Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 184

_____________

( )
_______________________________________________________________
.. , .., .. , ..

.., ..

2006


621.396
-243



:
. , . ..
..

..
: . / .. .., ..,
.., .. ; . .. , .. . .: ,
2006. 184 .
ISBN
:
, .
,
.
,
.

ISBN ???????????

, 2006


.
. . .., . .. (2.1-2.7 2.9) . .
( 2.6, 2.8), - . .. .
.., - . ., . .. ( 5.1-5.3) . .. ( 5.4,
5.5). . ..
. ..
.. ..

( )
,
.

..
.
.
.


x, y, z
r r r
x 0 , y 0 ,z 0
= 2f
f
0
=299 792,458 /
k0 = /c = 20 (

)
r r
E( r , t )
r r
E( r , )
r r
r
A( r , ) = E( r , )

r
r
( r , ) , ( r , )
r
r r
r r
r r
p = p x ( r , )x 0 + p y ( r , )y 0 + p z ( r , )z 0
P
D
r
F(, )

R, ,
r
F(,) = F(, )

, (
),

()
P ,
G
S=G202/4 -
S
R, r
;
()
- , ,
0 - ,

V() ,
(
, )
p(x)
()
0
(l)
l0
r
j -
r
j
r
j
0 = 8,85 10-12 / (
)
0=(1/4)10-7 /
(
)
~
,





1 -
n - n-
r0 -
R0
R
h ,

(
)
R

R

R -


p
p

k =1,380662 10-23 /
S ,
S(T)
N - .
D,E,F1,F2 .
N

e =1,602189210-19
m =9,10953410-31
V
V
V
0 (
)
f0 - ( )
f -
H ()
f - ()
- .
- ()









IRI International Reference Ionosphere
.
GPS - Global Positioning System ()
- Total Electron Content
TECU - Total Electron Content Unit
(1 TECU=1016 /2)


1.1.

. .

,
() [1].

, .

(.1.1). :
.

(, )
,
,
.
,
. , ,
-, , ,
.

().

:
, -
, .

, .

, .
-

. , ,

,
,

.
.
:
, ,

,
,
.
7

R1

R2

. 1.1. - , -


. - .
r
r
( E ) ( H ) r,
r r r
r
r t : E( r , t ) ,H( r , t ) .
:


( )
.
[1].




r r
r r
( E( r , ) ) ( H( r , ) ) [2,3].
r r
, E( r , t )
r r
E ( r , )
(1.1.) (1.1)

r r
1 + r r it
E( r ,) =
dt ;
(1.1)
E( r ,t )e
2
r r
1 + r r
it
E( r ,t ) =
(1.1)
E( r ,)e d .
2
, (1.1.),
. ,
, exp(it ) .

(,
)

r r
r
r
r
(1.2)
E( r , ) = A( r , )exp(i( r , ))p
r r
r
A( r , ) = E( r , ) r
; ( r , )

r
r r
r r
r r
; p = p x ( r , )x 0 + p y ( r , )y 0 + p z ( r , )z 0
r
r
, ( p =1); pi( r ,)
r r r
; x 0 , y 0 ,z 0
; = 2f .
,
,
.

, ,
, .

,
,

.
1.2.

.
.


, [2,3].
,
, .

, .
f 0,

0 = c/f ,
(1.3)
299 793 / .


3 31012 .
12 ,
0,310N < f 310N , N = 1, 2, ....12.
(1.4)
N .
(. . 1).
1 3, ,
,
,
. 4, 5,
- 4 7,
5 7, 5 8,
, , , 8
10. 11 12,
( 0,75....395 ), (395...750 ), (750
....1,5*105 ) .

:
.


().

10

, .
,
.
1.
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

3.....30
30...300
0,3.....3
3.....30
30...300
0,3.....3
3.....30
30...300
0,3.....3
3.....30
30...300
0,3.....3

105...104
104...103
103...102
100...10
10...1
103...102
100...10
10...1
100...10
10...1
10...1
1....0,1


.
, ,
.

,
.
, , , - .


.
.
,
, ,
.
,
:
.
()
(,
11

10-15 ) (
60 ).
.



.

( 60
1000 1500 ) (
, 10
).


- .
250
400 .
10 30 .
, .
( )


.
,
.
, ,
,
.
,
( , , , )

.
.

. ,
,

. ,
.

,

.

12

.1.1 1.2.
1) ()?
2)
?
3) ?
4)
() ?
?
5) ?
6) ?
? ? ?
7)
?
1.3.

.

. -,

. ,
, ,

,
,
. , ()
, ,
.
,
.



.
.

,
[3,4]
r
r
exp(ik 0 R )
E( R, , ) = 60 P D F(, )
(1.5)
R
r

E ; P
; D
13

r
() , F(, )
() ; R, , ; k0 = /c =
20 - (
r ).
max F( 0 , 0 ) =1. 0 ,0
.
(1.2) ,
. F(,)
.
. ,
,
( 1)).
,


. ,
( P , )
P .
R
P R
= P / (4R 2 )
(1.6)
,

rr
r2
= 0 ,5 Re EH = E / (240)
(1.7)

[ ]

_____
1)

.
,
,
- .

(1.7) (1.5)
(1.6) (1.7)
, ,
D = P / P
(1.8)
(1.8) ,
,

,
.
P = P D ,
(1.9)
,
.
14

,
( () = 1).

, P
P , ,
P = P

(1.10)


,
G
G = D .
(1.11)
,
, ,
(1.5), ( ) .
R,
(1.5),
R > 2L2/0 L >> 0; R > 0 L 0, L < 0 .

(1.12)

(1.12) L , 0
.


,

E E .

E (, )
E (, )
F (, ) =
; F (, ) =
,
(1.13)
max E
max E

.
E E

0 ,0
(1.5).

.
()
L << .
,
z (. 1.2).
15

)
. 1.2. ) ()
. z
, )
F() (x,z)

16

exp(ik 0 R)
,
(1.14)
R
F() = sin .
D = 1,5.
,
,
( ).
(1.14), ,

cos(0,5cos)
F () =
,
(1.15)
sin
D = 1,64.
.1.3.
1.

?
2.
?
3.

?
4.
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8.

E E ?
E ( R, , ) = i 60 P D F ()

1. 10
1
2 .
. /2
(1.7).
(1.14). = m sin 2, m = P D / (4 R 2 ) .

m =2,38*10-9 /2. 90
0 sin2.

17

1.

2 0,9 0,1
, , .

1.4.

.
.

[5].

(.1.1).
,
.
P1 ,
, G1 .
P2
2
(1.16)
P2 = 2 S ,

S = G2 20 / 4

(1.17)

; G2
.
(1.16) , D = 1,64,
S = 0,13 02 .

(,

) S (0,6 - 0,8) S a , S a
.

(1.7).
(1.10), (1.5) (1.7),


PG
= 1 1
(1.18)
4R 2
(1.18) (1.17) (1.16),

18

P2 =

P1G1G2 02

(1.19)
( 4R ) 2
(1.19) ,

.

P2 =

P1G1F12 (1 ,1 )G2 F22 ( 2 , 2 ) 02


2

(1.20)

( 4R )
(1.19), (1.20) R ;
1 ,
, 2 . , (1.20) F1(1,1)
; 1,1
, .
F2(2,2) ; 2, 2
,
.
(. 1.1).
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
(,
) .

(1.7)
=

P1G1F12 (1, 1 )

(1.21)
4R12
(1.21) R1 .

, ().
,
,
.
1,1 2,2.


2 =


4R22
19

(1.22)

(1.22) R2 .
(1.16),
(1.17), (1.21) (1.22).
P1G1F12 (1, 1 )G2 F22 ( 2 , 2 ) 02
P2 =
.
(1.23)
3 2 2
(4) R1 R2
, ,
(1) (2) .
(1.23)
, .

,
,

P1G 2 F 4 (, ) 02
P2 =
.
(1.24)
( 4) 3 R 4
(1.20), (1.24) ,
,

. ,
, , ,
.


. ,
.
,
.
(1.20), (1.23), (1.24)
. 0 ,


(G1 = G2 = 1)
2

4R
R
= 22 + 20lg ,
0 = 10lg
0
0
, ,

=10lg(P1 /P2)= 10lg(G1G2)+0, ,

20

(1.25)

(1.26)

R
, 0 (1.25).
.
. 1.4.
1. ?
2.
.
3.
.


, ,
?
4. ?
5. ()
.
6. ?
7. .


, , , ?
8. ? ?
1. 2,4
: . 10, .
600,
1, 10 14 .
,

.
.
(1.19).
. (1.19) ,

PG G
R = 0 1 1 2 .
4
P2
,
7 700 .
2.
300 000 , .
104, . 103.
. (1.25), (1.26) 152
, 222 . ,
21



.
1.
: 37,5 ,
. 107,
100 , 10 16 .
= 0,01 2.

(200-300 )?

1.5.

,


.



r
r
(1.27)
Ei ( r , ) = E0 j ( r , )V ji () .
r
E0 j ( r , ) ( )
,
r

r ; Ei ( r , )
; V ji ()
,
(
), i=1,2,3, j=1,2,3.

9- .
.
,
,

r
r
E ( r , ) = E0 ( r , )V () .
(1.28)
(1.28) V()
, .-. ,
, , .

22

V()
,
.

,
, , , , .

, .



. ,

, ,
.


.
,
. ,
,
, .

.

.


.
,
p(x)
( ,
..)
( x a) 2
1
,
p ( x) =
exp
(1.29)
2

2
2

x ; a x; .

.
.
,
,

23

.
( ,
).

N

E (t ) = E0 (t )cos(t + 0 (t )) + En (t )cos(t + n (t ))
n =1

(1.30)

0(t)
.
. ,
, R,

E0(R)=E0(0)exp(R),
- ( ).
,
(1.31)
ln( E0 ( R ) /E0 (0)) = R
,
(1.31)
,
.
, (1.30),
.
, ,

E2
2E

p( E ) =
exp
(1.32)
2 2
2

, ,

( )
E2 + E 2 E E
E
0
0
p( E ) =
exp
I0
,
(1.33)
2

2
2
2

|0| - , ||-
, (1.33) 0=0, I0(z)
.

( )
. ,
50% .
, , , 90%
99%. ,
24

: ,
( )
.
,
,
.
,
.
.

, ,
()=(0)exp(-/0).
(1.34)
(1.34) 0 .

,
, .

l

(1.34) /0 l/l0, l0
.

.


.
,
,

. ,
,
, .
.

.
. 1.5.
1) ( )?
2) ?
3) ?
4) ?
5) ?
6) ?

25

7) ( )
?
8) , ,
?
2.

2.1 .


.

. ,
(,
, ).
2.1 [2]
, , (,
, ),

,
.
(, ).
,
.

, , .
300
, ,

(22,3 ).

. , ,
, .
, 2.1,
,
. ,

,
,
.
r
j ,
r
,
j
r
j
26

2.1

f,


<3*102
3*103
104
105

<3*102
3*103
104
105

<3*102
3*103
104

<3*102
3*103
104

<3*102
(t=-10oC)
(t=-10oC)

<3*102
3*103
104
<3*102
3*103
104
<3*102
3*103


75
70
65
10
80
75
65
10
20-30
20-30
10-20
3-6
3-6
3-6
3-6

, 1/*

4-5
3-5
2-3
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,004
1,04-1,4

10-2-10-1
10-4-10-3
10-4-10-3
10-6
10-5
10-4
10-6-10-5
10-5-10-3

1-6
1-6
10-20
60
10-2-3*10-2
1-2
10-20
60
0,02-0,3
0,5-1
1-3
10-5-2*10-3
10-2-7*10-2
10-1-2*10-1
10-3-10-2

r r
r
r
r r
r
j = j + j ; j = i 0 E; j = E.
(2.1)
(2.1) 0 = 8,8510 12 / .
(2.1) ,
,

f =
, =
(2.2)
2 0
60
(2.2) , , 1/.
f << f ,
f >> f . 2,
(2.2), , f 1 , 0,3 ,
f 10 , 30 .
100
10 , 1
27

.
2 , 10
,
.
(2.1) ,
~ ,
r
r
j = i~ 0 E ,
~ = i; = / = 60
(2.3)
0
-
~ .

E(z)=E0exp( z iz),
(2.4)
, (1/), E0
z = 0, E(z) z .

=
0,5 + 0,5 2 + () 2 ,
=
0,5 + 0,5 2 + () 2
(2.5)



1 ,

(2.6)
= 20lg(E0/E) = 20lg(exp(z)) = 8,68z, , 1=8,68, /.

. 2.1. ,
,
.
100
( ),
/.
.2.1
1)
?
2) ,
?
3) , 2.1,
? : 300

.

28

1 .10

100

10

0.1

0.01
3
1 .10

1 .10

1 .10

6
1 .10

1 .10

1 .10

1 .10

. 2.1. ( /).
, .

2.2. , .

.

.
- ,
.


,
.
,
, ,
.
,
. ,
.

(.2.2). O .
29

,
,
.
,
.
-.

.
, .
, ,
, .
B ,
.
.
-
,
. , 1)
, 2)

.
,
i , i - , (
. 2.2). ,
, ,
.

,
.
(. 2.2). 1,
,

(r1 + r1' ' ) (r0 + r0) = 0 / 2 .

(rn + rn ) (r0 + r0) = n 0 / 2 .
(2.7)
AO = r0 ; OB = r0; ACn = rn ; C n B = rn (.
. 2.2, ,
.).
(2.7) .

- .
n-
n n-
30

C
3 2

r1' r2' r3'

r3'' r2''

r1''

r''

r'

r0'

r0''
C
2.2

ImE

2.3.

. 2.3.

ReE

. 2.2. ,
, , .
( ) , 1, 2, 3
, , 1- .
. 2.3 1- (
)
,
1-, 2-, 3- ,
, ,

1,
2, 3 1-,
2-, 3- .

31

,
(2.7).
.
.

rn = (r0 ) 2 + ( n ) 2 , rn = (r0) 2 + ( n ) 2 .
,
r0 >> n , r0 >> n .
(2.8)
rn , rn

(n ) 2
(n ) 2
rn r0 +
, rn r0 +
.
2r0
2r0
, (2.8)
n 0 ( n ) 2 (r0 + r0)
(rn + rn ) (r0 + r0) =

.
2
2r0 r0
, -
n 0 r0 r0
.
(2.9)
r0 + r0
(2.9)
r0 >> 0 ; r0 >> 0 .
(2.10)
,
,
(2.9)
,
, .

. 2.3.
( .
2.3. 1- 6 ). ,

,
, . 2.2,

n

e -ik 0 r' e -ik 0 r"


E=A
= E ei = Re E + i Im E , Re E = E cos, Im E = E sin .
r'
r"
(2.11)
(2.11) , ,
,
, = k 0 (r + r ) .
,
32

, .
r + r
.
,

/2, - 180 .

. (2.11)
ReE,ImE
(. 2.3.)
. ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
. .
,
0/2.
n 1 / (rn rn ) . ,
,

= 1 2 + 3 4 + ....... ,
(2.12)
n n,
. (2.12)
,
n , 1 / (rn rn ) . n
(2.12) . (2.12)
= 1/2 + (1/2 2 + 3/2) + (3/2 4 + 5/2) +.
,
,
= 1/2 .
(2.13)
(2.12) [6].
,
,
.
. 2.4.
,
, . 2.2, =.
0.
.
33


-,
8 .
16%. >n, n 8
.

.2.4. ,

, ,

. -
.
,
.

(, ).
.
,
.

(n 8 ),
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
n8.
,
.

r1 = r1 = R AB / 2 1 = 0,5 0 R .

34

0 , .. ,
, ,
,

0 0.
.2.2.
1) .

?
2) .
3)
(2.9),
r0 >> 0 , r0 >> 0 .
3) , ,
. 2.3..
4) , ,
.
2.3. .
.
2.3.1.

.
.

:
.

(
)
(,
).
, .

,
,
,

.
. 1)
(
, . 1.1). 2)
. 3)

35

, . 4) ,
,
.


,

( ) .
( ) , .. ,
=1,=0.
, ,
.


30
10 .


.

(, ),
,
.
.

, 30
:
, ,
, .
,
.
:
1)
(, ), (
) ,
10 ( 30 ), 2)
,
( 300 ),
.
2.3.2. ,
,
.
q1 p1 h1 >> 0 , , h2 >> 0

36

(. 2.5).
R0, R.

q1 p1 ,
(. 2.5). h1,
h2 R ,
, ,
q1 p1
.
q1p1
.
,
q1 2,
,
.
, ,
.
, , . . q11
.

.
r0
, ,
, . . 2.5
,
r0 = ( R0 + h1 ) 2 R0 2 + ( R0 + h2 ) 2 R0 2 .
(2.14)
R0 .
,

h1 , h2 << R0. (2.14)
r0 2 R0 ( h1 + h2 ) .
(2.15)
(2.15)
r0 3,57( h1 + h2 ) , ,
(2.16)
,
.
, .
R
r0
.

37

p1

R
r0

q1

p2
h2

h1
q

Rqp
p

R0

r0

q1

p2

Rqp
p

R0

. 2.5.
,
,

38

1) r0 (R < 0,2 r0)


.
2) 0,2 r0 < R < 0,8 r0
.
1) 2) ,



: :

. ,
0< R< 0,8 r0
(.2.5).
3) R > 0,8 r0,
.
, 2

0,8
r0 < R < 1,2 r0, , R > 1,2 r0
(. 2.5).
.
[2, 3,
5]. ,
,
(. [5]).
,
(h1 = h2 = 0), ,
, Rqp,
. d

( d << 0,5 Rqp ),
. R
d

.
.2.3.
1) ?
2) (2.13) .
3)

?
39

. 2.1-2.3.
1.
, 1-10
, 30 .
20 .
.
. 2.1 .2.1- .

,
,
.
30 /.
0,03 1/* , (2.3), (2.5), (2.6),
23 . (
30 , 20 )
.
. .
2.
30
450 .
, ,
,
?
.
, h
. ,
h > 0,5 0 R , R , 0
- . ,
5,4 . 8-
2,8 .
, .
1.

,
.

,
60
3 ? ?
40

2
20
900 .
, ,
,
?
.
2.4.


- ,
r
.

z .
,

Ex = Axcos(t k0 z)), Ey = Aycos(t k0 z) ), Ax Ay, 0
(2.17)
(2.17)
(x, y),
Ey
E
U x2 2U xU y cos + U y2 = sin 2 , U x = x , U y =
(2.18)
Ax
Ay
(2.18) r
Ux Uy ,
.
(2.17) Ax Ay, 0
.
( = 0).

, x
= arctg(Ay/Ax).
( = /2, Ax = Ay = ).

Ex = Acos(t k0 z)), Ey = Asin(t k0 z))
(2.19)
.
> 0. z = 0
, . +
(2.19)
41

,
, .
. 2.6.
x(t)

(t)
E(t)

Ex
E

y
Ey

. 2.6. ; ;
.

(, ,
)
:

r r
r r
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 = 0.

.
,
,
.
, ,
x,
r
r
r
r
E = E x x = 0 ,5 E + + E ,


r
E + : Ex = Acos(t k0z));
Ey = A sin(t k0z);
r
E : Ex = Acos(t k0z);
Ey = A sin(t k0z).

.
,

42

.
.

,
.
.


r
(. 2.7.).

.2.7.
. ; .
, , ,

r
,

,
r
(.2.7).
r

.

,
. ,
, : , ,
,

. ,
43


.


.
.
.

,
.
.2.4.
1) ? ?
2)
, ?
3)
?
.



2.5.



n1 = 1 n2 = 2 .
.
1 2.

,
.
.
,

, ,

n1sin = n2sin .
(2.20)

(. , [2,3,8]),
, [8].
(.2.8).
,
44

,
(Ey ) (Ez)
(Hx)
. ,

.
E, E1, E2 - ,
,
.

Ecos E1cos =E2 cos , H+H1=H2


(2.21)
(2.21) ,
.



R=H1/H
(2.22)
,
,

,

E=W,
(2.23)
W
W = 0 / 0 = / W0 , W0 = 0 / 0 = 120
(2.24)
(2.20) (2.23), (2.21)


2 cos - 1 2 1sin 2
Rll = Rll exp(i ll ) =
(2.25)
2
2 cos + 1 2 1sin
(. 2.9)
Hcos H1cos =H2 cos , E+E1=E2
(2.26)


.
R=1/
(2.27)
, ,
.
R = R exp(i ) =

1 cos - 2 1sin 2
2

1 cos + 2 1sin

45

(2.28)

E1

E
z

1
y

. 2.8.

1
E1

1
y

2
2

. 2.9.

, (2.25) (2.28) 1=1.


2.10, 2.11
. . 2.10



, . 2.11 46


1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

10

20

30

40
50

60

70

80

90

70

80

90


200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

10

20

30

40
50

60

. 2.10. .

.
=10 100i, =10 10i,
= 10 0,1i.
,

, 90,
180, .


, , 1
90.
< ,
180 90.
,

.
47

180,
0 180
= .

. , R =0,

tg = 2 .
(2.29)

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

10

20

30

40
50

60

70

80

90


200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200

10

20

30

40
50

60

70

80

90

.2.11. .

48

.2.5.
1)

2) .

?
3) .


?
4)
(90)?
2.6. ,
2.6.1.

,
,
h1 >> 0, h2 >>0 . , ,
0,2r0 > r >> h1, h2.
, ,
, ,

.
.
(
)
.

(1.5).

.
,
, .

(2.25) (2.28)
.
.

, .

,
, , , ,
49

(. . 2.12). ,
: ,
, .

1,
, h1
(. . 2.12).
,
,
( ),
( ).
,
,
E1 (R, ) = Am F (1 )

exp(ik 0 R1 )
, Am = 60 P D .
R1

( 2.30)

B
R1
h2

h1

h1

R2

C
r

A1

. 2.12.

(2.30) =|| ,
=
, F()
.


exp(ik 0 R2 )
E 2 (R, ) = Am F ( 2 )R
,
(2.31)
R2

50

R = R , R = R
.
r >> h1, h2. ,
1, .
(1) (2)
,
1 2 ,
(2.32)

R2 R1 2h1cos.
(2.33)
R2 R1 (.
2.13).

R1

h1

h1

A1

R2

R2R1

. 2.13.
.
1 .

,
R2 R1.
(2.30) (2.31) , (2.31) R2
R1 . ,
k0(R2 R1)
.
*)
_________
*)
,
.
51

E = E1 + E 2 Am F ( )

exp(ik 0 R1 )
V ,
R1

V 1 + R exp( ik 0 ( R2 R1 ))

(2.34)
(2.35)

,
.

R = R exp(i ) ,
, (2.33),

2

V = 1 + R + 2 R cos(2kh1cos ) .
(2.36)
,

A
E = Em V ( ) = m F ( ),
(2.37)
R1

1
(2.38)
Em = Am F () , F ( ) = F ( )V () .
R1
(2.37), (2.38) Em ,
V
(2.36), F ( )
,
.

.

, (2.30)
(2.31). , r >> h1,
h2, , R2 R1.

(2.32),
21.

(2.34),

52

F ( )
V = 1 + 1 R ( )exp(ik 0 (R2 R1 )) ,
F ( 2 )

( 2.39)

R1 , R2 1, 2,
(. 2.12) h1, h2
r.
(2.38).
2.6.2. .
,
.

,

F=sin,
.


A
E = m F ( ),
R1

F ( ) = sin V = sin 1 + Rll + 2 Rll cos(2k 0 h1cos - ll )
(2.40)
,
.
.
.
R=1, =0

F () = sin 2(1 + cos(2k 0 h1cos)) = 2sin cos(k 0 h1cos )
(2.41)
cos(k0h1cos) , k0h1=2h1/0

, .
,
( (2.41)).
,

cos(k0 h1cosmax) =1, .. cosmax = n0/(2h1), n=0, 1,


(2.42)
cosmax = n0/(2h1) 1.
F(max)=2.

2

53

cos(k0 h1cosmin) =0, .. cosmin = (2n+1)0/(4h1), n=0, 1, ,


(2.43)
cosmin1.
.
,
=90 cos(k0h1cosmax) =cos(0) =1.
90
cosmin = 0/(4h1). ,
.
(2.42)
(2.43) 0.
, , (=0)
, .. .

.



.
.
,
.
(2.40).
.

. , (2.40)
os(2k0h1cosmax ) = 1,
(2.44)

|V| =1+|R|| | .
(2.45)

os(2k0h1cosmax ) = 1,
(2.46)

|V| =1 |R|| | .
(2.47)

(2.43) (2.45) .
sin ,
.

.
,

,
(.(2.29)).
< .
(2.44)

54

(2.46), =0. ,

cos(2k0h1cosmax) =1,

cos(2k0h1cosmax) = 1
,
(. (2.42) (2.43)),
< .
> 180o.

cos(2k0h1cosmax) = 1,
(2.48)

cos(2k0 h1cosmax) = 1 ,
(2.49)
>
<
cosmax = (2n+1)0/4h1), n=0, 1,
(2.50)
cosmin = (n0/2h1), n=0, 1,
(2.51)


. 2.14.
(2.36) ,
, (2.45) (2.47),
, (2.40).

. ,
(90o) (
, ) , .
(2.40) =90o.
= 4, h = 3
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

()

.2.14. ,
h=30
=4.
55

,
, ,
(2.42) (2.48), (2.50)
.

,
, ,
(1. 15).
2.6.3. .

, .. ,
.
: F()=1,
:
F ( ) = V = 1 + R

+ 2 R cos(2k 0 h1cos - )

(2.52)

(2.52) R - .
.


. R =1, =180

F ( ) = 2(1 cos(2k0 h1cos)) = 2 sin(k 0 h1cos )
(2.53)
,


cosmax = (2n+1)0/4h1, n=0, 1,
(2.54)
cosmin = n0/2h1, n=0, 1,
(2.55)
(. (2.53) =90)

,
, n/2h11.

.

= 180
F ( ) = 1 + R 2 R cos(2k0 h1cos ) .
( 2.56)
,



(. (2.50) (2.51))
.2.15.
2

56

= 4, h = 3

2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

()

.2.15.
, h=30
= 4

,
, .

,
.
:

.
. 2.6
1) (2.34)
. ?

?
2)

(, ,
)
1
,
h1=1,50
=3.

.
57

2

,
h1=20
=4.

.
2.7.

( 90o).
,
R1, 180 180
.

(2.35)
,
= 90o,
F ( ) = 2 sin (0,5k 0 (R2 R1 )) ,
(2.57)
R2-R1 . (2.57)
(2.33) ,
(2.53).
(. 2.16).

A2

R1
h2

h1

R2

h1

C
r

A1

. 2.16.

58

2 1 ,
(h h )2
2
2
R1 = r + (h2 h1 ) r 1 + 2 1 ,

2r 2

(h + h )2
2
2
R2 = r + (h2 + h1 ) r 1 + 2 1 .

2r 2



(h + h )2 (h h )2 2h h
R2 R1 r 1 + 2 1 r 1 + 2 1 2 1 .
(2.58)
2
2

r
2
r
2
r

(2.58),


k hh
F = 2 sin 0 1 2 ,
(2.59)
r

60 P D
2 60 P D k 0 h1h2
E=
sin
(2.60)
F =
.
r
r
r

k0h1h2/r <<1 (2.60)


. ,

60 P D 4h1h2
E=

,
(2.61)
2

r
0
.

r . ,
(2.59), (2.60)
, ,
, <<h1 , h2<<r. ,
=1 , h1 =100 , h2 =10 , r=1000 .
2 > 1.
k0h1h2/r
>>1, (2.60)
, 1/r, .
.
sin ( k 0 h1h2 / r ) = 1 . (

) , /2, ..
h1h2 = 0,25 0 r . r
59

.
k0h1h2/r <<1,
(2.61),
1/r2 .
(2.61) ...
:
1) R 1, ||180o;
2)
2h1h2
<< 1 ;
0r
3) (2.61)
(h1,h2>>0)
.

,
100 .

(2.60) .
5% 1-|R|<0,025

2h1h2
< 0,125
0r

2h1h2
< 0,175 .
r

,
, .
,
,
.
10% 1-|R|<0,025

.2.7.
1) ?
2)

?


, 15
. :
h1=500 , =1 , D=3.
( ) 49,75 .

, ,
5 /.
60


,
. ,
(2.16). r0 80 .
15 < 0,2 r0=16 ,
.
0=/f=3108/(49,75106)=6,03 .
,


.
(2.60) ,
h1h2 = 0 r / 4 . h2 =0r /(4h1)=45 . h2 << 45
.
,
, 2,5
. , ,
.

6 <<h2 << 45 .
.

:
100 , 25 , =10, 900 .

1000 .
10 /.
.
2.8.
.

,
,
. R (.2.17)
, ,

.
, ,

.
h1 h2
h1 h2 , . .
, C
61

(. 2.17).
AB ACB ,
, ,
. ,


.
h1 h2 ,
h1 h2 R .

.2.17.

h1 h2 , , ,
.2.17
,
. h1 h1 ,
h2 h2 ,

h1 = (h1 h1 ) cos h1 h1 , h2 = (h2 h2 ) cos( ) h2 h2 ,


(2.62)
h1 h2 AA B B .
. 2.17 ,
,
R0 + h1
R0
=
.
sin (OCA) sin (OAC )

62

(2.63)

,
sin(OCA) = sin(90 0 + ) = cos ,
sin(OAC ) = sin(180 0 (90 0 + )) = cos( + ) ,

( R0 + h1 ) cos( + ) = R0 cos .
(2.64)
BC
R0 + h2
R0
=
,
sin (OCB ) sin (CBO )

(2.65)

( R0 + h2 ) cos( + ) = R0 cos

(2.66)
(2.64) (2.66) tg (
A` BCB`) , :
R0
R0
cos( )
R 0 + h1
R0 + h2
=
.
sin
sin( )

cos
tg =

(2.67)

, ,

. ,
.
, , h1 << R0
h2 << R0 ,
R0
h
1 1
R0 + h1
R0

R0
h
1 2 . ,
R0 + h2
R0

sin ,

sin( ) ( )

cos 1

( ) 2
2
, cos( ) 1
,
2
2

(2.67) :
h1 2
h2 ( ) 2

R0
2
R0
2
tg =
=
.
( )

(2.68)


r1 r2 ,
2

h1
tg =

r1
2 R0

r1

(r r1 ) 2
2 R0
.
(r r1 )

h2
=

(2.69)


C =
:

r1
= ,
r

h R
hR
3
1 h R
3 2 + 1 2 0 2 2 0 + 1 2 0 = 0 .
2
r
r
r
2

63

(2.70)

y =

1

2

y 3 + 3Py + 2Q = 0 ,
(2.71)
R (h h )
1 R (h + h )
P = ( + 0 1 2 2 ) , Q = 0 1 2 2 .
12
3r
4r
,
, [9]. D = Q 2 + P 3 < 0
(, , , . . Q ),
.
,
.
1 1
3 3
1
3 3
= ( +i
) Q + D + ( + i
(2.72)
) Q D .
2 2
2
2
2
.
, . 2. 17 ( OCA`),
R0
r12
2
1
(r ) 2
h1 =
R0 = R0 (
1) R0
= R0
=
,
(2.73)
cos
cos
2
2 R0
2 R02
r22
((1 )r ) 2
=
,
h2 R0
2 R0
2 R0
(2.62) .
, r,
, R , ( ),
,
.
(2.72) ,
.
(2.69).

.
,
( R0 ).
r12
(r r1 ) 2
h
h
<< h2 , (2.69) , 1 = 2 .

<< h1
2 R0
2 R0
r1 r r1

,
h2
r,
(2.74)
h1 + h2
, ,

, 1 :
r1 =

h1
r,
h1 + h2

r2 = r-r1 =

1 =

h1
.
h1 + h2

(2.75)

,
, . . ,

64

, , , 0
(2.69) ,
r12
h1 =
2R0

(r r1 ) 2
h2 =
.
2 R0

(2.76)


r1 =

h1
h1 + h2

r2 = r r1 =

h2
h1 + h2

r,

(2.77)


2 =

h1
h1 + h2

(2.78)

.
, h1 = h2
= 0,5 ,
(2.71) (2.72).
(2.75) (2.78).
, (2.75) (2.78).
, , ,
( ), h1 h2 . 0.5 1 .
(2.72).
[8], [10]
(2.75) (2.78)
, .
, [11]
(2.78).

. [7] ,

.
, ,

3 =

h1
h1
h1
+(

)r ,
h1 + h2
h1 + h2 h1 + h2

(2.79)

r = r r - ,
0
(
). (2.79) ( r 0 )
(2.75), ( r 1 )
(2.78),


.

65

. 2.18,


,
,
(2.72).
,

. ,

/ * 100% ,


1 ( )

1 , 2 , 3 ,

0,5(1 + 2 ) .

20

15

10

0.2

0.4
0.6
r`

0.8

.2.18. (h1=100 , h2=10 ):


3 (2.79) ( ),
1 (2.75),
2 (2.78),
0 ,5(1 + 2 ) .


,
2,
, . ,

( )
. ,
,

3 ( )
.
,
. ,

66


(2.79).
, .2.19.
,


, (2.62)
h1 = h1 h1
h2 = h2 h2 ,
(2.73)
h1 =

(r ) 2
2 R0

h2 =

((1 ) r ) 2
.
2 R0


( 0,2r0 ) (2.75)
=

h1
,
h1 + h2

( 0,8r0 ) (2.78)
h1

h1 + h2


.


(2.79)
=

h1
h1
h1
r
+(

) .
h1 + h2
h1 + h2 h1 + h2 r0

, r
,
, .
.2.8
1) ?
2)

?

67

)
100
90

80

70
60

50
40
30

20
10

0.1

0.2

0.3
0.4
0.5
r`

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

10

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
0.4
0.5
r`

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

)
. 2.19.
(h1=100 , h2=10 ):
, 1 (2.75), - 2
(2.78), 1 2 ,
- 3 (2.79) ( ).

68

2.9.
.
2.9.1. . .

.
, ,

. :
( ) (
); (, ),
(, ).
(, ).
.

.

.
,
. ,
. (.
2.20).
,
,
,
(. 2.20).
, .

,
. ,
, .
,

. ,
, .



,
. . 2.21

( ).
. ,

69

,
.


(. 2.22).
h. , 1
bb1 .
,

1 ,
bb1. ,
,
, . ,
, (. . 2.20). , ,
,
,
( )
.
, .
,
. ,
. mm1,
,
.

1,
.
,
( D) ( ) .
11 22hs,
, =(22hcos)/. ,
, ,

. ,
/2. , ,
,
h 0/8cos
(2.81)
(2.81) . ,

. , .
2.21 ,

.

.
70


. ,
, , 2.6,
(2.25) (2.28)

,
.


. 2.21
, .2.2, [12]

.


[13]
2h cos 2
c
,
Rll, = Rll, exp - 2
(2.82)
0

R, R, ,
, , h
, 0 - . [13]
(2.81)
f h cos< 30 .

(2.83)

(2.83) f , hc - .

. ,
, h0,35 h , h .
2.2.


,
,

8930




18-15
8-7
5
3-1,5

0,95
0,9

0,88
0,78

0,75
-

0,33
-

0,7

0,5

0,4

0,2

0,4

0,25

71

. 2.20 . .
,
.

. 2.20 . .
,
.

72

. 2. 21.

( ).

m1

n1

n
D
b

b1
h

a1
B

. 2. 22. .
.

73

2.9.2. .

,
, .
,
, .


.
, =0f()
, 0 .
. ,
. 2.23, ,
[2].

. 2.23

:
1 10-20 /,
2 - 20-30 /,
3- 40 /

2.9.3. .
,
,
.
, .. (. 2.24).
, ,
.
74

, ,
.
, - .
. ,
,
.


.

[14 ].

p
m

. 2.24.

(. .
2.25).
. ,
: 1
0<,
; 2 : <<,,
; 3: <<2,
, .
, , ,

, .
,
, ,
, , (
, ).

.
, ,
50- . .
75

().
[14], . 6.12 [2].

.
1
, 2 - ,
3 (.
. 2.25).

. 2.25
.
.
, -
, .

. 2.26
,
.

=0V,
(2.84)
0 - , V .


(.
76

1.1) d .
, (. 2.26) d
,
, (. 2.26) d

d
. V 2 .
R1

2.26.

. 2.26. () ()
V .

. 2.26 ,
, (d<0)

, (d>0)
d,
,
1 / r r

.
,

, ,
.

[3].
,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ..

77

, ,
(
..).
.
100150
, , ,
.
,
,
.
. 2.24.
,
.
q, p. , ,
: qr qr.
,
.
.
:
r rn.
100150

, .


.
,

6080 .

:
.
2.9.4.

.

. ,

78

,
, 3 5 .
(2.61),
(0,2 0,3).
, ,

.

,

, .
.2.9
1)

.
2)
.
?
3)

?
4)

.
5)
,
?

10
( 3 ). ,
,
.
3.
.
3.1. .
,
10-15 .

.
(N2), (2) (2).
79

(, , )
.
.
=1+,

, .

.

.

: N =p/kT ( p
, k ).
,
,
.

.

N /=
p /kT2.


p p
= 1 + = 1 +
+
,
(3.1)
kT kT 2
,
,
,
, p , p
, .
.
p p ,
- ,

4800 p
157
8
=1+
(3.2)
p+
10
T
T

p

p = p s (T ) S
(3.3)
S , pS(T)
, [15].
80

(3.1), ,
, ,
.
p

,
.
:
) p p0=105 ,
12 103 /;
) 0=288 ,
5,5 /;
) S=0,6 .
(3.3), ,
10 - 4.


, n = . = 1+ <<1,
(3.2)
4800 p 8

78,5
n = 1 + 1 +
(3.4)
=1+
p+
10 .
T
2
T

n
. n
- ,
dn
= 4 10 5 1 ,
(3.5)
dh
h .


N =(n-1)106 ,
(3.6)

. N=1,
6
1=10 , N - .
260 460
N ,
dN/dh = 40 1/.

.
,
1)
N , 2)
3) .
81

0 2 3
N
dN
N (z ) = N 0 +
h
(3.7)
dh
.

(3.7)
N
N ( z ) = N 0 exp(- h / h0 ) .
(3.8)
N0 h0
.
(3.8)
N0=315, h0 = 7,35 .
()

N .
, .

Nc 20 N 01
,
2N 45 .
.

( 23 )
. ,
.
.
.

, 2-3 .
, .
,
. ,

.
.
,
, N 2
N -
L0.
N 2 0,1-1, L0 0,01-500 .
.

, .
82

, ,
, ,
().
(
)
N .
, ,
.

,

.
. 3.1.
1.
, ?
2.
?
3.
?
4. ?
5. ,
,
? ,

?
3.2. .
3
,

.

, ,
, .
.
,
, :

.
,
.

.
83

,
,

.
.
, .
, ,
.
, .

,
.
()
.


E ( r ) = E0 (r )exp( r )
(3.9)
E 0 ( r ) - , E (r ) -
, - , 1/.
, ,

,

= + +
(3.10)
(3.10) ,
.
,
, 1
: = 20lg{exp(1000)} = 8600 [/]. (3.10)
1
=++
(3.11)
( /)
. 3.1,
- . 3.2.

p=105 , -
p = 0,01p,
.
,
3 6 .

, /.
( 20 /).
84


. 3.2 ,
0,25 0,5
, 1,35 0,2
.
,
.
2
,
.
.3.1.

.

.3.2.



.

.3.1.
.

.3.2.

,
, ,

.
,

, .


.

.

85

. 3.2.
1. .
2.
?
3.
1,35 , 0.5, 0,25?
4.
?
1. 1 30
, ,
. 5 /
5 (, ).
. .
. 3.2.
0,013 /, 0,07 / (
. 3.2.). ,
2,5
. . 5 /
1 /, ,
5 /.

7,5 .
3.3. .
3.3.1.
.
. 3.1.,
10 4. ,
.


. ,
. , 50
0 = 10
5105 0. , ,

,
.

86


, .
.
. ,
.
. ,
,
(. (1.5)).
,
, (. 3.3).

= k0nr, r , k0
=2/0 , n
.
,
(

) =0/n.
.
, ,
( 3.3).

,
L

= k 0 n(l )dl ,

(3.12)

= const

= const

. 3.3. )
, )

87

n(l) - , .
(3.12)
.
.

,
R ,
.
, ,
,
n (.3.4).
,
.
,
,
n1 .
.
(2.20) :
n1 sin1 = n2 sin2,
n2 sin2 = n3 sin3,
..

ni sini = ni+1 sini+1,


(3.13)
ni = i - , i, i+1
. , n
ni+1 < ni. (3.13)
n
(3.14)
sin i +1 = i sin i , sin i +1 > sin i i +1 > i .
ni +1
,
.
, ni = ni +1 , i +1 = i
.
.
123 ( . 3.4)
.

.
, .
sin i sini . 11
(.3.4)
sin ( 1 ) sin1
sin1
=
sin1 = R1
.
(3.15)
R1
R0
R0
88

R0 ,
(. 3.4).
12 23 :
sin3
sin 2
sin 2 = R2
, sin 3 = R3
R1
R2

2
1

3
2

n4
3 3

4
n3

n2
n1

A
R1

R2

R3

R0

.3.4. -

.
sini (3.13),
n1R1sin1 = n2 R2sin 2 = n3 R3sin 3 .

(3.16)

(3.15) , n1R1sin1 = n1R0sin1 = const ,


R (3.16)
n(R ) R sin(R ) = const ,

(3.17)

- .
,
.
n
,
(3.17) R.


.
(3.17) ,
.
,

89

,
(
,

),
.
3.3.2.
.


.
dl (.3.5)
- . dS
R, dS = tgdR d

dS tgdR
d =
=
.
(3.18)
R
R
(3.17), tg
n(R)
1
tg =
, 0 = R0 n0sin 0 .
2
2
2
n (R )R 0
(3.18),

.
0 dR
d =
.
(3.19)
2 2
2
R R n (R ) 0
R, :
R
dR
= 0
.
(3.20)
2
2
2
R0 R R n (R ) 0

, (. .3.5), R0 -
, R - , = 0
R = R0 .
( n = n0 =const), , (3.19),
, (3.20) .
n
(3.20) ,
0.

90

3.3.3. .


.
,
[9].

. ,
h, . dn.

. l h
(.3.6), a b.
, a , b +d.

l 1 [9] (. . 3.6)
l
,

1
1

= lim

dl

dS

dR

R0
O
. 3.5.

91

(3.21)

l
+d

O1

O
. 3.6. .

1 1. 1,
, + . l
abc
l =

R
R

.
sin ( + ) sin

(3.21),
l
R
R
= lim
=
.
(
)
(
)

sin
1
+
d

/
d

sin
1 1 1

= lim

(3.22)

d/d (3.22).
d/d, (3.17)

dRnsin
d dn
dR
= Rncos + R + n sin .
d
d d
d

92

d/d
d
tg dh dn R
dn R
=
+ 1 =
+ 1

d
R d dh n

dh n

(3.23)

(3.23) , , abc, tg = Rd / dh .
(3.23) (3.21),

=

n
(dn / dh )sin

(3.24)

(3.24) ,
, .. .

(90), , (3.24)
n1. (3.24)
=

1
dn / dh

(3.25)


(dn/dh=const), , ..
.


, .
25 000 .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

. 3.3.
.

?
.
, ,
, .

,
.

?

93

3.4. .
.
(. . 2.3, (2.15), (2.16))

. ,
, h1
h2 A1 A2 (. . 3.7)
(2.15)
r0 = 2 R0 h1 + h2 ,
R0 - .
.
A1K (. 3.7),
O', A1
K, KA2.
> R0. . 3.7 = R0
; OK = ; 1= R0+h1, 2 = R0+h2.
d = = - R0, A1KA2 = r . r'
A1 KA2 A1 A2 .
A1K . OA1O

(R0 + h1 )2 = d 2 + 2 2d cos 1 .

1 = A1OK . d - R0 .

2h1R0 + h12 = 2( R0 )(1 cos1 )
, h1<<R0,
12
2 1
1 cos1 = 2sin
=
1.
2

2h1R0 = ( - R0 )12 .
1
2h1R0
1 =
,
( - R0 )

94

A1

r1

r2

A2

h1

A1

h2
R0
R0

r1

r2

h1

h2

R0
R0

R0

A2

R0

O
)

. 3.7. : ) , )
.

A1K = 1
1
.
1 / R0
KA2
1
KA2 = 2h2 R0
.
1 / R0
,
1
r0 = A1K + KA2 = 2 R0
h1 + h2 .
(3.26)
1 /R0
,

R0
R =
,
(3.27)
1 R0 /
(3.24).
(3.27) ,
(3.26)
, (2.15)
r0 = 2 R h1 + h2
(3.28)
(2.15),
R R0.
A1K = 2h1R0

95



,
.
, ,
.
dn
dn
= const
n = n0 + h ,
(3.29)
dh
dh


dn

(3.30)
n0 + h (R0 + h1 + h ) sin(R ) = n0 (R0 + h1 ) sin 0 .
dh

, h1
h h1.
(3.30)

1 dn
h
sin(R ) = sin 0 .
1 +
h 1 +
n
dh
R
+
h
0
0
1

, h2,
, n n0 1, R0+h1 R0,
dn 1
1 + +

(3.31)
dh R h sin = sin 0
0

(3.31) ,
,
,
R0
1
dn 1
=
+
R =
.
(3.32)
dn
R dh R0
1 + R0
dh
(3.27) 90, n0 1.
. 3.4.
1.

. .
2.
.
96

3.5. .
dn dh
.
1. :
R0
dn dh > 0 , < 0 , R =
, R < R0 .
1 R0

( - ).
(.3.8),

.
(
),
.
(. . 2.8)
(2.29)
.
2. :
1
4
dn dh =
, = 4 R0 , R = R0 .
4 R0
3
(3.28)

r0 = 4,15 h1 + h2 , .
(3.33)
(3.33) ,
. ,

16%.

( 3.8). ,
,
1 dn

<
< 0.

R0 dh
3. :
dn
1
=
, = R0 , R = .
dh
R0
R = (.3.8),
. ,
2, .

97

L
L

R0

R0
O

O
)

dn dh > 0 ; R < R0

dn dh =

1
4
; R = R0
4 R0
3
R

L
L

R =

R0

R0
O

O
)
dn dh = 1 R0 ; R =

)
dn dh < 1 R0 ; R < 0

.3.8. .
, .

.

98

4. :
dn
1
<
, < R0 , R < 0 .
dh
R0

, ,

(.3.8). L
.
.

. (.
.3.9), ,

90,
r
E
(. . 2, 2.4). ,
,

,
.
. ,
, .
,
dn
1
< ,
R0
dh
.
. 3.5.
1. ,

.
2. ?

1.
dn
1
,
=
,
dh 4 R0
h1 = h2 = 36 .

99


dn 1
,
=
, h1 = h2 = 36 .
dh 6 R0
2.

3.6. .

,

.
, :
.
, ,
, .

(. (3.16)) (. 3.9).
, ( R)
.
, ,
90, ,
.

.
, (3.16) = 90
:
R n(R)= R0 n(R0)sin0
(3.34)

R
n( R ) = 0 n0sin 0
(3.35)
R
(3.34), (3.35) R .
.
n ( n
(3.29)) ,
. R
h
R0
1
=
.
R 1 + h R0
(3.35) n0

1 dn
h
1 +
= sin 0 .
h 1 +
n
dh
R
0
0

100


h2 . , n0=1.
h, ,

(1 sin 0 )
h =
R0
R0
0 , 90,
, , = 90 0 ,

. 1 sin 0 = 1 cos = 2(sin (0,5 ))2 0,52 .


,
2R0
2 R
=
.
(3.36)
2(R0 )
2
(3.36) (3.27).
R<0, .. < R0 .
,
, ..
,
.
,
A1C (. 3.9). OCO = ,
A1C A2 C .
OOC
sin
sin
=
.

R0
- , sin
h

R0

A1C rc , (3.27)
2R0
rc = 2R0 =
= 2 R .
R0
(3.33)
2hR0
rc = 2
= 2 2h R
R0

101

(3.38)

A2

A1

C
O

zn

R0

O
. 3.9. .

h =50 , =0,8R0 (R = - 4 R0) rc 100 . ,


100 , 300 ,

.

.
.

h
= 8 10 4 h3 / 2 ,

(3.39)

.
,
( )

, (.
2).
.

.
,
,
. ,

102

.
,
( ),
, , ,
, .

, .

(.3.10). mr,
m ( . 3.10 m=3),
, , r
h=mr,
.

.
,
, .
, ,
.

3r0

rc

rc

rc

. 3.10.

. 3.6.
1. ?
.
2. ,
, h = 50 ,
dn
2
=
.
dh
R0

103

3.
10, 30, 50 .
4.
?
5.
.
3.7.


.
,
. 5.
,
,
.

( ) .


.
, ,
,
, (
).
,
.
1000- 2000 [2,8],
.

, ,
, .

4.

4.1. , , .
4.1.1. .
, .. 50-60 ,
,
. ,
,
N,
104

N+ N .
,
,
.

, ,

.
N (1/3)


(1/)
.
, . .

, .

() 0,1 .

.



, (
).

.
,
.
:

() . ,
, . ,
, ( ).
,
100 .


.
.
,
.

. 250 400
, F2. ,
,
.

.
. ,
, , .

105

, ,
,
, ,
.
(
). . -,
,
,
, , - ,
.
.
,

.
.
D,
E, F1 F2 (. 4.1).
.
( ) F1 , F2
F. F O N2
14 80 .
. 250 300
( F1 160 180 ). E (90 130 )
14 80 102,7 .
102,7 ( O2)
, .
( L ) 121,6

D ( 90 ). D
1 ,
, , O2 N2.


,
, [5,8].

, .. 300 .

.

4.1, (
-3) . 4.1.
( )
, .
4.1

106

. ,
, ,

4.1


D
60 80

h ( )

108 109
-3
N ( )

107
(-1)

0,1 0,7
f ( )

F1

F2

100 - 120

160 230

220 - 400

( 5 - 20) 109

( 2 - 4)1011

(2 - 20)1011

105
0,6 4,0

103 104
4,0 6,0

103 104
4,0 6,0

h,

N (-3)

.4.1. (
, ).

107

.
, . 4.3.1.
4.1
. .
, ,
F. ,

. , ,
120 , E,
.
80 D,
.

.
. F
,
100 , D; E
, .
F1 .
F2 , F. ,
F, .
F .
(11- ),
.

N .4.1 .
.


.
.

, ,
. ,
,
,
.
, (
), -
[ 8].
90 110
Es,
,
.
108

,
.
,
.
4.1.2. .
.

.
.
.
.
, -
(), . .

. ,
,
(. . 4.2.3),
,
,
.
,
,
.
[5,8].

. 4.1.

.

, .
,
. ,
.
,
48 144 .
144
,
. 48
. 48
144 .

109

, .
,
.



GPS (The Global Positioning
System). GPS
.
,
. 24 ,
20000 ,

4 . 10,23 . 154
120 L1 (1575,42 ) L2 (1227,60
).


[16].
4.1.3. .

,
.
, ,
.

( ) ,

. ,
,
, ,
.
.
IRI (International Reference
Ionosphere). IRI Internet on-line :
http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/model/models/iri.html,
:
ftp://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/models/ionospheric/iri/.
IRI .

50 2000 (
), : , , ,
, . , IRI

,
30%.
110


.
,
,
.

,
.
GPS. GPS
,
GPS .

.
GPS

10%.

.

,
GPS,
(Total Electron Content, TEC).
2000
1 2. , TEC /2.

TECU (Total Electron Content Unit) 1 TECU=1016 /2.
TEC
http://iono.jpl.nasa.gov.
. ,
,
,
.
N(h),
() . ,
, , .


, . . 4.2.2

.

.4.1
1. ?
?
2. ( )
? ?
3.
, ?
111

4.
?
5.
,
?
6.
?
7. .
4.2 ,
.
4.2.1.

, ..
,
, .
. -
, ,
. ,
. ,
,
,

.

.
(, )
() .
, , ,
(-
). , ,
N,
(1 )
.
(13 ) ,
E ,
z, x (. 4.2).
r r
E = E m eit
r
r
F = eE .
(. 4.2.1). ,

112

r ,
mV .
r
, mV .
,
r
, V .


r
r
r
dV
m
= eE mV ,
(4.1)
dt
e m .
(, )
e it
i.

y
r
E

e,m

x
. 4. 2. .

, z, (4.1)

imV = eE - mV,
(4.2)

z
eE
.
(4.3)
V=
m( + i)
eN.
(),

(, ,

113

V). 1 / x
, , . 4.2 ,
eN , V eNV, ..
()
e2 N
e 2 N ( i)
j = eNV =
E =
E.
m( + i)
m( 2 + 2 )


r
r r
rotH = i 0 E + j

(4.4)

(4.5)

r
r e 2 N ( i) r
rot z H = i 0 E +
E.
2
2
m( + )

(4.6)


, .
-
.

~ = i ,
0

(4.7)

(4.5)
r
r
rotH = i 0 ~ E ,

(4.8)



~ = 1

e2 N
0 m( 2 + 2 )

e2 N
0 m( 2 + 2 )

(4.9)

(4.7),

=1
=

e2 N
2

0 m( + )
e2 N

m( 2 + 2 )

(4.10)

(4.11)

114

(4.10) (4.11) e m
, 0 ,

= 1 3183

N
2 + 2

= 2,818 * 10 8

(4.12)

N
2 + 2

(4.13)

, 2 >>2 ,
, 2 2 . :
N
N
= 1 3183 1 81 ;
2
f2
= 2,818 * 10 8

(4.14)
(4.15)

. 4.1, ,
D, 107 -1,
, 3 , . .
. ,
(4.14), (4.15),
(1 ),
.
, , 2 << 2 ,
2 2 . (4.12), (4.13)
:
N
= 1 3183 ;
2
= 2,818 * 10 8

N
.

(4.16)
(4.17)


, .
.
, (4.10),

: < 1
. ,
(4.4) ,

115

900 , (4.4), , ,
1800 (. (4.6)). ,
,
.

, = 0.
(4.11), (4.10)

2
=1 0 ,
2

(4.18)

e2 N
0 =
(4.19)
0m
- ( ,
).
, , ,

. ,
.

.

. , (=0).
(N=0) ( =1).
(
(4.5) (4.6)). ,
, ,
.
.

. ,
,
. ,
E .
,
. E
E.
,
900 ,
( (4.6) = 0) .

, ,
.
,
, , ,
0<<1. (
)
.

116

,
.

,
(4.18) :
=1

f 02

(4.20)

f 02 81N

(4.21)

f2

, , 1/3,
. , , ,
, N
1/3, .
,
.
. 4.1 ( ),

.
4.2.2. .

,
,

.
,
E = Em ei (t r ) ,
(4.22)
-
= k0 ~ = i ,
(4.23)
- .
,
>> ,

= 0 . ,
= 0 , , (4.21),
.
.

117

. N
, 0,
>0.

() = k 0 1

02
2

, ,
() = k0 1

02
2

, () = 0 .

(4.24)

c
V ( ) =
=
.
(4.25)
2
()

1 0
2
,

. , -,
, , -,
0 .
,

. ,
( ).
, ,
.
, < 0 ,
.
,

() = ik 0

02

1.
2

(4.22) , (4.23) :
() = k 0

02
2

1 , () = 0
(4.26)

118


, ,
( exp(r)).
r r
,
.
,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
,
, , ,
.


(4.9).
,
- (4.23),
,
.
,
(4.7) .
(4.9) , .

=i
,
, ~
0
,
arg~
=

+ arctg 0 . ,
2

(4.23) ,


1
arg ~ = + arctg 0 ,
4 2

. , ,
(4.23) .
(4.22) ,
, .
.


(4.23)
:
119


2
1
) exp[i ( + arctg 0 )] ,
(4.27)
0
4 2



2
1
() = k0 4 2 + (
) sin( + arctg 0 ) ;
(4.28)
0
4 2

= k0 4 2 + (

() = k 0 4 2 + (


2
1
) cos( + arctg 0 ) .
0
4 2

(4.29)

(4.28)
(4.29) (2.5).
,
,
.
(>>) (4.9)
2
2. (4.23)
e2 N
e2 N
e2 N
e2 N
~
= k0 k0 1
i
k0 1
ik 0
.
0 m 2
0 m3
0 m 2
2 0 m3
(4.30)
,
:
N
e2 N

1 e2 N

1
;
0,134 * 10 6
2 0 m 2
c
f2
0 m 2

(4.31)

( <<) (4.9) , ,
2 . , , ,
N
( . . 4.1), ,
(4.9)
.
2

2
2
~ i e N = e N e i / 2 .
0 m 0 m

(4.32)

120

= k0 ~ k0

e 2 N i / 4
e
0 m

(4.33)

, ,
fN
1 e 2 N
3,33 * 10 7
.
(4.34)

2 0 m
, ( < )
,
( > )
. , ,
.
. 4.3,

N = 5 109 3 , = 107 c 1 , D (.4.3),

N = 1011 3 , = 105 1 ,
F (. 4.3).
(4.29).
(4.34),
, (4.31)
(). ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
() .
, <
. <
,
. > >
,
, . , ,
, - ,
.
, .
103 107 -1, , , = 107 1
f 1,5 ,
( ) ,
( )
, , .
.
121

( )

f ()
.4.3.
N=5109 -3, =107 -1.

( )

f ()
.4.3.
N=1011 -3, =105 -1.

4.2.3. .

,
.. (
, ,
). , ,

122

, .
, , ,
,
.
,
,
,
100 (
).

. , ,

E = Em ei (t z ) ,
(4.35)
z . ,

t z .
t z = const , ,
. ,

dz
V =
(4.36)
= .
dt

.. . ,
,
.
,
.

, .. .
,
, ,
,

. ,
.

,
, ..
.

, , ,

123

0 .

,
1 2
E1 = Acos(1t 1 z ) , E2 = Acos( 2t 2 z ) ,
,
( 1 2 / 1 << 1 ),
1 2.

2
2
+ 2
+ 2
E = E1 + E2 = 2 Acos( 1
t 1
z ) cos( 1
t 1
z ) . (4.37)
2
2
2
2
t
(4.37)
, . 4.4.

.4.4.
.

,
, 1 2.

.
.
.
, ,
z c .

124

.

. .4.4
.
z,
.
(4.37) (1 2 )t (1 2 ) z = const . ,
, , ,
dz 1 2
V =
=
.
dt 1 2

,
d
d
V =
= ( ) 1 .
(4.38)
d d
,
(4.36).
(4.36) (4.38), , , ,
,
.
,
.

(4.39)
c
, ,
c
V =
= V .
(4.40)


,
(4.24),
02

() =
1
=
.
2
c
c

(4.41)

d/d , (4.38)
V = 1

02

= .
(4.42)
2
< 1 ,
.
(4.41) (4.36),
125

V =

c
02
1
2

(4.43)

V V = c 2 ,

(4.44)

..
. , , ,
V = cn ,

(4.45)

n = c / V - .
. 4.2.
1.

?
2.




?
3. ,
?
4. () .
,
?
5.
?
6. .
?
4.2.1
.
,
. ,

.

126

4.2.2
()
N = 21012 -3 L=1000

GPS 1575,42 1227,60
. t
.

10,23 .
4.2.3
,
(4.28), (4.29)
(2.5).
4.3
4.3.1.

, ,
,
.

.

.
( ,
).
,
.
, ,
0,
.
. ,
,
.

. ,
-, .. (
z . 4.5), ( x)
. ,
. .
127

zi ,

i .
0 ( . 4.5).

sin 0 = 1sin1 .
(4.46)
1, , 1
( ).

sin 0 = 1sin1 .
,
sin 0 = n1sin1 = n 2sin 2 = ... = n n sin n
sin 0 = ni sin i ,
(4.47)
ni = i - i.

( ) - .
zi , ..
.
z
n

n n

2 2
1 1 1
=1

2
z1
x

x1
0

.4.5. .

,
,


128

, ,
, .
, -,
, ,
, , ..
, , -,
, 900 , , sin = 1 .
(4.47) :
sin 0 = n = ,
(4.48)

,
.
,
.
,
,
. , ,
, ,
, . 4.6 (
6).

.4.6.
0

(4.21),

129

f2
N
sin 0 = 1 0 = 1 81 .
(4.49)
2
2
f
f
,
, 0
, (4.49). ,
0 = 0 , ,
:
f 0 =0 = f 0 = 9 N .
(4.50)
..
,
, ,
. , ,
(4.50) , ,
. ,
,
f .

f = f 0max = 9 N max .
(4.51)
,
, ,
. ,



. E, F1 F2,
f E , f F1, f F 2 ,
.
. 4.1.

0 .
(4.49),
:
f
f 0 = 0 = f 0sec 0 ,
(4.52)
f 0 = 9 N sec 0 .
cos 0
, , ,

, sec 0 ,
.

, ,
130

(4.52), ,
. ,
,
f 0 max = 9 N max sec 0 = f sec 0 .
(4.53)


().
F
,
( )
, .
. 10 25 35 100
.

, 0 . . 4.6,
,
0 f . 0
. ,
( )
( 1 2) ,
( 3), 0
( 4 5), , ,
( 6). , ,

,
, , ,
,
. ( ).
, , ,
- ,
.
, ,
, ,
0
( 4 5) ( 1
2).
, ,
-
( ), E, F1 F2 .
, ,
.
, , ,
.
. (

131

) .
,
- (
, ).


. ,
() , .
, -

. ,
R0
,
, sin 0max =
R0 + h
h . , h=200
0max 75,8o , , sec 0max 4 .
,
,
.
4.3.2. -
, , ,

,
. (4.48)

.
( ) .
.4.5.
z = 0 , .. z .
, x0 0 .
,
x
tg1 = 1 .
(4.54)
z1
i
x
tg i = i .
(4.55)
zi
: (4.54), (4.55) ,
( ). ,
, , ( ), -
z .

132

(4.47),
i sin 2 0
sin 0
2
sin i =
cos i = 1 sin i =
.
i
i

(4.56)

(4.55):
sin 0
xi
= tg i =
,
(4.57)
2
zi
i sin 0
,
.
(4.57)
zi . i
(z ) . , :
sin 0
dx
.
(4.58)
=
2
dz
(z) sin 0

.
1. , fcos 0 > f ,
, , ,
.
(4.58) :
z
dz
x = x0 + sin 0
.
(4.59)
2
0 ( z ) sin 0
2. ,
fcos 0 < f , ,
, ,

. (4.58)
:
z

x = x0 + sin 0

dz
2

sin 0

dz
2

(4.60)

z ( z ) sin 0
( z ) sin 0
3. fcos 0 = f - .
.
. -,
f , 0, .
0

. , .

133

. ,
() ,
() ,
.

, .
x0
x . x ,
, (4.60)
z=0. ,
, , .
:
z

x x0 = 2sin 0

dz
2

(4.61)

( z ) sin 0


, L ( ).
(4.61)
,


. ,
, ,
.
H0 ,
0

L = 2 H 0 tg 0 + 2sin 0

dz
2

(4.62)

( z ) sin 0


( ).
0

4.3.3.
.

.

z
N ( z ) = N max [1 ( 1) 2 ],
h0
(4.63)
134

N max - ( ),
h0 , z - , ( )
.
(4.21)
2

( z ) = n ( z ) = 1

f 2
f

[1 (

z
1) 2 ],
h0

(4.64)

f 2 = 81N max (4.51).


,
(z =0) (z =2h0 ) (
) .
.
0 .
(4.59) (4.60).
( ,
, ).
(4.59) :
z
z
dz
dz
x = x0 + sin 0
= x0 + sin 0
..
2
0 ( z ) sin 2 0
0
f
z
1
[1 ( 1) 2 ] sin 2 0
h0
f2


. :

z
f2
z
z2
1

cos 2 0 2 +
2
2
h
h

f
0
0 h0
x x0
f
.
sin 0 ln
(4.65)
=
+
f
h0 h0 f

1
cos 0


x
x
z
x = ; x0 = 0 ; z = ;
(4.66)
h0
h0
h0
(4.65) ()

135

f2
2
2
1 z
cos 0 2 z + z
2

f
.
x = x0 +
sin 0 ln
(4.67)
f
f

1
cos 0


.
z = z (x ) .

f x x0
f x x0
1 f
1 f
z =1+ (
cos 0 1)exp(
) (
cos 0 + 1)exp(
).
2 f
f sin 0
2 f
f sin 0
(4.68)

.
. , ,
f cos 0 < f . (4.64), (4.48)

sin 0 = 1

f 2
2

[1 ( z 1) 2 ] .

f
,
z < 1,
.
z = 1 1

f2
2
f

cos 2 0 .

(4.69)

(4.67)

f
1+
cos 0
f

f
x = x0 +
sin 0 ln
(4.70)
.
f
f
1
cos 0

x0 x


x x0 = 2( x x0 ) .
(4.71)
136


,
( ). H0,
(4.71) ,

x0 = H 0 tg 0 ,
.
(4.71)
f
f
f
L = 2 H 0 tg 0 +
sin 0 [ln(1 +
cos 0 ) ln(1
cos 0 )] .
(4.72)
f
f
f
, , h0.

.


H0 = 300 ,
h0 = 100 .
Nmax = 106 -3 ,
(4.51)
f= 9 .
f = 20 .
,

.
(4.63) (4.64)
(.4.7)
(.4.7) .

Z ()

Z ()

N (-3)

.4.7. . )

, )

137

,
-3 , -3
.
z .
,
( ),

.
(4.68).
, (4.68)
, (
)
. . 4.8
80 60.
(
), .
, 80 65 ( 1,2,3,4)
( ). ,
60 ,
. , ,
, fcos 0 = f ,
63,3. ,
65 60,
. 4.8. ,

( 2 3) (
4, , 62,5, ),
.
, ,
,
2000 . .
, , 20
().
.4.9 (4.72)
L . ,
20 ( )
2000 . .
,
,
, .

138

h ()

0 = 60

0 = 80
2
4

L ()

) 1 - 0 = 80 , 2 - 0 = 75 , 3 - 0 = 70 , 4 - 0 = 65 , 5 - 0 = 60 .
( ).

h ()

0 = 60

0 = 65

3
2
1

L ()
) 1 - 0 = 65 , 2 - 0 = 64 , 3 - 0 = 63.5 , 4 - 0 = 62.5 , 5 - 0 = 60 .
( ).
.4.8.

139

, , , , ,
,
( ), (
). , ,
, (
, , ,
, ).

L ()

F=20
F=15
F=12

0
.4.9.

. 4.3
1. ? c ,
,
, ?
2. .
?
3. ,
?

H = 400
, Nmax=
106 /3. f1
=20 , f2 = 15 , f3 = 12 .

140

f = 9 N max = 9 . (

) , ,
(4.53)
0 = arccos f / f .
63,260, 53,130
41,40. ,
,
H,

R.. = 2Htg 0 .

1590 , 1066 705 .

,
. ,
.

(.4.9). ,
66,20, 56,90 44,10,
1950 , 1350 940 .
.4.8 (, , 3
4). , , -,

, (
) , .
. , , , , ,
, ,
,
.
[8].
1
1=300, 2=450 ,
1=600 f=10
, 4,9
105 /3
2
12
, 250 ,
3,6 105 /3
141

3
f1= 6 ,
f2=12 , f3=18 ,
60,
4,9105 /3?
4.4

4.4.1


. r
H 0 ,
,
40 /. ,
.
,
H
.
.

r
(), V ,
r
r r
FH = e 0 [VH 0 ] ,
(4.73)
r
r
V H 0 .
,
, .
r ,
FH
, .
,
, .

r
, H 0 .
R ,
mV 2

= e 0VH 0 ,
R
mV
R=
.
(4.74)
e 0 H 0

142

2 R
2m
=

V
e 0H0
( ):

TH =

e 0H0
e 0H0
1
=

H =
.
(4.75)
TH
2m
m
,

. ,
,
. ( H 0 40 /)
1,4 ( 214 ), . .
.
,
,
(4.73)
, , . 4.10.
,


r
E ,
, , ,
- .

r
r (4.73)
H 0 E , ,
, , ,
, . ,

.
.
fH =

r
V

r
H0
r
H0

r
eVH 0

.4.10. :
, ,
.
143

mV 2
R

- .
4.4.2.
r
H 0

. 4.2.1 ,
,
(4.73).
( = 0 ),
(4.1)
r
r
rr
dV
m
= eE + e 0 [VH 0 ] .
(4.76)
dt
,
z
r
H 0
,
r
r
H0 = z0 H 0 .
(4.77)
r
V , , ,

r
r
j = eN V .
(4.78)
(4.76)

r r
r
r
[VH 0 ] = x0V y H 0 y0Vx H 0
r r r
( x0 , y0 , z 0 -
). , ,
, (4.76)
:
miV x e 0 H 0V y = eE x ;
miV y + e 0 H 0V x = eE y ;

(4.79)

miV z = eE z .
, . .

,
( E x = E y = E z = 0 ) .
miVx e 0 H 0V y = 0 ;
e 0 H 0Vx + miV y = 0 ;
miVz = 0 .

144

(4.80)

Vz = 0 , ,
.

:
(mi) 2 + (e 0 H 0 ) 2 = 0 .

e 0H0
= H =
.
(4.81)
m
(. (4.75))

.
(4.79), ,

(4.82)
V y = iVx ,
,

, (4.82)
( Vx V y
/2). ,
,
. :

.
(4.79)
,
.
.

e
e
iVx + H V y = E x ; iV y H Vx = E y .
(4.83)
m
m
( ,
e 0 H 0
e H
(4.81) H =
= 0 0 ).
m
m
:
e H
ie
Vx =
Ex +
Ey ;
m( 2 2H )
m( 2 2H )

145

Vy =

e H
2

m( 2H )

Ex

ie
2

m( 2H )

Ey .

(4.79)
e
Ez ,
Vz =
im

r
(4.78) j ,
:
j x = eN V x =

ie 2 N

e 2 H N

Ex +
Ey ;
2
2
2
m( H )
m( H )
e 2 H N
ieN

j y = eN V y =
Ex
Ey ;
m( 2 2H )
m( 2 2H )
e2 N

j z = eN V z =
Ez .
2

im

r
r r
rotH = i 0 E + j

r
e 2 H N
ie 2 N
Ey ;
Ex +
rot x H = i 0 E x
2
2
2
2
m( H )
m( H )

r
ieN
e 2 H N
Ey ;
Ex
rot y H = i 0 E y
m( 2 2H )
m( 2 2H )

(4.84)

(4.85)

(4.86)

r
ie 2 N
rot z H = i 0 E z
Ez .
m
,
,
, (4.85)

r
r
rotH = i 0E .
(4.87)
,
,
( (4.87) (4.86))
33
xx xy
0
= yx yy 0 .
(4.88)
0
0 zz
146


02

xx = yy = b; xy = yx = ia; zz = 1
,
2

b =1

02
2 2H

; a=

02 H
( 2 2H )

(4.89)

(4.90)

, ( z),
, zz

. ,
( = 0 ).
4.4.3.


, .
,
.


r
r
r
r
rotH = i 0E ; rotE = i 0 H .

(4.91)

(4.91)
:
H z H y

= i 0bE x + i 0 (ia) E y ;
y
z
H x H z

= i 0 (ia ) E x + i 0bE y ;
z
x
H y H x

= i 0 zz E z ;
(4.92)
x
y
E z E y

= i 0 H x ;
y
z
E x E z

= i 0 H y ;
z
x

147

E y

E x
= i 0 H z .
x
y
,
.

.
-


. , -,
, -,
.
.

( z).
(x,y) , , (4.92)

=
= 0 ,
x y
H y

= i 0bE x + i 0 ( ia ) E y ;
(4.93)
z

H x
= i 0 (ia ) E x + i 0bE y ;
z
Ez = 0 ;
E y
= i 0 H x ;
z
E x
= i 0 H y ;
z
Hz = 0.
,
, . .
, .
(4.93)
r r
r r
E = Em e iz ; H = H m e iz .
(4.94)
,
E x = E xm e iz ; E y = E ym e iz ; H x = H xm e iz ; H y = H ym e iz .
(4.95)

. ,
148

,
,
.
(4.95) (4.93) :
iH ym = i 0bE xm + a 0 E ym ;
iH xm = a 0 E xm + i 0bE ym ;

(4.96)

iE ym = i 0 H xm ;
E xm = 0 H ym .
H ym , H xm -
,

a 0 E xm + (

i 2
i 0b) E ym = 0 ;
0

(4.97)

i 2
i 0b) E xm a 0 E ym = 0 .
0

E xm E ym . ,
:
(

1,2 2 = 2 0 0 (b a) = k0 2 (b a )

1 = k0 b + a , 2 = k0 b a .
(4.98)
(4.97),

E ym 2 = iE xm 2
(4.99)
E ym1 = iE xm1 ;
(4.95)
E x1 = Em1cos(t 1z ); E y1 = Em1sin(t 1z ) ;

(4.100)

E x 2 = Em 2 cos(t 2 z ); E y 2 = Em 2sin(t 2 z ) .
(4.101)
(4.100) 1,
(4.98), (
, ),
(4.101)
( ).
,

.

149

c
V1 = =
= ;
V2 =
=
=
;
1
2
b + a n1
b a n2
(4.102)

n1 = b + a n2 = b a
(4.103)
-
.


1,2 = n1,2 2 = b a
(4.104)
,
. (4.100)
(4.101), , .
E x = E x1 + E x 2 = Em [cos(t 1z ) + cos(t 2 z )] =
2
+ 2
z )cos(t 1
z) ;
= 2 Em cos( 1
2
2
(4.105)
E y = E y1 + E y 2 = Em [sin(t 1 z ) + sin(t 2 z )] =
2
+ 2
= 2 Em sin( 1
z )cos(t 1
z) .
2
2
,
E x E y , ,
, .
z
, ,
xz .
,
Ey
2
tg =
= tg 1
z,
Ex
2

2
n n2
= 1
z = k0 1
z.
(4.106)
2
2
= 2 , ,
3600
2 0
z 2 =
,
(4.107)
n1 n2
0 .

150

(4.103), (4.104)
(4.89),

1
1,2 = n1,2 2 = 1 ( 0 ) 2
.
(4.108)
H

,
.
. , ,
() ,
.


.
,
,
. -

.
.
.
, , z ,
x
( ). , (4.94),
r r
r r
E = Em e ix ; H = H m e ix .
(4.109)

= = 0 (4.109),
y z
:
0 = i 0bE xm + 0 aE ym ;
(4.92)

iH zm = 0 aE xm + i 0bE ym ;
iH ym = i 0 zz E zm ;

(4.110)

0 = H xm ;
iE zm = i 0 H ym ;
iE ym = i 0 H zm .
, H ym E zm
, E xm , E ym H zm - ,
, (4.110)
151

. .

iH ym = i 0 zz E zm ; iE zm = i 0 H ym
(4.111)
,

= 0 0 zz = k 0 zz
(4.112)
(
x) , (4.109)

E z = E zm e i x ; H y = H ym e i x .
:

c
V =
=
;

zz

(4.113)
(4.114)

0
Ez
=
.
(4.115)
Hy
0 zz
, , (4.111),
0 ,
0zz . .
,
:
0 = i 0bE xm + 0 aE ym ;
Z =

iH zm = 0 aE xm + i 0bE ym ;

(4.116)

iE ym = i 0 H zm .
, ,
Ex, ,
(4.116), /2
Ey . ,
xy,
. ,
.
(4.116) Emx H mz ,
,
:
= k0

a2
b

152

(4.117)

V =

c
2

(4.118)

a
b

(4.89), (4.114) (4.117)
:
b

02
c
n =
= zz = 1
;
V
2

(4.119)

02
a2
n =
= b
= 1
.
(4.120)
2 2
V
b

H
2
2 02
,
, ,
( )
.
.
.


r .
H 0 ,
.

(QL)
(QT) .
r
H 0
:
H = H 0sin .
(4.121)
H = H 0 cos ;
c

, . .

(
)
, = cos.
(
)
= sin.
QL QT
, .
, ,
153

0 << , QL

, . ,
QL ,
89 , . .
. QL
D E, , <7075 .

QT, 0.
,
,
. ,
, >> ,

.
: , >>
.

,

.
5.

.4.4
1. ?
?
2.
,
, ,
?
3.

. , ,
?
4., ?
5. ?
?

154

4.5.
4.5.1.

100 10 ( 3 30 ).
. ,
(

).

.


( ).
.
, , ,
.
,
,

,
. .
, ,

.

.
, ,
(4.53).
(),
. ,
.
,
.
(. (4.31)),
,
.
(), . . ,
155


.
, f
,

f .
(4.122)

(),
1020 %.
90%

,
, .
, , ,
,

.

,
. ( )
, , 1E, 2E, 1F, 2F . .
. ,
3000 ,
( : 2E,1F,2F.)

, .
,
, . .
.
() , f
.

, . . .
. .
.
.
,
,
,
, .
, .
, ,
, , ,
,
.
156



.

.
.
,
.

.

.
, ,
10 25 . ,
,
,

. ,
.
. , . .

.
4.5.2.
(
)
,
.
, ,
(4.53).
E F1
110 240 . F2

[4] : ,
250 ; , 350 ; , 400 ; , 250 .


.

.

.
157

,
(. [8]). |V| ,
.. [8]
V = 0,5(1 + R ) R

( n 1)

exp() .

(4.123)

. 0,5
. ,

,

. ,
,
,
. ,
,
, , - ,
(4.123).
( )
(
, , 2,
).
(n
).

D, E, F1, F2
.
,
.
, . ,

,
.
4.5.3.

. ,
.
158

,
.
,
-.
,
,
.
,
.
.4.5.:
1.

2. ,
?
3. , , . ?
4. ?
.?
5. ?

- ()
, E 3 , F 9
. 120 350 .
2000 .
( ),
?
:
1E, 2E, 1F, 2F.
5.

5.1. (
)

(, , )
( GPS) [17, 18].

.
159


,
. ,
.
,
, .
.
,
. ,

.
.

. ,
, ,
.
.
4
. ,
.

. ,

(c=299792458 /). ,
.
, ,

.

. 5.1

160

(. 4),

V = ,

(5.1)

,
:
=1
0

02

(5.2)

e2 N
0 =
0m

(5.3)

N
, , ,
.
1,21,6
,

h

dl
,
V
(
l
)
0

t=

(5.4)

hc ,
.
(5.4) :
() .
, (
,
),
, , .

(. (4.45)) (5.4)

1 hc dz
t=
,
(5.5)

sin 0 n( z )
, .
. 5.2.
161

, (5.5)
.
GPS f1=1575,42
f2=1227,60 .
,
(5.3), 20
, 6-10
.
02
1 1
n = = 1
1
;
=
1+
.
n

2
22
22
(5.5) (5.6), (5.4)
02

02

(5.6)

hc
e2
1 hc
t = t0 + t ; t0 =
; t =
N ( z )dz .
c sin
8 2 c 0 msin f 2 h
(5.7)
(5.7) h , t0

, t - ,
.

hc

. 5.2.

hc

N ( z )dz

N - () (. 4).
TEC
. 5.3.

162

( ),
, (5.7)
0,404
[].
(5.8)
l = t
2
f sin
(5.8) ,
TECU.
(5.8)
TEC = 10 TECU 10 90 .
5.4. . 5.4,
. , ,

, .

TEC ( . TECU)

12

10

4
0

12

16

()
. 5.3

()

.5.4

163

20

24

0 ,00135 1
1
(5.9)
2 2 TEC [] .
sin f1
f 2
(5.9) , (5.8).

, (5.9) TEC
.

, -
.
. ,
,
, .
,

, .
5 - 10.


V =/,
(5.10)



(3.2) (. 3). 5

, (5.7).
N : n=1+N*10-6
N (3.8).


(5.4)
h
h
10 6 N 0 h0
, (5.11)
t = t0 + t ; t0 =
; t =
1 exp

sin
sin
h
0

t0 , t
, h
, N0=315, h0 = 7,35 , - /.
t =

164

(5.10)
,
h
10 6 N 0 h0
.
1 exp
(5.12)
l = t =

sin
h
0

(5.12)
. 5.5. . 5.5,
.

l ()

. 5.5


( 10 ).

,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
.


165

.
, , [17].
.5.1.
1)

( (5.4))?
2) (5.5)
?
3)
?
.5.1.

, 800 ,
: =30, TEC
=47 TECU,

(3.7). - 300 10 .
10%
?

4,

().
(. . 5.1),
. .

( ). :
E0(t)=U(t)cos(t),
(5.13)
, U(t) ,
.
z=0

1 +
it
E0 (t ) =
E0 ()e d ,
2

(5.14)

166

E0() (5.14)

1 +
it
dt .
(5.15)
E0 (t )e
2
, E0(t) .

<<,
(5.16)

. ,
, ,
. ,
, 90%, .
.
(5.15) E0(t) U(t)
1 +
it
U () =
dt .
(5.17)
U (t )e
2
(5.13).
(5.13) (5.14), (5.17) [1]
E0 () =

E0 () =
=

1 +
it
dt =
U (t )cos(ct )e
2

1 +
i ( c )t
+ e i ( + c )t dt = .
U (t ) e
2 2

(5.18)

1
1
= U ( c ) + U ( + c )
2
2
,
z
1 +
i (t ())
d .
E0 ()e
2
(5.19) ()

() = n()z .
c
().
E (t ) =

(5.19)

(5.20)


n() = 1 0 ,

0 .

167

(5.21)

()
=
() = (c ) + (c ) +
(5.22)
= c ,

(c ) =

(c ) 2
....
2

(c n(c ))
c

z .

(5.22)

(5.23)

= -
, (5.22)
.

1 +
i (t ())
E (t ) =
d =
E0 ()e
2
=

1 +
1 +
i (t ())
i (t ())
d +
d
U ( c )e
U ( + c )e
4
4

1 i (c t (c )) +

e
U ( c )e i (t (c ))( c )d +
4

1 i (c t (c )) +

e
U ( + c )ei (t (c ))(+ c )d =
4

1
1
= ei (c t (c ))U (t (c )) + e i (c t (c ))U (t (c )) =
2
2
= U (t (c )) cos(c t (c ))
,
E (t ) = U (t (c )) cos(c t (c ))
(5.24)
(5.20) (5.23),
(5.24)

z
z
E (t ) = U t
cos c t
,
(5.25)
V
V

V = c / n( )
(5.26)
+

- ( ),
168

V =

(5.27)

( n( ))
- .
V = c n( )

(5.28)


4.

(5.22).
(5.19) [25]

U (t ) = 1, t [ T / 2, T / 2], U (t ) = 0, t [ T / 2, T / 2] ,
(5.29)
T=2/. (5.29) U()
T
sin ( )
.
(5.30)
, =

2
,
, :

Fr
,
U (t ) =
Fr
(5.31)
( )
2 (c )
c

Fr (x) =(x)+i S(x), (x) S(x), - [9],


=/2+t-(c).
.
( >> 0)

z
() = n(, z )dz' .
(5.32)
z
U () = T

z
.
(5.32) (5.31) ,
, (5.19).
,
(5.31) .

, .

(5.19).
169

5.6, 5.7
, = 26,7 TECU.
(5.31) 10
30 10 .

. 5.6

. 5.7

. 5.6 5.7 ,
: .
,


.

170

(
).
.5.2.
1) ,

() ?
5.3.
4,
,
.
,

( )

.
.


, (4.106) (4.108)

2
2

(n n2 )k0 z
1
1 k0 z


1 0
= 1
== 1 0
. (5.33)

H
H

1+
1

(5.33) n1 n2 - , ,
.
100 H<<0<<
,
2

k z
0 H 0 .
(5.34)

(5.34)

171

N ( s ) H ( s )(cos i )ds ,
2

(5.35)

f
=0,0297, - , /2, N -
, 1/3, f - , , i -
,
. (5.35)

i ,
cos2 i >> 0,25(fH / f)2,
(5.36)
fH - .
1,4 2 . f=300 (5.36) 90 i >>
0,18,
..
, ,
.
.
ds=(1/cos)dh, h - ,
() (5.35)
K cos i
=
(5.37)
N ( h) H (h) dh .
f 2 cos

(5.37)
,
(5.37)
K cosi
=
H N ( h )dh .
(5.38)
2 cos
f
(5.38) N ( h )dh = TEC - , 1/2,
H
.

, ,
A B,
[19]. : A 78,3o S, 111o E, B- 78,3o N, 69o W. ,
BA,
.
.

sin = sinsin0 + coscos0cos(0),

172

0=78,3o N, 0=291o E - ,
- .

3

R0
1 + 3sin 2 (, h ) ,
H (, h) = H 0
(5.39)
R
h
+
0

H0 , h
. H0 33,4
/.

( 1017 1/2) ,
i . (5.38), (5.39), ,
7 1 0,5 -
10 .
TEC
.
i

. i , cos i 1, ..
(5.38) .
, , cos i 0
.

f f0 ,
f 02

(5.40)

0 f 2
, 500
30
.
90.
, ,
,
500 ,

,

,
,
,
.
, (
) .
3- .

173

.5.3.
1) , (5.35 21) (5.38 24)

.
2)
, ,
?
3) ?
.

330 .

10 U ( ) 100
U ( ).

?
5.4. .
300
,
. 5.1.
5.2

.
, .

,
.. 5.1 5.2.
-

(. 5.8).
, .
,
(. 5.8).
.
.
c
n=n(r) (. . 3 [20])

174

r0

dr

= 0 + 0

r r r n ( r ) 02

(5.41)

(5.41) r, -
, , 0=r0 n(r0)sin -
, r=r0,
, n(r)
. (r<r0).
0 =0 (. . 5.8).

l= R0 .
(5.42)
R0 - , 6370 . (5.41), (5.42)

r0

l = R0 0

dr
2

r r r n (r ) 02

(5.43)

(5.43) ,
, .

n(r)=1+n(r),
(5.44)

n(r)= 40,4N /f-2 ,
(5.45)
3
N 1/ , f ,

n(r)= N010-6exp(-h/h0),
(5.46)
N0=315, h0 = 7,35 , h=rR0 .
,
l0 (5.43)
n=1.

(5.43),

r0

1
1

dr
l = R0 0

(5.47)
2
2
2
2
2

r
r r n (r ) 0
r 0
, :n(r)<<1,
(5.43), , n(r),
.

175

l0
l

. 5.8.

rn(r )dr

r0

l = R0 0

.
2
2 3/ 2
(
r

)
r
0
2
2 3/2
, r(r -0 )
,
90. -
, r=r0. , ,
(h<< R0)
r0= h+ R0 R0.

sin r0
n(r )dr .
(5.48)
3
cos r
(5.48)
, .
l =

176

r ,
r0 = hc + R0, hc .

r= R0 ,
r0= h+ R0 h.

0,404 TEC sin


l
, ,
(5.49)
f 2 cos 3

10 -3 N 0 h0 sin
l
, .
(5.50)
3
cos
(5.49) TECU, , (5.50)
h0 .
,

.
[5]
.

. 5.9. ,

1 - 60
80.
1 18 60.
,
. ,
[24].

(5.49) (5.50)
TEC
f = 20
, ,
(5.51)
N 0 h0
TECU, h0 .
, TEC = 10 TECU
f1,2 . ,
,
, ,
.
.

177

(5.51) ,
.

70

60

50

f = 0.6
f = 1
f = 3

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

5.9. ,
. .


.
. ,

1 r +h
n = 1 + n , n =
ndr ,
h r

, , .
, ,
.

178

,

n0 sin = nsin ( + ) .
, , n0=1, n 1 = n << 1
n tg .

(5.52)

<< ,
(5.53)

(5.53) ,
.

. ,
.

[23, 24].
< 80
6 .
2 .
100 ,
.


.


,

.
.5.4.
1)

?
2) , ,
, ?

?

179


. .
.
.. .
,
,
.

.

,

( ).

,
.

.

,
.
3 . ,
,
.
[5,8,10].
1 ,
.

(. [5,8,15]).

(. [21]).
,
(. [22])). ,

,

() .
-



, ,
.

180


1. .. . .: . 1983. 536 .
2. .., .., ..
. .: . 1979. 376 .
3. .. . .: .
2000. 559 .
4. .. . .: , 1975. 528 .
5. .., .. .
.: , 1988. 272 .
6. ., . . .: . 1970,855 .
7 . ..
// , 2006, .33
8. .. . .: . 1975. 280 .
9. .., ..
. .: . 1980 976 .
10. .. . .: . 1972. 336 .
11. .., .. .
.: , 1971. 438 .
12. . :. . 1981.415 .
13. . / . . . .1. .: . , 1976, 456
.
14. .., .. . .: . 1978.
247 .
15. .. . .: .
, 1970. 496 .
16. .. . .: . 1998. 432 .
17. .. (GPS).
.: . 1996. 57 .
18. . . / . ..,
... . 3-, . .: , 2005, 688
19. . . .: . 1973. 501 .
20. .., .. . .: .
1980. 304 .
21. .., .., .. .
.: . 1991. 222 .
22. ./ . ...
.: . 1972. 436 .
23. .., .., ..
. :. , 1969. 155 .
24. .., .., ..

. //XI .
. 1. , . , 1975, . 111-115.
25. .. . -.: , 1967,
683 .

181

3

4
1.
7
1.1. . .
7
1.2. .
.
10
1.3. . .
13
1.4. . .
18
1.5. .
22
2.
26
2.1 .
26
2.2. , .
29
2.3. . .
35
2.4.
40
2.5.
44
2.6. ,
49
2.6.1.
49
2.6.2. .
53
2.6.3. .
56
2.7.
57
2.8.
61
2.9.

69
2.9.1. .
69
2.9.2. .
74
2.9.3. .
74
2.9.4.
78
3.
79
3.1. .
79
3.2. .
83
3.3. .
86
3.3.1. .
86
3.3.2. .
90
3.3.3. .
91
3.4. .
.
94
3.5. .
96
3.6. .
100
3.7.
.
104

182

4.
104
4.1. , , .
104
4.1.1. .
104
4.1.2. .
109
4.1.3. .
110
4.2 .
.
112
4.2.1.

112
4.2.2. .

117
4.2.3. .

122
4.3
127
4.3.1. 127
4.3.2. -
132
4.3.3.
134
4.4
142
4.4.1

142
4.4.2.
144
4.4.3.

147
4.5.
155
4.5.1.
155
4.5.2.
158

4.5.3.
5.

5.1. (
)
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.

183

159
159
166
171
174
180
181




,







.., ..

_____________________________________________________________________________
() 2006 (I), .

. . . 13
.
.

.
_____________________________________________________________________________

184