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Grammar Notes


Russian nouns are divided into three grammatical genders:

masculine, feminine, and neuter. Usually, one can determine the
noun gender by the noun ending.

Most masculine nouns end in:

a consonant паспорт, журнал, компьютер

"-Й" музей
the soft sign "-Ь" словарь
Feminine nouns usually end in:

"-А" страна, газета, виза

"-Я" фамилия
the soft sign "-Ь" площадь
Most neuter nouns end in:

"-O" письмо, яблоко

"-E" море, кафе
паспорт страна
журнал газета
компьютер виза
музей фамилия
словарь площадь

Это студент. Это студенты.

Это газета. Это газеты.

In the Russian language plural nouns are constructed in the
following way:

 - to the masculine singular noun the endings -Ы or -И are

o -Ы, -И:
 документ – документы
 журнал – журналы
 - feminine noun endings undergo changes:
o "-А" is replaced by "-Ы"
 виза – визы
 газета – газеты
o "-Я" is replaced by "-И"
 фамилия – фамилии
 - neuter nouns endings undergo changes:
o -А
 письмо – письма
o - Е is replaced by-Я
 море – моря

The word ЯБЛОКО (apple) is an exception, the plural form of it is


Please, remember! The words "ДЕНЬГИ", "ОЧКИ" have only the

plural forms.
For example: 

      Он студент. – Она студентка.

      Он журналист. – Она журналистка. 

But there is a group of nouns indicating occupations which don’t

change by gender. For example: 

     Он менеджер. – Она менеджер.

     Он инженер. – Она инженер.

     Он доктор. – Она доктор.

     Он музыкант. – Она музыкант. 


To give a negative answer to a question formed without a special
question word, you have to use TWO negative words (or double
negation): «НЕТ» и «НЕ» . First, you have to say «НЕТ» (No,...)
and then repeat the negative particle «НЕ» preceeding negation.

For example: ЭТО КЛЮЧ? НЕТ, ЭТО НЕ КЛЮЧ.




Intonation plays a big role in the question and answer. In the

question you emphasize the word that is most meaningful or
important to you - that's where the intonation will rise.

In the answer the negative particle «не» and the following word are
pronounced together as one phonetic unit or word. As a rule, the
stress does not fall on the particle «не».

 «не тут» - [ нитут]

 «не она» - [ ниана]

Depending on the meaning of the question, «не» can be placed


Это стол? - Нет, не стол.
Дом там? - Нет, не там.
Ты знаешь? - Нет, не знаю.
Дом большой? – Нет, не большой.


1. Posessive pronouns always agree in gender and number with

the nouns they refer to. For example, "мой билет" (my
ticket) - "билет" is a masculine noun, "твоя виза" (your
entry visa) - "виза" is a feminine noun, 'моё яблокоa' (my
apple) - яблоко is a neuter noun, "ваши деньги" (your
money) - "деньги" is a plural noun.
2. Pronoun forms его, её, их don't change. You should select
the pronoun to agree with the gender of the person who owns
the object:
o Это Антон. Он здесь. Это его билет, его виза, его
фото, его деньги.
o Это Анна. Она там. Это её билет, её виза, её фото,
её деньги.
o Это Антон и Анна. Это они. Это их журнал, их
виза, их фото, их деньги.
3. To find out who owns the object, you should ask a question
using special question pronoun forms: чей? чья? чьё? чьи?
(whose?). You should select a pronoun form which agrees in
gender and number with the noun referred to by the question
o Это Мария. Это билет. Это её билет. Чей это
билет? (The noun «билет» is masculine, so you need
the question word "ЧЕЙ"? ).
o Это Джон. Это виза. Это его виза. Чья это виза?
(The noun «виза» is feminine, so you need the
question word "ЧЬЯ"? ).
o Это Антон. Это яблоко. Это его яблоко. Чьё это
яблоко? (The noun «яблоко» is neuter, so you need
the question word "ЧЬЁ"? ).
o Это Анна и Джон. Это деньги. Это их деньги. Чьи
это деньги? (The noun «деньги» is plural, so you
need the question word "ЧЬИ"? ).

There are special words to indicate nationalities in Russian. To
describe males and females of the same nationality, different
masculine and feminine nouns will be used. To indicate nationality
of several people, in Russian a special plural form can be used.

Take a look at the table: masculine nouns are forned with the help of
suffixes -ец (канадец), -ан+-ец (американец), less often the suffix
анин is used: (англичанин). Some masculine nationality nouns have
special forms: француз, турок, грек. The form русский (русская,
русские) is also an exceptionРусский – is an adjective, not a noun

Most feminine nationality nouns end in -ка (канадка), -анка

(американка) или -янка (китаянка), however, there are
exceptions: француженка.
Plural froms are constructed following the standard rules:

If the masculine singular noun ends in а -ец (канадец) or -анец

(американец), the plural form ends in -цы (канадцы) или -анцы
(американцы). The standard rule of adding an ending i>-ы or -и to
form the plural applies even to exception nouns, such as француз,
грек - plural forms - французы, греки. Please, note that the form
турок – турки. Masculine nouns ending in –анин have unique
plural forms, ending in –ане: англичанин – англичане.

As you can see there are many ways in Russian to form nationality
nouns. The most important thing to remember is this: nationalities in
Russian are expressed by special nouns, not by adjectives. And it is
best to memorize nationality nouns that are exceptions.

To characterise an action, or describe a state, adverbs are used in
most cases. Adverb is a part of speech in the Russian language
which never changes it’s form.

To indicate where something an action took place, we use "adverbs

of place". They answer the question где? (where?).

 Номер справа.
 Лифт там, слева.
 Ресторан внизу.

To indicate when something takes place, we use "adverbs of time"

which answer the question когда? (when?).
 Завтрак утром, обед днём, ужин вечером.

To characterise an action or state, we use "adverbs of manner" which

answer the question как? (how?, or "in which manner the action took

 Летом жарко,зимой холодно.

 Это хорошо.
 В ресторане очень дорого.

Most often, adverbs are used with verbs expressing states or actions,
with adjectives, and with other adverbs. Adverbs are placed in front
of these words and indicate intensity of an action, intensity of a state,
or characteristic.
You can also find adverbs in sentences with the word ЭТО (it, this).

 Сериал – это скучно!

 Детектив – это интересно.

To describe a state of the environment or nature, we use impersonal

sentences (lacking an active subject in the Nominative case) with
adverbs. Such sentences always include indications of time or
location. Usually, the information about where or when the action is
taking place will be placed at the beginning of a sentence, and the
information about the action or state characteristics (как?) is placed
at the end of a sentence.

The Russian language differs from most other European languages

in that in sentences describing the state of the environment in the
present tense, the verb быть (to be) is not used. However, in the
past and future tenses the verb "быть" is necessarily present in its
appropriate tense form.

 Сегодня жарко.
 Вчера было жарко.
 Завтра тоже будет жарко.

Remember! The most important (new) information is placed at the

end of the sentence. Compare:

 Завтрак утром (не днём и не вечером).

 Утром завтрак (не обед и не ужин).

Plural Nouns (continued)

The plural form of masculine nouns ending in -г, -к, -х, -ж, -ш, -ч,
-щ, and feminine nouns ending in -га, -ка, -ха, -жа, -ша, -ча, -ща, is
formed using the letter "и":

банк – банки
этаж - этажи
девушка – девушки
книга – книги.

Please, memorize some special plural forms:

брат – бра́тья             дом – дома́                 ребё́нок – де́ти

стул – сту́лья             город – города́           челове́к – лю́ди
друг – друзья́             адрес – адреса

Borrowed nouns that end in vowels: "о", "-а", "-и", "-у" don't have a
separate plural form: такси (sing) = такси (pl) = taxi, метро =
метро (metro), пальто = пальто (coat), интервью (interview).

There are some nouns in Russian which have only the plural form:
"джинсы", "деньги", "очки", "часы".
Please, remember! These are exceptions.

Adjectives are words that describe objects, i.e. indicate objects’
characteristics and attributes. The adjective answers a question:
“«какой?» /”What kind?” or “Which one?” (see below). An
adjective’s grammar form is always identical to that of a noun it
characterizes, in other words, the adjective always has the same
gender, number and case, as the noun:

красивый дом
красивая девушка
красивое дерево
красивые цветы

Pay attention to the endings of the nouns and adjectives in the table:

A Russian adjective follows either a “hard” or “soft” conjugation

pattern – it means that one should pay attention to which consonant -
hard or soft – precedes the adjective’s ending: e.g.in “новый” – [в]
is a hard consonant, so the ending will be “- ый”, while in "синий” -
[н’] is a soft consonant, thus, the ending is «ий». . The following are
the “hard” conjugation pattern endings: но́вый, но́вая, но́вое,
но́выеThe following are the “soft” conjugation pattern endings:
си́ний, си́няя, си́нее, си́ниеHowever, it is important to remember
that in a stressed position masculine adjectives that follow the “hard”
conjugation pattern will end in «ОЙ» instead of «ЫЙ»: голубо́й,
молодо́й и т.д.The “soft” conjugation pattern adjectives have to be
memorized, as they reflect linguistic evolution. In most cases, these
are nouns that end in -ний: си́ний, ле́тний, зи́мний, вчера́шний,

Question words: "Какой? Какая? Какое?

"(what kind? which one?)
When an inquiry is made about qualitative characteristics of a person
or inanimate object ("what kind of a person or object is it?"), in
Russian questions "какой? какая? какое? какие?" are asked. The
question word usually opens the sentence, and agrees in gender and
number with the noun it refers to. With the masculine noun, you will
use the question word "какой?", with the feminine noun - "какая?",
with the neuter noun - "какое?", and with plural nouns - "какие?".

"Какой это человек?" ("What kind of a person is he?"): the noun

"человек" (person) is masculine and singular, and the question word
"какой"? is appropriate to use.

"Какая это рыба"? ("What kind of a fish is it?"): "рыба" (fish) is a

feminine noun in Russian, and the appropriate question word is

"Какое это пиво?" ("What kind of a beer is it?"): "пиво" (beer) is a

neuter noun, and the appropriate question word is "какое")

"Какие это дети?" ("What kind of children are these?"): "дети" is a

plural noun, and the appropriate question word is "какие?")

Replies to such questions will include adjectives which agree with

the nouns in gender and number.

"Это вкусн║ая рыба". ("This is a tasty fish.")

Also, questions "какой? какая? какое? какие?" can be used to

inquire about an object's name. Compare:

"Какое это пиво?" ("What kind of a beer is it?")

"Это холодное пиво". ("This is a cold beer".)

"Это пиво "Балтика". ("This is the Baltika brand beer".)

CASES in Russian
Russian nouns change (are inflected) in a sentence. The noun's form
depends on the noun's role in a sentence. Such noun forms are
known as "cases". There are six cases in the Russian language, and
every case answers a specific case question for animate and
inanimate nouns, is distinguished by a set of case endings, and has
specific meaning and functions in the sentence.

There are six cases in the Russian language:

The Nominative Case is used when a noun is the grammatical

subject (sometimes – a predicate) of a sentence and answers the
questions: "Who?" or "What?". As a rule, in a dictionary nouns are
listed in the Nominative case.
To indicate location of a person or an object (i.e. give an answer to
the question "where?"), you should select a noun in the Prepositional
case form.

To indicate location, nouns in the Prepositional case are always used

with the prepositions "в"(in) or "на"(on). If an object is located
inside something, we use a preposition " в" (in): "шарф в сумке" -
"a scarf in a bag", "телефон в столе" -"a telephone in a desk
drawer", "фото в книге" -"a photo in a book". And if an object is
located on a top surface of something , we use a preposition "на"
(on): "шарф на сумке" -"a scarf on a bag", "телефон на столе" - "a
telephone on a desk", "фото на книге" - "a photo on a book".
Please, note additional rules and tips on how to use the prepositions
"в" (in) and "на" (on):
Книги на полке.

Цветы в вазе.

Preposition В (in)

 If a person or object is in a room or in a building, in most

cases the preposition " в" is used: "Антон b>в комнате" -
"Anton is in the room.", "Иван в ресторане". – "Ivan is in
the restaurant." Exceptions: на почте (post office) на
стадионе (stadium) на факультете (college department) на
фабрике (factory)
 If we speak about a country or a city, the preposition в is also
used: "Антон в Америке". – "Anton is in America." "Иван
в Петербурге". – "Ivan is in Petersburg."
 The words парк (park), сад (garden), лес (forest) are also
used with the preposition в: "Мы в парке". – "We are in the
park."; "Она в лесу". – "She is in the forest."

Preposition на ("at")

 If a person is attending an event or performance, the

preposition " на" is used: "Антон на уроке." - "Anton is at a
lesson"; " Иван на дискотеке" - "Ivan is at a disko dance."
 The preposition "на" is used with the words: "улица"
( street), "бульвар"" ( boulevard), "проспект"" (prospect,
avenue), "площадь" (square). They indicate that a person
stays in the open and "on the surface" : "Я сейчас на улице".

Prepositional case: Noun Endings

1. If the masculine noun ends in a consonant (in the Nominative

case), the Prepositional case ending "-е" is attached to the
Nominative case form:

парк – в парке, магазин – в магазине.

But if the masculine noun ends in "ь" or "й", this last letter will be
replaced by the ending -е:
музей – в музее, словарь – в словаре.

2) Likewise, if the feminine noun ends in -а or -я, this last letter will
be replaced by the ending "е".

Москва – в Москве, песня – в песне.

2. If the neuter noun ends in-о (in the Nominative case), replace
this last letter with the ending -е:

письмо – в письме

But if the neuter noun ends in -е, it will not change its form at all and
will only acquire the preposition в or на:

поле – в поле, море – на море.

3. If the feminine noun ends in "ь", in the Prepositional case

this last letter will be replaced by the ending i> -и:

– в тетради. (Please, note the difference: if the masculine noun ends

in -ь in the Nominative case, in the Prepositional case it will have the
ending е: словарь – в словаре).

4. If in the Nominative case, the feminine noun ends in-ия,or

the neuter noun ends in -ие in the Prepositional case they will
end in -ии:

Россия – в России, здание – в здании.

There is a special group of Russian nouns which have a different

ending "-y" in the Prepositional case singular. Please, memorize

All Russian verbs are inflected (modified) for person and number.
There are 2 sets of verb endings, or 2 Conjugation patterns. The
Infinitive verb form ( signaled by endings -ть, -ти, -чь) always
remains unchanged. This is the very form you see in a dictionary. In
a sentence the verb form will change because it has to "agree" with a
person and number of the verb's subject: I, you, he or she, it
(singular), we, you, they (plural).

Я знаю. Они знают. Вы знаете.

Please, note that there is one third-person singular verbal form for
both animate and inanimate subjects of all three genders: masculine,
feminine and neuter. "Антон (Anton) работа║ет". "Магазин (a
store) работа║ет"."Анна (Anna) работа║ет". "Школа (school)
работа║ет". "Радио (radio set) не работа║ет". The third-person
plural form of a verb will also be the same for inanimate and animate
subjects :"Антон и Анна (Anton and Anna) работа║ют".
"Магазины (stores) работа║ют".

Endings of personal verbal forms depend on a verb's conjugation

type - I or II. Most Russian verbs which in the Infinitive form end in
"-ить" are Conjugation II verbs: "любить", "звонить". Verbs which
in the infinitive form have all other endings are Conjugation I verbs:
"знать", "гулять", "отдохнуть", "иметь", etc. But you will come
across a lot of exceptions in verb conjugation!

Conjugation I
For Conjugation I verbs, to form the verb conjugation in the present
tense one must:

 drop the infinitive ending, or the last two letters: "зна║ть",

"дела║ть", "работа║ть")
 then add to the remaining part (зна-, дела-, работа-) a
correct personal ending: (I) зна║ю, (you, sing.) дела║ешь.
In the first-person singular and third-person plural, the verb
ending will be "- ю" or "-ют" if the ending is preceeded by a
vowel: "(I) работА║ю, (they) работаА║ют"), and if the
ending is preceeded by a consonant, the verb will end in -"-у"
or "-ут": "(I) моГ-у, (they) моГ-ут".

Conjugation II
For Conjugation II verbs, the verb conjugation in the present tense is
formed in exactly the same way, as for Conjugation I verbs - but the
personal verb endings are different:

Please, note the following spelling rule: letters "ч" and "ш" are never
followed by letters "ю" or "я"; instead, you should write "y" or "a":
"я пиШ║у", "я уЧ║ у", "они пиШ║ут", "они уЧ║ат".

The verb "хотеть" (to want) is an exception. It follows neither the

Conjugation I, nor Conjugation II pattern. You should simply
memorize its forms! Please, note an alternation of the letters "т/ч" in
the verb's stem.

Demonstrative Pronouns
To specify an object found in a group of objects, you can use a
demonstrative pronoun "этот, эта, это, эти" ("this, these"). The
demonstrative pronoun has to "agree" in gender and number with the
noun denoting the object. With the singular masculine noun, you use
"этот": "этот дом" (this house); with the feminine noun, "эта" is
used: "эта комната" (this room); and with the neuter noun, "это":
"это окно" (this window). Plural nouns require the form "эти": "эти
часы" (these clocks). Thus, there are four demonstrative pronoun
forms in Russian. The demonstrative pronoun is called for when you
point to a specific object you have chosen among several other
objects and to answer a question: Какой? (какая? какое? какие?) -
"which one?" or "which ones"?

 – Какой телевизор недорогой и хороший?

 – Этот. // Этот телевизор.
 – Какая комната очень удобная?
 – Эта комната.
 – Какое кино очень интересное?
 – Это американское кино.
 – Какие вещи твои?
 – Эти вещи мои.

To answer the question: "What is it?", you can use just one pronoun
form "это", and in this case, it does not have to agree with the noun
neither in gender, nor in number:

 Это мой дом.

 Это наша удобная квартира.
 Это наше окно.
 Это твои вещи?

A grammar model with the pronoun "это" gives you a complete

sentence: "Это дом" (This is a house). Это ваза. Это окно. Это
часы. The sentences are very short because in Russian the verb "to
be" is not used in the Present Tense. This model is quite different
from a phrase with a demonstrative pronoun which requires
additional information about the specified object and, thus, requires
a predicate to complete a sentence. Compare:

Что это? Какой? Какая? Какое? Какие?

Этот дом…
Это дом. Этот дом очень большой.
Мне нравится этот дом.
–Какой сувенир очень красивый?
Это русский сувенир.
–Этот русский сувенир очень красивый.
–Какая книга тебе нравится?
Это книга.
–Мне нравится эта книга.
–Какое пальто самое тёплое?
Это пальто.
–Это красное пальто самое тёплое.
–Какие часы очень хорошие
Это часы.
–Эти часы очень хорошие.
Pay attention to the word order in such sentences.

Это овощной салат. Э́ тот салат овощной.

Это красная рыба. Э́ та рыба красная.
Это дорогие закуски. Э́ ти закуски дорогие.
In a sentence the Dative case often indicates an indirect object: a
person or object to whom the action is directed.

 Позвони мне!
 Скажи мне!
 Дай мне!

In the Dative case nouns and pronouns answer the questions: To

whom? To what?

The construction "Мне нравится… " (I like) or "Мне не
нравится…" (I don’t like) is used to express the speaker's attitude
toward an object or action. In this construction a logical subject is
expressed by a noun or pronoun in the Dative case while an object is
expressed by a noun or pronoun in the Nominative case.

Consider the sentence structure in the following examples:

Attention!The verb form has to agree with the noun in the
Nominative case.

Let's see how you can ask and answer such questions:

 – Тебе́ нра́вятся блины́?

 – Да. // Да, нра́вятся. // Да, мне нра́вятся блины́.

 – Вам нра́вится омле́т?

 – Нет. // Нет, не нра́вится. // Нет, мне не нра́вится омле́т.

To convey an attitude to an action using the construction with the

verb "нравиться" (to like), follow the verb "нравиться" (in the form
нравится) with the infinitive form of the verb which indicates the
action itself:

 Мне нра́вится чи́тать.

 Тебе́ нра́вится обе́дать здесь?
 Ему не нра́вится пить во́ду.

A noun or pronoun in the Accusative case indicates a direct object.
Verbs "читать" (to read), "понимать" (to understand), "to know"
(знать), "любить" (to love or like) will be followed by the noun or
pronoun in the Accusative case. Nouns or pronouns in the
Accusative case answer the question: "what?" or "whom?"

The question "what?" is asked when the inanimate noun serves as an

object, and the question "whom?" refers to an object that is either a
human being or an animal.

 – Что ты хо́чешь?
 – Я хочу́ сала́т.

 – Кого́ ты зна́ешь?
 – Я зна́ю А́нну.

For inanimate masculine nouns, as well as neuter nouns, the

Accusative case endings coincide with the Nominative case endings:

Masculine nouns
Neuter nouns:

However, for feminine nouns both animate and inanimate the

Accusative case endings will be different:

Please, note! For masculine and feminine nouns which end in "–Ь",
the Accusative case endings stay the same.

To find out how animate masculine noun endings change in the

Accusative case, see Lesson 5.

Personal pronouns in the Accusative case have special forms.


The Imperative is used to express a request or an order.

There are two Imperative forms in Russian, and the choice of a

particular form depends on whom you are addressing:
Imperative forms.

This is how the Imperative forms are constructed:

Please, remember!

If the verb stem ends in a vowel ("a", "о", "у", "и", etc.), then the
suffix "-Й-" is added to the stem. If the stem ends in a consonant
("б","в", "г", "д", "ж", etc.), then the suffix "-И-" is added.

Verb: Past Tense

The Past tense is used to describe any action that took place in the
"Этот молодой человек раньше не говорил по-русски, а теперь
говорит". - "Previously, this young man did not speak Russian but
now he does."

"Маша уже говорила тебе, где можно купить сувениры." -

"Masha told you before where to buy souvenirs."

To form the Past Tense verbal forms: first, drop the verb Infinitive
ending and add to the verb stem the Past tense suffix "-л", then
follow the suffix with the ending "-а" for feminine nouns, with the
ending "-о" for neuter nouns, and the ending "-и" for plural nouns.

Please, remember! The Past tense verbal form agrees with the noun
in gender and number.

Ordinal Numerals.
The first place!

Just as adjectives, ordinal numerals have to agree with nouns in

gender, number and case.

Complex sentence with the words

"ПОЭТОМУ" (that's why) и "ПОТОМУ
ЧТО" (because)

следствие Я ем икру
причина Я люблю икру.
This is a cause. 2. Here is an effect.
Я люблю икру, поэтому я ем икру.

1. This is an effect. 2. Here is a cause.

Я ем икру, потому что я люблю икру.

Почему я часто ем икру? – Потому что я люблю её.

Modal words: рад (glad), уверен (sure),

должен (have to), готов (ready), надо /
нужно (need)
To convey an attitude to an action or event being talked about, a
speaker can use special words: "должен", "рад", "уверен", "готов",

The words "рад", "уверен", "готов" are short forms of adjectives.

Thus, they agree with nouns or pronouns in gender and number.
Consider the sentence structure in the following examples:

For example:

 "Антон рад видеть Анну в Москве". - "Anton is glad to see

Anna in Moscow."
 "Подруга должна заплатить за квартиру".- "My girl friend
has to pay for the apartment".
 "Студенты готовы писать тест". - "The students are ready
to write a text."


Я уверен, что видел этот фильм.

Please, remember!

 Мне надо позвонить домой.

 Тебе нужно заплатить за завтрак.
 Вам нужно поменять деньги.

Using adverbs ("по-русски" - "in

Russian") with verbs "говорить" ("to
speak") and "понимать" ("to

 Мы хорошо говорим по-английски.

 Друзья не пишут по-итальянски, но читают по-итальянски.
 Иван неплохо понимает по-украински.
Accusative Case: Animate Nouns
In the Accusative case, animate and inanimate masluline nouns have
different endings. For inanimate masculine nouns, the Accusative
and Nominative case endings are the same (see Grammeer Notes to
Lesson 4).

But for masculine animate nouns, these endings will be different.

"Антон и Виктор друзья". - "Anton and Victor are friends."

"Антон знает Виктора, а Виктор знает Антона". - "Anton knows
Victor, and Victor knows Anton."
BUT! In the Accusative case animate feminine singular nouns have
the same endings as inanimate ones:



 Сегодня понедельник.
 В понедельник я обычно работаю.
 Во вторник, в среду, в четверг и в пятницу я тоже

 Когда я отдыхаю? Я отдыхаю в субботу и в воскресенье.
 Вокресенье было вчера. Вчера, в воскресенье, я отдыхал.


Prepositional Case with the preposition "О" ("about")

The noun which describes an object of thought or speech must be put

in the Preposional case with the preposition "o" (about). Usually,
such nouns follow the verbs "говорить" (talk about), "думать"
(think about", "рассказывать" (tell about", "помнить" (remember
about), etc.

"Джон думает о чемодане и о Марии". - "John is thinking about

his suitcase and about Maria."

"Джон говорит о Москве". - "John talks about Moscow."

If you need to inquire about a subject of thought or speech, you
should start a question with the preposition "О" followed by a
pronoun "кто" or "что" in the Prepositional case: О КОМ? О


Personal pronouns in the Prepositional case have the following


Expressing absense: Genitive in negative sentenses with the word

To express absence of something or somebody, in Russian we use

the negative word "НЕТ" (there is no...) + a noun or a pronoun
in the Genetive case to indicate what or who is absent or lacking.

У неё есть собака. У него нет собаки.

To put a singular noun in the Genetive case, you have to do the

Negative pronouns " НИКТО́" (nobody) and "НИЧТО́"
(nothing) have the following Genitive case forms: "НИКОГО́"
and "НИЧЕГО́".

Это магазин. Здесь

Это зал. Здесь никого́ нет.
ничего́ нет.


In Russian the Genitive case (2) is used to indicate WHO
possesses an object (and to answer the question ЧЕЙ? ЧЬЯ?
ЧЬЁ? ЧЬИ? - Whose object is it? )

Это Джон. Это Мария.

Это его рюкзак. Это её багаж.

Чей это рюкзак? Чей это багаж?
Это рюкзак Это багаж
Джона. Марии.

Это его газета. Это её визитка.

Чья это газета? Чья это визитка?
Это газета Это визитка
Джона.     Марии.
- Чей роман «Идиот»?
- «Идиот» - роман Достоевского.

2. Description or definition (what?)

The Genitive case is also used to answer the questions: КАКОЙ?

Это Пушкин, русский поэт. Это Музей Пушкина.

(Какой это музей?)

Какая это улица? – Это улица Чехова.

Какой это театр? – Это Театр оперы и балета.


To describe a certain part of a whole object, the combination of
two nouns is often used: the first one indicates a part and the
second one, used in the Genitive case, indicates the whole object.
For example:

Это центр города.

Париж – столица Франции.
Дай мне стакан воды!

Please, note!
To put such a phrase in a different case, you will need to change
the first noun form. But the second noun in the Genitive case will
not change. For example:

Вот центр Москвы. В центре Москвы находится Театр

оперы и балета. В Театре оперы и балета работают
известные артисты.


To indicate a precise quantity, we use the construction "a
numeral plus a noun".

When there is one object, a noun is always in the Nominative

case and a numeral agrees with the noun's gender:

один час
одна минута
одно такси

If there are more objects than one, the construction "a numeral
+ a noun in Genitive singular or plural" is used. Please, study
the tables.

числительное +существительные мужского рода:

числительное + существительные женского рода:

Please, note! The noun agrees with the last numeral!

20 (двадцать) рублей, долларов

21 (двадцать один) рубль, доллар
22 (двадцать два) рубля, доллара
25 (двадцать пять) рублей, долларов
30 (тридцать) минут
31 (тридцать одна) минута
32 (тридцать две) минуты
35 (тридцать пять) минут

Please, note the word forms: два / две ("two")

два студента, два доллара (2 + существительные мужского

две студентки, две книги (2 + существительные женского

The invariant (never changing) nouns (see the section "Plural

Nouns (continued)") do not change their form even when

1 один евро, одно интервью, одно такси

2 (два) евро, интервью, такси
5 (пять) евро, интервью, такси

Complex sentence with the word

«который» (which, that)
To describe a person or inanimate object (i.e. to answer the
question: какой? = what is it like?), we can use a complex
sentence with the word "который".

Это человек. Он меняет деньги.
Какой это человек? – Это человек, который меняет деньги.
Это девушка. Она работает в банке.
Какая это девушка? – Это девушка, которая работает в

The word "который" behaves as an adjective: it is inflected for

gender and number to agree with the word it serves as a
substitute for.

человек – он – который
девушка – она – которая
люди – они – которые

The same happens when the word "который" serves as a

substitute for the inanimate noun:

стол - он - который
книга - она - которая
дерево - оно - которое
книги - они - которые

Please, remember!

The form of the word "который" is determined by its function

in a subordinate clause, not in the principal one! Please, consult
the tables: the clause that starts with the word "который"
doesn't change, and it can be added to any principal clause from
the left column.
How to describe location of a person or
object using the verb “находиться” (=to
be located)
In informal speech to describe a location of a person or object,
we use simple grammatical models:

Я в кино.

Анна на работе.

Книга на столе.

However, when we want to emphasize the meaning of the phrase,

we use the verb НАХОДИ́ТЬСЯ (= to be located).

Президент сейчас нахо́дится в Италии.

Красная площадь нахо́дится в Москве.

Мы сейчас нахо́димся около здания университета.

Sentences with the verb "находиться" sound more formal.


Красная площадь – в центре Москвы. – Conversational

(informal) style

Красная площадь находится в центре Москвы. – Formal


The verb "находи́ться" is reflexive, please, note how it

Possibility or impossibility of action:
"Мо́жно / нельзя́ "
To express the idea of possibility (or impossibility) of an action,
we use words "МО́ЖНО" (=it’s possible, feasible, allowed) and
"НЕЛЬЗЯ́" (=it’s impossible, not allowed) + the verb Infinitive.

Здесь мо́жно пла́вать, в бассе́йне Здесь нельзя́ пла́вать, в

есть вода́. бассе́йне нет воды́.

Здесь мо́жно войти́. Дверь Здесь нельзя́ войти́. Дверь

откры́та. закры́та.
2. The same construction is used to indicate that a certain action
is allowed or prohibited.

Здесь нельзя́ кури́ть. Там мо́жно кури́ть.

3. To express who is allowed or forbidden to do something, this

construction is supplemented by a noun or pronoun in the
Dative case to indicate the person.
У О́льги грипп. Ей нельзя́ есть моро́женое и ходи́ть на
рабо́ту. Ей мо́жно сиде́ть до́ма и пить горя́чий чай.

Please,< note! In such a sentence, you can't use a noun in the

Nominative case. The Dative case is required for a noun or
pronoun used to describe a person who is allowed or not allowed
to perform a certain action.

Expressing a favorable opinion

and emotional attitude
1. Expressions similar to «Какая хорошая
идея!» (What a good a idea!), «Как
красиво!» (How beautiful!)
When we want to convey that we like something very much, we
can use an exclamative sentence accompanied by a special
intonation. This intonational construction is called ИК-5 (IC-5).
When we pronounce such a sentence, we use a higher voice pitch
than usual.

A similar intonational model is used to express a hight degree of

a qualitative characteristic. In this case, the pitch is slightly
lower than in exclamative sentences.
Note that though the words that start such exclamative sentences
look like interrogative words, their function is not to form a
question, but to express a positive emotional evaluation (our
admiration or happiness about a certain fact).

Expressions similar to «Такая хорошая

идея!» (It’s such a good a idea!), «Так
красиво!» (It’s so beautiful!)
To express a delight or admiration for someone's action, you can
use the construction: "ТАК + adverb + verb".

Ты так хорошо́ поёшь!

Она так прекра́сно игра́ла!
Мы так замеча́тельно отдохну́ли!

To express an admiration for some characteristic of an object,

we use the construction: ТАКОЙ/ТАКАЯ/ТАКОЕ/ТАКИЕ +

Тако́й интере́сный го́род!

Така́я краси́вая де́вушка!
Ты тако́й у́мный!
Эта у́лица така́я дли́нная!

Please, note! We can express the same meaning using the

construction with the words "как" and "какой" but the word
order in such sentences will be different.

Как хорошо́ ты поёшь!

Как хорошо́ она игра́ла!
Как мы прекра́сно отдохну́ли!
Како́й ты у́мный!
Кака́я дли́нная улица!

Verbs of motion are a big and a diverse group in the Russian

language. We will go through the whole group of these verbs step
by step.

1. Идти (walk) – ехать (ride)

"Идти" indicates walking, going by foot, while "ехать"
indicates using a transport. Please, remember that "идти́" and
"е́хать" are both imperfective verbs!

The verbs "ИДТИ" and "ЕХАТЬ" are

used when:
Motion happens at a specific moment of time:

Она едет на машине или на

Она идёт сейчас в кино.

Вчера в пять часов мы ехали домой.

В пятницу утром мы шли на стадион.

Motion is directed towards a certain goal:

идти на работу

ехать в театр

To indicate a goal towards which the motion is directed, we use a

noun in the Accusative case (4) with the preposition "в" or

Вы вечером идёте в театр или в ресторан? – Куда вы идёте?

Игорь едет на работу или в бассейн? - Куда он едет?

Она едет отдыхать в Италию летом. – Куда она едет?

Они сейчас идут на работу. – Куда они сейчас едут?

Sometimes to indicate the motion goal, the verb "идти/ехать" will

be followed by a verb infinitive (do something)
Мы идём домой.

ехать отдыхать

It is also possible to use the adverbs "туда́", "сюда́", "домо́й":

Иди сюда!

Мы идём домой.

Please, note that different cases and sets of adverbs are used to
indicate location vs motion direction!

Expressing a wish or need to have a certain

object: construction with the word
"нужен" (is needed)
1. As you know, in Russian when we want to say that it’s necessary
"to perform an action", we normally use the following construction:

Мне нужно работать. Ивану надо идти сегодня в поликлинику.

Марте нужно было вчера прочитать статью

Студентам надо будет рассказать о себе на экзамене.

Please, note! The words "надо. нужно" are adverbs, they never

When we want to say that somebody needs to have something, we

use another construction:

Мне нужна эта книга. Мне нужен директор.

Нам нужно испанское посольство.

Вам нужны новые учебники.

Attention! The short form of the adjective (нужен, нужна…)

changes according to the gender and number of the noun denoting
the object:

машина – нужна

билет - нужен

объяснение - нужно

деньги – нужны.
Expressiong a person's state
To describe a physical or mental state of a person, we use an
impersonal construction “verb + adverb”. The noun or pronoun
describing a person in this or that state or mood, changes to the
Dative case.

Мальчику грустно одному. Друзьям в цирке весело.

Людям было жарко. Ему было холодно.

Вам будет там интересно! Без тебя ему будет грустно.

Attention! When we describe a state of a person, the verb "быть" is
used in it’s zero form. In the past tense it changes to "было" (third
person singular neuter) , and in the future tense it changes to "будет"
(3 person singular).

Time expressions with the

words «через» и «назад» («in»
and «ago»)
To express that an action happened some time ago in the past or will
happen some time in the future, we use a grammar construction with
the prepositions "через" and "назад". For example:

Два дня назад Мария покупала на рынке фрукты и овощи.

Через три часа у Марии дома будет вечеринка.


When we speak about the past, first, we name the time period - the
noun is in the Accusative (4) case - and then add the word "назад"
(ago): "минуту назад" (a minute ago), "два часа назад" (two hours
ago), "день назад" (a day ago", "неделю назад" (a week ago), "год
назад" (a year ago).

When we speak about the future, we start with the word "через" (in)
and then add an Accusative noun (4) to indicate the time period:
"через минуту" (in a minute), "через день" (in a day), "через
месяц" (in a month), "через год" (in a year).

Invitation to action: "Давайте

пойдём вместе" ("Let’s go
If you want to suggest that you and your friend or friends should do
something together, you need to use one of the following two
grammar constructions:

1. The Imperative form of the verb "давать" – "дава́й / дава́йте" +

the infinitive form of the verb describing the action

Дава́й дружи́ть!
Дава́йте игра́ть вме́сте!

2. Императив от глагола давать – дава́й / дава́йте – плюс форма

1 лица множественного числа глагола, обозначающего
действие. Обычно после дава́й / дава́йте используется форма
глагола совершенного вида множественного числа первого лица

Давай познакомимся!

In the Russian language, beside the pair of imperfective verbs of
motion идти – ехать, there is another pair of verbs of
motion:пешком – ходи́ть (как идти́)on foot – ходи́ть (like идти
́)или на транспорте – е́здить (как е́хать):or by transport – е́здить
(like е́хать):

пешком – ходи́ть (как идти́)

или на транспорте – е́здить (как е́хать):

Which verb to select: ИДТИ́ /

The verb pair "идти́ / е́хать", as you already know, describes an
action taking place at a specific moment:

A street conversation.

– Приве́т! Куда́ ты сейча́с идёшь?

– Я иду́ в магази́н. А ты?
– А я иду́ в библиоте́ку.

Сего́дня у́тром я е́хал на рабо́ту на маши́не и до́лго стоя́л в


За́втра ве́чером я бу́ду е́хать в по́езде и смотре́ть в окно́.

Please, note: the verbs "идти" and "ехать" are used only to describe
a one-way motion, or motion in one particular direction:

идти в магазин
ехать на работу
ехать в Москву
идти в музей

In contrast to the verbs "идти – ехать", the verbs "ходить" and

"ездить" are used to describe a repetitive or regular action:

Я е́зжу на ра́боту на метро́ ка́ждый день. А ра́ньше я е́здил на

работу́ на маши́не.
Ка́ждые выходны́е мы с друзья́ми хо́дим в кино́.
Ка́ждый день я ходи́л на рабо́ту пешком, когда́ рабо́тал на
фи́рме в Петербурге.
Мы регуля́рно е́здили на метро́, когда́ жи́ли в Росси́и.

The verbs "ходить" and "ездить" are also used when we describe
motion in different directions:

Андре́й лю́бит путеше́ствовать и ча́сто е́здит в ра́зные стра́ны.

Ната́ша лю́бит вку́сную еду́ и ча́сто хо́дит в рестора́ны.


Сейчас я еду в Петербург. Я очень люблю ездить по России.

Мы идём сейчас на выставку. В Москве мы каждую неделю
ходим на выставки, в музеи или театры.


In Russian, the construction with the verbs "ходить / ездить" in the

past tense is often used similarly to the construction with the verb
"быть" in the past tense:

"Мы ходи́ли на конце́рт." (We went to a concert) = "Мы бы́ли на

конце́рте". (We were at a concert)

Please, note! To indicate location, the verb "быть" is followed by the

noun in the Prepositional case: "быть где?" (6) (to be where?) –
"быть на работе" (to be at work), "быть в офисе" (to be in the
office). But to indicate the motion direction, the verbs "ходить /
ездить" (as well as the verb "идти / ехать") are followed by nouns
in the Accusative case: "куда?" (4) (to go where?): "ездить в офис"
(to go to the office), "ходить в школу" (to go to school).
The verbs ПОЙТИ́ and ПОЕ́ХАТЬ are derived from the verbs
ИДТИ́ и ЕХ́АТЬ; the prefix ПО- is added, and they become
perfective verbs. Take a look at how "идти́ / пойти́", "е́хать /
пое́хать" conjugate and compare them:
Verbs with the prefix "ПО-" are used in the following cases:

1.To express a wish, intention or ability to go somewhere, we use the

construction: хоте́ть, мочь + пойти / поехать:

Я хочу́ пойти́ в кино́.

Я могу́ пое́хать в Петербу́рг че́рез неде́лю.

Вы хоти́те пойти́ на конце́рт за́втра?

Ты мо́жешь пое́хать на метро́?

2. The prefix "ПО-" indicates the beginning of a motion, therefore

"пойти / поехать" are used to indicate the beginning of a motion in
a particular direction:

Она пошла в кино́. Он пое́хал в Ки́ев.

To describe a succession of movements, we also use verbs with the
"ПО-" prefix to indicate a beginning of each successive motion.

Вчера́ я снача́ла пошла́ в магази́н, пото́м пошла́ в кино́, пото́м

пошла́ в парк, пото́м пое́хала к подру́ге.

– Каки́е у тебя́ пла́ны на за́втра?

– У́тром в пое́ду на ры́нок, пото́м пое́ду магази́н, пото́м пойду́ в

бассе́йн, а ве́чером пойду́ с дру́гом в рестора́н.

Please, note! To denote one and the same event that took place
before, is taking place now or will take place in the future, in the
Russian language three different verbs of motion are used:

Вчера́ А́нна ходи́ла в кино́. = А́нна была́ в кино́.

А́нна идёт в кино́ сейча́с. = А́нна сейча́с на пути́ в кино́.

А́нна пойдёт в кино́ за́втра.

Давай пойдём! Давай поедем!

If you want to suggest to your friend(s) that you do something
together, you can use the construction with "дава́й" (singular) or
"дава́йте" (plural):

Дава́й пое́дем на метро́! Дава́йте пое́дем на метро!

Давай ку́пим биле́ты на э́тот конце́рт! Дава́йте ку́пим биле́ты на

э́тот конце́рт!


Perhaps, you have already noticed that when we describe an action
in Russian, we use very similar but still different verbs. These verbs
describe one and the same action, they have one and the same lexical
meaning - but they are still different. For example:

Я писал письмо. Я написал письмо.

Вы начинали смотреть фильм? Вы начали смотреть фильм?
Друзья пили пиво. Друзья выпили пиво.

What is the difference between these verbs? These verbs represent

different aspects. Most Russian verbs take on two forms - a
perfective form and an imperfective form (however, there are some
verbs that are exceptions to the rule).

Now that you know that there are perfective and imperfective verbs
in Russian, we should answer two most important questions:

1. What are the formal markers that indicate a verbal aspect? In

other words, how can we determine whether this is a
perfective or imperfective verb?
2. When should you use one verbal aspect and when you should
use the other? What are the rules that regulate the use of
Russian aspect forms?


The imperfective form is considered to be the main or base verbal
form. This is the form you see in a dictionary. The imperfective verb
expresses an action as such. It serves as a base form from which a
perfective form can be derived in several different ways:

1. By means of different prefixes.

2. By means of different suffixes.

3. By means of using a completely different verb


How to use imperfective and perfective verbs to describe
repetitive vs one-time actions that produced certain

When we want to describe a repetitive action which takes place

regularly, we should use an imperfective verb. If an action took
place once at a particular moment (date or hour), and we know its
end result, and we are interested in this result - we should use a
perfective verb.

Please, note that when we want to describe repetitive actions, not

only do we use imperfective verbs but we also offer extra
information by including in a sentence certain words (e.g. adverbs)
that signal repetition: "иногда" (occasionally), часто (often),
регулярно (regularly), днём (in the afternoon), etc.

Ирина не любит готовить, она редко готовит.

Phrases with the word "каждый" (every) that signal repetition:

"every day", "every morning", "every year", etc. should be put in the
Accusative case (4).

Мы завтракаем каждый день утром в 8 часов.

Родители звонят мне каждую неделю.

When we speak about an action that happened only once or at one

point in time but we are interested in its end result, we use a
perfective verb.

Я купила вкусный торт – вот он, давай его съедим!

Друзья посмотрели новый фильм вчера – фильм им очень


Марина обычно не покупает вещи в магазине, а покупает их

на рынке. Но сегодня она увидела на рынке красивое
пальто и шляпу и купила их.

Игорь редко звонит мне домой так поздно, а вчера вечером

он почему-то мне позвонил.

The Pronoun " СВОЙ"

You already know that when we want to express that a certain object
belongs to someone, in Russian we use possessive pronouns: my,
yours, his, etc. For example:

Это я. Этой мой дом.

Вот мой друг. Мы давно знаем его жену.

Здесь учатся студенты. Я покажу тебе их аудиторию.

In addition to the possessive pronouns, we can use a reflexive-

possessive pronoun "свой" to indicate that an object belongs to a
person who acts as the subject in a sentence.
The pronoun "свой" is inflected (modified) for gender, case and
number in exactly the same way as possessive pronouns:

Attention! A noun in the Nominative case can only by accompanied

by a possessive pronoun (мой, твой, наш, ваш, etc.). The pronoun
"свой" is never used with the Nominative case noun.

"Это я, это мой друг". - "This is I, this is my friend". "Друг" is the

sentence subject indicated by a noun in the Nominative case (1).

"Вчера к нам пришли в гости наши друзья". – "Yesterday our

friends came to visit us". "Друзья" is the sentence subject denoted
by a noun in the Nominative case (1).

The reflexive-possessive pronoun "свой" is used only if the agent

and the possessor in the sentence is one and the same person.

Please, note that sentences with possessive pronouns and sentences

with the reflexive-possessive pronoun "свой" differ in meaning:
Это Ве́ра и её маши́на. Это Кири́лл и его́ маши́на.
Она е́здит на рабо́ту на свое́й Он е́здит на рабо́ту на свое́й
маши́не. маши́не.

Using imperfective verbs to express that an
action is, indeed, taking place and that it is
a process .
When we want to indicate that an action is/was taking place for a
specific time period, we always use imperfective verbs and
additional words to indicate the action duration. For example: долго
(for a long time), недолго (for a short time), пять минут (for five
minutes), целый год (the whole year) etc. Word combinations that
indicate duration must be put in the Accusative case (4).

Вчера я работал весь вечер.

Ты говоришь по телефону два часа!

When it is important for us only to establish that a certain action

took place (or did not take place), we have to use the imperfective

– Марта читала русскую литературу?

– Да, Марта читала романы Льва Толстого. (Ответ

положительный, данное действие было).

Мы вчера вечером смотрели телевизор. (Здесь важно только

назвать действие, дополнительная информация – какую
программу смотрели, сколько времени – не важна).

– Вы смотрели новый фильм Феллини?
– Да, смотрели.
– Вы посмотрели новый фильм Феллини, фильм вам
– Да, мы посмотрели вчера этот фильм. Это прекрасный фильм!

In which month?
To indicate that an event happened or will happen in a certain
month, we use a name of the month in the Prepositional case (6) with
the preposition "b>в".

The Future Tense of Perfective and

Imperfective Verbs.
In Russian there are two ways to express that an action will take
place in the future, or, simply put, there are two future tense forms:
the so-called "simple future" form (for perfective verbs) and "a
compound future" form (for imperfective verbs). In the future tense
perfective and imperfective aspects will be manifested just as they
are in the present and in the past tenses. Compare:

"Я бу́ду чита́ть журна́л ещё час". – The imperfective verb

«читать» is used to indicate the process ("I will continue reading a
magazine for another hour.") vs. "Я прочита́ю журна́л и дам его́
тебе́". – The perfective verb «прочитать» is used to indicate the
action’s result ("I will finish reading the magazine and will pass it on
to you.")

The compound future form of an imperfective verb is composed of

two verbs: the future simple tense form of the verb "БЫТЬ" - "to be"
(it will conjugate or change for person and number) + the infinitive
of the imperfective verb:


я бу́ду чита́ть
ты бу́дешь чита́ть
он бу́дет чита́ть
мы бу́дем чита́ть
вы бу́дете чита́ть
они бу́дут чита́ть

The future form of the perfective verb (simple future) is constructed

very simply indeed - and similar to how present tense forms of
imperfective verbs are derived: by adding personal endings to the
stem. Perfective verbs agree with the subject of the sentence in
person and number:

чита́ю (НСВ, наст.вр.) – прочита́ю (СВ, буд.вр.), прочитаешь,

пишу́ (НСВ, наст.вр.) – напишу́ (СВ, буд.вр.), напишешь,
иду́ (НСВ, наст.вр.) – приду́ (СВ, буд.вр.), придёшь, придёт….

To choose the correct future tense form (derived from a perfective or

imperfective verb), you should keep in mind the difference between
the meaning of aspects. The future form of the imperfective verb
("the compound future") is used to denote a repetitive action that will
take place in the future, an on-going action (process) or a statement
that a certain action will take place.

The simple future tense is used to indicate a one-time action or

action's end-result in the future:

Compare the conjugation of perfective and imperfective verbs:

Reflexive verbs
There is a gorup of verbs in Russian that end in -ся. Ся is a
reduction of a reflexive pronoun себя that became a part of a verb.

фотографировать себя = фотографироваться

одевать себя = одеваться

Such verbs are called "reflexive". They conjugate a bit differently: a

personal verbal ending is added not at the end but rather is placed
between the verb's stem and the particle -ся. Please, note that the
particle itself also changes depending on the ending.

Reflexive "-ся" verbs can also indicate a reciprocal action. In this

case "-ся" means "друг друга" (each other):


Please, note! Reflexive verbs exibit the same root consonant

alternation patterns and suffixes changes as non-reflexive verbs.

Dative Case
Dative case indicating an addressee
When we speak, we usually address somebody. A person whom a
speech or action addresses is usually indicated by a noun in the
Dative case (3). The noun answers the question КОМУ? (to whom?)
In Russian animate and inanimate nouns indicating the adressee are
put in the Dative case (3) and after a verb.

Attention! Nouns denoting direct objects take the Accusative case

(4). Nous denoting indirect objects (addressees) take the Dative case

After some verbs you can use an infinitive to describe an action

more precisely.

1. In the Russian language, nouns in the Dative case are also used to
indicate an addressee of a letter/email or a telegram.

2. When we talk about cultural and historic monuments, a noun

indicating the person to whom the monument is dedicated, also
always takes the Dative case.

Памятник Пушкину

Памятник Чайковскому

Памятник Петру Первому

3. If a motion is directed towards a person, we also use the Dative

case with the preposition "К":
Марина сейчас едет в гости к Петру.

Вера вечером Иван пришел к Татьяне на день рожденья.


Идти, ехать (куда? – место – Винительный падеж) - в театр, на

выставку, на работу

Идти, ехать (к кому? – человек – Дательный падеж) - к Маше, к

Виктору, к родителям

Verbs of motion with prefixes

Adding prefixes to the verbs "ИДТИ́ / Е́ХАТЬ" creates verbs with
new connotations. The most commonly used prefixes are ПО-, ПРИ-
and У-.

REMEMBER! The verbs "прийти́ / прие́хать", "по́йти / пое́хать",

"уйти́ / уе́хать" are perfective verbs!

When a motion is directed towards an objective, and we want to say
that we have (or haven’t) reached it, we use verbs with the prefix
ПРИ-: "прийти" and "приехать". These verbs are also perfective.

Он пришёл на рабо́ту. = Он на рабо́те.

Он прие́хал в Москву́. = Он в Москве́.

The verbs "прийти́ / прие́хать" can also mean “to return”.

"Я до́лго гуля́ла вче́ра и пришла́ (= верну́лась) домо́й то́лько в

11 ве́чера" - "Yesterday I walked for a long time and came home
only at 11 pm."

Take a look at how these verbs conjugate:

The verbs ПОЙТИ́ and ПОЕ́ХАТЬ are derived from the verbs
ИДТИ́ и ЕХ́АТЬ; the prefix ПО- is added, and they become
perfective verbs. Take a look at how "идти́ / пойти́", "е́хать /
пое́хать" conjugate and compare them:
Verbs with the prefix "ПО-" are used in the following cases:

1.To express a wish, intention or ability to go somewhere, we use the

construction: хоте́ть, мочь + пойти / поехать:

Я хочу́ пойти́ в кино́.

Я могу́ пое́хать в Петербу́рг че́рез неде́лю.

Вы хоти́те пойти́ на конце́рт за́втра?

Ты мо́жешь пое́хать на метро́?

2. The prefix "ПО-" indicates the beginning of a motion, therefore

"пойти / поехать" are used to indicate the beginning of a motion in
a particular direction:

Она пошла в кино́. Он пое́хал в Ки́ев.

To describe a succession of movements, we also use verbs with the
"ПО-" prefix to indicate a beginning of each successive motion.

Вчера́ я снача́ла пошла́ в магази́н, пото́м пошла́ в кино́, пото́м

пошла́ в парк, пото́м пое́хала к подру́ге.

– Каки́е у тебя́ пла́ны на за́втра?

– У́тром в пое́ду на ры́нок, пото́м пое́ду в магази́н, пото́м пойду́

в бассе́йн, а ве́чером пойду́ с дру́гом в рестора́н.

Please, note! To denote one and the same event that took place
before, is taking place now or will take place in the future, in the
Russian language three different verbs of motion are used:

Вчера́ А́нна ходи́ла в кино́. = А́нна была́ в кино́.

А́нна идёт в кино́ сейча́с. = А́нна сейча́с на пути́ в кино́.

А́нна пойдёт в кино́ за́втра.

To indicate the point of departure, we use verbs with the prefix "У-"
(уйти́ or уе́хать), and a noun in the Genetive case with prepositions
"ИЗ" or "С" (from) to indicate the place of departure itself.

Андрей уе́хал из Москвы. = Андрей не в Москве.

Attention! Regardless of the stage of motion and the verb we use to

describe it, the departure point is always indicate by the prepositions
ИЗ/С + Genetive case (2), while the destination (or objective) is
denoted by the prepositions "В/НА" + Accusative case (4).

Андре́й уе́хал / пое́хал / е́дет / прие́хал из Москвы в Петербург.

О́льга ушла́ / пошла́ / идёт / пришла́ с рабо́ты на дискоте́ку.

Take a look at how the verbs "уйти́" and "уе́хать" conjugate:

Instrumental Case

Instrumental case and its meanings

1.Joint action

We use the Instrumental case with the preposition "с" to speak about
people who perform an action jointy.

For example:
– Тимур, с кем ты вчера играл в футбол?
– Я играл с Иваном, с Андреем, с Сергеем, с Виктором.
– С кем Маша ходила в кино?
– Маша ходила в кино с подругой Леной.

Анна с Антоном и Петей завтра поедут в Петербург. = Анна,

Антон и Петя поедут в Петербург.

2. Description

Often we use the Instrumental case with the preposition "C" to

describe an object accurately.

For example:
Вот бутерброд с сыром, а вот бутерброд с колбасой.
(Какой бутерброд? С чем бутерброд?)

Вот человек с газетой. (Какой человек?)

- Какую воду вы будете пить?
- Я буду пить воду с газом.

А вот и плов с мясом!

Instrumental case forms
Personal pronouns in Instrumental case:

Nouns in Instrumental case:

How to denote age
Age is expressed by a construction where the noun in the Dative case
indicates a person whose age we are talking about.

Это Иван. Ивану сейчас 16 лет.

Это Ирина. Ей сейчас 10 лет.

Сколько лет Марине Николаевне? Марине Николаевне 48 лет.

Reflexive verbs (continued)

In the Russian language, there are several groups of reflexive verbs.
Verbs in the first group describe actions performed by the agent and
directed back at the agent ("одева́ться" = "dress oneself",
"умыва́ться" = "wash one’s own face"). Verbs in the second group
describe reciprocal actions performed by two or more people
towards one another (здоро́ваться = greet each, обнима́ться = hug
each another). Verbs in the third group describe actions that are
neither reflexive nor reciprocal. These verbs are simply never used
without "-ся", and they have to be memorized. Here they are:
Instrumental Case
The Meanings of the Instrumental Case
3. Using nouns in the Instrumental case to describe
occupation or profession

When we need to describe a person's occupation, we can do so, using

nouns only :

Виктор инженер. Мария журналистка.

However, if we want to provide a more detailed information, we will

rely on a verb. When an occupation is discussed, the verbs
"работать" (work as), "быть" (be) and "стать" (become) are most
commonly used. These verbs are followed by a noun in the
Instrumental case.

Инна работает менеджером.

Please, note!

The verb "БЫТЬ": do you remember that in Russian this verb is

never used in the present tense?

Катя не хочет быть врачом, она хочет быть журналисткой.

Иван был студентом, а сейчас он банкир, работает в банке.

Николай сейчас еще студент, но после института он будет



Они стали политиками.

Татьяна стала музыкантом.
Сергей станет бизнесменом.
Мы станем друзьями.

Instrumental Case
The Meanings of the Instrumental Case
4. Instrumental case: denoting an object

To describe a person's interests or hobbies, we can use reflexive

verbs "занима́ться", "интересова́ться", "увлека́ться". The
noun that follow such a verb and indicates an object of a hobby or
interests always appears in the Instrumental case and doesn't require
the preposition "c.".

ЗАНИМАТЬСЯ (чем?) спортом, иностранным языком,

наукой, бизнесом…

Я люблю зимой заниматься спортом.

ИНТЕРЕСОВАТЬСЯ (чем?) искусством, музыкой, театром…

Марина музыкант. Она всегда интересовалась музыкой.

Иван бизнесмен. Он занимается бизнесом всегда.