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2006

24(34)
86.35(5)
50

()
05-01-16004

()

.. , . , ..

50

Smaranam : . . . /
- . .: . ., 2006. 334 .: .
ISBN 5-02-028543-4
, .. (1926-1988),
. , , , .
86.35(5)

ISBN 5-02-028543-4

.., , 2006
, 2006
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, 2006

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23.01.1926-22.10.1988

1988 .
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.: . . (1914-1991). .
. , 2002.

. , , , ,
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XIX . , , ( ) , ;
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:
1964 . XXVI
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(1898-1954), , . 6.
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7.
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.. ). 1938 .
, 58- , . , .
.
, (91- 69- 1- ).
-, (
1944 .). , . 1949 . ( ),

1954 . ( 56 ).
, ,
1- , 2- , .
, , . , , ,
. ,
. ,
1956 .
23 1926 ., . 1943- ,
.
1944- , 1945- 7

, 30.08.1947 . 1255450
, . . .

( ). 1946- , 1947-
,
1952- -.
,
, ;

.
, , .
, 8, ,
, ,
- .
,
.
, 1952 1956 .,
9, 1953 1956 . , . 1956 .
.
,
. 1957 .
- (1902-1960), (1874-1947). , ( -)
, (1899
1973)
. 10
,
: .
8

,
- ().
9
, ,
60- ( ) .
10
, . , ,
, , , ,- . 1976 .

, ,
, ,
.
. ,

: , . , 11, (,
- , ),
, , ,
.

, , - . ,
, .. (1891-1967). ,
,
.. (1890-1952);
(.
.. ).

-. , .. -,

: ( )
-- (
( - )
( ) (. ).
( )
.. , .
11
A.M. , .. , .. ( ), .. , .. , .. ; . . , .. , .. -, .. ;
, : .. ( ), B.C. , .. , ..
/
.
10


,
. ,
. 1960 . Bibliotheca
Buddhica -
, 1 .
, ,
.
- 13. ,
,
... 1960 . ,
58 . 14.
, : , . ,
:
,
? ,
15.
1964 . 1960-
- . ,
16
, .
12
, 40 .
. .
13
.

, . , , . ( ). , .
14
1990-
.
15
, .
16
, , . ,
.

11

1968 . ^ ( ). , ,
.
(, ) /
, . , , .
17. ; ,
, , .
18, ( 1970-) .
. , ,
. , , , .
.
1972 .
,
(1914-1974).
(, , ;
, ). , .

.. ,
Bibliotheca Buddhica. , 19 , ,
19.
- 1968 .,
.
. 17

: . . (
. . ) .
18
.. A.M. .
19
, ,
, 12

. .
. , . -
, .
, ,
, . , .
, , .
- , , ,
. , - - , , ,
.
, 1981 .
.
, , , , .
, , ,
- -, -, (-, -),
, . - . , .

, .
, ,
. ,
;
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,
. , , - ( .. -), . .. , ?

, 20. , , ,
20
,
, , - .

13

:
. .
, ,
- . , . ...
, , .

.
. ., 1961, . 57, . 21-24.
. , .
. . ... . (, ..), (. 5-24) (. 325-347). ., 1962
( . . VII). 348 .
(Kunalavadana
Asokavadanamala). ., 1963, 101 . (. .. -).
The Kunala Legend and an Unpublished Asokavadanamala Manuscript.
Moscow, 1963. 39 . (. .. -).
Kunalavadana. Indian Studies. Past and Present. Calcutta, 1964, Jan.March, vol. 5, 2, 113-122 (. .. -).
, . ., 1964. .
: . , . 122-126;
, . 66-70; . :
, . 126-131; 1, . 131-132;
, . 132-137; , . 137-146; , . 146-152; , . 152-162.
--.
, , . ., 1965, . 45-46 (. .. -).
. . ., 1965 (. .. -).
. . . . - . . 1 (4). ., 1966, . 160-181
(. .. ).
15

. . ., 1967 (
) (. .. -).
. ,
II; , 1965 ( , . 181), . 274-275.
.
, , . ., 1967, . 247-252 (.
.. -).
. .
. , 1972, . 115 ( , 1994, 2, . 45-46).
. .
2- . . 1. ., 1980, . 369-372.
. (-) . . . . . 7. ., 1995, . 25-37.
. . . . . .,
1996, . 500-502.
. . . . . .,
1996, . 505-506.
. . . .. , .. .. , .. , .. . . 1997, 2, . 1-7.

, (varna), (pistra) ( ), ,
, [Dumezil, 1930; Benveniste, 1932; Benveniste, 1938].
,
, . , (IV, 5-7). , : , (vecbxaxoq) .

, . , , , ,
. , , . , . XX . . (yevrO . . .. .
, , ,
( *vahuta ), -, , ,
-, , ., 2006
*

19

, [, 1960, . 10-11].
, .. ,
( ) ( , , ). , ,
-, ,
,
, ,
-, -, [,
1960, . 6].
. [Brandenstein,
1953, . 183 .], , yevr| : , , -. (, ) .. [, 1986]. ,
, :
1) -, 2) , , 3) , ... ...

. .
, , ,
. , ... .
( )... ...
... .
. ...
(, ) ().
(varna ". ..)...
, ,
[, 1986,
. 46]. , , ,
1
,
. , , , -

20

. :
; , ,
, ...
... [Smith, 1994, . 82].
, , . ,
,
.
, . , ,
, 2 ,
.


,
(,
). () : 1)
2) . , , ,
,
, . , *bhrater,
() ,
( )

, , [, 1958-1995, ,
. 438-439; , 1959, . 58 .; Benveniste, 1969, I, . 213-214;
Szemerenyi, 1977, . 23-24; , , 1984, . 764
]. , (, )
,
, ,
,
[,
1989, . 96]. , , ,
- .
21

, *-ter,
[Benveniste, 1969,
I, . 212]3. , *pster ( ), *mater (), *bhrater (),
*dhugster () *jenater (, .. ).
. , , (, ,
,
jumatar zamatar4, gener
*p9ter. ( )
: .-. pitar-, . pitar-, .
hayr, . |, . pater, .-. athir, . fadar, . ,
pacer . [, 1959, I, . 829]. ,
*mater, , ,
, Lallworter, (.
). , , , ,

(Vater, Haupt der Gropfamilie, [Pokorny, 1959, I,
. 829]), . , . pater. (pater
familias) , . familia . , pater ,
, (
patres). , pater , parens genitor,
( qu'indique pater, n'est pas la paternite physique, qui est plutot
indiquee par parens et par genitor. Pater a une valeur sociale) [Ernout,
Meillet, 2001, c. 487]. .
, , . .
,

22


: rama, ,
(),
( ). , .
, *pster . : .
Jup(p)iter, . . ZeG , .-. . dyaush pitah . [Mayrhofer, 1956-1980, II, . 70-71; , 1959, I, . 184-185; Benveniste,
1969, I, . 210]. , | ,
(un terme
dont la valeur est surtout sociale et religieuse) [Chantraine, 1947, 235].
, | (the epithet pater
applied to Zeus has its origin in his status as head of the divine household)
[Gates, 1971, 6], ...
Tiaxfip av8pcov xecov
[ ] ( est une designation du chef d'un
groupe... et c'est ce sens qui etait au fond de la formule 7taxf]p avSpcov
xewv ) [Ernout, Meillet, 2001, c. 487].
, (, , , ,
[Szemerenyi, 1977, . 7] , te- . tevas *pte . . pta) , , , :
, atta, .-. otbcb ( *at(t)ikos) .. ,
(. IV, 6) . [3 6 (, !), abba fadar [Benveniste, 1969, I, . 209-210]. ,

, ,
.
*pater ;
. , , 'pater' ( ) 'genitor' ( );
'mater' 'genetrix' (anthropologists tend to distinguish, for example, the
'pater' or legal father from the 'genitor' or actual biological father
(Logically of course they should distinguish the 'mater' from the 'genetrix'
as well) [Fox, 1974, 34]. , *pster -

23

( ,
, . [Benveniste, 1969,1, . 211];
. [, 1959, . 20, . 19]).
*bhrater.
, : ,
,
, .
,
.-. <| , ,
[Benveniste, 1969,1, . 214],
; .-. brathir ; .
aervad ( ...
asrvad ''; mady-rvad
' ' [, 1958-1995, , . 437-438]. ,
*bhrater , , .
, .
, . , , , .
*mater , .-.
matar-, . matar-, . mayr, . |1||, . mater, .-. mathir,
.-. mati, . materb .; . A macar, macer;
, . , mater
, pater, ...
... (Terra mater), : Vesta mater (II [ mot] comporte,
pater, une idee de respect... et s'ajoute au nom d'une deesse... pour
1'honorer (Terra mater), et sans que idee de maternite soit necessairement impliquee dansTappellation: Vesta mater) [Ernout, Meillet, 2001,
389]. (Maatreis, G. sg.) (Matrer, G. sg.), (Matrebo, Dak pi.) [ , . 390]. , ,
*pster,
*mater , , : . , anna-, . anni- [Benveniste, 1969,1, . 212].
*dhugater. , .-.
duhitar-, . dugadar-, duy8ar-, . dustr ( -- -s-
--), . 8)], . futir, . dauhtar, .-. duckti, .-.

24

dbsti, dbsten, ..; . A ckacar, tkacer


[, 1959, I, . 277], . kbatra, . duwattri-/duttari- .
, [Benveniste, 1966, . 34-50], .-.
*duxi, du-uk-si-is ,
.-. duxs, , . dsxoy
*dhugater5. , fu(u)trei (Dat. sg.), , , [Lejeime, 1968, . 72-73]. ,
.
, ,
*-ter *ienater
: .-. yatar-, , . , . () . . eivaxepeq ( ), . janitrices ( Nomina agentis . . genitrices;
), .-. jente (gen. jenters),
. . , ,
[Szemerenyi, 1977, . 92],
.
,
( *-ter) ,
, ( , , ), *pater *mater, ,
, Lallworter.
,

, (., , . jamatar,
nanandar, naptar napat; , , ,
pitar-, matar-, bratar-, duxtar- pit, mat,
brat, duxt, , pidar, madar, bradar, duxtar;
pus <
9, pusar [Benveniste, 1969,1, . 256-257]).
,
( *pster *bhrater,
*mater *dhugster *jenster), ( *poter *mater,
''bhrater *dhugster *ienster) ,
, -

25

. , ,
, ,
, , - .
,
, . , , , , " 6,
, ( ) , : , 7. ,
.
, * pater
: , ,
.
,
,

(
,
), ,
.
, () ( ),
. , [, 19), . 75]. par excellence ( () ).
, , , ,
,
, 26

: , ,
. -
, ,
,
[, 1974, . 323]. , ,
, , ( . ).
(genitor) , ,

. ,
,
patres patres conscripti: ( 510 . ..) conscripti, patres et conscripti
, , , patres conscripti ( . [, 1989, . 77-80]). . (Romul.
XIII): ", ,
, , " (.
. ).
*bhrater, *pster8, , , ,
, , . , , .. ,
: , , ,

( 25
35 ) , , ( ) (. [, 1987, . 84-100;
, 1993]). (-')
(nianpri) (sozo chere nu)
[Dugast, 1985, . 55] ( pater rama).
*mater, ,
*pater , , , .

27

,
, .. , ,
,
[, 1980, . 75-76].
*mater, *bhrater : *dhug9ter
*jen3ter. ? ,
,
(, ),


. , , ,
:

( , ) (
*bhrater), ,
,
. , , , , .

, , ,
(. [, 1986, . 111-112]). ,
,
, ,
, , ( , , ).
.,
,
,
, : , .., , , (,
- , , ). ,
, , , , ,
. , ,
( ) , ,

28

, . , ,
, , ,
,

, ,
. ,
.
, , , , , , ,
, , . , , *-ter
. , , , ,
,
.
, -
.
,
. *mer-(io) ([Pokorny, 1959, I, . 738-739], junger Mann) ( -
). ()
,
*majrV,
(, mar' , .), (
mar .) [-,
1976, . 39-41]; , [Starostin, 1989,
. 118], , - .
: 1) ( )
(.-. marya () , ; . jisipa^
, ); 2) , (.
mairyo , ;
[
], , mairyo, [Benveniste, 1969, I,
29

. 247], c'est un jeune homme trop audacieux,... et meme un brigand


... ); 3) ,
(.-. merak , . maritus ); 4) (.-. marika -, ; , , , , 9). marya.
[Renou, 1958, . 49]
mi-erotique, mi-guerrier (, 10).
, , , : (maryo na yosham) , - - ( . ).
-, ,
. , , 11. mrayay ,
, (, , ,
, , ),
[, , 1978, . 170],
(, )
, [, 1980,
. 58-59].
;
, ,
, , *. (Lebenskraft), , , , . (. [,
1959, I, . 17-18])
(.-. ayus), , (. aevus
, ; . aiws , ), ,
[Benveniste, 1937], ,

30

(.-. yuvan), .., ,


. . juventus , , 18 45 .
, , , , . , , ,
, , , , , , ( ),
. , , , , , . , , ( , ,
), (

, , , , )
( , ) , ,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
, - .
,
31

,
. ,
,
-.
,
.
: .
focus (. feu, . fuoco, , fogo, . fuego,
. foe ..).
,
focus . , , ,
( ignis).
,

.

, - ,
,
. , ,
,
[> 1985, . 20-26],
, . , .
...
, ;
, , ,
, ... ( . ..),
P.M. .. [, , 1981, . 111]
.
. , , ,
... ...
, , ,
,
(the birth of a child was known about and
shared by all. All females in the clan old enough to be the child's mother
were called by that term and all other females were termed sisters... Virtu-

32

ally all clanswomen were nurturant towards the infant... Whether being
suckled or not, infants and toddlers were commonly passed from person to
person and received affection from all) [Langness, 1990, c. 389-390]. Ha


() (). - ,
,
[],
, , toku mana ( ) (not only
the sisters of the mother and her more distant female kin, but also the
wives of the father's and mother's brothers, receive the appellation of
['mother'], while the father's brothers, the husbands of the father's
sisters, the father's father's brothers' sons, and his more distant cousins in
the male line are each referred to as toku mana (my father) [Firth, 1931,
c. 240-241].
,
,
; ,
( , )
.
,
, . , .
, - ?
, . ..
.. , - /s/, , ,
" ;
. -

33

,
- ,

.. [, , 1996, . 8]. : ,
, ,

, , . , : , . ,
, .
,
, , ,
, . , - .


. , , , .
, ,
, .
, , , .
, resp. .
(sunltir uta vamanltih) (PB VI, 47, 7; . .. ), : () (rajan deveshu) (PB VI, 46, 6); ., , [Schlerath, 1960]. , , , , . ,

34

. ,
.
. , ,
() (), , () ,
(indram ajuryam jarayantam ukshitam / sanad yuvanam avase
havamahe) (PB II, 16, I; . .. );
(indrah sa no yuva sakha) (PB VI, 45, 1; . .. ); (yuva kavir) (PB I, 11, 4), marya. .
-. , (
marya par excellence: marya ; . [Renou,
1962, . 64, . 2]).
(yuvanas12 maryas),
,
. sardha,
gana13 vrata ( . [Renou, 1962, . 66, . 4 . 84,
. 11]). V, 53, : () , () , () ... (sardham-sardham vratam-vratam ganam-ganam...). (sakam jatih PB V, 55, 3),
(sanllah PB I, 165, 1; VII, 56, 1),
, , (te ajyeshtha akanishthasa udbhido
'madhyamaso... PB V, 59, 6).
. : () , , , ,
, , () , , (vasimanta rshtimanto manlshinah sudhanvana ishumanto nishanginah/svasva stha surathah... svayudha... PB,
V,57,2).

. ,
, - [Wikander, 1938,
passim]. , ,
, .
, , , , samtapana
(VII, 59, 9). nes de la brulure-totale , tap-
, ,
, (tapas) , .
, , 35

sam- ( sam-, ) ,
[,
1982, . 262],
samtapana (,
, ).
, , . ,
, ,
, ,
... [, , 1981, . 123].
. ,
, , ,
,
[, 1986, . 99]. , . . . . ,
, .
[ , . 100].
, samtapana(s)
-, ..
.
, - -. - , ...
(maryo yuvabhir) (PB III, 31,7; . .. ). ,
, : (. ..) (. [Renou, 1962, . 35]
", ^" attentif) ( rajanam
iryam janaya... janayatha) (PB V, 58, 4; . .. ).
. ,
(vis) : ,
- (1, 8, 3, 3) ,
(. -, 2, 7, 2, 2; -, 2,
5, 2, 6, 27; 3, 9, 1, 1-17) (
. [Heesterman, 1957, . 66-67, 201-202]).
36

, , -
, , : , . ,
,
. , , ,
, , , , [, 1980, . 16].
,
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
, , . ,

maruta, mariit. ( I, 134, 4, ;
^ indravayu) . ,
, ,
.
, ,
(., , V, 54, 3).
,
. ,
, ,
, , 14.
, ,
.
(VI, 46, 3) sahasramushka, , ( . [Dumezil, 1985, . 80]). -

37

,
marya, .
, , ,
. , -
, ,
, -, .. , .
[, 1980, . 322]. ,
, , .

: ,
. , (nrtu).
( I, 178, 3; V, 52, 12; X, 78, 4 ).
, ,
, . , () ,
,
, [Schurtz,
1902, . 100-101];
,
, [ , . 103].
,
. , honhewachi (honhe , wachi ).
, XIX .
[Lindig, 1970, . 46, 66,
. 56].
, , .. [Vasilkov, 1987], (
-).
( ,
, ,
). ,

38

( ) ,
[Neyt, 1993, . 73]. ,
.
[ , . 76].
,
( ) .
, , . , IV, 18 ( 13) ,
(avartya una antrani pece).
, , ,
, ,
, , , [Schurtz, 1902, . 385]. ( I, 51, 9; . [, 1982]) ( I, 32, 12) , ,
, ,
, , [Webster, 1908, . 183].
,
,
( IV, 18, 12). , ,
(),
, ,
[Schurtz, 1902, . 102].
,
(III, 15, 1),
(vanija): - (indram aham vanijam codayami; . .. ). - ,
, , . ,
.
, resp.
, ,
([, 1978, . 69]; . .. [ ,
. 548, . 8], ,

). / 39

. , *lau
, (. lotra),
, (. lucrum), , (. Lohn, . laun) (, [Benveniste, 1969,1, . 166169; , , 1984, . 740]).
Gewinn , [, 1916, . 62]. :

, ,
[ ; , 2005,
. 222].

. : , ,
, ; (., , II, 33, 1; V, 57, 7; VI, 66, 3 .),
(., , I, 64, 3; 85, 2; V, 57, 1 .).
: , , ( II,
33, 11), , , , (16, 20), (stenanam pati)
(vanija) [Wikander, 1938, . 74].
-, .
:
,
.
( , 9),

(. .. ). , (. mercredi),
(. woensdag, . Wednesday).
,
. : , ( I, 32),
( I, 56, 6).
,
, ,
, .
(
,
). ,
( VarsGragna,

40

Vrtrahan). ,
, ; Vrtrahan ,
, ( , , ). ,

15
[Benveniste, Renou, 1934, . 177-180].
, ,
, ,
-,
. , , par excellence, ,
, ,
-, ,

. , , , ,
, ( ).
,
,
-. ,

( , , , , ), (, ,
, ),
. , ,
, ,
,
, , .

41

, , , : ( ), ( ) ( ),
, , ; .. , , .
2
- ,
.
3
, [Benveniste, 1969, I, . 255], le suffixe
de parente par excellence ( ). ,
, , *-ter *- *-(t)er,
[Szemerenyi, 1977, . 152], .
4
,
, zamaoiia zum ,
[Benveniste, 1969,1, . 256].
5
[Szemerenyi, 1977, . 20, .67] - , *dhug9ter
- , , , ,
. ,
.
6
Many modern anthropologists still seem to think with Morgan that kinship terminologies are systems of consanguinity and affinity", that they give a picture of the genealogical makeup of the society. . , , ,
(this lingering, perhaps unconsciously held, assumption about kinship terms has
confused and impeded our understanding of many important problems) [Service, 1971,
16-17].
7
, , , . , ... (Morgan's assumption
that different kinds of consanguineality were the only criteria involved was challenged
by McLennan and N.W. Thomas, both of whom gave cogent reasons for assuming that
blood ties and descent lines were not the main criteria at all...) [Service, 1971, 181].
, (age and station).
,
, (more explicit in describing
kin terms as denoting status and rights and duties associated with it rather than
consanguineality in some direct fashion) [ , . 2]. , ,

42

, , ,
, (just as there are no
good reasons to suppose that structurally primary senses of kinship terms are necessarily
their historically most prior senses, neither are there any good reasons to suppose that
they are the first-learned senses) [Scheffler, 1973, 773-774]. ,
, ,
, .
8
. [Benveniste, 1969, I, . 213]: En effet, 4frere' se definit par
rapport a 'pere', qui ne designe pas necessairement le 'geniteur' ( , " ", ").
9
, , .. .. [, , 1988, . 173]. . [Bailey, 1963, . 77-78] .. [, 1979, passim]. , , , ,
.
10
. [Renou, 1962, . 10, . 1] marya ,
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social, volontiers dans un contexte erotisant), . 64 marya (Done le
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marya . , , ,
,
, .
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., , [, 1970, . 263; , 1979, . 109-110].
, [, 1987, passim],
. , ,
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12
,
(*). , vayas (., , I, 37, 9; 165; VIII, 20, 13),
.
13
, , .. , , , -

43

, ( , ), ,
, , [Vasilkov, 1987, . 7-8].
14
.. , . , ,
, ,
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15
[Benveniste, Renou, 1934, . 186-187], ,
. , ,
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A.B.

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Pal Pratapaditya. A Catalogue of Los-Angeles Country Museum Art Collection.

Los-Angeles, 1990, 321-326.


2
Schroder U. von. Indo-Tibetan Bronzes. Hongkong. 1981, 115, 119, 131, 133,
135,136,442,463-467.
3
.., .., .. . IX-XIX . . ., 2004 ( .), . 33-48.
4
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14
, . 138, 140, 143, 146, 147, 162.
15
, . 136.
16
, . 136,234.
17
, . 162.
18
Tucci G.A. Tibetan Classification of Buddhist Images According to their Style.
Artibus Asiae. 1959, vol. XXII.
19
. -- . . 9. ., . 174.
20
Das S. Ch. Tibetan-English Dictionary. Calcutta. 1902, . 1112-1113.
21
.
22
., . 162.
23
Taranatha. Kah bab dun dan [bka'-babs-bdun-ldan], the Book of Seven Mystic
Revelations. Ed. by Rai Sarat Chandra Das. Calcutta, 1901.
24
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,
,
.

,
,

,
,
,
.

,
( .. ) - (..
). , / , ,
,

( ).

.. . [, 1995,1, . 248; , 1989].


. , [, 1996].
3

, .
4
:
B.C. , .. .
5
, ..
[, 1961].
6
, , , .
2

163

1986 . . ( 1990 .) (
) .
1999 . 1100 [, 1999].
8
[Apte, 1959],
.. .. [, 2003].
9
( )
,
, () (. [Macdonell, 1962, . 439; , 1989,
. 532-533]).
8*4 ( ). ., , [Hemachandra, 1961, . 21-23],
[Oldenberg, 1909/1987].
10
, dharma-ksetra kuru-ksetra ( ), : -, -, -,
- ..
: -, -....
11
. [, 2004].
12
.: The frequency of this metre (i.e. anustubh. ...) is about one-third of
Gayatrl in the R[ig]V[eda], but in the post-Vedic period it has become the predominant
metre [Macdonell, 1962, 439, . 3]. [][] 2 , (- 8x3. - ...). [][]
. (gloka) [, 1989, . 533].
13
.: About two-fifth of the R[ig]V[eda] are composed in this metre [Macdonell, 1962, 441, . 4].
[][]. 2/5 [, 1989, . 534].
14
-
(. ). , ,
(
).
15
: ... .
.
16
Utkhatam nidhi-saiikaya ksiti-talam, , :
- (nidhi) :
(. - ).
17
, dhmata girer
dhatavo. He , : .
18
() (smasana) ( ).
19
dhmata girer dhatavo (. , . 17),
: ..-./ .
20
: , !, ! ! ( !).
164

21

: .../ .
: .../ .
23
astam-gamita-mahima []
( )
conditio humana.
24
, .
25
()
22

,-.

V
/, 1913- . . . ..
. . . . ., 1913 ( , /,
-, 1990).
, /, -, 1990 . . . . . . . [ , . -.] , 1990.
/, 1960 , . . , . . .. . ., 1960.
, 1961 .. .
- . ., 1961, 57.
, 1963 .. ( ). ,
1963.
, 1974 - .. . . .,
1974.
/, 1995 . . . , . .,
. . .. . ., 1995 ( .
).
, 1989 ..
. - . IIV. . .. . ., 1989 ( ).
, 1989 .. . . 1989, 2.
, 1982 - . . . .. . ., 1982.
, 1956 . . . . ., 1956.
/, 1916 . . . . .
. . . ., 1916 ( : , 1956
, /, -, 1990).
/, 1974 . . . .
. . , 1974.
, 1996 .. .. . ., 1996.
, 1995 1917 . . 2-, . . III. , 1995.
/,1958 . . . .. . ., 1958
( ).
/, 1972 . . .. . ,
1972.
165

, 1999 . (-). .
.. . , 1999 ( ).
/, 2002 ( 1.35-44). . , . . . . Arbor Mundi. 2002, 9, . 153-189.
/, 2006 . . . . . . .. . , 2006 ( ).
, 2002 . .
. , XX . ., 2002.
, 2002 . .. . . . V. ., 2002.
, 2004 . - .8: . . 2. ., 2004,
. 191-219.
, 2003 .. . . ., 2003.
Apte, 1959 Apte V.S. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary (rev. ed). Vol.3.
Poona, 1959.
Bongard-Levin, Vigasin,1984 Bongard-Levin G., VigasinA. The Image of India. The
Study of Ancient Indian Civilisation in the USSR. Moscow, 1984.
Hemachanra, 1961 Chando'nus'asana of HemachandrasQri (A comprehensive treatise
of Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhramsa Prosody). Critically ed. ...by H.D. Velankar.
Bombay, 1961.
Kosambi, 1948 The Epigrams Attributed to Bhartrhari, Including the Three Centuries. For the first time collected and critically edited... by D.D. Kosambi. Bombay,
1948.
Oldenberg, 1909/1987 Oldertberg Zur Geschichte des Sloka 1 (1909). Oldenberg H. Kleine Schriften. Hrsg. von K.L. Janert Bd. 2. Wiesbaden, 1987.
Oldenberg, 1915/1987 Oldenberg H. Zur Geschichte der Tristubh (1915). Oldenberg H. Kleine Schriften. Hrsg. von K.L. Janert. Bd. 2. Wiesbaden, 1987.
Macdonell, 1962 Macdonell A.A. A Vedic Grammar for Students. Bombay etc., 1962
st
(1 ed.Oxf., 1916).
Mylius, 1975 Mylius K. Die altindische Metrik. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der
Karl-Marx-Universitut Leipzig (Gesellschafts- u. Sprachwissenschaftliche Reihe).
1975,24/2.
Steiner, 1996 Steiner R. Die Lehre der Anusfubh bei den indischen Metrikern.
Suhrilekhah. Festgabe ftir Helmut Eimer. Hrsg. von M. Hahn, J.-U. Hartmann und
R. Steiner. Swisttal-Odendorf, 1996 (Indica et Tibetica. 28).

..

( ) , ( II ..)
[, 1986, . 28 .]. ,
, . ( )
: , - (X, 129), , , (
, I, 32; , .) , , , ..,
(I, 6). , , ,
{visvdkarman , ) X, 81 82. (purusa , ),
,
, . ,
X, 121 ,
. -, (,
?). . , X, 72, .
.., 2006
169


, .
,
.
(
X), , :
as- , bhu- , ,
(. [Bohtlingk, I, . 143; IV, . 272-274]).
,
, bhu- , ,
[Grassmann, 1955, . 942]. .

as-\ bhu-
-. as-
: sat- : as at- -. .
:
nasad asm sad asit tadanim
He -, .
, dsu- m.
an- :
anid avdtdm svadhdyd tad
, , .
an-
prand-. bhu-, : bhu- f. , ; bhuman- ., bhumi- f. ; bhdvya- adj. , .
dsu-
. ahu- ,
, . ,
*asu- as- , ,
an- , [Schlerath, 1968, . 142
153].
[Mayrhofer EWA, I, . 147].

dsu
, ,
170

(. [Bohtlingk, I, . 150; MonierWilliams, 1970, . 121]). dsu- as- [Grassmann, 1955, . 155].
dsu-, , , , . , , .
atmdn-
-. ,
, jfv-, jivati-: jivatu-^jlvana-,
jivitd-. , ayus-.
, .
dsu- m. . 10 , (II, 22, 4),
X I [Lubotsky, 1997, I, . 181].
, tatpurusa:
asutrp-
X, dsunfti- f. , , ( ) X. , , dsu-
X .
dsu- . . : N. .
N.:
I, 113, 16: ud irdhvam jivo dsur na agad ! ! ( ).
, dsu
,
. , , , dsu ,
I, 164, 4: asm dsrg atma kvd svit ,
?
-, . dsu- atmdn-. .
, dsu- atmdn'y. , (dsu-)
(atmdn-) , (. [Renou EYP, XVI,
. 89]).
171

X, 121, 7: tdtodevanam sdm avartatasur ekah


.
. --- (- ,
?), . , dsu-
, .
:
I, 140, 8: .i.eti nanadad \ dsum pdram jandyanjivdm dstrOtam ,
, , , .
, . Asu-
jivd-.
I, 182, 3: jurdtam dsum !
. , .
II, 22, 4: ydd devdsya sdvasa prarina dsum \ rndnn apdh (To),
, .
, , . Asu- ,
X, 12, \: devo ydn mdrtan yajdthaya krnvdn \ sldad dhota pratydh svdm
dsum ydn ... , , , !
, , . , :
. : retournant
(ainsi) vers son propre etre-vital [Renou EVP, XIV, 9].
X, 14, 12: urunasav asutrpa udumbaldu | ... | piinar datum dsum adyehd
bhadrdm ... ( ) ,
, (?)...
...!
, ,
, , . , ,
, .. ,
. , dsu-, .
X, 15, 1: dsum yd Jyur avrka rtajhds | te no 'vantu pitdro hdvesu ,
, ,
!
. , , dsu-
172

, , . : qui
s'en sont alles dans la vie (d'au dela) [Renou EVP, XVI, 125].
X, 59, 1\ punar no dsum prthivi dadatu] punar dydur devl punar
antdriksam J punar nah somas tanvam dadatu.,.
, -, ! !...
dsu- ; asu-,
-, , .
. . .

_
.'

., dsu-
, . -, dsu-
: -
, jan- caus. , da- , j- . , dsu- , : dsum
i- dsu- (X, 12, 1 X, 15, 1) . N., dsu- (a ga) (I, 113, 16).
, dsu-, : jivd- (2 ),
bhadrd- , para- svd- . jivd- , dsu- mrtd- , .
,
dsu
: asutrp- dsuriiti- ( ).
X, 14, 12 (. ) . , ,
X, 82, 7: mharena pravrta jdlpyd ca- \
asutrpa ukthasasas caranti () , , .
, ,
, , ,
, .. [Geldner, 1951, III,
. 265]. : qui se derobent le
souffle (en recitant) [Renou EVP, XV, 171].
, dsu .
, , (X, 87, 14): pdrarcisa muradevan chrnThi [pdrasutrpo abhi
sosucanah , ,
!
asutrp- .
173

, , dsuniti- (, ).
X [Lubotsky, 1997,1, . 181].
X, 59, .
dsumti- ,
Voc.
X, 59, 5: dsuriite mono asmdsu dhdraya \ jivatave su prd tira na dyuh
, ,
, ! : (), .
, : dsu-jlvatu- ayus-.
X, 59, 6: asunite punar asmdsu cdksuh \ punah prandm ihd no dhehi
bhogam , ,
!
Asu- , a prdnd
, . , dsumti-
[Geldner, 1951, III, . 223].

X,
.
X, 12, 4: aha ydd dydvo 'sunitim dyan \ mddhva no dtra pitdra sisitam
() ,
() () !
Pitdr- , . . dsumtim
/-. ,
dsu-, dsumti-.
X, 15, 14: agnidagdha ye dnagnidagdha \ mddhye divdh svadhdya
maddyante \ tebhih svaral dsumtim etam... , ,
, , ()
, ! ( ).
X, 16, 2: add gdchaty dsumtim etam | dtha devanam vasanir bhavati , ,
( - ).
.
dsuriiti- , .
174

dsu-
. Asu- , , . ,
. ,
. Asu-, dsuniti-, ,
. ,
( dsu- ), dsu- .
,
, .. atmdn- prand-.
Atmdn- , . . athum, Atem ,

, , [Mayrhofer EWA,
1,. 164].
.
: atmdn- tmdn-,
: / [Kuiper, 1942, . 19 .]. : atmdn- (N. ),
a tmdn- . . sg. tmdnam- ( ) I, 63, 8.
. Atmdn-ltmdn ,
. ,
.
atmdn- . On the word
atmdn [Renou, 1952, . 151157], . , .
Atmdn- 22 , 13 I
X, (VII, 87, 2 VII, 101,
6) [Lubotsky, 1997, I, . 247]. tmdn- 77 [Lubotsky, 1997,1, . 607608].
[Bohtlingk, I, . 167 III, . 45; Grassmann, 1955, . 175-176 552
.], .
175

atmdn-. tmdn- , , , ., .
tmdn- .
atmdn-
, .
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) , ; 4) ; 5) , ; 6) . , , , . (
), ...atmdn- . , , , , ,
. ,
, ... [Renou, 1952, . 156].
atmdn- :
atmdn- , "
, , , [Renou, 1952, . 151].
dsu-, atmdn- ,
, VII, 87, 2: atma te vato raja a navinot
( ) ( I, 34, 7; X, 92, 13; X, 168, 4).
, , , . , (X, 16, 3)
: suryam cdksur gachatu vatam atma
, - ! der
Lebenshauch ,
atmdn- prand- [Geldner, 1952, III, . 147].
dsu- atmdn- ,
, . :
I, 115, 1: surya atmajdgatas tasthusas ca ().
, .
VII, 101, 6: tdsmin atma jdgatas tasthusas ca
() ( ).
IX, 85, 3: atmendrasya bhavasi dhasir uttamdh ,
( ).
, , atmdn- dsu-.
176

X, 107, 7: ddksinannam vanute atma (?) ,


( ).
atmdn- .
X, 97, 4: saneyam dsvam gam vasa | atmanam tdva , , () , !
.
, .
atmdn- .
atmdn- , (
tmdn-). , I, 73, 2: ...ydh...\ atmeva sevo
didhisayyo bhut ... , , ()
.
.
atma lieb wie das eigene Selbst [Geldner, 1951,1, 96],
comme (l'est) le soi (pour la personne humaine) [Renou EVP, XII,
19]. , : bdlam
dddhana atmdni .
, atmdn- .
, , atmdn ' , ,
, , ydksma-. .
X, 97, 11: atma ydksmasya nasyati j pura jivagrbho yatha
, (
).
atmdn- ,
.
atmada- .
X, 121, 2: yd atmada balada ydsya visva \ upas ate prasisam ydsya devah
, , ( ) .
satatman- .
I, 149, 3: suro ndrurukvan chatatma ..., ,
( ).
X, 33, 9: devanam dti vratdm \ satatma candjivati
, .
8 148

177

IX, 98, 4: indo sahasrinam rayim \ satatmdnam vivasasi.. . ,


, .
, tmdn-,
, .
VIII, 2, 38: .. Jrdvaskamampurutmanam \ kdnvaso gatd vajinam ... , , !
, purutmdn
.
, atmdn-, . seva- , , priyd- ( ), purvyd- , sdrva- , .
atmdn- , dsu-, . Atmdn-
, . dsu-, atmdn- . dsu- atmdn- . Atmdn- , , dsu-. dsu-, atmdn- .
dsu- atmdn-
.
prand- m. ,
(III, 53, 21),
[Lubotsky, 1997, , . 947-948].
an-, dniti ,
. : ;
, ,
, , [Bohtlingk, IV, . 183].
, ,
atmdn'a, :
, .
.

, :
X, 189, 2: antds carati rocana-\asyd pranad apanatl
, () .
, , .. . , ,
[Renou EVP, XV, . 13], prand- .
178

- prand-
, .
X, 90, 13: candrdma mdnasojatds
cdksoh suryo ajayata \
mukhad indras cagnis ca
pranad vayur ajayata \\
() , ,
, .
, , , , prand-, .
X, 59, 6 (. ),
dsuniti- , prand-
cdks4uh.
I, 66, 1: ayur ndprano nityo nd sunuh .. . ,
, , .
, . . : ...souffle-anime comme la vie (meme), intime comme (Pest) un fils [Renou EVP, XII, 13].
Ill, 53, 21: yam dvismas tarn prand jahatu ... ,
!
Prand- , . .
: , , , !
( )
prand- atmdn- dsu-. dsu- ,
: atmdn- , ,
- ; prand-
, .
, jiv- , : jivatu- f. 12 pa3,jivana- n. 2 ujivitd- n.
2 [Lubotsky, 1997, I, . 569].
jivatu- (VI, 47, 10), X I. : dsu-, atmdn- prand-
, jivatu
, ajivana- jivitd-
.
8*

179

/Fv- , .
(
), , , (I, 48, 10): visvasya hiprananam jlvanam tve \ vi
ydd uchdsi sunari , , !
, , , ,
, X, 176, 4 : devo jivdtave krtdh
() .
.
, .. . :
X, 60, 8: ydthayugdm varatrdya
ndhyanti dharunaya kdm \
eva dadhara te mono
jivdtave nd mrtydve
'tho aristdtataye \\
, , - , , .
c-d-e , .
I, 91, 6: tvdm soma vdso \jivdtum nd maramahe , ,
, , !
, .
. :
VI, 47, 10: indra mrld mdhyam jivatum icha , ! !
: .
,
-, , ..
dsu-^atmdn- prand-. :
I, 94, 4: jivdtave pratardm sadhaya dhiyo ,
() ! ( ).
,59, 5 . 174.
, ,
: dsu-, jivdtu-, ayus-. dsu
, , jivdtu
, a ayus
180

, . , - .
,
. jivitd( -).
I, 113, 6: visadrsa jivitabhipracdksa \ usa ajigar bhuvanani visva
, ,

: les (modes d') existence divers [Renou EVP, III,


43].
IV5 54, 2: ad id damanam savitar vy urnuse \ ' jivita manusebhyah
, , .
, - [Renou EVP, XV, . 22].
jivatu. .
VIII, 47, 4: ydsma drasata ksdyam \jTvatum prdcetasah () ...
, , yTv-,
, , .
, . .
. , .
.

- ( -). , ,
, , . .-. a'icbv
, , , . aevum ,
. , , , ,
. [Mayrhofer EWA, I, . 171-172]. , , ,
ayus- .
Ayus- .
95 ,
181

, , 10
. .,
. (.
86 , . 9). , . .
,
, - .
- -
. .
III, 1,5: socir vdsanah \ sriyo mimite brhatir dnunah
() , , ( ).
X, 27, 7: dbhur v duksir vy anad ,
( ).
IV, 58, 11: dhaman te visvam bhuvanam ddhi sritdm \ antdh samudre hrdy
antdr ayusi
-, .
- ,
.
. , , .
, .
II, 27, 10: satdm no rasva sarddo vicdkse \ 'syamdyumsi sudhitani purva
! !

, 101 (101 ).
. :
ayuh prd tar- ,
. prd tar-
. dyus, 31
- . ( . sg. 75 ) 4
. ( . pi. ayumsi 9 ).
( prd tar-
).
.
I, 89, 2: deva ayuh prd tirantu jivdse
() !
182

VIII, 79, 6: prem ayus tarid dtirnam ! ( ).


IV, 39, 6 (= I, 25, 12; X, 186, 1): prd ayumsi tarisat
! ( )
.
:
IV, 12, 6 (= X, 126, 8): prd tary agne pratardm na ayuh
, , ! N.
I, 119, 6: prd dirghena vdndanas tary ayusa
I.
X, 100, 5: brhaspate pratantasi ayusah ,
G.
, . ayus-,
as- , : dha- , da- , - id.; vrdh- , - . :
X, 85, 42: visvam dyur vy dsnutam ! ( ).
VII, 80, 2: esa sya navyam dyur dddhana \ gudhvi tamo jyotisosa abodhi
, , ,
.
III, 62, 15: asmakam dyur vardhdyann |...| somah sadhdstham asadat
, () .
X, 51, 7: kurmds ta dyur ajaram ydd agne ()
, , ( ) .
, , , : mus- , ris- , jar- ,
mi- , tap- . :
I, 24, 11: urusamsa ma na ayuh prd mosih ,
! ( ).
III, 49, 2: prthujrdya aminad dyur ddsyoh ,
( ).
VII, 104, 15: adya muriya yddi yatudhdno dsmi \ yddi vdyus tatdpa
purusasya ,
! .
, dyus
,
, , . .
183

ayus- , .
dirghd- ,
ayus- ( 10 ), visva-
(8 ), ndvya- (4 ) .
:
I, 96, 8: dravinodd rmate dirghdm ayuh ()
!
VIII, 18, 18: tuce tdnaya tdt su ] drdghiya ayur jivdse\ ...krnotana

! ( ).
VIII, 31,8: putrina ta kumarina \ visvam ayur vy dsnutah
(
).
kumarin- dotes de filles [Renou
EVP, XVI, . 118],
.
I, 10, 11: navyam ayuhprd su tira ()
!

ayus-, , .
ayus-l ayu-
dirghd-
. V. dirghdyu-
: ! (VIII, 70, 7).
tvd
dlrghayutvd- , ayus-:
VIII, 59, 7 (Valakhilya 11): dirghayutvdya prd tiratam ayuh
! ( ).
X, 62, 2. V, 18, 3 dlrghdyusocis- ,
( ).
, dirghayus- (IV, 15, 9 10; X, 85, 39).
ksitayus- :
184

X, 161, 2: yddi ksitdyur yddi va pdreto | yddi mrtyor antikdm riita eva...
() ... ( ).
, dyus-l .
, - , . . Ayus- ,
. . Ayus- . . jivdtu-
, ayus9.
(
),
.
; ,
; ,
.. .

', 1986 ... . .


Bohtlingk Bohtlingk . Sanskrit-Worterbuch in kurzerer Fassung. Th. 1-7. St.-Petersburg, 1879-1889.
Geldner, 1951 Geldner K.F. Der Rig-Veda aus dem Sanskrit ins Deutsche ubersetzt.
Th. 1-3. Cambridge, Mass., 1951 (Harvard Oriental Series. Vol. 33-35).
Grassmann, 1955 Grassmann H. Worterbuch zum Rig-Veda. 3. Aufl. Wiesbaden,
1955.
Kuiper, 1942 Kuiper F.BJ. Notes on Vedic Noun-inflexion. Amsterdam, 1942.
Lubotsky, \991 LubotskyA. A Rgvedic Word Concordance. Pt III. New Haven, 1997.
Mayrhofer EWA Mayrhofer M. Etymologisches Worterbuch des Altindoarischen.
Bd. IIII. Heidelberg, 1986-2001.
Monier-Williams, 1970 Monier-Williams M. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxf.,
1970 (1 s t ed.;1899).
Renou, 1952 Renou L On the Word atman. Vak. 1952, vol. 2, 151-157 (=/&?-.'
L. Choix' d'etudes indiennes. Reunies par N. Balbir et G.-J. Pinault. P., 1997,
877-883).
Renou EVP Renou L Etudes vediques et panineennes. T. I-XVII. P., 1955-1969.
Schlerath, \968-Schlerath B. Altindisch asu-, Awestisch ahu- und ahnlich klingende
Worter. Pratidanam. Indian, Iranian and Indo-European studies. Presented to
F.BJ. Kuiper on his 60th birthday. The Hague, Paris, 1968, 142-153.
185

..


[ ]
{LaghusiddhantakaumudT)
1-75

, (Astadhyayi), (Panini), , , V .
.., . (.. , )
(), , .
(, ,
..), ; (.. - ),
.
, , ,
4000 -
(sutra-), (adhyaya-\ (pada-). ,
,
,
.., 2006
186


( ).
,
, , ,
,
,
,
,
.
-
( ) , , , -,
-,

.
,
, , , . , (IVIII? .
.., ), (III . ..)
(III . ..); ,
....
I .. , ,
.
, , ,
(.. ) ().
( kuntud-
; ) ,
, ( ) .
, , , (.. 187

) -, .
[
] (Siddhantakaumudi), XVII . (Bhattoji Diksita),

. ,
, ,
: ,
. , ,
XVIII-XIX .
-.
XVII . (Varadaraja),
,
(, , ).
:
(madkya-), (laghu-) (sara-).

, . 1849 . (Ballantyne) . ,
,
, , ,
; (Delhi, 1995) .
, *
188


().
, ,
.
,
,
75 , - .
(1995 .) ..
: laghusiddhantakaumudi (paniniya-vyakarana-pravesika).Dilli:MotilalBanarsidas,1983.


1. .

, . .
2.
, .. Astadhyayi ( ),
:
( ) , (
) pada- ,
pada-. , 1.3.2 : 2 pada 3
. ( )
,
.
3. . P/V, .. /, , ,
.
4.
; (.. )
.
5. . 3. ,
.
6.
.
189

7. () ...,
.
, : ( - 1 .
) , , ,

() , ()
.
... . , :

it;
.
,
- ( ..)
. , . , 1.L15 ot
, t
AtA,
- ( ), . A A
, ot o t , .. //, [], [:], [~]
... ( )
, ... .


[ ]
( ):
sriganesaya namah |
natva sarasvatim devim suddham gunyam karomyaham \
paninlyapravesaya laghusiddhantakaumudim \\
!
, ,
, [] []
190

[ ] [ ] .

1. [ :] a i (1) 11 (2) (3) ai (4)
h(a)y(a) v(a) r(a)AtA (5) lAanA (6) n(a)m(a) n(a) n(a) n(a)AmA (7) jh(a)
bh(a)AnA (8) gh(a) dh(a) dh(a)AsA (9) j(a) b(a) g(a) d(a) d(a)AsA (10)
kh(a)ph(a) ch(a) th(a) th(a)c(a) t(a) t(a)AvA (11) k(a) p(a)AyA (12) s(a)
s(a) s(a)ArA (13) h(a)AlA (14), [ ] (.. ), [] .
. 3.-1 , -,

. ( ) 14 ; (anubandha-),
it (. ).
, , , .
(pratyahara-), ..
.
,
, -;
, . : ,

.

( - 1) -, (.. \-, i-T, -]
..).
2. [ - ] it.
. 3.-2
, , . ,
, , it. , .. , , ,
(. : .., ..
191

. . . ., 1980, . 77).
3. , [ ] h(a) [] [(. 1.), ] [] [ ].
. 3.-3 , () , - 5,

: []- [], [ ] []
..
4. [] 1 ( 6) , [ ], [ ]//(. ).
. 3.-4 .. + ,
, /.
S.A 1.3.3: halantyam
[it ]
[- ].
[
] it. (upadesa-) [, ], [ ]. ,
[- ] [] , [] , [ ].
. 3.-5 -,
: ,
( ) , . + . ,
,
.
, , ; ,

.
. ,
,

, ,
(
1.3.3).
6. 1.1.60 adarsanam lopah
[] lopa- [] [].
192

lopa- [] [ , ] [ ].
. 3.-6 , {lopa-), , , , .
1. 1.3.9 tasya lopah
lopa- [ ] (.. it).
(topa-) [ ] , [
] it. [, ] [
- ] [ ]
[].
. 3.-7
(pratyahara-), , , //
' (. . 3.-1 1.1.71).
- (. 1.) - 1.
, {a-i-u), , , - 1,
.
8. 1.1.71 adirantyena saheta
[ ] it [
].
() it, [ ], [ ] , []
[ ] [ it ]. ,

, , [ ] a i .
[ ] , [ ,
] () 1 , [ ], ..
. 3.-8 1.1.71
(pratyahara-) . 8.
9. 1.2.27ukalo 'jjhrasvadirghaplutah
, [
, , , ] :, [] ,
[] .
( )
[ , ],
[ ] [ ]
.. (.. , ).
. 3.-9
{matra-\ 193

, ; . (, , bala- bala- ). , , , , {)
. (pluta-)
, : -
, ;


.
, ,

, -. ,
( ) , ,
. .
, , ,
, , ( )
, .
10. 1.2.29 uccairudattah
[, ] , []
udatta-.
11. 1.2.30 nlcairanudattah
[, ] , []
an udatta-.
12. 1.2.31 sarnaharah svaritah
[, ] [ , ] svarita-.
[ , ]
[ ], [ , ,
] [] .
13. 1.1.8 mukhanasikavacano 'nunasikah
[, ] , []
[, ] .
194

[] (anunasika-) [
] , []
[] []. , , []
a i , [] . I [ ] , []
[]. [ ] aioau [ ] [] - [, ]
[] [].
14.ALL9 tulyasyaprayatnam savarnam
[, ]
, [] .
[,] [] [ ] [, ], .., (savarna-). [
], [] , [] /.
. 3.-10 (III . ..) , , , ( ,
) .
(yarttikah) ,
II . ..
(Mahahhasya-) .
,
. ( ,
, ,
), . , -,
, .
15. (kantha-) [ ]:
k(a) kh(a) g(a) gh(a) n(a) h(a) [] h(a), [] visarjaniya-.
(talu-) [ ] () ch(a) j(a) jh(a) () (a)s(a).
(murdhan-) [] rft(a) th(a) d(a) dh(a) n(a)
r(a) s(a). (dantah) [] 11 t(a) tti(a) d(a) dh(a) n(aj l(a) s(a).
(osthau) [] p(a) ph(a) b(a) bh(a) m(a) [
, ] upadhmaniya-. [ ] (nasika-)
195

[ ] () () () ()
(). [] eai [ ] . [] . [] v(a) . []
(jihvamuliya-) - (jihvamula-). Hoc [ ] (anusvara-).
16. [] : (abhyantara-) (bahya-). , [ , ] : (sprsta-),
(isatsprsta-), (isadvivrta-), (vivrta-), (sarnvria-).
[ ] , [
] (sparsa-). [, ] , [] (antahstha-). []
. ->. [] .
[ , ] ,
[ ] [
] , [].
[ ] :
[ ] (yivara-), [
] (samvara-), (svasa-), (nada-), [
] (ghosa-), (aghosa-),
(alpaprana-), (mahaprana-),
(udatta-), (anudatta-), , , (svarita-).
[] () (.. kh, ph, ch, th, th, , t,
t, k,p, s, s, s) []:,
.
A A
h(a) s ( h, , v, r,
I, , , , n,n,jh,bh,gh, dh, dh,j, b,g, d, d) [ ]: , .
[] varga- (.. ,
, , , t, t, g, j , d, d, b),
() ( ^, v,r, )
[] .
[ ] varga- (kh, ch, th, th, ph gh,
jh, dh, dh, bh), () 1 ( s, s,s, h) [ ] .
[, ]
[ , ] .

[, ] () , [] .
196

[, ] ()1, [] .
[ ] .
[ visarjaniya-, , ]
[ ] ,
[] jihvamuliya-.
[ visarga*, ] [ ] pph, [] upadhmaniya-.
[, ] ,
[] [] anusvara-, [
] [] (visarga-).
. 3.-11 , , , , ,
, (XVII .)
(
) ( ) .
17. 1.1.69 anudit savarnasya capratyayah
[ , ] , [
, ] [ ] //[ , ] [ ] savarna- [
, ] [] .
- (yidhi-) [,
, [ , ] [] //,
[ -] savarna-. , , [ ] [] [ ] (.. - 6,
- 1). [, ] ,
, , tAuA,tAuA,pAuA
(.. , .. ).
, , [ , ]
[ , ] []. [ - 1] / [] .
[ - 2] [] 30 [, ] [ ] /. [ ]
[ , ai, , ] 12 []. [ ] , v, / [ ] [ ], ,
, [ ] [] [ ].
. 3.-12 1.1.69
{anuvptU) , , 1.1.68.
, ,
197

, . L1.69 , - ,
1.1.68:
,
.
1. 8., 1 (), - 6 (1). , , - 1 , /, , , /, , , /, , , ai, ,
h(a), y(a), v(a), r(a), 1(). ,
, .. .
- 1 18 , , . 13.
/ , 12 , . - 2
( pratyahara-) ( 18),
(18 +12 = 30).
, ,
ai, ,
( ), , ,
12 .
, v, I ( ) , -
, ,
() , .
18. 1.4.109 param samnikarsah samhita
[ ] .
(samhita-).
. 3.-13 (ardhamatra-), .
19. 1.1.7halo 'nantarah samyogah
[ , ] h(a)AlA ( ), [ 198

] [ , ]
.
[ ] h(a)AlA [ , ] [ ] [ , ] (.. ),
[] (sarnyoga-).
20.A 1.4.14 suptinantampadam
[,] [] , [] .
[, ] ^
(sAupA) [ ] (# ),
(pada-).
. 3.-14 (sAupA)
() , (, - 3- . . . , -mahi
1- . . .), ( ) .
, .
.
[] [ , ..] :
21. 6.1.77ikoyanaci
[ ] iAkA [ ] () [ ] [
] .
[ ] iAkA

[ ] () [] A A
[ i k
] . [, ,] , [ ]
sudhi- [; ] upasya- [ ].
. 3.-15 A A
I, , , /, i k 9 .. ,
( ) - 1 - 2, , v, , /, (), .. , ( h(a)) - 5 /, -; iAkA

{ ). , sudhi- + upasya- =
sudhyupasya.
,
, ( !)
199

, , .
, ,
, ,
iAkA () (savarna-), i,
, .. , (
),
iAkA , , sudhl-+ iti Hudhyiti sudhiti. , (. . 3.-16).
! .
22. 1.1.66tasminniti nirdiste purvasya
(.. ) [ ] [ ].
7- (.. ) [] [
, ], [ -]
[], [ ,
7- ].
. 3.-16 (-),
, .., -
(yibhakti
. .)
( vibhakti-); , 7- (.-.-. ) .
1.1.66 ,
, : 1- (.. ) ;
7- (.. )
(.. ) .


, (.. ).
iAkA
6- (.. )
sudhi ; () -

200

1- (.. ) ^ ;
7- (.. ) upasya , . ( ) 1.1.66 : \- sudhi- ,
upasya-,
sudhyupasya.
, .. (), -
,
/-.
1.1.50 .
23. 1.1.50 sthane 'ntaratamah
, [ ] [
, , ] [].
[ ] [ ] [] [
, ] []. , [ ,
sudhi- + upasya-] [ ] sudhyupasya-.
. 3.-17 i ( iAkA) , (), , ,
L
. ,
6.1.87 1.1.2 , - / ,
2- (guna-). 1.1.2 guna , , ,
/. , a, /, , , .
guna , , i, .
guna , , + L
. : Katre S.M. Asjadhyayl of Panini. Roman Transliteration
and English Translation. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1989, c. 20.
, *, ,
*i/y, , , 201

, , .
24. 8.4.47 anaci ca
[ ( )
, , ]
[ , ] .

[ , ] (), , [ , ] .
, 3.-18 () , h(a), - 5 - - 14. 8.4.47 , ,
6.1.77 (
. ) . , sudhi- +
upasya- sudhyupasya-.
8.4.47 ( ) sudhdhyupasya . ,
.
25. 8.4.53 jhalam jasjhasi
[ 8.4.47 , ] jh(a)AlA, [ ] j(as) [, ] [ \]()%.
[ ] , [] dh(a) [ ] d(a).
. 3.-19 jh(a)AlA - 8-14,
.. , , A A
, dh(a). j(a) s - 10,
.. ; , , d(a), 1.1.50
(. , 23.) dh(a). , dh(a), dh(a),
d(a) 8.4.53 , ( sudhyupasya-) suddhyupasya-.
26. 8.2.23 samyogantasya lopah
[ ] .
, [ ]
, .
. 3.-20 samyoga-, lopa-, pada- . 19., 7. 20.

202

27. A 1.1.52 alo 'ntyasya


[ ] .
[]
[ , ]
6- [ - ] (.. ,
). [ ] [
()].
28. yanah pratisedho vacyah
[
8.2.23 (. 26.) , ]
().
'
[, , , ]:
sudhyupasyah/suddhyupasyah ,
madhvarih/maddhvarih () ( ),
dhatramsah/dhattramsah ( ) lakrtih / .
. 3.-21 ( 26. 27.)
sudhy-Zsuddhy- (pada). , , ,
su(d)dhyupasyah , ,
, , 1.4.14 ( 20.).
su(d)dhyupasyah .
29. 6.1.78 eco 'yavayavah
[, ] , [ ,

, ] ay, av, ay, av.

. 3.-22 - 3 4
, at,
.
,
.
, . . ,
: + , + .. , hi- + guna- + -- ( ) + -ti ( 3- . . . . ) > nayati .
30. 1.3.10yathasamkhyamanudesah samanam
[
] [ ], [

203

] [] .
[ ]: haraye, visnave, nayakah, pavakah.
. 3,-23
, -. ,
e-o-ai-au (. ).
(
-) .
, ,
, . , ay,o-av ..
, . . . .. hart- () - (guna-) (.....!+ guna- > ...), -\
, 6.1.78 L3.10, - ,
: hare- + -> haray- + -e> haraye .
: visnu-* + guna-> visno-+ -e (. ." ..
..) > visnav- + - > visnave . --,
, (yrddhi-)
, 6.1.78 1.3,10: \ + vrddhi-> nai~ + ~aka- > nay - , .
: - + vrddhi- > - + -- > pavaka- ( ) ..
31. 6.1.79 vanto yi pratyaye
v(a) [
1.3.10 , ] , [ ] ().
[].0, [] av, av [
, ] ().
[]: gavyamytiavyam.
. 3.-24 .. go- / + -- ( ) + - ( ./ . . . . . .) > gav- +
--+ - > gavyam /; - + -- + - >
navyam .
32. V: adhvaparimane ca
[ ] ,
( / ), [
- go- -yutU
] gavyuti- ( ).

204

. 3.-25 , , ad
hoc, .. ,
6.1.79 , (pratyaya-), yuti- .
{)
: go- +. -yuti gavyuti-
. go- av, , , goyuti-.
. 1.1.2 adengunah
^
[] guna- [ ] [ ] .
[] aAtA ( AtA: ), []
(.. ) [] guna-.
34. 1.1.70 taparastatkalasya
[, ] [] At(a)A [ ]
[] At(a)A, [,
] .
. 3.-26 taparah (, ) ( ) () At(a)A
(III .
..), .
1.1.70
guna- 1.1.2. (. 17.),
-
, , ,
(kala-).
guna- 1.1.2 18 , 12 , , , - .
.
1.1.70
, 1.1.2, :
*t(a)A () (, ) , , .., , , ;
, ,
.
35. 6.1.87 adgunah
[] guna- [ ]
[ , ].

205

[ ], [ ]
(.. ) (.. ) [] guna [: ] , []
[].
[]: upendrah, gamgodakanu
. 3.-27 6.1.87 (anuvrtti-) ( ) 6.1.84,
, ( 6.1.112) , .. ,
, . , ...-/- + i-A-... > ...-/- + -/-... > . , + indra- > upendra- ()
( -); gamga- +
udakam > gamgodakam (.. ") .
guna- (. . 3. -17) -. , ,
i , , -,
-. , / +
i/i -
; -
/
..
36. 1.3.2 upadese 'janunasika AitA
[ ] [

\ [ ] .
[ ] [ ]
[ ]. [
1.1.51 ] (), ,

1 , [ ] [6], [ ] , [] (), [] 1().


. 3.-28 (upadesa-),
, .

,

. ( 1.3.2) ,
206

.
, Kasika
(VII . ..). ( ), - 6 .
1()
[~]. 1.1.51
, . ~ ,
() 1().
, , ( VII . ..!) Kasika. 4. (. ) , , - 6 (.. Ian)
(. ) , , Ian
(.. 1).
37. 1.1.51 an raparah
[ ] , [ /],
[ ] .
[], krsnarddhih (< krsna- () + rddhih ) [] tavalkarah (< tava- +
l-karah /) /.
. 3.-29 - ...- + -... > ......; ...- + -/... > ...al... :
(1) a-i-u, ,
, , ( , ,
); , krsna- + rddhih > krsnaaddhih\ tava-+ Ikarah > tavaakarah.
(2) 6.1.87 (. 35.) -
guna- ( --)

/ + * ( . 1.-
, ). guna-
. , ...... +guna- > .......
(3) ...... (1) (2) 1.1.51
, ..
(), 1(). -

207

, I ; , krsnaddhih > krsnarddhih; tavakarah >


tavalkarah,
. 8.3.19 lopah sakalyasya
[, ] , [
].
[ ] (a), v(a),
[] [ ] [ /
] ( ,
. 1.), [] .
. 3,- 6.1.87 (. 29.) (, \ , / + (,
+ ). ( ) , - (1-\ , A s A , .. , .
(VI . ..)
; , ,
- ( ),
. ,
,
, . ,
, .
, , , ... + L. hare () + iha () : - (. 29.)

haray iha ( i ), hara iha;
.
?
,
6.1.87 (. , 35.),
guna- e
,
i , .. hara iha > hareha. , ,
, , ,
(ribhasa).

208

9.8.2.1 purvatrasiddham
[ ] [, ] .
[]
[ , ]
[] [] , , [
, ] []
[, ] , .
[, , ] hara iha [] haraypha; visna
iha [] visnaviha.
. 3.-31 , (adhyaya-), (pada-) (sutra-) (. ). ,
( ), 1.1.1 8.1.74; (tripadya-) 8.2.1 8.4.68. ,
1.1.1 8.1.74,
(8.2.1 8.4.68), . (8.3.19) :
6.1.87 (. , 35.). , - /- (guna-) e, , ... hara iha, harayiha,
, ... visna iha, visnaviha ( . . . . .. visno
visnu- + iha).
40. 1.1.1 vrddhiradaic
A A
[] vrddhi- [ ] a d [
A A
] ai c .
A
A
[ ] , [ t/d ], A A
[- ] ai c (.. ai, )
[] vrddhi-.
41. 6.1.88 vrddhir eci
[ ] [

, ]
vrddhi-.
[ , ] aAt/dA ( At/dA ) [ ] , [
] [ ] vrddhi-.
[ - (apavada-) 6.1.87, ,
]
9 148

209

guna- (. 35.). , ]:
krsnaikatvam, gamgaughah, devaisvaryam, krsnautkanthyam.
. 3.-32 ,
* + ,
6.L88
, / + / > . , krsna- +
ekatvam > krsnaikatvam ; gamga + oghah > gamgaughah ; deva + aisvaryam > devaisvaryam ; krsna+ autkanthyam > krsnautkanthyam / ..
42. 6.1.89 etyedhatyuthsu
P/V: [ i- edh-,
] eti, edhati, [
uth- -,
vrddhi ]. [, ] upaiti, upaidhate,
prasthauhah.
[ ]: [ /-, edh-, ] [ ] ? [
, ,] upetah [ predidhat ] bhavan
predidhat, [ ].
. 3.-33 6.1.89
/- edh- ,

(.. e-o-ai-au); , ,
eti edhati , () -+ eti > upaiti /; - + edhate > upaidhate .
vah- uth-, ... +
... vrddhi-, .. ; , , prastha- + -uhas (,
.. vah-a- ) > prasthauhah () ,
.
/-, edh-

, , ,
itah ididha-. 6.1.89 , , ,
6.1.87 (. 35.). - + -itah > upetah
( -
-ididhat /) bhavan predidhat
210

( )!, ..
(= ) .
( 43.-46.) , ,
, ,
,

vrddhi-:
43. V: [ ,
, ] [ ] aksa- [ ] uhinl, [ ] aksauhini ( ) .
44. V: [ vrddhi- , ] [] - []: uha-,
udha-, itdhi-, esa-9 esya-, [
]: prauhah , praudhah ,
praudhih , praisah , praisyah .
45. V: [ , ] , [ ] 5- [ -
, ] [ , , ,
sukhartah ] sukhena (. . . .) [] rtah
.
[ :] [ ] 3-" [
]?, [ ]: [
, ,] paramartah
", [ " ].
. 3.-34 , ,
, . ,
, , - , , , , (karaka-). , , 5-
(= ) - ( ,
- ), ( karana- ), ,
.
9*

211

46. V: [ Vfddhi
, ] - , [ , ] - [ ] vatsatara , kambala- , vasana- /, [
] - [ ] dasa- . [, ]
, vatsatararnam ..
47'. 1.4.59 upasargah kriyayoge
[, ] [ , ] upasarga- .
[] [, ],
-: - , para- , - , sam- ,
- , ava- , nis- , nir- , dus- , dur, vi- , - , ni- , adhi- , api- ,
ati- , su- , - , abhi- , prati- ,
part- , - .
. 3.-35
(, , , / ). . . , , , .
49. 1.3.1 bhuvadayo dhatavah
[, , ] bhu-, [ ] , [ ] dhatu- ().
. 3.-36 ,
. ,
dhatupatha () .
( , ) 10 ,
. , , adi- / () , ad- + adi- > adadi- [, ] [] ad-. ,
,
.
212

1.3.1 bhuvadayo
: (1) (. ) bhu- "
(1- )
...- + -... > ...uva...; (2) (
) [ , ] [] - " [] va- "
bhu- 1-
, va- 2-, , . : , . ( ), , & ,
B.LIL .
50. 6.1.91 upasargadrti dhatau
[] , [ , ] , [ ] , [
vrddhi- ].
[], prarcchati () ( pra- + rcchati
).
51. 6.1.94 Ai pararupam
[ , ] , [ , /,
] , [ ] .
[, b]prejate (pra- + -ijate), uposati
( - + -usati).
52. 1.1.64 'ntyadi ti
[ ], [
] [ , ] ti.
Si. V: , [] [ ]
sakandhu () [] [
A A
ti [], [,
] [ AtiA. ]: sakandhuh (<saka-+ -andhuh),
karkandhuh (< karka- + -andhuh), manlsa /
(< manas- + -isa), lamgalisa (< lamgala- + -isa). [
, ] [ ] , [
. ], martandah
(< mrta- + -anda- , , , ..
).
213

54. A 6.1.95 omanosca


[ ], [
, , ] '!'[ ]
.
[], sivayomnamah ! [< sivaya (. . . .
.. Siva-) + + namas ]; sivehi [< Siva- + - (
,
), + i-hi (, . 2- . . .)].
55. 6.1.101 akahsavarne dlrghah
[ 6.1.101 ]: [
] [ ] [].
[, ], daityarih (< daitya- +
-- ), srlsah (< sri- () + -isa), visnudayah (< visnu- + -udaya), hofkarah /, ()
( ) (<hotr-
+ -\-kara- /).
56. 6.1.109 enah padantadati
[ - ] , [ ] , [] , [
].
[], hare 'va ! (< hare (. . hari-)
(
+ ava ); visno va ! (<visno (. .
visnu-) + ava).
57. 6.1.122 sarvatra vibhasa goh
[] goh [] [ ].
(.. ), [] goh,
[ ] (.. ), [] [] . []: go agram
go 'gram .

[] []: ? [
, ], citragvagram
(< citra-gu- - + agram /, citragu- - go-,


6.1.77 . 21.).
[] [ ]: ? [ ] go-h, [ go-
.- . . . . -as, (pada-),
214

go- , ,
- 6.1.122 (. 20.)].
58. 1.1.55 anekal sit sarvasya
[, ] [ , ] AsA, [ ]
[]. [ ].
. 3.-37 , , 1.1.55 . . , -
-tr-,
- -tr- () vac- , vak-tr.
:
-drs- ( .-. . .) idam
iAsA ( A s A , . 1.1.55), idam- + -drs- >iAsA- + -drs-> idrs
/ (< ).
59. 1.1.53 nicca
[, ] [] , [ ].
. 3.-38 60. , ,
, 1.1.53 1.1.55.
(anuvrtti-)
1.1.52 ( ),
1.1.55 (apavada-) 1.1.52,
1.1.53, , 1.1.55, (anuvrtti-) ( 1.1.53). , .
60. 6.1.123 avan sphotayanasya
[] , avaAnA [
].
[] avaAnA [] [ ] , [] [] go, [ , ]
[ ] . [ , ,]
go 'gram [] gavagram (. 57.).
215

[ :] "!, [
: ] gavi " (< go- + -AnAi).
. 3.-39 pada- , -
(. 20.),
,
{ ) .
gavagram : gava- ( go- 6.1.123)+ (upapada-) agram > gavagram
( 6.1.101 . 55). gav-i
: 0- + -AhAi
( . . . . -/ . 58. 1.1.53) > gav- ( 6.1.87
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217

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223

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224

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1
: BrahmasutraSarikarabhasya. Ed. Jagdish Lai Shastri.
Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980.
2
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. ., : Douglas N., Slinger P. Sexual Secrets. N. Y.,
1979, . 120-121; Beyer S. The Cultof . Berkeley, 1978, 157, .
330

70

.. ., : Beyer S. The Cult of , . 158-159.


Bus ton Rin-chen-grub. rGyud sde spyi mam bzhad bsdus pa rgyud rin po che'i
gter sgo 'byed pa'i lde mig, fs. 16-17.
72
Tsong-ka-pa. The Great Exposition of Secret Mantra, 155, 202.
73
. : -ston Rin-chen-grub. rGyud sde spyi rnam bzhad bsdus pa rgyud rin
po che'i gter sgo 'byed pa'i lde mig, f. 17.
74
, f. 18.
75
., : . . . .
, 1992, . 131.
76
.
77
Bus ton Rin-chen-grub. rGyud sde spyi rnam bzhad bsdus pa rgyud rin po che'i
gter sgo 'byed pa'i lde mig, f. 18.
78
; ,
[] , ,
[].
; , [] , ,
[].
, . ; . ,
, , ,
.
. , ,
, .
, []: , []
; , [] ; , [] ; ; -.
, , ... (-. . . . . , 1972, . 246-247). . .. : . . ., . . .. . ., 1967
( . XVI), . 202 = . . .,
. . .. . ., 2000, . 638. ( 41 .: .. - . . , 1984, . 59-72.)
79
. : Bus ton Rin-chen-grub. rGyud sde spyi rnam bzhad bsdus pa rgyud rin
po che'i gter sgo 'byed pa'i lde mig, f. 18. , .
80
., : .. : . , 1986, . 115-116.
81
()
P.O. , () 105- ,
XVII . (
(); .: HaarhE. Die Berliner Kanjur-Handschrift.
Zeitschrift der Deutchen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 104, 539.) : bDe bar gshegs pa'i gsung rab rin po che'i dkar chags bsTan pa rgyas pa'i nyi 'od
71

331

zhes bya ba ( ,
[]"),
:
1. rNal 'byor chen bla na.med pa'i rgyud (Anuttaramahayogatantra) 11 .
2. rNal 'byor gyi rgyud (Yogatantra) 17 .
3. sPyod pa'i rgyud (Caryatantra) 11 .
4. Bya-ba'i rgyud (Kriyatantra) 301 .
5. gSang sngags snga 'gyur ( ) 22 .
6. gNas skabs su nyer 'kho'i rgyud (, [] ) 259 .
; , ..
; . Meisezahl R.O.
Zur Klassifizierung der kanonischen Ubersetzungsl iterator des tibetischen VajrayanaBuddhismus im Peking- und Derge-Kanjur. Oriens. 1986, 29, 334-350.
82
Lessing F, WaymanA. Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, 218. .:
Tsong-ka-pa. The Great Exposition of Secret Mantra, 162-164.

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