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Moscow Center for University Teaching

of Jewish Civilization Sefer


Institute for Slavic Studies RAS

Proceedings of the Fifteenth


Annual International Conference
on Jewish Studies
Part 1
STATE OF ISRAEL:
60 YEARS OF HISTORY

Moscow
2008

  



 


1
:
60


 23

2008

:

,  ,
 (. .), 

Editorial Board:

Valentin Bushkov, Alexander Lokshin,


Victoria Mochalova (executive editor), Evgeny Rozenblat.

 :
  
 ();
 

Published with the support of The American Jewish Joint


Distribution Committee (Joint);
The Jewish Agency (Sohnut)

 
  , 2008
 , 2008
, -, 2008

............................................................................................

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40-

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. 19671989 .
...............................................................................

292
300
308
313

Summaries ..................................................................................................... 326


Contents ......................................................................................................... 334




(, 2931 2008 .),
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60- , 2008 . /- ; - ; ; .
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From the Editorial Board


This volume comprises the proceedings of the 15th Annual International
Jewish Study Conference (Moscow, January, 2931, 2008) organized by Sefer
the Moscow Center for University Teaching of Jewish Civilization, with the
assistance of the Chais Center for Jewish Studies in Russian (the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem), Open University of Israel, American Jewish Joint
Distribution Committee and Jewish Agency for Russia.
The conference program reflected the 60s Anniversary of the State of Israel
commemorated in 2008. In the presentations by Israeli and Russian scholars
different aspects of its history and contemporaneity were discussed, among
them Jewish community of Palestine/Eretz Israel, the State of Israel on the
international arena in a historical aspect; social and demographic picture of the
Israeli society, achievements and problems of Israeli democracy; the role of
language in the preservation of Jewish identity in Israel and Diaspora; historiography questions.
On the conference were also presented some Israeli projects and educational
programs in which the audience could take part: Boris Maftsir (Yad Va-Shem)
made the presentation of the Shoah Victims Names Recovery Project; Semyon
Avgustevich and Svetlana Ermolayeva presented The Open University of Israel
study courses.
The 60-year-old history of the State of Israel has been preceded by the long
chain of pre-Independence events connected with the Zionst movement, and
obviously several special sessions were devoted to the subject area. Of course the
bright personality of the Zionism founder Theodor Herzl is still in the focus of
scholars attention. Besides, less known pages of the Zionism history were
discussed, its sources in Eastern Europe both in theory and practice, tragic
persecutions of those who were regarded by the authorities as the adherents of
the movement, beginning from the early years of Soviet regime until the epoch
of cosmopolites persecution in the USSR. The exploration of rich archival
sources adds special value to those researches.
Another conference highlights were connected with the Jewish national
movement in the USSR (in 2008 the 40s anniversary of Soviet Jewry struggle
for their freedom has been commemorated). This part of the conference program
contained several sessions which included not only presentations by the movement participants and researchers of this period, but also round-table discussion
What was the essence of the Jewish national movement: Zionist, immigra-

10
tionist, cultural, national, dissident?. The participation in the conference former
Prisoners of Zion Yosef Begun, David Maayan and Roald Zelichonok, as well
as known activists of the Jewish national movement Michael Beizer and Yakov
Fajtelson, added a very special emotional note to its atmosphere.
This conference was enriched by an interactive and exciting presentation on
the Beit Hatefutzot (Tel-Aviv) exhibition Jews of Struggle by Michael Beizer;
an impressive display of recently published memoirs by famous Prisoners of
Zion and other refuseniks, where also the catalog from the Beit Hatfusot exhiition was presented; and by two new documentary movies In struggle you will
acquire your rights (2007) by Yakov Nazarov, and Refusenik (2008) by Lora
Bialis, as well as by Zlata Zareckys presentation about the underground refueniks theatre in 1970s 1980s.
We hope that the volume of the Conference proceedings will take a worthy
place among academic publications devoted to Israeli studies, history of Zionism,
and Jewish national movement in the second half of the 20th century.

11

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Sifrei ( 12:30) ,
.
2
Birnbaum S. Yiddish: A Survey and Grammar. TorontoBuffalo, 1979. P. 4042.
3
.: Shandler J. Adventures in Yiddishland: Postvernacular
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4
.: Estraikh G. Soviet Yiddish: Language Planning and Development. Oxford,
1999. P. 115168.
5
(YIVO) (Institute for Jewish Research),
1925, , , . .
6
;
. : Harris T. Death
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7
Gold D. Jewish English // Readings in the Sociology of Jewish Languages / Ed. by
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. : Aslanov C. Le franais des Juifs dAfrique du Nord est-il
un judo-franais? // Perspectives. Revue de lUniversit hbraque de Jrusalem. 9 (2002).
P. 79101.
8
. : Weiser C. Frumspeak: The First Dictionary of Yeshivish.
Northvale, NJ, 1995.

,
9

27

Harshav B. The Meaning of Yiddish. BerkeleyLos AngelesOxford, 1990. P. 86.


Hutton C. Normativism and the Notion of Authenticity in Yiddish Linguistics //
The Field of Yiddish: Studies in Language, Folklore, and Literature / Ed. by D. Goldberg.
Evanston, ILNew York, 1993. P. 1157.
11
. : Fishman J.
Bilingualism With and Without Diglossia; Diglossia With and Without Bilingualism //
Journal of Social Issues. 23. 2. (1967). P. 2938.
12
.: Isaacs M.
Yiddish in the Orthodox Communities of Jerusalem // Politics of Yiddish: Studies in Language, Literature, and Society / Ed. by D.B. Kerler. Walnut Creek, CA, 1998. P. 8589.
13
Kafka F. Tagebcher / Ed. by H.G. Koch, M. Mller and M. Pasley. Frankfurt am
Main, 1990, passim.
14
.:
Fishman D. The Rise of Modern Jewish Culture. Pittsburgh, PA, 2005. P. 2529.
15
Rabin C. What Constitutes a Jewish Language? // International Journal of the
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Towards a New Understanding. ClevedonBuffaloToronto, 2004, P. 2931.
16
.: Seidman
N. A Marriage Made in Heaven: The Sexual Politics of Hebrew and Yiddish. Berkeley
Los AngelesLondon, 1997. P. 125131.
17
.:
Kuzar R. Hebrew and Zionism: A Discourse Analytic Cultural Study. BerlinNew York,
2001. P. 41120.
18
Hirschfeld A. Locus and Language: Hebrew Culture in Israel, 18901990 //
Cultures of the Jews: A New History / Ed. By D. Biale. New York, 2002, P. 10111060.
19
Rosn H. Contemporary Hebrew. Den Haag, 1977.
20
Hebrew in Ashkenaz: A Language in Exile / Ed. by L. Glinert. London, 1993.
21
.: Penslar D. Normalization and Its Discontent: Israel as a Diaspora Jewish
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22
Derrida J. Le monolinguisme de lautre. Paris, 1996. P. 6374.
23
.: Ha-Safah ha-ivrit be-eidan ha-globalizatsiyyah /
Ed. by N. Nebo and I. Olshtein. Jerusalem, 2008.
10

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. ? // 24.02.2007.
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., : .. . .; Gellner E. Nationalism. Thought and
Change. Chicago, 1964. P. 147178.
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. 10.09.2003.
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( . thnos , krateia ;) ,
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www.1948.ru/Jewish Agence/English/Jewish+Education/Compelling+Content/
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http:// www.voltaire.ru
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. 10.09.2003.
11
Natan Sharansky with Ron Dermer. The Case for Democracy. The Power of
Freedom to overcome Tyranny and Terror // Public Affairs. N.Y., 2004. P. 76.
12
Ibid. P. 76.
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Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel // Israels Written Constitution (Second Edition), Haifa, 1995. P. 7.
2
., : . . , . -, 1996. . 1516.
3
. . 16.
4
http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_current_christians.ph
5
.
6
Shetreet Sh. Freedom of Religion in Israel. The Report presented to the World
Conference against Racism. Durban, 20 Aug. 2001. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/
MFAArchive/2000_2009/2001/8/Freedom%20of%20Religion%20in%20Israel
7
. -: Zander W. Israel and the Holy Places of Christendom. London, 1971. P. 195.
8
, .
9
Dayan M. Story of my Life. N.Y., 1977. P. 464.
10
, , ,
, X . .. .
11
Gorenberg G. The End of Days. Oxf., 2000. P. 155.
12
Ibid. P. 115.
13
Ibid. P. 145.
14
Friedland R., Hecht R.To Rule Jerusalem. Cambridge, 1996. P. 237.
15
Kollek T. Jerusalem Policy Papers // The Washington Institute for Near East
Policy. 1990. N 22. P. 6061.
16
Foundation for Middle East Peace. 19 Aug. 2005 // http://www.fmep.org/

51


(, )


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54

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55

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56

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57

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58

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59

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60

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. 10

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61

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, .

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, 110 ,

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XXI

99

Fargues Ph. Mediterranean Migration, 20062007 report, CARIM (The EuroMediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration).
2
Crossing the line: Violation of the rights of Palestinians in Israel without a permit //
Btselem. March,
2007 (http://www.btselem.org/English/Publications/Index.asp).
3
Alon G. Dichter: since beginning of year 51,000 persons staying illegally caught in
Israel // Haaretz. 15.06.2006 () http://www.haaretz.co.il/hasite/pages/
ShArtPE.jhtml?itemNo=727227&contrassID=2&subContrassID=21&sbSubContrassID=0
4
..
(19852005 .). ., 2007. . 236.
5
Bank of Israel, Recent Economic Developments, 2006 (http://www.bankisrael.gov.il/
develeng/develeng118/develeng.pdf)
6
Bank of Israel, Recent Economic Developments, 2006
7
Kav LaOved, Annual Report 2006 (http://www.kavlaoved.org.il/UserFiles/
news825_file.pdf)
8
Foreign Workers Law. 5751/1991.
9
Fargues Ph. Mediterranean Migration, 20062007 report, CARIM.
10
Ida Y. Factors leading migrant workers to illegal employment. The Research and
Economy Administration in the Industry, Trade and Labour Ministry (). 2004
(http://www.moital.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/8C9F809F-85AB-4ABF-BF36-F58EB8FB33BE/
0/X6038.pdf), R. Bar-Tsuri, Illegally employed Chinese workers in Israel (). 2005
(http://www.moital.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/AA7184E8-48EE-49D9-9689-8705BA96C30D/
0/X6538.pdf)
11
.. 2006-2007 . 12 2008 . http://www.iimes.ru/rus/frame_stat.html
12
Haaretz. 9.04.2004.
13
The Boston Globe. 25.07.2004 (http://www.boston.com/news/world/middleeast/
articles/2004/07/25/israel_rounds_up_migrants_in_deportation_campaign/)
14
The Knessets Migrant Workers Committee, protocol November 21, 2006
(http://www.knesset.gov.il/protocols/data/html/zarim/2006-11-21.html)
15
, .
16
Reuters. 12.03.2007.
(http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSL0755698620070312?pageNumber=3)
17
Kav LaOved. Annual Report 2006 (http://www.kavlaoved.org.il/UserFiles/
news825_file.pdf).
18
The Knessets Migrant Workers Committee, protocol January 31, 2007
(http://www.knesset.gov.il/protocols/data/html/zarim/2006-11-21.html)
19
3740% . RBCdaily,
14/09/2007 (http://www.rbcdaily.ru/2007/09/14/world/292975), The European Movement
in the UK, The common agricultural policy, 2006. (http://www.euromove.org.uk/
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Central Intelligent Agency Factbook. 2007.
21
. 12.05.2006.
22
Israel Center for Social and Economic Progress (ICSEP) (http://www.icsep.org.il/
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100
23

Eckstein Z. Jerusalem Issue Brief // The Institute for Contemporary Affairs in


Jerusalem. 26.03.2007.
24
Kav LaOved. The government authorized importing 3,000 additional migrant farm
workers. 2.04.2007 (http://www.kavlaoved.org.il/media-view_eng.asp?id=777).
25
(http://www.health.gov.il/Download/
pages/ispuz012007.pdf)
26
, , , , ,
. http://www.kavlaoved.org.il/UserFiles/news970_file.doc
27
.
28
.
29
Bank of Israel Annual Report 2006.
30
19962002 . (the Hotline for Migrant Workers); 20032004 . : Ben-Tsuri
R. Migrant workers without permits arrested and deported from Israel in the years 2003
2004 (); The Planning, Research and Economy Administration in the Industry,
Trade
and
Labour
Ministry,
2005
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BCC93E5FF7E8-48BD-B78B-309DD2E93AFF/0/ozgorshu.pdf); 2005 . :
Saar R. Number of foreign workers deported drops sharply // Haaretz. 29.12.2005
(http://www.kavlaoved.org.il/katava_main.asp?news_id=1659&sivug_id=4), CBS.

. -, .

101


(, )

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(19571960 .)


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102

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103


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107

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108

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109

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110

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. -, .

111

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112

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1960 .

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,
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, - , .

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. -, .

113

.
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, 8-10 . ,
35.
. . - . :
36 .
.
.
, , .
1950- . -
. . -
,
,
. .

. , .
.

Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS). 19551957. Vol. XIV. ArabIsraeli
Dispute, 1955. Washington, 1989. . 265.
2
Hahn P. The View form Jerusalem: Revelations about U.S. Diplomacy from the
Archives of Israel // Diplomatic History. 1998. Vol. 22. 4. P. 522.
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The New York Times. March 8, 1956.
4
Levey Z. Israels Quest for a Security Guarantee from the United States, 19541956 //
British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 1995. Vol. 22. No. 1/2. P. 61.
5
Tivnan E. The Lobby. Jewish Political Power and American Foreign Policy. N.Y.,
1987. P. 36; Levey Z. Israel and the Western Powers, 19521960. Chapel Hill, L., 1997.

114

P. 91; Bar-Siman-Tov Y. The United States and Israel since 1948: A Special Relationship? // Diplomatic History. 1998. Vol. 22. 2. P. 236.
6
Shlaim A. The Iron Wall. Israel and Arab World. L., 2001. P. 204.
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Documents on the Middle East. / Ed. by R.H. Magnus. Wash., 1969. . 8792.
, .. C
1957 ., , ,
. , , , , , , , , . .:
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Executive Session of the Senate
Foreign Relations Committee. (Historical Series). Vol. IX. Eighty-fifth Congress, First
Session, 1957. Wash., 1979. P. 10.
8
Alteras I. Eisenhower and Israel. US-Israeli Relations 19531960. Univ. Press of
Florida, 1993. . 256257.
9
FRUS. 19551957. Vol. XVII. ArabIsraeli Dispute, 1957. Wash., 1990. P. 125134.
10
Levey Z. Israel and Western Powers. P. 8386.
11
FRUS. 19551957. Vol. XVII. . 701; Shlaim A. The Iron Wall. P. 192.
12
Little D. The Making of a Special Relationship: the United States and Israel, 1957
1968 // International Journal of Middle East Studies. 1993. Vol. 25. 4. P. 565; FRUS.
19551957. Vol. XIII. Near East: JordanYemen. Wash., 1988. P. 646647.
13
- . -. . . II. -, 1991. . 184.
14
Ovendale R. Great Britain and the Anglo-American Invasion of Jordan and Lebanon in 1958 // The International History Review. 1994. Vol. XVI. P. 298; Pappe I. The
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15
, , .. ,

1956 . . Lukas W.S. Divided We Stand: Britain, the US and the Suez Crisis.
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16
. : Tal D. Seizing Opportunities: Israel and the 1958 Crisis in the Middle
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Dispute; United Arab Republic; North Africa. Washington, 1992 P. 7779.
17
Holland M. America and Egypt: from Roosevelt to Eisenhower. Westport and
London, 1996. P. 160; FRUS. 19581960. Vol. XIII. P. 88; Little D. The Making of a
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18
U.S. Congress. Congressional Record. Vol. 104. Proceedings and Debates of the
85th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, 1958. . 13777.
19
: ,
19471967. 2 . . 2: 19571967 / . . .. . ., 2003. . 242.
20
Tal D. Seizing Opportunities. P. 143.
21
Pappe I. The Junior Partner. . 266267.
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Shlaim A. The Iron Wall. P. 193.

. -, .
23

115

Pappe I. The Junior Partner. P. 269.


FRUS. 19581960. Vol. XII. Near East Region; Iraq; Iran; Arabian Peninsula.
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Ibid. P. 155.
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Ibid. P. 181, 196.
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28
FRUS. 19581960. Vol. XII. P. 189.
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Ibid. P. 378.
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Levey Z. Israel and Western Powers. P. 98; Hahn P. The View form Jerusalem.
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31
FRUS. 19581960. Vol. XIII. P. 474478, 482.
32
FRUS. 19581960. Vol. XIII. P. 327329, 359361; Little D. The Making of a
Special Relationship. P. 567; - . -. . 200.
33
FRUS. 19581960. Vol. XII. P. 268.
34
The New York Times. December 10, 19, 1960; Washington Post. December 18,
1960.
35
FRUS. 19581960. Vol. XIII. . 391392, 399400.
36
. : Little D. The Making of a Special Relationship. P. 567.
24

116

C
(, )

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1. 1965 .
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119

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124


(, )




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131

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135

.. : . / . .
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325

1 . : 7080 . //
. , 2004.
2
Genzeleva R. Satire by Jewish Activists during the 70-80s // Jewish National Movement in the USSR. 19671989. Jerusalem, 2007. [-

: 70-80- (2004), 1980- : (2005), : 1970-80- (2006), 1970-80-
(2007).
. . .]
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. : 7080 . . 164165.
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Genzeleva R. Satire by Jewish Activists during the 70-80s.; . 19701980 .: //
. ., 2005. . 144.
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// . , 1996. . 8. . 786.
6
. .
. ., 1924.
7
. . , 1997. . 10.
8
. 19701980 . //
http://www.jewish-heritage.org/jr1a5r.htm
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. 6080- // http://www.migdal.ru/
times/55/5056
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. , // . . 15.01.1999.
11
. // (20.12.2007)
.
12
. , . 70-80 . // http://www.zhurnal.lib.ru/s/shneer.
13
. // . 16. 29.08.2002.
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- . . //
http:www.public.box.net/krasnogorov
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- . . // http://www.
techunix.technion.ac.il/~merghvf/
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Gilbert M. Masada in Leningrad // http://www.martingilbert.com
17
. 25.12.2007. .
18
. (http://jsc.rjews.net/author_yl.htm) Zimrat ha Arez ( ), 7080- .

326

Summaries

SUMMARIES
yril Aslanov
(Jerusalem)

They changed their names,


their language and their clothes:
the Role of Language in the Preservation
of Jewish Identity in Israel and Diaspora
This paper deals with the limits of the expression of Jewish identity on
a linguistic level during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It compares
the chance of survival of traditional Jewish languages comparatively in the
Diaspora and Israel. Moreover, it reassesses the ability of Modern Hebrew to
function, if not as a Jewish language, at least as the national language of the
Jewish people. Although at first glance Israel and Diaspora sharply contrast
with one other from the vantage-point of language, it is preferable to describe
this opposition as a continuum rather than as a polarization, for traditional
Jewish languages have been somehow preserved until our days. On the other
hand, the renewed Hebrew is widespread in the Diaspora as a result of the
immigration of a big amount of Israelis. I would like to compare the relationship in the sociolinguistic situation of Hebrew and the Jewish languages
both in the Diaspora and in Israel. Although the expression of Jewish identity
on a linguistic level is threatened by assimilation and globalization, it managed to adapt itself to the conditions of modern multiculturalism, as well as to
the challenge of globalization.
Elena Genina
(Kemerovo)

The State of Israel


in Accusations against Soviet Jews in 1953
The article is devoted to the analysis of political accusations against the
Soviet Jews in 1953. The author has revealed a component of the accusations the theme of the State Israel. In the first place it is the Jews leaving for
Israel. The essence of the accusations was caused by the state ideological
policy. The article has been prepared on the basis of some archival documents and describes the events in one of the USSR regions.

327

Summaries
Maya Kofman
(Moscow)

Letters from the Peshkova Foundation


(Aid to political Prisoners and Zionists)
In the State Archive of Russian Federation there is a tremendous collection of letters written by political prisoners detained in labor camps, correctional coloniesmental hospitals & o. The letters were addressed to Political
Red Cross (19181921), Poland Red Cross (19201937) and E.P. Peshkov
Foundation, Relief to political prisoners (19221938). In all these Institutions, the main part of work was done by Ekaterina Pavlovna Peshkova and
her nearest assistant Mikhail Lvovich Vinaver. Until now, their work is little
known and not recognized. Hundreds of thousands letters allow to trace the
measure and character of repressions, the structure of penal system and of
legal proceedings, the moral and physical degradation of population which
are still persisting. The most part of letters is connected with the struggle of
Zionists and Jews for the possibility to live and work in Palestine. E.P. Peshkova and her assistants helped to Jews to survive in imprisonment and exile.
In thirties it was still possible for Jews in some cases to replace imprisonnment by departure to Palestine, and E.P. Peshkova and her crew gave their
help to use such a possibility. Most part of correspondents perished. The fate
of some people is quoted in the paper.

Aleksander Lokshin
(Moscow)

Theodor Herzl: the Path from an Assimilationist


to a Leader of the New Exodus
In the article the author is trying to answer the question why the assimilated journalist and man of letters, fully submerged into the German
culture and connected with the cosmopolitan Europian culture of the Fin de
Sicle, radically changed his views for a few years and turned into a champion of the Jews Exodus from Europe and the creation of a Jewish state in
Palestine. The phenomenon of Theodor Herzl can be understood though the
atmosphere of Europe at the end of the 19-th century, as well as personal
qualities of the creator of political Zionism and the need of European
political elites to introduce to the political arenaa new player suggested by
international Zionist movement the Jewish people.

328

Summaries
David Maayan-Chernoglaz
(Arugot)

The Plane Case


from an Opponents Point of View
The Russian Jewish national movement for repatriation to Israel took
shape in the 1960s. From the end of the '60s it acquired a wide and public
character. However, since the authorities rejected, as a rule, leaving the
country, some sought to leave the USSR illegally.
The idea conceived by Mark Dymshits to hijack a plane for that purpose
was discussed in the Leningrad Zionist organization, and was rejected. The
author of this report was consistently opposed to the participation of the
organization in such an action.
Nonetheless, a group of Riga activists attempted to hijack a plane on
June 15th 1970. This led to numerous arrests and searches by the KGB
among activists of the Jewish national movement, which were intended to
crush and defame the movement as a whole. After a period of confusion and
anticipation following the events, both the movements activists in Russia
and their friends in the West began actively supporting the inmates and their
demand to allow Aliya (immigration to Israel). Numerous protests in the
United States and in the Soviet Union forced the Soviet authorities to
recognize the failure of their policy and make concessions to the movements
demands. The first exit visas were issued to activists connected personally
with the inmates. Thus began the 1970s Aliya. The author considers the
positive and the negative consequences of The Plane Case on the dynamics
of the movement for Aliya from the USSR.

Tatyana Nossenko
(Moscow)

The Israeli Democracy


and the Freedom of Worship
Israel is situated on the land considered to be holy in the three
monotheistic religions. It poses special problems for the state to keep the
freedom of religion for all denominations and protection of their holy
places. The article deals with the policy of the state in the sphere and
describes the democratic instruments used to fulfill it. It contends that the
pending Israeli-Palestinian conflict as well as the lack of tolerance in the
society are the main obstacles for the full realization of the freedom of
worship for all religions.

329

Summaries
Evgeny Rashkovsky
(Moscow)

ReligionCivilizationEvolution:
about Shmuel Noah Eisenstadts Philosophy of History
Almost everybody knows S.M. Eisenstadt (born in Warsaw, 1923) as one
of the outstanding macrosociologists of the XXth century. But his special
concern in diachronic structures of history as well as in the evolution of some
pivotal human meanings in history willy-nilly brings some substantial philosophical (and partly religious) dimensions into all the framework of his
macrosociological studies.
Eisenstadt detects and describes these meanings and dimensions from the
times of the Axial Age up to the current history. The combination of three
basic concepts (ReligionCivilizationRevolution) including all possible
sociological implications of such combination in Prof. Eisenstadts works
reflects these dynamic dimensions in especially expressive way.
Moreover, this combination helps to perceive some new horizons in the
process of understanding the history of Jewish people in the context of the
global history.
Vladimir Rumyantsev
(Tomsk)

D. Ben-Gurion, D. Eisenhower
and Problem of Israels Security
(19571960)
Problems of guarantee of Israels security and receiving of armament
from the United States were among top priorities of foreign policy for the
government of David Ben Gurion. However the United States refrained from
the guarantee of security to Israel because of reasons of their policy in the
Middle East. The U.S. were afraid to exacerbate relations with the Arab
world. The administration of Dwight Eisenhower concerned to hold balanced
policy toward Israel and Arab countries. This situation started to change
since 1958. After beginning of the civil war in Lebanon and coup detat in
Iraq the United States and Great Britain sent their troops to Lebanon and
Jordan. Israel played an important role in these operations because of their
transit status. The place of Israel in strategy of the United States in the
Middle East was underlined in resolution 5820/1 of the U.S. National
Security Council, adopted by D. Eisenhower in November 4, 1958.
The government of D. Eisenhower did not give Israel formal guarantees
of security. Nevertheless, the United States began to form the base for American-Israeli strategic cooperation, which was developed by the administrations of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.

330

Summaries
ksana Scopitch
(Moscow)

Labor Immigration to Israel in the 21st century


If we take into consideration the globalization, wars, local conflicts,
religious and ethnic discrimination, poverty, we will realize that migration
has become a complex process. One country can both import foreign workers, and export labor force, and at the same time it can be a transition territory for migrants. Currently the problem of labor immigration is on the
government agenda for many western countries. Israel is not a conformance
exception. The article deals with the modern processes of labor immigration
to Israel. It covers the main tendencies of the immigration and explains why
the government policy towards immigrants has been called the revolving
doors. As the import of labor force has both benefits, and shortcomings,
Israeli government has to seek a balance between issuing working permits
and deporting foreign workers.
Olga Shchuka
(Grodno)

Jewish Political Parties and Organizations


in Western Byelorussia (19261939)
On the basis of documents of the State archive of the Grodno area, the
State archive of the Brest area the author analyzes activity of the Jewish
political parties and the organizations in territory of the Western Belarus
(19261939). In the article the role of is conservative-clerical, liberal,
Zionist, socialist directions in the Jewish political movement reveals, features
of policy and tactics of parties and the organizations, their mutual relations
are shown.
Emma Shkurko
(Ufa)

They glorified the policies


of the State of Israel
The creation of the State of Israel brought hope to the Jewish population
in the Soviet Union. They hoped that there would be a place, where Jews
could feel at home. Very soon a massive campaign to promote Anti-Semitic
behavior towards the Jews of Bashkiria was launched in the Soviet Union.
From 1948 to 1953 the fourteen Jews were arrested and condemned
under the political 58th clause of the criminal code. They were being charged
with spreading anti-Soviet propaganda, slander of the government and etc.

331

Summaries

Six of them were accused of praising the government politics of the State of
Israel.
Jacob Shpizel was a Bashkirian lecturer who was sentenced to ten years
of imprisonment. He was also stripped of his property and he was deprived
of the right to votefor another five years subsequently his discharge.
Yuly Vinogradov arrived in 1948 from China, he was a seller of soda
water, he was sentenced to the detention in corrective camp for the period of
ten years. Yulys son, Isaak who was a member of a youth Zionist organization in China and worked as a bookbinder in Ufa, was sentenced for
twenty five years of imprisonment.
Chaim Zarudi was sentenced to twenty five years of imprisonment.
School teacher Yakov Nabhin was arrested after the death of I.V. Stalin
and was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment.
A German teacher Olga Kogan-Shatz was sentenced to 25 years of
inprisoment for her contacys with the Mission of Israel in Moscow.
Lubov Solovka
(Ivano-Frankovsk)

Activities of Zionist Parties


and Organizations in Stanislaw during the 1930s
and a Struggle for the Jewish State
The article is a short review of the activity of the Jewish Zionist parties
and organizations of Stanislav in struggle for the founding of the Jewish
state. The political spectrum of Zionist camp right (conformists, mizrahists),
centrists (the General Zionists) and left are shown. Besides, various directions and the character of the activity of Zionist social organizations (youth,
cultural, educational, charitable, humanitarian, female, sports, etc.) are
opened. Thanks to the activity of the Zionist organizations directed towards
the formation of a new Jewish generation mastering the language, knowing
the elements of agriculture, crafts etc., in such cities and towns as Stanislav
in conditions of galut the bases of the future Jewish statehood were created.
Vera Solovyova
(Tomsk)

The Luxemburg Agreement as a First Step Towards


the Normalization of the Relations Between Israel
and the Federal Republic of Germany
The German-Israeli relations continue to be special because the Holocaust remains a heavy burden on them. As the Israel and two German states
emerged the direct contacts between these states seemed to be impossible.

332

Summaries

The Cold War determined different policies of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic towards Israel. The GDR denied
the responsibility for the crimes of national-socialists and rejected the material claims of Israel. On the contrary, the Federal Republic assumed the
responsibility and accepted the Israeli claims. The problem of the restitution
of the Jewish property was very complex. The main juridical problem
consisted in that Israel couldnt demand the reparations because it hadnt
been existed before the War. There were political forces in Israel as well in
Germany opposing the treaty. The problem of relations with post-war Germany and German reparations let to deep political crises and splat the Israeli
society. The Arab states made every effort not to admit the ratification of the
treaty. Nevertheless, it was signed in September 1952 in Luxembourg and
ratified in March 1953. The Luxembourg treaty launched the process of
normalization of relations between the FRG and Israel. It had a great moral,
political and economic significance.
Rais Suleimanov
(Kazan)

The Russian Historiography


of Jewish Yishuv Under British Mandate of Palestine
(1920s2000s)
In Russia studying of history Jewish yishuv has the big tradition. From
the beginning of the British mandate of Palestine in the USSR watched
closely the Jewish national movement on building of the national state.
The Russian historiography Jewish yishuv can be divided into three
stages: 1) before formation of the State Israel (19201948); 2) after formation of the State Israel and to collapse of the USSR (19481991); 3) after
collapse of the USSR (19912008). Only at last stage of development of the
Russian historiography studying of history Jewish yishuv has accepted objecttive character as the Russian historians could get rid of ideological pressure.
Zlata Zaretsky
(Jerusalem)

Underground Refuseniks Theatre in 1970s1980s


The Jewish Movement in the USSR in 19671989 created a lot of forms
of the inner opposition to the soviet dictate. Refuseniks Theatre is one of the
most characteristic examples. It was a part of the political confrontation and
sometimes the only one mode to unite forces and to propagate Judaism. As a
social and artistic phenomenon the Refuseniks Theatre wasnt enough an
object of the researches attention. There were some reasons to it: the powers

333

Summaries

persecution, the reflex of secrecy, non collection of a material, non valuated


performances as a facts of an art.
The work is oriented to theatrical and political aspect of the theme. The
Refuseniks Theatre became the valued form of spiritual renaissance, the mirror
of self identification and the way of the struggle for freedom in Promised Land.
In 19671989 it symbolized simultaneously the political and aesthetical model of
national identification the phase of the evolution of Jewish Theatre. It is
described in a perspective of Jewish theatrical movement in the USSR as a sign
of the rebirth after destruction and rout. As an evidence of this, described the
history of Refuseniks Theatres in Riga and Leningrad.
Roald Zelichonok
(Hajfa)

Whats the Crime and Whats the Punishment?


The Soviet authorities used various tactics in their attempts to suppress
the Jewish national movement and to keep the refuseniks (i.e. Jews whose
requests for exit visa had been refused) under pressure. Judicial abuse was an
important part of these tactics. Following the great medieval poet Yehuda
HaLevi, victims of this abuse are called prisoners of Zion in the Jewish
social and political journalism and in the Israeli discourse. The subject of the
prisoners of Zion has been developed in fairly extensive literature, mainly
memoirs, but many relevant aspects remain to be studied. In this report, the
reasons why the prisoners of Zion, whose general number was relatively
small, played significant part at all phases of the movement are discussed.
Some other themes are noted as subjects for future investigations, for
instance criteria used by the authorities to select candidates for imprisonment among the movement activists, dependence of the authorities reaction
to given actions of the movement activists on location and on various considerations of the moment, peculiarities of the prisoners of Zion situation in
the institutions of confinement, comparative effectiveness of various tactics
of struggle for the prisoners of Zion release. It is noted that research in this
field is to be carried out using archival documents.
Sergey Zviagin
(Kemerovo)

Natives of Irkutsk Among the Founders of the State of Israel


This article is devoted to the fate of two Irkutsk residents: Moshe
Novomeyskii and Vikdor Mandelberg. M. Novomeysky became one of the
pioneers of the chemical industry in Israel. As for B. Mandelberg, he, was an
active member of Russian Social Democratic movement in 1917.

334

Contents
From the Editorial Board ...............................................................................

THE STATE OF ISRAEL:


PAST AND PRESENT
yril Aslanov. They changed their names, their language and their clothes:
the Role of Language in the Preservation of Jewish Identity in Israel and
Diaspora ...................................................................................................
Tatiana Karasova. Democracy in Israel: Achievements and Problems ........
Tatiana Nossenko. The Israeli Democracy and the Freedom of Worship .....
Yakov Faitelson. Demographic Forecasts Regarding the Population
of the State of Israel and the reality (18982007) ....................................
Oksana Skopich. Labor Immigration to Israel in the 21st century .................
Vladimir Rumiantsev. D. Ben-Gurion, D. Eisenhower and Problem
of Israels Security (19571960) ..............................................................
Vera Solovyova. The Luxemburg Agreement as a First Step Towards the
Normalization of the Relations Between Israel and the Federal Republic
of Germany ...............................................................................................
Rais Suleimanov. The Russian Historiography of Jewish Yishuv Under
British Mandate of Palestine (1920s2000s) ...........................................
Semyon Avgustevich, Svetlana Ermolayeva. The Open University of Israel
Study Courses as a Factor in the Cross-Cultural Dialogue ......................

12
28
38
51
86
101

116
124
138

ZIONISM:
IDEAS, THEORY, PRACTICE, HISTORY
Hayim Ben-Yakov. Theodore Herzls Identity and Discussion
of the Character of the Jewish State in Late 19th Century and Today ....
Alexander Lokshin. Theodor Herzl: the Path from an Assimilationist
to a Leader of the New Exodus ................................................................
Victor Kelner. Politician Dubnov and Artist An-sky ............................
Evgeny Rashkovsky. ReligionCivilizationEvolution: about Shmuel Noah
Eisenstadts Philosophy of History ..........................................................
Irina Lapina. Ber Borokhov and Alexander Bogdanov: the Proletarian
Zionism and the Program of Proletarian Culture .....................................
Alexander Naiman. The Beginnings of Zionism in Ukraine .........................

150
160
179
188
194
212

335
Vladimir Serpukhov. Jewish Population in Byelorussian Lands
in the Early 20th century ...........................................................................
Maya Kofman. Letters from the Peshkova Foundation (Aid to political
Prisoners and Zionists) .............................................................................
Lubov Solovka. Activities of Zionist Parties and Organizations in Stanislaw
during the 1930s and a Struggle for the Jewish State ..............................
Sergey Zviagin. Natives of Irkutsk Among the Founders of the State
of Israel .....................................................................................................
Olga Shchuka. Jewish Political Parties and Organizations in Western
Byelorussia (19261939) .........................................................................
Emma Shkurko. They glorified the policies of the State of Israel ..............
Elena Genina. The State of Israel in Accusations against Soviet Jews
in 1953 ......................................................................................................

224
231
250
259
263
275
282

JEWISH NATIONAL MOVEMENT


IN THE USSR

On the Fortieth Anniversary of the Struggle


of Soviet Jewry for the Right of Repatriation
Roald Zelichonok. Whats the Crime and Whats the Punishment? .............
David Maayan-Chernoglaz. The Plane Case from an Opponents Point
of View .....................................................................................................
Evgeny Movshovich. Lazar Lubarsky Fighter for Soviet Jews Right to
Emigrate to Israel .....................................................................................
Zlata Zaretsky. Underground Refusenicks Theatre in 1970s1980s ...........

292
300
308
313

Summaries ..................................................................................................... 326


Contents ......................................................................................................... 334