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..

..

2011

22.14
512.6
655
.
ISBN


,
.

, .

.., 2011-02-06
ISBN
.


,

.

, : ..
, .. , .. ..
, .. : .
.
.
.
, , . (,
, ,
.) .

, .
, .

I. .

.
.

. 1, 2, , n. 1,
2, , m, - - a ,,
- b p . ,
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2,
(1)

..........
..........
..........
.....

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm .


(1) ,
.. m n :
a11 a12 ... a1n

a21 a22 ... a2 n


(2)
.
.
...
.

m1 am 2 ... amn
1. m n , m
n . m = n,
n- .
(2) (1).
a11
a21

a12
a22

...
...

.
am1

...
...

am 2

a1n b1
a2 n b2
.
amn

.
bm

(3)

.
(1), .
(1) ,
, .
(1) ,
, .
(1) ,
, ,
.
(1) , ,
, , .
(1) , ,
, .
(1).

(3)

.
(1)
.
(1). , ,
(3).
, , ,

. , (3) .
1
a21 ), .
( a11
1
0. ( a11 a p1
), - . - 0.

2 m.

a11
0

a12
c22

a13
c23

...
...

a1n b1
c2 n d 2

0
.

c32
.

c33
.

...
...

c3n d 3
. .

cm 2

cm3

... cmn d m

(4).

(4) , , .
, . (4)
. 2, 3, , m , ,
, , . 22 0.
1
( c22 ck 2 ) - 3 m.
, . (
(4) 2 , ).
, , ( (5)
(6) ).
a11
0
.

a12
c22
.

...
...
...

a1n b1
c2 n d 2
. .

...

enn f n

(5),

a11
0
.

a12
c22
.

...
...
...

a1n 3
c2 n 3
.

a1n 2
c2 n 2
.

a1n 1
c2 n 1
.

a1n b1
c2 n d 2
. .

...

esn 3

esn 2

esn 1

esn f s

(6)
, ,
.
(3) (5), (1)
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,
c x + c x + ... + c x = d ,
22 2
23 3
2n n
2

.................
(7)

pn 1n 1 xn 1 + pn 1n xn = qn 1 ,

enn xn = f n .

, nn fn . nn 0,
(7), (1), .
, n.
, n-1 . nn
= 0, fn 0. ,
, .
(3) (6), (1)

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n 3 xn 3 + a1n 2 xn 2 + a1n 1 xn 1 + a1n xn = b1 ,
c x + ... + c

22 2
2 n 3 xn 3 + c2 n 2 xn 2 + c2 n 1 xn 1 + c2 n xn = d 2 ,
(8)

...................................

esn 3 xn 3 + esn 2 xn 2 + esn 1 xn 1 + esn xn = f s .

esn 3 = esn 2 = esn 1 = esn = 0, f n 0 .


, .

esn 3 , esn 2 , esn 1 , esn ,
( ).

xn 4 , ,
. .

. ,
,
,
.
.
II.
2.1.
2- 3-
.
a22
a11
a11 x + a12 y = b1,

(1)
a12
a21
a21 x + a22 y = b2 .
a22 , a12
, ( a11a22 a21a12 ) x = ( b1a22 b2 a12 ). ,
a11 ,
a21 , ( a11a12 a21a22 ) y = a11b1 a21b2 . a11a12 a21a22 0, =
b1a22 b2 a12
a11b1 a21b2
,
=
. ,
a11a12 a21a22
a11a12 a21a22
, .
. , ,
a11 a12
, :

a21 a22

. , .
a11 a12
, a11 , a22 ,

a21 a22
, .
a11 a12
)
2. 2- (
a21 a22
,
.
a
a12
a11 a12
11

.
a21 a22
a21 a22
=

a11
a21

a12
b1
, 1 =
a22
b2

a12
a11
, 2 =
a22
a21

b1
. 2,
b2

, (1) , 0.
= 1

, = 2

(2).

.
:

a11 x + a12 y + a13 z = b1 ,

a21 x + a22 y + a23 z = b2 ,


a x + a y + a z = b .
32
33
3
31

a12
a22

a22

a23

a32

a33

a13
a23

a22 a23
a
a13
a
a21 12
+ a33 12
a11
a32 a33
a32 a33
a22

a22 a23
a
a13
a
b2 12
+ b3 12
= b1
a32 a33
a32 a33
a22

(3)

a12

a
32

a13
,
a33

a13
=
a23
a13
a33

.
a11 a12 a13

= a21 a22 a23 .


a

31 a32 a33
3. ( )
a11

a12

, = a21

a22
a32

a31

a13

a
a23 = a11 22
a32
a33

a23
a
a21 12
a33
a32

a13
a
+ a31 12
a33
a22

a13
a23

(4).
(4) . ,

. , (4),
,

a11

a12

a13

a21
a31

a22
a32

a23 = a11a22 a33 + a22 a32 a13 + a12 a23a31 a13a22 a31 a32 a23a11 a12 a21a33
a33

(5).

, :
1. , (
).
..
2.

=
a12

a21

a23

a31

a33

+ a22

a11

a13

a31

a33

a32

a11

a13

a21

a23

= a13

a21

a22

a31

a32

a23

a11

a12

a31

a32

+ a33

a11

a12

a21

a22

, . ,
aij ( 1)i + j . ,
(
).
3. ( ) ,
.
4. (3) , 0.
:

= 1

= 2

z=

(6),

1, 2, 3 , ,
. (6)
.

2.2.
4. + i,
, i2 = 1 (i ).
z = + i, z, i
. , .
.
z = + i z1 = 1 + 1i ,
z + z1 = ( + 1) + ( + 1)i,
z z1 = (1 1) + (1 + 1)i.
.
1. .
2. z + z1 = z1 + z, z z1 = z1 z z z1 (
).
3. z + (z1 + z2) = (z + z1) + z2,
z (z1 z2) = (z z1) z2 z, z1 z2 (
).
4. z (z1 + z2) = z z1 + z z2 z, z1 z2 ( ).
5. 0 = 0 + 0i, z + 0 = z z.
6. z = + ()i, z + ( z) = 0, ..
.

= i z, z +
= 2, z
= 2 + 2.
, z 0, z
0.
7. 1 = 1 + 0i, 1z = z.
a
b
2 2 i . ,
2
a +b a +b
.
, (
), .
. .
. : Q , R
, .

.
z = + bi. , (, b)
.
OZ z, ()
() .
,
. = () OZ b = () OZ , = cos ,

8. z 0

z = a + bi ,

b = sin , 2 = 2 + b2, tg =

z 1 =

b
. b
a

z, z = (cos + i sin ). .
,
z z1 = 1(cos( + 1) + sin( + 1));
z

=
(cos( 1 ) + i sin( 1 )) , z1 0. zn = n (cosn + i sinn ).
z1
1
,
+ 2k
+ 2k
n
z = n (cos
+ i sin
) , = 1, 2, , n n
n

. , n-
n .

2.3.

( (4) (5)). (4) 3-
( ). ,
.
n- ( n- ), ..
a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

...
...

a1n
a2 n

a31
.

a32
.

a33
.

...
...

a3n =
.

an1

an 2

an 3

...

ann

a22
a32
= a11
.

a23
a33
.

...
...
...

a2 n
a12
a3n
a
. a21 32
.
.

a13
a33
.

...
...
...

a1n
a12
a3 n
n +1 a22
+... + ( 1)
.
.

an 2

an 3

...

ann

an 3

...

ann

an 2

an 12

a13
a23
.

...
...
...

a1n
a2 n
.

an 13

...

an 1n

(7)
, ,
,
.
n- .
.
n .
1, 2, 3, , n. , , ,
.
5. n ( n )
( ) ( ).
1. n n!
. ,
n . ,
(n 1) . ,
n(n 1 ) .
, (n
2) . , n(n
1)(n 2 ) . , , n
n(n 1)(n 2)321 = n! .
, () , > ,
. ,
. ,
.
. 1) (9, 7, 1, 3, 4, 8, 5, 2, 6) . 9
, 8. 7
, 8, 6. 1
. 3 4 2. 8
5, 2 6, 3. 5 2. , 8 + 6 + 1 +
1 + 3 + 1 = 20 .
2) ( 2, 1, 3, 5, 4, 6, 9, 8, 7) . 2 1,
5 4, 9 8, 9 7, 8 7. 5 .

,
, .
.
2. .
. .
.
1) , .. (, ).
(., ).
, .
, ,
. , 1, ..
.
2) , .. (.,,).
(,,). ,
, , .
m , :
m , ,
m . 2m + 1
.
. , .
. n > 1
0,5n!.
6. n ( n- )
.
1, 2, , n.
1

...

: , =
.
1 2 3 ... n
,
, .. . ,
1

... n
=
3 ... n
2
3
1
=
1 2 3
2

=
1 2

n
1 ... 2
3

...
.
n
1
2
3
... n
.
... n

.
. ,
, ..
. .
,
,

.
1
1

...

...

n
.
n


, .
1
5

, =

1
4

6
, =
3

6
,
2

6
. , 1 5,
3

5 4, , 1 4. , 2 A 4 , 4 B 1 ,

AB
AB
1 ; 3 A 2 , 2 B 5 , , 3
5 ; 4 A 1 , 1 B 6 , ,
, 2
AB
A
B
AB
A
B
Ab
4 6 ; 5 6 , 6 2 , , 5 2 ; 6 3 , 3 3 , , 6
3.

, =
3 6 2 5 1 4
. ,

. ,
() = () , , . , =
,

.
2
3 ... n
1 2 3 ... n
1

= = .
=
=

2
3 ... n
1 2 3 ... n
1
, -1 = , .. .
2.5. n-
a
a
a13 ... a1n
11
12

a21 a22 a23 ... a2 n


= a31 a32 a33 ... a3n n-
.
. ...
.
.
a

n1 an 2 an 3 ... ann
( ) .
7. ( n- )
n! , n
, .
+,
, .
a11
a21
: || =
.

a12
a22
.

...
...
...

a1n
a2 n
.
.

an1

an 2

...

ann

, n = 6 211362344655 ,
.
2
1

5
. 4-
5

2- . 6, ..
. ,
+.
211362344615 ,
.
.
10. (,
).
a a ...ann
, (1) 11 22
, 1, 2,
, n (1, 2, , n).
.
a a ...ann
, 11 22

, .. .
1 2 3 ... n
.

2
3 ... n
1
a a ...an
, . , (1) 1 2

1

. ,
, .
, , ,
.
20. ( ) ,
.
, ( )
.
30. - ,
.
, - ,
ak k . (1)s
a11 a22 ...(akk )...ann .
,
.
40. , .
a

...a

...a

...a

p
q
n
, (1) 1 2

, q ,
. ,
1

...a

...a

...a

q
p
n
(1)s 1 2
.
, , s
. , ,
, .
50. , .
, -

- , , .. || =

a11
.
a p1
.
a p1
.
an1

a12
.
ap2
.
a p 2
.
an 2

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

a1n
a11
.
.
a pn
a p1
.
= .
a pn
a p1
.
.
ann
an1

a12
.
a p2
.
a p2
.
an 2

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

a1n
.
a pn
.
a pn
.
ann

= 0.
60. - ,
, , -,
. -
- , -
.
- bk 1 + 1, bk 2 + 2, . , bkn + n.

a a ...(bk k + ck k )...an n
a a ...bk ...an
(1)s 11 2 2
= (1)s 1 2
+ (1)s
a11 a2 ...ckk ...ann
.
, ,
- . - bk 1 , bk 2 , . , bkn .
, - .
- 1, 2, . , n.
70. ,
, .
.
1

|| - - ,
(n1)- . ,
akp . (1)+
akp .
80. ,
- - .
a11
a21
=
.
an1

0
a22
.
an 2

...
...
...
...

0
a23
= a11 A11 .
.
ann

(8)

. 11 = 0, (8) . 11 0.
,
, 11.
a11 a2 2 a3 3 ...an n , 2 n.
1 2
1 2

...
...

n
.
n

a11 a2 2 a3 3 ...an n ,
. 11, , = 11 S, S
a2 2 a3 3 ...an n ,
. , , (n 1)!.
2

... n

...

. , S = 11.

11 = (1)1+111 = 11, = 1111.

2.

a11

...

a1k 1

a1k

a1k +1

...

a1n

...

...

a p 1,1
0

...
...

a p 1, k 1
0

a p 1, k
a pk

a p 1, k +1
0

...
...

a p +1,1

...

a p +1, k 1

a p +1, k

a p +1, k +1

...

...

...

an1

...

an , k 1

ank

an , k +1

...

ann

a p 1, n
0
= a pk Apk
a p +1, n

(9)

. -
. - , ,
. ( 1)
. 1, 1 = (1)-1. 1
- ,
( 1) , , .

a pk
.
2 =
.
.

0
a11
.
an1

...
...
...
...

0
a1n
. , 2 = (1)-11 = (1)+-2 = (1)+.
.
ann

1,

2 = . = (1)+ = .
3.
, .. = 11 + 22 ++knkn
(10).

a11
.
. = ak 1
.
an1

a12
.
ak 2

...
...
...

.
an 2

...
...

a1n
.
akn . -
.
ann

1 =1 + 0 + + 0, 2 = 0 + 2 + 0 + + 0, , kn = 0 + 0 + + 0 + kn .

60,
,

=
a11
.

a12
.

...
...

a1n
.

a11
.

a12
.

...
...

a1n
.

a11
.

a12
.

...
...

a1n
.

ak1
.
an1

0
.
an 2

...
...
...

0 + 0
.
.
ann
an1

ak 2
.
an 2

...
...
...

0 +... + 0
.
.
ann
an1

0
.
an 2

...
...
...

akn =
.
ann

= 11 +

22 + + kn kn ( 2).
4.
.
a11
.
a p1
. = .
bk 1
.
an1

a12
.
ap2
.
bk 2
.
an 2

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

a1n
.
a pn
. .
bkn
.
ann

= bk 1 Ak 1 + bk 2 Ak 2 +... + bkn Akn .


bk 1 = a p1 , bk 2 = a p 2 ,..., bkn = a pn ,
, .. . , 0 =
a p1 Ak 1 + a p 2 Ak 2 +... + a pn Akn , .
. 3 4 ,
.
n- .
n- - (
) , 7 0,
3. n-
(n 1)- .
. =

3
2

4
1

5
1

2
4

. . 1)
(2) ; 2) ; 3) (4)
. ,

11
0

4
1

1
0

18
0

13

.
, 1, .
, 1,
, , .. .
(1)2+2 = (1)4 = +1. , = +

11
1
5

1
4
6

18
2
13

3- . ,
, .
1) (4) , 2) 2
. ,
=

11
1

43
0

40
0

26

23

. , = (1)

43

40

26

23

40

23

2+1

, =

. 70,

=3

40

23

= 3(23

40) = 51.
(, , ,
) .
. s- ,
1,2,,s 1,2,,s .
.
(n s)- . 1, .
= 1++ s + 1++s,
= (1)1.
5 ( ). n-
( ). ,
, .
.
.

0
0

1
5

0
0

4
1

=( 1)1+2 +1+3

= (1 20)(28 + 6) = 1934 =

661.
6 ( ).
,
.

x1 = 1 , x2 = 2 ,..., xn = n , -

.
a11 x1 + ... + a1k xk + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,
a x + ... + a x + ... + a x = b ,
21 1
2k k
2n n
n
.
..........................................

an1 x1 + ... + ank xk + ... + ann xn = bn ,


a11
a
= 21
..
an1

a12
a22
.
an 2

...
...
...
...

a1n
a2 n
.
ann

0. 1 , 2 , ,n-

n . x1 (a11 A1k + a21 A2 k +... + an1 Ank ) +


xk (a1k A1k + a2 k A2 k +... + ank Ank ) +
xn ( a1n A1k + a2 n A2 k +... + ann Ank ) =
...
+

+
b1 A1k +b2 A2 k +... +bn Ank .

3
a11
a21
=
.
an1

...
...
...
...

b1
b2
.
bn

...
...
...
...

10 + + + + n0 = ,

4,

a1n
a2 n
(-
.
ann

). xk =

k
= 1, 2, , n.

III.
3.1. . ()
M mn mn
() .
8. ,
.
= + ,
= + .
, :
.
+ = + Mmn.
( + ) + = + ( + ) , , Mmn .
, ,
. ( + = ).
,
, + () = , .. () . ,
.
9. ( )
,
, .
, = .
:
.
1 = Mmn .
0 = Mmn .
() = () Mmn .
( + ) = + Mmn .
( + ) = + Mmn .
n- , || = n| |.
3.2.
.
10. 1 + 2 + +n
n

k =1

. ,

a
k =1

= 1 + 2 + +n.

:
n

10.

( a
k =1

+ bk ) =ak + bk ,
k =1

k =1

10.

20.

(a ) = a
k =1

k =1

( a11 + a12 + ... + a1n ) + ( a21 + a22 + ... + a2 n ) + ... + ( am1 + am 2 + ... + amn )
m

a
p =1 k =1

pk

:
m

10.

a pk =
p =1 k =1

a1k + a2k + ... + amk ;


k =1

k =1n

20.

k =1

a pk =
p =1 k =1

a
k =1 p =1

pk

3.3
mn n .
,
: -
q- ,
- q- , .. q =
n

a
s =1

ps

b sq

(11).

m .
2 0

1
5 1
2
=
1.
4 2

2
2 0
3 7

2
+
(

2
)

5
+
0

4
+
1

3
3

0
+
(

2
)

1
)
+
0
2 + 1 7 1 9

= 4 2 + ( 7) 5 + 5 4 + 2 3 4 0 + (7) ( 1) + 5 2 + 2 7 = 1 31 .
1 2 + 2 5 + (2) 4 + 0 3 1 0 + 2 (1) + (2) 2 + 0 7 4 6

2
7

4
1

2.

0
5

5

4

0
3
1
4
2
1
7

2
7

0
5

2
0

, .
3

3. = 4
1

5
=
4

2
7

0
5

0
1
2
7

2
1
5
2
4
0

3

1
3
3
4
5
1
1

2
7
2

1
1 9
4

3
= 1 31 6 ,

2
5


4 6 3
7 1

2
2
2
7

0
1
14
3
11 3
5
2 =
.
25 12
0
8

2 0
36 57 37 17

0
1

, . ,
. :
10. () () , () = ().
20. ( + ) , ( + ) = + .
30. , () =().
3.4. .
.
n- .
7.
.

a11

a21
=
.

a
n1

a12

...

a22
.
an 2

...
...
...

a1n

a2 n
,
.

ann

b11

b21
=
.

b
n1

b12

...

b22
.
bn 2

...
...
...

b1n

b2 n
.
.

bnn

=
0

0
.

0
b1n
b2 n

.
bnn


.

0
0 ...
a11 a12 ... a1n

n .
0 ...
a21 a22 ... a2 n 0

|| = ||||.
.
.
...
.
.
.
...

0
0 ...
an1 an 2 ... ann
,
1 0 ... 0 b
,

b12 ...
11

(n
+1)-

0
1 ... 0 b21 b22 ...
1- , b11

.
...
.
.
.
...
.
,
0
0
...

1
b
b
...
n1
n2

2- , b21 , , n-
, bn1 .
(n +1)- n
, .
1
=

a11 a12 ... a1n c11 c12 ... c1n
(n +2)- .. ,
a21 a22 ... a2 n c21 c22 ... c2 n
1. .
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
.
, |1| = ||.
1 , (
an1 an 2 ... a
cn1 cn 2 ... cnn
) n .
1
0
...
0
0
0
...
0
|| = (1)n(1)||, = 1 + 2 + + n
0
1 ...
0
0
0
...
0
+
+ (n + 1) + + 2n = (2n + 1 )n.
.
.
...
.
.
.
...
.

(2n + 1 )n + + n = 2(n +
0
0
... 1
0
0
...
0
1 ), || = | |. , | | = ||||
(12).
|| 0, , || = 0,
. 7 ,
,
, .
nn

0
=
.

0
1

...
...

.
0

...
...

0
.
.

, = , ,
. , || = 1.
11. , =
, = .
,
. , ( 7) |||| = |||| = 1,
.. .
,
. :
- - , ..

A11

A12
=
.

A
1n

A21

...

A22
.
A2 n

...
...
...

An1

An 2
. .
.

Ann

,
A

= = .

1
*
|| 0, = A A

0
A
.
0

...
...
...
...

0
= ||.
.

= = , ..

.
-1. ,
8.
.
1

*
-1= A A

(13)
2
5

4. , = 3
0

4 .
2

. || = 10 + 12 + 0 0 + 4 + 12 = 36.
, .
11 =

= 14, 12 =

= 2, 23 =

= 6, 13 =

= 1, 31 =

= 3, 21 =

= 28, 32 =

14
1
6
= 11. 8, =
36
3
-1

= 8, 22 =

= 16, 33 =

28

16 .
1 11

8
2

3.5.
=
(14) = (15).
: 1) ; 2)
, .
1) || 0, (14) (15)
:
= -1 = -1 ,
. , .
2) , || = 0, .
mn, , , m (14)
, n (15). m = ,
(14) , (15) .
.
5. , = ,
5

2
3

4 .
6

= 3
0

2
5
1

4 ,
2

5 ,

,
-1

5 ,
2
1

=
74
36
20

14
1
6
=
36
3

= -1.
8
2
1

28 5

16 2

11
3

4 =
6

158

122 .
53

2
6. , = , =
1

, = 3

1
7

4 .
6

|| = 0, . ,
, , , .
, , .
: .
, .
x1 x2
2 x1 x2 2 x1 + x2

= x3 x4 . = 2 x3 x4 2 x3 + x4 .
x x
2x x 2x + x
6
5
6
5
5 6
, .
2 x1 x2 = 5,
2 x3 x4 = 3,
2 x5 x6 = 7,
.

2 x1 + x2 = 1; 2 x3 + x4 = 4;
2 x5 + x6 = 6.
, , .
IV.
4.1.
. ,
, (),

. ,
, .
. ,
, ,
, .

.

.

: :
( = + );

( = ).
12. ,
: ,
():
1. ;
2. + = + ( );
3. ( + ) + = + ( + ) , ( );

4. 0 , + 0 = ;
5. () , + () = 0;
6. = ( );
7. () = () , ( );
8. , = ( 1);
9. -1 , -1 = (-1 );
10. ( + ) = + , .
( R ),
(Q ), ( ).
4.2.
L . L
. (
) . , , ; , , ,
13. L ()
, L :
,
:
1. L ;
2. + = + L.;
3. ( + ) + = + ( + ) , L;
4. 0 L , + 0 = L;
5. L () L , + () = 0;
6. 1 = L;
7. () = () L , ;
8. ( + ) = + L , ;
9. ( + ) = + L ( ).
: I. L = 0, .
II. .
III. .
IV.
.
V. n ()
.
VI. () .
VII. [] .
4.3.
L . 1, 2, , n
()
L. = 11 + 22 + + nn
( 16)
( ), ,
().
14. () ,
, 1, 2, , n,
11 + 22 + + nn = 0. 11 + 22 + + nn = 0 1 = 2 = = n = 0,
() .
.
10. , .
, () 1 = 0, 10 + 02 + + 0n = 0.

20. ,
.
1 = 2. 11 2 + 03 + + 0n = 0.
30. () n 2 ,

.
() . 1, 2, ,
n, 11 + 22 + + nn = 0 . , ,
1 0. 11 1 = 11 22 + + 11 nn. , 1
.
() . ,
, .. 1 = 22 + + nn, (1)1 + 22 + + nn = 0, .. ()
.
. ,
.
15. 1, 2, , n , ()
,
. ()
.
40. ,
.
50. ,
.
60. ,
.
1, 2, , n , (16) 1, 2, , s,
(17).
(16)
(17), , (17)
(16).
16. ,
.
9 ( ).
a1 , a2 ,..., an b1 , b2 ,..., bs L.

, n s.
. , n > s.
a1 , a2 ,..., an ,
a1 = 11 b1 + 12 b2 + ... + 1s bs ,
a = b + b + ... + b ,
x1 a1 + x2 a2 + ... + xn an = 0 (18) 1=2=
2
21
1
22
2
2s
s

=n= 0.
......................................

a1 , a2 ,..., an :
x1 (11b1 + ... +1sbs ) + +

an = n1 b1 + an 2 b2 + ... + ns bs
xn (n1 b1 + ... + ns bs ) =0
(19).

( x111 + ... + xnn1 ) b1 + ... + ( x11s + ... + xnns ) bs = 0


x111 + x221 + ... + xnn1 = 0,
(20). (18),
(19)

(20), ,
x + x + ... + x = 0,
1 12
2 22
n n2
. (18)

..........
..........
..........
......
1=2==n= 0. , (20).

, ,

x11s + x22 s + ... + xnns = 0.


, . ,
(21)
(21).
,
. ,
. , 10, 20, , n0.
(18) , ,

a1 , a2 ,..., an . , .
, n s.
.
, .
17.
L, ,
L , ,
.
10.
L .
,
.
, L

.
:
1. ,
, .
2.
.
3.

.
4. n ()
1, , 2, , n
.
5. ()

) 1, , 2, , n, ;
) 1, (1 ), (1 )2, , (1 )n,
6. mn ( ).


0

0
.

0
0

...
...

.
0

...
...

11

0
=
.

0
0

...
...

.
0

...
...

0
,
.

12

0
=
.

1
0

...
...

.
0

...
...

0
,
.

mn =

0
.
.

1, 2, , (). ()
( ),
,
. () ,
. (
).
() . ,
.
4.4. .

L .
18.
.
, .
19. L
1, 2, , n , () ,
:
1. L
();
2. ()
().
11. L ,
.
. .
, .
20. ,
, .
n , n-.
dimL.
. 1.
. .
2.
. .
3.

.
.
4. n ()
(n + 1)- . 1, , 2, , n
.
5. ()
. 1, , 2, , n,
.
6. n- . n
=(1, 2, , n ) . = (1, 2, , n),

:
+ = (1 + 1, 2 + 2, , n + n);
= (1, 2, , n). ,
13 , .. n .
, 1 = (1, 0, ,0), 2 = (0, 1, 0), , n = (0, 0, , 0)
. =(1, 2, , n ) , = 11 + 22 + + nn.
, 1, 2, , n n, .. n n-
.
7. mn
1

0
11 =
.

0
0

...
...

.
0

...
...

0
,
.

0
12 =
.

1
0

...
...

.
0

...
...

0
, ,
.

0
mn =
.

0
0

...
...

.
0

...
...

0
.
.

L n- = {1, 2, , n } .
L, = 11 + 22 + + nn.

21. ,
,
. = {1, 2, , n}.
= (1, 2, , n ) ,
, .. = (1, 2, , n), =
(22).
.
12. L
.
.
. ,
, .. = 11 + 22 + + nn = 11 + 22 + + nn . ,
1 1. 11 + 22 + + nn = 11 + 22 + + nn .
(1 1)1 = (2 2)2 + + (n n)n.
2 2
n
e2 + ... + n
en , ..
1 =
1 1
1 1
, 19. , 1 = 1.
.
13. ,
,
()
.
.
4.5. .
L
= (1, 2, , n ) 1 = (11, 21, , n1 ).

e11 = 11e1 + 21e2 + ... + n1en ,
1
11 12 ... 1n
e2 = 12e1 + 22 e2 + ... + n 2en ,

(23)

21 22 ... 2 n
=
.....................................

.
.
...
.
1

en = 1n e1 + 2 n e2 + ... + nnen

...

1 =
(24).
n2
nn
n1
(23)
,
1.
11, 21, , n1 , .
= (1, 2, , n), 1
1 = (1, 2,, n), = = 1 1. = 1 1.
(24), = ( )1 = ( 1).
= 1 (25). (25)
.
.
. = (1, 2, 3 , 4 ) L4. 11 = 21 33 ,
1
2 = 2 + 4 , 31 = 41 + 2 4 , 41 = 2 + 33 4 ; 111 = 1 + 2 , 211 = 1 3 , 311 = 3 + 4 ,
411 = 3 4 . , 1 = (11, 21, , n1 ) 11 = (111, 211, , n11 )
L.. 1 (1, 4, 2, 5).
11.
. 1 2 1 11
.

|1|

= |2|

|2| =

1
1 1
0

0
1
1

0
1
1

2
1

|1|=
,

0
1

4
1

0
1

2
=3 1

0
1

4
1

=12

= 2. 1 2 , 1 11 .

(25) = 1 1, = 211. 11 = 211, 11 = (2-1 1) 1.


2-1. 2.
11= 0, 12 =
1
1

0
1

0
1

31 =

1
0
0

0
0
1

1
1
0

1
0
0

= 1,

2-1

1 1

2 1

0
0
1

44 =

1
0

0
1

0
1

, 22 =
0
0
1

1
0

0
1

0
1

= 0,

1 1

2 1

1
2

0
0

1
1

1
1

1
0
1

0
1

0
1

= 2, 23 =
32 =

= 1, 41 =
1
1
0

= 1, 13 =

1
0

0
0
1

1
0
1

0
0
1

0
0
1

= 0,

1
1
0

0
0
1

= 1, 14 =

1
0

1
1

0
1

0
0
1

42 =

0
1

0
1

= 1, 24 =

= 0, 33 =
1
1
0

1
0

0
0
1

0
0
1

1
1
0

1
0
0

= 1, 21 =

1
0

1
1

0
1

0
0
1

= 0. 43 =

= 1,

= 1, 34 =
1
1
1

1
0
1

0
0
1

= 1. ,

1
2

0
0

1
1

1
1

0 2

0 0

1 3

1
0

0
.
1

x111
11
x2
x11
3
x11
4

0
1

4
1

0
1

0
1

0 1

2
1 4

= 10 . , 11
3 2
0

17

7
2

( ; 10; 0; 17).

4.6.
22.
,
.
14. L
L , 1 2
: 1 + 2 1 .
. , ,
, .
, . (1) =
. , .

+ () , .. 0 . 14
. , ,
L.
.
1. 1, 2, , L.
(.. 11 + 22 + + )
1, 2, , , L(1, 2,
, ). L
L..
1, 2, , . ,
.
2. ( n)
n.
3.

.
4. ,
.
5. n
n.
L .
23.
+ , , . ( + )
15. L
L.
. 1 + 1 2 + 2 + .
(1 + 1) + (2 + 2) = (1 + 2) + (1 + 2) + , 1 + 2 , 1 + 2 .
( + ) = + + , , . , 14
+ L.
16. L
L.
.
17.
.
. = + ,
L. D = . d = (d1, d2, , d) D
= (1, 2, , m) f = (f1, f2 , fs) , (1, 2, ,
m , d1, d2, , d) , (d1, d2, , d, f1, f2 , fs )
. , (1, 2, , m , d1, d2, , d , f1, f2 , fs)
. , = + . ,
d. ,
d f . , d f .
, (1, 2, , m , d1, d2, , d , f1, f2 , fs) .
11 + 22 + + mm + 1d1 + 2d2 + ... + d + 1f1 + 2f2 + + sfs =
0. = 11 + 22 + + mm + 1d1 + 2d2 + ... + d .
= 1f1 2f2 sfs . , . , D .
, f .
, 1f1 2f2 sfs = 0. f ,
1= 2= = s = 0. 11 + 22 + + mm + 1d1 + 2d2 + ... + d = 0.
(, d ) , , 1 = 2 = = m = 1
= 2 = = = 0. , (1, 2, , m , d1, d2, , d , f1, f2 , fs)

. dim C = m + k + s = (m + k) + (k + s) k = dim A + dim B dim


D.
4.7.
24. L L1
,
: L L1, L
: ( + ) = () + (), () = ().
.
24 .
25. L L1
,
: L L1, L ,
: ( + ) = () + ().
.
1. (0) = 01, 0 01 L L1 .
2. 1, 2, , L (1) = 11, (2) = 21, ,
()
1
1
1
1
= , (11 + 22 + + ) = 11 + 22 + + .
3. 1, 2, , L (1) = 11,
(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
= 2 , , () = , 1 , 2 , , L .
4. 1, 2, , L (1) = 11, (2) = 21,
, () = 1, 11, 21, , 1 L1.
5. L n- , L1 n-
.
6. L L1.
.
1. n
(n 1) .
2. n
n2 .

V. .
5.1.

a11

a21
=
.

a
m1

a12

...

a22
.
am 2

...
...
...

a1n

a2 n
.

amn

m n.
m- m- m.
m- 1 = (11, 21, , m1), 2 = (12, 22,
, m2), , n = (1n, 2n, , mn).
26.
.
n n- n .
27.
.

18.
.
. ,
. .
, .. . ,
.
,
. .
- .
(
). , . , , ,
. .
- . 1, , , +1, , n .
1, , , .
, - .
+1, + 2, , n
1, , ,
+1, , n
.

=
,
,
...
a1k
a1k +1
... a1n
a11

.
...
.
.
...
.
.
,
a
... akk
akk +1
... akn
k1

ak +11 ... ak +1k ak +1k +1 ... ak +1n


( + 1), .
.

,
...
.
.
...
.

s, + 1, , n ,
a

amk +1 ... amn


m1 ... amk
1, 2, , m .
a11 ... a1k
a1s
,

.
...
.
.
=
=
0.
a p1 Ap1 +... + a pk Apk + a ps M = 0.
a
... a
a
k1

a p1

...

kk

ks

a pk

a ps

0,
a ps =

Ap1
M

a p1 ...

Apk
M

a pk .

s , 1, ,
. , s =

Ap1
M

Apk
M

. ,

- .
, , ..
.
. .
. . -
- .
.
,
. .
.
, :
28. -
( -).
, -
, , ( + 1)-
, . ,

.
.

0
. =
0

1
2

1
2

3
1

3
1

. , 1.
,

0
1 =
0


0
2
. 0 3

1 2

1
, 0. 1 = 0 2 =2. = 0 1
1
2

0 1 0

0 2 0

. , ,
0 3 0

0 1 0

1. 0 , 1 0, .. 2. 1

2 =

0
0

1
2
3

=2 . 0 , 2 0. 1 4- ,

rang A = rang A1 = 3.
, = 0 rang A = 1, 0 rang A =3.
19. .
,
-.
5.2.
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2,

(25),
...................................

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm .


.
a11 a12 ... a1n

a21 a22 ... a2 n


=
(26)

.
.
...
.

m1 am 2 ... amn
1 =

a11

a12

...

a1n b1

a21
.
am1

a22
.
am 2

...
...
...

a2 n b2
.
.
amn bm

(27)

. (25)

, ,
. , ,
, , .
(25) ,

. ,
.
26 ( ).
, .
. (25) . ,
1, 2, , n ,
a11 1 + a12 2 + ... + a1n n = b1 ,
a + a + ... + a = b ,
21 1 22 2
2n
n
2

......................................

am1 1 + am 2 2 + ... + amn n = bm .

, , = 11 + 22 + + nn ,
1, 2, , n - , - .
, 1, 2, , n 1, 2, , n ,
, . , rang A = rang A1.
rang A = rang A1 = . , ,
- .
-
1, 2, , , +1, , n, (). 1, 2, ,
(), ,
10, 20, , 0, = 10 1 + 20 2 + + 0 .

= 10 1 + 20 2 + + 0 + + 0+1 + + 0n.
, :
b1 = x10a11 + x20a12 + ... + xk0a1k + 0 a1k +1 + ... + 0 a1n ,

0
0
0
b2 = x1 a21 + x2 a22 + ... + xk a2 k + 0 a2 k +1 + ... + 0 a2 n ,
(28)

...........................................

bm = x10am1 + x20 am 2 + ... + xk0amk + 0 amk +1 + ... + 0 amn


, (10, 20, , 0, 0, ,0) (25), ..
.

.

1. ( 1 ). rang A rang A1,
.
2. rang A = rang A1 = , ,
,
, ,
.
. .
. ( , ,
, (29)).
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1k xk = b1 a1k +1 xk +1 ... a1n xn ,
a x + a x + ... + a x = b a
(29) ,
21 1
22 2
2k k
2
2 k +1 x k +1 ... a 2 n x n ,

.............................................

, (

a k 1 x1 + ak 2 x2 + ... + a kk xk = bk akk +1 xk +1 ... akn xn . )

+1
n
(29)
.
, 1, 2, , +1, , n . ,
1, 2, , +1, , n
.

+1, , n 1, 2, , .
. n . = n,
, (29), (25), .
< n, .
. , R.
2 x1 3 x2 + 4 x3 x4 = 1,

2 x1 3 x2 + 2 x3 + 3 x4 = 2,
2 x 3 x + 2 x 11x = 4.
2
3
4
1
. .
2 3 4
1 1
,
2

3
2
3
2

1 =
2 3 2 11 4
. , .
=

0.

,
2 4
1
, rang A = 3. rang A1
2
2
3
3. , rang A = rang A1 = 3.
=
= 56
2 2 11
, .. .
, ,
0.
,

1 + 3 x2
4 1
2 x1 + 4 x3 x4 = 1 + 3x2 ,

3 =
= 56, 1 = 2 + 3 x2 2
2 x1 + 2 x3 + 3x4 = 2 + 3 x2 ,
4 + 3 x2 2 11
2 x + 2 x 11x = 4 + 3x .
3
4
2
1
842 ,
2

1 + 3 x2

2 = 2
2

2 + 3 x2
4 + 3 x2

1 =

84 x2 3
= x2 ,
56
2

3 = 20,
11

3 =

3 = 2
2

2
2

1 + 3x2
2 + 3 x2 = 24.
4 + 3 x2

20
5
24 3
=
= .
, 4 =
56 14
56 7

3
5 3
x2 , x2 ,
, ), 2 .
2
14 7

5.3.
(30)
.
1
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = 0,
a x + a x + ... + a x = 0,
, rang A = rang A1,
21 1
22 2
2n n
..

..........
..........
..........
.....

a
x
+
a
x
+
...
+
a
x
=
0
.
.
m2 2
mn n
m1 1
(30).
(30)
=(1, 2, , n) =(1, 2, , n) . ,
n- .

. + = (1 + 1, 2 + 2, , n + n ), = (1, 2, , n).
s- (30).
as1 (1 + 1 ) + as 2 (2 + 2 ) + ... + asn (n + n ) = ( as11 + as 22 + ... + asnn ) + ( as11 + as 2 2 + ... + asn n ) = 0,
as1 (1 ) + as 2 (2 ) + ... + asn (n ) = (as11 + as 22 + ... + asnn ) = 0. ,

(30) , +
. 14
27. n
n .
28.
n r, n , r .
. L (30). L n .
= (1, 2, r, r+1, , n) . (r+1, , n)
, .
(n r)- nr .
: L nr
= (1, 2, r, r+1, , n) ( ) = (r+1, , n).
, ( 24). .
1. , . = (1, 2, r, r+1, ,
n) ( r+1, , n), ,
. , (r+1, , n) nr ,
(1, 2, r ) , .. ( )
nr L .
2. ( ) = (r+1, , n ) = (r+1, , n ) = ().
3. ( + ) = (r+1 + r+1, ,n + n ) = (r+1, , n) + (r+1, , n ) = () + ().
,
(n r)- . , L
(n r).
29.
.
nr
L , . (30),
(n r)
.
. 1, 2, , nr
(30) 1, 2, , nr ,
11 + 22 + + nr nr .
5.4.
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ,
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2,

(25)
...................................

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm .


.
,
( (30)).
(25) (30) :
10.
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = 0,
a x + a x + ... + a x = 0,

21 1
22 2
2n n

(30)

...................................
.

(25)
am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = 0.
(30). ( + ).

(25) (30) = (31) = 0 (32).


= , = 0. , ( + ) = + = + 0 = . ,
( + ) (31), (25).
20.
.
(25), , (31), .. =
= . ( ) = = = 0, .. ( ) (32),
(30).
30. (25),
(30), ( + ) (25).
10, ( + ) (25). d
(25), , 20, (d ) (30).
(d ) = , d = ( + ).
29.
1, 2, , nr
,
d = + 11 + 22 + + nr nr , 1, 2, , nr .
( ,
.)
.
5.5.

n- L
= (1, 2, , n ). L .
30. ,
,
.
,
r n n Ln ( ) (nr )-
.
. , .
30. n- Ln ,
-
n (n ).
. Ln = (1, 2, , n ).
L - Ln. L = (1, 2, , ).
a1 = 11e1 + 21e2 + ... + n1en ,
a = e + e + ... + e ,
2
12 2
22 2
n2 n

= ,

...............................

ak = 1k e1 + 2 k e2 + ... + nk en .
11 12 ... 1k

21 22 ... 2 k
=
.
.
.
...
.

n1 n 2 ... nk
, .
d , d L d = 11 + 22 + + , 1, 2, ,
. .

d = , . d = ( ).

d , d = . , = ( ) = .
.
,
x1 = 11c1 + 12c2 + ... + 1k ck ,
x = c + c + ... + c ,
L .
2
21 1
22 2
2k k

..................................

(n ) . 1, 2,

x
=

c
+

c
+
...
+

c
.
, .
n
n
1
1
n
2
2
nk
k


.
, (1, 2, , )
(n ).
. L5 = (1, 2, 3, 4 , 5 ).
, L3 = <1, 2, 3>, 1 = (1, 2, 2, 0, 1),
2 = (0, 4, 7, 0, 1), 3 = (2, 3, 1, 0, 0).
. (1, 2, 3 ).

1
0
2

2
4
3

0
2

2
7
1

1 .
0

=4 0 .

0, , 3, .. 1, 2, 3

L3 . ,
2.
d L3 d = 11 + 22 + 33 . d L3 1 = 1 23 , 2 = 21 + 42 + 33 ,
3 = 21 + 72 3 , 4 = 0, 5 = 1 + 2. ,
1, 2 3 ,

21x1 + 11x2 9 x3 + 18 x5 = 0,

x4 = 0.

. , , ,
. ,
.
VI.
6.1. ,
L L1 .
31. L
1
L , L
( + ) = () + () () =().
() ,
().
31
O 311: L
L1 ,
L , ( + ) = () + ().
. 1. () = 01, L , 01
L1, , , . .
2. () = L .
.

3. = (1, 2, 3, , n ) Ln L1 = <1, 2, 3>. (11 +


22 + 33 + + n n ) = 11 + 22 + 33 .
, L L1.
L L1.
= (1, 2, , n ) L f = (f1, f2, , fn )
L1.
31. , L
1
L , ( ) = f = 1, 2, , n .
. L , = 11 + 22 + +n n .
: () = 1f1 + 2f2 + + n fn . () L1,
L L1. , () = 1f1 + 2f2 + + n fn = (1f1 + 2f2 +
+n fn) = (). = 11 + 22 + +n n , ( + ) = (1 + 1) f1 + (2 + 2 )f2 + + (n
+ n) fn = (1f1 + 2f2 + + n fn ) + (11 + 22 + +n n ) = () + (). , -
L L1. ( ) = 1f . , -
. , - , (e ) = f ,
() = (11 + 22 + +n n) = 1(1) + 2(2) + +
n(n) = 1f1+ 2f2 ++ n fn = (). , - .
. ,
L L1 (1, 2, , n )
L (f1, f2, , fn ) L1
: (11 + 22 + +n n ) = 1f1 + 2f2 + + n fn.
. L3 L5 . = (1, 2, 3)
f = (f1, f2, f3 , f4 , f5 ) L3 L5 . 1 = (1, 4, 1, 3, 0),
2 = (3, 0, 1, 3, 7), 3 = (1, 1, 2, 2, 0) L5 . : L3
L5 (11 + 22 + 33 ) = 11 + 22 + 33.

= (5, 1, 3).
. () = 51 2 + 33 = (5,20,5,15,0) (3,0,1,3,7) + (3,3,6,6,0) = (5, 23, 0, 24, 7).
.
: Ln Lm .
0
1 . (0) = 01, 0 01 Ln Lm .
20. .
: Ln Lm : Lm L . (): Ln L .
Ln - , ()( + ) = ( ( + )) = ( () + ()) =
=
( ()) + ( ()) = ()() + ()();
()() = ( ()) = ( ()) =
= ( ( ()) = ()(). , ()
31. , () .
32. : Ln Lm : Ln Lm
: Ln Lm , Ln
() = () + ().
30. .
, L , . ( + ) = ( + ) + ( + ) = (() +
+ ()) + (() + ()), , 311, - ,
Ln Lm .
40.
.
32. : Ln Lm
Ln Lm , ()() = ( ()) Ln .
50. .
.

60. 1 = .
70. 0 .
80. , , , : Ln Lm : Ln Lm ,
( + ) , Ln Lm .
32. ,
Ln Lm (
).

.
6.2.
: Ln Lm .
33. (Ln)
Ln .
32. : Ln Lm
Lm .
. (Ln) Lm.
(Ln). 1 2 Ln ,
(1) = , (2) = . , 311, (1 + 2) = (1) + (2) = + .
1 + 2 Ln , (1 + 2) (Ln), .. + (Ln).
, (Ln) Lm .
34. : Ln Lm
Ln , Lm .
33. : Ln Lm
Ln . ( Ker() )
. Ker() Ln . 1 2 Ker(),
(1) = 0, (2) = 0. (1 + 2) = (1) + (2) = 0 + 0 = 0
1 + 2 Ker(). , Ker() Ln .
. 1. L3 L5 . = (1, 2, 3)
f = (f1, f2, f3 , f4 , f5 ) L3 L5 . 1 = (1, 4, 1, 3, 0),
2 = (3, 0, 1, 3, 7), 3 = (1, 1, 2, 2, 0) L5 .
: L3 L5 (11 + 22 + 33 ) = 11 + 22 + 33. (L3) Ker().
. 1, 2, 3 , 11 + 22 + 33
< 1, 2, 3 >. , (L3) = < 1, 2, 3 >.
(11 + 22 + 33 ) = 0 11 + 22 + 33 = 0 1(1, 4, 1, 3, 0) + 2(3, 0, 1, 3, 7)+
+ 3(1, 1, 2, 2, 0) = (1 + 32 + 3 , 41 + 3 , 1 + 2 + 23 , 31 32 + 23 , 72 ) = 0
1, 2. 3
x1 + 3 x2 + x3 = 0,
. , 1 = 2 = 3 = 0.
4 x + x = 0,
1
3

x
+
x
+
2
x
=
0
,
1 2
.
3
3 x 3 x + 2 x = 0,
2
3
1

7 x2 = 0.
2. L3 L5 . = (1, 2, 3) f = (f1, f2, f3 , f4 , f5)
L3 L5 . : L5 L3
( 1f1 + 2f2 + 3 f3 + 4f4 + 5f5) = 11 + 22 + 33. (L5) Ker().
. , (L5) = < 1, 2, 3 > = L3. .
( 1f1 + 2f2 + 3 f3 + 4f4 + 5f5) = 0 11 + 22 + 33 1 = 2 = 3 = 0. ,
= (0, 0, 0, 4, 5 ), 4, 5 .

6.3. .
Ln Lm : Ln Lm
. Ln Lm = (1, 2, , n ) f = (f1, f2, , fm )
. () = ((1), (2), , (n)), () Lm .
f.

(e1 ) = 11 f1 + 21 f 2 + ... + m1 f m ,
(e ) = f + f + ... + f

11 12 ... 1n

2
12 1
22 2
m2 m

21 22 ... 2 n

...................................


.
.
...
.

(
e
)
=

f
+

f
+
...
+

f
.


n
1
n
1
2
n
2
mn
m

m1 m 2 ... mn
f.
(31)
(31) : () = f (32)
Ln () Lm .
1 () f .
= , () = () , () = f 1. , () = f 1. (32),
(f) = f 1, f() = f 1. 1 = (33).
. Ln Lm ,
, Ln Lm
mn .
34. Ln Lm ,
mn
, Ln Lm .
11 12 ... 1n
21 22 ... 2 n
. =

.

...
...

m1 m 2
mn
Ln Lm . Ln Lm

= (1, 2, , n ) f = (f1, f2, , fm ) . Lm



1 = (11, 21, , m1), 2 = (12, 22, , m2), , n (1n, 2n , , mn ).
, () = = 1,
2, , n . 31 .
. , Ln Lm ,
mn
.
Ln Lm = (1, 2, , n ) f = (f1, f2, , fm ),
.
,
.
. , Ln Lm ,
mn .
. ,
Ln Lm , mn .

6.4.
Ln Lm . Ln
= (1, 2, , n ) 1 = (11, 21, , n1 ), Lm
f = (f1, f2, , fm ) f1 = (f11, f21, , fm1 ). : Ln Lm ,
f 1 1
f1. 1, Q f
f1. 1 = , f1 = fQ , () = f , (1) = f11. ( ) = ( fQ )1, () =

f(Q 1). , , ,
1. , () = ( f(Q 1))1 = f(Q 11).
() = f. , = Q 11, 1 = Q1
(34)
. L3 L5 . = (1, 2, 3)
f = (f1, f2, f3 , f4 , f5 ) L3 L5 . 1 = (1, 4, 1, 3, 0),
2 = (3, 0, 1, 3, 7), 3 = (1, 1, 2, 2, 0) L5 .
: L3 L5 (11 + 22 + 33 ) = 11 + 22 + 33.
= (5, 1, 3).
.
L3 f L5 .
(1) = 11 = (1, 4, 1, 3, 0), (2) = 12 = (3, 0, 1, 3, 7), (3) = 13 = (1, 1, 2, 2, 0).
, .
3
1

1
x11

3
1
1
1
()
0
1
4

0
1
2
5
4

1 1
2
=

(33),
= 1 1 2 1 =
x
3 2
3
3

3
0
, 1 = .
3 2
3

7
0
1

x4
1
x5

23
0

.
24
7

, () = (5, 23, 0, 24, -7) L5 . (


6.1.)
6.5.
35.
.
:LL
, , ,
, .
.
1. Ln = (1, 2, , n ),
: Ln Ln
11 12 ... 1n
21 22 ... 2 n
(e1 ) = 11e1 + 21e2 + ... + n1en ,
=
,
(e ) = e + e + ... + e ,
.
.
...
.
2
12 1
22 2
n2 n
(35)

n1 n 2 ... nn
..................................

(en ) = 1ne1 + 2 ne2 + ... + nnen .


.
2. (35) () = .
3. : 1 =
(36)
4. Ln = (1, 2, , n) 1 = (11,21, ,
n1) 1,
1 = 1 (37).

36.

,
, = 1.
5. , , .
6. 35. n
Ln Ln
1,
.
. = 1. Ln - .
( ).
, 1 . 1 = 1.

1
1
1 1
1
( ) = = .
7. dim ((Ln )) + dim (Ker ) = n.
8. Ln
, Ln .
37.
Ln , Ln .
, Ln , Ln.
9. Ln n
. , dim (Ln ) = n2.
6.6.
Ln n- : Ln
Ln .
, , , ..
1 = 1 . , rang (A1) = rang (A).
38.
.
39.
, .
36. Ln
, :
1) (Ln ) = Ln ;
2) Ker() = 0;
3) Ln
;
4) .
6.7.
Ln n- , : Ln Ln
.
40.
, () = .
.
,
: () = . , = .
() = , ( ) = . ,
( ) =
(38). ( ) .
(38) . ,

(1, 2, , n )
(39),
. (39)

,

, , ..
(40). (40)
11
21
...
n1

12
22 ...
n 2
= 0 (40)
. , ..
.
.
...
.
| |,
1n
2 n
... nn
.

. ( ).
.
40, . 0
. 0 (39) , . .
0 , .
37. .
. = 1.
, | | = | 1 | = | 1 1 () | = | 1( ) | =
|1 || ||| = | |.
,
.
.
41. -
.
38. : Ln Ln ,
,
, , .
.

.
1. .
2. ,
(.. ).
3. 0 ,
(11 0 ) x1 + 21 x2 + ... + n1 xn = 0,
x + ( ) x + ... + x = 0,
12 1
22
0
2
n2 n
.

......................................

1n x1 + 2 n x2 + ... + ( nn 0 ) xn = 0.
.
: L4 L4 ( R), = (1, 2, 3,4)
.
1
0
0
1
0 0
. 1
1

1
1
0
0

1
0 0
1
=0.
=
.
2

1
1

().
2 1 1 2

3
5
3
3
3
,
5
3 3

, ()
:
(11 ) x1 + 21 x2 + ... + n1 xn = 0,
x + ( ) x + ... + x = 0,
12 1
22
2
n2 n
(39)

..........
..........
..........
........

1n x1 + 2 n x2 + ... + ( nn ) xn = 0.

=0 ,

[(1 )2 1][(1 )(3 ) 6] = 0. :

1) (1 )2 1 = 0, 1 = 1. 1 = 0, 2 = 2.
2) (1 )(3 ) 6 = 0, 2 4 3 = 0, 3 = 2 + 7 ,
4 = 2 7 . ,
, .
.
.
2 = 1.
1)

=
0.
,
x1 + x2 = 0,

3 x1 + x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
x3 + 2 x4 = 3 x1 ,
x1 + x2 = 0,

2 x1 + 3 x3 + 3 x3 = 0.
3 x3 + 3 x4 = 2 x1.
2 x1 x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
3x1 + 5 x2 + 3x3 + 3x4 = 0.
11
13
x1 , 3 =
x1 . 1 = 3, 2 = 3,
3
3

, 4 =

3 = 13, 4 = 11, , . ,
, = 0,
(3, 3, 13, 11 ).
2 = 1.
2)

=
2.
.
x1 + x2 = 0,

x1 x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
x3 2 x4 = x1 ,
x1 x2 = 0,

8 x1 + 3 x3 + x4 = 0.
3 x3 + x4 = 8 x1.
2 x1 x2 x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
3 x1 + 5 x2 + 3 x3 + x4 = 0.
15
11
x1 , 4 =
x1.
7
7

, 3 =

1 = 7, 2 =

7, 3 = 15, 4 = 11, . ,
, = 2,
(7, 7, 15, 11 ).
1 = 2 = 0.
2+ 7 .
3)

(1 + 7 ) x1 + x2 = 0,
,

x1 (1 + 7 ) x2 = 0,

(1 + 7 ) x3 + 2 x4 = 0,

2 x1 x2 (1 + 7 ) x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
3 x3 + (1 + 7 ) x4 = 0.
3x + 5 x + 3x + (1 7 ) x = 0.
2
3
4
1

(1 + 7 )
x3 , 3
2
= 2, x4 = (1 + 7 )C . , ,
x4 =

.
3

(0, 0, 2, (1 + 7 )C ).
2 7 .
4)

(1 + 7 ) x1 + x2 = 0,

x1 + (1 + 7 ) x2 = 0,

2 x1 x2 + (1 + 7 ) x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
3 x + 5 x + 3 x + (1 + 7 ) x = 0.
2
3
4
1

1 = 2 = 0 .

,
(1 + 7 ) x3 + 2 x4 = 0,

3 x3 + (1 + 7 ) x4 = 0.

1 7
x3 , 3
2
x4 = (1 7 )C . , ,
= 2,

x4 =
.

= 2 +

= 2 + 7 ,

(0, 0, 2, (1 7 )).
.
10. ,
0, ,
.
( ) = , () =() = () = ().
20. : Ln Ln ,
(
), Ln .
( ) = , () = . ( + ) = () +
() = () + () = ( + ).
30. , ,
.
( ) = , () = 1, 1. ,
= .
, 0. () = (). 1 = (), 1() = (), (1 ) = 0.
0, 1 0, 0. . ,
.
40. = (1, 2, ... , , , n )
, , -
, -, = .
6.8. .

39. Ln
= (1, 2, ... , n ) ,
.
.
. () = = 1, 2, , n. ,
..
. () = . , -
, -, = .
, .
. n-
,
.
42. ,
Ln ,
.
40. Ln
, Ln ,
.
41. .
,
.
VII.

7.1. , .

L . L
: ,
,
.
,
. ,
, , = .
43
) = R
) =
,
,

,
,


L
L
(, ) ,

(, ) R,

):

(
1. ( a, b ) = (b, a ) b
):
L;
1. (, ) = (, )
2. ( + , ) = (, ) + ( , )
L;
, , L;
2. ( + , ) = (, ) + ( , )
3. (, ) = (, ) L
, , L;
;
3. (, ) = (, )
4. (, ) R (, ) > 0, 0;
L R;
(, ) = 0, = 0.
4. (, ) > 0, 0; (, ) = 0,

= 0.
(, ) .
.
) = R
) =
10. (, ) = (, ) 10. (, ) = (, ) L
L R;
;
0
2 . ( , ) = (, )
20. ( , ) = (, )
L , ;
L , ;
0
3 . ( + , ) = (, ) + (, )
30. ( + , ) = (, ) + (, )
, L
, L , ,
, , ;
;
0
40. (, 0) = 0 L.
4 . (, 0) = 0 L.
44. ,
, .
45. ,
, .
,
, .
. n-
, ,
n- ( ) . n-
n ( - Un).

.
1. L [, ]
. .
. f g
[, ] , (f , g) =

f ( x) g ( x) dx .

,
43 () . ,
[, ]
,
.
2. 2 ,
R.
1 1
= 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 . ,

1 1
43 () . 2
.
3. 2 ,
.

1 1
= 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 . ,

1 1
43 () . .
46.
,
, .
.
7.2.
n n- = (1, 2, ... , n )
. n
, .


(e1 , e1 ) (e1 , e2 ) ... (e1 , en )

.
(e2 , e1 ) (e2 , e2 ) ... (e2 , en )

.
.
...
.

(e , e ) (e , e ) ... (e , e )
n
2
n
n
n 1
(41)
, .
= 11 + 22 + + nn , = 11+ 22 + + nn .
n

(, ) = (11 + 22 + + nn)( 11+ 22 + + nn) =

k , s =1

y s (ek , es ) = ,

, . , (, ) = (42).
.
10. .
, (, s ) = (s , ).
0
2 . .
, 0 , , (, ) > 0.
0
3 . n- > 0.
4- .
, > 0

, . ,
.
40. = (1, 2, ... , n ) 1 = (11, 21, ... , n1 ) n , 1
1 .
1. (, ) = , = 1, = 1, = (1)= (1) .
, (, ) = ((1) ) (1) = (1) ( ) 1. (,) = (1) 1 1.
1 =
(43)
(42) .
50. .
(42) 1 = = 2. | 2> 0, 1
.
60. .
.
1. 2
1 1
= 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 .


1 1
1
0

1 =

0
, 2 =
0

1
, 3 =
0

0
, 4 =
0

0
.
1

. : (1, 1) = 1,
(1, 2) = (2, 1) = 0, (1, 3) = (3, 1) = 0, (1, 4) = (4, 1) = 0, (2, 2) = 1, (2, 3) = (3, 2) = 0,
(2, 4) = (4, 2) = 0, (3, 3) = 1, (3, 4) = (4, 3) = 0, (4, 4) = 1. ,
1

0
=
0

2. R[]

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
0

0
.
0

3-

f ( x) g ( x) dx , , <

. (1, , 2, 3).
. : (1, 1) =

11dx =

,
1

2
( 2 2 ),
(1, 2) = (2, 1) = 1 x dx =
2
1

( 4 4 ),
(1, 3) = (3, 1) = 1 x dx =
(, ) = x xdx =
4
1

3
(, 2) = (2, ) = x x dx = ( 4 4 ), (, 3) = (3, ) = x x dx =
4
1

2
2
2
3
5
(2, 2) = x x dx = ( 5 ),
(2, 3) = (3, 2) = x x dx =
5
1

3
3
(3, 3) = x x dx = ( 7 7 ). :
7

(1, ) = (, 1) =

1 xdx =

1 ( 2 2 )

= 2
1 3
3
( )
3
1 ( 4 4 )
4

1 2
( 2 )
2
1 3
( 3 )
3
1 4
( 4 )
4
1 5
( 5 )
5

1 3
( 3 )
3
1 4
( 4 )
4
1 5
( 5 )
5
1 6
( 6 )
6

1 4

( 4 )
4

1 5
5
( )

5
.
1 6
6
( )
6

1 7
7
( )
7

1
( 3 3 ),
3
1
( 3 3 ),
3
1
( 5 5 ),
5
1
( 6 6 ),
6

3. (1, 2, 3) 3
6

= 1
4

1
2

0 . = (1, 5, 4) = (3, 2, 7).


0
3

1 4 3
6

. (41), (, ) = (1, 5, 4) 1 2 0 2 = 7.
4

0
3

7.3.
n n- .
, .. (, ) = 2. 4-
2 0.
47.
. ..
= a 2
(44)
:
1. , 0.
2. = n .
3. n .
. ( )2 = 2 2(, ) + 22 0 R.
,
, .. (, )2 2 2 0, (, )2 2 2.
(45).
, .
48.
.
40. .
0, 0. , 0 =

1
. , 0
a

=1.
49. b
( a , b)

, Cos = a b
(46).
b (a, b ) .
.
10. .
(44) , 1 Cos 1. , .
20. 0, 0, Cos ( a, b) = Cos (a, b) .
48. ,
.
.
30. , 0, 0, () ().
40. , ( + ).
50. n, ,
, .
50. (n 1)-
n .
.
30 40 , L
n . n ,
, , L .

, L (, ) = 0 (). n . = (1, 2, , n), = (1,


2, , n). L = 0
(). ()
n . (n 1)
. , () (n 1)-.
n.
k ,
, .

(, ) = 0 .

k
k
.
60.

(n )-

k
n .
50.
70.
k = {0}.
80. .
. . . ,
, .. , ,
+ = 0. 0,
. 2 + (, ) = 0. (, ) = 0 2 0 , = 0. .
, .
90. 1, 2, , 1, 2, , s
,
1, 2, , 1, 2, , s .
42. (1 n ) n =
k .
. (1, 2, ... , ) ( +1, + 2, ... , n )
k .
0
9 , (1, 2, ... , , +1, + 2, ... , n ) .
n , n . , n =
70
k + .
n =
k .

n =
k . n , = 1 + 2, 1 , 2 k .
1 . 2
.
7.4.
51. = (1, 2, ... , n) n
, .
. 1 7.2 .
.
, ,
. , ,
.
43. .
. = (1, 2, ... , n) n.
.
, .
11 = 1. 2 1, 21 = 2. ,
21 = 1 + 2 11. 21 0,
, (11, 21 ) = 0, .. (1, 1 + 2) = 0. 12 + (1, 2) = 0. 1 0.
=

(e1 , e2 )
e1

. 11 21 , . 31

31 = 1 11 + 2 21 + 3. , 31 11 21,
, (11, 31) = (21, 31) = 0.


( 43)
. ,

1 e12 + 2 (e1 , e12 ) + (e1 , e3 ) = 0,

1
1 2
1
1 (e2 , e1 ) + 2 (e2 ) + (e2 , e3 ) = 0.

31 . 11, 21, 31 ,
. 11, 21, , n11 , n1
n1 = 111+ 2 21 + + n1 n11 + n . n1
, 1, 2, , n1
(11, n1) = (21, n1) = = (n11, n1) = 0. ,
. , 1 = (11, 21, ... , n1) .
, .
44.
.
, (, ) =1, (, s )= 0,
s.
. (1, 2,, n),
= x12 + x22 + ... + xn2
(47).
45.
.
. ( )

=
= (1, 2, ... , n)
.
(e1 , e1 ) (e1 , e2 ) ... (e1 , en )

.
(e2 , e1 ) (e2 , e2 ) ... (e2 , en )
(41) = . 1 = | || |2.
.
.
.
...
.

| |2 > 0, | | > 0. < 1, 2, ... , >


(e , e ) (e , e ) ... (e , e )
n
2
n
n
n 1
n
,
. , , .
. .
1

1. = 3
4

2. = 2
4

3. = 2
7

5
2

3
1
5
2
2
1

1
2

4. D = 3
1

,

.

1
5

2
1

3
2
0

0
1

, | | = 81 < 0,
.

, |D| = 5 > 0,

= 7 > 0. , D

.
46. = (1, 2, , n) = (1, 2, , n ),
(, ) = 11 + 22 + + nn
(48).
.
,

y1

y2
(, ) = = = (1, 2, , n) = 11 + 22 + + nn.
...

y
n

. 4 1= (2, 1, 1, 2)
2 = (3, 2, 5, 1). L = <1, 2 >.
. L, L (1, ) = (2, ) = 0. = (1, 2, 3, 4).
, (1, ) = 21 + 2 + 3 + 24 , (2, ) = 31 + 22 53 + 4 .
2 x1 + x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
, L
, ,
3 x1 + 2 x2 5 x3 + x4 = 0.
= (1 32 , 1 82 , 1 , 72), 1 , 2 .
, L - ,
1 = (1, 1, 1, 0), 2 = (3, 8, 0, 7), .. L = <1, 2 >.
7.5.
52. 1 ,

, 1 , 1 (, ) = (1, 1).
47. 1
, dim E = dim E 1.
. 1 .
. , dim E = dim E 1.
dim E = dim E 1 = n. 1
= (1, 2, ... , n) 1 = (11, 21, ... , n1) .
: 1 . = 11 + 22 + + nn,
() = 111 + 221 + + nn1. , ,
1. ,
. = 11+ 22 + + nn .
() =111+ 221 + + nn1. , (,)= 11 + 22 ++
nn. 1 , ((), ()) = 11 + 22 + + nn.
, (,) = ((), ()). , - 1.
.
,
.
VIII.

,
.
:
. :
.
.

8.1.
53.
,

(, ) = ((), ())
(49)
.
.
10. | | = |()| .
| | = a 2 = (a ) 2 = | ()|.
20. (a, b ) = (( a ), (b) ) b .
30. n , = (1, 2, ... , n) ,
. () = ,
(

b ) = , b ; (, b ) = ,
((), ( b )) = ()( ) = (). (, b ) = ((), ( b )), = .
,
=
(50)
. n
, , (48), .
= (1, 2, ... , n) , = (50)
= , = 1.
54. ,
= 1
(51).
48.
,
.
30 53.
49. ,
( ) 1,
( )
.
51.
50.
,
.
. : n n
= (1, 2, ... , n) n .
, . () = . ,
() = 11 + 22 + + nn .
a11 a12 ... a1n

,
a21 a22 ... a 2 n
2
2
2
=
.
(())2 = a1k + a2 k + ... + ank = ()2 = 1, .. ()
.
.
...
.

. ( (), ()) =
a

n1 a n 2 ... a nn
11 + 22 + + nn = ( , ) = 0,
, .. () (). () ,
, .. () . , () .
2
2
2
() . 1 = ( ())2 = a1k + a2 k + ... + ank
0 = ((), ()) = 11 + 22 + + nn . , 49,
.
51. , | | = 1.
, , = . | | = | |,
|

2
|| | = 1, |||| = 1, || = 1, || = 1.
52.
1 (1).
. .

(1, 2, , n ), = ,
.
, x T AT = x T . .
T
T
T
x A A x = x x . ,
T
T
T
2
A A = AT A = E . , x x = x x . =1 , .. || = 1.
, 1
(1).
53. ,
.
. n (, ) = ((), ()) = (1, 2) =
= 12(, ). 1 2, , , 1 =1, 2 = 1. ,
(, ) = (, ). (, ) = 0. , .
8.2.
- n .
55. : n n
, n
(, ()) = ((), )
(52)
54. = 1().
n = (1, 2, ... , n), ,
. , , 1
, , () ()) , (, ()) = 1, ((), ) = () .
(52), 1 = .
( (36)), 1 = , = . :
() = () , () = (()). = () ,
= 1()
(53)
1
1. =
(54).
. (53) , () = 1, = (1).
, = . , = 1 .
2. .
53 54.
3. , = .
, = .
. = (1, 2, 3 , 4) 4
3

0
=
0

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
0

1
2

0
1
. =

0
1

1
4

1
0

3
2

2
1

0
2

3

1

. .
. , .
(54). = 1. 1. ,
1

1 0
1
=
0
2

0
2

0
0

0
0

2
0

0
.
0

1 0
=
0
2

0
2

0
0

0
0

2
0

1
3

1
0

1
2

2
3

0
1

0
0

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
0

1 3

0 2
=
0 11

1
1

2
0

0
2

2
5

0
0

0
.
5

55. L n
, L
.
. L , L. () L ,
(, ()) = 0. (, ()) = ((), ). , ((), ) L.
, () L L. ,
L .
8.3. ()
56. ,
( - = ).
(52) ,
, (, ()) = ((), )
(55).
n = (1, 2, ... , n),
. = (53)
: = 1 . , = , ..
. ,
56.
, .
56 ,
.
.
0
1 . .
,
. .
20. .
,
.
30.
.
, ,
.
40. 1, 1
.
.
50. ,
,
, .. = .
, () = =
.
( ), ( ) = .
, , = .
60. .
,
.
.

57.
.
. n ,
.
. 0 | |.
( 0 ) = 0 ,
. . = (1, 2, , n )
. = 0.

x
,
x =0 x
(). x , x =
2
2
2
x1 x1 + x2 x2 +... + xn xn = x1 + x2 +... + xn . , x
, . , , , x
. x
. , .. x = ( x ) =
T
x = x . x A x = x T A x = x T A x .
, , , .. x = x A x .
, x .
() , 0
.
1.
.
2.
.
58. ,
, .
.
n, 1, 2, = 1 2 . ,
1 2 . () = 1, () = 2.

(, ()) = ((), ).
(, 2) = (1, ), 2(, ) = 1(, ), (1 2)(, ) = 0. 1 2 , (, ) = 0.
, .
59. : n n
, n ,
.
. = (1, 2, ..., n) ,
. () = ek = 1, 2, ,
n. , ,
, .. .
: n n .
. n = 1
, . .
.
,
(n 1). n n. 2
54 . 1 ,
1. , ,
. 1 = <1>. , (1) = 1. 1
. dim 1 = n 1, 1
, .
( 2, ..., n). (1, 2, ..., n)
n .
T

.
60.
.
. .

= (1, 2, ..., n) n . 56 n
1 = (11, 21, ..., n1), . 1
1, 1 .
1. 1 = 1.
.

=
.
0

1
1

1
0
1
1

1
1
0
1

1
.
1

A E =

1
1

1
1

= ( 1)3( + 3)

1 = 2 = 3 = 1, 4 = 3.
. .
= 1
1,
x1 + x2 + x3 x4 = 0,
3- , , 1 = (1, 1, 0, 0), 2 = (1, 0, 1, 0),
x x x + x = 0,
1 2 3 4
3 = ( 1, 0, 0, 1).

. .
x1 x2 x3 + x4 = 0,
x1 + x2 + x3 x4 = 0.
, = .
:
11 =

1
(1,1,0,0),
2

21 =

1
(1,1,2,0) ,
6

31 =

1
2 3

( 1,1,1,3) .

= 3
3,
3 x1 + x2 + x3 x4 = 0,
1- , , 4 = (1, 1, 1, 1).
x1 + 3 x2 x3 + x4 = 0,
1
, 41 =
(1, 1, 1, 1).
x x + 3 x + x = 0,

3
4
2
1 2
x1 + x2 + x3 + 3 x4 = 0.
11, 21, 31, 41
. 1
1
1
1
1
1

1
0
0

6
2 3 2
2
2

2
1
2
1
1
1
1

2 6
2
2 3
6
6
6
1 =
.
=
.
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
0

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
6
2 3

1
3
1
1
1
1
0
0

2
2 3
2
2
2
2

= 11 =

1
2
1
2
0
0

1
6
1

6
2
6
0

2 3
1
2 3
1
2 3
3
2 3

2
1

2

2
1

0
0

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
0

2
1
6
1

2 3
1

1
2
1

2 3
1

0
2
6
1
2 3
1

0
.
3
2 3
1

.
62. : n n
, .. ,
.
. () = () = . ,
.

. (()(), ) = (((),) = ((), ()) =
=()2. , (()(), ) = (, ) = 2. , ()2 = 2.
0, 0. .
57.
,
(, ()) > 0.
61.
, .
.
. (, ()) > 0 ,
. , () = . , 0 < (, ) = (, ).
(, ) > 0, > 0.
.
n = (1, 2, ... , n),
n

k =1

j =1

. = 11 + 22 + + nn , (, ()) = ( xk ek , (x j e j )) =
n

x
k =1 j =1

x j (ek , e j ) = j x 2j . 0, (, ()) > 0, ..


j =1

.
. ,
(, ()) 0.
,
(, ()) < 0

(, ()) = ((), ()) 0. ,


.
IX.
9.1.
Ln n- f
Ln (f : Ln ).
58. f : Ln
, Ln .

= (1, 2, ... , n) Ln , Ln , = 11 + 22 + + nn,


1, 2, , n . f () = , f () = 11 + 22 + + n n .
, 11 + 22 + + n n .
, f : Ln
.
9.2.
Ln n- .
59. f : (Ln Ln ) (
), Ln , , ,
:
f ( + , ) = f (, ) + f (, ) ;
f (, + ) = f (, ) + f (, );
f () = f ().
( , .)
Ln = (1, 2, ... , n), = 11 + 22 + + nn,
= 11 + 22 + + nn, f ( , ) = . 58
n

k =1

p =1

f (, ) = f ( x k ek ,y p e p ) =

xk y p f (ek , e p ) =
k =1 p =1

k =1 p =1

kp

xk y p ,

.
n

f (, ) =

k =1 p =1

kp

xk y p

(55) .

.
11 12 ... 1n

,
21 22 ... 2 n

=
.
.
...
.
:

...

f (, ) =
(56)
n2
nn
n1
1
1
1
1
= (1 , 2 , ... , n ) Ln
1, = 1,
=1. (56), f (, ) = (1) (1) = (1)()1.
,
1 =
(57)
60. ,
f (, ) = f ( , ) .
(57)
, :
62. ,
.
63. n
.
. (42)
(, ) = . , , (56),
.
9.3.
Ln n-
f (, ).
61. f (, ) =
, Ln ( () = f(, ) ). f(, ) ()
.
Ln = (1, 2, , n) = 11 + 22 + + nn, ,
(55),

() =

k =1 p =1

kp

xk x p

(59)


.
() =
(60)
Ln ,
, Ln n
.
.
.
. ,
. , , Ln ,
,
n(n +1)
n.
.
2

, 1
(56), .. 1 = , ,
, . ,
,
. : Ln
, .
62. () = 112 + 222 + + n n2, ,
() .

() = 12 + 22 + + 2 +12 r2,
, . , =
() = 12 + 22 + + 2 + +12 + .+ r2.
64.
( ) .
. () , Ln .
Ln () = .
, 60 ,
1 = 1 ,

( ).
, 1,
1. 1 = , 1
1. , 1 .
.
8.3.
65.
.
. 64 ,
. , , , r
, (n r) .
1) , = ().

,
.
() = 12 + 22 + + r2.
.
2) = R , .. () ,

, , , .

y1 = 1 x1 ,

...........
y = x ,
r
r
()
r
y r +1 = xr +1
...........

y n = xn

() = 112 + 222 + + 2 +1+12 rr2


y1 = 1 x1 ,

(),
...........
() = 12 + 22 + + 2 +12 r2 .
y = x ,
r
r
() .
r
y
=
x
r +1
r +1
...........

y n = xn
.
= 212 + 213 214 223 + 224 + 234 .
.
1
1
1

0

.
0
1 1
1
=
8.3. 1 = 2 = 3 = 1,
1
1 0
1

1 1

4 = 3.
1
0

1
1
(1,1,0,0), 21 =
(1,1,2,0) ,
2
6
1
1
( 1,1,1,3) , 41 =
31 =
(1, 1, 1, 1).
2 3
2

11 =
1

0
1
=
0

1
2
1
2
0
0

0
1

0
0

0
0

1
0

1
6
1

6
2
6
0

0
0

2 3
1
2 3
1
2 3
3
2 3


1. 1
.
,

= 12 + 22 + 32 342.

2
1

2
1

2
1



Ln n-
() =

k =1 p =1

kp

x k x p . n = 1,

, .
, (n 1).
n . .
1) = 0. 0, ,
.

. , , 12 0.
: 1 = 1 2 , 2 = 1 + 2 , 3 = 3 , , n = n .
() = 1212 1222 + , 12 22,
. ,
2) .
11 0. () , 1, 11 ,
.
2
11( x1 + 2

2


12
2
x1 x2 + ... + 2 1n x1 xn + 122 x22 + ... + 12n xn2 + 2 12 2 13 x2 x3 + ... + 2 1n 12 1n xn 1 xn )
11
11
11
11
11
11

+
+ (2, 3, ,n), (2, 3, ,n) (n 1) .
(2, 3, ,n)
(2, 3, ,n) .

12
x2 + ... + 1n xn , , () = 11 y12 + b22 y 22 + ... + bnn y n2 .
1 = x1 +
11
11
.
.
1) = 312 + 522 + 32 612 + 913 723 .
. 12 , ,
1 ( ), 12 (.. 3)
( ,
),

= 3(12 212 + 313 + 22 +


= 3(1 2 +

9 2
27 2
3 323) 322
3 + 923 + 522 + 32 723 =
4
4

3
23 2
3)2 +222
3 + 223. 22 ,
2
4

, 2, 22
.

= 3(1 2 +

3
1 2 1 2 23 2
3
1
25
3)2 +2(22 + 23 +
3 ) 3
3 =3(1 2 +
3)2 + 2(2 +
3)2
2
4
2
4
2
2
4

32. :
1 = 1 2 +

3
3 ,
2

2 = 2 +

1
3 , 3 = 3. ,
2
25 2
= 312 + 222
3 .
4

,
: z1 =

3 1,

z2 =

2 2 ,

z3 =

= z12 + z22 z32.

5
3 ,
2

2) = 13 + 223 + 434 .
. ,
: 1 =1 3, 2 =2, 3 =1 + 3, 4= 4.
= (1 3)( 1 + 3) + 22(1 3) + 4(1 + 3)4 = 12 32 + 212 + 414 223 + 434.
1 ( 12 1,
). = (12+ 212 + 414 + 22 +442+424) 22 442 424 32 223 + 434 = =
(1 + 2 + 24)2 (22 + 223 + 424 + 32 + 442 + 434) + 32+ 442 + 434 442 32 + 434 = =
(1 + 2 + 24)2 (2 + 3 + 24)2 + 434.
3 = z3 z4, 4 = z3 + z4. z3 =
:

1
1
( y3 + y 4 ) , z4 = ( y 4 y3 ) . ,
2
2

z1 = 1 + 2 + 24 , z2 = 2 + 3 + 24 , z3 =

1
1
( y3 + y 4 ) , z4 = ( y 4 y3 ) .
2
2

= z12 z22 + 4z32 4z42.


.

9.4.

( ).
:
.
Ln n-
(). Ln = (1, 2, , n)
. 1 = (11, 21, , n1) , ()
, 1. 1
() 1. (56) 1 = .
.
, , rang A = rang A1, ..
.
63. , Ln
.

,
. .
, :
66.
, r
, .. = 12 + 22 + + r2.
,

() = 12 + 22 + + 2 +12 r2.
64. , (+1)
,
. (1)
,
(.. n r) .
67 ( ).
,

, .
. () , = (1, 2, , n)
Ln R, = 11 + 22 + + nn.
.

.
= 12 + 22 + + 2 +12 r2 =
= z12 + z22 + + z2 z+12 zr2.
()
n

is xs , = 1, 2, , n (), z =
s =1

b
t =1

jt

xt , = 1, 2, , n

().

,
. , = . , . ,
, < . 1 = 2 = = = z+1 = = zr = zr+1
= = zn = 0. n + n .

, .
(10, 20, , n 0 ) . () (),
z (). (+10)2 (r0)2 = (z10)2 + (z20)2 + +
(z0)2. , +10 = = r0 = z10 = z20 = = z0
= 0. , z1 = z2 = = z = z+1 = = zr = zr+1 = = zn = 0
(10, 20, , n 0 ), , .. n. ,
. , = .
9.5.
65.
, 0 () > 0.
68.
,
.
. ()
.
12 + 22 + + 2 +12 r2
(),
r < n, r = n, < n. ,
n

, =

s =1

is

x s ().

. r < n, 1 = 2 = = n1 = 0,
n = 1 (). n n
, .
. , ,
. () = 0,
. r = n, < n. ,
, 12 + 22 + + n2. ,
n.

n. , .

.
69.
, .
70.
.
. n n- , = (1, 2, , n)
, .
= 11 + 22 + + nn , = 11+ 22 + + nn, (, ) = ,
, . , 2 = (, ) = .
(60), ,
. n . 2 = 12 +
22 ++ n2. ,
12 + 22 ++ n2. 68 ,
.
.
?
1. 412 12 + 322 23 + 624.
2. 412 13 + 222 423 + 324 + 542.
3. 412 512 + 322 223 + 32 + 424 42 .

. :
.
, .
1 2
1 2
x2 )
x 2 + 322 23 + 624 =
16
16
1
47
16
96
64 2 2304 2 768
x3 +
x4
x3 x 4 )
= (21 x2 )2 +
( 22 x2 x3 + x2 x4 +
4
16
47
47
2209
2209
2209
4 2 144 2 48
1
47
8
48
4

x3
x4 +
x3 x 4 = (21 x 2 )2 +
( x32 12 x3 x 4 + 36 x42 )
( x2 x3 + x4 ) 2
47
47
47
4
16
47
47
47

1. 412 12 + 322 23 + 624 = (412 12 +

=
= (21

1
47
8
48
4
x 2 )2 +
( x3 6 x 4 ) 2 . ,
( x2 x3 + x4 ) 2
4
16
47
47
47

3, .. ,
( 68).
2.
.

=
1

2
0

1
2

3
2

3
2,

1 = 0. ,

( 69).
3.
.
5

0
9
5
4
4

0
2
5

2
4

5
2 = 5,75 > 0, = 5
3 1 2 , 1 = 4 > 0, 2 =
3
1 =
=
3

5
2
2

3
0
1
1
0
1 1
0
2

2
0 1
0
1,25 > 0,
4 = = 14,25 > 0. , . ,
.
9.6.
66. ,
.
70.
, .
,
, , .
. ( ),
. ().
.
() = (11 + 22 + + nn)(11 + 22 + + nn).
:
1. = = 1, 2, , n. () = (11 + 22 + + nn)2.

:
1 = 11 + 22 + + nn , 2 = 2 , , n = n , () = 12.
. , 1.
2. .
:
1 = 11 + 22 + + nn , 2 = 11 + 22 + + nn , 3 = 3 , , n = n ,
= 12 .
:
1 = z1 z2 , 2 = z1 + z2 , 3 = z3 , , zn , = z12 z22.
. ,
2, 1.
, 1 = z1 i z2 , 2 = z1 +i z2 , 3 = z3 , , zn
= z12 + z22. 2.
1,
() = 12. 1=11 + 22 ++ nn .
= (11 + 22 + + nn)2, .. .
2,
= z12 + z22 = (z1 i z2)( z1 +i z2).
z1 z2 ,
() = (11 + 22 + + nn)(11 + 22 + + nn), ..
.
2 1,
= z12 z22 = (z1 z2)(z1 + z2). z1 z2 ,
() = (11 + 22 + + nn)(11 + 22 + + nn), .. .
.
: = 312 + 312 213 + 814 223 + 524 234 + 542.
. .
1
3 2
(3612 + 3612 2413 + 9614 + 922 + 432 + 6442 1223 + 4824 3234)
2
12
4
1
16 2
8
1
32
4 + 23 424 +
34 223 + 524 234 + 542 =
(61 + 32 23 + 84)2
3
3
3
12
1 9
1 2
1 2 2
1
16 2
8
( 22 + 323 324 + 32 + 42 234) +
3 +
4
34 32
4 +
34
3 4
3
3
3
3
3
3

234 + 542 =

1
1 3
(61 + 32 23 + 84)2
( 2 + 3 4)2. ,
12
3 2

2, 1, ,
. ,

1
3
3
3
3
(31 + 2 3 + 44 +
2 + 3 4)( 31 +
2 3 + 44
2 3 + 4).
3
2
2
2
2

= (1 + 2 + 4)(31 23 + 54).

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2000.
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1984.