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Purchasing an d

Supply M ctnocjero ^
Thirteenth Edition
With 50 Supply Chain Cases
Michiel R. L eenders, D.B.A.,
PMAC Fellow
Leenders Purchasing M an agem en t
Association o f C an ad a C hair, P rofessor
o f Purchasing M anagem ent Em eritus
Richard Ivey Sch o o l o f B u sin e ss
The University o f W estern O n ta rio

P. Fraser Johnson, Ph.D.


Associate Professor, O p e ratio n s
Managem ent, R ichard Iv e y S ch o o l
o f Business
The University o f W estern O n tario

Anna E. Flynn, Ph.D., C.P.M.


Vice President
Institute for Supp ly M anagem ent
(formerly NARM J

Harold E. Fearon, Ph.D., C.P.M.


The N otional A ssociation o f Purchasing
M anagem ent Professor Em eritus o n d
Pounder an d D irector Em eritus
Center for A dvanced Purchasing Studies
Arizona State University

Mian M o ** N**D4h XSiXmt


Seoul < Sydney Taipei Toronto
5 "

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(080100),
(080300), (080506)


UNITY
2007
658.7(075.8)
05.291.33*73-1
67

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67 (080100),
(080300), (080506) / . , . , .
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ISBN 0-07-287379-5 (.)


ISBN 978-5-238-01235-3 (.)
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65.291.3373-1

ISBN 0-07-287379-5 (.)


ISBN 978-5-238-01235-3 (.)

PURCHASING & SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: WITH 50 SUPPLY CHAIN CASES


Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue
of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020.
Copyright 2006, 2002, 1997, 1993, 1989, 1985, 1980, 1975, 1970, 1962, 1957, 1952, 1948 by The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Russian language edition, Copyright 2007 by UN1TY-DANA Publisher. All rights Reserved.

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(Michiel R. Leenders)
Leenders Purchasing Management Association of Canada
Richard Ivey School of Business University of Western Ontario.
University of Alberta,
MBA University of Western Ontario, Harvard Business School.
, .
, :
(Value-Driven Purchasing: The Key Steps in
the Acquisition Process), [Anna . Flynn],
Irwin Professional Publishing; :
(Reverse Marketing, The New Buyer-Supplier Relationship)
(David Blenkhom), Free Press;
(Improving
Purchasing Effectiveness through Supplier Development), Harvard
Division of Research; ,
(Learning with Cases, Writing Cases, and Teaching with Cases)
(James A. Erskine) -
(Louise Mauffette-Leenders), Richard Ivey School of Business.
(Purchasing
and Supply Management), McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
, . 1961 1994 .
Purchasing Management Association of
Canada. 1975 . PMAC's Fellowship Award, 1993 .
, 1997 . Financial Post Leaders
(), 2 0 0 1 .
Hans Ovelgunne Purchasing Research Award. Ivey
Purchasing Managers Index ING Bank of Canada.
(P. Fraser Johnson) Richard Ivey School of
Business University of Western Ontario,
-. -
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, . 1991 . Richard
Ivey School of Business, MBA (PhD),
XI
.
University of British Columbia,
, , . 1998 .
, -,
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1999 . National
Association of Purchasing Management.
.
Purchasing Management Association of
Canada .
(Anna . Flynn) - - Institute
for Supply Management ( NAPM).
,
ISM,
. 1993 2000 .
(Supply Chain Management,
SCM) Arizona State University.

. SCM

. ,
, .
, 2000 ,
Faculty Appreciation Award.
ASU ( ).
(The Supply Management Leadership
Process, 2000), , ,
(Supply Management Knowledge Series);
:
(Value-Driven Purchasing; The Key Steps in the Acquisition Process, 1995)
(
).
University of Notre Dame, MBA Arizona State University.
(Harold . Fearon) National Association
of Purchasing Management, ,
Arizona State University. Center for Advanced
Purchasing Studies (CAPS) .
CAPS. Indiana
University ( / \ ^ ^ ? ^ Michigan State
University ( ^ ^ ^ | ^ ^ ) ^ @ ( )
The Journal o f Supply Chain M a n a ^ e n tS ^ w p ^ A ^ ^ m r -
X II

.
. 450
.
, (The Purchasing Handbook),
McGraw-Hill, ,
(Purchasing Research in American
Industry), American Management Association;
/' (Fundamentals of Production/Operations
Management), West Publishing Company,
, McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
, . 1991 .
President's Award National Association of Purchasing Management,
1992 . - J. Shipman, NAPM. 2000 .
Hans Ovelgunne Purchasing Research Award, International
Federation of Purchasing and Materials Management
.

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Supply Chain Management, Center for Advanced Purchasing
Studies ,
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. : Saud Abbasi, Kersi Antia, Collin
Ashton, Louis Beaubien, Larry Beiglund, Kathryn Brohman, Daniel Campbell, Maxime
Chaiiebois, Yasheng Chen, Jorge Colazo, Nancy Dai, Joerg Dietz, Dev K. Dutta, Tony
Francolini, Mobina Hassan, Niki Healey, Margot Huddart, Basil Kalymon, Marshall
King, An Kobetz, David Koltermann, Kristina Krupka, Manish Kumar, Matthew D.
Lynall, Louise Mauffette-Leenders, Leane Morfopoulos, Elizabeth ONeil, Peruvemba
Sundaram Ravi, Suhaib Riaz, Frank Tang, Tim TattersaU, Michelle Theobalds, Rob
Turner, Sarah Tremblay, Mike Wade Asad Wali.
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University, . Karl Mann Tennessee Technological University, Udayan Nandkeolyar
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Dick Hercher, Lee Stone corpymg^j
McGraw Hill/Irwin.
Mary Fisher-Smith ^-go
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Carol Stephenson Rich
ard Ivey School o f Business.
Purchasing Management of Canada
Institute for Supply Management.

V
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5.2 Air Quality Systems Inc. 192
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246
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256
256
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1 Michiel R. Leenders and P. Fraser Johnson, Major Changes in Supply Chain Responsibilities (Tempe,
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2 Institute for SuddIv Management, Glossary o f Key Purchasing and Supply Terms, http://www.ism.ws I
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University, Bowling Green State University, George Washington University, Miami
University, Michigan State University Western Michigan University,
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Institute for Supply M anagem ent (ISM), 1915 . (
National A ssociation o f Purchasing Agents
). ,
40 . , ISM
180 .
ISM
.
, 1965 .
International Journal o f Supply Chain Management.
1930- ISM ISM Report on
Business,
. 1998 .
Nonmanufacturing ISM
Report on Business.
The Wall Street Journal
2001 . IS M Forrester Research
Report on -Business,
. , IS M
,
.
1974 . N ational Association o f Purchasing Management (
) Certified Purchasing Manager
(, /?^^?^),
?-

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1986 . ISM ,
Arizona State University Center for Advanced Purchasing Studies
(CAPS, ).
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: ( 1)
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Purchasing Management Association
of Canada (PMAC, ),
1919 . 7000 ,
10 , .
.

, (Certified Professional Purchaser)
.
1963 .
, ISM,
, Ivey Purchasing Managers Index (Ivey
PMI), PMAC Richard Ivey School of Business.
ISM PMAC
: National Institute of Governmental Purchasing (NIGP,
), National
Association of State Purchasing Officials (NASPO,
), National
Association of Educational Buyers (NAEB,
), American Society for Health Care 'Materials
Management ( ,
).

.
, Institute of Purchasing and
Supply Management ( )
, Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (
no ) , Indian Institute of
Materials Management ( no
) Japan Materials Management Association (
).
International Federation of
Purchasing and Materials Management, 1FPMM ( -
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1 Michael Leenders and P. Fraser Johnson, Major Changes in Supply Chain Responsibilities (Temp6 *
AZ: Center for Advanced Purchasing Studies. 2001).

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Ballou, Ronald . Business Logistics/Supply Chain M a n a g e m e n t


5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
Burt, David N.; D. W. Dobler; and Stephen L. Starling. World
Class Supply Management. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Irw in,
2003.
Chopra, Sunil, and P. Meindl. Supply Chain Management. 2th ed-
I)Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.

27
Handfield, R. ., and . L. Nichols Jr, Introduction to Supply
Chain Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Hughes, Jon; Marie Ralf; and Bill Michells. Transform Your Sup
ply Chain. London: Thomson, 1998.
Leenders, M. R., and A. E. Flynn. Value-Driven Purchasing:
Managing the Key Steps in the Acquisition Process. Burr Ridge, IL:
Irwin Professional Publishing, 1995.
Monczka, R.M., and R. J. Trent. Purchasing and Sourcing Strat
egy: Trends and Implications. Tempe, AZ: Centre for Advanced Pur
chasing Studies, 1995.
Monczka, R.M.; R. J. Trent; and R. Handfield. Purchasing and
Supply Management. 2th ed. Mason, OH: South-Western, 2002.
Neef, Dale, e-Procurement. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 2001.
Nelson, Dave; Patricia E. Moody; and Jonathan Stegner. The
Purchasing Machine. New York: The Free Press, 2001.
Rozemeijer, Frank, Creating Corporate Advantage in Purchasing.
Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven,
2000.

1.1

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, 2 , (Matt Roberts)
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Demographics A 2001 Study e j Fortune 500 Firms (Tempe, AZ. Center for Advanced Purchasing Studies*
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ganizfltiorwrLMes andjfaponsibilities. Tempe, AZ: Center for Ad
vanced P l H ^ n g | 1 9 ^ )(f^ c~
Giunipero, bm-jM.f and ! . VfoMdl
ing Skills: An Empirical Investigation. Journal o f Supptj
gement, Fall 2000, pp. 413.
Hendrick, Thomas E. Purchasing Consortiums: Horizontal 1,
ances among Firms Buying Common Goods a n d Services. Tempe, AZ*
Center for Advanced Purchasing Studies, 1997.
Johnson, P. Fraser. Supply Organizational Structures. Critical
Issues Report, CAPS Research, August 2003.
Johnson, P. Fraser. The Pattern of Evolution in Public Sector
Purchasing Consortia. International Journal o f Logistics: Research and
Applications 2, no. 1 (1999), pp. 5773.
leenders, Michiel R., and Fraser Johnson. M ajor Changes in
Supply Chain Responsibilities.Tempt, AZ: Center for Advanced Pur
chasing Studies, 2002.
Murphy, David J., and Michiel E. Heberling. Framework for
Purchasing and Integrated Product Teams*. International Journal of
Purchasing and Materials Management, Summer 1996, pp. 1119.

2.1

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Bovet, David, and Joseph Martha. Value Nets: Breaking the Sup
ply Chain to Unlock Hidden Profit. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
2000.
Heijboer, Govert. Quantitative Analysis o f Strategic and Tactical
Purchasing Decisions. Enschede, The Netherlands: Twente University
Press, 2003.
Hughes, Jon; Marie Ralf; and Bill Michels. Transforming Your
Supply Chain: Releasing Value in Business. London: International
Thomson Business Press, 1998.
Institute for Supply Management. Glossary o f Key Purchasing
and Supply Terms, http://www.ism.ws, 2000.
Rozemeijer, Frank, Creating Corporate Advantage in Purchasing.
Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven,
2000.
Simchi-Levy, David; Philip Kaminsky; and Edith Simchi-Levy.
Designing and Managing the Supply Chain. 2th ed. New York:
McGraw-Hill / Irwin, 2003.

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Report. Tempe, AZ: CAPS Research, 2003.
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Information System s: Managing the Digital Firm, Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.
Percy, D. H.; L. C. Guinipero; and L. M. Dandeo. An Analysis
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(best position), (best productivity),
(best product), (best price) (best partner).
13 ,
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Honda,
1.

1 Nc,S0| Mayo, and Patricia Moody. Pomred by Honda (New York: John Wiley & Sons,
174 5

ISO 9 0 0 0
MALCOLM BALDRIGE1
The International Organization for Standardization, ISO (
), - , ,
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American National Standarts Institute, ANSI (
), Canadian Standards Association, CSA (
). ISO 9000 1987 .,
1994 ., ,
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300 . .
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ISO 9000, ISO 9000:2000.
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2*^'national Journal of Purchasing
and Materials Management 30, no. I (Winter 1994), pp. 1421.
Stuait and Mueller, Total Quality Management and Supplier Partnerships.____________________
176 s

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American National Standards Institute, wvw.ansi.org.


Askin, Ronald G., and Jeffrey B. Goldberg, Design and Analysis
o f Lean Production Systems, New York: Wiley, 2001.
Besterfield, Dale, Quality Control. 6 th ed. Upper Saddle River,
LNJ: Prentice-Hall 2001.
190 " 5

Bounds, Gregory. Cases in Quality. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin, 1996


Choi, Thomas Y., and Manus Rungtusanatham. Comparison of
Quality Management Practices: Across the Supply Chain and Indus
tries*. Journal o f Supply Chain Management, Winter 1999, pp. 2027
International Standards Organization, www.iso.org. ;
Juran, Joseph ., and Blanton Gogfrey. Juran's Quality Hand
book. 5th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1999.
Leenders Michiel R., and P. Fraser Johnson, M ajor Structural
Changes in Supply Organizations (Tempe, AZ: Center for Advanced
Purchasing Studies, 2000).
Nellore, Rajesh; Klas Soderquist; Gary Siddall; and Jaideep Mot-
wani. Specifications Do We Really Understand What They
Mean?* Business Horizons. November December 1999, pp. 6369.
Nelson Dave; Rick Mayo; and Patricia E. Moody. Powered by
Honda. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Prahalad, . K., and M. S. Krichman. The New Meaning of Qual
ity in the Information Age*. Harvard Business School, September Oc
tober 1999, pp. 109118.
Ritzman, Larry P.; Lee J. Krajewski; and Robert D. Klassen.
Foundations o f Operations Management. Toronto: Pearson Prentice
Hall, 2004.

5.1

Bright Technology International


, Bright Technology International,
Electronix MJ10012.
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7.
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9.

?
10. .
?

Davis, . .; N. J. Aquilano; and R. . Chase. F undamentals


OPeratlonsManagement. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin,
Lambert, D. .; J. R. Stock; and L. M. Ellram. F undamentals
ofLogisticsManagement, Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 1998.
Lyman, S. B. Supplier Classification Systems. InsideSupply
Management 14, no. 7 2003, pp. 1011.
Nelson, D.; P. E. Moody; and J. Stegner. T hePurchasingMa
chine: Howthe TopTenCompanies UseBest PracticestoManage
TheirSupplyChains. New York: The Free Press, 2001.
Ritzman, L. P.; L. L. Krajewski; and R. D. Klassen. F ounda
tionsofOperationsManagement. Toronto: Pearson Education Can
ada, 2004.
Stunza, T. Propping the Supply Base for Leaner Supply Sys
tems*. Purchasing 128, no. 9, 2000, pp. 6268.
Womack, J. R., and D. T. Jones. From Lean Production to
the Lean Enterprise*. HarvardBusinessReview 27, no. 2 (1994), pp.
9 3 -1 0 3 .

6.1

Connecticut Circuit M an u factu rers


1 1 (Jack Veber), Connecticut Circuit
Manufacturers (C C M ), ,
. , ,

"
230 6
, ,
. .

C O N N E C T I C U T C IR C U IT M A N U F A C T U R E R S

Connecticut Circuit M anufacturers (C C M ) 1980


.
: .
,
1980 .
, .
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1
Connecticut Circuit Manufacturers:


* B C D *

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15 40 18 12 10 95

4 3 5 1 ' 20

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Connecticut Circuit Manufacturers

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6.2


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6.3

Sedgm an Steel
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7.1 The Great WesternBank
7.2GeoProducts
7.3PennerMedicalProducts


239

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240 ,7
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241

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24 5

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, -
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c S ix th A n n u a l S tu d y , Cap G e m in i E rnst & Y oung, 2001.
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25

=--
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JIT? V
12.
:
, , ?

Ballou, Ronald . BusinessLogisticsM


anagement. 5th ed. Upper
tvdo Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004.
SupplyChain
Bowersox, D. J.; D. J. Closs; and . B. Cooper.
LogisticsManagement. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2002.
TheManagement
Coyle, J. J.; E. J. Bardi; and C. J. Langley Jr.
of Business Logistics: ASupplyChainPerspective, 7th ed. Toronto,
Canada: Thomson, 2003.
Johnson, James C,; Donald F. Woods; Daniel L. Wardlow; and
Paul R. Murphy Jr. ContemporaryLogistics, 7th ed. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999.
Rambuig, Jan. ICCGuidetoIncoterms2000. New York: Interna
tional Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Publishing Inc., 2000.
Stock, James R., and Douglas M. Lambert. StrategicLogistics
Management. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2001.

7.1

The G r e a t W e s te r n B a n k
The G reat W estern Bank -
Data-Max Corporation
, . . G reat Western 9500 .
FOB ().
Yellow Freight,
Data-Max -
.
Data-Max Great Western
ank 12 , , Yellow
Freight. Great Western . -
, , 2%, Great Western
, . -
.
260 7
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. .
, D ata-M ax , :
, F O B ,
,
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,
.

7.2

G eo Products
, | | Geo
Products (Geo), . , ,
.
, .
15 .


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, .
, ,
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. , 20
: 1 .


Geo S tar C o rp o ratio n (S ta r),
.
. Star,
- .

.
30 . .

261

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.
,
. Geo
E astern Leasing Company (Eastern)
, (TSC).
E astern, G eo TSC, .
G eo , TSC
,
.



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,
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12
, , , ,
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.
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10 _
_'
7.3

Penner Medical Products


, P e n n e r Medical
Products (Penner), , . ,
, . -
. ,
. , 14 , ,
.

PENNER

Penner ,
50 .
30 . . 120 .
, 10%.
Penner , ,
, .
P e n n e r,
200 ,
Penner.
, -.
Penner ,
,
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.
Penner 30 . . ;
2 . ,
, ,
,
, . 15
. . P en n e r ,
.
.

S T IN S O N D IST R IB U T IO N C O M P A N Y


Stinson Distribution Company (Stinson) , ,
. , Stinson P e n n e r,
'
. Stinson ,
Penner.
, S tin so n ,
. ,
263
. ,
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1 5 % .

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.

, -
. United Parcel Services (UPS)
Stinson, .
, : U P S
. 1000
. , ,
.

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. :
.
, , *.












/



8.1MasTechInc.
8.2ChevronCorporation:


, 8.3:

8.4

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Gelderman, C. J. and A. J. van Weele. Strategic Direction
through Purchasing Portfolio Management: A C ase Study. Journal
ChainManagement
o f Supply 28, no. 2 2002, pp. 30 38.
Handheld, R. B.. and S. L. Straight. What S ourcing Channel
Is Right for You? Supply Chain Management Review 7, no. 4 2003,
pp. 6270.
Mabert, V. A., and T. Schoenherr. An Online RFQ System: A
Case Study. Practix 4. Tempe, AZ: CAPS Research, 2003, March
2001, pp. 1-6.
Schlosser, M. A., and G. A. Zsidisin. Hedging Fuel Surcharge
Price Fluctuation. Practix 7. Tempe, AZ: CAPS Research, 2004,
May 2004, pp. 15.
Zsidisin, G. A., and L. M. Ellram. An Agency Theory Investi
gation of Supply Risk Management. Journal ofSupply ChainMan
agement 39, no. 3 2003, pp. 15 29.

8.1

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^ Cooper, Robin, and Regine Slagmulder, Target Costing and


,n n Value Engineering, Portland, OR: Productivity Press, and Montvale,
NJ: The IMA Foundation for Applied Research Inc., 1997.
Ellram, Lisa M. The Role of Supply Management in Target Cost
ing, Tempe, AZ: CAPS Research, 1999.
Ellram, Lisa. Strategic Cost Management in the Supply Chain: A
Purchasing and Supply Management Perspective. Tempe, AZ: CAPS
Research, 2002.
Ellram, Lisa. Taxonomy of Total Cost of Ownership Mod
els*, Journal of Business Logistics 15, no. 1, 1994, pp. 17191.
Ellram, Lisa. Total Cost of Ownership: Elements and Imple
mentation, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Man
agement, Fall 1993.
Ferrin, B. G., and R. E. Plank. Total Cost of Ownership Mod
els: An Exploratory Study*. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 38
no 3, 2002, pp. 18-29.
Fisher, Roger, and Danny Ertel. Getting Ready to Negotiate: The
Getting to Yes Workbook. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
Fisher, Roger; William Ury; and Bruce Patton, Getting to Yes:
Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin Books,
1991.
Lewicki, R. J.; D. M. Saunders; and J. W. Milton, Negotiation.
3rd ed. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw Hill/Irwin, 1999.
Ury, William. Getting Past No: Negotiating Your Way from Con
frontation to Cooperation. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.

9.1

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Supply Chain Management. Tempe, AZ: CAPS Research, 1998.
Flynn, Anna E. Knowledge-Based Supply Management*, In
The Purchasing Handbook, ed. J. L. Cavinato and R. G. Kauff
man, Chapter 8 , 7th ed. New York: McGrew-Hill / Irwin,
2005.
Hawken, Paul; Amory Lovins; and L. Hunter Lovins.
Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution,
Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1999.
Krauze, Daniel R.. and Robert B. Handheld. Developinga
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Mclvor, Ronan, and Marie McHigh. Partnership Sourc
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tabon; and Simc Curkovic, ISO 14000: Assessing Its Impact on Corpo
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ment, Fall 2000, pp. 27-32.
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search, vol. 7, March 2004.
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2000.
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2Ibid.
516 14

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523

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Lara L Sowinski, Maquiladora's: Pending Changes on the Horizon, World Trade, September 2000,
PP. 8892.
524 14
,
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.


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5 2 5

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1 ^ o rid Trade O rganization, http://www.wto.org.


526
14
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(NAFTA)? >
? -!
?
10. Incoterms?
Incoterms?

Avery, Susan, Global Purchasing Sharpens Schneider's


Competitive Edge, Purchasing 131, no. 10, 2002, pp. 1720. k
Bendorf. Robi, Pay Attention to Labor Rates, Purchasing
Today, August 1999, p. 14.
Forker, Laura B., Countertrade's Impact on the Supply
Function, International Journal o f Purchasing and Materials
Management, Fall 1995, pp. 3745.
Hinkelman, Edward G., Dictionary o f International Trade,
4th ed., Novato, CA: World Trade Press, 2000.
Kaufmann, L., and C. Carter, International Supply Man
agement Systems The Impact of Price vs. Non-Price Driven
Motives in the United States and Germany, Journal o f Supply
Chain Management 38, no. 3, 2002, pp. 417.
Larson, Robert K., and Ajay Adhikari, The Euro: Ready or
Not, It's Here! Ohio CPA Journal, JanuaryMarch 2000, pp.
8 - 12.
Leenders, Michael R., and P. Fraser Johnson, Major Struc
tural Changes in Supply Chain Responsibilities Tempe. AZ: Cen
ter for Advanced Purchasing Studies, 2002.
Locke, Dick. Global Supply Management. New York:
McGrew-Hill, 1996.
Trent, R. J., and R. M. Monczka, International Purchas
ing and Global Sourcing What Are the Differences? Journal
o f Supply Chain Management 39, no. 4, 2003, pp. 2637.
World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org, May 2004.
World Trade Organization, International Trade Statistics
2002.

14.1

G lo b a l P h a rm a ce u tica ls Ltd.
-
Global Pharmaceuticals Ltd., , .

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,ree' Journal, August 1. 1995, p. 1.
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552 *18
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p a l Governm ents, 2001. http://w w w .capsresearch.org.
CAPS Research. Purchasing P erform ance B en ch m arks f o r State /
County Governm ents, 1999. http://w w w .capsresearch.org.
M odel Procurem ent C ode f o r S ta te a n d L o ca l G overnm ents, Wash
ington, D C.: American Bar Association, 2000, "1
National Institute for G overnm ental Purchasing-
http //www nigp org.
Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Office o f Management and
budget. Executive Office of the President. Best Practices f o r Collecting
55 7

and Using Current and Past Performance Information. May 2000.


http://www.arnet.gov/Libraiy/OFPP/Best Practices/pastperformanceguid
e.htm.
The RFP Report. Surrey, B.C.: Michael Asner Consulting.
http://www.rfpadvisor.com.
Small Business Trends in Federal Procurement in the 1990s. U.S.
General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters,
January 2001.
Survey o f State Government Purchasing Practices. 5th ed. Rev.
Lexington, KY: National Association of State Procurement Officers,
2003.

15 .1


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Mol, Michael J. Outsourcing, Supplier Relation and Inter
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Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Erasmus Research Institute of
Management (ERIM), 2001.
Peisch, Richard. When Outsourcing Goes Awry. Harvard
Business Review, May-June 199S.
Quinn, J. B. Strategic Outsourcing: Leveraging Knowledge
Capabilities.* Sloan Management Review, Summer 1999, pp. 921.
Takeishi, A. Bridging Inter- and lntn-firm Boundaries:
Management of Supplier Involvement in Automobile Product
Development.* Strategic Management Journal 22, no. 5 (2001),
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