Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 319

. .

'

621.396.931 (024)
32.884.1

..
GSM. .: -, 2005. 296 .: .
ISBN 5-88405-068-2


GSM. GSM,
GSM, TDMA, , , .
, ,
, . , .
GSM GSM
21- .
.
,
. ,
, ,
.

32.884.1
ISBN 5-88405-068-2

.. , 2005


05-07-95002

............................................................................................................................ 6
1. GSM ................................................................................. 9
1.1. ................................................................................... 9
1.2. .......................................................................................... 11
1.3. .................................................................... 13
1.4. GSM 900/1800 ................................. 16
2.
GSM ........................................................ 17
2.1. .............................................................................................. 17
2.2. ................................ 17
2.3. ........................................................ 20
2.4. ................................................... 22
2.5. ..................... 25
2.6. ............................................................................ 26
2.7. ................................................................................................ 50
2.8. .................................................................... 52
2.9. TDMA ..................................... 54
2.10. ...................................................................................................... 61
2.11. ..................................................... 65
3.
............... 66
3.1. .............................................................................................. 66
3.2. .............................................. 67
3.3. ........................................................................... 75
3.4. ........................................... 79
3.5. ...................................................... 84
3.6. ......................................................................... 95
3.7. ......................... 102
4. ...................................................................................... 121
4.1. ........................................................ 121
4.2. GSM ............ 125
4.3. ..................................................................... 127
4.4. .................................................................................................... 132
4.5. GMSK- ............................................................................................ 144
4.6. ........................................... 151
4.7. .................................................................. 152
4.8. SIM- . ....... 155
4.9. GSM ................................... 158

5. ..................................................................................................
162
5.1. ............................................................................................... 162
5.2. GSM ..................................... 162

6.
GSM ......................................................... 167
6.1. ............................................................................................ 167
6.2. ................................................................. 170
6.3. ..................................................................................... 171
6.4. ................................................................................................................ 172
6.5. ............................................................... 175
7.
........................................... 176
7.1. .......................................................................... 176
7.2. .................................................................................... 177
7.3. ................................................. 177
7.4. ............................................................. 182
7.5. .............. 183
7.6. ........................................................... 188
7.7. ............................ 193
7.8. ................................... 199
7.9. ....................................... 204
7.10. ............................................. 214
7.11.
................................................................. 218
7.12. BTS ............. 220
8. ,
....................................................................... 222
8.1. ..................................... 222
8.2. .................................................. 224
8.3. ...................................................... 226
8.4. ..................... 229
9. GSM ...................................... 232
9.1. ............................................................... 232
9.2. .................................... 233
9.3. ................................................. 234
9.4. ............................. 235
10.
............................................................................................. 239
10.1. 2- ....................................................... 239
10.2. GSM 3- ............... 242
10.3. ................................................... 244
10.4. 3- ...................... 254
10.5. 21- ............................................................................. 258

1.
............................................................. 264
.1.1. ..................................... 264
. 1.2.
..................................................... 265
.1.3. ................................... 267
. 1.4. ,
.......................................... 268
................................................................................................................... 275
................................................................................................................................... 287

, , , , XX .
, Bell System 40-
1978 (Chicago, 2000 ),
2004
: 2004 1,5
.

.
1. , , , , .
2. :
- , ,
;
- ,
;
- ISDN, PSTN, ;
- ;
- ..
10-15

50 80%. , , .

, .
,
, GSM,
.
, , ,
.
, , -

, , -
.

GSM :
- -, GSM
(Pan European Cellular System) (GSM
900/1800/1900);
- -, GSM
, GSM
3-
IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunication'2000)/UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System
);
- , GSM
,
GSM-Railway.

GSM, GSM, .
,
GSM, ,
(FDMA, TDMA), GSM.
,
, ,
, ,
,
, - ,
,
.
GSM, , /, /,
.
,
.
, , , , , GSM.

.
, .
GSM (
, ,
GSM,
).
,
3- 21- .
,

,
.
, ,
.

()
,
.
, :
, . , . . - .
, , ( .
, . , . , . , . , .
, . , . , . , . )
( ) .

: Latvijas Dzelzcels, Latvijas - lais
Telefons, NOKLA, SIEMENS, ERICSSON, GSM Association (UK), Latvijas Gaisa Satiksme,
Analog Devices, BELAM, NEC, SAMSUNG, DAN Communication .
,
.
, , , ,
, .

GSM
1.1.
1980-
, , , .
, ,
, .

. ,
.
1982
(Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs)
,
Group Special Mobile (GSM). ,
(Global System for Mobile
communication, GSM), [1.1],
:
- ;

GSM

- ;
- ;
- ;
- , , ;
- ISDN (Integrated Services
Digital Network) ;
- ;
- ;
- .
, GSM 80- ,
. 1989
GSM
ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute), 1990
GSM (GSM 1-G1).
GSM,
Nokia [1.2].
1982 .
(European Commission) ,
900
GSM, .
1985
GSM.
1986
8- GSM .
1987
(Memorandum of Understanding MoU).
: 890...915 ( ( )
); 935...960 ( ).
1988
ETSI. ETSI ,
.
1989

GSM Phase 1 [1.1].
1990
GSM 1- GSM
650 .
1991
GSM (1 , 1991).
1991 GSM.

GSM , .
1992
GSM . 1992
13 GSM 7 . .
GSM MoU.
GSM: GSM 1800 (DCS1800 Digital Cellular
System 1800): (1710... 1785) ( MS BTS); (1805... 1880) ( BTS MS).
1993
GSM : Telecom-93 .
.
1993 32 GSM 18 . 1993
36 GSM 22 25
GSM [1.3, 1.4]. ,
GSM , [1.3].

10

GSM. GSM Phase 2


.
1994 69 GSM.
GSM MoU 156 86 . GSM World Congress (1400 ).
GSM , ,
.
1994 GSM 1,3 . 117 GSM.
, SMS (Short Message Service
) . GSM Phase2 ,
GSM 1900 (PCS 1900 Personal Communication System 1900) [
D-AMPS]. GSM 1900 .
Telecom-95 33,6 / GSM ( Nokia).
1995
1995 GSM 5 . 1995
GSM (GSM Phase2 GSM 900/1800)
( ,
SIM-).
1996
1996 120 GSM.
(prepaid) SIM- GSM SIM-8K.
1998
GSM ,
(HSCSD Speed Circuit Switched Data).
1998 120 GSM
900/1800/1900, 2 GSM 1900.
1999

(GPRS General Packet Radio Service) GSM. 1999
GSM 344 127 , GSM
250 .
2000 . GSM Phase2 GSM
. , GSM Phase2 +, :
, ,
, , ().
1994

GSM
.
, , GSM
.
1990 ()
,
. 1993 , (IUR the International Union of Railways), ETCS
(European Train Control System) ,

GSM

11

[1.5]. GSM, GSM-Railway


(GSM-R), GSM ,
: ,
.

1.2.
,
,

, - .

, .
, GSM:
- ITU (International Telecommunications Union),
ITU-T (Telecommunications
standardization),
( CCITT [Consultative Committee for International
Telegraphy and Telephony]).
- ISO (International Standards Organization).
- ETSI (European Telecommunications
Standards Institute).
, , ,
( ),
,
.
ETSI, GSM. ETSI,
1988 , . ETSI, GSM, , GSM , , , .
, ,
- , -.
ETSI, , 12
, TCSMG (Technical
Committee Special Mobile Group),
GSM 900 GSM 1800 [1.5].

12

SMG1
SMG 2
SMG 3
SMG 4
SMG 5
SMG 6
SMG 7
SMG 8
SMG 9
SMG 10
SMG 11
SMG 12

Services and Facilities


Radio Aspects
Network Aspects
Data Services
Closed
Operation & Maintenance
Me Tehing
Closed
SIM Aspects
Security
Speech
Architecture

GSM 900 , 100 () GSM Technical


Specifications, 12 , 2 30 .
12 GSM (GSM Technical Specifications)
[1.5, 1.6]:
1 General Description of a GSM PLMN
2 Services
3 Network Functions
4 MS<^BSS Interface
5 Radio Path
6 Speech Processing Functions
7 Terminal Adaptation Functions
8 BSS<^MSC Interface
Network Interworking
Service Interworking removed
Type Approval Procedures
Operation and Maintenance. :
- 01 (, ,
).
- 02: ( ).
- 03: ( ).
- 04: .
- 05: ( : , , , ).
- 06: .
- 07: .
- 08: BSS MSC.
- 09: .
- 10: .
- 11: .
- 12: .
-:
- 04.08: 3 ( 450 ).

GSM

13

- 09.02: (
) ( 500 ).
- 11.10: ( 500 ).
- 11.20: ( 400 ).
GSM 1800 (DCS 1800) GSM 900.
14 (-),
GSM 1800 GSM 900. :
- 02.06 DCS: .
- 02.11 DSC: .
- 03.12 DSC: ..
, GSM (
), , , GSM -.

1.3.
GSM
(G2).
, , .
,

, .
,
GSM, .
- .
, ,
,
.
- ,
.
- .
- . ( ) (CCI, Co-Channel Interference) (ACI, Adjacent
Channel Interference).
. ,
,
, (,
/) ,
, .

.
- .

14

- .
. , , .

. .
, GSM
.
,
,
, .

GSM [1.7]:
- ;
- ;
- .
GSM / C/N = 9 ( D-AMPS
C/N = 1 ), ( )
6... 10 D-AMPS ().
GSM, , ,
( ) . :
- SIM- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- SMS (Short Message Services),
;
- GSM ;
- GSM DCS 1800, PCS
1900, (Globalstar, Inmarsat-P,
Iridium).
GSM
:
- 890...915 ;
- 935...960 .

45 . 200 .
, / 25
124 . GSM
() TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access),

GSM

15

8 .
( ) (/)
[RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excited-Long Term Predictor) ] 13 / 6,5 /.
GSM
DTX (Discontinues Transmission),
, , ()
. DTX VAD (Voice Activity
Detector),
, .
, ,
.

( 277 ).
, ,
, (equalizing)
16 .
GSM ( 233
) .
( ), 35 .
-
GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying).
,
- ,
, ,
.
GSM = 0,3
( (-3 ), ).
GMSK :
- ;
- ,
;
- , , .

1.4. GSM 900/1800


:
- (MS) (BTS) ( Uplink):
GSM 900 (890...915) ;
GSM 1800 (DCS 1800) (1710... 1785) .
- ( Downlink):

16

GSM 900 (935...960) ;


GSM 1800 (DCS 1800) (1805...1880) .
- :
GSM 900 45 ;
GSM 1800 95 .
- :
GSM 900 25 ;
GSM 1800 12,5 .
- 200 .
- 124.
- :
GSM 900 8;
GSM 1800 16.
- , :
GSM 900 16.. .20.
- TDMA.
- RPE/LTP.
- 81,2 .
- 13 (6,5) /.
- 270,833 /.
- GMSK.
- 0,3.
- 277 -1.
- (0,5...35) .



GSM
2.1.
, ,
(: , , )
( ).
( )
,
().

.
, .
.

.
,

, ,
()
( ,
), .
,
, .
( ,
), , -
( ), .

, , ,
, ..

2.2.

60- XX .

18


BSS (Base Station System).
. 2.1, , ,
BSS ( ), BSS
MS (Mobile Station).

()

. 2.1.
BSS: BSS;

, BSS .
, ()
MS BSS, :
- MS BSS (
MS BSS, );
- MS -
( / ).

BSS BTS (Base Transceiver Station),
(. 2.2).
(cells , )
,

(cellular). i- BTS, MS .

MS .
MSC (Mobile Services
Switching Center),
,
BTS,
.
, . 2.2, (roaming ) MS, (
) , . ,

GSM

19


, .

MSC.

. 2.2.

MSC, BSS.
.
:
- , ;
- ,
.
() ,
.
( )

, .
, , BTS , .
.
, , , , .
, ,

20


.
- BTS ,

GSM

21

, .
BTS , BTS
.
,
,
.
.
- BTS,
, BTS
, ,
,
BTS .

2.3.

GSM 900/1800/1900 ,
. 2.1.
2.1.
GSM 900/1800/1900

GSM
GSM 900
GSM 1800
GSM 1900

,
MS => BTS
BTS => MS
890-915
935-960
1710-1785
1805-1880
1850-1910
1930-1990

,
MS => BTS
BTS => MS
32,8-33,7
31,2-32,1
16,8-17,6
16,0-16,6
15,7-16,2
15,1-15,6

. 2.1 :
- ,
,
,
;
- GSM
,
, ,
(, , ) .
(,
), , , , . .
,
BTS MS (1 /2),
( ),

. 2.3. GSM:
) =>
(MS ,
=> BTS)

=>
(BTS =>
MS);

GSM 900/1800/1900:
-
)

=>

(MS
=> BTS)
/ GSM 900 25

=>

(BTS
=> MS)


[(25/0,2) 89
-
1]890,
= 124
;
)

-(. 2.3,
915,
):
)
)
/,
0 2
890,2
2 /,

22

( ~1 /4), 1/.
, , , (fading),

. , ,
, ,
. ,

- BTS,
.

GSM

23

890,2
0,2
= 8

GSM 900: 935 - 890 = 960 - 915 = 45 ;


GSM 1800: 1805 - 1710 = 1880 - 1785 = 95 ;
GSM 1900: 1930 - 1850 = 1990 - 1910 = 80 ;
- / :
GSM 900: 960 - 935 = 915 - 890 = 25 ;
GSM 1800: 1785 - 1710 = 1880 - 1805 = 75 ;
GSM 1900: 1910 - 1850 = 1990 - 1930 = 60 ;
- 900
GSM 900 200 (. 2.3.1, )
- :
GSM 900: 25 ;
GSM 1800/1900: 12,5 ;
-
GSM: 200/25 = 8 (. 2.3, );
- 124 (. 2.3, ).

2.4.
,
BTS ( 50 )
. ,
, , .
, () ,
.
MS ,
, .
, , . 2.2, - .
, (frequency reuse) ,
Ft, .

.

24

1. (. 2.4) -
, (,
= 1/10).
= 1/10,
. ,
, (6 = 1/10).
D, , ,
= 1/10, ,
D . : A, F , , ,
3- (3- ) , {cluster),
.

GSM

2. . 2.5 3- : Fu F2, F3.


,

, 19.
3. . 2.6 4- , . 2.7 7- .
, 3-
, 1/3 ,
. 3- , (co-channel interference),
,
,
.
(. 2.6, 2.7).
D (. 2.5),
( ),
N :
D = R(3N)1/2,
(2.1)
R ( , ).
, , N =
3, D = 3R; N = 4 - D = 3,46R ;
N = 7 - D = 4,58/?; N = S - D = 4,9R;
N = 12 - D = 6R; N = 19 - D = 7,55R.
D/R = q
.
1/N = ,
, :
.
(2.1) :
D = /?(3/) 1/2.
(2.2)
,
,

25

. 2.4.

. 2.5. 3-

. 2.6. 4-

26

,
,
.

/.
,
, ,
,
.
(. 2.5, 2.6, 2.7) ,
BTS, ,
[(omnidirectional antennas) omni],

. 2.7. 7-

, MS
.
BTS ,
, .
4. . 2.8 9- , .

9- .
BTS ,
120.

GSM

.

, , (. 2.9).

BTS,
,
, . 2.7.
. 2.8 9-
D = 5,196R = = 0,11.
5. Motorola
()
.
. 2.10
12 ,
602 (
BTS
6 ,

60 ).

,
,
, 1,5
. 2.8.
[2.13],
GSM 7-
.

2.5.



( )
GSM
.


Motorola (. 2.9):

, :
Ki = (124/2)-8 = 496
( 124

27

. 2.9. 3- BTS: S1, S2, S3 1, 2 3


; 1, 2, A3
BTS; VD'\, VD2, VD3
BTS

28

124 = (25 /0,2 ) - 1), 8


().
, 496/6 ~ 82
.
. 2.8 ,
: Kt- (124/3)-8 = 328 .
, GSM
, ,
.

2.6.
GSM .
:
- ;
- (PSTN);
- ;
- GSM .
GSM, , ( 2.11):
- MS (Mobile Station) ( ),
;
- BSS (Base Station Sub-System) ;
- NSS (Network and Switching Sub-System) ;
- NMS (Network Management Subsystem) .

NSS

BSS

&

NMS

. 2.11. GSM

GSM

29

. 2.12
GSM. .

NSS

. 2.12. GSM


MS ,
GSM .
GSM 5 : 1-
20 (43 ), (, ), 5- 0,8
(29 ) (. 2.2).
2.2.
GSM

MS

1
20
43
1,5
2
8
39
1,5
3
5
37
1,5
4
2
33
1,5
5
0,8
29
1,5
MS, .
GSM (Air-interface) BSS, BTS (Base Transceiver Station)

30

- ,
. (. 2.13):
1) MT0 (Mobile Termination) ,
( ),
(speech) (data) BSS
Air-interface.
2) MT1 (Mobile Terminal 1) ,
ISDN GSM, TE1 (
Terminal Equipment) ISDN.
3) MT1 (Mobile Terminal 1) ,
CCITT V... X... (
V.24, .21, .25), ( Terminal Adapter),
2
1.
4) 2 (Mobile Terminal 2) ,
GSM 2 .
Air-IF

3,6; 6; 12 /
16 64

/

. 2.13.

. 2.13,
3,6; 6 12 /, BSS MSC -
16 64 /.

BSS

BSS :
- BTS - ,
MS
,
. (Air-Inter-

GSM

31

face Um-Interface)
MS BTS;
- BSC (Base Station Controller) , , BTS, , GSM, ( ) BTS.
, BTS BTS. , BSC MS
BTS, , (handover) ( , GSM, ,
, );
- BTS BSC, BSC BTS
A-bis.
, BSC :
- BTS ( BTS
( ), ,
BTS, BSC);
- ;
- ;
- ()
, BSC MS MSC;
- (Trans Coder) ,
MSC (64 / (- )) , GSM ( GSM 04.08).
, , 13 /.
.
GSM
6,5 /.

NSS
NSS GSM
,
( GSM
). NSS
GSM
. NSS MSC (Mobile Switching
Center) .

,

: (PSTN), ,
, .
(),
. - . 2.14.

32

. 2.14. - MSC

. , ,
BTS , () ,
.
( - ) , (/,
) .
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
:
- HLR (Home Location Register);
- VLR (Visitor Location Register);
- AUC (Authentication Center);
- EIR (Equipment Identity Register).
, HLR , , ,
(
, , ). HLR
.
VLR - (
roamers), ,
( ),
(, , LMT,
, LMT ,
VLR GSM ,

, LMT ).

GSM

33

AUC .
( ),
,
. ,
, , ,
, .
, , ,
.
MSC GSM, .
1) , GSM MSC
, 1 ( ).
2) MSC 4-6 , MSC .
3) , MSC GSM, :
- ,
;
- ;
- , PSTN
(Public Switched Telephone Network) () ; ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) ; PDN (Packed Data Network) ; PSPDN (Packet
Switched Public Data Network) ; CSPDN
(Circuit Switched Public Data Network) ;
- , ,

;
- , :
HLR VLR ()
.

34

HLR . . HLR
- ,
MSC . HLR , . 2.15 . 2.16.
. 2.15 2.16, HLR :
- IMSI (International
Mobile Subscriber Identity),
AUC;
- ISDN;
- (3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 17,
18,19);
- ;
- ;
- (roaming ) .
_L
HLR

VLR

r
1

IMSI -

ISDN

10
11
12
13
14 ()
15
16
17
18
19

I
HLR

20

. 2.15. , HLR VLR

GSM

35

. 2.16. , HLR VLR

HLR
TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) (. 2.16)
VLR. TMSI GSM
() (
). TMSI LA (. 2.17).
GSM
LA (Locations Areas). LA LAI (Location
Area Identity). VLR ,
LA.
LA1 LA2,
VLR, VLR
, HLR, .
LA1 LA2 VLR, LA1
VLR1, a LA2 VLR2, ( ) VLR1
MS , VLR2 LA2 (
VLR (.. VLR2) , HLR,
). TMSI,
. 2.17, TMSI 1 LA1
, LA2,
TMSI 2 (VLR2). TMSI VLR1
VLR2 ..
2 - 632

36

. 2.17. HLR

TMSI

HLR,
: , HLR GSM,
MSC . , HLR
VLR GSM . GSM
HLR, ,
, GSM.
GSM HLR IMSI
ISDN MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN).
ISDN, .. MSISDN, :
- (Country Code);
- NDC (National Destination Code);
- ISDN.
MSISDN CCITT .212.

GSM

37

VLR NSS. ,
HLR (. 2.15 2.16), VLR
-
LA, ( BSC1, LA1
LA1,
BSC2 VLR2 ,
). , ,
HLR VLR, .
. 2.15 2.16, VLR:
- LA;
- MSRN (Mobile
Station Roaming Number).
, VLR MSRN MS
MSC,
, MS;
- MSC
;
- TMSI HLR;
- , TMSI .
VLR IMSI, TMSI MSRN.
, VLR
, , HLR
.
AUC (Authentication Center) . :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , EIR.
, (authentication)
.
(
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)-), :
- IMSI;
- Kt;
- (A3).
SIM-
(MS = ME + SIM, ME Mobile Equipment)

.
EIR (Equipment Identity Register) .

IMEI (International Mobile
Station Equipment Identity). . EIR IMEI, : IMEI, ,
;
2*

38

IMEI ,
; IMEI ,
, ,
. EIR
MSC , MSC . HLR,
NSS EIR, EIR
IMEI. MSC ,
IMEI, EIR,
.
IWF (Inter Working Function) .
MSC. IWF
,
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
GSM
.
. IWF
,
, , (PAD Packet Assembler Disassembler)
.25.
GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Center) () . , MSC .
() (, . 2.18 PSTN),
GMSC.
Air

A-bis

SS 7

SS7

. 2.18. SS 7
MS PSTN

GMSC MSC
, LA
. PSTN MS GMSC
PSTN
MSISDN MSC HLR,
MS. GMSC
NSS ( , MSC, HLR, VLR) MSC
SS 7 (Signaling System
7 (CCITT 7) 7). GSM
SS 7,
NSS.
GSM, MSC.
SS 7
NSS: GMSC, MSC, HLR,VLR.

GSM

39

NSS
, MSC.
(Echo Crusher) , MSC
PSTN => GMSC => [] => MSC (
) - ,
GSM. 68
PSTN
. GSM
, , / ,
.., 180 .
,
- ,
MSC, PSTN
.
. , GSM
, .

NMS
GSM
.
NMS (Network Management Subsystem) ,
. 2.19, .
(Operation Maintenance Center) , GSM,
GSM .
,
, BSS NSS.

.

.
.
GSM (BSS
NSS), .

.
NMC (Network Maintenance Center) ,
GSM.
NMC GSM :
1) , , ;

40

Air (Um) A-bis

SS
7

BSC-IF

X.25
MS

BTS

TCE

BSC

BSS

NMC

MSC

NSS

OMC
NMS
BSC

6)

e)
. 2.19. GSM: ) GSM; )
NSS; ) BSC

2) ;
3) ,
, ;
4) ,
, NMC.
, ,
, . , NMC
GSM
;
5)
, ;
6) GSM PSTN . NMC
NMC;
7) BSS. NMC
,
( ) ;

GSM

41

8) - , ,
NMC ;
9) , ;

a)

42

10) , NMC
, , ,
.


GSM

. , ,
, , BSS NSS,
NSS HLR, VLR,
EIR, NSS NMS ..

-, , ,
. , , .
GSM :
- GSM (. 2.19);
- GSM ;
- GSM .
GSM

. 2.19, , , , GSM
.
1. MS (MSo Air-interface BTS),
Air-interface (
Um ), GSM
: MS BTS.
. , 04 05
ETSI/GSM.
2. BTS BSC, A-bis interface,
BTS<*> A-bis BSC ETSI/GSM
.
2,048 /,
64 /.
3. BSC
BSC .

2,048 / 16 /
64 /.
4. , A-interface, BSS MSC (BSS A-interface MSC),
BSS, -

GSM

43

. - , SS 7 CCITT.
- 08
ETSI/GSM.
5. . 2.19, NSS :
5.1. MSC HLR (MSC <=> B-interface <=> HLR), VLR,
B-interface. MSC
MS, MSC VLR.
MS MSC, MSC VLR
, VLR MS .
, MS . , , MSC VLR, HLR.
5.2. MSC HLR (MSC <=> C-interface <=> HLR), C-interface, MSC HLR.
MSC HLR ,
.
, MSC HLR , MS.
5.3. HLR VLR (HLR <=> D-interface <=> VLR), D-interface,
MS . ,
,
. HLR . VLR
HLR MS, MS MS
. VLR MS.
5.4. MSC (MSC <=> E-interface <=> MSC) (.
2.19, ), E-interface,
MSC ,
LA1 LA2 .
6. BSC (BSC <=> O-interface <=> ), O-interface,
. .25 CCITT.
7. GSM, GSM, 12.01 ETSI/GSM
(Operation and Maintenance) Q.3, ISO OSI.
GSM SS 7
CCITT .25. .25
PSDN .
GSM- Q.3 , 12.01 ETSI/GSM.
GSM, , GSM (. . 2.18, 2.19):

44

- Air (MS<^Air-interface<*>BSS);
- A (BSS<^>A-interface<^>NSS);
- O&M (NMS<^0&M<^BSS) O&M (NMS<^0&M<^NSS).

, GSM,
, , MS BTS
, Air-interface (Air-IF) (
Um).
GSM . 2.20.
1

4
1

5
2

48

2046 2047
2048
(2048 ;
2715648 ; 3
28 53,760 )

49

50

(51
; 26

;
1326 , 6,12 )

51

25

26

^13*

14

15


(26 , 120 )

25 ,26*

^\

48

49

50


(51 , 235 )

51

(8 , 4,615 )

,1

^4

ED
S
TS
S
ED

3
57
1
26
1 57 () 3
------------- (148 )
-------------

G
8,25

(8 , 4,615 )


(577 )

GSM

. 2.20. (
) GSM

45

46

(frame), 4,615 .
(
577 ) ,
.
, . ,
, ,
.
,
(. 2.20):
- (8 , 4,615 );
- (8 , 4,615 ).
4,615 8 .

.
GSM.
1. ( (burst)), :
) 3 ( (Tall Bits ) 3)
;
) ED (Encripted Data) 57 ,
114 , ;
) S (Stealing flag) ( 1 , 2 ) ;
) TS (Training Sequence) , 26 ;
) G (Guard period) , 8,25 .
, 148
156,25 , 577/156,25 = 3,69 .
2. , , 8 , 8x577 = 4,616 .
3. 26 ,
: 26x4,616 = 120 , 24
1...12 14...25, 13* ( ) ( SACCH Slow Associated Control
CHannel), 26* , SACCH .
4. 51 .
: 51x120 = 6,12 .
: 1326 = 51x26 .
5. ( ) 2048 , 12533,76 ( 3 28 57,760 ),
2715648.

.

GSM

47

.
1.
. 2.21.

ED
39

ETS
64

142

ED

G
39
3
8,25

G
8,25

8,25

142
TS
41

ED
36

G
8,25

. 2.21.
GSM

. 2.21, .
:
) (Tall Bits ) 3 ;
) 142 ;
) 8,25 .
, 156,25 .
:
) , (3x2 = 6 );
) ED (Encrypted Data), 2x39 = = 78
;
) ETS (Extended Training Sequence), 64 ;
) G, 8,25 .
, 156,25 .
:
) , (3x2 = 6 );
) (), 142 ;
) G, (8,25 ), , , 156,25 .
:
) (Extended Tall), 8 ;
) TS (Training Sequence), 41 ;
) ED (Encrypted Data), 36 ;
) , 3 ;
) G, 68,25 .

. ,
, .

48

2. 8 , 4,615 .
3. 51 , 51-4,615 = 235 .
4. 26 ,
26-51 = 1326 , 1236-4,615 = 6,12 .
5. 2048 , 2715648 ,
12533,76 3 28 57,760 .
, BTS
BTS .

X
MSC

SC

GSM

GSM (. 2.22):
)
)
X
MSC - SC (Service Center)
(. 2.22, )
1
2
.
03.40
ETSI/GSM (IF/03/40).

)
)
X

NMC
NMC.
GSM ,
GSM
)
.
- () (. 2.22, )
. 2.22.
CCITT ..
GSM
) - () : )
NMS (. 2.22,
MSC SC; )
).
1 2; )
(^-
NMC
.
GSM

: PSTN (); ISDN ;


NMT-450 (NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone
); GSM; ;
, ,
GSM .
1. GSM PSTN: GSM
MSC ,
2,048 / SS 7 (. 2.23).
2,048 / CCITT G.732.

GSM

49

. 2.23.
GSM

2. GSM ISDN (. 2.23): GSM


ISDN , 2,048
/ MSC, SS 7 Blue Book ( ) CCITT: Q.701-Q.710, Q.711-Q714, Q.718, Q.781, Q.782,
Q.791, Q.795, Q.761-Q.764, Q.766.
3. GSM NMT-450 (. 2.23): GSM
NMT-450 ( ) MSC
NMT-450 ,
2,048 / SS 7.
CCITT
TUP (Telephone User Part) (Message Transfer
Part) Yellow Book ( ). 2,048 /
CCITT G.732.
4. GSM GSM: GSM
GSM, ,
SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part
)
GMSC (Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center) (. 2.24).
E
SCCP.

SCCP2

GMSC,

GMSC2

1
MSC1

MSC2

. 2.24. GSM GSM

5. GSM : GSM
MSC
() (. 2.25) .25.
6. GSM : GSM, GPRS (General Packed Radio
Service ), 1996-1997 .,
IP WWW .
, GPRS .25 (. 2.26).

50

. 2.25. GSM
GSM
MSC

.25
.25

Server

MAN,
LAN

TCP-IP
. 2.26. GSM

GPRS , ,
, .
, GPRS, TCP/IP, .25.
IP GPRS SGSN
(Serving GPRS Support Node GPRS).
MSC, . SGSN
. -
. SGSN
,
(. 2.26).
GSM

OSI (Open System Interconnection).


(. 2.3) .
.
GSM :
- () MS BTS;
- - BTS MSC.
, .
, .
OSI .
, . ,
GSM, ,
, (1-),
(2-) (3-) (. 2.3).

GSM

51

2.3.

(MSC) . 2.3
.

4- 7-.
GSM OSI
. 2.4.
2.4. GSM

()
()
(RR)

( LAPD m )

. 2.4, , ,
.
:
; ( ); ;
;
, FEC (Forward Error Correction); ; ; ; ;
.

52

GSM
,
.
OSI GSM: MS, BTS, BSC, MSC, HLR,
VLR, GMSC , , .
, , .
( ), ,
, , .
( ) , , : MS <>
MSC; BTS <> MSC .
. Air-IF MS BTS ,
:
- MS BTS GSM RR (Radio
Resourse Management);
- MS MSC/VLR
(Mobility Management) CM (Communication
Management);
- MS HLR SS (Supplementary
Services Management) .
. 2.27 ,
BTS :
- MS <> Air-IFo RR;
- MS <> Air-IF BSC RR;
- MS <> Air-IF MSC/VLR MM + CM;
- MS <> Air-IF <> HLR SS.

SS

MM + CM

RR
. 2.27. ,
Air-IF
BTS

GSM

53

GSM.
1. RR-RR (Radio Resourse Management)
,
, RR - .
RR MS, BSC BTS. ,
MS, ,
MS MSC, RR
MSC. . 2.28 (RR-MSC/VLR).

MS

BTS

BSC MSC/VLR

GMSC

. 2.28.
GSM

RR
. RR MS .
2. MM (Mobility Management) HLR VLR
, MS
. ,
.
3. CM (Communication Management)
:
- (Call Control) ;
- SS (Supplementary Services Management)
;
- SMS (Short Message Services) .
.
GSM: MS, MSC/VLR,
HLR GMSC.
SS .
, MS HLR.

54

GSM : ,
() , .
, ,
, .
,
.
, , .

.
, , , .
4. SMS .
MSC
SMSG (Short Message
Service Gateway). ,
( )
.
.
MS.
MS.
MS.
,
MS . ,
.
, GSM.
. 2.28, GSM
.
MS <> BSC LAPD
(Link Access Procedure On The D-Channel D-),
MS <> BTS (Air-IF)
LAPDm, , BTS <> BSC .

2.7.
GSM ( )
,
, ,
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .

GSM

55

GSM (services).
GSM .
. (. 2.29):
- (bearer services);
- (,tele services).


. 2.29. GSM

(supplementary services) , :
1) () 300, 600, 1200,
2400, 4800 9600 / PSTN;
2) () 1200, 2400, 4800
9600 / , CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Network) ISDN;
3)
300...9600 /
PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Network).
9600 /
. 9600 /
.

, CCITT V.24
.21. . (transparent) .

(forward error correction ).

ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request).
:
- ;
- ( , .);
- (- 180
);
- (, );
- Videotext, Teletext;
- ( 3).
:

56

1)
(
);
2) (
, ) (
);
3) (
,
) ( ,
,
);
4) ;
5) ,
/ , ;
6) ( );
7) , , ,
;
8) / ,
.
, : bearer services teleservices
ISDN, , . 2.29
[(bearer services
/ , teleservices, ( )
, teleservices
/ ].

2.8.
(multiple access) .
:
- FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
;
- TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) ;
- CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
;
- SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)
;
- PDMA (Polarization Division Multiple Access) .

GSM

57

.
,
, .
GSM TDMA, FDMA,
.
1. FDMA ,
,
/ ( ),
(. 2.30).
FDMA
( ),
/
10...30 . FDMA
FD

/
MA
, .
2.
TDMA
N
, ,

/

/ ,
/
, ,
.
. 2.31 ,
.
t,
TDMA, FDMA
TDMA,
. 2.30.
,

,


/,

.


TDMA
TDMA.
TDMA
N-2
N- 1
N
N-2
/

,
, /
8
9
7
7
/
4
5
6
4
.
/
1

t,
. 2.31.

58

2.9. TDMA
GSM
TDMA (. 2.32):
- ;
- , ,
:
) ;
) ;
) .
---------------------- 1 = 2048 = 2715648 TDMA
----------------------

= 3 28 53 780 = =

2046

12533,76

1 ) 26 ( 51

(
ZD
2
3
7~ = 6,12
47
48

= 6,12

1 = 26 TDMA

01
24 25

ED 57
3

FB

B
D
B

S1

ED 58

^
67

TS 26

S 1 ED
57
()
3

64
26

3
ED
39

ED 58

49

1 49 50

142
ED
39

>) *
50
25

----- 1 = 51 TDMA -----

NB

,, .

24

1 TDMA = 8

2047

G
8,25
G
8,25
G
8,25

G 8,25
3

41

ED 36

1 = 156,25 (577
)
1 = 577/156,25 = 69
3,"

G
68,25

GSM

59

= 8 + 41 + 36 + 3 + 68,25 = 156,25 . 2.32.


GSM ( TDMA)

60


() ,
114 , ED
(Encripted Data , ) 57 (. 2.32)
() NB (Normal Burst),
(26 ) TS (Training Sequence).
ED .
, ,

:
- NB (Normal Burst) ;
- FB (Frequency correction Burst) ;
- SB (Synchronization Burst) ;
- DB (Dummy Burst) ;
- (Access Burst) .
1) GSM
NB 0,577 , :
- 114 = 57 + 57 () ED;
- (Tail Bits) ;
- S (S Stealing Flag ), ED
,
. (Traffic Channel)
;
- TS (Training Sequence) 26 ,
, 114 57 ED, TS
:
)
.
RXQUAL, .
, , .
RXQUAL ,
HANDOVER ;
) NB
;
)
. ,
.

, .
, TS
.
- G (Guard period) , 8,25
(8,25x3,69 = 30,44 ).
, NB 156,25
577/156,25 = 3,69 .

GSM

61

2) FB
MS :
- 142 ,
(1625/24) .

(200 ), 0,022% 900
;
- ;
- G 8,25 .
, FB
FCCH (Frequency Correction CHannet).
3) SB
. SB :
- 64 ;
- ED , 39 ,
TDMA ;
- 3 ;
- G 8,25 .
SB .

SCH (Synchronizing CHannet).
4) DB .
DB NB :
- 2 58 , ;
- ( TS NB) 26 ;
- 2 3 ;
- G 8,25 .
S. DB ,
DB , .
5) MS
. MS
. , .
:
- 8 ;
- 41 ,
36 ED;
- 36 ;
- 3 ;
- G, 68,25 ( 68,25x3,69 = = 252
), ( )
.
252
, ,
. GSM
BTS MS 35 ,
-233,3 .

62

, () NB, FB, SB, DB


( , ...),
, ,
, , ..
,
Air-.
:
- NB TDMA ;
- FB TDMA ;
- SB TDMA ;
- DB FDMA ;
- TDMA .
,
TDMA ( Air-IF ).
TDMA 8 ( Air-IF
8 ) 0 7, TDMA
8 .
TN 0 7.
TN0...TN7 , ,
.
,
TN0...TN7,
, NB, FB, SB, DB, ( 577
). TN0...TN7 546 ,
.
GSM
270,833 /, TDMA 27083357710"6 = =
156,25 .
, NB, FB, SB, DB
156,25 .
TDMA:
- TDMA, 8 , = 577x8 = 4615 = = 4,615
;
- TDMA NF
0 NFMax, NFMax = 26x51x2048 = 2715647 ;
- TDMA :
, 26 TDMA ( Air-IF ):
NF0...NF25; : 26x4,615 = 120 ;
, 51 TDMA ( Air-IF
): NF0...NF50; 51x4,615 = 235,385 ;
- 51 , 26x51 =
1326 TDMA, 120x51 = 6,12 ;
- 26 ,
;

GSM

63

- , ,
2048 , : 2048x1326 = =
2715648 TDMA, = 12533,76 = 3 28 53 780 .

, NF .
, TDMA
.
GSM
( TDMA)
.
NB, FB, DB, SB TDMA
. 2.33, ,
TDMA, . 2.34.

. 2.33. NB,
FB, DB, SB TDMA

. 2.34. ,
TDMA

64


(88 ) TDMA
(148 ).
. 2.35,
60 S(f) = + 3,5 ,
- f 140 S = -12 ;
- f 200.. .250 S = -30 ;
- f 300 S = -43 ;
- f 600 S = -63 .

. 2.35.

GSM
SFH (Slow Frequency Hopping) .

, . SFH
,
MS.
SFH , ,
MS TDMA 577 , (
) (. 2.36), MS
(TN0),

GSM

65

fj (TN0), / (TNO) .. TDMA


1 (
0,577-8 = 4,616 ).
45 (. 2.37).

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
7

^
fj 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
MS /

. 2.36. SFH

_______ ________

3I

10

16

977

978

984

985

986

995

1:
890,0...890,2
935,0...935,2
2:
890,2...890,4
935,2...935,4
123:
914,6...914,8
959,6...959,8
124:
914,8...915,0
959,8...960,0

. 2.37. GSM

MS, , , MS .
(- (.
2.36) ) MS .
( )
.

66

. TDMA/FDMA GSM SFH . 2.36 .


2.37.
, ,
,
.
SFH MSC.

2.10.
, MS
BSS. ,
(signalling) ,
. . GSM
(. 2.38): ; ; [2.11].


,
.

GSM

67

TDMA, ,
8 , 8 .
.
/= 200 ,
(45/0,2 - 1) = 124 .
( ) N :
- MS => BSS: fx = 890,200 + 0,200W 1 < N < 124;
- BSS => MS: /2 = 935,200 + 0,200-, 1 < N <124.
, , , / = 200 ,
MS =>BSS, BSS=>MS.
SFH

.


TDMA .
GSM 8
,
, , ,
8 16
.

.
,
(
) TDMA.
8 , 8- TDMA. TDMA.
( ) , , .


, .
,
:
- ( ) ;
- (signalling) ,
, ,
().
GSM . 2.5.
, .

68

1. TCH (Traffic CHannel) :


- TCH/FS (Full Speech)',
- TCH/HS (Half Speech), (speech).
2.5.


TCH/FS FCH/HS

: FCCH, SCH
: , RACH, ASCH, SDCCH
: FACCH, SACCH

, . 2.5, :
TCH/F9,6, TCH/F4,8, /4,8 ..
, TCH/FS 22,8 /, TCH/HS 11,4 /.
2. (Control CHannel) 4 :
- (Broadcast Control CHannel);
- (Common Control CHannel);
- SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control
CHannel);
- (Associated Control CHannel).
BSS MS
, - MS.
:
- FCCH (Frequency Correction CHannel),
MS BTS;
- SCH (Synchronization CHannel),
MS, ,
.
:
- (Paging CHannel), MS;
- AGCH (Access Grant CHannel),
,
MS;
- RACH (Random Access CHannel),
MS BTS
. .
SDCCH ( ,
. 2.5)
BSS MS .
,
(MS<^>BSS) ( .
2.5), :
- SACCH (Slow Associated Control CHannel),
(BSS=>MS) MS,
(MS=>BSS) . SACCH

GSM

69

( 13 )
SDCCH); - FACCH (Fast Associated Control
CHannet),
, . FACCH ,
,
( S . 2.32 . 2.39).
, ,

, .
RACH
51- (. 2.39), RACH
235 ,
, , .

1 2 3 4

F S

5
1

F S

F S /

. 2.39. GSM: R
RACH; F FCCH; S SCH; ; AGCH/ ; /

, ,
50
(. 2.21) TDMA (. 2.32).
51 I (Idle).
50 5 10 :
- FCCH (
);
- SCH ( );
- 4 ;
- 4 AGCH ;
- 4 AGCH .
.

2.11.

,
.

70


: ISDN,
, .
.

SS 7,
.
GSM , : SS 7 (Signalling System 7 [CCITT
7]) LAPD (Link Access Procedure on the D-channel -).
,
(, ) PSTN
SS 7,
ISDN.
, GSM -. D- LAPD ,
ISDN.
, SS 7 LAPD GSM GSM
PSTN, ISDN, NMT.
SS 7
[2.13].

3 - 632




3.1.
, , :
1) (i),
2) (),
3) , ,
.
(. 3.1).

. 3.1. : ; ; ;
; 1, 2 ;
PPJ1C ;

,
.
, , , ,
..

72

,
, () . , (PPJIC):
(
); ( - BTS ).
,
, ( ), (, .), (,
.) ..
, , .
,
, , - (BTS) (MS) ,

- (BTS)
, ,
..
.

3.2.
,
.


(),
, ,
MS BTS.


,
/ : / X, / = I m
Q x p ( j i o t ) .
( ) (.
3.2)
, :
= (,,) + (, 6, )0 + (,,),

(3.1)

= (,6,) +(, ,) +(, ,),

(3.2)

, 6, , 0, .
*

.
,
: B = (iH = rotA.
(3.3)
(3.3) :

////

\6/

73

= rotA,
1

(3.4)

rotH = rot( rotA) = J + E (3.5) \i dt



rotE = -JA ---- = ------rotA.
(3.6)
dt dt

' (
. 3.2.

),

[3.11]:
2
Ilk3
4
,) = -;

1.1
1.1

j(<ot-kr)COS
t 6,

M V)

--(*r)J ( k r ) k r

Ilk

J(mt-kr) _
sin0,

(3.8)

(3.9)

< (,, ) = ,

(3.10)

(,9,) = 0,

(3.11)

(,,) = ,

^(..)-7"*2

(3.7)

j{m-kr) ^
sin 6,

(3-1
2)

1 . 1 +J

1 , / , = 2/X , 0 =
[1/(4-9-109)] / , = 2/ .
(3.7)-(3.12) ,
, .
. :
- ,#,# , ;

74

- ^, : ~;*7(), = 1, 2, 3
, = 1, 2 ;

75

- ,, 0: r~cos0, e~sin0, ~ sin0,


0 : 0 = 0: ~ 1,
~

0, - 0; 0 = /2: - 0, ~ 1, - 1,

; .


,, - .
, , , .
,
:
1

. 2i je

. e;*. cos Q

(3.13)

-e^'-sine,

(3.14)

4jtO)E M
n

IJk3
4jtO)E

i
i

+j

IJk

M1
+j-

(krf (kr)
II

e-ikr

.sin0>

(krf

(3.15)
(3.16)


:
(3.17)
"7(fof, = 2 3.
(3.18)
.
:
1, 2/. 1 /2, rg = /2 .
, GSM 900: X. = 33,3 ,
rg = /2 = 5,3 , MS , ,
5,3 , .
, 1, e~jkr 1/()2 <<1/()3, (3.13)(3.15)
:
2 IJk'
1
,6,) =
cos 0 sin ,
(3.19)
4itcoen
1
() =

')
=

IJk3

4( 1

(krf
IJk2

sin 0 sin ,

sinO coso)t,

(3.20)

(3.21)

76


90 .
( -)
:

=
*
+)*
=

+,
(3.22
)
flr

I 2l2k5 1
----- ----- (3.23)
(4;) COEq (kr)
I 2l2k5 1

sin2

8,

(3 24)
77Tsin20'
(4;) COEq [kr)
, , - .
, ( - )
( 1 /()2 1 /()) .
, ,
, .
,
~ 1 ( ~rg= /2),
(3.25
)
l/(kr)n ^,,
, . ,
.
,,
. :
- , ,
1 /
, ;
- 1 /
;
- , ,
, , ,
.
,
( , ), , .
, ,
:
kr
1,

rg
=
/2.
(3.26
)

, 1 / ( - 2 3), :
(,,)=>0,
(3.27
)
,3
= J
1
e;(w'"*r)sin8,
(3.28)
4;)0

77

78

1
(*)

e;(w'"*r)-sine.

(3.29)

= 2/. = ]2)[\1 /

(3.30)

(3.28) (3.29) ( = 1 , \ 1 = 1):


sine,
(3.31)

-j^-e^-^sine.

(3.32)

,
, ,
, . , :
\\) = -.
(3.33)
,
t = t0 0
" = wto - 0,
(3.34)
tx = t0 + At :
H>i = coti - kr0 = o)t0 + t - kr0 = o)t0 +
(3.35)
rx = + ,
(3.36)

a Ar = At , At.
( )
:

" 1* - J^; - ^- - .

(3.37)

,
( ) , , , 1/, , -.
YOZ, , ,
XOY .
:

1
ZB , :
yia = 1 = 4-10"7 /, = -1 = 1/(4-9109) /
: ZB0 = 120 377 .

79

() .
( -) :
- Reft,
(3.39)
,
:

.
I
f
V
I
^
=
- \2

212*,

sin2 .

(3.40)

,
:
- - ( );
- /;
- (/,) 2;
- (1 /2);
- 6, sin26,
6 = ( = 0,1, 2...) (6) = 0, 6 = (2- 1)/2 ( = 0, 1, 2...) = ();
- # :
1
-^-*2ZB.
V ;(3.42)

2
:
, ( ,
), 5, , :
PIp =Re<j)Ibfc,
(3.43)
5

, , (3.43)
:
2 1 / / \ 2
/ I \2
1
= ^] Vsin2-8 = 402(IJ 1 ,
(3.44
)
ZB = 120 ().
,
Im2 (1/)2.
:
(3 45)
^ - " 80312 '

~
,
(12 = .

80

(
, MS BTS)
( (,)
//(0,)) (,)
= const, . 3.3, ,
.
. 3.3, , , ,
(.
3.3, ):
(3.46)
F(cp) = 1 (.
3.3, ).
, ()
,
0 = /2
( ),
(
F(cp) = 1, [ (), ,
,
() omnidirectional omni .
.

:
Fn ( e ,<p)-F2 ( e ,q>).
(3.47)

:
- 0,5 ;
- 0,707 ,
0,707 ;
- 3 /
, ( = \20 lg 0,707| = |10 lg
0,5|).
,
-

,
-

/2 = 0 +

,=

= /2

= /2

CJ

+ ^

9 =

/2

. 3.3.


:
) ;
)
; )

81

() D-, ,
,
.
:
D -------- (3.48)
.
(3.48) :
[1/4
() , :
,
(3-50)
, :
G = ruD.
(3.51
)
, .
() ,

:
hg = UBbJE, ().
(3.52
)
, hg,
:
UBxnpM = E(r,Q,y)-hg;(B),
(3.53)
[ / = Emax(r)-F(Q, Qpyhg],
( )
:
(3.54)

sin kl

Fmax(6, () ; X
, = 2/ , / .
hg :
( I

X 1 X
(3.55)
2U

82

: hg s X/S.
, - 10 /,
hg a X/S = 4,3 , F(0, ) = = 0,4,
: / = 0,172 .
Umin = 0,1 , .
, ,
,
:
DX2 2
).
)
4

(3.56

:
/i 2F2(6,cp)
--------- ' V
(3.57)

1
:
/> = (,6,)-,

(3.58)
2

(, 6, ) (/ );
(2).
, ,
(3.58) :
= -4-/,

(3.59)

(/) , / ().
,
,
,
.

3.3.

(300...3000 )
, .
.
,
, , , , ,
, , , .

83

, , , ,
..
[3.1-3.3, 3.5, 3.7,
3.8] , (
. 5).

84

, :
- ;
- ( 900,1800 1900 );
-
, ;
- (, ).
[3.3]:
- (sleeve dipole);
- (helical antenna);
- (quarter wavelength whip (monopole) antenna);
- (diversity helical antenna system).


. 3.4 , (sleeve dipole)
(800...900) .
, , ,
.

, lx = /4,
;
, /2 ^ /4,
(metal sleeve),
(dielectric insert)
2
.
/2 , ./4,
- ,
- Z Mb = jZQigkl =

=> 00 >

- /2 = ./4 Z BXA-A
=>0,
-.
, ( )
/ (t). ./2
. . 3.5,
.
/=/0 5% /0, 5% /0, (. 3.5, ), .
. 3.4.

. 3.5.

:
) ; ) 5%
f0

85

86

. 3.6.
MS

,
[3.3]
. 3.6.
. 3.6:
1) (,6,):

( l\ ~ 1\/2),
() ;
/i /2/2, 0(,6,)
;
2) 0(,6,)
.
. 3.4 3.5,
/

,
,
, E q
. -

(), () = const, F( 6)
= 1. ,


800... 900
. :
- ( / = /12,
X = 33,3 , /-2,8 );
- :
- (21...29) //;
- / = /2, ;
- ^() = 1.
:
- (
, ,
);
- ;
- , (radio case)
1-/4, 1/4 .

87

.
, . 3.6,
= 5 :
- ;
- .
[3.3], ,
, , ,
, ,
10... 12 .
,
.




. 3.7,

[3.3]:
- (primary fixed
antenna), l\ =
2 /4;
-


(collapsible secondary helican antenna on dielectric
rod), l2 = 10 , no

X/2;
"
-


.
, ,
, ,
.

3.4.

.
3.7.


,
BTS
( ),
( ), MS ..
BTS
, (. 3.8).
BTS 7 15 .
:

88

- ( 120, 60) ,
1/ (2 << 4);

89

- ( );
- ( 7% 1,5) / ( 30...60 );
- ( : : cosec20,
: F(cp) = 1, F(cp) = sincp ),

;
- ;
- , .

. 3.8. BTS

, , ,
:
- 3 , 120 ;
- 6 60.
:
- ( d < 10 );
- ;
- .
( dfk = 5... 10).

BTS

BTS

90

, :
BTS F(0) = cosec20,
, , F(cp) = 1.
:
-
;
-
F(0), F(0) cosec20;
- BTS ;
- / (/) ;
-
/ C/N = CNR;
- ;
- , .
BTS

(sectorized antenna) :
- F(0) - cosec20;
- : F(cp) (, ) .
, F(cp) .
(CRA Corner Reflector Antenna),
2<p[j>5
, 0, dfk, 1 . /=900 , dfk = 0,28 lAfk = 0,56 0 = 120
2 5 > 60, 0 = 2252 5 - 120, = 180- 2 5 - 90.
, d/X,
, 2 5. ,

0, 1.
(GSM 900, 1800) 25 60 120 1/: 2[] 5 =
0 = const.

,
F(0) sin0, cosec20.
, .

BTS

BTS :
- , , / (C/N = CNR) / (//);

91

- d/X, d
X;
- BTS (hi).
,
/ C/N = CNR 1% , . 3.9.

. 3.9.
/
CNR(r)
BTS

. 3.9, CNR = 9,5 = 0, = 0,6 - CNR = 8 .


, = 0,6, CNR-8 .
CNR
= 0,6.

. . 3.10
r(d/X) d/X
BTS: hi = 120 hi = 45 ,
.
. 3.10 :
- hi d/X = const (,
d/X = 5, hi = 45 - = 0,4, d/X = 5,hi = 120 - = 0,6);
- sh = 1 (d/X) , = 0,6, d/X ~ 7,
GSM 900 d =
2,31 ;
- , d/X ~ 0,6 : ,
, ..
, CNR^ = 0,5
d/X^ 10.

92

0,9
- 0,8
-

0,7
-

0,6
0,5
0,4
-

1
ll
11
111
limb
in
ll
i ii
1 ir 1
.ii 0

0,3

R1(D) ~~
R2(D) -

11

l \ y JyL J J

1
5

0,2 -

0,1 -

0
20

d/X

. 3.10. - ( D = d / X )
d / X

BTS
BTS /, ,
- (,
: ) ,
,
(-10 /).
PIM (Passive Intermodulation) ,
: fIM= rnf nfi, , / fj i- j- , fm
( + )-.

PIM GSM,
25
45
. 3.11.

25

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
890

915

935

93

25 + 25

I I I tl I I I I tl I I I I tl I
915

25

25

125

IIIIIIIII I I I I tl I I I I tl I
I I I I
915

. 3.11. PIM GSM

960 25
= 75

94

= = 3 : // = 3ft ~ % =
3(960 - 935) = 75 ,
= = 5 : fms = 5(960 935) = 125 .
, ( + ) PIM, , ,
PIM , ,
~10 /( + ), : ( + ) = (3 + 3) = 6,
~ 10/6 = 1,7 , ( + ) = (5 + 5) = 10, = 10/10 = 1 , PIM
, C/N //,
MS
.
PIM:
- ;
- ( );
- ;
- , ..

3.5.
, GSM (900 ( =
0,333 ), 1800 ( = 0,167 ), 1900 ( = 0,158 )).
, (VHF), (UHF)
, , .
(
) ,
, ,
.

,
; , (, ),

.
,

. , . 3.12,
MS , ,
, ,
, .

() , , ,

, .

95

,
, , .

. 3.12.

. 3.13, BTS
MS , ,
() , , .
BTS MS
PR ( )
:

PR / = (/4)2 = ( / 4-/)2,

(3.60)
= 3-108 / , / ,
BTS MS. /= 900 , = 10 : PR/PT = (2,6-10~*)2,

PR/PT 50 .

,
BTS MS.

, :

PR / = GT'GR (/4 nfr)\


(3.61)
GTHGR .
()
.

96

. 3.13.
BTS MS

,
, ,
. - ,
. :
- , , , ;
- , ,
, .
40 ,
10 30
, ,
. MS
. MS V2, 16,5 ( 900 ).
MS, , V = 50
/ -10 , V = 100 / ~ 5 .
(30... 10) V-50 / 5...50
, , (30... 10)
V = 50 / (0,2.. .2) .
,
(, , .), BTS MS.
. (5... 10) , MS . MS,
, .

97

GSM ,
, .
, , , ,
: , .

.


( )
. , (| = 1, er = 1, = 0), (omni, ) (, ), F(cp) = 1.
. :
. .
1. ( )
:
= P\/S = \142.
(3.62)
2. , -
= */2Z0 = iV4jtr2,
(3.63)
, Z0= 120 ,
3. :

4)

(60Pi)1/2/r,
(3.6


,
, .
, , , :
= ^/2,
(3.65)
G\ = r\\Di , r\i Gx .
(3.64) :
= (60PxG^/r.
(3.66)
(3.66):

=
245(P1G1)1/2/r,
(3.67
)
PI(KBT), (), (/).

98

, () ( ,
).
:
(3.68)
F(Q,) .
, ,
, :
2 = G 2 X 2 / 4 K,
(3.69)
G2 . :
- :
2

2 = 2 = (PiGi/4ttr2)(G2^2/4jt) = PXGXG2 2 / ( 4 ) ;
(3.70)
- , :
= 2 -< = [PFIFI2 X 2 /(4)2 ] ",
(3.71)
.
, 2
(GX
G2), , , .
( ),

ZB = 120/()1/2
(3.72)
2 (
).


: ,
W ( t ) = const.
W ,
:
Em = 245[(PlGl)V2/r]W,
(3.73)
2 = [P^G^^kv^W2.
(3.74)
2, :
Pi = + Gi + G2 + 20lgXi - 201(41) + W&.
(3.75)
X i = , \ = / , = 0 = /, i 2 : 0= 1
1 ( = 101g /).
.
: \= , : "/0,8,
G\ = G2 - 1,64, X = 33,3 ,
BTS MS - 10 , W** -20 ,
: "/ 0,8.

99

. ^ (3.71)
(3.72):
P2R = [?22 /(4)2]^2",/,"2/2 = 1,2-"10, = -129,2 .
/^ -12 ( 2R = -130 ),
,
(^ (3...6) ).

, hg**6 ,
F2(6) = sin6 ( 6 = 30), Vmin=0,lMKB.
. (3.54) (3.73):
V2 = hg-Em2(F2(e)/y/2) = hg[60PiGi)1/2/r]WF(Q)- e"0'5(a^I+a^2) (1/2 ) = 106-"6 ,
V2 = 106 min = 0,1 , .
,
,
, , .



. 3.14
.

0 = kg, R3)
hi h2

([hi] 112 + [h2] 112),

), kg, R3)

. 3.14.

100

) R3.
, (>, R3) = 3,57.
, , (>, R3) = 4,12.
, , BTS hi = 20... 100 ,
hi- 40...400 , hi =
(20...80) . ( 2 80 ).
1 3
.

Pi, Gb hi
: . 3.15 ,
: )
; ) ( 2 = YI).

. 3.15.

, ,
. . 0 = 3,57 ([hi]1/2 + [h2]1/2), hi h2 , 0 ,
,
:
)
(.
3.15):
(3.74)
R
; ; : 1 2 ( = [( + ) -]), (Pi , , X ).
, ,
:
(3.75)

101

, , R,
. R
, ( ) .
:
= ImhMr,
(3.76)
, ( )
h2 hi ( hi > h2),
q = rl(2Rhi)m,
(3.77)
mQi^hi, q) . 3.16.

0,8

0,6

0,

(3.75),
0,2

0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 h,/h2 . 3.16.

m(h2/h^, q)
F(R, ,)= . 1 +
+

7+2 cos

:
(3.78)

, ,
F(R, , ) :
cos +

= +1 : cos| +

= -1, F

: F = 1 + R, : F = 1 -R.
, F F = 1 + R , R = 0,8 F = 1,8 > 1.
F(r) +

1
X (2 - )

= ip
, Wmax = 2;,

4/12

102

2; ,
F , .
, < rlmax F Fmax = 1 + R
Fmin = 1 - R. F:
^^
4nkh?
- : + ---- = 2 , = 1, 2, 3, . . . , r k = var;
^
- : + = (2 - 1), = 1, 2, 3, ..., = var.
^min
.
= , R = 0,8, \ = 0,316 , hx = 72 , h2 = 2 . :
- :
4\ 4/^2 1822,8
/Jmax
~ 2-1) ~ 2-1) ~ (2-1)'
,
, : = 22 = 607,6 , = 3r3max = 364,56 , = 4r4max = = 260,4 , = 5r5max
= 202,5 , = 6r6max = 165,7 , = 10 = 95,9 , ..;
- :
2 \ 911,4 r"min " -1)~ '
,
, : = 2r2min = 911,4 , = 3r3min = 455,7 , = 4r4min = 303,8 , =
10r10min = 101,26 .
, (3.78) < rlmax , ,
F = 1 + R,
-F=l-R.

.
.
: BTS \ = 55 ,
BTS G\ = 11, (f= 950 ) X = 0,316 ,
BTS h\ = 72 ; h2 = 2 ,
( = 4, = 0,001 /),
, : rt = 100 ; 1 , 5
, 8 , 10 ( : , = (hi + h2)/r - (0,74; 0,074; 0,015; 0,00925; 0,0074).
.
: = 2hih2Jri = 2,88; 0,288; 0,0576; 0,036; 0,0288.
[3.1], = 4, = 0,001 / <s 0,074 : R = 0,68
:
F. = ll + R2+2Rcos

1 2 Y +
1
X

= = 180

103

Fj = 0,81, F2 = 0,56, F3 = 0,946, F4 = 0,66, F5 = 0,56. To , 0 =


0max, :
_ 245^0,055-11 F

t^mi ~

: \ = 1543,6 /, 2 = 106,7 /, 3 = 36 /, 4 = 15,7


/, 5 = 10,67 /.

2>
(3.79)
R 1, , (3.74) :
=

245

sm

, /,
^ 2nmhlh2

(3.80)

(3.80)
,

2nmhl
2nmhl
= 1, sin
sin
= 0,
h2 -
h2
4mh h

rmax =

i2

_1

,
, : rminl =

2mhl
h2

= 1,2,3,

2mhlh2

: rmaxl =
4mh
]h2

. = 1, h\ = 12 , h2 = 2 , = 0,316
: = 1822,8 , rlmin = 911,4 .
, (3.74) (3.80)



, ,
,
kh
(3.81)
0,8r0 > > 18
X
:
(3.82)

2
X
, > 0, :
=

- W ( f ) , /,

(3.83)

W(f) , (. 3.17)
1000 .

104

W ( f ) 5-1 (*

10"4 5-"5
^ / = 1000

-5

100 200 103


. 3.17.

.
(3.74) (3.80),

.
(3.84)

: P11,G1,hl,h2,r,k,R,, , :
,
, ( ):
^212^
^ 120;
2Z

VE r

,
, /*2 = const.
. :
BTS P^i = 50 ; BTS h\ = 50 ; /= 900 ( = 0,333 ); BTS G\ = 1,64;
hi = 2 ; : Fyp = sin0, : FHp = 1;
BTS : = 0,1; 1,0; 10; 35 .
.
: rg = 5,3 .
:
r0 =3,57(V^ + V^) = 3,57(V50 + V2) = 30,24 .
< 0,80, < 24 , (3.74) ( = 20
2

; R = 0,8; = 160; = 0,11 ): = 4,82 /, 2 = = 0,03 /2.


20

105

4kh 4-50-2
^ = ----------- = 1201 = 1,2 , R 1, , (3.80):
0,333
2
=45,54 /. 2 =2,75 / . hh
0,8r0 > > 18 , 24 > > 5,4 , - 10 : X
=7,58 /. 2 =0,076 /2.
= 100 > 35 : w = 0,07 /, 2 = 13-"12 /2= 13 /2.
() 2 () : 21 ~ 50
BTS 35 > > 1 BTS : = (2...5) /,
: 2 = (0,01...2,75) /2.

3.6.
:
Gs - /,

(3.86)

: G s = - min,

(3.87)

= 10 Ig ^, in = 10 Ig ^^.

(3.81) ( ) Gs
:
Gs = 22 + 201g(r/r0) - 201g(Mo) + 0,436(1/1 + 2/2) - lOlgGi - 101gG2,
(3.88
)
r0 = 1 , KQ = 1 , 2 , , / 1, /2 , Gx G2 . , (3.88)
,
(BER).
BER BER = 3-10"2,
BER = -6. , , (3.88) , , .
. - 10 , G\ = G2= 1,64, = 0,333 , 1 = 2 = 0,1 /, /! = 10
, /2 = 1 , : Gs = 107,69 , = 50 ,
: - -60,69 .


rmax ( ,

) :

106

PnPMuJPllPA = [Gl G2 k2/(4n rmax)2] -^1/1.2/2) e rmax = [! G2

(3.89)

(3.90)
^/(47)2-/1]1/2- "0'5^'*'^2^
. - 50 , G\ = G2 = 1,64, = 0,333 ,
PnPMmin = -4 (-100 /), 1 = 2 = 0,1 /, /1 = 10 , /2 = 1 , : 18,6 .
, (3.90)

.


,
, ,
(3.91
)
() [3.6]:
.
2
, Am(f,r) h\ = 200
h2 = 3 . Am(fyr) [3.9]: /=
900 : = 1 = 20 , = 10 = 30 , = 30 - 35 ,
/= 2000 : = 1 = 23 , = 10 = 33 , = 30 = 40 ;
Hi(hb ) - h2 - 3 ,
( ), , 900
, hi = 100 = 1 Hi > -10 ); KSi
( / = 900 K$i 10 ,
KSi = 10 ); KS2
, ^ 10 9 = lOYA^si ~ 2
/= 900 ; -,
,
( / ^ 40% K\s~2 , >** ^ 80% K\s - 10
); Kt ( Ah - (10...40) , Kt
~[0...(-10)] , Ah ~ 100 , Kt 20 ).
, , , ,
,
, , ,
.
, , Hi, 2
, ,
,
.
.
. /= 900 , Pi - 55 , Gx = 11,1, G2 = 1, = (0,1...35) , Am(f,
); = 1 Aw(900,l) = 20 , = 10 Aw(900,10) = 30 , = 35

107

(900,35) = 35 , : Hi(hBTS, ): Hi(100 , 10 ) = -15 , : tf2(/*MS, 0


= #2(3,1) = -2 , KS1 (900,1) = 10 , KS2 (900,10) ~ 2 , ~ 2 , Kt ~ -5 .
.
1 ' _ 0,42
1. 11ms - 2 --- 7

0 42

2. '^() = 10 I g = 101g ------ 101g(0,42-106/rt).


1
V'1
/ 2

(*) 1 2

3. 8 = 10lg(0,42 10 / ^ ) - (900, ) + (+(-15) + (-2) -10 - 2 - 2 - 5) - =


10lg(0,42-106/2^)-(900,)-36.
4. = 1 : nMS = 101g(0,42 106) - 20 - 36 = 0,23 //2.
5. = 10 : nMS = 101g(0,42106/100) - 56 * -20 //2.
, = 1 10
8 = -20 //2,
.


, Group Special Mobile,
[3.4], / (. 3.18).
R0e

y(co +(Po)

'

. 3.18. ,
Group Special Mobile

: , ,
.
GSM 12 ,
, ,

() ,
(3.92)

><+,)-;)*:

4-632

+R

108

Rt , , , , RA .
GSM, . 3.18,
(NLOS Not
Line-Of-Sight) , , . [LOS Line-Of- Sight]
. GSM
, GSM [3.4]:
1) CLASS ,
, 500 :
S(/) = A/Jl-(///J2 /[-/,,
(3.93)
= (/, hms) = 69,55 + 26,16 1g(f0/f) - 13,821 ghb/h0 - a(hms/h0)
(3.94)
(Okumura), /, = vf/ , /0 , / , hb, hms
BTS MS, a(hms/ho) , ho 1 ,/ .
2) GAUS1 , ,
500 2 :
(GAUSl)S(f) = G (; -0,8; 0,05/,) + G (; -0,4/d; 0,1 /,),
(3.95)
(3.94),
G(A,/b/2) = exp [-tf-/i)2/2/22]
(3.96)
, / = -0,8 /, 0,4 /d; /2 = 0,05 /, 0,1 /d; 10 .
3) GAUS2 , , 2 :
(GAUS2) S(j) = G (; 0,7/,; /,) + G (,; -0,4/,; 0,15/,),
(3.97)
- B(hb) = 44,9 - 6,55 1ghb,
(3.98)
\ 15 , G (, / /2) = exp H f - f i ) 2 / 2 f 2 2 ]
(3.99)
, / = 0,7 /, -0,4 /,; /2 = 0,1 /, 0,15 /,.
4) RISE , .
GSM:
(RISE) 5(/) = 0,41/2jr/,/A/l-(///,)2+0,9l5(/-/J / [-/,,/,],
(3.100)
8(/-/,) .

GSM . 3.1. : , 12 .
3.1.




,
,
1

0,0

0,3
0,5
0,7

4
5

-10,0
-8,0
-6,0
-4,0
0,0

CLASS
CLASS
CLASS
CLASS
GAUS1


6
7
8
9
10
11
12

3.1 ()


,
,
1,0
1,3
15,0
15,2
15,7
17,2
20,0

0,0
-8,0
-9,0
-10,0
-12,0
-14,0

109


GAUS1
GAUS1
GAUS2
GAUS2
GAUS2
GAUS2
GAUS2

BTS
,
, :
(h{), Fi(0), Gb
W (hi).
-
, (
) F(6) = sin6 , F(89,51) = 1
:
= 173 [Gbts^KBT/ ()]1/2- W(8),(3.101)
(Power Density PD):
= "i2/120jt (/2).
(3.102) (. 3.19).

. 3.19.
, BTS,

.
(, 0) : = 55
BTS; Gx = 11,1 BTS; W ^ 1 (
4*

110

); F(0) 0
:
) = 10 , F(0 = 89,51) = 1;
) = 1 , F(0 = 86) = 0,998;
) = 0,1 , F(0 = 54) = 0,81;
) = 0,01 , F(0 = 8) = 0,14.
. 1) - 35 (
GSM)
1/2
\ = \ = 173 [GBTS^KBT/ (KM)] WF(0) = 3,86 /,
= \!11 = 3,96 10-6 /2.
(//2) = 101g(n/l /2) = 101g(39,610"8) = -64 //2.
2) = 10 : \ = 13,5 /, ( = 10 ) = 0,485-10"3 /2,
3 = -60,3 //2, PD = 2 - ] = 4 ;
3) = 1 , F(0) = 0,998: = 134,9 /, 3(r = 1 ) = 4,8310"3 /2,
3 = -43,16 //2, PD = 3 - 2 = 17,14 .
4) = 0,1 , F(0) = 0,81: = 1094,9 /, ( = 0,1 ) = 0,31797 / 2,
4 = -24,976 //2, PD = 4 - 3 = 18,18 .
5) = 0,01 , F(0) = 0,14: = 1892,36 /, ( = 0,01 ) = 0,95 / 2,
5 = -20,2 //2, PD = 5 - 4 = 5 .
, (, 0)
= 0,1 1 / 2.
1 10
= -17,14 , 10 35 = -21 .





.
- , .
,
[3.7-3.9], , ,
, :
2 = PI-GI-G2(H4NR)2,
(3.103)

, .
. 3.20 [
0 ( 1 )] 2(),

111

: [3.8] ( f = 836 , hi = 150 , h2 = 3 ), - [3.7] ( f =


922 , h\ = 140 ), [3.9] ( f = 922 , hx = 140 , h2 = 3 ),
, / = 900 ,
BTS.
2,

2, 20

(V 1
10"'

-20

-40

10

2
-60

10

-80

0,1

1
0

10

. 3.20.
2() [0 ( 1 )]
: 1 ; 2

. 3.20,
2():
-
;
-
.
, 1 /,
: 2 < < 4 ,
Pi = Pi'Gi'G2(X/4K)2/rn.
(3.104)


BTS
.
[3.6]:
iM/)~Pmed-l/f,
Pmed , / ,
.
. 3.21 () /i = 1000 /2 = 2000
, , , ^ 10 (/i = 1000
).

112

n(r)

1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0

0,8
0,6

0,4

,
. 3.21. () fi = 1000 f2 = 2000


BTS MS
Eg

, F .
[3.15]:
Pr = P\G\' G2(h^2)2^
(3.105)
, 6
2 BTS MS h2.
,
.
[3.6],
, ,
200 2000 .
BTS MS, ^ 10 ,
-

113

(6 ). h2 4 .
h 2 =1,5 ti2 = 3 ,
'2 = 2, - 3 (
2 ).

3.7.

,
: (-), ,
, , , ..;
, ,
.

,
, , .
, .
, ,
, [3.13].
BTS MS.
[3.9, 3.25],
, , :
- , , .;
- ,
,
;
- , :
;
(, ) , - ;
,
;
,
;
;
, ;
MS BTS
.

114

(Recommendation ITU) R.P.833.3 [3.16] , ,


(/).
, :
= A {K I F J F X P ,LIK H F /X 9hA/X 9 D/X 9 U W /U F 9 F S //,},
(3.106)
X = / f (f); eF ( F forest); ZF ; fF ( ); , , BTS; L
; hF ; hA
( BTS h\, MS h2); D MS BTS; Uw (
); UF ; Fs ,
; , ( ,
, ).


[3.9, 3.19, 3.22, 3.25]:
- / < 10 , (damping coefficient attenuation coefficient) <
("3) /;
- 10 < / <100 , (10~ < < 10" 2) /;
- 100 < / < 2000 , -2 < < -1 /;
- / > 2 ,
> 10" 1 /.
, GSM
900/1800/1900
.


[3.9, 3.10]
. .
I (. 3.22)
.

. 3.22. I

115

116

,
,
[3.25]:
.-.-/) + */,,
(07>
(3.108)

= l + (eF-l)/F,

: ami - ' yfe' VA12 +12 ' sinP^


arctg(Bx / )1,

(3.109)

\ + - l ) f F , = 8f ' /F
(3.110)
:
/ = 1000 , 1 -1, ^ - 7, E"F - 0,7, fF = 0,02, 1 = -0,0207 / 1
- -0,18 /.
L = 100 , : -

ml

" ~18 -

II (. 3.23) (

. 3.23. II
/^0,25).

1+-

,
^3/f
(3.111)

[3.25]:
(3.112)

f ~ 1 eF + 21

:
2 + 2

W^ALZ

+l>2 sinl-larctg(B/A)--arctg(D/C)] }>,

117

= e'F(l + 3 f F ) + ( 2 - 3 f F ) ; B = e"F(l + 3 f F ) ; = t'F +2;

ft

D = EF.
(3.113)
:
/ =1000 , Ej = 1, t'F = 7, ; =0,7, fF =0,02, : 2 =-0,378 /,
!, = 100 = 2 = -37,8 .
(3.109) (3.111), / = 100
: 1(100) = -0,018 / ( I), 2(100) = -0,0378 / ( ),
.
/= 10 : awi(10) = -0,0018 /, aw2(10) = = -0,00378
/, .
,
,
am(f), .


() , , , , ,
, ..
am(f).
. 3.2 am(f), [
(3.109) (3.111)], ( )
, am(f), [3.18],
am(f) am(f), ,
[3.9, 3.16, 3.18, 3.19, 3.24].
am(f) . 3.2 .
/ < 10
(am(f) ss -0,00378 /).
10 < / < 100 ,
82 : 2 =-0,03 /, =
-0,0525 / [3.22]. , [3.22] ,
.
/ =100 [3.21] a :

- : av =-0,06 /;
- : ah = -0,03 /.

118

3.2. , am(f),

/,

II

10

0,0018

0,00378

82

0,01435

0,03

100

0,018

0,0378

200

0,036

0,0756

210

0,0378

300

-, /

0,0525

[3.22]

av = 0,06; ah = 0,03

[3.21]

0,079

0,0785

[3.9]

0,0545

0,1145

[3.22]

450

0,081

0,17

500

0,09

0,189

540

0,0972

0,204

= 0,2; ah = 0,18

[3.21]

900

0,162

0,34

1000

0,18

0,378

1200

0,216

0,4536

av = ah = 0,35

[3.21]

1800

0,324

0,68

1900

0,342

0,718

2000

0,36

0,756

3000

0,54

1,134

3200

0,576

1,21

av = ah = 0,5

[3.20]

5000

0,9

1,89

9600

1,728

3,63

10000

1,8

3,78

15000

2,7

5,67

30000

5,4

11,34

-am, /

0,093

[3.18]

0,25

[3.18]

, , , () (
),
II ( (3.111) -0,06 / -0,03 /).
[3.18],
.
/ = 210 [3.9] ,
II, am(210) ss -0,079 /.
/= 300 II
-0,1 / [3.22], (3.111).

119

540 II , cxv= -0,2


/ [3.25] av= -0,25 / [3.18].
aw = -0,25 /, -, [3.18]
() , fF > 0,02.
, [3.21] :
av=-0,2 / = -0,18 /
.
,
,
.
100 540
. , L = 100 540
(540) = -aw(540) L = -0,2-100 = -20 , L = 1000 => (540) = -200 .
, GSM
900/1800/1900,
/= 1200 [3.21], av = =
-0,35 /, ,
I II: = -0,335 /.
, , 900 < -[0,25...0,3] /, 1800
s -0,5 /, 1900 s -0,53 /.
,
.
, /, = 100
900 (900) = -0,3 100 = -30 , 1800 (1800) = -0,5 100 = -50 ;
L = 1000 (900) = -300 , (1800) = -500 .
, 3200 , a -0,893 /, [3.20]
av=ah = -0,5 /, (,
L = 100 (3200) = -0,893 100
= -89,3 , L = 1000 (3200) = -893 ).
( 3000 10000 )
-0,837 -2,79 /, ,
( 0,02).
( 10 30 )
-2,79 -8,37 /,
: L = 10 (30 ) = -83,7 ,
L = 100 (30 ) = -837 ,
.
. 3.24
aw(/):
- 1 I ( f F = 0,02, eF = 7(1 - 0,1/));
- 2 //, fF eF ;
- am(f) . 3.2.

120

. 3.24.
: (

GS
M

I; II;

, V

,
(.
3.24)
/

1

jy

10"

am(f)

10 2 103 4 5 /,
, ,


,
10"


.
:
) , , ,
;
) ,
.
, ,
.
h f / 2 0 ^ X ^ 4h f (80 ^ X ^ 1 )
, :
- Ev av
X ( ),
, ;
- Eh ,
,
, |av| > |ah|;

!1

121

- ( ) -, , = Ev +
Eh, ,
.
. 3.2, :
- 100 [3.21]
av = -0,06 /, ah
= -0,03 /;
- 540 [3.21], , av = -0,2 /, = -0,18 /,
av /, , , -,
900... 1000 , av ah.
, /= 1200 av = /, = -0,35 / [3.21]
/= 3200 av = ah = -0,5 / [3.20].
, ,
GSM, ,

.



MS (. 3.25) BTS hi :
- 1,
e_aLl ( cxi /) MS ( MS h2= (1,5...2)
) (t/in < UK);
- 2, ( 2), MS
(. 3.25 3.26).

. 3.25.

122

. 3.26.
2 (. 3.26),
EMS :
12=-\
(3.114)
2 ( 2);
; ,

[3.14]:
= (s +1 / 2)/[/2 sin( + / 4)] ,
(3.115)
= {1 /tg\(s +1/ 2) /( +1/ 2)]} - / 4,
(3.116)

= Jcos[(jt/2)-v2]dv,
(3.117)
5=

Jsin[(jt/2Vv2]dv,

(3.118)
(3.119)

h = H - h 2 ( h f )
MS h2, dx d2 BTS MS,
.
[3.14],
EMS/E2 d2 ,

, .

[3.20]:
D
6 = 20 lg (EM$ /E2), ,
(3.120)
2 2, E M S d
MS (6 < 0 ).
|6| > 12 6 :
|| * 20lg [7^17/(0,36 )] , ,

(3.121)

123

d2 , ( 2)
MS; h = H - h 2 ; f .
, /= 900 , d2= 20 , h2 = 2 , = 20 , h = 18 , |6| = 26,32 ,
d2 30 |6| = 28 .
, [3.20] (3.121) , :
- BTS Ri d2 (Ri d2);
- MS h2 < ;
- ,
, 6 = 0, EM$d = 2 ( );
- ,
2 ( , ).
. 3.3 . 3.27 6(f,d2) h = const.

/,

3.3. ^/) h = const


d2,

100
450

10
13,77
20,3

20
16,78
23,3

30
18,54
25,07

900
1800
1900

23,3
26,32
26,56

26,32
29,33
29,57

28,08
31,09
31,32

. 3.27. 6

124

. 3.3 . 3.27 :
1. MS
, d2 2 5 3
, 2 = 30 - 20 = 10 , 5 = 1,76 ( 900 ).
2. 900
23,3 28,0 2,
.
3) h 2 MS, h = H - h 2 , 5 , , Edms 2.

. 3.28.
,

. 3.28.

1 2 3,
[3.21], ,
( 29 ) Ev.

.

BTS

BTS
,
:

hls = (D/4,12)2 + 4,47yfD , ,

125

(3.122)
D BTS MS , ,
MS hi ^ 3 .
, /? ^ 35 = Z)max, his - 98,6
- 100 .
,
,
hi, , L, .
:
hi>hisnhi hf,
(3.123)
hf* 20 hi ss ,
hi hf.
:
Pr^P&GrQiMD2)2,
(3.124)
Pt , Gt Gr
BTS MS, hi h2 BTS MS, D
BTS MS.
(3.124) , hi 2
4 ( 101g4 = 6 ). h2
.
,
h 2 ^ 3 , hi
D
.
. 3.29 , .
. 3.29, , hi**hi=2hf= = 40 ,
. 3.29, hi = 5hf = 100 .
BTS MS ( D),
L " L [ , ,
0i < 02 , .
: : h2 (2...3) , /, Prmin,
, Pr(Dmax)
BTS MS D,
.
.
1) GSM
(/? = > = 35 ) :
Pr(D max ) = PtGtGr (/4 >max2)2,
(3.125)

.
2) Pr(Dm2LX)
6 (6 ss 6 /)
Pr(Dmax) Pr min Pr min + 6 (>),
(3.126)

126

)
h, = khf

\ A 1 / I MS

:
-' -

D
)
. 3.29. BTS
: a ) h , = 2 h f = 40 ; ) , = 5 h f = 100

3) , MS ,

6 = arctg (/*! - h2)/D * 5,


(3.127)
, Lx = LcosO, cos 5 1.
(3.128)
4) ,

[(Prmm+ S)] * [] = /) Ll ],
(3.129)
lm*[Prmin+&]/[<*].
(3.130)
5) h\ :
h i = h f + ( D - L i ) tgO,
(3.131)
0 = arctg ( h f - h2)/Li
(3.132)
.
P t = 50 , G t = G r = 1, h f = 20 = 0,33 ( f = 900 ), (900)
= -0,3 /,
min = -100 , /) : 1,10, 20, 30 .
.
1. (3.125):

127

** = 30 ) = 2,81-"8 , Pr(Dmax) = -75,5 ,


Pr(Dmax) = -75,5 > Prmin = -100 .
,
.
2. (3.125) :
Pr = Pt + Gt + Gr + 201g(Ai/l ) + 201g(/*2/l ) - 401g(D/l )
(3.133)
Pr(D), . 3.4.
3.4.

Z),
1
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

PR(D),

h\,
40

50

100

200

-35
-63
-75
-82
-87
-91
-94
-97
-99

-33
-61
-73
-80
-85
-89
-92
-95
-97

-27
-55
-67
-74
-79
-83
-86
-89
-91

-21
-49
-61
-68
-73
-77
-80
-83
-85

. 3.30 Pr (D, hi), hi BTS .


,

. 3.30.
: X 40 , 50 , 100 , 200

128

(-100 + 6) 6 6 , = -94 ,
, .
, hx ( - 6 , D ( - 12 ( D4).
. 3.29, , , 1 D 1 P r ( D l ) P2(D 1) . 3.30,
Lx Pr(D) e_aLl ( [/]),
P2(D) P2(D)
. a (f= 900) = -0,3 /
, . 3.5.
3.5.

PR(D)

Liy

10

20

50

100

150

200

250

300

oLu

-3

-6

-15

-30

-45

-60

-75

-90

, Lx 2 (D)
.
, Lx - 100 , oLx - -30 , D = 20 ( 1, . 3.29, ),
2 : P r ( h x = 100 ) = -79 + (-30) = -109 , , :
-109 < -100 , Lx < 50 , Pr(hx = 100 ) = -79 + (-15) = = -94
, .
, :
Pr(D, 1) + 1,121+6.
(3.134)



,

.
(. 3.31).
II

III

. 3.31. :
/ ( ); II
; III

129

U0
, , (50...80)
, (
) ,
. ,
//~ 1 /, 10...20 .
.
, ,
Uf ~ (0,02...0,03)^ 200...250 ,
, , 1 /.
Lm ~15h/ (
hf = 20
= 300 ).
(3
, .
,
. , BTS, , .
,
, BTS
MS .
[3.21]
, ,
(0 < 5...6),
S(F) ( 0 100 ) (.
3.32):
S(Fs< 10 ) (-10) ( );
S(Fs > 10 ) S(Fs) S(Fs) ~1/FS4, S(Fs) Fs ^ 200 .

130

S(F),

S(
Fs)

1
-10

"2
-3

-4
"5

\
\

-20

-30

' FSJ

1
0

\
\
. 3.32. S ( F )

131

( Fs
Uw) Uw . 3.33 [3.21], , , FS(UW)
Uw.
[3.21], ,
, ,
, .

. 3.33.

, , , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, , BTS MS, BTS ..
, -, ( ) . , ,
(
).
GSM
900, 1800 1900 ,
.
[3.21]
L ~ 85 ( , ,
) /= 1200

132

~ 0,35 /, ~ 0,1
/, :
- /= 1200 ~ (0,25-0,35) /;
- / = 3260 ~ (0,4-0,5) /.
, (
XPD = Emv/Emh), , 900, 1000 XPD -10 < XPD < 0 , 3 16
150 1000 .

h^K Emv
( ), a Emh ,
XPD < 0 .
500 3000 ,
5 ,
, .
, , GSM,
:
-
(800...2000 ) ( 0,2 0,4) /;
-
, : XPD 0 (-10) ;
- .

4

MS (Mobile Station) ( ,
.)
,
- , , , ..
,
(. 4.1):
- , (
);
- - ;
- ;

133

- ( MS) DSP
(Digital Signal Processor), CPU (Central Processing Unit),
(DSP Memory),
, , ADC, DAC .;
- SIM- (Subscriber Identity Module).

. 4.1.

4.1.
,
, GSM, . 4.2.
(. 4.1), ( SIM-) . 4.2 .

134

GMSK

CPU
(DSP)

MEM

SIM

GMSK
2

CM2 1

CM1

. 4.2. (MS) GSM 900

MS GSM.


:
- ( (),
/ - /4 = 33,7/4 = 8,425 , ( ,
,
);
- , CPU , .
GSM
1/8 .

(), (). ,
.

135

(), . -
, ()
(), -

136

( ADC Analog-to-Digital Converter),



.
- ,
( )
, ,
.
- , , () ,
;
(); ,
, CPU.
- I/Q CPU.
-
(GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying),
. GSM GMSK
,
, = 0,3 ( ,
).
(/)
. GMSK
:
= 10~3 C / N = 30 ( IN /).
- ()
/ 890...915 ,
(ftr), CPU.
- () ( )
CPU
.
- () ,
CPU (
),
MS BTS MS
: MS BTS, MS,
MS .
-
() ()
CPU .
, : - - -
GMSK (
) .
,

, CPU
( .)
, , ..

, .

137

- 935...960
( CPU )
( ()
), ().
- 1 ,
1
( CPU), (1)

1.
- 2 (
2 2 ( ), 2
, 2
.
- .
(),
; (
,
(
, ,
,
));
.
, ,
,
.
- ().
.
, , BTS MS.
MS CPU,
(MEM)
, .
(),
( , , )
.
( -> ), (
-> , ),
.
, , CPU,
(frequency hopping), GSM
. ,
,
.

138

SIM-, MS , CPU
MS.
, MS (. 4.2)
.
,
, ( )
, /
.
MS GSM (VAD
Voice Activity Detector),
( MS),
,
, , (
). ( )
. MS
(, ),
.

4.2.
GSM
- GSM
.
(
) GSM - :
- : 300...3400 ;
-
, 130 ;
- 210 ,
92 ;
- 400
9 ;
- 35...40 ,
20 ;
- -
300...3400 ,
,
- 20...30
.
:
- (~ In /, I );
- 1 ;
-
;

139

- : 20...30 ;
100.. .200 .

,
GSM.


:
- U\(t) ();
- UJj) .
(-), Ui(t)
/ ( / =
3400 ), , fd > 2/max,
( fd> 2-3400 = 6800 ).
, , (
) / = 3400 ,
fd = 8000 , Td = l/fd =125 .
, , : Ui(t)-Ud(t) =
U2(t).

U 2 (t)
, ,
( /) 256 = 2 8,
/3 ( ) 8- .
GSM 8 .
Uk : 8 -8 = 64 ,
= 1/64-103 = 15,625 ,
64 ! .
, GSM
16- - , 128
/.
-
GSM.
, , , -
().
.
16/18/20/22/24-
. ,
128 /.
,
16- - .

[4.9, 4.11].

140

4.3.
(300...3400 )
( 10 20 ), ( 15 )
[4.1].
()

.
-
,
/ ,
. ()
,
.

, (. 4.2).
, , .
,
.
(. 4.2) (decoder) .
,
, .
(coder/decoder = codec).


GSM
DTX (Discontinuous Transmission),
,
.
DTX VAD (Voice Activity Detection),
,
, .
DTX ,
( ).

, - .
. 4.3.
.
GSM
TDMA. , -,
8x64 = 512 /.
.

141

. 4.3.
GSM

, ,
,
, .


. (1...3) /
, , ,
.

, .
,
, GSM ,
, . . , ,
, , .
, .
, , (
10...30 ) ,
. , 20 ,
,
. , ,
:
- ;
- (
);
- ;
- .

142

, ,
.
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
20 .

GSM
GSM

, RPE-LTP.
- GSM . 4.4.

. 4.4. GSM

, . 4.4, .1....6 [4.4].


. .1
: -
sn ( ) , ;
5 - 632

- sn 160 (20 );
- ( ).

143

.2 - STP: .1
-
STP LTP: g d .5.
. STP: 20
- STP 8 kt (i = 1...8),
= 8 (/ = 1 ...),
LAR rh - .
.4 - LTP: LTP ,
LTP v.
.5 LTP: STP
g d.
, 160 , -
40 , g d , d
40 , 128 .
.6 : - LTP vn
, 40 . 13 ,
( ,
), .
40 v
:
- ;
- 39 :
1,4.. .37;
2, 5, ..., 38;
3, 6, ..., 39.
,
.

.
. 13- , , .
, 20
:
- - STP 8
LAR , (/ = 1.. .8) ;
- - LTP g
d 4- ;

144

- , , bt (1...13)
4- . ,
, . 4.1.
4.1. GSM

STP (LAR , (/= 1...8

36

2--------------- 6
, 4 5 5, 6 4 r
7> 8

LPT ( g
d )

36

g 2 d 7

(
,
, bj
( = 1 . . . 13) 4-
)

188

2 6 bt 3

20

260

20- 260 ,
5 (1280/260 = 4,92, 1280 =
160x8 ).

, . 4.4.
1. 1.,
, 13-
,
, v^ 2.
- LTP.
2. v^ - LTP, < . ,
LTP , , g d.
3. '
- STP,
LAR kt.
4. 4. - STP
( -) ,
, .1
, 4. .
, S'n-*Sn.


5*

145

GSM, ,
.

( ) .
DRT (Diagnostic Rhyme Test)
.
, ( , ),
,
.
.
DAM (Diagnostic Acceptability
Measure) . ( ) ,
,
.
MOS (Mean Opinion Score). MOS
, .
. 4.2
MOS.
4.2. 4 MOS


MOS
, /
()
ADPCM
RPE-LPT
GSM-standards
VSELP D-AMPS
standards

64
32
13

42
3,78
3,58

3,44

MOS CD (Cepstrum Distance).


, GSM
, RPE-LTP.
GSM :
- (6,5 /),
- [4.6, 4.7].

4.4.
(. 4.2) .
, ,

,
, , MS BTS .

,

146

FEC coding (Forward Error Correcting


coding).

[4.4]:
- (block coding);
- (convolutional coding);
- (interleaving).
, :
- , , , ;
- ;
- .
. 4.5.

. 4.5. ,
, GSM,
, ,
.


,
, -
, > .
R = / coding
rate. R < 1 , .
,
, .

. , (, ),
,
.
.

147

, ,
. . 4.6 (5, 4)
[ = 5, = 4, R = / = 0,8].
1

4=4

5 /7 = 5

. 4.6. (5, 4)

( 2)
2 ( ) ,
2, . 4.3.


0
0
1
1

4.3. (5, 4)

0
1
0
1

0
1
1
0

, ( ) ,
.
. 4.7 [4.4].
. 4.6 4.7,
, . ,
, . (. 4.8)
, , , ,
, 2
.

148

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ? = 8 . 4.7.

,
, , = 8. 8-
. 4.7 .
. 4.7,
, .

. 4.8 . 4.7,
(
7x7, 8 ).
7- , (8 ),
, (,
. 4.8.

149

4, 8 1,
, 4
, . 4.87 = 7 ).

, , ,

. ,

150

7 8 . ,
, .

. 4.9, . 4.8 ( 8- ).
12345678
1

. 4.9.

8x8 = 64-
, , , ,
(, 4 (1 8 ),
8- , 4- (1 8 ), , ,
4 4- ).
, , :
4 4 0, 1 ( ).
, . 4.9 ,
[. 4.9 (/, ) = (64, 49)] .
, .
.


. 4.10 (4, 2, 5), = 4, = 2, = 5, R = / = 0,5.
( =
5) = 2
- ( = 4) > ,

.

151
5

. 4.10. (4, 2, 5)

2 ( , 2 5x2 = 10 ) ( = 5) ,
( = 4) 2.
, . 4.10 (, , ),
: 2, : = 4;
: = 2;
.
( ),
( 5 ),
(4, 2, 5) = (, , ), R-kjn- 2/4 = 0,5.
, , (, . 4.10
- 4 ), (0, 1) =
5, (0, 0) = 4, ( 1, 0) = 3, ( 1, 1) = 2, (0, 1) = 1 ,
= 5 (0, 1) = 4, = 4 (0, 0) = 3, = 3 ( 1, 0) = 2,
= 2 ( 1, 1) = 1 (0, 1) = 1 .
2...5 , ,

- , 10-
4- , 5 ( 2 ) =
4- .
k- 1, ( , . 4.10),
.
. 4.11
(4,1, 5).
,
, ,
.

152
5

1 =5

(interleaving)
, ,
. , , ( ) ,
.
,
,
, , .
,
, .
,
,
.
[4.4]: ; ;
.
, ,
.
, GSM - .

,
, , ,
, .
. 4.12 , 6
,-, /.
,
. . 4.12, bt 2
3 1.
,
,
.

153

2
,

,
3
,

... 6 3 5 2 4 q 6 3 5 2 4 b, ... . 4.12.

. 4.13 .
,

. 4.13.

, --
( ) ,
.
:
-
,

- , .
, :
- 2, ,
- 2,
\9 2, ..., ,
:
- ...,
- 2, 2 , . 2 ,
, > .

154

, , , .
,
, .
.

GSM
/ ,
,
.
,
.
(. . 4.1),
:
- STP 36 ,
- LTP 36 ,
- () 188 ,
20 260 .
260 2 (. 4.14):
- 1 182 , ;
- 2 260 - 182 = 78 ,
.

. 4.14.
1 :
- 1,
STP (36 ) (14 )
LTP, 1 50 = (36 + 14)
,
;
- 1, 182-50 = 132 , ,
1. 1 22
LTP 110 .
, () 1, 1 2 (. 4.14) : 1 50 ; 1 132 ; 2 78 .

155

1. 50
(, ) = (53, 50), 3-
. , , 53
( 3 ).
2. 1 (53 ) 1 (132 ) , :
- ;
- 1;
- ;
- , 53 + 132 + 4 = 189 .
3. 189 (
) (, , ) = (2, 1, 5), R = ! = 0,5
- 5.
189x2 = 378 .
1 378 2
78 456 ,
456/20-10~3 = 22,8 /.

,.
GSM (. 4.15).
456 20-
8
57 (456/8
= 57).

57
57

3 ED 5757 S 1 TS 26 S 1 ED 57
57 3 G 8,25

3 ED 57 S 1 TS 26 S 1 ED 57 3 G 8,25
57
1 57
G

ED
S TS S
ED
57
57
3
57 1 26 1
57 3
8,25

ED
S TS S
ED
G
3

57

26

57

8,25

. 4.15.

156

,
, , 57 ,
,
4 , ( )
.
[4.8],
:

0. 4 avb5

2, 6 3, 7

4>
0

FO F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7

5) : 6) 2 7, 3

114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114

(. 4.15) 456 ( )
: 57 57- S, (
, , FACCH,
).
, ,
, 3 + 57+1 + 26 + 1+57 + 3 + 8,25 = 156,25 ,
20-
,

(4156,25)/2010~3 = 625/2010"3 = 31,25 /.


( 4x156,25 = 625 ) 8 ,
4,615
, (8x31,25) = 250
/.
12 , (
1-12 14-25, 13*
SACCH, 26* , )
SACCH ( 20,833 /).
, ( )
: 250 + 20,833 = 270,833 /.
,
.

.
, :
SACCH; FACCH; ;
AGCH; SDCCH (, ) = (224, 184), (, , ) = (2, 1, 5),
, .
SCH RACH
, (2, 1, 5), -
.

, .

157

GSM . 4.4 [4.4]


GSM D-AMPS (). , , 1
, 270,833-103/(200-103) = 1,354 (/)/).
4.4. GSM D-AMPS

GSM
D-AMPS

RPE-LTP

VSELP

20

20

, /

64

64

, /

13

7,95

(
), /

9,8

5,05

(
TDMA), /

8,45

3,2

( TDMA)

(
TDMA), /
(
), /

20,833
270,833

48,5

200

30

, (/)/

1,35

1,62

,
(. . 4.5):
1) , 8
;
2) ,
;
3) ;
4) ;
5) :
- ( )
( 1), ;
- 1, , ,
,
;
6) ;

158

7) ,
CPU.
( ) .

4.5. GMSK-
GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) ( )
(shift keying
), GSM, ,
() (
= 81,3 ).
, . ,
FSK (Frequency Shift Keying). FSK
.
FSK
.
/ (CNR Carrier-to-Noise-Ratio),
.
[4.1]:
Afpp=2Af=f2-f1 = l/(2Tb),
(4.1)
( m4M = Afpp Tb =
1/2), /
MSK (Minimum Shift Keying).
. 4.16
, ().
1/2 Tb

/1 =/ - /

1 0
1 1 0

/2 = / + /

()

/ 2 12 / 1 1 /
21 /:
, = 11f,

. 4.16. ,
()

,
(4.1), MSK.

159

1 /2,
( U0 = -IB) /i.
FSK (4.1),

, , :
*= Afpp'Tb= 0,5.
(4.2)
GMSK,
, = 0,3 (. 4.17).

. 4.17. g(f)

= 0,3:
3 , )

, , GSMK
GSM, : = 0,3 => , MSK.
, .
= 0,3 :
( ,
(/)/, GSM 1,35)
( BER ),
- BER ^ 10~2,
BER -4.
GSMK MSK,
.

MSK
MSK
OQPSK (Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) [4.1, 4.4], ( MSK)
[( 2 ) OQPSK]
( 2 ).
(/) MSK,
. 4.18 [4.1].

160

t\ "
/(

/(

cos

/ ^)-

90

sin

90

X)

Q(t)
MSK

DMC
S

Q(t)
MSK

. 4.18. MSK

, (. 4.18) :
( );
(/);
90 90; , (
) (4.6); ;
.
MSK

1. FSK MSK.
- SFSK(0
( ), :
/1=/-//2 = /+/.
(4.3)
:
S SK(0 = A-COS-[2JI(/O Af)t] = Acos(2K-Aftycos(2nf0t) -A sin(2jt A/f) sin(2jr /oO, (4.4)
SFSK(0 (. 4.18) / : /=
1/(4),
(4.5)
.
MSK :
SMSK(0 = A-cos(Jtr/2Jb)-cos (2-fy) - A sm(nt/2Tbysm (2nf0t),
(4.6)
(n - 1 )Tb ^t^ nTb.
(4.6) FSK
MSK.
F

161

2. . 4.18 MSK (4.6): / (


, )

I(t) = arcos(Kt/2Tb)

(4.7)


Q(t) = aQsm(Kt/2Tb)
(4.8)
,
(. 4.2).
3. Q(t) (At = Tb)
( ) :
cos[n(t - Tb)/2Tb] = sin(Kt/2Tb).
(4.9)
4. , , 2 MSK.
(4.7) (4.8).
5. (. . 4.2) , , NRZ (Non Return to Zero) ( ),
. 4.19.
(- ), :
- aft) ( );
- aQ(t) ( ).
,
,
NRZ FNRZ = 1 /5 = 1/2, aft) aQ(t) ^ = 1/2FNRZ
= 1/4, =
, ,
2, .
. 4.19 , ,
1-> (+1), 0-> (-1) , , () aQ (),
() At3 = Tb,
aQ(t) .
6. () , aQ ,
, , / ( (
) MSK),
\

/
Q(t) = - ^ ^

2
MSK

. 1-4
.
I(t) = , cos

162

27" 37" 47" 5 67" 77" 8 97" 10

(NRZ )

If

1 1 0 0 0I1

111

1 0

0,

1(f) = a, cos (
27

>
s

Q(f) = a()s\n\n
/
2
/2

-/2

/
/\t

. 4.19.
MSK

IT

t
jt

7. , aQ, at cos
, S(t) 90,
27;
(4.3).

163

8.
[4.1]:
/0
AT, [l + cos2jT(/-/n)r] GMSKU) -
2V ,
4 10
------------------------------ ( - )
; /0 ; Ts = 1/ fs = 2J5 ; ;/ .

164

MSK 3/4 , , = 3,69 , fn = 0,2 , MSK /"4.


MSK

(. . 4.2), MSK (. . 4.18)


, :
- I(t) Q(t) ;
- ( ).
/ = /0 / ,
90 ,
Q(t).
I(t) Q(t),
(/),
().
I(t) Q(t) :
- ();
- ().
Ts 2 ,

I(t) Q(t), - ,
.

(/) GMSK
GMSK MSK ,
() (. . 4.17),
MSK:
-
( (4.10)),
;
- () MSK;
- , 0,3!, GMSK , ,
, ,
( ).
.
(NRZ):
(4.11)
U = 1, , (t/TB)
: O s fsT i,
j [ t- .

(4.12)

\2

<? (/) -

165


[4.1]:

12
2

(4.13)

222
I 2
In 2
g( f ) = B J r ^exP
V In z
. :

(4.15)

()- ^-),
r(t) = Il(t/TB) g(t)= J g(v)dv = BJ^- J exp
In 2
-Jerf
-J ----- JiB(t) + erf
In 2

kaw

er

(4.14)

2
Bv
In 2

2
(4.16)

(4.17)

f(f) = "7= fexp(-v2)dv . VJt


. 4.17 : = 0,3

, GMSK
MSK.
GMSK, MSK, , OQPSK,
/'(f) Q'(t) cosqp(f) sincp(f),
.
GMSK
[4.1]:
S(t) = cos qp(f) cos 2fQt - sin qp(f) sin 2f0t.
(4.18)
I'(t) Q'(t) S '(f) ( ) cosco0f sin
co0f, ,
.
:
cosy(2nTs) = 1 , = 1, 2, ...,
(4.19)
sin [(2 - 1)5 ] - 1 , = 1, 2, 3, ...,
(4.20)
.
:
d=

166

1 cos[qp(2w7;)l>0, [-1 cos[cp(2n7;)l<0,


1 sin[cp[(2w - 1)TS I] > 0,
-1 sinfcp[(2w-l)rjl <0.

(4.21)
(4.22)

167

() (
) { 0,63,
cos[qp(f)l sin[qp(f)]
.
, ,
. 4.2 .
GMSK, :
1) ( ), : 270,883/200 = 1,354 (/)/,
= 0,3;
2) ;
3) : 10~3
/ C/N = 30 ;
4) ;
5) ( ).
GMSK GSM, .
GMSK [4.1].

4.6.
:
- MS;
- MS.


GMSK (. . 4.2),
,
GMSK (890...915) ,
( ),
() ,
( ) CPU.
GSM ,
, ,
1/8 ( 4,615 /8 = 0,577 ).
( ) .
, MS BTS, CPU
MS-BTS.
MS BTS, - ,
.

168

-, , , ,
, 1/8 .


(935...960) BTS ( ), .
-
( 1),
- .
-, ,
,
1 (/npi).
2
(/>2).
2 GMSK.
,
CPU, ( ) .
GMSK, , .

4.7.
, ,

.
,
(equalizing), ,
.
(<equalizer) ()
, ,
,
. . 4.20.
, , , .
. 4.20
( :
, ,
= ).

169

. 4.20.

: = 8, Ci = 1/3, 2 =

1/9, = 1/27) [4.4]

. 4.21 , .
1. (. 4.20) :
- So(t),
- S0(t) - SK(t), tx = ( ).
: (JI3) .
2. (JI31) \ =
1/3 S0(t - )/ (), S^t - )/ ().
3. JI32: 2
2 = 1/9 , S0(t - 2)/9 (), : S^t - 2)/9 ().
4. JI33: 3
3 = 1/27 , , 1 0 ,
, SK(t - )/21 <<SK(t - 2)/9.
5. , 6 ,
At = , :
- S0(t),
- (), t\ - 2
.
,

.

, , .
, , .
, .
, JI3,
.
, MS . 4.21 .
, , ,
, , .

170
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

So(0

t )
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

t )

SM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

t )

S 0 (t- ) 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

sK(t- )
3

t )
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

S 0 (t-2T B )

111111
1

Sg(t-2T B )

t )

I I I I I I I IT=R

S 0 (t-3T B )
27

EH

t e)

So( 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

I I............................... I I I I I I
S'AO

. 4.21. ,

,
, ,

[4.4]:
Ck+1 = Ck+\i , = 0,1, ...
(4.23)
,
, ,

171

, \ ( ), . (4.23) .

, , , ,
.
[4.9, 4.10].
,
[4.4]:
- ;
- ;
- .
,
.
,
, ( 3)
.
(. . 4.2)
,
TDMA.

, .
.

4.8. SIM- .

GSM
, SIM- (SIM
Subscriber Identity Module, SIM-card).
( ) GSM
SIM-, GSM: GSM 900, GSM 1800 GSM 1900
:
- ( ISO) 55x85 , ;
- , , (plug-in) 15x25 .
SIM- 1 .
MS SIM- , 112 .
SIM
GSM, .
SIM- :
- PIN (Personal Identification Number)
, PIN-;
- IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) ;
- Ki ;
-A3 ;

172

- AS .
MS SIM- , ,
PIN-, , SIM-, , .
PIN- SIM- ,

PUK (Personal Unblocking Key), .
PIN- .
, SIM-
, 100 (,
) 10 .
SIM- MS, : ; ; , , MS GSM.
, SIM- MS,
.
(authentication) (
) .
(identification) ,
, . ,
MS.


, MS MSC,
.
, ,
, ( ), ,
.
GSM . 4.22. , ,
.
.
:
- ( AUC) MS R (RAND
Random Number), AUC;
- MS Kt
A3 ( ) (SRES Signed RESponse),
5

173

- Si ,
S\ ,
AUC S2;
- S\ S2 ,
MS .
- , ,
.

(MS)

(AUC)

MSC

J-U

A3

~ S2

A3

. 8 i

SIM-

. 4.22. GSM [4.4]: R (RAND Random


Number) ; A3 ;
8 ; ; ; S
(SRES Signed RESponse)

, MS, ,
.
8 SIM-.
Si MS .
, AUC MS 8 . AUC R . . MS (SIM-) , .
MS ,
,
MS.
MS ,
.

174

4.9.
GSM




,
. ,

, :
;
-
;
-
(
, );
BTS
-

,
.


.
. 4.23.

1.
: PSE (Pilot Strength Estimation)
(The Open Loop Power
-; (transmitter
Control System, OLP) .
power) level
4.23.


.
- BTS
( BTS MS)
level = 1 IPSE, (transmitter power) PSE (Pilot
Strength Estimation) -. , BTS
MS , BTS , .
,
.
( ),
, ,
,
.
2. The Closed Loop Power Control System
(CLPCS).
CLPCS ,
:
- ;
BTS

MS

175

- /
BTS
;
- BER (Bit Error
Rate) ;
- (FER)
,
.


Reference
MS, ,
s
,
BTS MS
MS.
. 4.24 BTS
MS
() RLCLPC
(Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control).
MS BTS BTS
:
- ME (Metric Estimation);
- Compare with
Reference Metric;
- Relate to
Other Users;
-
ISSUC (Power Control Command).

,
. 4.24.
MS MS,
()
:
RLCLPC
-
RPCC (Receive Power Control Command);
- MS
In/Decrement
Transmitted Power.
, . 4.24 : MS BTS-MS-BTS... ..
, BTS.
MS
MS, MS ,
.
MS BTS
MS MS,
,
, .

176

BTS

BTS

MS

. 4.25.

3. Forward Link Closed Loop


Power Control.
. 4.25

: BTS - MS - BTS - MS... ..,
- BTS MS
MS :
- ME (Metric Estimation);
- (Transmit Metric).
BTS :
- RM (Receive Metric);
- ;
- ;
-
();
- ()
.

, .
, .
:
- ;
-
;
- ;
-
;
-
..
.

GSM
() GSM :
- MS , BTS;
- GSM 8 BTS 5 MS , . 4.5.
BTS 2 . , ,
.
BTS , -13
(Pt ~ 20 ).

177

4.5. BTS MS
BTS,
MS,

320

20

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

160
80
40
20
10
5
2,5

8
5
2
0,8
-

MS BTS.
MS 15 2 ( 2 30
). 2 (
577 ).
BTS 116 , ,

.

6 - 632

5

5.1.
BSS - BTS
(
), BSC. BTS
( -) BSC. BTSoMS
, :
- ;
- () ;
- ;
- ;
- BTS MS;
- ..
BSS
BTScBSC (. 5.1):
- (point-to-point)
BTS BSC
( 1 );
()
() (multidrop chain);
(multidrop
loop).

BTS BSC
,
BTS BSC
1
( 2 /).
. 5.1. BTS BSC

5.2.


GSM

. 5.2 BSS.
BTS (. 5.2), :
- , ,
/
;

179

. 5.2.
BTS
BSS

- ,
;
- , ;
- N N
, , ,
N ,
N ;
- BTS ,
, , ,
;
- , BSC MSC, ;
- MSC BSC BTS ,
BSS .
GSM BSC BTS (
BTS BSC). BTS
BTS (. 5.3):

6*

180

BTS,
(omnidirectional BTS);
BTS, BTS
120 , 3 (3
sectorized BTS);
BTS 6 ( 60 ) (6 sectorized BTS).

6-
BTS

. 5.3.
BTS

. 5.4 BTS ( ,
d < 2 (d/X ~ 5) , , ,
. 5.5 , . 5.6
, GSM- GSM 900, 1800, NMT-450,
, RRL, .

181

. 5.6.
GSM NMT-450
BTS

. 5.5. BTS

182

BTS :
- 20 40 ;
- 45, 50, 60, 72,100 .
BTS :
- GSM 900 - 50...55 ; -GSM 1800 12 .
BTS Gt 50...55 .



GSM
6.1.


.
1. MS ,
, .
2. BTS .
3. MS
.
4. BTS, ,
MSC, BTS, MS .
5. MS
BTS, .

GSM

183

6. BTS
,
.
7. . handover
BTS,
.
- . BTS ,
,
, .
MS , MSC . MSC
BTS.
BTS MSC
MS BTS,
. , , , , , BTS, (
) .
BTS
.


MSC BTS ,
.
, () ,
. , .
MS .
MS: ; ; ; .
1.
MS ( ) . MS
, BTS
, MS .
GSM ,
,
(Broad Cast Control CHannels).
, MS .
MS , ,
BTS (
6- BTS)
. .

184

2.
MS :
- ,
, MS;
- , , ;
- ;
- .
GSM MS BTS
:
- BTS 16 ,
;
-
BER (Bit Error Rate) .
, MS , , 10... 15
, ,
BTS ( ).
MSC MS ,
, .
MS
, , ,
MSC MS , .
3.
MS-/ ,
MSC BTS-/ , MS-/, BTS
,
, a BTS .
MS-/ BTS-/, , . MS-/
. MS-/
BTS-/ . MS-/ , , ..
(, BTS-/) MS, BTS-/. . GSM
. 0 63
1 (3,69 ). BTS-/ MS-/
, MS-/.
, (
), .
GSM MS-/ BTS-/
MS-/ BTS-/ 1 ,
: ) (QN Quarter bit
Number), 0 624; ) (BN Bit Number) 0 156; )

GSM

185

(TN Time slot Number) 0 7; ) (FN Frame


Number) 0 2715648.
3- (icolour code ) 3- ,
6- (BSIC
Base Station Identifier Code). BTS-/
(), MS-/,
. , ,
MS-y, MS-/ . .
4.
MS ,
.
MS BTS ( ),
MS , MS .
: (
) > PSTN > > MS-/.
MS-,
BTS-, MS- ,
, MS- BTS-&
.
BTS-&
, (
- MS-k). MS-k MSC
MS-k, MSC , MS-k
( , MS-
). GSM.
. 6.1.

. 6.1. MS
PSTN

.
1: MS-i RACH (Random Access CHannel) SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control
CHannel) .
2: BSC AGCH (Access
Grant CHannel) SDCCH.
3: () MS SDCCH ( ).

186

4: MSC BSC
TCH (Traffic CHannel).
5: MSC
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) .
.
MS-i MS-k,
, : MS-/ MS-
,
MSC ( ).

6.2.
(authentication ) ( )
.

GSM

187

(SIM-).
SIM- MS
.
:
- RAND MS;
- MS SRES, RAND, Kt A3: SRES = Ki
[RAND];
- MS SRES ,
SRES SRES, .
, MS , MS , .
SRES SIM-.
SIM.
(identification) MS, MS MS, . GSM
, MS, ,
, ,
MS.

6.3.
BTS, , MS .
MS (. 6.2), BTS-a MS,
BTSa

MS BTS-a BTS-b.
(handover).

188

BTSb

. 6.2.

GSM

189

, , MS
( )
. MS ,
, MS ,
BTS.
:
MS ,
, , BER,
.
GSM MS ,
( 16 ), .
,
. ,
, MS ,
. , ,
BSS. (Mobile Assisted Hand Over)
MS. ,
, , MS. ,
, . MS ,
, ,
. , MSC, , BTS ,
a MS BTS
, .. MS
BTS, ,
, .

.

6.4.
, ,

, .
(roaming)
.

, MSC ().
:
1) CMCS (Cellular Mobile
Communication System), -,
MSf;

190

2) ;
3) CMCS/ CMCS/, .
:
1) , MS/ MS/, ( SIM-);
2) , MS/
CMCS,;
3) .
:
- MS/ CMCS/, CMCS7, , ,
CMCS,;
- MSC/, , HLR;
, MS/ (roamer ,
) VLR;. (
) MSC/ ,
HLR/, ,
( , , ), ,
MS/ .
HLR/ . MS,
:
- , ,
HLR/ (HLR;),
VLR,;
- CMCS/
CMCS,, MS/ .
MS/ HLR/
CMCS,, , VLR; CMCS/ MS/.
MS/ CMCS/,
CMCS/ - CMCS/, , .
GSM . ,
GSM SIM- SIM-
GSM (GSM 900/1800/1900),
GSM
SIM-.
GSM - .
GSM

GSM
:
1. IMSI (International Mobile
Subscriber Identity), SIM. IMSI : MCC (Mobile Country Code) 3 ,

GSM

191

MNC (Mobile Network Code) 2 , MSIN


(Mobile Subscriber Identity Network) 10 .
2.
.
3. MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number). -
, 30 . MSRN . MS/
HLR; .
HLR; VLR, MSC, ,
MS/. MS/ , HLR, , MS/
. MS, HLR, . MS/
CMCSy
.
. 6.3 GSM .

. 6.3. GSM

1. - MS/ CMCS;. MS/


BTSy, IMSI BTS7 MSC,
VLR;.
2. MSi:
IMSI/ - MS/ VLR, MSC, ( 2
MSC; -> MSQ) MSQ HLR/ ( 4).
3. HLR/ MS/ (HLR/ -> 4 -> MSC/ -> 2 -> MSC, -> 1 VLR;).
4. / MS/ ( , MS/): MSC; 2 -> MSC/ -> 4 -> HLR/ MSC, 2
^ MSC/ 6 AUQ.

192

5. / MSRN: MSC, 5 MSQ 4 HLR/ MSC7 5 MSQ 6 > AUQ


.
6. PSTN :
PSTN, 3 MSQ 2 MSC, BTS, MS/,

PSTN,- MS/: ( 7), MSRN.

6.5.

MS . , . , (uplink)
( BTS MS)
, BTS .
(downlink)
MS BTS. MS,
. () MS (MS => BTS) (. 4.9),
MS : MS
. BSC
BTS ,
. , MS
, MS
.

.

7.1.

: [7.1-7.3].
:

193

- (BTS),
- , ,
- ,
- ( ) .
: ( , ), (
), ,
(
),
,
. ( )
,
,
( ).
(,
, .), :
- (, , );
-
,
( );
-
;

, ;
- - (
) , ,
.
- ( , , ) ,
, .
, .

( ) .
, .
,
. .

, ,
( ),
( ).

194

7.2.

:
- , ;
- , ;
- (
) .
,
, . , .
. ,
:
- ;
- ( ) ;
- .

7.3.
, ,
(

195

). ,
(N/S),
, ,
. : ; ,
,
. , [7.1], -
,
, .
, , ,
, know-how .


.:
.
(. 7.1) BTS^ BTSfl, ,
RA RB
.
D,
,
fA- fB *fc. BTS

( ),
G = 0
. ,
(
X ) BTS,
~ 1/Rn ( R BTS MS),


. 7.1.

:

- 2; ( , BTS hi 100 ) ~ 4; , ,
3 < < 4.
.
1. , ,
, X BTSA - ~ VRn, BTSB - = 1 /(D - R)n.

196

MS X
,
{ ) { ). . 7.1
BTSA BTS /=/-
[7.1]:
((S)/(I)) = [(D-R)/R]n,
(7.1)
, ,
, ,
.
2.
X , fA=fB = fi,
/ :
5>/<7 = 1/[/1//|)],
(7-2)
i = 1 , BTS
, Ri X - BTSW.
, (7.2) , ,
BTS^, / R , BTSB,
, .
( ),
,
:
(1/3) (D/R)2,
(7.3)
:

=
1/Nc_k.
(7.4
)
Nc_k : 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, :
Nc^ = (k + l)2-kl,
(7.5)
I (: = 1,1 = 1, = 3, = 2,1 = 1, = 7, .).
D/R = q ( ) / S/I . , D, R, q ( ),
:
1) ();
2) , ;
3) ;
4) , .

, ( ) . ,
BTS ( ), q = D/R -

197

. . , :
((D - R)/R)n =(q- If * (5//).
(7.6)



, ,
<AU> = (1/3 )(D/Rfmin,
.

,
, , .
, / . , BTS, .
BTS BTS, .
BTS
.
. , . :
- BTS;
- BTS;
- .
BTS,
BTS , , ,

BTS , BTS. , , ,
.
, ,
, .


. Sz = 64609 2 (. 7.2).
.
GSM, :
BTS P TS ~ 55 ; MS
B

198

PMS -100 ( ~ -13 ); , BTS,


Nk= 20; NvK=fy 124
/ = 0,2
= 25 ; GMSK 0,3.
(5//) ^ 20 ,
[7.1] 3 < < 4.
BTS MS 0 ( ). 2,5 .
-10^ ( 0,2 / 900 , / ,
, ),
~ 200 /= 1000 .
: BTS hi = 72 ,
h2 = 1,5 .

. 7.2.


.
1. :
= {[^BTS^BTS^MSy^MSm^-lO^] 1/2}-(/4 lt)Af,
(7.7)
PBTS = 55 , GBTS = GMS = 1, P smin = "13 , X (900 ) = 0,33 ,
Af= ^^21*2 = 10^'25 = 0,56.
(7.7): Rmax = 20 .
M

199

W= ^2,
:
(LOS) = 28 (NLOS) Rmax 20 .
2. :
2
SMC = 2 = <20) = 1256 2.
3. :
NMs = Sz/SMs = 64600/1256 51.
4.
q: l(D - Rmax)/rmax]n = [(D/Rmax) -l]n=(q-l)nz (S/I),
(q - l)n 102, n = 3 q = 5,64, n - 3,5 - g = 4,72.
5. ( ) (7.3):
N^ = (1/3) q2 = 4,722/3 7 /.
6. : Nk = NJNck = 51/7 s 7 .
, , , :
- 7 , 7 ;
- : = 1 /Nck = 1/7 = 0,143.
:
.

7.4.
[7.1]:
- ;
- .

, , .

.
:
) ,
, , ,
Afs ( GSM Afs = 25 ) fs (fs = 0,2 ):
^ = ( / fs) -1 = 124 ;
) ( NcJc = 7): = nsyskINck = = 124/7 =
17,7 18 . (),
20 ;
) , , 7 : nz
= Ixrtsysk = 868 , 7 , 868
.
.
, ,

(xt) ( ).

200

,
VMS
: (x)(VMs)
, (VMs) = 1 / , (xt) = 3 ( 3/60 = 0,05 ), : 1
/ 0,05 = 0,05 20 , (VMS) = 100 / 0,05 = 5 20 .
,
BTS, : 1) (,-) , , , ; 2)

, , , , , . - , ,
. .
,
.

,
.

, ,
MS . ,
, , q
= D/R. ,
.
.
,
. , ,
, ,
D/R .
[7.1].
GSM
.

7.5.

,
, ,
,
..
(MS BTS)
.

201

,
. , BER = ty(C / N)
GMSK ( GSM) ~ 13 C/N = 30 . , .

[7.1].
.

C/N /1
[7.1], ,
BER,
.
. 7.3

.
,

. 7.3.


v, ,

, v

,
v [7.1]:
1
1

(7.8)
v
2 ; x
^
, (5 < <
12) , vm
v, :
= ,--\
(7.9)
2 , (
3 < < 4).
(7.8) = , a x/ v = , (7.8)
:
W{ ,)-

2+
In2 1

(7.10)

202

= (rj), Am = Am (r1?r2) C/N /1, . () /

203

/, C/N () (),
BER. [7.1],
, , ^ ^ :

(7.11)
erf () = = f du .
VJC;

, C/N //, .
(7.11) / S/I
/ S/N, , [7.2],

. ,
~ 0,1, : , C/N -15 ,
-12 , , ,
, C/N <1 0 , - 15 , ,
,
,
.
,
C/N . ,
~ 0,05 0,01 ,
0,04 , IN
(7.11). IN
> 0,05 : C/N ~ 15 , ~ 16 .
,
,
. C/N ()
()
.
-
, /N
//. [7.1]
, , ,
C/N, BER, C/N
(. 7.4), :
TkTBNpL

(7.12)
BTS MS

204

n _

_________ 1

GnTKG,

205

C/N, kTBNF , LP BTS MS, GBTS G S


BTS MS, .
M

. 7.4.
[7.1]
q = D/r

/ (Aw)
= R :
(7.13
)
:
q = D/R = l + [Am{R)f.

(7.14)

. 7.5 q(C/I), , (Aw) = 10 =


3,5 q ~ 3, = 20 = 4 q ~ 4, ..

10

206

, q = D/R R .

. 7.5.

/1


.
PMS q = D/R :
- / = 900 ;
- R = 3 ;
- 0 = 6 ;
- = 3,5;
- BER = 10~3 _ = 10%, ,
;
- : MSK ;
- 16 / 16 .
. 7.6 PMs q,
:
- MS ~ &TBNF = -168 /,
- R = 3 = 137 ,
- GBTS GMS = 8 .
, s ^ 1 , a q = D/R ^ 8,2,
: Nck = q2/3 = 22 ( ).

207

. 7.6.
[7.1]: 1 = 3,5; 0 = 6 , 2 MSK
, , 3
= -168 /; = 16 ( = 42 ); LP = 137 ( =
3 ); GtGr = 8

, : ^21 , ^21 ,
/ ^ 6 (), / ^ 9 ( ), ^ 27 , Aw ^ 30 ,
2 .
BTS,
IN = Aw = 30 , 8 , Aw = 38 .

- IN
.
BTS, , C/N /1.

7.6.
( ) , , , .
, ,
(),
(
).
, .

10

208

,
:
- (),
([] = /, /);
( ) X;
- (
) (7), ;
- ( ),
= ((), ().
(7.15)
. () = 20
/, () = 0,2 ,
= 20-0,2 = 4 ,
4 . ,
.


, T(t),
.
, : ; ; .
,
^- ( )
t:
{(X)tf
-<x>f
(7.16)
pk =
k\
[(k) t] > 0, k ^ 0.
t:
(k) = [(k)tl
(7.17)
:
*=[<*>*],
(7.18)
() .
. 7.7 (k)t = 4, ,
= 4, 4 t.

8 9 10
. 7.7.

209

( )
x(t\
:
()

, 0,

(7.19)

( ) : = (7),
= (7)2,
(7). . 7.8 () (7) = 0,3 ( 1) (7) = 0,5
( 2).

. 7.8.


(7)


, [7.1],
:
- ;
- , ,
, , .
( ),
,
( );
- , , , .
(lost-calls-cleared conditions ,
), .
( , ) :
AN/N1
----- ,
(7.20)
/1=0

N , = ()'() .
, , :

10

210

1/ ^ / !)

(7.21)

(7.22
)

: =[
:
/(-I)']-

(7.23
)

.
( ,
, ) :

= [* N f ( N - ) N '] >

(7-24)

. = 1/

(7.25)
, .
,
. ,
, ,
( ).
,
, . :
=[-!\\.

(7.26)


. ,
, > 0,1
( > 40)
, .
0,01 0,05.
(7.20), , . 7.1
[7.4, 7.5].
7.1. ( )

= ip (A, N)
0,002

0,01

0,02

0,05

0,10

()
1

0,002

0,01

0,02

0,05

0,11

0,07

0,15

0,22

0,38

0,60

0,90

1,36

1,66

2,22

2,88

10

3,4

4,5

5,1

6,2

7,5

211

7.1 ()
= (A, N)

0,002

0,01

0,02

0,05

0,10

20

10,1

12,0

13,2

15,2

17,6

30

17,6

20,3

21,9

24,8

28,11

40

25,6

29,0

31,0

34,6

38,8

50

33,9

37,9

40,3

44,5

49,6

100

77,5

84,1

88,0

95,2

104,1

150

122,9

131,6

136,8

146,7

159,1

200

169,2

179,7

186,2

198,5

214,3



. (
) : , N .
.
1. PB = ty (A, N) N, : , , ( ) N,
.
2. (7.20) . 7.1 (
(\),
(Ti)), :
/-

[ (/ = (/)-(/)).
:

(7.27)

L = ml = .
(7.28)

.
. 51 , N . (
) = 0,05. GSM
, (k\) = 1 /. (\) 2 , ()/1 = 1/30 . ,
: At = (ki)-(Ti) = 1-1/30 = 0,033 .
.
1. = 0,05 . 7.1
= 20 = 15,2 /.
2. , ,
, :
mt = AJAi = 15,2/0,033 = 460 .
3. , 51 , N =
20: = 51-460 = 23490.

10

212

, .
, .. 7.3-7.6 , :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .

Nokia , [7.9].

7.7.


[7.9]: ; ;
;
( ); ;
. NOKIA,
:
1. :
- ;
- , ,
, , ..;
- , -,
;
- , ;
- ;
- , , .
2. .

-. ,
( , ,
, ),
.
,
. ,
.
.
:
7 - 632

- FTP (Fixed Transmission Planning) ;


- NAP (Network Access Planning) ;
- DCN (Data Communication Network Planning) ;

213

- INP (Intelligent Network Planning) ;


- 3G IP Network Planning (3G), IP ..,
.
3. MSC, BSC .
4. MSC, BSC , ,
MSC, BSC BTS , .
5. . :
- ;
- (, , );
- ;
- -;
- .
NOKIA , . :
- SNP (Switching Network Planning) ;
- CTNP (Cellular Transmission Network Planning)
;
- RNP (Radio Network Planning) .


:
- ( ,
handovers, .) ;
- ;
- ;
- , ,
;
- ;
- .
, (. 7.9, 7.10),
(, , , ,
, , .). , , , , ,
.

214

. 7.9.
. 7.10.


( - ) GSM, , , BTS BSC. :
- (
);
- ,
;
- - .
. BTS ,
.
.
,
. - , BTS
BSC. , - .


BTS .
, . ,
. GSM
BTS 35 ,
MS , BTS
.
, :
1) , ,
( GSM 900 , GSM 1800 1900);
2) : , .
, :
>/27*

215

-
, , -
;
- , ,
.


GSM. , BTS,
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- BTS ..
BSC.
: (
Traffic CHannel), ?
? ,
.
:
= <^>(), 3600
() (/) ; () ().
. , 15 ,
3600 , 900 .
. 540 ,
100 (100/60 = 1,66 ),
. 540x100 : =
----------------------------- = 15 ().
3600
. 7.1 ( ) ,
: Nk_c = 20, = 5%. ,
GOS = 5% (Grade Of Service ),
, , , 1 , 5-
100 - , 20. GSM 8 () ,
BTS: BTS
(transceivers), Nk-c = 3x8 = 24 ,
, 20 .
, Nk-c = 24 = 5% = 19 (
. 7.1).

BSS .
,
BSS.
. . 7.11 .

10

216

. 7.11.

. 7.12.

9,
9 ( BSS). . 7.12 . LA (Local
Area) ,
.
.
7 - 632


, ,
. .
1. .

217

2. - .
3. , , ( ), , , (grade of service) .
:
- ;
- .
4. (quality of services)

.
5.
.
, :
- HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data)
;
- GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) ;
- EDGE (Enhanced Date Rates for Global Evolution)
(384 /);
- SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) (
- ) ..

.
:
1) ( ),
, , (gathering) , ..
2) , NMS (. 7.13),
(station ), BTS (serving BTS),
(neighbor stations) .
NMS ( ), , .

10

218
NOKIA

BTS

. 7.13. ,
BTS

7.8.

, . , , : ; .

, , , , .
- .

,
,
, .
:
- ,
, ;
- ( ,
);
- .
,
.
. 7.14 [7.10],
.

219

^ w
^ ^

C/ N

. 7.14.

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

() , ( ),
. , - .
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
, . ,
,

220

10

, , .
,
. .
,
Nokia, Siemens, Cisco, Ericsson, Hewlett-Packard ..

[7.10]:
- VHF/UHF; VHF/UHF,
;
- [7.10]
;
-
;
- ,
.

221

,
.

. , , (,
GPS Global Position System).

.

. ( , .)
,
.
.
, /, ,
, .
.
. Illuminator, .

.
, .
, ,
. BTS , , ..
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) , .
()
,

.
:
- (, Anritsu, HP, Advantest),
,
- , , ,
, ,
.

222

10


,
( ): , ,
, (, ); / () ,
; (/); (
); ; (); ,
().
:
1) C/N (/) /1 (/);
2) BER, C/N;
3) ;
4) .
,
:
- BER
/;
-
;
- ,
( ,
);
- , ;
- , ;
- ,
..
, , BER C/N
BER(C/N). , , .
BER = f(C/N) ,
. ,
.
BER / , .
/N)
.
C/N
, /N) .

223


:
- ( /);
- C/N ,
, ;
/No,
,
1 ;
-
EB/N0 ( () N0, 1 ), C/N0, .
,
[7.1].
1) ( )
:

E B =CT B =C/ F B ,

(7.29
)
fB , ,
C/N0 EB/N0 :
^ = 7 = 7fs
(7-30)
N N
N N
o o fe
o o
, (7.30) EB/N0
C/NQ. EB/N0 C/N
N N0: N0 (/) = N/BN. 1 N0 (/)
N BN.
(7.30) :
EB/N0
=
(C/N)
(BN/fB)
(7.3
1)

f
: -13- ----------10
lg^-.
------------------------------------(7.32)

NN

, =
/,
E B /N 0 -C/N ,
(7.33
)
1
/ ( ).

224

10


()
[7.1]:

225

(7.34)
= BER = ! (C/N) =
(7.35)
BER = 2 (/No),
, BER ,
C/N Eb/N0.
, , , = BER, .
GMSK BER
() :
BNTB = 0,3 Eb/N0 = 12 , = 210"5,
/No = 10 , = 3 10"4, /No = 8 , =
210~3.
MSK, BNTB = Eb/N0 = 10 , = 210"5,
Eb/N0 = 8 , = 610"4, /No = 6 , =
410~3.
, GSM BNTB = 0,3

. = 10~3 C/N = 30 , Eb/N0 = (C/N)x(BN/fB)
= = C/Nx 0,3 = 9 .
BER = f ( C / N ) . 7.15.

20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 C / N ,

. 7.15.
BER(C/A/)

7.9.
BER (/
BER ,
[7.1].

10

226

1. (. 7.16).

C/N

BER-

b'-'MQZ
CS
-

. 7.16.

.
,
, .
,
.
BER .

.

. C/N
, C/N 1 BER .
, ,
BER.
2. BER(C/AT), .
7.17, / C/N,

N, C/N.
/ ,
BER(C/AT) ~10"12 [7.1].
BER (IN) .
1. /N) ,
,
BER C/N.
.
2. - ,
90 / BER.

227

BER-

CIN

. 7.17.
/ N )

:
- ;
- , 1,0 ;
- 0,1 ;
- / 0,3 ;
- ( ) 0,1 ;
- 0,5 ;
- ( , ) 0,4 .
, BER 2,5 .
BER :
- 1,5 ;
- , 0,3 ;
- 1,0 ;
- , - 0,2 .
, BER 3 ,
BER -5,5 .
, . 7.16, 7.17 .


:
1) ,
2) .

.

,
..


, ,
, .

10

228

,
( )
( ).
.
. ,
.
1) , -
.
:
- ;
- (, ).
2) , .
,
C/N, BER.
, , . , .

BER,
W(. 7.18).

. 7.18.

,
.
. 7.19.
, (
,
) (
,
).
.

229

BER-

. 7.19.



()
() :
Tgr = dqp/da),
(7.36)
, dcp/dw .
:
= ->).
(7.37)
() , ,
, ,
, .
-
, ,
. [7.10] , .

,
. , 50 BER = 10~3.
/.
, , ,
.
,
, , :

230

10

- / Q
,
-
.
, , .
,
. ,
,
. [7.10],
.
1. .
, , ( ) .
(- )
[7.10]:
- ;
- (
);
- (
).
2. .
,

, ,
, .
,
[7.10].


,
.
40
. ,
.
.




, .

231

, , , ,
.

-
. : , , , ..,
.

- ():
= tWt/,

(7.38)

- ():
= 1/,
(7.39)
- ,
C/min / .
: ,
= 1 ( /mjn =
Um), Umin = , = = 0 ,
.
1,1...2, = 0,5...0,9. , -1,1,

.
,

, 64 QAM,

25
. ,
. 7.20.
-


. 7.20.
.


[ [] (]
(
),

-
.
,
,
.

10

232


BER.

.
. ,
,
.

.
. . 7.21
16 QAM
/ = 15 , , ,

.

**#

##4

. 7.21. /1
= 15


0 *

~

W*
/,
*
(jitter). ,
% % #
. , ,

. 7.22, . 7.22.
. , -
,
.

,
, -


233

.
. 7.23
16- 16 QAM,
:
- ;
- (, ).

. 7.23.
AM 16-
16 QAM

.
1. .
/
.
,
(. 7.24).

. 7.24. :

,

2. /.
. 7.25 , ,
/ .

.

10

234

*#-- t * ^ *
. 7.25.

/

3. I Q .
, I Q . (. 7.26).

.
-
I - Q.
. ,

,
j j J-. j

* *
.
>


.
. 7.26.

/ Q


I Q. . 7.27
2,3
.
**
****#*

. 7.27.

*w*


:
- , ;
- .


235

,
, . (
).

7.10.
, .
:
- ,
1400 /2 ,
100 /2;
- ( /) ( 40 /),
;
- , , , , .

( 1 /2), . 100
,
:
- : , , , , , , .;
- , , , : ,
, , , , ,
..

, .
(, 1014 ), . , , : , , -, .
,
.
.
,
, :

10

236

- Power Density (PD) (/2);


- Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) (
): SAR (/, /);
- Maximum Permissible Exposure () (
PD (/2);
- t ().
SAR PD :

dt dm dt

dW
d(pV
)t

(7.40)

d
1 dW P P
pdV dt pdV pIds pi
_ pdV
d
m , W , , V
t
, / , S . , = 1 / 3,
1=1 ,
S = 1 2, = 1 /2, a [SAR] = 1 .

, PD
SAR, , SAR , ,
PD
.
, :
- , , ;
- .
, ,
, .


, .
1. CENELEC {Committee European de Normalization Electro-technique) ES 59005, October
1998. SAR 30 6 :
- , , SAR ^ 6
: SAR ^ 20 ! ( = 10 );
- ( ) SAR ^ 6
SAR ^ 10 ! ( = 10 );
- , , ^ 6
SAR ^ 0,4 !.
2. ANSI/IEEE 95.1 1992 (ANSI American National Standards Institute)/(IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers):

237

- 300...3000 PD 77 ^ |f ()!300 ()], ^ 6 ,

238

10

/ = 900 <s 3 /2, PD


;
- PD : <s f/1500 = 900/1500 = 0,6 /2 <s 6 .
3. FCC (Federal Communication Commission), 1996:
- 300... 1500
PD :
<, f/300 = 900/300 = 3 /2 .
4. LVS ENV 50166.2: Elektromagnetiska lauka iedarblba uz cilveku.
Augstas frekvences (10 kHz lldz 300 GHz):
- 400...2000 : 20,4 f () = 20,4-900 = 18360 /2
( , ^ 100 /2
<s 6 . 41 ).
- PD 400...2000 : n*f/400 () = 900/400 = 2,25
/2 <s 6 .
, , <s 6 : PD: < (0,6-3) /2; no SAR: SAR 0,4 /.
, ,
^20 , PD <s
1 /2.



5 ( 10 )
, . ,
.
1. CENELEC ES 59005,1998:
- , . SAR <s 6 : SAR <4 / ( = 10 );
- ( .) SAR <s 6
: SAR <, 2 / ( = 10 );
- <s 6 SAR <0,08 /, 5
(0,4/5 /), .
SAR LVS ENC 50166.2:1995.
2. ANSI/IEEE 95.1-1992: 300...3000 PD
<; 30 ^f/1500 () = 900/1500 = 0,6 /2.
3. FCC, 1996: :
= = [f/1500 ()] = 900/1500 = 0,6 /2 ^ .
4. LVS ENC 50166.2:1995: 400...2000
PD <s 6 = /()/200 ()
/2,
- f= 900 : < 4,5 /2 = 0,45 /2 = 450 /2;
- f= 1800 : < 9 /2 = 0,9 /2 = 900 /2;
- npuf= 1900 : *9,5 /2 = 0,95 /2 = 950 /2.

239

5. .
300 ...3000 : PD
^ 10 /2.
,
, (900... 1800 ),
:
- no SAR ^0,08 ! *80 /;
- no PD ^ 10 /2 ();
- no PD <;400...1000 /2 (, ).
, PD 400 1000 /2
.
, .. 4 10 /2 [7.20]. ,
1,5 / 2.


. 7.2 SAR, DoMode.com ,
.
7.2. SAR

Nokia 5170

Max SAR
/

0,22
1,24

Nokia 6150
Qualcomm QCP-1960

0,69
1,41

Qualcomm QCP-1900

0,2634

Ericsson LX-588

1,51

Ericsson A1228D

1,35

Siemens C-25

0,42 (SH888)
0,72

Bosch GSM-908

1,59

Philips Genie 900

1,52

Samsung Uproar

1,437

Motorola

1,5

Sony CMD-C1

1,49

Nokia 8810
Nokia 3110

Min SAR

0,24-0,39
0,55

SAR,
, SAR , 80 /.
SAR 220 1600 /,
3 20 .

10

240

SAR ^ 1,6 !
, :
- ANSI/IEEE: 900/1500 = 0,6 /2; 1900/1500 = 1,26 /2;
- CENELEC: SAR < 0,4 /.
,
( MS BTS,
GSM 10...30 BTS),
,
, 1...2 .

7.11.

. GSM (. 7.28)
( )
, , 0.

. 7.28.

, , , 0
: BTSo 0 BTS
,
( 1000 MS ).
.
:

241

) GSM 10 ,
BTS, PBTS = 50
GBs = 1 .
) GSM PMS =
2 , GMS = 1 .
) , , 0 , , 0,02 , 5
10 0- .
(/2) ,
.
) , :
- 8,

nMS=

(7.41)

PMsj j- MS, GMsj


j- MS, } j- MS , , 0;
- nBs,
8 =

' GBSi

)/(4 n - R f ) ,
(7.42)
i-l
PBsi - BTS, GBsi
i- BTS, , i- BTS , , 0;
- ;
,
-.
:
[ j - 1 j-1 7
+

]1/2
.

(7.43)

:
- RA = 0,02 = 0,562 /2;
- RB = 5 = 0,164 /2;
- Rc = 10 = 0,164 /2.
, , , , 1 / 2.
, GSM , = 1/2.
, GSM
,
.

242

10

7.12.
BTS
.
-, -
, .

77(, /, h2), (, /, hi, h2)
(, /, hi, h2), ,
, /,
BTS hi MS h2 .
,
, :
- : ,
(, ),
- : , , ,
- : ,
.
,
.
,
, (, 20 ).

kr = 4 jtaGA,,
(7.44)
a , X
, 0 .
:
- kr< 0,1, ;

;
- kr> 10, , ,
BTS MS ~ (1/4).
kr GSM, /= 900 :
= 2 kr= 76 0, = 20 kr= 760 0, = 30 = 1140 0,
2~2 .
. 3 ,
BTS , .
,
, - ,
,
[7.21].

243


.
0,3 1000
NARDA, 0,01 20 / 2.
() :
1) (Zakusala) () 0,6
/2 (0,38...0,48) /2.
2) ( ) () 0,28...0,38 /2.
, ,
GSM, NMT
1 /2,
( ).

,


, .
, , .

(GSM 900 , GSM
900/1800 ) .
- MS , - MS
, .
, ( GSM 900
DCS 1800) ,
. MS ,
, , .
,
. , ,
.
, . - , (, -,
- , .),
,
. , , :

10

244

- ( , ,
);
- ( ,
).

8.1.

(handheld) (MTA) (130x60x25) 100...200 .

( ),
, .
20 60 (
50... 150 ) .
() .
; ;
; ..
( ); (
); ().
SIM-.
:
5 ; 20...50 .
1...6 .

, ,
. , bluetooth.
hands free ( )

(
).

GSM, -:
1) (0,6...2)
;
2) (2...6);
3) PC card-;
4) SIM-;
5) /: 1/20... 10/100;
6) 99 275 ;
7) .
,
, ,
.
:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;

245

5) , , , (
250 );
6) ;
7) ;
8) ;
9) DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency)
.
GSM
,
(Nokia, Siemens, Ericsson, Motorola, Samsung, Philips .).

8.2.

. 2
GSM. (services)
. , services
:
1) ( );
2) ( );
3) ( ).
, .
services , .
:
- ;
- ;
- (SMS) .
, ,
, GSM

.
, , .
(SMS Short Message Service)
: ( 160...250 )
, .
MSC,
.
,

. , , ,
. ,
.
, ,
. , , , -.

246

10

,
GSM.
1. (call forwarding, call divert)
, , ,
. ,
, , (
) , ( MS
). ,
, .
, ,
.
2. (call hold) ,
. ()
( ),
.
3. (call waiting)
.
: ;
; ,
, ,
. ,
, .
4. (conference call) ( ) . ,
, ,
,
.
5. ( ) (call barring) , , ,
. , .
6. (closed user group)
, ,
/
.
7. , ;
, .

, ,
.
8.
, , ,
,
.
. ,
.

247

,
.
9. (
).
10. / ,
.
,
, , .
- , , .

8.3.
(fraud , ) ,
. , .
,

, , (
).
,
. , ,
[8.1-8.9]. [8.3].


(subscription fraud) . , ( )
, ,
( ) . ,
. -
, , - ,
( ) ( )
. -, ,
,
(, ) .
:
- , MS ;
- - MS ;
- ,
, ;

10

248

- .


(technical fraud) , . 60...70%
.
,
.
- Turbing .
. MS,
MS ,
MSC ,
, , .
- Cloning ( ) , MSi MS2, MS2
(, MSi), MSb
MS2 MSi.
- .
( ),
( ). ,
, .


MS, , ,
. :
- -
- MS2
- ;
- - - MS2
, :
- , ( MS),
- MS2.
- ,
MSi.


(thefts) , -, MS . , ,

249

MS . MS ,
. . 8.1 ,
. 1996 . 5%
( 1,080 .,
21 . ).
/, .

. 8.1. [8.3] (, Yankee Group)


- ,
, , ,
,
.
MS
,
, GSM. ,
, .
RF
(Radio Frequency) finger-printing,

( ) ,
.. ,
.
MS,
..
MS,
. - , , . GSM
MoU Association , ,
36 .

250

10


MS. GSM
EIR, -
GSM MoU () CEIR {Central EIR).
, , ,
.
18 (USC
United State Code) ,
:
- 1028 ;
- 1029 ;
- 1030 .
1029
. /
10...20 ,
, ,

, ,

.
GSM MoU .

8.4.

(security), ,
.
, ,
.
,
, .
,
. 8.3, , :
- ;
- ( ,
);
- .
,
MS, , MS,
.
. GSM
[8.10, 8.11].

251


2 , .
2 (. 4). 2
,
() (. 8.2).

100101101000110 ..


()

010010110011100...

110111011011010...

0100100110011100...

100101101000110...

. 8.2. GSM


: S1
BTS MS (. 8.3, ), S2

(. 8.3, ).

Air-


Air-


BTS
)


BTS
)

. 8.3. GSM

51 S2 5
.
8 (
) Kt ( ) R ( ).

252

10

A3 S
,
.
, GSM
, ,
S1 S2
. , 5
. GSM,

GSM GSM MoU Association.
, :
, (scrambling , ),
, .

9
GSM
9.1.
GSM
(Operation and Maintenance
Center) (. 9.1).
WSF) 9
RP - ()

q -

OS, NE ; f -

( GSM); -

(MMI); -
, TMN;
; t -

FB -
WSF - ;
OSF - ;
MF -

DCF - GSM,

QAF - Q-;

SEF - () ;
MEF -

NEF -

. 9.1.
GSM


,
(GSM NM) [9.1-9.3].

GSM

254

1. GSM NM
.
2. GSM NM ,
(PLMN),
.
3. GSM NM ,
PLMN, .
4. GSM NM ,
, , .
5. GSM NM , .
6. GSM NM
, , ,
.
7. GSM NM , ,
.
GSM
(OSI) (ISO), , ,
.

9.2.
(TMN) GSM
CCITT [9.1, 9.2],
.
GSM TMN
( TMN) (
PLMN)
. TMN ,
PLMN
. TMN
PLMN (, SS 7, - ISDN).
, GSM TMN ,
PLMN .
TMN ,
PLMN. . 9.1,
GSM TMN PLMN OSF
(OS), MF
DSF. TMN,
. TMN PLMN (NEF),
(WSF).
TMN
. , . 9.1,
.
, [9.3].
8 - 632

255

10

GSM TMN
PLMN (
) , . , ,
.

9.3.

TMN ,
, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
GSM TMN , ( TMN
OS), (
) OS.


, / ,
(NE)
.
: 1) ;
2) ; 3) () ;
4) ; 5) .
,
.

GSM TMN
(DCF) GSM TMN (DCN)
(LCN).
DCN GSM TMN OSI [9.2].

. , ,
CCITT [9.3] Q3 .
TMN. ,
CCITT SS 7 Q3.
, .25
(PS PDN).

PLMN
TMN CCITT Q2 A-bis.


GSM (NE) PLMN, , MSC, HLR, BSS
.
:
- (MEF), ; (ME) MEF;
- (SEF), .
SEF , , , .
(SE) SEF.

9.4.


,
.
,
.
,
.

TMN
GSM TMN . 9.2.
, , ,
CCITT SS 7 .25. SS
7 CCITT ( ), Q.795 [9.4].
.25
.
SPS 6 GSM 09.02 [11.5],
SS 7 :
- MSC HLR PLMN;
- ;
- ;
- .


GSM

257

BSS
BTS
A bis

MNAP
BTS
BTS

TMN

:
----------------- SS 7
............... - .25,
----------------- PS PDN
----------------- .25,
-
GSM MNAP -
SP -
SS 7
- .

MNA
P


TMN

. 9.2. GSM TMN


8*

GSM

258

TMN PLMN TMN


SS
7, PLMN, .25
CCITT ( ) Q.513 [9.6]. .25
(.25 SS 7).
BSS MSC (-, . 9.3) SS 7.

. 9.3.
BSS MSC

SCCP
2 .224 2, SCCP 3 .224 0.
GSM, .25
-. BTS BSC ( GSM A-bis)
LAPD . PLMN,
BTS, .25.
TMN 3 ,
PS PDN. PLMN TMN
/ 02-11 [9.7].
GSM, . 9.3.

, GSM TMN
( 3) , ( ) CCITT
Q.795 ISO (CMIS)
(FTAM), . 9.3 [9.8,
9.9]. GSM TMN,
,
SS 7 .25. , ,
PLMN, .



10.1. 2-
2- 90- ,
:
- - (TDMA) (CDMA)
(FDMA), ;
-
.
. 10.1 2- , 4 :
1) 0,5 35
(TDMA - FDD - [GSM, D-AMPS (IS-136), PDC]);
2) 2 50 (FDMA - FDD - [, Tetrapol, Digistar], TDMA - FDD
- [TETRA, IDEN]);
3) 0,3 (FDMA - TDD 2, TDMA - TDD - [DECT, PHS]);
4) 400...800 3000...8000
(FDMA - FDD - INMARSAT-M, TDMA - FDD - [ICO, AceS, Thuraya], TDMA - TDD IRIDIUM, CDMA - FDD - [GLOBALSTAR, ELIPSO]).
2- :
- : ,
;

260

10

( 1 ),
( 0,3 );
- :
: 1) , 2)

;

,
;
- :
10000 / 2,
1...2 /2;
- : ,
, ;
100 ;
100 500
; , ,
30...35 ; ,

( 400...800 ) ;
- : ,
, PSTN ISDN,
, ,
,
.

.10.1. 2- : TDMA
(Time Division Multiple Access); FDMA
(Frequency Division
Multiple Access); FDD
(Frequency Division Duplex); TDD
(Time Division Duplex);
D-AMPS TDMA (Digital Advanced
Mobile Phone Service)
. 10.1 2- .

10

262

10.1. 2-


GSM

, 890...915/
1710...1785
935...960/
1805... 1880

25
,

45/95
,
, 200


124


TDMA

FDD


8 16


GMSK

TDMA
136)
824...849
869...894

(IS- CDMA
(IS-95)
824...849
869...894


PDC

25

25

810...826
940...956
1429...1453
1477...1501
25

45

45

30

864...868

DECT


TETRA

1880...190 380...400
410...430
0
450...470

APCO

Tetrapol

138...174
406...512
746...869

70...520

24

20

20

H/O

48(130)

10

H/O

10

1250

25(50)

100

1728

25

12,5/6,25

832

20

640

10

TDMA
FDD

CDMA
FDD

TDMA
FDD

3(6)

55

3(6)

/4 DQPSK

QPSK
/4 DQPSK
() OQPSK
()
1288
42

,
/

270,8

48,6

RPE-LTR

VSELP

QCELP


, /


,

,
()

13 6,5

7,95

13 8,5 6,7

/No

CT2

= 1/2,: = 5 = 1/2
4,6
40
GSM-900
3,0(9),
2,5(20), 8(1), 1,6(4,8),
(0,6), 2(0,25), 1,6(1,8)
0,1(0,8) GSM1800 1(0,125),
0,25(0,03)
9
16

VSELP

R = 1/3, R = R = 1/2
V2
20
20
0,6(6,3)2,5 1,0 0,66(2)

40
FDMA
TDD
1
GFSK
72
ADPCM
32
/
2
0,005
(0,01)

TDMA
TDD
12
GFSK
1152

TDMA
FDD
4

FDMA
FDD
1

/4 DQPSK C4FM
CQPSK
36

ADPC
M
32

ACELP

CRC

R = 2/3

4,5

9,6
IMBE

19

400
FDMA
FDD
1
GMSK
8
RPCELP

4,4

R = 1/2,
Goley
180

10
57
0,01(0,25) 2,5(10)0,75(3) H/O
1(0,25)

6-7
17
20
12

()
: / ; /

12,5/10

H/O
H/O

20
10 ()

/
/

263

. 10.1 :
-
,
, , ,
, / .;
- ,
,
;
- GSM 900, DCS 1800
D-AMPS/1900 GSM 900/1800/1900, 2-
.
[10.7] ,
1998/1999
(. 10.2):
- GSM (44%) ( GSM 900 ,
GSM 1800 , a GSM 1900 ),
- (30%),
- D-AMPS ( ),
- PDC ( ),
- CDMA ( ).
10.2. 2-

,
183,3

,
7,6

120

TDMA

24,3

1,4

36

104

PDC

41,3

0,6

1 ()

30

CDMA

31,5

1,5

12

31

GSM


284

2-

,
.

FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System).

10.2. GSM 3-

GSM ,

GSM.

10

264

GSM UMTS/IMT-2000
:
- : DECT, DCS1800, PSC1900,
/;
- GSM 900/GSM 1800 GSM 400;
- , :
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service),
.25, IP ATM,
PSTN, ISDN;
HSCSD (High Speed
Circuit Switched Data);
EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution),
GSM 3G;
- GSM 400
;
- (, -,
, .);
- GSM ,
3- .
, GSM UMTS . .
HSCSD,
.
GSM, GPRS EDGE,
, UMTS.
2G +, 2,5G (. 10.2).

. 10.2. ETSI GSM


3-

265

. 10.2 , ETSI
GSM 3- . . 10.2, GSM
UMTS TDMA ( EDGE),
TCP/IP ATM. GPRS EDGE TDMA,
TDMA :
- 200 ;
- , 62 /;
- EDGE-
520 /;
- GPRS GSM , /
.25 IP;
- , GPRS, .25 IP
web- . GSM ,
.
2-
, , 2,048 /
.

10.3.
FPLMTS
, ,
, ,
, [10.1-10.13].
20% .
,
21- .
, 1996 . IMT-2000
(International Mobile Telecommunications-2000).
FPLMTS ,
land (), , ,
( 2000 )
, 2000 .
, IMT-2000
, , , .
IMT-2000
ITU-T, -

266

10

FPLMTS GMPCS (Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite).


IMT-2000
,
, .

.
IMT-2000 : 2
, 2,048 /, , .

, , ,
,
( ).
,
IRIDIUM
Globalstar ICO, . , ,
, .

, .

(, , ).

,
. , ITU
IMT-2000, :
,
- ( ) - ( PSTN),
. 3- G3
,
.
. ITU
IMT-2000 ,
.
- 3- .
16 ,
, .
(10 ) (6 ) .
3- ,
,
TDMA CDMA ,
.

267

, : .
3- .
1980...2100 2170...2200 .
- .
,
, .
TDMA CDMA 5-6 . , ,
( ),
, , ,
.
, .
3- .
, 3- IMT-2000, , . , - , . 10- , , 2010-2012 .
- -
, , .

IMT-2000
IMT-2000 3-
[10.6].

(anytime, anywhere)
IMT-2000 ,
. ,

, , .

(. 10.3).
ITU , IMT-2000 , , .
3-
UPT (Universal Personal Telecommunication). UPT
,
, ,
. UPT , ,
, / . UPT
/
, Web-
.

10

268

. 10.3.

IMT-2000
.
2,048 /.


. ,
.
, .
.
Web-
.
Web- - ,
. ,
,
, (
, , .).

269

IMT-2000 3-
230 . , , ,
, , .
,
, ,
3- .
IMT-2000
230 2 , , .
, IMT-2000,
, (FDD)
(TDD).
FDD TDD , . , FDD
.
TDD, , - , ,
. TDD
,
.

3- ,
, ,
, .

, ,
.
, . 3- . 3-
, ,
.
,
.
,

. ( ) , .
IMT-2000 ,
.
.
.

10

270

,
.


(, ) FMC (Fixed/Mobile
Convergence), .

,
,
. ,
, . ,
,
.
.
- .

. , GSM
\ ,
.

. ,
.
,
. FMC : . ,
(prepaid)
,
.
, :
. ,
.


3-
, .
ITU ,
(bridge the telecommunications cap) :
.

,

.

271


GSM 90- UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication
Unit) 3- .
1994 . .
Green Paper on Mobile and Personal Communications
, 3- .
,
.. ACTS (Advanced Communications Technologies and Services).
UMTS.
1996 . UMTS
Forum [10.8] , .
UMTS . UMTS
IMT-2000 , UMTS
. UMTS /, - (Nokia,
Ericsson, Alcatel, Siemens, Italtel).
UMTS , , .
UMTS .
GSM 2- UMTS , ,
. UMTS
GSM (GPRS, EDGE .),
.
, UMTS
,
.
UMTS :
- FMA1 (Frames Multiple Access) TDMA (FMA1 NS);
- FMA1 (FMA1 S);
- FMA2 CDMA.
FMA1 FMA2 FRAMES (
ACTS). . 10.3.

10

272

10.3. FMA1 FMA2

FMA1 NS

TDMA

FMA2
WCDMA

FDD TDD

1,6

/
(FMA1), / (FMA2)

2,6 5,2

4,615

16 64

FMA1S
TDMA/CDMA

FDD
5,10 20

1,6

, /

2,6

0,35

4,096/8,192/16,384

4,615

BOQAM/
QOQAM

2,167

10
-

8x0,577
QPSK/16QAM

OQPSK () QPSK
()

/
QPSK,
GMSK
4-
4,096

GMSK

0,22

ETSI 5 3-
: - (WB-CDMA), FMA2 , - (OFDMA), - (WB-CDMA), FMA1
, 6- (WB-TD-CDMA), FMA1 ,
- (ODMA).
, , UTRA
3- , ITU (. 10.4).
10.4. UMTS

WB-CDMA

CDMA

4,2...5,2

( 200 )
4,096 /

/, /

OFDMA

WB-TDMA

SFH-TDMA
OFDM

TDMA

100 24

1,6

1,6

4,17 /

2,6 /

2,1667 /

WB-TD-CDMA

TDMA/CDMA

ODMA

CDMA/EDMA
1 4

0,8125 /
3,25 /

UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access , UMTS.


UMTS 2002 ,
, . 10.4, UTRA 2
/. .
9,6 / 144 / 384 /.

273

, ( ) UMTS 2005 . GSM.



,
.
UMTS , 155 /.
UMTS , , , .
(IP), .
UMTS ,
, , GSM-DCS.
.
, UMTS - UTRA,
.
UMTS ,
, , ,
( ),
.
, .
UMTS, 2002 . ,
, .
, UMTS,
,
.
:
- , ;
-
;
- ;
- ,
;
- UMTS .
UMTS . , ETSI
UMTS IMT-DS (IMT-DS
IMT-2000 Direct Spread
(DS-CDMA) (FDD)
( WCDMA UTRA FDD) IMT-TC (IMT-TC

274

10

IMT-2000 Time Code TDMA/CDMA


(TDD) (
UTRA TDD SCDMA)).
. ,
IMT-2000 .
, GSM/DCS, DECT.
IMT-2000 , ,
.
. UMTS
. , UMTS
IP- , .
, GSM
/ UMTS, .
API,
,
, ,
.
, UMTS,
, .
. UMTS
. .
IMT-2000.
. ,
,
,
. (UIM)
- ,
, . UIM-
SIM SIM/IMSI.
-
.
3- (VHP). UIM
,
. UMTS
,
. UMTS ,
. ,
, ; ,
.

UMTS.

275

10.4. 3-


. UMTS
2010 . 1730 (. 10.5).
10.5.

,
2000 .

2005 .

2010 .

113

200

260

426

940

1730

200 3- (3G) 2005 .


16%, 32 , 60%. , , .
. , 2005 .
(.
10.4), 2015 . 3 .

. 10.4.

3- , GSM, TDMA,
cdmaOne PDC.
3G ,
2G. 2G , . 3G IMT-2000 2G.

276

10


, .
3- 2G 3G.
, XXI ,
4GW (4th General Wireless Infrastructures) 4G.
,

. 4G ( 3G ), 5 60 , , (-, , ), .


, ,
IMT-2000 ,
, ,
, ,
.

,
, :
- 2,048 /
( 3 /),
- 384 / ( 3 12 /)
;
- 144 / ( 12 120 /)
;
- 64 (144) / ( ).
, , . ,

. 3-
, : ( ,
, )
( ).
,
3- ( ), -,
.

. (/) (/ ..). ( , ). , -

277


.
, 1:4
1:40 (384 /) 1:200 (2,048 /).
3-
.
, , .
(
) ISDN, 144 / (1 BRI) 384 / (3 BRI).
,
( )
. ,
IMT-2000.

.
.
100 .
62 1996 . 170
1999 ., 2005 .
1 .
,
, ,
.


3- , (Virtual Environment). VHE
[10.7]:
- , ,
;
-
;
-
(PSTN, );
- ,
, .
.
,
, . IMT-2000

, , ,
() .
VHE : ,
PSTN . VHE, ,

278

10

CAMEL, INAP, WAP .


VHE (VHE ETSI, 1999)
IMT-2000. , VHE, , ,
, .
.


/ ( , ) , GPS .
. , ,
.
. ,
, , , , . , ,
,
- ,
. ,
, ..
. , GPS,
.

.

, .
,
.
,
. ,
( ).


, ,
, - .

.
,
. . , Motorola (VoxML) .

279

.
,
. .

3- .
. , . - , ( -, , , ) , ,
,
.
, -
, ,
.

2- .

2005-2010 , , , . , , . , , 2G,
. ,
3- .
,
- .
3- [10.2, 10.6, 10.7, 10.14].

10.5. 21-
3- , UMTS IMT-2000. ,
, 2015 .
3G , :
-
;
- -
, 2 /;
- , 15...20% , 1...1,2
.
21- 4- 4GW. 4GW 15...25 ,
2025 .

10

280

,
, ,
.
,
15...25 .
,
4- .
.
A.

, , (, ) 4GW: ) Anything Goes ; )


Pocket Computing ; ) Integrity .
:

.
. .
-

1995 . Ericsson 2005 Ericsson


Entering the 21st Century (Ericsson 21- ).
, .
B. ,

,
1998 . NFS ()
44,736 /. [10.7].

4G
NFS 4G
, 2G 4G
0,01 100 /. 4G
,
(ANSI) .
: 1 1,544 /, 2 3,152 /, _ 44,736 /, 4
274,760 /.
672 , 64 /
, 672 - ISDN.
, , ,

281

ISDN,
ATM, SDH, MPEG ..
. 10.6
.
10.6.

1G

9,6 /

NMT-450,
AMPS .1

2G

3G

4G

115 /

2 /

44 /

CDMA, GSM, GPRS


IS-136, EDGE


IMT-2000


, .
, 15-20 .
, : QoS, , , .

, 4- .
NFS .

( , , ).
, ,
.. ,
.
,
() (GPS). ,
, .

, , ..

, ,
.
, , , . , , .

, , ..
:
, ,
Web-, .

282

10

, 4G
NFS . :
- ;
- ;
- ;
-
;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
-:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) .
,
:
- ( , ,
);
- ;
- ( , ,
);
- (
);
- ;
- (
-, --, );
-
;
- ( , , );
- ,
(, ).

4G

4G
. , . .
, .
,
-, .

283

,
.
.
, , ,
, , ,
.
.

.

.
: ,
,
.
.
. ,
, Web-
( ). : , ,
,
.
IP- .
, ,
IP. ,
IP.
,
(, , .).
. ( , ,
IP-)
.
,
.

.
. 3G . : 10 /
100 / .
5 60 .
.

284

10

. , .
5, 20, 40 60 : , , , , , .
.
, ,
, ,
4G. , , ,
.

1


.1.1.
, , .
,
X .
, , .

,
,
E ( r , t ) . .
.1 E ( t ) ( ) ,

.

()

. .1.

286


.
.
. , , , E(t) { (>)}, ,
((E)).

.1.2.

W(X) X
X +
:
, ( + ) dP W ( x ) = lim
-------------------- , -------- (.1.1)
v
' *-
dX
( + ) X + ,
X.
W(X)
. X (
, X
),
(. . 1.2).
W(x)

-- --

^min

--

. .1.2.

X W(X) (.1.1)
(. . 1.3). W(X)
, X


9 632

287

288

W ( X ) , ,
(. . 1.2).
W ( X )
, ( X)
W ( X ) . W ( X ) ( \ <
< 2 ) X \ < < 2 :
( < X < 2 ) = j w (X ) d X .

(. 1.2)

. . 1.3 .
X
] , :
P{XmiB<X<Xmm)= jw(X)dX=l,

(.1.3)

, W ( X ) , .
( ) ,
X . ( ) :
X
()= \w(X)dX.
(. 1.4)
, P ( X m a x ) = 1,
P(Xmin) = 0.

(. 1.5)
(1.6)

, :
,
(, = 1 /).
{ > ) = 1- \ w ( X ) d X .
(. 1.7)

289

.1.3.
W(X) .
.
.
( ) (X) X
.
W(X) ,
X dX W(X)dX , :
^
()= \x-W(X)dX.

(. 1.8)

X , :
(X)-flX,-W(Xi),

(. 1.9)

1-1

N X, W(Xt)
Xt.
(mode ). ()
N
W

N tf '
X, W(X) .
W(X) ( )
( ).
W(X), ( ).
: * (X).
. X,
()*0,5,
(.1.10

(X) ,

(*) = 0 ,5 = J W ( X ) d X .

. = 2 X .
:
*>
= 2 =

J (-())

-w(x)dx,

(.1.11)

, :
= 2 = -(X))2 - W { x , ) d x ,

(. 1.12)

1-1

dX
. (
E(t) :
N

9*

290

= 2

-W{Et)dE9
(.1.13)
/-I
~ 2 ~ 2 ).
.
, Xmin = -
= :
= j(X-(X))2'W(X)dX = jx2-w(x)dx + j(X)2-W(X)dX-

.
( : () ) :
q = VA,
(.1.14)
X
, .
(.1.13):
o = ^{Ei-(E)f-W{Ei)dE ,
1.15)

(.

d E .

.1.4. ,

, , , .
( BTS, MS)
(
), .
, ,
( ), .
, , .
.
:

291

- ( );
- ( );
- ( -) (
);
- - ( ).


( ,
) :

W(x).

(.1.16)

X ; 2 = , ;
X 0
-X
L
, :
*22
0 <S X

(.1.4.17)

<SOo;
,
X <0 .

. . 1.4 W(X).
dW/dX = 0, : = ,
W(X= ) = 0,606/.
W ( x ) = /2~/2

0,606/

. .1.4. W ( X )

292

( ) :

293

00 2 - X2
~
2
( X ) = j x - w ( x ) d x = J-22 d X = J- = 1,25- = 1,25-,,,
(.1.18)

1,25 .
:
X
. X zx^_
() = \w(x)dx = jx-e22dx =1-22, OzXzoo.
(.1.19)

() ^ 0,5, :
= 1,177 = 0,94(J0.
(.1.20)


()
.
X, 0,9 0,1.
(. 1.19) , 4,66, 13,37 .
, , X ( , ).
,
, X,
( ).




, ,
.
:

W ( x ) = ~2
-e
/Q^XZ/O2)
:
1

dy,

64

(.1.21)

(. 1.22)

(.1.23)

.
1
2
4

0, (. 1.21)
, .

294

, /2 1, /0(</2)
:

/2 -

(. 1.24)

295

2 2

: 1
W(X)-

/2

(. 1.25)

, yjx/b
( )
. yjx/b ,
) .



(. 1.4) :

z
1
d
X
(. 1.26)

^ X -X +b

()\w(x)dx=^
Je 22 /(

( )
,
.
:
W ( x ) = - = = e 22 ,
1.27)
/2:

(.

X , (X) , .
. . 1.5 W ( X ) .
, W ( X ) ( X ) , X - + . :
dW/dX = 0 (X), = (X).

296

, W(X/(x))
1

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 /() . .1.5.
W(X)

297

5 4

- -2 - -4 -5

:
{)=- fe 2 2 dX,
\l2no

(. 1.28)

= (- ())/, (.1.28) :
1
()=

zl

Je

^ = erf(X),

(. 1.29)

erf(JQ (), .
- -(X), (()) = 0,5, = (X) = .
, ,
, () X, X = () = 0,5,
.
[.1.1], 4 5,
() 5 (. . 1.6):
- () = 0,01 = 2,32 ,
- () = 0 , 1 1 , 2 8 ,
- () = 0,99 = 2,32 ,
- () = 0,9999... * 5 .

298

0,1

1 10

50

84 99 (), %

. .1.6.

,
X, (
). 10, :

299

XL = \gX, (XL) = \g(X), oL = lga, :


xL-(xL)

(.1.30)

P { X L ) = - L J z^dy.

,
, .
, .
: (X) = (XM)L, oL .
, ,
,
.
P(XL) = 0,99, XL = 2,32 aL, .

-

, ,
() =>0, ,
[. 1.2].
, : =
+ )
(.1.31)
\ 2 E2h :
2=^2
1.32)

(.

t-1 t-1

,
N , N ->
,
.
, ,
(.1.30) (.1.31) , , (> (. 1.32).
, :
()
(.1.33)
, 0 = 0, : E s = - ( ) .
(. 1.34)
(. 1.28), Es :
Es = 1 - Aq + ]2,
= 2 = .
(. 1.35)
, :
(,- )2+22

300

(. 1.36)

*,

] ( - 0) 2.

- [1.2]:
W , () = Jws (2)-|> = ( A / o 2 s ) [-(2 + A ^ ) / 2 o 2 s } I0\(\ ^)/oJ . (.1.37)

, ,
( ), ,
(.1.3.7) 2 < 1 [.1.4]:
dp

W(p)dp = (l + m2)-e""2 -{) / Ij-m-^l + m2 -fi-

(. 1.38)

Kp ) J( p ) '

= S2IPQ
( ), (
), / 0
.
/0 = 0 .
2 = 0 (.1.38) :
W{p)dp~J>.*Lt
(.1.39)
\)
,
.


A3
8
ABP
AC
AC
AC

ACCH
ACI
ACH
ACT
ACU
A/D
ADC
ADM
ADM
AFI

Authentication Algorithm
Ciphering Key Generation Algorithm
Active Band Pass
Authentication Center
Access Control
Adjacent Channel
Adaptive Channel Allocation
Associated Control CHannel
Adjancet Channel Interference
Access CHannel
Automatic Code Translation
Automatic Calling Unit
Analog-to-Digital conversion
Analog-to-Digital Converter
Adaptive Delta Modulation
Adaptive Data Multiplexing
Authority and Format Identifier

AGC
AGCH
AMPS

Automatic Gain Control


Access Grant CHannel
Advanced Mobile Phone System

AMPS

Advanced Mobile Phone Service

AMSS

Aeronautical Mobile Satellite


Service

ANBH
ANI
ANSI

Average Network Busy Hour


Automatic Number Identification
American National Standards
Institute

AP
ARCH
ASR
ASK

Access Point
Access Response CHannel
Automatic Send/Receive
Amplitude Shift Keying

301

AT&T

American Telephone And Telegraph


company
ATDM
Asynchronous Time Division
Multiplexing
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AU
Access Unit
AUC
Authentication Center
AUI
Attachment Unit Interface
AWGN
Additive White Gaussian Noise
BCCH
Broadcast Control CHannel
BCN
Broadband Communication Network
BEF
Band-Elimination Filter










-
-
-





Bit-Error Probability
BER
Bit-Error Rate
BER
Bit-Error Ratio
BF
Bandpass Filter
BFD
Beat-Frequency Detection
BPF
Band Pass Filter
BPM
BiPhase Modulation
bps
bits per second
BPSK
Binary Phase-Shift Keying
BR
Bit Rate
BRF
Band-Rejection Filter
BRI
Basic Rate Interface
BS
Base Station
BSC
Base Station Controller
BSIC
Base Station Identity Code
BSS
Base Station System
BSSAP
BSS Application Part
BTS
Base Transceiver Station
BTU
Basic Transmission Unit

Call

Cell
CAI
Common Air Interface
CAP
Competitive Access Provider
CAR
CARrier
CAS
Channel Associated Signalling
CASE
Common Application Service
Element
CB
Control Board
CBR
Contstant Bit Rate
CCC
Credit Card Calling
CCCH
Common Control CHannel
CCH
Control CHannel
CCIR
Consultative Committee on
International Radio
CCITT
Consultative Committee on
International Telegraphy &
Telephone
CCS
Common Channel Signalling
CCS
Hundred Call Second

302

CD
CD
CDMA

Calling Device
Carrier Detect
Code Division Multiple Access

CELP

Code-Excited Linear Prediction

CEPT


()

,
,
,


()
()
(1/36 )


()

Conference of European Postal and


Telecommunications administrations
CF
Carrier Frequency













CFT
Continuous Fourier Transform

CH
CHannel

CHDB
Compatible High-Density Bipolar code
C/I
Carrier-to Interference ratio
/
CIC
Circuit Identification Code

CISPR
International Special Committee on
Radio Interferences

CLE
Conventional Linear

Equalizer

CMR
Cellular Mobile Radio

CNR
Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
-
CODEC
COder/DECoder
/ ()
COM
COMmunication
,
CONELRAD CONtrol of Elektromagnetic

RADiation
CORF
Committee on Radio Frequency

CP
Call Processing
/
CPSK
Coherent-Phase-Shift Keying

CPU
Central Processing Unit

CS
Control Section

CS
Channel Switching

303

CSC
CSI
CVC
CWS
DA
D/A
DAC
DAC
D-AMPS
DB
DBF
dBm
DCCH
DCDM
DSN
DCPSK
DCS
DCS
DECT
DM
DPCU
DPSK
DR
DSM
DSS
DT
DT
DT
DT
DTE
DTR
DTS
DX
E
E1-E4
E-BCCH
ECC

EDAC
EGP

EIR






-
-
-
AMPS


,
1
Dedicated Control CHannel

Digitally Controled Delta Modulation -
Data Communication Network

Differentially-Coherent Phase-Shift -
Keying

Digital Cellular System



Digital Cross-connect System

Digital Enhanced Cordless

Telecommunications

Delta Modulation
-
Differential Pulse Code Modulation -

Differential Phase-Shift Keying


EMC
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
Data Rate
EMI
ElectroMagnetic Interferences
Delta-Sigma Modulation
EMR
ElectroMagnetic Radiation
Digital Switching System
ENBW
Equivalent Noice Band Width
Data Transmission
EQ
EQualizer
Data Traffic
ESN
Electronic Serial Number
Data Transfer
ETS
European Telecommunication
Delayed Time
Standard
Data Terminal Equipment
ETSI
European Telecommunication
Data Transfer Rate
Standard Institute
Data Transfer System
EURONET EUROpean (information)
Duplex
NETwork
Electric-field strength
F
Field
European standards PDH
F
Filter
Extended BCCH
F
Frequency
Error Correcting Code
F
flag
Error Detection And Correction
FACCH
Fast Associated Control CHannel
Exterior Gateway Protocol (TCP/IP)
FB
Frequency correction Burst
Error Input/Qutput
FCCH
Frequency Correction CHannel
Equipment Identity Register
FDD
Frequency Division Duplex
Common Signalling Channel
Channel Status Indicator
Connected Virtual Channel
Central Wireless Station
Destination Address
Digital to Analog conversion
Digital-to-Analog Conversion
Digital-to-Analog Converter
Digital AMPS
Dummy Burst
Demodulator Band Filter
decibels above or below 1 mW

304

FDP
Fast Digital Processor

FDX
Full DupleX

FFT
Fast Fourier Transform

FI
Field Intensity


/







()



PDH


(TCP/IP)

/


FIM
Field Intensity Meter

FM
Frequency Multiplexing

FMA
Frames Multiple Access

FPS
Frames Per Second

FR
Frame Relay

FRM
Frequency Meter
,
FS
Frame Switch

FS
Frequency Shift
()
FSK
Frequency Shift Keying

FSM
Field Strength Meter

G
Gain

GC
Gain Control

GC
Giga Cycle
,
GF
Gap Filter

GIPS
Ground Information Processing System
GN
Gaussian Noise

GPRS
General Packet Radio Service

GPS
Global Positioning System

GSM
Global System for Mobile

communications
HI-FI
HIgh-FIdelity

HLR
Home Location Register

FDM
FDMA

Frequency Division Multiplexing


Frequency Division Multiple Access

305

HUP
Handover User Part


ICI
Inter-Carrier Interferences
()
ID
IDentification
,
ID
IDentifier

IDFT
Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (USA)
()
IF
Intermediate Frequency

IF
InterFace

IFFT
Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

IFG
Inter-Frame Gap

IM
Inter Modulation

IMD
Inter Modulation Distortion

IMEI
International Mobile station

Equipment Identity

IMT
International Mobile

Telecommunication
INMARSAT INternational MARine SATellite

telecommunications organization

ISDN
Integrated Service Digital Network

LPC
Linear Predictive Coding
ISI
InterSymbol Interference
LPF
Low Pass Filter
ISO
International Standards Organization
LPS
Line Procedure Specification
ITC
International Telecommunication
LRF
Location Registration Function
Convention
ITU
Information Transfer Unit
LSA
Lost Sub Area
ITU
International Telecommunication
LSB
Lower Side Band
Union
LSD
Low Speed Data
IWF
InterWorking Function
LTP
Long-Term Prediction
kbps
kilo bits per second
MAP
Mobile Application Part
Kc
Ciphering Key
MBA
Multiple-Beam Antenna
Ki
Individual Subscriber Authentication
MCA
Multi Channel Analyzer
Key
MCC
Mobile Communication Control
KID
Key ID (IDentification)
station
LA
Local Area
MCC
Mobile Country Code
LAI
Local Area Identification
Mchip/s
Megachip/second
LAP-D
Link-Access Procedure on the
ME
Mobile Equipment
D-channel
MES
Mobile Earth Station
LCCH
Leash Control CHannel
MF
Medium Frequency
LCN
Logical Channel Number
MF
Multi Frequency
LNA
Low Noice Amplifier
MFSK
Multiple Frequency Shift Keying
LOS
Loss Of Signal
MLA
Microstrip Linear Antenna
LOS
Line Of Sight
MMW
MilliMeter Waves
LOTS
Loss Of Transport Signal
MNC
Mobile Network Code
HPBW

Half-Power Band-Width

306

MOD

MODulator

()


()




D-


( )






,


/, /


MOD/
MODulation/DEMODulation

DEMOD
MODEM
MOS
MP

MOdulator-DEModulator
Mean Opinion Score
Mean Power
MPE
Multi-Pulse Excitation MPE-LTP
Multi-Pulse Excitation Long Term Predictor
MRN
Mobile Roaming Number
MRT
Mobile Radio Telephone
MS
Mobile Station

MSC
MSIN
MSK
MSRN
MSU
MTCO
MTP

NB
NB
NB
NC
NC
NCC
ND
NDF
NEP
NET
NF
NM
NM
NM
NMC
NMRS
NMSI
NMT
NNI
NSC
NSR
NSS
O&M
OB

Mobile Switching Center


Mobile Station Identification
Number
Minimum Shift Kying
Mobile Station Roaming Number
Message Signal Unit
Mobile Telephone Central Office
Message Transfer Part
Narrow-Band
Necessary Bandwidth
Normal Burst
Network Control
Network Controller
Network Control Centre
Non Directional
Nonlinear Distortion Factor
Noise Equivalent Power
Noise Equivalent Temperature
Noise Factor
Network Management
Noise Meter
No Message
Network Management Center
National Mobile Radio Servise
National Mobile Station
Identification number
Nordic Mobile Telephone
Network-to-Network Interface
Network Service Center
Noise-to-Signal Ratio
Network Sub System
Operations and Maintenance
Occupied Bandwidth
Operations and Maintenance
Application Part

307


()


( NMT)
-

-




Operations and Maintenance Center


OOF
Out Of Frame
OPC
Originating Point Code
O-QPSK
Offset-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
OR
Operating Range
PABX
Private Automatic Branch eXchange

(PBX)

PB
PCH

PCM
PD
PDC
PDH
PDN
PEF
PFC

Paging Area Controller


Push Button
Paging CHannel
Pulse Code Modulation
Power Density (W/m2)
Personal Digital Cellular
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
Packet Data Network
Prediction Error Filter
Phase Frequency Characteristic

PFD

PG
PIN
PLMN
PLS
PMR
PRBS
PS
PSK
PSNR
PSPDN

Power Flux Density


Pulse Forming Modulation
Power Gain
Personal Identification Number
Public Land Mobile Network
Physical Layer Signalling
Private Mobile Radio
(Wireless Communication)
Pseudo Random Bit Sequence
Packet Switching
Phase Shift Keying
Power Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Packet Switched Public Data

Network

PUK
QAM
QFM
QoS
QPSK
QPSK
QUAM
RACF
RACH
RAND
RBS
RCF
RFI
RLCP
RN

Personal Unblocking Key


Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Quantized Frequency Modulation
Quality of Service
Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
Quaternary Phase-Shift Keying
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Radio Access Control Function
Random Access CHannel
RANDom number
Radio Base Station
Radio Control Function
Radio Frequency Interference
Radio Link Control Protocol
Radio Noise





/
()


- ()
(/2)




308

-



/
( )



/










()


,

,
RPE
Regular-Pulse Excitation
RPE-LTP

Regular-Pulse Excitation-Long Term


Predictor

RRL
RRS
RS
RSSMAP

Radio Relay Link


Radio Relay Station
Radio Station
Radio Sub System Mobile Application
Part
Receiver-Transmitter
Radio Terminal Function
Radio Telephone Mobile System
Retransmit
Slow Associated Control CHannel
Service Access Point
Service Access Point Identifier
Specific Absorption Rate
Synchronization Burst
Satellite Bussines System
Service Center
Switching Control Center

RT
RTF
RTMS
RX
SACCH
SAP
SAPI
SAR
SB
SBS
SC
SCC

SCCP
SCH
SCH
SCP
SCS
SDMA
SDCCH

Signalling Connection
Control Part
Synchronization CHannel
Supplemental CHannel
Service Control Point
Satellite Communication System
Space Division Multiple Access

Standalone Dedicated Control


CHannel
SERV
SERVices
SFH
Slow Frequency Hopping
SHF
Super High Frequency
SIC
Station Identification Code
SIF
Signal Information Field
SIM
Subscriber Indentity Module
SM
System Manager
SMAF
Service Management Agent
Function
SMAP
System Management Application
Process
SMG
Special Mobile Group
SMI
Structure of Management
Information
SNI
Subscriber Network Interface
SNMP
Simple Network Management
Protocol
SNR
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SP
Signalling Point

309






,




SPDS
Spectral DenSity
SPS
Signalling Protocols and Switching
SPU
System Processing Unit
SRES
Signed RESponse
SS7
Signaling System 7
SSP
Service Switching Point
SSS
Switching SubSystem
STDMA
Space Time Division Multiple Access

(SIM-)






/





7



SUBT
SUBsTation

SVC
Switched Virtual Channel (.25)
(.25)
SVC MGR SerViCes ManaGeR

SWR
Standing Wave Ratio

TACS
Total Access Communications Systems

Transaction Capability

TCH
Traffic CHannel

Time Compressing Multiplexing



TDM
Time Division Multiplex

TDMA
Time Division Multiplex Access

Terminal Equipment

Transmission and Multiplexing



TEI
Terminal End-point Identifier

TETRA
Trans-European Trunked RAdio

TMN
Telecommunications Management

Network
tmn
transmission

TMS
Time Multiplex Switching

TMSI
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity ()

tmtr
transmitter
,
TP
Transaction Processing

TPMR
Trunk Private Mobile Radio

TR
Transmit-Receive
-
TRX
Transceiver
,

310

TS
TU
TUP

USB
USERID
VAD
VADS

Terrestrial Station
Tributary Unit
Telephone User Part
Transmission
Transmit Signal Degradation
Transmit Signal Failure
Unnumbered
Acknowledgement
Unspecified Bit Rate
Universal Character Set
Universal Decimal Classification
Unnembered Information
Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System
User-to-Network Interface
UNiversal Integrated COMmunication
User Part
User Packet CHannel
Universal Personal Communication
Service
Upper Side Band
USER IDentification
Voice Activity Detector
Value Added Data Services

VC
VCI
VCP
VDT
VDU
VED
VF
VFC
VGA
VHF
VI
VLR
V-MCC
VP
VPCI
VPD
VPDN

Virtual Channel
Virtual Channel Identificator
Voice Channel Protocol
Visual Display Terminal
Visual Display Unit
Vertical Electric Dipole
Voice Frequency
Voice Frequency Channel
Variable Gain Amplifier
Very High Frequency
Vertical Incidence
Visitor Location Register
Visit-Mobile Communication Control
Vertical Polarization
Virtual Path Connection Identificator
Variable Power Divider
Virtual Private Data Network

VPI

Virtual Path Identificator

TXD
TXF
UA
UBR
UCS
UDC
UI
UMTS
UNI
UNICOM
UP
UPCH
UPCS






VSWR
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
VSAT
Very Small Aperture Terminal
VT
Virtual Tributary
VTAF
Vitrual Terminal Application
Entity
VTAM
Virtual Telecomunication Access
Method
W
Wireless
WAE
Wireless Application Environment
WAN
Wide Area Network
WAP
Wireless Application Protocol
WATS
Wide Area Telephone Service

()


-





,




,

()

()

311




()





,



WGN
White Gaussian Noise
WLL
Wireless Local Loop
WM
Wave Meter
WM
Word (s) per Minute
WS
Wireless Station
WSNR
Weighted Signal-to Noise Ratio
WSP
Wireless Session Protocol
WTAI
WTC
WTF

Wireless Telephone Application


Interface
Wireless Telephone Communication
World Telecommunication Forum

WTP

Wireless Transport Protocol

WV
WVL
X

WaVe
WaVe Length
eXchange

X.25

Protocol X.25

AM



-
-

JI3


()


,

.25

312

1.1. European Telecommunication Standardization Institute. Group Special Mobile or Global of


Mobile Communications (GSM) Recommendation. ETSI Secretariat, Sophia Antipolice cedes,
France, 1988.
1.2. SYSTRA GSM System Training. Nokia Connection People. 1999, www.nokia.com.
1.3. Hanzo LSteela R. The Pan-European mobile radio System. Pts.l and 2. European Trans. On
Telecom. 5(2), p.p. 245-276,1994
1.4. GSM. IN: Mobile Radio Communications, Steel, R., and Chap.8, p.p. 677-773, IEEE PressPentech Press, London, 1992
1.5. European Train Control System (ETCS). The New standard train control system for the
European railways. (GSM-Railway). VIC/ERRIA200, August, 1993.
1.6. M.B. . .: , 2000. 248 .
1.7. ., . . BHV--, 1998,
256.
1.8. Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 3621pp.
2

2.1. The mobile Communication. Handbook. Editor J.D.Gibson. CRC Press. IEEE Press. 1999.
2.2. European Telecommunication Standardization Institute. Group Special Mobile or Global
System of Mobile Communication (GSM) Recommendation. ETSI Secretariat, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France, 1999.
2.3. Mouly M., Pautet M.-B. The GSM System for Mobile Communications. Paris, 1992.
702 p.
2.4. Hanzo LStefanov J. The Pan-European Digital cellular mobile radio system know as GSM.
In: Mobile Radio Communication, Steel, R., Ed. Chap.8, p.p. G77-773, IEEE Press Pentech
Press, London, 1992.
2.5. Hanzo LSteela R. The Pan-European mobile radio systems. Pts. 1 and 2. European Trans. On
Telecomm. 5(2), p.p. 245-276,1994.
2.6. Rede S.M., Weber M.K., Oliphant M.W. In Introduction to GSM Artech Hause, Boston London.1995.
2.7. Metrotra A. Cellular Radio. Analog and Digital System. ARTECH Hause. Boston-London.
1994, 460 p.
2.8. ETSI. GSM Technical Specifications. 1991.
2.9. Samojlov O., Nikitina M. Cellular Mobile Communication Networks in GSM Standard,
www.osp.ru/nets/1996/06/10.htm (russian).
2.10. Heger W. GSM vs. CDMA. GSM global System for Mobile Communications. Procedings of
the GSM Promotion Seminar 1994 GSM Mov Group in Cooperation with ETSI GSM
Members. 15 December 1994.
2.11. M.B. . M.: , 2000. 248 .

313

2.12. J kin Ju. The Sellular network GSM Standard. Automatic, Electromechanic&Communication, 1997-2001 (russian).
2.13. A.B. SS 7. M.: -, 1999.
2.14. Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 362 1pp.
3

3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.
3.10.

3.11.
3.12.
3.13.
3.14.
3.15.
3.16.
3.17.
3.18.
3.19.
3.20.
3.21.
3.22.
3.23.
3.24.
3.25.

Radio wave Propagation and Antennas for Personal Communications. Siwiak Kozemirz.
Artech House, Jnc.1998.
The mobile communication. Handbook. 2d Ed. Editor. J.D.Gibson. IEEE PRESS, 1999.
Mobile Antenna Systems. Handbook. Ed. K.Fujimoto, J.RJames. Artech House, Jnc.1994.
Feher K. Wireless Digital Communications. Prentica Hall PTR, 1995.
G.S.M. Physical Layer on the radio-path. Vol.G. Group Special Mobile (GSM Europe).
Recommendation 05.02. GSM Committee, 1990.
Jakes W.C. ED.: Microwave Mobile Communications. J.Wiley. New Jork, 1974.
Lee W.C.Y. Mobile Cellular Telecommunication Systems. MeGraw Hill, New Jork, 1989.
ProakinsJ.G. Digital Communications. Ed. S., MeGraw Hill, New Jork, 1989.
.. . 3731. : ,
1981/1983.
Popov V., Chaiko A., Homicky V., Mogorit N. Effective complex dielectric permittivity of
forest media for Radio waves. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, 2001.
2, p. 46-50.
Volman V., Pimenov Ju. Technical electrodynamics. Moscow: Communication, 1971. 487
p. (Russian).
Popovs V. DzelzceJ sakaru sistemas. Antenas (l.daja. Antenas parametri. 2.daja. Antenas
parametru merijumi). Riga: RTU DzTI, 2001/2002.
Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 362 1pp.
A.M., E.JI. . .:
, 1971.
.. . .: , 1972.
Recomendation in vegetation. Recomendation ITU-RP.833.3 (1992-1994-1999-2001).
.. . .: . , 1957. 303 .
. . 10 (ICAO), 1963.
.., .., A.M. . .: . , 1973. 208 .
SaxtonJ., LaneJ. Wireless World. 1955, 61, 5, pp. 219-232.
McPetrie J.S., Ford L.M. Experiments on Propagation of 9,2 cm wavelength, especially on the
effect of obstacles. J.Jnst. Elec. Engrs (London), 1946, v.93, pf. 3-A, pp. 531-543.
Labrone A.M., Martin P.E., Chapman C.W. High Gain Measurement of VHF and UHF behind a grove of treks. IRE Trans. Ant. Propag. 1961, 9, pp. 487-491.
Murray O.M. Attenuation Due to trees in the VHF/UHF bands. Marconi Rev. 1974, v. 37, 192,
pp. 41-50.
Herbstrei J.W., Crichlow W.Q. Measurement of the Attenuation of Radio Signals by Jungles.
Radio science Journal of Research NBS/ISINC-URSI, 1964, v. 68D, N8, p. 903.
Popov V. UHF radio wave propagation through woodlands in cellular mobile communication
systems. In: 44nd. International Scientific Conference. October 11-13, 2003, Riga: Scientific
proceedings of Riga Technical University, Transport and Engineering, Railway Transport,
Serija 6, Sejums 12, 2004.

314

3.26. Popov V. VHF radio wave propagation through woodlands in cellular mobile communication
systems. In: 44nd. International Scientific Conference. October 11-13, 2003, Riga: Scientific
proceedings of Riga Technical University, Transport and Engineering, Railway Transport,
Serija 6, Sejums 12, 2004.
4

4.1. Feher . Wireless digital communications. Modulation and spread spectrum applications.
Prentice-Hall PTR, Prentice Hall Inc. 1995.
4.2. Steele R. Mobile radio communications. Pentech Press, 1992.
4.3. Tuttlebec W.H. ED.: Cordless Telecommunications in Europe, Springer Verlag, London, 1990.
4.4. M.B. . M.: , 2000. 248 .
4.5. Hansen .., Mikkelsen .., Nielsen . Speech and channel coding for the half-rate channel
of the GSM system. Teleteknik. Eng.Ed. 1994, vol.38, 2, p. 101-109.
4.6. Nokia adds EFR vocoder to IS-136 hand sets. PCS Week.1997, October 15. vol. 8, 42, p. 5.
4.7. Smar Tone first with EFR codec // Mobile communications International. 1997, November,
46, p. 17.
4.8. Radio wave Propagation and Antennas for Personal Communications. S.ed. K.Siwiak. Artech
House. Boston. London 1998.
4.9. Proakis Y.G. Digital Communications. Mc Graw Hill. New York. 1995. 3rd ed.
4.10. Proakis Y.G. Adaptive equalization for TDMA digital mobile radio I I IEEE Trans. Veh.
Technol. 1991, v. 40, 2, p. 333-341.
4.11. Mixed-Signal and DSP design techniques. Analog Devices (Walt Kester) 2000.
4.12. Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 3621pp.
5

5.1. MoulyM., PautetM.-B. The GSM System for Mobile Communications. Paris, 1992.
5.2. Siwiak K. Radiowave Propagation and Antennas for Personal Communication. Artech House.
Boston, London. 1998.
5.3. Gibson Je.D. The Mobile Communication Handbook. 1999 by CRC Press LLC.
5.4. Systra GSM System Training. Nokia Connecting People, www.nokia.com 2000.
5.5. Jakes W.C. Microwave Mobile Communications. 1979, JOHN & SONS, N.Y.
5.6. .., C.H., .. . .: , 2001.
5.7. Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 3621pp.
6

6.1. M.B. . .: , 2000. 248 .


6.2. .., .., .. . .: , 2001. 299 .
6.3. .. . .: -, 2000.
6.4. Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 3621pp.
7

7.1. Feher . Wireless Digital Communications. Modulation and Spread-spectrum Applications.


Prentice-Hall PTR, 1995.
7.2. M.B. . M.: , 2000. 248 .
7.3. .., .., .. . .: , 2001. 299 .
7.4. Lee W.C.Y. Mobile cellular telecommunications systems. Howard W. Sam's & Co. 1989.

315

7.5. Boucher N.J. The Cellular Radio Handbook. A reference for Cellular System Operation.
Quantum Publishing. 3rd ed. 1995.
7.6. Microwave Mobile Communications. Ed. by W.C. Jakes. JOHN WILEY & SONS, N.Y.1974,
520 p.
7.7. B.C., ., .. . .: ,
1979.-224 .
7.8. ETSI Recommendation ETS 300 527, Handover procedures (GSM 03.09), February 1995.
7.9. SYSTRA GSM System Training. Nokia Connecting People. Nokia Network Oy 2000.
www.nokia.com
7.10. .. . .: -, 1999. 195 .
7.11. .., .., ..
, . .: , 1994.
7.12. . 3,1997.
7.13. Masaharu Hata. Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services // IEEE
Tr. VT-29, 3, 1980, p. 317-144.
7.14. Considerations for the evaluation of human exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) from
Mobile Telecommunication Equipment (MTE) in frequency range 30 MHz 6 GHz.
CENELEC ES 59005, October 1998
7.15. ANSI/IEEE C95.1 1992.
7.16. FCC (Federal Communication Commission). 1996.
7.17. LVS ENV 50166-2: 1995. Elektromagnetiska lauka iedarbiba uz cilveku. Augstas frek- vences
(10 kHz lldz 300 GHz).
7.18. A Review of the Potential Health Risk of Radiofrequency Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Devices. The Royal Society of Canada. Mach 1999.
7.19. Mobile Antenna Systems. Handbook. Ed. K.Fujimoto, J.R.James. 1994, ARTECH HOUSE,
Inc.
7.20. Popov V. Electromagnetic Radiation of Mobile Phones and Human Organism. Riga: RTU,
1999. 127 p.
7.21. . . 3731, : ,
1981/1983 .
7.22. Bogens . Optimalas frekvencu uzraudzibas metodes bezvadu telekomunikaciju sistemam.
Promocijas darba kopsavilkums, Riga, 2002.
7.23. Rummier, Coutts, Liniger. Multipath Fading Channel Models for Microwave Digital radio //
IEEE Communication Magazine, Nov. 1986, vol. 24, 2, pp. 30-41.
7.24. The Mobile Communication. Handbook. Second Edition. Ed. J.D.Gibson. IEEE Press, 1999.
7.25. A.B. 7. M.: -, 1999.
176 .
7.26. .. . 1. El, PDH, SDH.
.: -, 2002. 142 .
7.27. Popov V., Drabkina . Bralena I. Mathematical model of electromagnetic radiation mobile
phones and base stations of the cellular network of GSM-standards in an arbitrary point of
arbitrary cell. In: Second International Conference. Simulation, Gaming, Training and Business Process Reengineering in Operations, Riga, September 8-9, 2000.
7.28. Popov V., Chaiko JHomitsky V., Mogorit N. Effective complex dielectric permittivity of
forest media for radio waves. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, 2001, 2,
pp. 46-50.
7.29. Popov V.I. Influence of electromagnetic radiation on the living tissues. Latvian Journal of
Physics and Technical Sciences, 2002, 1, pp. 44-50.

316

7.30. Popovs V. Sunu mobilas sakaru sistemu elektromagnetisko radiaciju normas. International Conference, RTU, Proceedings, Transport, 2002.
7.31. COST 244 POSITION PAPERS, (CEC-XIII-PP01/96\ Proceeding, June, 1996.
7.32. Popovs V. Sunu mobilas sakaru sistemu elektromagnetisko radiaciju normas. RTU
Zinatniskie raksti: Masinzinatne un transports, Dzelzceja Transports, 2002.
8

8.1. Mobile Communications Handbook. Ed. J.Gibson. CRC Press in cooperation with IEEE Press,
OSA, 1996.
8.2. Boucher N.J. The Cellular Radio Handbook.: a Reference for Cellular System Operation. Third
Edition. Mill Kalley, CA: Quantum Publishing Jnc. 1995.
8.3. M.B. . M.: ., 2000. 248 .
8.4. SteinbugeJ. Evolution Toward Third Generation Wireless Networks. November 1999.
[http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu].
8.5. Wireless/Mobile Services and System Technical Submission. T1P1 Proposal, USA, Junel2,
1998.
8.6. Fraud losses rise, carriers lack external testing of weakness. Mobile phone news. 1997, vol.
15, 13, p.l.
8.7. Johnson M. The cause and effect of telephone fraud. Telecommunications, 1995, vol. 30,
12, p. 80-84.
8.8. Reeves B. Subscription fraud: the original wireless fraud. Cellular Business., 1996, September,
p. 26-30.
8.9. ETSI: http://www.etsi.org
8.10. Mouly M.y Pautet M.-B. The GSM System for Mobile Communications. Paris, 1992. 702 P8.11. Rede S.M., Weber M.K., Oliphant M.W. An introduction to GSM. Artech House, BostonLondon, 1995.
8.12. Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 3621pp.
9

9.1. BerndF. GSM Network Management. 1998.


9.2. C. Smythe. Networks and their protocols, Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal,
February 1990, pp. 27-34.
9.3. CCITT Recommendation M.2x (Amended third draft; to become M.30 in Blue Book). Principles for a Telecommunications Management Network, March 1988.
9.4. CCITT (Draft Blue Book) Recommendation Q.795, Operations Administration and Maintenance Application Part ().
9.5. Draft Recommendation GSM 09.02, CCITT Signaling System N7, Mobile Application
Part (MAP); also referenced as CEPT T/S 43-10.
9.6. CCITT (Draft Blue Book) Recommendation Q.513 Interfaces for Operations, Administration
and Maintenance.
9.7. CEPT Recommendation I/L 02-11, Interfaces for Operation, Maintenance and Supervision of
Telecommunications Equipment in Telecommunications Centers, Copenhagen 1987.
9.8. ISO/IEC D7 9595/9596 series, OSI-Management Information Service Definition/Protocol
Specification, Dec. 1987.
9.9. ISO/IEC DIS 8571 Series, OSI-File Transfer, Access and Management, April 1988.
9.10. .. . .: -, 2000.
9.11. Popovs V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas. Riga: RTU
Izdevnieciba, 2003, 3621pp.
10

317

10.1. Bjorland D.F., Lauritten G.O. UMTS the universal mobile telecommunications systems.
Teletronikk. 1995, vol. 91, 4, p.123-132.
10.2. Grove D. Third-generation wireless. Cellular Business. 1997, October, vol. 14, 10, p. 46- 48.
10.3. Macandrew A. DTI sets the pace for Europe's third generation mobile system. Mobile
Communications, 1997, August 7, 223, p.l, 12,14-15.
10.4. Vendors back GSM for Europe's third generation. Global Mobile, 1997, August 21, vol. 4,
16, p. 2.
10.5. M.B. . M.: , 2000. 248 .
10.6. JI.M. 3- . .: , 2000. 208 .
10.7. .. . .: , 2000.
213 .
10.8. UMTS Forum http://www.umts-forum.org.
10.9. ARIB (Japan) http://www.arib.or.jp.
10.10.3GPP2 http:/www.3gpp2.org.
10.11.IMT-2000 http://www.imt-2000.
10.12.ITU http://www.itu.ch.
10.13.
ETSI http://www.etsi.org.
10.14.
Popovs
V. GSM standarta sunu mobilo sakaru sistema. Projektesanas problemas.
Riga: RTU Izdevnieciba, 2003, 3621pp.
10.15.
Popovs
V. State and development ways of transport communication and
information systems in Latvian Republic. In: Nordic-Baltic Transport Research Conference,
Riga, 13-14 April, 2000, vol.2.
1

.1.1. .., E.JI. . .:


, 1971.
U.1.2Akira Ishimaru. Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media. Vol.2, Academic Press
N.Y. 1978 ( . -
. .: , 1981. 244-245 .
. 1.3.Microwave mobile communications. Ed. By W.C.Jakes. John Wiley& Songs N.Y. 1975.
.1 . .. . 3731. : , 1981/1983.


GSM

065232 20.06.97
- 02.06.2005. 70x100/16.
2500 . 1. .
. . . . 23,9. . 632
- -.
, 121099,
, ., 6


, - , Optical
Society of America,

.
, , -
.
150 , .
: -
,
,
. ().

-

.. ..
1. El, PDH, SDH 2.
B-ISDN, ATM . (
.) ..
.. .
..
AM
..
..,

.., ..
.., .., ..

.. .
. ..,

.., P.P. GSM ..


.., .. -
... ..
. .., ..,
.. ..
.. . -
.. ..
.., ..
.. ..
7 .., ..,
.. (CALL CENTRE)
..
.., .., ..

:
. . ..
.. - ..,
.., ..
.
127473, ,
2- .,
. 5/4, . 1, -

./: (095) 978-4836, 978-8031


E-mail: izdat@ekot.ru, office@ekot.ru, eko-trendz@mtu-net.ru
http://www.ekot.ru, http://www.telecomforum/bookshop