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Guide to WDM Technology and Testing

II


621.396.2
681.327.8
32.81
32.889
. WDM. .:
EXFO, 2001. / . .

. .. ,

.. ,

.. . / ..
WDM
,
WDM .
,
,
WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing).
WDM,
, , WDM, ,
, .

EXFO, 2001
. .. , ..

III

.....................................................................................................................IV
................................................................................................................VIII
........................................................X
- ......................................... 1

1.1 ............................................2
1.2 WDM ........................................................3
1.3 DWDM...................................................................................4
1.4 WDM ...............................................................................................................5
1.5 ..............................6
1.6 ..............................6
............................................................................................................................. 9

2.1 .......................................................................10
2.2 ...............................................................10
2.3 WDM ......................................................14
2.4 DWDM.......................................................................15
2.5 DWDM ............................................................................16
2.5.1 ..........................................................................................................16
2.5.2 ....................................................................................................20
2.5.3 ........................................................................................................21
2.5.4 ........................................................................................................22
2.5.5 - OXC .............................................22
2.5.6 .......................................................................................23
2.5.7 ..................................................................24
2.5.8 ..............................................................25
2.5.9 / .......................................31
2.5.10 .......................................................................................32
2.5.11 ...........................................................................................40
2.6 WDM TDM ...........................................................................................42
2.6.1 .......................................................................42
2.6.2 ...............................................................................................43
WDM..................................................................... 45

3.1 ..............................................................................................46

IV

3.2 .....................................................47
3.2.1 ................................................................................48
3.2.2 ..................................................................................53
3.2.3 .................................................................................................55


3.2.4 ....................................................................................................57
3.2.5 ...........................................................................................58
3.3 .............................................................................................58
3.3.1 ...................................................................................58
3.3.2 ................................................................61
3.3.3 ...................................65
3.3.4 .......................................................................................................66
3.4 ........................................................................................72
3.4.1 ......................................................................74
3.4.2 -..........................................................................................................76
3.4.3 ................................................................78
3.5 ...............................................................................................................78
3.5.1 .....................................................................................80
3.5.2 ....................................................................................81
3.5.3 ..............................................................................81
3.6 ...................................................................................................................81
3.7 .................................................................................82
3.8 .........................................................................................................83
3.9 .............................................................................................................83
3.10 ..................................................................................................................84
............................... 85

4.1 ................................................................................................................................86
4.2 .............................................87
4.3 .........................................................................88
4.3.1 ......................................................................88
4.3.2 .....................................................................88
4.3.3 ...................................................................................91
4.4 .....................92
4.4.1 /.................................................................92
4.4.2 ...................................................................................................100
4.4.3 ......................................................................................101
4.4.4 ..........................................................................................................102
4.4.5 EDFA................................................................................................102
4.4.6 .........................................................................................110
4.4.7 ...........................................................................................................111
4.4.8 ...............................................................................................................112
4.5
................................................................................119
4.6 ............................................................................121
4.7 ...........................................................123
4.7.1 ........................................................................123
4.7.2 ......................................................................................................123


4.7.3 .....................................................................124
4.7.4 PMD ........................................................................125
, WDM.............................. 127

5.1. WDM ...........................................................128


5.1.1 ........................................................................................129
5.1.2 ...............................................................................................131
5.1.3 .........................................................................................131
5.1.4 /.....................................................................................132
5.1.5 .....................................................................................134
5.1.6 .....................................................................135
5.1.7 .......................................................136
5.1.8 ........................................................................................136
5.1.9 ........................................................................................137
5.1.10 ............................................................................137
5.1.11 ............................................................138
5.1.12 ...............................................................................139
5.1.12 WDM ....................................................................139
5.2. WDM..................................................................140
5.2.1 .....................................................................140
5.2.2 - ...................141
5.2.3 .................................142
5.2.4 .............142
5.2.5 ......................................142
5.3 WDM ...........................................................143
5.3.1 ........................................................................................................143
5.3.2 ..........................................................................................................144
5.3.3 .......................................................................................145
5.3.4 ............................................................146
5.3.5 ........................................................................149
5.3.6 ........................................................151
5.4 WDM .............................................152
5.4.1 / OSNR .........................................................................153
5.4.2 .................................................................................................................153
5.4.3 ..............................................................154
5.4.4 .................................................................................154
5.4.5 .........................................................................................154
5.4.6 .......................................................................................................154
5.4.7 ........................................................................................155
5.5 WDM ..............................................................................155
5.5.1 .......................................................................155
5.5.2 RFTS .................................156
5.5.3 ........159
DWDM................................................................ 163

6.1 ?.................................................................................164
VI

6.2 ? ...........................................................164


6.3 , DWDM
................................................................................................................................................165
6.3.1 ITU .....................................165
6.3.2 IEC ......................................168
IEC 86: ........................169
6.3.3 TIA ........................172
6.4 .........................................................................................174
......................................... 175

7.1 DWDM ..............................................................176


7.2 DWDM ......................................................177
7.3 , .................179
7.4 ...........................................................180
............................................................................................................... 181

8.1 ...............................................................182
8.2 .......................................................................................................................183
8.3 .............................................................................................................183
8.4 ............................................................................................184
EXFO WDM ........................ 187

9.1 .....................................189
9.2 : .................................194
9.3 ........................................................................................202
9.4 ..............................................................................................................207
9.4.1 .......................................................................................................207
9.4.2 .......................................................................209
9.5 .................214
........................................................................................................................ 2
.................................................................................................. 24
.................................................................................................... 31
............................................................... 37

VII

, ,
. , .
WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
.

. WDM
WDM .
EXFO " WDM".
,
,
WDM DWDM (Dense WDM).

WDM, , WDM,
.
WDM ,
WDM
.
1 WDM. WDM, WDM .
2-5 WDM :

2- ;

3- WDM;

4- WDM ;

5- ,
WDM.

6 WDM. , WDM . ,
.

VIII

WDM, , MAN (Metropolitan Access Network).


7- .


8 WDM
WDM .
9-
WDM, .
(Andre Girard), Ph. D, Senior Member of Technical Staff

IX


.
, ,
. ,
, , . ,
- .
.
, - .
, , . - () , "" . ,
. ,
"" , .
"" ,
. ATM, IP, SDH (STM-16/64)

. , .
,
, WDM (Wavelength
Division Multiplexing). WDM ,
, . WDM ,
. , ,
WDM,
WDM .
WDM 1330 1550 . 4 , 8-10 1550 . " "
WDM
DWDM (Dense WDM) 8, 16, 32, 64 .
0,8 .
192 .
X


- , , [1-4]. , [1, 5-9].
- [10-12].

[1, 4, 10, 13, 14].
[12, 15].
,
[14]. ,
( )
.

. WDM/DWDM. WDM .

.

WDM , WDM, , .
,
,
WDM DWDM.
EXFO .
EXFO ,
, EXFO , .
EXFO
. EXFO

.
.. ,
.. ,
..

, , (..)

XI

XII

1
-

1.1
.
. , , , .
, .
1990-
, .
, - . World Wide Web
,
.
(. 1.1).

. 1.1. (,
).

,
.

TDM (Time Division Multiplexing).
.
WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing).

1.2 WDM
WDM () .
.
, ,
. WDM
(1 = 10-9 ),
DWDM (Dense WDM). WDM
,
, , .
.
DWDM
, EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber
Amplifier).
, 1530-1565
. EDFA ,

.
TDM ,
, ()
. (-).
, ( ),
, .
, ()

-.
, WDM
, . ,
. , . , WDM
TDM, .
WDM 4 16 ,

SDH/SONET 2,5 /. DWDM
.
, 1 /.

-
. . 1.2
WDM.

. 1.2. .

1.3 DWDM
DWDM 1996
,
. DWDM
. ,
,
DWDM, , .
CLEC (Competitive
Local Exchange Carrier) DWDM , ,
. ILEC
(Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier) DWDM. ILEC
DWDM
ILEC.
DWDM, MAN (Metropolitan Area Networks).
(DWDM MAN) .
,
SDH/SONET, , .
, ,
SDH/SONET. .
4

-
IP DWDM (IP DWDM)
,
SDH/SONET.
DWDM ,
AON (All Optical
Network),
. -
DWDM
.
, , ,
.
/ OADM (Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer).
.
-
OXC (Optical Cross Connect,), ,
- SDH/SONET. , ,
.

1.4 WDM

, . , . ,

. DWDM
, .
DWDM
.
-, DWDM . , .
, EDFA (, L-
1565 1625 ), , 1200
.

.
2,5 / 10 /.
40 / , 1
192 40 / .
1

CIENA, TT, 192

-
5 / ( 1000 - ) .
, ,
DWDM .

. 1.3.

1.5
,

.
. DWDM
- . ,

, ,
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) .
TDM, ,
. DWDM
, ,
.
,
.

DWDM ( , ), . , ,
.

1.6

,
,
.
,
.

-
. , , . , -
,
.
, . ,
. , , . -
,
. - , ,
. , ,
.

2.1
C WDM, ,
,
. 2
TDM
. WDM .
2 TDM WDM
WDM
3.

2.2
,
.

.
TDM,
.
.

(-),
. , -
, , ,
, ,
. . (. 2.1).

. 2.1 TDM
-


-.
-,
.

10

TDM
- 10 /. 10 /
TDM

2,5 /. 10 /
TDM.
,

.
TDM 40 / .
,
, . . 2.1
SDH/SONET.
2.1 .

SONET
SDH
OC-3

STM-1

155 (155,52) /

OC-12

STM-4

622 (622,08) /

OC-48

STM-16

2,5 (2,48832) /

OC-192

STM-64

10 (9,9533) /

OC-768

STM-256

40 (39,813) /

, ,
.
,
.
( 0,1 )
2,5 / (STM-16) 10 / (STM-64) -
16 .
, ,
, .
(G.652 ITU)
10 /
50-75 .

,
.
-
FWM (Four-Wave Mixing), 3.
,
.
(Chirp), ,
.
. ,
11

,
.
TDM

.
, (, )
. ,

,
.
FEC (Forward Error Correction)
. FEC
.
.
.
FEC
, , .
, -
( , ,
, ..).
PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion),
,
( ). PMD ,
SOP (State of Polarization)
. , PMD
.
PMD .
,
. 1999 40 / ( STM-256).
, STM-256
2001 ,
40
/ 100 .
STM-256
ADM (Add/Drop Multiplexing) -.

12


SDH/SONET, STM-16 STM64 STM-256. ,
STM-256
.
STM-256
. ,

.


. ,
, ,
( ).
, .
, , ,
, .
.
, ,

.

. ,
,
.
(. 2.2).

. 2.2

, TDM ,
IP, SONET/SDH,
. TDM
.
TDM ,
.
WDM TDM
.

13

2.3 WDM
WDM ,
TDM. ,
, TDM,
WDM ( ),
.
WDM
. WDM
,
, .

, , ,
.. ,
.
WDM
.
, -
( )
. ,

.
WDM .
WDM
, .

WDM.

, , .
100 (~ 0,8 )
DWDM.
,
WDM
1550 .
.
DWDM . -,

. -,
WDM , , ,
TDM STM-16.
TDM WDM
,
. WDM
14

,
- .

2.4 DWDM
DWDM TDM.
, ,
,
.

. ,

.
/
- (. 2.3).

. 2.3 WDM / -

DWDM TDM , DWDM


. ,
DWDM
TDM.
DWDM
, , EDFA,
/, (),
, ,

, .

15

2.5 DWDM
DWDM ,

. ,
, , .

, , , ..
,
DWDM. DWDM
, ,
. ,
, DWDM
, BFT (Fused Biconic
Tapered Coupler), AWG (Array Waveguide
Grating), .
( , )

.
,

.
,
.
,
, .
.
DWDM ,
(, )
.
,
( , , ..)
.
2.5.1
- -
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
( ),
( ).
16


DFB (Distributed Feed Back)
0 (1 ) .
.
,
, .
, ,
,
.
,
.
. ,
,

.
DWDM DFB-
-.
,
(. 2.4).

,
( 100 ).
40 (. 2.5).

. -,

.

. 2.4 DFB-

. 2.5 DFB-

DFB-
, ,
. DFB- :
0 40 .
17

.
.
,
.
,
.
-
(Mach-Zehnder) ,
.
(LiNbO3) (InP)
.
,

.
EDFA
SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier)
, ( +17
). +17
IIIb ( IEC 60825),
1M , , +20
.
DFB- . -
( )
,
.
,
, . ,
.
,
,
1
.

, WDM
, WDM
. ,
WDM
ITU-T
(International Telecommunications Union, ITU) SG15
, (Study Group 15 on Transport
Networks, Systems and Equipment). ITU-T G.692

1
18


. .


WDM.
ITU
193100 .
50 . . 2.2 100 .
( = c , c=299792500 /).

ITU.
2. 2. ITU

()
197,1
197,0
196,9
196,8
196,7
196,6
196,5
196,4
196,3
196,2
196,1
196,0
195,9
195,8
195,7
195,6
195,5
195,4
195,3
195,2
195,1

()
1521,02
1521,79
1522,56
1523,34
1524,11
1524,89
1525,66
1526,44
1527,22
1527,99
1528,77
1529,55
1530,33
1531,12
1531,90
1532,68
1533,47
1534,25
1535,04
1535,82
1536,61

()
195,0
194,9
194,8
194,7
194,6
194,5
194,4
194,3
194,2
194,1
194,0
193,9
193,8
193,7
193,6
193,5
193,4
193,3
193,2
193,1
193,0

()
1537,40
1538,19
1538,98
1539,77
1540,56
1541,35
1542,14
1542,94
1543,73
1544,53
1545,32
1546,12
1546,92
1547,72
1548,51
1549,32
1550,12
1550,92
1551,72
1552,52
1553,33

()
192,9
192,8
192,7
192,6
192,5
192,4
192,3
192,2
192,1
192,0
191,9
191,8
191,7
191,6
191,5
191,4
191,3
191,2
191,1
191,0
190,9

()
1554,13
1554,94
1555,75
1556,56
1557,36
1558,17
1558,98
1559,79
1560,61
1561,42
1562,23
1563,05
1563,86
1564,68
1565,50
1566,31
1567,13
1567,95
1568,77
1569,59
1570,42

()
190,8
190,7
190,6
190,5
190,4
190,3
190,2
190,1
190,0
189,9
189,8
189,7
189,6
189,5
189,4
189,3
189,2
189,1
189,0
188,9
188,8

()
1571,24
1572,06
1572,89
1573,71
1574,54
1575,37
1576,20
1577,03
1577,86
1578,69
1579,52
1580,35
1581,18
1582,02
1582,85
1583,69
1584,53
1585,36
1586,20
1587,04
1587,88

()
188,7
188,6
188,5
188,4
188,3
188,2
188,1
188,0
187,9
187,8
187,7
187,6
187,5
187,4
187,3
187,2
187,1
187,0
186,9
186,8
186,7

()
1588,73
1589,57
1590,41
1591,26
1592,10
1592,95
1593,79
1594,64
1595,49
1596,34
1597,19
1598,04
1598,89
1599,75
1600,60
1601,46
1602,31
1603,17
1604,03
1604,88
1605,74

WDM DWDM

. , , ,

,
.
2
, .
2.06.
. 2.6.

2


. .

19


.

.
.
, , ,
.
, ,
.

,
. , ,
WDM
.
2.5.2

.

,
. , ,

.
,
.
,
.
, .
(
), .
,
.
. ,
TDM
,
.
: PIN APD (Avalanche Photodiode). PIN-
(5 ),

.
PIN-
10 / 40 /.
,
. ,
20


, PIN.

( A/W
), ( ,
- ),
, , .

. ,
,
. ,
,
.
2.5.3
,
,
EDFA (. 2.7).

. 2.07.

. 2.8-a

. 2.8-b.
(1<P2<P3<P4)


.

,

21

WDM. ( )
, ""
EDFA (.
2.8-.). , EDFA
. :
, ,
, , . 2.8-b.
2.5.4
WDM ,

.
-
,
.
3
WDM .

.
,
- NxN,
N .

.
- OXC
4
(Optical Cross Connect), .
1xN ,

.

.
2.5.5 - OXC

. , (,
) ,
.
-.

, .

3
4
22

. .
. .

MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems)



. ,
, ( 80 )
.
-

, ,
,
(
, ).
,

.
/

/ (Addressable Add/Drop Device)


DWDM.
,

. /
,
,
.
AWG. - OXC .
2.9. ,
,
. ,
.

. 2.9 i

23

2.5.6
WDM
.
, .
, ,
,

, .
WDM
1310 1550 ,
980 1480 1550 ,
, EDFA.
2.5.7
WDM
. ,

( ).
,
- ( ).

.

, . 2.10.
, ,
. DCD (Dispersion Compensation Devices)
,
.
DCD , DCF (Dispersion
Compensating Fibers) , DCG (Dispersion
Compensating Gratings).

. 2.10. , ,

24

2.5.8
WDM
. () (
) . , ,
MUX ( OM).

DEMUX ( OD).
TDM,
,
, WDM
,
.

. 2.11.


. , ,
,
, ,
(
).


100 (~0,8 ),
WDM.

50 .
,
.
DWDM
MUX/DEMUX, -,
.
25

,
, ,

.


,
. -

. (
) .
, ,

(. 2.12).

. 2.12 1 , 2 , 3


.
,
, . ,
, .
, ,
,
.

26


, (
) . ,
.

, .
,
, , ,
(. 2.13).

. 2.13


WDM 16- 32- .
.

, , ,
. , (
),
.
,
. ,
,
, .

1 2 3 4

. 2.14

27

,
( ),
.

.

,
. ,
, .

,
,
/ (. 2.15).

. 2.15 /

/
.
DWDM .
(. 2.15, ).

, (. 2.15, ).

. ,
.

- .
,

EDFA,
.

28


, ,
, .
,

(. 2.16).

. 2.16

, .
,

. .

.

,
.
,
,
.

.

29


.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
, , ,
,
DWDM.

( 100)
AWG (Arrayed Waveguide Gratings), . 2.17.

. 2.17 AWG

, ,
. N ,
. N ,
, ,
.

, .
AWG ,
()
(. 2.17) ()
.
DWDM.
,
.
AWG (Dragon
Routers), .
30

FBT (Fused Biconic Tapered)


,
. ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,

.
(. 2.18),
,
-.

.
,
. .

. 2.18

,
( ),

. ,
.
,
,
WDM DWDM -
.
,
.
2.5.9 /


. ,
,
. /
OADM (Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer), ,
(. 2.19).
31

. 2.19 /

/ ,
2.5.8. ,
SDH WDM.
/, .
2.5.10

,
( 0.1 )

, EDFA (Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier)



. EDFA
, ,
,
(. 2.20).

DWDM .

,
. 2.20 EDFA

32

EDFA , .

. EDFA

1525 1565 . 40
DWDM.
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
EDFA "" , ,
( )
. EDFA ,

ATM IP , .
DWDM.
, EDFA
,
ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission). EDFA
.
,
. EDFA
,
( )
( ) .
OC-48 (STM-16) DWDM
,
DWDM.
DWDM .
CATV,
("").

FTTH (Fiber to the Home). CATV
FTTB
(Fiber to the Building) FTTC (Fiber to the Curb),
.
, CATV,
/ , .
CATV ,
.
.
FTTH ,
, .

. , CATV "",
.
EDFA
1570 1605 (L-).
LWEDFA (Long Wavelength
EDFA).

33

EDFA (. 2.21).
, .
EDFA .
, . EDFA,
,
.

. 2.21 EDFA

EDFA 980
1480 .
, .
.
, EDFA 980
, 1480 ,
DWDM. , 1480
. ,
,
,
.
EDFA ,
.
0,2 /
1550 +16 , 80
0 (1 ) (
, . .). 0
, 80 16 .
-
,
, 80 .
, ,
.
1310 ,
1550 , ,
.

34

1980- (Payne) (Laming)


(University of Southampton)
,
.
. :


1550 .
EDFA 1480 980 (.
2.22).

. 2.22 EDFA (DCD , dispersion


compensation device)

(. 2.22-) .

( , . 2.23).
(. 2.22-b) .
, (
, . 2.23).

1480 ,
980 .
. 1480
, ,
980
.

35

EDFA ,
( , . 2.23), +16 .
( , . 2.23) 5-6
. EDFA (980 1480 )
+26 .
( )
:
,
ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission)
.

. 2.23.
EDFA

EDFA -
(. 2.23).

( , . 2.23) ()
.
.

( , . 2.23)
. , ,
.

( , . 2.23)
.
.
.

EDFA
(. 2.24).

36

. 2.24. EDFA

EDFA
1535 1540
1560 . 20
EDFA,
DWDM.
,
EDFA 40 .
,
EDFA
. LWEDFA, ,
1610 .
DWDM

DWDM.
EDFA ,
.
ASE
EDFA, .
,
,
EDFA (. 2.22-d).
EDFA .
.
,
.
1525-1560 , ,
EDFA
, (. .
2.25).

37

. 2.25-
EDFA

. 2.25-b
EDFA

EDFA

. EDFA

, .

EDFA, .
,
, ,
.

, . ,
PDFFA (Praseodymium Doped Fluoride-based Fiber Amplifier)
1310 . PDFFA
,
, EDFA. PDFFA
,
, EDFA.
1310 ,
1550 , (. . 2.26), 1310
.

38

, ,
, ,
. -
.
.

,
PDFFA .

. 2.26.

, .
, TDFFA (Thulium
Doped Fluoride-based Fiber Amplifier) :
1460 1650 .
,
.

.

(
) .
.
(Raman amplifiers)
EDFA.

( 300 ), EDFA .

,
, DWDM
,
. , ,
.

, ,
, .

SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers).

( , ,
). ,

, ( 5-6
, EDFA,
). , SOA

39

,
DWDM . ,

SOA .
SOA, PDFFA, ,

.

, . ,
. ,
, SOA
.
2.5.11

, ,
- . ,
. ,

1310
(G.652 ITU), . 1980-
80 .
DWDM,
,
.
G.652
1310 , 1550 (18
/*). , EDFA (
1550 ). , DWDM
G.652
. ,
1550
.

(G.653
ITU), 1550
. , 1310 , 1550
, . ,

DWDM.
, -
.
40


DWDM. DWDM
, -
.
FWM ,
1550 . ,
FWM , DWDM ,
1550 . ,

ITU.

. 2.27.

. 2.28.

, FWM, ,

EDFA (1530-1565 ) (.
2.28) (G.655 ITU).
EDFA G.655 ,
( 3 /* 1530
0,7 /* 1560 ). ,

41

FWM
2,5 / 1000 . G.655
DWDM.
FWM
DWDM . ,
ITU.


,
,
. , ,
,
.

2.6 WDM TDM


WDM TDM
. , ,
, ,
.
2.6.1
, TDM ,
. TDM
- ,
.
-.
DAMA (Demand Assignment Multiple
Access). -
. ,

). , TDM
, ,
-
. TDM
, .
WDM ,
, TDM. WDM -
,
.
WDM Ethernet (10/100/1000
/), , .
WDM
-, TDM.
42

2.6.2
TDM
.

.
, , -,
,
. ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
T/,

1 (1 /).
, , TDM
-
.
TDM - ,
- .
, .
WDM
, TDM,
,
. ,

. ,
, WDM .
TDM,
, WDM
. WDM
, ,
.
,
DWDM, , TDM DWDM
.
DWDM ,
,
.
, ,
4.

43

44

3
WDM

WDM

3.1
DWDM, , .
DWDM .

, . DWDM
.
, TDM, , . 3.1.

. 3.1 , TDM

,
, . ,
. PMD ,
( ) ,
. ,
: , ,
RIN (Relative Intensity Noise) BER (Bit Error Rate).


WDM, . 3.2.

46

: , EDFA, . :
() , ,
(
).
, : ASE, EDFA,
, FWM
( ). , , -, . 3.2). WDM ,
, -

WDM
. , ,
WDM ,
.

. 3.2 WDM -

,
, WDM.

3.2
MUX
, . 3.3.
.
4 , 7 , 13 16- ..
,
. DWDM

.

. 3.3
47

WDM
DEMUX .
, , , .
, DEMUX ,
, MUX ( ). ,
. . , DEMUX
, .
.
3.2.1
/
. , . 3.4. :

. 3.4 /

1.
- , /. : upper + lower 2 .
,
( 3 ). ..
( ) .
, .
.
. 3.5.

48

WDM
. 3.5 ,


.
,
ITU (. 2.2, 2).
2.
WDM.
,
.
ITU
100
.
,
FWM,

.

.
,
.
3. 3 ( ,
0,5 , 20 )
(
, , , ),

. , 3
FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum).
.
,
.

, , . 3.6.
( 20 30 )
DWDM.
,
.
49

WDM

. 3.6

. 3.7

( )
.
FOM (Figure of Merit),
.
.
, , , , .
4. FEXT (Far-End Crosstalk)
, i .
.
( ) .
, .
, ,
.
,
. ( )
. i
i :
Isolationi = min 10 lg
j i

Pin i ( i )
Pout j ( i )

Pin i ( i ) i , Pout j ( i )
50

i , j ( j i ).

WDM
, 30 ,

30 .
i
:

Crosstalk i = 10 lg Pin i ( i )

P
j i

out j

( i )

. 3.8 A, B C.
B; B
. B
B, A.
, .
, (
). , , , .
AWG, .

. 3.8 3-

. 3.9 8- .

, .
, , .
,
.

51

WDM

. 3.9 8-

WDM, .
25 .
,
. .
, , , .
5. ( , . 3.10)
DWDM .
,
.
. .

. 3.10 .

52



, . 3.10.

.

WDM
.
( ) ( loss ).
,
,
DWDM-.
6.

/.
3.2.2
.
, .
, .
, , ,
, ,
. , , , .
,
- .
, .

. , . .
, PDL

, PDL (Polarization Dependent Loss)


.

(. 3.11) .
(
) , PDL , .

53

WDM

. 3.11 /

PDL ,
,
.
PDL
.
PDL 0,1 .
, , (. 3.12),
, PDL.

. 3.12 /

PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) .


. ,

(. 3.13). , ,
PDL ,
, BER
, , CATV. PMD
54

WDM
, L , . PMD ( )
PMD = K PMD L ,

K PMD PMD (/). K PMD PMD


1 .
, , , /.
PMD ().

. 3.13 PMD:
( )

3.2.3
IL (Insertion Loss) -

IL = 10 lg(Pin Pout ) ,
Pin Pout .
-
.
DWDM . ,
.
DWDM-
. . 3.14
DWDM
. 55

WDM
ITU, ( ),
.

. 3.14 /

, . ,
. . ,
, ITU .
. . ,
.
.

.
.
. ,
PDL, . .
(, ). .
IL
PDL .
,
,
IL .
56

3.2.4

WDM
(Directivity), NEXT (Near-End Crosstalk), (. 3.15). .

. 3.15 1

. ,
.

. . 3.15 . 1
,
. ( )
.
. , . i -
:
Directivity i = min 10 lg
j i

Pin i ( i )
Pout j ( i )

Pin i ( i ) i , i ,
Pout j ( i ) i ,

j .

57

WDM
3.2.5
(, ) ,
- , - . : .

. .
. 75
1550 ,
. (, .) ,
.
:

, DWDM, , / .
.

.
. MPI (Multipath Interference).

, EDFA , .

55 50 .

3.3
,
WDM - , .
3.3.1
, ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
58

WDM
, .

, . 3.16.

.3.16

.
, ,
, . , ,
.
, ,
.
( , ), ,
,
. , . .
, , . 0 .

1310 .
.
.
,
, ,
, ..
.
WDM, , (. ITU-T G.653). 0
59

WDM
S 0 ,
0 , . 3.17. ,
0 . S 0
0 .

. 3.17 :

S 0 -

chr ( )
chr = D( ) L ,
D( ) (/(*)) , L
(). ,
.
. 3.18
(1) (2)
.

. 3.18 (
.)
60

WDM
:

(..
).

WDM (. ITU-T G.652)


,
1550 .
3.3.2
.
,
.
, ,
.
, , . 3.19.
, , . , ,
. ,
, .. , ,
.

. 3.19 PMD ,

61

WDM
,
.
, ,
, . , . ,
( ) . PMD
, , . (

.)
, . - ,
,
.

,
( ,
, ).
, , PSP (Principal State of Polarization).
, . DGD (Differential Group Delay),
. PMD DGD , . 3.20.

. 3.20 DGD, , PMD

, PMD,
, PMD . ,
, . 3.21. , 62

WDM
,
.

. 3.21 (0, 1)
,

PMD
, . 3.22.

. 3.22 PMD

PMD , ,
.
PMD
, :
PMDtotal

= PMDn2
n =1

12

, , 9 10 PMD 0,2 , PMD


2 , PMD 2,088 .
.
.
,
PMD, PMD.

63

WDM
PMD :

( );

( );

(
).

PMD (
, , , EDFA, 40 ). PMD
,
( ).
PMD
, . , , PMD, , . 3.23.

. 3.23 1 ( ) ,

PMD WDM
, . ITU-T G.652 ( 1980-
80 ). , . ITU-T G.653, G.654 G.655, PMD
.
PMD,
, ITU,
. 3.24. PMD
/.

64

WDM
. 3.24 PMD

PMD 99,994% 0,1 1


(/)


PMD ()

PMD
400
(/)

2,5

40

2,0

10

10

0,5

20

0,25

40

2,5

0,125

. 3.25 PMD .

(..
).

. 3.25 , PMD

, PMD , . , PMD ,
. PMD .
3.3.3
PMD , , . 10 /,
, .
PMD PMD . ( -

65

WDM

). , PMD
. PMD
, ,
PMD . PMD
.
PMD .
DGD PMD
, . PMD DGD .
PMD
.

. 3.26 PMD (. ., DGD)


3.3.4

( ).
.
.
.

. , - .
. , WDM c
.

66

, ( ) . -

WDM
, ,
.

. 3.27

, E P ,
n2 Aeff , :

E ( z + dz ) = E ( z ) exp[( 2 + i + P( z, t ) 2)dz ] ,
, ,
, (2 )(n 2 Aeff ) . ,
,
MFD (Mode Field diameter):
Aeff = MFD 2

(. ITU-T G.653)
(. ITU-T G.655) Aeff 50-60
2, (. ITU-T G.652)
80 2.
Leff ( ~ 1 Leff ), , Aeff . Leff 20 .

. ( ) (
).
(
) ( )
. :
67

WDM

(
);

( ).

, ,
:
n = n0 + n 2 I ,
n0 , n2 n2 ((23) 10-16 2/ ), I . , ,
:

- , .. , .
, , ()

( ).
, .
, 1525 , . ITU-T G.653,
10,7 (+0,085 ) 60 . . ITU-T
G.652
11 (+0.088 ) 30 . SBMS
, 6 .
-
.
(~50 ) 1 ,
(30-60 ).

68

WDM

. 3.28 -
11

()

() ( 10-12 /), . .
1550 10 15 ,
100 .
( 7 55 ). WDM .

.3.29 ()


.
( ).
, - .
WDM ,
.
69

WDM
:

;

(
- );

WDM .
G.652 ( 1310 ) ,
1550 (. ITU-T G.653) (. ITU-T G.655).
.
:

, .
CPM (Cross-Phase Modulation) ,
, . ,
, , CPM
:

WDM,
.

FWM (Four-Wave Mixing) WDM.



i , j , k
i j k .
. :

N 2 ( N 1) / 2

70

N , . ,
WDM 24 , 16- 1920!, . 3.30.

WDM

.

. 3.30.

( ,
).

,
(. G.653).
(. G.655), .
.
:

DWDM,
(. G.652) 1550 , . (. G.653)
FWM .

71

WDM

3.4
EDFA
DWDM. EDFA
, . EDFA
.

EDFA ,
. , - EDFA .
-
, , , .
. ,
, .
, . (. 3.31),
, . , ,
, ,
.

. 3.31

G ( )
Pout Pin ,
ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission)
G = 10 lg[(Pout ( c ) PASE ( c ) ) / Pin ( c )]
Pout ( c ) c ; PASE ( c )
; Pin ( c ) .
72

WDM

, . 3.32. (, >30
EDFA < 20 ).
.
.
3
.

. 3.32 EDFA

( EDFA
>3 ) .
, ,
( 1).

, ( 3 ) . ,

.
DWDM- . , .

. ,

.

,
() , .
73

WDM

.

PDG (Polarization Dependent Gain)

. ,
,
.

EDFA -
, , , . , .
(. . 3.32).

(, ) , , , . ,
( ),
.


DWDM.
. (
) , , /.

.
3.4.1

ASE. ASE -
. .
ASE. -
(.. ) , .
. , . 3.33.
74

WDM

N 1 N 3 , N 2 .
( N 2 N 1 ) 1550
, .

. 3.33 EDFA

( 10 ).
, , .

. EDFA (. 3.34)
, ( ) .
()
ASE. ASE
.

. 3.34 (z, z+z) ASE

, N in () N out ()
, ASE
:

N out () = N in () G + PASE
ASE .

(. . 3.35).
75

WDM

. 3.35
ASE
1

3.4.2 -
- NF (Noise Figure) /
. . / ,
ASE,
.
/ :

- ( );

- ( );

( )


. - ,
, , , -
. , ..
. N ,
N 1 2 ( ).
ASE - - (ASE-ASE
, ), -

76

, ( 0 3.35) -

, , .
, . . .

WDM
. ASE
,
. -
, .
, . EDFA ASE (, 1 ) ,
, . 3.36.
.

. 3.36 - ;
ASE ASE

- (ASE- ) ASE.
ASE
, ,
, .
- EDFA.
- NF ( ), -
, PASE c ( . 3.37
PASE ), G
B ( ) :
PASE ( c )
NF = 10 lg

G ( c ) h B
-
- , -
.

77

WDM

. 3.37 -
ASE

3.4.3
MPI (MultiPath Interference) -
EDFA, . - ( ),
RIN ,
. EDFA , , .., MPI
. -
.
. . - MPI :
NFMPI ( ) = SNRout ( ) SNRin ( ) ,
, SNRin SNRout /
. ,
.
-, .. , 3 980
.

3.5

78

DWDM .
EDFA. ,
. . WDM
. , -

WDM
,
. .

. 3.38 LED,
- DFB-

DWDM
. , ,
/. , ,

.

. () , , DWDM. ,
.
, , , ( ).
- .
.
,
.
, . , ,
.
, ,
( , )
79

WDM
.
.

. DFB-
0,1 / 0,01 /;
0,002 /,
0,001 /. , 40 .
, EDFA
.
,
, ( ).
.
: .
3.5.1
.

().
. ,
DWDM, , ,
.
, BER ,
.
, , .
LED LD, -
, WDM.
, 2,5
/, .
, , , ,
. , ,
, . ,
, .. .
80

WDM
3.5.2
. ( , ) ,

. -
, ,
.
,
. 2,5 /
.
(/)

.
3.5.3
,

ITU. , ,
.

3.6
, .
BER, .
BER, , ,
,
.

. 3.39 BER
-9
( 10 )
81

WDM
,
BER
.
,
, , .
,
, , ( ), .

3.7

, .

, . , . ,
, () .
,
. 3.40. , .

. 3.40

, . ,
.

82

WDM

3.8
.
.
/. , , , , , :

, ;

3.9
WDM
, , EDFA,
. ,
. ,
, , :

, ;

83

WDM

3.10
,
, DFB-.
.
:

, , 20 . (
), 3
.

( 1 ), 35
() 60 () .

PMD. , PMD
( 50 100 ).
, PMD, , .

, PDL,
.

( ,
).

, DWDM,
DWDM, , . , , .
. , , .
, .

84

4.1
, ,
. , DWDM ,
.
, DWDM.
DWDM :

( );

( );

- (, );

( ,
);

/;

-;

DWDM ,
, .

. 4.1

86

,
, . -


,
, . 4.1.

, .
, , . , ,
,
.

4.2
,
.
, . , ,
,
40 .

, .
, , (
, LED
ASE) ,
WDM. ,
.
ASE . ,
.

ECL (External Cavity Laser).
( ) , 120 . ECL
, . , . ECL
. , , EDFA
. ,
ECL ( -65 ).

87


, , . 4.2.

0
700

800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800

. 4.2

4.3
WDM
. ,
.
, , .
,
,
. ,
.
4.3.1
,
.
.
( InGaAs).
.
( )
, , .
4.3.2

88

. 4.3 (a, b, c) , .


.
( ),
- . , ,
() .

. 4.3, a. .

(. 4.3, b) ,
.
, ,
.
.

. 4.3, b.

(. 4.03, c) , . (
).
89

. 4.03, c. ,

. , , ,
, 50 .

RBW (Resolution Bandwidth)


, DWDM. RBW
.

, , ,
.
OSA, ,
.
DWDM. :

.
.
OSA .
. (, ECL ) .
, OSA,
- ,
90


, OSA . ,


( ,
).
, , .
4.3.3

. , , . 4.3, a. .
,
- .
,
.
OSA,
. -,
, ( )
, OSA ( OSA
).
, . , - (He-Ne)
. , (, 0,005 ), , , 80- WDM.
(
30 ), DWDM, . ,
OSA.
, .

91

4.4


DWDM , . 4.4. ()
.

. 4.4
OSA

. / , , , .
, .
4.4.1 /

DWDM, , ,
, ,
, .
/ ( ).

92

. 4.5 /. /
ASE,
. , OSA, .
, OSA.


(OSA RBW) . , 1xN.
.

. 4.5 ASE OSA ( )

PDL

OSA
, (PDL).

. PDL. . ,
.

. 4.6 PDL

PDL , OSA , .
4.6. . OSA , .
93


, PDL
2-5 .
DWDM (, )
PDL . .

. 4.7 PDL

PDL DWDM , PDL, . PDL


, .
PDL -

S .
( S 0 , S1 , S 2 , S 3 ) , ,
. 4.8.

. 4.8

94


DWDM
.
4 4 M :
S = MS

S , S .
- PDL .

( 0,
90, 45, )
() .

. (transmission coefficient)
( ). PDL
( ) :
PDL = 10 lg(Tmin Tmax )
. ,
PDL . -
. -
( 4.5), . 4.9.

. 4.9 -

95


- PDBW
(Polarization Dependent Bandwidth).

,
. 4.10.

. 4.10

PDBW = BWmax BWmin


PDBW
. .
PDCW
(Polarization Dependent Central Wavelength)
, . 4.11.
PDCW (1 ), DWDM.

. 4.11

96

DWDM, ASE, , .


( )
OSA /. ,
. , ,
0,001 , . 4.12, a.
,
; , OSA
, . 4.12, b. .

. 4.12 :
) OSA
b)

ORL (Optical Return Loss)


, ,
OCWR (Optical Continuous Wave Reflectometer). ;
.
, , ORL.
, ORL 70
.
ORL . , ,
( ASE);
OSA , . 4.13. - OSA ORL
40 .

97

. 4.13 ORL

,
. . . 4.14
.

. 4.14 , ASE
OSA,

(, 0,1 ),
,
OSA, . 4.15. ( 0,01 ) .
(~ 100
).

98

. 4.15

, .
, . 4.16, TLS (Tunable Laser Source). ,

. ,
.
(. ),
.

. 4.16 PDL

, ( ) ,
. TLS (,
) 65 .
, ORL PDL .
99

PMD :
JME (Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis), PSA (Poincar Sphere Analysis),
WSFA (Wavelength-Scanning/Fixed-Analyzer) IM (Interferometric Method). JME PSA ()
DGD . IM WSFA
PMD
. (, ), , PMD .
4.4.2
,
, . 4.17.

. 4.17


. ,
.
,
.
,
, . ,
,
.
100


4.4.3

WDM, (, , ) .

.
. 4.18 .
1 4 .

. 4.18

:
1. ,
, .
2. . ,

. , , ,
.
3. (
L-I) , , ( ).
.
PDL (. 2)
,
ITU-T, (
). (
).

101


, ITU. .
4.4.4
, . p-i-n , ,
. ,
( , ), ,
.
. 4.19
. .

. 4.19

4.4.5 EDFA
, EDFA,
DWDM, .
, . -,
,
.
. ,
, . 4.20.

. 4.20
102


EDFA,

/ . EDFA ( ),
PMD, PDL PDG (Polarization Dependent Gain).
EDFA, . EDFA
( InGaAs Ge ), +25 . 1550
, .
.
30 , , , 3 . ,
.
-
,
, .
.
,
, .
EDFA ,
OSA . ,
, .
, , .
, EDFA , ..
. (LED ASE ) OSA. ,

. . 4.21.

. 4.21

103


EDFA , , . ORL
.
EDFA, , . 4.22,.

. 4.22 ORL

(,
ASE), OSA 1 2 , . 4.22, b.
EDFA, ,
,
EDFA.
EDFA .
EDFA ,
, EDFA , .
,
. ,
,
.
. 4.23 .
, , , ,
. . OSA. EDFA
.
:
, .
EDFA.
, : ,
104


.
, : ,
, . EDFA, .

. 4.23 OSA EDFA


, . 4.24,
EDFA
.

. 4.24 ,
EDFA

,
( - 4%
13.9 ),
(EDFA) , ,
. /

1 .
- EDFA , : . -

105


- , ,
(ASE), .
-
, , ,
.
.
: ,
(Time-domain Extinction).
.

. ASE
ASE , . 4.25.

. 4.25 - EDFA

ASE
, ASE , -.
, , , .
ASE , , :
Pamp ASE ( s ) = Ptot ASE G PSSE

Pamp ASE

ASE

s , Ptot ASE () ASE, G


EDFA PSSE ASE .
, , .
SSE (Source Spontaneous
Emission), . , 106


, ASE EDFA ,
. , SSE , ,
. ; (ASE) , . 4.26.

. 4.26 - EDFA


SSE ASE. , , PMD.
, , , EDFA,
.
ASE . ,
, ASE , . 4.27.

. 4.27 - EDFA

(~ 10 ),
. ,
, , .

107


EDFA;
.
, RIN (Relative Intensity Noise), , . 4.28.

. 4.28 (RIN)

RIN .
, , , -, ESA (Electrical Spectrum Analyzer), . 4.29.

. 4.29 RIN - EDFA

- ,
, RIN, . 4.30.

108

RIN
MPI (Multipath Interference),
. , . RIN ,

. 4.30 RIN EDFA

PMD, ,
EDFA,
. LED 1531 ,
. 4.31.
MPI, - ( ).

. 4.31 PMD, , PMD

MPI . ( ) MPI.
,
, , -.
EDFA MPI ,
, . .
(0 ) .
109


PDG (Polarization Dependent Gain)
PDL
( ) , . 4.32.
.

. 4.32 EDFA

EDFA : . , ,
, 4.33.

. 4.33 2x2

4.4.6
/, ,
, , . ,
. 4.34. ASE .
7-8 . .

110

. 4.34

4.4.7
, , ASE, .
. , , .
, , ASE OSA.
PDL ,
1550 ( DWDM),
, . 4.35.

. 4.35 PDL

, , , . - , ,
,
PMD. , -
. PMD
/, . 4.36.

111

. 4.36 PMD

, , .
4.37.

. 4.37 PDL

4.4.8

,
, ().
, 1550
, . 4.38.

. 4.38

112


.
, .
, . ,


.
,
.

PMD ,
. . :
. , : (JME) (PSA).
PMD: DGD.

, JME.


, . 4.39.

. 4.39


.
.
, .
,
- ,
. 4.40.

113

. 4.40

.
PMD.
PMD (
).
:

PMD
.

, , .

,
.

PMD , , . 4.41.
,
( DWDM 1550 ),
PMD . PMD
, . ,
.
OSA.
114

. 4.41 PMD

PMD
.
, ,
.

, .
/ ,
, .
,
. ,
.
.
, ,
. PMD
, . , PMD .

, ( ).
,
, 5C.
PMD .
.
.
, (
) , -,
, . 4.42. ,
PMD -.
. PMD

115


/ /. PMD
,
: ,
.

. 4.42 PMD


, PMD .
( )
(. 4.43):
< >= 3 4

< > PMD , ,


.

. 4.43 PMD ,

- , < > L
/ /.

116


, .
. -


, / PMD
1 , 5 10%. PMD 0.1 20-25%.
PMD.
PMD
.
PMD ( ) , .
PMD ( PMD2 ), PMD ,
:
PMD2 = 2c ( PMD1 ) 2 / 2 3

PMD1 PMD , c
.
, PMD 0,5 / 0,15 /().

PMD
.

PMD
, ,
PMD. PMD
, , PMD.
: JME
PSA.
WDM .
() .

117


JME , PSA .
EXFO PSA ,
JME. ,
, , . , DGD
( ).
JME ,
, PSA ( EXFO)
.
,
/ .

.
(.. )
.

.
, .. ,
. DGD
( ) ,
, .
DGD ,
. ( )
( )
, . 4.44.
, .

. 4.44 DGD , JME PSA ()

PMD
DGD .
118

PMD /
/ DGD
(~0.01 ) .

,
.

( )
.

PMD
( ) .

PMD PDL .

,
.

JME, . .
, PSA .
. DGD PSA ,
. PMD , .

4.5

, , , .

DWDM-.

119


() ,
. ,
. , 60 .
.

: , , ,
, , , , , PDL.
PDL . PDL
.
()
. , 32, 64 .
. .
, , ,
/, (-) ,
DWDM.
:

120

. ,
, .
.

. .
( ) ASE.

WRM (Wavelength Reference Module).



. :
, , , ORL.

. ,
WRM. , WRM. -


. OSA.

(PSA). PSA (SOP).


SOP ,
, PDL . , PDL,
.

. PDL
.
,
.

.
.
,
, . .txt ,
. ,
, , , .

4.6
, ,
: , , .
.
.
- , , , .
.
.
-
: ,
, .
(, ),
.
, .

121


EDFA, ,
.
, . , , .
,
, (, ).
, , , ASE,
. . : OSA, .
EDFA
.
,
WDM, ,

.
, , , ,
. , , ,
.
. , ,

.
.
/ ,
.

122

4.7
,
.
-, . ,
,
, .
,
,
. . DWDM
.
4.7.1
Optical Loss Test Set (OLTS), DWDM
,
1525 1565 . , ,
.

OSC (Optical Supervisory Channel): 1480 , 1510 1625 , . DFB .
1625 , ,
.
, .
4.7.2
(OTDR) 1
1625 .
1625 , . , 1625 , DWDM
EDFA . ,
- 1625 ,
DWDM . 1625 ,
, , - , . 4.45.

, ITU
5- L- (Long) 1565-1625 , 6- U- (Ultra-long)
1625-1675 . (. .)

123

. 4.45

4.7.3
ORL
.
WDM .
: , ,
, . ,
,
/, ORL
. , , ,
.
DFB-, .
, ORL .
.
. : ORL
.
ORL
, , . , .
,
( 0,1 )
/ ORL. OSA . ORL: ,
,
. 4.46.
124

. 4.46
ORL

4.7.4 PMD
, PMD , . ,
,
, ,
.
PMD .
,
, PMD .
, DGD, PMD,
PMD .
/,
BER.
PMD . ,
PMD ,
, .
, , .
. -, . -, , /
.
:

125


PMD
:

PMD1+ 2 = (PMD12 + PMD22 )

12

PMD1+ 2 PMD , PMD1 PMD2 - PMD .


, PMD 40
2,5 (0,4 /). 40- ,
PMD 1,5 (0,24 /), 3 (0,47 /),
80 3,35 (0,37 /).
, , , .
, PMD 2 (0,32 /), - 4 (0,63
/1/2), 80 4.47 (0,50 /), , . , . : ,
, .
, PMD , 10 / . PMD ,
, , , PMD.
EDFA , ,
PMD.
PMD
. ; . , PMD
. .
DWDM
.
. , , ,
. , ,

(, PDL). , , ,
. , , .

126

5
, WDM

, WDM
WDM
. WDM

.
,
,
.
WDM.
WDM .
, ,
,
,
.

. ,
.
WDM,
, ,
.
,
, WDM,
, ,
WDM.

5.1. WDM

. , WDM
, .

, ,
,
, .
WDM
:
. ,
.
,
.
.
. , 40
2,5 / (STM-16)
100 /.
128

. ITU-T
100 ( 0,8

, WDM
).
50 ( 0,4 ) 25
.
() 2,5 / (STM-16)
10 / (STM-64).
.
EDFA. EDFA
( 40 ) 30-40
.
.

, ,
.
WDM,
.
5.1.1

BER (Bit Error Rate),
103 1012
.
, BER. WDM
BER .
- , . 5.1.
, ?

. 5.1 -

,
. ,
BER.
, ,

.

129

, WDM
. 5.1.
. 5.1 -

3
(P1)

-5

,
..

-1

ST-,

-0,25

-20

-1

ST-,

()

-27,25

,

(P2=P1-)

-24,25

(N)

-40


(P2-N)

15,75

, , ,
,
BER. ,
. 15,75 .
10 .
, -
; ,
. , ,
.

.
BER . 5.2.

130

, WDM

. 5.2 BER

5.1.2

.
. ,
, .

.
.
.
5.1.3
- ,
.
, -
, .

,
.
.
,
. ,
DWDM, .
, /
. EDFA
.

.

131

, WDM


.
ORL (Optical Return Loss)
-
, .
:
ORL = 10 lg( Pin / Pref )

Pin , Pref .
ORL .
, .
, , 1 ,
1 , 30 .
ORL ,
, .

(, . .)

K = 10 lg( Pref / Pin )

Pref , (
!), Pin . ,
, ,

.
,
, . , ,
1 , 1 ,
30 .
, , .
5.1.4 /
BER ,
,
WDM, /.
/ OSNR (Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio)
WDM
.
OSNR,
.
132

, WDM
,
BER / OSNR
.
OSNR BER. , OSNR,
, BER.
WDM
OSNR.
OSNR . 5.3.
40
. OSNR.
OSNR
, EDFA .
EDFA OSNR
3-7 . OSNR 20 .

. 5.3. . SNR

.


. ,
( ,
), EDFA
. -
ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission) EDFA. ,
EDFA ,
,
.

,
. ASE / ,
.
-
, , ,
, .

133

, WDM
OSNR () WDM
. . 5.3, :
OSNR = min i [10 lg( Pi / N i ) + 10 lg( Bm / Br )]
: Pi i - , Br
( ), 0,1 , N i

( ) Bm i - :

N i = [ N ( i ) + N ( i + )] 2
,
.
/
.
.
/
, .
5.1.5

.
EDFA
, , . 5.4.
/
,
.

.

,
.
.

. 5.4. EDFA
134

, WDM
5.1.6

.
.

, ,
.
.
,
, . 5.5.

. 5.5
50

DWDM ,
,
.
100
( 0,8 ).

,
.
DWDM 50
.
DWDM .

DFB (Distributed Feedback), ,
.

DWDM.
,
DWDM. SDH ,
.
DWDM
SDH.
DFB ( ,
135

, WDM

DWDM ). STM16 DFB.
5.1.7
.
- . . 5.6

, 12 .
,
.

. 5.6

,
.
,
.
,
.
5.1.8

.
.
(, , )
.
4.4.1.

,
.
25 , . 5.7.

17 , 13 .

136

, WDM

. 5.7 (
)

, ,
.
,
.
, .
5.1.9
, ,
.

, 3.3.4.
,
.
5.1.10

FWM, -
.
,
, . 5.8.

. 5.8. -
137

, WDM
FWM ,
. FWM
,
.
FWM
,

. ,
, .
,
.
5.1.11
, ,
PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion)
: - ,
, , .5.9.
, PMD
:
PMD = < DGD 2 >

DGD (Differential Group Delay) .


DGD , ,
, ,
PMD .

. 5.9. PMD

, PMD
.
,
Lc ,
. Lc
1 300 .
, L
138

, WDM
( L >> Lc ),
. PMD :
PMD = K PMD L

K PMD PMD, /.
PMD PMD 1 .
PMD ,
80- . ,
, PMD .
,
,
.
PMD.
, 80- ,
,
STM-64.
5.1.12

,
.
.
,
,
.
5.1.12 WDM
-
, :

, :
();
();
, :
();
();
();
, :
DGD ();
, PDL ();
/ (), ,
WDM;

3 4.
139

, WDM

5.2. WDM
WDM
.
WDM ,
. ,
WDM.
,
.

SDH ,
, WDM,
.
,
.
/,
,
, WDM.
-
,
.

WDM , ,
, , .
:

( );

5.2.1

WDM. ,
.
1310 1550
,
.

.

140


( ,
),

, WDM
.
(STM-64),
,
, -
.
5.2.2 -

,
.
-
, ..
. ,
,
.
,
, .

,
, ,
. / OSNR
. OSNR DWDM
OSA,
OSNR .
WDM
, ,
,
.
,
,
. ,

, ,
/, ,
, , , ,
, ()
. 5.3.

141

, WDM
5.2.3
,
.
, ,

/ .
WDM
, ,
.

() WDM (/) ()
(/),
DCC (Data Communications Channel),
LAN (Local Area Network) OSC (Optical
Supervisory Channel). , ,
5.4.
.
,
, .
.

, .
RFTS (Remote Fiber Test System),
5.5.
5.2.4
, ,
.


,
. , (
, , )
. (ITU )
,
, , ,
.
5.2.5

142


. WDM
-,

SDH. ,
/ OADM,

, WDM
.
,
, -,
.

,
.

. ,
,
.
WDM
- .

.
WDM /
, .
,
,
, .

5.3 WDM
,
,

.
, WDM
.

.
.
,
.
, .. .
, , .
,
,
WDM.
5.3.1

, OSA
, . 5.10.
: XY .

143

, WDM
MWM (Multiwavelength Meter)
ITU.

. 5.10.

5.3.2

BER.
BER, , . 5.11.
ITU,
.

. 5.11 BER



.
OSA ,
.5.12, 5.13.

144

, WDM

. 5.12 OSA

.

. 5.13 (/) Siemens.


(
Siemens)

5.3.3
EDFA ,

. 1550
, .
5.14.

. 5.14 EDFA

,

1550 1 .
EDFA
3 .
OSA, . 5.15.
EDFA 32 ( 1530 1562 ).
EDFA.

145

, WDM
OSA ( 980 ,
1480 ).

. 5.15 OSA

ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission)


.
.
( : / /0,1 ).
5.3.4

.

.
,
. ,
.

BER
EDFA.
BER, .5. 16.


( ).
OSA.
3 ,
.

146

, WDM

. 5.16. BER WDM ,



.
20 , . 5.17.

. 5.17.


. , ,
(
) OSA,
, . 5.18.
,
.

147

, WDM

. 5.18 :
) OSA ;
b)


.
.
OSA
( OSA), . 5.19.
ITU.
( 3 )
0,2 .

. 5.19 :
) ASE OSA ;
) OSA


.
OSA, . 5.20.

148

, WDM

. 5.20
OSA

5.3.5
,

.
.
DWDM
, .
DWDM
/ OSNR.
OSA , . 5.21.

. 5.21
OSA
149

, WDM
-, OSA
OSNR . /
(
),
. 18
.
-, /
. 2,5 /
21 .

, . 5.22.

. OSA
(
). OSNR (
28 0,1 ),
2 .

. 5.22. OSA
OSNR

BER
. BER (15 )
, ,
50 25 . BER
, BER
(1012 25 ).
BER
BER (15 ).
24 ,
. OSNR
.
150

, WDM

-
.
.
( )
MWM. 50
5 .
.
BER ,
.

, 1 .
,
.
.
BER
WDM ,
, . 5.23.

. 5.23.

5.3.6
, . .
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.

151

, WDM

, TEC (Thermo-Electric Cooler),
.

EDFA. ,
EDFA.

.

(
, , ).
,
- .
, ,
- ,
.
.
EDFA.

, (
) .

5.4 WDM
DWDM 90- ,
.
, , WDM,

, . 5.24. BER -
DFB-,
EDFA, EDFA

.
. ,


.
,
,
.
, .

152

, WDM
. 5.24 ,

5.4.1 / OSNR

/ OSNR.

, ,

OSNR
OSA. OSNR
( ,
)

.


/.
5.4.2
WDM
.
OSA.
,

MWM.

.
, ,
,
;
.
OSA,
.
.

RFTS.

153

, WDM
5.4.3
PMD -
,

. ,

PMD .
5.4.4
,

.
.
DWDM ,

.
, ,
,
BER.
5.4.5
( DWDM EDFA)
- .

.

OSA, .

EDFA, ,
.
OSNR .

.
5.4.6

MWM, .
DWDM
0,005 .
MWM (30-40 ).
, MWM
OSA.
154

, WDM
MWM
.
5.4.7

, OSA
.
, .
,
.

5.5 WDM
WDM
. ,
,
, .
,

.
DWDM,
, , ,
..
, .

, .
5.5.1

.
OSC (Optical Supervisory Channel).
OSC
, ,
. OSC
, , .
OSC, ,
EDFA.
OSC
: , . OSC
, .
.
OSC
,
. OSC
, .
155

, WDM
OSC - ;
. OSC
1510 1625 ,
EDFA ,
.
1510 ,
OSC 1480 1310 (
).
OSC -
,
.
,
OTDR. OTDR
.

OSC, EDFA.

.

DWDM. OSC,
EDFA.
SONET/SDH
.
EDFA
,
.
RTU (Remote Test Unit)
RFTS (Remote Fiber Test System)
.
5.5.2 RFTS

. , MWM
OSA. PMD,
OTDR .
RFTS
. RFTS
. ,
, . 5.25.
RFTS
,
. :

156

(
).

, WDM

(
DWDM (STM-16 STM-64)
).

- , DWDM,
RFTS
. ,
( SDH).
( 120 ),

.

. 5.25 RFTS

DWDM
. DWDM
. WDM
,
DWDM .
RFTS
, .

157

, WDM

OTDR
, OSA DWDM.

OSNR,
.
, ,
DWDM OSA
, -
EDFA.

DWDM
. DFB-
,
( )
.
(0,1-0,2 ) DWDM

. 0,02
.
MWM RFTS 0,003 ,
DFB-
.
PMD
STM-64


. -
PMD
STM-64. PMD
. RFTS
PMD.
PMD ,
DGD .

DGD .
-

. ,
RFTS.
RFTS ,
.

158

, WDM
5.5.3

.
. ,
,
. . . 5.26

.

. 5.26

1.


. , -
. MWM
OSNR , . 5.27.
BER (, 1013) /
OSNR 18 (
OSNR 22 ).
, 8 .

(
MWM).

. 5.27 OSNR

159

, WDM
2.

,
, . 5.28.
5 2
.
, .

. 5.28. OSNR

3.

,
(),
, . 5.29.

. 5.29. DFB- WDM

160

, WDM
4.

EDFA.
.
3 , . 5.30

. 5.30. EDFA (
)

5.

(SDH, SONET, IP .)
. BER
20 .
:
.

, ,
DWDM . ,

. , ,
-
, .
,
.

161

, WDM

162

6
DWDM

DWDM

6.1 ?
, . ,
, . .
,
.
,
, . ;
.
,
.
, , , ,
, , .

SONET (Synchronous Optical Network)
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) .

, .
SONET SDH -
.

6.2 ?

. ITU (International
Telecommunication Union),
, IEC (International
Electrotechnical Commission), .
- . , TIA (Telecommunications Industry
Association) ,
ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) TTC (. . 6.1).
164

DWDM
. 6.1 ,

ITU

IEC

ETSI

CENELEC

TTC

JISC

EIA/TIA

. , , .

, .
, . , ,
.

6.3 ,
DWDM
DWDM ,
.
, - , TIA (Telcordia
Technologies ( Bellcore))
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). : IEC
ITU. - ().
6.3.1 ITU
ITU
, . ITU
. ITU ITU-R, ITU-T ITU-D.
ITU-T .
,
. ITU-T SG (Study Group), ITU. - ITU
WTSC
165

DWDM
(World Telecommunication Standardization Conference) ,
.
ITU , ,
.
SG 15 ITU-T

ITU-T
, .
, SG 15 ( ,
), DWDM.
SG 15 , ,
. , SG 15
- IP
(Internet Protocol). ,
ITU-T , , . SG 15 345 26
78 . ITU-T.
SG 15 89 (
) , :

(xDSL);

( , GSTN, IP);

SDH/SONET (,
SDH/SONET);

ATM ( IP ATM);

(, , ,
, IP );

(, ,
, ,
IP).

IP

SG 15 WP (Working Party):
(Network Access), (Network Signal Processing), (Multiplexing) (Switching and Transmission). WP 4/15, ,
, ,
, .
- WP 4/15
:
166

DWDM

- ;

- ITU-T;

IP WDM.

WP4/15 DWDM
, :

;
;

- ;

,
SDH;

SDH (.G.692);


, . . WP 4/15
, ,
,
.
WP 4/15 , . ,
.
, - IP (Internet Protocol) . WP 4/15 ,
( , ) IP WDM. ,
167

DWDM
,
.
WP 4/15 WDM. WP 4/15
50 , 100 , ( 128 ) (
).
WP 4/15 TDM
10 /, WDM.
, TDM
40 /.
, WP 4/15
1620-1660
, RFTS (. 5.5.2).
6.3.2 IEC
ITU, ( , ,
..), IEC . IEC
, , , ,
.
50 IEC.
(National Committees).
,
.
. -
IEC . , IEC
. IEC ,
- IEC.
IEC , ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
ITU, WTO (World Trade Organization), CENELEC (European
Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization). TIA IEC.
168

DWDM
IEC (IEC Council), , 200 TC (Technical
Committee) SC (SubCommittee) 700 WG (Work
Group). 10 000 ,
.
- IEC , IEC.
TC , .
TC 86
- , .
TC 86 . 6.2.
. 6.2 IEC TC 86

IEC 86:

ITU (ITU-T)
IEC 100 D ( )
(WG)

WG 1:
WG 4: -
WG7: /
- ( )
(S)

SC 86 A:
WG 1:
WG 3:
SC 86 B: -
WG 4:
WG 6:
WG 7:
SC 86 C: -
WG 1:
WG 2:
WG 3:
, ,
, . , TC 86
IEC ITU . , TC 86 IEC,

169

DWDM
ITU ,
PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion), WDM, , .
ITU PMD
TC 86 .
, TC 86 IEC 61282-3
PMD - . PMD (IEC 61941),
PMD .

PMD
.
,
PMD , PMD , PMD
.
SB 4 (Sector Board), , WDM.
, SB 4 , :

DWDM ;

xDSL ;

,
ADSL;

( )
DWDM. IEC 61074 IEC SC 86B
. ITU-T
.

IEC 61291-1. ( IEC
61291-4) . :
, .
IEC 61291-4 , ,
. IEC 61291-4 , ,
( , , ..).
170

DWDM
:
1.

2.

(IEC 61290-1):
a)

b)

( ,
);

c)

d)

e)

, .

(IEC 61290-2):
a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

:
1.

( ) ( )
, EDFA; IEC 61290-3-1 ( OSA
) IEC 61290-3-2 ( ESA RIN (Relative Intensity Noise))
IEC 61290-10-2 (
OSA).

2.

, -
, .
IEC 61290-4-1 (
).

3.

, EDFA.
IEC 61290-5-1 ( OSA), IEC 61290-5-2 ( ESA), IEC 612905-3 ( ).

4.

, . IEC 61290-6-1 ( ).
171

DWDM
5.

,
. IEC
61290-7-1 (
).

IEC SC 86C , , , . , , IEC 61290-1-3


, , OSA.
, ,
OSA.
, .
IEC 60793-1-x

.
6.3.3 TIA
TIA
(Telecommunications Industry Association). TIA , : FO-2.0 ( ),
, FO-6.0 ( ), .
,
WDM : FO-2.1.1 (,
), FO-2.1.2 (
), FO-6.3.5 ( -
) FO-6.6.5 ( ). TIA ANSI
(American National Standards Institute).
.
TIA ITU IEC, TIA
.
FO-2.1.1 ,
, ,
, .
FO-2.1.2 / OSA
, / (OFSTP-6, Optical Fiber Standard Test Procedure).
OSA 172

DWDM
0,1 . , 10 / 0,2 , 2,5 / - 0,09
.
FO-6.3.5 PMD , PDL, ,
WDM.
FO-6.6.5 , , -, PMD
.
. 6.3. TIA

FO-2.1
FO-2.1.1
FO-2.1.2
FO 2.2
FO-2.2.1
FO-2.3
FO-2.4
FO-2.5
FO-2.6
FO-6.1
FO-6.1.1
FO-6.3
FO-6.3.1
FO-6.3.3
FO-6.3.4
FO-6.3.5

,

, ,


-
-




()

-

FO-6.3.6
FO-6.3.8



FO-6.3.10
FO-6.6

FO-6.6.1

FO-6.6.2

FO-6.6.3
FO-6.6.5

FO-6.6.6

FO-6.6.7

FO-6.6.8

FO-6.6.9

FO-6.7
-
FO-6.7.1

FO-6.7.10 -
FO-6.7.14
FO-6.7.15 IEC
/.
FO-6.7.16

FO-6.7.17

FO-6.8


FO-6.9
-
FO-6.9.3/6.6.3
FO-6.9.4
PN

173

DWDM

6.4

ITU-T IEC. :

ITU ( );

ITU 100 50 25 ;

DWDM (15281602 );

( ) 128 256 ;

22 25 ;


- 40-80 ;

ITU ,
;

+17 IIIb
( , 1 ,
IV ,
);


(1650 ), - OTDR, .

, . DWDM
.
, . DWDM
.

174

7.1 DWDM
- , ,
DWDM OC-48 (STM-16) OC-192
(STM-64) 50 .
,
. . 7.1
.

. 7.1 WDM


.
, - . TDM ,
, , .
, DWDM . DWDM
,
, . DWDM
, 1998 . 200 . . , 2003
2 . .

176

, 2005 15%
1,5 /, 20%
2 / . :
2005 2 / 85%
, 20% 45 /.


. , ,
, .
WDM .

7.2 DWDM
DWDM ,
.
(IP, Ethernet . .)
SONET/SDH. ,
DWDM ,
.
, DWDM ,
.
.

.
, ,
.
DWDM
SONET/SDH: ,
DWDM SONET/SDH.
, DWDM
SONET/SDH, IP ATM , . DWDM
, Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI ESCON.
Gigabit Ethernet
DWDM ,
, .
, SONET/SDH, DWDM.
SONET/SDH, . DWDM ,
.
DWDM ,
(
EDFA). EDFA
, DWDM :
() .
50 ,
.
. , -

177


.
,
,
.
.
EDFA, .
EDFA
, , . , , (
).
. , EDFA
/
EDFA
.
, .
DWDM ( , ), SDH.
(
) - .

.7.2. :
) TDM A D;
b) - WDM

178

DWDM
, , -
EDFA .
. ,
. , DWDM -


(, -, .)
.
,
.
DWDM (.7.2, b) ,
SONET/SDH (.7.2, ). /
DWDM , . ,
DWDM , .

7.3 ,


,
TDM DWDM ,
.
DWDM
, , . DWDM
, , . , Ethernet ,
- ,
.
, . ,

SONET/SDH, - .
, -
.
, DWDM
. DWDM : 30
50 . , .
, DWDM
,
SONET/SDH. , , .
179

7.4
DWDM , . DWDM , -
,
, , .
DWDM.
, , DWDM
. . , , .
DWDM , -
1310 ,
DWDM ,
.
DWDM ,
.

DWDM, ,
.
,

. .
DWDM DWDM.
.

180

8.1
, .
?

, (- ,
),
WDM. . ,
. ,
, ,

.
, , , . , , -
(. . 8.1).
. 8.1

182

0,5 /
2,5 /
(
)
32 DWDM

,
SONET/SDH
<10
/
STS (STM)




1,2 /
10 / (
)
128
DWDM



,
ITU
10
/

STS (STM)
DCS

2-5 /
40 /
( )

200
UDWDM

,
ITU
40
/
STS-3

8.2
.
50 .
. 400 .
, 2,5 / (
/ 20 ), 1 /. , , 2,5 /.
DWDM. / , ,
, . , ,
(, ). , , .
DWDM,
SONET/SDH, ATM, Gigabit Ethernet IP,
.
IP (Internet Protocol)
. , -,
.
. , , 128- DWDM
.

8.3
, , . SONET/SDH, ,
,

.
, . ,
,
.
,
. , -
183

, () .
DFB -
DWDM. , .
, , . ,
,
. 40 .

. 206 .
, . ,
DWDM
.

8.4
, , .
, , .
, .
, , ,
.
FTTH (Fiber to
The Home). , - ,
. , ( )
- . , 10
50% .
VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser)
1310 1550 .
184


WDM . FTTH , , .
, . ,
. HDTV,
. ,
, , , -
. ,
, .
,
,
.
2000 ,
.
, . ,
, :
, -
.

185

186

9
EXFO WDM

EXFO WDM
WDM. ,
.
.
EXFO .
WDM, , . :

, , , , , EXFO. ,
, EXFO. ,
EXFO .
,
EXFO.
WDM, SONET/SDH.
, , .
, ,
. WDM, 32
128 . 100 (0,8 ), 50 (0,4 ).
, , , 16
16 .
2,5 /.
WDM, 10 / , , ,
40 /. -
180 , 90 . , ,
, 90- .
188

EXFO WDM

WDM. , ,
.

9.1
.

. , , .

, . ,

128 40 /.

.
.
, . ,
. . -, EXFO,
, , , ,
.
,
:

ORL;

- PMD;

,
. .
,
.

189

EXFO WDM
. ,
,
.
, , . 9.1.
. :

. 9.1

1. . OTDR. - 1310 , 1550


1625 . .
. ,

. ToolBox Process . OTDR
,
, . 9.2.

. 9.2

2. . , . .
MultiTest MaxTester ( 1550 1625 )
. FasTesT,
. 9.3.
190

EXFO WDM

. 9.3

3. ORL. ORL
.
,

BER .
. ITU
1550 , . 9.4.

. 9.4

191

EXFO WDM
4. - PMD. - ,
PMD, . 9.5. PMD .
(1550 ) , PMD
. ,
. , PMD
(PMD power bar ). PMD, ,
.
; , .

. 9.5 PMD

5. .
.
( ), -
OSA.
;
OSA .
192

EXFO WDM
,
.

, .
.
, ,
WDM 128
50 . (.9.6)
.

. 9.6 DFB-

WDM
128 , 10 /.
, PMD, 8,3 , , . ITU 2,5 , 40
/.
.

193

EXFO WDM

9.2 :
, WDM, ,
.
.
, ,
, . . - , , ,
, , . :

- (OXC);

(DCD);

/ (OADM);

/;

EDFA .

,
().
WDM, . .
, ,
. ( 4). :

194

;
;
;
;
;
, PDL;
;
;
ORL.

EXFO WDM
, .

:
1. .
( ),
. ASE OSA (
), . 9.7.
, . ,
3 . .
, , .. ITU.

. 9.7

2. . , .
. ,
. , , . 9.8.
-, . .

195

EXFO WDM
ASE . (.9.8),
,
.

. 9.8

3. .
,
( ),
( 3
), . 9.9.

. 9.9

196

EXFO WDM
4. (). - IL
pin p out ( ):
IL = pin p out
pin pout , .. 1 : pin = 10 lg( Pin / P1 ) , p out = 10 lg( Pout / P1 ) , Pin Pout - .
IL
, . 9.10. ,
.
0,10 .

.
, ,
, , .

. 9.10

EXFO . , ,
: ; -
; ,
; - .

197

EXFO WDM
5. .
.
.
. 40 , . 9.11.

. 9.11

198

EXFO WDM
6. / ().

. . 9.12,
, .
.
1 2, . , . ,
. , .

. 9.12 (
)

7. , PDL (). , ,
.

PDL IL.
, PDL , PDL 0,05 . EXFO
PDL .
. ,
. , , . 9.13.

199

EXFO WDM
PDL
. .

. 9.13 PDL

200

EXFO WDM
8. (). ORL

ORL = 10 lg( Pin / Pref )

Pin , Pref .
ORL, 0 , 100%
; ORL 20 1%.
, , ORL > 60 .
ORL 60 0,0001% .
.
, , ,
.
(80 ); .
ORL. , ORL, ORL 80 .
, ORL DWDM.
ORL

.
( DFB-),
, , , , PDL,
, .
, ,
.
WDM - , , .

201

EXFO WDM

9.3
, ,
. , ,
.
, ,
. , , , .
, WDM.
(
). , .
.
:

EDFA;

/;

, WDM
. - , ,

EXFO:

202

EXFO WDM
1. .
, , ITU.
, MWM, . 9.14.

. 9.14 OSA MWM

203

EXFO WDM
2. . ,
,
, . 9.15. ,
. EXFO
WDM
OSA. , .

. 9.15

204

EXFO WDM
3. EDFA. ,
.
1550 , , . 9.16. -
EDFA ,
,
OSA .

. 9.16 EDFA

205

EXFO WDM
4. /. , 32 .
. , , OSA (
DEMUX, OSA
DEMUX).
.
, MWM ,
ITU, . 9.17. , ,
: WDM OSA. ,
, .
OSA, ,
. ,
.

. 9.17 MWM

206

EXFO WDM
5. . ,
. OSA / .
, / 18 , 40 . EDFA
. , ,
.
MWM (drift mode),

WDM .
6. . , (, , , , , )
.

9.4
9.4.1
. RTU (Remote
Test Unit), PC- , - ,
.
RTU OTDR , .
( ) , ,
. - , , .
,
, , , . .
RTU,
, /,
TSC (Test System Controller) (. 9.18). TSC ,
SQL. TSC RTU,
, .

207

EXFO WDM

. 9.18 RFTS

RFTS (Remote Fiber Test System).


RFTS
(GeoMedia Small World). , :

. .

() , , . ., GPS
( ).
RFTS
. .
208

EXFO WDM
:

, ;

(, . .);

9.4.2

RTU ( RFTS)
, .9.19. ,
().

. 9.19 RFTS
OTDR

209

EXFO WDM

, ,
.9.20. ; , ,
(, , ..), . 9.21. :
-

, ;

..

. 9.20

. 9.21

210

EXFO WDM

, . 9.22:
-

1;

12;

42;

13;

. 9.22

( ) , . 9.23.

. 9.23

211

EXFO WDM

RTU ( RFTS)
. .


, , . 9.24. ;
,
(,
, ..), . 9.25. :
-

/;

. 9.24 RFTS OSA

212

EXFO WDM

. 9.25

, . 9.26:
-

1;

12;

42;

13;

. 9.26 OSA

( ) .

213

EXFO WDM

9.5

, . , ,
, .
.
, .
,
.

.
, .
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
. , , ( )
, ,
. , EXFO,
:

EDFA 6 8 ;

/ 12 ;

16-18 .

, ,
!

214

C- ()
C-band (conventional band)
1525 1565 ,
,
. . " ITU".
DFB-
DFB laser
. .
DSn ( En)
DSn

, . DS1
1,544 / 24 DS0
64 /. DS3 DS2 (DS2 DS1),
44,736 /.
- En ( E1 E3
)
FP-
FP laser
. -.
L-
L-band (long band)
1568 1610 . .
" ITU".

Amplitude modulation (AM)
,
.

Network architecture
,
,
;
.

Attenuator
()
.

Near-End Crosstalk
. .

216


Brillouin scattering (BS)
,
,
, ..
,
.

Insertion loss (IL)
, -
.

Waveguide dispersion
,
.

Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)
,

.

Wavelength Meter
.

,
HeNe .

Step-index fiber

.
,
Graded index fiber
. .
,
Multimode fiber
. .
,
Singlemode fiber
. .
,
Optical fiber
. .

217

,
Step-index fiber
. .

Fiber Bragg grating
,
.
,
EDFA .

Repeatability
.
,
.

Time-division multiplexing (TDM)
,
.
( )
Stimulated Raman scattering

( )
. WDM-
.

Wide area network (WAN)
,
, , .
()
Central office (CO)
. .

Metropolitan area network (MAN)
/ .
( MAN 50
IEEE 802.6 MAN).

Graded index fiber
,
.
.

Far-End Crosstalk
. .
218

dBm

1 .

Birefringence

, -
(
).

Demultiplexer (DEMUX)
N ( ) .

Detector
,
.
()
Decibel (dB)

.
.

Mode field diameter (MFD)

,
.

Measurement range

,
.

Dynamic range

( ) , (
) ,
.
,
Light-emitting diode (LED)
. .
,
Dispersion
. /
219

,
Chromatic dispersion
. .

Diffraction grating
, (
) ,
.

( ).

Differential group delay (DGD)

. ,
,
.

(DGD).

Cutoff wavelength
,
( ).

Peak wavelength
,
(,
, ..).
,
Nominal wavelength
. .
,
Central wavelength
. .
, ,
Polarization dependent central wavelength (PDCW)
. .

Polarization dependent central wavelength (PDCW)

.

Retardation

.
220


Retardation plate
.
,
.
.
, .

Attenuation
,
. .

Buffer coating
,
. .

Optical continuous wave reflectometer (OCWR)
,
. OCWR

.

Optical loss test set (OLTS)
.

, .

Test System
,

Channel isolation
( )
. (. , FEXT).
, ( , FEXT)
Isolation
,
,
(, ).

Index-matching gel
,
.
.

221


IEEE
,
,
.
-
Mach-Zehnder interferometer
,
,
.
.

Source
,
.

Channel spacing
( ).

Coherence
( )
. ,
().

Connector
. .

Polarization controller
, (SOP)
.

Reflectance
-
.
( )
Bit error rate (BER)

.
BER - 1E-9 .

Avalanche photodiode (APD)
.

222

Laser
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
( ).

.
- .

Distributed feedback laser (DFB laser)
.
-
Fabry-Perot (FP) laser
,
, .
,
Tunable laser
. .

Linearity
( )
.

Trunk
.

Local area network (LAN)
, .
, : , ,
.

Backbone

Macrobending
, .

Material dispersion
,
.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

.
223

Microbending
.

.

Multipath interference (MPI)
,
.

.

Multimode fiber
,
.

Mode
.

Dispersion

.

.

Mode stripper
, ,
.
,
Amplitude modulation (AM)
. .
,
Frequency modulation (FM)
. .

Reference power
, .

.
,
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)
. .

224

,
Time-division multiplexing (TDM)
. .

,
Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM)
. .
,
Narrowband wavelength-division multiplexing (NBWDM)
. .

Multiplexer (MUX)
, (
) .
/
Add/drop multiplexer (ADM)
,
/ .
/
(TDM), (DWDM)
.

Mandreling

(,
,
).
, ( , NEXT)
Directivity
(),
,
(, ).

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
,
, ,
.

Fault
.

Ripple
() ,
.

225


Nominal wavelength
,
(, , ).
-
.

Cladding

.

Backscattering
. . .

Singlemode fiber
,
.
(OC)
Optical carrier (OC)
SONET. OC-1
51,84 /, OC-n
(OC-3, OC-12, OC-48 OC-192) -1.
()
Optical return loss (ORL)

.
-
Optical cross connect (OXC)
, NxN,
, ,
.

Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)
-
.
.

() ,
.

Optical cleave
()
.

226


Talk set
,
.
.
,
Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)

(20-100 ) .

Optical fiber
,

.

Optical fiber amplifier (OFA)
( ,
EDFA).

Principal states of polarization (PSP)
,
.

(PSP).
PSP .
.
PSP
.

Coupler
,
.

Relative intensity noise (RIN)
.
/
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
.

Reflection generator
,
.

227

Reflection

.
,
Total internal reflection
.
,
Fresnel reflection
. .

Transmitter

.

Switch
,
.

Cross-phase modulation (CPM)
() .

Crosstalk
, -
() . (NEXT, )
(FEXT, ) .
( )
Tunable laser
.
()
Connector adapter

.

OH-peak
1390
(OH-).
.
.

.

Dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM)
WDM .
228

Repeater
.
,
,
.

Absorption
, .

Index of refraction

.

Refractive index
,
, .. ,
,
.

Fiber coating
, ,
.
,
Buffer coating
. .

Total internal reflection
,
,


,
.

Bandpass
( ),
.

Bandwidth
. .

229

p-i-n
p-i-n photodiode
, ,
(p) (n)
i.

Polarizer
,
.
()
Polarization mode dispersion (PMD)
. - .
-
Polarization dependent bandwidth (PDBW)

.
- ()
Polarization mode dispersion (PMD)
-

.
.

Polarization

.
,
Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
. .

Port
().

Loss
. .
PDL
Polarization dependent loss (PDL)
. .

Polarization dependent loss (PDL)
( ),
- ,
.
230


Bend loss
( ) (
).
.

Optical return loss (ORL)
. .
,
Insertion loss (IL)
. .

Refraction

.

Receiver

.

Protocol
, ,
.

Flatness
WDM .
,
Fused biconic tapered device
. .

Resolution

.

Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
, ANSI (MAN).
100
/.

Repeater
. .

231


Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
,
( - , )
.

Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)


. .

Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)
,


/. ,
,
.

Rayleigh scattering
( )
( ).

Fused biconic tapered (FBT) device
,
, ( 2 5
).
.

Light-emitting diode (LED)


, .

Edge-emitting LED (EELED)
, .
WDM-.

Mode coupling

.

Core
,

.
MAN,
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
. .
232


SONET
,
.

Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)
,

.

Synchronous

.

.

Plug-in module


.
.

Connector

, .

Pigtail
, ,
.

Patchcord

, .

State of polarization (SOP)

.

Spectral width

.
,
-
.
233


Wavelength-independent coupler (WIC)
,
.

Splice
,
. .

Wavelength Locker
,
.

Network architecture
. .

Poincare sphere (PS)

.

Dark current
, .
DWDM
DWDM
. .
FDDI
Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
. .

Thin film coating-based filter
.
.

Topology

.
-
Point-to-point
.

Accuracy
.

234

-
Transistor-transistor logic (TTL)
, +5
(1), 0 - (0).

.

Node
,
.

Narrowband wavelength-division multiplexing (NBWDM)
WDM-,
1550 .

Connector adapter
. .

Noise floor
,
. /=1.

Gain

(ASE) .

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)
,
.
.
EDFA
EDFA
. , .
,
Optical fiber amplifier (OFA)
. .

Dispersion compensation device (DCD)

.

Self-phase modulation (SPM)

235

,
Mode stripper
. .

Photodiode
, ,
() .

Photon
( ).

Fresnel reflection
,
.
, ,
-13,9 n=1,46.

Chromatic dispersion
,

.
/(*).

Central wavelength
, .

Central office (CO)
.

Circulator
,
(, 90 180 ).
()
Frequency modulation (FM)
,
.
,
Chirp
(,
) (,
).

236


Numerical aperture (NA)
,

, .

Sensitivity

.
()
Responsivity

. /.

Pulse width
,
.

Bandwidth
( ),

Broadband
(, ,
/ ).

Fiber in the loop (FITL)

()
Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
,
,
. , ,
, .

Group index

.
.

237

238

ADM

Add/Drop Multiplexer

ADSL


( ADSL)

Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line

ANSI

- American Nation Standards Institute

APD

Avalanche Photodiode

APS

Automatic Protection Switching

ASCII


( ASCII)

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASE

Amplified Spontaneous Emission

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

AWG

Arrayed Waveguide Grating

BDLA

Bidirectional Line Amplifier

BER

( )

Bit Error Rate

BML

( TMN)

Business Management Layer (TMN architecture)

BW

Bandwidth

CATV

Community Antenna Television or Cable Television

CD

Chromatic Dispersion

CLEC

Competitive Local Exchange Carrier

CO

Central Office

CORBA


Common Object Request Broker Architecture
( - (TMN architecture/object model)
)

CPU

DAMA

[] Demand Assignment Multiple Access


DBFA

Dual-Band Fiber Amplifier

DCD

Dispersion Compensation Device

DCF

Dispersion-Compensating Fiber

DCOM

Distributed Component Object Model (TMN archi( / TMN)


tecture/object model)

DGD

Differential Group Delay

DSF

Dispersion-Shifted Fiber

DUT

Device under Test

DWDM

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

ECL

External Cavity Laser

EDFA

EDFA (
, )

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

EELED

Edge-Emitting LED

Central Processing Unit


EIA

Electronic Industries Association

EMI

()

Electromagnetic Interference

EML

( Element Management Layer (TMN architecture)


TMN)

ESA

Electrical Spectrum Analyzer

FBT

Fused Biconic Tapered device

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface


( FDDI)

FDF

Fiber Distribution Frame

FEC

(
)

Forward Error Correction

FEXT

(. Isolation)

Far-End Crosstalk

FFT

Fast Fourier Transform

FITL

( )

Fiber in the Loop

FM

Frequency Modulation

FOA

Fiber-Optic Adapter

FOM

Figure of Merit

fs

, 1E-15

Femtosecond

FTTC

Fiber To The Curb

FWHM

1/2

Full Width Half Maximum

FWM

Four-Wave Mixing

GIS

()

Geographical Information System

GPIB

General Purpose Interface Bus

HDSL

High-Rate Digital Subscriber Link


( HDSL)

HeNe

Helium-Neon laser

HFC

- ()

Hybrid Fiber Coax (network)

HiBi

High Birefringence fiber

IEEE

- Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IL

Insertion Loss

IM

Interferometric Method

IP

IP

Internet Protocol

ITU


( )

International Telecommunication Union

IEC

Inter-exchange Carrier

ILEC

Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier

JME

Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis

LAN

()

Local Area Network

LED

Light -Emitting Diode

LWEDFA EDFA

Long Wavelength EDFA


239


MAC

(
OSI)

Media Access Control

MAN

Metropolitan Area Network

MFD

()

Mode Field Diameter

MIB

( TMN)

Management Information Base (TMN)

MUX

Multiplexer

MWM

Multiwavelength Meter

NA

Numerical Aperture

NBWDM

240

Narrowband Wavelength-Division Multiplexing

NDSF

(- Non-Dispersion-Shifted Fiber
)

NE

Network Element

NEL

Network Element Layer

NEXT

(. Directivity)

Near-End Crosstalk

NF

Noise Figure

NIST

- National Institute of Standards and Technology

NML

( TMN) Network Management Layer (TMN)

NOC

Network Operations Center

NRZ

Non Return to Zero

NZDSF

Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber

OADM

Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

OC

Optical Carrier

OC-3

155 / ( SONET), 155 Mb/s (SONET transmission rate)


STM-1
SDH

OC-12

622 / ( SONET), 622 Mb/s (SONET transmission rate)


STM-4 SDH

OC-48

2,5 / ( SONET),
STM-16 SDH

2,5 Gb/s (SONET transmission rate)

OC-192

10 / ( SONET),
STM-64 SDH

10 Gb/s (SONET transmission rate)

OC-768

40 / ( SONET),
STM-256 SDH

40 Gb/s (SONET transmission rate)

OCH

Optical Channel

OCWR

Optical Continuous Wave Reflectometer

OFA

Optical Fiber Amplifier

OLTE

Optical Line Terminating Equipment

OLTS

Optical Loss Test Set

ONC

Optical Network Controller

OO

Object-Oriented

OPS

(- Optical Protection Switching


)


ORL

Optical Return Loss

OSA

Optical Spectrum Analyzer

OSC

Optical Supervisory Channel

OSNR

Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio

OSS

( - Operation Support System (management systems)


)

OTAU


( Bellcore)

Optical Test Access Units (Bellcore/Telcordia


standard name for central station)

OTDR

Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

OXC

Optical Cross Connect

PDBW

Polarization Dependent Bandwidth

PDCW

Polarization Dependent Central Wavelength

PDFFA

Praseodymium Doped Fluoride-based Fiber Amplifier

PDG

Polarization Dependent Gain

PDH

( Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy


PDH)

PDL

Polarization Dependent Loss

pm

, 1E-12

picometr

PMD

Polarization Mode Dispersion

POP

Point of Presence

POP3

POP3

Post Office Protocol Mail

PSA

Poincar Sphere Analysis

PSA

Polarization State Adjuster

PSP

Principal States of Polarization

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

QoS

Quality of Service

RBW

Resolution Bandwidth

RFTS

Remote Fiber Test System

RIN

Relative Intensity Noise

RTU

Remote Test Unit

SBS

()

Stimulated Brillouin (back)Scattering

SDH

(
SDH)

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SMTP


( SMTP)

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNMP

( Simple Network Management Protocol


SNMP)

SNR

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

SOA

Semiconductor Optical Amplifier


241

242

SONET

(
SONET)

Synchronous Optical Network

SOP

State of Polarization

SPM

Self-Phase Modulation

SQL

( Structured Query Language


)

SRS

Stimulated Raman Scattering

SSE

Source Spontaneous Emission

STM

Synchronous Transfer Mode

STM-1

STM-1
(155 /, SDH)

Synchronous Transfer Mode STM-1


(155 Mb/s, SDH)

STM-4

STM-4
(622 /, SDH)

Synchronous Transfer Mode STM-4


(622 Mb/s, SDH)

STM-16

STM-16
(2,4 /, SDH)

Synchronous Transfer Mode STM-16


(2,5 Gb/s, SDH)

STM-64

STM-64
(10 /, SDH)

Synchronous Transfer Mode STM-64


(10 Gb/s, SDH)

STM-256

STM-256
(40 /, SDH)

Synchronous Transfer Mode STM-256


(40 Gb/s, SDH)

TCP/IP

/
( TCP/IP)

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TDFFA

Thulium Doped Fluoride-based Fiber Amplifier

TDM

(
TDM)

Time-division Multiplexing

TLS

Tunable Laser Source

TMN

Telecommunications Management Network

TSC

(
Bellcore)

Test System Controller (Bellcore/Telcordia standard


name for central station)

VDSL


( VDSL)

Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line

VPN

( )

Virtual Private Network

WAN

(
)

Wide Area Network

WDM

(
WDM)

Wavelength-Division Multiplexing

WRM

( )

Wavelength Reference Module

WSFA

Wavelength-Scanning/Fixed-Analyzer

XPM

Cross-Phase Modulation

Spectral-gain Characteristic

Fast Fourier Transform

Fiber-optic Cable

Geographical Information System

Decibel

Local Area Network

, 1E-12

Picometr

Software

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Device under Test

, 1E-15

Femtosecond

Chromatic Dispersion

243

244

O-

1260 1360

(Original)

E-

1360 1460

(Extended)

S-

1460 1530

(Short wavelength)

C-

1530 1565

(Conventional)

L-

1565 1625

(Long wavelength)

U-

1625 1675

(Ultra-long wavelength)


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1.

- ; , , // .
. . ., . . .: Connect, 2000.

2.

. . . .: ,
1999.

3.

. ., . . : . - .:
-, 1998.

4.

. . .
.: , 2000.

5.

. ., . ., . . , .1. - . .: , 1999.

6.

, , . : . , 1994.

7.

, -
110 .
.: , 1999.

8.

., . : . . .:
, 1987.

9.

. ., . . .
, Connect! 2000, 3 (72-84).

10.

. . - . .: -, 2000.

11.

. ., . ., . . -
. , Connect! 2000, 4.

12.

. ., . ., . . . , Connect! 2001, 1.

13.

. ., . ., . .
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14.

. . : .
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15.

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251

252