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. .

..
2002

681.31(075.8)
32.97
82
:

(. - . , . .. );

(. - . , . .. )

82

..
: . . 2-
., . . - .: - . .. , 2002. - 336 .:
. - (. ).
ISBN 5-7038-2090-1
(1- . 2000 .)
,
.

, ,
.
,
CALS-,
.
,
. .. .
.
, .
The textbook is devoted to basic problems and aspects of CAE/CAD/CAM systems. Main
approaches to design procedures including methods and algorithms for modeling, simulation and
synthesis are considered. The information about workstations, networks, design frameworks
and CALS components are given too.
The book is intended to students of technological universities, it may be recommended to
postgraduates and industry specialists using CAE/CAD/CAM in their activity.

681.31(075.8)
32.97

.. , 2002
ISBN 5-7038-2090-1

. .. , 2002

1.

12

1.1.
12
(12). (13). (15).
1.2.
17
(17). (19). (20). , (20). (22).
1.3.

25
(25). (27). (28). CALS- (30).
1.4.
31
(31). (34).

36
2.

37

2.1.
37
, (37). (38).
(41).
2.2.
43
(43). (45).
(46).
2.3.
47
(47).
(48).
2.4. Ethernet
48
(48). (49). Ethernet (50).
2.5.
52
Token Ring (52). FDDI(55).

2.6.
,.... 56
(56). (58).
(60). (61). (64).
2.7.
64
TCP (64). IP (67). TCP/IP (68).
(71). SPX/IPX (73). .25 Frame Relay (74). ATM
(75). (78). (80).

83
3.
85
3.1.
85
(85).
(86).
(87).
3.2.
88
(88). (89). (93). (95).
(96). (97).
3.3.
100
(100). (104). (105). (106). (108). (108).
(111).
3.4.
114
(114).
(114). (117).
3.5. -
118
(118). (120). (124).
3.6.
125
(125). (128). (130).
(131). (133). GPSS (134).
(140). (143).
3.7.

144
(144). (146). ( ) (149).

151

4.
153
4.1.
153
(153). (154). (157).
4.2.
157
(157).
(159). (160).
(165). (166).
4.3.
171
(171). (172).
(174). (175).
(176). (177).
(178).
4.4.

179
(179). (180).
(182). (182).
(183). (184).
(185). (186). (188). (190). (190).

198
5.

200
5.1.
200
(200). (202). (205). (214).
5.2. ... 217
, (217). (220).
5.3. .. 223
(223). ECAD (230).
5.4.
234
(234). (237). (240).
(243).
5.5.
245

CASE- (245). (248). IDEFO IDEF3 (250). IDEFIX (256). UML (258). CASE-
(260). (261). (263). - (268).

5.6.

271

(271).
(272). (274). (276).
(278). (278). PDM (281).
(286).

289

6.
CALS-
291
6.1. CALS-
291
STEP (291). Parts Library, Parametrics, Mandate, IIDEAS (292).
, CALS- (293).

6.2.

295

SGML (295). XML (296).

6.3. STEP-

299

STEP (299). (300). (301).


, (302).
(306). STEP (306).

6.4. Express

307

Express (307). (308).


(308). (310). (311). , , (311). (312). (313). (314). (316). (316). (317). STEP (ISO 10303-21) (319).
Express (319).

6.5.


320
323
324
325


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1.1.

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24

1.3.

1.3.


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. 1.1.
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(Computer Aided Engineering).
CAD (Computer Aided Design). (Computer Aided Manufacturing). CAE/CAD/CAM,

PDM (Product Data Management).

25

ERP
MRP-2

SCADA
CNC

. 1.1.

(SCM Supply Chain Management),


Component Supplier Management (CSM).
.
()
().
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning),
MRP-2 (Manufacturing Requirement Planning),
MES (Manufacturing Execution
Systems), SCM CRM (Customer Requirement Management).
ERP -,
, , , , , ,
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, -, , MES - , .
, ,
. CRM. S&SM (Sales and Service Management), , , .
, , , .

26

1 3


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( ) SCADA {Supervisory
Control and Data Acquisition). CNC
(Computer Numerical Control) ( , ), .
, - ,
(E-Commerce). , E-Commerce, Internet .
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Lifecycle Management). ,
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ERP, PDM, SCM, CRM .

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27

CASE (Computer Aided Software


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1.3.

(); ;
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CAE/CAD/CAM-.
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29

/.

CALS-
, , CALS-. , ,
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CALS Computer Aided
Logistics Systems, . . .
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Acquisition and Lifecycle Support. CALS ( ) (
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30

1.4.


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31

1.

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(ISO 12207:1995).
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(Top-of-Design); ,
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32

1.4.

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33

1.

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34

1.4.


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API {Application Program Interface) -
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Electrical and Electronics Engineers), EIA (Electronics Industries Association) .
POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) API 1003.
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Unix), ,
POSIX, . .

ISO .
(ISO 9899), Fortran (ISO 153 9), Pascal (ISO 7185) .

35

I.
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36

2.

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38

2 1

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39

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40

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41

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42

2.2.

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43

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44

2.2.

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800 600 1920 1200 .
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45

2.

300 800 (
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46

2.3.

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47

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Ethernet, Xerox.
48

2.4. Ethernet

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49

2.

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Ethernet
Ethernet
. Ethernet,
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1. Thick Ethernet ( ); 10Base-5, 10
10 /, 5
( ), . . 500 . :
5; 100; 2,5 .
,
() .
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5; 185 ; 30;
0,5 ; 10 /.
3. TwistedPair Ethernet; 10Base-T;
,
(hubs).
. 2.4. () () (active and passive hubs),
.

. 2.4.

50

2.4. Ethernet

8 ... 24. 10Base-T 600 30 ,


100. 10Base-T .
/,
( )
, , ,
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10Base-T , . .
.
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51

2.

11 /
2,4 , 54 /
5 .
6. Fast Ethernet, 100Base-X 100Base-T (
IEEE 802/3). 100 /.
/. ( ), 10Base-T
200 . 100 / ,
, 100/10. 10 /,
. 250 ,
1024. Fast Ethernet,
Ethernet 10 /, .
: 100Base-TX,
3 5,
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7. Gigabit Ethernet (1000Base-X).
. 802.3z
830 1270 ( 1000Base-SX
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. (
) 10 / (switches)
10/100, 100 /, ,
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-). 250 /
125 ,
-.
Ethernet 10 /.
2.5.
Token Ring

: 1) Token Ring ( IBM IEEE 802/5); 2)
52

2.5.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) .


802/5 :
< (7) (7) ()
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12; 120 ;

45 ; 4 16 /.
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;

53

2.


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54

2.5.

Token Ring
, Ethernet, .
FDDI
FDDI , , .
. 100 /. 200 , 2 . 500. 1300 .
.
( . 2.6, ).

200 /.
,
. 2.6, .
FDDI . THnaNRZ ( ),
1, 0. ,
.
4b/5b. 4b/5b
,
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. 2.6. FDDI:
;

55

2.

FDDI ,
. , ,
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, ,
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FDDI
. , Ethernet Token
Ring , FDDI.

2.6.

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(TDM) (FDM) .
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2 . , 16 1200
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4800 /. ,
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56

2.6.

Iog2 k , k
)
V = Iog2k/t ( k < 1 + , ;
t , ,
.
: 12,5 6,25 . , ,
, ,
, .
(STP Shielded Twist Pair) (UTP Unshielded Twist Pair) .
, , (). 1 . 2 4 /. , .
Ethernet (, 10Base-T) 3,
Token Ring 4. 5 6.
5 1 00 ,
0,5 1 , . UTP
100 . 5 100
1 00 24 , 1 0 1 00 1 .
6 7 , PIC,
,
. 6 5 ,
0,5 , 100 22 .
7
, 8 , 100
20 , 600 - 50 .

,
( ), .
, .
.
, , .
() ,
.

.
57

2.

10 ,
125 ... 200 . : 0,83 ... 1,55 ;
0,7 /; 2 ; 4... 5 . 1 . D ( )
X: , = 850 D = 5 , X, = 1300
D = 50 , .
, ,
Fiber Channel , 133 1062 / 10 ( SCSI
160 / ). SDH (SONET) 155 622 /, .


SDH (Synchronous
Digital Hierachy). SDH . , . .
STM-1.
270 , 1 .
. ,
( , ).
.
.

, . ,
. 1,5; 6; 45 140 / ( ) 2; 6; 34
140 / ( ). STM-1
155,52 /.
STM-1 STM-0, STM-4
STM-16 51, 622 2488 / .


.
.

(902 ... 928 2,4 ... 2,5 ) . 5,725 ... 5,85 .
, , ( ) , ,
-

58

2.6.

. .

. , , .
, . .
(
),
/,
, .
. .
, (
15...20 ). : ,
.

RadioEthernet, . . .
.
802/11
,
.
(DSSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum).
11
(). ,
, .
( DSSS 802/11
11 /, 22 2,4 ).
, . ,
, 22 ,
, ,
.
, , , --

59

2.

, , -, , .
(FHSS Frequency Hopping
Spread Spectrum). 802/11
79 . ( 20... 400 )
, , .
,
,
. , .

. ( 36 .
) .
( 500 ) . .
. ,
, , , ,
, , , . ( ).
; , Lucent Technologies,
Aironet, Multipoint Network.


,
. , , , . .
. , ,
.

0,3 ... 3,4 ( ), .
,
. -

60

2 6

,
.
,
, ,
.
/ , :
Um ; ; v|/ .
Um, (AM),
() vy ().
- (QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation,
-),
, = 4 ... 8 (. .
16 ... 256 ). ,
,
( 12 4).

2 3
.
V.32, V.34, V.90 V.92. , V.34 2,4 28,8 / 2,4 /.

1600 ... 2000 , .
V34.bis 33,6 /. 56 / , 2 V.90-92.

- (), PCM (Pulse Code Modulation).

, dt, . , dt :
,
. ,
4 ( ) . ,
( ) 8 , . .
64 ( 56 ).
61

2.
1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1

..

. 2.7.

.
. 2.7.
. , .
, .
1 ( DS-1). 24 , DS-0 (Digital Signal-0).
8
28 = 256 , 64 /
1554 / 1. 1 32 64 /, . . 2048
/. ( DS-3), 28 1
(45 /); 4, 6 , 4 . .
1 (TDM). 24
, 192-
. 24 .
.
1
. DS-0 ( ) , . . . , , 1, 1
.

(, DS-0).
- , , .
, , ,
. DS-1
.

62

2.6.

, , (,
).
. ,
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network).
ISDN .
ISDN 56 / 1,54 /
ISDN (Broadband ISDN, B-ISDN) 155 ... 2048 /.
ISDN .
64 / (
5-) 16 / (D-).
23 64 / D
16 /.
( ), . , .
, 1, , ISDN
.
ISDN . 2.8. ^-
.
ISDN, S-
. NT2 S- -, . NT1 (. 2.9) -
U.

RS-232/V.35

. 2.8. ISDN

63

2.

,
i "

4
<

. 2.9. -


xDSL ( ISDN-). xDSL
HDSL (High-bit-rate Digital Subcriber Line), SDSL (Single Pair Symmetrical
Digital Subcriber Line), ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subcriber Line) . ,
HDSL , -
2 /
5,4 . .
ISDN xDSL.

, . .
, :
, , , ;
,
() ;
- ( ) ; (. . 2.9).

2.7.

TCP
, ,
, .
, SPX/IPX, X.25, Frame Relay (FR), ATM,
.
64

2.7.

TCP/IP Internet. TCP/IP


, , , TCP (Transmission Control Protocol )
IP (Internet Protocol). , Unix Windows-95/NT.
TCP .
. TCP ;
- , . . , , , , ,
, ; ,
. . .
TCP -, ,
- .

( ACTIVE_OPEN)
, - ( ), .
(
ACTIVE_OPEN_WITH_DATA). , (OPEN_RECEIVED), .
SEND , DELIVER
. CLOSE CLOSING.

.
, , .
TCP- ( ) ,
:
(16);
5(16);
, . .
, (32);
,
5(32);
65

2.

(16), , , , . .;
(16), , . . ,
;
(16);
(16);
(24);
(8);
.
TCP , . .
32
2 / ,

.
16 . , Jv

216 . , (216 8 ) / Tv . ,
Tv
0,5 1 /.
,
(01).
TCP ,
(-) . Tm=2t, t Tv . Tv,

,
, 0,5 ... 2,0 ,
.
, , , , , . .
.
= k + ,
k ,
.

2.7.
.
, ,
.
.

( 512 ), . . .
( ),
. . , .


. ,
,
.
IP
IP , . .
. . ,
.
, -. .
IP
, ; , . . ;
(
, . . TCP,
);
.
IP ( ):
IP (4) ( IPv4 IPv6);
(4), . . 32- ;
(8);
(16) ;
(16) ;
, ;

67

2.

(16), . . , ;
(8);
(8),
(TCP, UDP . .);
CRC (16);
(32);
(32);
(32);
( 65 356 ).
IP, IPv4. 32- . , 32 2 32 4,3 , Internet
.
IPv6,
. , - 14-, . .
. ( 2002 .) Internet
IPv4.
14- 216 65 . , . . , , 216 .
, IP. , 120
216/ 120 = 546 , 65 .
300 / ( TCP).
,
( ).
, . ,
, . = 0 =
.
.
TCP/IP
TCP/IP .
, .
, ( ,
). ,
.

68

2.7.

, .
IP-. IPv4 , : (, , IP-, ). . .
IP- IP- .
Internet DNS (Domain Name Service), ISO .500.
IP-, ,
.
( ). , ,
: , us, de, uk, edu , com , org
, gov , mil ,
net Internet . . IP-
, , , @ . ,
norenkov@wwwcdl.bmstu.ru : norenkov wwwcdl bmstu
.
14- , (), . ,
,
. IP-
, , IP-. , 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0 . . .
-, .
, , IP- IP- DNS. DIB (Directory Information Base) DNS.
, ,
IP- . IP-, DNS
IP- IP-.
, ,
-, IP- MAC-. ARP,
TCP/IP. ARP- IP MAC
.

69

2.

Internet . ; ,
; , .

.
Internet (,
wwwcdl.bmstu.ru http:// www.eevl.ac.uk) .
IP- IP-.
(bmstu), , , ()
IP- . DNS-cep IP- ,
.
IP- -
() , IP- . , -
ARP- IP- -,
. ARP- - , , . .
, ARP-. , , IP-, -. , - ARP-
-. ,
, ,
.
, Internet
IPv6 IP.
IPv6 128 . . (
):
FP = 001 , , (3, 8);
TLA (8 ... 13),
;
RES (8);
NLA (32),
();
70

2.7.

SLA (16), . .
;
ID (48),
-.
. ,
, .
IPv4 IPv6 . , IPv4 IPv6
32 , 96 .
IP- IPv6 40 :
(4) (4) (24)
(16) (8) (8) (8) ( 128).
16- ,
,
. . .
TCP/IP
. ,
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) , TCP,
, .
UDP- IP ,
IP-
TCP, UDP.
. UDP ,
TCP (8 20 ),
, TCP,
.
UDP- ( ):
( 16);
(16);
(16);
( 65,5 . ).
, TCP, . , :
SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) ,
;

71

2.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)


;
Telnet .
TCP/IP IEEE 802/ .25.
TCP/IP
.
, , ,
. TCP/IP
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol),
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).
ICMP:
; ( ) ICMP-, ;

;
; ICMP ;
( ) Tv , .
, Tv .
ICMP- .
.
Tv.
ICMP- IP- .
,
,
.
MIB (Management Information Base).
MIB: ,
, ,
.
SNMP TCP/IP.
. (
SNMP) , ( SNMP ) , (, , , ) .

72

2.7.

, .
, , . SNMP MIB,
, .
SNMP, UDP.
SNMP ,
. ,
.
SNMP RMON (Remote Monitoring)
Ethernet Token Ring RMON2 .
RMON ,
.
SNMP ,
Manage WISE Novell UnicenterTNG
Computer Associates. : 1 2>- , , ( ); 2 ,

; 3 .


-
.
.
.
SPX/IPX
Netware Novell SPX (Sequence
Packet Exchange) IPX (Internet Packet Exchange) .
IPX ( ), ( ) ( ). 30
546 . SPX 42 , . .
534 .
SPX ( ) connect, connected () disconnected ().
, .
IPX.
73

2.

.25 Frame Relay


.25, , ITU (International
Telecommunication Union),
. .25 1976 .
, ,

, . .25 ,
.25.
.25 , . .
, . .
.25:
, , , . . , ,
( ), (
);
,
, (
8 128);
() ,
;
, ,
.
.25 ( , , IP,
). , . . .25 ,
.
( ), .

.
( .25 , ,
Sprint, Infotel, .)
.25 . 2.10.
.25 - . 9,6 64 /. .21, -.2 Ibis.
74

2.7.

. 2.10. .25
Frame Relay (FR) .25
( 45 /) , , , , . .
.
,
, . FR .
FR
, .
FR , .
FR ,
,
. ,
.25, ,
( ).
FR
, .
FR ,
.25. ,
.
ATM
, ATM
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode), , (,
) . , -

75

2.

, , , , (,
6 ).
ATM
(53 ), .
ATM .
ATM , .
.
, ,
.
.
,
.

. , , .
, 5 .
ATM .
-,
(TDM)
( }.
,
. N , .
, N. ATM ,
. ( ) ( 32 )
/?- . , . -
, . , . ,
.
-, ( ) .
.
( ). ( ) .
76

2 7

-, .
TCP/ IP. , . .
, (
, , IP).
. 1
() , ( * VPI/VCI () .
, .
-, ()
, ^
(
ATM), .
ATM (. 2.11).
AAL ,
( 64 )
, , , 48- ,
, , . , .
, ATM, .
.
ATM- SDH } ' 4' L1 / 4), ,
SDH !
FR ATM FR .
.

*ft?
<

gfe

! J

! 1

(switch)

. 2.11. ATM
77

2.


SDH, -. STM-16, STM-4, STM-1. ,
,
. FR
ATM 3 .

ATM 51, 155,622 2488 /


-1, -3, -12 -48 . , , , TCP/IP .25, ,
- ATM, ATM.
.
(FR), 4
.
ATM
ATM Forum .
, ATM, , TCP/IP, ,
, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, FDDI. , IP-over-ATM (Multi-Protocol-Over-ATM), a
IP- , , ATM-.
TCP/IP ATM-
ATM-.
53- , -.
, ATM ( ). .


,
( Fieldbus).
,
SCADA.
, , ,
, .
,

.
78

2 7

. Fiber Channel, Fire Wire 1394, USB, Ethernet, a


VMEbus, PCI .
,
, , .
Ethernet
( 802.3).

() Fieldbus, . Fieldbus , . . : , , .
Profibus, Interbus/S, CANbus .
, ,
. Infiniband, Fiber Channel, USB, FireWire 1394, RS-232,
RS-422,RS-485.
, , (,
) - , VMEbus pactPCI.
VMEbus 1987. ( IEEE 1014). (IEEE 1101.10
1101.11). 21 ,
. 320 /.
-, .
CompactPCI (PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect) , 1990- .
CompactPCI PCI,
. 16. 132 / 32- 264 /
64- .
(, ) . , OLE.
(OLE for Process Control).

(, )
, - 1 ( ).

79

2.

. ,
Ethernet ,
.
Profibus, 12 , 247 , 1,5 . ,
Ethernet. Profibus, , ,
CAN. Fieldbus RS-485
, 1,2 , 32 .

, (internetworking), ()
. , , , , , , .
(repeater) , , .
,
(, ) - , , .
, , .
. , ,
.
. ,
10Base-T Token Ring.

.
(bridge) ,
, .

, , , . .
, . ,
, .
, .
.
,

.
, , ,
80

2.7.

.
:
. .
,
,
.
. 2.12.

. , , , . . ,
.
, , ,
(AS Autonomous System). AS
.
. AS
AS,
().
, .
. , ,
, . , . . .
.
,
.

. 2.12. :
; ; ;
FDDI ;

81

2.

(router) ,
. , , .

,
IP- . , , . . ,
.
(, ) . -, - . ,
, . IP- .
( out-through), ,
( store-and-forward).
, .
, .
, ,
, .
. , ODS Infinity Optical Data Systems Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, Local Talk,
48, 48, 2 6 . (
), .
.
.
,

, , .
,
, .
, ,
- .
82


. ,
.
.
,

. .
() , , .
, . ( IEEE 802/10), .
(
) .
Cisco. Catalyst 1024 FDDI, E, TR,
ATM.
.

(gateway ) ,

. . ,
Ethernet SNA, . , .

1. .
2. ?
3. ? ?
4. .
5. (TDM) (FDM)
?
6. / ?
7. 10Base-5,
500 .
8. ?
9. RadioEthernet?
10. 4b/5b 8b/10b ?
11. Token Ring?
12. Ethernet ?
Gigabit Ethernet.
83

13.
4 130?
14. ?
15. ( 36 . ).
16. 1 ?
17. , -.
18. TCP?
19. IP- , ?
20. ?
21. ,
ATM.
22. ?
23. ?

3.

3.1.


, , .
,
.
. , ,
.
,
, , . .
( , , ) . ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
,

85

/. ()
, ,
, .
,
,
. , ,
- . ()
, , . .
.
, ,
, , , ,
, .
.


,
, .
.
,
.
.
( ) , . ,
, .

. ,
.
,

| 0 |< ,
8 ,
; =
( -I] ')/ij .', ] TAXij z- "
'- .
r

86

fj

3.1.

, . ,

, ,
.
.


(). , : -, ,
-, .
.
,
,
. , ,
. .
(. 3.1)
. ,
, . .

. 3.1.

87

3.


,
, ,
, .

3.2.




.
,
.

, .

.
,
(), ,
().
.


().
, ,
.
. , , ,
(), . : .

, .

VK(dV/dt,\,t)

= ,

(3.1)


Ft(V) = 0,
88

(3.2)

3.2.

V = (v,, v2, ..., ) ; t .


, (, ) (, ).
,
(,
),
.

, .
.

.
. .
- .
: , , R, , L. . 3.2, .
:

= iR ( );

(3.3)

= Cdu/dt;

(3.4)


(3.5)
- Ldi/dt,
(, ); / .

-DI

. 3.2. :
, , ;

89

3.

. 3.3.

.
(3.3) (3.5) (. . R, , L ),
R, , L ,
. .

() (). ,
,

:

= ,

(3.6)

" f = 0,

(3:7)

. - ; J9
, q-e .

. . 3.3 ,
/ = 1(/(/)) im= /^^/
/()) - /?-; '^ /
; / ;
; ; R^viR^ , /?6 RK ;
/' = Bi - i , ;
' . , , 1, /, /. , .

. .
.
, ,
. ,
.
90

3 2.

, ,

F= Mdu/dt,

(3.8)

F ; ; .
,
. ( )
G = e,

(3.9)

G ; ; = /// ; / / G. , G = F/S, F , S
, (3.9),
dF/dt = (SE/l)

d(U)/dt

dF/dt = gu,

(3.10)

g = SE/l (, , Z,M); = d(&l)/dt .


, ,
, .
, -, :
, , , (
); -, , , .
, , , .

. 3.2, .
. ,
( ) ,
(3.4) (3.5) /, (3.8) (3.10)
MnLu, . ( ),
91

3.

L ZM ( ), R Rrp=
= du/dF ( ).
: ( ),
{ID)
(3D) . ,
3D , , .
, ,
.
. . , .

/ ( ):

pdU/dt = -dP/dx-2aU,
; U ; ;
. U = Q/S, Q ,
S , , ,
dQ/dt =5/(/) - 2aQ/p,

'

= LrdQ/dt + RTQ.

(3.11)

;
Z r = A/pAS , ; RT= 2 aAl/S , .
.
:
RT= 8//(4), ; ^>^-v>
|1-[

=
-'
= RrQ\Q\ R=0,31(nru /\Q\)M.
. 3.4.
(3.11)
, . 3 .4.
92

3 2

/,=/ 2

. 3.5.

,
,
(3.12)
(3.12) , Q U d&l/dt Q US,
JAP/ = CrQ,
Cr = E/(S I) .
. : , .

, . 3.5.
; g ; U /
'- ; j = 1 , / = 2 .
. , ,
VHDL-AMS,
across quantity,
through quantity.


.

, . . ,
.
(3. 1) (3.2).
93

3.

R.

tl =U[V

. 3.6. () ( )
, . ,
. , , . ( ,
).

. 3.6.
, , . ,
, .

. () , . . - 1 , , ( ). . 3.6, ,
. 3.6, ,
.
Ux 1^
, 1
+ = 0;
(3.13)
1 - 1 = 0,
7

(3.14)

; -.

94

3.2,

- ,
. -
. . - q-
, = +1 , = -1
. = 0.
. 3.6 -
. 3.1

3.1

RI

-1

R2

-1

R3

-1

R4

-1
+1

+1

+1


.
( ).
, , ,
.
, , ; ,
, ;
, . .
. 3.7, , ,
51,52 1,2. . 3.7, , , , , ;
, . 3.7, , .

. 3.7. :
- ; -

95


(3. 1) (3.2)
, . , , .
, , ,

V - V - ; = tn - tn_l
. t ( t
tn),

FT(VJ = 0;

(3.15)

Zn= (-_,)//*
Vn , Z = dV/dt.
, ,
.
2 + ,
(
, , ), .
, ( ) .

.
. .
(
, ), W . , -

96

3 2

. , (
, 2/2), , . . , .
,
, . . ,
dWIdt W, .
.

, .
(. . , ,
, ).
-1, .
, , ,
2 .
, .


.
. ,
. , , (3.13) (3.14)

U + M<p = 0;

1 = 0,

(3.16)
(3.17)

U I .
,
,
4

3.

1 = +,

(3.18)

, (; , /.
( ) , .
(3.18) (3.16) (3.17), :

1= M (GnUn+ ) = - + =

= ,

(3.19)

= - ; = . , ( - 1), ,
-(-1)(-1).
(3.19)
(), , . ,
.
, .
, R.
.
-
in = Cdu/dt \ = ( -.. ,)/*,
g = 11 = const
g=C/hn.
= gun ,.
:
L = const

98

= !(/-/ _,)/

3.2.

,
dU/dt I = - ,
; \ U .
.
, ( ) , , , ,
.
, -
, .
.
,
. (. 3.2), : UHCT(I) , ; (/)
; 1(1) ,
; L ; - i
^.
UHCT, I, , 1
. , , . . I,
. ( )
. : IL - ; I, ,.
- ; Gx, GL, G, -
, , .
(3.17)

3.2

(1)

(/)

12

21

22

23

1(1)

3,

32

33

99

3.

I, (3.18),
1

= (91 /51) - .
(3.16),
U,= - - 12 - 13 = - 1] - 12 (/1)1 - ,3.

, I 1L:
- () / + M12RI) + (2)) I, + (31) KI =
= ( ) (, 1 3 -,);
\ = - 21 + M22RI + 23) + ,;
I = - ,(31 + M32RI + 33) +

(3.20)
(3.21)
(3.22)

R = (5UHCT/9I). .
. 1 . , AL . 2. , , ,
1/5 Gi5 . 3. , ,
,
, (3.20)-(3.22).

3.3.

. ( ) , ,
, . , , , , , ,
, . .

100

3.3.

, ,
():

, . , (3. 1 5),
, .
, . .
( , , ) (, ).
.

tn:

; hn = tn + , - tn
( hn ).

:

</V/A
| = ( V - V-1,)/A,
1
' '
v

= *-*_,.

:
dVldt = AV
(3.23)
V0 h. ; V
.

101

3.

. V n + 1 V0:
V_ +1 = (E + /zA)"V 0 .
(3.24)

= +
(3.25)
:
= T-'diag^JT.
- ; diag{A,B } - , . ,

, ,
, . (3.25) :

(3 .23) V( /) > 0 / > , ,



+1 ->->,

( + /zA)" V 0 -> ,

V 0 * 0, ( + )" -> 0, ^ 0, . - 0
- |1 + | < 1.
(3.26)
,
.
. (
(3.23) ),
^-^,,

(3.26)
-1<|1-/|<1<<2,

(3.27)

.
, (3 .27),
.
102

3 3

(3.27), , ,

. , .
(3.27)
. , (3.27) , ,
, 1
.
(3.27) .
. , ^
, . . .
= /
. , .

,
> 105 . .
. (3.24)

h > 0. , -.
. -,
h > 0.
^- .
, .
; -,
, -, ^-
. .

103

3.


, ,
. ,

.
, - , . . , - ,

V( t) , , ; |V (/>+1) (t)| ( + 1) V(/),


- ; / .
- , . .
, h
. V(f) tn+l, ( + 1)-
+ (d2V/dt 2 )AV2! - (d3 V/dt 3)#/3! + ...

(3.28)

( + 2)-
V(/;+2) = Vfc + 1) + (dVldt)ht + (d2\/dt2)h2x/2\

+ (d3V/dt3)h3x/3\

+ ..., (3.29)

hn h , tn+ . (3.28) (3.29), h = = /?


V(tn +2) = V(tn) + 2(dV/dt)h + 2(d3V/dt3)h3/3\

+ ...,

. . , (3.28) (3.29),

h3. ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
. ,
() d, .
, , ,
.

104

3.3.




.
, . ,
(). .
, ,
(3.19).
.
, , , , . , (3.19)
. .

F(X) = 0.

(3.30)

F(X) \k ,
F(X) = F(Xt) + (SF/dX)(X - Xt) + (X - Xt)T(S2F/dX2)(X - XJ/2 + ... = 0.
, X:
,

(3.31)

^ = (5F/3X)|t. (3.31)
(3.30), X t + ,.
0
, ,

.
. ,
. . , .
105

3.

, , = 0 = 0 (3.30) , a
0 X
= 0 . ,
, .
, ,
.
h. , h =
. h .

,
.



. . k-w. xk
=

(3.32)

at] / > k > k


<* '- =a,j-alkakjlakk.

(3.33)

- 1 , (3.32), , . , .
(3.32)
3. , , . ,

(3.32).
, . ,
, -, (3.33),
alk akj , -,
106

3.3.

.
, ,
, , 1-2.
, , , , .

.
11*1

14*4

(3.33) ,
, , . ,
, .
. 3.3 . .
.
. 3.3 3.4, + . ,
, .
, .
. , ,
.

( ) .
3.3
3.4

107

3.

. ( ) .
. , (200 200)
320 . 9
,
28 .

(3.33) a,k 0 akj * 0 , ,
(3.33). , , , , .
,
.
(3.33) .

. ,
. ,
.

. , d/dt '.

, , .
. .
,
-, ,
. .

X
Q . ,
. ,

108

3.3.

. . , ,
.
,
X Q, . , , ,
,
. .
.
, , . . ^ .

. 1,
, . .
. ,
yj . TV - xt ( X Q),
, AJC,, ,
!,= (, ~.,)/.,

jt

J I

I ']

. , ,
./^ 1 . , ,, BJt.
.
, , .
() . :,
:. ,

109

3.

. 3.8.
(. 3.8).
, Y < ,
,
.
- ( ). ./V , ,
-. jc(. ,
N , :
;
:
, , ,
.
, , , ./V , .
, -, - xt.
, *( ,
^ xt , (
). . ,
. !

110

3.3.

, . ,
,j [1 : ].
, < (. .
sign(.8,,) = ) ^ > sign(5,,) = 1,
I = I + *I ,'

, , , ,
,
, , , .


-
. 3.9.
-


F(X) =
.

= .
. 3.9. : V0(/0) - ;
h /? - ; UBH(/) -
; N NU -
; - ;
8 - , ; 1 -
; -
.
111

3
V:=V0;t:=to;h:=hHm

, * =

/
V :=+

. 3.9. -
, jV> ^

. 5 ,
[2, ml] , .
N , ml, m2, , .

, . , . . 3.10.

112

3.3.

_>.

. .

(
) .

.
, . ,
. ,

, , .
- ,
, (. . 3.9). (. . 3.10)- , . 3.9.
. ,
,
.
, ,
- . .

3.

3.4.


,
. ,
. JCj, x2, 3
t.
.
:
1)

- ; - ; - ; t - ; X - ; g - , ;
2)

at
N- ; D - ;
3) , :

4)

div = / ( ) .
; q ; Jpu 3
; gp gn - ; ; ; .

,

, , .

- .
114

3.4.

. ,
.
: () . , . . .
.

IF(z)=/(z)

L ; F(z) ; z =
= (,, 2, 3, f) ; /(z) y(z) .
- .
.
, .
. 3 . 1 1 .
, . ,
. , ,
,
. , dVldx k,

h(dV/dx) = 4+ , - V-, 2h(8V/dx) = Vk+ , - Vk_ ,; HpVIQ*)

= Vk^-2Vk + Vk_ ,,

h .
. 3 . 1 1
- :

2
2* W = V^^ + F t _, ,+

Vk VB (,k, x ); h
.

115

-1

-1

--

-2

(
k)
^

-1

.t u

. 3.11.

,
F(z). , qt
T

U(z.) = Q <p(z),
T

(3.34)

Q = (#,, q2, ..., <7) - ,


cp(z) - ( ) ,
, .
, U(z) (, (z) ). U(z)

A(z, Q) = LU(z) -/(z) = I(QT9(z)) -f(z),
(3.35)
Q.
( Q) :
1) , , (3.35),
Q:
;
2) , (3.35) ;
3) ,
.

. , . .
( ). ,
.

116

3.4.


( ), , ,
.

.
,
= 0,5 I 8 T arfR,
(3.36)
R

= (en, s22, s33, s)2, 813, 823) - - ; = (, 22,


, , ,3, ?3) - ; R - .
stj
etj= 0,5(5)^/5* +dW}/dx),

(3.37)

Wt *,
= 0,5SW,

(3.38)

S (3.37) ; W = (w , w , \v ).
D,
, . 3.5:
a = De.

(3.39)

, , ,
.
(3.39) (3.38) (3.36),
3= 0,5j\VTSTDSWdR.
R

W(X), X = (,, xz, 3).



(3.34), :
U(X) = NQ,
N ; Q .
3.5
0
0
0
+2

0
0
0
+2

X
0
0
0

0
0
0

,+ 2
0
0
0

0
2
0
0

0
0
2
0

0
0
0
2
117

3.

W(X) U(X),
= 0,5|QTNTSTDSNQrfR=0,5QT( J(SN)TDSNrfR)Q=0,5QTKQ,
R

(3.40)

= J(SN)TDSNc?R .
R

/dQ = /dQ - /dQ =


, (3.40),
KQ = ,

(3.41)

= 9A/5Q . , ,
, (3.41).
,
(3.41) .
.
,
.
3.5.
-

- ,
, .
. , .
- , .
, . .
, .
- .
-, . .

,
(3.42)
. F,x - .
, (3.42) , FBX
.
118

3 5 -

, (3.42) , , . . . , (3.42) .
,
, . (3.42) , ,() (),

()
.

h(p)- .

, .
- . ,
(3.42).

, :
,
. .
(. 3.12), ht(p), h2(p)
h3(p).

= h}(p)h2(p)/(l

. 3.12.

119

, :
1) ,
, ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) .

-
. ,
, ,
.
( 1) ( 0), . . - .
.
- , . , , , ()
= a or b, () = a and b, ()> = not , , b .
.
. 3.13.
, , , .

. 3.13.

120

3.5. -
&

(\

&

~
&

L&

. 3.14. ./US'-

.
,
, .
.
, (. 3.14):
= not (R and ); Q = not ( and ); = not (A and Q); = not (S and ).

,
.

(3.43)
y(t
t3 ; / . (3.43)
, , (), t + tm. ,
.
.
() . ,

. ,
, .
.
,
. ,
, .
121

3.

&

. 3.15. :
;

.
. 3.15, ,
. 3.15, . ,
, , , . 3.15, ,
, .
.
.
, 1 <8>, . , ,
. 3.6.
, ,
.

,
, ( ) (
) .
, : 0-0-0, 1-1-1, 0--1, 1--. 0-<8>-0 1--1 , . . .
3.6

0 1
0 <8>
1
0
1
0
0 0 0
0 1
1

0
0 <8>
1

1
1 1
1
0 1
122

3.5. -

1
<8>
0

3.7

(. 3.15, ) . 3.7.

(. 3.16). ,
, . ,
{0, 1, <8>, , ), , , .
,
: 0-0-0, 1-1-1,
0-a-l, 1-P-0. 0-<&-1 1-<8) .
.
(t + tm) =/(X(/)) , (^) , tl + tm >.
, tm
[tt mm, /3 ma j , ,
+
+
ax .
*\ ^ mm 'j

. 3.16. :
;

123

3.


() .
/0, /15 /2,... . .
, .
.
. : , .
2... 3 % , .
.
,
.
npmfepe (. . 3.14). . 3.8
.
( ) , , Q,P,A, .
R, S . , , .
,
, . , ,
.
,
, .
.
124

3.6.


( 0)
1
2
3
4

R
0
0
0
0
0
0

S
0

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

3.8

1
1
1*
1

1
1

Q
1
1
1
1

0*
0

0
0
0

1*

1
1*

1
1
0*
0
0
0

: 1) , (); 2) (
) 0; 3)
k,
k - 1.
, (. . 3.14)
Q Q,, : S, , Qt 0,- \,- 2 > - 3.
:
= not (S and ); = not (R and ); =not (A and Q);Q=not ( and P).
( ) .
,
, ,
.

. - , .
(. . 3.14)
: 16-
, . 3.8, . . 3.8 , . , , 0 5
, .

3.6.


, , , ,
. .
(-

125

3.

).
, ( ) ,
() ,
.
, ,
, , , , . , , ,
. , ,
. ,

().
, , , ,
, . .

(), (), . . , . ,

.
. , .
.
, , true () false (), , .
, , .
, , , , , . .
FIFO (
), LIFO ( )
.

126

3.6.


.
, . , . ,
, .
, . .
, . .
, ,
,
. , .
.
, , .

.
, , .
, - ,

, . , , . ,
, .
, .

() .
. (,
),
. , .
127

3.


,
. .
-, , ,
FIFO.
-, .
-, , . . ,
, (
), .

. .
S,
( ). ,
, ,
( )
( ).
, F =limP (*,)/*,
( > 0, { (fj) - St S
tr

'

(3.44)
N . . 3.17 1,,..., S4, . 3.9 .
3.9

Si
5
54
52
Vn
5i
-Ki2-Ki3-Ki4
Vu

0
0
Si
V21
-Vi\
5
54

128

0
0

-F34

F34

K42

-F42

3 6


, , . .
() . ,
. 3.17.

. , ,
.
.
St t}
S St
f,, . .

(0 = (,) - (0 = IP ,(gp ( - (,(0,


,/eJ

(3.45)

P(t) P(f) - S S t, ,(^,) ?,)


?,; ,(f,)P (0
S 5 , , ; J
S
.
(3.45) /, t > ,

*L(Vj i )-
1'
v

I Vik..
*

dP/dt = 0
, /-
Z(Fy,P) = P Z F t .
(3.46)
j
*
Vt ( (3 .46) (3 .44),

N
N
;=1

Jl J '

t-1

129

. .
.

, , , .
NW , ,
Qm , Tw ,
.
. 3.18 , Sk
k .
. .

, i= 1,2,3,...,
0.
^^^
2= (( + )/, - 0)/ = (1 + ), - 0 = <0;
3= (1 + )2 - aPt = 2}= ?0 . .

= . /. , < 1.
S = 1, = 1/(1 + + 2+3+...) =1-.

. 3.18.

130

3.6.

3.10

So
Si
5
Si
S*

So
-

0
0
0

Si

S2

5
0
0

S4

-.-

--

--

0
0
0
.

--

0
0

:
Nm - Z Pkk = ,+ 22+ 3 + ... = (\ - \\

- );
= 2 + 23

... = Z (k- \)Pk = ^

N av = ^av
2av = ^


,
. .
, ,
().
.
- .
( )
, .
, SMPL . , SOL, GPSS.
- , . , GPSS
, , . .
5-

131

3.

, ,
, , .
, tk . .
, .
tk
.

() .
.

, .
,
, .
,
, . , , , ()
.
,
, ,
, , ,
. .
, ,
(). ,
, .
, , . , , tk.
, ,
,
, . . ,
. , .
132

3.6.


.

, . () , . ,
(, ),
. , , .
.
,
. . .
. (),
(). , (), , .
.
,
.
(), . ,
. X.

(. 3.19):


. 3.19.

133

3.

1) X; ,
X, X ,
^
X;
2) ,
, X,
; ;
3) , , ,
; ,

, ;
;
4) .
, tt, , , .
GPSS
GPSS (General Purpose Simulation System), , . () GPSS
( ), ,
. GPSS
,
,

.
GPSS :
<> < > < > [<>],
, ,
, 19-,
.
, , , , , ...
, , , , . , , 1 , FN ,
( L , L 12), , RN1 ,
[0, 1], S ,
F , Q .

134

3.6.

<>$<>,
, QSORD ORD FN$COS
COS.
, .

GENERATE A,B,C,D,E
,
: 1)
[ - , + ] ; 2)
, , ;
; D ; . D , . :
GENERATE 6,FN$EXP,, 15
, 15
, 6 ;
GENERATE 36,12
, [24, 48].
, ,
:
FUNCTION A,B
,
/^/^/...^^
, ,
, _ Y - , .
:
FUNCTION RN1.C12
0,0/0.2,0.22/0.4,0.51/0.5,0.6/0.6,0.92/... . .
() , 12
, (RN1), [0,1];
FUNCTION *4,D6
1,2/2,5/3,11/4,20/5,18/6,12/7,9
(D) , , .

SPLIT A,B,C
. , ( ) .
135

3.

,
.
1, - 2, 3, 4,... . .

ASSEMBLE A

, 1 ,

GATHER A
,
.

SEIZE A
,
RELEASE A
.

ADVANCE A,B
, GENERATE.
D 1. WST , [7,11] , :
SEIZE WST
ADVANCE 9,2
RELEASE WST
D


ENTER A,B
, ()
().

LEAVE A,B
, :
STORAGE A
, .
136

3.6.

, .
.
,
.
QUEUE A

DEPART A
.
, .
TESTXXA,B,C
, ,
, XX , XX {E,NE,L,LE,G,GE};
; NE ; L ; LE ; G ;
GE (XX 13 14).
D 2. ,
4, .
:
TESTLE Q$STR,K4,LBL
QUEUE SIR
SEIZE POINT
DEPART STR
ADVANCE 50,16
RELEASE POINT
LBL TERMINATE 1

2
TERMINATE A
.
.
,
START
,
. .

137

3.

3. GPSS
SIMULATE
<, >
<, >

START
END.


TRANSFER ,B
, .
TRANSFER. :
TRANSFER P,B,C
,
.
TRANSFER FN,B,C
, .
TRANSFER PICK,B,C
, [, ].
TRANSFER A,B,C
,
1 - .

LOOP A,B
() , ,
.
D 4. ,
[20,40], WGR1,
WGR2 WGR3, .
WGR1,
WGR2 WGR3 0,05, 0,1 0,125 . ,
1000 .
:
SIMULATE
FUNCTION RN1.C12
0,0/.2,.22//.4,.51/.5,.6/.6,.92/.7,1.2/.8,1.61/.9,2.3/.95,3/.99,4.6/.999,6.9/1,
GENERATE 30,10
SEIZE WGR1
138

3.6.
ADVANCE 20,FN$EXP

RELEASE WGR1
SPLIT 1,MET1
SEIZE WGR2
ADVANCE 10,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR2
TRANSFER , MET2
MET1 SEIZE WGR3
ADVANCE 8,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR3
MET2 ASSEMBLE 2
TERMINATE 1
START 1000,, 1000
END.
D

X .

F(T) = \p(f) dt=l- exp(- X 7).

. 3.20 , , ,
[0, 1] ,
(3.47)

(3 = (1/)1(1/(1 - ))

. (3.47)
ADVANCE (. 4) 1/.
GPSS.

ASSIGN A,B
, .
F(T)
ASSIGN A+,B
1
,

ASSIGN -
. ' in <bv
*

v
F
F
'

LOGIC_X

139

3.

X = S ,
X = R ;
GATE_XXA,B
XX = LR = 1 XX = LS = 0 ( GATE, ),
XX .
VARIABLE A

,
3 VARIABLE K216-S$MEM2
3 216
2. , , ,
LBL MATCH NUMB
,

NUMB MATCH LBL
.
,
, .

TABLE A,B,C,D
; ;
; ; D .

TABULATE A
/-
, . z'-
, .

( ).
<, , I, >, , I .
, ,
, , , ; I , ,
.
, :
()
.

140

3.6.

.
. , . ,
.
.
( )
, . .
(. 3.21)
: , N, > Kt, N, '- , ,
, /- ;
'- /-
}, } , '- .
. 3.21
, (2, 2,3, 1). : (1,0,1,4).
, . ,
, , . () , , .
.
, . . , . 3.22
,
/ (2. .
,
- ,
. ., .

.
,
. ; .
.
, , () . ,
, .
141

3.

. 3.21.

. 3.22.

1.
WS
WS .
. 3.23. : /, WS, t2 , /3 - /,
, t4 ; 4 WS:
, WS /2; , 4 , ,
{ . 3.23. ( 1)
tr
2.
, / ; ;
, , . . 3.24 . , , ,
, .
2 . : tt , / 2
, /3 , t4 .
,
/, , ,

.
/, ,
f2,
6. ,
. t2 v_y
, . 3.24. ( 2)

142

3 6
. 3 ,
( 4 ), ty 2, 5 6
, . 14 .
,
, .
, ,.


, .
.
.
, .
, , , , , .
( -) ,
. /^ . .
, 1 -. , ,
.
, . .
= const,
Nt /'- ; : .
- , , , Mt.

.
,
, , .

.

0 .
0, . , ,
( -> /.
.
,
(, Mt

143

3.

. 3.25. ( 1)

. 3.26. ( 2)
, Mt).
- , . . . - .
.
1. . 3.25.
, . ,
, , .
2. . 3.26.
, , , , .
3.7.


()
-. , , 144

3 7

, . . , ,
(, , . .).

, ( ), ,
. . , ,
.
.
(2D) (3.D) . 2)- - ,
. 2D-, 31)- ,
, . .
31)- (), ,
() .

, . . ,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
(, , ), , ( , ), .
,

.
.
1. , , .
145

3.

2. ,
; .
3. , () ,
; .
4.
() - .
,
, , , . - , , . , .
.
-.
, . . , .
. ,

.
.
, , . ,
, .

. ,
, , . .
, .
:
1) ,
( );
, ;
2) , .

146

3. 7.

, .
5-.
, 3.27.
-
.
. ,
, , .


3
2
x(t) = axt + bxt + cxt + dx ;
3
X
2
y(t) = ay t + by t + cy t + dy ;
(3.48)
3
2
z(t) = a.t + b_t + cj + d_,
1 > t > 0. , . .
(3.48).
(
)
. .
5- (. . ) , , .
, .
(3.48) , -,
(3.48) (=0(=1 , 4 , -,
dx/dt = X t2 + 2bX + ',
dy/dt = , 2 + 2byt + ,
dz/dt = 3a.t2 + 2b.t + .
/ = 0 / = 1 2 3,
(. 3.27).
(3.49)

147

3.

-1
3
-3

3.11
-3
3
0
0

-6
3
0

-1/6

0
0
0

1/2
-1/2
1/6

1/2
_j
0
2/3

3.12
-1/2
1/6
1/2
0
1/2
0
1/6
0

= (/ 3 , t2, t, 1) -, . 3.11,
G^ Pxi ,, 2, 3 4, Gy, G,
. , .
5- , 0, ,, 2, ..., .
( [+] ^-, ,.,, ,+ ,, ,+2. 5- [(, Pj+1]
, (3.49),

. 3.12, Gx, G^, G. ,_1; , +1, ,+2.


, , -. -,
[ , +1] , [Q(, Q, +]].
Q /+ , t = 1

dX(t)ldt\t__ , = [3t\ 2t, 1, 0] [*_*, *+|, xi+2F= [3, 2, 1 , 0] [,_ , , xi+], x+2]T= (-);
d2x(t)ldt\^ = [6t, 2, 0, 0] [^^^^- [6,2, 0, 0] [*,_,,*, , + +2 ] = -2+
[Q|+1 Qi+2] Qi+| t = 0
0

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165

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166

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167

4.


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168

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min | - |
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169

4.

, S , . . ( S - ).
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X = - [(grad V(A))Tgrad \|/()' (grad v)/(A))Tgrad F(A), S = -{grad F(A) - gradn/(A)[(gradv)/(A))Tgradv)/(A)]4(grad4/(A))Tgrad F(A)}/q =
= -{E - grad 4/(A)[(grad M/(A))Tgrad vj/(A)]4 (grad v/(A))T}grad ^(A)/^. (4.27)
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180

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181

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183

4.

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189

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190

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h
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gap.
194

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.
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. .
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5 2- ; Ek k- .

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195

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Problem with Time Windows) -
. ,
. :
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.
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1
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197

4.

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.

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.
, ,
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.
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k (/, ) (k, j) . -
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, (, j).
U .
(i,j) = 1, . . U \.
, U = k >j, , (Uik- I and Ujk=P) or (Uik = P and
Uk= 1) = true, Ut := P + 1.
U.
, .
2, (, j)
:
1) (Uik= I and Uk= P -1) = true, (/,_/)
(, k) (j,K);
2) k, Cik+ k (Uik = P -\ and Uk= 1) = true; (, j) (,)
();
3) , . 2, (Uik < - 1 and Uk<P-l) =
= true;
4) , . 3, , >
> + Cjk, .
. , .

1. .
2. ?
3. ?

198


4. , 2
(. 4.15), , ,
0 .
5. ,

?
6. ?
.
7.
. 4.15.
NP- ?

8. 8
24 . ?
9. -- .
10. .
11.
. ?

5.

5.1.

, .

, .
, PDM . ,
, . - -.
.
(
). .
.
:
;
;
;
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;
200

5.1.

.
, .
, ,
.

. , .
, , .
: , () , () ; ;
(, );
,
.
, .
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, .
.
, . , , , ICMP SNMP TCP/IP CMIP
(Common Management Information Protocol) ISO.
, . , .
, , , . .
, (), ,
. . ,
(Ethernet, TR, AppleTalk .).

UNIX, Windows NT, Novell
Netware.

201

5.

UNIX
TCP/IP. UNIX , .
Windows NT ,
.
(Windows NT Server) (Windows NT Workstation) .
Novell Netware . Shell,
.



(. 5.1).

.
. , .

( )
, .
, ,
().
.
(Middleware). Internet /Intranet ,
- . MFC (Crossware).

. 5.1.

202

5.1.

RFC (Remote
Procedure Call), ORB (Object Request Broker), DCE (Distributed Computing
Environment), (Transaction Processing Monitors) .
RFC . RPC Sun Microsystems.
. TCP UDP . , , , .
,
RPC IDL (Interface Definition Language),
. , .
IDL ,
. , .
. .
RPC-:
;
( );
;
;
.
: , (
),
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,
.
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CORBA. CORBA (Common Object Request Broker
Architecture) ( ) .
- () ORB.
ORB ( RPC)
- ,
ORB.

203

5.

(, , ..) . , , .
,
.
,
CORBA. IDL RPC,
, .
ORB , : ,
, .
CORBA (Internet Inter-ORB Protocol), .
RPC
( ),
. ,
. , .
DCE OSF (Open Software Foundation).
(RPC, ORB), , , DCE Encina
, Orbix ORB
ORB.
DCE - .
, . ,
.
. , , .
DCE RPC;
( ); ; ( ); .
DCE, IDL-, ,
. IDL- : (1), (Sr), (Hd). 1 -

204

5.1.

, Sr , Hd
.
DCE
ORB, , RPC.


,
, , ( ),
, ( ) .
.
,
Internet, ISO-IP (ISO 8473),
. Internet :
Telnet , , , , ,
-;
FTP ( ),
,
;
HTTP (Hypertext Transmission Protocol) Web- Web-;
SMTP, IMAP, ;
SNMP .
.
, . , . Telnet, FTP, SMTP .
( off-line). . . (,
, ) .
-, , .
, , . IMAP .
. 205

( ),
.
.
SMTP MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions).
MIME , .
Lotus cc: mail, Microsoft Mail, Outlook
Express . , , ; , , , ,
.
, E-mail Web- Internet, ,
(), .
E-mail (). , , , ,
, ,
. IMAP (Internet Message Access
Protocol) , ,
.

.
, . off-line on-line. off-line FTP-, .
on-line
, . -.
FTP , . FTP-
[<>][< >]

(5.1)

IP- IP-
.
Internet FTP- . () . ,
.

206

5.1.

(5.1) FTP- . ,
( S, ):
open [< S>] ;
close [< S>] ,
;
quit , close, ( ftp);
cd [< S>] ;
get [< 8>[< >]] S ;
mget [< S>] , get, ;
put [< >[< S>]] ;
mput < S> , put, ;
user </> .
. () ,
. 20
21, ,
.
FTP- .
Telnet
Internet .
Telnet-
telnet < >
< S>
,
, S, S . : (open), Telnet (close), (quit).
Telnet
. ( SQL ODBC). , .
, .
.
,
, . E-mail on-line.
USENET. . , . on-line
, . off-line .
207

() .
( ). , ,
, Internet.
BBS (Bulletin Board System) ,
, .
BBS ,
.
- .
-.
: E-mail-, (shared whiteboard ), ( ), .
. -, (,
) ,
8 ... 10 /.
ISDN xDSL .

(unicast), (broadcast)
(multicast) . ,
, . . .
, - , , , . .

.
, , E-mail, (,
,
), .
ProShare (Intel)
NetMeeting (Microsoft).

208

5.1.

, , , (). : Whute Pine's Meeting Point , Data Beam's


Learning Server .
, ( on-line). ,
, .
( ) . ( 1,5
7 . .) -.
-
, , , , ,

( ). 64 /.
PictureTel.

( )
: -, -
, , , . : Intel Proshare
Sharevision, Windows.
,
. , 28,8 / 7 ... 10 , 176 144
. ISDN 10... 30 .
, .
WWW (World Wide Web ) Internet. Web.
, . - () .
- . .
, Internet Web-, Web- (). Listener,
. , Web- .

209

WWW (brousers). (, Lynx) ( Netscape


Navigator MS Explorer) . Sun Microsystems HotJava. , , , .. , FTP, E-mail.
WWW HTML XML (Hypertext and Exensible Markup Language)
, .
Web- HTTP, TCP/IP. Web- , .
Apache Digital Unix, Netscape Enterprise
Server Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS), Unix,
Windows NT, Netware Web Server, Netware.
CGI, HTML-. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) .

,
Unix,
Windows NT.
HTML VRML (Virtual Reality
Modeling Language) 3/)-.
Internet. RDF (Resource Definition
Format), . . ( ). , Internet . ,
, Web-. , ,
. , , . AltaVista.
HTML Web. , .
HTML ASCII
( , ). ,
, , , . . WWW . , Internet Assistant,
MS Word, .

210

5.1.

<
>,

.
WWW
<HTML><HEAD>
<TITLE> </TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>

</BODY>
</HTML>
, <BODY> </BODY>. <>
</TITLE> .
HTML. ( ):
<> ;
<BR> ;
<HR> , ;
<LISTING> </LISTING> ;
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( ):
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<2> </2> . .
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<PRE> </PRE>
.
,
I, U;
, , .

<OL> <UL>, (, * ) ; <>. : <DL> - , <DT> <DD> - .

, , URL (Uniform Resourse Locator).
, ,
, . 211

5.

, . . , . URL , ,
URL= #35 35. URL
IP- , , .

<IMG SRC="URL"[ALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM][ALT="text"]>
ALIGN , ; ALT - ,
Lynx. ( gif jpeg).
(, ) <FRAMESET>.
(, ) <FRAME>,
<FRAME 8= >.

< HREF="URL" > </>
. .
< HREF="URL#MeTKa"> </>

< =""> </>

< ="#"> </>

<IMG SRC = "fgr.gif">
< HREF = "http://www.abc.ru/de.htm"> <IMGSRC = "fgr.gif"> </A>
fgr.gif www.abc.ru/de.htm , .
HTML ,
. , . ,
HTML , ,
() , .
,
, .
CALS-
SGML (Standard
Generalized Markup Language ),
ISO 8879. SGML
.
212

5.1.

, , . , DTD (Document Type Definition).


SGML , HTML, . 1996 .
XML (extensible Markup Language), SGML.
XML , ,
.
.
Web- Java
,
Sun Microsystems .
Java: -, C++, (, , ); (, ), .
:
()
- (. 5.2) -;
, , ;
;
, .
, - , . .
( )
, , .
Java- HTML- (
<applet>), .
CGI (Common Gateway Interface ) HTML- () ,
. CGI . CGI CGIJBIN, ,
J/WA-

>

(
)

( JAVA,

. 5.2. Java

213

5.

. . HTML-, CGI HTML . CGI- WebDBC, Web-


ODBC- .
CGI , , ISAPI (Internet Server Application Program Interface) Microsoft
NSAPI Netscape.
JavaScript
. JavaScript ,
Java, JavaScript , Java CGI, JavaScript , . JavaScript
HTML-
<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="javascript"><!--...//--></SCRIPT>

(5.2)

<!--...//> . , JavaScript-, , (5.2) . Java- JavaScript .


. CGI.


, .
( , Internet),
.
() .
, ,
, (, ) ( -
).
,
. , . : , ,
.
214

5.1.

. (, Kerberos),
, . ,
. .
.
, . . , ,
. , , . ABC, , , ,
, .
, Euclid Quantum , ACL (Access Control List). ACL , ,
: , , , ,
, ACL, ( - , , , , ).
(, Intrenet ), ,
, ( win firewall}, , IP-, .
.
.
.
( ) ,
. ,
(, ), . ,
, .
: 1) (
) At ; 2) () At
; 3) ( :
; , , ,

215

5.

); 4) ;, 5) . ,
, (
. 64-).
, , .
.
. ,
.
( ) , , . Y =/(),
X = / '00 , . , , X
. ,
.
. ,
. , . ,
, -, , -, , .
, , . , -,
, . -, , , .
DES (Data Encryption Standard),
1980 ., , 28147-89. -

216

5.2.

, . RSA (
).
, , .. , .. , ..
. , 2001. .:
.

5.2.

,

CAD, .
CAD- . 2D , ; 3D , ,
, ID- 3/)-.
, , , .
CAD- , . , 2>-, , .
, , , , 3>-,
. .
CAD- . , . .
, . , ,
.
, .

.
217

, . ,
. , , ,
.
-: ,
,
, , ,
.
- , , , .
- :
, ,
;

;
.
, , .
. ,
( ,
, . .), (,
), .
,
.
() ,
. . .
, () (3.41)
.

. . ( ) , , , . .
,
.
218

5.2.

- , , , .

. Pro/Engineer.
(),
, , ,
, .
,
, , .
.
,
, , .
, , .
. () .

, . , -, , , .

- (
, ), , .
, , .
( ) CAE/CAD/CAM.
. , 80 %
CAD- , , .
219

5.

() ,
.
CAD-.
, CALS-,

.

CAD/CAM/CAE- Unigraphics ( EDS), CATIA (Dessault Systemes),
Pro/Engineer (). I-DEAS (EDS),
CADDS5 () EUCLID3 (Matra Datavision).
Unigraphics
- ,
, .
. ( CAD) ,
, SD-, (
) ,
. ( ) , - , -, . ( )

- , , , .

.
3)- . , . . ,
.

.
.
Autodesk, Solid Works
Corporation, Beantly, , , , -Pitron
. Wintel,
, - 2D, 3/)-, , ,
,
.
220

5.2.

Autodesk.
Autodesk ,
AutoCAD Mechanical Desktop Inventor.

Mechanical Desktop (MDT) SD-, ,


Internet, 2D-. ACIS.
CAD- ,
.
Inventor , ,
. ACIS. 3>- , ,
, . 3)- 2- . , . ,
.
,
, .
Autodesk , Autodesk Data Exchange -
DXF SAT ( ACIS) ,
STEP, IGES, VDA-FS.
,
Autodesk, , Mechanical Applications Initiative
. Dynamic
Designer Motion ( Mechanical Dynamics), ( ). , , , .
Dynamic Designer Motion Cosmos. , Cosmos/DesignSTAR , Inventor Solid Edge, Cosmos/Works - Solid Works.
, , , ,
.
Solid Works ( Solid Works Corporation)
Parasolid, Unigraphics Solution. ,
() .
(-representation) .
, . IGES, DXF, D WG- .
, , -
( ) T-Flex CAD ( ).
221

5

.
, , .
, - . - , , -. ,
( , , , , , , .). -,
-3>. -.
T-Flex CAD 3D
T-Flex CAD Parasolid. , . . . . 3D
, , , , , . . - .
, T-Flex
CAD 3D SE. - T-Flex CAD ID, - T-Flex DOCs.
T-Flex/ , , , ,
, , .
T-Flex .
T-Flex CAD , -.
Cadmech 2000 AVS
, Techcard , LCAD . - Autodesk.

Moldflow, Part Adviser Mold Adviser
.
- .
Consistent Software Technologies
.
, , , , ,
, . SolidCAM (CADTech),
, Mechanical Desktop, ACIS, , 2,5- 3- .
( ) , , .

222

5.3.

- - Nastran Patran ( MSC Software Corporation)


Ansys ( Ansys Inc.).
, , , , .
, , . , Ansys
,
, , . - ,
. () Ansys .
- Adams,
7 9.

5.3.


.
60- XX . (ECAD Electronics Computer
Aided Design) , . ECAD, .
ECAD . ECAD
(),
. (). VHDL,
. , VHDL
,
.
, ,
. , , ,
, ,
.
223

5.

,
, . , (RTL Register
Transfer Level, ), , ,
(-).
-. , , .
, , , , , . .
.
-
- , .
,
. , , , . , , (HDL Hardware Description
Language). , , (datapath) (FSMFinite
State Machine) . ,
. . (scheduling) (allocation). () , .
, .
, (gate level),
RTL- -
; , , - . .

( )
. , (floorplanning) . (

)
. , ,
,
.
HDL-, - , 224

5.3.

, VHDL
Verilog.
EDIF (Electronic Design Interchange
Format) GIF (Caltech Intermediate Format). EDIF
, , ,
, . . CIF
,
, .
, .
.
.
- ,
, , ,
.
, , .
, (ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuits), ().
- ECAD.
CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device) FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).
CPLD
.
FPGA , , (fuse) , , , (antifase). , CPLD
FPGA .
, .
, Xilinx,
Altera, Actel ,
.
225

5.

(SW/HW Software/Hardware co-design). , ,


, RTL-
, . , ,
, -,
, . . , .

(SoC - System-on-Chip)
.
.
VHDL, .
.
,
, .

() . , ,
. : ,
, .
, , , , ,
.
, . .
,
, ( ). .
226

5.3.

- .
,
- , . , , . ,
.
, , .
, RTL .
, - ,
.
, .
VHDL- Verilog- .

, . . . ,
35 % , ,
.
. , -, ,
. ,
, , . -, (BIST Builtin Self-Test), ,
.
(BS boundary-scan},
227

. , .
,
, (
BIST) .
BS .

1149.1 BSDL HSDL (Boundary and
Hierarchical Scan Description Languages), VHDL.
, , . . RTL .
ECAD
, (layout) ,
.
.
(partitioning ) , ,
(floorplanning) . ,
,
.
(placement) , (routing) , (compaction) , , .

. , , , , , (channel) (switchbox). ,
. . ,
, .
, ,

.
228

5.3.

, , , .
. , , .
,
(, ). , (,
RTL- ).
, , .
,
.

.
.
(
).

. , -
(switch level) , , -.
, .
(RF-) , -. ,
,
, , , .
- .
Spice .
229

5.

- ()
() . ,
( , ), ( ). ,
.

, ECAD.

.
ECAD

,
.
Synopsys, Cadence Design Systems, Mentor Graphics.
, ECAD.
Synopsys , . Synopsys' Behavioral Compiler.
, , . Synopsys DC Expert DC Expert Plus.
, , ,
.

.
Synopsys
.
.
, .
-- Synopsys , ,
. Chip Architect Design Planner,
, , RTL-, , , , .

230

5.3.

, . , ,
CPLD- FPGA-,
(DSP Digital Signal Processor),
, , , . .
Cadence, Elanix, Mentor Graphics, CADIS . , System View
ELANIX RF/Analog Library Elanix DSP , , , .
Mentor Graphics RTL- Design Architect QuickVHDL Autologic.
QuickSim.
FPGA FPGA BoardLink.
- . RTL, .
Pearl (Synopsys), Verilog-XL Verilog-XL
Turbo (Cadence), TimeMill (Epic Design Technology), Voyager (IKOS Systems) . Model Technology ASIC-, FPGA- CPLD- VHDL, Verilog
HDL-,
ModelSim. Simucad Silos III ASIC FPGA-.
Mentor
Graphics .
, , , .
,
.
Mentor Graphics
(layout) AutoCell , 1C Block 1C Graph - .
AutoActive RE . , , 1C Verify Accusim.
Synopsys
, SLE-XP , FlexPla .
Mentor Graphics .
,
, 1149.1, BIST . FastScan FlexTest
1,5 .
BSD Compiler Synopsys. , BSD Compiler -

231

5.
(BS-), BS-,
BSDL .
1149.1, BS- .


Wintel OrCAD, SPECCTRA
Design Studio (Cadence Design Systems), P-CAD Protel 99SE
(Protel International), .

1999 . OrCAD Cadence Design Systems


-
OrCAD OrCAD
9.2.
, OrCAD, . ,
.

. OrCAD
.
SPECCTRA Cadence

, .
,
.
P-CAD.
, Accel EDA 15.0, Accel Technologic
Protel International P-CAD 2000.
, ,
. SPECCTRA.
P-CAD , , , .
DXF PDIF , AutoCAD, OrCAD, Viewlogic .
Protel International ( Altium) P-CAD
2000 Protel 99SE , , P-CAD 2000.
, RELIEF
. .
, ,
Pro/ENGINEER 3>-.
AutoTherm FLOTHERM Mentor Graphics. ,
- . , , -

232

5.3.

. Omega PLUS .
CAD

.
LAVENIR Lavenir Technology,
, .

Spice, .
PSpice ,
, - (mixed-signal simulation), ( ) , ,
-, . , , . , ,
PSpice Optimizer.
PSpice
(, , , , , ,
, , , , , .)
, . .
.
ICAP/4Window (Intusoft), Saber Mixed-technology Simulator
( Analogy), Viewanalog (Viewlogic Systems), Continuum (Mentor Graphics) .

. 7, , , , , , 9,
Java
.
. TESLA ( Tesoft),
, ; Spectre/XL (Avista Design Systems),
; GENESYS
(Eagleware), - -, ; Eclispse (Arden Technologies), ,
, , ; Microwave Office (AWR),

, , ;
( ),
.
233

5.
Silvaco. :
, , , , ;
;
3>- . Arcadia ( Synopsys),
, .

. , ,
Omega PLUS, , , ; ; ,
;
;
. ,
, , , .

ACOLADE ICUCOM.
, , , ,
, , , . .
, , .
OPNET COMNET III OPNET
Technologies CACI Products Company .
,
, PDM.
, Mentor Graphics.

5.4.

, ,
. (- ) ,
, , , .

.
234

5.4.

.
,
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236

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240

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241

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244

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245

5.

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246

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247

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5.5.

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251

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252

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254

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5.

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257

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258

5.5.

. 5.10.

( + - public, # - protected, - private), , . : .


UML
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259

. 5.11.

, - .
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260

5 5

Designer/2000 Oracle. . Oracle,
, , SQL , , ,
, ODBC.
Silver-run ( Computer Systems Advisors)
.
. : -, - ,
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, C++, Java, Visual Basic, IDL CORBA), .
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CASE- , (RAD
Rapid Application Development). RAD Visual Basic, Delphi, PowerBuilder Microsoft,
Borland, PowerSoft . , .
,
Windows, .
Windows- C++,
, ,

261

5.

DLL (Dynamic Link Library), , API Windows.


MFC (Microsoft Foundation Classes), .
, .

, . , .
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.
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2. , .
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.
5. ,
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6. - .
Visual Basic , Delphi -
Object Pascal. CASE- IBM, VisualAge (
) VisualGen ( ), SmallTalk.
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.

262

5.5.

, RAD
. ,
Visual Basic
:
ODBC, ;
;
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;
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.
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-, , , ,
. . RAD- - Power J - Sybase.
RAD- RAD-
. CAS.CADE Matra Datavision.

-
- ,
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.
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263

5.

. ,
.
(4GL), .
. , ,

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264

5.5.

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COM (Common Object Model) - ,
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265

). DCOM ( , ,
HTML- Web-) ActiveX. COM/DCOM, CORBA,
, - . CORBA COM/DCOM
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Microsoft. , , VBA
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266

5.5.

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267

5.

. CLSID , , .
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Engineering) Matra Datavision.
268

5.5.

CAS.CADE .

.
(Object Libraries) CAS.CADE C++. .
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269

5
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270

5.6.

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271

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273

5.

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276

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278

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279

5.


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Microsoft Clipboard, DDE, OLE ActiveX.
Clipboard - ( , ). 280

5.6.

, , . OLE, .
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281

5.


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5.6.
; - ,
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283

5.

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284

5.6.

, iMAN, - ,
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Software), - Time-Line (Symantec), Microsoft Project (Microsoft)
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, .

285

5.

CORBA, Java XML,


. .
(, PDM STEP Suite) - - . , .
PDM

. CALS-

. ,
, .
CALS- STEP,
PDM STEP
Express. STEP 208, ,
. 208 (), , , .
IGES, DXF, VRML, SAL,
EDIF, .
. - , .
,
, . Lisp .
Skill Design Framework-2
Cadence CCL (CASE Comment Language) Matra Datavision,
Lisp-, AMPLE PDM Falcon Framework Mentor Graphics,
Pascal.

PDM
PDM ,
. iMAN (EDS), Optegra ProPDM (PTC), Euclid Design Manager
(Matra Datavision), WorkCenter (Autodesk), BaanPDM (BAAN) .
286

5.6.

(user Area)

copy out

refuse

check in

(Workgroup Area)

share
check out

validate

(Repository)

. 5.14. PDM Design Manager ( Euclid Quantum)


PDM iMAN in-KE Y, Unigraphics
Solutions, EDS, . iMAN Oracle V8, - , , , .
PDM Euclid Design Manager - ,
, , , .
Design Manager Euclid Quantum ,
.
,
(UA - User Area),
(Workgroup Area), .
(Repository). User Area (UA) Workgroup
Area (WGA) check in share.
, -
. , , , R, UA .

out check out ( 5.14).
, . (UA, WGA, R) retrieve, - store.
( - ) . (, , , . .), , 3>-.
, , ( ) .
SAP (Collaborative Engineering Project
Management), SAP mySAP.com.
IBM ENOVIA,
, .

287

5
BaanPDM - ,
, . BaanPDM ;
, , ; , ,
.
BaanPDM
, .
PDM PartY Plus ( )
PDM :
1) , , ( , , , ,
.), , ;
2) , , , , ();
3) , ;
4) , Catia, Unigraphics, Pro/Engineer, SolidWorks, ACIS, STEP .;
5) ;
6) (, . .).
.
, ,
Falcon Framework, Mentor Graphics. - Falcon Framework's Design Manager, Decision Support System (DSS),
BOLD AMPLE. Design Manager , , .
DSS . BOLD . AMPLE DSS
.

PDM , .

PLM.

- ,
,
.
, , , ,
288


. , ,
. , , ,
. . ,
Web- , .
, Windchill, Internet Web- . ,
, , , , ,
. , , web-, ERP PDM , , .
.
PLM mySAR.com (
SAP) Team Center (EDS).


1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. .
5. .
6. HTML ?
7. ?
8. , ECAD.
9. : , , , .
10. ?
11. ?
12. ERP .
13. .
14. SCAD ?
15. ?
16. IDEFO- .
17. .

289

5.
18. IDEFIX- , ,
, .
19. .
20. ?
21. PDM? PDM
?
22. .
23. .
24. -
?
25. ORB CORBA.
26. IDL?
27. CAS.CADE? CAS.CADE.

6.

CALS-
6.1. CALS-
STEP
CALS- ISO 10303
STEP (Standard for Exchange of Product data - ),
() .
Express, STEP.
ISO 10303 (), , . . STEP . STEP
, Express,
, , ,
, (, , , , - . .), , .
STEP - , , STEP-.
CALS-
ISO 13584 Parts Library ( P_Lib), ISO 14959 Parametrics,
ISO 15531 Manufacturing management data (Mandate), ISO 18876 Integration of
Industrial Data for Exchange, Access, and Sharing (IIDEAS), ISO 8879 Standard
Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
291

6. CALS-

Parts Library, Parametrics, Mandate, I IDE AS


Parts Library (P_Lib)
. , , , ,
. P_Lib , . - .
P_Lib
, . PJLib . 1
.
10 ... 19 .
20... 29 .
20,24 26, , .
30 ... 39 .
31, .


42; 101 ; 102 - STEP
.

, . Parametrics.
ISO no Parametrics , .

. , .
Mandate ,
, , .
, ISO 15531-21,
. :
, , ,
.
ISO 15531-31
. ,
, .

292

6.1. CALS-

ISO15531-41 .

WG10 SC4 ISO 18876 IIDEAS. - , , , ,


. ,
, ,
, SGML, XML, Express. - , , ,

ISO 18876 2000 . , .
, , STEP, P_Lib, MANDATE. ,
EXIST (Expression of Information based on Set Theory),
, Express, , Unified Modelling Language (UML), Knowledge Interchange Format (KTF),
XML . EXIST
WG11 Expresss-2. EXIST ,
.
, CALS-
EIA 649 .
, ,
, ,
. , . , , .
(). -,
. (). .
Express . CALS-
. , 293

6. CALS-

2>- (, ) BMP
JPEG. 2)- ( )
MIL-PRF-28003 COM (Computer Graphics Metafile), ISO/IEC 8632. MIL-PRF-28002. - TIFF.
, , . , (
1 - Interactive Electronic Technical Manual). : 1...3 - , 4 - .
MIL-PRF-87268
DETM.
1000D -
, (-European
Association of Aerospace Constructors). 1000D . , SGML HyTime
(Hypermedia Time-based Structuring Language)
CGM JPEG, . (
).
( ) 1986 . EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange For
Administration, Commerce and Transport). ISO 9735, , , ,
.
. VHDL,
1987 . 1076.
EDIF CIF.
CALS-
,
.
UML, , IDEF1X.
294

6.2.

6.2.
SGML
CALS- ,
SGML XML.
ISO 8879, SGML, ,
. SGML
, .
, . SGML , . ,
.
SGML
.
1. , ,
.
2. ,
STEP, .
3. , STEP- SGML-.
SGML-
STEP, ISO 10303-21.
SGML STEP-pecypcax
SGML_STRTNG,
Express. , , STEP SGML. STEP- SGML-.
SGML , DTD,
SGML-. DTD
, ,
, , DTD, . , SGML
.
SGML- : 1) , SGML-; 2) , ,
; 3) SGML-; 4) DTD.
295

6. CALS-

XML
Web- , , CALS-
XML. XML SGML,
CALS-, XML
SGML. XML
SGML Web-. () XML.
, , . CALS-
Product Definition eXchange (PDX), .
XML- DTD
, .
XML-. ,
( CALS, Ethernet, PDM).
, .
XML- . :
, - .
DTD. XML- :
<?xml version = " 1.0" ?>
<?xml-stylesheet type = "text/ess" href - 'dict.css"?>
<!DOCTYPE dictionary [
<!ELEMENT dictionary (item) >
<!ELEMENT item (termin|description|examples?) >
<!ELEMENT termin (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST termin number CDATA #REQUIRED >
<!ATTLIST termin group
(technology|networks|software|other) #REQUIRED >
<!ELEMENT description (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT examples (#PCDATA)>
<!ENTITY LAN "Local Area Network" >
]>
<dictionary >
<item>
<termin number = '14' group ='technology'> CALS </termin>
<description> - Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support, -

296

6.2.

.
.
</description>
</item>
<item>
<termin number = '24' group = 'networks' > Ethernet </termin>
<description> -
/.
</description>
<examples> 10Base-5, 10Base-T,
100Base-X. Gigabit Ethernet.
</examples>
</item>
<item>
<termin number = '52' group= "technology" > PDM </termin>
<description> - Product Data Management, . PDM, ,
CALS-.
</description>
<examples> Windchill eSeries, iMAN, SmartTeam, Optegra.
</examples>
<item>
</dictionary>
, DTD .
( dictionary),
XML (version = "1.0"), ,
( dict.css),
.
DTD ,
. ,
, . , .

<!ELEMENT _ >,
- ,
<!ELEMENT terrain (#PCDATA)>
( #PCDATA ), ,
,
<!ELEMENT item (termin|description|exarnples?)>
( examples
item).
297

6. CALS-

.
, ,
. . ,
,
<!ATTLIST _ _ _ >.
:
<!ATTLIST terrain number CDATA #REQUIRED>,
CDATA - string, #REQUIRED
number termin ( #IMPLffiD ). ,
<!ATTLIST termin group (technology|networks|software|other) #REQUIRED >.
, . , . ,
:
<!ENTITY >.
:
<!ENTITY LAN "Local Area Network" >.
, ,
. . . <item>
</item>, <termin> </termin>, <description> </description>, <examples> </amples>. ,
<termin> .
XSL (extensible Stylesheet Language),
(CSS), HTML. termin (bold) 12-
5 , examples -
(italic) 10- 10 . CSS,
dict.css,
item
{display :block;}
termin
{font-weight:bold; font-size: 12pt; text-indent:5mm; font-sryle:normal;}
description
{font-size :12pt;}
examples
{display:block; font-style:italic; font-size: lOpt;
text-indent: 1 Omm;}

298

6.3. STEP-

. 6.1
CALS - Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support, . .
Ethernet -
/.
10Base-5, 10Base-T, 100Base-X. Gigabit Ethernet.
PDM - Product Data Management, .
PDM, ,
CALS-.
Windchill eSeries, iMAN, SmartTeam, Optegra.


, . 6.1.
6.3. STEP-
STEP
,
, CALS-. CALS- , ,
. , , .
,
CAE/CAD/CAM-. , - , ,
.
STEP.
ISO
. STEP CALS.
STEP Express, .
STEP , IDEF1X

299

6 CALS-

IDEFO (, ISO P_Lib, Mandate, SGML, CDIF


.).
STEP :
(Application Activity Model) - IDEFO ;
ARM (Application Requirements Model) - ,
;
AIM (Application Interpreted Model) - ARM-, STEP;
(Application Protocol) - ,
Express;
SDAI (Standard Data Access Interface) - () (
CAD/CAM-) STEP-; STEP- STEP.
STEP . N
> ISO 10303-
.
ISO 10303-1 - , STEP.
, , , , ,
, , , , AIM, ARM,
, , .
11... 14 - .
21...29 - .
31...39 - .
41...50 - .
101...108 - .
201...23 6 - .
301...336 - .
501...520 - .

- 11... 19 - Express.
N = 11: Express language reference manual.
Express. Express-C
Express-G. , . .
. Express-C ( ).
300

6.3. STEP-

Express
, Express-G ( Express). ExpressG - ,
IDEF1X.
N=12: Express-I Language Reference Manual. Express-I - , .
7V= 14: Express-X - Express,
Express- (views); views , Express, IGES.
,
Express.
Express-M: Mapping definition language; , Express-X, ,
Express. , , , ,
( ).
-, - .
-. Express-M ,
SDAI
STEP-. , SDAI,
ISO 10303-22, a Express-M , 4GL
SDAI.
Express-P: Process definition language; ,
.
Express-V: , ARM- 1-, , Express-,
, , , ARM.
ARM- , AIM, . Express-V
: 1) - (AIM), , 203;
2) -, , ; 3) . Express-V
( WHEN) .
AIM , ARM,
. Express-V ARM AIM .

Express
(Implementation Methods), , ,
.

( 21...29) ,
STEP-. .
301

6. CALS-

N=21: Clear Text Encoding of the Exchange Structure (physical transfer file
format); . STEP ; Express
,
. STEP- .
N=22: Standard Data Access Interface Specification; SDAI

( CAD/CAM-). , , SDAI-. SDAI- , SDAI- ,
.
, SDAI- .
23...29 SDAI-
C++, , Java,
IDL, XML.
,

STEP
,
, , Express. ,
, . .
.
, . . , ,
5-. - (building blocks)
.
STEP ( 41...50).
, , ,
. .
, ISO 10303-41 , , , (shape_representation), (action), -
(application and product context), (approval), , , , ( ), , , , .
302

6.3. STEP-

ISO 10303-42 , , ,
, IGES. , : (axis_placement), 5-
(b_spline_curve) (bezier_curve), 5-
(b_spline_surface), 5- (rational_b_spline_surface)
(bezier_surface), (cartesian_point), (cartesian_transformation_operator_3d), (geometric_representation_context),
(offset_surface), (surface_of_revolution) .
101... 199 , ,
(Integrated application resources). - ISO 10303104, .
Express .
. :
(, , ); (, ID 3D, 2D- 3)-),
(, , ); ; , , (, , , ), (,
, ), .
. , , ; , ; ; ; . .
, N= 501, ,
.
. : , ,
, , , . .
ISO 10303 , N=201.
, 203, 214.
STEP- .
,
, Express
Express-G.
. 303

6 CALS-

(UoF - Units of Functionality). ( Conformance Classes) .



. , STEP
.
201: Explicit draughting; . , , , , . , , , -, , . .
202: Associative draughting; . , . , 201 :
(, , );
(, );
(2D- 3)-);
();
( , , );
6} (, );
7) ();
8) .
203: Configuration controlled design;
. .
, 3>-, ,
.
203 Express ,
.
1. ISO 10303-41,10303-42 10303-44 . , , , ,
, , , , , . .
2. ,
SELECT .
3. , .
. 1
. 2 , , .
3 , . .
, , . 4 . 5 6 ,
BREP (Boundary representation). , () , . 6 , ,
(, , ), , 5- .
4. , ,
, , .
208: Life cycle management - Change process;
( ).
(), , , , .

304

63 STEP-
210: Electronic assembly, interconnect and packaging design; ,
.
, ,
, . .
212: Electrotechnical design and installation; .
, , . , , , , . ( ,
, .) : , , (installation_location), , , , , , , , . , ,
.
, .
. :
1 - (, , , ) ;
2 - 1 ( , .);
- 1 (
, );
4 212,
. . 1, 2 .
214: Core Data for Automotive Mechanical Design Processes;
. , , ,
( , , ) .
19 ,
(, , ), , ,
.
(, ), , 214 UoF,
. :
Gl: wireframe_model_2d, , ,
, , , , -, 21>- .;
G2; \vireframe_model_3d , 3D;
G3: connected_surface_model, , G2 G8
, , , .;
G4: faceted_b_rep_model, BREP- , . , , G3
G5, - , BREP- (manifold solid B-rep) .;
G5: b_rep_model - , . . G3;
G6: compound_model - , , . :
, . .;
II

305

6. CALS-
G7: csgjnode, solid model using Constructive Solid Geometry
.
UoF , , .;
G8: geometrically_bounded_surface_model UoF - .
UoF :
S2: element_structure - , , ,
, , 2D 3D, , . .;
S5: work management , , , ,
, ;
S6: classification , ;
S7: specification_control -
, . , , , ,
, , ,
, , . .
221: Functional data and their schematic representation for process plant; .
, , . , , .
224: Mechanical product definition for process plans using machining features; . (, , , ), , , .
233: Systems engineering data representation - ( ),
(, , , ,
, . .), ,
, , . , ( ) .


( 31...39) ISO 10303
Express. STEP, (, ,
), ,
, .
, N =301.
, 100 , . . N = 301
201 . .
STEP
SDAI.
. 6.1 6.2 .

306

6.4 Express
Express-


Express

~\!
11
|

Express

i
i
i '

1
i
- ,/

Express

-
. 6.1. Express-


CAD/CAM-

4j

SDAI-
SDAI


Express


SDAI (STEP)

N
/

SDAI

Express-M

. 6.2. Express- SDAI

(. . 6.1) ,
.
(, Express-X), , .
SDAI (. . 6.2) , . 6.1, , , SDAI
.
Express .
6.4. Express
Express
Express -, , 307

6. CALS-

,

.
Express STEP
(Model).
, , .
,
(schema). - , . .
: , , , .

,
schema - .
- . end_schema
( Express
):
schema < >;
< >
< >;
end_schema;
Express-G . 6.3. ,
Express-G
, . 6.3.
(Data Type}. ( ). Express :
(entity), (simple type), (aggregation data type), (defined data type), (enumeration data type) (select data type) .

- ,

.
(attributes). ,
.
entity, , , , , :
entity < >;
< >:< >;

end_entity;
308

6.4. Express

, (line)
1 ( point) :
entity line;
pO,pl: point;
end_entity;

I < >
'
. 6.4.
Express-G

; ,
[_
, ,
.-
, , z:

entity point;
x,y,z: real;
. 6.5.
end_entity;
Express-G
Express-G , (. 6.4).
, (optional) . optional:
< >: optional < >;
Express-G . 6.5, , , , , - ,
optional . , . . .
.
, ,
(derived), derive . , ,
, :
entity point;
x,y,z: real;
end_entity;
entity circle;
center: point;
radius: real; ~ center, radius

derive

area: real := pi*radius**2; (* area *)


end_entity;
309

CALS-

, (* *) . ,
(--).

:
integer ( );
real ( );
number , integer real;
logical - true, false unknown ();
Boolean - true false;
binary - 1 0;
string - .
Express-G . 6.6.
binary string , ,
24 , :
A: string(24);
24 ,
A: string(24) fixed;
,
A: string;
binary, abc[5:7]
5- 7- .
. (, ), , (true,
false, unknown), ( ). :
( %)-%!00101110
- 1052
( ) - 4.-3 0.034
( ) - 'first name'
BINARY

||

NUMBER

LOGICAL

||

BOOLEAN

INTEGER

||

STRING

REAL
GENETIC |

. 6.6. Express-G

310

6.4. Express


- . , . 6.2.
6.2

array

bag

list

set

array array .
,
. :
Fl: array[2:8] of real; (* F1, real , 2*);
F2: list[l:?] of integer; (* F2 integer; *)
matr: array[l:10] of array[9:12] of atrac; (* matr 10 , atrac.*)
[2:8] list[l:?]
,,.,. ,
Express-G [2:8]
REAL
L[l:?],
. 6.7.
. , Express-G
. 6.7.
, ,
. - , () .
. type,
. :
type volume = real;
end_type;
entity manual;
name: string;
vl,v2,v3: volume;
end_entity;
enumeration
of, . :

311

6. CALS-

* clr = enumeration of
(red, green, blue);

end type;
enumeration i
~
red
(
elect
1
*clr-red-'
. 6.8.
. \-.
~

select.
J
Express-G
.-,
v
,
:
type a_c = select (one, two, three);
end_type;
defined

i
'
1.1
'

proc: a_c; (* proc one, two, three*)


,
. 6.8. , , .

- - , (-)
, Express . (supertype), ,
(subtypes), . . 6.9
, ,
.
--, al 2.
2 size real, vol real, 2 - met string.
:
entity al
supertype of (oneof (,2));
size: real;
I
1
end_entity;
'
entitybl
1
subtype of (al);
I
I
vol: real;
end_entity;
I
I
entity b2
subtype of (al);
. 6.9.
met: string;
Express-G
end_entity;
312

6 4 Express

:
, al -, oneof and ( andor), . . :
supertype of (bl and 2);
,
( , - -), al , , ; subtype of (al);
supertype
abstract, al - ,
. . al ;
;
; ,
, 1.size.
:
entity device
supertype of (oneof (transistor, diode));
(* device - --
transistor diode*)
end_entity;
entity transistor
subtype of (device);
b: real;
end_entity;
entity diode
subtype of (device);
r: real;
end_entity;

, , (rules). .
, ,
rule, , for, , , , ,
.
(uniqueness rules)
,
(domain rules). , Z
X. Y , , X
Y Z,
313

. CALS-

entity Z;
X: integer;
Y: string;
unique
X,Y;
end_entity;
. where
, true, false unknown.
, true. , , vect = (x,y,z) , cons:
entity vect;
x,y,z: real;
where
cons: x**2 + y**2 + z**2 = 1.0;
end_entity;

.
, .
procedure, . :
procedure eq (x,y: real; n: integer; var result: route);
, :
function log (a: real; m: integer): real;
,
local
end_local;
.

. :
Abs - ; Sqrt - ; - ;
Log, Log2, LoglO - , ,
; Sin, Cos, Tan, Acos, Asin, ATan - sin, cos, tg, arccos, arcsin, arctg.
: BLength - ; HiBound - array
set, bag, list; LoBound -
314

6.4. Express

; Length - ; Odd true, - ; SizeOf - ; TypeOf -


, ; Exists - true, , .
Insert Remove - .
(null), (assignment), (case), (compound statement), ( i f . . . then ... else), (repeat),
(return), (skip).
, , .
, real :
* ,/ , DIV ,+ , - , ** , MOD .
: not - , and - , or - , - . logical
. al in a2 true, al 2.
like . :=: :<>: .
( bag set) - (Intersection),
(Union), (Difference). * (),
+ (), - () . Query (A <* | ) , , - , .
+ () binary string
.
, ,
: generic, aggregate . generic , . aggregate
- array, bag, list, set. :
function add (a,b: generic: intype): generic: intype;
local
nr: number;
vr: vector;
end_local;
315

6 CALS-

if ("number" in typeof (a)) and ("number" in typeof (b))


then nr := a+b;
(* typeof () ,
number, true *)
return (nr);
else
if ("this schema.vector" in typeof (a)) and ("this schema.vector" in typeof (b))
then
vr.i := a.i + b.i;
vr.j:=a.j+b.j;
vr.k := a.k + b.k;
(* , vector
this schema *)
return (vr);
end_if;
end_if;
end_function;
Express-G , .

:
constant
year: integer: = 1995;
start: date := date(12,16,1982); ("", date
: , , *)
end_constant;

. - use reference. :
schema si;
entity par 1;
name: string;
end_entity;
end_schema;
schema s2; (* s2 name
sl.parl *)
use from sl.parl ( name as x);
end_schema;

316

6.4. Express

use , , reference
.
Express-G .
(schema level) ,
(entity level) - , , ,
.
.
- .
S1 .par 1. , ( name).
, , Express-G-
, ,
.

person_organization_schema 41
STEP (ISO 10303-41).
schema person_organization_schema;
entity address;
internaMocation: optional label;
street_number: optional label;
street: optional label;
postal_box: optional label;
town: optional label;
region: optional label;
postal_code: optional label;
country: optional label;
facsimile_number: optional label;
telephone_number: optional label;
electronic_mail_address: optional label;
telex_number: optional label;
where
wrl : exists(internaMocation) or exists(street_number) or exists(street) or
exists(postal_box) or exists(town) or exists(region) or exists(postal_code) or
exists(country) or exists(facsimile_number) or exists(telephone_number) or
exists(electronic_mail_address) or exists(telex_number);
end_entity;
entity personal_address
subtype of (address);
people : set[l:?] of person;
description: text;
end_entity;
317

6. CALS-

entity person;
id: identifier;
last_name : optional label;
first_name : optional label;
middle_names : optional list[l:?] of label;
prefix_titles : optional Iist[[l:?J of label;
suffbcjitles : optional Iist[[l:?] of label;
unique
url : id;
where
wrl : exists(last_name) or exists(first_name);
end_entity;
end_schema;
. 6.10
202, .
- , . - ,
. ,
, .
202 . 6.10 .

*j
1 1 [

-0

-^

Sfl:?]

S[0:?]

5-

-0

S[l:?]

I KOHTJ

'

Boolean

I
'

'


S[l;?]

. 6.10. 202 Express-G

318

6.4. Express

STEP
(ISO 10303-21)
STEP , P_lib.
STEP .
( HEADER ENDSEC) :
Entity file_name -
;
Entityfile_description- ;
Entity file_schema - , ;
keyword ( ).
( DATA ENDSEC)
:
# = keyword ( );
:
#1 = POINT(0.0,0.2,0.5); (* POINT
1 0, 0.2 0.5 REAL.*)
#2 = WIDGET(.RED.); (* WIDGET 2
RED.*)
#8 = LINE(#1,#4); (*
1 4.*)
,
.
Express
Express-C :
event a;
when b =^> ; (* b - , - b = true*);
end_event;
transaction ;
local d: e;
end_Iocal;

end_transaction;
319

6. CALS-

Express-
Express-X Express-M. , Express-M
- , al, 2, , -
, b 1, 2, ,
:
shema map < ;
:=!;2:=2;:=;
end_shema_map;
, , al
, a b 1 - , b 1 := 1 * 100.

6.5.

ISO 9000
, ISO 14000,
.
CALS-, , - .
, . . ,
, ,
.
.
, 100 %-
. ISO 9000,
ISO 1987 . .
, ISO 9000. , ,
. .
ISO 9000

. ISO 9000 , , .

320

6 5

ISO 9000
ISO 8402: - ,
. 15467-79: - , . ISO 9000 (QS - Quality System),
. ,
, , , , .

: 1) ; 2) (, , ); 3) , , . .
ISO 9001 - 9003
. - .
ISO 9000 , .
, .
, ,
.
,
.
ISO :
ISO 9001 - , , , ;
ISO 9002 - ISO 9001 (
);
ISO 9003 - .
20 ,
.
, , , , . , , , .
, , ( ).
321

6. CALS-

:
ISO 9000 - , ISO 9001;
ISO 9004 - .
:
ISO 10011 - , ;
ISO 10012 - ;
ISO 10013 - .
. , :
9001-96 .
, , , ;
9002-96 .
, ;
9003-96 .
.
ISO 9000
ISO 9000:2000 Quality management systems ( ), :
ISO 9000:2000 Fundamentals and vocabulary ( );
ISO 9001:2000 Requirements ();
ISO 9004:2000 Guidelines for performance improvement ( ).

,
.
ISO 9001 . ISO 9002 - 9003 .
, , , , . ISO 9004
20 :
(management responsibility);
(resource management)
(product and/or service realization);
(measurement, analysis, and improvement).
ISO 9001 - 9003
. - .
ISO 14000
.
ISO
9000, ISO 14000. ISO 14000
322

, , ISO
9000, ,
, ,
.
.


1. STEP.
2. CALS-?
3. . DTD?
4. STEP-? ?
5. 203?
6. Express IDEFlX-,
, , , .
7. Express.
8. Express, , Express-X Express-V?
9. , ISO 9000.


1. : / . . .. .
: , 2001.
2. .., ..
. : , 1997.
3. .., ..
. .: - . .. , 2000.
4. : . / . .. .. . .: -, 2002.
5. . . . .: . ., 1997.
6. ., . :
. . .: , 2001.
7. .., ., .. . .: , 2001.
8. : . : 9 . / . .. . .: . ., 1986.
9. .. . .: . ., 1990.

86
96

- 185
- 181
- 150
- 180
186
24
- 100
- 100, 108
- 143
- 24,108
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- 24, 109
24, 109
213
126
38
(
) 37
( ) 25
- 243
- 26,235
(
) 243

() 18
234
(
) 26,235
( ) 26,78,240
308
- 309
- 309
- 257
- 103
215
- 213
271
- 276
272
143
- 235
277
( ) 215
210
214
146

15
325

94
- 99
- 99
209
28
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186
186
186
209
143
- 176

67
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249
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45
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47
12,20
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156

143

16
- 176
264
326

- 43

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276
108
32

42
38
- 60
- 42
- 38
- 60,62
40
- 40
257
62
81

- 76
- 41
- 41
108
46

- 46
- 49
- 208
48
80
24
- 24
24
156
- 156
- 156
- 155
187

(
) 39
- 83

- 39
- 38
- 64
186

21
18,85
141
82
77
- 42
19

- 163
- 118
- 106

- 110
- 179
- 116
- 106
- 158
-
(-) 162
- 159
- 124
- 159
- 116
- 190
- 115
- 116
- 146

- (-) 161
- 158
- 180,182
- 166
- 7,99
--
- 116
- 163
- 158
- 164
- 164
- 96
- 161
- 160
- 124
- 109
105
- 168
124
- 59
- 107
160
- 115
- 124,133
- 163
- 104
- 97
- 60
- 160
- 167
- 184

101
101
18,85,114
276
327

16
- 145
- 127,131
- 246
- 122
20, 308
- 21
- 21, 128
- 21
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- 121
- 146
- 21
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- 22,33,249
- 21
- 32
- 145
- 21
- 20, 88
- 145
- 33, 249
- 145
- 21
- 85
- 21
- 121
- 21
- 85
- 32
- 21
- 34
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- 33
- 21
61
264
(
) 88
328

204
80

- 38
- 62, 76
187

15


- 28
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- 28, 85
- 28
- 28
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86
- 155
- 109,155
206
38
- 80
103
161
143
48
19
154
- 154
- 158
- 158
- 24
256

41

57
15
- 15,20
- 15,21
- 15,20,22

- 93
- 15, 89
( ) 225
46
15
80
39
- 39
15
- 27
- 27
312

- 102
- 117
113

- - 14
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205
187
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117
126

- 179
- 263
12,22
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12
- 12
- 19
19
- 18
- 246
- 32
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- 30
16
41
- 71,302
- 64
- 72
314
- 19

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33
36

58
215
106
125
183
202
247
126
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121
(
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329

- 93
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40
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56
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330

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- 29, 271
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256,308
312
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259

250
- 175
207

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273

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202
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- 114
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- 114
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42
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- 42
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- 42
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- - 86,118

- 20
- - 165

- 40
- 186
147
131
172,183
314
- 116

- Application Activity Model 300


ActiveX 266
AIM - Application Interpreted Model 300
AP - Application Protocol 300
API - Application Program Interface 35
ARM - Application Requirements Model 300
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode 75

- 170
- 185,186
- 154
X

94
274
172,185

16
16
103

173
83

86
15
- 146
( ) 41
**

BBS - Bulletin Board System 208


BOM-Bill of Materials 281
CAD -Computer Aided Design 13,
25,217
CAE - Computer Aided Engineering 25, 218
CALS - Continuousr Acquisition and
LifeCycle Support 30
CAM - Computer Aided Manufacturing 25
331

CASE - Computer Aided System Engineering 245


CASE - Computer Aided Software Engineering 28, 245
CGI - Common Gateway Interface 213
CNC - Computer Numerical Control 27
COM - Component Object Model 265
CORBA - Common Object Reguest
Broker Architecture 203
CPC - Collaborative Product Commerce 27,239
CPLD - Complex Programmable Logic
Device 225
CRM - Customer Requirement Management 26
CSMA/CD - Carrier Sense Multiple
Access /Collision Detection 47

D
DW -Data Warehouse 274
DCE - Distributed Computing Environment 203
DDE - Dynamic Data Exchange 281
DFD - Data Flow Diagram 248
DNS - Domain Name Service 69
DSS -Decision Support Systems 278
DTD - Document Type Defunition 213

E
ECAD - Electronic CAD 28, 223
E-commerce 27
EDA - Electronic Design Automation 28
EDIF - Electronic Design Interchange
Format 225
EDIFACT - Electronic Data Interchange For Administration,
Commerce and Transport 294
ERD - Entity-Relation Diagram 249
332

ERP - Enterprise Resource planning 26


Ethernet 48

Fast Ethernet 52
FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interface 55
FDM - Frequency Division Method 38
FOE - Fiber Optic Ethernet 51
Frame Relay 74
FTP - File Transfer Protocol 72, 206

Gigabit Ethernet 52
GPSS - General Purpose Simulation
System 131, 134
H

HDL - Hardware Description 224


HTML - Hypertext Markup Language 210
HTTP - Hypertext Transmission Protocol 205

ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol 72


ICOM - Input/ Control/ Output/ Mechanism 252
IDEF - Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing 250
IDEF0246,251
IDEF IX 246,256
IDEF3 255
IDL - Interface Definition Language 203,266
IETM - Interactive Electronic Technical Manual 292

IIDEAS - Integration of industrial data


for exchange, access, and sharing 293
IP (Internet Protocol) 65, 67
IPX - Internet Packet Exchange 73
ISDN - Integrated Service Digital Network 63
ISO - International Standard Organization 41
J

Java 213
JavaBeans 268
JavaScript 214

LAN - Local Area Network 39


LLC - Logical Link Control 43
M

MAC - Medium Access Control 43, 69


Mandate - Manufacturing management
data 292
MCAD - Mechanical CAD 28
MES - Manufacturing Execution System 26,236
MFC - Microsoft Foundation Classes 262
MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions 206
MRP-2 - Manufacturing Resource Planning 26, 238

OLAP - On-Line Analytical Processing 278


OLE - Object Linking and Embedding 281
ORB - Object Request Broker 203

Parametrics 292
PJLIB - Parts Library 292
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect 47,79
PDM - Product Data Management 25,
281
PMX - Partially Matched Crossover 188

QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 61


QS - Quality System 321

R
RAD - Rapid Application Development
261
RadioEthernet 51
RPC - Remote Procedure Call 203
RTL - Register Transfer Level 224
SADT - Structured Analysis and Design Technique 251
SCADA - Supervisory Control and
Data Acquisition 27, 240
SCM - Supply Chain Management 26
SDAI - Standard Data Access Interface 300
SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierachy 58
SGML - Standard Generalized Markup
Language 212, 295
SMTP - Simple Mail Transport Protocol 71
SNMP - Simple Network Management
Protocol 72
SPX - Sequence Packet Exchange 73
STEP - Standard for Exchange of Product Data 291
333

STP - Shielded Twist Pair 57


S&SM - Sales and Service Management 26

TCP - Transmission Control Protocol 65


Telnet 207
TDM - Time Division Method 38
Thick Ethernet 50
Thin Ethernet 50
Token Ring 52
Twisted Pair Ethernet 50

U
UDP - User Datagram Protocol 71
UML - Unified Modeling Language 258

UTP - Unshielded Twist Pair 57

V
VME-bus (Versabus Module Europebus) 79
VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language 210

W
WAN - Wide Area Network 39
Workbench 246'
WWW - World Wide Web 209
X

XML - Extensible Markup Language 210? 213, 296


X.25 74

.
. .
.. , ..
..

26.07.2002 . 70x100/16
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