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m n rn. ru mrnn. run
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rrum n nn. n n rn nm
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xu nxn mrnmm nm.
mx rx yxmr mrrt yu
ryrm nn, rru n nm n yu
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ny nxx y ryr x:
1) ymrt mrrt rt nn m m
rum mrm. Pnrt yuym rryy n
yumm rmm;
2) ymrt mr rrt nm u rn;
3) ymrt nnrt nru ynx n yumm rmm.
um r
urn ryr ymmm m:
A. ym rt.
ym rt mur n nn rrnx
ynx, nx rmr y.
. rn rt.
B n mr ryr mr +m, r nxr n n
n. m nmr 3 nn (2 rrux 1
Hm +mnx nnn :
1. Pxr nx rux nn n rn
2. r r mm?
3. nr n n x n: lady-killer, lab,
demonstration, Anglo-Saxon, a.m., bedroom, go-getter.
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n nr.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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4 3rmu n

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5 Bn n mm,
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A C. Bn n m.
B rm mrnmr u , rru
nru u, nt ym m , mr n
yu rm m n ny m, rmrurt ,
rmru nmru rm, nm r n.
A 8> ryry n nn nn.
B rm mrnmr mu ryry n,
mm m, t n; nr, nn x
n, nnn mm nnrt ,
nyrnrt nnrtx rn.
A 7. An.
B rm mrnmr n y, nnn x
n, mrnn , nyrn
nyrn, mru yn: murt, m
mm n; nrn y n.
A ?> nx.
B rm mrnr n r n xx n,
nrn x yx xx n.
A :> n.
B rm mrnr ymrt n u ru
+ry ymrt, mr n n nn n ux
urx u, mru rm n n nx nx, rn
n, yu t n.
A D. m n nrrn n nn.
B rm mrnmr rry mx n, x rm
m nrrtm, rn m, nmrn
m +nm, nrn x yx m;
rx nrrn n nn, nmu r
nn, nrn ym m.
A F> 3rmu n .
Iru rt . n n
x n. nt ynn mrnn x t n
mn nr n rn. r
mn mrnnx n. nrn +rmux n
y .
A E> Bn n mm rnm u.
H u n, u mmru u,
mm m, u, rr urmrt, mru ryry
rrtx n n x x, t
ynt nx y u.
A G. m u, nm mm.
ru munrt mru ryry n.
Hnru +rnru nn, xm n n
mrux nnn. H u n xrny mxr;
m yx u. n nn u.
Hm mm; n mmn.
A C6. mru ynnn n.
mru nmru n, m, rm,
mm, rnm. mru n rmru ynn n.
A CC> Hm nur nrr.
n nur n m . n nur
yrun r. Hu mmru nrrt.
Hu nrrt m urmr n m ym
A C8. uu n.
run nur, u xr x
n. Hmr n u
n, yrunrt, tmrt nm
u n r u n; u
n ux n, ryry rn u,
nrrt m; ru nn u.
A C7> nt nr .
rm nr , nr r, r
r rry rr t nt
r B; mn nr m nr
, n u r A; u n u
x n n B A. r ur n
A C?. Pnr nn n XX n.
B rm mrnmr r nr ,
yrun +mr, yrnm n (xm m);
ru nyr nn n n XX n.
nn (n, nx, n
n). rmu rx mr mrnn n nn
n XX n.
H4. 0 /
x mrrt r ryrn n rrumy
yy H (r n rm nm nt u
nxr n rn mn y n ) nmur:
1. nyt yu mn rry.
2. Hrny mm yx rrux nnn
nn nrux ynx.
3. u-nrtym ry ryrn, nx n,
n ynx r n , rx ry
rnx mrtx ryrn n nm rn n
ynx r yu n.
H r ryrn, xm, ntm urt,
n x mr (nm, n 1996-1997 yum y mx rmrrt
ryrn 3 y . 3xny . nny, r n nn ym
y 2 y n nx rrt
rm n rr).
B nr mrrt r ryrn n yy H
xr nyt r ryrn n nrn mm
yur n x. m nr yn nn y.
rnu nn mn nm yr ymmm
1. nrn ux ru nxn rm m
nm , nm, n.
2. nrn um m nm n ym
(nm, nxm mm, r x
tm mrnn n x x).
3. umyn nnnx nnn, nnx
rnnrt rnu mm ryrn x
ymrn nnx rx yrnx.
Arnn mrrt r ryrn yxr rx
nymun r rm ryux ynx r rn,
nn nr nrmx nn nrt r,
rt rn rry n my-r nny.
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1. The object oI lexicology. The relations oI lexicology and other linguistic
2. The notion oI the lexical system.
3. Some problems oI the theory oI words. Types oI motivation.
4. The etymological diversity oI the English vocabulary.
5. Words oI native origin.
6. General Ieatures oI borrowings.
7. The assimilation oI borrowings.
8. Interrelation between native words and borrowings.
9. International words.
1. Types oI morphemes.
2. Word-structure and its development. The root, the stem and patterns oI
3. Peculiarities and types oI word-Iormation.
4. General problems oI aIIixation.
5. Peculiarities oI English preIixes.
6. ClassiIication oI English suIIixes.
7. Polysemy, homonymy and synonymy oI derivational aIIixes.
8. Productivity and origin oI derivational aIIixes.
1. General Ieatures oI word-compounding.
2. Structural and semantic peculiarities oI English compounds.
3. ClassiIication oI compounds.
4. The meaning oI compounds.
5. Motivation oI English compounds.
6. Special groups oI compounds.
7. General problems oI conversion in English.
8. Treatment oI conversion in linguistic literature.
9. Semantic relations between conversion pairs.
10. Sources and productivity oI conversion.
1. General problems oI semasiology.
2. Types oI meanings.
3. Change oI meaning.
4. Polysemy and homonymy.
5. Major lexical groups oI words.
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1)Arym I.. H : u. n
ryrn/I.. Arym, .B. Atn, .. n. 3- .,
rrn. .: , 2001. . 44 -77.
2)A B.. u n r /B.. A. .,
3)Xru 3.A. H /3.A. Xru.
, 1992.
4)nn B.. Pnr nt rry
/B.. nn. ., 1969.
A$ l8>
1)Arym I.. H : u. n
ryrn/I.. Arym, .B. Atn, .. n. 3- .,
rrn. .: , 2001. . 78 -86.
2)At .B. H /.B. At. 3- .,
. . ., 1990. . 87-102
3)Pnnn .H. Hn n /.H. Pnnn.
Bx: -n BI, 1986. 148 .
4)mn A.. H /A.. mn.
., 1956.
5)Xru 3.A. H /3.A. Xru.
, 1992.
A$ l7>
1)Arym I.. H : u. n
ryrn/I.. Arym, .B. Atn, .. n. 3- .,
rrn. .: , 2001. . 86 - 114.
2)At .B. H /.B. At. 3- .,
. . ., 1990. . 60-81, 153-164.
3)Pnnn .H. Hn n /.H. Pnnn.
Bx: -n BI, 1986. 148 .
4)mn A.. H /A.. mn.
., 1956. . 83-100.
5)Xru 3.A. H /3.A. Xru.
, 1992.
A$ l?>
1)Arym I.. H : u. n
ryrn/I.. Arym, .B. Atn, .. n. 3- .,
rrn. .: , 2001. . 129-224.
2)At .B. H /.B. At. 3- .,
. . ., 1990.
3)mn A.. H /A.. mn.
., 1956.
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1. Borrowings Irom Romanic languages.
2. English derivation.
3. English non-pattern word-Iormation.
4. English Shortenings.
5. Semantic Iields and thematic groups.
6. English euphemisms.
7. Polysemy in English.
8. Hyponyms and hyperonyms.
9. English and Russian phraseology.
10.Australian and Canadian English.
11.American English.
12.British English.
13.Semantic development oI English words.
14.English Neologisms oI the 20
15.The etymology oI English aIIixes.
16.Metaphor and metonymy in English.
17.The historical aspect oI English borrowings.
18.ClassiIications oI phraseological units.
19.Word theory in linguistics.
20.Stylistic synonymy.
21.Paradigmatic relations in the lexical system.
22.Folk etymology in Russian and English.
23.Non-productive ways oI word-Iormation in English.
24.English proverbs and sayings.
25.English lexicography.
1. Two approaches the correlation oI a shortened word with its prototype
2. ClassiIication: apocope, aphaeresis, syncope,
3. Ellipsis
4. Blending (Iusion)
5. Abbreviations. Acronyms
1. Seme. Sememe.
2. ReIerential and Iunctional approaches.
3. Types oI mg: lexical and grammatical; denotational and connotational.
4. Change oI meaning: narrowing and widening oI meaning.
5. Processes oI generalization and specialization.
1. Diachronical and synchronical approaches
2. Role oI a context in understanding a word: lexical, grammatical, extra-
3. Metaphor: anthropomorphic, dead /live, spread .
4. Metonymy, synecdoche.
1. Homonyms proper.
2. Homophones
3. Paronyms
4. Diachronical and synchronical approaches
5. DiIIerence Irom polysemy
6. Homonymy in morphology and syntax
1. DiIIerence between pairs oI synonyms: spheres oI application, origin (native
borrowed), stylistic application. Relations oI inclusion between pairs oI
synonyms. Quasi-synonyms.
2. Basis Ior synonymy: denotational and connotational meaning.
3. Recognition oI synonyms: criterion oI reIerent, criterion oI
4. Synonymy in morphemes, phrases, sentences.
1. Basis Ior antonymy: degree oI a quality, direction oI action, polar sites in
space and time. Non-nominative types oI mg.
Other types oI words based on polarity oI meaning. Two-member opposition:
complementary antonyms. Reverse relations: reversives (conversives).
1. Hyponymy Hyperonymy
oc_KP \PTdUX TY abX
1. Lexico-grammatical group
2. Semantic Iield
3. Terminology
1. Terminology: set expressions, phrases, phraseological units, idioms,
2. Free word groups / phraseological units.
3. ClassiIication: phraseological Iusions, phraseological unities,
phraseological collocations
4. National peculiarities oI phraseological units.
5. Translation
6. International phraseological units
7. Criterion to diIIerentiate Iixed and Iree word groups.
8. Synonymic and antonymic pairs oI phrases.
1. DiIIerent variants and dialects oI English.
2. Status oI British and American English
3. History oI American English
4. InIluences Irom the diIIerent cultures and languages
1. Peculiarities in phonetics.
2. Peculiarities in spelling.
3. Peculiarities in vocabulary. Reasons. DiIIerent groups oI Americanisms.
4. Peculiarities in grammar.
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g iTdPXK MN RTbKPN `N\WMX_ qKZM[TWT\]> ^_K `N\WMX_ fTPb>
1. The object oI lexicology.
2. The notion oI the lexical system.
3. Some problems oI the theory oI words. Types oI motivation.
Lexicology is a branch oI linguistics which studies words and their usage.
Lexicology studies the meaning oI a word, its structure, combinability, its
Iormation. It investigates diIIerent types oI word groups. General lexicology
studies linguistic laws, rules, processes in general, characteristic oI various
languages. Special lexicology either deals with a certain language. Or it studies the
language Irom other aspects (historical, applied, descriptive, etc.).
Lexicology is connected with Grammar, Phonetics, Stylistics, History oI this or
that language and other linguistic disciplines.
Any language is also a system. For example, the signiIicance oI the word hand
depends on its relationship with the word arm. Secondly, its a lexical system
because its a system oI words.
Within the system oI the English language lexical units Iorm some principal types
oI relationships: syntagmatic and paradigmatic (e.g. within such groups as
synonyms, antonyms).
The basic unit oI the lexicology is the word. To give deIinition to the word is a
very diIIicult task as the word has many diIIerent aspects: it has its own sound
Iorm and some grammar Iorms. Also words are units oI speech, they serve the
purposes oI human communication.
The modern approach to word studies distinguishes the KZcKPNOW and the MNcKPNOW
structures oI the word. By the external structure oI the word we mean its
morphological structure: preIixes, suIIixes, roots, etc. The internal structure oI the
word is its meaning or its semantic structure. The area oI lexicology specializing in
the semantic studies oI the word is called semantics.
Another structural aspect oI the word is its unity (rn). There are about 500
thousand words in the English language.
The question oI motivation is connected with the meaning oI a word. The majority
oI words do not show any motivation. However iI it exists, it is oI three types: 1)
phonetic; 2) morphological (structural); 3) semantic.
ery oIten we meet words with mixed motivation.
1)The etymological diversity oI the English vocabulary.
2)Words oI native origin.
3)General Ieatures oI borrowings.
4)The assimilation oI borrowings.
5)Interrelation between native words and borrowings.
6)International words.
The English vocabulary contains a huge number oI words oI Ioreign origin.
Modern scholars suppose that borrowed words in the English language make about
65-70. Mostly they come Irom Latin, French. About 650 words were borrowed
Irom Scandinavian languages.
The character oI borrowings depends on the period oI British history when they
were borrowed.
There can be an original (primary) language and a transmitting one.
E.g. table Latin (original tabula) French (trans.) English.
There can be two ways oI borrowing words: 1)while talking/ communicating; 2)in
an indirect way (through literature).
Native words make the backbone oI the English language, though they are Iew in
number. Sometimes native words are called Old-English or Anglo-Saxon. They
Iorm 2 groups: oI common Indo-European origin; oI common Germanic origin.
Sometimes scientists distinguish words oI the English proper element words that
dont have similar representatives in other Indo-European or Germanic languages
(their roots or other elements are diIIerent). Native words in general are the most
active part oI the vocabulary. Among the 500 most Irequently used English words
more than 80 are oI native origin. They are oIten used in word-building (word-
Borrowings can be identiIied by their structural, phonetical, grammatical Ieatures.
Foe example, you can recognize words oI Latin and French origin by certain
suIIixes, preIixes or endings.
Borrowings undergo a process oI adaptation being adjusted to the rules oI the
receiving language.
Grammatical adaptation consists in a complete change oI the Iormer paradigm (the
system oI the grammatical Iorms) oI the borrowed word.
Lexical (semantic) assimilation deals with changes in the semantic structure oI a
word, in its meaning.
Phonetical assimilation is reIlected in changes oI the sound-Iorm and stress.
Some words were adopted by the language through Iolk etymology (ironical
misunderstanding oI the meaning oI a word).
There can be distinguished: -completely-assimilated borrowings (denizens); -late
borrowings (aliens); -barbarisms (not quite assimilated, with a distinct stylistic
Borrowed words caused some important changes in the make-up oI the English
vocabulary. Some borrowings became so popular that completely replaced native
words. Borrowed words also inIluenced specialization oI synonyms. Borrowed
words are higher in style, they sound bookish. They are learned words or terms.
The diIIerence can be seen iI we compare French and Scandinavian loans
(borrowed words). Words oI Scandinavian origin are democratic in character, that
is, homely expressions oI everyday importance.
II we look at other relations between native and borrowed words, we will come
across etymological doublets. These are words originating Irom the same
etymological source, but diIIering in phonemic shape and in meaning.
There can be even etymological triplets (groups oI three words oI common root).
ery oIten a word is borrowed by several languages. Such words are called
international. Many oI them are oI Latin and Greek origin.
Among international words we should distinguish translators Ialse Iriends and
1)Types oI morphemes.
2)Word-structure and its development. The root, the stem and patterns oI word-
3)Peculiarities and types oI word-Iormation.
A lot oI (English) words have a composite structure; they consist oI elements
called morphemes.
Morphemes the smallest meaningIul units in a language (which consist oI a word
or part oI a word that cannot be divided without losing its meaning) (Longman);
e.g. gun Iight er 3 morphemes.
All morphemes are subdivided into 2 large classes: root morphemes and
aIIixational morphemes. AIIixational morphemes include suIIixes and preIixes.
Some words consist only oI one root morpheme. They are called root words. There
are a lot oI root words in the English language thanks to the type oI word-building
called conversion.
Naturally root morphemes make words, but aIIixational morphemes cant make
words as a rule. The root morpheme is the lexical nucleus oI the word. They
contain the main lexical meaning oI the word.
AIIixational morphemes include derivational aIIixes (such as er, -or, -ness and so
on), inIlexional aIIixes (which carry the grammatical meaning oI the word
looked, the girls smile).
Also morphemes can be Iree and bound. Free morphemes can Iunction
independently, as independent words. sually they are root morphemes, though
there can be exceptions.
There can be morphemes which have diIIerent phonemic shapes. Such elements
are called allomorphs.
Speaking about the structure oI words, it depends on diIIerent morphemes which
they include. According to their structure (English) words are classiIied into:
1)root words (cat);
2)derived words (built with the help oI some derivational aIIixes beautiful);
3)compound words (consist oI at least 2 root morphemes football);
4)compound derivatives (include not only root morphemes, but also derivational
ones pig-headed).
The largest class oI the 4 above will be derived words.
Apart Irom some certain structure, each word has a paradigm the system oI all its
Iorms (mostly grammatical).
There are also variants oI words. These variants Iorm 2 groups:
1)lexico-semantic variants oI polysemantic words;
2) phonetic and morphological variants.
The structure oI a word undergoes changes, it can be developed. Some
morphemes can be Iused (joined) or lost in the course oI time.
As Ior the notion oI the root oI the word, its clear. We need another notion to
speak about patterns oI word-structure. The stem is that part oI the word that
remains unchanged throughout the paradigm. In the English language the root and
the stem oI a word oIten coincide (can be the same).
The stem structure may be represented in several ways. It may be generalized with
the help oI symbols: n Ior nouns, v Ior verbs, adj Ior adjectives, adv Ior
adverbs and so on.
All living languages are characterized by the creation oI new words. This process
is called word-building or word-Iormation the process oI creating new words
Irom elements existing in the language with the help oI some patterns. That is, iI
the pattern able exists in English we can create words according to it.
New words can appear because oI some semantic changes oI the word (changes in
the lexical meaning).
Derivation, conversion, semantic development are quite productive. As Ior non-
productive ways oI word-Iormation (not really spread), they are: sound-
interchange (blood to bleed); back-Iormation (baby-sitter to baby-sit).
1)Peculiarities oI English preIixes.
2)ClassiIication oI English suIIixes.
3)Polysemy, homonymy and synonymy oI English aIIixes.
4)Productivity and origin oI derivational aIIixes.
AIIixation is a productive way oI word-Iormation. It is creating new words by
adding an aIIix or several aIIixes to some root morpheme.
The analysis oI such words can be done on two levels:
1)morphemic (we analyze morphemes which build words);
2)derivational (words are analyzed Irom the point oI view oI their structure
complex or not).
Simple words contain only the primary stem (man, girl, take, go). Derived or
compound words also contain derivational aIIixes.
PreIixes mostly modiIy the lexical meaning oI the word:
SuIIixes do change the meaning oI the word, but also they can change the lexico-
grammatical class oI the word (the part oI speech).
It must be said that there are two types oI preIixes:
1) those that can be used as independent words (Iree morphemes) (like in the
words to undercook to go under);
2) those that cant Iunction independently (bound morphemes) (mis- - to
As a rule preIixes do not change the part oI speech, but there are several oI them
which do so. Thats why they are called convertive (changing the Iorm/ the part oI
PreIixes can be classiIied according to their origin. Here they can be divided into
native and borrowed.
PreIixes can also be classiIied into productive (which take part in deriving new
words in this particular period oI language development) and non-productive.
PreIixes can belong to diIIerent styles.
According to their meaning English preIixes are grouped the Iollowing way (the
major groups):
2) those oI negative meaning (bMX- - disloyal);
3) those denoting words with the opposite meaning or with the meaning oI
repetition oI some action (dNh - undress);
4) those denoting space, time and other relations (UPKh - prewar).
The main classiIication oI suIIixes is based on the parts oI speech. There can be:
1) noun suIIixes (-dom freedom);
2) adjectival (adjective Iorming) suIIixes (-Iul wonderful);
3) verb-Iorming suIIixes (-en to shorten);
4) adverb suIIixes (-ly).
From the point oI view oI meaning noun suIIixes indicate a doer oI an action; the
relation oI possession, belonging to some group; collectivity and other similar
notions; diminutiveness; Ieminine gender.
As Ior other peculiarities oI English suIIixes, there are those that change the part oI
speech and those that dont do it (grey - greyish).
The semantic type oI the word can be changed with the help oI some suIIixes. For
example, some words denoting objects become abstract (leader leadership).
As well as preIixes, English suIIixes can be stylistically coloured or neutral.
Since any living language can develop, there are some changes in the meaning oI
its aIIixes. Thats why we have such phenomena as polysemy, homonymy and
synonymy oI aIIixes. Its only natural that aIIixes have several meanings. Even the
most Iamous ones.
hKP 1) a doer oI some action (a living being);
2) an object (boiler);
3) a person who is in some state (watcher);
4) distinguishes a Ieature oI a man (chatter).
1) adverb-Iorming (quietly, readily);
By productive aIIixes we mean those that take part in deriving new words in this
particular period oI language development. The best way to identiIy productive
aIIixes is to look Ior them among neologisms (new words and occasional words).
From the etymological point oI view aIIixes are divided into the same two large
groups as words: native and borrowed. For the aIIix to be called borrowed the total
number oI words with this aIIix must be considerable in the new language.
1)General Ieatures oI word-compounding.
2)Structural and semantic peculiarities oI English compounds.
3)ClassiIication oI compounds.
4)The meaning oI compounds.
5)Motivation oI English compounds.
6)Special groups oI compounds.
Word-compounding is a way oI Iorming new words combining two or more stems.
Its important to distinguish between compound words and word-combinations,
because sometimes they look or sound alike. It happens because compounds
originate directly Irom word-combinations.
The major Ieature oI compounds is their inseparability oI various kinds: graphic,
semantic, phonetic, morphological.
There is also a syntactic criterion which helps us to distinguish between words and
word combinations. For example, between the constituent parts oI the word-group
other words can be inserted (a tall handsome boy).
In most cases the structural and semantic centre oI the compound word lies on the
second component. It shows what part oI speech the word is. The Iunction oI the
Iirst element is to modiIy, to determine the second element. Such compounds (with
the structural and semantic centre in the word) are called endocentric>
There are also exocentric compounds where the centre lies outside (pickpocket).
Another type oI compound words is called bahuvrihi compound nouns or
adjectives consisting oI two parts: the Iirst being an adjective, the second a noun.
There are several ways to classiIy compounds. Firstly, they can be grouped
according to their part oI speech. Secondly, compounds are grouped according to
the way the stems are linked together: morphological compounds (Iew in number);
syntactic compounds (Irom segments oI speech, preserving articles, prepositions,
The third classiIication is according to the combinability oI compounding with
other ways oI word-Iormation: 1) compounds proper (Iormed by a mere
juxtaposition oI two stems);
2) derived or derivational compounds (have aIIixes in their structure);
3) converted compounds;
4) contractive compounds (based on shortening);
5) compounds based on back Iormation;
Beside lexical meanings the components oI a compound word have distributional
and diIIerential meanings. By distributional meaning we understand the order, the
arrangement oI the stems in the word. The diIIerential meaning helps to distinguish
two compounds possessing the same element.
The structural meaning oI a compound may be described through the interrelation
oI its components. e.g. N Adj (heart-sick the relation oI cpmparison).
In most cases compounds OPK motivated. They can be completely motivated,
partially motivated, unmotivated. In partially motivated compounds one oI the
components (or both) has changed its original meaning. The meaning oI
unmotivated compounds has nothing to do with the meanings oI their individual
As Ior special groups oI compounds, here we distinguish:
a) reduplicative compounds;
b) ablaut combinations;
c) rhyme combinations.
Theres a certain group oI words that stand between compounds and derived.
These are words with so called semi-aIIixes: kiss UPTTY (about lipstick), IireUPTTY,

1)General problems oI conversion in English.
2)Semantic relations between conversion pairs.
3) Sources and productivity oI conversion.
In linguistics conversion is a type oI word-Iormation; it is a process oI creating a
new word in a diIIerent part oI speech without adding any derivational element.
The morphemic shape oI the original word remains unchanged. There are changes
in the syntactical Iunction oI the original word, its part oI speech and meaning.
The question oI conversion has been a controversial one in several aspects. The
term conversion was Iirst used by Henry Sweet at the end oI the 19
century. The
nature oI conversion has been analyzed by several linguists. A number oI terms
have been oIIered to describe the process in question.
The most objective treatment oI conversion belongs to ictoria Nikolaevna
artseva. According to her, it is a combined morphological, syntactical and
semantic way oI word-Iormation.
The process was called non-affixal derivation (Galperin) or zero derivation.
These terms have drawbacks, because there can be other examples oI non-aIIixal
or zero derivation which are not connected with the process described at the
beginning oI the lecture.
The term functional change (by Arthur ennedy) also has short-comings. The
term implies that the Iirst word merely changes its Iunction and no new word
appears. It isnt possible.
The word conversion we use talking about this way oI word-Iormation is not
perIect as well. It means the transIormation oI something into another thing, the
disappearance oI the Iirst word. But the old and the new words exist together.
The largest group related through conversion consists oI verbs converted Irom
nouns. The relations oI the conversion pair in this case can be oI the Iollowing
1) instrumental relations;
2) relations reIlecting some characteristic oI the object;
3) locative relations;
4) relations oI the reverse process, the deprivation oI the object.
The second major division oI converted words is deverbial nouns (nouns converted
Irom verbs).
They denote:
1) an instance oI some process;
2) the object or the result oI some action;
3) the place where the action occurs;
4) the agent or the instrument oI the action.
Conversion is not only a highly productive but also a particularly English way oI
word-building. There are a lot oI words in the English language that are short and
morphologically unmarked (dont indicate any part oI speech). By short words we
mean monosyllables, such words are naturally more mobile and Ilexible than
In English verbs and nouns are specially aIIected by conversion. Conversion has
restrictions. Its impossible to use conversion iI verbs cannot represent some
process as a succession oI isolated actions. Besides, the structure oI the Iirst word
shouldnt be complicated.
Conversion is typical not only oI nouns, verbs and adjectives, but other parts oI
speech as well, even such minor elements as interjections and prepositions or
shortened words.
1. General problems oI shortening.
2. Peculiarities oI shortenings.
Shortening stands apart Irom other ways oI word-Iormation because it doesnt
produce new words. It produces variants oI the same word. The diIIerences
between the new and the original word are in style, sometimes in their meaning.
There are two major groups oI shortenings (colloquial and written abbreviations).
Among shortenings there can be polysemantic units as well.
Shortenings are classiIied a) according to the position oI the shortened part oI the
word (clipped words), b) into shortened word combinations, c) into abbreviations,
d) into blendings.
Among clipped words there are cases oI apocope, aphaeresis, and syncope.
Abbreviations can be read as in the alphabet, as one word.
1.General problems oI semasiology. The reIerential and the Iunctional approaches
to the meaning oI English words.
2.Types oI meaning.
3.Change oI meaning.
6.Synonyms, antonyms and other semantic groupings.
The branch oI linguistic which specializes in the study oI meaning is called
semantics or semasiology. The modern approach to semantics is based on the Iact
that any word has its inner Iorm which is called the semantic structure.
There are two main approaches to the meaning oI a word: reIerential and
The reIerential approach is based on the notion oI the reIerent (the object the word
is devoted to). It also operates the notions oI the concept and word. The word and
the reIerent are related only through the concept. The drawback oI the approach is
in the Iact that it deals with psychology mostly.
According to the Iunctional approach the meaning oI a word depends on the
Iunction oI the word in a sentence. The approach is not perIect because it can help
us only to compare the meanings oI words. Speaking about the meaning oI a word
both approaches should be combined.
The meaning oI a word can be divided into grammatical and lexical. The latter is
divided into denotational and connotational meanings. The denotational meaning
gives the general idea which is characteristic oI a certain word. The connotational
meaning combines the emotive colour and the stylistic value oI a word.
The smallest elements oI meaning are called semes.
There are words with either only the denotational or the connotational meaning.
Causes oI semantic changes can be extra linguistic and linguistic. Extra linguistic
causes are historical in their nature. Among linguistic causes we distinguish
discrimination oI synonyms, ellipsis, linguistic analogy.
As Ior the nature oI semantic changes, it is connected with some sort oI association
between the old and the new meanings. These associations can be oI two types: oI
similarity (linguistic metaphor), oI contiguity (linguistic metonymy).
The result oI semantic changes can be seen in denotational and connotational
meanings. The denotational meaning can be generalized or specialized. The
connotational meaning can be worsened or elevated.
Most words are polysemantic. Monosemantic words are usually Iound among
terms and scientiIic words. The ability oI words to have more than one meaning is
called polysemy. Polysemy exists only in the language system.
The semantic structure oI a polysemantic word may be described as a combination
oI its semantic variants. Each variant can be described Irom the point oI view oI
their denotational and connotational meaning.
Polysemy is closely connected with the notion oI the context (the minimum stretch
oI speech which is suIIicient to understand the meaning oI a word). The main types
oI context are lexical and grammatical.
Homonyms are words identical in sound and spelling or at least in one oI these
aspects, but diIIerent in their meaning. According to ProIesor Smirnitsky
homonyms can be divided into two groups: Iull homonyms (represent the same
part oI speech and have the same paradigm), partial homonyms (dont coincide
either in their spelling or paradigm).
Another classiIication oI homonyms deals with homophones and homographs.
The sources oI homonyms are phonetic changes, borrowing, word-building
(especially conversion), shortening.
There are several classiIications oI various word groups. The semantic similarity
and polarity are connected with synonyms and antonyms.
Synonyms are words diIIerent in sound-Iorm but similar in meaning. According to
inogradov synonyms can be divided ideographic, stylistic and absolute. A
dominant synonym (in any row oI synonyms) is more Irequent in communication
and contains the major denotational component oI the synonyms in question.
Antonyms are words belonging to the same part oI speech with some opposite
As Ior other groups oI words, there are hyponyms, hyperonyms, semantic Iields,
thematic groups.
1.The development oI the vocabulary. Structural and semantic peculiarities oI new
2.Ways oI enriching the vocabulary.
II the language is not dead, its developing all the time. The items that disappear
are called archaisms. They can be Iound among numerous lexical units and
grammatical Iorms.
New words or expressions, new meanings oI older words are called neologisms.
The introduction oI new words reIlects developments and innovations in the world
at large and in society.
Apart Irom political terms, neologisms come Irom the Iinancial world, computing,
pop scene, drug dealing, crime liIe, youth culture, education.
Neologisms come into the language through
1)productive ways oI word Iormation;
2)ways without any pattern;
3)semantic changes oI old words;
4)borrowing Irom other languages.
There are numerous cases oI blending, compounding, conversion. Borrowed words
mostly come Irom French, apanese, the American variant oI the English language.
(% < r<A
1. The subject oI lexicology. Relations oI lexicology with other linguistic
2. Types oI word motivation (phonetic, morphological, semantic).
3. The etymological diversity oI the English vocabulary.
4. Typical Ieatures oI native words.
5. General Ieatures oI borrowings. International words.
6. The assimilation oI borrowings. Interrelations oI native words and
7. Types oI morphemes.
8. Word structure and its development. The root, the stem and patterns oI
9. Peculiarities oI preIixes. General problems oI aIIixation in English.
10.ClassiIication oI English suIIixes.
11.Polysemy, homonymy and synonymy oI derivational aIIixes.
12.General Ieatures oI word-compounding. Structural and semantic secularities
oI English compounds.
13. The classiIication oI English compounds.
14.The meaning oI English compounds . Their motivation.
15.Special groups oI compounds.
16.General problems oI conversion. Treatment oI conversion in linguistic
17.Semantic relations between conversion pairs.
18.Sources oI conversion . Its productivity.
19.General problems oI shortening. Peculiarities oI English shortenings .
ClassiIication oI shortenings.
20.General problems oI semasiology. ReIerential and Iunctional approaches to
the meaning oI English words.
21.Types oI meaning.
22.Change oI meaning.
23.Polysemy. Metaphor and metonymy.
24.Homonymy and its relations to polysemy .
25.Synonyms, antonyms and other semantic groups oI words.
26.Phraseology. Phraseological units , their Ieatures. Phraseological units and
Iee word-combinations.
27.ClassiIications oI phraseological units .
28.ariants and dialects oI the English languages. The American variant oI
29.The development oI the English vocabulary . Archaisms and neologisms.
0 -0s t 0 0H
`Z> C
Translate the Iollowing into Russian. State Irom what languages the Iollowing
expressions and shortenings are borrowed.
coup dtat, kindergarten, tte--tte, Blitzkrieg, enIant terrible, persona grata, beau
monde, leit-motiv, bon mot, prima donna, ottava rima, Hun, nazi, etc., e. g., a. m.,
p. m.
`Z> 8
Group the Iollowing words according to their origin.
caItan, operetta, machine, vanilla, waltz, skipper, algebra, telephone, dollar,
wigwam, mazurka, pagoda, kangaroo, taboo, gorilla, tobacco, chauIIeur, beauty,
umbrella, squaw, nun, sputnik, cosmodrome.
`Z> 7
Compare the meaning oI the Iollowing Russian and English words. se them in
sentences oI your own.
xr - character, nrt - reralize, rr - agitator, yr -
conductor, m - magazine, nynrt - speculate, nr - incident,
r - object, nnnt principal
`Z> ?
Explain the etymology oI the Iollowing words. Write them out in three columns: a)
Iully assimilated words; b) partially assimilated words; c) unassimilated words.
Explain the reasons Ior your choice in each case.
ballet, beet, butter, skin, take, cup, police, monk, garage, phenomenon, wine, large,
lesson, criterion, nice, coup dtat, river, loose, skirt.
`Z> :
Give 5 own examples oI words which could be translators Ialse Iriends.
Pick out words with noun-building suIIixes. Explain the meaning oI the words.
1. He did not know how the oIIicialdom would end the scandal. 2. Gemmas
Iriendship, her charm, her simple comradeship were the brightest things in his liIe.
3. Gabriels wiIe served out spoonIuls oI the pudding and passed the plates down
the table. 4. It was a dull, respectable, uninspired townlet, but scarcely a hole. 5.
The grey changelessness oI things got hold oI me. 6. The cat is a splendid mouser.
7. When he returned to the palace the marketing began. 8. Please, auntie says,
will you try a piece oI our Mayday cake? 9. The pavement oI the road took two
months. 10. Shall I tell the receptionist that Mrs. Baird is a regular case and open
an account Ior her?
`Z> 8
Read the Iollowing sentences. Translate the words in bold type into Russian.
1. In a c_Td\_cWKXX moment he put his hand in his pocket. 2. She seemed
PKXMXcWKXX. 3. He continued in his _TNK]Kb voice. 4. The coIIee was so XaKKcMX_, it
made her shudder. 5. He passed a [dPcOMNKb corridor. 6. The boy was still standing
there, peering cPOMNaOPb. 7. These proIessions are only in XKOXTNOW demand. 8.
Cant you see she is Kb\] aIter being up all night? 9. No sense in getting
UONM[u], she assured herselI. 10. She was more XUMcKYdW than all the rest put
together. 11. His words were UWO]Ydl but his look became grave.
`Z> 7
State the origin and explain the meaning oI the suIIixes in: childhood, hardship,
Ireedom, toward, brotherly, granny, hatred, hireling, village, drunkard, limitation.
`Z> ?
Explain the diIIerence between the meanings oI the Iollowing words produced
Irom the same root by means oI diIIerent aIIixes. Translate them into Russian:
watery waterish, embarrassed embarrassing, colourIul coloured, respected
respectIul, respectable, manly mannish.
Read the Iollowing sentences, translate them. DeIine what part oI speech the words
in bold type are and what part oI speech they are derived Irom.
1. Her heart _dN\KPKb Ior action. 2. The road was LMNKb. 3. The cows are LMWuMN\
well now. 4. His Iace [_MWWKb suddenly. 5. Cal jTM[Kb his dream. 6. The pages had
]KWWTaKb with age. 7. He slowly [TPuKb the bottle. 8. A butterIly aMN\Kb its way
into the air. 9. He aKKuKNbKb with us. 10. She careIully VONbO\Kb the arm.
`Z> 8
Explain the meanings oI the verbs in bold type. Translate the verbs into Russian.
to UTabKP ones nose, to KWVTa ones way, to _KOb a delegation, to UOPPTc the
grown-ups, to NdPXK the wounded, to VTXX the job, to bT[u the ship, to \OPO\K the
car, to VOPPKW beer, to cTPcdPK the prisoner, to ON\KP the mother, to MN[TNjKNMKN[K
the host
`Z> 7
Supply the verbs which the nouns in bold type are derived Irom. Translate the
original and the converted words into Russian. Comment on the semantic character
oI the derived nouns.
1. She is an awIul cKOXK> 2. The boy happened to be a [_KOc. 3. She is the well-
know \TXXMU oI the town. 4. The night aOc[_ rushed to his help. 5. Then Iollowed
an interminable aOMc> 6. His long _dNc Ior the book resulted in a Iailure. 7. The
station is a halI-an-hour aOWu Irom our house. 8. Christine had the PdN oI Mrs.
Herberts kitchen. 9. With his heavy bag and torn shoes he looked like a cPOLU.
10. He was certainly on the LTjK.
`Z> ?
Comment on relations within the conversion pairs. se the verbs in your own
sentences: dog to dog, finger to finger, dress to dress, pocket to pocket,
back to back, monkey to monkey
`Z> :
Translate and explain the Iollowing cases oI conversion: to pirate, to worm, to up,
to engineer, to oh-oh, to thou.
Read the Iollowing sentences. Explain the meaning oI the adjectives in bold type in
1. He was wearing a VPONbhNKa overcoat and hat. 2. His hair was a bit reddish
beIore he went UMKVOWb. 3. It was a snowy UMc[_hVWO[u night. 4. The colour
deepened in her POMNhaKc cheeks. 5. She never said she was _TLKXM[u. 6. He
ignored the red light as iI he were [TWTdPhVWMNb. 7. Dont be so VWTTbhc_MPXc],
Iather 8. He acted with pride, which one could not expect Irom such a WO[uK]h
LMNbKb person. 9. She is a tall woman with black hair and eyes and an MjTP]h
a_McK Iace. 10. The woman stared at her papers with XWKKUhYMWLKb eyes. 11. He
held his hands Ior a moment against his bKKUhWMNKb cheeks.
`Z> 8
Comment on the meanings oI the Iollowing compound nouns. Translate them into
thumb-nail, nerve-knot, danger-point, daylight, cream-puII, corner-room, breast-
pocket, side-door, egg-plant, jelly-Iish, box-car, air-brake, inkstain, love-quarrel,
girl-page, restaurant-car, money-box, hand-shake, stop-light, sun-light
`Z> 7
Arrange the Iollowing compounds into three groups according to their motivation:
Iully or partially-motivated and unmotivated: light-hearted, butterfly, cabman,
blackberry, wolf-dog, dragon-fly, looking-glass, bluestocking, necklace,
`Z> ?
Form as many compounds as possible with grass-, hand-, tree-, -looking.
`Z> C
Write out in Iull the Iollowing shortened words:
A.T., NO, ad, comIy, -boat, cycle, para troops, prep, props, sub, B-girl,
`Z> 8
Translate the Iollowing shortenings and comment on the type oI them, give their
Iull Iorm:
H-bomb, mike, tec, comIy, NESCO, Bella, cause, para troops, props.
`Z> C
Read the Iollowing sentences. DeIine the means by which the words in bold type
are built. Translate the words into Russian.
1. She XcKKWKb herselI to endure the VdLUMN\ over the rough road. 2. She looked
aIter the nurse with a bT\WMuK expression and slowly began to put on her bPKXXMN\h
\TaN. 3. eKKWMN\X [TNcMNdOWW] jTM[Kb cease to be Ieelings and Ieelings never
voiced bKKUKN with their bdLVNKXX. 4. LiIe had PTTcKb these ideas Iirmly in their
minds. 5. He glanced at the clock and Kb\Kb nearer to the door. 6. He was going to
have tea with his OdNcMKX. 6. She had no intention oI being XMbKcPO[uKb Irom the
subject. 7. Then her mind UM[cdPKb the WO]Tdc. 8. ePM\_cYdWW] bad roads The bus
was bMc[_Kb in that narrow cdPNMN\. 9. He took the _TdPXhTWb dish away. 10. He
was _KOPchXTPK over the sudden collapse oI a promising career. 11. I need not say
that such a breach oI conIidence is dNc_MNuOVWK. 12. Then she [OcYTTcKb to the
opening, UOdXMN\ Ior another second to listen. 13. It was a long hall UOUKPKb and
[OPUKcKb in dark green. 14. Im always called Mother at home, because Ive
LTc_KPKb him ever since my dear mother died.

`Z> C
State the semes oI the Iollowing words: baby, monkey.
`Z> 8
Give the denotational and connotational meaning oI the Iollowing words:
granny, to pass away, to Ieather-bed, to soIt-soap, to cosmeticize.
`Z> C
Pick out all the phraseological units Irom the Iollowing sentences and classiIy
them. Translate all the passages into Russian.
1. . Id like to have a day or two in which to think it over. . Why, certainly,
certainly, Mr. Cowperwood, replied Stener genially. Thats all right. Take you
time. 2. os, a clumsy and timid horseman, did not look to advantage in the
saddle. Look at him, Amelia dear. . Such a bull in a china shop I never saw. 3.
In the end he parted Iriends with both Tighe and Rivers. Thats a smart young
Iellow, observed Tighe, rueIully. Hell make his mark, rejoined Rivers. 4.
There was no reason why Anna should not make a splendid match. oe and Ed
might also marry since they were not destined to set the world on Iire in
commerce. 5. And he concluded . that no man could tell what he would do iI he
were in the shoes oI another man. 6. A simple cold, caught in the room with
double windows . and ames was in deep waters. 7. o, he said. I should like
to hear what sort oI water youre in. I suppose youre in debt? 8. He was not
vastly interested in Clare. She had always been to him one oI those women who
took the bit between their teeth and were bound to Ietch up now and again with
broken knees. 9. . the sooner you are gone bag and baggage, the better Ior all
parties. 10. This lady knew all the Forsytes, and having been at unes at home,
was not at a loss to see with whom she had to deal. 11. The sea run high and the
boat may be dashed to pieces on the rocks. 12. I guess Ill pop outside and have a
word with Miss Bunting. 13. The matter with her is that I played the Iool with her,
thats all. 14. II you cry I will give Miss Wilson a piece oI my mind Ior worrying
you. 15. I know that we cut a very poor Iigure beside you.
`Z> 8
Complete the Iollowing phrases so that they make English proverbs and
phraseological units. Explain the meaning oI the given part.
1. A bird in the hand. 2. The last straw. 3. To eat ones cake and have it. 4. Old
bird. 5. The early bird. 6. HalI the battle. 7. A silver lining. 8. Fine Ieathers. 9. A
new broom. 10. A bee in ones bonnet. 11. Spilt milk. 12. A mares nest.
`Z> 7
Give as many phraseological units as possible, using any oI the Iollowing words:
to beat, to catch, to mind, bone, love, mouth, dead, ready
`Z> C
Explain the logic oI the transIer oI meaning.
1.The wings oI a bird, oI a plane, oI a mill; on wings oI joy.
2.The Ioot oI a man, oI a hill, oI a bottle.
3.Tongues oI Ilame; The childs tongue is coated.
4.The neck oI a girl, oI a bottle.
5.Moscow is the heart oI the country; My heart is beating with excitement.
6.The mouth oI a pot, oI a river, oI a cave.
`Z> 8
Discuss the Iollowing cases oI metonymy:
1. He is the _TUK oI the Iamily. 2. She was the UPMbK oI her school. 3. I have never
read vOWwO[ in the original. 4. My sister is Iond oI old [_MNO. 5. The [TYYKKhUTc is
boiling. 6. The UMc loudly applauded. 7. He succeeded to the [PTaN.
`Z> C
Give all the meanings you know oI the Iollowing words, illustrating them with
to take, to Ieel, to let, power, driIt, institute, to dress
`Z> C
Spell the Iollowing homophones. Translate them into Russian and use them in
sentences oI your own.
siril, Ia:, lein, meiz, di, pleit, prei, roun, bi:t, beri, seil,
sent, pi:s
`Z> 8
Transcribe the Iollowing homographs. State their diIIerent meaning.
lead, compact, row, invalid, polish, desert, wind, bow, tear, close
`Z> 7
Choose the right word:
1)Our team will (loose, lose) unless it learns to pass the ball.
2)AIter dinner we all (set, sat) round the table.
3)Ann will clean all the carpets (accept, except) this one.
4)Liz (quite, quiet, quit) likes her job and spends a lot oI time at work.
5)Nick is not sure (weather, whether) eII is going with us.
6)im (through, threw) the javelin a record distance.
`Z> ?
Speak about the type oI homonyms and explain the diIIerence!
1) proceed precede
2) aIIect eIIect
3) access excess
4) principal principle
5) stationary stationery
6) dessert desert n desert v
7) cite site sight
8) persecute procecute
9) peace - piece
`Z> :
Translate paying attention to homonyms:
") #fter an incident in $roydon involving a prison van and a concrete
mixer, police are looking for eighteen hardened criminals.
%) &th! # professional burglar' (r. )lum, you told me *on+s ,ncle $harlie
was a biologist.
-) (r. )lum! #ll . said was, he studies cell structures.
`Z> D
Explain what stylistic device is used in these proverbs and sayings, what it is based
") # clean fast is better than a dirty breakfast.
%) /ho feasts till he is sick, must fast till he is well.
-) Feast today and fast tomorrow.
0) .s life worth living1 - .t depends upon the liver.
2) /hat do you do with the fruit1 -/e eat what we can, and what we can+t
eat we can.
3) 4er nose was sharp, but not so sharp as her voice or the suspiciousness,
with which she faced me.
5) 6owadays all of us are so hard up, that only pleasant things to pay are
compliments, it+s the only thing we pay.
7) 8+4enry about a caf9! .t+s atmosphere was thick, it+s napery and soup were
`Z> C
Translate the Iollowing words into English and give as many synonyms to them as
you can.
nrt, nmx, yn, n, urt, urt, nrt,
`Z> 8
In what respects do the Iollowing synonyms diIIer?
1.policeman, bobby, cop
2.master, owner, head, proprietor, possessor
3.worker, labourer, toiler, hand
4.Iabricate, construct, Irame, invent, Iorge, manuIacture, Ieign
5.mansion, house, habitation, residence, abode
`Z> 7
Change the Iollowing sentences so that they express the contrary meaning by using
antonyms. State whether they are absolute or derivational antonyms.
1. All the seats were T[[dUMKb. 2. The room was lighted by the XcPTN\ rays oI the
sun. 3. He ObbKb three hundred to the sum. 4. I came in while you were OXWKKU. 5.
A lamp is a NK[KXXOP] thing in this room. 6. The door was [WTXKb and WT[uKb. 7.
In the second year oI their residence the company seemed especially to MN[PKOXK.
8. The little boy was TdcXMbK the car. 9. He drew two [PTTuKb lines. 10. qM\_c
curtains hung in the dining-room windows; thereIore it was WM\_c.
`Z> ?
Are the Iollowing words synonyms? Prove your point oI view>
n. pillow, cushion
sink, basin
desktop, laptop
stove, vent,
linen, underwear
mustache, whiskers
reck, shelf
clock, watch
rocket, missile
mirror, looking glass
:etty, port
fireplace, mantelpiece
watch, clock
v. sail, float, swim
hurt, ache
cut, slice, chop
clean, peel
ad:. eatable, edible
private, personal
`Z> :
Do you think that Sonnet 66 by W.Shakespeare is based on polarity oI words? Are
these words antonyms? Why?
W.Shakespeare Sonnet LXI
Tired with all these, Ior restIul death I cry,
As, to behold desert a beggar born,
And needy nothing trimmed in jollity,
A purest Iaith unhappily Iorsworn,
And gilded honour shameIully misplaced,
And maiden virtue rudely sytrumpeted,
And right perIection wrongIully disgraced,
And strength by limping sway disabled,
And art made tongue-tired by authority,
And Iolly doctor-like controlling skill,
And simple truth miscalld simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill;
Tired with all these, Irom these would I be gone,
Save that, to die, I live my love alone.
`Z> D
Is Sonnet 80 by W.Shakespeare based on similarity oI meaning oI words? Are
those words synonyms? Prove.
W.Shakespeare Sonnet CXXX
My mistress eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is Iar more red than her lips red;
II snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
II hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
Ive seen roses damasked, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perIumes is there more delight
That in the breath that Irom my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a Iar more pleasant sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground;
And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with Ialse compare.
Remember 5 titles oI diIIerent types oI pieces oI Iiction (stories, novels, plays),
based on antonymy.
`Z> C
Translate the Iollowing words into English, giving two variants British and
y, , nr, r , nm, n , ryr 2
y, nurt, mm, ut, ymx, nnu m
`Z> 8
Point out words: 1) the meaning oI which in American English is entirely diIIerent
Irom that in British English, 2) the general meaning oI which is the same in both
American and British English, but which have acquired an additional speciIic
meaning in American English.
apartment, tardy, guess, homely, mad, sick, billion, corn, dessert, commute, lunch,
`Z> 7
Translate the Iollowing, using the prepositions current in America and then in
rrt yy, rt n, xrt n, xrt yn .,
urnr nrt, urnrt r, nrt
`Z> ?
Give the English spelling oI the Iollowing words:
thru, humor, apologize, center, pretense, inIlexion, jewelry, quarreled, woolen,
harbor, pijamas, gipsy, program
1.To electrocute is an example oI.
a)abbreviation. b)shortened word combination.
c)blending. d)conversion.
2.a)AIIixational morphemes are always Iree.
b) AIIixational morphemes are always bound.
c) AIIixational morphemes can be bound and Iree.
d) AIIixational morphemes carry no meaning.
3.Glance is the . oI look.
a)hyponym b)hyperonym c)antonym d)homonym
4.To be over the moon is.
a)an idiom. b)a Iree phrase.
c)a sentence. d)a compound word.
5.The word dance is pronounced like dns
a)in the British variant. b)in the American variant.
c)only by uneducated people. d)only by educated people.
6.Lounge music is.
a)an archaism. b)an antonym. c)a neologism. d)a synonym.
7.Skin, sky, skate are oI . origin.
a)Latin b)Celtic c)Scandinavian d)native
8.Military terms were borrowed Irom .
a)Spanish b)French c)Italian d)Latin
9.Skin-deep and true-blue are.
a)derived words. b)compound words. c)compound derivatives. d)root words.
10.Sound interchange is.
a)a highly productive type oI word-Iormation.
b)widely-spread in English.
c)a non-productive type oI word-Iormation.
d)never used in word-Iormation.
11.The interjections Wow, Gee have.
a)only a grammatical meaning. b)only a denotational meaning.
c)no meaning at all. d)only a connotational meaning.
12.The words circle, to encircle, circular represent .
a)synonyms b)hyponyms c)diIIerent parts oI speech d)compounds
13.Face to Iace is.
a)a Iree phrase. b)a set phrase.
c)similar to a noun. d)similar to a verb.
14.All that glitters is not gold is.
a)an ordinary sentence. b)a word combination.
c)a proverb. d)a Iree phrase.
15.Odd one out.
a)a synonym b)a homonym c)an historism d)a hyponym
16.The pattern oI the expression by hook or by crook is.
a)Adv N pr Adv N b)pr N con pr N c)pr N pr pr N d)Adv
con Adv
17.Australian English .
a)is a variant oI the language. b)is an independent language.
c)is a dialect. d)doesnt exist.
18.Strong-willed and warm-hearted are.
a)root words. b)compound-derivatives.
c)derived words. d)compound words.
19.The FBI is an example oI .
a)a shortened word combination. b)abbreviation.
c)blending. d)conversion.
20.Truth and lie are.
a)derivational antonyms b)absolute antonyms
c)relative antonyms d)never used as antonyms
21.Flower is the . oI tulip.
a)hyponym b)hyperonym c)antonym d)homonym
22.Odd one out:
a)to be on cloud nine b)a bull in a china shop
c)to make both ends meet d)wonderIul holidays
23.To cook well is.
a)an idiom b)a Iree phrase c)an inIinitive d)a set expression
24.The American spelling oI the word nnr is .
a)colour b)color c)coloure d)coulor
25.The British sound a: in the words dance, chance is changed into . in the
American variant.
a)o: b) c) d)
26.Train-surIing is.
a)an historism b)a barbarism c)an archaism d)a neologism
27.The combination oI letters . is a sign oI Ioreign origin.
a)ou b)ie c)eau d)or
28.#stalavista, $hao are.
a)barbarisms b)native words c)partially assimilated words d)completely
assimilated words
29.The adjective suIIixes ous, -ful are.
a)homonyms b)synonyms c)antonyms d)Iree
30.To burgle is an example oI.
a)conversion b)aIIixation c)shortening d)back-Iormation
31.ust and unjust are.
a)derivational antonyms b)absolute antonyms
c)relative antonyms d)never used as antonyms
32.The British variant oI the word r is.
a)a candy b)a cake c)a sweet d)a chocolate
33.In the phrase I see thee in my dreams thee is .
a)a neologism b)a barbarism c)an archaism d)a verb

($< <AA; $%
1. Arym I.. H : u. H
ryrn. 3- ., rrn. /I.. Arym, .B. Atn, ..
n. .: , 2001. 288 .
Xru 3.A. H / 3.A. Xru.
: Bm m, 1992.
2. Amn .. n / .. Amn. H., 1968.
y A.B. A / A.B. y. ., 1970.
y A.B. u nm / A.B. y. .,
3. m B.. rrn nr mr mrnx n/ B..
m. ., 1981.
qKZM[TWT\] xcomes Irom Greek) is a branch oI linguistics which studies words and
their usage. Lexicology studies the meaning oI a word, its structure, combinability,
its Iormation. It investigates diIIerent types oI word groups. It also studies the
vocabulary oI this or that society.
RTPU_KLKX the smallest meaningIul units in a language (which consist oI a
word or part oI a word that cannot be divided without losing its meaning)
All morphemes are subdivided into 8 large classes: PTTc morphemes and
OYYMZOcMTNOW morphemes. AIIixational morphemes include suIIixes and preIixes.
gWWTLTPU_X OPK morphemes which have diIIerent phonemic shapes. They are
pronounced in diIIerent ways.
K>\> to close z, close (n, adj) s
to please i:z, pleasant ez, pleasure ple3
yOcMjK aTPb is a word which belongs to the original English stock as known Irom
the earliest available manuscripts oI the old English period.
vTPPTaKb aTPb is a word taken Irom another language and modiIied in phonemic
shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards oI English.
^_K `N\WMX_ UPTUKP KWKLKNc words that dont have similar representatives in
other Indo-European or Germanic languages (their roots or other elements are
diIIerent). `>\> bird, boy, lord, lady, woman, daisy, always.
^_K OXXMLMWOcMTN TY VTPPTaMN\X - a partial or complete adaptation to the
phonetic(al), grammatical, semantic, morphological and graphical systems oI the
receiving language. The degree oI assimilation depends on the importance,
Irequency and length oI use oI borrowings.
`c]LTWT\M[OW bTdVWKcX are words originating Irom the same etymological source,
but diIIering in phonemic shape and in meaning.
^PONXWOcMTNhWTONX are a special group oI borrowings that is not taken into the
vocabulary oI another language more or less in the same phonemic shape. It
undergoes the process oI translation.
fTPb VdMWbMN\ xaTPb YTPLOcMTNz is a process oI building new words out oI the
material available in the language according to the structural and semantic
rules and laws oI this language.
JTdNb MNcKP[_ON\K MX gradation oI sounds occupying one and the same place in
the sound Iorm and the same morpheme in various cases oI its occurrence.
JcPKXX MNcKP[_ON\K is one oI the ways oI word building, based on a shiIt oI stress
(ob:ect, survey, perfect).

gYYMZOcMTN is Iormation oI new words with the help oI aIIixes available in the
language; includes preIixation, suIIixation, inIixation.
kPKYMZOcMTN is Iormation oI words with help oI preIixes.
JdYYMZOcMTN is Iormation oI words with the help oI suIIixes.
|NYMZOcMTN is Iormation oI words with the help sound interchange; usually Ialls into
two groups vowel and consonant interchange>
kPTbd[cMjK aIIixes are those that take part in deriving new words in this particular
period oI language development.
iTNjKPXMTN is one oI the principal ways oI building words which implies
transition oI a word Irom one part oI speech to the other.
fTPbh[TLUTdNbMN\ x[TLUTXMcMTNz is a way oI Iorming new words combining
two or more stems. Together with conversion and aIIixation it is very productive in
Modern English.
nKbdUWM[OcMjK compounds are based on onomatopoeic repetition: hush-hush, blah-
The elements oI OVWOdc compounds have changes in their phonetic shape: sing-
song, ping-pong, to shilly-shally.
n_]LK [TLVMNOcMTNX are twin Iorms consisting oI two elements based on
rhyming: helter-skelter, hoity-toity.
J_TPcKNMN\ x[WMUUMN\) is a word-building process which involves qualitative
changes and quantitative changes in a word; a signiIicant subtraction, in which
part oI the original word is taken away.
gUT[TUK (VO[uh[WMUUMN\) is Iinal clipping: the beginning oI a word is retained, the
end is clipped, i.e. preservation oI the Iirst part
gU_OKPKXMX (ITPKh[WMUUMN\z is initial clipping oI a word: the end oI the word is
retained, the beginning is clipped.
J]N[TUK is Iinal and initial clipping combined: the middle part is retained, the
beginning and the end are clipped.
`WWMUXMX is a special group oI shortenings: the omission oI a word or words, which
are important Ior grammatical completeness, but not Ior lexical meaning.
vWKNbMN\ (or YdXMTNt or UTPcLONcKOdz MX a speciIic type oI shortenings, which
implies packing oI two meanings into one word. The process is also called
cKWKX[TUMN\ because the words slide into one another like sections oI a telescope.
JKLOXKTWT\] - a branch oI lexicology which studies meaning and the semantic
structure oI a word.
JKLK - an elementary semantic Ieature, a minimal unit oI meaning.
JKLKLK - a set oI semes recognizable in a given word.
}POLLOcM[OW LKONMN\ is a meaning which comes to the Iore in the words with
diIIerent lexical meaning, and brings them into one row: apples, tables, books,
birds - grammatical meaning oI plurality; was, went, ate, did, slept, knew
grammatical meaning oI past tense .
qKZM[OW LKONMN\ is a meaning which combines diIIerent grammatical Iorms oI a
word into one paradigm: to be, was, were, been, is, are; apple, apples, apple+s.
{KNTcOcMTNOW LKONMN\ - logic conceptual meaning which correlates with its
iTNNTcOcMTNOW LKONMN\ - an additional meaning, subordinate meaning which
includes 1) emotive-evaluational meaning, expressive colouring, 2) stylistic status
oI the word
kTW]XKL] - a complex oI all meanings which a word can have as a result oI its
kTW]XKLONcM[ aTPb - a word which has several meanings.
gNcPTUTN]LKX - proper names oI people: #nn, (ary, ;ohn <mith, the =rowns.
^TUTN]LKX - proper names oI places, e.g. countries, cities, towns, rivers, seas etc:
&ngland, 6ew >ork, =oston, the ?olga, the #tlantic ocean, the &lbrus.
RKcOU_TP - a transIer oI meaning based on diIIerent types oI similarity, it is a
hidden comparison, e.g. in the area oI computers a lot oI words acquired new
meanings: mouse, mat, windows, monitor, notebook, worm; in the sphere oI
economics: market, bargain, deal, promotion.
gNc_PTUTLTPU_M[ mKcOU_TPX - names oI parts oI a human body or some human
qualities transIerred to some objects: the head of an army, school, organization,
arms and mouth of a river, foot of a mountain, heart sings.
^PMcKt TP bKOb LKcOU_TPX are metaphors and metonymies which are very old and
described by a dictionary, they belong to the language: head of cabbage, eye of a
needle, the bus runs.
qMjK LKcOU_TP - a metaphor created in speech as a result oI speakers association
and comparison.
RKcTN]L] - a transIer oI meaning based on contiguity: @he kettle is boiling .
recognize his hand. 4e married money.
J]NK[bT[_K - a name oI a part used instead oI the whole: @he cock hat entered the
mTLTN]L] coincidence oI sound Iorms Ior diIIerent meanings oI words.
mTLTN]LX UPTUKP - words identical in pronunciation and spelling: case
A<ituation, bag) and seal Aprint, animal)
mTLTU_TNKX - words oI the same sound Iorm, but with diIIerent spelling and
meaning: 6ight Aopposite to day) knight Amedieval warrior); 4air Apart of the
scull) hare Aanimal with long ears)
mTLT\POU_X - words diIIerent in sound Iorms and in meaning but identical in
spelling: bow BbouC DEF bow BbauC FDGHIJKLI, FMNGJK; wind BwaindC wind
BwindC; lead Bli!dC lead BledC
mTLTYTPLX coincide only in one Iorm and do not in all others: #llowed Av)
aloud Aad:); =illed build.
kOPTN]LX - words very identical in sound Iorm and spelling but having some
diIIerences in them and diIIerent meaning: Ooose lose; decent Arespectable,
suitable) descent Adownward motion); uite uiet.
J]NTN]L] - one oI paradigmatic relations among words which lies in the identity
oI denotational meaning.
J]NTN]LX are traditionally reIerred to as words diIIerent in sound-Iorm, but
identical in meaning: carry, drag, pull; huge, tremendous.
gNcTN]L] - one oI paradigmatic relations among words which lies in the polarity
oI meaning: kind cruel.
gNcTN]LX are words, characterized by semantic polarity or opposite meaning.
iTLUWKLKNcOP] ONcTN]LX - words which present two-member semantic
opposition, members oI which complement each other in meaning; iI one quality is
negated, the other inevitably comes to the Iore: live - dead, male female.
iTNjKPXMjKX are pairs oI words which reveal reverse relations to each other: sell
buy, lend borrow>
qKZM[Th\POLLOcM[OW \PTdU xqJ}z a group oI words which have lexical and
grammatical meaning in common, a common paradigm. These groups are subsets
oI parts oI speech. E.g. English nouns are subdivided approximately to the
Iollowing LSG: personals, animals, groups oI people, groups oI animals, abstract
nouns, material nouns, objects, proper names oI people and places.
@able, chair, wardrobe, cupboard, sofa, stool, armchair pieces oI Iurniture
$at, dog, cow, sheep , pig, horse, donkey domestic animals
)o, come, run, speed, rush, move, ride verbs oI motion
|bKT\POU_M[ \PTdUX groups oI words in which only lexical meaning is taken into
account, grammatical meaning is neglected. They are independent oI classiIication
into parts oI speech; are grouped according to their signiIication; belong to the
system oI logical notions. Such groups may comprise diIIerent parts oI speech:
light An), brightness An), bright Aad:), shine Av), shining Apart) and other words
connected with the notion oI light.
iTNcKZcdOW OXXT[MOcMjK \PTdU - words joined together by common contextual
associations within the Iramework oI the sentence or text and having interlinks
within the text: # new director was introduced to us. Mr. Brown as tall and slim.
# new boss said about his plans. @he speaker was short. There exist regular
contextual ties: dog bark; see eye; blind see. As a result there may appear
diIIerent groups: @ree leaves green fruit shadow; voyage ship port -
sightseeing sea swimming sunbathing tan.
JKLONcM[ YMKWb - Fields are linguistic realities existing between single words and
the total vocabulary. They are parts oI the whole and resemble words in that they
combine into some higher unit; and the vocabulary in that they resolve themselves
into smaller units lman. The meaning oI time may be expressed by all
linguistic units: morphemes pre-revolutionary, post-war, post-<oviet; words
now, then, today, yesterday, soon, late; phraseological units this year, this
month, up till now, after that; sentences (grammatically) tense and aspect
^KPL a word or a word group used to name a notion characteristic oI some
special Iield oI knowledge, industry or culture.
k_POXKTWT\] is a branch oI lexicology which studies word combinations
terms Ior groups oI words: XKc KZUPKXXMTNXt U_POXKXt U_POXKTWT\M[OW dNMcXt
k_POXKTWT\M[OW dNMcX - word groups which are not motivated, comparatively stable
and semantically inseparable; in other languages other words are used Ior the same
phenomenon: .ndian summer PGPKQ DQJR.
k_POXKTWT\M[OW YdXMTNX - word groups which are completely non-motivated, stab
le, inseparable: to kick the bucket, to rain cats and dogs, a fly in the ointment.
k_POXKTWT\M[OW dNMcMKX - word groups which are partially motivated, oIten have
metaphorical mg: to wash the dirty linen in the public, to whip the dead horse.
k_POXKTWT\M[OW [TWWT[OcMTNX - word groups which are motivated, partially
interchangeable; made oI words with restricted lexical valency, which provides
some extent oI lexical stability: @o come to the conclusion Ato reach but not to go,
to arrive) to produce the impression Ato make, but not to produce the opinion,
point of view), to take a liking Afancy, but not hatred).
qKZM[OWMwOcMTN is the process when a word group transIorms into a phraseological
unit or compound word: 8.&. in stede S instead; mother-in-law, grown-up.
gLKPM[ONMXL - a wd or a wd combination peculiar to the English language spoken
in the SA. E.g. cookie, elevator, truck, apartment etc.