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Alfred R. Jennings, Jr. P.E.

Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

................................... 50
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............................................. 53
Pnet ISIP ......................................... 54
Phydrostatic..................... 54
Pperfs ... 56
Ppipe ....................................... 58
Pnet ............................................................. 60
HHP ........................................... 60
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pH ................................................................... 80
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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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McGuire-Sikora ................................ 106
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CR......................................................... 108
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MFrac ........................................................ 110
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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


()
1940-,
1948 .

.

.
, ,
,

.
, .
,
.

.

. ,
,
, .
, .

. ,

.


.


.
,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


,
,
(/ ).

,
.

(P).

,

.

. ,

(.1).

.1.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


-
,
.
,
.
(
, , , )

( , ).

.
(
)
, ,
, , .
,
,
.

.


.


.
: 1)
kf, 2)
( , L).

. ,


, .



.
,
( ).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
,
:

(-)
( )
( ,
..)


. ,

,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

1.

,
.

().

,

( Pskin).

(-). -
(> 0), ,
-
. - (< 0) ,

.

,
- ()
,
. ,


.
:

,
,
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

10

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.
, ,


.
-

,
-, .
-
.
-:

-, st
, sa
, sp
, stp
, sturb
/ , sh

- (st) -
, ,
.
- .2.

:
q = kf h p
r

h
ks

kf

q = ks h ps
rs

.2. - (st)
-
, .
. -
:

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

11

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.



( ).

-
, ,
. -
,

.
,
, ,
.
(sa)

()

. ,

.

.
- sa (.3).

sa ()

.3.
(sp)
.

,
.
,
.
, , ,
, -
.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

12

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

, -
sp, 4.

Pskin
-, sp

.4.
(stp)
, ..
( ).
, (,
) , , , ,
(
) ( ).
, - stp (.5).

Ptp

.5
(sturb)
(> 5 ... )


.. (sturb) .

.

(Forchheimer):

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

13

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

P = v + v2
L
k
: P = v
L
k

( 1)

P = ,
L =
,
= ,
v = , /
v2
=

,
=
= , /3


(sturb)

.6. -,
(sh)
,
.

- sh.
,
, - sh .
, - ( )
(.7)

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

14

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

hvertical

hdeviated


- sh

.7.
-
-

,
- .
-

.


.

. 1950-
-
.

P
m = - 162.6 q B
kh

log [(t + t) / t ]

.8.
log [(t + t) / t ] (.8),
m q,
, B
kh.

- stotal:
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

15

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

stotal = P1 hr - Pwf - log


k___ + 3.23
m
c rw 2
:

P1

( 2)

=
t = 1
Pwf =
m =
k = ,

=
=
c =
rw =
hr

* , m = - 162.6 q B
( 3)
kh
: q =
=
B =
kh =
k =
h =
- -,
,
. ,

. -
( )
.
s = stotal. -
, (
). 4 :
stotal = st + sa + sp + stp + sturb + sh

( 4)

: st = -
sa = -
sp = -

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

16

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

stp = -
sturb = -
sh = -
-

- .

- (
).

, :

qSTB = 0.00708 kh (Pavg Pwf)


Bo [ln (re /rw) +s]
:

qSTB = , . /
kh = , *
Pavg = , psi
Pwf = , psi
= ,
Bo =
re = ,
rw = ,

qMCFD = 0.703 kh (Pavg2 Pwf2)


T z [ln (re /rw) +s]
:

( 5)

( 6)

qMCFD = , . /
kh = , *
Pavg = , psi
Pwf = , psi
= ,
T =
z =
re = ,
rw = ,

ln (re /rw)
re, rw,
,
7 8 .
:

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

17

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

qSTB = 0.00708 kh (Pavg Pwf)


Bo [7 +s]

( 5a)

qMCFD = 0.703 kh (Pavg2 Pwf2)


T z [8 +s]

( 6a)

-

-. ,

. , -

.
-
.

q2/q1, - s1
- s2 .
(Pprod) .

:

q2 = 7 + s1
q1
7 + s2

( 7a)

q2 = 8 + s1
q1
8 + s2

( 7b)

1 500 /
. ,
- +10. ,
- ?
q2 = (7 + 10) x 500 = 1214 /
(7 + 0)
2 12 ... /
.
, - +6.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

18

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

18 ... /,
-.
q2 = 8 + s1 = 18 = (8 + 6)
q1
8 + s2
12 (8 + s2)
s2 = (2) (14) 8 = -1.24
(3)

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,
,
.

, .

:


o
o

o
o
o


. -

.
,
.

:


(
)
,
., .

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

19

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

()
.


( ).

.
,

,
.


, .
,
,
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.
( -)
. ,


,
.
1 2
,
.
1. ,



15% HCl

15% HCl,

15% HCl,


HCl/

2. ,




()

;
/

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

20

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


( )
. (-
) ,
.
,
2% KCl ( ,
, ).
:
,

,
.

( ).

.
,
1.
,
2.

3.
4.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

21

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

2.

() .
.

.
,
,
. ,

- .
:


.

,
,

.

,
, .

,

.
,
.


.

,
.

1940- .

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

22

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

( ,
).

.
( ),

. ,
,

.


:


,
.


.
. ,
kh
,
,
.
,
. ,

.


. ,

.
,
.
:
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

23

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

- <0.10 md
- <1.0 md
- <5 md

,
(
),
kh.


.

,
.

:

.

.


(
)
.

. ,
( -)

.

,


( )
,
,
.
,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

24

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


,

k1, k2, k3.


( )

. ,
,

,
q
(ROI)
(NPV)
,
,
.


,
.
, , ,

.
, ROI NPV
, ,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

25

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

3.
,
:


:
o
o (,
,
..)



:
o
o
o


,
.
.
3.
3.


OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

26

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

(
1000 2000 psi)


,

(> 4
)


.

. ,
(, , ..)

( / )
.


,
.
( ),
.
( ,
..) .
,

.
, ,
.
9.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

27

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.9.


,
1000 2000 psi , . ,
,
. ,
(
)
. ,
,
.

.10.
,
, (1000 2000 psi)

.
.

,
.

.10.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

28

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.




.
,

.
.11.

.11.

.
,
.
,
20 %.

.

( ).
, ,
, .

, .

.

,
.


.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

29

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

4. /

, .


(100 /)
( 5
).
(1-4 /) ,
(
).



,
.

,
,
. ,
, .
(
) .
.

.

,
(
, ).

.
,
( , ).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

30

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

5.
.


, .
,

, . ,
,
(.12.)

.12.
,
,
P, kh.

.

.
. ,
,
.
.

,
. (.13.).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

31

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.13.

.

.

.
,

. ,
.
,

.


, ..
Frac & Pack.

.

, , ,

,
P.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

32

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

PI
. k

.
P, .
J :
J =

q
p

( 8)

:
J = PI, ..//psi
q = , ../
p = pr pwf

,

.
.

,
, ,
.
, 1960-
, ,
.
,
.

:
(x y) (z) .14.

( pr).
.
(
) .

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

33

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

z
y

x
.14.

.

. ,

.
, x ,
,
, .15.

x < y < z
y

.15. , x
z ,
. ,
,
z . ,


.
.


.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

34

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.



,
( ).
: 1)
2)

. .16
.

.16.

,
,
.

.
:

,

: ,
.
. , ,
.17.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

35

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

wf

hf

Lf

.17 wf , hf Lf
.17
.
, ,

, .

.
, ,
wf,
kf wf*kf
.

. ,
.
Lf
-
.
,
.
,

ko

,
,
.
,
.

( ).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

36

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

( )
.

.
, , .
,
, ,
.
(

) . ,
, ,
.

( ),


. ,
,

,
(, , ),
.




.
:

, ,
.

,
- ( ). ,
.

,
.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

37

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.18
. ,

.



ISIP

.18.

:



ISIP



.


()

.
(,

..). ,
,
:
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

38

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


,
.
,
.


.

:
1. .
2. .
3.
.
.
4. .
5. ,
, ,
.
6.
.
7.
,
.
8.
.

.
9. , ,
.
. ,
,
.
10.
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

39

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.



.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

40

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

6.

:






,
.
.
4.
4:

-
-
-
-
-

-
-


(
)

()

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

41

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

PI



, ,

,
,
.

. ,

.
:



(
)


, ,
. ,

) ,
.
.19.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

42

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.19.

, ,
.
, ,
.
,




( ).
,
.
,
, .


.

:
1) 2) .
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

43

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
.
,
, .
( ,
) .

( ),
. ,
,
, , .
, ( , horizontal)
,
.
(, ) ,
.

.
.20.

.20.

(
,
).
, , ,
,

, .

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

44

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,

.
,
.
,
.
.21.

.21.

, .
( )
,

. ,
, .22.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

45

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.22.

,
,
. ,
, . , ,

.23

Wfracture = f (,
, , 1/E*)


* E = , psi

.23.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

46

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


(, ..)

.


.

.


.

.
:



kh.
1,0 ,
0,01 .
, .
(
0,5 psi/),
- .
,

.


.
- . .24

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

47

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


(kskin
Pskin)

(ko , Pprod)

ko =
Pprod =
kskin =
Pskin =

.24.

:


.

.

,
.

.


. ,
.
(
),
.
, (
)

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

48

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

(
).


.


. ,
, :

, k
(-).


,
. ,
,
.


, .
.


.


. ,
( , )
,
.
, ,

, . -

, ,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

49

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.



.
, ,

. ,
.
,
, ,
.


.
,

. ,
.
,
.
, ,
.

, ,
.

, (
) .

. ,
,
,
, ,
.
.


.
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

50

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.
.

,
.
, ,
, .

,
.


, .

(
,

)

.


.

:

BHTP = = x , psi
,

Ppipe = , psi
,

Pperf = , psi

( ,
).
,
, Ptortuosity (

).
Pnet = ( ), psi
, (,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

51

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

) .
, Pnet
1000 to 2000 psi. Pnet
, ,
, .. .
Phydrostatic = .

,
(. 9). ,
(Psurface)
(Phydrostatic).
Psurface = BHTP + Ppipe + Pperfs + Pnet - Phydrostatic

( 9)

.25.

Psurface

Ppipe

Phydrostatic

Pperfs

BHTP

Pnet

.25.
,
, ,
,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

52

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.




(
).
, ,

. - ,
.
:
(. .18).
,
.
. ,
, , ,
. ,
.

. ,
Frac & Pack
,

. ,
psi
.
,

.

( Data Frac
Minifrac),


.
,
,
.


(,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

53

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

, .18).

.
ISIP.
ISIP:
=__ISIP__ + ( 10)

:
ISIP = (psi)
=
ISIP psi/
=
()

Pnet ISIP

,

ISIP.

, .
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
ISIP
. ,
psi
, .


.
Phydrostatic
,
,
(/).
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

54

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


.
,
: ,
.
,
.
5.
5


, psi/
0,44
0,36
0,39
0,45
0,22*
* ;


11:
Phydrostatic = (0,05195) x , / x
( 11)
:
= , /
= ,
,

,

(.. ,
).

(
).
.
(
12:
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

55

/)

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

slurry = (frac fluid + Pcon)


[1 + (AVF x Pcon)]

(12)

:
slurry

-,

/
frac fluid = , /
AVF = ,
/
Pcon = , /
6
( )
.
6. (AVF)

,
EconoProp/ValuProp
CarboLite/Naplite
CarboProp/Interprop


2,65
2,56
2,70
2,73
3,29
3,59

AVF, /
0,0456
0,0472
0,0448
0,0443
0,0367
0,0337

,
,
. ,
. ,

.
Pperfs
9,

.
.
Pperfs

( ).
, ,
. (
/ ),
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

56

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.



.


. ,
,
(-
).

( (10002000 ) ,
,
).


(

).
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
( ,
, ,
) .

13:
Pperfs = 0,2369 Q2
D4 C2

( 13)

:
Pperfs =
, psi
Q = (//..)
D = ()
C =
( 0.95)
= , /

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

57

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

11
.

.
: ,
6
60o ( 0.30 ).

, (

).
(, 120o)

.
,

( 1800).

,
.


.
Ppipe

.
:


(
)


, ,

.
,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

58

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.26
( 2 7/8 (2.441 ID))
4 1/2) .

psi/1000 psi/100.
, ,

1000 100 ( ).

.26.
( )

.
,
().


(/1000
). ,
,

.
.


.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

59

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
.
Pnet

( Pnet)
,
,
.
,
. Pnet
.


.
Pnet 9
(Psurface).
Pnet, Ppipe
Pperf. ,

,
.
(Nolte) (Smith).
, (.
).
HHP
, ,
,
.

.

HHP.

HHP.

,
.
50 100%
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

60

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

HHP (Q, /)
(Psurface)
14:
HHP = Psurface x Q
40,8

( 14)

:
HHP = , ..
Psurface = , psi
Q = , /
40,8 = .

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

61

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

7.
:

.

,
:

, ,

.
,
, .

,
,
,
.
( ),

, . ,
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

62

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

)
, .
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
a .
(
),
.

:
a = __ 4,788 x 104 K___
( )1-n

( 15)

:
a = , ()
K = , n/2
n = ,
= , -1
,
,
.

.27.

. ,

(.27).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

63

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
/2

0.6
0.4
K

0.2



20

40

60

80

100

, -1
.27.

,
n, ,
,
K.
, n K

.

( 27).
. ,
.
:
:
(-1) = 1642 Q
D3
:

( 16)

(-1) = 40,3 Q
h w2

( 17)

:
V = , /

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

64

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

D = ,
w = ,
h = ,
Q = , /
.
, .
.
,
.

.
7
( n K) .
a 15.
5.

n
K
()
()
()
(oF)
40 -1
170 -1 511 -1
75
0,774
0,0418
870
627
489
100
0,703
0,0404
647
421
303
125
0,657
0,0387
523
318
218
150
0,702
0,0238
380
247
178
200
0,961
0,0013
53
51
49

,

. , , ,
. ,
,
.
,

,
. ,
.
.
,
:
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

65

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

% = x 100 ( 18)

(screenout).
,
,
.

kf w*kf .


( ) .

.
:

(,
)



(wall-building fluid loss coefficient, Cw , 3/2[]1/2),
(spurt volume, Vspt , /2).


. Cw Vspt
.


(viscosity-controlled fluid loss coefficient, Cv).

. ,
(compressibilitycontrolled fluid loss coefficient, Cc),

. ,
, Cw Vspt .


OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

66

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

( ..)
,
.
(, 1% 5% ).
,

.
,
FE
( -), ,

(Nolte).

,
,
.
,
,
,
. , ,
,

, (
) ..

:

.
,
.
, ..
.
.

.

. ,
:


pH

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

67

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


,

.


,
, .



.
,
.

.
.28-28.

.
.

.28.

.28.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

68

.28.

.28.

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.




.


.


.

.
( NH4Cl).

, .
HCl.

. ,
( ),
.

,

(<3%)

.

5-10%
.

5%

-.

(KCl), (NH4Cl)

.

-
(),

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

69

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


.


,
.
,
.

.
,

.
,
,

,
.
(CO2)
.

, 60-70% , 30-40%
( ) .

, ,
.

.

,
.


(
).
.

:

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

70

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.





. ,
,
,
.
,

. ,

.
.
.
, ,
, .
,
.
( 0,43 psi/),
,
.

.

.

.


.

. ,

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

71

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


.
, ,

, .
, .

.


.
,
.
:



. - ,

, .
, , ,

( ..).

, :

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

72

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


80%
.
,
.
.
8.
8.



,


o 450o F
o

o



KCl


,
,
.
1948 ,
10 . ,
, ,
.
10%
.

,
.
: !

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

73

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


9.
9.


,

, .
:


.
.
( )
. , ,
(
).
.
50/50, 60/40 70/30.

.
, .

(
).
( )
.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

74

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
,
.
10.
10.


(!)





,
,


(
)

(N2)
(CO2) ,
.
,
.
CO2 ,
, ,
, .
,
.

.
.
, CO2
. - 2
.
88o F
( CO2).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

75

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
.

.

.
(
). , 70 70%
30% .
. 52 95,
60-80.

, .
.
10 14 % , ,
.

11.

11.

CO2
, ;


(
)




(
, )
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

76

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


. ,
3500 .. N2/
, 500-750
.. N2/
.


. -
( , ..) ,

.
.

.
(
):

pH


,
,
. ,
, ,
.
( )
.

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

77

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

( ) - .
, (8-10%
)
.

.
, .
,
,
(5-6 % ).

, 1-2%
.
,
,
.
.
,
,
.

.
.
.

.

,
.
1000 .

.
,
20 /1000 60 /1000
35 - 40 /1000 .
,
,
( n K),

. ,

,
.. ( ,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

78

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

..)
.


, .


,
.

.
, ,

.

,
.


.

.
, 300o F,

250o F.

,
(KCl)
. ,
-
. ,
, .

.
KCl, .
,
,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

79

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.
, .

, .
,
. ,
, ,
.
.

( ,
)
, .
pH

- . ,
, pH
,
. pH
, .
pH ,
, ,
.

, .
, ,
,
, .
, .
-
( , .).
.28.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

80

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.28. ) b)
: PSD - ,
()


.
(/1000
).
,
.


.


.
, . (
,
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

81

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

)
.


,
.

,
,
,
.
,
,
1-5%.

,
.

, .

, ,
.
, ,
. ,
-

,
. -
, ,
.

, , :

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

82

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


, ,
, .
, ,
,
. (
,

.).


250o F
. ()

,
( )
. ,
, ,
, .

,

.
-
- ():

,
.

.
,
.

.

, , ,
( ),
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

83

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.

, .
(
,
).
,

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

84

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

8.
,

.

,
.
.


.
, 1949
, w*kf
.

:

(ISP)
(HSP)

.
, . ISP HSP
,
(HSP),
(ISP).
12.
12.



2.65 /3


(ISP)

< 8,000 psi



3.2 /3

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

85

> 5000 psi

HCl

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


(HSP)

< 15,000 psi






3.72 /3


,
(mesh).
,
. ,
, .


, .
(40/60, 20/40, 16/20, 12/20
8/16)
.
13.
13.
U.S. Mesh Size
8/16
12/20
16/20
20/40
40/60

()
0,082
0,054
0,041
0,027
0,014

20/40,

( ),
.
,
Frac & Pack.

, ,
, .
w ,
kf
w*kf
.
5000 psi,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

86

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

(ISP).
10000 psi,
(HSP).
, .
(, ISP HSP)
. ,
, 1000 - 2000
psi. ,
20/40 30/50. ,
,
.

- ,

.
.

:
CP = (F.G. x ) FBHP

( 19)

:
CP = , psi
F.G. = , psi/
= ,
FBHP = , psi
:
: 9975 10025
FBHP: 2000 psi
F.G. = 0,8 psi/
CP = (10000 x 0,8) 2000 = 6000 psi
,
( ,
/2)
.
.30.

,
, .
(/2)
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

87

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


. ,
.

. ,


1,0 /2 ( ).

. , 1,0 /2
, 5,0
6,0 /2
Frac & Pack .
(
2,0
/2 - .30).

(w*kf)
10000
8000
6000

20/40 HSP
20/40 ISP

4000
20/40
2000
2000

3000

4000

5000 6000 7000 8000


, psi

10000

.30.
,
,
(/), .
1,0 2,0
1,0 /
( ).
,
,
, .

,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

88

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.
,
Frac &
Pack,

(TSO).
,
.


.
8,0 10,0 /
14,0 16,0 /
.


(, 20/40 40/60) .
.
(, 20/40)
(, 12/20)


.
,

.


. , .31 ,

, 10000
psi. , ,
.

.

.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

89

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.



.
, .

.31. (HSP)

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

90

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

9. /


( ,
).
, .

(w*kf). , ,


. , ,
.32.

, wkf

.32. ,

( ).
,
.
1940-
.
,
. ,

, ,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

91

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

(HCl)
:

HCl (CaCO3)
2 HCl + CaCO3

CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

( 1-1)

HCl (CaMg[CO3]2 )
4 HCl + CaMg(CO3)2

CaCl2 + MgCl2 + 2 H2O + 2 CO2


( 1-2)

HCl :


.

. (
)

(> 200-250o F).

.


,
,
.

.


.
,
.

(CaCO3)
(CaMg[CO3]2) .
(CaSO4),

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

92

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
.
,
, .
.
.

,

.

,
.
, .
(
5 - 10 x 106 psi),
. (, ),
(5 - 10 x 105 psi),

.

. ,
(

),


,
.


.
:

()
( )

,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

93

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,



-



.33. ,
,
.

.33.


.
:

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

94

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


.
,

.
-
.
-
, .

, -,
,
, .
,
, MFrac
( Meyer and Associates).

.
,
,
, ,
.
,

.

, ,

.
,
,
.
.
(
)
,
, ,
. -
30-40% 60-70%
(<20 511 -1).
, ,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

95

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.
(
-
).
(
), 60-70% 30-40% .
(
), (28% HCl) .
,
,
.

,
.

( 30-70% ,
).

,
.
.


.

. ,
,
,
,
.
( ).

, ,
.

(
15%, 20%, 28%).
,

( )
,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

96

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

. ,

.
(> 250o F)
( / )
15% HCl.

.


,
13% 19%
. 13% 19%

, 350o F.
, ,

,
.
, . ,
, ,
.

.
?
, ,

, .

.

13.

:

,
,
. ,
,
. ,

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

97

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

( )
.



.
,
,
,

.



.


, .


.


( , ).
,

,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

98

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

13.






.

,



OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

99



(
)





;

(
)


Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

10.



.
1-2
( 3-4) .
.

: ,
, ,
(. 14). , ,

, , ..
( ,
, ..)
, ,
. , , ,
, ..
.
14.



o
o

o



/
o
o
o
o

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

100









o
o
o
o


o
o
o -

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


,
.
, , , .
,
( )
, ,

( ) .
, .

(-)
,
.

. ,

(
).

.
,
.
,

.
,
,
, -,
.
:


(
/
)

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

101

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

),

.
(
),

,
.
,
.


,
( 1000-2000
1-2 )
( , )

.

( )
.
( )

.

, -.
,
,
-.
:

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

102

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.

.
.
,
, ,
. , , , .
-
-
,
.
,
1,0

.
MFrac
.
-:


(

).
.
,
,
. 50-100
,
.
,
.

.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

103

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

-
(
)
(
)
,
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

104

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

11.

. ,

, . ,
,
,
.

, ,
, , .
(
) .

, :

L,
re, .. , L/re.
,
w*kf, ko,
.. w*kf / ko.
hf,
hn, .. hf / hn. (
, hf / hn 1.0,
, , ,
.).

.34
, .

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

105

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

hf

FC = w*kf

ko

(hn)

re
:
L/re , FC/ko , and hf/hn
.34. ,

L,
FC,
hf.

McGuire-Sikora
,

( ,
).
, .34
.

(.
).
McGuire-Sikora
,
:



.
(<1,0 )

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

106

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


. McGuire-Sikora


40

.35. McGuire-Sikora
McGuire-Sikora (.35)

L/re ( 0,1 1,0).
.

Y, ,

J Jo.
J/Jo
A.

.35.
,
.
,
,
.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

107

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

McGuire-Sikora 13.0. ,
, , ,
(,
ko ).
CR
McGuire-Sikora
.
:

= w hf kf
hn ko

( 20)

w = ,
hf = () hf < hn,
hf (hf = 1)
kf = ,
hn = () hn>hf,
(hn = 1)
ko = ,
20 hf ( )
hn ( ). hf hn,
, :
= w kf
ko

( 20a)

hf hn ,
(hf > hn)
,
.
40 / A .

kf
.
, ,
, ( ,
..).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

108

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

L re

McGuire-Sikora. L
re .
.35.
:
re = ( .)(43560 2/)
2

( 21)



.
McGuire-Sikora
.
(,
Cr).

.

McGuire-Sikora
.
(, )
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

109

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

12.
(
, , ,
)
.
.


. ,


.
,
. ,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
MFrac ( Meyer &
Associates,
Inc.)

,

-. ,
MFrac ,

.
.
MFrac


( .16).
.
.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

110

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

16.

, , ..
, ,
, .
, ,
,

,
,
.
, ,
, ,

, ,


, ,
.
, ,
,

MFrac
- , (, ),
, 16,
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
3-

,
.
,
, , , ..

.
( ),
, .
, ,
MFrac, 17 (
).

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

111

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

17. MFrac

MFrac
;

.

, ..

..
, ,
, .

( Cw,

, ..)
.
(
, , ,
PBTD, ..)

( ,
. , ).
(
)
(
).
( , ,

..)

.
,
.

.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

112

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

18.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

113

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.36.
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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

114

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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115

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

116

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

117

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

Courtesy Schlumberger

. 38.
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(.37-38).
.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

118

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

119

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

200000

.

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Courtesy BJ Services

.38.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

120

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


, (
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.39.
OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

121

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

Courtesy BJ Services

.40. Frac & Pack


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

122

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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. .42

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.42.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

123

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

, .
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3309 HHP,
4 1000 HHP . 50%-

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

124

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

4964 HHP, 5
1000 HHP.



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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

125

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

126

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

,
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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

127

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

. 46.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

128

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

129

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

Courtesy Schlumberger

.48.

Courtesy BJ Services

.49.

Courtesy BJ Services

.50.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

130

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.



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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

131

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

132

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

133

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

19.

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Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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10

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.54.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

135

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.55.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

136

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

.56.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

137

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

1,

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

138

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

20.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

139



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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

140

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

141

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

142

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

143

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

= 12,34/1,182 = 10,44 /


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

144

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

145

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

146

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

Society of Petroleum Engineers

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

147

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

Courtesy Halliburton Energy Services

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

148

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

149

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.





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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

150

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

151

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

152

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

153

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

22. ,


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications


(
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(TSO)

154

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

:

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

155

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

156

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

157

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

158

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

159

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

160

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

161

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

162

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

163

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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164

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

165

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

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OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

166

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.


1. Bell, W.T., Sukup, R.A., and Tariq, S.M.:
Perforating, SPE
Monograph, Vol. 16, 1995.
2. Cinco-Ley, H. and Samaniego-V. F.: Transient A\Pressure Analysis
for Fractured Wells, JPT (Sept., 1981), 1749-1766.
3. Cleary, M.P., Wright, C.A., and Wright, T.B.: Experimental and
Modeling Evidence for Major Changes in Hydraulic Fracturing Design
and Field Procedures, SPE 21494, Proc., SPE Gas Technology
Symposium, Houston, Texas (1991), 131-146.
4. Cooke, C.E. Jr.: Conductivity of Fracture Proppants in Multiple
Layers, JPT (Sept., 1973), 1101-1107.
5. Economides, M.J. and Nolte, K.G.: Reservoir Stimulation, Third
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
6. Economides, M.J., Oligney, R.E., and Valk, P.: Unified Fracture
Design, Orsa Press, 2002.
7. Ely, J.W.: Stimulation Engineering Handbook, PennWell Books,
1994.
8. Geertsma, J. and de Klerk, F.: A Rapid Method of Predicting Width
and Extent of Hydraulically Induced Fractures, JPT (Dec. 1969),
1571-1581.
9. Gidley, J.L., Holditch, S.A., Nierode, D.E., and Veatch R.W. Jr.:
Recent Advances in Hydraulic Fracturing, SPE Monograph, Volume
12, 1989.
10. Holditch, S.A., Robinson, B.M., and Whitehead, W.S.: "Pre-Fracture
and Post-Fracture Formation Evaluation Necessary to Characterize the
Three-Dimensional Shape of a Hydraulic Fracture", SPE 14086,
presented at SPE 1986 International Meeting on Petroleum
Engineering, Beijing, China, March 17-20, 1986.
11. Howard, G.C., and Fast, C.R.: Hydraulic Fracturing, SPE Monograph,
Vol. 2, 1970.
12. Hubbert, M.K. and Willis, D.G.:
Mechanics of Hydraulic
Fracturing, Trans. AIME(1957), 210, 153-166.
13. Jennings, A.R. Jr.: Good Wells Make the Best Candidates for Well
Stimulation, SPEPE (November, 1991), 371-376.
14. Jennings, A.R. Jr.: Fracturing Fluids Then and Now, JPT (July,
1996), 604-611.
15. Khristianovic, S.A. and Zheltov, Y.P.: Formation of Vertical
Fractures by Means of Highly Viscous Liquid, Proc., Fourth World
Pet. Cong., Rome (1955) Sec. 2, 579-586.
16. Martins, J.P., Leung, K.H., Jackson, M.R., Stewart, D.R., and Carr,
A.H.: Tip Screen-Out Fracturing Applied to the Ravenspurn South
Gas Field Development, SPEPE (August, 1992), 252-258.
17. McGuire, W.J. and Sikora, V.T.: The Effect of Vertical Fractures on
Well Productivity, JPT (Oct. 1960), 72-74.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

167

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.

18. Medlin, W.L., and Mass, L.: Laboratory Investigation of Fracture


Initiation Pressure and Orientation, SPEJ (April, 1979), 129-144.
19. Meyer, B.R.: Frac Model in 3D 1: New Simulator Makes
Fracture Design Routine, Oil & Gas Journal (June 17, 1985).
20. Meyer, B.R.: Meyer Fracturing Simulators: Users Guide, Meyer &
Associates, 2000.
21. Nolte, K.G., and Smith, M.B.:
Interpretation of Fracturing
Pressures, JPT (Sept. 1981), 1767-1775.
22. Nordgren, R.P.: Propagation of a Vertical Hydraulic Fracture, SPEJ
(Aug. 1972), 306-314.
23. Perkins, T.K. and Kern, L.R.: Widths of Hydraulic Fractures, JPT
(Sept., 1961), 937-949.
24. Smith, M.B. and Hannah, R.R.: High Permeability Fracturing: The
Evolution of a Technology, JPT (July, 1996), 628-ff.
25. Valk, P. and Economides, M.J.: Hydraulic Fracture Mechanics,
Chichester, UK, Wiley (1995).
26. Warpinski, N.R., Wright, T.B., Uhl, J.E., Engler, B.P., Drozda, P.M.,
Peterson, R.E., and Branagan, P.T.: Microseismic Monitoring of the
B-Sand Hydraulic Fracture Experiment at the DOE/GRI Multi-Site
Project, SPE 36450, presented at the SPE ATCE, Denver, Colorado,
Oct. 6-9, 1996.
27. Williams, B.B., Gidley, J.L., and Schechter, R.S.:
Acidizing
Fundamentals, SPE Monograph Vol. 6, 1979.

OGCI/PetroSkills Hydraulic Fracturing Applications

168

Alfred R. Jennings, Jr.. PE


Enhanced Well Stimulation, Inc.