Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 62

..

7
7
/ .. , ..
. 7- .
.: , 2001.


1
-1
)

) .

-2
1. , .. + = , , .. 15 + 6 9.
2.

-3
1. 35 o ; 39 o .
2. 29 o 16 o .

3. () = x. (bc) = x 15.
, 40 = x + x 15, 2x = 55, x = 27,5.
() = 27,5 o ;
(bc) = 27,5 15 = 12,5 o .
2

-4
1. . . : .
2. 1 = = 60 o ;

1 = = 77 o ;

11 = = 10 .

-5
1. b .

-6
1. = DE, AB = ,

CD = .

2. ) D = A = 35 o ,
) A = D = 85 o ,

E = B = 50 o ,
B = E = 50 o ,

F = C = 95 o .
C = F = 45 o .

-7
1. = ,

= ,

2. ) = = 2 ;
) = = 4 ;

= D.

= = 4 ;
= = 7 ;

= = 5 .
= = 6 .

-8
2. KBM ,
= 40 o .

1. KAD = 48 o ,
BAD = 132 o .

-9
1. 180 o 15 o = 165 o ; 180 o 24 o = 156 o ; 180 o 48 o = 132 o ;
180 o 100 o = 80 o .
180 o 69 o = 111 o ; 180 o 85 o = 95 o ;
100 o .
2. ) 65 o + 115 o = 180 o , , .
) 72 o + 88 o = 160 o 180 o , ,
) 91 o + 99 o = 190 o 180 o , , .
3. 1 = 7x, 2 = 8x.
7x + 8x = 180 o , 15x = 180 o , x = 12 o .
1 = 7 12 o = 84 o , 2 = 8 12 o = 96 o .

-10
1. 180 o 160 o = 20 o ; 180 o 145 o = 35 o ; 180 o 123 o = 57 o ;
180 o 94 o = 86 o ; 180 o 72 o = 108 o ; 180 o 60 o = 120 o .
60 o .
2. ) 75 + 85 = 160 180, , .
) 94 + 96 = 190 180, , .
) 83 + 97 = 180, , .

-11
1. = DBC, .. , = DB,
= DBC ( ).
2. ABD = CBD, ADB = CDB=90 o , BD , ,
ABD = CBD ( ).

-12
1. x , 2x .
: 20 = 2x + 2x + x, 5x = 20,
x = 4. ,
4 , 2 = 2 4 = 8 .
2. .. ,
= = 111 = 111. ..
= 11, = 111 ( ), ...

-13
1. .. = , AD = CD, BD , BAD = BCD
( ), ...
4

2.

= (
), .. , = = 90 o ,
= (.. ). , = , ...

-14
1. 11 ;
2 ;
1 .
2. ) , .. = 1;
) , .. = 11;
) , .. = 11.

-15
1. 11 ;
2 ;
1 .
2. ) , .. = 1;
) , .. = 11;
) , .. = 11.

-16
1. 1 = 2x, 2 = 3x.
2x + 3x = 180 o , 5x = 180 o , x = 36 o .
1 = 2 36 o = 72 o ; 2 = 3 36 o = 108 o .
D

2. = DCO (
CD ).
= DOC ( ),
= . , = COD . , = OD, ...

-17
1. . + + 40 o = 180 o ,
2 = 140 o , = 70 o . 70 o .
2.
B

DAO = 60 o / 2 = 30 o .
ADO = 90 o , .. CD

.
DOA=180 o ( ADO+
+ DAO)=180 o (30 o + 90 o )=60 o .

-18
1. ) 180 o 18 o 65 o = 97 o ;
) 180 o 53 o 94 o = 33 o ;

) 180 o 30 o 70 o = 80 o ;
) 180 o 61 o 102 o = 17 o .

2. , , .
= 180 o 2 55 o = 70 o ;
) = = 55 o ,
= 180 o 2 70 o = 40 o ;
) = = 70 o ,
o
= 180 o 2 45 o = 90 o ;
) = = 45 ,
= 180 o 2 28 o = 124 o .
) = = 28 o ,
3. 2, 3, 7 . 2 + 3 + 7 = 180 o ,
12=180 o , =15 o . , 2 15 o =30 o , 3 15 o =45 o , 7 15 o =105 o
.

-19
1. ) 180 o 20 o 80 o = 80 o ;
) 180 o 52 o 111 o = 17 o ;
) 180 o 57 o 90 o = 33 o .
) 180 o 23 o 60 o = 97 o ;
2. , , .
= = (180 o 90 o ) / 2 = 45 o ;
) = 90 o ,
) = 104 o , = = (180 o 104 o ) / 2 = 38 o ;
= = (180 o 48 o ) / 2 = 66 o ;
) = 48 o ,
= = (180 o 50 o ) / 2 = 65 o .
) = 50 o ,
6

3. 3, 4, 8 . 3 + 4 + 8 = 180 o ,
15=180 o , =12 o . , 3 12 o =36 o , 4 12 o =48 o , 8 12 o = 96 o
.

-20
1.

2.

D


.

-21
1.
.
b, .
.
2. 11. 1 ( ).
N ,
1 11.
1 N. N1. 11N1 . 11N1 = , ..
11N1 = N ( ).

-22
1.
.
, . .
2. . . .
.
7

-23
1. , ..
= = R.
. ,
,
.

2. .. ,
, ,
.

-24
1. . 40 o ,
60 o . .
2. , 2-
. . .
3. .
.

-25
1. . 50 o . .
2.
h ,
m .
h

3. .
.
. . .
8

2.
-1
)

.
) .

-2
1. = + = 8 + 3 = 11 ().
2. .. b, .
.. b, . ..
. b.

-3
1. 50 o ; 60 o .
2. 90 o 32 o .

3. (nk) = x, (mk) = 3x.


100 o = + 3, 4 = 100 o , = 25 o ;
(nk) = 25 o ,
(mk) = 3 25 = 75 o .

-4
1. . ,
. .
2. = = 6 ,

= = 92 o ,

= = 26 o .

-5
c || a,

d || b

d
b

C-6
1. AD = , BD = 4 + ().
, 20 = + 4 + ; 2 = 16;
= 8.
AD = 8 ; BD = 4 + 8 = 12 ().
2. = PR = 6 ; PQ = AB = 3 ;
QR = BC = 4 .
3. , .. - ,
.

-7
1. = , = 4 .
20 = + 4,
5 = 20,
= 4;
= 4 ; = 4 4 = 16 ().
C = M = 120 o ,
2. = L = 40 o ,
3. , .. CD .

K = A = 20 o .

-8
1. , 4 .
4 + = 180 o ; 5 = 180 o ; = 36 o ; 36 o .
2. 11 = = 120 o ( )
1 = 180 o = 60 o (.. ).

-9
1. 1 = , 2 = 5.
+ 5 = 180 o , 6 = 180 o ,
1 = 30 o ,
2 = 5 30 o = 150 o .
10

= 30 o .

2. , .. 180 o ,
, . .
150 o /2 = 75 o .
3. = /2 = 130 o /2 = 65 o .

-10
1. 1 = , 2 = + 40 o .
2 = 140 o , = 70 o .
+ + 40 o = 180 o ,
o
o
o
1 = 70 ,
2 = 70 + 40 = 110 o .
2. , .. , . 1 = , 2 = 8.
, + 8 = 180 o , 9 = 180 o , = 20 o ;
1 = 20 o ,
2 = 8 20 o = 160 o .
3. = , = 180 o ,
=

.
2

180 o +
42 o =

;
2

= 138 o ;
2

= 84 o .

84 .

-11
1. DOK = BOC, ( ) .. DO = OB,
KO = OC, DOK = BOC ( ).
2. ADB = ADC BDC = ABC ABD = CBD.
.. ADB = CBD, ABD = CDB BD ,
ADB = CBD ( ), ...

-12
1. , 6 .
+ 6 + 6 = 26, 13 = 26, = 2.
2 . 6 2 = 12 ().
2. = = 11 = 11;
= = 1 = 1.
, = 180 o ( + ) = 180 o ( 1 + 1) = 1.
= 111 .
11

-13
1. .. = BAD, = BD, = AD.
.. CD , ACD = BDC .
2. = , .. ,
= , = = 90 o . , = . ,
, ...

-14
1. , + + 1,3 = 2,5;
2 = 1,2; = 0,6. 0,6 .
2.

.. ,
.
, D = CMD = 90 o .
.. = MD ,
AMD = CMD
, ...

111
=
= D1B11.
2
2
= 1, = 11. CBD = C1B1D1 -

3. DBC =

, ...

-15
1. , ( + 1).
+ + 1 + + 1 = 3,2; 3 = 1,2; = 0,4;
0,4 ; 0,4 + 1 = 1,4 () .
2.
.. = ADB, = BD,

CB = DB. .. = BD,
CBO = DBO ,
= DBO
( ).

, = DOB=180 o /2=90 o .
, , ...
D

12

3.
D

CD
. .
D, .. .
, D, ...

-16
1. 1 = , 2 = + 32 o .
, + + 32 o = 180 o ; 2 = 148 o ;
1 = 74 o , 2 = 74 o + 32 o = 106 o .
2.

= 74 o .

= DOB ( ),
.. = DOB ( ),
= BDO, = D.
, = DBO, ...

-17
1. = 180 o = 180 o 150 o = 30 o .
= = 30 o .
= 180 o 30 o 30 o = 120 o .
2. DBA = CBD = 20 o (.. BD );
= 180 o 2 CBD = 180 o 90 o 40 o = 50 o .
ADB = 180 o 20 o 50 o = 110 o .
13

-18
1. 1 = , 2 = 50 o + .
2 = 130 o ,
= 65 o .
, + 50 o + = 180 o ,
o
o
o
o
1 = 65 ,
2 = 50 + 65 = 115 .
2. 180 o 110 o = 70 o .
, ,
(180 o 70 o ) / 2 = 55 o . , 180 o 2 70 o = 40 o .

3. = 90 o =
= 90 o = .
.. = ,

= ,
= ( ), = , ...

C-19
1. 1 = 2 = . + = 120 o , = 60 o . 1 = 2 = 60 o .
2. 180 o 80 o = 100 o .
, (..
180 o ).
(180 o 100 o ) / 2 = 40 o .
3. = 90 o = 90 o 1 = 111.
= 1, = 11. = 111 ( ). = 11, ...

-20
1.
3 ( 5 )
D.
.
.
2. 1 , .
1, , .
1 = 1 = 15 10 = 5 ().
14

-21
1. 2, -21, 1.
2. 1,
-21, 1.

-22
1.

.
2.


, ..


90 o .

-23
1.

c d.
, ..

,
.

2.
, .. , , .

-24
1. ,
..
( ,
).
15

2. .. , . .
b. , /2. , ,
b b (.. || b).
3. . . .
, (
, r > / 2).

-25
1. .
.
2. 3 .
( ) . , .. .
3. d.
.
.
( ) b , , .

3.
-1
)
D

.
) D .

-2
1. = + = 14 + 8 = 22 ().
2. .. , .
.. , . ,
. , .
16

-3
1. 85 o ; 86 o .
2.

90 o 45 o .
3. () = 4, (da) = 2.
: 120 o = 4 + 2; 6 = 120 o ; = 20 o .
()=4 20 o = 80 o ; (da) = 2 20 o = 40 o .

-4
1. . .
:
.
2. = =68 o ; = = 8 ; = = 84 o .

-5

b || BC, b || AB.

-6
1. .. BD CD , , D . .. , , ,
. .
2. , = + , ..
7,5 = 7,8 + 0,3. , , .
3. () = , (bc) = 2. 75 o = + 2;
3 = 75 o ;

= 25 o . () = 25 o ;

(bc) = 2 = 225 o = 50 o .

17

-7
1. .. BD CD , , D . .. ,
. .
2. = , = + 3 ().
, 12 = + + 3; 2 = 9; = 4,5.
= 4,5 (); = 4,5 + 3 = 7,5 ().
3. , .. (ab) = (ac) + (bc)
35 o = 45 o + 80 o , .

-8
1. . 5 .
, + 5 = 180 o ; 6=180 o ; =30 o . 30 o .
2. = COD = 30 o ( );
DOK = 180 o COD = 180 o 30 o = 150 o (.. ).

-9
1. , .. .
.
, 180 o .
= 20 o .
, 2 + 180 o = 200 o ;
o
o
o
20 . 180 20 = 160 o .
2. , . () . 5 4 + 3,
, , , ...
3. .. , = 2 = 2 57 o = 114 o .

-10
1. . 180 o .
, 180 o + 180 o = 180 o ; 2 = 180 o ; = 90 o .
90 o .
2. (ab).
(ab) = () + (bc); 100 o = () + 110 o , () = 10 o .
, .. , . , (ab), ...
3. 1 , 2 .
18

1
1
+ 180 o 1 = 180 o
= 165 o .
2
2

-11
1. = D ( ).
, = 180 o 90 o = 180 o 90 o MCD = .
= DMC (.. = MD), ...
2. = BAD AD = BCD BCA = ACD.
= CDA , ..
= DAC, ...

-12
1. , 1,5 .
, 35 = 1,5 + + ; 3,5 = 35; = 10.
10 , 1,5 10 = 15 () .
2. ADB = CDB ( ), .. DB , AD = DC,
ADB = CDB = 90 o .
, = , ...

-13
1.

.. CDA = CDB, = , AD = BD.


BAD , ...

2. .. AOD , OAD = ODA.


.. CAD = BDA, = BDO.
= DOB , .. = BDO,
= OD, = BOD ( ), ...
19

-14
1. , 3,4 = 1,3+1,3 + ; = 0,8.
0,8 .
2.

..
, .
, AMD = CMD = 90 o ,
AM = MC.
.. MD ,
AMD = CMD

, ...

1
1
3. .. D C1D1 , DB = = 11 = D1B1.
2
2
.. = 111, = 1, = 11.
.. DB = D1B1, CB = C1B1, B = B1,
CBD = C1B1D1, ( ) ...

-15
1. , ( + 1) .
, + + + 1 = 4,9; 3 = 3,9;
= 1,3.
1,3 ;
1,3 + 1 = 2,3 () .
2.

ADC = BDE ( ), .. AD = DB, DC = DE,


ADC = BDE ( ). , =.
D
BDC = ADE, ( -
) .. BD = AD, DC = DE,
BDC = ADE ( ). , = .
.. = , = , , = (
), ...

3. .
, DK . , CD , ...
20

-16
1. 1 = , 2 = 4.
.. ,
+ 4 = 180 o ; 5 = 180 o ; = 36 o .
1 = 36 o ;
2 = 4 36 o = 144 o .
2. .. APQ QP APQ= , QP || .
.. QP || AQP ,
AQP = , ...

-17
1. .. ,
= = 180 o = 180 o 126 o = 54 o .
2. .. AD ,
CAD =

1
60
= 30 o .
=
2
2

= 180 o ( + ) = 180 o (80 o + 60 o ) = 40 o .


CDA = 180 o ( + CAD) = 180 o (30 o + 40 o ) = 110 o .

-18
1.
4 3
1 2
5 6
8 7
6 = 1 = 45 o ( );
3 = 1 = 45 o ; 8 = 6 = 45 o ( );
2 = 180 o 1 = 180 o 45 o = 135 o (.. );
5 = 2 = 135 o ( );
7 = 5 = 135 o , 4 = 2 = 135 o ( ).

21

2.
: = 180 o ( +
+ ) = 180 o (90 o + 60 o ) = 30 o .
.. ,
= 2 = 2 30 o = 60 o .
= 180 o ( + ) =
= 180 o (90 o + 60 o ) = 30 o .

3.
=90 o = 90 o
=
(.. = , -

).
.. = , = ,
= , ,
= (
). , = .

.. . , .
, ...

-19
1. , .. 75 o ,
180 o 75 o = 105 o .
2.

= 90 o 75 o = 15 o .
.. ,
= 2 = 2 15 o = 30 o .
= 90 o 30 o = 60 o .

22

3.

= (. 3, -18).
.. = , = ,
= = 90 o ,
= . ,
= , ...

-20
1. -2.
2. 4 + 8 = 12 ().

-21
1. -1.
2. ,
. , . .

-22
1. . .
2. 2 -21, .. = 90 o .

-23
1. , , , .
2. .. , ,
, . .

-24
1. , . , , .
, .
23

( ). , .

.
2. -2.
3. . .. , . .
. , .. = (
).

-25
1. , .
, . .
.
2. b .
.
. ( )
.
3. . ( ).
. .. , . ,
.
( ).

4.
-1.
) ;
) ;

) ,
.
.
, .. ,
. , .
24

-2
1. = + , = = 14 8 = 6 ().
2. ) .. AD , , D, . .. BD , A, D, C, B . , .
) , ,
. , . .

-3
1. 130 o ; 120 o .
2.

90 o 50 o .
1
2

3. .. (ab) = 90 o , () = 90 o = 45 o .
(ad)=, (dc) = 2. + 2 = 45 o , 3=45 o ,
= 15 o . (ad) = 15 o , (dc) = 2 15 o = 30 o .

-4
1. . .
2. = = = 92 o ; = = =64 o ; = D= =24 o .

-5

25

-6
1. , .. .
2. , .. (ab) < (bc),
65 o < 60 o , .
3. , , .

-7
1. , .. () , 7 5 + 4.
2. , .. () = (ab) + (bc) = 70 o + 120 o =
=190 o > 180 o .
3. ,
( ).
. , , ...

-8
1. 1 = 4, 2 = 5.
.. , 4 + 5 = 180 o ,
1 = 4 20 o = 80 o ,
2 = 5 20 o = 100 o .

9 = 180 o ,

= 20 o .

2. 180 .
= 180 o + 180 o ; 3 = 360 o ; = 120 o .
120 o ; 180 o 120 o = 60 o .

-9
1. .
180 o 37 o = 143 o .
. 37 o .
2. , ,

1
78 o = 39 o .
2

3. ACD BCD .
ACD + BCD = 2 ACD = 180 o .
, ACD = 90 o . , CD, ...
26

-10
1. .. () > (ab), b ().
(bc) = (ac) (ab)=70 o 40 o = 30 o .
(a1b) = 180 o (ab) = 180 o 40 o = 140 o (.. ).
(1) = 180 o () = 180 o 70 o = 110 o (.. ).
2. , 2 67 o = 134 o .
3. .. ABD + CBD=90 o + 90 o = 180 o BD , . , , , , ...

-11
o

1. EDK = 180 ADE = 180 o BCK = ACB.


.. EDK = ACB,
AC = DK,
BC = DE,
= KED .
2. .. , AKD = AOB, AK = AO,
= ADK , ...

-12
1.
= = .
5 + + = 30; = 25 ;
= = 25 .

25 + 25 + + = 50 ().

2. . =
, .. , = ,
= = 90 o . = , ..

-13.
1. .. = AD, = CD, , = ADC (
). = DAO.
= DAO ( ), .. , AD = ,
= DAO. , AOD = AOB =

180o
= 90 o (..
2

). BD , ...
2. DBC = ABC , .. ,
DBC = ABC, DCB = ACB. , DB = AB, ...
27

-14
1. AD BD = . ACD = AC + CD + = 28;
= + + + = 2 + 2 = 36;
= 18 .
CD = 28=28(18 ) = 10 ().
2.
,
. 1
. 1 = 1 =
= 1 = 1 ( -
). , 1 = 1.
, = , ...

3. DBC = DB1C1, .. BD = B1D1,


DBC = D1B1C1,
1
BDC = B1D1C1 = 90 o . =11.
BDA = B1D1A1, .. BD = B1D1, ABD = A1B1D1,
ADB = A1D1B1 = 90 o . , = 11.
= ABD + CBD = A1B1D1 + C1B1D1 = B1.
.. = 11, = 11, = 1, = 111 ), ...

-16

3 4
2 1
8

5
7 6

1. 5 = 3 1. 1 = ,
5 = 3.
+ 3 = 180 o , 4 = 180 o ,
= 45 o .
1 = 45 o ,
5 = 3 45 o = 135 o .
o
8 = 1 = 45 , 2 = 5 = 135 o
( );
3 = 1 = 45 o ,
6 = 8 = 45 o

( );
4 = 2 = 135 o , 7 = 5 = 135 o ( ).
2. .. || AD, OAD = OCB, ODA = OBC ( ). .. AD = ,
OAD = .
, = , OD = , = COD ( ).
= DOC ( ),
.. = DOC, AO=OC, DO=OB, ...
28

-17
1. , , , 180 o 2 40 o = 100 o .
, , (180 o 40 o )/2 = 70 o .
2. =180 o ( + )=180 o (40 o + 80 o ) = 60 o .
BDA = 90 o , .. AD .
BAD = 180 o ( + BDA)=180 o (60 o + 90 o ) = 30 o .

-18
1. .. = CD, AD = BC, , = CDA (
). , = DCA. ..
CD , || CD, ...

2. = . .. ,
= = . .. , = 2 = 2.

= 180 o ( + ) =
= 180 o ( + 2) = 180 o 3.

, 30 o = 180 o 3; 3 = 150 o ; = 50 o .
o
o
= 2 50 = 100 .
, .. 180 o .
= 150 o . 180 o 3=150 o ; 3=30 o ; =10 o .
= 2 10 o = 20 o . = 180 o 2 = 180 o 40 o = 140 o .
3. , 111 .
= 1, = 1 = 1.
= 90 o =90 o 1 = 111.
.. = 11, = 111=90 o , = 111,
= 111 ( ). , = 11.
= 180 o = 180 o 1 1 = 1.
.. = 11, = 1, = 1, = 111 (
), ...

-19
1. .. = ABD , = DBA.
, .. BD , || BD, ...
29

2. :
) = 60 o , = 120 o .
2 -18
60 o = 180 o 3; 3 = 120 o ; = 40 o .
= 2 40 = 80 o ,
= 180 o 2 = 180 2 80 = 20 o .

) = 120 o , = 60 o .
120 o = 180 o 3; 3 = 60 o ; = 20 o .
= 2 20 o = 40 o , = 180 o 2 = 180 o 2 40 o = 100 o .
3. 111 .
= 11, , 11 .
= 11, 11 , =11.
= 111 (
, ).
, = 111. , = 111 (
). , = 111 ( ). = 11, = 1.
.. = 11, = 11, = 1, = 111, ...

-20
1.

2. ,
. .. ,
,
. , . , .
2 , 6 .
30

-21
1. = 180 o = 180 o 30 o 50 o = 100 o .
, .
2. , . , ,
, .
.

-22
1. :
) ,
;
) ,
;
) ,
.
2. , . m, ,
. .

-23
1. . , b. .
: = d, + = 2d.
, .. +=2d d. ,
+ = 2d
+=, .. = + d. :
+ = d
d
d
, = . , 2
2
d
d
: =
, = 3 . , 2
2

: = 3

, b
d
d

3 .
2
2
31

2. , , .. , , .

-24
1. .. ,
8 + 12 = 20 ().
12 8 = 4 ().
2. 3 ,
2 .
(
) 4/2 = 2 ().
.
3. , d
, d.
, b, d, , . .

-25
1. , .. . 30 = 15 + 20, .
2. 60 o , 3 .
, , .
2 .
.
.
3. , b, , b, b. d . ,
.

32


-1
1. = + .
2. = + = 3,4 + 1,9 = 5,3 ().
3. = + . = , = +5 ().
.. = 16 , 16 = ++5,
11 = 2, = 5,5 (); = 5,5 ; = 5,5 + 5 = 10,5 ().
4. = + ; = D + DC.
, = AD + DC + BC. , > AD.

-2
1.
1.

, AD, BC, BD a. AB, CD .


2. .. , ,
CD.
3.
Q

R
P

.
4. .. PQ , P Q . , R Q 33

. , P R . ,
PR .

2.
1. ,
.
2. BD (.. || BD), B D
. D
, , .. AD .
3. , ,
D . .. ,
. D (,
).
.. , , ...
4. .. AD, D . D , .
.
D, .
. D , , ...

-3.
1.
1. (ab) = (ac) + (bc).
2. (ab) = 35 o + 80 o = 115 o .
3. (ab) = (ac) + (bc). () = , (b) = 3.
140 o =+3; 4=140 o ; =35 o .
()=35 o , (b)=3 35 o =105 o .
4. : 1 (b),
180 o . , (b) = (1) + , > 0, ..
1 , . ,
, .. 180 o .
, 1 (b).

34

2.
1. , , .
2. , . .. ,
. 1.
3. 2 AD. ,
2, , CD, ...
4. , ..
. . ,
. , , . . , ...

-4.
1. , .. 180 o .
2. 180 o 65 o = 115 o ; 180 o 66 o = 114 o .
3. , b. > b;
, , 180 o ;
, b, 180 o b;
, 180 o b > 180 o . : .
4. ABD = + CBD = 90 o + 90 o = 180 o , ,
, ...

-5.
1. , .. .
= + ; 3,7 = 4,3 + 8 , . , , ...
2. (b). (b)= ()+
+ (b) = 85 o + 103 o = 190 o > 180 o . , ..
(b) . ,
(b), ...
3. , 180 o .
160 o . , , , ...
4. ,
. , .. 8,3
6,7 + 2,6. , , ...

35

-6.
1. = DOB, , .. = , = OD,
AOC = DOB . , ACD = BDC, ...
2. BOC = BOD, , .. BD = OB, OC = OD,
ACD = BCD. , = BD, ...
180o
3. = DOB =
= 90 o , , CD, ...
2
4. . .. =, =
= . .. ,
= . , = , ...

-7.
1.
1. = DOB, , .. = DOB (
), OC=OD, ACO= BDO. , =BD, AO=OB,
...
2. AOD = BOC, , .. AOD = BOC
( ), AO = OB, OC = OD. , AD = BC, ...
3. = + = BDO + ADO = BDA;
D = CO + DAO = CBO + DBO = DBC.
4. .. = CD = C, DO = BO.
= ACD , .. =CD (.. =
= AOD), = , = CD. = ADC, ...

2.
.. = BDA, .
BD=AC, .. BD BC (,
BAD = BAC, ).
.. ABC = BDA, D = C,
DBO = 180 o D DOB = 180 o C COA = CAO.
, BOD = AOC (.. BD = AC
).
II . .. ABC = BAD BD = AC, OAB = OBA
OBA .
, = . .. = BAD, AD=BC, , OD = OC.
BOD = AOC , ...

36

-8.
o

1. 180 75 = 105 ;
2. + = 180 o , = 180 o ; = 180 o = = 36 o .
3. 11 = 180 o ; 11 = 180 o 11, ,
11 = . , 11 = .
.. = , 11 = 11, ...
4. b, || , b || d.
,
b, , b , .. b || d, d, ...

-9.
o

1. 75 .
2. = , + =180 o , =180 o =180 o = 180 o 108 o = 72 o .
3. = 1 ( ).
.. || 11, 1 = 11 ( 1).
11 = . , 11 = , , 11 = 11, ...
4. = .. = (
), = , = (
). , = , ...

-10.
1.
1. DBC=60 o /2=30 o , BCD=60 o , BDC=180 o 30 o 60 o =90 o .
2. , .. 180 o .
3. , .. + b < 120 o , b + c < 120 o , a + c < 120 o .
, , 2( + b + ) < 360 o ;
a + b + c < 180 o , .. + b + c = 180 o .
4. 11 || , 11 || , 11 || .

, 11 = 11 = 11 =
= 11 = = .
, 111 = 180 o 2 = .
11 = 11 = 180 o 2 .
1
1
111 = 111 =
= 180 o (180 o 2 ) = .
111 .

37

2.
1. a || b, || , . b.
2.
. , .. b

.

1
1
1 = , 1 = ,
1
1 = .
3. .
4. .3.

3.
= = , = y.
2+y=180 o . ADB = x, CAD = y.
, ADC=180 o 2y
ADC = 180 o x;
180 o 2y = 180 o x, x = 2y;
2 2y+y=180 o , 5y = 180 o , y = 36 o ; x = 72 o .
: 72 o , 72 o , 36 o .

4.
MN || AC, MK || BC, KN || AB
.. MN || AC,
BMN = MNB = BAC = 60 o .
.. MBN .
1
MN = MB = AB
2
, MK =

1
1
AB, KN = AB.
2
2

, MNK , ...
38

II . MKN = 180 o 60 o 60 o = 60 o .
, KMN = MNK = 60 o . , MNK , ...

-11.
1.
B
C
BK || CM. KBM = CMB. , KBM = CMB. ,
BMK = MBC. , BC || KM.
, b , ...
2. 1.
3.
.
M
K
k,
h. ( , ).
.
R.
.
R. k
. .
4. 2, b, . , . , ...


-1
1.
1. = + = 10 + 5 = 15 ().
2. (ab) = (ac) + (cb) = 30 o + 10 o = 40 o .
3. ) = , = + 5 ().
20 = + + 5; 2 = 15; = 7,5.
= 7,5 ; = 7,5 + 5 = 12,5 ().
) = , = 20 ().
:
39

1
1
1
1
+ = ( + ) = ( + 20 ) = 10 ()
2
2
2
2

2.
1. = + ; = = 20 10 = 10 ().
2. (cb)= (ab) + (ca); (ca) = (cb) (ab) = 22 o 12 o = 10 o .
3. ) = , = + 6 ().
16=++6; 2 = 10; = 5; = 5 ; = 5 + 6 = 11 ().
) FD = , CF = 2 .
21 = + 2; 3 = 21; = 7; FD = 7 ; CF = 2 7 = 14 ().

3.
1. = + ; = = 26 15 = 11 ().
2. (ab)= (ap)+ (pb); (pb) = (ab) (ap) = 90 o 32 o = 58 o .
3.

) = + = 7 + 11 = 18 ()
= = 11 7 = 4 ()
) , .. ,
, , .. 4 2+3.

4.
1. = + = 12 + 6 = 18 ().
2. (pa) = (pk) + (ka) = 70 o + 15 o = 85 o .
3. , .. , () , ,
.. 4 2,8+2,3.
4. , .. = + , < + .

-2.
1.
1. ) , , ,
. .. .
40

) , . .
2. = , = 5.
+ 5 = 180 o , 6 = 180 o , = 30 o .
= 30 o , = 5 30 o = 150 o , = 30 o .
3. = = . + > 180 o , 2 > 180 o , > 90 o .
.. .

2.
1. ) MBK , .
= , = .
) , , ,
. .. .
2. = . = 40 o + .
, + 40 o + = 180 o , 2 = 140 o , = 70 o .
= = 40 o + 70 o = 110 o . = = 70 o .
3. = = . + = 180 o , = 90 o .
.. .

3.
1. ) , , ,
. 180 o .
) = , = .
2. =, =70 o +.
, +70 o +=180 o , 2=110 o , =55 o .
= =55 o , =70 o +55 o =125 o .
3. = =. +<180 o ,
2<180 o , x<90 o . .. .

4.
1. ) = , = .
) , , ,
. .. .
2. =, =3.
, +3=180 o , 4=180 o , =45 o ;
= =45 o , =3 45 o =135 o .
3. :
41

1
1
1
1
+ = ( + )= 180 o =90 o .
2
2
2
2

-3.
1.
1. ==5 , ==10 , = =36 o .
2. = , , .. =, =,
= ( ).
, =, ...
3.

..

1
,
2

1
,
2

=. = (
), .. =, =,
.
, =, ...

2.
1. ==20 , = =54 o , D= =60 o .
2. D= CDB, , .. BD , =D,
ABD= CDB=90 o . , AD=CB, ...
3. = CBD, .. =, =CD,
= BCD. , =BD, ...

3.
1. ==74 , DB=MA=12 , = =76 o .
2. = , , .. =, ,
= . , =, ...
3. .. = , =, ,
, ...

4.
1. ==35 , = =65 o , = =102 o .
42

2. .. BDC+ CDM=180 o ABD+ KBA=180 o ,


BDC= ABD.
CBD= ADB, , .. BD , CD=AB,
BDC= ABD. , AD=CB, ...
C
3.
= ( ), ..
, =, = .
, =, ...
O

-4.
1.
1. 2= 1=22 o ( ).
2. =180 o ( + )=180 o 100 o =80 o .
3. ) 1=, 2=2, 3=3.
, +2+3=180 o , 6=180 o , =30 o .
1=30 o , 2=2 30 o =60 o ,
3=3 30 o =90 o .
) 2=180 o 5, 3=180 o 6;
2+ 3=180 o 5+180 o 6=
= 360 o ( 5+ 6)=360 o 220 o =140 o .
1=180 o ( 2+ 3)=180 o 140 o =40 o . 4 1

3 6

2.
1. 2 = 1 = 100 o ( ).
2. = 90 o , = 30 o ,
= 180 o ( + ) = 180 o (90 o + 30 o ) = 60 o .
3.
. . 1.

43

) , .. 1+ 2>180 o , .. 1+ 2+ 3>180 o ,
.
) 2=180 o 5=180 o 140 o =40 o ,
3=180 o ( 1+ 2)=180 o (30 o +40 o )=110 o .

3.
1. 2= 1=54 o ( ).
2. = =. ++60 o =180 o , 2=120 o , =60 o .
= =60 o .
3.
. . 1.
) , .. 2+ 3=90 o +90 o =180 o ,
.. 1+ 2+ 3>180 o , .
) 1=, 6=3, 3=2. .. 3 6 ,
3+2=180 o , 5=180, =36.
1=36 o , 3=2 36=72 o , 2=180 o (36 o +72 o )=72 o .

4.
1. 2 = 1 = 43 o ( ).
2. = = 35 o ,
=180 o ( + )=180 o (35 o + 35 o )=110 o .
3. ) , .. 1+ 3>180 o , .. 1+ 2+ 3>180 o ,
.
) .. 3 6 , 3 = 180 o 6 = 180 o 120 o =60 o .
2=, 1=30 o +.
+ 30 o + + 60 o = 180 o ; 2 = 90 o , = 45 o .
2=45 o , 1=30 o +45 o =75 o .

44


1.
1. , .. ,
, , .
, .. .
2. .

3. , . .

4. . , ..
.

5. ,
. ,
, . .
6. , .. ,
, . , , .
7. .. + = , . ,
.
8. 149 . 600 . ; 150 . 400 . .
9. .. , . .. = ,
. , .
, .
45

10. 360 o /60 o = 6 .


11. 180 o 40 o = 140 o . .. .
12. .. = D, D
( ). , CD .
13. , .. (.. ) 2+3+4=9 (). 9>8. .. 1 . , .
14. . .

15. .. = PQR, = PQ, = QR, = PR.


.. = QR = QR, = .
16. b || , , b : . (
), ...
17. , . ,
.. . .
18. ,
( ),
( ), . . ,
. .. ,
.
19.
:

46


, (.. ):

(..
):

20. :
) - )
( ):
, (
):

) (
), . ( ):

)
, ( ):

( ):
47

2.
21. .. 12 , 360 o
12 , 360 o / 12 = 30 o .
18 180 o , 13 30 o ,
15 3 30 o = 90 o .
22. 18 15 . 3, 6 , ..

1
30 o = 7,5 o .
4

, 90 o + 7,5 o = 97,5 o .
9 . 12, 9, , 360 o : 4 = 90 o .
9. 15 . 3, 1
9 , .. 30 o = 7,5 o . ,
4
o
o
o
180 7,5 = 172,5 .
23. 6 o 8 = 48 o .
24. a > b, o < b o .
180 o a o < 180 o b o ; 180 o a < 180 o b. ,
(.. 180 ; 180 b
b ).
25. 1 = , 2 = . .. , + = 180,
2 = 180, = 90. , 1 = 2 = 90 o , ...
26. . 25.
27.
b
1

b1
(ab1) = (a1b), .. .

28. b1 , b.
(a1b) = (a2b1) ( ). (a1c) = (a2b1).
.. a2 ,
b1. .. (a1b) (a2c) , ...
48

29.
C
D

= DAE = ( ).
CAD = 180 o x (.. ).
, + = 2(180 o ); 4 = 360 o ; = 90 o .
, = DAE = 90 o ; CAD = 180 o 90 o = 90 o .

30. ABD . BD
. , . .. , D
. , D . , BD .
, , ...
31. () = . < 90 o , (b) = 90 o < 90 o .
> 90 o , (bc) = 90 o < 90 o (.. < 180 o ).
(bc) < 90 o , ...
32. .. ,
D . , CD
.
33. .. (ab) (ac)
(ab) > (ac), (ab).
(ab) = () + (bc). (bc) = (ab) (ac), ...
34. 33.
35. .
. , , ...
.

(. 33).
, ,
, , . ,
, , , , ...
49

36. 1 = > 90 o ,
2 1 = 2 > 2 90 = 180 o , .
, 1 , ...
37. , .

. ..
, ( ). , , ...
38.
1 = 2.
.. 3 1, 2 4
, 3 = 180 o 1,
4 = 180 o 2 = 180 o 1,
, 3 = 4, ...

39. .. (ab) () , (bc). ..


, ...
40. , ,
. 90 o . 2. 2 180, ..
90. 90 90. , =90. ..
2 90=180 o .

3.
41.

) 180 o / .
, ) , .. .
) = 1,7 ; = 95 o , = 50 o .
42. ( VIII).
50

43.
N

BCD = , .. BD = , =
= = 135 o (90 o + 45 o ).
, CD = , ...

44. .

1 = .
1 11 ,
11 = ,
11 = .
1 ,
.
= 1 (
).
11.

45.

= 90 o ( -

).

= 50 o ,
=
2
= = 40 o .

46. (
). ,
.
51

47. . .
, ( ).
48.
.. = = 1 =1 =1,
1 = 1 = 1.
11 = 11 = 11
( , ..
= = ).
, 11 = 11 = 11, ...

1
1

49.
1

.. = = 1 = 1 = 1,
1 = 1 = 1.
11 = 11 = 11
, .. 11 =
= 11 = 11 (
60 o ). , 11 = 11 =
= 11, ...

50. D ( CD = BD AD C) . .
51.

= = . . , = = , = = y.
= + = + y. .. = + , ...
52

52.

= , = = y .
11 = + y + , = 11 y;
14 = + y + , = 14 y;
15 = + + ;
15 = 11 y + 14 y + 2y;
2 = 10; = 5.
= 5 .

53.

D1
D2


AD1 = AD.
BD2 = BD. , CD + AD + AC = CD + BD + BC, ,
AD + AC = BD + BC; AD1 + AC = BD2 + BC; CD1 = CD2.
CD1D= CDD2 ( ), .. CD1 = CD2, CD D1CD = D2CD (CD ). , DD1 = DD2,
D1 = D2, ADD1 = BDD2 (.. ADD1 = D1,
BDD2 = D2), , AD1D = BD2D (
). , AD1 = BD2. , = , ...
54.

, + + = + + , + = + . . 1 = , 2 = . 1 = 2.
53

1 = 2. , 1 = 2, 1 = 2. ..
1 , 1 = 1. ,
2 = 2. , = .
, = . , = , ...

55. . = = .
+ + = + + ;
x + = + ; = , ...
56.
, . .

. , , , ,
.
57. , . .. .
58. D , , ..
DBC ( ) D,
, .

4.
59. CD .

.. || AD, =
( ).
D = BOC ()
=, .. B,
, AOD= BOC ( ). , =OD, ...
60.
.

61. 180 o .
62. ) , , ..
180 o , , , , ...
) , .. < CAB.
, ) .. .
54

63. 1) , b, c .
a + b < 120 o ; b + c < 120 o ; a + c < 120 o .
2(a + b + c) < 360 o , a + b + c < 180 o . . ,
, ...
2) .
.. 90 o , 180 o , 90 o .
.
64. ,
(180 60) / 2 = 60 o . .. .
, , ...
65. 180 o 60 o 60 o = 60 o .
, , ...
66. .
180, .. . , , ...
67. .. || CD, = ( ).
D = 180 o BED = 180 o 80 o = 100 o (.. ).
= =180 o ( CED + D) = 180 o (100 o + 25 o ) = 55 o .
68.
6
1
4
3

.. ,
1 = 3, 2 = 4 ( , ).
3 + 4 = 1 + 2 = 180 o , .
, 1 = 2, 3 = 4.
180o
1 = 2 =
= 90 o (.. ).
2
69. C. . 68.
1 = 2,
3 = 4. 6 = 5 (.. 6 = 180 o 1 4,
5 = 180 o 2 3).
, , ...
55

70. D = BC, 11 1D1 = 11, . . AD = A1D1, AC = A1C1, A


= A1, , ADC = A1D1C1 ( ).
D = D1, C= C1. .. D = BC 1D1 = B1C1,
D= BCD, D1= B1C1D1. .. D= D1,
D= B1C1D1. .. = 1, = 111.
= 111 , ...
D

D1

71. .
(11) BD = BC (B1D1 = B1C1).
72.

3
1 1

= , = , 11 = 11, 11 = 11.
= 180 1; = (180 o (180 o 1)) / 2= 1/2. , = 3/2. , = 1, = 1.
= 11 (.. ).
56

, = 111 ( ).
, = 11. = 111 ( ). , = 11. , = 111 (
), ...
73. , , . .
74. , MN , MN.
,
N
D MN
1, ,
D
AD=DB1 (. .).
.

75.
F

Q
T

O M

P
E

, F Q. E || MF, TE AB,
MF TM. = MF. .. = QF ( CFQ), = MQ.
= QMO, ( ) .. = =90 o ,
= QOM , = Q. , = OQ,
...
76. ( ).
57

77.

D . ,
CDA = EDB
( = = 90 o , CDA = EDB
( ), = ).
, AD = BD.

D
E

78.
, .

,
=

o
(.. = = 90 ,
= ,
=). , =,
.
79.
.. = , = CD ,
, = CDT ( ).
, DB = ABD.
.. ODB AOC . , = , OD = OB,
...

80.
1 = (.. = 1 = 90 o , = ,
1 = ). , = , ..
, ...

58

5.
81.
30 .
( ) .
82.

1) ,
.
2) .
3) .
4) ( ).
5) .
83. 2.3 .
r1 + r2 = 4

84. r1, r2, r3 . r1 + r3 = 5 .


r + r = 6
3

, r1 = 1,5 ; r2 = 2,5 ; r3 = 3,5 .


85. 2(1 + 2 + 3) = 12 ().
86. 4+4+2 (104) = 8 + 2 6 = 20 ().
87. = = = ODK = 90 o ( ). = (.. = ).
= D (.. = D). , = ,
OD = OM. , = OD, ...
59

88. . , (
).
89. . .
90. , . . . .
91. , . . = ( ). , .
. , , ...
92.

. ..
, . ,
.. ,
. ( )
.
93. 92. ,
. . .
94. ,
. .. , , .
95. 94
. .. ,
, .
60

96. , , . , N, MN. , .
97. . , ,
, , , . , .
, , ,
.
. q . , p q (p q
). .. = = . .. p q
, . .
. , , ...
98. ,
, ,
. , .
, ,
. , , . , , . ,
,
, Q, OR, .
, Q, R, ..
, OQ OR .
, ..
,
, ...
99.

F
D


,
.
111 AD, BE, CF .
.. 1 = = 1 ( ),
11.
61

, 1 = 1, 1 = 1.
, AD, BE CF 111. , ,
(. 97), ...
100.
1)
,
.
, .
, = ,
= . + =90 o ,

, + = 90 o .
+ = 90 o .
.. < , < ,
+ =90 o

,
. ..
, , ...
2)
, , -
.
= = r. = r,
= b r. .. = , =
( ,
), = b r + a r;
c = b + a 2r; r =

62

a+b+c
, ...
2