 2 R2 = 2 1 + 2 .

(5.26)

I 2 R2 = 2 1 2 ,
I 3 R3 = 1 2 .

(5.27)

(5.28)
, ,
, ,
-; ,
() + (), +, .

. 5.4
(5.25) (5.26),
(5.27) (5.28), ,
. 5.4 . :
I1R1 + I 2 R2 = 1 + 2 ,
(5.29)

I 2 R2 I 3 R3 = 2 .

(5.30)
,
, , ,
.
(5.29) (5.30)

(5.31)
I i Ri = j ,
i

,

. (5.23) (5.31)
.
Ri . 5.4
,

(, , ),
.

53

(. 5.5)
I, U = U i .
i

(5.8):

. 5.5

U
R= =
I

U i
i

= Ri .

(5.32)

(. 5.6)
U, I = I i .
i

(5.8):

Ii
1 I
1
= = i
= .
R U
U
i Ri

(5.33)

R=

R1R2
.
R1 + R2

(5.34)

. 5.6
, ,
,
.

R,
RV (. 5.7).
: U = U V + U = IRV + IR .

U = nU V ,

nU V = I ( RV + R )
n = I ( RV + R ) / U V = ( RV + R ) / RV

54

R = RV (n 1) ,

(5.35)
n , ,
.

. 5.7
, ,
,
.

R,
RA (. 5.8).

U
U
.
+
R A R
U R A + R R A + R
n =

=
I A R A R
R

: I = I A + I =

I = nI A , nI A =

U
U
+
R A R

. 5.8

R =

RA
.
n 1

(5.36)


(. 5.9) ,
.
:

R=

UV
UV
=
=
IR
I A IV

55

UV
.
UV
IA
RV

(5.37)

. 5.9
5.4.
,
(
/, ..
), .. .
, ,
(
) ,
. ,
, ,

. , ,
. ..
8
3 10 /,
c
.
(. 5.10).
1 ,
i = dq / dt . .. U C = q / C ,
i = C (dU C / dt ) C = const . ,

U = iR + U C ,
: U U C = RC

dU C
.
dt

. 5.10
56

U = const :

d (U U C )
dt
. ,
=
U UC
RC

t
+ ln(const ) ,
(5.38)
RC
t=0, UC=0 ln(const ) = ln(U ) , ..
ln(U U C ) =

(5.38) :

U UC = U e

t
RC

t
RC

U C = U (1 e
).
R

t
U R = U U C = U exp
.
RC

(5.39)

( 5.39 )

(5.40)

i=

UR U
t U
t
= exp
= exp ,
R
R
RC R

(5.41)

. 5.11
= RC ,
=2,71828 , 0,63U (.
5.11).
, ,

2
W = CU / 2 .
,
2 (. 5.10).
i = dq / dt ( ),
.
i = U C / R . .. U C = q / C , i = C (dU C / dt )
C = const . :
,

ln U C =

t
+ ln const .
RC
57

dU C / U C = dt / RC .
(5.42)

. 5.12
t=0, UC=U ln(const ) = ln(U ) , .. (5.42)
:

UC = U e

t
RC

t
= U exp .

(5.43)

U U
t
= exp
.
R
R
RC

U C (t ) i (t ) . 5.12.
i=

(5.44)

6.
1. , . () .
2.

.
.
.
. (,
, , ).
6.1. , . ()
( 10, I) .
- .

.
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
.

58

, .
.
,
,
:
1) ( );
2) - (
( ));
3) (

(
));
4) () ( .
).

( ,
. 6.1), : (,
), .., () , ..
- () (. 6.2)
. () (I),
I A = f (U KA )
3/ 2

( I A ~ U KA ):
3/ 2
I A = bU KA
.

(6.1)

. 6.2
. 6.1
( b
)
,
(, ). (6.1)
,
v 0 ,
,
59

. (6.1)
, .
,
.
(II)
U KA , .. : ,
, .
IH .
,
1901. . . (18791959)
- . 1923:

A
jH (T ) = AT 2 exp ,
kT
6

(6.2)

= 1,2 10 /(22) , .

,
, 1883. .
. (18471931). (. 6.2) (6.1), (6.2)

.
107108 / (III)
() U KA .
- .
. (18861976),
1914. .
,
, ,
. .

, ,
,
, .

, , ,
,
, .
.

60

6.2. . .
.
. (,
, , )

, .. , ,
.

, , ,
. .

, ..
.
: ,
(,
,
..),

(, , , ..). ,
, . ,
. ()
,

.
: ,
.

, .
. () ,
,
, . .

.

(18681957), , ,
,
( ). , ,
.
- ()
, (. 6.3).
(I)
, ,
.

, ,
(5.4):
61

j = j+ + j = nq < v >= qn( + + ) E ,

. 6.3

(6.3)

+ = < v+ > E = < v > E ( n+ n )


.
(II) ,
(III) ( ),
, (
),
(
) ( ).

.
E>EK (IV)
,
( - () , +- ()
).
- (
).
,
() ,
.
,
, ,
.
.
. ,
U = EK d , d ,
.
. ,
,
, ,

.
62

, d
(, , ),

d , P.
Pd ,
.
(1889.) .
. (18651947):

Pd
, .
,
,
. ..
3
1
10 10 ...
(
).
()
, .
(
) .
.
,
.
,
.

.

. ,
, ,
. . 1802.
. (17611834),
.
,
. .
,
.
()
, .
. , ,
, .
4
(. 1.5, ) 3 10 /, ,
.
63

, ,
.
. ,
, (
, ),
, . ,
..
.
, , ,
- , ,
.
,
, ..,
. , ,

( ).
,
.
(
), ,
, ..
,
, ,
, ..
. (
30 1 ).

()
7
10 .
,
.
, .
, ,
.
, , ,
().


.

,
.

,
64

,
.

( ),
,
..

7.
1. . .
.
(, ).
2. ,
- .
-
. .
.
3. .
7.1. . .
.
(, )
, .
( , , , .),
( , ). ,


= n / n0 ,
. ,
NaCl 2

NaCl, Na+
Cl. Na+ Cl ,
,
(1.1) .
. ,

65

. 7.1
,
II .
, , ..
, (.
7.1). , , .

.
.

,

(. 7.2) m*
r*,
.
( 16,
I) (6.3)
:
j = qn0 ( + + ) E ,
(7.1)

= qn0 ( + + ) .

. 7.2

n0

( 1 ,

).
, .. n0 , + , .
= f (n0 ) (

. 7.3), .

66

,
, , , .

. 7.3
o
, 18
7
2/( )
~ 10
. ,
.
. ,
, .
. ,
. (+)

, (-)
.
,
, .
. ,
. , . ,
( ,
), (
).
1800. . (1753
1815) .,
, . . 1807.
. .
.
. 1833
1834 . :

:
m = Kq .
(7.2)

, ,
, .
Z ,
:
67

K=

1 A
,
F Z

(7.3)

F . (6.5) (6.6),
:

1 A
q.
(7.4)
F Z
q = eZN , m = m1 N m1 = A / N A (6.7) :
F = eN A = 9,65 10 7 /,
(7.5)
m=

, m1 , N , NA
.
. , , , ,
.
Zn2+.
, , ,
.
, .
, . ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
ZnSO4. Zn2+
SO42,
.
, , .
,
,
.
,
, .
,
. , ,
, .

, ,
.
:
, ,
, (, 2S4)
68

1 . U

.
(17451827)
(U=0,763 ) ( Cu+
U=+0,521 , Cu2+ U=+0,337 ),
2S4,
Zn2+, Cu2+.
,

.
,
, . Zn2+
, ,
. Cu2+
, ,
. . :
, .
.
,
,
. ,

. , ,
, ,
.

,
.. - ,
,
,
, : MnO2+H2=MnO+H2O.
, , ,
, . 1895. ,
.
.
, 1520% .
, .. .
. (
), :
, ,
SO4
2SO4+22=2H2SO4+O2. ,
.
,
69

, , , ,
2.
, ,
.
, , ,
.

, ..
r, , , .
,
, ,
, .. (. ).
, ,
.
, 20%-
N.
,
. -
( ) . ,
40 . , 1
40. 2 20.
, -
.
7.2. ,
- .
-
. .

( 9, I
)
-
(1900.) . . (18631906)
,
,
( ). me
. ()
2

: me v / 2 = 3kT / 2 v =

3kT / me

< v >= 8kT /(me ) .


(),
, .
R, . .
70

F .

= F / me = eE / me ,
()
v max = eE / me ,

< v >= eE /(2me ) ,

(7.6)
(
4
). v << v ( v ~ 10 /,

v ~ 10 5 /, . 9, I):
, (m/M=1)
28
ne = N / V = mN A /( MV ) = VN A /( MV ) = N A / M 8.4 10
-3. , =63,5 /, =8900
/3.
j = 1.1 10 7 /2 (I=11 ), (5.4) < v >= j / en 8.1 10 4 /.

<>

= < > (v + v ) < > v . (7.6)

< v >=

j = ne < v >=

(7.7)

eE < >
.
2 me < v >

(5.4)

(7.7)

(5.11),

ne < >
E = E , ..
2 me < v >
ne 2 < >
=
2 me < v >
2

( 5.11)

(7.8)

,
.



, , -
.

:
( 7.7 )
me v 2
e 2 < 2 > 2
0 =
= Q0 =
E .
(7.9)
2
2me < v 2 >
< z >=< v > / < >

71

( 5.22 )
e2 < >
w = nzQ0 =
E 2 = E 2 .
2 me < v >

(7.10)

(7.10) (7.8).
-
( )
. . (18261899) 1853.
, K
T
:
K / = L T .
(7.11)

L = 3(k / e) 2 = 2.23 10 8 2 /( K 2 K 2 ) (k
).
-
:
- . ;
-

* ( );
* ( );
* . - (
);
-
, ( ).
-
:
- .
: (7.8) v = 3kT / me ~ 1 / T ( ~ T ),
~ 1 / T ( ~ T );
- : ,
(),
()
(0,5, .. 1,5), ;
(
, , )
.

, (. 15, I).

. 7.4. R=f(T)
R = R0 (1 + t ) ,
(7.12)
= 1 / 273,15 -1 (
), t .
72

. 7.4
R ~ T , T 0 (
II )
, R
( )
3
4
10 10 .
.-
(18531926) (=4,15 ) 1908.

()

(
) .
5

7.3.
,
( , ,
).
( ~103 ~104) ( 106)
. ,
,
: (),

, (
, , - ), ,
,
~108,
(,
, . ).
,
() (.
I),
(, ),
, , .. (),
..

73

() ,
().

.
,

,
rD , ,
.
.
,
.

, .
. .
. . , ,
, .
,
, , ,
( ).

, .
()
. , ,
.. ,
(
, . ). ,
.

8. () I
1. (). :
, .
.
2. ,
. () .
3. . .
8.1. (). :
, .

, ,
.
74

,
, , ,
.
, ,
(). . (17771851) (1820.), ,
, (.) . ,

. (. ),
,
, .
, . ,
. ,
. .

.
,
(, , ..,
), .
() ,
.
. (17741862) . (17911841) 1820.
, ,
. . (17491827),
, ,


. ,
:
( ),
,
:

= Bi .

(8.1)


:

I dl r

0
,
(8.2)
dB =

3
4
r

dB =

0 Idl sin

,
4
r2

(8.3)

dB , dl,
I, (. 8.1),
75

- r , 0 = 4 10 7 / 2
, , ,
= 1 ( 1 )
.

A dB

r rd R
1 rd
C
dl
l

B1
B2
B1

B2
r2

B2

I
r1

2
dl D

. 8.1

B2

B1
B2
B1

B1
I

B1
B2

. 8.2

,
. ,
, ():
,
.
(. 8.2).
( ) . 8.1.
( = 1 ) .
1. R ( l)/
I (. 8.1).
, (8.3)
dl r.
, . . 8.1

dl =

rd
a
, r=
, (8.3)
cos
cos

, :

76

2
2
I sin dl
0 I sin rd
0 I
B = dB = 0
d =
=
=

2
2

r
4

r
r
4
4
sin
1
1
1
1

I
I
I
= 0 sin d = 0 ( cos ) 2 = 0 (cos1 cos 2 ).
1 4R
4R
1 4R

(8.4)

CD
l CD
i = arctg
,
R
R
cos i = ... (i=1,2). 1 0 , 2 = / 2 (
,
, (8.4)
). I :
I
B= 0 .
(8.5)
2R
2. R I.

i = arctg

. 8.3

dB dl I
I
(. 8.3), dB = 0 2 dl ,

4R
I
I
B = 0 2 2R = 0 .
(8.6)
2R
4R
3. ,
R I, (.
8.4).

77

. 8.4

(. dBx
dl I . 8.4) (2.26)

dBx = 0 .
dBp
y. dBp,
(8.3)
IR
dB p = 2dB sin = 2 0 3 dl ,
4r
R
0 IR
0 IR 2
.
(8.7)
B p = dB p =
R =
3
2
2 3
2
r

2 (R + a )
0

( )
,
.
,
, ,
.
: ,
.
, (.
), .

H
( A/), -,

B . :

B = 0 H .
(8.8)

, ,
( . 12.
).
8.2. ,
.

. ,
, ,
( ., 1820.).
.
, .
. (1820.) .. (17751836) .
78

: dl I
()


dFA = I dl B ,
(8.9)

dl , dl
.
dFA = BIdl sin ,
(8.10)

.
: ,
, 90o
.
. I,
I1.
F, .

. 8.5
(. 8.5).
, 2
1 2 .

1 2 B1 B2
; 3 ( 4)
(8.5) 1 2 (..
). 3
4 . (8.10) ,
dl 3 4 ,
( )
dFA3=dFA4. . ,
dl 1 2
(2<1, . (8.5) (8.10)).

79

(8.5)

FA1 = dFA1 = B1 Idl = B1 Ia =


(8.5)

FA2 = B2 Ia =

0 I1
II
Ia = 0 1 ,
2a
2

0 I1
II
II
Ia = 0 1 . F = FA1 FA2 = 0 1 .
2 2a
4
4

I1 I2,

. 8.6
(. 8.6)
I
dFA12 = dFA21 = I1 B2 dl = I 2 B1dl , .. (8.5) B1 = 0 1 ,
2a
I
B2 = 0 2 . ,
2a
.
8.5 , ,
0o (180 o )

n B .
-
.
() , a I, (.
8.7). .
l , () ,
.
F = BIa . ,
M = Fl cos = BIal cos .
(8.11)

, d B B (.

E (2.35)) .

pm = I S = IS n ,

80

(8.12)

. 8.7

S I, n ,
.

, . ,

M max , ,

pm
, .
.
:

B=

M max

(8.13)

pm

(8.12) al = S , IS = pm , cos = cos = sin


2

(8.13)
M = Bpm sin


M = pm B .

(8.14)

8.3. .

, ,
. ,

q, B v ,
:


F = q v B .
(8.15)

81

F = qvB sin( v , B ) .
(8.16)
:

B ,

v ( q > 0

I v , q < 0 ),
.

( v , B ) = 90o ,
(
r) qvB = ma = mv 2 / r

r = mv /( qB) .
v << c ( m = const )
(8.17 )

T = 2r / v = 2m /(qB) .

. 8.8

(8.17)
(8.18)

v B (. 8.8),
(
h): 1)
v = v cos 2)

v = v sin , .
(8.17) 2) v
v = v sin .
, .
(8.18)
2mv cos
.
(8.19)
h=v T =
qB
I .
, . 8.9.

82

, ( +).

. E .
Z

B
b

v EX
I
d

. 8.9
(1879.) . (18551938)

() j , B ,

, - j B .
, ,
F = eE x = eU x / b = evB = F , .
(5.4 )

, I = jS = nevS = nevbd v = I /(nebd ) ,



I
IB
1 IB
= R ,
(8.20)
Ux =
Bb =
nebd
ne d
d
R , -
, n .
U x , B, I, d
() (
R ).
(
, , , , ),


(, , , ..).

83

9. () II
1. . .
2. .

( B ).
.
3. .
.
9.1. .

()
, .. , , ,

B L

B dl 0 .

(9.1)

I
(. 9.1). (8.5)
(8.5) I 2r
0
(9.2)
B dl = 2r dl = 0 I .
0
L

. 9.1
(9.2)
, (9.2)
:
(5.3), (5.5)

B dl

0 j dS .
S

(9.3)

(9.3) : B
L ( = 1 )
0 , ( .
S, ).
I ( )
( = 1 ) N (. 9.2).
. 9.1

(. 9.2) B
84

(13 24, ..
13).

. 9.2
12 34 Bl=0. ,
13, (9.2) :

B dl = Bl dl = 0 NI

Bl = 0 NI


B=

0 NI
l

(9.4)

. 9.3
= 1 ( , . 9.3
)
R N I (9.2) :
B L = B 2r = 0 NI ,
NI
B= 0 .
(9.5)
2r
9.2. .

( B ).


( 2, 3.

, II ),

d m = B dS = B dS n = Bn dS = B cos( n , B )dS ,

(9.6)

Bn = B cos( n , B ) B n
dS. [ m ] = = .
,
85

B
( , ):

B dS = 0 .

(9.7)

. 9.4

B (. 9.4)
l I, ( )



A = F dr = I dr dl B = I B dS (9.6)

A = Id .
(9.8)
,
,
.

B .

I (. 9.5).

. 9.5
D,
.

A = AABC + ACDA .
(9.9)
86

, ABC,
, AABC > 0 .
(9.8)
AABC = I (d12 + d 2 ) ,
(9.10)
ABC d12
d 2
. , D,
, ACDA < 0 .
(9.8)
ACDA = I (d1 + d12 ) ,
(9.11)
D d1
d12
. (9.9)
(9.10) (9.11)
A = I (d 2 d1 ) = Id .
(9.12)
(9.12),
A = I ,
(9.13)
..
I
, .
9.3. .

(. 4, 4.3. , II
)


,
(, , ..,
), .
, :
S,
N (. 9.6).

.

. 9.6
87


H3 HZ. ,
, (
), (. 9.7)
. , , H3
.

. 9.7

. 9.8

,
.
,
( ,
), .
7080 ,
( . 9.8 ,
).
(.. ).

19 24 /. , , ,
,
.
,
( ),
(
).
(H=0,5 (1 =80 /).

, ,

.
.,
, , ,
.

88

10.
1. . .
2. (-, -, - -) .
.
3.
().
10.1. .

.
,

p m = IS = (ev) r 2 = e

2 er
r =
,
2
2

(10.1)

p m = IS n ,
(10.2)
S ,
r, e , v , ,

; n .
( m



) L = r p = m r L = mr


:

e
pm =
L = L,
2m

(10.3)

= e ( 2m) ()
.

,
. ,
, .
()

p ms Les .
-
,
,
.

, .
89

() 0
.
.

( ) V 0

J = p mai V .

(10.4)

= 0 , 0 .
.
, .
( ):

= + 0 = 0 + 0 = (1 + ) 0 = 0 ,

(10.5)

= 1 + (. (8.8)).

10.2. (-, -, - -) .

(. 10.1) 30- . XX .
- ( < 0 , < 1 ), - ( > 0 , > 1), ( >> 0 ,

>> 1 ~ (10 4 10 5 ) ).
4
6

( ~ 10 10 ,
> 1 ).

.
-

J
I

- II

0<<<1, =(1+)>1

H
-

f(T)
=(1+)<1

. 10.1

,
, (,
, : , , ,
, , ). ,
90

, ,
, , ..
, (. 11),
. ,

. ,
.
,
.
, ,

.

p ma , .

,
.
(8.8) (10.4) (10.5)

= + 0 = 0 J + 0 H = 0 H + 0 H = (1 + ) 0 H = 0 H .(10.6)

J = H ( I . 10.1)
( II).
:
- ;
- ,
( O2);
- d- f- (d: Co,
Ni; f: Gd);
- : , , .

, , ,
Fe ~ 5000 .

(, Fe, Co, Ni,
Gd, Tm, ).
d- f,
.

, . ..
. ,

, .. .


91

,
. .
, ,
, ,
()
.
(10-610-4 ) ,
.

,
(. 10.2, 0,
. 10.3), Hs
(
, . 10.3).
(. 10.2).

0,
ad.

B
Bs
Br

-Hs -Hc 0

Hc Hs

-Br
-Bs

H
1
H

. 10.2
. 10.3
, =0
Bs 0 .

H c ,
.

da. (, )
, ()
.
(. 10.3) H 1 , ..

B (10.6) 0 H + 0 J
J
=
= 1 + 1.
=
0 H
0 H
H
H,
J H, .
92

(1919), J
H. ,

.
,
,
(Fe =1043 , Co =1393 ,
Ni =631 ).
(),


(MnO, MnF2, FeO, FeSO4, ..).
.
II
TN,
(0,0011000 ).
.. .
(10.7) (.
, 9)
(9.2) ( ), :

B dl = 0 I = 0 ( I + I ) . J dl = I ,

(10.6 )

B
J dl = I , = 0 J + 0 H

L 0

H dl = I .

(10.7)

10.3.
()

, , ,

(8.8) B = 0 H .
(), = const f ( H ) .

1 2 (. 10.4),
ABCD (AB=CD=l, AC = BD 0 )
(10.7)

H :
H 1dl H 2 dl = 0
93

H 1 = H 2 .

B1
Bn1

1
2

B1

1
A

(10.8)

2
Bn2
B2 B2

1 A
2
C

. 10.4

S B
S D

. 10.5

D, ..
=BD 0

. (8.8) B = 0 H (10.8)

B 1 1
.
=
B 2 2

(10.9)

(9.7)

B (. 10.5) Bn1S Bn 2 S = 0

Bn1 = Bn 2 .
(10.10)

(8.8) B = 0 H (10.10)

H n1 2
= .
(10.11)
H n 2 1
Bn1 , tg 2 = B 2 Bn 2 (. 10.4), (10.8)

.. tg1 = B 1
(10.11)

:

tg 2 B 2 2
=
=

tg1 E 1 1

tg 2 = 2 tg1 .
1

94

(10.12)

11. ()
1. .. .
. . (
). - (skin).
2. . . :
. ,
.
3. ()
.
11.1. .. .
. .
( ). - (skin)

1831 . . , :
1) () (),
(),
;
2) 1, 2
, 2
.

( 1),
1 ( 2).
, ,
, .
()
.:

i =

d m
,
dt

(11.1)

.:

,
, ()
( +

).
.

I B FA (.
11.1),

95

i = d

Idt = I 2 Rdt + I{
,

I=

=A

( d dt ) R ,

dt (. (11.1)).

B
I

B FA

dr

. 11.1
. 11.2
dt

l I (.

11.2): d m = BdS = B x ldt = Bldt sin , = l , dr ; (11.1)

i = 1 2 = Bl sin ,

(11.2)

, .
()

, , ,
() . (18191868),
,
1855. .
, ,
, .

( ),
() .

I i = i R , (5.9) R = l S ,
R
.
.
() .
R

.
96

(. 11.3, ) (. 11.3, ) I

.
, ,
(skin- . ), .
,
.
, . Skin-
.

dI >0
dt

dI <0
dt

)
. 11.3

11.2. . . :
.
,

( si , si . self induction)

m
I .
, N
. () m ,

= N m = NBS ,
(11.3)
S ,
. , ~ I
(8.3). L
. ,
B = 0 NI l ,

(11.3)

(9.4):

= N m = NBS =

0 N 2 I
l

S = LI ,
L=

0 N 2
l

(11.4)

,
. (). (11.4)
97

, L ,
(, )
( ).
,
( 4).
= const f ( I , B ) ,

si

d
d
dL (*)
dI
dI
=
= (LI ) = L + I
=L .
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

(11.5)

(*)
, .
si (11.5),
L
L = L = d dI .
()
, (
) .
() ,
.
R,
L .

(5.14):

I=

( + si ) L dI dt

dI

IR = L dt ln( LI ) = L t + ln const .
t=0 I=I0, ln const = ln ( IR )

I = I0 e

R
t
L +

(1 e

R
t
L ).

(11.6)

I0=
R

R
0

IR = ( IR ) e

. 11.4
. 11.5
I0=0 t=0 (11.6)

98

R
t
L

I=

(1 e

R
t
L ),

(11.7)

(11.7) 11.4.
t=0 I=I0, = 0 , (11.6)

I = I0 e

R
t
L ,

(11.8)

(11.8) , . 11.5.
(11.6) t (L), :
R
t
L

R
t
L

R R0 L t

Re

e
dI (11.6)
L
si =
si = L = L
e ,
dt
LR0
L
R0
R >> R0 (, R )
, si >> .

( )
,
, (, . ).
,
,
B ~ I (. (8.3)).
,
( ) :

21 = d21 = M 21 dI .
dt

dt

(11.9)

.
M 21 = M 12 . M 21 = const ,

M 21 =

d21
L (11.5).
dI

11.3. ()


R, L

Idt = I 2 Rdt + {
Id .
=A

FA.
d dt = L dI dt , d = LdI .
99

A, Wm,

LI 2
A = LIdI =
= Wm . , I
2
0
I

LI 2 Im
Wm = A =
=
.
(11.10)
2
2
(11.3), (11.4 )
IBSN 0 N 2 I 2 S
B2
=
=
=
V , V
Wm
2
2l
20
.
(/3), :

Wm
B 2 (8.6) BH 0 H
.
w=
=
=
=
V
20
2
2

w = dWm dV .

(11.11)
(11.12)

12.
() ()

1. .
().
. .
() .
2. . , .
12.1. .
().
. .
()


, ,

.

.
.
;
, (
) ( );
100

(
), ..
()
8, 2),
.
, .
,
, (,
) ,
()
.
()

.
, ,
,
.
, ,
, , .
,
=30005000 ,

(-).
, , , ,
,
. ()

.

-
.
12.2. . ,

,
(),
(), (), ..
, .
.
().

(. ) .
, ,
.
,
101


100 .
.

.
, .
.
(. 12.1).

R1

R2

U1
1 ~

2
~ U
2

N1

N2

. 12.1

, ,
.

( ).
.
, .
,
N1 N2
R1 R2.

i = N i Ri (i=1, 2)

1 d (N1 ) = I1R1 2 d (N 2 ) = I 2 R2 ,
dt

dt

1 2 ,
.
R1 R2
,

2 = N2 .
1
N1

, .
( ~2%)
1 I1 = 2 I 2 ,

2 = I1 = N 2 = n ,
1 I 2 N1
102

n , n > 1
, n < 1
.

. ,
,
.

13.
1. .
.
2. . .
3. .
4.
().
13.1. .

XIX
, , ,
,
.
,
,
,

() E B
, (
, ,
).
,

().
,
.

,
,
.

.

103

1. : a a
S ()
,

a = a dS = div adV .
S

(13.1)

div a ,

a x a y a z
+
+
.
div a =
y
z
x

a dS
a S
=
div a =
, ..
V
V
V ,

S.

2. : a L

() a
S

a dl = rot a dS ,
L

(13.2)

rot a =

x
ax

y
ay


= a = i +
j + k a .
z

y
z

az

a = rot a , : a = div a .

m = B dS (9.6),
S

(11.1) (5.6)

i = d m
dt


B
dS = E dl .
S t
L

(13.3)

, (13.3)
,
104

. : ()
()
, .
, .
()
(1.14) (13.3). (13.3)
,
(13.2) ,

rot E =

B
.
t

(13.4)

13.2. .

,
( ), ()
.
(
).

D (3.5)

D dS = q

I=

D
dq d
= D dS =
dS . (5.3)

dt dt S
t
S

I = j dS , j =
S

D
.
t

D . . ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.

(3.6) D = 0 E + P , j

D
E P
,
=
= 0
+
t
t t

,
. ,
, ,

105


.
(10.7)

= j+
dS .

H dl = I + I
L

(13.5)

(13.2),

rot H = j +

D
.
t

(13.6)

, ( )

rot E =

, E

, H

B
D
rot H =
.
t
t

B

t

D
.
t

B D

t
t

,
, , .
.
13.3.

(3.5)

D dS = q

, ,

, ()

D dS = q

= (V )dV ,
V

(13.7)

(V ) (),
S. (13.7)
, (13.1)
()
106

div D = (V ) .

(13.8)

(9.7),

B dS = 0 .

(13.9)

(13.9) ,
(13.1)

div B = 0 .

(13.10)

13.4.
()

B
E dl = t dS
L
S


D

H
dl
=
j
+

t dS
L
S

D dS = (V )dV

13.1

B
rot E =
t

rot H = j +

D
t

div D = (V )

B dS = 0

div B = 0

(. 13.1)
, .

(3.6), (8.8), (5.11):

D = 0 E ,

B = 0 H ,

j = E.



107

Dn 2 Dn1 = ,
E E = 0,

2
1

Bn 2 Bn1 = 0,
H 2 H 1 = j .
(3.9) (3.5)

D dS = Dn dS = q = dS Dn = ; (3.7);

(10.10); (10.8)
().

rot E = 0 ,

rot H = 0 ,

div D = (V ) .

div B = 0 .

,
( ), ( ), (
) ( ),

: E , D, H , B, j .

.

14.

1. .
2. ( ).
3.
.
4. . .
14.1.
,
.
, ,
, ..
108

,
() , ,
.
(, , ..),
, , .

(, ()).
,
, , , ( ).
: , :
) (16< <20000 ),
, ,
, ();
) ( <16 ) ,
; ( ),
,
; ( >20000 ):
, ;
) ( , , ):

: ; ,
; :
(, ,
,
); ,
(, );
) ,
, ,
() , .
.
(
) (

). ,
.
:
- ()
;
- ( ( )
);
- (
, ,
).

109

,
,
, .
.
.
=1/,
.

()

= 2 = 2 , 2 .

X (t + T ) = X (t ),

(14.1)

X .
X(t) ,

X (t ) = A sin(t + )
(14.2)

X (t ) = A cos(t + ) ,
1

(14.2/)

A=Xmax ,
const>0; t + 0 = (t ) ; 0 (
t=0); 1 = 0

, ,

dx

= A cos(t + ) = A sin(t + + ) .
0
0 2
dt

(14.3)

.. dx/dt x / 2 .

d 2x
= A 2 sin(t + ) = 2 x = A 2 sin(t + + ) . (14.4)
0
0
dt 2

.. d2x/dt2 x .
(14.4) (14.2/) ,

d 2x
+ 2x = 0
dt 2

(14.5)

.
. (14.5) :
x = A sin t + A cos t .
(14.6)

1 2 ( t=0):
110

x t = 0 = x(0) A2 = x(0) ; x

t =0

= x (0) A1 =

(14.6)

x = A sin(t + ) ,
0
12 + 22 , 0 = arctg ( A2 ) .
A1

x / (0)

.
(14.7)

Ay

A (t)=t+
0
Ax x
. 14.1

( ):

A x (. 14.1).
(14.2)
:

i (t + ) ~ it
~
1 = Ae ,
x = Ae

(14.8)

:
ei = cos + i sin .
(14.9)
14.2. ( )

,
, -
,
.

. ( )
(. 14.2): ) ( ); )
( ); ) (
); ) ( ,
, ).

111

k
m

/2

)
. 14.2
) ) . 14.2 .

O
C


() (
), (, )
- (14.7);
- vx=dx/dt (14.3);
- ax=d2x/dt2 (14.4).

(. 14.2, )

d 2 x (14.4 )
ma x = m 2 = kx
dt

(14.10)

r
F = m 2 x i ,

r
i .

(14.10/)


,
( );
(14.10/) .
F = kx . , (14.10/),
.

k
2
(14.10 ) x + x = 0 x + x = 0 , = k / m ,
m
T = 2 / = 2 m / k . .. (14.5)
/

.
(14.7).
,
( (14.10/) (14.7)),
().
(14.7), (14.3), (14.4)

112

mv 2 mA2 2 cos 2 (t + 0 )
,
Wk =
=
2
2

(14.11)

(. 14.3, ) . 14.2 )

d 2x
W = U = Fx dx = F = ma = m 2 = A 2 sin(t + 0 ) = 2 x =
dt
0

m 2 x 2
=
,
(14.12)
2
2
( = k / m Wn = kx / 2 ), ()
x

m 2 A 2
W = Wn + Wk =
.
2

U(x)

W, Wk , Wn
2 2
W= m2

-xmax 0

xmax

(14.13)

0=0

Wn
Wk

. 14.3
. 14.4
. 14.3 ,
[ xmax ;+ xmax ], ..
.
(14.11)(14.13) , Wk Wn
, ,

(const, . . 14.4).
) ) . 14.2 .
,
r
mg
,
. .
,
r
mg .

: ,
d (. 14.5).
,
M = mgd sin .
( I,
113

, (. I

d 2
, (4.24))) M = I = I
= mgd sin ( ,
2
dt

).

d 2 mgd
sin ( )
+
= 0.
I
dt 2

O1

mg
. 14.5


2
(14.5): &x& + x = 0 ,

mgd
,
I
I
2
T=
= 2
.
mgd

(14.14)
(14.15)

.
) ) . 14.2 .
,

, ..
,
. d=l
2
I = ml , (14.14), (14.15) :

mgl
=
ml 2

g
l
, T = 2
l
g

,
( ) ( ).
0 , 150
0.5%. ,

114

, ,
l .
(. I
, (4.4)) I
1 I c
, , m
2
d : I = I c + md .

l =

I
I
= d = c d , I c
md
md

, C
. 1, l
, . O
1 , ..
.
) ) . 14.2 .
,
()
() ,
.
, I,
D, ,

d 2
M = D = I = I 2
dt

( ,

d 2 D
+ = 0 ,
).
I
dt 2
I
2
=D I, T =
.
= 2

D
14.3.


C L (. 14.6).

115

. 14.6
,
Q
(
).
:
R Uc

IR + U c = IR + Q / C = si

dI
dQ ..
= Q
= L . I =
dt
dt

&& + R Q& + 1 Q = 0 .
Q
L
LC

(14.16)

R 0 , ,

:

&& + 2 Q = 0 ,
Q

(14.17)

= 1 / ( LC ) , T = 2 / = 2 LC .
Q = Qm sin(t + 0 )

I = Q& = Qm cos(t + 0 ) = I m cos(t + 0 ) =

= I m sin(t + 0 + ).
2

(14.18)


( (4.15)
(11.10)) . (14.18)

W = W + W

LI m2 cos 2 (t + 0 )
LI 2 CU 2
Q
=
+
= (U = ) =
+
C
2
2
2
2
2
CU m sin (t + 0 )
= const .
(14.19)
2

116

14.4. .

.
, ,
(. 14.7).
(. 14.1 . 14.8).

x1
x2

k1
m1
k2
m2

A2

A1
x
(t)
(t)
(t)
2
1

. 14.7

. 14.8

x1 = A1 sin(1t1 +1) = A1 sin1(t) ,


x2 = A2 sin(2t21 +2) = A2 sin2(t).

: x = x1 + x2 = A sin (t ) ,
:
A2 (t ) = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos( 2 1 ) .
(14.20)
(. 14.8)
A

1y
2y
647
48 647
48
Ay A1 sin 1 (t ) + A2 sin 2 (t )
=
.
tg (t ) =
Ax A1 cos 1 (t ) + A2 cos 2 (t )
14243 14243

A1x

(14.21)

A2 x

,
; .. (t ) = ( 2 1 )t + ( 2 1 ) = const ,

2 = 1 = , x = x1 + x2 = A sin(t + 0 ) ,
(14.20)
(14.21). ( 2 1 )

A = A1 A2

2 1 = (2m + 1) , m z A = A1 + A2 2 1 = 2m, m z .
2 1 = 2m ( ),
2 1 = ( 2m + 1) .
117

1 2 A
.
, ( 2 1 << 1 ),

x1 = xm cos t ,

x2 = xm cos(t + t ).

t + t + t

( << )

t t t

=
2
t
= (2t >> ; cos( x) = cos x) = 2 xm cos t cos
= xm cos t ,
2
t
x m = 2 x m cos
. ,
2
= , / 2 .
x(t ) = x1 + x2 = 2 xm cos

cos

t
T

T
. 14.9

T =

2
(. . 14.9).

,
( ),
,
0 :

S = f (t ) =

A0
+ A1 cos( 0 t + 1 ) + A2 cos(2 0 t + 2 ) + ... + An cos(n 0 t + n )
2

(), ..
;
.
.

x y:

y
= cos( t + ) = cos t cos sin t sin
ym

118

..

y
x
x
x
= cos 1 ( ) 2 sin .
= cos t ,
ym xm
xm
xm
2

2
2

x
x
y


:
1 x sin = x cos y
m
m

m
2 xy
x
x
y
(1 ( ) 2 ) sin 2 = ( ) 2 cos 2
cos + ( ) 2
xm
xm
xm y m
ym
2 xy
x
y
( )2
cos + ( ) 2 = sin 2 .
xm
xm y m
ym


( ).

:
-

= (2m + 1) , m z , x m = y m
2

x2 y2
+
= 1,
xm2 y m2

;
-

= m, m z ,

y=

ym
x
xm

, ..

( +
m, .. , m
;
-
1 2 ( ) ,
; , ,
,
. (18221880).
,
.
. 14.10
( ) ( ;
).
,
.

.
119

,
.

=0

= /4

= /2

= 3 / 4

1:1

1:2

1:3

2:3

3:4

. 14.10
.


D, ,
. 14.11.
(n) CD (ny). n=3 ny=1,
. . y x = 3 / 1 . ,

,
( ).

B
D

. 14.11
120

15.
1. . ,
.
.
2. . .
3. . .
15.1. . ,
.


- ()
, , .. ( ,
, ..). , . 15.1

( 1
n).

A1

T
A2

. 15.1

.
()

= ln

T
A (t )
1
,
= T =
=

N
A (t + T )

(15.1)

(t) (t+)
; = 1 / ,
, ; ; N
.

()


121

w (t )
A 2 (t )
Q = 2
= 2 2
=
w ( t ) w (t + T )
A (t ) A 2 (t + T )
1
2
= 2
=
,
2 T
1 e
1 e 2

(15.2)

w(t) w(t+T)
,
.
2
2
<< 1 1 e
Q = / = N .
(15.3)

, .
,
, ,
0 0

T=


2
0

T0

1 ( 0 )

(15.4)


(15.1) =

() 0

02 2 .

1 +
(2 )

(15.5)


, (14.16)
:

&& + R Q& + 1 Q = 0
Q
L
LC
&& + 2 Q& + 2Q = 0
Q
0

(15.6)

, Q .

(
)
:
122

-
C, L

0 = 1 / ( LC ) ,
= R (2 L) ,

R,

(15.7)
(15.8)

L 1
1 L
=
= 0 =
=
;
T 2 R LC R C

(15.9)

- m, k:
v,
( b), II
..

ma x = m x = kx bv = kx b x ,
..

2
x + 2 x + 0 x = 0 ,

0 = k / m ,
= b ( 2m) ,

m k 1
=
km .
Q= = 0 =
2 b m b

(15.10)
(15.11)
(15.12)

1 . 15.1,
, 2 (
, ) ,
3 (
, , ) .
t = T / 4
.
15.2. .

S

(15.6) , .
F(t) a,
:

F (t )
S&& + 2 S& + 2 S =
.
a

(15.13)



F(t):
123

..

x + 2 x + 02 x =

F (t )
.
m

(15.14)

(
x(t)=x1(t)+x2(t),

,
.
15.2):
x1 (t ) = A e t sin(t + 0 ) ()
,

( = 02 2 ) ,

x(t)=x2(t)
F(t)
.

. 15.2

Fx = F0 cos(t ) .
:

x x2 (t ) = A cos(t + 0 ) ,

x = A sin(t + 0 ) = A cos(t + 0 + ) ,
2
..

x = A 2 cos(t + 0 ) = A 2 cos(t + 0 + ) .
(15.14) :

A2 cos(t + 0 + ) + 2Acos(t + 0 + ) +
2
F
+ A02 cos(t + 0 ) = 0 cost.
m

, ,
Fx (),

A3 = 02 A , A2 = 2 A , A1 = A 2 , B = F0
m

124

(. 15.3):

t=0 ( t

A1 (0) + A2 (0) + A3 (0) = B (0) .

= 0 ) :

| A1 (0) + A3 (0) |= A(02 2 ) ,

tg =

A2
2
= 2
.
A1 A3
(0 2 )

A2

A1+A3

A1

. 15.3

(15.15)

A3

| B |= | A2 | + | A1 + A3 |2

F0
= A 4 2 2 + (02 2 ) 2 ,
m

A=

F0
m 4 + ( )
2

2
0

2 2

(15.16)

,
, () :
(4 2 2 + (02 2 ) 2 ) / = 0 ,

8 2 + 2(02 2 )(2) = 0 ,
4( 2 0 + ) = 0 ; 0
2

= ( 02 2 2 ) = ( 2 2 ) ,

(15.17)

= 0 . 0
(),
. (15.16)
: ()

.
(. 15.4). ,
(15.16). , ,

2

0 .
125

A
4

A0

4=0

0< 3< 2<1

3
2
1

. 15.4
-
,
()
. , .
15.3. .

R,
C, L, (.
15.5) :
, (
)

IR + U C = IR + Q C = + si = L dI

I = dq dt

dt

d 2q
dq
1
+ 2
+ 02 q = (t ) ,
dt
dt
L

(15.18)

0 (15.7), (15.8).

(t)

. 15.5
,

(t ) = 0 cos

), q = q0 cos(t + 0 ) ,

126

(..

q0 =

(15.19)

L 4 + ( ) )
2
.
(15.20)
tg = 2
0 2
I = dq dt ,
2

2
0

2 2

I.
, ,
, , ,
R, C, L.

16.
1. . ( )
.
2. () () .
3. .
. .
16.1. . (
)


.
, .. U
I ,
() ,
. U I

.
,
, , .

)
)
. 16.1

U = U m cos t ,
(16.1)
:
)

127

) . 16.1, )

I=

U Um
=
cos t = I m cos t ,
R
R

(16.2)

I m = U m / R . (16.2) (16.1), ,
. 16.1, ) .
) U + si

(16.1), (11.5 )

U m cos t L

dI
= 0 (
dt

),

dI =

Um
cos tdt .
L

, , :

I=
I m =

Um

sin t = I m cos(t ) ,
L
2

(16.3)

Um Um
, RL = L ,
=
L RL

R
I = U / R .
U L = U m cos t = RL I m cos t = LI m cos t .
(16.4)
(16.3) (16.4), ,

.
2
) ,

Q
= U C = U m cos t ,
C

dQ

= CU m sin t = CU m cos(t + ) = I m cos(t + ), (16.5)


2
2
dt
U
U
Im = m
= m , RC = 1 /(C )
1 RC

I=

,
R I = U / R
.

U C = U m cos t = I m RC cos t =

Im
cos t .
C

(16.6)

(16.5) (16.6), ,

128

, .
16.1 :

UL=LIm
/2

UL=LIm
/2

Im

)
. 16.2

Im

/2

UC=Im /(C)

Im

. 16.3,
. 16.4:

UL=LIm

UR

UL
U

/2

U=Um
(L 1/(C))Im

UR=ImR m

UC=Im /(C)

. 16.4

. 16.3

1 2
) = U m2
C
Um
U
Im =
= m,
(16.7)
Z
1
)2
R 2 + (L
C
1
L
C ,
(16.8)
tg =
R
2
2
2
2
Z = R + X = R + ( RL Rc )
,
X = RL Rc ,
R I = U / R
( RI m ) 2 + I m2 (L

.
, ( C = ),
RC = 1 /(C ) 0 ,
( ).
16.2. () ()

(. 16.5)
129

UL

)
. 16.5

L =

Z 0 , I m =

1
C

R = 0 , (16.8)

tg = 0

= 0,

Um
max , Um.
Z

1
LC

(U L ) = (U c ) =

Im
= LI
C

Um
R

L
= QU
C

, (16.9)

Q (. (15.2) (15.9)).

:

=
)

I1 =

U = U m cos t ,

1
LC

(16.10)

Um

cos( t ) (. . 16.1, ) , (16.3)),


L
2

I2 = CU

cos( t +

(. . 16.1, )

2
, (16.5)). , tg1 = ( R 0, C 0)
tg 2 = + ( R 0, L 0 ) 2 1 = .

I m = U m RL RC = U m L

130

1
= I m1 I m 2
C

(16.11)

.. .

1
= L
C

1
LC

, I m 0 I m1 = I m 2 .

, I m1

I m2

I m .

,
.
16.3. .
.

P = UI = I mU m cos t cos(t ) =

= I mU m (cos 2 t cos + sin t sin cos t ).


(16.12)

< cos 2 t >=

< sin t cos t >= 0 ,

< P >=

1
1
I mU m cos = I m2 R .
2
2

1
2

(16.13)

,
,
I U :

I =

Im
Um
, U =
.
2
2

(16.14)

< P >= I U cos ,

cos .

(16.15)

X = 0
( RL = 0, R = 0 RL = RC ), cos = 1 P = UI ;

cos = 0 P = 0 U
131

( RL 0, Rc 0 ),

R=0
I.

, cos 0.85 ,
0 < cos << 1 P I,
2

dQ = I Rdt ,
S
.
S () ,
.
R =

l
U
R = , U I
S
I

U, I,
S ..

132

. ,

,


3-,
,
. , ,

1- .

-
.
,
,
. ,
, .

.

133

134

135


,
,


II

..
03.07.2006. 6084 1/16.
. .
. . 7,9 .-. . 8,0. 100 .
1355.
-
-

:
346428, . , . , 132

136