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ALT Linux

Scilab

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. . ,
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ALT Linux; .
2008

004.67
22.1
47

47

. .
Scilab: / . . ,
. . , . . . . : ALT Linux ; .
, 2008. 260 . : . ; 8 . . . ( ALT Linux).

ISBN 978-5-94774-890-1

Scilab. (
), . ( ,
, , , :
, , , ).
Live CD ALTLinux 4.0 Junior, Scilab 4.1.1.
: http://books.altlinux.ru/altlibrary/scilab
.
004.67
22.1
:
.
(499) 157-52-72. E-mail: binom@Lbz.ru
http://www.Lbz.ru
, , GNU
FDL. , :
ALT Linux. : Scilab: .
. . ALT Linux ALT Linux. Linux .
.

ISBN 978-5-94774-890-1

. ., . .,
. ., 2008
ALT Linux, 2008
. , 2008

1.1
1.2
1.3

1. Scilab.
Scilab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scilab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scilab . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8
9
11
12

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

2. Scilab
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Scilab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scilab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Scilab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2.6

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3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Scilab.

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27
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32
34
52
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4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

4.
plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


plot2d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
plot . . . . . . .
plot2d . . . . .

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56
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4.11

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5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8

5. Scilab
plot3d plot3d1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
meshgrid, surf mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
plot3d2 plot3d3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
param3d param3d1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
contourf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hist3d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scilab

6.1
6.2
6.3

6.
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7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

7.
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4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10

7.5

8.

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5

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109
109
115
118
122
125
129
131
132

SCILAB
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138
138
143
147

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149
149
151
152

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152

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154

156

9. Scilab
sci- . . . . .
Scilab
Scilab . . . . . . .
Scilab . . . . . .
Scilab . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10. Scilab
10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 .
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163
164
171
177
182
184
187
187
190

11.
11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.

12.1
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12.2
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12.3
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12.4
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204
204
209
213

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213

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215

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227

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229

13.1
13.2
13.3

13.
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234
234
237
238

14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6

14. Scilab
Scilab . . . . . .
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245
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256

258

259

,
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Scilab.
Scilab .
Scilab Mathcad, MATLAB.
Scilab ,
. Scilab : Linux, Windows ( MS
Windows Vista) MacOS.
4.1.1. .
www.scilab.org.
, Scilab. , . .
, Scilab:
http://scilab.land.ru, http://teacher.dn-ua.com,
x odt 1
pdf .
. . http://www.csa.ru/~zebra/my_scilab/index.html,
, , .
Scilab http://www.scilab.org/publications/index_
publications.php?page=books.html.
Scilab
, .
1 odt Open
Document, , OpenOce.org (http://ru.openoffice.org).


Scilab. .
Scilab. ,
, Scilab 4.1.1 .
, .
Scilab.
, .
Scilab, Scilab .
Scilab.

, , .
.

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Scilab.
,
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Scilab.
Scilab .
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, Scilab.

, .
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CD .
ALT Linux
, Scilab.
. . , . . , . .
, , 2007

1
Scilab.

Scilab ,
, :
;
;
;
;
( ,
);
.
, Scilab .
, Scilab , , .
, . ,
,
.

1.1. Scilab

1.1

Scilab


www.scilab.org.
Scilab Windows Linux.
, .

1.1.1

Scilab Windows

Windows. , Scilab-4.1.1 , , . ( ) OK .
. , Scilab 4.1.1
.
Next. (I accept the agreement) Next . .
C:\Program Files\scilab-4.1.1 .
Browse. . . . ,
, . Next , . 1.1.
:
(Installation Default);
(Full installation);
(Compact installation);
(Custom installation).
, .
Next.
, ,
Scilab. scilab-4.1.1. Browse. . . .

10

1. Scilab.

. 1.1. Scilab

Next , , .
Next.
. Install . Scilab . . .
Next ,
Launch scilab.
, Scilab Finish,
( scilab-4.1.1)
(. 1.2).

. 1.2. Scilab

1.2. Scilab

1.1.2

11

Scilab Linux

Scilab , ALT Linux 4.0 Mandrivia


2007. Debian Ubuntu. Linux Scilab http://www.scilab.org, (
/usr/lib ) , Scilab root, make . /usr/lib/Scilab 4/bin/scilab
.

1.2

Scilab

Scilab .
, . ,
,
-->, () .
.
Scilab . Enter
(. 1.3).

. 1.3. Scilab
, . , ,
, , ,
Page Up, Page Down.
, Scilab .

1. Scilab.

12

,
. ,
, ,
. . ,
,
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, .
, , , , .
. :
; ; Home ; End ; Del
; Backspace .
, . ;,
. , ;, ( 1.1).
1.1. Scilab
-->2.7*3+3.14/2
ans =
9.67
-->2.7*3+3.14/2;
-->
, Scilab, , , . , , ,
. , ,
.

1.3

Scilab

,
, ,
. , , , - Scilab,
.

1.3. Scilab

1.3.1

13

File . 1 :
New Scilab Scilab,
;
Exec. . . Scilab- (
sce sci );
Open ,
;
Load , ; ;
Save sav bin ;
Change Directory , ;
Get Change Directory ;
Print Setup. . . ;
Print ;
Exit Scilab.

1.3.2

Edit :
Select All ;
Copy ;
Paste ;
Empty Clipboard ;
History ,
.
1 Windows, Linux File File Operations.

1. Scilab.

14

1.3.3

Preferences:
Language (,
);
Colors (Text), (Background)
, (Default System Colors);
Toolbar (F3) ;
Files Association ;
Choose Font (, , );
Clear History ;
Clear Command Window (F2) ;
Consol (F12) .

1.3.4

? Scilab.
, , , , .
Scilab Demos .

1.3.5

- Scilab, . , - SciPad, , Editor.


-. Untitled1.sce .
- , .. , , , .
- ,
Scilab. . 1.4 3x2 + 5x + 4 = 0. ,
; , .
File
Save . ,
Save le As. . . . File Name Save

1.3. Scilab

15

. 1.4. - Scilab

, . .sce .
File Open.
- :
SciPad Execute Load into Scilab;
Scilab Exec .
- (. 1.4).
, SciPad
( Windows), ( Edit) ( Search). , SciPad ( Options),
( Help)
, ( Debug).
, SciPad
File Exit.

2
Scilab

2.1

Scilab , //.
, -. // ,
Enter :
2.1.
-->//6+8
-->

2.2

Scilab
: + , - , * , /
, \ , .
,
Enter. :
2.2.
--> 2.35*(1.8-0.25)+1.34^2/3.12
ans =
4.2180

2.3. Scilab

17

,
Enter .
:
2.3. ,
--> 1+2+3+4+5+6....
7+8+9+10+....
+11+12+13+14+15
ans =
120
; ,
, :
2.4. ;
--> 1+2;
--> 1+2
ans =
3

2.3

Scilab

Scilab ,
. .
, = .
, . ..,

_ = _
, ,
, .
, 24 . . .. ABC, abc, Abc,
aBc . , ,
. ,
.
; , . ;

18

2. Scilab

.
:
2.5.
-->//------------------------------------------------->// b
--> a=2.3
a =
2.3000
--> b=-34.7
b =
-34.7000
-->// x y,
-->// z
--> x=1;y=2; z=(x+y)-a/b
z =
3.0663
-->//
--> c+3/2
??? Undefined function or variable c.
-->//------------------------------------------------->//
--> c=a
c =
a
-->//
--> h=
h =

clear _;
.
:
2.6. clear
-->// x y
--> x=3; y=-1;
-->// x
--> clear x
-->// x
--> x
??? Undefined function or variable x.

2.4. Scilab

19

-->// y
--> y
y =
-1
-->// a b
-->a=1;b=2;
-->// a b
-->clear;
-->// a b
-->a
!--error 4
undefined variable : a
-->b
!--error 4
undefined variable : b

2.4

Scilab

, ans.
, , ans
:
2.7. ans
--> 25.7-3.14
ans =
22.5600
--> // 22.5600
--> 2*ans
ans =
45.1200
--> //
--> x=ans^0.3
x =
3.1355
--> ans
ans =
45.1200
--> //
--> // 45.1200

ans. Scilab %:

2. Scilab

20

%i ( 1);
%pi = 3.141592653589793;
%e e = 2.7182818;
%inf ();

%NaN (0/0,/ . .);


%eps %eps=2.220-16.
:
2.8.
-->a=5.4;b=0.1;
-->F=cos(%pi/3)+(a-b)*%e^2
F =
39.661997
:
2.9. %pi
-->sin(pi/2)
!--error 4
undefined variable : pi

2.5

(,
3.2-6, 6.42+2) (, 4.12, 6.05, 17.5489) .
mEp, m ( ),
p ( ). ,
, .
,
-6.42+2 = 6.42 102 = 642

3.2E-6 = 3.2 106 = 0.0000032


. :

2.5.

21

2.10.
-->0.123
ans =
0.123
-->-6.42e+2
ans =
- 642.
-->3.2e-6
ans =
0.0000032

q, :
2.11.
-->%pi
%pi =
3.1415927
-->q=0123.4567890123456
q =
123.45679
, Scilab
. .
, , printf , ,
:
2.12.
printf
-->printf("%1.12f",%pi)
3.141592653590
-->printf("%1.15f",%pi)
3.141592653589793
-->printf("%1.2f",q)
123.46
-->printf("%1.10f",q)
123.4567890123
-->// 6
-->printf("%f",q)
123.456789

2. Scilab

22

2.6

Scilab

, Scilab, :
;
.
Scilab :
_ = _(1 [,2, ...])
_ , ; , , , ans;
_ ;
1, 2, ... .

2.6.1

Scilab
, .
,
(. 2.1).
2.1.

sin(x)
x
cos(x)
x
tan(x)
x
cotg(x)
x
asin(x)
x
acos(x)
x
atan(x)
x

exp(x)
x
log(x)
x

sqrt(x)
x
abs(x)
x
log10(x)
x
log2(x)
x

2.6. Scilab

23

x xy
e :
z = sin
y

2.13.

-->x=1.2;y=0.3;
-->z=sqrt(abs(sin(x/y)))*exp(x^y)
z =
2.5015073

2.6.2

-
, .
, ..
, .
, , ,
. Scilab.
deff, :
deff([1,...,N] = _(_1,...,_M),
1=1;...;N=N)
1,...,N , , ,
_ ,
_1,...,_M .
deff.
,

s

xy
x
e ( z = sin
y

2.13):

2.14.
deff
-->deff(z=fun1(x,y),z=sqrt(abs(sin(x/y)))*exp(x^y));
-->x=1.2;y=0.3;z=fun1(x,y)
z = 2.5015073

2. Scilab

24

,
a, b c
S=

p (p a) (p b) (p c) , p =

a+b+c
.
2

2.15. ,
-->deff(S=G(a,b,c),p=(a+b+c)/2;S=sqrt((p-a)*(p-b)*(p-c)));
-->G(2,3,3)
ans = 1.4142136
,

D
b

ax2 + bx + c = 0 D = b2 4ac; x1,2 =


a:
2
2.16.
-->deff([x1,x2]=korni(a,b,c),d=b^2-4*a*c;
x1=(-b+sqrt(d))/2/a;x2=(-b-sqrt(d))/2/a);
-->[x1,x2]=korni(-2,-3,5)
x2 = 1.
x1 = 2.5
:
function[1,...,N]=_(_1,...,_M)

endfunction
1,...,N , ,
; _
, _1, ...,_M .
,
, ..
.
, Scilab . .
. - sci sce .
, , .. . ,
, , , exec(_)
File Exec. . . , , , .

2.6. Scilab

25

.
2.1.
.

ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0

(2.1)

a :
x3 + rx2 + sx + t = 0 ,

c
b
,
s= ,
a
a
(2.2)

t=

r=

(2.2)
d
.
a

r
3
:
x=y

y 3 + py + q = 0 ,

(2.3)

(3s r2 )
r3
rs
,
q=2
+ t.
3
27
3
(2.3)
p 3 q 3
D =
+
(. 2.2).
3
2
p=

2.2.

D>0
D<0


1
3

:
y1 = u+v,

y2 =

(u + v) (u v)
+
i 3,
2
2

y3 =

(u + v) (u v)

i 3 . (2.4)
2
2

r
q p
q p
v= 3
u=
+ (D),
(D) .
2
2
, :
r
3

26

2. Scilab
2.17.
function [x1,x2,x3]=cub(a,b,c,d)
r=b/a;
s=c/a;
t=d/a;
p=(3*s-r^2)/3;
q=2*r^3/27-r*s/3+t;
D=(p/3)^3+(q/2)^2;
u=(-q/2+sqrt(D))^(1/3);
v=(-q/2-sqrt(D))^(1/3);
y1=u+v;
y2=-(u+v)/2+(u-v)/2*%i*sqrt(3);
y3=-(u+v)/2-(u-v)/2*%i*sqrt(3);
x1=y1-r/3;
x2=y2-r/3;
x3=y3-r/3;
endfunction
// :
-->exec(C:\Scilab\scilab-4.1.1\cub.sce);
-->disp(exec done);
Warning :redefining function: cub
exec done
-->[x1,x2,x3]=cub(3,-20,-3,4)
x3 =
0.3880206
x2 =
- 0.5064407
x1 =
6.7850868

3
Scilab.

. ,
.

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, , . ,
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, , , . , ,
, .
,
, ().
, ,
: ,
, .
Scilab .
.

3. Scilab.

28

3.1

Scilab :
name=Xn:dX:Xk
name , ,
Xn , Xk , dX ,
, .. Xn+dX, Xn+ dX+dX
Xk.
dX , ,
, , ..
:
name=Xn:Xk
, ,
. :
3.1.
--> Xn=-3.5;dX=1.5;Xk=4.5;
--> X=Xn:dX:Xk
X =
-3.5000 -2.0000 -0.5000 1.0000 2.5000 4.0000
--> Y=sin(X/2)
Y =
-0.9840
-0.8415
-0.2474
0.4794
0.9490
0.9093
--> A=0:5
A =
0 1 2 3 4 5
--> 0:5
ans =
0 1 2 3 4 5
--> ans/2+%pi
ans =
3.1416
3.6416
4.1416
4.6416
5.1416
5.6416
Scilab
.
, - ,
, ,
:
name=[x1 x2 ... xn]

name=[x1, x2, ..., xn]

3.1.

29

-:
3.2. -
--> V=[1 2 3 4 5]
V =
1 2 3 4 5
--> W=[1.1,2.3,-0.1,5.88]
W =
1.1000 2.3000 -0.1000 5.8800
- :
name=[x1; x2; ...; xn]
-:
3.3. -
--> X=[1;2;3]
X =
1
2
3
,
:
name()
:
3.4.
--> W=[1.1,2.3,-0.1,5.88];
--> W(1)+2*W(3)
ans = 0.9000
,
,
:
name=[x11, x12, ..., x1n; x21, x22, ..., x2n; ...;
xm1, xm2, ..., xmn;]
, , , :
name(1, 2)

30

3. Scilab.
:
3.5.
--> A=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9]
A =
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
--> A(1,2)^A(2,2)/A(3,3)
ans = 3.5556

, ,
:
3.6.
--> v1=[1 2 3]; v2=[4 5 6]; v3=[7 8 9];
--> // -:
--> V=[v1 v2 v3]
V = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
-->// -,
-->// :
--> V=[v1; v2; v3]
V =
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
-->// :
--> M=[V V V]
M =
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6
7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9
-->// :
--> M=[V;V]
M =
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

3.1.

31

:.
,
. :
3.7. :
-->//
--> A=[5 7 6 5; 7 10 8 7;6 8 10 9;5 7 9 10]
--> //
--> A(:,2)
ans =
7
10
8
7
--> //
--> A(3,:)
ans = 6 8 10 9
--> //
--> M=A(3:4,2:3)
M =
8 10
7 9
--> //
--> A(:,2)=[]
A =
5 8 10
7 7 9
6 10 9
5 9 10
--> //
--> A(3,:)=[]
A =
5 8 10
7 7 9
5 9 10
--> // -
--> v=M(:)
v =
8
7
10
9
--> // v

32

3. Scilab.
--> b=v(2:4)
b =
7
10
9
--> // b
--> b(2)=[];

3.2

Scilab
:
+ ;
- 1 ;
2 ;
* 3 ;
* ;
4 ;
\ 5 ;

/ 6 ;
.* ;
.

.\ ;
./ .
1
, .. () -, -
.
2 ,
.
3 , -, -. ,
. , .
4 n- n . , .
,
, .
5 (A\B) (A1 B),
A X = B, X .
6 (B/A) (B A1 ), X A = B.

3.2.

33

:
3.8.
-->A=[1 2 0;-1 3 1;4 -2 5];
-->B=[-1 0 1;2 1 1;3 -1 -1];
-->// (AT+B)2 - 2A(0.5BT-A)
-->(A+B)^2-2*A*(1/2*B-A)
ans =
10.
8.
24.
11.
20.
35.
63. - 30.
68.
--> // = A=B.
-->A=[3 2;4 3];
-->B=[-1 7;3 5];
-->// AX=B:
-->X=A\B
X =
- 9.
11.
13. - 13.
-->// XA=B:
-->X=B/A
X =
- 31.
23.
- 11.
9.
-->//
-->X*A-B
ans =
0.
0.
0.
0.
,
,
,
:
3.9.
--> x=[0.1 -2.2 3.14 0 -1];
--> sin(x)
ans =
0.0998 -0.8085 0.0016 0 -0.8415

3. Scilab.

34

3.3

Scilab . .
:
matrix(A [,n,m]) A ;
3.10. matrix
-->D=[1 2;3 4;5 6];
-->matrix(D,2,3)
ans =
1. 5. 4.
3. 2. 6.
-->matrix(D,3,2)
ans =
1. 2.
3. 4.
5. 6.
-->matrix(D,1,6)
ans =
1. 3. 5. 2. 4. 6.
-->matrix(D,6,1)
ans =
1.
3.
5.
2.
4.
6.
ones(m,n) m n 1 ;
3.11. ones
-->ones(1,3) // -
ans =
1. 1. 1.
-->ones(2,2) //
ans =
1. 1.
1. 1.
-->m=3; n=2;
1

ones(n1,n2...,nn) .

3.3.

35

-->X=ones(m,n) // m n
X =
1. 1.
1. 1.
1. 1.
-->M=[1 2 3;4 5 6]
M =
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
-->// Y, ,
-->// , M
-->Y=ones(M)
Y =
1. 1. 1.
1. 1. 1.
zeros(m,n) 1 m n 2 ;
3.12. zeros
-->zeros(3,2)
ans =
0. 0.
0. 0.
0. 0.
-->M=[1 2 3 4 5];
-->Z=zeros(M)
Z =
0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
eye(m,n) 3 m n ;
3.13. eye
-->eye(3,3)
ans =
1. 0. 0.
0. 1. 0.
0. 0. 1.
-->eye(5,1)
ans =
1

.
zeros(n1,n2...,nn) .
3 ,
.
2

36

3. Scilab.
1.
0.
0.
0.
0.
-->m=3; n=4;
-->E=eye(m,n)
E =
1. 0. 0. 0.
0. 1. 0. 0.
0. 0. 1. 0.
-->M=[0 1;2 3];
-->// E
-->// , M
-->E=eye(M)
E =
1. 0.
0. 1.
-->// eye().
-->//
-->//,
-->// , , .
-->M=[1 2;3 4;5 6]; E=eye();
-->A=E+M
A =
2. 2.
3. 5.
5. 6.
-->M-E
ans =
0. 2.
3. 3.
5. 6.

rand(n1,n2,...nn[,fl])
. p , (uniform , normal ); rand(m,n) m n ; rand(M)
, ; rand() ;

3.3.

37

3.14. rand
-->rand(2,2)// 2 2
ans =
0.2113249 0.0002211
0.7560439 0.3303271
--> R=rand(2,2,2)//
R(:,:,1) =
0.9355 0.4103
0.9169 0.8936
R(:,:,2) =
0.0579 0.8132
0.3529 0.0099
-->rand()//
ans =
0.6653811
sparse([i1 j1;i2 j2;...;in jn],[n1,n2,...,nn]) 1 .
[i1 j1,i2 j2,...,in jn], [n1,n2,...,nn].
, ,
, .

,
;
full(M) ;
3.15. sparse full
-->A=sparse([1 3;3 2;3 5],[4,5,6])
A =
(
3,
5) sparse matrix
(
1,
3)
4.
(
3,
2)
5.
(
3,
5)
6.
-->full(A)
ans =
0. 0. 4. 0. 0.
0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
0. 5. 0. 0. 6.
1

, .

3. Scilab.

38

hypermat(D[,V]) , D , V ( V );
3.16. hypermat
-->// ,
-->// ,
-->// -
-->// 0 11.
-->M=hypermat([2 2 3],0:11)
M =
(:,:,1)
0. 2.
1. 3.
(:,:,2)
4. 6.
5. 7.
(:,:,3)
8. 10.
9. 11.
diag(V[,k]) V
k- 1 ; diag(A[,k]), A
, -, k- ;
3.17. diag
--> V=[1,2,3];
--> diag(V)// , V
ans = 1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 3
-->// ,
-->//V ( )
--> diag(V,1)
ans = 0 1 0 0
0 0 2 0
0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0
-->// ,
-->//V ( )
1

, .

3.3.

39

--> diag(V,-1)
ans = 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 2 0 0
0 0 3 0
--> A=[-1 2 0 ;2 1 -1 ;2 1 3]
A =
-1 2 0
2 1 -1
2 1 3
--> diag(A) //
ans =
-1
1
3
cat(n, A, B, [C, ...])
, n=1 , n=2 ; [A; B]
[A, B];
3.18. cat
-->
-->
ans
1 2
3 4
-->
ans
1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8

A=[1 2;3 4]; B=[5 6 ;7 8];


cat(2,A,B)//
=
5 6
7 8
cat(1,A,B) //
=

tril(A[,k]) 1 ,
k- ;
3.19. tril
--> A=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9]
A =
1 2 3
4 5 6
1 , , , .

40

3. Scilab.
7 8 9
-->// ,
--> tril(A)
ans =
1 0 0
4 5 0
7 8 9
--> tril(A,0)// tril(A)
ans =
1 0 0
4 5 0
7 8 9
--> tril(A,1)// ,
--> // ( )
ans =
1 2 0
4 5 6
7 8 9
--> tril(A,-2) )// ,
--> // ( )
ans =
0 0 0
0 0 0
7 0 0
triu(A[,k]) 1 ,
k- ;
3.20. triu
-->
-->
ans
1 2
0 5
0 0
-->
-->
ans
0 0
0 0
0 0

A=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9];


triu(A)//
=
3
6
9
triu(A,2) )// ,
// ( )
=
3
0
0

1 , , , .

3.3.
-->
-->
ans
1 2
4 5
0 8

41

triu(A,-1) )// ,
// ( )
=
3
6
9

sort(X) X; X , ;
3.21. sort
-->b=[2 0 1]; sort(b) //
ans =
2.
1.
0.
-->-sort(-b) //
ans =
0.
1.
2.
-->A=[1 2 0;-1 3 1;4 -2 5];
-->sort(A) //
ans =
5.
2.
0.
4.
1. - 1.
3.
1. - 2.
:
size(V[,fl]) V; V , size(V,1) size(V,r) V,
size(V,2) size(V,c) ;
3.22. size
-->M=[1 2;3 4;5 6;7 8];
-->[n,m]=size(M)
m =
2.
n =
4.
-->size(M,1)
ans =
4.
-->size(M,2)
ans =
2.

42

3. Scilab.
length(X) X; X ,
; X , ;
3.23. length
--> V=[-1 0 3 -2 1 -1 1];//-
--> length(V)//
ans =
7
-->[1 2 3;4 5 6];//
-->length(ans)//
ans =
6.
sum(X[,fl]) X, fl. fl , sum(X) , . fl=r
fl=1, , ,
X. fl= fl=2,
-, X. sum
1 ;
3.24. sum
-->M=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9];
-->Y=sum(M) //
Y = 45.
-->S1=sum(M,1) //
S1 =
12 15 18
-->S2=sum(M,2) //
S2 =
6
15
24
--> V=[-1 0 3 -2 1 -1 1];
--> sum(V) //
ans = 1
-->// .
--> a=[1 2 3];b=[2 0 1];
--> sum(a.*b)
ans = 5
1

~a ~b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + + an bn .

3.3.

43

prod(X[,fl]) X,
sum;
3.25. prod
-->prod(M)
ans = 362880.
-->p1=prod(M,1)
p1 =
28 80 162
-->p2=prod(M,2)
p2 =
6
120
504
--> V=[1,2,3];
--> prod(V) //
ans = 6
max(M[,fl]) M, fl. fl , max(M)
M; fl=r,
M; fl=,
-, M.
[x, nom]=max(M[,fl])
x nom;
3.26. max
-->M=[5 0 3;2 7 1;0 4 9];
-->max(M)
ans =
9.
-->max(M,r)
ans =
5.
7.
9.
-->max(M,c)
ans =
5.
7.
9.
-->[x,nom]=max(M)
nom =

44

3. Scilab.

x
9.

3.
=

3.

min(M[,fl]) M, max;
3.27. min
-->A=[5 10 3 2 7 1 25 4 0];
-->[x,nom]=min(A)
nom =
7.
x =
25.
mean(M[,fl]) M; M
, mean(M,1) mean(M,r)
M, mean(M,2) mean(M,c) ;
3.28. mean
-->mean(M)
ans =
3.4444444
-->mean(M,1)
ans =
2.3333333
-->mean(M,2)
ans =
2.6666667
3.3333333
4.3333333

3.6666667

4.3333333

median(M[,fl]) 1 M,
mean;
3.29. median
-->M=[5 0 3;2 7 1;0 4 9];
-->median(M)
ans = 3.
-->median(M,1)
ans =
1 ,

3.3.
2.
4.
-->median(M,2)
ans =
3.
2.
4.

45

3.

det(M) ;
3.30. det
-->M=[1 0 2;3 2 1;0 3 1];
-->det(M)
ans = 17.
-->Z=[1 2 2;0 1 3;2 4 4];
-->det(Z)
ans = 0.
rank(M[,tol]) M1 tol.
3.31. rank
-->M=[1 0 2;3 2 1;0 3 1];
-->rank(M)
ans = 3.
-->Z=[1 2 2;0 1 3;2 4 4];
-->rank(Z)
ans = 2.
norm(M[,fl]) ;
fl,
fl=2. norm(M) norm(M,2)
2 . 3 norm(M,1).
norm(M,inf) norm(M,fro) 4 5 . V ,
norm(V,1) V. norm(V,2) V6 .
norm(V,inf) ;
1

.
.
3 .
4 .
5 .
6 .
2

3. Scilab.

46

3.32. norm
-->M=[1 0 2;3 2 1;0 3 1];
-->norm(M,1)
ans = 5.
-->norm(M,2)
ans =
4.5806705
-->norm(M,inf)
ans = 6.
-->norm(M,fro)
ans = 5.3851648
-->X=[5 -3 4 -1 2];
-->norm(X,1)
ans = 15.
-->sum(abs(X))// , norm(X,1)
ans = 15.
-->norm(X,2)
ans = 7.4161985
-->sqrt(sum(X^2)) // , norm(X,2)
ans = 7.4161985
-->norm(X,inf)
ans =
5.
-->max(abs(X))// , norm(X,inf)
ans =
5.

ond(M) 1 ;
3.33. cond
-->A=[5 7 6 5;7 10 8 7;6 8 10 9;5 7 9 10];
-->cond(A)
ans =
2984.0927

3.3.

47

, :
spec(M) 1 M.
3.34. spec
-->M=[3 -2;-4 1]
M =
3. - 2.
- 4. 1.
-->spec(M) //
ans =
- 1.
5.
// - ,
--> Y.
-->[X,Y]=spec(M)
Y =
! - 1.
0 !
!
0
5. !
X =
!
0.4472136 - 0.7071068 !
!
0.8944272
0.7071068 !
inv(A) , 2 A3 ;
3.35. inv
-->// .
-->A=[1 2 3 5;0 1 3 2;4 2 1 1;2 3 0 1];
-->inv(A)
ans =
!
0.0285714 - 0.1428571
0.3428571 - 0.2 !
! - 0.1428571
0.2142857 - 0.2142857
0.5 !
! - 0.2
0.5
0.1
- 0.1 !
!
0.3714286 - 0.3571429 - 0.0428571 - 0.1 !
1 x, ,
Ax = Lx, L , A;
L .
2 ,
, ,
. .. inv(A) .
3 LU-.

48

3. Scilab.
-->// ,
-->// , .
-->inv(A)*A
ans =
1. - 1.110D-16 0. 0.
0.
1.
- 5.551D-17 5.551D-17
0.
0. 1. 1.388D-17
0.
0. 6.939D-17 1.
-->//
-->//( )
-->// .
-->B=[1 2 3;1 4 5;1 6 7];
-->inv(B)
!--error
19
Problem is singular
pinv(A[,tol]) 1 A
tol ( );
3.36. pinv
-->pinv(A)
ans =
0.0285714 - 0.1428571
0.3428571 - 0.2
- 0.1428571
0.2142857 - 0.2142857
0.5
- 0.2
0.5
0.1 - 0.1
0.3714286 - 0.3571429 - 0.0428571 - 0.1
linsolve(A,b) A ~x ~b = 0.
3.37. linsolve
-->//
-->//{x1+2x2-7=0; x1+x2-6=0}.
-->// -
-->// .
-->A=[1 2;1 1];b=[-7;-6];
-->x=linsolve(A,b)
x =
5.
1.

1 pinv(A[,tol])= A**=, **=, *


A* , .
, , tol, .

3.3.

49

-->// A*x+b ,
-->// , , .
-->A*x+b
ans =
1.0D-14 *
- 0.6217249
0.0888178
-->// {x1+x2-1=0; x1+x2-3=0}
-->A=[1 1;1 1]; b=[-1;-3];
-->// :
-->linsolve(A,b)
WARNING:Conflicting linear constraints!
ans =
[]
-->// {3x1-x2-1=0; 6x1-2x2-2=0}.
-->// ,
-->// , SCILAB .
-->A=[3 -1;6 -2];
-->b=[-1;-2];
-->x=linsolve(A,b)
x =
0.3
- 0.1
-->//
-->A*x+b
ans =
1.0D-15 *
- 0.1110223
- 0.2220446
rref(A) A , ;
3.38. rref
--> A=[3 -2 1 5;6 -4 2 7;9 -6 3 12]
A =
3 -2 1 5
6 -4 2 7
9 -6 3 12
--> rref(A)
ans =
1.0000 -0.6667 0.3333 0
0
0 0 1.0000
0
0 0 0

50

3. Scilab.
lu() M1 ;
3.39. lu
-->A=[2 -1 5;3 2 -5;1 1 -2]
A =
2. - 1. 5.
3.
2.
- 5.
1.
1.
- 2.
-->[L,U]=lu(A)
U =
3.
2. - 5.
0. - 2.3333333
8.3333333 !
0.
0.
0.8571429 !
L =
0.6666667 1. 0.
1. 0. 0.
0.3333333
- 0.1428571 1.
-->LU=L*U
LU =
2. - 1. 5.
3.
2.
- 5.
1. 1. - 2.
qr() 2
;
3.40. qr
-->[Q,R]=qr(A)
R =
- 3.7416574 - 1.3363062
0.
- 2.0528726
0.
0.
Q =
- 0.5345225
0.8350668
- 0.8017837 - 0.4523279
0.2672612 - 0.3131501

1.8708287
7.0632734
0.7811335
0.1301889
- 0.3905667
0.9113224

-->Q*R
ans =
1 M = C L U, L U ,
. LU-.
2 M = Q R, Q , R .
QR-.

3.3.
2.
3.
1.

- 1.
2.
1.

51

5.
- 5.
- 2.

svd() 1 nm;
, ,
;
3.41. svd
-->[U,S,V]=svd(A)
V =
- 0.1725618
0.9641403
- 0.3059444
0.1421160
0.9362801
0.2241352
S =
7.8003308
0.
0.
3.6207331
0.
0.
U =
0.5951314
0.8028320
- 0.7449652
0.5678344
- 0.3014060
0.1817273
-->U*S*V
ans =
2. - 1.
5.
3.
2. - 5.
1.
1. - 2.
-->s=svd(A)
s =
7.8003308
3.6207331
0.2124427

- 0.2016333
0.9413825
0.2704496
0.
0.
0.2124427
0.0357682
- 0.3501300
0.9360180

kernel([,tol[,fl]]) 2 , tol
fl . , qr
svd.
1M

= U S VT , U V m m n n , S ,
M
2 X.
AX = 0. X=kernel(A)
X , AX = 0.

52

3. Scilab.
3.42. kernel
-->A=[4 1 -3 -1;2
A =
4.
1. - 3. 2.
3.
1. 1. - 2. - 2.
-->X=kernel(A)
X =
0.3464102
0.5773503
0.4618802
0.5773503

3.4

3 1 -5;1 -2 -2 3]
1.
5.
3.

Scilab , ,
. ,
.
3.43.
-->M=[a b;c d]
M =
a b
c d
-->P=[1 2;3 4]
P =
1 2
3 4
( ) :
3.44.
-->M+P
ans =
a1 b2
c3 d4
-->M
ans =
a c
b d

3.5.

53

, addf(a,b)
mulf(a,b):
3.45. addf mulf
-->addf(M(1,1),P(2,2))
ans =
a+4
-->mulf(M(1,2),P(2,1))
ans =
b*3

3.5

m n :
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + + a1n xn = b1 ,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + + a2n xn = b2 ,
..................................
am1 x1 + am2 x2 + + amn xn = bm
(), xj
, aij , bi (i = 1 . . . m, j = 1 . . . n). m n
: A x = b, x , A , b
.
(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
.
3.1.
:
2x1 + x2 5x3 + x4 = 8 ,
x1 3x2 6x4 = 9 ,
2x2 x3 + 2x4 = 5 ,
x1 + 4x2 7x3 + 6x4 = 0 .
. = det A
n n A x = b ,
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ,
: xi = i /, i ,
A i- b. :

54

3. Scilab.
3.46. -

// :
A=[2 1 -5 1;1 -3 0 -6;0 2 -1 2;1 4 -7 6];
b=[8;9;-5;0]; //
A1=A;A1(:,1)=b; //
A2=A;A2(:,2)=b; //
A3=A;A3(:,3)=b; //
A4=A;A4(:,4)=b; //
D=det(A); //
// :
d(1)=det(A1); d(2)=det(A2); d(3)=det(A3); d(4)=det(A4);
x=d/D //
P=A*x-b //
-:
3.47. -

-->exec(C:\scilab-4.1.1\kramer.sce);disp(exec done);
x =
3.
- 4.
- 1.
1.
P = 1.0D-14 *
0.1776357
0.
- 0.0888178
0.1554312
exec done

3.2.
3.1 .
: n n A x = b, , A ,
x = A1 b.
- :
3.48. inv
// :
A=[2 1 -5 1;1 -3 0 -6;0 2 -1 2;1 4 -7 6];b=[8;9;-5;0];

3.5.

55

x=inv(A)*b //
// -:
--> x =
3.
- 4.
- 1.
1.
3.3.
:
2x1 x2 + 5x3 = 0 ,
3x1 + 2x2 5x3 = 1 ,
x1 + x2 2x3 = 4 .
, ,
, .
. , ( , ,
, ) .
( ) ,
n . , n + 1
.
- :
3.49. rref
// :
A=[2 -1 1;3 2 -5;1 3 -2]; b=[0;1;4];
// :
C=rref([A b]);
// :
[n,m]=size(C); //m-
// :
x=C(:,m) //x -
// :
--> x =
0.4642857
1.6785714
0.75

Scilab
. , .

4.1

plot

y = f (x),
Scilab plot.
Scilab ( Scilab ) plot
y = f (x). :
plot(x,y,[xcap,ycap,caption])
x ; y ; xcap, ycap, caption
X, Y .
4.1.
y = sin(cos(x)) plot.
x [2; 2] 0,1.
X. y = sin(cos(x))
X, Y . plot(x,y) X, Y,
plot function y=sin(cos(x)) (. 4.1, . 4.1).

4.1. plot

57

4.1. y = sin(cos(x))
plot
x=-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi;
y=sin(cos(x));
plot(x,y,X,Y,plot function y=sin(cos(x)));

plot function y=sin(cos(x))

Y
0.9

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.1

-0.1

-0.3

-0.5

-0.7

-0.9
-7

-5

-3

-1

. 4.1. y = sin(cos(x))
plot(y),
y. 4.2
. 4.2 y = f (i).
4.2. y = f (i), j
y
y=[1 2 3 -2 4 5 -1 6 9 11 0 -2 5];
plot(y);
plot .
4.2.
y = sin(cos(x)), z = cos(sin(x)), v = esin(x) ,
t = ecos(x) .

4.

58

12

10

-2
1

11

13

. 4.2. y = f (i)

, x [2; 2] 0,1.
X. x , plot .
.
,

(. 4.3 4.3).
4.3. plot Scilab 3
x=-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi;
plot([sin(cos(x));cos(sin(x));exp(sin(x));exp(cos(x))]);

. 4.3, plot Scilab 3 . Scilab 4


, .
plot plot(x,y).

4.2.

59

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20

40

60

80

100

120

140

. 4.3. Scilab 3

4.2

plot(x,y)
Scilab Graphic (0), y(x)
. plot,
, .
plot :
plot(x1,y1,x2,y2,...xn,yn)
x1, y1 ;
x2, y2 ;
...
xn, yn n- .
4.3.
y = sin( x2 ), z =
cos(x) v = exp(cos(x)).

4.

60

x [-6,28;6,28], 0,02. Y , Z, V .

plot , , ,
. .
plot plot(x,y,x,z,x,v) ( 4.4 . 4.4).
4.4. plot Scilab 4
x=-6.28:0.02:6.28;y=sin(x/2);
z=cos(x);v=exp(cos(x));
plot(x,y,x,z,x,v);

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

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0.0

0.5

1.0
8

. 4.4. plot

plot(x,y), plot(x2,y2),
plot(x3,y3), ..., plot(xn,yn) mtlb_hold(on), .
4.4.
y = sin( x2 ), z =
cos(x) v = exp(cos(x)) , mtlb_hold(on).

4.2.

61

, x [-6,28;6,28], 0,02 Y , Z, V .
plot plot(x,y), , .
, plot
, mtlb_hold(on)
( 4.5 . 4.5).
4.5. mtlb_hold(on)
x=-6.28:0.02:6.28;
y=sin(x/2); z=cos(x); v=exp(cos(x));
plot(x,y);
mtlb_hold( on);
plot(x,z);
mtlb_hold( on);
mtlb_hold( on);
plot(x,v);

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

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0.0

0.5

1.0
8

. 4.5. mtlb_hold(on)
, (. 4.3) Scilab ,
.

62

4.3

4.

Scilab 4 ,
. , 4 , 4 ,
.
plotframe:
plotframe(rect, tics [,grid, title, x-leg, y-leg, x, y, w, h])
rect [xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax], x y- ;
tics [nx, mx, ny, my],
X (mx) Y (my), nx ny X Y ;
grid , (%t) (%f). , , [%t,%t];
bound , true tics(2) tics(4).
title , ;
x-leg, y-leg X Y ;
x, y , w , h . x, y, w, h
[0, 1].

plot.
4.5.
y = sin(2x), z = cos(3x), u = cos(sin(2x)), v =
sin(cos(3x)) , .
, x [10 : 10] 0,01. Y , Z, U , V .
rect , . X
x (
), Y y -1 1.

4.3.

63

tics , , , 11 2 ,
5 10 .

plotframe : (%t) (%f), , ,
, .

plotframe plot(x,y) ( 4.6 . 4.6).
4.6. ,
plotframe
x=[-10:0.01:10];
y=sin(2*x); z=cos(3*x); u=cos(sin(2*x)); v=sin(cos(3*x));
rect=[min(x),-1,max(x),1];
tics=[2,11,10,5];
plotframe(rect,tics,[%t,%t],["Function y=sin(2x)",...
"X","Y"], [0,0,0.5,0.5]);
plot(x,y);
plotframe(rect,tics,[%f,%f],["Function y=cos(3x)",...
"X","Y"], [0.5,0,0.5,0.5]);
plot(x,z);
plotframe(rect,tics,[%f,%f],["Function y=cos(sin(2x))",...
X","Y"], [0,0.5,0.5,0.5]);
plot(x,u);
plotframe(rect,tics,[%t,%t],["Function y=sin(cos(3x))",...
"X","Y"], [0.5,0.5,0.5,0.5]);
plot(x,v);
subplot.
, , ,
. :
subplot(m,n,p) subplot(mnp)
,
m n ,
p.

4.

64

. 4.6.

4.6.
y = sin(x), z = cos(x), u = cos(sin(x)), v =
sin(cos(x)), w = exp(sin(x)) r = exp(cos(x)) ,
, subplot.
x [10 : 10] 0,01. Y , Z, U , V , W , R.
C subplot . ,
3, 2 .
subplot ,
( ) , plot(x,y) ( 4.7 . 4.7).
4.7. ,
subplot
x=[-10:0.01:10];
y=sin(x); z=cos(x);
u=cos(sin(x)); v=sin(cos(x));
w=exp(sin(x)); r=exp(cos(x));
subplot(3,2,1);

4.4. plot2d

65

plot(x,y);
subplot(3,2,2);
plot(x,z);
subplot(3,2,3);
plot(x,u);
subplot(3,2,4);
plot(x,v);
subplot(3,2,5);
plot(x,w);
subplot(3,2,6);
plot(x,r);
1.0
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10 8
1.00
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0.90
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0.80
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0.50
10 8

10

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10 8

10

10

1.0
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10 8

10

10

3.0

3.0

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2.5

2.0

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1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

0.5
0.0
10 8

0.5
6

10

0.0
10 8

. 4.7.

4.4

plot2d

,
, plot2d.
:
plot2d([logflag],x,y,[key1=value1,key2=value2,...,keyn=valuen]
logflag ,
(n , l ), nn;

4.

66
x ;

y , ,
y1, y2, ..., yn,
x. x y . x y ,
y
x;
keyi=valuei
key1=value1, key2=value2, ..., keyn=valuen,
. .
, plot2d . , plot.
4.7.
y = sin(x).
, x [2; 2] 0,1.
X. Y ,
plot2d (. 4.8
. 4.8).
4.8. plot2d

x=[-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi];
plot2d(sin(x));
plot2d,
.
4.8.
y = sin(x), y1 = sin(2x), y2 = sin(3x)
.
X, , [0; 2]
0,1.
plot2d(x,y). Y
,
(. 4.9 . 4.9).

4.5. plot

67

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

. 4.8. y = sin(x)

4.9. plot2d
x=[0:0.1:2*%pi];
plot2d(x,[sin(x) sin(2*x) sin(3*x)]);

4.5

plot

,
plot:
plot(x1, y1, s1, x2, y2, s2, ..., xn, yn, sn)
x1, x2, ..., xn ;
y1, y2, ..., yn ;
s1, s2, ..., sn , , , (. . 4.1
4.3), , .

4.

68

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0

. 4.9. y = sin(x), y = sin(2x), y = sin(3x)

4.1. ,

y
m

r
g
b
w
k

4.5. plot

69

4.2. ,

.
o

+
*
s
d
v
^
<
>
p

4.3. ,

:
-.
--

( )
,
,

y = sin( x2 ), z = cos(x) v =
e
. y = sin( x2 ) , z = cos(x)
, , v = exp(cos(x)) , , (. 4.10 . 4.10).
(cos(x))

4.10. , ,
() plot
x=-6.28:0.2:6.28;
y=sin(x/2);
z=cos(x);
v=exp(cos(x));
plot(x,y,--);
mtlb_hold(on);
plot(x,z,k*);
mtlb_hold(on);
plot(x,v,r.--);

4.

70

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0
8

. 4.10. plot

,
X Y . Scilab
xgrid(color), color id . , .

,
(. 4.11 . 4.11).
4.11. xgrid
x=-10:0.01:10;
y=sin(cos(x));
z=cos(sin(x));
plot(x,y,r,x,z,b);
xgrid();
, plot,
xtitle:
xtitle(title, xstr, ystr)
title ;
xstr X;
ystr Y .

4.5. plot

71

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
10

10

. 4.11. xgrid


Grafic y=f(x) X Y (. 4.12
. 4.12).
4.12.
xtitle
x=-10:0.01:10;
y=sin(cos(x));
z=cos(sin(x));
plot(x,y,r,x,z,b);
xgrid();
xtitle(Grafic y=f(x),X,Y);
,
, , . legend:
legend(leg1, leg2, ..., legn, [pos], [boxed])
leg1 , leg2 , legn n-
;

4.

72

Grafic y=f(x)
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4

0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
10

10

. 4.12. xtitle

pos : 1 ( ),
2 , 3 , 4
, 5 ;
boxed , , (
%t) ( %f) .
,
(. 4.13 . 4.13).
4.13. legend
x=-10:0.01:10;
y=sin(cos(x)); z=cos(sin(x));
plot(x,y,r,x,z,b);
xgrid();
xtitle(Grafic y=f(x),X,Y);
legend(sin(cos(x)),cos(sin(x)),3,%f);

4.6. plot2d

73

Grafic y=f(x)
1.0
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0.6
0.4

0.2
0.0
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0.4
0.6
0.8

sin(cos(x))
cos(sin(x))

1.0
10

10

. 4.13. legend

4.6

plot2d

4.4 ,
plot2d
keyn=valuen.
, plot2d :
plot2d([logflag],x,y,[key1=value1,key2=value2,...,keyn=valuen]
keyn=valuen:
style . .
color, (color("
")) rgb (color(r,g,b)) id ()
.
RGBid Scilab Color_list.
, id- 0..
y = sin(x) y = cos(x), style
(red), id
(0,176,0) (. 4.14).

4.

74

. 4.14.
4.14. style plot2d
x=[-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi];
y=[sin(x);cos(x)];
plot2d(x,y,style=[color("red"),color(0,176,0)]);

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
8

. 4.14. style plot2d

rect keyn=valuen plot2d


[xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax], .
xmin, ymin ;
xmax ;
ymax .
rect , [-8,-2,8,2] (. 4.15 . 4.15). ,
Y [-1:1] [-2:2], X ,
, Y .

4.6. plot2d

75

4.15. rect plot2d


x=[-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi];
y=[sin(x);cos(x)];
plot2d(x,y,style=[color("red"),color(0,176,0)],
rect=[-8,-2,8,2]);

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0
8

. 4.15. rect plot2d


axesflag keyn=valuen plot2d . :
0 ;
1 , y ( );
3 , y ;
5 , (0,0).
4.9.
y = sin(x) y1 = cos(x), 4
axesflag,
subplot.

4.

76

, subplot
,
(. 4.3).
4 . axesflag=0
, axesflag=1 ,
axesflag=3 , axesflag=5 (. 4.16 . 4.16).
4.16. axesflag
plot2d
x=[-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi];
y=[sin(x); cos(x)];
subplot(2,2,1)
plot2d(x,y,style=[color("red"),
subplot(2,2,2)
plot2d(x,y,style=[color("red"),
subplot(2,2,3)
plot2d(x,y,style=[color("red"),
subplot(2,2,4)
plot2d(x,y,style=[color("red"),

color("blue")], axesflag=0);
color("blue")], axesflag=1);
color("blue")], axesflag=3);
color("blue")], axesflag=5);

1.0
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8

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1.0

. 4.16. axesflag plot2d

4.6. plot2d

77

,
, Scilab nax.
axesflag=1 ( ), : [nx, Nx,
ny, Ny].
Nx (Ny) c X (Y );
nx (ny) .
4.10.
y = sin(x) y1 = cos(x).
.
X, , x [-8:8]
0,1,
: y=[sin(x); cos(x)].
plot2d y = sin(x) y1 =
cos(x), nax=[4,9,3,6]. ,
X 9 (),
4 , Y 6 3 (. 4.17
. 4.17).

1.0

0.6

0.2

0.2

0.6

1.0
8

. 4.17. nax plot2d

4.

78

4.17.
nax
plot2d
x=[-8:0.1:8];
y=[sin(x); cos(x)];
plot2d(x,y,style=[color("red"),color("blue")],axesflag=1,...
nax=[4,9,3,6]);
leg keyn=valuen plot2d , :
"leg1@leg2@leg3@...@legn"
leg1 ,
..., legn n- .
.
y = sin(x) y1 = cos(x) X Y (0,0)
axesflag=5,
(. 4.18 . 4.18).

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
8

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
sin(x)
cos(x)

. 4.18. leg plot2d

4.7.

79

4.18. leg
plot2d
x=[-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi];
y=[sin(x); cos(x)];
plot2d(x,y,axesflag=5, leg="sin(x)@cos(x)");

4.7

plot2d .
:
plot2d(x,y,d)
d , (. . 4.4).
4.4. ,

-0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14

,




,

4.11.
y = sin(x) ,
.
x, X Y .
plot2d -8,
, (. 4.19
. 4.19).

4.

80

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
8

. 4.19. y = sin(x)

4.19. Scilab
x=[-2*%pi:0.25:2*%pi];
y=sin(x);
plot2d(x,y,-8);

4.8

Scilab
plot2d2(x,y).
plot2d. , X Y
, , X Y
.
4.12.

1947 2006 , . . , 1947, 1958, 1970, 1980, 1999 2006
.
X Y plot2d2(x,y)
(. 4.20 . 4.20).

4.9.

81

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0
1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

. 4.20.
plot2d2

4.20. Scilab
x=[1947 1958 1970 1980 1999 2006];
y=[2.003 3.1 3.6 4.7 5.2 5.4];
plot2d2(x,y);

4.9

O
, ,
O, OX .
M = OM ( ), ,
XOM ( ).
Scilab ,
polarplot:
polarplot(fi,ro,[key1=value1,key2=value2,...,keyn=valuen]),
fi ;
ro ;

4.

82

keyn=valuen ( . 4.4).
4.13.
= 3 cos(5) 1 = 3 cos(3).
,
fi, ro.
polarplot,
ro ,
ro1 (c. 4.21, . 4.21).
4.21.
fi=0:0.01:2*%pi;
ro=3*cos(5*fi);ro1=3*cos(3*fi);
polarplot(fi,ro,style=color("red"));
polarplot(fi,ro1,style=color("blue"));

90
3

120

60

2.4
1.8
150

30
1.2
0.6

180

210

330

240

300
270

. 4.21. = 3 cos(5), 1 = 3 cos(3)

4.10. ,

4.10

83

y(x) x = f (t) y = g(t)


, t .
, ,
t, x = f (t), y = g(t) y(x), plot(x,y) plot2d(x,y).
4.14.
.
, , :
x2 (a + x) = y 2 (a x)
t:

(t2 1)

X(t) = 2
(t + 1)

t (t2 1)

Y (t) =
(t2 + 1)

(4.1)

(4.2)

t, x y plot(x,y)
(. 4.22, . 4.22).
t=-5:0.01:5;
x=(t.^2-1)./(t.^2+1);
y=t.*(t.^2-1)./(t.^2+1);
plot(x,y);
4.22. plot

4.15.
.
, :
y m = A + Bx + Cx2 + . . . + N xn
:

x(t) = 0.5t2
y(t) = 0.3t3

(4.3)

(4.4)

4.

84

5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

. 4.22.

10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

. 4.23.

4.5

4.11.

85

, t- , x y
.
plot2d(x,y) (. 4.23, . 4.23).
4.23. plot2d
t=-3:0.01:3;
x=0.5*t.^2;
y=0.3*t.^3;
plot2d(x,y);

4.11

Scilab , , .
Edit Figure properties .
y1 = sin(2x) y2 = sin(3x) [0; 2] 0,1. x plot2d (. 4.24, . 4.24).

1.0
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0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0

. 4.24. y1 = sin(2x) y2 = sin(3x)

4.

86

4.24. y1 =
y2 = sin(3x) plot2d

sin(2x)

x=[0:0.1:2*%pi];
plot2d(x,[sin(2*x) sin(3*x)]);

Edit Figure properties


Figure Editor (. . 4.25).

. 4.25. Figure Editor

Object Browser , . Figure(1) ( ) , Object Properties


, .
Object Browser :
Figure ( ) Axes ().
, .

4.11.

87

. 4.26. Object Browser

Axes ( ),
Compound(1) () . Compound(1)
y1 = sin(2x) y2 =
sin(3x) Polyline(2) Polyline(1) (. . 4.26).

4.11.1

Figure ( )

, Figure o ,
. Figure(1) Object Browser .
. 4.26 Style Figure Editor
Figure(1). :
Visibility ( ) , on o. on .

88

4.

Figure name ( ) , . Scilab Graphic (%d), %d


(Figure id). Figure id
0, 1, 2 . .
. , Scilab Graphic (%d) Grac y=f(x)
Enter. (. . 4.27).

. 4.27.

X position, Y position
.
[0;0] .
X size, Y size .
X axis size, Y axis size X Y .
Back. color ( )
(RGB-id). 35 ( -2 32 ).

4.11.

89

. 4.28. Figure Editor

15.
(. . 4.28).
Colormap
(. . 4.29).
(RED), (GREEN )
(BLUE) , , . , [0 0 0] ,
[0.230 0.230 0.250] , [0.85 0.107 0.47] .
Colormap (Nx3 double array) RGB-id .
RGBid Scilab Color_list.
, id- 0..
Mode Object Properties Figure
(. . 4.30) :
Auto resize , .
( on ),
, ,
, .
(. . 4.31).

90

4.

. 4.29. Colormap Figure Editor

. 4.30. Mode Figure Editor

4.11.

91

. 4.31. Auto resize

Pixmap . (
) .
( on)

show_pixmap(). , Pixmap .
Pixel drawing mode ,
. copy.
. ,
. : clear, and, andReverse, andInverted,
noop, xor, or, nor, equiv, invert, orReverse, copyInverted,
orInverted, nand, set.
invert Pixel drawing mode
. 4.32.

4.

92

. 4.32. invert Pixel drawing mode Mode

Rotation style . unary , multiple .

4.11.2

Axes ( )

Axes ( )
Object Browser . Object Properties .
X, Y Z , , X, Y Z.
X (. . 4.33).
X : Label Options (C ) Axis Options ( ). Label Options
:

4.11.

93

. 4.33. X Axes

Label ;
Visibility , on o.
( on).
Fill mode , on
o ( ). , , on.
Auto position .
on ,
. , Position [x, y].
Auto position o.
Auto Rotation . ( o).

94

4.

Font angle . : 0, 90, 180 270 ,


(. . 4.33).
Fore/Back colors
, . 35 . . 4.6.
Font size , 0 6.
1.
Font style .
Helvetica ().
Axis Options :
Location . X : bottom , top , middle ;
Y : left , right , middle .
Grid color , .
-1 , 0 , 32 . , X Y ,
Grid color X, Y.
Data bounds . , ,
.
Scale . : lin () log (). Ticks () Edit Axes Ticks.
. 4.34.
:
Visibility , on
o.
( on).
Auto ticks ,
( on). , ,
Steb by Enter. Auto ticks o.

4.11.

95

. 4.34. Edit Axes Ticks

Sub ticks . , .
, .
Edit Axes Ticks ( Sub ticks). Locations ,
Labels .
Insert,
Delete, Apply, Quit. Insert ( ) . . Delete
, , . Apply , Quit
Edit Axes Ticks.

96

4.

. 4.35. Title Axes Editor

X Reverse. on, Y .
Y,
X.
Title Axes Editor
. Label
Options, Label Options X, Y Z (. . 4.35).
X, Y, Title Axes Editor.
y1 = sin(2x) y2 =
sin(3x) [0; 2] 0,1.
X os absciss Y os ordinat, Helvetica Bold 3.
Grid Color 1.
X middle, Y
Reverse. Grafic y=f(x),

4.11.

97

. 4.36. X, Y, Title

Helvetica Bold, 4. ,
( 7).
, . 4.36.
Style Axes Editor (. . 4.37)

:
Visibility , on (
) o. o .
Font style . Helvetica.
Font color ,
. -1 .
Font size , 0
6. 1.

98

4.

. 4.37. Style Axes Editor

Fore. color , . -1
.
Back. color ,
. -2 .
Thickness , 1 30.
1.
Line style . 6 : solid
, .
Style.
Helvetica Bold, 2, ( Back. color 12) 2.

4.11.

99

. 4.38. Style

, . 4.38.
Aspect Axes Editor (. . 4.39)
:
Auto clear on,
. ( ),
Auto
scale.
Auto scale . on ( )
, ,
, . Auto scale
, , .

4.

100

. 4.39. Aspect Axes Editor

Auto scale. y = sin(x) y1 = cos(x)


(2; 2), y2 = sin(3x) (0; 2).
, .
Auto scale , , (. 4.25, . 4.40).
4.25. Auto scale
x=[-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi];
y=[sin(x); cos(x)];
plot2d(x,y);
x=[0:0.1:2*%pi];
plot2d(sin(3*x));

4.11.

101

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

. 4.40. Auto scale

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
8

. 4.41. Auto scale

4.

102

, Auto scale, . (. 4.26, . 4.41).


4.26. Auto scale
x=[-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi];
y=[sin(x); cos(x)];
plot2d(x,y);
// Auto scale
x=[0:0.1:2*%pi];
plot2d(sin(3*x));
Boxed Aspect Axes Editor
, ( on
) ( o).
Isoview ,
. o.
Tight limits , , Data bounds
X, Y Z. o ( ) ,
.
Cube scaling . on ,
1. 3D- , .
o.
lip state () . : o , ; clipgrf ( ) , ; on , ,
lip box.
lip box ,
. X Y (upper-left point coordinates),
W H.

4.11.

103

Margins : Left ( ), Right (), Top (),


Bottom (). [0 : 1].
0.125.
Axes bounds ,
. Left Up ,
Width Height .
[0 : 1].
[0 0 1 1].
View Point Axes Editor
(. . 4.42) ,
. (Rotation angles) 0 270.

. 4.42. View Point Axes Editor

104

4.11.3

4.

Polyline ( )


Polyline Object Browser Polyline Editor. Object Properties
: Style, Data, Clipping.
Style Polyline Editor (. . 4.43)
:

. 4.43. Style Polyline Editor

Visibility , on (
) o. o
.
Fill mode , on
o ( ). , , , on.

4.11.

105

Closed , .
Polyline style . : interpolated ; staircase ; barplot ; arrowed , , Arrow
size; lled ; bar , (. . 4.44).

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

. 4.44. y = sin(3x).
bar
Line . 6 : solid ,
. : 1 30.
Foreground Background ,
, ,
Fill mode on.
. 4.45 y = sin(3x)
Foreground 1, Background 6, Fill mode Closed.
Interp color vector , .
Mark mode , ( on). .

106

4.

. 4.45. Foreground, Background Closed

Mark style : dot ;


plus ; cross ; star , ; lled diamond ; diamond ; triangle up
; triangle down ;
diamond plus , ; circle ; asterisk ; square ; triangle right ; triangle
left ; pentagram .
Mark size
0 30pt.
Mark foreground , .
. 4.46 y = sin(3x)
lled diamond, 1, Mark
foreground 5.
Data Polyline Editor , . Data eld
, 2 Double,
63 [63x2 double array] (. . 4.47).
Edit data
.

4.11.

. 4.46. y = sin(3x)

. 4.47. Data Polyline Editor

107

108

4.

. 4.48. Clipping Polyline Editor

Clipping () Polyline Editor


Clip box (), (. . 4.48).
, X Y x, y , W, H . Clip state
: o ,
; clipgrf ( )
, ; on , , lip box.

5
Scilab

Scilab . ,
.
Z(x, y)
:
1. .
, xi yj ,

xn x0
, i = 0, 1, . . . , n ,
xi = x0 + ih, h =
n
yk y0
yj = y0 + jh, h =
, j = 0, 1, . . . , k .
k
2. zij = f (xi , yj ) .
3. .

5.1

plot3d plot3d1

Scilab plot3d
plot3d1. , plot3d
, plot3d1 , , (. . I).
:
plot3d(x,y,z,[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox][keyn=valuen]),
plot3d1(x,y,z,[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox][keyn=valuen]),

5. Scilab

110

x - ;
y - ;
z ;
theta, alpha , . , ,
;
leg , @. , X@Y@Z.
flag , : [mode,type,box].

mode (. . 5.1).
2 , .
5.1. mode

>0
0
<0

mode,

, (
)
mode,

type (. . 5.2), 2;
5.2. type

0
1
2

ebox

box
(. . 5.3). 4.

5.1. plot3d plot3d1

111

5.3. box

01
2
3
4


,

,

ebox , ,
[xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax, zmin, zmax].
type=1.
keyn=valuen
key1=value1, key2=value2, ..., keyn=valuen,
, , ,
. (. 4.6).
, plot3d (plot3d1)
.
5.1.
Z = sin(t) cos(t).
t. Z.
, plot3d X Y , , t,
sin, cos t (. 5.1, . 5.1).
5.1. Z = sin(t) cos(t) plot3d
t=[0:0.3:2*%pi];
Z=sin(t)*cos(t);
plot3d(t,t,Z);
. ,
.
5.2.
Z = 5y 2 x2 .

112

5. Scilab

. 5.1. Z = sin(t) cos(t)


X Y .
Z(xi , yj ),
for. i ,
X, j , X Y .
, Z Y ( )
X. X . .
, length X (Y )
(. 2).
, plot3d1 (. 5.2, . II).
5.2.
Z = 5y 2 x2 length plot3d
x=[-2:0.1:2];
y=[-3:0.1:3];
for i=1:length(x)
for j=1:length(y)
z(i,j)=5*y(j)^2-x(i)^2;
end
end

5.1. plot3d plot3d1

113

plot3d1(x,y,z,-125,51);
colorbar(-3,3)
, plot3d , ,
. Scilab , genfac3d eval3dp.
genfac3d:
[xx,yy,zz]=genfac3d(x,y,z)
xx, yy, zz (4, n 1 m 1),
xx(:,i), yy(:,i) zz(:,i) ;
x x- m;
y y- n;
z (m, n) Z(xi , yj ).
5.3.
Z = sin(t) cos(t).
t Z = sin(t)
cos(t). genfac3d (. 5.3).
5.3.
genfac3d plot3d
t=[0:0.3:2*%pi];
z=sin(t)*cos(t);
[xx,yy,zz]=genfac3d(t,t,z);
plot3d(xx,yy,zz);
plot3d (. . 5.1).
genfac3d , -
plot3d, . eval3dp:
[Xf,Yf,Zf]=eval3dp(fun,p1,p2)
Xf,Yf,Zf (4, n 1 m 1), xx(:,i),
yy(:,i) zz(:,i) ;
fun , , ;

5. Scilab

114
p1 m;
p2 n.

eval3dp .
5.4.
, : x = p1 sin(p1 )
cos(p2 ), y = p1 cos(p1 ) cos(p2 ), z = p1 sin(p2 ).
, p1 p2 . scp, .
, Scilab deff:
deff([s1,s2,...]=newfunction(e1,e2,...)
s1,s2,... , .. ,
;
newfunction , ;
e1,e2,... .
, deff
(. 5.4).
5.4.
eval3dp plot3d
p1=linspace(0,2*%pi,10);
p2=linspace(0,2*%pi,10);
deff("[x,y,z]=scp(p1,p2)",["x=p1.*sin(p1).*cos(p2)";
"y=p1.*cos(p1).*cos(p2)";
"z=p1.*sin(p2)"]);
[Xf,Yf,Zf]=eval3dp(scp,p1,p2);
plot3d(Xf,Yf,Zf);
eval3dp , plot3d (. . III).
Scilab . Matlab, , , plot3d.

5.2. meshgrid, surf mesh

5.2

115

meshgrid, surf mesh

Scilab 4.0
meshgrid. :
[X, Y [Z]] = meshgrid(x, y [z])
(x, y [z]) 2 (3) X, Y (Z),
;
[X, Y [Z]] 2 3 .
surf mesh. , plot3d plot3d1,
surf , ,
, mesh .
, mesh surf
olor mode= olor
flag=0.
:
surf([X,Y],Z,[color,keyn=valuen])
mesh([X,Y],Z,[color,])
X,Y , ;
Z ;
color , ;
keyn=valuen
key1=value1, key2=value2, ..., keyn=valuen,
(. 4.6).
, ,
meshgrid, X,Y .
surf surf(z).
5.5.
Z = 5y 2 x2 mesh.
C meshgrid . 2 : 2
, X, 3 : 3 Y .
Z
mesh (. 5.5, . 5.2).

5. Scilab

116

5.5.
meshgrid mesh
[x y]=meshgrid(-2:2,-3:3);
z=5*y.^2-x.^2;
mesh(x,y,z);

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
3
2
1
0
1
Y

2
3

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

. 5.2. Z = 5y 2 x2 , mesh
5.2, , 1, ,
. meshgrid.
5.6.
Z = 5y 2 x2 surf.
meshgrid , ,
0,1
. , ,
.
Z surf (. 5.6, . IV).

5.2. meshgrid, surf mesh

117

5.6.
meshgrid surf
[x y]=meshgrid(-2:0.1:2,-3:0.1:3);
z=5*y.^2-x.^2;
surf(x,y,z)
, Z = 5y 2 x2 plot3d1
surf (. . II . IV). .
surf
Cube scaling (. . 5.3). , surf
, plot3d (. . V).

. 5.3. Cube scaling Axes Editor


Scilab , , ,
mtlb_hold(on),
surf mesh.

118

5. Scilab

5.7.

z(x, y) = (3x2 + 4y 2 ) 1 ,
z1 (x, y) = (3x2 + 4y 2 ) 1 .

meshgrid.
z(x, y) = (3x2 +4y 2 )1 z1 (x, y) = (3x2 +4y 2 )1.
.
Z = +(3x2 +4y 2 )1 surf,
, .
mtlb_hold(on),
, mesh Z1 =
(3x2 +4y 2 )1 Z = +(3x2 +4y 2 )1,
, (. 5.7,
. VI).
5.7. mtlb_hold(on)
[x y]=meshgrid(-2:0.2:2,-2:0.2:2);
z=3*x.^2+4*y.^2-1;
z1=-3*x.^2-4*y.^2-1;
surf(x,y,z);
mtlb_hold(on);
mesh(x,y,z1);

5.3

plot3d2 plot3d3

plot3d2 plot3d3 plot3d,


:
plot3d2(x,y,z,[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox][keyn=valuen]),
plot3d3(x,y,z,[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox][keyn=valuen])
,
. . . plot3d , plot3d2 (plot3d3)
.
plot3d2 plot3d3
plot3d plot3d1, surf mesh. Plot3d2 ,
, .

5.3. plot3d2 plot3d3

119

Plot3d , (. .
)
5.8.

x(u, v) = cos(u) cos(v) ,


y(u, v) = cos(u) sin(v) ,

z(u, v) = sin(u)

plot3d2.

, x(u, v),
y(u, v) z(u, v) X, Y Z . u v .
x, y z :
1. x, y z f (u) g(v),
X, Y Z
f (u) g(v).
2. x, y z f (u) g(v),
X, Y Z f (u) ones(size(v)) g(v)
ones(size(u)) .
, linspace , . ,
u=linspace(-%pi/2,%pi/2,40) , u [2; 2]. 40 ,
40 , 100 (. 5.8).
5.8. plot3d2
u = linspace(-%pi/2,%pi/2,40);
v = linspace(0,2*%pi,20);
X = cos(u)*cos(v);
Y = cos(u)*sin(v);
Z = sin(u)*ones(v);
plot3d2(X,Y,Z);
plot3d2 . 5.4.
, plot3d.

5. Scilab

120

. 5.4. , plot3d2

5.9.

x(u, v) = cos(u) cos(v) ,


y(u, v) = cos(u) sin(v) ,

z(u, v) = sin(u)

plot3d.

u v, x, y, z, (. 5.9).
plot3d. (. . VII).
5.9. plot3d
u = linspace(-%pi/2,%pi/2,40);
v = linspace(0,2*%pi,20);
X = cos(u)*cos(v);
Y = cos(u)*sin(v);
Z = sin(u)*ones(v);
plot3d(X,Y,Z);
plot3d3 .

5.3. plot3d2 plot3d3


5.10.

121

x(u, v) = cos(u) cos(v) ,


y(u, v) = cos(u) sin(v) ,

z(u, v) = sin(u)

plot3d3.

u v, , u 40 20
.
x, y, z
plot3d3 (. 5.10). ,
(. . 5.5).
5.10. plot3d3

u = linspace(-%pi/2,%pi/2,20);
v = linspace(0,2*%pi,20);
X = cos(u)*cos(v);
Y = cos(u)*sin(v);
Z = sin(u)*ones(v);
plot3d3(X,Y,Z);

. 5.5. , plot3d3

122

5.4

5. Scilab

param3d param3d1

Scilab
param3d:
param3d(x,y,z,[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox]).
param3d .
5.11.
, :

y = sin(t) ,
y1 = cos(t) ,

y2 = t .
7
, t.
param3d,
y, y1 y2 , ,
45 35 (. 5.11, . 5.6).
5.11. , , param3d
t=[0:0.1:10*%pi];
param3d(sin(t),cos(t),t/7,45,35);

5.12.
, :

x = t sin(t) ;

y = t cos(t) ;
t |t|

.
z=
(50 )
t, X, Y Z .
param3d, 45 60 . (. 5.12, . 5.7).

5.4. param3d param3d1

123

4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
Z

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1.0

1.0
0.6

0.6
0.2

0.2
0.2

0.2
0.6

0.6
1.0

1.0

. 5.6. , param3d

5.12. , , param3d
t=-50*%pi:0.1:50*%pi;
x=t.*sin(t);
y=t.*cos(t);
z=t.*abs(t)/(50*%pi);
param3d(x,y,z,45,60);

Scilab param3d1.
:

param3d1(x,y,list(z,colors),[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox])


list(z,colors), Z- , .
.

5. Scilab

124

200
150
100

50
0
50
100
150
200
200

200
100

100
0

0
100

100
200

200

. 5.7. , param3d

5.13.
, :

x = sin(t) ;
x = cos(t) ;
y = sin(2t) ;
y = cos(2t) ;

z = t/10 .
z = sin(t) .
t.

param3d1. X Y , .
list Z- (9), (5). 35 45 . X@Y@Z
(. 5.13, . VIII).
5.13. list param3d
t=[0:0.1:5*%pi];
param3d1([sin(t),sin(2*t)],[cos(t),cos(2*t)],...
list([t/10,sin(t)],[9,5]),35,45,"X@Y@Z");

5.5. contour

125
5.4. mode

0
1
2

5.5

Z(x, y)
,
Z = zlev

contour

Scilab, , . , X,
Y - ,
Z- .
.
Scilab contour.
:
contour(x,y,z,nz[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox,zlev])
x, y ;
z , Z(x, y);
nz , . nz
,
Z(x, y) nz .
nz ,
;
theta, alpha , . ,
, ;
leg , @. , X@Y@Z.
flag , : [mode,type,box].

mode
(. . 5.4).

126

5. Scilab
type (. . 5.2), 2;
box
(. . 5.3). 4;

ebox , ,
[xmin,xmax,ymin,ymax,zmin,zmax]. type=1;
zlev , ( ) . , ,
.
, contour Z(x, y) , .
, Scilab deff:
deff([s1,s2,...]=newfunction(e1,e2,...)
s1,s2,... , .. ,
;
newfunction , ;
e1,e2,... .
- :
function <lhs_arguments>=<function_name><rhs_arguments>
<_>
endfunction
lhs_arguments ;
function_name ;
rhs_arguments .
5.14.
Z = x sin(x)2 cos(y).

5.5. contour

127

t .
function my_surface x, y
z. ,
.
contour (. 5.14,
. IX).
5.14. Z = x sin(x)2 cos(y)
contour
t=linspace(-%pi,%pi,30);
function z=my_surface(x,y)
z=x*sin(x)^2*cos(y)
endfunction
contour(t,t,my_surface,10);
, contour . , .
.
5.15.
Z = sin(x) cos(y) .
, t .
Surf, deff.
rect
, ,
.
, Z(x, y)
plot3d For,
zij = f (xi , yj ). ,
feval.
plot3d Z = sin(x)
cos(y), , .
flag [2,1,4]: 2 , 1 ( rect,
), 4 .
, contour, , , 10 flag [1,1,4]: 1 , ,
(Z = sin(x) cos(y)), 1

128

5. Scilab

( rect, ), 4 . 5
5 .
xtitle (. 5.15,
. X).
5.15. Z = sin(x) cos(y) (
plot3d) ( contour)
rect
t=%pi*(-10:10)/10;
deff([z]=Surf(x,y),z=sin(x)*cos(y));
rect=[-%pi,%pi,-%pi,%pi,-5,1];
z=feval(t,t,Surf);
plot3d(t,t,z,35,45,X@Y@Z,[2,1,4],rect);
contour(t,t,z,10,35,45,X@Y@Z,[1,1,4],rect, -5);
xtitle(plot3d and contour);

. .
5.16.
Z = sin(x) cos(y) .
, t, Surf, rect,
Z = sin(x) cos(y), feval.
,
( 75 45)
( mode flag 19
).
contour location 5 mode
flag 0
Z = sin(x) cos(y).
xtitle (. 5.16, . XI).
5.16.
t=%pi*(-10:10)/10; deff([z]=Surf(x,y),z=sin(x)*cos(y));
rect=[-%pi,%pi,-%pi,%pi,-1,1];
z=feval(t,t,Surf);

5.6. contourf

129

plot3d(t,t,z,35,45,X@Y@Z,[-19,1,4],rect);
contour(t,t,z+0.1,10,35,45,X@Y@Z,[0,1,4],rect); ...
xtitle(plot3d and contour);

5.6

contourf

Scilab contourf, ,
, .
:
contourf (x,y,z,nz,[style,strf,leg,rect,nax])
x, y ;
z , Z(x, y);
nz , . nz
,
Z(x, y) nz .
nz ,
;
style , nz
;
strf , sa. (Captions) (. . 5.5); s (Scaling)
(. . 5.6); a (Axes)
(. . 5.7).
leg , , @. .
rect [xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax], x y ;
5.5. (Captions) strf

0
1


, leg

5. Scilab

130

5.6. s (Scaling) strf

0
1
2
3
4
5
6


rect


,
rect
,
,
rect
,

5.7. a (Axes) strf

0
1
2
3
4
5


, Y

, Y

,
(0; 0).

nax [nx, Nx, ny, Ny],


. Nx
(Ny) c X (Y ); nx (ny)
.
5.17.
Z = sin(x) cos(y)
contourf.
t ,
deff surf.
Z = sin(x) cos(y), plot3d1, , contourf, . -

5.7. hist3d

131

subplot,
.
feval, Z = sin(x) cos(y)
plot3d1, 80 15,
, xtitle, plot3d1.
contourf. X, Y Z, (10), 10 : 20 ,
, strf="121" (1
; 2 ; 1 ,
Y ).
, . . Scilab
colorbar (n, m), n ,m .
contourf
xtitle (. 5.17, . XII).
5.17. Z = sin(x) cos(y) (
plot3d) (
contourf)
t=-%pi:0.2:%pi;
deff([z]=Surf(x,y),z=sin(x)*cos(y));
subplot(121);
z=feval(t,t,Surf);
plot3d1(t,t,z,80,15);
xtitle(plot3d1);
subplot(122);
contourf(t,t,z,10,10:20,strf="121");
colorbar(-%pi,%pi);
xtitle(contourf,X,Y);

5.7

hist3d

Scilab
hist3d:
hist3d(f,[theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox])
f (m : n), f (i, j) = F (x(i), y(j)).
theta,alpha,leg,flag,ebox ,
plot3d.

5. Scilab

132

5.18.
.
rand.
, (m,n),
rand(m,n) (. 5.18).
5.18.
hist3d
hist3d(9.7*rand(10,10),20,35);
. 5.8.

10
8

0
1

6
2
4

3
4

2
5
0

6
0

7
2

5
Y

9
7

10
10

. 5.8. , hist3d

5.8


Scilab

Scilab.
, .
5.19.
Z = sin(t) cos(t), ,
|Z| > 0.5.

5.8. Scilab

133

t, Z =
sin(t) cos(t) Z.
Z1 find Z, 0,5.
%inf. , z(z1)=%inf*z1
, %inf*z1 Z,
Z1 , .

, Z, , , , plot3d1
. ,
Z = sin(t) cos(t) (. 5.19, . XIII).
5.19.
t=linspace(-%pi,%pi,40);
z=sin(t)*cos(t);
z1=find(abs(z)>0.5);
z(z1)=%inf*z1;
plot3d1(t,t,z);
, Z
, Z
0.5 0.5.
: ,
.
5.20.
.
, deff sph, X, Y , Z. ,
sph (. 5.20):
deff([x,y,z]=sph(alp,tet),[x=r*cos(alp).*cos(tet)+...
orig(1)*ones(tet);
y=r*cos(alp).*sin(tet)+orig(2)*ones(tet);
z=r*sin(alp)+orig(3)*ones(tet)]);
r, - orig, x y.
, %inf, x (5 : 8) (30 : 35).

134

5. Scilab

,
, , (. . XIV). , , ,
.
eval3dp plot3d1,

35 15.
5.20.

deff([x,y,z]=sph(alp,tet),[x=r*cos(alp).*cos(tet)+orig(1)*...
ones(tet);
y=r*cos(alp).*sin(tet)+orig(2)*ones(tet);
z=r*sin(alp)+orig(3)*ones(tet)]);
r=1;orig=[0 0 0];
x=linspace(-%pi/2,%pi/2,40);
y=linspace(0,%pi*2,20);
x(5:8)=%inf*ones(5:8);
x(30:35)=%inf*ones(30:35);
[x1,y1,z1]=eval3dp(sph,x,y);
plot3d1(x1,y1,z1,35,15);
plot3d2. .
5.21.
.
:

(v)

;
x = cos(u) u 1 + cos

u
y = sin(v) ;
2

(v)

.
z = (sin(u) u) 1 + cos
2

u, v.
x, y, z (. 5.21). plot3d2, ,
. XV.
5.21.
u = linspace(0,2*%pi,40);
v = linspace(0,2*%pi,20);

5.8. Scilab

135

x= (cos(u).*u)*(1+cos(v)/2);
y= (u/2)*sin(v);
z= (sin(u).*u)*(1+cos(v)/2);
plot3d2(x,y,z);
5.22.
plot3d2.
.
, .
:

u
v

x(u,
v)
=
1
+
cos(u) ,

cos

u2

v
y(u, v) = 1 + cos
sin(u) ,

2 2

v
u

z(u, v) = sin
.
2
2

u [0; 2], v [1; 1].


1, 1, xy (0, 0, 0). u ,
v .
5.22 ,
. 5.25.
5.22.
plot3d2
t=linspace(-1,1,20);
x=linspace(0,%pi,40);
factor=2+t*cos(x);
X=factor*diag(cos(2*x));
Y=factor*diag(sin(2*x));
Z=t*sin(x);
plot3d2(X,Y,Z);
5.23.
plot3d2.
,
,
. :

x(u, v) = (R + r cos(u) cos(v)) ,


y(u, v) = (R + r cos(u) sin(v)) ,

z(u, v) = r sin(u) ,

136

5. Scilab

u, v [0; 2], R
, r .
5.23 , . 5.26.
5.23. plot3d2
x=linspace(0,2*%pi,40);
y=linspace(0,2*%pi,20);
fact=1.5+cos(y)*(cos(x)/2+0.6);
X=fact*diag(cos(x));
Y=fact*diag(sin(x));
Z=sin(y)*(cos(x)/2+0.6);
plot3d2(X,Y,Z,);

. 5.9.

5.24.
plot3d2.
5.24 plot3d2, . 5.27.

5.8. Scilab
5.24.
plot3d2
x=linspace(0,2*%pi,40);
y=linspace(0,2*%pi,20);
factor=1.5+cos(y);
X=factor*cos(x);
Y=factor*sin(x);
Z=sin(y)*ones(x)+ ones(y)*cos(2*x);
plot3d2(X,Y,Z);

. 5.10.

137

6

SCILAB

,
. , Scilab
.

6.1

P (x) = 0, P (x) , ,
.
x a0 xn +a1 xn1 + +an1 x+an =
0, a0 6= 0, n > 1 ai n .
, ,
, .
Scilab . P (x) poly, ,
roots.
, Scilab
poly(a, "x ["fl"]),
a , x , fl , . fl roots
coeff ( r c). fl=c, , a. fl=r,

6.1.

139

a , . fl=r.
p, , f 3.
6.1.
-->p=poly(3,x,r);
-->f=poly(3,x,c);
-->p
p =
- 3 + x
-->f
f =
3
.
6.2. poly
-->// 1, 0 2
-->poly([1 0 2],x)
ans =
2
3
2x - 3x + x
-->// 1, 0 2
-->poly([1 0 2],x,c)
ans =
2
1 + 2x
:
6.3.
-->p1=poly([-1 2],x,c)
p1 =
- 1 + 2x
-->p2=poly([3 -7 2],x,c)
p2 =
2
3 - 7x + 2x
-->p1+p2 //
ans =
2
2 - 5x + 2x

6. SCILAB

140

-->p1-p2 //
ans =
2
4 + 9x - 2x
-->p1*p2 //
ans =
2
3
- 3 + 13x - 16x + 4x
-->p1/p2 //
ans =
1
----- 3 + x
-->p1^2 //
ans =
2
1 - 4x + 4x
-->p2^(-1) //
ans =
1
----------2
3 - 7x + 2x

roots(p)
. p ,
poly
P (x) = 0.
.

6.1.
2x4 8x3 + 8x2 1 = 0.
p. poly, V . , x ,
, :

6.1.

141

6.4.
-->V=[-1 0 8 -8 2];
-->p=poly(V,x,c)
p =
2
3
4
1 + 8x - 8x + 2x
:
6.5. roots
-->X=roots(p)
X =
!
0.4588039
! - 0.3065630
!
1.5411961
!
2.306563

!
!
!
!

1 , . 6.1, ,
.

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

. 6.1. 6.1

6.2.
x3 + 0.4x2 + 0.6x 1 = 0.
,
:
1 f (x) = 0 f (x)
.

6. SCILAB

142

6.6. 6.2
-->roots(poly([-1 0.6 0.4 1],x,c))
ans =
!
0.7153636
!
! - 0.5576818 + 1.0425361i !
! - 0.5576818 - 1.0425361i !
, (. 6.2)
.

1.0

0.5

0.0
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

. 6.2. 6.2

6.3.
y(x) = 0, y(x) = x4 18x2 + 6.
6.7 .
. 6.3.
6.7. 6.3
-->x=poly(0,x);
-->y=x^4-18*x^2+.6;
-->roots(y)
ans =
!
0.1827438 !
! - 0.1827438 !
! - 4.2387032 !
!
4.2387032 !

6.2.

143

200

150

100

50

0
6

50

100

. 6.3. 6.3

6.2

f (x) = 0, , .
, . f (x) = 0
.
.
.
, .. , .
, , f (x) 1 . ,
, , .
Scilab
fsolve(x0,f)
x0 , f , y(x) = 0.
.
6.4.

p
3
3 (x 1)2 x2 = 0.

1 :
f (x) [a, b] , .. f (a) f (b) < 0,
.

6. SCILAB

144

.
. , , f (x) g(x) = 0,

f (x)
g(x) .
p
3
3
2
f (x) = (x 1) , g(x) = x2 . . 6.4 ,
[0; 1].
1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

. 6.4. 6.4
, , :
6.8. 6.4
-->deff([y]=f1(x),y1=((x-1)^2)^(1/3),y2=(x^2)^(1/3),y=y1-y2)
-->fsolve(0,f1)
ans =
0.5
6.5.
f (x) = ex /5 2(x 1)2 .
. 6.5 , f (x) ,
.. .
fsolve , :
6.9. 6.5
-->deff([y]=f(x),y=exp(x)/5-2*(x-1)^2)
-->x(1)=fsolve(0,f);x(2)=fsolve(2,f);x(3)=fsolve(5,f);
-->x

6.2.

145

10

0
1

. 6.5. 6.5

= !
!
!

0.5778406 !
1.7638701 !
5.1476865 !

, ,
:
6.10. 6.5 ( )
-->fsolve([0;2;5],f)
ans = !
0.5778406 !
!
1.7638701 !
!
5.1476865 !
6.6.
sin(x) 0.4x = 0 [5; 5].
6.11.
6.11. 6.6
-->deff([y]=fff(x),y=-0.4+sin(x))
-->V=[-5*%pi:%pi:5*%pi]; X=fsolve(V,fff);
-->X //
X = !-16.11948 -12.154854 -9.8362948 -5.8716685 -3.5531095
0.4115168 2.7300758 6.6947022 9.0132611 12.977887 15.296446!
6.7.
y(x) = 0, y(x) = x5 x3 + 1.

6. SCILAB

146

, , (. 6.6) 2 1.

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

1
2
3
4

. 6.6. 6.7
fsolve:
6.12. 6.7
-->deff([f]=y(x),f=x^5-x^3+1)
-->X=fsolve(-2,y)
X = 1.2365057
roots:
6.13. 6.7 roots
-->roots(poly([1 0 0 -1 0 1],x,c))
ans =
!
0.9590477 + 0.4283660i !
!
0.9590477 - 0.4283660i !
! - 0.3407949 + 0.7854231i !
! - 0.3407949 - 0.7854231i !
! - 1.2365057
!
, , ( 6.12),
( 6.13).
roots.

6.3.

6.3

147

m n n , m , . Scilab
fsolve(x0,f).
6.8.
: {x2 + y 2 = 1 ; x3 1 = 0}.
(. 6.7) ,
.

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

. 6.7.
[0.8; 0.6] [0.8; 0.6].
.
fsolve, :
6.14. 6.8
function [y]=fun(x)
y(1)=x(1)^2+x(2)^2-1;
y(2)=x(1)^3-x(2);
endfunction
-->exec(C:\fun.sce); disp(exec done); exec done
-->fsolve([0.5 0.5],fun)
ans = 0.8260314
0.5636242
-->fsolve([-0.5 -0.5],fun)
ans = - 0.8260314 - 0.5636242

148

6. SCILAB

6.9.

:
6.15. 6.9
function [y]=fun(x)
y(1)=x(1)^2+x(2)^2+x(3)^2-1
y(2)=2*x(1)^2+x(2)^2-4*x(3)
y(3)=3*x(1)^2-4*x(2)+x(3)^2
endfunction
-->exec(D:\scilab 3\fun);disp(exec done); exec done
-->fsolve([0.5 0.5 0.5],fun)//
ans = !
0.7851969
0.4966114
0.3699228 !

Scilab .

7.1

Scilab inttrap([x,]y).
y(x), (x, y). x . inttrap(y) x
y.
7.1.

Z13
5

2x 1 dx.

Z13
5

2x 1 dx =

p
(2x 1)3
, 3

1 :
1

-:
Zb
a

f (x) = F (b) F (a) .

150

7.
7.1. 7.1
-->a=5;b=13;
-->I=1/3*(2*b-1)^(3/2)-1/3*(2*a-1)^(3/2)
I = 32.666667


1 . .
,
0.5 0.1. , ,
:
7.2. 7.1
inttrap
-->x=a:b;y=sqrt(2*x-1);
-->inttrap(x,y)
ans =
32.655571
-->h=0.5; x=a:h:b; y=sqrt(2*x-1);
-->inttrap(x,y)
ans =
32.66389
-->h=0.1; x=a:h:b; y=sqrt(2*x-1);
-->inttrap(x,y)
ans =
32.666556
7.3 inttrap . , ,
, , inttrap(x,y) [5; 13] 1. .. h = 1 ,
y. , , . , ,
0.1, x y, inttrap(y)
h = 1
, y. ,
.
1 ,
.

7.2.

151

7.3. inttrap
-->x=a:b;y=sqrt(2*x-1);
-->inttrap(y)
ans =
32.655571
-->h=0.1;x=a:h:b;y=sqrt(2*x-1);
-->inttrap(y)
ans =
326.66556

7.2

, , ,
Zb

y dy = (b a)

n
X

Hi y i

(7.1)

i=0

Hi , .
(7.1) n = 1, , n = 2
. . n > 2
. Scilab
:
integrate(fun, x, a, b, [,er1 [,er2]])
fun , ;
x , ; a, b , ; er1 er2 ,
( ).
7.2.
7.1
7.4.
7.4. integrate
-->integrate((2*x-1)^0.5,x,5,13)
ans =
32.666667

7.

152

7.3

Scilab :
[I,err]=intg(a, b, name [,er1 [,er2]])
name , (
( )
); a b ; er1 er2
( ).
7.3.
7.1
7.5.
7.5. intg
-->deff(y=G(x),y=sqrt(2*x-1)); intg(5,13,G)
ans =
32.666667
7.4.

t2
p

(3 + sin(t))

dt.

7.6.
7.6. 7.4
-->function y=f(t),y=t^2/sqrt(3+sin(t)),endfunction;
-->[I,er]=intg(0,1,f)
er = 1.933D-15
I =
0.1741192

7.4

, y(x),
xi (i = 0, 1, . . . , n) [a, b] yi = f (xi ),
, x0 , x1 , . . . , xk (k 6 n),
y = f (x), y = f (x) . .

2 y0
3 y0
4 y0
5 y0
1

y0
+

+
... ,
(7.2)
y (x0 ) =
h
2!
3!
4!
5!

7.4.

153


, .

Scilab

dy=diff(y[,n]), y y(x) , n .
dy, n
y, 2 y, . . . , k y.
.

7.5.
y (50) y = lg(x), .

7.7.
7.7. diff
-->h=5;x=50:5:65;
-->y=log10(x)
y = 1.69897
1.7403627
1.7781513
1.8129134
-->dy=diff(y)
dy = 0.0413927
0.0377886
0.0347621
-->dy2=diff(y,2)
dy2 = - 0.0036041 - 0.0030265
-->dy3=diff(y,3)
dy3 = 0.0005777
-->// y(50) (7.2)
-->Y=(dy(1)-dy2(1)/2+dy3(1)/3)/h
Y = 0.0086775
-->// y(50) lg(x)=1/ln(10)/x
-->1/log(10)/x(1)
ans =
0.0086859
-->// y(x), x=50,55,60 (7.2)
-->Y=(dy-dy2(1:$-1)/2+dy3(1:$-2)/3)/h
Y =
0.0086389
0.0079181
0.0073128
-->// y(x), x=50,55,60, lg(x)=1/ln(10)/x
-->(1/log(10))./x(1:$-1)
ans = 0.0086859
0.0078963
0.0072382

7.

154

7.5


g=numdiff(fun,x)
fun , . y=fun(x [, p1, p2,..., pn]), x , . p1, p2,
. . . , pn ,
, , : g=numdiff(list(fun,p1,p2,...pn),x).
dfi
.
gij = dx
j
.
7.6.
f (1), f (x) = (x + 2)3 + 5x.
7.8 .
7.8. 7.6
-->function f=my(x), f=(x+2)^3+5*x, endfunction;
-->numdiff(my,1)
ans = 32.
-->x=1;3*(x+2)^2+5
ans = 32.
7.7.
f (x) 0, 1, 2, 3 f (x) = (x + 2)3 + 5x.
:
7.9. 7.7
-->v=0:3;
-->numdiff(my,v)
ans =
17.
0.
0.
0.
0.
32.
0.
0.
0.
0.
52.999999
0.
0.
0.
0.
80.000002
-->function f1=my1(x), f1=3*(x+2)^2+5, endfunction;
-->my1(v)
ans =
17.
32.
53.
80.

7.5.

155

7.8.
y(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x1 xx2 3 + x21 x3 .
dy
dy
dy
,
,
(1, 2, 3).
dx1 dx2 dx3
7.10.
7.10. 7.8
-->function [Y]=f(X), Y=X(1)*X(2)^X(3)+X(1)^2*X(3),endfunction
-->X=[1 2 3];
-->numdiff(f,X)
ans =
14.
12.
6.5451775
-->//--------------------------------->function [Y]=f1(X),
Y(1)=X(2)^X(3)+2*X(1)*X(3),
Y(2)=X(1)*X(3)*X(2)^(X(3)-1),
Y(3)=x(1)*X(2)^X(3)*log(X(2))+X(1)^2,
endfunction
-->f1(X)
ans =
14.
12.
6.5451774

n-
H(t, x, x , x , ..., x(n) ) = 0

(8.1)

x(t), .
n-
:
x1 = f1 (t, x1, x2 , . . . , xn )
x2 = f2 (t, x1, x2 , . . . , xn )
(8.2)

xn = fn (t, x1, x2 , . . . , xn )
, (8.2)
:

x1 (t)
x2 (t)

x(t) = .
(8.3)
..
xn (t)

, .
. .

8.

157

: ( ) ; .
. , ,
. .
, .
Scilab

[y,w,iw]=ode([type],y0,t0,t [,rtol [,atol]],f [,jac] [,w,iw])


: y0 ; t0 ; t , ; f ,
(8.2); y
(8.3).
, dy

= f (t, y), y(t0 ) = y0 ,
dt
y=ode(y0,t0,t,f).
ode:
type ,
, : adams
-
; stiff ; rk

; rkf ; fix ,
;
rtol, atol , , y,
rtol=0.00001, atol=0.0000001, rkf fix
- rtol=0.001, atol=0.0001;
jac ,
,
J=jak(t,y);
w, iw ,
, , .

8.

158

.
8.1.

dx
dt

+ x = sin(xt), x(0) = 1.5.

dx
:
= x + sin(xt), x(0) = 1.5.
dt
, , , . 8.1

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

. 8.1. 8.1

y=ode(x0,t0,t,f), :
f f (t, x);
t ;
x0, t0 x(0) = 1.5;
y .
8.1. 8.1
-->function yd=f(t,x),yd=-x+sin(t*x),endfunction;
-->x0=1.5;t0=0;t=0:1:35;
-->y=ode(x0,t0,t,f);
-->plot(t,y)

8.

159

8.2.

x = cos(xy) ,
y = sin(x + ty) ,
x(0) = 0, y(0) = 0.
[0; 10].
,
, Scilab, (. 8.2).
8.2. 8.2
//,
function dy=syst(t,y)
dy=zeros(2,1);
dy(1)=cos(y(1)*y(2));
dy(2)=sin(y(1)+y(2)*t);
endfunction
//
x0=[0;0];t0=0;t=0:*0.1*:10;y=ode(x0,t0,t,syst);
//
plot(t,y)

1
0

. 8.2. 8.2

10

8.

160

8.3.
:

1
119.46
185.38
126.88 121.03
1
10.395 10.136 3.636

dX
8.577

X(0) =
=
1 .
53.302 85.932 63.182 54.211 X;
dt
1
115.58 181.75 112.8
199
:
8.3. 8.3
-->B=[119.46 185.38 126.88 121.03;-10.395 -10.136 -3.636 8.577;
-->-53.302 -85.932 -63.182 -54.211;-115.58 -181.75 -112.8 -199];
-->function dx=syst1(t,x), dx=B*x,endfunction
-->function J=Jac(t,y),J=B,endfunction
-->x0=[1;1;1;1]; t0=0; t=0:0.01:5;
-->y=ode("stiff",x0,t0,t,syst1,Jac);
-->plot(t,y); xgrid();
. 8.3.

20

15

10

10

15
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

. 8.3. 8.3

5.0

8.

161

8.4.
:

dx1

= 7x1 + 7x2

1
dt

dx2
X(0) = 0 .
= 157x1 1.15x2 x3 ,

dt

dx3 = 0.96x1 x2 8.36x3

dt
. 8.4 [0; 2].

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

. 8.4. 8.4
Scilab, :
8.4. 8.4
function dx=syst2(t,x) //
dx=zeros(3,1);
dx(1)=-7*x(1)+7*x(2);
dx(2)=157*x(1)+x(2)-1.15*x(1)*x(3);
dx(3)=0.96*x(1)*x(2)-8.36*x(3);
endfunction
-->>//
-->x0=[-1;0;1]; t0=0; t=0:0.01:2;y=ode("stiff",x0,t0,t,syst2);
-->plot(t,y); xgrid();

162

8.

8.5.
[0.25; 2]:
d2 x
dx
+4
+ 13 = esin(t) ,
dt2
dt

x (0.25) = 1.

x(0.25) = 1,

, y =
dx
= y,
dt

dy
= 4y 13x + esin(t) ,
dt

dx
:
dt

y(0.25) = 1,

:
8.5. 8.5
function F=FF(t,x)
F=[-4*x(1)-13*x(2)+exp(t);x(1)];
endfunction
-->//
-->X0=[1;-1];t0=0.25;t=0.25:0.05:2;
-->y=ode("stiff",X0,t0,t,FF);
-->//
-->plot(t,y); xgrid();
. 8.5.

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

. 8.5. 8.5

2.0

x(0.25) = 1.

9
Scilab

Scilab .
, Scilab.
, Scilab , .
, ( Scilab
) :
1. Editor (. . 9.1).
2. Scipad .
3. File Save
sce , , file.sce .
4. , exec, , exec("file.sce"). File Exec. . . , Scipad, Execute Load into Scilab (Ctrl+L ).
,
.
,
Scilab ( Scilab sci).

9. Scilab

164

. 9.1. Scipad

9.1

sci-

sci- -.

9.1.1

- Scilab

Scilab
x=input(title);

x=x_dialog(title, stroka);
input Scilab title ,
,
. x_dialog
title, OK, stroka
x, stroka,

9.1. sci-

165

x. 9.2 , x=x_dialog(Input X,
5).

. 9.2.
input , x_dialog . x_dialog
evstr.
x_dialog :
x=evstr(x_dialog(title,stroka));
disp :
disp(b)
b .

9.1.2


a=b
a , b .
a
b.

9.1.3

, , if.
if Scilab. if

9. Scilab

166
if
1
else
2
end

, 1, 2
Scilab . if
: , 1,
2.
Scilab : &, and ( ), |, or ( ), , not (
) : < (), > (), == (), =, <>
( ), <= ( ), >= ( ).

. , , else
if,
if.
if 1
1
elseif 2
2 elseif 3
3
...
elseif n
n
else

end
if : 1 , 1, 2, , 2, 3 . .
else elseif ,
else.
9.1.
ax4 + bx2 + c = 0.
y = x2
.
y.

9.1. sci-

167

a, b, c. x1 , x2 , x3 , x4
, .
:
1. a, b c;
2. d;
3. d < 0, y1 y2 ,
.
4. y1 < 0 y2 < 0 , .

5. y1 > 0 y2 > 0, y1 ,

y2 .
6. 4) 5) , y1 .

7. y1 , y1 ,
y2 .
sci- 9.1, 9.2.
9.1.
// .
a=input(a=);
b=input(b=);
c=input(c=);
// .
d=b*b-4*a*c;
// ,
if d<0
// ,
disp(Real roots are not present);
else
//
// .
x1=(-b+sqrt(d))/2/a;
x2=(-b-sqrt(d))/2/a;
// ,
if (x1<0)&(x2<0)
// .
disp(Real roots are not present);
//, ,
elseif (x1>=0)&(x2>=0)

168

9. Scilab
// .
disp(Four real roots);
y1=sqrt(x1);
y2=-y1;
y3=sqrt(x2);
y4=-y2;
disp(y1,y2,y3,y4);
//, (x1<0)&(x2<0) (x1>=0)&(x2>=0)
// ,
else
//
disp(Two real roots);
// x1.
if x1>=0
// x1 ,
// x1,
y1=sqrt(x1);
y2=-y1;
disp(y1);
disp(y2);
// ( - x2 ),
//
// x2.
else
y1=sqrt(x2); y2=-y1;
disp(y1); disp(y2);
end
end end
9.2.
-->exec("G:/Lecture Scilab EG/2/l1.sci");
a=-->-6
b=-->9
c=-->-1
Four real roots
0.3476307
1.1743734
- 0.3476307
0.3476307

if, , Scilab (. 9.3).

9.1. sci-

169

9.3.
a=input(a=);
b=input(b=);
c=input(c=);
d=b*b-4*a*c;
x1=(-b+sqrt(d))/2/a;
x2=(-b-sqrt(d))/2/a;
y1=sqrt(x1);
y2=-y1;
y3=sqrt(x2);
y4=-y3;
disp(y1,y2,y3,y4);
, 9.3
(. 9.4).
9.4.
-->a=3
-->b=8
-->c=-1
-1.6692213i
1.6692213i
-0.3458800
0.3458800

9.1.4

select :
select
case 1 then 1
case 2 then 2
...
else
end
select :
1, 1, ,
2, 2. ,
3, 3 . .
case,
, else.

170

9. Scilab

,
select, if, select .
select
.
9.2.
,
D, , 31 1- .
, 1- .
D
, , , . x k x int(x/k) x.
, .
,
(. 9.5). 9.6.
9.5. 9.2
D=input(Enter a number from 1 to 31);
// D 7,
// 0 6.
select D-int(D/7)*7
case 1 then disp(Monday);
case 2 then disp(Tuesday);
case 3 then disp(Wednesday);
case 4 then disp(Thursday);
case 5 then disp(Friday);
case 6 then disp(Saturday);
else
disp(Sunday);
end
9.6. 9.2
-->exec(G:\Lecture Scilab EG\2\l2.sci);disp(exec done);
Enter a number from 1 to 31-->19
Friday
Scilab. sci- : while for.

9.2. Scilab

9.1.5

171

while

while
while

end
; , .
while , , . for .

9.1.6

for

for
for x=xn:hx:xk

end
x , xn , xk , hx .
1, hx , for
.
for x=xn:xk

end

(x = xn). , (x > xk). x > xk, ,
. x 6 xk, ( ).
hx (x = x + hx).
, .

9.2

Scilab

sci- . (, ) sci-
( ), Scilab
.

9. Scilab

172


sci-.

9.2.1

. 9.7 9.8 sci.


9.7.
N=input(N=);
disp(Vvod massiva x);
for i=1:N
x(i)=input(X=);
end
disp(x);
9.8.
N=input(N=);
M=input(M=);
disp(Vvod matrici);
for i=1:N
for j=1:M
a(i,j)=input();
end
end
disp(a);
()
disp () 1 .

9.2.2


()

, : 0 (s = 0), s
s, s
s s .
.
1 , ()
, () Scilab.

9.2. Scilab

173

:
1 (p = 1). p
, p . . 9.99.12
, .
9.9.
// s 0.
s=0;
//
for i=1:length(x)
//
s=s+x(i);
end
9.10.
p=1;
for i=1:length(x)
p=p*x(i);
end
9.11.
s=0;
// N M A.
[N,M]=size(A);
for i=1:N
for j=1:M
s=s+a(i,j);
end
end
disp(s);
9.12.
// (p) 1.
p=1;
// N M A.
[N,M]=size(A);
// .
for i=1:N
// .

174

9. Scilab
for j=1:M
// p .
p=p*a(i,j);
end
end

9.2.3

()
()

. Max
, Nmax . ,

Max, Nmax (1). , , .
, Max, Nmax i. 9.13
.
9.13.
// Max .
Max=a(1);
// Nmax
//, 1.
Nmax=1;
// , .
for i=2:N
// Max,
if x(i)>Max
// ,
Max=x(i);
// i.
Nmax=i;
end;
end;
, if > <.
9.14
: Nmin , Lmin .
, ()
i j 1. ,

9.2. Scilab

175


ai,j min.
9.14.

// Min a(1,1), Nmin Lmin 1.
Min=a(1,1); Nmin=1; Lmin=1;
for i=1:N
for j=1:M
// Min,
if a(i,j)<Min
// ,
Min=a(i,j);
// i j.
Nmin=i;
Lmin=j;
end;
end;
end;

9.2.4


. , X n
1 ,

X[1] 6 X[2] 6 6 X[n] ,


,
X[1] > X[2] > > X[n] .
.
, , . ,
, . . . , i- (i + 1)-, . . . , (n 1)- n- . (n-) .
, (n-) , .
(n 1)- ,
, .
1

9. Scilab

176

> <. 9.15


sci-, .
9.15.
x=[-3 5 7 49 -8 11 -5 32 -11];
for i=1:length(x)-1
for j=1:length(x)-i
// ,
//,
if x(j)>x(j+1)
// .
b=x(j);
x(j)=x(j+1);
x(j+1)=b;
end;
end;
end;
// .
disp(x);

9.2.5

x, n , m-
. (m + 1)-
m, (m + 2)- (m + 1)-, . . . , n- (n 1)-,
n- . 9.16
, .
9.16. m- x(n)
x=[3 2 1 5 4 6 8 7];
disp(x);
n=length(x);
// .
m=input(m=);
// , m- .
for i=m:n-1
x(i)=x(i+1);
end;
// n- .
x(:,n)=[];
// n 1.
n=n-1;
// .
disp(x);

9.3. Scilab

9.3

177

Scilab

Scilab 1 .

9.3.1

mopen

,
. sci- mopen,
:
[fd,err]=mopen(file,mode)
file , ,
mode :
r ,
rb ,
w ,
;
wb ,
;
a , ; , ;
ab , ; , ;
r+ , ;
rb+ , ;
w+
;
wb+
;
a+ ; ,
;
ab+ ; ,
.
1 , sci- .

9. Scilab

178

mopen fd
err. (),
. err
0 . err 6= 0, ,
.

9.3.2

mfprintf

mfprintf
mfprintf(f, s1, s2)
f ( mopen), s1 , s2 .
:
%[][][.][]1
9.1.
, . 9.2.

9.3.3

mfscanf

mfscanf
:
A=mfscanf(f, s1)
f , mopen, s1

%[][.]
mfscanf :
f A s1.
,
, ,
.
,
, meof(f) (f
), , , .
1

9.3. Scilab

179

9.1.

0n

d, i
i
o
u
x, X
f
e
E
g
G
s
h
l

.
. .
+ -
, -
: 0 ,
0 (0) .

. n ,
. .
, n, .


e, E, f n

char, .


int unsigned

int unsigned, a-f, A-F.
[-]dddd.dddd
[-]d.dddde[+|-]ddd
[-]d.ddddE[+|-]ddd
e f

E F


()
d, i, o, u, x, X
d, i, o, u, x, X

9. Scilab

180

9.2.

\b
\n
\r
\t
\
\
\?

9.3.4



,



?

mclose

mclose :
mclose(f)
f .
mclose(all) ,
.
9.17.
9.17.
// abc.txt N M
// A(N,M)
//N - .
N=3;
//M- .
M=4;
A=[2 4 6 7; 6 3 2 1; 11 12 34 10];
// abc.txt .
f=mopen(abc.txt,w);
// abc.txt N M,
//.
mfprintf(f,%d\t%d\n,N,M);
for i=1:N
for j=1:M
// abc.txt A.
mfprintf(f,%g\t,A(i,j));
end
//

9.3. Scilab

181

// << >>.
mfprintf(f,\n);
end
mclose(f);
. 9.3.

. 9.3.
9.18.
9.18.
f=mopen(abc.txt,r);
N=mfscanf(f,%d);
M=mfscanf(f,%d);
for i=1:N
for j=1:M
A(i,j)=mfscanf(f,%g);
end
end
mclose(f);
-, 9.17, 9.19.

9. Scilab

182

9.19. -
N =
3.
M =
4.
A =
! 2. 4. 6. 7. !
! 6. 3. 2. 1. !
! 11. 12. 34. 10. !

9.4

Scilab

sci- .
9.3.
Y X, X , .
9.20.
min1 , Scilab
min. min min.
9.20. 9.3
// y.
N=input(N=);
disp(Vvod massiva Y);
// y.
for i=1:N
y(i)=input(Y=);
end
disp(y);
// k
// y, , x.
// k=0.
k=0;
// y.
for i=1:N
// ,
if y(i)>0
// k 1,
k=k+1;

9.4. Scilab
// y x.
x(k)=y(i);
end;
end;
// x.
disp(x);
// s x,
// min1 - x, Nmin
//- x.
s=x(1);
min1=x(1);
Nmin=1;
// x.
for i=2:k
// .
s=s+x(i);
// .
if x(i)<min1
min1=x(i);
Nmin=i;
end;
end;
// , ,
//
i=Nmin;
while i<=k
// ,
if x(i)<s/k
// . ,
// 1 ,
// i 1
//.
for j=i:k-1
x(j)=x(j+1);
end;
// 1.
x(k)=[];
k=k-1;
else
// ,
// .
i=i+1;
end;
end;
disp(x);

183

9. Scilab

184

9.5

Scilab

Scilab .
Scilab :
function [y1,y2,...,yn]=ff(x1,x2,...,xm)

endfunction
x1, x2, . . . , xm ; y1, y2, . . . , yn
, ff .
, ,
exec .
exec(file,-1).
file , .
.
9.4.
A(N, N ) ,
, , . N A primer.txt
(. . 9.4).
(summa), (maximum) (kolichestvo) , :
function [summa, maximum, kolichestvo]=matrica_A(N,N)
9.21.
9.21. matrica_A
function [summa, maximum, kolichestvo]=matrica_A(A,N)
summa=0;
for i=1:N
// , A(i,i)
// A(i,N+1-i)
summa=summa+A(i,i)+A(i,N+1-i);
end
// , ,
//
//, :
//, ,
// .

9.5. Scilab

185

. 9.4. primer.txt

if (N-int(N/2)*2)==1
summa=summa-A(int(N/2)*2+1,int(N/2)*2+1);
end
// A(1,1) ,
// 1.
maximum=A(1,1);kolichestvo=1;
for i=1:N
for j=1:N
// A(i,j) ,
// , 1.
if A(i,j)>maximum
maximum=A(i,j);
kolichestvo=1;
// ,
// 1.
elseif A(i,j)==maximum
kolichestvo=kolichestvo+1;
end
end
end
endfunction

9. Scilab

186

,
matrica_A, 9.22, 9.23.
9.22. matrica_A
f=mopen(G:\primer.txt,r);
N=mfscanf(f,%d);
for i=1:N
for j=1:N
B(i,j)=mfscanf(f,%g);
end
end
mclose(f);
[s,m,k]=matrica_A(B,N);
9.23.
-->exec("matrica_2.sci");
-->s
s =
21.
-->m
m =
67.
-->k
k =
4.

Scilab. .

10

Scilab

Scilab
, , Scilab.
Scilab .

10.1

figure.
F=figure();

objgure1. objgure1,
objgure2 . . 1
F.

position,[x y dx dy],
x, y (
) ;
dx ( ) ;
dy ( ) .
1 , .

188

10. Scilab

.
1. .
gure
F=figure(1, 1, 2,
2, ..., n, n)
1 , 1 , 2 , 21
. .
,
F=figure(position, [10 100 300 200]);
, . 10.1.

. 10.1.

2.
set(f,,)
; f
, , .
(. 10.2).
f=figure();
set(f,position,[20,40,600,450])
1 i , ,
, .

10.1.

189

. 10.2.

figure_name,
name, (name). 10.1 FIRST WINDOWS (. . 10.3).
10.1. FIRST WINDOW
f=figure();
set(f,position,[20,40,600,450]);
set(f,figure_name,FIRST WINDOW);

f=figure(position,[20,40,600,450],figure_name,FIRST WINDOW);

close(f),
f .

delete(f),
f .

190

10. Scilab

. 10.3. FIRST WINDOW

10.2

Scilab . ,
( ) (, ,
. .) .

uicontrol,
:
C=uicontrol(F, Style, _, _1,
_1, _2, _2,...,
_k,_k);
C ;
F , (
); uicontrol
, , () ;

10.2.

191

Style Style, ( );
_ ,
, PushButton, Radiobutton, dit, StaticText,
Slider, Panel, Button Group, Listbox , ;
_k, _k , .
set:
set(C,_1,_1, _2, _2, ...,
_k, _k)
C , . C ,
set C(i);
_k, _k .
get
:
get(C,)
C , ;
, .
.
.

10.2.1

PushButton
uicontrol, Style
pushbutton. , ,
String (. 10.2 . 10.4).

192

10. Scilab
10.2.
//
d=figure();
// , Style.
dbt=uicontrol(d,Style,pushbutton);
// YES
set(dbt,String,YES);

. 10.4. YES
,
:
;
;
.
10.3, . 10.5 ,
.
10.3.
// .
f=figure();
// .
set(f,position,[0,0,250,100])
// () .
set(f,figure_name, );
// (style - pushbutton), //, position.
Button=uicontrol(style,pushbutton,string,,...
position,[50,50,100,20]);

10.2.

193

. 10.5.

, , . ,
. , .
CallBack,
uicontrol. CallBack
, .
uicontrol
Button=uicontrol(style, pushbutton, string, Button,
CallBack, Function);
Function CallBack .
, y = sin(x) (. 10.4). , . 10.6,
Button gr_sin,
, . 10.7.
10.4. CallBack
f=figure();
set(f,position,[0,0,250,100])
set(f,figure_name,Grafik);
// ,
// gr_sin.
Button=uicontrol(style,pushbutton,string,Button,...
position,[50,50,100,20],CallBack,gr_sin);
function y=gr_sin()
x=-5:0.2:5;
y=sin(x);
plot(x,y);
xgrid();
endfunction

10. Scilab

194

. 10.6.

. 10.7. y = sin(x)

10.2.2


. Style uicontrol
text. ( ). String
.
()
uicontrol (. 10.5 . 10.8):

10.2.

195

10.5.
f=figure();
uicontrol(Style,text,Position,[10,130,150,20],String,...
Metka);

. 10.8.

, HorizontalAlignment. :
left ;
center ( );
right .
, 4 HorizontalAlignment.
10.6, . 10.9.
10.6.
hFig=figure();
set(hFig,Position,[50,50,300,200]);
hSt1=uicontrol(Style,text,Position,[30,30,150,20],...
String, Metka 1);
set(hSt1,BackgroundColor,[1 1 1]);
set(hSt1,HorizontalAlignment,left);
hSt2=uicontrol(Style, text, Position, [30,60,150,20],...
HorizontalAlignment, center, BackgroundColor, [1 1 1],...
String, Metka 2);
hSt3=uicontrol(Style,text,Position,[30,90,150,20],...
HorizontalAlignment,right,BackgroundColor,[1 1 1],...

10. Scilab

196

String,Metka 3);
hSt4=uicontrol(Style,text,Position,[30,120,150,20],...
BackgroundColor,[1 1 1],String,Metka 4);

. 10.9.

10.2.3

, .
Style checkbox, Style radiobutton.
(Radiobutton), uicontrol. 10.7 . 10.10.
10.7.
hFig=figure();
R=uicontrol(Style,radiobutton,String,name,value,1,...,
Position, [25,150,70,30]);
(
value), ( value 1)
( value 0). value
set. :
set(Rb,value,0)
value get.
CallBack,
. uicontrol:

10.2.

197

. 10.10.

r1=uicontrol(Style,radiobutton,String,sin(x),value,
0,CallBack,F1);
F1 , . , CallBack
, , .
, , Plot
(. 10.8 . 10.11).
10.8.
// .
hFig=figure(Position,[50,50,200,200]);
//
hRb1=uicontrol(Style,radiobutton,String,sin(x),...
value,1, Position,[25,100,60,20]);
hRb2=uicontrol(Style,radiobutton,String,cos(x),...
value,1, Position,[25,140,60,20]);
// Plot,
//Radio
//.
Button=uicontrol(style,pushbutton,string,Plot,...
position,[20,50,80,20],CallBack,Radio);
// Close,
//Final .
Button1=uicontrol(style,pushbutton,string,Close,...
position,[20,25,80,20],CallBack,Final);
// Radio,
function Radio()

198

10. Scilab
newaxes;
x=-2*%pi:0.1:2*%pi;
if get(hRb1,value)==1 // ,
y=sin(x);
plot(x,y,-r); //
xgrid();
end;
if get(hRb2,value)==1 // ,
y=cos(x);
plot(x,y,-b); //
xgrid(); //
end;
endfunction
//, Close .
function Final()
close(hFig);
endfunction

. 10.11.
. 10.11 . Plot ,
(. . 10.12). , Plot .
Close .
.
. CallBack
.
, value 1. .
.

10.2.

199

. 10.12.

10.2.4

(
Style edit)
. , ,
. . , Enter,
CallBack.
String, .

uicontrol. set, get.
,
HorizontalAlignment ( ).
, , String eval
( evstr) (
).

200

10. Scilab

.
10.1.
.
.
10.9.
10.9.
f=figure(); // .
// .
set(f,position,[0,0,700,300])
// .
set(f,figure_name,);
//
//.
// A=.
lab_a=uicontrol(f,style,text,string,A=,position,...
[50, 250, 100, 20]);
// B=.
lab_b=uicontrol(f,style,text,string,B=,position,...
[150, 250, 100, 20]);
// C=.
lab_c=uicontrol(f,style,text,string,C=,position,...
[250, 250, 100, 20]);
// a.
edit_a=uicontrol(f,style,edit,string,1,position,...
[50, 230, 100, 20]);
// b.
edit_b=uicontrol(f,style,edit,string,2,position,...
[150, 230, 100, 20]);
// c.
edit_c=uicontrol(f,style,edit,string,1,position,...
[250, 230, 100, 20]);
// , .
textresult=uicontrol(f,style,text,string,,position,...
[5, 80, 650, 20]);
//, .
radio_bikv=uicontrol(style,radiobutton,string,...
?, value,1,position,...
[100,100,300,20]);

10.2.

201

BtSolve=uicontrol(style,pushbutton,string,,...
CallBack, Solve,position,[50,50,120,20]);
BtClose=uicontrol(style,pushbutton,string,,...
CallBack, _Close,position,[300,50,120,20]);
// .
function Solve()
//
// .
a=eval(get(edit_a,string));
b=eval(get(edit_b,string));
c=eval(get(edit_c,string));
d=b*b-4*a*c;
// , ,
if get(radio_bikv,value)==0
// ,
if d<0
set(textresult,string, );
else
x1=(-b+sqrt(d))/2/a;
x2=(-b-sqrt(d))/2/a;
set(textresult,string,sprintf
("2 \t x1=%1.2f\tx2=%1.2f",x1,x2));
end;
// ,
else
// .
if d<0
set(textresult,string, );
else
y1=(-b+sqrt(d))/2/a;
y2=(-b-sqrt(d))/2/a;
if(y1<0)&(y2<0)
set(textresult,string, );
elseif (y1>=0)&(y2>=0)
x1=sqrt(y1);x2=-x1;x3=sqrt(y2);x4=-x3;
set(textresult,string,sprintf("4 ...
\t x1=%1.2f\tx2=%1.2f\tx3=%1.2f\tx4=%1.2f",...
x1,x2,x3,x4));
else
if y1>=0
x1=sqrt(y1);x2=-x1;
else
x1=sqrt(y2);x2=-x1;
end;

10. Scilab

202

set(textresult,string,sprintf
("2 \t x1=%1.2f\tx2=%1.2f",x1,x2));
end;
end;
end
endfunction
// .
function _Close()
close(f)
endfunction
10.13 .

. 10.13.
.
,
Scilab , .

10.2.5

. ,
, .
uicontrol
Style listbox.
(. 10.10 . 10.14).

10.2.

203

10.10.
// .
f=figure();
// listbox
h=uicontrol(f,style,listbox,position, [10 10 150 160]);
// .
set(h, string, " 1| 2| 3");
set(h, value, [1 3]);
// item 1 3 .

. 10.14.
.
, . value CallBack.
1. Ctrl .
, value.

Shift, . value.
Scilab
.

11

11.1

,
, .
, (. 11.1). , .
11.1.
xi
yi

x1
y1

x2
y2

x3
y3

x4
y4

x5
y5

x6
y6

x7
y7

...
...

xn
yn

, Y =
f (x, a0 , a1 , . . . , ak ) ,
yi Yi :
S=

n
X
i=1

(yi f (xi , a0 , a1 , . . . , ak ))2 min

(11.1)

ai (11.1).
Scilab
[a,S]=datafit(F,z,)

11.1.

205

F , ; z ; c ; a ;
S .
datafit .
11.1.

(P , ) (U , )
(. 11.2).

11.2. .
U , 132 140 150 162 170 180 190 200 211 220 232 240 251
P , 330 350 385 425 450 485 540 600 660 730 920 1020 1350
P = a1 + a2 U +
a3 U 2 + a4 U 3 .
.
11.1. 11.1
//,
// .
//
//z=[x;y] - -
// - ,
//
// .
function [zr]=G(c,z)
zr=z(2)-c(1)-c(2)*z(1)-c(3)*z(1)^2-c(4)*z(1)^3
endfunction
//
x=[1.32 1.40 1.50 1.62 1.70 1.80 1.90...
2.00,2.11,2.20,2.32,2.40,2.51];
y=[3.30 3.50 3.85 4.25 4.50 4.85 5.40...
6.00 6.60 7.30 9.20 10.20 13.50];
//
z=[x;y];
//
c=[0;0;0;0];
//

11.

206
[a,err]=datafit(G,z,c)
S =
0.5287901
a =
- 51.576664
95.594671
- 55.695312
11.111453

, datafit
P = 51.577+95.595U 55.695U 2 +11.111U 3 ,
0.529.
(. 11.1):
11.2.
//
plot2d(x,y,-4);
//
t=1.32:0.01:2.51;
Ptc=a(1)+a(2)*t+a(3)*t^2+a(4)*t^3;
plot2d(t,Ptc);

14

12

10

2
1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

. 11.1. 11.1

11.2.

Y = a1 xa2 + a3 .

11.1.

207


(. 11.2).
11.3. 11.2
function [zr]=F(c,z)
zr=z(2)-c(1)*z(1)^c(2)-c(3);
endfunction
x=[10.1,10.2,10.3,10.8,10.9,11,11.1,11.4,12.2,13.3,13.8,...
14,14.4,14.5,15,15.6,15.8,17,18.1,19];
y=[24,36,26,45,34,37,55,51,75,84,74,91,85,87,...
94,92,96,97,98,99];
z=[x;y];
c=[0;0;0];
[a,S]=datafit(F,z,c);
t=10:0.01:19;
Yt=a(1)*t^a(2)+*a*(3);
plot2d(x,y,-3);
plot2d(t,Yt);

120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

. 11.2. 11.2

, y = a1 + a2 x,
y x. a1 a2 . ,
x y, , :

11.

208

n
X
i=1

(xi Mx ) (yi My )

,
r= v
u n
n
X
uX
t
(xi Mx )2
(yi My )2
i=1

Mx =

n
X
i=1

xi
,

My =

n
X
i=1

yi
(11.2)

i=1

1 6 r 6 1.
r ,
. , , x y
, , , .
r , :
v
u
n
X
u
u
(yi Yi )2
u
u
R = u1 i=1
(11.3)
n
u
X
2
t
(y M )
i

i=1

y , Y , , My y. 0 1.
1. R = 0.
r
, R , .

.
Scilab
a=regress(x,y)
x y , a a1 a2 .
.
11.3.
. .
Na N O3 .
Na N O3 , 100 , . 11.3.
32
.

11.2.

209

11.3. Na N O3
.
0
66.7

4
71.0

10
76.3

15
80.6

21
85.7

29
92.9

36
99.4

51
113.6

68
125.1

:
11.4. 11.3
//
x=[0 4 10 15 21 29 36 51 68];
y=[66.7 71 76.3 80.6 85.7 92.9 99.4 113.6 125.1];
//
a=regress(x,y)
a =
67.507794
0.8706404
// 32
-->t=32;a(1)+a(2)*t
ans = 95.368287
// (11.2)
r=sum((x-mean(x)).*(y-mean(y)))/...
sqrt(sum((x-mean(x))^2)*sum((y-mean(y))^2))
r = 0.9989549
// (11.3)
R=sqrt(1-sum((y-(a(1)+a(2)*x))^2)/sum((y-mean(y))^2))
R = 0.9989549
(. 11.3):
11.5.
t=0:70; Yt=a(1)+a(2)*t;
plot2d(x,y,-5); plot2d(t,Yt);
Scilab a=corr(x,y), x y .

11.2

.
[a; b] x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ( n+1 ),

11.

210

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

. 11.3. 11.3

, f (x) :
f (x0 ) = y0 ,

f (x1 ) = y1 ,

f (x2 ) = y2 ,

...,

f (xn ) = yn .

(11.4)

F (x), ,
f (x):
F (x0 ) = y0 , F (x1 ) = y1 , F (x2 ) = y2 , . . . , F (xn ) = yn .
(11.5)
- ( spline , ). .
, .
Scilab
y=interpln(z,x)
z ; x ; y x.
interpln.
11.1. . 11.5.
11.6. interpln
x=[132 140 150 162 170 180 190 200 211 220 232 240 251];
y=[330 350 385 425 450 485 540 600 660 730 920 1020 1350];
plot2d(x,y,-4);
z=[x;y];

11.2.

211

t=132:5:252; ptd=interpln(z,t);
plot2d(t,ptd);

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200
120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

. 11.4. 11.1
Scilab : d=splin(x,y),

y=interp(t,x,y,d).
d=splin(x,y) : x , ; y , x; d , .
y=interp(t,x,y,k) x, y d ,
t , y ,
x.
11.4.

x= 0, 702, x2 =
0, 512, x3 = 0, 608. (. 11.4).

11.4. 11.4
0.43
1.63597

0.48
1.73234

0.55
1.87686

0.62
2.03345

0.7
2.22846

0.75
2.35973

11.

212

11.7. 11.4
x=[0.43 0.48 0.55 0.62 0.7 0.75];
y=[1.63597 1.73234 1.87686 2.03345 2.22846 2.35973];
plot2d(x,y,-4);//
koeff=splin(x,y);
X=[0.702 0.512 0.608];
//
Y=interp(X,x,y,koeff)
Y = 2.2335678
1.7969698
2.0057073
plot2d(X,Y,-3); //
//
t=0.43:0.01:0.75;
ptd=interp(t,x,y,koeff);
plot2d(t,ptd);
. 11.5.

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.6
0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

. 11.5. 11.4

0.75

12

1 .
x, y, z t.
. Scilab, , . ,
.

, Scilab.

12.1


u(x, y) ( u(x, t))
[1]:
2u
2u
2u
+
2B(x,
y)
+
+
C(x,
y)
x2
xy
y 2
u
u
+ E(x, y)
+ G(x, y)u(x, y) = F (x, y)
+ D(x, y)
x
y

L(u) = A(x, y)

(12.1)

214

12.

u x t, (12.1)
:
L(u) = A(x, t)

2u
2u
2u
+ 2B(x, t)
+ C(x, t) 2 +
2
x
xt
t

u
u
+ E(x, t)
+ G(x, t)u(x, t) = F (x, t)
+ D(x, t)
x
t

(12.2)

F = 0, (12.1)(12.2)
, [2].
B 2 4AC < 0, (12.2)
, B 2 4AC > 0, (12.2) ,
B 2 4AC = 0 . , B 2 4AC
, .
x, y ( x, t) , B = 0. . A C , (12.2)
, , , A C 0,
[2].
[1, 2]:
u = 01 ,
;
u = f , ,
. .;
u + cu = f , .
[3]:
2u
2u
: 2 = a2 2 +f (x, t),
t
x

;

2u 2u
2u
+ 2 + f (x, y, t) 2 = a2
t
x2
y
2 .
2 u RC + LG u RG
1 2u
+
+
u

= 0
t2
LC
t LC
LC x2
u ; L, C, R, G -

u =

2u
2u
+
, u =
2
x
y 2

2u
2u
2u
+
+
.
2
2
x
y
z 2
2 f = 0 .

12.2.

215

, , ,
.
u
= a2 u + f .

t

. ,
t. . , [3]:
u(x,y,z) = (x, y, z),
, , .
u(0, t) = 1 (t), u(L, t) =
2 (t), (0, L) , ;

u
= (x, y, z),

n (x,y,z)
n ;

u
u +
= (x, y, z).
n (x,y,z)
, , , : u(x, t0 ) = (x).
u(x, t0 )
: u(x, t0 ) = 1 (x)
= 2 (x).
t
, ( ), ,
.
.

12.2

1 [1]. ,
1

216

12.

, , t = tj x = xi , xn x0
(. . 12.1), xi = x0 + ih, h =
,
h
tk t0
, j = 0, 1, . . . k. ,
i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n, tj = t0 + j, =
k
, , .

h , h
x t .
,
w(x, t) wij = w(xi , tj ),
h ,
. ,
. h ,

.
Scilab.
.

(12.3):
u
2u
0 6 x 6 L,
06t6T
= a2 2 + f (x, t),
t
t
u(0, t) = (t),
u(L, t) = (t),
06t6T
u(x, 0) = (x),
06x6L

(12.3)


h (. . 12.1). 2u
[1]:

x2
2 u(xi , tj )
ui+1,j 2ui,j + ui1,j
=
.
2
x
h2

(12.4)

ui,j u (xi , tj ), ui+1,j (xi+1 , tj ), ui1,j (xi1 , tj ), ui,j+1


(xi , tj+1 ) ui,j1 (xi , tj1 ).
u


t
[1]:
ui,j+1 ui,j
u(xi , tj )
=
(12.5)
t

ui,j ui,j1
u(xi , tj )
=
t

(12.6)

12.2.

217

. 12.1.
h

, :
ui,0 = (xi ) = i ,
i = 0, 1, . . . n
(12.7)
u0,j = (tj ) = j ,

un,j = (tj ) = j ,

j = 0, 1, . . . , k

(12.8)

(12.3) (12.4) (12.5)


(12.7)(12.8),
u
h:
ui,j+1 = ui,j1 + (1 2)ui,j + ui,j+1 + fi,j
u0,j = j ,

un,j = j ,

ui,0 = i ,

a2
h2

(12.9)
(12.10)

(. . 12.2).
, ( i = 0) ui,0 , ( ,
u0,j , un,j ) , (12.9)
ui,1 , ui,2 ui,k . (12.9)
t x :
6

h2
2a2

(12.11)

218

12.

. 12.2.

.
12.1.
, L, (x). u(0, t) = U1 = const,
u(L, t) = U2 = const.
u

2u
a2 = ,
= a2 2 + f (x, t),
0 < x < L,
0 < t < ,
t
t
c
u(0, t) = U1 = const,
u(L, t) = U2 = const,
0 < t < ,
u(x, 0) = (x),
0 < x < L,

(12.12)

a2 , , c , .
12.1
(12.9)(12.10) Scilab 12.11 .
12.1. 12.1

// .
function y=f(x,t)
y=sin(x*t)
endfunction
//
function y=fi(x)
y=exp(0.15*x)
endfunction
//
function y=myu(t)
y=1
1 12.1 , Scilab 1.

12.2.

219

endfunction
//
function y=nyu(x)
y=2.117
endfunction
function [u,x,t]=parabol(N,K,L,T,a)
//
// . N - ,
// (0,L); K -
//, t (0,T); a // ,
// u x, t
//
h=L/N;
// t
delta=T/K;
// x U
//
for i=1:N+1
x(i)=(i-1)*h;
u(i,1)=fi(x(i));
end
// t,
//
//U
for j=1:K+1
t(j)=(j-1)*delta;
u(1,j)=myu(t(j));
u(N+1,j)=nyu(t(j));
end
gam=a^2*delta/h^2;
// u
//(12.9)
for j=1:K
for i=2:N
u(i,j+1)=gam*u(i-1,j)+(1-2*gam)*u(i,j)+gam*u(i+1,j)+delta*...
f(x(i),t(j));
end
end
end
parabol 12.1 :
N , (0, L); K , (0, T ); L , T

220

12.

, a . : u,

h , x t.
12.2 parabol
12.1 , . 12.3.
12.2. parabol
[U,X,T]=parabol(50,200,5,3,0.4);
surf(X,T,U);
title(PARABOLIC EQUATION);
xlabel(X);
ylabel(T);

PARABOLIC EQUATION

2.6
2.4
2.2

2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
T

0.5
0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

. 12.3. 12.1 f (x, t) = sin(xt)




t, (12.11).
[1].
,
, (12.9). .
(12.3) (12.4), (12.61 ) (12.7)(12.8)
1

(12.5)

12.2.

221

u
h.
ui1,j (1 + 2)ui,j + ui+1,j = ui,j1 fi,j ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1,
j = 1, 2, . . . k

(12.13)

(12.13) (12.10) (. . 12.4). (12.10), (12.13)


, ui,j j , ( [1])
[1]. (12.13) :
ui,j =

ui,j1

(ui1,j + ui+1,j ) +
+
f (xi , tj )
1 + 2
1 + 2
1 + 2

(12.14)

. 12.4.

(12.14) ,
, , ,
.

(c neyavn 12.3.
neyavn : N ,
x (0, L); K , t (0, T ); a ; eps (12.4) 1 .
neyavn u 12.1; x t; r
(12.4) ; k.
1 (12.13)(12.14) .

, .

222

12.

12.3. 12.1 1
// .
function y=f(x,t)
y=sin(x*t)
//y=0;
endfunction
//
function y=fi(x)
y=exp(0.15*x)
endfunction
//
function y=myu(t)
y=1
endfunction
//
function y=nyu(x)
y=2.117
endfunction
function [u,x,t,r,k]=neyavn(N,K,L,T,a,eps)
//
// .
//
h=L/N;
// t
delta=T/K;
// x U
//
for i=1:N+1
x(i)=(i-1)*h;
u(i,1)=fi(x(i));
end
// t,
// U
for j=1:K+1
t(j)=(j-1)*delta;
u(1,j)=myu(t(j));
u(N+1,j)=nyu(t(j));
end
// R
R(N+1,K+1)=0;
1 ,
.

12.2.

223

// gamma
gam=a^2*delta/h^2;
r=1;
k=0;
// while
// (12.14)
// eps
while r>eps
// R
// u
//(12.14)
for i=2:N
for j=2:K+1
R(i,j)=abs(u(i,j)-gam/(1+2*gam)*(u(i-1,j)+u(i+1,j))-u(i,j-1)...
/(1+2*gam)-delta*f(x(i),t(j))/(1+2*gam));
u(i,j)=gam/(1+2*gam)*(u(i-1,j)+u(i+1,j))+u(i,j-1)...
/(1+2*gam)+delta*f(x(i),t(j))/(1+2*gam);
end
end
//
r=R(1,1);
for i=1:N+1
for j=1:K+1
if R(i,j)>r
r=R(i,j);
end
end
end
// .
k=k+1;
end
disp(k)
endfunction
[U,X,T]=neyavn(50,200,5,3,0.4,0.1);
surf(X,T,U);
title(PARABOLIC EQUATION);
xlabel(X);
ylabel(T);

224

12.


.
, , 12.1 12.3, (12.3) f (x, t), (t), (t),
(x).
, f (x, t) 6= 0, .
12.2.
L, f (x).
u(0, t) = U1 = const, u(L, t) = U2 = const. ,
u0 .
- ,
, :
2u
u
= a2 2 h (u u0 ) ,
t
t
p

2
h=
,
0 < x < L,
0 < t < ,
a = ,
c
c
u(0, t) = U1 = const,
u(L, t) = U2 = const,
0 < t < ,
u(x, 0) = (x),
0<x<L

(12.15)

, ,
p .
L
T

, i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n), (tj = j, = , j =
h (xi = ihx, h =
h
k
2 u u

0, 1, . . . k).
x2
t
(12.4) (12.6).
(12.16)(12.18):
ui,0 = (xi ),
u0,j = U1 ,

i = 0, 1, . . . , N,
UN,j = U2 ,
j = 0, 1, . . . , K

(12.16)

h
1
ui,j1 +
(ui1,j + ui+1,j ) +
u0,
1 + 2 + h
1 + 2 + h
1 + 2 + h
i = 1, 2, . . . , N 1;
j = 1, 2, . . . , k;
(12.17)
2
=a
(12.18)
hx2
12.2
12.4.
ui,j =

12.2.

225

12.4. neiav 12.2



//
function y=fi(x)
y=exp(0.15*x)
endfunction
function [u,x,t,r,k]=neiav(N,K,L,T,a,h,U1,U2,u0,eps)
//
// .
//N - ,
//(0,L); K - ,
// t (0,T);
//a, h - ;
//eps - (7.17) ;
//U1 - ;
//U2 - ;
// neiav :
//u - , x, t,
//r - (12.17) ,
// - .
//
hx=L/N;
// t
delta=T/K;
// x U
//
for i=1:N+1
x(i)=(i-1)*hx;
u(i,1)=fi(x(i));
end
// t,
// U
for j=1:K+1
t(j)=(j-1)*delta;
u(1,j)=U1;
u(N+1,j)=U2;
end
// R
R(N+1,K+1)=0;
// gamma
gam=a^2*delta/hx^2;
r=1;
k=0;

226

12.
// while
// (12.17) eps
while r>eps
// R
// u
//(12.17)
for j=2:K+1
for i=2:N
V=gam*(u(i-1,j)+u(i+1,j))/(1+2*gam+delta*hx)+u(i,j-1)/...
(1+2*gam+delta*hx)+delta*h*u0/(1+2*gam+delta*hx);
R(i,j)=abs(V-u(i,j));
u(i,j)=V;
end
end
//
r=R(1,1);
for i=1:N+1
for j=1:K+1
if R(i,j)>r
r=R(i,j);
end
end
end
//
k=k+1;
end
endfunction
// 12.2.
[U,X,T,R,K]=neiav(50,200,5,3,0.4,0.5,1,2.117,30,0.001);
//
surf(X,T,U);
title(Example 12.2);
xlabel(X);
ylabel(T);

neiav 12.2
12.4. . 12.5
.
1079 .
. , ,
.

12.3.

227

Example 12.2

40
35
30

25
20
15
10
5
0
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
T

0.5
0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

2.5

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

. 12.5. 12.2

12.3


.
:
2u
2u
= a2 2 + f (x, t),
0 < x < L,
06t6T
2
t
t
u(0, t) = (t),
u(L, t) = (t),
06t6T
u(x, 0)
= (x),
06x6L
u(x, 0) = (x),
t

(12.19)


h (. . 12.1),
2u
(12.19).
(12.4),
x2
2u
(12.20) [1].

t2
ui,j1 2ui,j + ui,j+1
2 u(xi , tj )
=
t2
2

(12.20)

228

12.

(12.20), (12.4), (12.5) - (12.19), :


ui,j+1 = ui,j1 + (ui1,j + ui+1,j ) = (2 2)ui,j + 2 fi,j
i = 1, 2, . . . , N 1, j = 1, 2, . . . , K 1
ui,1 ui,0
ui,0 = (xi ),
= i ,
i = 0, 1, . . . , N

u0,j = j , uN,j = j ,
j = 0, 1, . . . , K
a2 2
=
h2

(12.21)

< 1 (12.9)(12.10)
Scilab.
- .
12.3.
-
2
2
2
=
a
+ sin(xt),
0 < x < L,
t2
t2
(0, t) = (0),
(L, t) = (L)
(x, 0) = (x),
t (x, 0) = (x)

t > 0,
(12.22)

12.5 ggg (12.22),


. 12.6 . ggg
.
12.5. ggg 12.3

function [u,x,t]=ggg(N,K,L,T,a)
//
// . :
//N - ,
// (0,L); K - ,
// t (0,T); a -
// . :
//u - , x, t,
//
h=L/N;
// t
delta=T/K;
// x, u
//

12.4.

229

for i=1:N+1
x(i)=(i-1)*h;
u(i,1)=fi(x(i));
u(i,2)=u(i,1)+delta*psi(x(i));
end
// t,
//U
for j=1:K+1
t(j)=(j-1)*delta;
end
// U
//
for j=2:K+1
u(1,j)=0;
u(N+1,j)=fi(L);
end
gam=a^2*delta^2/h^2;
// u
//(12.22)
for j=2:K
for i=2:N
u(i,j+1)=-u(i,j-1)+gam*u(i-1,j)+(2-2*gam)*...
u(i,j)+gam*u(i+1,j)+delta^2*f(x(i),t(j));
end
end
end
,
, ,
,
(, ).

12.4

(R b 6 x 6 R + b, a 6 y 6 a)
.
12.4.
2 2 5
+

= 2
x2
y 2
x x
(x,y) = 0

u =

(12.23)

230

12.

Example 12.3

4
3

2
1
0
1
2
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
T

0.5
0.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

. 12.6. 12.3

hy
hx , ,
2b
y = yj x = xi , xi = R b + i hx, hx = , i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N x, yj = a +
n
2a
j hy, hy =
, j = 0, 1, . . . , N y.
k
:
i1,j 2i,j + i+1,j
2 (xi , yj )
=
x2
hx2
2
i,j1 2i,j + i,j+1
(xi , yj )
=
y 2
hy 2

(12.24)

i,0 = i,N y = 0,
0,j = N x,j = 0,

(12.25)

i = 0, 1, . . . , N x
j = 0, 1, . . . , N y

(12.24)(12.25)
.
1
(Bi i+1,j + Ci i1,j + D(i,j1 + i,j+1 ) + 2)
A
2
2
1
5
1
5
A=
+ 2,
Bi =
+
,
Ci =

,
hx2
hy
hx2
2hx xi
hx2
2hx xi
i = 1, 2, . . . , N x 1;
j = 1, 2, . . . , N y 1
i,0 = i,N y = 0,
i = 0, 1, . . . , N x
0,j = N x,j = 0,
i = 0, 1, . . . , N y
i,j =

D=

1
hy 2

(12.26)

12.4.

231

(
). ,
, ( ). 12.6
(12.23) , . 12.7 .
Example 12.4

8
7
6

5
4
3
2
1
0
3
2
1

24
22

20
1

18
16

2
3

14

12

. 12.7. (12.23)

12.6. 12.4
function [psi,x,y,k]=ellip(R,a,b,Nx,Ny,eps)
// ellip 12.4.
// :
//R, a, b - , ,
//Nx - ,
//(R-b,R+b);
//Ny - ,
//y (-a,a);
//eps - (12.26) .
// :
//psi - , x, y,
//k -
//(12.26) .
// y
hy=2*a/Ny;
// x

232

12.
hx=2*b/Nx;
// x,
// psi
for i=1:Nx+1
x(i)=R-b+(i-1)*hx;
psi(i,1)=0;
psi(i,Ny+1)=0;
end;
// y,
// psi
for j=1:Ny+1
y(j)=-a+(j-1)*hy;
psi(1,j)=0;
psi(Nx+1,1)=0;
end;
// (12.26)
A=2/hy^2+2/hx^2;
D=1/hy^2;
for i=2:Nx+1
B(i)=1/hx^2+5/(2*hx*x(i));
C(i)=1/hx^2-5/(2*hx*x(i));
end
// (12.26)
// eps
p=1;
k=0;
while p>eps
for i=2:Nx
for j=2:Ny
V=1/A*(B(i)*psi(i-1,j)+C(i)*psi(i+1,j)+D*(psi(i,j-1)...
+psi(i,j+1))+2);
R(i,j)=abs(V-psi(i,j));
psi(i,j)=V;
end
end
p=R(2,2);
for i=2:Nx
for j=2:Ny
if R(i,j)>p
p=R(i,j);
end
end
end
k=k+1;

12.4.

233

end
endfunction
// 12.4.
[PSI,X,Y,K]=ellip(18,3,6,32,16,0.01);
//
surf(X,Y,PSI);
title(Example 12.4);
xlabel(X);
ylabel(Y);
, ,
(12.23),
.
. ,
, ,
, freefem[4].

13

Scilab .

13.1

.
13.1.
f (x) = x4 + 3x3 13x2 6x + 26.
(. 13.1
. 13.1).
13.1.
x=-5:0.1:1;
y=x.^4+3*x.^3-13*x.^2-6*x+26;
plot(x,y);
xtitle( f(x)=x^4+3*x^3-13*x^2-6*x+26,X,Y);
xgrid();
, -4. Scilab
[f,xopt]=optim(costf,x0),

13.1.

235

Plot function f(x)=x^4+3*x^313*x^26*x+26


40

20

20

40

60

80

100
5

. 13.1. f (x) = x4 + 3x3 13x2 6x + 26


, x0 - n, costf ,
.
(f) , (xopt).
optim costf,
:
function [f,g,ind]=costf(x,ind)
// costf f, g.
//f - ,
f=gg(x);
//g - f ( f x),
g=numdiff(gg,x);
endfunction
f , , g .
costf ind 2,
3 4, costf , . . optim f xopt. ind=1, optim
, ind<0 , f (x)
, ind=0 .
, ind
optim costf, optim ,
ind costf.

13.

236

, optim
costf, f
().
optim f (x) = x4 +
3x3 13x2 6x + 26. (. . 13.1)
xmin 4. optim
f (x) = x4 + 3x3
13x2 6x + 26.
13.2.

// fi, f
// g.
function [f,g,ind]=fi(x,ind)
// f, .
f=x^4+3*x^3-13*x^2-6*x+26
// g - f.
g=4*x^3+9*x^2-26*x-6
endfunction
// .
y0=-2;
// (xmin) (fmin)
// - optim.
[fmin,xmin]=optim(fi,y0);

-->fmin
fmin =
- 95.089413
-->xmin
xmin =
3.8407084

,
. Scilab, .

13.2.

13.2

237

costf
, x ind. costf
, () .
ostf
:
function [f,g,ind]=costf(x,ind)
//f - ,
f=gg(x);
//g - f ( )
g=numdiff(gg,x);
endfunction

f (x, y) = 100(y x2 )2 + (1 x2 )2
. . 13.2.

450
400
350
300
Z

250
200
150
100
50
0
1.0
0.6
0.2
0.2
Y

0.6
1.0

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

. 13.2.
, (1, 1), 0.

. optim ( 13.3).

13.

238

13.3.
// x0
x0=[-2;2]
//
function y=gg(x)
// , x - .
y=100*(x(2)-x(1)^2)^2+(1-x(1))^2;
endfunction
// cst,
// .
function [f,g,ind]=cst(x,ind)
f=gg(x);
g=numdiff(gg,x);
endfunction
// optim
[f,xopt]=optim(cst,x0)
optim.
x0 =
-2.
2.
xopt =
0.9999955
0.9999910
f =
2.010D-11

13.3

.
.
. :
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . c1 , c2 , c3 , c4 .
, b1 , b2 , b3
. , 1 a11 , a12 a13 . . (. 13.1).
,
.

13.3.

239

13.1. ,

1
2
3
4

a11
a21
a31
a41

a12
a22
a32
a42

a13
a23
a33
a43

x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 .

4
X
ci xi
(13.1)
L = c1 x1 + c2 x2 + c3 x3 + c4 x4 =
i=1

,
. 1 a11 , x1
a11 x1 , x2 2 a21 x2
. . ,

P4
j=1 aj1 xj b1 . :
a11 x1 + a21 x2 + a31 x3 + a41 x4 > b1

(13.2)

:
a12 x1 + a22 x2 + a32 x3 + a42 x4 > b2

(13.3)

a13 x1 + a23 x2 + a33 x3 + a43 x4 > b3

(13.4)

, x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ,
:
x1 > 0,

x2 > 0,

x3 > 0,

x4 > 0

(13.5)

, : x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ,
(13.2)(13.5), (13.1) .
, (13.1) , (13.2)(13.5)
.
L .

. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , (13.6), L (13.7)
() :

13.

240

n
X

aij xj 6 bi ,

i = 1, . . . , m,

xi > 0

(13.6)

j=1

L = c1 x1 + c2 x2 + . . . + cn xn =

n
X

ci xi

(13.7)

i=1

Scilab
linpro :
[x,kl,f]=linpro(,A,b[,ci,cs][,k][,x0])
c (-) , n x.
A ,
m,
n.
b (-), ,
m.
ci (-) n (cij 6 xj ); , [].
cs (-) n,
(csj > xj ); , [].
k , ,
, k
, l , .. m = k + l.
x0 - n.
linpro x,
f kl.
linpro
.

13.3.

241

13.2.
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ,
L
L = x2 2x3 + x4
:
3x1 x2 6 2
x2 2x3 6 1
4x3 x4 6 3
5x1 + x4 > 6
x1 0, x2 > 0,

x3 > 0,

x4 > 0

, >.
(13.1) -1. 13.2 13.4.
13.4. 13.2
c=[0;-1;-2;1];
A=[3 -1 0 0;0 1 -2 0; 0 0 4 -1; -5 0 0 -1];
b=[2;-1;3;-6];
ci=[0;0;0;0];
[x,kl,f]=linpro(p,A,b,ai,[])
13.5.
13.5. 13.2
f=
2.
kl=
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.0909091
1.0909091
0.5454545
0.4545455
x=
1.
1.
1.
1

13.

242

.
13.3.

, 200 150 . , .
,
, 70 ,
- 180, 110 .
13.2.

13.2.

1
2

5
10


6
12


20
5

:
x1 , ;
x2 , ;
x3 , ;
x4 , ;
x5 , ;
x6 , .
, :
Z = 5x1 + 6x2 + 20x3 + 10x4 + 12x5 + 5x6 .
, :
x1 + x4 6 70 ;
x2 + x5 6 180 ;
x3 + x6 6 110 ;
x1 + x2 + x3 = 200 ;
x4 + x5 + x6 = 150 .
, , ,
: x1 > 0, x2 > 0, x3 > 0, x4 > 0, x5 > 0, x6 > 0.

13.3.

243

13.6. x
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 . A
, k=2. ci , .. ,
.
,
x, kl,
f.
13.6. 13.3
Z=[5;6;20;10;12;5];
A=[1 1 1 0 0 0;
0 0 0 1 1 1;1 0 0 1 0 0;0 1 0 0 1 0;0 0 1 0 0 1];
b=[200;150;70;180;110];
ci=[0;0;0;0;0;0];
k=2;
[x,kl,f]=linpro(Z,A,b,ci,[],k);
Scilab 13.7
13.7. 13.3
f=
2120.
kl=
0.
0.
-20.
0.
-1.
0.
-6.
-11.
1.
0.
6.
x=
30.
170.
0.
40.
0.
110.

244

13.

, ,
Scilab .
, Scilab
, .

14

Scilab

14.1

Scilab.

1.1. ,

10x2 + 30x3 + 40x4 = 50


x1 x2 2x3 3x4 = 2

10x1 + 20x3 + 30x4 = 40


3x1 x2 x3 2x4 = 8
5.
1.
30x1 + 20x2 50x4 = 120
2x1 + 3x2 x3 x4 = 12

40x1 + 30x2 + 50x3 = 50


x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 x4 = 8

0.3x1 + x2 + 1.67x3 2.3x4 = 4


x1 2x2 + 3x3 2x4 = 6

3x1 + 5x2 + 7x3 x4 = 0


x1 + x2 2x3 3x4 = 8
6.
2.
5x1 + 7x2 + x3 3x4 = 4
3x

2x

x
+
2x
=
4

1
2
3
4

7x1 + x2 + 3x3 5x4 = 16


2x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 8

2x1 + x2 + 5x3 + x4 = 8
x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 = 5

0.333x1 x2 2x4 = 3
2x1 + x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 = 1
7.
3.
2x2 + x3 + 2x4 = 5
3x
+
2x
+
x
+
2x
=
1

1
2
3
4

x1 + 4x2 + 7x3 + 6x4 = 0


4x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 5

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 12
0.1x1 + 0.5x2 + 0.3x3 0.4x4 = 2

2x1 + x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 = 13


0.3x1 + 0.1x2 0.2x3 = 0.9
8.
4.
1.5x1 + x2 + 0.5x3 + x4 = 7
0.5x

0.7x
+
1x
=
0.9

1
2
4

4x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 15


0.3x2 0.5x3 = 0.1

246

9.

10.

11.

12.

14. Scilab

2x1 x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 = 40

x1 + x2 + x3 + 0.6667x4 = 20
3x1 x2 x3 + 2x4 = 60

3x1 x2 + 3x3 x4 = 60

3x1 6x2 3x3 + 3x4 = 8

2x1 x2 + x3 + x4 = 5
x1 + x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 1

x1 x2 x3 + 3x4 = 10

20x1 + 5x2 + 5x4 = 9

x1 3x2 + 4x3 = 7
3x2 2x3 4x4 = 12

x1 + 2x2 x3 + 3x4 = 10

x1 3x2 + x3 + x4 = 11

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 7x4 = 12


3x1 + 5x2 + 7x3 + x4 = 0

5x1 7x2 x3 3x4 = 4

2x1 + x2 + x3 x4 = 11

2x1 + x2 3x4 = 2
13.
3x

1 + x3 + x4 = 3

4x1 4x2 4x3 + 10x4 = 7

2x1 + x3 + 4x4 = 19

x1 + 2x2 x3 + x4 = 18
14.
2x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 15

2x1 2x2 + 4x3 + 2x4 = 11

5x1 3x2 7x3 + 3x4 = 1

x2 3x3 + 4x4 = 5
15.
x1 2x3 3x4 = 4

1.3333x1 x2 1.6667x3 = 13

1.2. , , D.
1. D = 2(A2 + B)(2B A),

2
A= 4
1

3 1
5 2 ,
0 7

1 0
1
B= 0
2 2

5
3
4

2. D = 3A (A + 2B)B 2 ,

4 5 2
A = 3 1 0 ,
4 2
7

2 1 1
B= 0 1 3
5 7 3

3. D = 3A2 (A + 2B)B,

4 5 2
A = 3 1 0 ,
4 2
7

2 1 1
B= 0 1 3
5 7 3

4. D = (A B 2 2)(2A + B 3 ),

5 2 0
A = 10 4 1 ,
7 3 2

3
B = 1
2

6 1
2 0
1
3

14.1. Scilab
5. D = 2(A B)(A2 + B),

5
1 7
A = 10 2 1 ,
0
1 2
6. D = (A B)2 A + 2B,

5 1
2
A= 0
2 1

3
1 ,
0

7. D = (A2 B 2 )(A + B 2 ),

7
2 0
A = 7 2 1 ,
1
1 1

8. D = 2(A B)(A2 + B),

5
1 7
A = 10 2 1 ,
0
1 2
9. D = 2A (A2 + B)B,

1 4 2
A = 2 1 2 ,
0 1 1

10. D = 2(A 0, 5B) + A3 B,

5 3 1
A = 2 0 4 ,
3 5 1

11. D = (A B)A2 + 3B,

3 2 5
A = 4 2 0 ,
1 1 2

12. D = 3(A2 + B 2 ) 2AB,

4 2 1
A = 3 2 0 ,
0 1 2

247

2 4
B= 3 1
7 2

3
B= 1
0

1
0
1

7 2
1 2
1 3

0 2
B= 1 0
3 1

2 4
B= 3 1
7 2

4 6
B = 4 10
2 4

3
2
1

1
0
1

2
1
5

16
0
2

4
2
4

2
2
1

1
4
B = 3 2
5
7
1 2
3
B= 0
1 3
2 0
B = 5 7
1 0

14. Scilab

248

13. D = 2A3 + 3B(AB 2A),

1 1 0
A = 2 0 1 ,
1 1
1
14. D = A(A2 B) 2(B + A)B,

2 3 1
A = 1 2 4 ,
5 3 0
15. D = (2A B)(3A + B) 2A2 B,

1 0 3
A = 2 0 1 ,
1 3 1

14.2

5 3 1
B = 1 2 0
3 0 0

13
5
21

2
2
1

2
7
B = 1 0
5 13

7
5
1
B= 0
3 1

2.1. f (x).
1. f (x) =

1.2x3 + x2 2.8x 1
.
x2 1

1.9x3 2.8x2 1.9x + 1


2. f (x) =
.
3x2 1
2x2 5
.
3. f (x) =
x2 2
4.1x3 3.25x
4. f (x) =
.
4x4 1
5. f (x) =

x2 11.5
.
4x 3

2.3x2 7
.
6. f (x) =
3x2 4

7. f (x) =
8. f (x) =
9. f (x) =
10. f (x) =
11. f (x) =
12. f (x) =
13. f (x) =
14. f (x) =
15. f (x) =

p
3

p
3

(x 4.5)2 (x + 2).

x2 (x 4.7).
p
p
3
(x + 5)2 3 (x 7)2 .
p
3
(x2 x 2)2 .
p
3
x2 (x + 3.5)2 .
p

3
(x + 5)2 3 x 1.
p
3
(3.5 + x)(x2 + 6x + 6).
p
3
(4 + x)(x2 + 2x + 1).
p
3
(x2 x 6)2 .

14.3.

249

2.2.
1. () = 2ctg .

10. () =

1
.
cos 3

11. () =

2
+ 3.
sin

2. () = 2cos 6.
3. () = 2 + 1.

4. () = 2 cos 2.

12. () = 5 sin2

5. () = 3 + 2.
13. () =

6. () = 32 + .
7. () = 2sin 6.

15. () =

9. () = 2tg 3.

14.3

2
+ 1.
sin

14. () = 5 sin

8. () = 3 .

.
3

.
3

3
+ 1.
2

3.1. ,

(v)

x
=
cos(u)

1
+
cos
;

u
y = sin(v);
2

(v)

.
z = (sin(u) u) 1 + cos
2

plot3d2.
1. 0 6 u 6 2 ,

0 6 v 6 2

9. 0 6 u 6 4 ,

2. 0 6 u 6 2 ,

0 6 v 6 8

10. 0 6 u 6 72 ,

3. 0 6 u 6 2 ,

0 6 v 6 4

4. 0 6 u 6 8 ,

0 6 v 6 2

5. 0 6 u 6 4 ,

0 6 v 6 42

6. 0 6 u 6 8 ,

0 6 v 6 4

7. 0 6 u 6 2 ,
8. 0 6 u 6 8 ,

0 6 v 6 6
0 6 v 6 72

11. 0 6 u 6 2 ,

0 6 v 6 5

12. 0 6 u 6 4 ,

0 6 v 6 78

13. 0 6 u 6 3 ,

0 6 v 6 8

0 6 v 6 36

14. 0 6 u 6 2 ,

0 6 v 6 32

0 6 v 6 8

15. 0 6 u 6 2 ,

0 6 v 6 96

14. Scilab

250

3.2. , :

x(t) = sin(t)
x(t) = cos(t)
y(t) = sin(2t)
y(t) = cos(2t)

z(t) = t/5
z(t) = sin(t)

param3d.

[0; 7]

2
3
4
5

14.4

[; 4]
h
i
; 5
2
[2; 8]

3
; 9
2

t
h

; 7

11

2
[0; 5]

12

[2; 9]

13

[0; 2]

14

10

[; 7]

15

t
[0; 4]

3
; 7
2
[; 8]
h
i
; 6
2
[0; 9]

4.1. .
1.

1, 1x4 x 0, 9 = 0
x3 + x 4 = 0

2.

2x4 x 1, 5 = 0
3x3 5x2 + 9x 10 = 0

3.

2x4 9, 25x2 63x + 5 = 0


3x3 21x + 2 = 0

4.

0, 9x4 + 4, 2x3 8, 5x2 13 = 0


5x3 + 13x 11 = 0

5.

3x4 + 4x3 12x2 5 = 0


x3 + 2x2 + 2 = 0

6.

3, 2x4 + 7, 75x3 + 6, 3x2 10, 5 = 0


2x3 + 0, 48x2 + 1, 6x 2, 6 = 0

7.

2x4 3x2 5 = 0
2x3 0, 52x2 + 5, 4x 7, 4 = 0

8.

1, 05x4 17x2 + 6 = 0
2x3 0, 35x2 + 0, 85x + 1 = 0

14.4.

9.

3, 25x4 + 7, 67x3 + 5x2 11 = 0


2x3 + 5x2 + 11x + 7 = 0

10.

2, 2x4 1, 2x2 11 = 0
3x3 0, 42x2 + 0, 95x 2 = 0

11.

x4 18x2 + 6 = 0
2x3 0, 08x2 + 0, 94x + 1, 3 = 0

12.

1, 21x4 + x3 + 2x2 3x 5 = 0
3x3 13x2 + 16x 15 = 0

13.

0, 89x4 + 3, 67x3 7, 92x2 13 = 0


2x3 0, 35x2 + 0, 47x 1, 43 = 0

14.

6x4 + 8x3 23x2 + 2, 1 = 0


5x3 + 20x2 + 5x + 8 = 0

15.

2x4 2x3 4x2 + 6x 7 = 0


1, 9x3 + 7x 11 = 0

4.2. .
1.

sin(x + 1) y = 1, 2;
2x + cos y = 2;

9.

sin(x + y) 1, 2x = 0, 1;
x2 + y 2 = 1;

2.

cos(x 1) + y = 0, 5;
x cos y = 3;

10.

cos(x 1) + y = 0, 5;
x cos y = 3;

2y cos(x + 1) = 0;
x + sin y = 0, 4;

3.

11.

sin x + 2y = 2;
cos(y 1) + x = 0, 7;

cos(x + 0, 5) y = 2;
sin y 2x = 1;

5.

sin x + 2y = 2;
cos(y 1) + x = 0, 7;

12.

tg xy = x2 ;
0, 7x2 + 2y 2 = 1;

sin(x + y) 1, 2x = 0, 2;
x2 + y 2 = 1;

13.

6.

sin(x 1) = 1, 3 y;
x sin(y + 1) = 0;

7.

tg(xy + 0, 3) = x2 ;
0, 9x2 + 2y 2 = 1;

14.

sin(y 1) + x = 1, 3;
y sin(x + 1) = 0, 8;

8.

sin(y + 1) x = 1, 2;
2y + cos x = 2;

15.

sin(y + 1) = x + 1;
2y + cos x = 2;

4.

251

14. Scilab

252

14.5

5.1. .
, , , . .
1. P (s) = As3 + Bs2 + D
s
0
1
1.5
P 12 10.1 11.58

2
17.4

2.5
30.68

3
53.6

2. G(s) = Asb
s
0.5
1.5
G 3.99 5.65

2.5
6.71

3
7.215

3.5
7.611

2
6.41

3. V (s) = Asb eCs


s
0.2
0.7
V 2.3198 2.8569
A
Bs + C
1
2
0.529 0.298

1.2
3.5999

1.7
4.4357

3.5
87.78

4
136.9

4.5
202.5

4
7.83

4.5
8.19

5
8.3

2.2
5.5781

2.7
6.9459

5
287

3.2
8.6621

4. W (s) =
s
W

3
0.267

5. Q(s) = As2 + Bs + C
s
1
1.25
1.5
Q 5.21 4.196 3.759

4
0.171
1.75
3.672

5
0.156
2
4.592

6
0.124
2.25
4.621

x
Ax B
3
3.1
0.61 0.6

3.2
0.592

3.3
0.58

3.4
0.585

3.5
0.583

1
A + BeU
U
0
1
V 12 10.1

1.5
11.58

2
17.4

2.5
30.68

3
53.6

6. Y =
x
Y

7
0.1

8
0.078

9
0.075

2.5
5.758

2.75
7.173

3
9.269

3.6
0.582

3.7
0.57

3.8
0.572

3.9
0.571

3.5
87.78

4
136.9

4.5
202.5

5
287

2.08
82.6

2.63
90.63

3.12
113.5

7. V =

8. Z = At4 + Bt3 + Ct2 + Dt + K


t
0.66 0.9 1.17 1.47
1.7
Z 38.9 68.8 64.4 66.5 64.95

1.74
59.36

9. R = Ch2 + Dh + K
h
2
4
6
R 0.035 0.09 0.147

12
0.28

8
0.2

10
0.24

14
0.31

16
0.34

14.5.
10. Y = Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D
x 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
Y 1.5 2.7 3.9 5.5

2
7.1

2.2
9.1

11. Y = Ax3 + Cx + D
x
0
0.4 0.8
Y 1.2 2.2 3.0

1.6
7.7

2
13.6

12. R = Ch2 + K
h 0.29 0.57
R 3.33 6.67

1.2
6.0

0.86
7.5

13. Z = At4 + Ct2 + K


t
1
1.14 1.29
Z 6.2 7.2
9.6

0.14
13.33
1.43
12.5

1.43
16.67
1.57
17.1

14. Z = At4 + Bt3 + Dt + K


t
2
2.13 2.25
Z 12.57 16.43
19

2.38
22.86

15. Z = At4 + Dt + K
t
0.88
0.9
Z 0.029 0.086

0.93
0.31

0.91
0.17

2.4
11.1

1.71
23.33

1.71
22.2
2.5
26.71

0.94
0.43

2.6
12.9

253

2.8
15.5

1.82
27.8

3
17.9

2
33.35

1.86
28.3

1.92
35.3

2
36.5

2.63
31.86

2.75
37.0

2.88
43.43

0.96
0.57

0.97
0.71

0.99
0.86

3
49.86

1
0.97

5.2. 1-7
.
.
1. x1 = 0.702,
x
0.43
y 1.63597

x2 = 0.512,
x3 = 608
0.48
0.55
0.62
1.73234 1.87686 2.03345

0.7
2.22846

0.75
2.35973

2. x1 = 0.102,
x
0.02
y 1.02316

x2 = 0.203,
x3 = 0.154
0.08
0.12
0.17
1.09509 1.14725 1.21423

0.23
1.30120

0.30
1.40907

3. x1 = 0.526,
x
0.35
y 2.73951

x2 = 0.453,
x3 = 0.436
0.41
0.47
0.51
2.30080 1.96864 1.78776

0.56
1.59502

0.64
1.34310

4. x1 = 0.616,
x
0.41
y 2.57418

x2 = 0.478,
x3 = 0.537
0.46
0.52
0.6
2.32513 2.09336 1.86203

0.65
1.74926

0.72
1.62098

5. x1 = 0.896,
x
0.68
y 0.80866

x2 = 0.774,
x3 = 0.955
0.73
0.80
0.88
0.89492 1.02964 1.20966

0.93
1.34087

0.99
1.52368

254

14. Scilab

6. x1 = 0.314,
x
0.11
y 9.05421

x2 = 0.235,
x3 = 0.186
0.15
0.21
0.29
6.61659 4.69170 3.35106

0.35
2.73951

0.40
2.36522

7. x1 = 1.3832,
x
1.375
y 5.04192

x2 = 1.3926,
x3 = 1.3866
1.380
1.385
1.390
1.395
5.17744 5.32016 5.47069 5.62968

1.400
5.79788

8-15 -. .
8. x1 = 0.308,
x
0.298
y 3.25578

x2 = 0.325,
x3 = 0.312
0.303
0.310
0.317
3.17639 3.12180 3.04819

0.323
2.98755

0.330
2.91950

9. x1 = 0.608,
x
0.593
y 0.53205

x2 = 0.594,
x3 = 0.631
0.598
0.605
0.613
0.53562 0.54059 0.54623

0.619
0.55043

0.627
0.55598

10. x1 = 0.115,
x
0.100
y 1.12128

x2 = 0.130,
x3 = 0.164
0.108
0.119
0.127
1.13160 1.14594 1.15648

0.135
1.16712

0.146
1.18191

11. x1 = 0.720,
x2 = 0.777,
x 0
1
1.5
2
y 12 10.1 11.58 17.4

x3 = 0.700
2.5
3
30.68 53.6

3.5
87.78

4
136.9

4.5
202.5

12. x1 = 0.238,
x
0.235
y 1.20800

x2 = 0.261,
x3 = 0.275
0.240
0.250
0.255
1.21256 1.22169 1.22628

0.265
1.23547

0.280
1.24933

13. x1 = 0.105,
x
0.095
y 1.09131

x2 = 0.109
, x3 = 0.111
0.102
0.104
0.107
1.23490 1.27994 1.35142

0.110
1.42815

0.112
1.48256

14. x1 = 0.1817,
x
0.180
y 5.61543

x2 = 0.2275,
x3 = 0.175
0.185
0.190
0.195
0.200
5.46693 5.32634 5.19304 5.06642

0.205
4.94619

15. x1 = 3.522,
x
3.50
y 33.1154

x2 = 4.176,
x3 = 3.475
3.55
3.60
3.65
34.8133 36.5982 38.4747

3.75
42.5211

3.70
40.4473

5
287

14.6.

14.6

255

6. .
1. W
= 2x1 x2 + x4 min
x1 + x2 + x3 x4 6 1
x1 x2 + x3 x4 6 0

2x1 + x2 + x3 x4 > 3

2. W
= x1 + x3 max
2x1 7x2 + 22x3 6 22

2x1 x2 + 6x3 6 6
2x1 5x2 + 2x3 6 2

4x1 + x2 + x3 6 1

3. W
= 3 + 2x2 + x3 max
x1 x2 + 2x3 + x4 > 1

2x1 x2 + x3 x4 > 1
x1 2x2 + x3 x4 > 1

x1 + x2 + x3 + 2x4 6 5

4. W
= x3 + 3x4 min
x1 + x2 x3 x4 6 2

x1 x2 x3 + x4 > 0
x1 x2 + 2x3 x4 > 3

x1 > 1
5. W
= x1 + x2 max
x1 2x2 > 2
2x1 x2 > 2

x1 + x2 > 5

6. W
= x1 x2 2x4 max
2x1 x2 + 2x3 x4 6 4

x1 2x2 + x3 2x4 > 2


x1 x4 > 1

x2 + x3 6 1

7. W
= x1 x2 + 3x3 + x4 max
x1 x2 + x4 6 1

x2 x3 + x4 6 1
x1 + x3 + 2x4 6 2

2x2 + x4 6 0
8. W
= x2 2x3 + x4 min
3x1 x2 6 2

x2 2x3 6 1
4x3 x4 6 3

5x1 + x4 > 6

9. W
= x1 + x2 + 3x3 x4 max
x1 5x2 + 4x3 6 5

x1 2x2 3x3 6 4
x1 + 6x2 + 5x3 6 4

x2 + x3 6 1

10. W
= 4 2x1 x2 x3 min
x1 2x2 + 3x3 4x4 > 10

x1 + x2 x3 x4 6 4
x1 x2 + x3 x4 > 6

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 6 10

11. W
= x1 + x2 + x3 + 1 min
x1 + x2 > 0

x1 + x3 > 1
x2 x3 > 1

x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 > 0

12. W
= 2 + 2x2 x3 + 3x4 max
x1 + x2 2x4 > 1

x1 + x3 + x4 > 1
x2 + x3 x4 > 1

x3 6 4;
x2 6 10

13. W
= x1 + x2 + 3 max
x1 x2 6 1

x1 2x2 > 2
x

1 + x2 > 1

2x1 + x2 > 2

14. W
= x1 10x2 + 100x3 max
x1 + x2 + x3 6 1

x1 x2 x3 6 2
x1 + 2x3 6 0

x1 + 2x3 6 5

15. W
= 3 + x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 max
x1 x2 + x3 6 1

2x1 + x2 + x3 6 1
x1 + 2x2 + x3 6 1

x1 + x2 + 2x3 6 1

16
11, 12
27
12
186


213
213
214
213
213
153
151
12
12

151
148
150
11

190
193
198

195
201
195
27
27
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
52
32
32
32
32

220
11

for 170
if 164
select 168
while 170
164

257
17
17
138, 139
53

54
55
53
SciPad 14
53
12

53
19

138, 140
146
143
- 14
22, 183
cat 39
close 188
cond 46
costf 234
delete 188
det 45
diag 38
evstr 164
eye 35
gure 186
fsolve 143, 146
full 37
hypermat 38
input 163
integrate 150
intg 151
inttrap 148
inv 47

kernel 51
length 42
linpro 239
linsolve 48
lu 50
matrix 34
max 43
mclose 179
mean 44
median 44
meof(f) 177
mfprintf 177
mfscanf 177
min 44
mopen 176
norm 45
numdi 153
ode 156
ones 34
optim 233237
pinv 48
poly 138
prod 43
qr 50
rand 36
rank 45
roots 140
rref 49
size 41
sort 41
sparse 37
spec 47
sum 42
svd 51
tril 39
triu 40
uicontrol 189
x_dialog 163
zeros 35

216

[1] . . . .: , 2002.
840 .
[2] . . .
Maple. .: , 2004. 539 .
[3] . ., . . . .:
, 1966. 724 .
[4] www.freefem.org

, , , 8 40
.
, , 6 20
.
, .





Scilab:

: . .
: . .
: .
: . .

16.05.08. 70x100/16.
Computer Modern. . .
. . . 22,1. 2000 .


: 119334, , 5- , . 21, . 21
: (495) 662-38-83. E-mail: sales@altlinux.ru
http://altlinux.ru
.
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