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Part 2

G. S. Kazantseva
A. Yu. Kazantsev

A PRACTICE
GRAMMAR BOO
TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY
2013
TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

G. S. Kazantseva, A. Yu. Kazantsev

A PRACTICE GRAMMAR BOOK


PART 2

Recommended for publishing as a study aid


by the Editorial Board of Tomsk Polytechnic University

Tomsk Polytechnic University Publishing House


2013
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования
«НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ
ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Г.С.Казанцева, А.Ю.Казанцев

ПРАКТИКУМ ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ
ЧАСТЬ 2

Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия


Редакционно-издательским советом
Национального исследовательского
Томского политехнического университета

Издательство
Томского политехнического университета
2013
УДК 811.111 '36(076.5)
ББК Ш143.21-923.2
К142
Казанцева Г.С.
К142
Практикум по грамматике: учебное пособие для студентов 1-2
курсов неязыковых факультетов гуманитарных и технических
вузов/Г.С. Казанцева; А.Ю.Казанцев; Томский политехнический
университет. - Томск: Изд-во Томского политехнического
университета, 2013. - 109 с.

Пособие содержит 11 разделов, представляющих грамматические явления


английского языка. Каждый раздел состоит из краткого теоретического
анализа и комплекса упражнений, направленных на формирование умения
понимать английскую речь, говорить и писать на английском языке.
Предназначено для студентов 1-2 курсов неязыковых факультетов
гуманитарных и технических вузов очно-заочной формы обучения. Данное
пособие может также быть использовано лицами, самостоятельно
работающими над совершенствованием знания английского языка.

УДК 811.111 '36(076.5)


ББК Ш143.21-923.2

Рецензенты:

Кандидат исторических наук, доцент ТПУ


О.С. Ульянова

Кандидат филологических наук, доцент ТГПУ


Л.В. Круглова

© ГОУ ВПО НИ ТПУ, 2013


© Казанцева Г.С., Казанцев А.Ю., 2013
© Оформление. Издательство Томского
политехнического университета, 2013

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ОТ АВТОРОВ

Учебно-методическое пособие «A Practice Grammar Book. Part 2»


по дисциплине «Английский язык» предназначено для студентов 1-2
курсов неязыковых факультетов гуманитарных и технических вузов.
Пособие включает 11 тематических разделов, каждый из которых,
посвящен отдельному грамматическому явлению. Подборка
упражнений каждого раздела тренирует употребление определенного
грамматического материала и расширяет представление о нем.
Предлагаемые задания отличаются разнообразием языкового материала.
Каждый раздел включает тест на проверку усвоения материала. В конце
пособия размещены тестовые задания формата TOEFL на повторение
всего грамматического материала, рассматриваемого в данном пособии.
Приведены ответы для всех представленных упражнений и тестов.
Целью данного пособия является изложение и объяснение в
доступной форме особенностей грамматического строя английского
языка, необходимых для практического использования.
Данное пособие может быть использовано для студентов любой
формы обучения и уровня языковой подготовки, а также для
самостоятельной подготовки обучающихся к промежуточной и
итоговой аттестации.

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CONTENTS
1. The Passive Voice 6
Progress Check Test 1 15
2. Causative Form/to have something done 18
3. Modal Verbs 21
3.1 Can and be able to 22
3.2 Must/have to 26
3.3 Should, ought to 29
3.4 Need 30
3.5 Modal Verbs+ Perfect 33
Progress Check Test 2 37
4. Infinitives and - ing forms (Gerund) 39
4.1 General Information 39
4.2 Forms 39
4.3 Subject of the Infinitive/-ing form 41
The Progress Check Test 3 49
5. The Participle/Forms and Functions 50
Progress Check Test 4 54
6. The Reported Speech 55
6.1 Reported Statements 56
6.2 Reported Questions 59
6.3 Introductory Verbs 62
Progress Check Test 5 69
7. Problem Verbs 72
8. Commonly misused words 75
9. Confusingly Related Words 78
10. Verbal Idioms 85
11. Use of Prepositions 89
12. Revision of grammar material:
TOEFL Grammar Tests 94
13. Irregular Verbs 106
References 108

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1. THE PASSIVE VOICE

1.1 The Formation of the Passive Voice


to be + V3

Table 1
Tense/Verb Active Passive
Form
Present Simple They develop films here. Films are developed here.
Present They are developing a film A film is being developed
Continuous now. now.
Past Simple They developed this film This film was developed
yesterday. yesterday.
Past They were developing a film A film was being
Continuous when I arrived. developed when arrived.
Present Perfect They have already Ten films have already
developed ten films. been developed.
Past Perfect They had developed fifty Fifty films had been
films by that year. developed by that year.
Future Simple They will develop the film The film will be
tomorrow. developed tomorrow.
Conditionals They would develop the film The film would be
if they had time. developed if they had
time.
Modals They must develop the film The film must be
by noon. developed by noon.

NOTE: The Present Perfect Continuous, the Future Continuous and the
Past Perfect Continuous are not normally used in the passive.
* In colloquial English, get is often used instead of be to express
something happening by accident. Alex got hit by a bus while he was cycling
down the street. (= Alex was hit...)

1.2 The Use of the Passive Voice

* when the person who carries out the action (the agent) is unknown,
unimportant or obvious from the context.

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* when the person who carries out the action (the agent) is unknown,
unimportant or obvious from the context.
My car was stolen last night, (unknown agent)
The plants are watered every evening, (unimportant agent)
The house was burgled, (by a burglar-obvious agent)
* when the action itself is more important than the agent, especially in
news headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices, instructions,
advertisements, etc.
The new wing of the hospital was opened by the President yesterday
morning.
* when we want to emphasize the agent.
The town library was built by my great-great-grandfather in 1874.
* when we want to make statements more polite or formal.
My new CD player is broken, (more polite than You've broken my new
CD player.

1. Form the Passive from the verbs.

Example: to take - to be taken


to ask, to read, to write, to invite, to drink, to eat, to smoke, to drive, to
see, to send, to inform, to build, to publish, to help, to advise, to give, to
bring, to speak

2. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Present Simple


Passive.
1. Many books are published in Russia. 2. The machines are tested by
the police. 3. I am always driven to work by my neighbour. 4. The machines
are tested before use. 5. The car is polished once every three months. 6.
Concrete is made of cement, sand and gravel. 7. A picnic is arranged once a
month by our club. 8. These gates aren't painted every year. 9. I'm not
invited to my uncle's every weekend.10. He isn't asked at every lesson.
3. Translate into English using the Present Simple Active or Passive
(see Table 1).
1. Я приглашаю - Меня приглашают.
2. Он присылает - Ему присылают.
3. Она рассказывает - Ей рассказывают.
4. Они сообщают - Им сообщают.
5. Рабочий строит - Дом строится.

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6. Писатель пишет книгу - Книга публикуется.
7. Студент пишет упражнение - Упражнение выполняется.
8. Студенты помогают - Студентам помогают.
9. Мы задаем вопросы - Нам задают вопросы.
10. Я советую - Мне советуют.

4. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Past Simple


Passive.
1. The best machine was chosen. 2. My bike was stolen last week. 3.
The police were called. 4. The book was finished yesterday. 5. The meeting
was held on Monday. 6. He was not invited to the party. 7. They were
introduced to my friend. 8. I was visited by the teacher last week. 9. Many
questions were given to us at the lesson. 10. The letters were brought by the
postman.

5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple Passive.


Example: The delegation .. will be met.. (meet) tomorrow.
1. This program ... (show) again tomorrow. 2. Your room ... (clean) in
a week. 3. I ... (introduce) to the director soon. 4. The gates ... (paint) again
next year. 5. My pets ... (not feed) until six o'clock. 6. You ... (not bother)
by that man again. 7. You ... (invite) to Betty's party? 8. I ... (allow) to go to
Europe. 9. Many questions ... (ask) to the lecturer. 10. The letter ... (write)
next week.
6. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present, Past or Future Simple
Passive.
1. Moscow ... (found) in 1147. 2. Football ... (play) in summer. 3. Her
new article . (finish) next year. 4. The letter . (receive) tomorrow. 5. That
bone ... (give) to the dog today. 6. The chair ... (break) two days ago. 7. An
interesting fairy-tale . (tell) tonight. 8. The boy . (take) to the zoo last
month. 9. The book ... (publish) in three months. 10. Many letters and
telegrams ... (send) every day.

7. Translate the sentences paying attention to the passive forms.


Identify the tense.
1. A new underground station is being constructed in our street. 2. The
device was being tested when you entered the laboratory. 3. This question is
not connected with the problem which is being discussed now. 4. Many
various machines are being produced for our industry by this plant. 5. The art

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exhibition of young artists is being widely commented by the press. 6. The
machines produced by this plant are being used in agriculture. 7.
Masterpieces from our museum were being exhibited in different cities in
June last year. 8. He is being waited for. 9. While the experiment was being
carried out, nobody left the laboratory. 10. The speaker was being listened to
with great interest.
8. Put the verbs in brackets into the Continuous Passive.
1. This question still ... (discuss). 2. The theatre ... (build) when we
came to this town. 3. My friend ... (ask) when the dean entered the
classroom. 4. A new grammar rule . (explain) by the teacher now. 5. While
the experiment . (make) we were not allowed to enter. 6. Who . (examine)
now? 7. Don't switch off the TV-set. An interesting quiz program ...
(broadcast) now. 8. The lecture . (listen) to attentively. 9. The flowers .
(water) from 2 till 3 tomorrow. 10. The glasses . (look) for everywhere
now.
9. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple or Continuous Passive.
1. He . (ask) now. 2. We received the telegram when the letter .
(type). 3. The article ... (translate) into Russian in a few days. 4. A new
grammar rule . usually . (illustrate) by some examples. 5. She . (laugh)
at if she says it. 6. The new project ... still ... (work) at. 7. The document ...
still ... (look) for. 8. Books by this writer ... always much ... (speak) about.
9. The meeting won't be over soon as the report ... (follow) by a discussion.
10. The doctor ... (send) for a minute ago.
10. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Perfect Passive
forms.
1. An opening speech has been made by Mr. Brown. 2. Tom said that
the conditions of work had been greatly improved. 3. The project has already
been submitted to the commission. 4. He asked me if I had been invited to the
party. 5. The project will have been finished by Tuesday. 6. Much attention
has been paid to the further improvement of the living conditions of the
people. 7. She said that her poems had been devoted to the youth. 8. Good art
training has been received by these young artists. 9. She has been listened to
with great attention. 10. The house will have been built by the end of the
year.
11. Change from active into passive (see Table 1).
1. I took him for a walk. 2. She won't forget your telephone number. 3.
We'll book tickets tomorrow. 4. We met her at the corner of the street. 5.

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We discussed such problems at our meetings. 6. They are building a new
cinema in his street. 7. A young architect designed that beautiful building. 8.
I rang my friend up. 9. I have just done the translation. 10. They will have
passed the examinations by February.
12. Write sentences in the passive. Mind the tense form.
Example: (The floor/not clean/yet) The floor hasn't been cleaned yet.
1.(The politician/interview/now)
2. (The Mona Lisa/paint/Leonardo da Vinci)
3. (My flat/burgle/last night) .
4. (All tickets/sell/before we got there) .
5. (The dog/not feed/yet)
6. (The presents/wrap/now)
7. (The prizes/award/President/tomorrow)
8. (Tea/grow/India)
9. (The prisoners/take/to prison/now) .
10. (The book/read/by next week)
13. Change from active into passive.
1. You should take these tablets before meals
2. You must wash coloured clothes separately
3. Who delivered the parcel?
4. Thousands of British tourists will visit Spain this summer
5. The dentist pulled out my rotten tooth
6. The police are questioning him now
7. Someone has made a complaint
8. The horrible old man was slowly poisoning the cat
9. The snow will have covered the mountain by Christmas
10. Someone had warned her that she might lose her job
14. Fill in by or with.
1. Most children are strongly influenced . b y ... they parents.
2. The jam sandwiches were made ... with ... white bread.
3. Jake was dismissed ... his boss.
4. The meal was eaten . chopsticks.
5. The lock was broken . a hammer.
6. The football fans were observed . the police.
7. My hair was cut ... a top stylist.
8. My camera was loaded . a black and white film.
9. The beds were made up . clean sheets.
10. This awful mess was made ... Carol's dog.

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15. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form.
Last week a new leisure centre 1) ... was opened. (open) in the town of
Halden. The centre 2) ... (believe) to be the largest in Europe and it 3) ...
(hope) that it 4) ... (visit) by over 40,000 people a month. The centre 5) ...
(plan) for over ten years, but it 6) ... (only/make) possible by a large
government grant. Unfortunately, it 7) ... (not/finish) yet, but it 8) ... (think)
that it 9) ... (complete) by next month. The centre includes an Olympic-size
swimming pool and fifty tennis courts which 10) ... (can/book) by phone.
The gym 11) ... (claim) to be the most modern in the country. The equipment
12) ... (buy) in Germany and training 13) ... (provide) by five top instructors.
Entrance fees are cheap because half the cost 14) . (pay) by the local
council, so many local people will be able to afford them.
16. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive tense.

1. A: Who looks after your garden for you?


B: It ... is looked after ... (look after) by my brother.
2. A: That's a beautiful dress. Where did you buy it?
B: Actually, it ... (make) for me by my aunt.
3. A: Have you typed that letter yet, Miss Brown?
B: It ... (type) right now.
4. A: Did you make the coffee when you got to work this morning?
B: No, it ... (already/make) by the time I got there.
5. A: Are you going to pick up the children today?
B: No, they ... (pick up) by Roger. I've already arranged it.
6. A: Where is your watch?
B: I broke it. It ... (repair) at the moment.
7. A: Has the new furniture for my bedroom arrived?
B: No, it ... (not/deliver) yet.
8. A: They are building a new sports centre in town.
B: I know. It ... (open) by the mayor next month.
9. A: Have you written your report yet?
B: Yes. It ... (complete) an hour ago.
10. A: Did you paint the outside walls?
B: Not yet. They all ... (paint) by next month.
17. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable passive tense, as in the
example.
1. Two men ... were seen... (see) running out of the bank yesterday
morning. 2. The flowers ... (already/water). 3. The Smiths' house ... (paint)
at the moment. 4. The rubbish ... (already/collect) when I left for work. 5.

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The note . (could/not/read) because the handwriting was very messy. 6. Our
exams ... (not/mark) yet. 7. His car ... (wash) every Saturday. 8. The
window ... (break) before the children arrived. 9. The house ... (would/sell)
if it wasn't so expensive. 10. Mary ... (invite) to the party but unfortunately
she couldn't make it.
18. Rewrite the sentences in the passive where possible, as in the
example.
1. Andrew cooked dinner.
... Dinner was cooked by Andrew ...
2. She didn't go to school yesterday. - It cannot be changed.
3. Sue painted a lovely picture.
4. They arrived at the airport early this morning.
5. Melanie posted the letter.
6. Bob was making a fantastic puppet.
7. Jane left work at 8pm last night.
8. Joseph has just cleaned the fish bowl.
9. The children will post the letters.
10. The teacher is asking him a difficult question.

19. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form, as in the
example.
1. A: Did you have a nice time in Bali?
B: Oh, yes. We ... were taken ... (take) to some of the most
amazing beaches I've ever seen, we ate some delicious seafood.
2. A: Did they paint their house themselves?
B: No, it ... (paint) before they moved in.
3. A: Where's your bicycle?
B: It ... (repair) at the moment.
4. A: What did you get for your birthday?
B: I ... (give) the most beautiful pair of earrings I've ever seen.
5. A: This bread tastes wonderful.
B: Thanks. It ... (make) by my mother.
6. A: When can I pick up my photos?
B: They ... (develop) in the morning, so any time after lunch.
7. A: That's a lovely watch.
B: It ... (give) to me on my retirement.
8. A: When will your car be ready?
B: I don't know. It ... (still/fix) when I went to the garage this
morning.

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9. A: Did you reserve a plane ticket?
B: No, unfortunately the flight ... (fully/book) by the time I got to
the travel agent's.
10. A: How often should I feed the fish?
B: They ... (must/feed) once a day.
11. A: A new hospital ... (build) in our town at the moment.
B: Yes, I know. It ... (open) by the mayor.
12. A: How was the wedding reception?
B: It was lovely! The hall ... (decorate) with beautiful flowers.
13. A: What's going on?
B: A boy ... (trap) in the lift and the firefighters are trying to get him
out.
14. A: That was a terrible storm last night!
B: I know. Many houses ... (flood).
15. A: When ... (report/finish)?
B: Hopefully by next week.
20. Using the prompts below, write sentences in the passive, as in the
example.
1. A: Look at that house! What happened to it?
B: It/destroy/in an earthquake.
It was destroyed in an earthquake.
2. A: That's a beautiful sweater you're wearing!
B: Thank you. It/knit/my aunt.
3. A: This house is so dirty!
B: It/not/clean/for months.
4. A: Why is John so happy?
B: He/give/pay rise yesterday.
5. A: How's Mr Stevens?
B: He's upset. His shop/tear down/next week/by a demolition
company.
6. A: Where were you born?
B: In Paris but/I/raise/in London.
7. A: Have you vacuumed the carpets yet?
В: Yes, the carpets/vacuum/this morning.
8. A: What a nice building!
B: Yes. This is a new library. It/open/by next September.
9. A: Have you been to Paris?
B: Yes, and I visited the Eiffel Tower there. It/visit/many
tourists/every year.
10. A: You look very tired. What happened?

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B: I went to bed late last night. My students' tests/have to/correct.

21. Rewrite the following passages in the active or passive,


accordingly.
A Rosemary Hills train station was built by Sean Carlton and his wife
Sharon in 1894. For the construction of the waiting room, the Carltons had
imported red brick from England. The President himself opened the station in
1896. That year, a steam locomotive visited Rosemary Hills for the first time.
It was pumping clouds of white smoke and whistling loudly enough to be
heard by all the townspeople.
B The news reporter announced that the police are looking for a man
who broke into the National Bank. The thief cut the wires of the alarm and
then broke into the bank's city centre branch some time late last night. The
thief stole £500,000 from the bank. The police are searching the city centre as
they believe the thief is still in the area.
22. Choose the appropriate letter.
1. 'Was Tom pleased with the newspaper article about him?' 'No, he
was angry because his name ... wrong.'
a) spelt b) had been spelt c) is spelt

2. 'Did you buy that picture?' 'No, it ... to me for my birthday.'


a) was given b) gave c) is given

3. 'Are you going to buy a wedding dress?' 'No. My dress ... by my


mother.'
a) is being made b) is made c) made

4. 'Have you arranged the party yet?' 'Yes, All the invitations ... .'
a) are sent b) have been sent c) sent

5. 'So, have you had your book published?' 'Yes. It ... in all bookshops from June
jst 5

a) will be b) is c) is being

6. 'Do your cats eat a lot?' 'No. They ... once a day, that's all.'
a) is fed b) are fed c) fed

7. 'Paul is taking me to a ball this weekend.' 'I would love ... to a ball!'
a) take b) to be taken c) to take

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8. 'Did you hear about the burglary last week?' 'Yes. The thieves ...
now, haven't they?'
a) have been caught b) caught c) are caught

9. 'Can you swim?' 'Oh yes. I ... how to swim when I was five.'
a) taught b) am taught c) was taught

10. 'Doctors have to do a lot of work.' 'Yes, but they ... not ... well.'
a) be paid b) are paid c) pay

11. 'Where does that lady keep her jewellery?' 'It ... in a safe
somewhere in her house.'
a) is kept b) are kept c) was kept

12. 'What's happening over there?' 'Oh, a new cinema ... .'
a) is being built b) is built c) was built

13. 'How is Kevin?' 'Well, his car ... last night, so he's upset today.'
a) is stolen b) has been stolen c) was stolen

14. 'What should you do if you are lost?' 'You should stay where you
are and wait ... .'
a) was found b) to find c) to be found

15. 'Have you got Claire's phone number?' 'Yes. It ... on this piece of paper.'
a) is written b) written c) be written

H PROGRESS CHECK TEST 1


(The Passive forms)
Choose the correct item.
1. Chocolate can .... or ... .
a) eat, drink b) be eating, drinking c) be eaten, drunk

2. The cocoa plant .... by the Mayas, Toltecs and Aztecs more than
3,000 years ago.
a) was first growing b) was first grown c) was first being
grown

3. A suspicious-looking man ... running away from the scene of the


crime.

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a) was seen b) is seeing c) saw

4. The salad was made ... lettuce, onions and cucumber.


a) of b) by c) with

5. The curtains by Marie.


a) are making b) are being made c) made

6. The pool must be ... on Sunday.


a) cleans b) cleaning c) cleaned

7. These cakes are made ... cherries.


a) by b) of c) with

8. The goods ... recently.


a) has been delivered b) have been delivered c) delivered

9. The picture ... to me for my birthday.


a) was given b) gave c) is given

10. My dress ... by my mother now.


a) is being made b) is made c) made

11. The book ... in a month.


a) is publishing b) was published c) will be published

12. The cats ... once a day.


a) are being fed b) are feeding c) are fed

13. I ... how to swim when I was five.


a) will be taught b) was taught c) have been taught

14. The jewellery ... in the safe.


a) is kept b) are kept c) is keeping

15. "What is happening over there?" - "Oh, a new cinema ... ."
a) is built b) is being built c) was is built

16. Paul's car ... last night.


a) is stolen b) has been stolen c) was stolen

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17. Claire's phone number ... on this piece of paper.
a) written b) be written c) is written

18. This tree ... in the 19th century.


a) plant b) was planted c) is planting

19. This piece of music ... yet.


a) has not recorded b) have not recorded c) has not been recorded

20. Not much ... about this complicated subject.


a) is known b) known c) knows

21. The new night club ... by the council last week.
a) closed b) was closed c) is closed

22. I have a beautiful jumper which ... by my grandmother.


a) knitted b) had been knitted c) was knitted

23. The instructions must ... very carefully.


a) was followed b) be followed c) is followed

24. Tickets ... before we arrived.


a) had been sold b) have been sold c) will be sold

25. The new bridge ... already.


a) is being built b) has been built c) had been built

26. Breakfast ... at eight in the morning.


a) was served b) had been served c) has been served

27. Designer clothes ... in this shop.


a) is sold b) was sold c) are sold

28. The exam ... by all the children by three o'clock.


a) was taking b) was being taken c) had been taken

29. Chinese ... by more than one billion people.


a) has spoken b) is spoken c) speak

30. The house . by the time we arrived.


a) wasn't cleaned b) isn't cleaned c) hadn't been cleaned

17
2. CAUSITIVE FORM
TO HAVE SOMETHING DONE
Form:
subject + has/have + object + past participle
James has his car cleaned every week.
* all tenses are possible:
Present Simple He fixes the tap. He has the tap fixed.
Present Cont. He is fixing the tap. He is having the tap fixed.
Past Simple He fixed the tap. He had the tap fixed.
Past Continuous He was fixing the tap. He was having the tap
fixed.
Future Simple He will fix the tap. He will have the tap fixed.
Future Cont. He will be fixing the tap. He will be having the tap
fixed.
Present Perfect He has fixed the tap. He has had the tap fixed.
Present Perfect He has been fixing the He has been having the
Cont. tap. tap fixed.
He had fixed the tap. He had had the tap fixed.
Past Perfect
He had been fixing the He had been having the
Past Perfect Cont. tap. tap fixed.
He must have the tap
Infinitive He must fix the tap. fixed.
It's no use having the tap
-ing form It's no use fixing the tap. fixed.

Use:
* to describe an action which I (or you, he, she, etc.) arrange but do
not do myself:
I had my suit cleaned last week.
She is going to have her house repaired by the Council.

1. Rewrite these sentences using have + object + past participle


(have something done) and changing some words if necessary.
Example: Someone delivers the newspapers. (We)
We have the newspapers delivered.
Someone cleaned the carpets every year. (I)
I had the carpets cleaned every year.

18
Their house needs painting. (They're going to)
They're going to have their house painted.
1. We ask someone to check the accounts every month. (We)
2. Someone sends the money to my bank account in London. (I)
3. My stereo isn't working properly. It needs cleaning. (I'm going to)
4. My camera's being repaired at the moment. (I'm)
5. He spilt coffee on my jacket so he took it away for cleaning. (He spilt
coffee on my jacket so he)
6. I think it's time to service the car. (It's time to)
7. I don't like the office curtains. It's time to change them. (I think I'll)
8. There's something wrong with the typewriter. It needs repairing. (I think
I'll)
9. The computer's no good: we're changing it. (We)
10. I send the films to England: they are processed there. (I)
2. Rewrite the sentences using have something done.
Example: The money was deposited in his bank account by the
company.
He had the money deposited in his bank account.
1. Sarah's new fridge will be delivered tomorrow.
2. Tim's car was serviced last week.
3. Mrs Scott's cat was examined by the vet yesterday.
4. Paul's house will be painted next weekend.
5. Mr Brown's book has just been published.
6. Becky's hair is done every week.
7. Edward's dinner was cooked by his mother yesterday.
8. Jane's living room is going to be redecorated next month.
9. My eyes are tested by the optician.
10. Somebody stole my car last weekend.
3. Rewrite the sentences using have something done.
Example: My windows are cleaned twice a month.
I have my windows cleaned twice a month.
1. The star's latest film has just been released.
2. Their swimming pool will be drained.
3. The carpets must be laid in our flat by Monday.
4. The brakes on my bicycle have been oiled.
5. Our desks are being painted at the moment.
6. Her bookcase was delivered last week.
7. A new computer has been ordered for me.
8. Annie's sculptures are going to be exhibited tomorrow.

19
9. A skateboard was being made for Tim.
10. He told the student to clean the board.

20
3. MODAL VERBS
CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, NEED
Some general information about modal verbs
* The modal verbs are a special group of auxiliary verbs.
* They are different from other verbs in four ways:

1) after modals we use Infinitive without to. (After other verbs we use
Infinitive with to.)
I can swim. (NOT I can to swim.) but I want to swim.
1. Circle the correct answers.
1. Can you play/to play the guitar?
2. I don't want play/to play football today.
3. Ann seems be/to be very tired.
4. Peter hasn't phoned. He must be/to be away.
5. Could you pass/to pass the orange juice?
6. We hope get/to get a bigger flat soon.
7. Chris may be/to be here at the weekend.
8. I want speak/to speak to the manager.
9. I've forgotten turn off/to turn off the light.
10. They should eat/to eat less.
2) Modal verbs have no -s on the third person singular (he/she/it form).
(Other verbs have -s.)
2. Add - s or nothing (-).
1. Ann play ... tennis. 2. Bill can ... swim. 3. Our cat like ... fish. 4. It
may ... rain. 5. She must ... pay now. 6. Harry work ... in London. 7. Sue
should ... phone her mother. 8. The train seem ... to be late. 9. Bill might ...
come and see us. 10. Joe want ... to go home.

3) We make modal questions and negatives without do. (Other verbs have do.)

3. Make questions or negatives. (Negatives in this exercise:


cannot/can't; must not/mustn't; may not).

Example: Ann can't speak Russian. (Chinese?) Can she speak


Chinese?
Mary must wash her clothes. (do it now -) She mustn't do it now.

21
1. Mike can't swim. (ski?) 2. John can play football. (tennis -) 3. Maria
must play the piano. (sing -) 4. Robert may go to Italy. (go this week -) 5.
Ann must work on Saturday. (on Sunday?) 6. You must do your homework
every day. (do it on Sunday -) 7. He can leave home earlier if he goes to work
on foot. (by car?) 8. May I borrow your book? (my sister) 9. You must bring
some paper. (dictionary?) 10. You must feed your pets. (animals in the zoo -)

4) Modal verbs have no infinitives or participles: to can, maying,


musted.

3.1 CAN
CAN, COULD and BE ABLE TO
CAN and BE ABLE TO
In the present tense, be able to is a little more formal and less usual than
can
Emma is good with computers. She can write/is able to write programs.
But in some structures we always use be able to, not can
To-Infinitive: It's nice to be able to go to the opera. (not to can go)
After a modal verb: Melanie might be able to help us.
Present Perfect: It's been quiet today. I've been able to get some work
done.
For the future we use can or will be able to but not will can.
COULD and WAS/WERE ABLE TO

COMPARE:
The children could swim when they were quite young. (a past activity)
The children were able to swim across the river. (a past action)
* In negative sentences and questions, we can use either form.
It was foggy, so the plane couldn 't/wasn't able to take o f f .
The pool was closed, so they couldn 't/weren't able to have a swim.
Could you/Were you able to describe the man to the police?
* We normally use could (not was/were able to) with verbs of seeing
etc., and with verbs of thinking.
We could see the village in the distance.

22
As soon as Harriet opened the door, she could smell gas.
I couldn't understand what was happening.
CAN and COULD: ability He can play the piano. She couldn't
write.

1. Make questions with can.


Example: Little Mary is ten month old now. (walk) Can she walk?
John is starting the violin. (what/play) What can he play?
1. My brother wants to work in a restaurant. (cook)
2. My daughter's going to Spain. (speak Spanish)
3. Bill and Lisa want to buy a house. (how much/pay)
4. Can I help in any way? (drive a bus)
5. Some colours look bad on me. (wear red)
6. Ann and I have got a lovely hotel room. (see the sea)
7. I want to learn the piano. (read music)
8. My brother is looking for a job. (what/do)
9. My friend likes watching photos. (take photos)
10. I study English. (speak English)
2. Write three things that you can do, and three things that you
can't do.
3. What could you do at six years old? Look at the words. Make
some sentences with I could or I couldn't.
climb trees dance fight play chess play the piano read run fast sing write

4. Complete the sentences with will be able to and the verbs from the
box.
do fly cook eat play pass protect remember buy travel
1. People ... a lot of food and not get fat.
2. Eighty-years olds ... tennis and football.
3. People . very fast.
4. People won't forget. Everybody ... things clearly.
5. All of this will cost money. ... everybody ... all these wonderful
things?
6. I hope I ... tasty food.
7. Students ... exams successfully if they work hard.
8. When I save money enough, I ... a large house with a garden in front.
9. Undoubtedly people ... to other planets.

23
10. If we ban illegal hunting, we ... some animal species from
extinction.
5. Complete the sentences using can or be able to (in the proper
form). Use can if possible; otherwise use be able to (in the proper form).

Example: Marc has travelled a lot. He ... can ... speak four languages.
I haven't been able to sleep very well recently.
1. Sandra ... drive but she hasn't got a car.
2. I can't understand Martin. I've never ... understand him.
3. I used to ... stand on my head but I can't do it now.
4. I can't see you on Friday but I ... meet you on Saturday morning.
5. Ask Katherine about your problem. She might ... help you.
6. I ... come and see you tomorrow if you like.
7. Have you ever . ride a horse?
8. We . see the lake from our bedroom window.
9. I hope they will learn to ... to survive.
10. Tom might ... to come tomorrow.
6. Complete the sentences using could, couldn't or was/were able to.
1. My grandfather was a very clever man. He ... could ... speak five
languages.
2. I looked everywhere for the book but I ... couldn't... find it.
3. They didn't want to come with us at first but we ... were able to ...
persuade them.
4. Laura had hurt her leg and ... walk very well.
5. Sue wasn't at home when I phoned but I ... contact her at her office.
6. I looked very carefully and I . see a figure in the distance.
7. I wanted to buy some tomatoes. The first shop I went to didn't have
any but I . get some in the next shop.
8. My grandmother loved music. She ... play the piano very well.
9. A girl fell into the river but fortunately we . rescue her.
10. I had forgotten to bring my camera so I ... take any photographs.
CAN and COULD: requests
Can you lend me a pen? Could you show me the way to the post-
office?
Can you . ? This is informal; we often use it when we are talking to
friends; and also in shops and restaurants.
Could you . ? This is more formal and polite; we often use it when we
are talking to strangers, older people, teachers or bosses.

24
Could you possibly ... ? This is very polite
1. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.
watch clean help wait drive give bring hold lend
pass open tell
Example: Can you ... give . m e a receipt?
Could you ..tell.. me your name?
1. Could you ... me the rice? 2. Can you ... my suit? 3. Can you ... this
bag? 4. Could you . me to the station? 5. Could you . possibly me a pen?
6. Can you . the window? 7. Could you . me with my luggage? 8. Can
you ... me some more butter? 9. Could you ... my suitcase? 10. Can you ...
for me a little?

2. Find better ways of asking people to do these things. (I =


informal, P = polite, PP = very polite).

Example: Open the window. (I) Can you open the window?
Lend me a pen. (P) Could you lend me a pen?
Help me. (PP) Could you possibly help me?
1. Open the door. (I)
2. Give me an envelope.(P)
3. Pass me the sugar. (I)
4. Watch my children for a minute. (P)
5. Tell me the time. (P)
6. Change some dollars for me. (PP)
7. Bring me the desert. (I)
8. Tell me your telephone number. (I)
9. Give me some information about the timetable. (PP)
10. Help me with my English homework. (I)
3. Write these sentences using the correct form of can, could, or be
able to. Where two answers are possible, write them both.
Example:
I ... see you tomorrow.
I'll be able to see you tomorrow.
I can see you tomorrow.
It was too expensive - I ... buy it.
It was too expensive -1 couldn't buy it.
It was too expensive -1 wasn't able to buy it.
1. ... I have a word with you, please?

25
2. I generally leave work at six, but I . leave earlier on Fridays.
3. . you help me carry this downstairs?
4. (she) . come to the office tomorrow?
5. I tried to see her but I . .
6. It was so heavy that I . lift it.
7. I ... come tomorrow, I'm afraid I'm too busy.
8. . (you) . contact your parents yesterday?
9. He ... (not) work since his illness.
10. After I had tried for a few hours, I ... open the door and get out.

3.2 MUST
MUST: obligation, duty, necessity
Oh, it's later than I thought, I must go or I have to go
HAVE TO: means the same as MUST.
1. Complete the sentences with must and verbs from the box.
be go hurry pay speak stop study write pay cross stay

Example: Father: You must be home by eleven.

1. Teacher: You in ink. 6. Boss: You politely on the phone.


2. Friend: We - we're late. 7. Mother: That child . .to bed now.
3. Doctor: You smoking. 8. Police officer: You . . . the street
4. Tax officer: You the tax now. here.
5. Teacher: Your harder. 9. Doctor: You in bed.
10. Waiter: You the bill now.
* But there is a difference between must and have to

Must is personal. We use must when Have to is impersonal. We use have to


we give our personal feelings. for facts, not for our personal feelings.
'You must do something' = 'I 'You have to do something' because of
(speaker) say it is necessary': a rule or the situation:
• She's really a nice person. You • You can't turn right here. You have to
must meet her. (= I say this is turn left. (because of the traffic system)
necessary)
• I haven't phoned Ann for ages. I • My eyesight isn't very good. I have to
must phone her tonight. wear glasses for reading.

26
2. Complete the sentences with has to or have to and expressions
below.
go be be drive carry have bring up work take wear
Example: An accountant ... has to be. good with numbers.
1. A cook very clean hands.
2. An army officer a uniform.
3. A politician good at speaking.
4. A builder heavy things.
5. A secretary good at spelling.
6. Parents their children.
7. You on the left in Britain.
8. My sister on Saturdays.
9. I to New York for a meeting every month.
10. Children lunches to school.
3. Complete the sentences with must or have to (in the correct form).
Sometimes it is possible to use either; sometimes only have to.
Example:
It's later than I thought. I must or have to go now.
Jack left before the end of the meeting. He ..hadto.. go home early.
1. In Britain many children ... wear uniform when go to school.
2. When you come to London again, you ... come and see us.
3. Last night John became ill suddenly. We ... call a doctor.
4. You really ... work harder if you want to pass the examination.
5. I'm afraid I can't come tomorrow. I ... work late.
6. I'm sorry I couldn't come yesterday. I ... work late long hours.
7. Paul doesn't like his new job. Sometimes he ... work at weekends.
8. Caroline may ... go away next week.
9. We couldn't repair the car ourselves. We ... take it to a garage.
10. Julia wears glasses. She ... wear glasses since she was very young.
* If you are not sure which to use, it is usually safer to use have to.

* You can use must to talk about the present or future, but not the past:
We must do it now.
We must do it tomorrow. (but not 'We must do it yesterday')
* You can use have to in all forms.
I had to do it yesterday.
Alice will have to start school next September.

27
* In questions and negative sentences with have to, we normally use
do/does/did:
Why did you have to get up early?
4. Make questions with Did... have to ...?
Example: you/learn French at school Did you have to learn French at
school?
1. Annie/work last Saturday
2. John/pay for his lessons
3. Mary/take an exam last year
4. Joe and Sue/wait a long time for a train
5. you/show your passport at the airport
6. the children/walk home
7. Peter/cook supper
8. the secretary/type letters for two hours
9. they/return home
10. he/rent a room

5. Complete the sentences. Use 'll have to, will... have to? or won't
have to with the verbs below.
ask finish get(2) go learn play fight pack work
Example: Cara wants to be a doctor. She'll have to study ... hard.

1. Ann needs a new passport. She ... a form from the post office.
2. Bob's got a new car, so he ... to work by bus.
3. 'I've got a job with a Spanish company.' '... you ... to speak
Spanish?'
4. John wants to be a pianist. He . for hours every day.
5. 'Can I go home early?' 'I don't know. You ... the boss.'
6. I'm working next Sunday, but I ... on Saturday.
7. 'Liz wants to go to the US.' s h e . a visa?'
8. We've started a new project, so we ... it by May.
9. Jane is going to Miami the day after tomorrow. She . her things
tonight.
10. These species are dying out. The conservationists ... against illegal
hunting.

6. Put the correct form of must or have to in these sentences. Use the
negative or questions if necessary and put have to in the correct tense. In
some sentences two answers are possible.

28
Example:
I ..hadto.. leave the party early last night - I wasn't very well.
I'm sorry, you mustn 't smoke in here.

1. The children are happy because they ... do any homework today.
2. You ... get up early tomorrow if you want to catch the bus.
3. It was a very bad accident. You ... be more careful in future.
4. He's been ill. He ... stay in bed since last month.
5. I've told the children that they ... come home before ten on Saturday
nights.
6. . (you) do military service in your country when you were young?
7. It was a lovely holiday. We ... do anything.
8. They were very rude. They ... apologize the next day.
9. The teacher told us that we . work harder.
10. We ... come back by boat because the airport was closed by fog.

3.3 SHOULD, OUGHT TO

* should and ought to have similar meanings.


* ought to always uses to, should never uses to:
We ought to stay here. We should stay here.

* should/ought to are not as strong as must/have to:


You must go now. (= you have no choice: go no)
You should go now. (= it's your decision, but if I were you I would go
now)

1. Write the second sentence using should or ought to and the words
given.

Example:
It's past the children's bedtime. (they/be/in bed)
They should be in bed.
They ought to be in bed.
Can't they see the 'No Smoking' sign? (they/not smoke/in here)
They shouldn't smoke in here.
They oughtn't to smoke in here.

1. These windows are dirty. (you/clean them/more often)


2. Peter drives too fast. (he/drive/more carefully)
3. He owes you a lot of money. (you/not lend him/any more)

29
4. There won't be much food at the party. (we/take something/to eat?)
5. I'm not sure what to wear at the wedding. (I/wear/a suit?)
6. He says he can get us what we want. (we/pay him/now?)
7. The hotel is too expensive. (we/not stay/there)
8. It's their wedding anniversary next week. (maybe we/send them/a
present)
9. You can't decide this problem on your own. (you/tell your
father/about the problem)
10. The children are sleeping now. (you/not make a noise)
2. Put should, ought to, must or have to in the sentences below using
negatives or questions if necessary. Sometimes more than one answer is
possible, but you should write one only.
Example: They should/ought to ... be arriving in a few hours.
We have to go home at twelve because my mother wants the car.
1. They insisted that we ... have a meal.
2. There are no trains today, so we . go by car.
3. I think you ... tell your parents you're going to be late. They'll be
worried.
4. You ... never do that again!
5. The manager suggested that we ... try to find another hotel.
6. You . see that film if you get the chance.
7. According to our information, the President ... be re-elected.
8. Do you think we ... ask before we borrow the car?
9. You ... come if you don't want to.
10. My boss told me that I ... be late.

3.4 NEED
NEED + INFINITIVE

* Positive
I need to practise my English.
* Negative
a) don't need to is generally used when the situation doesn't require
something to be done:
You don't need to have a visa to go to France from Britain.
b) needn't is generally used when the speaker gives the authority for
something not being done:
Teacher to students: 'You needn't do any homework tonight.'
* Questions

30
a) Do I need to apply for a visa?
b) Need I do any homework this weekend?
1. Write the correct form of need to complete these sentences.
1. The teacher says we ... go to school tomorrow. (negative)
2. ... I ... have a licence to drive a car in this country? (question)
3. I've told her that she ... to work harder. (positive)
4. We . take any equipment - the school provides it. (negative)
5. . I . phone you before I come to see you? (question)
6. My mother says I . do the washing-up today. (negative)
7. You ... have more experience before you apply for this job. (positive)
8. You can go home now, you ... stay any longer. (negative)
9. You ... work here to be able to use the tennis court. (negative)
10. You ... say any more: I agree with you. (negative)
Need as a main verb and need + gerund
* need can be used as a main verb.
I need some petrol.
Do you need anything else?
* need can be used with the gerund, with the same meaning as a passive
construction.
My car needs cleaning. (= My car needs to be cleaned.)

2. Rewrite these sentences using need with an object or a gerund. It


will be necessary to change some words.

Example: I think it's time for your house to be painted.


You house needs painting.
How many people should we have for a full team?
How many people do we need for a full team?
1. There's a lot to do. We should have more time.
2. This floor is dirty: it should be cleaned immediately.
3. The doctor says that I should have more exercise.
4. Your tyres are very old. It's time to change them.
5. How much food should we have for the weekend?
6. How much money should we have for the trip?
7. The dog's hungry. It wants to be fed.
8. The baby's dirty. It's time to wash her.
9. Your English is not good enough. You should practise it more often.
10. I can't stand when people are very slow. I should be more patient.

31
NEED IN THE PAST
* Positive
I needed something to eat.
The house needed painting.
* Negative
a) didn't need to/didn't have to + infinitive
I didn't need to get up early yesterday. (= it wasn't necessary, so I
didn't)
b) needn't have + participle
I needn't have got up early yesterday. (= it wasn't necessary, but I did
it)
3. Write didn't need to or needn't have and the correct form of the
verb to complete the sentences.
Example.
I didn't need to catch (catch) the bus this morning, because Vic gave me a
lift.
I needn't have lent (lend) him that money. I found out later that he had
already borrowed all the money he wanted.

1. I ... (do) that homework - the teacher didn't even look at it.
2. I . (take) a tent, because I knew I could hire one at the campsite.
3. You ... (buy) such an expensive present, but I'm glad that you did.
4. I . (take) any money: they had already told me that it wasn't
necessary.
5. I . (count) the money: they had already told me that it was done
automatically.
6. I ... (work) so hard for my exams: they were much easier than I
expected them to be.
7. I ... (get up) so early: I had forgotten it was Saturday.
8. I had some friends in the town, so I ... (stay) in a hotel.
9. You ... (call) to Tom. I spoke to him this morning.
10. I ... (send) Tom's birthday card because I knew I was going to see
him on his birthday.

4. Put the verbs in the sentences below in the correct form, adding to
where necessary.
Example:
1. I (not need/fix) my bike yesterday - I could have used my father's.
I needn't have fixed my bike yesterday -1 could have used my father's.

32
2. I think the house (need/paint) now.
I think the house needs painting now.
3. You're never here when I (need) you.
You 're never here when I need you.
4. You (not need/stay) any longer, boys - you can go home now.
5. How much money (I need) for the weekend?
6. I (not need/take) the car - we could have used Jenny's.
7. I (not need/get up) early yesterday - I forgot it was Saturday.
8. The room's rather dirty, I'm afraid - it (need/clean).
9. I stopped at the hotel because I (need/have) a rest.
10. You (not need/send) it by post - I could have picked it up.
11. Pat's a clever student, but she (need/work) harder.
12. The prisoners were told that they (not need/do) any more work.
13. There were no customs officers, so we (not need/show) our
passports.
14. (you need/have) a special licence to drive a lorry?
15. You (not need/worry) Peter, everything will be all right.
16. You (not call) a taxi. I would have driven you to the station.
17. You (not go) to the bank. I can lend you some money.
18. We (not catch) the early train, so we woke up late.
19. My brother told me he was taking two sleeping bags so I (not pack)
one for myself.
20. My sister (go) to the library to get some information.

3.5 MODAL VERBS + PERFECT

* If someone didn't do something that was important, we can say


he/she should have done it.
Ann should have gone to the doctor yesterday, but she forgot.
I should have studied harder when I was at school.
* If someone did something wrong, we can say he/she shouldn't have done
it.
You shouldn't have told the policeman that he was stupid.
1. Compete the sentences with should have using the verbs in the
box.
arrived been done brought seen locked taken
put gone told\ revised

Example: You . . .should have told. me that you were coming.

33
1. He ... his car. 2. You ... here at 2o'clock. 3. She ... more sugar in. 4.
We ... a map. 5. They ... at the station earlier. 6. I ... my umbrella. 7. The
student ... the material before the examination. 8. You ... to bed earlier. 9.
You ... Tom last evening. Can you call him now? 10. I'm sorry that I didn't
take your advice. I . what you said.

2. Compete the sentences with shouldn't have using the verbs in the
box.
eaten gone(2) been applied played taken stopped stayed
spent

1. You . so much chocolate. 2. The driver in the front . without


warning. I drove into the back of his car. 3. He ... all his money on clothes. 4.
I ... to bed so late last night. 5. We ... porker with that nice man. 6. I don't
like my job. I ... for it. 7. You ... so impolite with that woman. She was
about to cry. 8. She ... off her coat. It was raining heavily. 9. They ... at such
an expensive hotel. 10. The children ... to the lake without adults.
* If someone didn't do something that was possible, we can say he/she
could have done it.
I could have gone to university, but I didn't want to.

3. Compete the sentences with could have using the verbs in the box.

been called slept passed gone stayed lent married studied won

1. Ann ... John or Peter, but she didn't love either of them.
2. Why didn't you ask me for money? I ... you some.
3. I ... mathematics, but I decided to do languages instead.
4. Our team ... the match, but they didn't try hard enough.
5. The holiday was OK, but it ... better.
6. We . to Paris last weekend, but we thought this weekend would be
better.
7. I was so tired. I ... for a week.
8. Why didn't you do well at your examinations? You ... them much
better.
9. She ... us when she returned home from a long journey.
10. Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You ...
with my parents.

34
* If we say something may have happened, we mean that perhaps it
(has) happened.
Pat isn't answering the phone. She may have gone out. (= 'Perhaps
she's gone out.')
4. Rewrite these sentences with may have.
Example: Perhaps Shakespeare went to Italy. Shakespeare may have gone to Italy.
1. Perhaps she's broken her leg
2. Perhaps I've lost my keys
3. Perhaps he has gone back home
4. Perhaps my great-grandfather was a soldier
5. Perhaps my sister found a new job
6. Perhaps this house was a school once
7. Perhaps George went shopping. I can't find him anywhere
8. Perhaps Mary went out. She isn't in her room
9. Perhaps Tom was in the bath at that time when I called him
10. Perhaps he didn't hear the doorbell
* If we say that something must have happened, we mean that we feel
sure it (has) happened.
5. Rewrite the sentences in italics with must have.
Example: The exam was easy. I'm sure I've passed. ..I must have passed.
1. Her office is locked. I'm sure she's gone home
2. I can't find my umbrella. I'm sure I left it on the bus
3. Ann hasn't come. I'm sure she's forgotten
4. The car isn't here. I'm sure John has taken it
5. I've lost one of my gloves. I'm sure I've dropped it somewhere
6. Tom wasn't at work last week. I'm sure he was ill
7. Carol knows a lot about films. I'm sure she's gone to the cinema a
lot
8. The phone rang but he didn't hear it. I'm sure he was asleep
9. The jacket you bought is very good quality. I'm sure it was very
expensive
10. I left my bike outside but it isn't there any more. I'm sure somebody
stole it

* If we say that something can't (couldn't) have happened, we mean


that we feel sure it isn't true (it didn't happen).
I'm sure he didn't receive the message. He can't (couldn't) have
received the message.

35
6. Rewrite the sentences in italics with can't have. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
Example:
I saw Sue yesterday. I'm sure she didn't go anywhere... Sue can't have
gone anywhere...

1. She is a very honest person. I'm sure she didn't tell a lie then.
2. It's too early. I'm sure they haven't reached their destination yet.
3. They are still at home. I'm sure they haven't gone to the supermarket.
4. He's a punctual person. I'm sure he wasn't late for the meeting.
5. This book is very difficult. I'm sure he didn't read it quickly.
6. It's a very good team. I'm sure they didn't lose the game.
7. The weather there is always hot. I'm sure it wasn't cold there last
summer.
8. This girl is really ugly. I'm sure your parents didn't like her.

9. His memory is brilliant. I'm sure he didn'tforget about this.


10. She is bad at languages. I'm sure she didn't learn to speak English
fluently.

7. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write


sentences with must have and can't have.
Example: The phone rang but I didn't hear it. (I/asleep)
I must have been asleep..
Jane walked past me without speaking. (she/see/me)
She can't have seen me..
1. I haven't seen people next door for ages. (they/go away)
2. I can't find my umbrella. (I/leave/it in the restaurant last night)
3. Don passed the exams without studying for it. (the exam/very
difficult)
4. She knew everything about our plans. (she/listen to our conversation)
5. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do.
(she/understand/what I said)
6. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I/forget/to turn it off)
7. The lights were red but the car didn't stop. (the driver/see/the red
light)
8. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. (the
neighbours/have a party)
9. It rained every day during their holiday. (they/have a very nice time)

36
10. You got here very quickly. (you/walk very fast)

M^l PROGRESS CHECK TEST 2


(Modal Verbs)
1. Correct (V) or not (x) ? If it is not correct, give the right form.
1. I don't must see Andrew today.
2. Anna can't to speak English well.
3. Last year I must sell my car.
4. John cans swim.
5. I must go now.
2. Circle the correct answer.
1. If you travel abroad, you can/should/must have a visa.
2. You shouldn't/don't have to/couldn't laugh at old people.
3. You mustn 't/may not/needn't tell me if you don't want to.
4. You may/can/have to drive on the left in Britain.
5. All in all the child could/was able to cross the river.
3. Change the times of these sentences.
1. Helen can ski. Helen ... ski when she was three years old.
2. I can't speak French now but I ... speak French soon.
3. Everybody must fill in a big form. Everybody . fill in a big form last
year.
4. George must call the travel agency today. George ... call the travel
agency next Monday.
5. The farmer can protect his animals now. The farmer . protect his
animals in future.
4. Choose the correct verbs to rewrite the sentences with the same
meaning.
1. I know how to swim. (can/may)
2. It is necessary for you to phone Martin. (must/might)
3. It is possible that Ann will be here this evening. (can/might)
4. It isn't necessary for you to wait. (mustn 't/needn't)
5. It's not good for people to watch TV all the time. (mustn 't/shouldn't)
this evening.
5. Circle the correct answer.
1. She has new clothes every week. She can/could/must have plenty of
money.

37
2. There mustn 't/can 't/shouldn't be Sue walking down the street. She's
in Paris on business.
3. Bill isn't here. He may has gone/may have gone/may have go home.
4. 'You missed your English lesson. I think you must/have to explain the
reason to your teacher.
5. Bob mustn't have/can't have left the party. I saw him right now.
6. Choose the correct item.

1. It's very late. The children ... be sleeping.


a) must b) can't c) shouldn't d) needn't

2. We ... finish the project by Friday or else we'll lose the client.
a) might b) needn't c) have to d) may

3. You ... made anything for the party. I have plenty of food.
a) needn't have b) needn't c) mustn't d) can't

4. John isn't at home. He ... be at the gym.


a) might b) couldn't c) can't d) mustn't

5. You ... bring your tent with you. We can both sleep in mine.
a) need b) don't need to c) needn't have d) must

7. Choose between must have and should have in the following


sentences.

1. Henri was deported for having an expired visa. He ... (have) his visa
renewed.
2. Julietta was absent for the first time yesterday. She ... (be) sick.
3. The photos are black. The X rays at the airport ... (damage) them.
4. Blanca got a parking ticket. She ... (park; negative) in a reserved
spot, since she had no permit.
5. Carmencita did very well on the exam. She ... (study) very hard.
6. Jeanette did very badly on the exam. She . (study) harder.
7. German called us as soon as his wife had her baby. He ... (be) very
proud.
8. Eve had to pay 8 5.00 because she wrote a bad check. She ...
(deposit) her money before she wrote a check.
9. John isn't here yet. He ... (forget) about our meeting.
10. Alexis failed the exam. He ... (study; negative) enough.

38
4. INFINITIVES AND - ING FORMS (GERUND)
4.1 General information
Infinitives: (to) go, (to) break, (to) see etc.
- ing forms (also called 'Gerund'): going, breaking, seeing etc.
* We can use both - ing forms and infinitives as subjects (but - ing
forms are more common).
Smoking is badfor you. (More natural than To smoke is badfor you.)
* We can use infinitives to say why we do things.
I got up early to catch the 7.15 train.
* After some words we use infinitives; after others we use - ing forms.
I expect to pass my exams. (NOT: I expect passing ... )
I'll finish studying in June. (NOT: I'll finish to study ...)
* We can use infinitives after some adjectives and nouns.
She's ready to leave. I'm glad to see you. We've got work to do
* After prepositions we use -ing forms, not infinitives.
You can't live without eating. (NOT: ... without to eat)
I usually watch TV before going to bed. (NOT: ... before to go to bed)
He was accused of having broken the law.
* Infinitives often have to before them; but not always.
I want to go home, but I can't go now.

4.2 Forms
Forms of the Infinitive Forms of the
Gerund
Active Voice Passive Active Passive
Voice Voice Voice
Indefinite (to) repair (to) be repairing Being
repaired repaired
Continuous (to) be - -
repairing
Perfect (to) have (to) have having having been
repaired been repaired repaired repaired
Perfect Cont. (to) have
been
repairing
* Passive Continuous and Perfect Continuous Infinitives are rarely
used.

39
1. Write the appropriate form of the infinitive.

1. I went ... to have gone... 6. he is writing

2. she has been 7. it is fixed


playing
3. he had worked 8. he will type

4. it was read 9.he was cleaning

5. they have been 10.she will be


informed sleeping

* The Indefinite Infinitive refers to the present or future. I hope to meet


her tonight.
* The Continuous Infinitive expresses an action happening now. He
must be sleeping now.
* The Perfect Infinitive is used to show that the action of the infinitive
happened before the action of the verb. He claims to have worked here
before. (First he worked here, then he claimed he had worked here.)
* The Perfect Continuous Infinitive is used to emphasize the duration of
the action of the infinitive, which happened before the action of the main
verb. He looks tired. He seems to have been studying for the test all night.
* The Continuous, the Perfect and the Perfect Continuous Infinitives are
used with the verbs: appear, claim, happen, pretend, seem etc. and with
modal verbs.
* The Indefinite Gerund (-ing form) refers to the present or future. Ann
enjoys walking in the woods.
* The Perfect Gerund (-ing form) shows that the action of the -ing form
has happened before the action of the main verb. We can use the Present
Gerund instead of the Perfect Gerund without a difference in meaning. He
denied having killed James. OR He denied killing James.
2. Fill in the correct form of the Infinitives.
1. My boss expects m e . to work... (work) overtime.
2. The suspect claimed ... (watch) TV at the time of the robbery.
3. Jill's teacher is worried about her as she seems ... (have) difficulty
coping with her studies.
4. Young children often ask ... (take) to the zoo.

40
5. The burglars must have come in through the window as the lock seems .
(force).
6. "I happen ... (pass) my driving test two years ago, you know," he
said.
7. Robert is expecting ... (inherit) a large house when his grandfather
dies.
8. "Mark appears ... (overtake) John on the last lap. Yes, he's passed
him!"
9. It seems ... (rain) over there. Take an umbrella.
10. Tom wants ... (finish) early so that he can go to the concert tonight.
3. Fill in with the appropriate preposition or particle and - ing
forms.
Dear Sir/Madam,
As I dine out regularly in good quality restaurants I am accustomed ... to
receiving... (receive) service of the highest standard. The staff at your
establishment could certainly not be accused 2) ... (provide) this! In addition
3) ... (be) extremely rude, the waitress who served us was also guilty 4) ...
(get) our order wrong twice. My wife was also very upset 5) ... (be) told that
she shouldn't be so impatient. The chef too, seemed incapable 6) ... (do)
anything right. As well 7) ... (forget) to heat up our soup, he burnt my steak
and overcooked my wife's vegetables. All I can say is that he is obviously
used 8) ... (cook) for very uncritical diners. To make matters worse, the
waitress tried to prevent us 9) ... (leave) the restaurant because we hadn't left
a tip! I'm not interested 10) ... (get) my money back but I am looking
forward 11) ... (hear) from you in the near future with a full apology to my
wife and myself 12) ... (spoil) our 25th wedding anniversary.
Yours faithfully,
Michael Crawford

4.3 Subject of the Infinitive/-ing form


* When the subject of the infinitive or of the -ing form is different from
the subject of the verb, then an object pronoun (me, you, him, her, it, us, you,
them) or a noun is placed before the infinitive or the -ing form.
I want him/John to help me. (= He should help me.) but: I want to help.
(= I should help.) The subject of the -ing form can also be a possessive
adjective (my, your etc) or the possessive form of the noun./remember
his/him/Tim's/Tim talking about that island.

41
4. Rephrase the following using the Infinitive or the - ing form as in
the example.
1. You have to eat your carrots. - I want ...you to eat your carrots.
2. I must exercise more often. - I want ... .
3. She has to take her medicine every day. - The doctor wants ... .
4. I saw him give you the letter. - I remember ... .
5. He has to talk to me politely. - I want ... .
6. They mustn't go to bed late. - I don't want ... .
7. We visited Sue before Christmas. - I remember ... .
The to-infinitive is used The -ing form is used
• to express purpose. He • as a noun. Walking is good exercise.
went to university to become a • after certain verbs (admit,
lawyer, (in order to become) anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider,
• after certain verbs (agree, continue, delay, deny, discuss, enjoy,
appear, decide, expect, hope, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, go
plan, promise, refuse etc). He (physical activities), imagine, involve,
refused to pay the bill. keep
• after certain adjectives (= continue), mention, mind, miss,
(happy, glad, sorry etc). She was object to, postpone, practise, prevent, quit,
happy to win the prize. recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk,
• after I would like/would save, stand, suggest, tolerate, understand
love/would prefer to express etc). They discussed selling the company.
specific preference. "Let's go jogging!" "No, I'd rather go
I'd like to see the manager. sailing."
• after certain nouns. • after: dislike, enjoy, hate, like, love,
What a surprise to see him prefer to express general preference. She
there! likes painting, (in general)
• after too/enough • Note: like + to-inf = it's a good
constructions. He's too young to idea/like to wash my hair every day.
have his own car. He's clever • after: I'm busy, it's no use, it's (no)
enough to do the crossword. good, it's (not) worth, what's the use of,
He's got enough money to live can't help, there's no point (in), can't stand,
on. have difficulty (in), in addition to, as well
• with: it + be + adjective as, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time.
(+ of + noun/pronoun). It was He can't stand being treated like a
generous of him to offer £1,000. slave. He had difficulty finding his way
• with: so + adjective + as. back.
Would you be so kind as to help • after: spend/waste (time, money
me move the sofa? etc). He spends his free time (in) digging
• with 'only' to express an the garden.

42
unsatisfactory result. She came • after prepositions. He left the shop
in only to find Bob had left. without paying so he was accused of
• after: be + the stealing.
first/second etc/next/last/best • after: look forward to, be/get used
etc. He was the last to come to to, be/get accustomed to, object to, admit
work. (to), etc. I'm looking forward to hearing
• in the expression: for + from you soon.
noun/pronoun + to -inf. • after: hear, listen, notice, see, watch
For him to be so rude was to express an incomplete action, an action
unforgivable. in progress or a long action./saw Tim doing
• in expressions such as: to his homework. (I saw part of the
tell you the truth, to begin with, action in progress. I didn't wait until he
to be honest etc. had finished.)
To be honest, I don't like
him. BUT: hear, listen, see, watch +
Note: If two infinitives are infinitive without 'to' express a complete
joined by 'and' or 'or', the 'to' action, something that one saw or heard
of the second infinitive can be from beginning to end./saw Tim do his
omitted./want to call Mr Jones homework. It took him an hour. (I
andfax or post him a letter. saw the whole action from beginning to
end.)

* The Gerund is used after: accuse of, apologize for, approve of,
blame smb for, congratulate on, insist on, object to, prevent from,
succeed in, thank for, incapable of, be/get used to, look forward to, be
interested in, etc.
* some verbs use indirect speech: They complained that they had been
waiting for hours.
* certain verbs can use all three (the infinitive, the gerund, indirect
speech):
We agreed to go.
We agreed that we should go.
We agreed about going.

5. Fill in the following table according to the information you've got


in this paragraph. If the Gerund is preceded by a particular preposition,
write the preposition in the box.

Infinitive Gerund Indirect speech


Accuse V of
Advise

43
Agree
Apologize
Ask
Complain
Continue
Decide
Dream
Encourage
Enjoy
Finish
Hate
Help
Insist
Manage
Mind
Offer
Miss
Refuse
Stop
Start
Suggest
Try
Think

The Infinitive without to is used


* after: most modal verbs (can, must, will etc). You can leave now if
you want.
* after: had better/would rather. I'd rather not go out tonight, I'd better
stay at home.
* after: make/let/see/hear/feel+ object. They made him pay for the
damage. but: in the passive: be made/be heard/be seen + to -infinitive. He
was made to pay for the damage.
'know' and 'help' are followed by a to-infinitive or an infinitive
without to. I've never known him (to) be so mean. Could you help me (to) fix
the car? but: in the passive: be known, be helped + to-infinitive. She was
known to have worked as a teacher.

6. Write what each word is followed by: F.I. (full inf.) , B.I. (bare
inf.) or - ing form.

44
1 enjoy +.ing 5 it's no use 9 resist 13 would
form. + + +

2 promise 6 can't stand 10 agree 14 refuse


+ + + +

3 be made 7 can't help 11 can 15 spend time


+ + + +

4 object to 8 had better 12 would like 16 avoid


+ + + +

The Jackal is known 1) ...to be... 6) ... (not/approach) the Jackal


(be) one of the most dangerous if they see him, as he has a gun and
criminals in the world. 2) ... (rob) he doesn't mind 7) . (use) it. The
banks is his speciality, although he last person 8) . (try) to arrest him
also enjoys 3) . (kidnap) every now was shot in the foot. Fortunately, we
and again. So far, the police have are unlikely 9) . (come across) the
failed 4) . (catch) him, and they Jackal in this country in the near
would be very happy 5) . (receive) future. He was last seen 10) ...
any information that could lead to his (sunbathe) on a beach in Brazil.
arrest. The public have been warned

7. Complete the sentences with the Infinitives of the verbs in the


box.

ask for buy catch get warm drive finish earn


meet learn turn on \ wait for

Example: Use this button ... to turn on ... the computer.

1. Oliver got up early ... Mark to the station.


2. I was late, so I ran ... my bus.
3. Ann wrote to me ... Joe's address.
4. I sat in the waiting room ... the doctor.
5. Bob's gone to the airport ... his uncle.
6. I went to town on Saturday ... a present for my cousin's birthday.
7. I stayed up late last night ... my English homework.
8. Alice went to Beijing ... Chinese.
9. She's got a part-time job ... some pocket money.

45
10. We moved closer to the fire ... .

8. Complete the sentences using an Infinitive or an -ing form.


1. City life is too busy for me; I really miss ...living... in the country.
2. We had to postpone ... tennis because of the bad weather.
3. She goes ... at the disco every weekend.
4. If you will keep ... so much, you're bound to get fat.
5. She's been training so hard recently that she deserves ... the race.
6. He couldn't sleep, so I suggested him ... some warm milk.
7. Because of his fear ofjellyfish, he doesn't like ... in the sea.
8. I'd really like ... my uncle in Chicago one day.
9. That man seems to be having trouble ... his car. Why don't you give
him a push?
10. Mr Roberts is much too old ... climbing like he used to.

9. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the Infinitive.

The best way 1) ... to explore... (explore) China is by land. Anyone


who has been there, will 2) ... (tell) you what a great experience it is. 3) ...
(travel) round China involves 4) ... (cover) great distances as the country is
enormous. As a result, some tourists would rather 5) ... (fly), as it is quicker
and they consider 6) ... (sit) on a bus or train a waste of time. For those who
don't mind 7) ... (take) a bit longer, there is so much 8) ... (see) which is not
visible from a plane. From a bus you can 9) ... (see) people 10) ... (work) in
the rice fields. You can even spend sometime 11) ... (learn) a few Chinese
phrases. Few can resist 12) ... (taste) the local delicacy - bird's nest soup,
though you may 13) ... (have) difficulty in 14) ... (acquire) a taste for one-
hundred-year-old eggs!

REMEMBER:
Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form without a change in meaning
* begin, continue, intend, start + to-inf or -ing form. However, we
don't normally have two -ing forms together. She began crying/to cry. The
days are beginning to get shorter.
not: the days are beginning getting shorter
* advise, allow, encourage, permit, recommend, require when
followed by an object or in passive forms take a to-infinitive. They take the -
ing form when they are not followed by an object. The teacher doesn't allow
us to eat in class. We aren't allowed to eat in class. They don't allow eating in
class.

46
* need, require, want are followed by to-inf, the -ing form or the
passive infinitive. You need to polish your shoes. Your shoes need polishing.
Your shoes need to be polished.

10. Correct (V) or not (x)?

Example: I want see you. ... (x)


Can I help you? . ..(V)
1. It's necessary to get a visa. .
2. I hope to not have problems at university. ...
3. I went to Mexico for learning Spanish. .
4. His parents wanted him to be a doctor. ...
5. You can get there faster by take the train. ...
6. I'm too tired for working now. ...
7. I stopped to smoke last year. ...
8. She keeps telephoning me. ...
9. We decided going by bus. ...
10. I'm glad seeing you. ...

11. Make sentences with want or would like.

Example: Mrs Lewis: Ann, can you past my letters, please? (want)
Mrs Lewis wants Ann to post her letters.

1. Sarah: John, could you cook tonight? (would like)


2. Policeman: Please, move your car, sir. (want)
3. Mother: Helen, please wash your face. (want)
4. Bill: Andy, can you help me? (would like)
5. Roger: Karen, could you lend me some money? (would like)
6. Jake: Be quiet for a minute, Peter. (want)
7. David: Alice, can you have dinner with me? (would like)
8. Mike: The government should put more money into schools. (would
like)
9. Sue: Martha, can you go with me on holidays? (would like)
10. Peter: Alan, please buy a better guitar. (want)

12. Make sentences answering the question 'What do/did your


parents want you to do/be in life?'

Example: My parents want me to be a doctor.

47
My parents wanted me to study engineering.

13. Fill in 'too' or 'enough' with the adjectives from the list. Add an
object where necessary.

small tall warm early busy hot strong difficult tired cool

1. The exercise is ... too difficult for me... to do.


2. The shoes are ... (wear).
3. We didn't go to the beach last weekend because it wasn't ... (swim).
4. She isn't ... (lift) the weights.
5. I'm ... (do) the ironing now.
6. We weren't ... (get) good seats for the concert.
7. She can't go out tonight. She's ... with her homework . (go) out
tonight.
8. He isn't ... (be) in the basketball team.
9. This cocoa is ... for me .(drink).
10. This cocoa isn't ... for me (drink).

14. Make sentences after too (1 - 5) and enough (6 - 10)


constructions.

Example: This homework/difficult/do


This homework is too difficult to do.
1. This box/heavy/lift
2. This soup/salty/eat
3. This book/boring/finish
4. That plate/hot/touch
5. Some animals/small/see
6. John/old/drive a car
7. David/not/strong/carry that bag
8. The water/not/warm/swim in
9. This film/interesting/see
10. It/easy/remember her address

15. Complete the sentences with the expressions from the box.
anything to wear dress to wear friend to see homework to do
somewhere to work letters to post nothing to do nobody to teach
shopping to do stories to tell\ video to watch

48
Example: My uncle always has very interesting stories to tell about his year
in Nepal.
1. Please can I go out tonight, Dad? I've got no ... .
2. I'm not going to the post-office - have you got any ... ?
3. I think I'll stay home tonight. I'm a bit tired, and I've got a good ... .
4. Have you got a . to the party, or will you have to buy one?
5. If you've got any ... we can go to the supermarket later.
6. I'll be home a bit late tonight - I've got a ... after work.
7. I can't go to the party: I don't have ... .
8. Could I possibly use this table? I need ... .
9. When I arrived, there was ... - all the work was finished.
10. Everyone in our class was ill today, so our teacher had ... .

16. Put the verbs in brackets into the Gerund or the Infinitive.

1. I want ... (finish) work early tonight.


2. I hate ... (wait) for buses in the rain.
3. I'm going to the cafe ... (meet) Alex.
4. Sam is really good at . (climb).
5. I really need . (have) a holiday soon.
6. ... (park) a car in the centre of town is always really difficult.
7. We miss . (living) by the sea.
8. Thank you for ... (be) so helpful.
9. Don't forget ... (lock) the door
10. I enjoy ... (listen) to the radio.

(The Gerund and the Infinitive)


Choose the correct item.
1. Let's go now. I'm worried about ... the train.
a) missing b) being missed c) to miss

2. He refused ... me.


a) helping b) to help c) being helped

3. I can't get used to ... before the dawn.


a) get up b) have got up c) getting up

4. I'm sorry about ... you.

49
a) not having invited b) don't invite c) not to invite

5. There's a lot of work ... on the new building.


a) to do b) doing c) having done

6. You're lucky you haven't got a child ... .


a) looking after b) to have looked after c) to look after

7. We managed . the exam by . each other every evening.


a) passing, to test b) to pass, testing c) passing, to have tested

8. I can't stand ... the washing-up.


a) to do b) doing c) to have done

9. I came to Tomsk ... at Polytechnic University.


a) studying b) having studied c) to study

10. Mum used to ... me up when I was little.


a) waking b) wake c) have woken

11. I'm looking forward to ... the programme.


a) having seen b) see c) seeing

12. I think I'll have to give up ... football.


a) to play b) playing c) to have played

13. We were getting tired, so we stopped ... lunch.


a) to have b) having c) having had

14. We're very keen on ... the team.


a) to join b) joining c) to have joined

15. They wouldn't let me ... in the driving-sit.


a) to sit b) sit c) sitting

5. THE PARTICIPLE
Forms and Functions
Forms of Functions Functions
Participle (Active Voice) (Passive Voice)

50
asking being asked
Функция определения Функция определения
Перевод: Перевод:
а) прич.наст.времени а) прид.опред.предлож.
-ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ б) прич.наст. и прош.врем.
(срашивающий) (-емый, -имый)
б) прид.опред.предлож.
Функция Функция обстоятельства
e обстоятельства 1) деепр.наст. или прош.
1) деепр.наст.времени, - врем. (будучи
t спрошенным)
r I а, -я
a el (спрашивая) 2) прид.обстоят.предл-ем
P p
tt i cii 2) when, while (когда его спросили)
n
e ti
se rra a. спрашивая
a
Pr (P b. «при» + сущ. (при
опросе)
c. прид.обстоят.предл-ем
asked
Функция определения
Перевод:
причастием
прош.врем.стр.залога
суф. -н-, -м-
e
^ ilpо,pci (спрошенный/спрашиваемы
i c
ic ti й)
t t r Функция обстоятельства
т т я Перевод:
aa
P P (P
а) прид.обст.предл.
б) «при» + сущ.
Having asked Having been asked
e Функция Функция обстоятельства
t pli
l
обстоятельства Перевод:
ef i
rf tr Перевод: После того, как его
ea 1) деепр.прош.времени спросили
PP
«спросив»
2) прид.обстоят.предл.

1. Define the function of the Participle: a) определение b)


часть сказуемого c) обстоятельство. Translate the sentences into
Russian.

51
1. The old man stood in the door way smoking his pipe.
2. The review is followed by the discussion of the problem.
3. Having read the book I returned it to the library.
4. A written letter lay on the table.
5. The conference taking place in New York was devoted to ecological
problems.
6. Being tested the students showed profound knowledge of the subject.
7. The property depends on the substances being used.
8. When given time to think, he always answered well.
9. Having been warned the tourists didn't take much money with them.
10. Have you been running all the way?

2. Underline the correct word in bold.


1. It was a very disgusted/disgusting sight to see so much rubbish on the beach.
2. We were very embarrassed/embarrassing when I tripped in front of
all those people.
3. We were very surprised/surprising by his exam results.
4. The book was so exciting/excited that I didn't want it to end.
5. His speech was so interested/interesting that everyone enjoyed it.
6. His performance as Hamlet was rather disappointed/disappointing.
7. She was so frightening/frightened by the film that she couldn't sleep last
night.
8. It is very depressing/depressed to see people begging for money on
the streets.
9. I was touching/touched to receive your card expressing your
sympathy.
10. I have never felt as terrifying/terrified as I did when I watched that
horror film.
3. Open the brackets using the correct forms of the Participle.

Example:
A crowd of excited (excite) people were watching the firemen trying to
save the ... burning... (burn) building.

1. "During my vocation I read several extremely ... (interest) books".


"Which ones?" she asked in an ... (interest) voice.
2. Why do you look so ... (worry)? - I've had a number of ... (worry)
telephone calls lately.
3. I don't know what was in the ... (burn) letter, I didn't read it.
4. Nothing can save the ... (sink) ship now, all we can do is to try and
save the passengers.

52
5. It was an ... (excite) incident. No wonder she spoke about it in an ...
(excite) voice.
6. After hearing the ... (frighten) tale, the ... (frighten) children wouldn't go
to sleep.
7. We found the office party extremely ... (bore). The ... (bore) people
were wandering around.
8. The people ... (repair) the roof were local workers. The ... (repair)
roof looked nice.
9. The ... (boil) water released a lot of steam. The ... (boil) eggs were
lying on the plate.
10. The teacher was ... (impress) by her students' excellent exam
results. The film was so ... (impress) that I could hardly turn my eyes
from the screen.

4. Translate the following participles.


A
1) отправляющий, отправляя, отправленный, отправляемый,
отправив;
2) переводящий, переводя, переведя, переведенный, переводимый;
3) читающий, читая, прочитанный, читаемый, прочитав.
B прочитанная книга; переведенный текст; проигравшая команда;
проигрывающая команда; смеющийся голос; выигравший спортсмен;
жарящаяся рыба; написанное письмо; лающая собака; печеный
картофель; потерянный шанс.

5. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to


the forms and functions of the Participle in the sentences.
A
1. The boy playing in the garden is my sister's son. 2. You can get the
book recommended in the library. 3. Receiving no letters from her farther,
she called him. 4. She stood leaning against the wall. 5. He lay on the sofa
reading a newspaper. 6. Seeing her he raised his hat. 7. Having signed the
letter the manager asked the secretary to send it off at once. 8. Informed of
the arrival of the ship, they sent a car to the port. 9. Being checked with great
care, the report didn't contain any errors. 10. Having been advised by the
doctor to go to the south, she decided to spend her leave in Sochi.
B
1. A person bringing good news is always welcome. 2. While skating
yesterday, he fell and hurt himself badly. 3. She showed the travelers into the

53
room reserved for them. 4. When writing an essay we must use new words
and phrases. 5. The leaves lying on the ground reminded us of autumn. 6.
Books read in childhood seem like old friends. 7. The answer received from
her greatly surprised us. 8. There are many wonderful books describing the
life of people in the north. 9. Being a great book-lover, he spent a lot of
money on books. 10. The figures mentioned in his article were published in
the well-known newspaper.

Jill PROGRESS CHECK TEST 4


(The Participle)
Choose the correct item.

1. ... in pencil the letter was difficult to read.


a) Writing b) Having been written c) Having written d) Written

2. ... with a new drug he was recovering very quickly.


a) Treating b) Being treated c) Having treated d) Having been treated

3. The ... people were beautifully dressed.


a) danced b) having danced c) dancing d) being danced

4. ... what you have done I can't believe you.


a) Knowing b) Having known c) Known d) Having been known

5. The room was full of people ... for the doctor.


a) having waited b) waited c) being waited d) waiting
6. We are all interested in the problem ... .
a) having been discussed b) being discussed
c) having discussed d) discussing

7. ... all her shopping Ann returned to the hotel.


a) Having done b) Doing c) Done d) Being done

8. The instrument ... in the experiment is very reliable.


a) using b) having been used c) having used d) used

9. The applicant lacks the ... experience.


a) requiring b) required c) having required d) being required

10. ... through a magazine he came across her photograph.

54
a) Having looked b) Looking c) Being looked d) Having been looked

11. The man ... the report is a good speaker.


a) made b) being made c) having made d) making

12. ... by the dog the boys were motionless.


a) Having been watched b) Watching
c) Having watched d) Being watched

13. She tried to calm the ... child.


a) crying b) cried c) having cried d) being cried

14. When ... the senator refused to answer this question.


a) having been interviewed b) interviewing
c) interviewed d) having interviewed

15. The soap ... is of very good quality.


a) having advertised b) advertising
c) having been advertised d) being advertised

6. THE REPORTED SPEECH

* Direct Speech
is the exact words somebody said. We use quotation marks ("") in direct
speech. "I've made a long journey," Pamela said.
* Reported Speech
Is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We
don't use quotation marks in reported speech. We can either use the
word that after the introductory verb or we can omit it.
Pamela said (that) she had made a long journey.
* We can use say and tell in both direct and reported speech.
* Tell is always used with a personal pronoun, but say may be used with
or without a personal pronoun.
* Say is always followed by the preposition to when it is used with an
object pronoun. In reported speech, say is not followed by an object
pronoun, but it can be followed by that.
* We don't use to with tell.
* Ask is used in reported questions and requests. It is also used in direct
questions.
"Where is Tom?" he asked me.

55
^ He asked me where Tom was.
"Will you help me?" mother said to me.
^ Mother asked me to help her.

Expressions with say tell and ask.


1. SAY 1) good morning/afternoon, etc.
something/nothing, etc.
a prayer, so, a few words, etc.
2. TELL 2) the truth, a lie, a secret, a story, a joke, the
time, the difference, sb one's name, sb the way,
one from another, one's fortune, sb so, etc.
3. ASK 3) a favour, the time, a question, the price, etc.

1. Underline the correct word, as in the example.


1. "Don't forget to ask/say your boy friend to see you off, " mum told/said to
me.
2. Mum often tells/says us a story about adventurous travel before we go to
bed.
3. Ann said/told that she was looking for unspoiled nature to travel to.
4. Can I ask/tell you a question, please?
5. Don told/said nothing about his decision to set off for a long journey.
6. Mike said/asked me where the nearest hotel was.
7. I said/asked someone on the street to tell/say me the way to the train
station.
8. When I asked/told her about the price, she didn't tell/say a word.
9. Before checking in, I told/said the receptionist my name.
10. We said/told good-bye to each other and left.

6.1 REPORTED STATEMENTS


* When the introductory verb is in a past tense, the verb tenses change
as follows:
Direct Speech Reported Speech

56
Present Simple Past Simple
I"I'm hungry," the customer The customer said (that) he was
said. hungry.
Present Continuous Past Continuous
"They are leaving for Paris " she She told me (that) they were leaving for
said to me. Paris.
Present Perfect Past Perfect
"I've made a long journey," he He said (that) he had made a long
said. journey.
Past Simple Past Simple/Past Perfect
"I booked the ticket," Ann said. Ann said that she booked/had booked
Past Continuos the ticket.
"We were dancing all night P ast Continuos/Past Perfect Continuos
long," she said. She said (that) they were dancing/had
Future Simple been dancing all night long.
"They will arrive soon," he said. Conditional (would)
He said (that) they would arrive soon.

* The past perfect and past perfect continuous do not change in reported
speech.
"They had packed their things by the time the taxi came," she said. ^
She said that they had packed their things by the time the taxi came.
* Certain words and time expressions change as follows:
Direct speech Reported speech
here there
ago before
before earlier
last week the week before
next week the next week/the week after/the following
now week
this then/that day/at the moment
these that/the
that those/the
this morning that/the
today that morning
tomorrow that day
tonight the next day/the following day
yesterday that night
come the day before/the previous day

57
2. Compare the sentences and underline the differences.
Example:
They said they never thought about the drowned houses.
"We never think about the drowned houses."
1. He said he would visit them the next day.
"I'll visit you tomorrow."
2. She said she could help us with our luggage.
"I can help you with your luggage."
3. They told us they weren't going to leave that evening.
"We aren't going to leave this evening."
4. We told them we had already locked the door.
"We've already locked the door."
5. I said I hadn't been there the day before.
"I wasn't here yesterday."
6. He said (that) he had written two letters to her.
"I wrote two letters to her."
7. She said (that) she would be at home at 6.00.
"I will be at home at 6.00."
8. They said (that) they were having their lunch.
"We're having our lunch."
9. He told them the plane had already landed.
"The plane has already landed."
10. She said (that) she went there by train.
"I go there by train."

3. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the


first, using no more than three words.
Example:
John said he didn't want any coffee.
John said, "I don't want any coffee."
1. They said the book was in the post.
"The book in the post," they said.
2. She explained she usually worked there in the evenings.
She explained, "I in the evenings."
3. She told us she was going home.
She told us, " home."
4. You said you expected to arrive before lunch.
You said, " to arrive before lunch."
5. We said we would help with the housework at the weekend.
"We with the housework at the weekend," we said.

58
6. He informed us we had to pay extra.
"You extra", he informed us.
7. I told them I would phone the next day.
"I ," I told them.
8. You told me you could speak Spanish.
"I Spanish," you told me.
9. He said his sister had already phoned the travel agent.
He said, " phoned the travel agent."
10. He said he had never been to Egypt.
She said, "I to Egypt."
4. Somebody says something to you which is opposite of what they
said before. Write a suitable answer beginning I thought you said...
1.A: That restaurant is expensive.
B: Is it? I thought you said it was cheap.
2. A: Ann is coming from her voyage tonight.
B: Is she?
3.A: Margaret likes travelling by train.
B: Does she?
4.A: I met a lot of new people.
B: Did you?
5.A: I'll be here next week.
B: Will you?
6.A: I'm going out this evening.
B: Are you?
7. A: I can speak a little French.
B: Can you?
8. A: I haven't been to Malta.
B: Have you?
9. A: The hotel has got a gym.
B: Has it?
10. A: It's easy to reach the shopping centre from here.
B: Is it?
6.2 R E P O R T E D QUESTIONS
• We introduce reported questions with ask, inquire, wonder or want
to know.
• When the direct question begins with a question word (who,
where, how old/long, when, why, what, etc.) the reported question begins
with the same question word.
"When are you leaving? " he asked me. ^ He asked me when I was

59
leaving.
• When the direct question is a yes/no question and begins with an
auxiliary (be, do, have) or a modal verb (can, may, etc.) then the reported
question begins with if or whether.
"Did Tom make the reservation?" she asked me. ^ She asked me
if/whether Tom had made the reservation.
• In reported questions, the verb is in the affirmative. The question
mark and words/expressions such as please, well, oh, etc., are omitted.
Verb tenses, pronouns and possessive adjectives change as in statements.
"Can you open the window, please?" she asked. ^ She asked me
if/whether I could open the window.

5. Report what these people are asking.

Example: "Is that brochure David's?" I asked if that brochure was David's.
1. "When does the train leave?" She asked her
2. "What's the time?" The man asked me
3. "Is it far to the station?" She wanted to know
4. "Are you busy tonight, Paola?" Peter asked her
5. "Where is the nearest bus stop?" They want to know
6. "Are they seeing their parents off?" We asked me
7. "Where have you come from?" He asked me
8. "Are you going home on Monday?" She asked me
9. "Have you ever been to Hungary?" He asked me
10. "Why are you crying?" She asked him

6. You have been on a holiday and have just come back home. You
meet Paul, a friend of yours. He asks you a lot of questions.
1. Where have you been? 2. When did you come back? 3. What type of
holiday did you go on? 4. Were there any organised activities? 5. What kind
of transport did you use? 6. Did you stay in a hotel? 7. What facilities were
available in the hotel? 8. What was the weather like? 9. Are you glad to be
back? 10. Do you have any plans to go away again?
Now you tell another friend what Paul asked you. Use reported
speech.
Example: He asked me where I had been.
7. Rewrite each sentence in reported speech.
Example:
"Are you staying here all summer?" the little girl asked me.

60
The little girl asked me if/whether I was staying there all summer.

1. "What does 'a package holiday' mean?" the tourist asked the clerk.
The tourist asked the clerk
2. "Have you packed all the things?" my mother asked me.
My mother asked me
3. "When are you leaving?" I asked Sue.
I asked Sue
4. "Did you remember to lock the door?" my father asked me.
My father asked me
5. "Why have you turned off the television?" Ellen asked me.
Ellen asked me
6. "Do you speak Italian?" the tourist guide asked him.
The tourist guide asked him
7. "How much did you pay for your bike?" I asked Steve.
I asked Steve
8. "Where are you going on holiday this year?" Josh asked me.
Josh asked me
9. "Did John go to the party last night?" Philip asked.
Philip asked
10. "How long does it take you to walk home from here?" Peter asked.
Peter asked

8. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the


first, using not more than three words.
Example:
He asked what the time was.
"What is the time? " he asked.
1. She wanted to know where I lived.
"Where ?" she wanted to know.
2. They asked if they could sit near the window.
They asked, " near the window?"
3. I wondered when the rain would stop.
"When stop?" I wondered.
4. He inquired whether there were any seats available.
He asked, " any seats available?"
5. Monica wanted to know how Clare knew about her arrival.
"How about my arrival?" Monica asked.
6. John asked Rosemary why she hadn't phoned him in the morning.
"Why me in the morning?" said John to Rosemary.
7. Carol asked Ann what she had done the day before.

61
"What ?" Carol asked Ann.
8. John asked us if we often went sailing.
John asked us, " often go sailing?"
9. Kate asked me how many English books I had read.
"How many English books ?" Kate asked me
10. George asked me if I was going to change plans.
George asked me, " to change plans?"

6.3 Introductory Verbs

Introductory Verb Direct Speech Reported Speech


promise+to -infinitive "I'll give you a lift." He promised to give
or promise + that me a lift. He
clause promised that he
would give me a lift.
advise/ask/invite/order/ "You should catch a He advised me to
warn/remind+ sb + to - taxi." catch a taxi.
infinitive
apologise (for)/insist "I'm sorry I was late." He apologised for
(on)/complain (to sb being/having been
of)/admit (to) + gerund late.
suggest + gerund "Let's have a picnic." He suggested having a
picnic.
suggest + that + sb "You should follow my He suggested that I
(should) + infinitive advice." (should) follow his
without -to advice.
refuse + to -infinitive "No, I won't call Tom." He refused to call
Tom.

9. Read the following reported sentences and underline the special


introductory verbs, then rewrite them in direct speech. There is an
example at the beginning.

Example:
1. He advised them to drive to Turkey in a Volkswagen van.
"You should drive to Turkey in a Volkswagen van."
2. They asked me to go with them.
3. He accused Tom of throwing the litter out of the window.
4. She complained that they hadn't paid her money back.
5. He refused to help me.

62
6. Tom agreed to meet Mary at the railway station.
7. The guard warned us not to lean back.
8. Dave suggested going for a drive.
9. Jenny offered to open the windows.
10. He promised to come back to see me again.

10. Rewrite the following sentences in reported speech using specific


introductory words.
Example:
1. "You lied to me, Steve"! Mary said.
Mary accused Steve of lying/having lied to her.
2. "I'm sorry I caused the accident," he said to them.
3. "Please, don't tell anybody what happened", Ann said to me.
4. "You must open your bag," the customs officer said to me.
5. "We'd better meet tomorrow," Tom said to her.
6. "Don't forget to switch off electrical appliances," dad said.
7. "Don't leave your car here," the policeman said.
8. "I won't fly," she said to him.
9. "I promise I won't leave you alone," he said.
10. "You can have this type of accommodation only in this hotel," the
clerk said to us.

11. Turn from direct into reported speech or vice versa.

Example:
1. "Let me help you with the guidebook," she said.
She offered to help me with the guidebook.
2. He insisted on me/my learning about French history.
"You must learn about French history," he said.
3. "Don't carry much currency in your pockets," the guide said.
4. She apologised for losing/having lost the key to the front door.
5. "You'd better convert your money in your country," the clerk said.
6. The governor promised to restore that castle by 2013.
7. "Yes, I'm a culture seeker visiting ancient castles," she said.
8. She explained that the Hilton is/was a high-class hotel.
9. "Yes, I am planning to go to Jamaica," Ian said.
10. She suggested decorating the room in a typical island style.

12. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in
bold.
1. "Shall I help you carry the box?" asked Tom.

63
offered Tom the box.
2. "Could you go to the bank?" he said to me.
asked He the bank.
3. "Why don't we go to Paris for our holiday this year?" she said.
suggested She Paris for their holiday that year.
4. "No, I won't drive to the countryside in such rainy weather" she said.
refused She countryside in such rainy
weather.
5. "I'll give you a lift," my brother said.
promised My brother a lift.
6. "I'm sorry I was late," he said.
apologised He late.
7. "I won't let you go until you show your identity card," he said to me.
refused He I show my identity
card.
8. "Shall I look after your pets while you are away?" asked my
neighbour.
offered My neighbour I am away.
9. "You should make the reservation in advance" the travel agent said to
me.
advised The travel agent in advance.
10. "I really send you a card when I reach the destination," Michael
said.
promised Michael when he reaches the
destination.

13. Fill in the gaps with one of the introductory verbs from the list
below in the past simple.

invite, warn, complain, refuse, insist,


advise, offer, apologise, ask, suggest

Example:
1. "Could you do something for me?" she asked.
She asked him to do something for her.

2. "You should visit this marvelous place," she said.


3. "Shall I buy a brochure for you?" he said.

64
4. "Will you come with me?" she said.
5. "Don't be late," the guide said to the tourists.
6. "I am sorry I shouted at you," my friend said.
7. "No, I won't tell him about my departure," she said.
8. "You must go to bed earlier to catch the 10 o'clock train." Mum said.
9. "I'm too busy to visit the countryside," he said to me.
10. "Let's visit Jane," she said.

14. First, choose an appropriate introductory verb, then report the


sentences.
Example: 1 "You should travel around Hong Kong Island"
... insist...
Ellen... insisted on me/my travelling around Hong Kong
Island.
2. "Yes, I'll call you."
Paul
3. "Could I rent a bicycle?"
Bob
4. "You should speak to the manager."
Jill
5. "No, I won't tell you about it."
Jack
6. "I promise I'll take you home."
Kim
7. "Let's visit the temple."
Sam
8. "I'm sorry I broke your goggles."
Peter
9. "Don't forget to pay the bills."
Mum
10. "I'm exhausted after a long journey."
Mary

15. Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Carol. Here are some of the
things Carol said to you.

1. We are staying at a comfortable campsite ten minutes from the beach.


2. My mum doesn't stand flying.
3. I want to go on holiday but I can't afford it.
4. You will enjoy very much if you see this part of the city.
5. There is a restaurant on the campsite.

65
6. You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.
7. I don't know what place to visit next year.
8. We are both feeling a bit tired now.
9. I have never seen such a marvelous castle before.
10. They managed to see a lot of sights.
Later that day you tell another friend what Carol said. Use reported
speech.
Carol said to me (that) they were staying at a comfortable campsite ten
minutes from the beach.
16. Make a new sentence from the question in brackets.
1. (Why is tourism very important to your country?) Do you know why
tourism is very important to your country?
2. (What makes this city special?) Can you tell me what
?
3. (How many tourists came to explore the various sights of Tasmania?)
Have you got any idea how many ?
4. (Is it enjoyable to visit areas rich in wildlife?) Can you tell
me ?
5. (Are there many destinations to explore in the Czech Republic?) Do
you know ?
6. (What facilities does the country offer the tourists?) Could you tell me
?
7. (Is there a limit on the number of hotel tickets?) Do you know
?
8. (Where does the trip finish?) Could you tell me where
?
9. (Can I hire a car to see this beautiful and interesting island?) Do you
know ?
10. (Where will we find other reasonably-priced accommodation?)
Could you tell us where ?

17. Underline the correct word, as in the example.


1. "Could you say/tell me the time," asked/told the old lady.
2. "Are you seeing Steve?" Jane told/asked Mary.
3. "Will you go with me?" John told/said to me.
4. She told/said that it would take over an hour to tour the cathedral
tower.
5. Fiona told/said to me a few words about her comfortable modern
villa.

66
6. They were looking at each other saying/telling nothing.
7. Who can tell/say me a story about famous travellers?
8. If you are lost, the policemen can say/tell you the way.
9. If you want to know more information about the tour, you may
say/ask the guide about it.
10. Don't say/tell so! In spite of the delay you are lucky!

18. Turn the following into reported speech.


1. "The capital has attracted a great number of tourists," said the
governor.
2. "I don't want to go on a long holiday this summer," Sammy said to
his mother.
3. "Tourism will benefit the country's economy," he said.
4. "There are too many traffic jams in Tasmania," the guide informed
the tourists.
5. "You have to pay the full price on the day you book, " the clerk
explained to the customers.
6. "If you don't take a taxi, you will miss the train," mother said to Jane.
7. "The cost covers accommodation and some meals," the receptionist
said to the guests.
8. "I've just seen them off," Clare said to Alan.
9. "I saw a lot of foreign tourists yesterday," Lucy said to Roy.
10. "The trip to Ayers Rock ends with a flight," the guide said to the
tourist group.

19. Turn the following questions into reported speech.

1. "Have you ever spent your holiday skiing on the slopes of the
Himalayas?" asked Mark.
2. "Did you enjoy camping?" she asked me.
3. "Are you interested in wildlife?" asked the teacher.
4. "Do you prefer to go on holiday with a large group of people?" my
friend asked me.
5. "What do you want from a holiday?" he wondered.
6. "Where did you go on your holiday last summer?" she asked me.
7. "What's your idea of a really good holiday?" Brad asked Susan.
8. "Do you have a favourite holiday destination?" Carla asked Richard.
9. "Why do you go on package holidays?" she wondered.
10. "How much money did you spend on flights and
accommodation?" Sally asked me.

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20. Turn the sentences into reported speech. In which of them do
the tenses change? In which do they not change? Why?

1. Mrs Dunn says," We had a marvelous trip."


Mrs Dunn says (that) they had a marvelous trip.
The tense doesn't change - introductory verb in the present tense.
2. The clerk said, "We've included a full day's boat trip on the famous
reef."
3. "I can meet you at the railway station," she told
him
4. Mr Hanks says, "My daughter is leaving tomorrow"

5. "I can help you with your luggage," Fred said to


Sara
6. "I will drive you to the airport," Tony said
7. "I don't know where she lives," he told me
8. "A sightseeing tour and a visit to the famous Opera House will be
included," the guide said
9. She says, "The castle was built beside a church."

10. "We started by taking a guided tour of the university," Colin said to
Alice

21. Cross out the unnecessary word.


1. I must to ask you some questions.
2. Mum told us do not to leave the house after 12:00.
3. Tina asked me that what holiday I wanted to spend.
4. He told to me that we couldn't meet at the station.
5. Could you tell me how far where the booking office was?
6. Anna promised me that to send a card from Spain.
7. David asked me if where I came from.
8. The receptionist asked me why how long I had been in London.
9. Paul asked me where did I put the brochure.

10. She suggested to going to the cinema.

22. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verbs.

Example:
He said he had already spoken to the manager. (speak)
She asked me to take off my shoes. (take off)

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He wanted to know where I had been living for the last few years. (live)

1. I warned her ... too near the cliff edge. (not go)
2. I asked her if Mrs Brownlow ... just ... . (leave)
3. I told them ... they were in the right part of the train. (check)
4. He told me he ... for several days. (not eat)
5. We agreed that I ... them a few days later. (see)
6. They asked me if I ... a cup of tea. (like)
7. He begged her ... him some money, but she refused.(give)
8. The police ordered the crowd ... . (stay back)
9. She wants to know if the manager ... tomorrow. (come back)
10. The expression on his face told me that I . l a t e . (be)
11. We decided that the computer ... switched of. (have to be)
12. We advised the company ... a new factory. (open)
13. I asked him whether Mr Steadman ... yet. (register)
14. He ordered his soldiers ... there. (stay)
15. Your parents want to know if you ... a good time at the moment.
(have)
16. They told me that the train ... at that very moment. (leave)
17. I wanted to know how much money I ... in my bank account. (have)
18. Mr Jones wants to know why you suddenly ... to resign last week.
(decide)
19. The other people in the flat asked me ... . (not smoke)
20. The publishers have told me that they . my book. (not going to
accept)
21. She replied that she ... the answer. (not know)
22. They told me I . very polite the previous evening. (not be)
23. He indicated that he ... by nodding his head. (agree)
24. They shouted that they . cross the river and that they . back to the
car. (cannot/going to go)
25. He asked whether I ... to Dr Jones when I was in hospital. (talk)

^ I PROGRESS CHECK TEST 5


(The Reported Speech)
Choose the correct item.

1. The policeman ... that the man was lying.


a) told b) said c) say

2. Jim . me about the party last night.

69
a) told b) said c) tells

3. Susan ... , "Let's go out or dinner tonight."


a) told b) said c) tell

4. Could you please . your name?


a) told b) say c) tell

5. "I haven't got enough money", he ... to John.


a) told b) said c) tells

6. I promise to . the truth.


a) told b) say c) tell

7. He said that he the next day.


a) would come b) will come c) is coming

8. The children said that they . the party very much.


a) have enjoyed b) had enjoyed c) are enjoying

9. She said to her friend that she had bought tickets . .


a) yesterday b) the day before c) tomorrow

10. He said he late for work.


a) had b) has been c) had been

11. She asked me ... I had a car.


a) which b) if c) what
12. I wondered ... he had gone.
a) what b) which c) where

13. Did you know that she ... to a new house?


a) has moved b) moves c) had moved

14. The tall man asked what time the shop ... .
a) opens b) opened c) has opened

15. He asked me if I knew where the nearest bank ... .


a) is b) has been c) was

16. She asked him why he ... at her like this.

70
a) was looking b) is looking c) is being looking

17. She asked her husband if he ... soon.


a) be b) will be c) would be

18. He explained to them that the news ... an hour before.


a) received b) had been received c) had received

19. My friend asked me if I ... home then.


a) can go b) could go c) go

20. He said to me that he ... her address.


a) doesn't remember b) remembers c) didn't remember

21. He said he would be able to see me at 10:30.


a) "I will see you at 10:30."
b) "I may see you at 10:30."
c) "I can see you at 10:30."

22. She said she had been to Paris the week before.
a) "I was in Paris the week ago."
b) "I was in Paris the week before."
c) "I have been to Paris two weeks ago."

23. The parents said they wanted a special day out that Saturday.
a) "We wanted a special day out this Saturday."
b) "We wanted a special day out that Saturday."
c) "We want a special day out this Saturday."
24. The guide said it wouldn't be far to the hotel.
a) "It won't be far to the hotel."
b) "It wouldn't have been far to the hotel."
c) " It wouldn't be far to the hotel."

25. The receptionist said they were full.


a) "We were full."
b) "We are full."
c) "We have been full."

26. The Parkers said they were planning to go on holiday round Europe
the following week.

71
a) "We were planning to go on holiday round Europe the following
week."
b) "We were planning to go on holiday round Europe next week."
c) "We are planning to go on holiday round Europe next week."

27. He said his trip would not be complete until he saw the alligator.
a) "My trip would not be complete until I saw the alligator."
b) "My trip will not be complete until I saw the alligator."
c) "My trip will not be complete until I see the alligator."

28. They said they were going to spend three days of their trip relaxing
in the sunshine on some wonderful beaches.
a) "We were going to spend three days of our trip relaxing in the
sunshine on some wonderful beaches."
b) "We would spend three days of our trip relaxing in the sunshine on
some wonderful beaches."
c) "We are going to spend three days of our trip relaxing in the sunshine
on some wonderful beaches."

29. He commanded not to be late for the bus.


a) "Please, don't be late for the bus."
b) "You shouldn't be late for the bus."
c) "Don't be late for the bus."

30. Bill invited me to go away on a long journey with him.


a) "Are you going to go away on a long journey with me next summer?"
b) "Will you go away on a long journey with me?"
c) "Can you go away on a long journey with me?"

7. PROBLEM VERBS

The verbs lie / lay, rise / raise, and sit / set cause problems even for
native English speakers. The solution to the problem is to remember which
verbs are transitive (verbs that take a complement) and which are intransitive
(verbs that do not take a complement).

Intransitive Transitive
Rise - rose -risen - rising Raise - raised - raised - raising
Lie - lay - lain - lying Lay - laid - laid - laying
Sit - sat - sat - sitting Set - set - set - setting

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• Rise: Tis verb means to get up, move up under one's own power
(without the help of something else), increase. Notice that there is no
complement.

Example:
The sun rises early in the summer.
When the bell rings, the students rise from their seats.
When oil and water mix, oil rises to the top.
Jim rose early so that he could play golf before the others.
It must be late; the moon has risen.
Prices have risen more than ten percent in a very short time.

• Raise: This verb means to lift or elevate an object; or to increase


something.
Example:
The students raise their hands in class.
The weightlifter raises the barbells over his head.
The crane raised the car out of the lake.
After studying very hard, John raised his grades substantially.
Mr. Daniels has raised his tenants' rent another fifteen dollars.
The OPEC countries have raised the price of oil.

• Lie: The verb means to rest, repose, or to be situated in a place. It is


often used with the preposition down. Note: This verb should not be confused
with the verb lie, lied, lied, which means to say something that is not true.
Example:
The university lies in the western section of town.
If the children are tired, they should lie down for a nap.
Maria Elena lay on the beach for three hours yesterday sunbathing.
The old dog just lay on the grass watching the children at play.
Don't disturb Mary, she has lain down for a rest.
The old rug had lain in the corner for many years before it was put in the
garage.

• Lay: This verb means to put somebody or something on a surface.


Example:
Don't lay your clothes on the bed.
The boy lays his books on the table every day.
The enemy soldiers laid down their weapons and surrendered.

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The children laid their toys on the floor when they had finished using
them.
The students had laid their compositions on the teacher's desk before the
bell rang.
The nurse laid the baby in the crib.

• Sit: This verb means to take a seat. It is also often used with the
preposition down.
Example:
We are going to sit in the sixth row at the opera.
Bullfight fans sit in the shade because it is cool.
Because the weather was nice, we sat on the patio.
After swimming Bob sat on the beach to dry off.
Nobody has sat through as many boring lectures as Pete has.
They have sat in the same position for two hours.

• Set: This verb means to put somebody or something on a surface.


Example:
The little girl helps her father set the table every night.
The carpenters set their tools in the box at noon and go to lunch.
The botanist set her plants in the sun so that they would grow.
After carrying her son from the car, the mother set him in his crib.
'Don't set the chocolate near the oven or it will melt.'
No sooner had they set the roast in the oven, than the electricity went
out.

• Idiomatic expressions with set, lay, and raise:


The company had to lay off twenty-five employees because of a
production slowdown.
Doctor Jacobs has set many broken bones in plaster casts.
John set his alarm for six o'clock.
The chef is hoping that the Jell-O will set quickly.
While playing with matches, the children set fire to the sofa.
That farmer raises chickens for a living.

^Circle the correct form of the verb, as in the example and


underline the compliment if there is one. Remember that compliments
do not begin with prepositions.

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1. You will see on the map that the Public Auditorium (lies / lays) north
of the lake.
2. My dog loves to (sit / set) in the sun.
3. The delivery boy (lay / laid) the groceries on the table.
4. After the heavy rain, the water in the lake (raised / rose) another two
feet.
5. The paper hangers decided to (raise / rise) the picture a few more
inches.
6. he was exhausted so he decided to (lie / lay) down for a little while.
7. The workers were (lying / laying) cement for the patio when it began
to rain.
8. The soldier (rose / raised) the flag when he heard the bugle blow.
9. In chemistry class, we learned that hot air (rises / raises).
10. They tried to (set / sit) the explosives carefully on the floor.

8. COMMONLY MISUSED WORDS

The following words are often misused by native English speakers as


well as nonnative speakers. Sometimes the spellings are so similar that
people fail to distinguish between them. Others are pronounced exactly the
same, but they are spelled differently and have different meanings. Words in
the latter category are called homonyms. Study the words, parts of speech
(noun, verb, etc.), definitions, and sample sentences in this list.

ANGEL (noun) a spiritual or heavenly being. The Christmas card


portrayed a choir of angels hovering over the shepherds.
ANGLE (noun) a figure formed by two lines meeting at a common
point. The carpenters placed the planks at right angles.

CITE (verb) quote as an example. In her term paper, Janis had to cite
many references.
SITE (noun) location. The corner of North Main and Mimosa Streets
will be the site of the new shopping center.
SIGHT (a) (noun) aim (of a gun or telescope). Through the sight of the
rifle, the soldier spotted the enemy. (b) (noun) view. Watching the landing of
the space capsule was a pleasant sight. (c) (verb) see. We sighted a ship in the
bay.

DESSERT (noun) the final course of a meal, usually something sweet.


We had an apple pie for dessert last night.

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DESERT (noun) a hot, dry place. It is difficult to survive in the desert
without water.

LATER (adverb) a time in the future or following a previous action. We


went to the movies and later had ice cream at Dairy Isle.
LATTER (adjective) last of two things mentioned. Germany and
England both developed dirigibles for use during World War II, the latter
primarily for coastal reconnaissance. (latter - England)

LOOSE (adjective) opposite of tight. After dieting, Marcy found that


her clothes had become so loose that she had to buy a new wardrobe.
LOSE (verb) (a) to be unable to find something. Mary lost her glasses
last week. (b) opposite of win. If Harry doesn't practice his tennis more, he
may lose the match.

PASSED (verb) past of pass (a) elapse. Five hours passed before the
jury reached its verdict. (b) go by or beyond. While we were sitting in the
park, several of our friends passed us. (c) succeed. The students are happy
that they passed their exams.
PAST (a) (adjective) a time or event before the present. This past week
has been very hectic for the students returning to the university. (b) (noun)
time before the present. In the past, he had been a cook, a teacher, and a
historian.

PEACE (noun) harmony or freedom from war. Peace was restored to


the community after a week of rioting.
PIECE (noun) part of a whole. Heidi ate a piece of chocolate cake for
dessert.

PRINCIPAL (a) (noun) director of an elementary or secondary school.


The principal called a faculty meeting. (b) (adjective) main or most
important. An anthropologist, who had worked with the indigenous tribes in
Australia, was the principal speaker at Friday's luncheon.
PRINCIPLE (noun) fundamental rule or adherence to such a rule. Mr.
Connors is a man who believes that truthfulness is the best principle.

QUIET (adjective) serene, without noise. The night was so quiet that
you could hear the breeze blowing.
QUITE (adverb) (a) completely. Louise is quite capable of taking over
the household chores while her mother is away. (b) somewhat or rather. He
was quite tired after his first day of classes.

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QUIT (verb) stop. Herman quit smoking on his doctor's advice.

THAN (conjunction) used in unequal comparisons. Today's weather is


better than yesterday's.
THEN (adverb) a time following a previously mentioned time. First,
Julie filled out her schedule; then, she paid her fees.

THEIR (adjective) plural possessive adjective. Their team scored the


most points during the game.
THERE (adverb) (a) location away from here. Look over there between
the trees. (b) used with the verb be to indicate existence. There is a book on
the teacher's desk.
THEY'RE (pronoun + verb) contraction of they + are. They're leaving
on the noon flight to Zurich.

WEATHER (noun) atmospheric condition. Our flight was delayed


because of bad weather.
WHETHER (conjunction) i f , indicates a choice. Because of the gas
shortage, we do not know whether he will go away for our vocation or stay
home.

WHOSE (pronoun) possessive relative pronoun. The person whose


name is drawn first will win the grand prize.
WHO'S (relative pronoun + verb) contraction of who + is. Who's your
new biology professor?

YOUR (adjective) possessive of you. We are all happy about your


accepting the position with the company in Baltimore.
YOU'RE (pronoun + verb) contraction of you + are. You 're going to
enjoy the panorama from the top of the hill.

BilJ Select the correct word in parentheses to complete the meaning


of the sentence.
1. A beautiful (angle / angel) adorned their Christmas tree.
2. I have (your / you're) notes here, but I cannot find mine.
3. The rescuers were a welcome (cite / sight / site) for those trapped on
the snow-covered mountain.
4. (Who's / Whose) supposed to supply the refreshments for tonight's
meeting?

77
5. (Weather / Whether) we drive or fly depends on the length of our
vocation.
6. Although my mother never eats (desert / dessert), I prefer something
sweet.
7. I guess (their / there / they're) not interested because we have not
heard from them.
8. Doris and Marge teach at kindergarten; the (latter / later) works in
Putnam.
9. Isaac Asimov's science books are more easily understood (than /
then) most scientists'.
10. The fender of Sean's bike came (loose / lose) and had to be
tightened.
11. The hikers had (passed / past) many hours waiting to be rescued.
12. Lisa had to (quiet / quit / quite) eating apples after the orthodontist
put braces on her teeth.
13. After any war, the world desires a lasting (peace / piece).
14. Albert Einstein expressed the (principal / principle) of relativity.
15. Marcia was (quit / quiet / quite) tired after the long walk to class.
16. You must remember to (cite / site / sight) your references when you
write a paper.

9. CONFUSINGLY RELATED WORDS

These are words that cause problems when the speaker is not able to
distinguish between them. They are similar in meaning or pronunciation but
cannot be used interchangeably. Learn the definition of each and its use
before employing it in conversation.
ACCEPT (verb) to take what is given. Professor Perez will accept the
chairmanship of the humanities department.
EXCEPT (preposition) excluding or omitting a thing or person.
Everyone is going to the convention except Bob, who has to work.

ACCESS (noun) availability, way of gaining entrance. The teachers had


no access to the students' files, which were locked in the principal's office.
EXCESS (a) (adjective) abundant, superfluous. We paid a surcharge on
our excess baggage. (b) (noun) extra amount. The demand for funds was in
excess of the actual need.

ADVICE (noun) opinion given to someone, counseling. If you heed the


teacher's advice, you will do well in your studies.

78
ADVISE (verb) act of giving an opinion or counsel. The Congress
advised the president against signing the treaty at that time.

AFFECT (verb) to produce a change in. The doctors wanted to see how
the medication would affect the patient.
EFFECT (a) (noun) end result or consequence. The children suffered
no ill effect from their long plane ride. (b) (verb) to produce as a result. To
effect a change in city government we must all vote on Tuesday.

AGAIN (adverb) repetition of an action, one more time. Mike wrote to


the publisher again, inquiring about his manuscript.
AGAINST (preposition) (a) in opposition to someone or something.
The athletic director was against our dancing in the new gym. (b) next to,
adjacent. The boy standing against the piano is my cousin Bill.

ALREADY (adverb) an action that happened at an indefinite time


before the present. Jan's plane had already landed before we got to the
airport.
ALL READY (noun + adjective) prepared to do something. We are all
ready to go boating.

AMONG (preposition) shows a relationship or selection involving three


or more entities. It was difficult to select a winner from among so many
contestants.
BETWEEN (preposition) shows a relationship or selection involving
only two entities. Between writing her book and teaching, Mary Ellen had
little time for anything else. Note: When between is followed by two nouns or
noun phrases, the two nouns or noun phrases must be separated by and and
never by or.

BESIDE (preposition) next to. There is a small table beside the bed.
BESIDES (preposition or adverb) in addition to, also, moreover. I have
five history books here besides the four that I left at home.
ASIDE (adverb) to one side. Harry sets money aside every payday for
his daughter's education.

COMPARE (verb) shows similarities. Sue compared her new school


with the last one she had attended.
CONTRAST (verb) shows differences. In her composition, Marta
chose to contrast life in a big city with that of a small town.

79
DEVICE (noun) an invention or plan. This is a clever device for
cleaning fish without getting pinched by the scales.
DEVISE (verb) invent, create, contrive. The general devised a plan for
attacking the enemy camp at night while the soldiers were celebrating.

ELICIT (verb) draw out, evoke. The prosecutor's barrage of questions


finally elicited the truth from the witness.
ILICIT (adjective) unlawful. The politician's illicit dealings with
organized crime caused him to lose his government position.

EMIGRANT (noun) one who leaves one's own country to live in


another. After World War II many emigrants left Europe to go to the United
States.
IMMIGRANT (noun) one who comes to a new country to settle. The
United States is a country composed of immigrants. Note: The verbs are
emigrate and immigrate. It is possible to be both an emigrant and an
immigrant at the same time as one leaves one's own country (emigrant) and
comes to another country (immigrant) to settle.

EXAMPLE (noun) anything used to prove a point. Picasso's Guernica


is an excellent example of expressionism in art.
SAMPLE (noun) a representative part of a whole. My niece loves to go
the supermarket because the dairy lady always gives her a sample of cheese.

FORMERLY (adverb) previously. He formerly worked as a professor,


but now he is a physicist.
FORMALLY (adverb) (a) an elegant way of dressing, usually a tuxedo
for men and a long gown for women. At the resort we were requiring to dress
formally for dinner every night. (b) properly, officially. She has formally
requested a name change.

HARD (adjective) (a) difficult. Yesterday's test was so hard that


nobody passed. (b) opposite of soft. The stadium seats were hard, so we
rented a cushion.
HARDLY (adverb) barely, scarcely. He had so much work to do after
the vocation that he hardly knew where to begin.

HELPLESS (adjective) unable to remedy (an animate thing is helpless).


Because I could not speak their language, I felt helpless trying to understand
the tourist' plight.

80
USELESS (adjective) worthless, unserviceable. An umbrella is useless
in a hurricane.

HOUSE (noun) and HOME (noun) are many times used


interchangeably, but there exists a difference in meaning. (a) House refers to
the building or structure. The Chapmans are building a new house in
Buckingham Estates. (b) Home refers to the atmosphere or feeling of
domestic tranquility found in a house. Home is where the heart is.

IMAGINARY (adjective) something not real that exists in one's


imagination. Since Ralph has no brothers or sisters, he has created an
imaginary playmate.
IMAGINATIVE (adjective) showing signs of great imagination. Star
Wars was created by a highly imaginative writer.

IMMORTAL (adjective) incapable of dying. The immortal works of


Shakespeare are still being read and enjoyed three centuries after their
writing.
IMMORAL (adjective) against the moral law, bad, evil. Their immoral
behavior in front of the students cost the teachers their jobs.

IMPLICIT (adjective) understood, but not specifically stated. Our


supervisor has implicit faith in our ability to finish this project on time.
EXPLICIT (adjective) expressed in a clear and precise manner. The
professor gave explicit instructions for carrying out the research project.

INDUSTRIAL (adjective) pertaining to industry. Paul had an industrial


accident and was in the hospital for three months.
INDUSTRIOUS (adjective) diligent, hard working. Mark was such an
industrious student that he received a four-year scholarship to the university.

INSPIRATION (noun) stimulation to learn or discover. Thomas A.


Edison, inventor of the phonograph, said that an idea was ninety-nine percent
perspiration and one percent inspiration.
ASPIRATION (noun) (a) ambition, desire, goal. Gail's lifelong
aspiration has been that of becoming a doctor. (b) expulsion of breath. To
pronounce certain words, proper aspiration is necessary.

INTELLIGENT (adjective) possessing a great deal of mental ability.


Dan was so intelligent that he received good grades without ever having to
study.

81
INTELLIGIBLE (adjective) clear, easily understood. The science
teacher's explanations were so intelligible that students had no problems
doing their assignments.
INTELLECTUAL (a) (noun) any person who possesses a great deal of
knowledge. Because Fabian is an intellectual, he finds it difficult to associate
with his classmates who are less intelligent. (b) (adjective) wise. John was
involved in an intellectual conversation with his old professor.

INTENSE (adjective) extreme. Last winter's intense cold almost


depleted the natural gas supply.
INTENSIVE (adjective) concentrated. Before going to Mexico, Phil
took an intensive course in Spanish.

LATE (a) (adjective or adverb) not punctual. Professor Carmichael


hates to see his students arrive late. (b) (adjective) no longer living. Her late
husband was the author of that book.
LATELY (adverb) recently. I haven't seen Burt lately. He must be
extremely busy with his research.

LEARN (verb) obtain knowledge. The new cashier had to learn how to
operate the computerized cash register.
TEACH (verb) impart knowledge. The instructor is teaching us how to
program computers.

LEND (verb) and LOAN (verb) give something for temporary use with
the promise of returning it. (Lend and loan as verbs may be used
interchangeably.) Jill loaned (lent) me her red dress to wear to the dance.
BORROW (verb) receive something for temporary use with the
promise of returning it. I borrowed Jill's red dress to wear to the dance.

LONELY (adjective) depressed feeling as a result of abandonment or


being alone. After her husband's death, Debbie was very lonely and
withdrawn.
ALONE (adjective) physical state of solitude, unaccompanied. After
losing in the Olympic tryouts, Phil asked to be left alone.

NEAR (preposition or adverb) used to indicate a place not too far


distant. My biology class meets near the Student Union.
NEARLY (adverb) almost. We were nearly hit by the speeding car on
the turnpike.

82
PRECEDE (verb) to come before. Weather Service warnings preceded
the hurricane.
PROCEED (verb) continue an action after a rest period or interruption.
After the fire drill, the teacher proceeded to explain the experiment to the
physics class.

QUANTITY (noun) used with non-count nouns to indicate amount,


bulk. A large quantity of sand was removed before the archeologists found
the prehistoric animal bones.
NUMBER (noun) used with count nouns to designate individual
amount. A number of artifacts were found at the excavation site.

REMEMBER (verb) to recall or think of again. I do not remember


what time he asked me to call. You don't remember me, do you?
REMIND (verb) to cause (someone) to remember, to bring into
(someone's) mind. Please, remind me to call Henry at 7 o'clock tonight.
Henry reminds me of my uncle.

SENSIBLE (adjective) having good judgment. When it is raining hard,


sensible people stay indoors.
SENSITIVE (adjective) excitable, touchy, easily affected by outside
influences. Stephen cannot be out in the sun very long because he has very
sensitive skin and burns easily.

SPECIAL (adjective) that which receives a lot of attention because of a


distinct characteristic. Meyer's Department Store will have a special sale for
their charge customers.
ESPECIALLY (adverb) particularly. Rita is especially talented in the
fine arts. She has a special talent for playing music by ear.

USE (noun) act of putting into practice or service, application. The


salesman said that regular use of fertilizer would ensure greener, healthier
lawn.
USAGE (noun) way in which something is used. Norm Crosby's usage
of English vocabulary in his comedy routine is hilarious.

Select the correct word in parentheses to complete the meaning


in each sentence.

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1. Betty's insulting remark greatly (effected / affected) Kurt, who is a
very sensitive person.
2. Detroit manufacturers hope to develop an easily attachable (device /
devise) for the carburetor to improve gas mileage.
3. While doing the experiment, we asked the lab technician's (advice /
advise).
4. Keith's company's headquarters were (formerly / formally) located in
Philadelphia.
5. (Especially / Special) attention must be given to the questions at the
end of each chapter.
6. George was (among / between) those students selected to participate
in the debate.
7. They were (already / all ready) to leave when a telegram arrived.
8. By asking many questions, the instructor tried to (elicit / illicit)
information from the students.
9. You should not say things that might make a highly (sensitive /
sensible) person upset.
10. The United States is a "melting pot", a land of (emigrants /
immigrants).
11. A large (number / quantity) of whales beached and died last year
because of ear problems.
12. When Louise set the table, she placed the silverware (besides /
beside) the plates.
13. Mark is (sensible / sensitive) enough to swim close to shore.
14. In 1969 the astronauts who landed on the moon collected (examples
/ samples) of rocks and soil.
15. Maria has been working very (hardly / hard) on her thesis.
16. Every time Mariela travels with her children, she carries (access /
excess) baggage.
17. Dante's (immoral / immortal) literary masterpieces are read in
universities across the country.
18. An explanation will (precede / proceed) each section of the test.
19. Perry's spare flashlight was (helpless / useless) the night of the
storm because the batteries were corroded.
20. Everything (accept / except) our swimwear is packed and ready to
g°.
21. "Your essay is very (imaginary / imaginative) and worthy of an 'A'
grade," said Mrs. Jameson to her student.

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10. VERBAL IDIOMS

A verbal idiom is a group of words containing a verb that has a


meaning different from the meaning of any individual word within it. The
following list of two- and three-word verbal idioms should be learned.

BREAK OFF: end. As a result of the recent, unprovoked attack, the


two countries broke off their diplomatic relations.
BRING UP: raise, initiate. The country commissioner brought up the
heated issue of restricting on-street parking.
CALL ON: (a) ask. The teacher called on James to write the equation
on the board. (b) visit. The new minister called on each of the families of his
church in order to become better acquainted with them.
CARE FOR: (a) like. Because Marita doesn't care for dark colours, she
buys only brightly coloured clothes. (b) look after. My neighbours asked me
to care for their children after school.
CHECK OUT: (a) borrow books, etc. from a library. I went to the
library and checked out thirty books last night for my research paper. (b)
investigate. This photocopy machine is not working properly. Could you
check out the problem?
CHECK OUT OF: leave. We were told that we had to check out of the
hotel before one o'clock, or else we would have to pay for another day.
CHECK (UP) ON: investigate. The insurance company decided to
check up on his driving record before insuring him.
COME ALONG WITH: accompany. June come along with her
supervisor to the budget meeting.
COME DOWN WITH: become ill with. During the summer many
people come down with intestinal disorders.
COUNT ON: depend on, rely on. Maria was counting on the grant
money to pay her way through graduate school.
DO AWAY WITH: eliminate, get rid of. Because of the increasing
number of problems created after the football games, the director has decided
to do away with all sports activities.
DRAW UP: write, draft (such as plans or contracts). A new advertising
contract was drawn up after the terms had been decided.
DROP OUT OF: quit, withdraw from. This organization has done a
great deal to prevent young people from dropping out of school.
FIGURE OUT: solve, decipher, interpret, understand. After failing to
figure out his income tax return, Hal decided to see an accountant.

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FIND OUT: discover. Erin just found out that her ancestors had come
from Scotland, not Ireland.
GET BY: manage to survive. Despite the high cost of living, we will get
by my salary.
GET THROUGH: (a) finish. Jerry called for an earlier appointment
because he got through with his project sooner than he had expected. (b)
manage to communicate. It is difficult to get through to someone who
doesn't understand your language.
GET UP: (a) arise. Pete usually gets up early in the morning, but this
morning he overslept. (b) organize. Paul is trying to get up a group of square
dancers to go to Switzerland.
GIVE UP: stop, cease. Helen gave up working for the company because
she felt that the employees were not treated fairly.
GO ALONG WITH: agree. Mr. Robinsons always goes along with
anything his employer wants to do.
HOLD ON TO: grasp, maintain. Despite moving to the Western world,
Mariko held on to her Oriental ways.
HOLD UP: (a) rob at gunpoint. The convenience store was held up last
night. (b) endure or withstand pressure or use. Mrs. Jones held up very well
after her husband's death. (c) stop. Last night's freeway traffic held up rush
hour traffic for two hours.
KEEP ON: continue. I keep on urging Rita to practice the violin but she
doesn't need my advice.
LOOK AFTER: care for. After my aunt had died, her lawyer looked
after my uncle's financial affairs.
LOOK INTO: investigate. Lynnette is looking into the possibility of
opening a drugstore in Dallas as well as in Fort Worth.
PASS OUT / HAND OUT: distribute. The political candidate passed
out campaign literature to her coworkers.
PASS OUT: faint. The intense heat in the garden caused Maria to pass
out.
PICK OUT: select, choose. The judges were asked to pick out the
essays that showed the most originality.
POINT OUT: indicate. Being a professional writer, Janos helped us by
pointing out problems in our style.
PUT OFF: postpone. Because Brian was a poor correspondent, he put
off answering his letters.
RUN ACROSS: discover. While rummaging through some old boxes in
the attic, I ran across my grandmother's wedding dress.
RUN INTO: meet by accident. When jack was in New York, he ran
into an old friend at the theatre.

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SEE ABOUT: consider, attend to. My neighbor is going to see about
getting tickets for next Saturday's football game.
TAKE OFF: leave the ground to fly. Our flight to Toronto took off on
schedule.
TAKE OVER FOR: to substitute. Marie had a class this afternoon, so
Janet took over for her.
TALK OVER: discuss. The committee is talking over the plans for the
homecoming dance and bouquet.
TRY OUT: (a) test. General Mills asked us to try out their new product.
(b) audition for a play. Marguerite plans to try out for the lead in the new
musical.
TURN IN: (a) submit. The students turned in their term papers on
Monday. (b) go to bed. After a long hard day we decided to turn in early.
WATCH OUT FOR: be cautious or alert. While driving through that
development, we had to watch out for the little children playing in the street.

Change the underlined words to incorporate two-word verbs.


Make all necessary tense changes.

Example:
The senator raised the question of the treaty negotiations.
The senator brought up the question of the treaty negotiations.

1. Louse doesn't like peas unless they're mixed in with something else.
2. Because of the shortage of funds, we will have to eliminate all
extracurricular activities.
3. Many teenagers quit school before graduation and regret it later.
4. Mike and Mary Ellen will be very happy when they finish writing
their book.
5. Marsha was so upset by her fiance's disloyalty that she ended their
engagement.
6. The local convenience store was robbed last night and 8225 was
taken.
7. Thomas Jefferson was one of the men responsible for writing the
Declaration of Independence.
8. I am trying to interpret this writing but it is not easy.
9. Continue driving at 55 miles per hour if you want to save gasoline
and prevent accidents.
10. Mrs. Davis asked me to serve as chairman of the entertainment
committee.

87
11. Pete promised to stop smoking immediately.
12. Maria Elena will take care of the neighbors' children while they
attend the school meeting.
13. Joey became ill with measles just before his scout troop went to
camp.
14. Mrs. Lastinger will substitute for the history teacher who is out of
town.
15. The mountain climbers grasped the rope tightly to avoid falling.
16. We plan to investigate the possibility of spending a week at the
seashore.
17. My mother distributed candy to the children last Halloween.
18. The manager said we had to leave the motel no later than noon.
19. Mike just discovered that his passport had expired three months
previously.
20. When buying apples, remember to select only the firm, red ones.
21. We were counting on a raise in pay, but we'll have to manage
without it.
22. Rita will accompany her sister to the Skating Palace on Saturday
night.
23. The tour guide indicated the historical monuments of the city.
24. I knew I could rely on them to get the job done.
25. The dance had to be postponed because of the bad weather.
26. I accidently met an old friend in the shopping center last week.
27. The manager said he would consider hiring another secretary to take
care of the backlog of work.
28. Last night Mr. Robbins raised the issue of student parking on city
streets.
29. Henry was so upset at the sight of his injured daughter that he
fainted.
30. Before making a decision on the project, the board of directors
decided to discuss the matter.
31. Procter and Gamble is testing a new product and has sent everyone a
sample.
32. All budget proposals had to be submitted by last Friday.
33. What time did you awaken this morning?
34. Be careful of speeding cars when you cross the street.

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11. USE OF PREPOSITIONS

The following diagram will give you a general idea of how prepositions
work. Often, however, the diagram will not help you to understand certain
expressions containing prepositions. For the following expressions which are
not self-explanatory, a definition is given in parentheses. Study the example
sentences to understand the meaning of each expression.
ABOVE, OVER
ON

BELOW, UNDER

DURING: This preposition should be distinguished from since and for.


During is usually followed by a noun indicating time. It indicates duration of
time. During our vocation we visited many relatives across the country.
During the summer we do not have to study.

FROM: This preposition generally means the opposite of to (see


diagram). He came from Miami last night. (opposite of: He went to Miami.)

1. Common usage offrom:


from a time to a time;
from a place to a place.
He lived in Germany from 1972 to 1978. We drove from Atlanta to New
York in one day.

2. Common expressions with from: from time to time (occasionally).


We visit the art museum from time to time.

OUT OF: This preposition generally means the opposite of into (see
diagram). He walked out of the room angrily when John admonished him.

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1. Common usage of out of: out of + noun (to lack, to be without). Maria
went to the store because she was out of milk.

2. Common expressions with out of:


a) out of town (away). Mr. Adams cannot see you this week because he
is out of town.
b) out of date (old). Don't use that dictionary. It is out of date. Find one
that is up to date.
c) out of work (jobless, unemployed). Henry has been very unhappy
since he has been out of work.
d) out of the question (impossible). Your request for an extension of
credit is out of the question.
e) out of order (not functioning). We had to use our neighbor's
telephone because ours was out of order.

BY: This preposition generally means to go past a place or to be


situated near a place. We walked by the library on the way home. Your
books are by the window.

1. Common usage of by:


a) to indicate the agent in passive sentences. Romeo and Juliet was
written by William Shakespeare.
b) by + specific time (before). We usually eat supper by six o'clock in
the evening.
c) by bus / plane / train / ship / car / bike (indicates mode of travel) (see
on, 1.b). We traveled to Boston by train.

2. Common expressions with by:


a) by then (before a time in the past or future). I will graduate from the
university in 2014. By then, I hope to have found a job.
b) by way of (via). We are driving to Atlanta by way of Baton Rouge.
c) by the way (incidentally). By the way, I've got two tickets for
Saturday's game. Would you like to go with me?
d) by far (considerably). This book is by far the best on the subject.
e) by accident / by mistake (not intentionally, opposite of on purpose).
Nobody will receive a check on Friday because the wrong cards were
put into the computer by accident.

IN: This preposition generally means inside of a place or enclosure. It is


the opposite of out (see diagram). Dr. Jones is in his office.

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1. Common usage of in:
a) in a room / building / drawer / closet (inside). Your socks are in the
drawer.
b) in + month / year (see on, 1.a). His birthday is in January. Peter will
begin class in 2013.
c) in time (not late, early enough) (see on time, 2.a). We arrived at the
airport in time to eat before the plane left.
d) in the street (see on, 1.c). The children were warned not to play in the
street.
e) in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening (see at night, 2.b). I
have a dental appointment in the morning, but I will be free in the
afternoon.
f) in the past / future. In the past attendance at school was not
compulsory but it is today.
g) in the beginning / end. Everyone seemed unfriendly in the beginning
but in the end everyone made friends.
h) in the way (obstructing) (see on the way, 2.d). He could not park his
car in the driveway because another car was in the way.
i) once in a while (occasionally). Once in a while we eat dinner in a
Chinese restaurant.
j) in no time at all (in a very short time). George finished his assignment
in no time at all.
k) in the meantime (at the same time, meanwhile). We start school in
several weeks but in the meantime we can take a trip.
l) in the middle. Grace stood in the middle of the room looking for her
friend.
m) in the army / air force / navy. My brother was in the army for ten
years.
n) in a row. We are going to sit in the tenth row of the auditorium.
o) in the event that (if). In the event that you win the prize, you will be
notified by mail.
p) in case (if). I will give you the key to the house so you'll have it in
case I arrive a little late.
q) (get) in touch with, (get) in contact with. It's very difficult to get in
touch with Jenny because she works all day.

ON: This preposition generally means a position above, but in contact


with an object. The records are on the table.

1. Common usage of on:

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a) on a day / date (see in, 1.b). I will call you on Thursday. His birthday
is on January 28.
b) on a (the) bus / plane / train / ship / bike (see by, 1.c). It's too late to
see Jane; she's already on the plane. I came to school this morning on
the bus.
c) on a street (situation of a building) (see in, 2.d and at, 1.a). George
lives on 16th Avenue.
d) on the floor of a building. Henry lives on the fifteenth floor of that
building.

2. Common expressions with on:


a) on time (punctual, used for a scheduled event or appointment, more
specific than in time) (see in, 2.c). Despite the bad weather, our plane
left on time.
b) on the corner (of two streets) (see in, 2.b). Norman Hall is on the
corner of 13th Street and 5th Avenue.
c) on the sidewalk. Don't walk in the street. Walk on the sidewalk.
d) on the way (enroute) (see in 2.h). We can stop at the grocery store on
the way to their house.
e) on the right / left. Paul sits on the left side of the room and Dave sits
on the right.
f) on television / (the) radio. The president's "State of the Union
Address" will be on television and on the radio tonight.
g) on the telephone. Janet will be here soon; she is on the telephone.
h) on the whole (in general, all things considered). On the whole, the
rescue mission was well executed.
i) on the other hand (however, nevertheless). The present perfect
aspect is never used to indicate a specific time; on the other hand, the
simple past is.
k) on sale (offered for sale). The house will go on sale this weekend.
(offered at a lower than normal price) The regular price of the radio is
$39.95 but today it's on sale for $25.
l) on foot (walking). My car would not start so I came on foot.

AT: This preposition generally is used to indicate a general location. It


is not as specific as in. Jane is at the bank.

1. Common usage of at:


a) at + an address (see on, 1.c). George lives at 712 16th Avenue.
b) at + a specific time. The class begins at 3.10.

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2. Common expressions with at:
a) at home / school / work. From nine to five Charles is at work and his
roommate is at school. At night they are usually at home.
b) at night (see in, 2.e). We never go out at night because we live too
far from town.
c) at least (at the minimum). We will have to spend at least two weeks
doing the experiments.
d) at once (immediately). Please, come home at once.
e) at present / the moment (now). She is studying at the moment.
f) at times (occasionally). At times, it is difficult to understand him
because he speaks too fast.
g) at first (initially). Jane was nervous at first, but later she felt more
relaxed.

Miscellaneous Expressions with Prepositions

1. on the beach. We walked on the beach for several hours last night.
2. in place of (instead of). Sam is going to the meeting in place of his
brother who has to work.
3. for the most part (mainly). The article discusses, for the most part,
the possibility of life on other planets.
4. in hopes of (hoping to). John called his brother in hopes of finding
somebody to watch his children.
5. of course (certainly). Of course, if you study the material very
thoroughly, you will have no trouble on the examination.
6. off and on (intermittently). It rained off and on all day yesterday.
7. all of a sudden (suddenly). We were walking through the woods
when, all of a sudden, we heard a strange sound.
8. for good (forever). Helen is leaving Chicago for good.

BifJ Write the correct preposition in the following sentences. There


may be several possible answers for some blanks.

(1) ... the summer, we went (2) ... the beach every day. We stayed (3)
... a lovely motel right (4) ... the beach. (5) the morning we would get up (6)
... 9.30, have breakfast, and then spend four hours (7) ... the pool (8) ... all
the other guests. (9) ... 1.00 we would have lunch (10) ... our room. (11) ...

93
lunch we would eat something light like sandwiches and fruit. (12) ... the
afternoon we would return (13) ... the pool area and sit (14) ... the sun (15)
... a while. (16) ... night we would take long walks (17) ... the beach or visit
some friends who lived (18) ... 520 Volusia Avenue (19) ... Daytona Beach.
Many people from (20) ... (21) ... town stayed (22) ... that motel.
Like us, they had been coming (23) ... that same motel (24) ... 2010. Most
(25) ... them were (26) ... Ohio. (27) ... time (28) ... time we would eat out
(29) . a nice restaurant, where we did not have to wait long (30) . the
waitress to serve us. (31) ... July it is usually very crowded, but this year (32)
... least, it was not as crowded as (33) ... the past. Once (34) ... a while we
went (35) ... the movies (36) ... the theatre (37) ... the corner (38) ... Las
Olas Boulevard and Castillo Avenue. We arrived there (39) ... no time (40)
... all (41) ... car. We sat (42) ... the middle (43) ... the theatre, (44) ... the
twelfth row. The movie started (45) ... 7.00 sharp, so we got there just (46)
... time to buy some popcorn and find our seat (47) ... it started. (48) first, I
thought I would not enjoy it, but (49) . the end, it turned (50) . to be a
very interesting movie. (51) ... the whole, it was an enjoyable evening.
We decided to get a Coke (52) ... (53) ... the machine, but
unfortunately it was (54) . (55) . order. So (56) . place (57) . the Coke,
we decided to get some ice cream (58) . the Dairy Isle which was located
(59) ... the corner (60) ... Harper Avenue and Washington Street.
(61) ... returning (62) ... our motel, I decided to finish reading my
novel. It is (63) ... far the most exciting book that Victoria Holt has ever
written. (64) . the most part, her book deals (65) . a group (66) .
archeologists who go (67) ... Egypt (68) ... hopes (69) ... discovering some
pharaoh's tomb. (70) ... accident they un cover a plot to smuggle the
treasures (71) ... (72) ... Egypt. (73) ... course the archeologists got (74) ...
touch (75) . the authorities, who had heard some rumors about smuggling
off and (76) . . All (77) . a sudden, one day the police showed up and
caught them (78) . the act and arrested them.

12. REVISION OF GRAMMAR MATERIAL


TOEFL Grammar Tests

TEST 1

Select the correct words from the list below to properly complete
the given sentence.

1. What year did you university?

94
a) graduate b) graduate from c) graduating d) graduating from
2. It seems to be getting worse. You had better a specialist.
a) consult b) consult to c) consult for d) consult by
3. Chicago is a large city, ?
a) aren't it b) doesn't it c) won't it d) isn't it
4. Don't leave your books near the open fire. They might easily
a) catch to fire b) catch the fire c) catch on fire d) catch with fire
5. Do you enjoy ?
a) to swim d) swimming c) swim d) to swimming
6. I have trouble .
a) to remember my password b) to remembering my password
c) remember my password c) remembering my password
7. Do you have to do today? We could have a long lunch if not.
a) many work b) much work c) many works d) much works
8. My brother will for a few nights.
a) provide us up b) provide us in c) put us up d) put us in
9. When will the meeting ?
a) hold on b) hold place c) take on d) take place
10. The board meeting was held .
a) at Tuesday b) on Tuesday c) with Tuesday d) in Tuesday
11. Why don't you us?
a) go to the house party with b) go together the house party with
c) go the house party with d) together the house party with
12. That awful accident occurred .
a) before three weeks b) three weeks before
c) three weeks ago d) three weeks past
13. They didn't John when he explained his decision.
a) agree to b) agree with c) agree d) agree about
14. The social worker the two old sisters who were ill.
a) called to the house of b) called on the house of
c) called to d) called on
15. Tomorrow is Paul's birthday. Let's him.
a) celebrate b) praise c) honor d) congratulate
16. If you don't understand the text, don't hesitate .
a) ask a question b) asking a question
c) to ask a question d) to asking a question
17. It's snowing. Would you like to on Saturday or Sunday?
a) skiing b) go to ski c) go skiing d) go ski
18. Our company didn't pay for that banner advertisement.
a) much funds b) many funds c) many money d) much money
19. Do you feel like now?

95
a) swimming b) to swim c) swim d) to go swimming
20. Tom was thrilled to be such a beautiful and interesting lady.
a) introduced b) introduced at c) introduced with d) introduced to

^TEST 2
Select the correct words from the list below to properly complete
the given sentence.

1. "You are welcome to order the goods now."


"But payment should be made ."
a) for advance b) advancing c) in advance d) to advance
2. "Where do you live now?"
"I live in Utah; my ."
a) parents too do b) parents do c) parents do, too d) parents
also do
3. I cannot understand my neighbour's accent. I wish she would .
a) speak clearer b) clearer speak
c) more clearly speak d) speak more clearly
4. "Why are you driving so fast?"
"I'm ."
a) must be hurry b) in hurry c) in a hurry d) hurrying
5. I have your music CD. I think I your concert video.
a) also have b) have too c) too have d) have further
6. I hear you have started a new job. like it?
a) How do you b) How c) What you d) What do you
7. I really have to go now. I have the doctor.
a) appointments to b) an appointment to
c) appointment with d) an appointment with
8. I can meet you at Central Station. Will ?
a) convenient for you b) that convenient
c) that be convenient d) you be convenient
9. I don't have any results for you today. I tomorrow.
a) have any b) may have any c) have some d) may have some
10. I would rather a quiet cup of coffee in the office than sit in a
noisy cafe.
a) have b) to have c) prefer d) prefer to have
11. "Where last weekend?"
"I went to see my aunt and uncle."
a) are you go b) do you go c) have you went d) did you go
12. I was very surprised that she didn't pass the exam."

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a) hearing b) to hearing c) at hearing d) to hear
13. "Why she isn't speaking to us?"
"We must have done something that upset her. She is just too
sensitive."
a) are you think b) are you imagine c) do you think d) you think
14. I hope that this winter won't be last."
a) as cold as b) so cold as c) as cold like d) so cold like
15. Sorry to be late. I was delayed by ."
a) a heavy traffic b) heavy traffic
c) some heavy traffic d) traffic being heavy
16. The sky is getting dark. It rain on its way.
a) looks b) looks like c) seems to d) will be
17. Would you do me a small favour? I very much.
a) appreciate it b) would appreciate
c) would be appreciative d) would appreciate it
18. I am familiar with that product. I don't know times I've seen it
advertised on TV.
a) how many b) how often c) how much d) many often
19. "When leaving for Toronto, Canada?"
"We are planning to set out at 10 o'clock."
a) are we b) will we c) will us d) are us
20. I asked Robert when he could fix my leaking tap. He said that he
would come round and fix it .
a) as much as possible b) as possible as he could
c) as fast as he could possibly d) as soon as possible
21. "Do you know that building is?"
"I would say that it was built at least 100 years ago."
a) old b) how age c) how old d) which age
22. The man told us that the next train would arrive .
a) at three thirty b) at three thirty o'clock
c) in three thirty d) in three thirty o'clock
23. "How a crowd had gathered at the scene of the accident?"
"I don't know exactly, but there were a lot of shocked onlookers."
a) large b) often c) many d) much
24. That is the city worst crime record.
a) on the b) in the c) with the d) for the
25. "Where should I put this key?"
"You can it on the shelf."
a) hang b) deposit c) sit d) put

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^ TEST 3
Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the
adverb.

1. The boy is loud. He shouts .


a) loudly b) loudest c) loud
2. The painter is awful. He paints .
a) worst b) awful c) awfully
3. She is a good dancer. She dances really .
a) good b) well c) goodest
4. Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano
a) wondrous b) wonderful c) wonderfully
5. This exercise is simple. You have to put one word in each space.
a) simple b) simplifies c) simply
6. Our mum was angry. She spoke to us .
a) angrily b) angriest c) angry
7. This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house .
a) quietly b) quiet c) silently
8. Her English is fluent. She speaks English .
a) fluently b) fluent c) fluency
9. My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives .
a) carelessly b) careless c) carelessness
10. Joanne is happy. She smiles .
a) happy b) happier c) happily
Л/
TEST 4
Select the correct words from the list below to properly complete
the given sentence.
1. Q: his illness, John continued to play rugby.
a) Despite b) Although c) Even though
2. Q: After many peace corps teachers return to the States,
professional English teachers.
a) often they become b) they often become c) and often become
3. Q: that the American Indian crossed a land bridge into North
America from what is now Russia.
a) It is considered b) It is thought c) It was thought
4. Q: None of the students a car.
a) has b) have c) have got

98
5. Q: the Depression, individual stock ownership was common
in the United States.
a) It was during b) By the time of c) Because
6. Q: It is not yet clearly understood cause obesity.
a) why eating too many hamburgers can
b) why can eating too many hamburgers
c) eating too many hamburgers can
7. Q: The Eiffel Tower is the Leaning Tower of Pisa.
a) as popular a tourist attraction than
b) as popular a tourist attraction as
b) as more popular a tourist attraction as
8. Q: While most New Yorkers believe in ghosts, do not.
a) are a few who b) there are a few which c) there are a few that
9. Q: With his first painting 'Le Temple du Mordu', George Lesereaux
to establish himself as a master of pointilism.
a) could b) with ability c) was able
10. Q: Chinese is more difficult to learn than English.
a) It is certain that b) Certain it is that c) Certainly is
11. Q: Thinker and poet, the Brinker prize for his poem
'Alexander' in 1976.
a) Claude Pinocchio was awarded
b) was awarded Claude Pinocchio
c) was awarded to Claude Pinocchio
12. Q: Research now proves that eating fish and chips is healthier than

a) when eating hamburgers. b) eating hamburgers. c) to eat


hamburgers.
13. Q: It was Johnny finally gave up.
a) such difficult that b) so difficult that c) so a difficult test that
14. Q: , I would have returned it immediately.
a) If I knew that you wanted to read it
b) I had known that you wanted to read it
c) Had I known that you wanted to read it
15. Q: There has not yet been any decision made will represent
the country at the Olympics.
a) concerned athletes chosen b) as to which athletes c) those athletes
16. Q: , Shakespeare was also a prolific writer of sonnets.
a) Noting for his plays b) Famous plays c) Noted for his plays
17. Q: The Concord, which was jet, could reach New
York from London is approximately 2 and 1/2 hours.
a) fastest in the world b) the fastest of the world c) the world's fastest

99
18. Q: Scientists nano-technology capable of
computation at the atomic level.
a) newly have developed
b) have recently developed
c) have still developed
19. Q: is portrayed in Hermann Hesse's 'Steppenwolf.
a) Man searching his soul
b) A man searched his soul
c) A man in search of his soul
20. Q: Singer and entertainer, for his beautiful and
expressive voice.
a) was Frank Sinatra famous
b) famous was Frank Sinatra
c) Frank Sinatra was famous
21. Q: It is not only important to be on time, courteous
when replying to colleagues.
a) but also is it important being
b) but is it also important to be
c) but it is also important to be
22.Q : was this check written?
a) To who b) Whom c) To whom
23. Q: Children attending private schools being slightly
spoiled.
a) are often accused of
b) often accused
c) are often accused from
24. Q: Diets based on only one basic food element no
diet at all.
a) can be as ineffective than
b) can be as ineffective as
c) can be so ineffective than
25. Q: that James Franklin made his stunning debut.
a) It was 'Lions' b) It was in 'Lions' c) 'Lions' it was

Mi
TEST 5
Select the correct words from the list below to properly complete
the given sentence.

1. I once studied the piano .


a) for three years b) since three years

100
c) from three years d) for three ago
2. The castle during the war.
a) was bombed b) bombed c) was bombing d) had bombed

3. We bought some lemons we extracted the juice.


a) from which b) with which c) on which d) in which

4. The plane we traveled was comfortable.


a) in which b) at which c) with which d) from which

5. himself as a cleaner he entered the bank.


a) Disguising b) Disguised c) Being disguising d) Being disguised

6. vividly the lightning struck the church steeple.


a) Flashed b) Flashing c) Being flashy d) Being flashed

7. closer the crocodile grabbed the bait which was on the end
of the line.
a) Swam b) Having swum c) Having swam d) Being swum

8. The camper peacefully on the bank when a crocodile came


creeping closer.
a) was sleeping b) slept c) has been sleeping d) had slept

9. Dad went to the hotel and returned with a friend.


a) for a while b) for while c) while d) in a while

10. It is risky to ride a bike with no lights.


a) at night b) in night c) on night d) for night

TEST 6
Select the correct words from the list below to properly complete
the given sentence.

1. I met a woman in Scotland .


a) three years ago b) three years before
c) before three years d) three years since

2. I have just read War and Peace.


a) whole of b) the whole of c) the whole d) whole

101
3. He smokes too much but at least he too much.
a) doesn't also drink b) doesn't drink also
c) doesn't also drinking d) doesn't also drinks

4. , they had no chance of winning.


a) As bravely they fought b) As they fought bravely
c) Bravely as they fought d) They fought as bravely

5. respect your point of view, I can't agree.


a) Much as I b) As much I c) I much as d) As I much

6. Smoking is dangerous, as well as you smell bad.


a) make b) making c) to make d) makes

7. I asked for the parcel to my home address.


a) to sent b) to be sent c) to be send d) sent

8. I work last week, but I changed my mind.


a) was to started b) was to have starting
c) was to have started d) was to starting

9. When I went back to the town that I had , everything was


different.
a) left before ten years b) left ten years since
c) left ten years d) left ten years before

10. The older I get, I am.


a) the happier b) happier c) the happiest d) the happy

Mi
TEST 7
Select the correct words from the list below to properly complete
the given sentence.

1. I am slow to .
a) express my opinion b) express my viewing
c) make my views d) make my opinion

2. I have to have this report finished .

102
a) by Friday b) until Friday c) Friday before d) Friday beginning

3. We were fortunate enough to visit the Grand Canyon. It has .


a) beautiful scenery that is much b) many beautiful landscapes
c) many beautiful sceneries d) much beautiful scenery

4. The car was parked directly the diner.


a) before b) ahead of c) in front of d) preceding

5. The ski resorts are usually crowded. There are many people
skiing.
a) enjoy b) that enjoying c) who enjoy d) who enjoying

6. It is already 3 o'clock. Can you time to catch the bus?


a) have enough b) have it in c) make in d) make it in

7. I went to have my glasses .


a) fit b) fitted c) fit on d) fitted on

8. Mary's house is the hair salon. Do you think you can find it?
a) along b) near to c) against d) next to

9. The burning stick was very hot. He let just in time.


a) alone it b) go alone it c) go it d) go of it

10. Do we have money to last us the week?


a) a lot of b) plentiful c) plenty of d) enough

11. John decided golf on weekends.


a) to begin b) to commence c) to take up d) to start up

12. It to me whether we meet them or not.


a) makes no difference b) makes not a difference
c) is indifferent d) is not a difference

13. We were after all the hard work.


a) wear out b) outworn c) weary out d) worn out

14. We saw wild animals while on vacation.


a) quite a few b) quite much c) quite many d) quite some

103
15. They are late as usual. I don't think we should them.
a) await for b) wait for c) await on d) wait on

16. Are you the competition?


a) enter b) going entering c) go to enter d) going to enter

17. You had better the tourist information office.


a) inquire at b) inquiring at c) inquire to d) inquiring at

18. Ireland was part of the UK, ?


a) didn't it b) wasn't it c) hasn't it d) weren't it

19. They will be at the party.


a) present b) presents c) presenting d) at present

20. Will they go this summer?


a) swim b) to swim c) swimming d) to swimming

21. The New York police were very anxious about the crime.
a) more learn b) learn more c) to more learn d) to learn more

22. Many excited women could at the department store sale.


a) seen b) be seen c) be seeing d) be see

23. The sink in the locker room tends to .


a) flow b) overflow c) flow over d) over flowing

24. How long did the baseball game ?


a) last b) endure c) survive d) continue

25. The dogs have been groomed and the kennel .


a) washed b) has been washed c) have been washed d) been washed

26. The floor has been cleaned and the dishes .


a) washed b) has been washed c) have been washed d) been washed

27. Pollution occurs where the environment by man-made


waste.
a) spoils b) is spoiled c) spoiled d) has spoiled

104
28. Erosion occurs where the wind the rock away.
a) wears b) wear c) is worn d) is wearing

29. The girl and future games were cancelled.


a) was beat b) beaten c) was beaten d) has beaten

30. Have you read there was an earthquake in Japan?


a) that b) where c) which d) that which

31. We are starting to some of the neighbour's parties.


a) to invite b) to invited c) to get invited d) get invited

32. Seven people are understood to in the explosion.


a) have injured b) have been injured c) injure d) have been injure

33. Could you the kids while I am out?


a) look after b) look to c) look for d) look out for

34. If you are on the road on Saturday night, drunk drivers.


a) look out for b) look after c) look up d) look down on

35 . she was foreign made it difficult for her to get a job.


a) Fact that b) The fact that c) The fact d) That

36. If I lots of money I would give some to anybody who asked


for it.
a) had b) would have c) have d) will have

37. There are various ways secret messages.


a) to compose b) of composing c) to composing d) for composing

38. I think they a doctor earlier.


a) should consult b) should have consulted c) would consult d)
consult

39. If she so bad-tempered, I might have married her.


a) has been b) had not been c) were not d) have not been

40) If you are still thirsty, I'll make pot of coffee.


a) the other b) other c) others d) another

105
13. IRREGULAR VERBS
Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
/Participle II
be was, were been -быть,
находиться
become became become -становиться
begin began begun -начинать(-ся)
break broke broken -разбивать(-ся)
bring brought brought -приносить
build built built -строить
buy bought bought -покупать
catch caught caught -ловить, хватать
choose chose chosen -выбирать
come came come -приходить
cost cost cost -стоить
cut cut cut -резать, рубить
do did done -делать
draw drew drawn -рисовать
drink drank drunk -пить
drive drove driven -ехать, вести
автомобиль
eat ate eaten -есть
fall fell fallen -падать
feel felt felt -чувствовать
find found found -находить
fly flew flown -летать
forget forgot forgotten -забывать
get got got -получать,
добираться
give gave given -давать
go went gone -идти
grow grew grown -расти
have had had -иметь
hear heard heard -слышать
hit hit hit -ударять
hold held held -держать
keep kept kept -хранить
know knew known -знать
learn learnt/learned learnt/learned -учить, узнавать

106
leave left left -оставлять
let let let -позволять
lie lay lain -лежать
lose lost lost -терять
make made made -делать
mean meant meant -означать
meet met met -встречать(-ся)
РаУ paid paid -платить
put put put -класть, ставить
read read read -читать
ring rang rung -звонить
rise rose risen -подниматься
run ran run -бежать
say said said -сказать
see saw seen -видеть
sell sold sold -продавать
send sent sent -посылать
shine shone shone -светить
show showed shown -показывать
sing sang sung -петь
sit sat sat -сидеть
sleep slept slept -спать
speak spoke spoken -говорить
spend spent spent -проводить
stand stood stood -стоять
swim swam swum -плавать
take took taken -брать
teach taught taught -обучать
tell told told -сказать
think thought thought -думать
understand understood understood -понимать
wake woke woken -просыпаться
wear wore worn -носить (одежду)
win won won -побеждать,
выигрывать
write wrote written -писать

107
REERENCES

1. Elaine Walker, Steve Elsworth. Grammar Practice. - Pearson


Education Limited 2000.
2. Michael A. Pyle, M.A. and Mary Ellen Munoz, M.A. Test of English
as a Foreign Language. - Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991.
3. Michael Swan, Catherine Walter. The Good Grammar Book. - Oxford
University Press, 2001, p.324.
4. Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University
Press, 2000.
5. Virginia Evans. English Grammar Book. Round-up, 6. - "Express
Publishers", 1995.
6. Virginia Evans. Enterprise. Course book. Intermediate. - Express
Publishing, 2001.
7. Дроздова Т.Ю., Берестова А.И., Маилова В.Г. English Grammar. -
Изд-во «Химера», 1996-2001.
8. Борисенко Е.Н., Душина Г.В., Скуридина В.Н. Тесты по
грамматике английского языка для студентов неязыковых факультетов
университетов. - Кемерово, 2004.
9. Казанцев А.Ю., Казанцева Г.С. Английский язык. - Томский
институт бизнеса, 2005.
10. www.perfectyourenglish.com
11. www.perfectyourenglish.com

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Учебное издание

КАЗАНЦЕВА Галина Семеновна


КАЗАНЦЕВ Андрей Юрьевич

ПРАКТИКУМ ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ
ЧАСТЬ 2

Учебное пособие

Научный редактор
Кандидат филологических наук, доцент Е.В. Швагрукова

Компьютерная верстка О.М. Демидова,


С.И. Сулайманова

Подписано к печати 05.11.2010. Формат 60х8416. Бумага «Снегурочка».


Печать XEROX. Усл.печ.л. 0,00. Уч.-изд.л. 0,00.
Заказ . Тираж 50 экз.
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Тел./факс: 8(3822)56-35-35, www.tpu.ru

109
A Practice Grammar Book (Part 2) is designed for learners of the English
language at Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate levels.

This book consists of 11 units, each focusing on a particular grammar


topic. A typical unit contains a variety of exercises which allow learners
to understand and practice English grammar structures. Five Progress
Check Tests, each covering two or three consecutive units, are included
at the end of these units. Seven Tests in TOEFL format on revision of the
presented grammar material are also included at the end of the book. The
book is accompanied by a Teacher's book containing keys to both the
exercises and the tests.

The aim of the book is to present and explain in an achievable way


peculiarities of English grammar structures needed in practice to learners.

The book can be used for self-study or in the classroom as a supplement


to any course at these levels.

TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY


2013