Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 565

..

1.

2.

3.

4. -

5.
6.

7.
8.


9.

II

10.
11.

12.
13.


14.
15. .


16.

7
,
17.
9
18.
19.
.
14
20.
18

21. .

20
22. Cp/CV
23

23.
28
24.
33

Cp CV
25.
35
26.
37

III

41

27.

28.
44
,
45

46
29.
51

30.

54
31.
58

32.

62

66
67
69
73
75
78
80
82

83
85

88
89

94
97
99
104

-
33.


34.

35.
Cp CV
36.


37.
( )
38.

39.

40. .

41.

42.

43.
.

44.

45.

46.

47.
.

48.

49.

50,

106
108
111
114
114
119
124
126
131
133
136
139
139
143
146
149
151
153

51. -

IV

52.

53.

54. .

55.
.

56.

57.

58.
59.

60.

61.
62.
.


63.

155

164
169
171
176
180
182

185
188
193
196
197

202


64.
65.

66.

67.


68.

()
69.

.

( )
VI

70.

71.
.

72.

73.

.

74.

.

75. ,

76.

77.

209
214
216
220

224
226

233
244
250
256

259

265
270
274

78.

79.

80.
81.


82.

83.

84.
85.

VII

86.

87.
88.

89.

90.
91.

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.


VIII

280
284
290
301
307
314
316
321

326
332
336
338
347
349
350
352
354
356
363

97.


98. -
99.

.

100. -
101. .
.


102.
.

103.
--
104.
-
105.

IX

106.

,
107.

108. .

109.

.

110.

371
374
380

383
387

393

399
401
408

414
421
423
426

439

X


111.

112.

113.
.
.

114.

115.

116. .

117.

118.


119.

120.

121.

XI

122.
123.
124.

125.
126.


127.
128.

443
446
449

455
459
461
465
467
472
476
480

485
486
491
495
496
498
502


XII

129.
130.

131.

132.

509
514
519

133.

134.

135.

528
531
535
542
544

524


248, 255, 300, 301
397
- 27, 35, 70, 186
35, 36, 186, 200, 201, 210,
44, 89, 140, 141, 150
214, 215, 280, 281, 283, 322
153
424
488
- 139
66, 67
8387, 185, 440
136, 138, 140, 141, 150, 151,
382
307, 501, 503
307310, 312, 314316, 319
474
23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 249, 379,
395
382, 385, 386, 388
395
186, 200, 201, 208,210, 214,
236
215, 251, 274276, 278, 279, 281,
36, 186, 193, 209
283286, 292, 294296, 300,
419
301, 304, 306, 308, 309, 312314,
323, 324
320, 321, 338, 380, 381, 457
- 249
337, 338
76, 78, 81
323, 337, 338
373
514, 520, 522524, 528
44, 5154, 58, 6972, 74,
155, 156, 159, 161, 162, 487
75, 85, 89, 110, 132, 143, 144, 146,
209
162, 225, 226, 401412
537
356
-- 143, 372374, 378,
271, 307310, 312, 313, 315,
379, 381387, 392, 399406,
319
447, 454, 466, 472, 532, 533
380382, 408
388
355
494
15, 346, 412
473
224, 225
412
540
248, 303
411, 412
247, 255, 257

- 382, 412
393, 394
411, 478
215
323
10, 8890, 97100, 102104,
106, 108, 109, 114, 117, 119121,
125, 131, 200, 422, 452
( ) 25, 71, 72,
85, 89, 9194, 99, 100, 102, 116,
120, 124, 139, 143, 144, 146, 153,
162, 180182, 401412, 462,
469, 472
457
36, 37, 70, 72, 77, 97, 110,
200, 201, 347, 371, 375, 402, 406,
449, 451, 452, 454456, 460, 462,
479, 483, 497, 498
89, 9294, 99, 114116,
118, 119, 121, 123127, 129
131, 136, 139, 149, 186, 295, 326,
327, 382, 389, 392, 393, 449, 451,
452, 462, 479, 483, 497, 498
76, 78, 81
409, 411
356
514
359, 363
503
225, 226
363
411
272, 273
477, 478
305
271, 273
528
80, 81, 426428, 430, 441,
469
514
163
373
155

409
264
185
279
338
210
44, 73, 74, 77, 83, 89, 97, 112,
403, 456
142, 162, 186, 208, 245, 250,
251, 255, 258, 259, 270272, 276,
278, 279, 284, 285, 306, 328, 329,
345, 346, 355, 366, 387
23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 379, 388
36, 393
436
272, 273
387
316320, 323, 324, 423, 455
80, 81, 182, 183, 185, 187,
361, 381
411, 412
90
513
209, 213, 214, 280283, 353
411
9194, 99, 116, 120, 139, 229,
294, 296, 316, 469
418, 419
559
224, 225
347, 363
75, 220, 222, 254, 300
492494
495, 496
540
411, 418, 439
270
333, 334, 346
409
411
476
211
300, 305, 311

211
, .
30
153, 388, 412
526
271, 307310, 312, 313, 315,
319
271
348, 349
305
262, 539
514
63, 164
409

272, 273
26, 462
344, 355
395
195, 196, 271, 273
345
177, 208, 428, 441, 442
138, 211, 213, 307310,
312, 314316, 319, 321324,
338, 349, 350352
271, 273
388, 392394
355
479, 480


356

() 357
101
356
24,
356
25, 103
502
444
537
75
515
483
233
483
234236, 240, 241
75
236
222, 223
296
223
336
75
, 236
481, 483
, 238, 239
504
527
296
,
515
238, 244
() 515
()
238
106, 382
515
()
275
377
514
-
338, 342
444
314
- 249
308
285
209, 352
287
214
, 213
17

313
-- 378
390
249, 319
35
, 193
35
151
, 152
486
441
395
22
510
510
510
514
409

535
, 536
, 536
535
535

536
535
539
539
61
462, 463, 489,
502
374
234
124
41
536
536
536
387
348
326
347

347, 350, 352


, 530
247
85, 144
529
I 478
II 478
389
474
541
35, 186, 200
23, 35
494
132
- 27, 35, 186
488
66
36
72
185
324
185
488
275
255, 266
496

530
386
348
63
444
513
513
46
502
502
46
383
-- 383
387
46
509

254
333
444, 465
234
58
58
() 61
(-) 61
61
473
-
439
, 441
441
98
98
117
97
437
371
45
45
( ) 25,
102
35
465
36
36
59
, 63
127
495

() 93
486, 499
480
480
444
506
444
537
486
486

486
486

342
348, 351
27, 39
90
336
166
165, 344
183
183
355
() 303
461
503
450
444
503
461
527
529
520

528
531
531
531
531

154, 155
384, 393, 505
385
384
384
384
520

84
541
537
537
41

43
43
41, 297
540

63
241, 244

33
394
389
466

412
78
409

() 142, 146
108, 142

74
529
333
9
- 9
35
532
89
534
541
88
, 91
,
92, 93
, 9193
, 9193
16
44
316, 317

392,
451
114, 119

45
229
118, 125
206
50
206
15, 52
15
17
9
527
475
509
528
493
492
495
492
515
510
525
- 510, 511
n- 510

242
240
509
509
242
, 248
,
248
242
242

242
243
448
, 455
, 459
() 445
389, 445
138

530
517
509
444
36
90
61, 90
32
444
56
415

525
510, 511
- 511
244
538
164
51, 75
-
420
414416
509
332
532
444
445
76
, 76
137,
492
372
200
229
334
373
225
224, 225
389, 449
391, 489
501
() 539
509

509
385
385
385
261
155
176
334
332
245
75
71
46
46
46
45
45
93
50
() 97
94
94
94
94
76
64
92
540
474
332
46, 51
150
59
150
46
89
126
16
17, 443
14, 17
14, 17
14, 15
444

17
363
362
362
356
356, 359, 363
356

312
275, 312
307
279, 306
312
475
485
485
485
487
487
487
() 485
491
491
491
485
487
485
66
66
504
16
22
34
33, 34
523
515
516
514
518
516
515
520
514

515
347
201
478
478
()
532
531
523
408
503
371
-- 372, 532
376
- 372
372
371
373
372
372
509
520

52
499
307
499
() 502
15
15
() 502
()
502
499
502
50
()
245
81
81
194
257
194

194
285
425
234
234
234
234

235
239
235
, 235
238

() 235
, 235
486
386

303
479, 480
296
88
15
31
31
241

327, 328, 330
428
308,
312
304
308, 312
12
321
233
233
296, 298
303
206
228
43

43
513
188
260
375
259
444
321
374
327
14, 15
25
104
393
379
249
200
465
383, 385, 393
31
489
490
490
23
200
20
23
177179
, 178
, 178
20

29
436
159, 162

206, 208,
263
428
234

226, 321

,
323
216
224
136, 295
316
65, 140
188
361
63
66, 485
67
224
67, 225
68
68
67
58
410
164, 343
182
182
, 171
13
65, 140
451
451
66
421
451
485
451
30

() 354

27, 39
9
12

314
12
10


() 12
10

99, 102

314
314
88
140,
142
355
21
28
23, 24, 28
28, 29
28
29
30
28, 29
28, 30
21
21
19
32
15
19
307
19
270
202
363
363
477
514
509
20, 461, 463
285
36
529
529
514


36, 62
75,
222
382
-- 378
141, 150,
151
381
- 382
36
451
382
73
36
35, 37
69
140
43
385
69
166
303
() 303
() 303
388, 443
, 446
302
20
444
476
477
302
302
308
483
12
42, 291

295
294, 296
366

(
) 427
( ) 81
( ) 80
322
347
334
305
211
() 469
(
) 350
196
, 196
48

246, 250

230, 231
313316
93
89
510, 512
50
201
206, 502
153
419
20
- 23, 32

33
()
22, 28, 99
26
508
507
411
372
201, 202
510
525
44, 54, 55

25, 229, 322


57
140, 142
150
44, 62
65, 142
127, 133, 294
317
294
71, 143,
294
143, 401
, 404
,
403
, 405

,
405

144, 405
, 407
,
407
402
402
332, 333
358
361
357
359
338
515
515
302
515


* *

7
9
I

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

14
18
20
23
28
33
35
37
41

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

25.
26.

. . . .'

.
1



C

44
45
46
51
54
58
62
66
67
69
73
75
78
80
82
83
85

27.
28. ,

29.

88
89
94

30.
31.
32.
-
33.
34.
35. C
36.
37. ( )
3 8 .
3 9 .
40. .
41.
42.
43. .
44.
45.
46.
47. .
48.
49.
50.
51. -

97
99
104
106
108
Ill
114
114
119
124
126
131
133
136
139
139
143
146
149
151
153
155

IV

52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.



.
.



58.
59.
60.
61.
62.

63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.

A v

164
169
171
176
180
182

- . . .


- .






-
()
.
( )

185
188
193
196
197
202
209
214
216
220
224
226

VI

70.
71.
72.
73.

74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.


.

.

.

,
. . . .


. . .

. .




86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.

233
244
250
256
259
265
270
274
280
284
290
301
307
314
316
321

VII

326
332
336
338
347
349
350
352
354
356
363

VIII

97. . . .
98. --
99.
.
100. --
101. . .

102. .

103. --
104. --
105.

371
374
380
383
387
393
399
401
408

IX

106.
107.
108.
109.

,

.

.
. -

414
421
423
426
439


1 1 1 .
112.
113. . .

114.
115.
116. .
117.
118.

119.
120.
121.

443
446
449
455
459
461
465
467
472
476
480

XI

122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.

485
486
491
495
496
498
502

XII

129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.

509
514
519
524
528
531
535
542
544

, ,
,
( 1957 )
- .

. , ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
, .
,
, ,
.
.

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.

. . , . . , . . . . .
, ,
- .
.


- 19721973 .
. . .
,
.

. . . . , . . . . . . .
. . .


, . . . ,
. 3. . . ,
. . ,
.
.
. .


* *
1. ,
, ,
, . . ,

. ,
,
.

.

.
, .
- ,
, .
, ,
-
.

.
. .
,
. .
19 ,
, -
,

.
-
; ,
.

. -
,
.
- ,

10


, ,
.
-
,
,
.
-
,
.
,
.
.
, ,
.
: ,
, ,
, .

.
2. 19
.


,
.
(17961832)
,
(1824 .), ,

- , ,
.
.
.


. ,

,
.

.
3.
.

. , -

11

2,7 X
X 10 .
, .

.
,
,

.

,
.

.
500 /,
.
. ,
10~
.
, ,

5000 ,
.
,
, .

, ,
.
,
, .
-
.
,

. ,
.
4.
,
,
*). (
1.)
.
- .
19

*) 30-

. .

12

,
, .
- ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
,
,
, - . ,
, ,

. , ,
.
,
.
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
, . ,

,
, .
,

.
5.
. -
. ,
.
, .

. ,
, .

,

.
. , ,
,
.
, , -

13

.
,
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
-

.
6.
. 18-
19-
, . ,
.
. ,
.
.
, , .
. ,
, ,
.
.
.
, ,

. ,
, .

. ,

,
.
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, .,
.

1.
1.
. ,
,
.
: , , .
,
, .
.
, .
, , ,
.
. .
, .

,
,
.
.
,
.
, ,
.
.
.

.
2.

,
.
.

.
. ,
.
.

1]

15

,
(
)
, ,
, ,
. ( ,
.) ,
, , ,

.
, ,
,
.
,
.

,
.
3. .
,
.
.
,
, ,

, .
,
.

, . .
, , ,
,
( . 13).
.
, ,
.

.
,
.
.
,
. ,
, ,
,
, . . .

16

[.

, ,
.
,
, .

,
.
4.
. ,
. ,
. . .
, ,
. ,
.
( ), ,
.
.
,
. ,

. ,

.
:

, .
, * ,
,
,
. ,
, .
,

.
, ,
,
, ,
.

, ,
, .

.
5.
, ,

1]

17

, .
.
,
. ,
-
, , ,
.
. ,
, .
6. , ,
,
. , ,
,
. ,
,
.

. ,
, .

.

,
.
.
,
.
, ,
,


. ( ,
).

, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
,
.
7.

. ,
.

18

[.

,
,
, .
, , ,
. ,
.

.

. ,
,

.
.

.
,
,
, .
.
2.
1.

.
,
. ,
,
,
. .
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
.
, ,

,
. ,

.
, .
,
.

19

. ,
, ;
.
,
,
. .


.
2. -


,

. ,

. ,
, . .
.
, .

, . 1, -

. 2.

,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
, , .

. ,
. 2 .

.

20

[.

,
.
3.
, . . ,
.

. .
,
, , , ,
, , .
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
.
,

(101325 / ),
( ).

(
,
). ,

, (
).
( ). ,
, ,
(. 104, 4).
,
, .

, . , ,
4,58 . . ,
,
,
( ).
2

3.
1. ,
.
.
, . .
,
. -

3l

21

,
. ,
.

.
, . . ,
. ,
, ,
.

,
.

, ,
. ,
,
. ,
(, ) ,
.

,
.
,
,
.
2.
( ,
, . .).
.
. ,

,
( 4 ).
:
T = f(a).
/ () ,
. ,

/ (). / () -
. ,

,
/ ().
, ,
- . -

22

[. I

, f ()
, . .
= .

(3.1)

.

. . ,
, -

.
. 1954 .
7"
. (

.) , ,
- 100.


.
, ,
( ) ,
.

.

,
273,16 .

273,16


,

100 ,
.

. ,

273,15 373,15 .
3. ,
, ,
. ,

41

23

- ,
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, (. .
,
, ,
).
, , . ,
,
,
, ,
.
-

. ?
4. -
1.
, ,

: V
.
,
. . -
, ,
. -
. (3.1)

PV=CT,
(4.1)
,

.
-
,
, , ,
(4.1), ,
.

. ,
(. 31),
, -
.

24

[. I


. V ,
.
,
V.
. ,
.
2.
. 3.

,


.

,



,

.
,
,


,
. 3.

,
.
. (
, ,
).
, .

, .
3. = (4.1) PV = 0.
, = 0, V
. , ,
,
. ,

.

25

.
.

(. 31).
, .
.
.
,
. ,
(
, ).
.
.
. ,
( , ),
,
,
,
. ,
.
.
,
,
,
.
. ,
, .
-

(18241907),
, -
. , ,
( ).
,
273,16 .
4.
. ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
;
.
5. V
, ,

26

[. I

(4.1), ,
. ,
,
.
,
. (
,
.) , ,
- ,
. ,
.
6. , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
(4.1), . ,
.
,

+ -
.
7.
(17011744),

.
.
t ,
,
* = 7 -273,15.
(4.2)
,

, (4.1),
,
PV=P V (\+at),
(4.3)
V t = 0 ,
,

0

273,15

.
, (4.3)
V V (l + at) ,
0

4]

27

. ,
, = (1 + at). ,
,
t

4 = 0 .
. ,

.
(4.3) (4.1),
PV , -
,
.
,
. - (17781850).
, ,
, -
.
8. -
.
.
-,
.
, , ,
, . ,

. .

, . .
.
, . .
.
,
. ,

.

.
,
, 1 ,
.

.
,
, .

, .
0

28

[.

.
1848 . 31.

. ,
, -
. 4 1338 (
)
.

,
+ (V) = (V) , (V) cp (V)
, a -
.
. ,
, ,
.

5.
1.
,
,
.

, .
_
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
, .

.
,
.

,
.

( ) ,
.

29

2. ,
.
.

.
,
:
, .

200 + 6 0 0 .
,
, : 1) (
200 + 2 0 ), 2) (110 + 5 0 ), 3)
( 70 +100 ), 4) ( 38,86 600 ).
.

357 . (
4 450 , 30 500 ).
357 ,

. .
70 . ,
.
. ,
, ,
.

, .
3.
, ;

.
.
0
.
( )
0,4%.
.

.
.

.
10 1100 ,

120 . -

30

[.1

. (
20 70 ) 0,01 ,
0,001 .

.
, ( , . . 376 ),
( 70% 30% )
0 600 . ( 3,4 273 )
.

.

( 0,050,1
10100 ),
( ), .

, (18021875).
4.
,
.
, .

20 .
.
, .
10 .

.

.
5.
,
. , ,
,

.

,
.
.
7 1 .
6.
.
,
(. . 1). ,
. ,

31

,
, , .
. ,
, ,
.
. . . . . .
.
, , .
- . . .
.

. 4.
, , -

2
. 4.

. 5.

, . / 2
.
,
,
,
,
. . 5
. 2,2
:
.
.
,
. :
1) - (
200 +350 );
2) ( 0 750 );
3) - ( 200 1100 );
4) - ( 20 1000 ).
( 90% Ni 10% ; 94%
Ni, 3% , 2% 1 1% Si).

32

[.

:
1) ( 14001600 );
2) ( 1500 );
3) ( 2200 ).
.

, 90% 10% .
,
,
. ( 26003000 )
.

(
4 3000 ) (
0 , 0 1 ) (
100 / /
).
,
0,001 .

,
.
-. . . . -. . .

.
. , ,

40, 90 17, 20 5
.
7.
,
, .
.
.
,

. , ,
. , ,
.
.
8. ( 1 )
.

. ,
,

6]

33

,
: ,
. .

, .

,
.
6.


().
,


,
.

. .
1968 .
1968 .
(-68)
,
( ).
. I.

,
( ,
, ),
. ,
68, ,

.
13,81 ( ) 630,74
( )
.
,

. ( ,
.)
630,74
(1064)

34

[. I

- 6 8
G

273,16

*)
*) 25/76
*)
0
0
0

Sn
Zn
Ag
Au
2

<

CQ
Q-

<


N
N
0
Hg



In
Bi
Cd
Pb

Hg
2

D"

Al
Sb
Al

Ni

Pel
Pt
Rh
Ir
W

13,81
17,042
20,28
54,361
90,188
373,15
505,1181
692,73
1235,08
1337,58

0,01

259,34
-256,108
252,87
218,789
182,962
100
231,9681
419,58
961,93
1064,43

4,215
63,148
77,348
194,674
234,288
273,15
300,02

268,935
210,002
195,802
78,476
-38,862
0
26,87

429,784
544,592
594,258
600,652

156,634
271,442
321,108
327,502

629,81
717,824
821,38
903,89
933,52
1357,6
1728
1767
1827
2045
2236
2720
3660

356,66
444,674
548,23
630,74
660,37
1084,5
1455
1494
1554
1772
1963
2447
3387

*) - .
.
17,042
.

35

pt 10 Rh/Pt.
0 ", t

= + + ,
, , . . .
, .

.

,
.

,
.
0,8 5 ,
,
. 0,8
( 0,4 ),

( - 10^ ).
3

7.
1. ,
-.
(4.1) (4.3) , a
.
.
(4.1), ,
,
.
.
,
. ,
, 12
. . ,
,
. ,
.

.
,
PV
.
12

36

[. I

, . ,
32 , 28 ,
2,016 . .
.
1961 .

16


16. ,
16. ,
, .
1961 . .
12.
.
1 2



pV = RT,

(7.1)

R, ,
. . .
(18341907). (7.1)
(17991864) ,
R .
, V
( = 1,01325-10 / ) 0
( = 273,15 )-
V = (22413,6
z t 0,9) /. ,
R = (8,31434
0,00035) 10 /(-) =(8,31434

0 , 0 0 0 3 5 ) /(-) = 0,0821 -/(-).


v ,

PV=vRT.
(7.2)
6

2.
.
(17661844).
V ,
.
P , , ... ,

7? ,
lt

= + + + ...
1

(7.3)

, %, ... ,
. ,
.

37

V; t'-ro . P V = v RT.
(7.3) V, :
PV = vRT,
t

v , . . v = v + v + . . .
, ,
,
.
,
.
t

8.

1. ,
V,
,
, .

f(P,

V, ) = 0.

(8.1)

f (, V, ) .
(8.1) .
(7.1).
.
,
. VIII.

.
,
.
, ,
.
2.
, V, ,
.
,
f (, V, ).
(8.1) ,
V, . . V
: V = V (, ).
, dP,
V ,

38

[. I

( g p ] ,
V .
, -
,
,
. ,
r

{)

.
, dT.
V -

,v=(mdT.

JP

, , ,

dV = d V + d%V,

+ [%),*.

(8.2)

.
(8.2)
dP dT. dP dT
. (8.2)
, . , ,
,
. dP dT
. , dV = ,
(8.2)

dP

^ ,

dP
dT
. ,
\
_
, Jv

()\]
I dV


\
)~

1^
I

dV

39


(8.3)

~)\)

(8.4)

[dPJv^

3.
(8.4) , dV .
+ 1
1 . ,
, 0V ,
. , dV
, ,
. dV

, .
, ,
dV. (8.4) ,
,

. (8.4).
(8.3)
.
. - ,
V (8.3)
, .
4. (8.3) (8.4)
,

.

1 V
, .
,
0

( = const).

, ,
.

(8.5)
(5
1
0

40

[. I

0 , .
,

8

*=Mw)v

<->

, (, )


:

*-(-ir)r

(w)r-

87

<>

(8.4) ,

1

8 8

&--= -

<->

,
, V .
0 .

- 1

=1,8-10-* " ,

5

/ = 2,56-10 .
,
= ~

= 46 " - .

"

,
0 1
46 .
5. (8.3) (8.4)
, , V .
,

P,VnT.
, , ,
/ (, , ) = 0,

).--().().
) \

]\

89

<-

41

9.
1.
,
.


, ,
, . ,
,
.
, .
,
, ,
,
.
,

.


. , , ,
, , , ,
. . ,
,
.
.
, ,
,
, . V,
, ,
.
2,
,
, .
V.
.
V = M/V.
,
.
.

. , ,

t t , t .
- ^ - ( p - f - p + . . . + ) .

42

[. I

,
, ,
t t
.
. V
,

. V
. ,
,
.
.

, .
,
.
5 . F ,
. ,
, = F/S. , ,
.
,

,
.

. ,
,
,
,
, ,
.

.
n

,
(
) - ,
.
.
, , V,
. .
.
3. ,
,
.
.
, .
.

43

.
.
. , ,
.
. - ,
, . .
.
.

.
,
.
.
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
Q. S, Q
Q/S .
,
Q. V
.
V ,
,
.


.
.
.

V, .

. ,

,
.

II

10.

,
, ,
. 19 ,
, , -
.


. ,

, . . .
, ,
.
. ,
. ,

,
, ,
( ) . .
(18141878), (18181889), (18211894)
,
.

,
.
,
.
.
,
.

.
,
,
- . -

45

.

,
, ,
.
.
11.
1.
,
. . ,
.
,
.
,
Q (. 6).
, .

.
,
.
.
.

, ,

.
, .
.
. 6.
.
, .
,
.
.
,

. ,
, ,
,
.
.
.
,
.
,

46

[.

. ,
.
2. ,
.
, ,
,
, .
, .
,
, , , , .
, , ,
, , ,
.

. .
.
, ,
. , ,

.

.
3. : 1) ,
(V const); 2)
, ( = const); 3) ,
( = const). ,

(. ).
(V const), ( = const)
( = const).
12.
1. (. 7).
6,
,
dV.
F = PS, S .
dx, 6 = F dx = PS dx

bA^PdV,
dV =

(12.1)
Sdx.

47

(12.1)
,
. , ,

(. 8). ,
dS dn ,
dS dn, dV, dV = dS dn ,
. 8. 8
, PdV

.
, - .
= $ dV = AV, AV

. 7.

. 8.

,
. dV,
(12.1). ,
. ,
.
. .



V
.

,
.
,
, 1

"

8A

Bnem

= -P dV.

(12.2)

BHem

= ,

= 8.

48

1.

,
, , , ,
. ,
(12.1)
. ,
.
2. 6
,
A = \PdV.

(12.3)

,
V. ,
, V, .
,

.
(V) (12.3).
,
.
.
,
. , ,
,
. , ,
.
3.
. ,

, V .
=
= (V, ).
, V,
.
VP.
, , ,
VP . ,
.
V, , V, , .

V, .
,

. ,
, .

N M1N (. 9).

49

V.
.
1 NN^Mi.

M2N,

M M2NN M .

, -^.
, ,
,

(. .
,

).

. 9.
,
,
.

,
.
VP PV RT =
= const (. 10). ,
,

= dV
Vt

Vt

= RT\n^.

(12.4)


/
2
. ,
. 10.
,
(. .
), ,
V = j / . . 10
13\ = (V Vi). ,
,
.
; . 10 32.
2,
= (V Vi) > .
2

50

[.

II

,
, ( )
. ,
.
4.
, , .
,
, VP
(. 11).
,
,
,
. 11. , ,
,
,
V
.

. 11.
,
.
5.

, .
,
.

.
,

-

,
.
-
,
(12.1)

= dax -f- da + . . . 4- da ,
(12.5)

12


, ... - . , ... ,
. , ,

(. 12).
Pi, , , ,

= P , S , rfjci + PS dx + P S
2

dx ,
3

51

dx , dx , dx , a S , S ,
S .
= P S , = P S , = P S .
x

13.

1. -
, .
. ,
.
.
, ,
,
. , ,
. ,
,
, .

,
, .


.
=
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,

,
, .
.
.
,

. ,
.
.
,
( ).

. ,

,
.
.
,

[.

II

, ,
. ,

.
2. 1
,
.
. ,

,
.
,
. ,
,
.
3. ,
, .
,

, ,
.
12
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
, , ,
.
,
. , , ,
.
,
.
, ,
, , .
.
, ,
.
.
,
, , ,
.
, .
-

53

,
. .
, ,


,
.
.

.

.
, ,
.
.

, .
4. ,
.

, .

.
,
,
. .

1 2, 1
. ,
- ,
. ,
1 2, ,
: 1 2,
2 1 *).

,
. , ,
: 1 20
2 30 .
,

*) , ,
,
.

, ,
.

54

[.

II

.
2
1. 1 2
.
14.
1.
.
,
. ,
, , ,
, .
U ,
,
,
.
,

,
. 1,
2. ,
,
Ui-U^A^,

(14.1)

Ui \ ] 1 2,
,
1 2 .
,
, .
, , ?
, .
,
1 2 . (14.1)
. ,
,
2 1.
, . . (14.1)

-.

= ?\" .
(14.2)
, 1 ~> 2,
2 -> 1,
1 2.
2. ,
, .

55

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

. ,
. -
() ,
,
.
,
0
1



.

-
(.)

1
,

,

'
''

)
)
.
.
13.
3.
,

. , , ' 1
,
' .
1 0'
U U\.

,
, . 13.
, .
U\
' 1 , . .
0'01.
x

+
Ui =

A,

U - = -.

0l

(X -U

= U 00'-

(14.3)

56

[. II

.
,
, 100'.
, ,
'
1 1
' .
, * ~*
~~s *'' , (. 14). I
' / ,
| /

Uoo' = Ao4 + A

l0

U' -U ,
l

'*

. . . 14.
(14.3). ,
U[ U /,
'.
. .
4. _
(14.1)
/ 1 / = ,
(14.4)

. .
.
5. ,
.
,
. ,
*).
,
.
, .

. , -, ,
. .

(, , . .) ,
.
, , ,
,
.
*) .
.

.
, ,
.
, , ,
, .
, , , ,
, .

57

6. , ,

.
, ,

, . ,
, ,
.
,

,
.

,
.
: 1) ,
2) 3)
.

,
,
.
,
10" 10~ .

, .
.
,
,
.
,
. .
, .
. ,
,
.
, ,
, .

.
.
7.

.
, ,
8

58

[.

II

.
,
.
,
. .
.

. , , ,
.
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
.

. , ,
,
.
, .
, ,
, ,
, .
,

.

.
15. .

1. ,

,
. ,
,
. ,

,
.
,
,

15l

59

. ,
, ,
, .
,
, - .
,
.
, . . ,
,
. ,


.
2.

.
/ (. 15)
-
/ / . I + II
,

. / +
II
,
/ / / .
, ,
. 15.
/ / , ,
/ / . I,
, .
. 15 /
.
, .
,
.
1 + 11 1
2,
. /.
I + II ,
12

U /, a U' / / .
/ ,
:
A

12

= U -U
1

(U[-Ud.

60

[.

II

/ / , ,
, /
. Q.

(is.i)

<=(/;-/;=-{/',

Q = U -U
i

+ A.

(15.2)

12


. , Q, ,
S.U = U \J
.
3.
.
Q
I, II, .
(15.2) ,
Q. Q
/ / ,
(15.2) ,
. , :
U U Q, (15.2),
, ,
(15.2), .

.
, ,
, .
Q,
(15.1): / / .
4. (15.2) ,
. . / .
(15.1) . , ,
/ + / / , ,
/ / , .
/ / .
/ + / / ,
2

lt

12

= - + ([-: ).
1

/ '
/ / :
= + A' .
- (15.2), Q

Q = U'i Ui ^ .
(15.3)
1 2

12

Xi

61

5.
(15.2)
8Q = dU + 6A

(15.4)

8Q = dU + P dV.

(15.5)

, . .
, U = U , Q =
= . , ,
.
U = U Q = 0, = 0. ,
,
. ,
,
( ). ,
.
,
,
(, ),
. ,
,
.
6. ,
, .
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
- ,
,
. -
.
, 15-, 20- .
, 20-
, 1 19,5 20,5 .

.
. . ,
,
.
,
2

lt

62

[. II

4,1868 .
. ,
R, ,
R = 1,9858 /( ) ^ 2 /( ).
16.
,
1. , ,
. (15.3).
, U Ui
,
. Q = t/ U +
, . . ,
. , Q
.
.

,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, .
,

. , ,
, ,
.
2

1 2

1 2

. ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
, -
- . ,
. ,
, , -
- . ,
,
.

2. .
,
.
.
.

63

,

, . ,
,
,
. , ()
, .
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
, .

,
. ,
,
. ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
.

(17681830) 19
.
( )
,
,
. , ,
.
, .
,
.
3.
, ,
,
. , ,
.
,
.
. , ,

[. II

64

,

0

QC^-Uz-Ui+A ,
B

Q Q , ,
. ,

U = JJ + II , ,

Q + Q = (U -U )
2

+ (A +

A ).

, , :
.
.


. + ,
+ ,
. ,
Q + <3 =
{ / - +

qb^_qc

U U = ,
x

o.

, ,
, .
,
,
.

. , ,
,
,
.
.
, i-
,

2<2/=.
= i

4. , , ,
.

,
, .
.
, , (15.2)
12

Q=U -Ui
2

= AU

(V=const).

(16.1)

,

Q = AU +

65

12

= (V V ) = A (PV),
2

A(PV).


I=--U + PV.
(16.2)
, , , U, ,
V .
Q /.,- /,
\ / ( = const).
(16.3)
/ .
.
. ,
.
,
, .
, ,
Q .
, .
Q ,
.

- Q,

. Q
, :
. Q
, .
,
,

. Q,
.
5. ,
,
8Q 8 ,
dQ dA. , 8Q 8
, . .
-
.
, , 8Q
. 8Q 8 -
, .
, ,
, , , .
dU, dl, dP, dV, dT, ... ,

66

(.

, . .

U, I, , V, , ...
, 8Q 8

, .
47.
17.
1. (16.1) (16.3) .
,
.
, -
. ,
, , .
, .
W, W = Q.
, (16.1)
W =U -U^-bJJ.
v

( 1 7

.1)

V .
, (16.3)
7

= 1 -

= -

(17.2)

(17.1) (17.2) ,

, .
1840
. . (18021850) ,
. .
, ,
, .
2.
, W W
. ,
, , ,
. ,
.

, Wy W .
.
W ,
(
, ).
25 760 . ., .

. ,
v

+ 1 0. = ( 0 ) + 287
2

, ( 25
760 . .) 287

67

. , 0 0
,
( ,
). , ,

287 .
,
. , [ 0 ] , ()) { 0 }
, .
:
2

{H } + i

{ 0 } = ( 0) + 287 .

3.
. .
, ,
, . ,

,
,
. , -,

[] + { 0 } = { 0 } + 3 9 4 .
2

-, :
{ } { 0

} = { 0 } + 2 8 3 .

,
:
[ ] + | { 0 } = {} + 111 .
2

18.
1.
6Q, ,
dT :
= -%.

(18.1)

,
.
. .
.
dT
,
. , ,
,
, .
(V, ) (. 16).
RS,

68

[. II

dT.
+ dT,
.
R, N, S,
.

, , ,
SQ.
7*

.


R
N
T+dT - ,
,
,

.
mvj)



-V
. ,
. 16.

, ,
.
2. .
(18.1) (15.5)

dU+PdV
dT


dU

('

\ J v

dTA-

( dU

dU
dV

dV,
dV

{ dV )

aT

(18.2)

V , .
, , ^
. (18.2)
, .
, VT ,
.
, , ,
+ . ,
= ,
dT , 6Q ~ 0. &Q = 0, = 0.

, C .
, dV
0, ,
v

dU \
)-

(18.3)

69


dV

, -^

\^jr^j .
:

dU_

(18.2)

dV

dU\

,
1

dV j

lfdV

' ]\

18>5

,
. ,
8Q = dl.

= (--) .

(18.6)

3. (18.3) (18.6)
.
(17.1) (17.2)
(18.3) (18.6).
:
dW

(Cvh-iCv),,

(18.7)

- f = (Cp) -(C ) .

(18.8)

I f
3

P 2


.
19. .

1. ,
,
, , -,
f(P,

V, ) = 0.

(19.1)

-,
, ,
U = U(V,

).

(19.2)

(19.2)

, (19.1),
.
.
.

70

[. II

2.
.
.

PV--RT
,
, U V.
,
, -,
. (. 17)
.
, .
.
- ,
,

^
.
,



, -

3=

. 17.


.
?
,
. .
, ,
.
. , ,
. ,

. .
22 ,
. ,
,
.
.
.
3. -
. ,
, ,
.
.

71

. 1852
1862 .
.
. ,
.
,
.
MN 'N' (. 18)
.

. ,
. . . ,
,
, ,
.

N
N

1
V
Pi
V,
.

i
i ,
.


. 18.

.
.
,
, ,
.
,
. .
.
,
.
4. V ,
ABNM.


M'N'B'A'
V . .
MN.
-S -AM = P V (S
). M'N' '',
-S -'' = P V . ,
, = P V P V .
, .
.
,
U,
U -U
+A=0

72

[. II

Ui +

P V =U -{-P V .
1

I U -\- PV.
, I
:
h = h.
(19.3)
5. ,
,
.
46 104. .
,
.

. ,
,
, .
7\ ,
PV = RT, . .
. ,
= . PjVi =
= , (19.2) U = U.
2

U(T,

V ) = U(T,
X

V ).

(19.4)

,
. ,
U .
. (. 34)
, .

.
U = U(T)

(19.5)

.
C
. , C
(18.3). (
,

=^-

(19.6)

, C
, .

v

U = \C (T)dT.
v

(19.7)

73

20]

, C
.
, , , , , ,
., 100
1000 . C ,
(19.7)
v

U = C T.

(19.8)

- ,
C ~ 3 /(-), C
5 /(-), C ~ 6 /(-).
v

1. , ,
.
2.
, W , a W
.
. .
3. ,
, ,
.
.
v

20.
1. (18.5) .
y-^rjj, = 0 ,
RIP.
C -C
P

= R.

(jpp) =
p

(20.1)

.
(20.1).
.
, dT.
, ,
, 8 Q = C dT.
, :
C dT = dU.
(20.2)
V

.
(, V) , ,
,
.

74

. II

dT 6 Q =
= CpdT. 6 = PdV.
,
= d (PV) = d (RT) = RdT.
,
, . ,

CpdT = dU + RdT.
P

dU (20.2),
(20.1).
,
C ,

. ,

.
2. C ,
.
(20.1).
, C
. , R
. 20-
,

Cp CV= 1,986 /( ),
7

= 8,314- 10 /(-).
,
7

1 = 4,18 = 4,18 .
1842 .


. ,
,
C ,
.

, 1847 . ,
.
C .
, , . ,
, ,
.
, ,

2ll

75

, .


.
21. .
1. , ,
. , ,
,
.
(15.5) 8Q = 0, dU = C dT,
v

CvdT +

PdV-^0.


dT--

d (PV)

PdV+

V dP _ P dV+V
R

dP

C -C
p

dT,
C P dV + C VdP
P

= 0.

Y= - .

(21.1)

yPdV + VdP = 0.

(21.2)


.
.

. ,
. (21.2)

PV^ = const.

(21.3)

(17811840).
, . . ,
.
. PV = RT,
:
7 * - 1 = const,

"

= const.

(21.4)
(21.5)

' ~>\, (21.4) ,


,
. .

76

[.

II

(. 13). ,
.
,
,
.
,
.

.
2. (21.3), (21.4) (21.5)
. .
, , ,
.
.
,
. .
,
.
- ,
.
,

. ,
,
.
, ,
.
, (21.4).
, ,
.
, ,

. , ,
(. 22)
7 , ,
.

1. , ,
, , ,
. ,
.
. " ' = const PV = const;
-
1 1

!"!

77

2.
, ?
. > 1, < 1.
3. ,
?
4.
, V VV
.
t

in

5. -> 1
.
6. PV (. 19)
SS ,
. , ,

,
, .
7.

7 \ .
7*2, ,

.
,
,
.
.
. 19.
( 1 / )
( V , )

= (V 1/ ),
0 [] = C ( ).
PV = RT,
R,

-1

P-Pi
Pi

7V

, (21.5),

7" ,
, . 0 Y - 1 < 1,
< . ,
2

,
,
.
8. ,
, ,
, .

78

[. II

/ . ,
,
, , .
S, .
,
0

-.

- +

, = 0,
0

.
= 2~\/~--

, . .

/.
9. ,
.
?

j^J^p

. = 2|/~
,
,
.
, = ,
0

22. \

(. 1841) (17771862) 1819


y=C /C
.
(. 20)
.


,
.


.

.
, .

-
,
. 20.

. ,
, ,
.
.
. $
, ,
.
P

22J

Cp/C

79

. .
, P.,, P y = C IC .

, .
. 20 .
, .
, ,
,
.

, .
,
, :
2

tt

1 :
2 :

V,

3 :

lt

V.


,

.
.
1 2 ,

(21.2). dV = V V dP = P

yP(V -V )
2

lt

+ V ( / ' - P ) = 0.

1 3 ,
PV . ,

PdV + VdP = 0,
5

/ ( V - / ) + l ( P - P ) = 0.
2


? = - % = -

,
, .

, . 20.

80

[.

II

, 7 ,
(22.1),
Pi-Po
Pi-Pi

. 7 =

=2-.

(22.1)
(21.2), ,
7 , ,
.

(21.3), 7 .

23.

1. (. . I, 85)
:
c = Yf

(23-1)

. ,
. ,
dPIdp. ,
: PI = const.
,

,
. , dPIdp
/ \

(23.1)

<--V

;:

/i

2 2

i "f'

( - -)

jii , N , c
, .
, = 28,8, = 273 , (23.2) c
- - 280 /, = 330 /.
2. (17491827).
,
,
,
.

,
.
N

81

, (21.2).
V ~ 1/1/,

yPdp-pdP
= 0,
(23.3)

dP

I \

1\

CL--=yyj

(23.2)

cVy-

(23.5)

,
.
=--- 1,4. = 273

= 280

V =

330 /,

.
3.
,
.
.

>--

(23 6)

'

c.v , . . ,
(23.2). ,
(23.5), .

, (23.5) ,
() (),
.
. du + Pdv = 0,
' - .
v,

v ,
, .

82

[. II

, . () [ ()]
,
\ _ / _\ I '
) ~ [~
I

(8.4) (18.3)

( dv \
)\) -

1_\

*[

,
\ )

\ )\ \ - ;~

\ dv j

c \ dv J '

I \

(23.7)

(23.4) (23.5) (23.7),


= 1/.

24.
Cv
7 '
C ,

C -Cy
P

= R.

(24.1)

Cv = ~ ,

C,
v

Cp^-^j.

(24.2)


.
.
C , V
, ,
.

, C C -~C .

,
,
(), (. 21).

7\ .
.. .

83

.

.
- //- '
*"
, ^ )
. ( 0 ^ = ^
ff^^
, . ^^)
Q. ,
(^
, - ^ ^ )
, ,
. ,
. , ,
. = P V
'
P V\ = R (- ).
0 0 = ( 7\).
Q = U / + ,

21

25.
1. 94
.
.
.

.

.

.
. , , ,

;

. ,
, .

84

[.

II


.

.
2. , ,
. ,

,
, , ,
v

, ,
, .
/ (, , ) = 0. ,
,
. , ,
(21.2)
= const p . .
,
, , ,
, .
3. ,
+ Pip
:
Y

= const.

(25.1)

,

. , ,
,
.
. :
v !2 , <
.
, = gh, h ,
.
(25.1)
2

(25.2)
. . , , .
1/ ,
+ PI , . .

. i,

i + gh + - -= const.

86

(25.3)

,
gh .
i + -*- = const.

(25.4)

v (25.4)
, ,
gh .
,
.
.

.
i = const,
(25.5)
. . .

.
4.
. ,
( ),
( )
.
. ,
,
.
(25.5). ,
(25.4) ,
, .
,
. (25.4)
, (25.5).
, , ,

,
,
.
26.
1.
(. 22).
, ,

86

[. II

(2) ,
(1) , v .
(25.4)
1 2 ;

ll +

, vi

'2 +

v\ .
v .

2

. 22.

v = V2(ii-h)-

(26.1)

,
. ,
.
i = u + = -C T

-RT,

(20.1)
(26.2)

,
( - ).

VI

(26.3)

, , ,

. , ,
. .

2

(26.3)
-1

(26.4)

(26.5)

87

( 1 .)
(24.2),

RT

(2

v = YlfT=T
= 1000

8> 103

103

, =' ' '

= 5 4 0 0

/-

2.
. (26.6)
,

.

, (
).
(26.5) (26.3) ,
= 0, . .
. .
,
.
,
,
C ,
.
2

(, )
v. ?
, .
. , .
,
(25.4). + i> /2 = const.
, v 0, . . .
,
. i = ^

2

>

1 +

"2^).

'

^ ( - 1 ) 1

'

= vie ( ).

'

III


* *

27.

1.
,
. , ,
,
. 1 2 ,
,
1 2, 2 1.
, ,
- .
,
,
. , 16,
Q = Q . Q

, Q , .

.
, , ,
.

. ,
.
, ,
,
. .


,
. ,
,

.

.
2.
.
,
x

lt

89

, 1824 . (. .
. , ),
.
(
),
.
185051 .

( ). ,
,
.
28. ,

1.
, ,
. (. 23)
- ,
. ,
. VP

. 23.

1.
, . . ,
.
12.
Q
.
t

Qi = t / - f / i + A .
2

(28.1)

, . .
. , , ,
.
, . . ,
2

90

[.

III

, 2.
/ .
Q .
2

<?2 = ^ 1 - / - .
2

(28.2)

(28.1)
Q -Q
1

= A -A .

(28.3)

, ,
Q
Q , Q Q_ Q
.
b

^i

= ~or-

(28 4)


.
2. ,
, . . ,
Q = 0, , ] = 1?
,
.
.
,

,
, .
(18531932)
, . .
, ,
.
,
.
.
.


. ,
,
. ,
,
.

.
.
2

28]

91


.
. ,
,
,
.
.
.
3. (
) 1851 .
: ,

.
,
,
.
,

.
,
. , ,
,

.
4. ,
,
.
(18581947). :
. ,

.

.
, . ,
( ),
,
.
. , (. . 7)
. .
,

.
. ,
.
Q = U -Ui
2

+ A.

92

[.

U
, ,
U = 0,
2

Q = A.
, Q,
, /.
,
, . .
. ,
, ,
, ,
(
,
) ,
,
,
.

.
,

.
, .
5. (18221888) 1850 .
.
:
.
.
,

.
,
, ,
(. 4, . 4). (,
) ,
. ,
(
).

. .
,

, ,
.
,

93

, . ,
, .
,
.
,
.
,
. ,

.
, , . , ,
,
. ,
,
.
, .
,
(. . 23), .

\2, 2\, .
12, Q ;
2 1 Q > Q%.

' = Qi Q.2-
.
6.
.
, . .
. ,
,
Q Q
= Q Q .
Q .
,

Qi Q , ;
.
, .
.
7. ,
.
, . .
. , ,
Q
, , .
, ,
2

lt

94

[.

III

. Q
,
. , .
.

, ,
.
,
,
.
, ,

.
,
.
29.
1. -

,
,
.
, .

.

.
.
.

, ,
,

,
.

,
,
- ,

. ,
, , .
2.
. ,
,
, , ,
. - ,
-

95

.
,
, . .
. ,
,
,
, .
,

.
,
;
.
,
,
,
, . ,
,
.

,

. ,
, .
. ,

, .
3. , ,
,
.
,
.

, ,

.
,

N (.
24).
,
.
.
, .
,
. 24.
.

, .
,
/. ,

96

[.

III

, 2.
, /,
( /) 1,2, ... ,
( 1). ,
, >- '
.
,
.
( 1), ( 2), ... , ,
.
. , N -- ( 1)
( ),
( 1) ->- N.
, . ->- N,
,
.
, ,
, ,
. -> N
MN. ,
, .
, , ,
,
MN.
, .
, , ,
.

1.
,
. . >

. ( ,
.) .

.
. ,
, . , , , (/ +

(29.1)
(29.2)
2. ,
P
V ,
.
v

30 J

97

,
C

V 2+ 1 2

RT

(29.3)

PV = RT
C = R

i 2- l)

(29.4)

, ,
. ,
(29.4) ,
. .
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
,
.

30.
1.
.
,

,

7\ 7' .
, 7\ > .

7\
,
.

. ,

.
V
,
,
. 25.

12 (. 25).
Qj
.

23, .,.

. 3 2

12

23

98

[.

III


4.
(. .
A ),
Q . 4 ,
41
/. , ,
(. .
. ).
,
= 4 - -f- A + Qx Q .

(28.4),
3i

1 2

2 3

3i

(30.1)
2. :
, ,
7\
, ,
.
,

. . . . , /.
, ) > )', ,
.
,
, .
, . . .
m Q
Q = Q Q ,
, .
,
.
, ,
. ' 0_2
Q[ ;
' = Q[ Q' .
'
:
Q

(1-TI)Q .

(Q Q[);
(Q Q );
' =
= (Qi - Q ) - (Qi - Qd =4Qi - r\'Q[.
,
: x

99

.
, .
' , Q Q[ = 0.
. , Q = mq Q[ = m'q\, q
,
, a q[ ,

. q q[ ,
' , mq m'q[ = 0, . . Q Q[ = 0.
, '
,
.
' , Q Q[ = 0.

:
.
(Q' Qo) = (r\ f]')Qi > 0.
^ rj'Qi = (n. t ) ' ) Q i > 0 ,
() )') Q > 0
, .
,
. ) > '
. ' > .
,
,
. , ] = /, .
x

3. (37.2)

. ' ,
, : j]Q T|'QJ = 0.
:
1

Q[ Q =
L

.
,
,

|'

' Q > 0,
x

Q!, Q = (I )') Q[ (I |) Qi = Q[ Q > 0.


2

.
.
, .

31.
1. 1848 . ( ) ,

,

.

100

. Ill

, . . .
.
t t
, - (,
, , . .).
x

Qi-Q

(31.1)

= /(*!, ),

Qi

f (t , t. )
t t .

.

,

.
2.

,

t t :
x

Qi
Q

= <p(h, h).

(31.2)


/ (t , t ).
(t t ).
,
.
t , t , t .
, ,
. 26. 1234 4356
. 26.

lt

1
1

= (^

),

4>(,

4).

Q ,
2

Qi

Qs

= (^i,

) (, ).

, . 26,
1256, , 43

. ,
Q

~Q

(*

).

101

,
*{*1, -

* ) = < P ( ' i , t ),
8

(31.3)

) =

( )

' '' --

Qi_
Q

(<1.

(L,

(31.5)


t . t .

t . t ,
.
( 3 1 . 5 )
t .

0 (t ). ,
U. ,
3

, (t , / )
0 (/) t t t = t . 0 (t)
,
. 0 (/)
.
Q = 0 (t ) 0 == 0 (t )
x

3. Q i'Q
. Q Q .
< 0
. , 0 (/) =
(t, t ) t ,
. (31.7)
t .

.
0 it) , ,
0 ' (t) =
- - ib ( ) 0 (t), (t ) .
( 3 1 . 7 ) . , t
,
,
.
0 , .
-, -
, , x

102

1. III

.
6

Q Q .
9 , , , 100 .

100 ,
,
.

>

* =

, - = ioo

(31.8)

9 6 .
QJQ - ,

6 2 7 3 , 1 5 ,

^ 3 7 3 , 1 5 .

(31.9)

,
,
<

>


Q
Q .
n

-, -
0 ,
(31.10)
. , ,
,
6 = 273,15 .
,
, .
, ,
273,16 4. ,

, .
.
, .

0,0020,01 , 0,0002
0,001 .
0,0001 .
,
(1954 .)

103

,
, 273,16 . ,


100 ' .
, 273,15
373,15 . 273,16
.
5.
.
, ,
,
.
.
, ,
0 : 6 < 0.
.
, 0
: 0 > 0 (
,
).
Q > 0.
2

Q = ^ Q i - ^ < 0 ,
2

Q < 0. ,
, Q = | Q |.
= Q Q = Qi + | Q |.

.
, Q + | Q | ,
= Q -f | Q |.
,
.
0 < 0 :
. ,
,
= 0. .
273,16
. ,
. ,
,
.
, .
, ,
, ,
. 2

104

[.

III

.

. ,
.
.
.
6.
.
,
.
,
.
,
, .
.
32.
-
,
-
. ( -
.)
, .
,
. Q
12 (. 25). 8Q = dU + PdV.
U
, dU = 0, , 6Q = PdV =
lt

= RTx^y.

,
Q =
1

RT \n^-.
1

23 .
Q ,
. Q ,
.
x

0_ =
2

\^.
2

IN -

IV,
r> 4


. , C !C P

105

,
TV ' const.
23 14 (. . 25),
V L

7 l/y-

7 l/
2

7 _ I
4

^ 1

.
,
. ,
6Q = C dT + PdV = 0,
iuinC dT + RTy- = 0.
v

dV

dT

~v~

7"1-

C .

23 14 :
v

v
^
3

dV

\\
dV
.1

In p - = In
V.

. ,
_

Qi

(31.7),

,

- ,
(
)
.
,
: = 0 .
- -

106

[. III

.
,
, ,
.
33.

1.
. .
-
. ,

. , .
. ,
.
, ,
( ).
2.
= (, V), V: PV = VP (, V) = / (, V).
V ~ 1/1/. /'
F (, ).
, - ,
F (, ) :
W

-r<r.

4 +

*up ;*u ...


+

F (, 0) PV
-- 0, . . , .
, , F (, 0) = RT.
.
V 1/,
(33.1)
, , ... ,
( , . .,
). ,
, . .
2

(33.2)
( 2 ).
3. . V
. V
, t 0 1000 . .
.
.

a
0

1/ , = ,
(

. , (33.2)

(33.3)

107


r ( l + -)

= A .

(33.4)

, R
.
,
. . . 273,16 ,
(33.3)
1

R , = 7' ,
PV (V ->- ). (33.2)

, R (33.4) .
()

3
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130

0,045
44
40
37
34
31
28
25
22
20
18
16
15
13

140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280

0,011
10
9
7

300
320
350
370
400
420
450
470
500
520
550
570
620
670

0,001
1
-1
0
1
3
5
8
0,011
14
17
20
25
31

5
4
4
3
2
2

1
0
0
0

.
Pj V \' . (33.2)
2

1 +

,
P V -P V
2

RTB(x)

()

108

I .

III

, = ,
7"
.
,,
(, -
,
D

(33.4)
.

= ( - * -

- - ' "

" /

l'J -

( 3 3

'

6 )

,
(33.6), . 2.

34.

,
.

.
. .
1 . ,
, ,
V.
: U = U (, V).
/ (, V, ) = 0,
U
. .
V, .
V, .
,
(. 27, ).
,
.
1234, 27,
. 1234 .
12 7\,
34 .

, 1 2
, 7\
.
, , \' V . . ,
1234,
1234. ,
2

109

16 25, . ,
1256.
V
12. 61
7\ ,
. (.j^i
) .
, ,
2

' '

7\- )(1/ -V\).


2

Q ,
12. Q = U + (1, VJ.
x

12 , U Ui
2

dU\
dV IT (V*

V i ) ,

\ +

[i

dV JT

Qi =

7\-T

(34.1)

Q, ,
01
dV JT

(34.2)

.
2 . , (34.2),
. /
.
Q .
x

dl = d(U + PV) = (dU +

PdV)+VdP,


dI = 8Q+VdP,
"
bQ = dI-VdP.

[. Ill

(34.3)

(34.3) ,
. , Q

12 , U 1 =

^ \\'..-l\).
pi

.
(8.3):
\

__ (dV_\

I \

dT/v~~

\dTjp\dVJT'

t _ _ ( W )

, , _

Q (34.1),
:
/ \
, / dV \
x

(34.2) .
= -, ,
1

1_\

__RT__

\ dTJv~

"

(34.2)

,
, .
,
. ,
. , = (jj^j

111

, C ,
.
(34.4).
,
v

34 8

= -

< ->

,
.
3 . (34.2)
,
-

.

6 = da + . . . -f- da ,

A ( ,
, ) .
( 1) /, a
, a .
,
(34.2). V ,-,
A .
t

34 9

-(- -

< ->

(34.4).

I = U4 A a
+ A a + ...4 A, a ,
(34.10)

r

(341)

*- ()

(34.9) (34.11) .
35.
1. 18

C ,
.

. (34.2),

112

[.

III

(35.1)
^ r j

(8.4)

o-c,=-wagu-wa:gi
jp\dV

) ~

(35.3,

' \ jv \

,
. ,
PV = RT. (35.2) (35.3)
= R.


/
K

\ W J T '

(35.3)
C -C
P

= Ta?K^-.

(35 4)

> 0, ,
> .
51.
2. V V
. c
, V
v= 1/, .
,

- , = --7

(35.5)

t = 0 ( = 273,15 ) = 6,10-10"'
2- 10 / , = 10 / , (35.5)
2 /(-) = 5-10" /(- ).

.
, t = 4 ,
, ,

113

3.
\, t .
:

7 = 273 ,

= 140 /(-),

/=2,-10

1 0

/ ,

= 13,6- 10' / ,

= 1,81-10-

(35.5)
= 17 /(-),

= 1 2 3 /(- ) 0,0292 /(-),

- = 1,13.
, .

t 0 ,
.
4. c
.
(35.1) c

c = v

[\ c/v j

v \/

{jf)r

P= (Cp C

(35 6)

- -^

'


~ J

- 0,33 10* / ^ - 0,33 10 ,

+ ^ 1,28-10 / , 1,3-10 .
dv JT

, y-^r~jT
.
,
,

.
. , ,
: c
.
(
),
.

114

[. III

(
), ,
. ,
.

36.


.
, ,
,
. (34.2). ,
. -
. , .
, = (), ().

/ \

y^yj

fW\

(34.2)

\ dV )

dT

i l _ P

\ Jv dT
f \
\dxjv

(
[dV J
,

dx,

+
+

= ^
0

\'Wh

^ ^ j ^

dx.

(36.1)

(, V).

j r . , -\- , ,
\ov 1%

. ,
6Q = dil + PdV dV ,
,
/ 60 \
fdU\
, , (36.1),

. .

.

37. ( )
1. , 30
, .
(

37]

115

I),
R R .
7\ , . ,
, .
, (. .
I), .
.

.
I
, Q
R Q R .
, Q + Q ,
, , .

R R .
Q Q ,
,
,
I .
I, R R
.

I,
.
,
Q[ R Q
R . , .
, .
, 12 (. . 25)
. , ,
, .
,
.
,
, .

Q{ Q . ,
, ,
.
x



0[
Ti

(37.1)
' 2

I .

116

[.

III

, I
, ,
.
/? Qi + QI,

R Q0 + Q2,
2

A =Qi + Q\ + Q2 + <?2 ,
.
,
. Q[ , Q[ = Q .
(37.1)
x

R
. R
x

Qi

Q2 + Q2 =

(Qi

\ Qt

Q + f- = [
+

= Q + Q!,. ,
, .
==; 0.
,
2

'1

+ |^<0.

(37.2)

'2


, .
2. (37.2) , ,
. Q[ , = Qj + Q[ + Q + Qo = 0
(Qi + QI) = ( Q + Qo)-
(Q, + QJ) R R .
Q[ = 0,
(37.1).
2

Qi + Ql +

QI=o.

Q[,

7\ > 7",
+ QJ 5? 0.
, < , Q, + Q[ s c 0.
,
2

117

3. (37.2) ,
.
,
30. 7 j , .
Q , 30, ,
.
2

Qx

Qi

0.


Ql Qi ^-
-QT'^fx-

7*2

.
{ 6

'-

6 )

,
.
() , .

,

.
, ,
. . . . , , .
t = 150 ,
/ = 20 .
7\ = 423 , = 293 - - . .

x

7\

423

. . . .
,
, .

. ,
,
()
.
. , ,
, ,
. ,

.
, .
,
(
) . ,

118

[.

III

.

. ,
, ,
.
, , . ,
.
, ,
.

1. ,
( > ),
?
Cj .
, ,
.
. ,

.
&Qx = CjdTi, 8Q = C dT (
). 6 = 6Q + 6 Q ,
10

20

10

^ + - ^ = 0.

(37.4)

'2

' 1

'1

' 1

,
^^'

= ^^*.

(37.5)

= = .

, ,

= $ 6 = - j dT-C

\ dT = (C T
j

+ C T ) - (C + C ) .
2

(37.7)

.
2. ,
. ( ,
, .)
. (37.6)
- > , = . .
(37.7)
, .
6 / 4 = 6 Q + 6Q .
2

20

20

SQ

6Q

= - -f-

(37.4) , 7*2 =

20

(,

dT

Cl

+ c{r

? v

= Ci ^'

119

= const,

i.,
1

'

Tjo In

( ,,).
(. 48).

10

38.
1. (37.2)
R R ,
R .
( ),

.,,

.
( -
I)

,

Q
Q. ,
Q
,
Q +

+ Q + ... + Q (. 28).

,
I.

R
,

. ,
,

R
To
Ro
R R,,
R .
, t'-
. 28.

R R (i = 1, 2,
). ,
, ,
.
i- R
lt

lt

lt

120

[.

Q, R Q'.

t

- | i + | i - = 0.
(38.1)
'0
'i
/, Q ,
:
0

" '

,
I, .

R

Q ;
0

QH-QI;
(38.2)

R Q + Q' ;
A=Q + {Q + Q[) + ... + (Q + Q' ).
n


. Q\, Q',_, ... , (Q +Q' ) ~- ...
= (Qn + Qn) -~ 0- ,
R
R , ... , R .

. R

Qo = T y ^ .
(38.3)
x

lt

, I
,
R Q,

A~Q .
0

.
= Q ,

. , Q
0, ,
(38.3) ,
0

-% < 0.
(=1

(38.4)

38J

121

.
, (38.4)
. ,
I.
R
.
(38.4). ,
,
, Q .
2. ,
R;
I. ,
.
. (38.4)
. ,
,


.
3. , ,
R,, R ,
R .
, , ,
,
. , ,
,
. , , R . ,
Rj I Q,,
N ,
Ri
6Q,j,
6Q, -.
Ri . ,
R
. Ri
N
, ;
I 6 Q ,
;
6Q,- ,
, . . ,
(38.4)
0

(38.5)

.

122

[.

III

4. (38.5)
- R R ,
R,
I .
I
.
, .
,
, ,
, . 8Q
, I
.
, (38.5)
, I.
u

5. ,
R . ,
,

. R R , ... ,
, ,
R .
R . ,
R . , ,
R . R
, R .
0

lt

6. (38.5)
,
. ,
.
6 Q
. , ,
6Q . ,
8Q 8Q .

b

7\ ,
6Q
. , . .
, 6Q .
, ,
,
, . T


.
, Tj_
.
X

imKC

2]

123

,
J

* 1

*)

' 2

Qi

<?2
1

Qi ,
, a Q , .

2

Ql

,
Q

)=

<

1 < -

Vl

' 1

.
. (38.2)
, .
Q + Q' = ... = Q + Q' = 0 = Q +
+ (Qi + QI) + + (Q + Q' ) = 0, Q = - (Qi + QI).
,
2

Q ;

(Q -\-Q' ) = Q

0%

. Q.
i 1 (38.1)
Qoi

Qo+Qi

'

i 2,

3, ... ,

Ti

,
^"

~"

'

i= 1

Qo = Tl ,

X' Qi

iiao 7"j

> T Q > 0. ,, < , 0 -< 0.


.
(38.4).
0

124

[.

Ill

39.
1. .
,
, .
, ,
. .
, ,
, .
, .
, .
,

. , ,

.
2. , ,
. ,
().
, .
,
.
.
,
. ,
.
.
, ,
. Q .
Q .
= Qi Q . Q ,
Q^. ' = Q' Q .
,
. = ', . . Q Q = Q', Q .
.
> ', . . Qi Q > Q' Q . , Q Q ;> Q.' Q ,
Q
Q + Qa Qi
, .
:

=2

Q 7^;
{

(Q-2 + Q') 7V,


Q .
s

Qs + Q2 1 \

Qi,
( 1

fZj-:

125

, > 7" > ,

1
(39.1)

Qi-

1
7'

q Q. -f , .
, ,
z

(39.2)

Qi.

1
(39.2) ? > Q .
,

. 29 q/Q

.
,
, ,
.
, q
Qi,


, ,
.
3.
,
(
)

( ).

, .
, ()
().
,
, , ,
.
, ,
, .
,
. , ,

,
37. Q
,
. .
, , ,
, .
, .
, Q
Q., . .
, Q , ..,
Qj
T > ,
t

126

[.

III

.
Q Q' = ,
Q',. ,

:l

,
- 1
T -+T ,
2

Q-* .

40. .
1. , , ,
.

(40.1)

.
, ,
.

. .
:
< ^ ) - ~ - ^ 0 , 6'Q ,

.
, , 6'Q == 6Q,
<|>-^?3=0.

(40.1)

, . ,


< ~ ? = 0 .

(40.2)


.
2.
/ (. 30) 2 ,
.
l u l l .
J12111.
:
f

b Q

112

21

fiQ

127

8Q
112

1112

, ,

5 f

(40.3)

112
/112
, ,
, ,
. 6Q/T
,

, \ -^
,
.
, (40.3)
:
,

, .
:
, ,
,
.
, .
,
.
2 1, ,
, ,
1 2
. , / 2
S 5. ,
x

So

, ,
.
, .
, .
-
.
.
3. ,
(40.5)

128

[. iii


,
, .
S
dS=(^r)

\1

.
/

(40.6)

, 6Q
.
(40.6) , 6Q ,
,
.
4. 5
.

8Q = C dT + PdV = C (T) dT + RT~.

= ^- =

d S

C (T)f-+R^-,
v

S= J C (T)^f
v

+ R\nV.

C ,
,
v

S = C \nT
v

+ R In V + const.

(40.7)

v ,
S vC In T + vR In V-!-const.
v

, , ,
, .

.
, S
, , v.

S = \(cv\nT

+ # I n - +const),

(40.8)

S = -H\C \nTA-R\r\ ^ - f c o n s t V
v

i V

(40.9)


. (40.8) (40.9)
,
.

129

5. , oQ = ,
, dS , S = const. ,
,
. .

1. ,
.
. , ,

( p r e . 31). ' ACBDA
.
ADB
,

'

dT

= 0.

ADB
( , =
7\ ,
.)

524-

. 31.
,
Q = 0, Q , .
Q = . , ACBDA
, ,
. ,

.
2. ,
.
3.
(. 32). ,
,
< T
, ,
, i = T T .
.
,
v

lt

V
{

- )

= 0.

. 32.

,
- C
0.
4. 12, 23 31 (. 33). ,

., ,

pi

( ,

130

[. Ill

5. ,
12, 23 31 (. 34). ,
23 , 12
3 .

. = | 7 \ 1 ? - ( 7 - ) |
1

6. 12, 34 ]
23, 41 (. 35). 1\ Q .

. 34.

. 33.

. 35.

,
, .
. =

*- ,

7.
/ 2 .

,
, ,
2.


, ,
,
. ,
/
2 ,
.
. 1342
, 152
.
(. 36).
, 13 42 ,

QJL

152

"7-0

1342

Q , 34. > 6Q > 0,


0

6Q
J
152

152

Q , 152.
, Q > .
0

131

8. , 2 1 (
, S > S,) ,
,
/ 2 ,
.
9.
\, . .
2

( dV
. ; - ^ - ^ = 0. (8.3)
/ '
, \~df~)v~^'
^

W
(34.2)
s

dU =

Bm

... OP
T

dV =

KW) - .

PdV,

6Q = dU + PdV = 0. ,
.
10. 4 .
,
(.
), . . . . . .
?
. 1)
, ,
4 -
. 2)
.

41.
1. , 1
2 (. 37),
/.
2 / ' - / / .

/'

II

/ / ,
/7

S

- S

-f.

(41.1)

l->2
,
6Q.

132

[.

Ill

, 6Q = 0,
(41.1) .
S;

S,.

(41.2)

,
; , .

.
S > Si,
2
1 ,
.
,

/
2
. 37.

.
, , ,
.
2. .

(. 38).
.

V " .

.
,
.
?
.

,
. 38
.
,
( ).
,
Vi , V .
, .--
.
, ,
. ,

V^. ;
2

42]

133


&Q =

PdV^RT^-,

'V

.
.
,
. ,
, . . 6Q = 0, dS = 8Q/T = 0.
, S = const, . .
. ,
dS 6Q/T
. .
.
, (40.5),
,
,
.
42.

1. , ,
.
.
, , ,
,
,
, ,
. ,
. ,
,
.
, .

,
. Sj
,
.
:

S = vs,.

(42.1)

134

[.

III

,
, ,
(42.1) .
, . ,

, .
2.
.
,
7\, .,, ,
. , ,
(
, ),
. 8Q,- ,
i- , ,
16,

! 6Q = 0.
(42.2)
3

, ,
.
,
8Q
6Q,- .
t-
h

AS;

,
AS^

[ >'

(42.3)

J 1 i
1=1

: I
( 1 in), 6Q,
, II ( m
1 ),
8Q .
(42.3)
,

AS^i
\

I I

\i = 1

i=m-

, .

^
1

i= l

.
1

1
I

i=

,
1

j
,

i m-fl

II

i = m\

135

8Qi ,
, a 8Qn , 1\ 7'

. , 7 i > . , 6Q1 + 8Q = ,
bQi < 0. ,
,
.
, .
,
U

M + ^H(^-^)

SQlI>0

'

. . .
3. ,
, .
,
,
. (42.3)
. 8Q ,
, (42.3).
AS 0 .
4. ,
, , .
.
,
.

,
.

. , ,
. ,
. ,
.
5. ,
, .

. .
(41.2)
, .
,
. ,
,
/ 2,
. , (41.2)
1 2,
;

136

[.

Ill

. 1 2

, 3
4.
6. ,
,
,
.

(. 80).
7. , "
,
: .
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .

,
.
, .
,
.
, , :

,
, , ,
.

(. 80, 6).
43. .

1. 1 2
, V
.
.
,

137

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
?

\
,
.
, .
, ,
, .

, .
^
, ,
.
, ,
, *
,
(. 39). 2
/,
2. , , - I
2, /. . 39.

, ,
*).
, , ,
/ 2.
, ,
.
b /
V\ V.
/ ,
.
/ (40.7).
,

A S = v /?ln-^-,
1

v . 2
.
, 2
x

)
,
.

138

[.

III

. / ,
2
AS =
v R\n~,
2

v 2, a V .
,
.

/

\
AS = R'vi\n~
+ v \n-ir-}.
(43.1)
2

* 1

, V\ < V V < V. .
,
, ,
.
2. (43.1) ,
(18391903). , 1 2
. (43.1) AS
- . ,
v , \^ = v, =
= / v , Vi = V = / V, (43.1)
AS = vR 12.
2

,
. ,
. .
,
(43.1) ,
/ 2 .
. ,
1, 2,
.
, .
AS = 0, (43.1)
. ,
,
.
,
.

. (1879 1955)
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.

139

4 4 .


.
. ,
.
,
: ,
.

, : 1)
S ; 2) .
, . . - (1876
1964), . ,
S ,
. ,
S
, , :
,
.
,
. ,
, .
, -
,
.
, ,
, ,

.

45.
1. ,
.
.
, 8Q = TdS.

6Q = dU + PdV

(45.1)


dU = TdS-PdV.

(45.2)

/ = U -\~ PV, U

dI = TdS + V dP.
(45.3)
TdS = 8Q, dl = SQ.
, ,

Q, .

110

1.

Ill


.

: W, ,
, .

4 = U-TS,

(45.4)

0 = 4 + PV=--U-TS
+ PV.

d = SdT-PdV,

(45.5)
(45.6)

dO> = SdT + V dP.


(45.7)
dT = 0, d* = PdV =
6. . ,
,
,
.
(45.2), (45.3), (45.6) (45.7) '
U
5 V, / S ,
V, :
U^U(S,
V),

l = I(S,

),
( 4 5 - S

W = W(T, V),
= (, ).

'


.
. ,
,

. ,
(45.8) ,
. ,
(45.8)
dU = (

(Ir)v

d /

dS

dP

= (5)p + (5)s '

1.41

(45.2), (4.5.3), (45.6)


(45.7)
'dU_\
OS

P =

Jv'

1d

_ HJ"
~ {d7js'
_\

\0S

jp'-

(45.10)

~ js '

\ dT

jv'

(\
\

(45.9)

jp'

p=

v=

dVJT'

it.'

(45.11)
(45.12)

- .
W V = W -f- TS, / . = . + TS.
(45.11) (45.12),

t-T{2) ,

(45.13)

' - * - ( ) ,

-14)

U=

.
,
. ,
, .
, , .
(45.13)
.
U' U{S, V),
S V , . .
.
(45.1) 8Q , . .

.
.
2. , (45.9)

/ \

\ dV )s

~~ OS dV '

d4J

I \

__

\ dS jv

_&
~

dV dS '

142

[. I l l

,
- (\>\
- \dSjp'

( \

Wis

(45.15)

OS \
( \
; ~ \dfjv'
'dS\
(\'\
\)'
) ~

(45.17)
(45.18)


.
,

.
,
, 34.
.
1.
. (45.2) dV,
1

\\')

\\';

'

(45.17)
{tv)r-^) -P.
r

(45.19,

2. dP
(45.3)

( \

(\

(45.18)

<*
(45.19) (45.20) 34 .
.
3. /
, . . ,
.
.

6 = PdV (12.5).
:
l^U + ^AiOi
(),
' V - TS
( ),
= / + v . . ( ).
1

(45.21)
(45.22)
(45.23)

46]

143


dU^TdS-SAidui,
dI = T dS + ^UidAi,

(45.24)
(45.25)

dV = SdT-VAidai,
dQ'^ SdT+'ZaidAi.

(45.26)
(45.27)

46.

1. 19.
.
(. . 18)
.
.
. , ,
, AT.
19, /
: / = 0.
,
/

j "f : , {^ )
r

= 0.

(45.20),
/\
1 v
\ip

a p ) / =

\\
4 6

/ , , ,
/ .
, V ^ , [jj-' ~V,

7' - 0. ,
. , ,
, .
104 ,
(
--).
2.

.
, ?" , (46.1),
,
p

144

[.

III

.
, , (
).
.
(. 105).

, . . ( ),

(. 25). ,
25.
..
.
.
,
, . . ,

.

1

:i

>-=\

{%), dP = \ '-- ,/
Pi '

dP.

(46.2)

,

. ,
, ,
.
3.
.
, -
. '
.
().
__ AT
~" '
, ,
_ dT
~~ dx

*'

(dV\

_fdV\

dx

_/6Q\
/8Q\ dT _ , dx
-\dT)p
-\dxjpdT^
dT'
C'p ,
, . .
r

Cp

fiQ

- '
C

' { d x

JP

4fil

145

(45.1)

UW\

dx _
' dT

dT
dx

~J~dx

'

Lj

'dT

dT

\
' '

[\'\

,
dx.

(46.3)

1 + V

-
. ,
, ,
.
.
' = ().
,
, .
PV = ,
1 fdV\

1
'
. ,-,-r I
,,,.
,
--V \ Jp
PV
V
, .
, (46.3),

(-

'

^ dx

.
, ,
R.

..

' V

'

.'
W,"
Rx^ '

'
(4.6.4)
/V '

, -= --- 273,16 . (46.4)'
.
'/R ; 5 / 3 = 1,67.

!46

[.

III


1. , .
.
,
. dl
= TdS + VdP 0,
fS \
V
d

, ,
, S .
2.
. ,
.
, .
,
.
.
,
. , ,
.
,
, .

.

i-'i

, , -

= dT+m dv
\ v
,dV/
. (18.3) (34.2),

,-) .

/_\
/
(46.6)
[dVju
C

, x

1D

- = \
2

d V.

(46.7)

v\

7\ = 0.
2

47.
.
, , ,
/,
,
,
df = X{x,

y)dx+Y(x,

y)dy,

147

= .

'

\;

,
(dY\

!\

.,,

(47.1)
. (45.19)
(45.20).
, , , ,
Xdx + Ydy (
) / (, ), -
.
.
. , 6Q

Q = Q (, ).
dQ = dU + PdV = dI-

V dP,

dP.

(47.1),
-1

\
-V

, ,
.
, Q
, SQ
. .
,
6,
. d
,
.

.
1.
/(~ .

s

..,'\

..

..'\

148

1.

ILL

^jr/j , V,
. ,
, . -,
, V, , S .
.
\
_ [\
dVJs ~ [dTjs

(\
\dV]s'

, , S
. . , V, S.

\
_
(\
fdS)
(\
(\
[OS'"
\dTjs~
\dSJT\dTjp'
\0Vjs
\dSlv\dVJT

(\
fdS\
1
/OS)
(\
\ \dS
{dSJTWjTy
[dV s

T

dS_\ (\
^
dTjp\dS]v~'fdS\

(iS\
[''

/SQ\

\dfjp
_
~ (*Q\
\dtjv

[dfjv
dSjr

~C '
V

\dVJr~\dVjr'


\ _
dVjs~~

(\
W/T'

<s = V <T,

(47.2)

/,
,
.
23 (. 23).
2. .

-() .

(47.3)

S ,
\Jv

\dVjT

fOSy
\)

JdS\

(dS\

(dV}

C ldP\

ldV\

XdTJv^KdVJTXdTjP

"f

\jv

\jp'

- -{ \

dV

(\

47

( -)

149

. .
:

47 5

[) = {)'
/ \

< '>

/8

dU\

(dV\

&T)v= v+ v\
dVjs'

\dPjs

(dS\

(dS\
\dVJT

(\
\dS)

fdS\
l \
_
\)'
\dPJT
(dS\
(\
_(dS\
/\
/\
.' a n

(dS\
(dS\

/dV\

( 4 7 0 )

.V

(\
[dSjv

(47.11)

C \dv)rv

d s

(47.12)
_

C 1\
p

fdV\

\)
[dPjs
' ~f \dPjs
\ dp). ~~ ~ T \avjs \dPjs'
\dfjp
~\)~^
\dfjp
\dPjs.
^
\)
(dV\ _ / W \ ,(dV\
,(dV\
ldV\ _ fdV\ ^ T
fdVy
IdV
dV\ (dT\
1\ _fdV\
[dPJs~\dP)T\)
[dTJp[dPJs~~\dPJ
C [dTJp '
\}^ [-Jp [dSJp ~ uPJr
[ dTJ \dPj<s
(47.14)

(\
(dP\
ldP\
T (\
(dPvi
*
\?)
C \df)v
=

( i 7 A

+
+

48.
1. -
, , .
,
. .
. ,
, :

. , , .
1 2.
= U U + Q.
Q ,
1 2.
.

0

<S
2

Si

5s

^
12

150

BTOFOK

".

Ill

'

(48.1)
(48.2)
. ,
, ,
= U T S.
,
, Y
Y W U TS. ., == .
. ,
= ,
0

= ,-,.

(48.3)

(45.13),
(48.3)

(48.4)

. .
2. ,
, = U TS
. U
.
, ,
, U TS,
.
.
, ,
. .
-> 0
.
3.
.
,
. ,
( , )

<j 4 9 ]

151

,
.
,
, . ,
. ,
,
(V. Vi). ,
A .
(48.2)
"
'<Zi-Z.,,
(48.5)

Z = Y + P V = U-T S
+ P V.
(48.6)
0

eJH

3 1

,
, Z
Z = = U TS
PV.
.

..

(48J)


'
= .
. (48.4)
1

:.':^

/,

/, 7

;;' '

(48.8)


, ,
, .

. ,
, .
1 | 0


, 2 37.

49.
1.
.
, ,
. ,
,
,
. ,


.
,
. ,
.

152

[.

Ill

, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
, , .
, / , , , . .
.
q,
.
,
. ,
/ , ,
, i ? , / / , R
, . . .
,
, .
, / >- 0
.
2.
. ,
, . .
. . ,
, . .
, .
,
. dq
= .
,
; q, . ,
, (34.9)
; = q, Ai = . , %
,
.
,
2

* - 7 f = .

(49.2)

= dU'dq
. (49.2),
1882 ., .

T

49

' i (-?)=-

( -)

e(T)=-T^ EldT

e(T ).
0

(49.4)


, -

,()1

153

3. 1851 .
.
. MVHT %.
. =
- (49.2) ,
, .
= . ,
,
(49.2).
dq tldq.
q (, = 1),
Eq ,
. ,
, . . . -
.
.
. ,
.
(49.3) , = ,
(49.2)
(48.4),
=, Ui U = . .
4. (49.2) ,
,
, .

. ;
(1791 1867).
,
q,

(49.5)

-1

/ ' 9 6 500 - ( '),


. , q 1
1, nF . .

nF , . .
= nFu.
(49.2)

(49.6)

50.
,
, S
, . .
,
. ,

, . .
. ,
, 1 2
Sj > S . -2

154

. ill

,
S,
S.
,
.

,
. , ,
,
; .


.
. .
1. ,
. , V
, ,
. ,
(48.2) , Y ^ 0. ,
Y == U T S
. , , ,
.
V

Y = U T S ,
. ,
, Y
W = U TS.
2. , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, (48.5) 2 , - 5 Z

2 = Y + . , Z
,
. , ,
=
= F + PV.
, ,
.
V /.
3. (41.1)
2

155

So Sj = 0 6 = PdV = 0,

.
> , , dll
0.
,

. ,
.

.


, .
4.
,
, .

.
51. -

1. ,
- (18501936) 1884 .
, , (18501918)
1887 .
,
. -
,
. ,
.
-
,
. ,
, , .
-

(18041865),
. :
,
, ,

156

[.

III

, ,
,
.
-
, , , ,

. , , ,

.
, -
,
,
.
2. ,

, f.
,
,
.
,
. , f ,
/, .
/,
. f ,
. ,
. . .
. "
,., , ... / , ,
Z, (48.0).
, .
, , S V. ,
U S V, ".
, : ,
. , ,
.
3. , ,
. f
. ,
, / (, , , ...) .

. X (, ) Y (, ),

(51.1)

X Y , .
.

157

4. (51.1) .
.
. f.
,
_\
In

d v l

^ ^

'

^ !dX\
9

, , , !dY'

,
dx dy.

(\
,
(51.3)
\ i
dY_\
(51.4)
,
jx
(\
(\
jx
\ )
dY \
jx
jx
.
. (5!.2)
, :
(\

\ ~

IV

(~\
\ /,/

\ ,'

:0.

(dY \
\dyjx


( \
j ,
1

dY\
'dyjx

dY\

(\

52 0.

X , . . X, ,
. (8.9),

( \
=
\ jx
dyjx'
dY\
ldY\
(\
Xdyjx^o
dyjx ~*~ {)

(51.5)

Y X (,
= 0, ). ,
Y , , X, ,

IdY
ldY\
fdY\
dY ^
dx-\dy.
\dy)x~*
\9XJu
\dylx
\
)
:

CONST,

dX

(d_Y\
[dyjx

\dy)

'dY . 1\
\dyjx '

+ \dxjy

(51.6)

158

1,

III

,
(?)

5,0.

\dyjx~o

(51 7)
'

5. (51.7) (51.8) ' v\


(51.4) (51.3). (51 6) ! V ) (51.5),

\ 1X

/\
fdY\
_(dY\
(\
\ jx ~ [ Jx
[ ) [)
(51.2)

(\
\dyjx'

\
dyjx

fdY\
[dyjx

\dy~jx
fdX\
\)

, , .
, (51.3), . ,
,
dyjx = Q

\ j x

6. (51.3), (51.4), (51.7) (51.8)


,
.
(51.2). X .
, , X,
, . ,

( *\
\/

-( -\

( 1\
\)\1'

X, , , .
X ,
, , .
- , ,

(\
_/_\
(\
\5)~\7)

\dy~Jx'


\
<\
\dyjx

= =
=

__(
_ \ . (\

__1\

\') \)

, , [\
_
\) \'1\)'

[\

_\ _(:
:_. _ _!',
.;_\
) ~
\ j [] ~
\ jx \)
==

/\
[)'

51]

159

(\
fdY\
.. ! . [-^
, \/
\0]
(51.2) . ,
'(\
fdY\
(\
/JY]
, -- . v
. ~ ' . -,
\dxjy'
\dyjx'
\ /'
, '
. ,
*).

:
>\
_!
-{ \
dyjx'
\)='
\6Y)x'

,~,1'

\)='

\)-

7. -
. , ,
,
.

Y

\)=

\dYjx

= \ J

(dY\
1\
["g'^j
[ffi^x
,
A,.v .
, ,
. - .
(51.9) (51.10)
-
. , ,
,
. X

, , Y = 0.
, X

fdX\
= (-1
.
~)='

, (51.10),
.


,
.

*) ,
, > 0.

IGO

[. III

8. .
f.
.
Z
U TS f PV,
, .
,
S V. U, I, F, , Y
, .
, , ' '
U (S, V), > V
S V , ' U
. /, F, . - = U T S
. ,
, , .
-
.
.
f=Z(S,
V), 5,
V,

_(<>7.\
_(dU_\
\ A S }v~\
OS/v"

"'

(45.9)
X = T-T ,

Y-=--P P.

(51.12)

(51.1) T , -= ,
,
.

.
(51.3), (51.4), (51.7) (51.8)
t

( )

< -

<

< 0

5 ,

>

( 5 U 4 )

.W-)r "

. ,
,
.
. 6'Q = TdS.

.

>,

[..>0,

(51.15)

>0,

(51.16)

Ml

161

(51.9) (51.10)
(51.17)

\0Vjs'

/\

!\

\dS jp

[dS

Jv '
(51.18)

,
,
.
, , ,
0 4 '. (51.18)
. ,
, V.
9. (51.13) (51.18)
. , ,

(51.13) (51.14). , ,
. ,
.
: = .
, ,
. , ,
V .
, dP/dV > 0.
,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
/dV > 0. , ,
(51.13) (51.14) , .
. , dP/dV < 0,
.
,
. ,
- .
0

10. , ,
C .
, , .
,
, ,
.
.
. , -
.
.
6Q .
dT. dT
, 6Q/dT
. , .
.
.
, ,
v

162

[.

. ,
. , ,
,
, , . .
. - .
11. .
(51.11)
/\
\dVJs'

_(dS\
?dS\
[dV/r'idPjT'

_(\
\dSjv'

_fdV\

(dV\
[dSJp'\dT)p-

, .
.
(45.15)(45.18),
:
\ Js

v'

.
, 6Q = TdS.
.

(\
6Q\
dVjT'

(\

(dV\

_ \
\dPjT'

/6Q\
\dPjv'

/64? \
\dVJp

(^fpj


.
p (^p)s
,
. ,
.
,

(^j^>0,

, .

\dVjT
\ Jt
. .
I ^

\)

>

. .
12. ,
. .
, ,
() . ,
( )
. .
,
.
= dl. V /,
, . ,

51J

Z= UT S -)- P V

0

163

UT S /.
0

.
| ^ J . ( ^ - 1 < 0 . ,
,
" .
.
.
, . . (18661912) ,
. ,

. , , .
,
.

IV

* *

52.
1.
.
(17681830)
19 . ,
, .
. (. 16), ,
,
, - ,
,
. ,
,
, .

,
, .
,
. ,
. .
, ,
, . ,
.
, , ,

. , ,
, , ,
.
2.
.
/

,
,

.
,
j .
,
, X.

165

. ,
. /
t
f j(x,t).
, X,
dx (.
40). 5 .
, dt
, / () S dt. ,
, / ( + dx) S dt.
,
,
dt

5_
,
Jfx+dx)
[7 () - / ( + dx)\Sdt = - - Sdxdt.
+

dx


. 40.
dM c dT, dM = pS dx
, c , dT
.
,
v

= -%-

(52.1)

3.
. ,
,
.
.
/.
,
> , ,
\
I.

ZW*

( 5 2

2 )

v. ,
.
.
, . X
, / = dx, = (),
= ( + dx),

-
2

T(x + dx)~-()
dx

~~ '

166

[.

IV

(52.1)
! =

<

- >

(52.3) , X
,
/ = dx, \ = ( + dx), = ().

,
, ,
, , z.
X

,
. ,
(52.3).
, , z.

: = ().
(52.3) (52.1),
2

'

I
\

.
,
,

f.\


*=
(52-7)
%
.
. ,

.
. , q,
,
. (52.1)
=

- % +

5 2

'

8 )

167

4. ,
- , , ?,
, ,

pc

(52.9)


. ,

.
(52.9),
. ,
,

.

.
/
,
/, ,
.


+ dr (. 41).
, dt

. 41.
,
/ () Anr dt. ,
, , / ( + dr) -An ( + dr) dt.
4. (jr ) dt 4; {jr ) +drdt
, / ,
: + dr.
2

4 [(/ ), (jr ) \
2

dt = -

r+dr

y
2

4 -gp (r j) dr dt

, dt
.

dr dt,
2

.
-\nr dr -c dT.

2

('"/> + ?

(52.10)

168

[ . IV

(52.3) / = ' ^ ,

<*.-*!(")+-

'

4 X 0

521

< >


. ,

^ 5 = - | | ( / 7 ) + 9.
= ?

[* -) +

(52.12)
52)

5.
,
. ,

/

,
,
, 1
(. 42).
. 42.

,

, .
h
.
.
S , ,
1 ,

[/"-/*'] S.
, , ,
Sh, . .
h -> 0 . , ,
,

= /'".
(52.14)
,
. ,

.
J .

53]

169

53.


.
, .
.
d'Tldt = 0.
,
.
.
1.
. ,
/,
7,.
. X ,
.
1, .
. (52.4)

d ! dT\
.,
; X -,- 1
dx \ dx J

= 0.
n

, dT dx const, , (52.3), / == const.


,
.
.
, dT'dx = const.
,
= + ,
.
.
.
. 0
= 7\, I = .,.
7,

/-- .

,
:
7 = ^ 1 + ^ ,
(53.1)
2.
. ,
.,. ,
.

170

[. IV

(52.11) ,

dr

dr

) - "

xr^dT/dr = const. ,
j = dT'Idr
. ,
47, .
, .
, dTidr ^= const.
, dT'idr = Air ,

- + .

,
.
:

.=- - + , , = +.
1

'

., '

,
:
r. T -r
r r
2

nr (T -T,)\_

lTl

'

'

3.
.
r .,.
.,.
,
.
,
lt

= '

'+^11

(53.3)

In

In -
1. R =

10 , ,
.
q 100 /*. 373 ,
400 /(--).
, .
. dT/dt = 0.
(52.11) (q const)
dT

171

,

dT/dr. = = R;

2.
.
, - .

=>-\--.' "), / , 4-*.


, R , .
.

54. .
1. , ,
, , . . , , c
. ,
, . . .
,

(52.8), (52.3)
v

,==x

<

P ^ U+ /(*>

0-

(54.1)

q
.
(54.1) .
.
.

- ,
.
, = / ( * ) ,

(54.2)

f () .

.
, = 0 = /.

7Vo =

cp,(/),

, ^ = (/),
2

(/) (/) .
2

172

[.

IV

2.
, %
.

, (54.1)
: (, /) (, t),
(54.2) (54.3).

6 = 7\ ,
2

5 0

3-

......

=^,

(54.4)

. . (, 1)
. , ,
:
,_ = 0
0

(54.5)

. t.

(54.6)

/
2

/ (/) --- |j dx. ,

. , (54.5), / (0) 0.
I (/) :


(54.6). ,
%>0. , ^y=sS0.
/ .
, / (0) = 0, / (/) ^ 0.
dl'dt = 0, . . / (f) const = 7 (0) = 0.
, G (, /) = 0 , . . 7\ (, i) =
= (X, ). .
, ,
-

173

. ,
.
,
.
.
-
,
,
, .
56.
3. ,
. .
1 2
,
.
T .
.
.
,
( ).

. t
(t) (), 1 2 .
, .

.
.
, 1
, 2
. 7"
7 , -
. , ,
.
,
. 1 2,
, .
,
.
, . . .
, 7\ > . 1
2

10

10

20

S , / .
dQi/dt 1
--dQJdt 2. , ,
Q = , Q = ,..
2

1.74

[. IV

(54.7)
dT,

dT

"~1

d T j + .,7 = const.
, 1 2.
, = , = ,

10

20

CiT -{- ,
1

--

(54.8)

21

: 7 \ .
(54.7)
dT,/dt dTJdt .

(54.9)

dt

_ xS / 1
I \ \

1 \
}'

(54.10)

X . (54.9),
t

.
.
1 2.
.
: 7 \ = , =

t = 0.

Ti-T =(T -T )e
2

10

20

(54.11)

i0

(54.8) (54.11),
-

+,+

(54.12)
_

C\Ti -\-
\-\-
0

C i + C'

(7'io-7' o)

e _ T

^ ,
(54.12) ,
.

1. ,
. ,

( < 7V ).
.
t. ,
,

54]

175

7' . ,
dt,
]1


^'-dt.

X
q pdx, dx
, dt, , q
.
X

dt = qp dx.

* (

) t = ^ qpx + A.

,
. 0 t = 0, = 0.

^=2,22-10 > /( ),
3,35-10 /, = 0,9 / .
, 10 -'.
, , (t = 86 400 )
~ 11,3 .
2. ( R = 1 )
10 . ,
, ,
. = 6- 10~ /(-)>
q = 330 /.
. ,
,
. (53.2)

0

:i

( ) ,
\
-'
R , 7 \ ^
(
= 10 ). ,
dt,
I

4- -]~ dt = 4 # (TV - \ dt.


dr
\
/
J

q dm 4 _,<7 dR.
,

( ~ )
0

= - . , 9 dR.

176

[. IV

5 5 . .

1. (52.6) .
,
a/tfp'umu . T (, t) ., (, t) -
(52.6), . .
r

6,
dt '

'-,
"- '

,
dt

?
' ' ' ? '
2

,
(,+

)
2

, + )
*
2

dt

'

, = 7\ +
(52.6). ,
.
.
(, I), ., (, t), ... -

.
= 7, (, I) + T-i (, t) -j- ...
.
() .

, ,
-/, .
. = 7\ + 4 - ... ,
, , .
+ 7", 4 . ,

- ,
. ,
, .
, ,, .,,

.
. ,

.
2. , , , .
= + 7 (5.26),
7\ ., .
. ,
(52.6). :
= 4- iT , , ., .
(52.6) ,
2

dt

? j

dt

dx? j

,
, . .
" ^

^ T ^

- ~ o W

, = + iT
, , T.
. ,

177

: , .


.
.
,
.
3. -
,
. ,
, 0. X
.

, .
, .
.

, (17071783)
ia

= cos + i sin

(55.1)

.
= <

(55.2)

, k . ,
(55.2) .

= (7 --*-* ==>,
dt
0

*
(52.6) ,
/ =

(55.3)

, (55.2) (52.6),
.
. k
:
0

. - / = 7 | -

(55,,

(55.2)
rw<?

/_

( 5 5

5 )

, ,
, .
.
. ,
,
. (55.5)


. -* .
, .

[.

178

IV

/ ,
. ,
.
(55.5) :
^ , = = ' 2-X
x " ccosi
o s (
m < - l /|
0

(55.6)

= =

s i n ^ c o r - 1 / ^xj,

(55.7)

,
(52.6).
(55.5).
, , .
4. .
(55.6) (55.7)
.
. , , (55.6).
, ,
-

= - -. .

> -

| ^ = const

(55,8)

, . ,
X v.
, (55.6), ,
. v
(55.8).
j"

I - > -2

(53.9)

,

>. ,
2 i I . -/.
(55.10)
, (55.6),
:

=..~ ,
__
_

(55.11)
2

,__ ,

XT'

.
1 = ~ =
Den ^ ^ rr
'
(.).
'
'. t = 0.
e

T
x

^
.

, (55.6)

= T casa>t,

(55.13)

? V =

^'

* cos

^2

55

(-

179

( 54) ,
, , (55.6).
(55.13) (55.14)
, .
, , .
t 0 ,
, (55.13).
,
. ,
.
(55.6). ,
,
, ,
,
.
6. ,

. ,
. , , .
. ,
,
,
.
.
- - -, (55.12),

, ,
, ,
~ 1 .
, ,
~ 20 .
.
, .
,
.
.

. ,
v

1 , < 0 , 0 4 6 , .

cxl

I F I! P O

180

[1.

IV

56.
1. ,
- 0. / 0
7*.
. ,
.
(, t) .
. . ,
, 54.
' .
(52.6).
, ,
.
, , i ,,, , .
(52.fi), ,
. , ,
, , t, , 7\, '/
7",

, , ~ ,
_, . .,-

'

'


.
7 ,, ib , ,
. ,

-=/(|).

(56.1)


(56.2)
VyJ'

/
ITb
(52.6).
:
_df

\ _df

dl2l> yt'

* _ d'*f _ J
- ~ d |

^dj[dl

1
r

d\dx

\ _ </-/

1_

2 VYt ~~ tfg 4yJ '


_ _

dt ~ dl dt ~

1 d[

4 dl t

x
Yyt'

(52.6),
1 5 6

31

t ,

181

:
, / = ,
21

y.t
\'

e-^dl

+ B.

. 0, / 0,
. ,
/ 0, 7\.
: =
t = 0.
0

=_\' e-*d\ + T

,
1

^ | . , = ^ I

+ 7V

2 ^ =

\ yj
^

t > - " d | + 7V

(56.4)

_ -
^
0

r.yj

, , . . = 0
_
7,

(56.6)

(55.9) v
,
6T = 2 7 W \ _
( 5 6 ? )

v \ xt
2. (56.7) ,
. ,
- .
, .

.
.
,
. (56.7)
.
. ,
. ,
,
t (56.7). ,

182

IV

20
. ,
'
25 . , ,
, 0 -,
: ,) ~ 4000 . , , ,
' v = 1 . (5G.7),

4(- -

4-4000

-~7iWrY

'-TW

"

'

^[)
125/
. .
.

. , -
.
.
.

57.
1. (52.3), /,
,
, v.
.
.
,
.


,
. , ,
.

.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, .

,
.
, .
, , ,
j nponopn

, .

. ,
,
/ = (-7 ),
(57.1)

183

, - .
.
. =
, . . = ; = 0
.
, (57.1)
.

,
.
,
.
2. ,
, X.
,
.
, ,
.
t .

.

.
,
(52.4).
.
(. 40)
, ,
( ) dx, .
(52.4)
0

% = 3^%)- P( -To),

(57.2)

S .

FC

(57.3)

pc S '
v

di~~

b2

= xS- ( -^o).

(57.4)


1.
,
.
1

184

[.

. 7
. (57.4)

IV

^ - ^ 7 = 0,

(57.5)

,
B=-L.
VX

(57.6)

(57.5)
x

T=Ae$

+ Be-$ .

(57.7)

: = 7",
= 0, , I. ( /,
.)

sFpl

( 5 7

8 )

'

2. Tx, T , , T , ...
.
(. ). ,

2

+1

. . .

-
.

-

* *

58.
1.
.
. 20
,
. 19
,
, ,
, .
, , ,
,
,
.
.
.
(1738 .),
, ,
.
-
. . (171117G5).
;
,

.
2. 19- -

.
,
,
. , ,
, 8
.
1 : 8,
.
,

, .
, ,

186

[. V

,
. ,
,,0,
0 . ,

, 1 : 2.
:
2

,
4
8
12
16
20

, 11 N 0 ,

15 N 0 ,

19 N 0 ,
23 N 0 ,

27 N 0 .

,
(7 ),
4 : 8 : 12 : 16 : 20 = 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5.
,
. ,
(17661844), ,

,

.

-
, . - (
),
,
(
) .
,

.

. .
. -
.
19- .
3.
19- ,
, (1831 1879)
..(184.41906).,

187

. ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
, ,
:
, ,
,
. ,
,
.

, .

.
4. 20-
.
. ,
. ,
, , ,
( )

, ,

.
.
,
, . , ,
, .

.

,
.
,
. ,

, .

, ,



.
, ,
, . ,
10003000

188

[.

, . . .
10 , . .
.
, . .
.
.

.
59.
-
1.
. ,
,
, .
,
,
.
.

.
.

, .
.

, . . .

,
,
. (,
),
,
.
. , ,

. , ,

.
, .

,

.
. ,
, .

189

2.
.
(
) . ,
,
or . ,
,
,
.
,
.
, .

.
.

,
. ,
, ,
.
3. .
,
. ,
,
,
.
,

. -
v ,
/7,. (. 43).
,
. ,
. , -
,
, dt.
, ,
Vidt, .
- , , dt
. , -
, . . z = n dV, dV .
X .
v dt, dV = ov dt. ,
t

ix

ix

,- = aniV

ix

dt.

!90

[: V


.
, ,
, . . :
,
. ,
.

.
i'-
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
, " ,
,


,

.

, ,


.

.
, .
, .
f\,
,
, . .
,
. i-ii ,
dt, Z;pi ==
oiipixpidt, , .
,
f'j, fidl-- 0,,- p,dr.
/ / ,
fi f>
vnpixpi,

i- .

,
, (
v > 0), . .
v

iK

V
V

anflixPt.

...><)
1.1,

f] f. ,
. f., ,
.
, , . . , v < 0.
l

ix

19:1

< U

, ,
.
F F

x

F=F

+ F

=-

tiiV pi.
lx

,
, .
F .
.
, F Y
F = a

^niVixPiy.



, .
,
. F .
F ,

Fx

n V

i ixPix,

,
v p
. F
, :
ix

ix

=^1 .

,
~ . ,
, ^ .
,
.

(v ) = 2 n,v
(59.1)
(
).
xPx

ixPix

P = n(v ).

(59.2)

xPx


= v p
x

+ vp +
y

192

[.

,
,
, ,

,
()

= >

= <w)

= <>-

5 9

- )

(vp).

(59.4)

, , V,
N, = N/V.
,
PV

=\N(vp).

(59.5)

4. (59.4) 59.5)
.

.
.
.
,
.
.
, (59.4)
(59.5),
.
^ ) , .

. ,
.
:
.
.

.
,

.

.
5. (59.4) (59.5) ,
.
.

193

(59.4) (59.5) ,

P=jnm(v ),

(59.6)

PV = jNm(v*).

(59.7)


.
, .
.
,
.
, .

.
, .
(59.6) (59.7) .
v
(, ). , (59.7)

= ! <

>,

(59.8)

< )
.

.

.
(59.8), ,
, .
-
,
. ,
, ,
:
.

60.
1.
.
.
, .
,
. -

194

[.


.
72.

, .
.

v = V(v ),

(60.1)

. .
. ,
( ) ,

.
, ,
v.
, .
73, v v
. v (59.6)
2

KB

KB

= ]/"~.
v

KB

(60.2)

, =

0 = | / .

(60.3)

.
,
.

.
, 26.
2. - ,
v
.
(60.2) KB

- - = # 7 \

v

(60 4)

"=Vir-

, (, =
0
-

8 , 3 1 4 3 - -273,15
=

1/

2 -1 008

2-1,008)

^ = 183 800


1 QQQ

/ =

1838

/.

60]

195

, = 493 /, v ~ 461 /
. .
3.
.
, . . ,
,
10~ . 1 . .
1( ; 10" . . 10 = 100
(. 86).
.
.
.
.

. (18881970) 1920 .
, ,
. 44. ,
,
.


10~ 10~ . .


(961,9 ).
, . 44.

.
,
. ,
.
,
( . 44 ).

25002700 /.
, , ,
, ,
D,
.
. D'.
s D D',
. ,
, s = Vr, V = <nR
, R ,
.
BD. I.

KB

196

[. V

= l/v, v . ,
s = aRl/v,
= .
(60.5)
{

D ,
D' .
, .
(60.5) , s
D D',
.

, ,
.

1200 . v 560 640 /,
584 /,
(60.4),
.
61.
(59.6) (59.7)
, . . ,

. , (59.4)
(59.5) .
, .

, . . , ,
.
, .
, ,

. ,
. ,
, .
.

. , . .

,
(59.5).
/,
v = , .
(59.5)
PV = / {Ne) = / E,
(61.1)
1

62]

197

N ,
.
. (61.1)
( 5 9 . 8 ) , .

.
,
, N
.
.
= Ne, = (Ne),
(61.1).
/ ,
.
.
. ,
(61.1) , /
. ,
, PV = .
(61.1)
.
1

62. - .


1. .
(. 4 5 ) ,
.
.
,

1,

2.

,

: =
. 45.
/ nan v\ = / n m vl.


, :
7\ = . , , 7 \ > .
,
, .
, ,
.

198

[. V


.
,
.
2.
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
, , .

.

.
,
,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
. .
-
.
, X.
, ' .
v v\ .
. ,
,
:
lx

iV

4 - = m v\

lx

- -
2

+ ~2

=
1 1

',

+~

1 1

,
.

,
_2Mu-(M- )v
mi

V l X

iv

M + ftt!

,2
niiVix

(M mi) uv

)x

(M+mi)a

+ (M ffli) t>u

199

,
,
. ,
.
, . .
, .
,

.
uv ,

lx

_ /
2

4M*{iP)4r{M-mtf(v\ )

(M + m i )

,
.


-\>>-
*)+(- ?(\ )
1

, . ,

m W
1

iLfi,

(62.1)

, ,
. ,

Vsmi = V2m2 <fw>(62.3)




.
(v )
x

{v )

(vl),

,
1

/ m (vl)
2

= /,m (vl).
2

(62.4)

,
.
3.

, ,

, ,

200

[. V

.
. .

, , .

(62.5)

/ 5.
3

,
(59.8)
2

PV = / /Vg
3

noci

= iV0,

(62.6)

PV = RT.
-
. 1 2.

pv
1

= Ne,

p v =N e .

= , Vi = V , i = 2 .

N = N .
.
.
, (62.5),
.
, , , .
G

.
U
. U =
=
= / / 0 , . . 0 .
, 32
.

7\

7V

, / ,
0 .

.
k. ,
0 = &7\

(62.7)

201

k = (1,380622 0,000059) 10~ " =


23

= ( 1,3806220,000059)- 10-" - ' .


4. N .
.
. , ,
(62.6), (62.7)

PV^NkT.
(62.8)
, PV = RT.
,
R = Nk.

(62.9)


k ,
. R k, (62.9)
. N =
= R/k = (6,022169 0,000040) . 1 0 " .
5. ,
,
.
.

, . ,
,
. ,

. ,
.
, 10003000
. 10 000
.
,
. . ,
.
13,56 .
.
,
. ,
.
.

202

-
19

19

[.

12

= 1,60 -1( , 1 = 1,6 - ' = 1,6 -" .


,

.
,
, 10 10 .
, . .
, .
,
.
8


1. ?
. 3,34-10 .
2.
0 ?
. 2,7-10 .
3. , - .
.
, .
,
?
. 10 .
22

63.

1. (62.1), (62.2) (62.3) ,


. ,
,

. ,
,
,
, .
.
X, Y, Z .
,

. ,
, ,
(62.5),
= / = / /7\
.
3

63]

203


= / = l kT.
2. ,
.
. ,
,
.
- /.
,

.
,
.
,

. , , . .
.

.
. :
a cos (ait + ) = /-

1

sin (at + ) = ^ sin (/ + ).

= / * = ^ cos (/ -f ),

=
2


=
0

4&

[1

+ cos 2 (/-f )],

= 4i<za [1 cos 2 (^ -f )].


,
.

=
= & .
(63.1)
2

< > = l kT. ,


. ,
, , , ,
.
3 .
,
. ,

1 2.
() .

204

[. V


.
.
4. , ,

. ,

m , a Ui
X. ( u u ,
, .) ,

ix

.
(u Uj) = 0 i /.
i = /.

/ < ) =
2

63 2

| 2 '<" >-

< -)

2 !

V ( ) = / ,
2

, ,
m

. ^jmf (!) = Ntrfi (}),

N= ~

.
1

/ /(1) = / ^ .
2

(63.4)

,
:


1
1. ,
, ,
,
.
.
5. ,
.
, ,
.
(63.4). ,

63]

205


.
6. , ,
, .
,
,
l kT.
, (63.2),
,
.
,
. ,
.
, , ,
. .
,
V
1


. , ,
.
, / m (v'j) = J kT,
1

^!(!)

= % = %.

i/ M<V ) = W .
2

(63.5)

,
l kT,
.

.
,

1 . , ,
.
,
/ , . .
z

Q =

n r u

^' ' ' i

Ut '- ,

206

[. V

- .
(G3.2)
;

7.
,

.
.

.

,
.
/V ,
, 37V
, .
, ,
,
.
,
, . . , .

,
.
/ .
. /
q , q ,
q ,
. ,
q\, q
4/
.
- r
:
x

= (

9, , q ).
s

,
.

: .

6Y;

. . v
q
q,
cj . , , ,
, .
{

lt

63]

= Va

=V,2

mf
iV

(=i

207

OirfAh.

(63.6)

=ia=i


qi. a , ,
q q , ...
(63.6)
.
, ,
,
.
,
. , ,

(63.6)
, . . ,

.
ik

I
1

= /

a ql,

(63.7)

i=\
,- .
i'- , (63.7)
l a q\.
,
t- . ,

,
. ,
,

1

- (X

-f

2)

C-vhI

+ IiA'l + I/),

, , ,
, /. , I , 1
, , .,,
.

, ,
(63.7), . .
.
v

208

[. V

8.
,
.
(63.7). -

. ,
, ,

.
.

.
, ,
,

- ,
( ),
.
,
-
, l kT. , ,

.
UkT,
.
,
(63.6) ,

.

.

,
1

2 % ^

= 2

(63.8)

,

.
^(-^

* ' > = V ft7\


2

(63.9)


.
9.
, -

209


. ,
.
.
.
,
.
,

, .
,
.

.

,
.

.
.
P V = / i o c T , P V = / - _ ,


.

10

20

V=

/ -

/ (lno:x +
3

E )
2mzl

= (, + ) V.
2

= + , . .
.

64.
1. , ,

. 1827 .
(17731858)
.
, ,
, .
. , (
), , , .
,
. .
,
. ,
, , .
,

210

[. V

(. .
). 1001000
.
,
( , ).

, .
.
.

, :
, .
,
, , -
, . . ,
. ,
,
.
.
.

,
. ,

.
. , (
) , , ,
.
2. (63.5)
.
,
k,
N

. ,

V.
,
,

.
, 10 , .
,
,
. ,
.
3

211

-
k
N , 1905 .
,
.
,
, ,
. ,

.
.
(18721917) 1906 .
,


.
. 93 ,
.
3. ,
. .
V,
, ,
F, V.

V = BF
(64.1)
.
(18191903),

1
^ ~~ 6)'
(64.2)
) .
,
.
(,
).
-
. , ,

=~^- .
0


X
1
= -g + .

,
.
X ,

212

[. V


. ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
/. X
, ,
. .
,
:
d
d
^ = 2; ~^ =
2 2.
2

M~x
+ j^x -2Mx
= 2Xx.
,
t = 0.

, . ,
.
() 0. ,
(63.5), ( ) = kT.
2

<* > + l i <* > = < - )


4. .
. ,
( )
t. ,
.
, t t
t t
t ti, t , t .
,
t t . t t
,
. t t ,
.
. .
t t . ,
0
t t t + 0 t + , . .

6 4

t+x

~X -\-X .
t

,
, (x x ) = 0.
t

64]

213

<?) , ,
t,
. / (/),

fU

tU\

I ft

, / (/), . . (xf),
t,
. , ,
, . ,
( ) = At.
(64.3).

(x )=2kTBt.

(64.4)

*).
(
X), . .
. = + + .
, ( ) = ( ) = ( ), ( ) =
= 3 ( ).
2

(r-) = 6kTBt.

(64.5)

5. (64.4)
(18701942) , 1908 .
(/ = 30 )
-

.
(. . 46).
. 16
50 , 0,53 .
,
.
, ,
, 100 ,

, , .
,
,
, , .

*) , , ,
(64.4) , 2
64/27.

214

[. V

- , ,
.
( )
2

. 46.

(64.4) k N.
,
.
65.


. .

.

.
.
. .

.
.
V^cp , / ,
.
,
.
2

215


/ kT.
f ( ) = kT,
1

=-< >.

(65.1)


k. ,
. ( ) ,
.
,
. . <%!, ,
,
.


,
.
: > = ,
= ,

2

( 2 )

^ ?+|+-+' ^

/
,
1/( >.
,
. ,
/
2

= 2 Y'ljf,
I .
(65.1).
, ,
( ). ,
. ,
,
. 1932 .
:
7 = 287 , / = 9,43- lO
- = 9,43- - -,
<> = 4,18- - .
2

16

,
,

1 8

9,43- - - 4,18- 10-

,2 \
9

= ( ) =

= 1,38--

23

/ = 1,38-10-" /.

JV = = 6,02- 10

23

-1

216

[. V

66.

1.
, -
.
-
.

.

. ,
,
, .

.
. .

,
.

.

. .
24 ,
=

= y^t-

(66)

,
C .


.

,
, .
,
,
.
2. .

. .

. ,
, / 6 = / kT.
v

66]

217


U = N-*IJtT = *liRT,

(66.2)

N .
:
3

= dU/dT = / * 12,5 /( ) ^ 3 /( )
2

(66.3)

:
C = C +R
P

= 1

20,8 /( )

5 /( ). (66.4)

= C /CY = / = 1,67.
P

(66.5)


. 3. .

527

1,666

j 290
93

1,660
1,673

Ne

292

1,64

Ar

J 288
I 98

1,65
1,69

Hg

3. .

1 2, (. 47).
.
.
,
, z ,
. , , z . ,
, ,

(* - *i) + { 2 - /i) + ( - z f = iU = const,


2

, / 1 2
. , ,
. ,
.

, .
12

218

[. V

.
( 6 3 . 8 )
( 6 3 . 9 ) . ,
l fkT,
/
( / == 5).
, ,

.

,
12.




:
1

= /

+ / 1> .
2

/
,
0
12. ,

Vitnvl + kmv\

f mvl + i I a
2

2 x

+ lbh<*l-



,
.
/ kT,

= / kT.

U=

N- l kT = *IJiT.

(66.6)


2 0 , 8 /( )
7

C = C + R = hR
P

* 29,1

5 /( ),

(66.7)

/( ) 7 /( ),

(66.8)

7 = C p / C = / = 1,4.
V

(66.9)

. 4
.
4. .
,
:

66J

219

.
1 = 3kT. U = N-3kT =

= ,
C =-3R
C = 4R

24,9 /( ) ^ 6 /( ),
33,3 /( ) 8 /( ), ^ ' ^
/C =V =
1,33.
292 = 1,320, S 0
= 1,260.
V

6 6

Cp

280

1,407

( 293
92

1,398
1,419

293
{ 197
{
9 2

1,398
1,411
1,404

, /
.
U= kTN

C = ^ - R ,

= L r ,

^ RT,
(66.11)

/+ 2


<> =

j t / .

PV = %(E )

= j-U = RT.

n0CT

(66.12)

c
, v , v
v .
v

Mi, ,
2

.
3

.
! +
"

2 (ViAfi +

5 +

v M

+ v M )

'

2 ( 4 +

+ 7

v M
2

+
2

8
+

v M )
3

"

220

[. V

67.
-
1.
.
(. 21),
, ,
.
, ,
. . ,
,
,
. ,

, .
. ,
,
, .
.
,
.
,
.
.
,
; ,
.
-
.
2.

.
, .

;

.


,
,
.
. ,

-

67]

221

.
,
. ,
( ),
.
,
,
.
3. , ,
(. 48).
,
. v- .
v
= v .

( i ).* = t x . v'i
-
.

,
,
t

{ ioiu)x

{Vioin)x

ix

~f" .

v\

. v\
= ( 'i )* + = v + 2, , v .

ix

4 8

\% ( vix + 2) 4 mvu = 2mcv + 2mc .


2

ix

2 ,
. n ,
, , v .
dt = Sn (v
) dt, S .
, , v- ,
. . z = Sniu dt.
dt
t

ix

lx

ix

2mcv Zi
ix

= 2mriiv\ Sc dt = 2\
x

dV,

dV Scdt .

dE

mm

= dil = dV

2)\ .

222

[. V

,
.
, ,
, .

dU = dV ^

mitiVlx,

59 ,
.
dU +
PdV=0.
U (66.12),
(4+

\)PdV

+ VdP
Y

= 0,

(66.11)
yPdV-\- VdP = 0.
, 21
.
,

P\/v = const.
4.

. ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
, .
,
.

(
).
.


, ( ,
).
5. .
,
. ,
.

67]

223

,
. , ,
,
, .
/ g.
, /.
g, .
,
.
,
,
.
PV^
, .
, ,
PV , ,
. ,
,
- .
, ,
PV , , .
, , ,

.
. ,
.
, PV.
\/ .
y

6. ,
,
.

,
.

(. 105).
,

. ,
.
.
.
, (),
.
- . ,
- ,
, . -

224

[. V

,
. ,
, . ,
,
, .
,

.

,
.
, ?
. ,
,
.
,

. ,
.

68.
()
1*.
,
, .
.
, .
.
-.
63,

, . . 4 kT. ,
, ,
2

kT.

(68.1)

.
, .
,
3kT.
N,
U = N -3kT ~ 3RT.

C = dU/dt = 3R^2l,9
v

/ ( - ) ^ 6 /(-).

(68.2)

1819 . (17851838) (17911820)


, -

68]

225



6 I( ). ,

. ,
. . 5

15 100 .
5

Ag

.
/ { -)

1,44
2,44
5,51
5,60
6,11

-)

pt

Au
Pb

5,99
5,94
6,47

2.
, , NaCl.
. ,
,
.

, .
,
3kT.
, 3nkT.
3nkN = 3nR, . .
, ,
. ,
,
.
.
1844 . 1864 .

, . ,
:

,
, .
, . .

226

[. V

, ,
,
. .
69. .
( )
1.
,
. .
.
,
. . 6

7".

35
100
290
600
800
1000

.
/ ( )

1200
1600
1800
2000
2500

2,98
3,10
4,90
5,08
5,22
5,36

C.
V

/ ( )

5,49
5,76
5,92
6,06
6,40


.


. ,

YY (. 47).
,
,
.
, . . .
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
C
7 /(-)
v

69]

227

3 /(-). , 100
.
,
C .
2. .

.
, .
-
. ,


. .
,
. C
6 /(-).
, .
.

6 /(-),
.
, , .
XX ZZ (. . 47),
YY.
,
/ 2
12. ,
. 1 2
, 6,
12 .
6kT.

12, /. kT. , ,
!. kT, C
13 /(-).
.
3.

, .
.


.
.
. , ,
,
v

ls

228

[. V

. ,
, ,
, .
.

, .
,

.
4. , , .
,
.
, . . ,
.
.
.

. , ,
.
.

C =
= 6 /(-) ( ).
, .
,

/. kT.
.
, ,
.
5. , ,
,
, .

, , .
, . ,

, ,
. ,

. ,
,
.

.
, .
v

69]

229

6. ,
.
,
. 58 ,
.
, . . ,

,
.
,
,
. ,


e = ( + l / 2 ) A v ,

(69.1)

v , ,
1, 2, 3,
h ,
.

h = (6,626186 0,000057) 10~ =


= (6,626186 0,000057). - -.
27

,
.
hv.
= / /iv.
. ,
.
.
, , . .
.
= 1 = / /iv.
7. ,
, , . ,
, kT
hv.
kT.
, , . .
.

, .
,
.
,
kT <! hv.

1

230

[. V

.
kT <^hv
1 2 (.
. 47) .
,
,
,
.
,
. 1

kT <^ hv.
, .
, kT
hv, ,
.

. ^>T
.
^ T
,
. T ^ 6000 .
8.
. .

V

' =

5 7

'

'

/ , / ,
0, 1, 2, 3, ...
, .
1 0 .
/ = 1

kT <J
.
.
, kT ^> e .

.
lt

9]

231

' =

6 9

= -5-

< - >

^> , < ; >


.
XX ZZ (.
. 47) T ~ 175 .
XX -
.
.
9.
,
. ,

.
, kT

,
.
,
, . ,
,
.
10.
. . VI.
,
,
,

.
, 1000
.
,
.
.
, . .
. ,
. . .
, .
.

870 . 1000
.
,

232

[. V

.
9 : 8 ; 18 :
16 .
,

. / kT, ,
, l8- / kT
= 27kT,
U = 27NkT 27RT,
C = 27R 54 /(-).
11.
, 65. ,

.


3

-1

7 ^ 0 , 0 1 - , v
1,5-10 , hv
<~ , kT
-31

^4-10"

1 4

^
^

18

. , ^ ^ 2,5-10~ , . .


hv.
.

VI


* *

70.
1. ,
,
, ,
-
(. 9). ,

. (, , ,

.)
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
,
.
, , .
.
,
,
,
. ,
,
.
, .
.
, ,
, ,
, .
.


.
,
, -

234

1.

VI

, ,
, .
. ,
.

.
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
2.
.
,
, .

. ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
20- .
.

.
3.
,
, .
, ,
.
,
. ,
. , ,
. , ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
, . ,
, .
. \.

5 70J

235

,
.
4. ,
, ( ,
). , , ,

: 1) 2) .
+ .
, ,
. , ,
,
: 1) 2)
.
.
, , .... ,
( )
. ,
. A ,

,
. ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
, .
5.
.
,
,
.
/. , 100
,
1 / .
,
,

,
, . ,
, A ,-
, A ,
..
,
,
, ,


, . A

10

12

i2

(,) =,

_}

ilt

,
i2

(70.1)
A .,
im

236

[.

VI

, A

, ,
.
, ,
,
.

.
,
.
;

1. 100 ,
: 30 , 25 45 .
? ,
, 30 + 25 + 45 = 100.
, , 30.
~ 30/100 = 3/10. ,
= 25/100 = 1/4,
= 45/100 = 9/20.

6. (70.1) ,
- (,
, .)
,
.
, . . ,
. ,
, , .
.
2. . ,
?
, (. .
), , :
1)
2)
3)
4)

,
,
,
.

()


. / .
(17171783) . ,
, , ,
.
, , , :
3

1) ,
2) , ,
3) , .

(')

, , , / .
. ,

237

, ?
:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.

()

, / .
,
, :
8

1)
2)
3)
4)

/ ,x
* '
R

,
.

, , , / .
, ('), (#')
, .
4

7.
(70.1),
.
,

.
.
.
,
,
,
(70.1).
, . .
(, ).
, ,
, ,
A , . . + .

, ,
( + ) = ( ) + ( ).

(70.2)

3. 1
=
= 25/100,
= 45/100,

25 + 45
~
1000
^
~ 100 ~~ W

238

[.

VI

4. 2 1) (')
1/2, 2) 3)
,
1) ( )
1) 2) (). ( )

2 ^ 4

. . . .
(') / , , , / g , /s> -
, 2,
1

2 ^

4 ^

8 '

. . .

... + =\.

(70.3)


. ,
, (,
) .
. ,

Pi +
+ rP - (70.3).
(70.3)
.
(70.1), , , . .
,
k. (70.3)
. k = 1
(70.3).

, .
, ,
. ,
.
8. .

() , ,
.
, ,
,
, (/). ,
J

() = ()

(/).

(70.4)

70]

239

, ,

^ 1 , , . . . , ;,

, , C +i, . . ,

,
. , ,
i> ,...,

Ci, C / i , . . . ,

/ ,
. , ,
, , /, () l/. ,
() /. , ,
,
,
,
,
-
. (/) = 1/. ,
+1

;+1

= L

()(1)

= P ( A B ) t

.

,
() = ()(/).

(70.5)


. ,
, .

.
() = ()

(),

(70.6)

. .
.
5. ,
1, 2, 3, 4. ,
1 2? . ,
1, 2 ( ),
() = / + V = / . ,
, 1, 2.
( 5) (/) = / .
() = / / = / .
,

, 1

12

21

31

41

13

23

32

42

14

24

34

43

240

[. VI

,
. .
, 12 21 ( ).
/i
/ . ,
.
, , , . .
, . .
() , . . V . ().
1 (2), ,
2 (1).
() = / . ,
() () () =
/ = !/.
, , ,
:
11 21 31 41
2

4
1

12

22

32

42

13
14

23
24

33
34

43
44

9.
. , ,
, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6.
,
.
, .
,
,
. - ,
, ,
.
.
,
1 . v = tt /
.
, ,
v
. ,

/ , . . ,
.

1

lim

Vj.E=

lim

(70.7)

,
.

70]

241

,
.
10. ,
, (70.7).
.
. (
), ,
.
. -
v.
?
. t
v.
v.
J

7 =lim^

(70.8)

- *

v.
, (70.8)
, .
11.

. .
TV
.
, ,

( + + . . . +, = N).

<fl> = " ^ + " ^ + - + " ^ '

V i f l i +

( 7 0 > 9 )

, ,
, ,
, ,

. , N,
v , v ,
v ,
,
,

. (70.9)

= + + ... +

(70.10)

(70.10) .
, ,
, ,
, . (
. ,
.)

242

[.

VI


.
.
. ,
,
.
,
.

,
,
.
,
, ()
N.
, . ,
,

(70.9), (70.10).
12.
. ,

. .
.

. N N
a .,, ... , a , lt

X l

-a

(i=\,2,...,N).

(70.11)



.
, . .
,
-1 . 4- ', -4-... + \,

= V(x )

'

(70.12)

,
,
.
.

(), . .

y = a -(a)
i

( t = 1, 2 , . . . , N).

(70.13)

2^

= 0,

(70.14)


(). , xi .
^,-, , . -

70J

243

N ,
, ,
:

(70.15)

.
(70.11) (70.13) , .',-= </, + , : 6 =
= () . . , , .
, , . = (6 )
.
. xi = j/,- +
i, (70.14)
2

S4

= j/H6

JV

(-) = + &.

,
fl

_S( - ) _ Sfi

(: ).
, .
, N
,
, .
, (70.15).
( ) x xj
. N ( ) ( ),
2

= /<^) =

- 1
V

(70-16)

= 1/ - V
N(N-\)

= >
V N

(70.17)


(). (70.16)
(70.17)
, , .

= {}

,
.
. ,

. 6

L_ _

, ,

244

[. VI

100 .
10 . ,

N.

13.
, ,
, . ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
,
, ,
+ da.
da,

dP = (a) da,
, ,
. () .
(70.3)
J p ( a ) d a = 1,

(70.18)

(70.10)
= J (a) da.

(70.19)

,
.
+ , ,
() .
71. .

1.
.
,
.
.
-
,
- . , ,
,
,
. , / 2,
v v
(. 49). 12,
x

71]

245

.
,
. ,
,
. ,
> = v[, . . ' = v + v
, 2

&


. 49.

v v . ^ = v Tov ' v ']/2. ,



, .
.
.


.
2.

1859 .
. ,

N
, , .

(. 50). -
t : v , v
TV-

.
,
.
.
v , v , v v .

.


. , 9,

x

i t

it

246

[. VI

.

. .
3.
, , ,
dv , dv , dv v ,
Vy, v . dm dv dv du~,
dN. -
.
,
dco, .
dN dco, ,
. ' dco ,
. ,
, dco
, .
dN, ,
.
dco ,
.
dN ,
(dN),
(dN)
, .
dco ,

, , dv ,
dvy, dv , dco dN
.

, .
x

4. Nf (v)


() .
/ ()
.

. f ()
. dN
(dN) ,
, , N.

j/()d<B=l,
/ ().

(71.1)

71]

247


(dN), dN.
< ) .
, dN
, . . (dN).

dN = Nf (v) da = Nf (v , v , v ) dv dv dv,
x

(71.2)

,
v v -\- dv , v v + dv , v, v, + dv, .
/ (v)
V. ,
, .
,
dco .
dN, (71.2),
.

,
v v , v , v .
dN
da = dv dv dv . da
dN. ,
v . ,
, v, . .
, N
.
.
x

5.
,
. , ,
(. 51).

.
, .
, , ,
. ,

. -
, .
.
, ,
. , ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
.
.
,

248

[. VI

. ,

/=() = -

; !

(71.3)

.
, .


.
6. (71.3)

(1777
1855),

. () dx
,

,
+ dx. ,


()

+00

^ () dx

(71.4)


(. 2
"
X
72). ,

5i

,
.
, (.
3 72). (71.3),
,
.

7. ,
, ,
, .

.
,
,
(. 1901).
, , ,
.
xp yh,
x

yp yh,
y

zp,yh,

71]

249


. ,
,
,
.
, :
Vp ;> h , V = ,
, .
, Vn = 1,
(hip) < ; 1.
3

= - =

(71.5)

. -
(. 1892)
.

3

<1.

(71.6)
3

, .
.
, -
,
.
, v = y 3kT/m
(.
60). , (71.6)
r

KB

,,

(71.7)


T =

n'l'

3km

T
,
,


g

.

.

71 8

. = "-

< '>

.
.
.
.
6 - 1 0 " ,
= 9,11-
. (71.8)
T 6,5- .
.
22

-28

250

[.

VI


. ,
.
. = 6,6-10" ,
= 2,7-10 ~ .
(71.8) T = 0,05 .
( ) ,
, T , (
).

.
, ,
.
24

19

72.
1. ,
1859 .
. N
,
. ,
, , .
, -
v v + dv ,
? ,
dv ,
v .
(v ) dv . (v )
.
V, v
X. / (v)
, cp (v )
.
, < (v ) dv ,
/- v v + dv ,
v v .

, , v .
, cp (v ) dv , -
v v -f- dv ,
v v .
2.
(v , v + dv ), (v , v + dv,,), (v , v + dv ),
, , , .
/ (v) dco ,
dco = dv dv dv .
x

72]

251

, , , .

.
, ,

, .
, , , .
,
,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
,

. ,
,
, .
. ,
, ,
,

.
, .
(71.7),
.
, , ,

(v , v + dv ), (v , v,j - j - dv,]), (v,, v + dv,),

cp (. ) cp (v ) cp (,) dv dv
v

bl

dv,.

/ (v) /, dco = dv
dv dv .
, ,
/ (v)
x

/ ( ) = (*)( ).

(72.1)

3.
.
(v ) = ( v ). ,
, , v . ,
/
V, .

:
= j mv\,
= / mv ,
= 1 > ,
x

252

[.

VI

= y mv = + > + & -
f,
. (72.1)

( ) () ( ) = f (e + + ),
(72.2)
2

, ()
., , .
4. (72.2)
, /. ,
, , ,
: 1) = const, 2) + , = const.
(72.2) . ,

(/

( ) (,,) = const


s* + e = const.
v

, ,
' (e. ) ,

' ()

,
e_ -f- , = = const.
, .
+ = const
,
. ,
.
, .
' ("
' (,,)
, ; ~

(*%) ^
. ,
' (*)
' ()
,

(,,)

d<p (- ) _
(e.v)

{ ) = - *,
^( ) = - ,
^ ^
(72.3)

72]

253

,
. ,
, cp (,.)
,
.
5. / () = / ( +- + ) (72.3)

...
.
(72.4)
f(e) = Ae-,
= \. ,
, .
,
.
/, .

1^ '
v
. 52.

.
,
,
,
v v +dv


. 52.
(v , v + dv ),
N,
. (v )

-f-co

-f-

(v ) dv,
x

CO

dv =
x

1.

(72.5)

+ ,
.
(72.3) (72.4)
.
-
> (72.4) .
,
,
dco,
(. 71, 3).

. ,
, amvl^l,
,

(72.5).

254

[. VI

,
(72.3)
, , .
(72.5).
| =
= ]/ am/2v . (72.5)
x

*- =1.

(72-6)

.
,
+

e-Vdl^Vn.

(72.7)


= .

(72.8)

6. .
, ( )
X

<*} = \

e (f(e )dv ,
x


4-
mvi

<*)=

amvi
2

-
2

dv .
x

\.
_


CO

,
% - ~$ ,
| .

255

(72.6), ( ) = / . (,
(72.7) .)
( ) 1<$ = / kT.

= ^ .

(72.9)

( ) / ()

^'""^.

(72.11)


mv

w = ( a r j

* -

7 2

1 4

,
. ,
,
.

1. ,
(72.3), (71.3),
.
,
,
XI YZ. .
2. (71.4) .
.

A = V~ajn.
3.
. .
.

{\\)=]/~,

= ( 1 2 ~ ) = 1/2,

= / 2 < | * | > .
2

(72.15)

( )
.
( | | ) , . ,
,
(. 64).

256

[. VI

73.
.
1. / () ,

. N,

.

.
. ,
v v + dv.
F (v) dv. N,
dN .
F (v) / ().
0
. , v
v
dv.
v dv.
da = 4 dv. / ()
,
v, .
da, / () dco = 4 / () dv.
F () dv.
,
2

F(v) = 4nv [(e),

(73.1)

^)=^ -

73 2

<-)

,
dN = 4nN

(j^ff* v*e~

* dv.

(73.3)

, F (v)

\F(v)dv=l.

(73.4)

.
2. F (v) . 53. F (v)
. ,
(v ), ,
. ,
. (v ) dv

v == const v -\-dv = const. F(v)dv
x

257

,
,
const v + dv =- const. dv ,
,
v . ,
(y ) dv ,
(y ) , . .
. = 0. ,

dv
v
4
dco = 4' / () dv.

F () = 4 / ()
:
/ () .
x


(;',.) F (v). , .
,

.

(. 54), ,
,

().
,

,

,
. 53.

3. ,
F ()
, . 54.
.
v . v
F .
( 7 3 . 2 )
,
m

258

[, VI

J v dN =

(v) = - i -

\ vF (v) dv.

F (v) ,
V

<>

S ~

'

<

7 3

- >

,
(v ) = /./nvl
=
= / kT (. 62).
2

v = Y ^^\,22v .
(73.7)

, v > () > v .

.
KB

KB

1. dN ,
8 e-\-dv.

3/

. dN = 2;T,V {nkT)~ '


| ' 7 ~ * de.
2. .'! .
/ 1\
-.
4
. - = I / = = .
3. , ,
, (v , v + dv ) ,
v^ v^ + dv ^ .
. dN
,
v i>j_+ dv ^ dv, .
dco = 2nvjjivjdv^,

t

dN = = 2.

kT

j ' ' e~

v dv dv .
L

4. , ,
. .
, ( )
= 1150 ,
, : 1) V = 0,2 ;
2) V = 0,4 . ,
.
/
\
, = ;
) , ( ).
1) = 13,5%, 2)' = 1 > / .
0

259

74.
.
1.
,
. -
,

,
.

, .
, 72,
.
,
,

. ,
.
,
.
2. ,
dco dco
v . N
,
dN = Nf (v) dco dN = Nf (vi) dco^

, (. . ,
) -
, ,
dQ .

dN dN / (v) f (vi) dco dco^
v v
v'
.
dco dco'
v';
dcoj v\.

, . . , ;
, . . , ,
. X,
v[- = v , v\ v. - dv' dv , dv\ dv ,
dv' dv[ = dv dv . ,
dv dv
, dv dv

lt

lx

ix

lx

lx

ix

260

[.

VI

. dco dio
, dco dco :
x

doi dtoi = dco' dco{.

(74.1)

3. ,


&)

. 56.

dco' dco! dco da .


. . 55,
1 2 .
.
,
.
1 2 ,
' J (. 55, ). 2
, 1 .
(. 55, ), , v
v , 55,
55, .

dco' dcoj dco dcoj
v

261

/ (V) / (v\) dco' dcoj


(74.1) / (') / (v\) dco dco .
,
.
doj,
-
.
dco - t


x

dZ ~ [f (') / (v[) -f(v)f

(v[)} dM dcox.

(74.2)

, ,
(74.2)
.
,
.
,
.
4. ,
dco
, . (74.2)
v (, v
do>). , v
.
v\
v .
dco

(74.2) v
.
dco ,
, .
,
, . ,
, (74.2)
. ,

.

.
. ,
-
, .
, , ,
.
x

262

[. VI

5. , . . (18941952),
,
,
. - ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
? , ,
? , .
, , ,

: , , . .
,
,
. , ,
, . , ,
, , . ,
, .
.
: ,
- , ,
.

6.
.
,
(74.2). ,
/ () ,
.
/(e')/(ei')=/(e)/(e ),
1

(74.3)


e + e

= e' +

ei',

.
/ ()
, [ ,
' . (74.3)

f ( E

'

-const

(74.4)

= = const,

.
72. / (')// ()
f (') / (), '

263

' + .
. , ,
f(e) =

Ae-,

. . .
7.

.
. , ,
1, ,
.
,
.
, .
,

/() = - , / ( ) = - - - .
(74.5)


.
, ==
= .

. (. 8 ),
(74.1) .
, ,
.
,

/ (v) / (Oj) / (') fx (v\)
.

/(e)/i(e )=/(e')/ (eO.


1

(74.5),
( ') = (ej ).

+ = ' + [ ' =
[ .

8. (74.1)
.
, .

.
,
.

264

[.

VI

'
' [.
P + Pi = P' + P[,
2

(74.6)

, Pi
--.
2 ~^ 2m '

(74.7)

, ' (74.6),
135" , \/~2 \^2 ,

(. 56). ,
Pi

',
.
,
, . .
,


\
.
'. '
,
.

. 56.
D. '
,
D'. , D D'
.
, (18091882)

.

D
,

.

(74.7),
.

, 135
.
,
. 57.
. 57.
D,
D'. ,
', , .
'[. , ,


. ! \
, .
,
.
, ,
D D'. , D D',
, .
,
,
1

75]

265

, .
,
. D D'
. ,
. , ,
.

75. ,

1.
.
.
dS
XYZ (. 58). '
dS, Y
Z ,
.
: 1)
; 2)

, ,

X,
Y Z.
dS ,
, . . X.
= /. dt
dS
,
dS v dt.
, ,
dz = n vS dt / nvS dt. ,

,
1

l)

(75.1)

2.
.
, . .
. N ,
Q
(. 59). ,
, 4,
(75.2)

266

[.

VI

N . ,

(75.3)
dN = 1-d.
4

(75.3),
dN,
OA (. 60) , > ) + d.
R

OA,

> - f dfh
,
. 60. dS =
= 2nR sin > d$.
dil dS/R
= 2 sin } dir.
(75.3),
2

dW = - 2 - s i n * d * .

(75.4)

.

X (. 61). X
. ,
,
.
- v v + dv .
,
, v > 0.
dn
.
,
v dt
, dz = dn v =
= cos dn. ,

.

. 61.
dS
v dt, . 61.
dS dt ,
dSv dt.
,
, dt.
dt, dz = v cos f} dn.
dn
v v , X. ,
x

75i

267

, X
ft I - dft. (75.4) dn = 1 sin ft dft,

dz / / sin ft cos ft dft.

, ,
. . ft' = 0 ft = /2,
z = / /4.
,
,
- .
,, ... , v . , ... , n
. ,

z =

= 1^').
()
(73.6).

(75.5)

3. , (75.1)
(75.5) , /
/ - .
,
, (75.1)
, () < ) =
= 1,08 <).
(75.5)
. , , ,
,
.
.
.
,
.


.
.
1

268

[. V !

4. (75.6)
,
, .
,
. ,
,
. , ,
, , .
.
, ,

.
,
, (75.6).
,
. ,
, ,
. (75.6)

.
(. 10 ).

1.
= n^v (i)(v )dv ,
x

, . (,
X.) ,
(75.6).
2. V,
, . .

, S *)?
. S ,
, . . .
(75.5)
d ( V n ) = jSn

(v)dt.

-</*,

t = 4V/S

(v).

3. ,
,
, .
,
?
0

*) 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 ,
(. 86 95).

5 75]

269

. = (1 ~ ^ ) . ,
.
4. ,
, 1 : 4,
(. . ) .
.
,
.

, .
. , 1 2,

0

-,

1--" ''

1 , 2 .
Tj , = 2. , ,
d$ dt ,
2

V 2 - 1,

, = ] ' ' 2.
= (), .
(J
(0, ). / = 0
= = 2a, t =
- - (}
.
5.
,
. ,
.
/2.
,
?
.
.
6.
, .
. ^= !, ( V ) .
1

11

1 5

7. , ,
,
, v ,
. .
(v),
.
. -
.

u

>=-4
1

n(v).
1

/ 'i >mt'i; = /ien'.T (v) .


2

270

[,

VI

, (73.6),
2

"

mv

"'>

8. ,
, ,
. ()
,
.
. ';
2kT.
9. , ,
(, ),
, .
.

E/llT

c t = ( l + ^ = ) e~

10. ,
2000 , , , q
-- 1,14-10
- -" .
.
. 4

1 3

<7 = -

nm(v),

.
P = 4anm (tfi) =

W-1/

y q^-.
3

- 3 l /
, 184.
2
~~'
,
----- 2000 : - 8,6-10 =-- 6,4- 10
. .
.
9

1 2

76.

1.
(1879 1959) 1921 .
,
.
-
.
.
,
. ,

76]

271


,
, (71.8),
(
). , 71,
.

.
(. 82).
2.

. , ,
.
,
. 60, ,

. 62.

.

. (1927)
(19261929) ,
,
(18191896) .
. 62.
, , S .
5 ,
. D
.
D. ,
( 2). D
S , ,
, ,
.
. ( , , )
,
. ,
, D
D .
x

lt

272

[.

VI

. , ,

. ,
D D
. ,
.

, . ,
, ,
, ,
. ,


.
,
,
. 7
, |

1 .

,
!
, , 1050 .
3.
. ,
,
,
2, . . ,
. 63.

, ()
. (1955 .)
,

.
,
v tg - v>R/v, R
.
4.
,
. 63.
.
, .
.
.
.
,
. ,
3

76]

273

, .
5 5.,
, S
S S.,.
, ,
S .
D .

_ _
~~
2
~ 2v '

v , .

. ,

.
. 10 .

.
,
.
, .
,
,
.
,
,
, .

. ,
71.

(. . 44)
.
, DD',
?
. ,
D. v
D'. DD' = Civ, .
dN v v + dv,
, vF(v)do. dv dx,
dN = v F(v)dx. , ,
, v^Fiv), . .
( tflvm). = | / 5/2 v , v
.
3

274

[.

VI

77.
1.
.
. , ,
.

.
/\
,
, .

'
,
,
. Z


z
/
. . 64.
ABDC
(. 64) dz.
. ntngdz
z + a z

1
dz

== dz '
^

dp
-~
= -nmg.
(77.1)
= nkT ,
,
1

dn

trr,
k

d z

= -

kTdlnn

- mg dz.


, , .

.
, ,
g .

:
kTd\nn = m(gdr).
(77.2)
g" .
,
- . ,
().
. ,
(77.2).

275

g" ,
g dr .
(77.2)
().
. , , ,
()
,
(. 79, 1).
,
(g dr) = de ,

kTd\nn=
de .
(77.2)
(77.2)
.
,
- / " '
(77.3)
p


.
,
, (77.3)

= *"?"< ,
(77.4)
, , a R
. ,
(. . I, 92).
2.

,
.
. ,

dz ABDC (. 64),
.
, dz
.
.

, , . . = .

,

,
(77.4),
.
, .
{1

276

[.

VI


, .


,
.
, .

.
. , ,
,
.
,
.
3. -
, ,
. ,
.
, 72 74,

. ,


, .

. , dn
, dco
,
dn = nf(v)da,

(77.5)

f (v) (72.14),
: ().
, ,
(77.3).
4. ,
,
.
,
. , B B . .,
, .
.

, ,
. ( . 65
.)

, dil .

277

,
( , + dv), ( )
dQ .
MNN'M',
dto
v;, dQ dv
(. 66),

dn,)--n f (v ) dil vl dv . ,
,
.
,
,
dN = dS v dn , dS .
,

, dN = dSv dn,
dS , . 65.
dS , a dn = nf (v) dilv' dv.
, dN =
0

{)

()

(l

dN

>

- -

vdn = v dn .
0

(77.6)


.
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, . . ,
.
,

,
const
aQ = ,

(77.7)

v dQ. = vl dQ .
,
0

mv~2~

. 66.

.
+

mvl
~2~ <

(77.8)
(77.9)


. v

(. .
),
dv = v dv .
(77.10)

(77.6) dn dn .
(77.8) (77.10)
nf(v) = n f(v ).
(77.11)
0

278

|.

VI


, :
nf (*) = / ( ) ,

(77.12)

= 1 1 :
(77.12)

= + ^,.

kT

/~- */* .

f(e)~e- ,

// " ; * .

(77.3)

.
(77.3) (77.5),
dn

/,

,/(,,.

(77.13)

dn
,
. ,
dn ,
/, -j- . ,
, ,
. (77.13)

.
5. ,
- .
. -, ,
,
(. . G5).
, (77.3)
. ,
.
.
(77.3)
|

d&f,

d (In ) Yp

.
, (77.3),
.
-, .
djV , ,
- .
,
, ,
.
, n

279

, , ,
.
,
, . ,

.
, ,
, dN dN
. ,
.
6. ,
(77.12),
. :
,

, ,
(77.12)

.
,

:
.
. ,

.
( )
. ,

, .
,

.
7. .

,
. ,
,
, .
.
. ,
,
.
, , ,
.

. , 3,
,
.
,
. ,
. . (18531928),
0

280

[.

VI

. ,

. ,
.

1.
. - ,
. , . ,
,
, .
. .
.
, .
.
. ,
, .
- (. 19).
2. ( s )
, ( ),
. .
. ( ) , = .
3. ,
,
. .
< ).
mgH
;)

l_f, + ' M . ) - *

. < >='

wg7/

1-
4.
. ,
, \xgH -4, RT.

+
f ' ^ -j f '
. -
^-^v^\2\rt
5. R ,
,
.
, .
. dN -\- dr, -\- dz

) fl

2 k T

rdr-e

k T

dz,

N . Z .

78.
1. 64
/V

78]

281

.
N,
.
(77.3).
nig?

(78.1)

,
,
(78.1) k,
/V ~ Rlk. ,
. ,
, ,
.
.

,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
. - ,

.
,
.

(77.3).
,
. ,
mgz
tn gz, ,
. . ( ) gz, ,
. ,
;

(- )

--

(78.2)

kT

z
. ,

k =

(JILszf^zluI,
In (i/n )
2

(78.3)
v

'

2.
.

282

[.

VI

. ,
- ,

.
,
.

, .


,
.
1 ,
,

,

,
64.
3. . 67.


.

. (. 67)

.
( ), 100 (0,1 ).
,
. ,
.

.
, .
.
, ;
, .
,
.
,
,

. .

78]

283


, .

.
!
.
.

. 68.

4.
().
,
,
.
-
.

, ,
,
.
,
.
,

284

[.

VI

,
. 68, .
,
, ,
,
.
0,37 .
,
, .
.
5. , ,
(78.3), .
k
N.
.
,
, .

. 19081911 .
.
79.
1. ,
. .
, , .
, (
), ,
. ,
.
GMm/r,
(77.3)
GMm

(79.1)

, a G .
(79.1) ,
, = .
, ,
, , .
0, . . .
2.
,
. , ,
,
(. . I, 57). (
)
.
(77.3), ,
.
.
,
0

79]

285

, ,
(.. 1, 61), .
, .
,
. .
,
. ,
, 77 ( 4, 5).
~ 1 ,
. , , ,
, ,
<[ < 0, , ,

.
3. ,
, .
,
, ,
. .


.
.
.
.
.
.
. ,
. ,
? , ,
, .
. .
4.

. ,
.
, , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
.
,
.
, .
,
,
, . ,
- .
, ,
.
. ;
. v . , g g .-=
= g r'^,r ,
3

v =V 2g r
a

(79.2)

286

[. VI

o = V 2g r =ry^.
a

(79.3)

v = 1 1 , 2 / (. . 1,61). v v

/ mv- = / mvl + ep,
(79.4)
a

.
,
v , (73.5). = viv ,
, .
,
vv
v 'v .
(79.2) (79.3)
m

79

< - >

'
(79.4)
k

= x?,-xb.

(79.6)

(79.6) (77.3)

~~

= ~*,

(79.7)

. ,
,

dn =~"
I

dx.

(79.8)

bn

^ J ,

(79.9)

/
2

' = ^

dx.

(79.10)

dx.

,
-

^ r r j U e + O e * " .

Z, .
,
(75.5). ,
, cv , Z / Sc~o \n,

S 4 . (79.9) (79.11)
(79.5) (79.7),
1

Z = 2 [ - - xl+
v g

1 j n rbv e~ ,
/
0

(79.12)

287

, .

,,,
(79.13)

N .
N.
, .
,
, . .
g .
(77.3) ,

= 4;.

dz = 4:irr,n

. (79.12)
(79.13),

dt

(79.14)

~'

2 \'

rlkT

(79.15)

\'
(79.14)

, ,
.
,
.
5. (79.15) , ,
. .
, .
,

. = .

'

2k

, , 2 ; ~ ~ ~
v

x v ~v = ] 2r g ,

(79.17)

(79.18)

2Gp*(*$+l)'

. , ,
, .
6. ,
. - /,
^> I .
I, X
-= . ,
, ' I
.
(. . )
, /.

288

[. VI

,
.
. .
, (79.15), ,
/, /
. , ,
,
f,,,,
F
F ,
(
).
( G5, G9), F

/",,, .
,
.
.
F
F
F, .
, ,
.
7. , I .
, / - - 10 . (79.1)
,
10 .
, (
~ 10~ ). r ~ 6375 ,
, . 7.
7

cnm

]m

com

UJ

ccnll

No


h ,

28

6.78 1 0
1,09 10
3,72- 10

400
4 500
28 800

,
( ),
. (79.18)
. /
/-. ,
,
( , , ). ,
, 1 0 "
(
), = 1 , 4 - 10 .
.
. , ,
, ;, , (79.15)
- x'f
4

= --

'

(79.19)
'

,
(79.15) . ,
(79.19)
.
(79.18).
0

79]

289

8. (79.18)
. ,

.
, , ,
,
. (79.18)
xf>,
,
. ~ 4 - 1 0
=4 10 3,156 10' .
= 1 0
= 1 0 . = 5,517 / .
(79.18) ,

0,4343*5 = 14.19 + lg + lg i*J + 1),
(79.20)
0,4343
. (79.20)
.
.
, . xf, 32,68.
.
. % = 37,92.
:
. = 38,15,

= 38,15.
,
.
, = = 38,15. =
xl~33,34.

_ 2R g _ Rogo
<>

! 1

1 0

10

"~

kT

'

^R^m__
kxl
9. . 8. ,
.
1215% . ,
-
. -
.
,
, .
(79.21) , ,

-
. ,
,
(,) , , (NH ),
(2,4 / 2,6 / ).
, ( 70120 )
.

,
.

. T

( 7 9

2 1 )

290

[. VI

= lOio
= 1 0

38,15
33,34

396
454

792
908

3 560
4 090

5 540
6 360

6 340
7 260

= 101"
= 10

37,99
33,11

18
20,6

36
41,2

162
185

252
288

288
330

=
=10

10

37,97
33,17

81
93

162
186

729
837

1 130
1 300

1 300
1 490

=
=10

10

38,11
33,31

335
384

670
768

3 010
3 460

4 690
5 380

5 360
6 140

= 10
=10

10

37,42
32,61

12 000
13 800

24 108 168 192 000


27 600 124 193 000 221

3,8 /.
.
. ,
,

, .

80.
1.

. ,
,
. , ,
-
. , , ,
l u l l (. 69).
/ N
, / / . t 0
. .
/ II.
/ / /,

. N N ,
, x

291

. , .
N N = N/2
.
N N ,
: N N = N/2.
/Vx N. ,
, ,
.


, (78.2),

.
,
, ,
/ / / .
, ,
,
.
t
,
,
,
.
, 0
/,
2/.
? , - ,
, , ,
N .
x

1?

2. .
. ,
,
/ , / / .
] = = / . .
,

. , /,

Pi = / -Va = V . N , ,
, , /
Pi = ?U) - N = 10 , = (V^ = 4
0,001.
( )

, 1000
,
10 / .
1

10

1 0 i i

292

[.

VI

/ / .
2 ,
/, / / ( ).
, .
N = 100 Pi = /) ~ ~ ,

. /V = 10 Pi
/ = " ( / ) " 10 ' ' .

.
,
. V , V
- . , -
V, V/V , ,
V N ,

/ v \JV
100

30

20

1 0

(80)

3.
(. 2 ).
,
,
.

. .
.
, , ,
.
.
,

. ,
,
.
, 5

. , ,
.
, .
4. ,
, ,

.
,
.
-

293

, , . .
S = f (), / ()
, .
/ ()
.
5 = / (,) S == / ( ).

, S .
, = , 5 = f ( ) = / (PiPo).
, ,

. ,

]2

12

12

1 2

/(/ 2)

12

(80.2)

/()+/(/ 2),

.
(80.2)
, (72.2).
, ,
,
.
(80.2)

/ ( / i ) + /(/ 2)==const,

7 V W const.

/() = - ^ ( )
2

,
rfP, _

_ dP,,

dP,

dP, "


, .,. ,
.
, -j^y-
, . . .
, . . ,
f(P) .
k,

294

[. VI

dP

df=k-p.

/ ( ) = + .
.
,
(80.2)
k In (PJ> ) + = (k In + ) + (k In P + C),
2

= 0. ,
S = k\nP.
(80.3)
5. .
,
: -

. .
Vx V
, .
(80.1),
V = V V V .
2

lt

S -S
2

= k\n%- = kN l n .

(40.7)

S -S ^R
ln.

2

k = -,

(80.4)

. . .
(80.3)
.

(80.3) (18581947).
.
6. *

(. 42).
(80.3)
. .
,
,
. ,
-

295

.
.
, .
,
.
.
? ?
, -
,
, .
,
,
,
.
.
42 ,
. ,


.
.
,

, .
, ,
, .
.
. .
,
.
.

, ,

.

.
,
.
, ,
,
.

,
.
7.
.

296

[.

VI

, .
(80.3)
. .
, ,
.
, .
,
- .
(70.3).
,
S In .
(70.3),
.
, . , , ,
.

.
G
S = klnG.

(80.5)

8.
V, N
.
, .
,
1, 2, ...
,
.
.
.
,
,
(. 71).
,
,
.
V V ,
V , , V .
, ,
.

. ,
, . ,
,
,
x

80j

297


.
. p
, -
i- . , + . -)-...+
= 1.
, , pi = V-JV.
, 1
N , 2 /
. .
^'-
, , ,
,
.

, . ,
, .
:
t

/V*! N

...

...

(80.6)


A / , , /.,, ... , N ,
,
.
9. (80.6)
/,, N , ... , N . -
.
, N
.
N . ,
, ,
.
N
No, ... ,
. N1 .
,

.
. ,
N \ , N l . .
G /V!
iV ! yV ! N \ . ,

G =

N \N l...N \1

(80.7)

298

[. VI

(80.6),
.

1 2

nm

(80 8)

V , , V
.
, . ,
, ... , , , .
, , V , ...
. . , ...

^ . (80.8)
N

'Vi\
\V

G , . . N N ,

G. G
. ,

, .
u

1. / = ( / / )
/ f.
2

= (/ ff = f 2// + / . ff = ff = f,

-
/2=/-/ .
(80.9)
2. F - ,
N , ^ = 2 h< . /;
('- .
F
.
3

( i, ,
,

= (2

hf - 2

.)

Mi = N]i+N(N-1)

fifj Qi +

(// + A//)2

, /; = / = 0, f'~ = f. = f ,
2
fifj f + /;/. ,
A/jA/y = 0. , fifj = / .
(80.9),
2

= N ( / - / ) <= NEp.

(80.10)

299

F.

_
_
A f _VNV
/ ^ 1 /

~ |

Nf

' F
YN. N .
.
3. V '
.
v, V -
v, a q 1 V v.
= v/V. (80.8) = , q,

801)

*=1^- - <

= 0

=^0

(80.11) , v
( ).
(70.10)
N
=

nP

Np

V^l)\

Li

(1)1

(JV-N)L

n - l

N - n

=1

'' = 1 ( ,
,
).
_j

'- -

pnqN

\ ( / - 1 - ) 1

n = Np =

(80.12),
n = Np.

(80.13)

.
2

n(n-\)

= N (iV-l)p ,

n ==JV(A/1) + .
2

(80.13)

(80.9) = . (80.13)
(80.13),
JEnf = Np(\p)==n(\.p).

(80.14)

<(; V, <^ 1,
2

() = .

(80.15)

300

VI

,
. ,
.
4. ,
(80.11), N -* .
, v ,
v ,
.
.

, = ^, = - ~ , q=[p,

(80.11)
.fi-4V.ii-

' ->- .
N N -

hm | 1 ~ \

lim )

(}1-"
(80.17)
( ).
5. (80.17)
(31.5).
.

P =
n

L = ( l L \ e (
2 \ nj

(80.18)

- " \

6. , (0 18)
~. (80.18),
h\P ( )
. -. .
.
n

d
- - 1/?
~- (In ) = In - In - L i _ l i i u 1
dn

1/2 .
= . In . ,

In = In

!___ - - ( -,
2 2
(-)~

= - 4 =
V 2

(80.19)

( ).
7. (80.19) (80.3),
(40.9).
. ,
,
S = Nc \nT+Nk
0

In

81]

301

c , . ,
v ,
v

S = Nc \n

T + k(N-n)\n^
+
kn\n.
'
Nn

,
v/V n/N.
:
v

AS = k In
(80.3)
AS=k

In

'.='(!)"
,
(80.18) (80.19). ,
^ = 1.
.
0

81.

1. - ,

,
.
,
,
, .
, ,
.
N ,
.

. .
. ,
. ,
,
, .
,

.
2. ,
,
.
, , -

302

[. VI

, , .
,
, , , ,
,
.
, . ,

,
N
. -
, .

, . . . , ,
,
.
,

.
,
(, + dx),
( , p + dp ).

dx dy ... dp .
, -
, .

.
.
, , , p
+ .
1,2, 3, ... , i-
, .
, =^
sS.
, ,

.
, ,
.

3.
, .

,
. ,
,
,
.

,

81]

303

.

8 8 , - J > h.
ch ,
.
.
= 1. ,

.
.


. ,
.
,
.
,
. .
,
.
,
.
, . . ,
.

, ...
.
,

,
.
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
.

, .

. ,

,
.
.
4. ,
.

304

[. VI

,
. ,
i-u ,-,
- .
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
.
.

.
/,, / , ... .
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,

. ,
, .
,
(80.7), . .
2

5.
, ,
G, , 5 .
,
.
:
!

(81.2)

(81.3)

tf + #, + . . . = tf = const,
/Vi i -f / + . . . = ' = const.
1

,
. ,
, ,

81]

.
.
,
N , N , / , ...
. ,
N . , N,
, . /
i
it

N,

. N /,- ,
.

(16921770)
^
, _
x

= | / 2 / (-)
\

12

- ,

(81.4)

0 < 9 < 1 *)


'/<
1 1/( 12/V). N = 10
. (81.5) (81.1)
(81.2),
|2,)

C(N)

(81.6)

.+ 1/2 >

i
N.
S = 2| (Nt + ) In N + const.
i
t

V /,.
2

5 = 2 -In /; + const.
(81.7)
i
,
(81.7)
(81.2) (81.3). ,

2 1 n A / d A / i = 0,
r

2dA/,- = 0,

^ , = 0.

(81.8)

*) ., , . . ,
, . II, ( ).

306
0

[. VI

v (in /. + + ) dN = 0,

,
N . , dN dN
.
dN N , / , ...
. ,
t

1/ + + = 0,

N
. Ni
, , /,-,
, .
6.
,
. ,
,

. ,
.

. (
) .
, ,
. dE = 6Q =
= TdS. , , ...
.
,
.
, . .
/,-. dE=Y e
dN
^ (81.7), dS =
= k In Ni dNi = ka ] 8j dNi.
dE dS,
0

= ^.

it

(81.10)

7 = / - * (

(81.11)

.

. ,
, .
N
0

e /kT

ZN = N< 2 e- i
l

=N.

(81.12)

82]

- S03E -

307

,
(81.11), ,
V

^-A/og;e~ * ,
(81.13)
gi t'-ro .
7.
.

AQ. t'-
/,- = N f (,) AQ. (81.7) ,
In AQ ,
S = kN v ] / ( , ) In /(e )AQ + const,
e

, ,
S-= kN\f

() In / () dQ + const.

(81.14)

8. , , (81.11)
,
.
2 ,
, ,
.

,-.
, .
, i-u , (81.11).
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
, . (81.11)
. /,-
,
i- .
(81.11) .

.
82.
1.
.
, ,
.

308

(.

VI

. .
, - /("- .
.
. ,
,
,
.
.
,
, ,
(, ) .
2.
.
,
.
,
.
I, II,
, , . .
II, I.
,
, ,
.

.
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
, , . 70,
. ,
/ .
(. 70, ), 1) 2), 3) 4), 5)
6) ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
/ . ( 1

309

,
/ , / .
, ,
.)
2

1)

1)

2)

2)

2)

5)

5)

5)

"1

5)
6)
7)
8)

5)

e)

Li

9)\

. 70.

, ,
. ,
. / (
/ ) .
3. ,
. Z .
,
N .
. Z ,
/V .
, , ,
.
.
Z 5 N, N > Z
,
1

310

[. VI

. Z
(. 71).
, .
Z : N (Z N)
.
.
Z!
N1 ,


.
. 71.
,
(Z N)\ ,
.
N Z

(Z~N)\

(82.1)

, .
Z N .
Z ,
Z 1 (. 72).
.
. Z + N 1 :
N Z 1 .
.
N Z .
N1 ,

. ,

(Z 1)!
,
. 72.

.
/V Z
(Z +

N-\)\

/VI ( Z - l ) l

(82.2)

4.
. ,
,
, .
, .

.

82]

311

.
i-
(,-, + ).
6 . , <J .
, Z,
.
N . ,
-,
. ,

N . . G
. , /, Z, '- ,
;

Zj\

__ (Z - + A ^ - l ) !

~ N \ {Zi-Ni)\

N\
t

(Z;-l)!

. Gi,
.
,

= 7^1

(82.3)

/JKZ,1)!

{ - >

,
(82.3) (82.4)
(81.2) (81.3). ,
Z,-, Ni, , .
,
:
k

5 =

2 i *

l n N

i + (i ~ i )

l n

( i ~ i)] +

c o n s t

>

(82-5)

S =

[ ( Z , + Ni - 1) ln (Zi + N - 1) - Nt ln AT,-] + const.

(82.6)

i
(81.2)
2 I n ^ _dNi
z

2 In Y^rrg^zi

= 0
dNi = 0

( ),
( ).

(81.8)

312

[.

, In TV,- In ~ \,

ln . .\ .

VI

(81.9)
N

aEi

'
Zi-Ni

Ae~

( ),

(82.7)

-~1- = ~ '
( ),
(82.8)
Zi + Ni

Z; + Ni.
, .
\(81.10).
, N-JZI, . .

( ),
( ).

. .

k T

(82.9)
(82.10)

- 1

'.,

= * .
.
5. <^ 1, (82.9) (82.10)
,
=

k T

=const-e

(82.11)

. . . ,
, .
, . . < ; 1.
71.

, <^ 1 (82.9) (82.10)
(82.11).
(82.3) (82.4)
(81.1).
, , ,
,
.
6. .

kT

82]

313

, (
V), N. .
. ,

, . ,-
. (82.2)
.

.
. - (. . , ).
, (82.10) . src
/. , i = 1, . == 0. -,
, .
- (. . , )
;

Bi

. 73.

. ,
, , < 0. , (82.11)
|. ,
/ < ^ 1. i = 1
|i < 0 .
7. . 73,
. > 0. -> 0,
1, 8; <

..

, , = .,
0, > .
, = 0 -
< .
. , = 0
- . ,
,
(. 73, ).
- ,
. < 0. ,

314

[.

VI

. 74.
= 0 -.
- = 0 .
, 0
( , < 0 ) .
0 (82.10)
(,
= 0). N
. , 7 = 0
, = 0. ,
(82.10),
0 ,
n ,
-

= 0 , ,
= 0.
- . ,
.
(82.9) (82.10)

Z .
.

83.
1.
. N
, (45.2)
[* dN,
. (45.2)
dU = TdS-PdV

+ \i*dV.

(83.1)

(45.3), (45.6),
(45.7). *
.
-f]

~\dN)v,s~\dNJT,v

- (

~(

~[dNjT,p~~\dN)p,s'

9 1

'


.
, ,
. , ,
. ,
,

315

.
, ,
.
N .
.
, /, . . (, , N).
, .
, = (, , aN). ,
aN 1, . . = 1/N.
= /(7\ , 1).

(83.3)

*-{), = ( >

83 4

> !)

< -)

= ,* (, P)N.

(83.5)

,* , ,
, .

. ,
= W (, V, N). N
W, V,
. .
= W (, aV, aN). = 1/N,
^ = /(,

l),

(83.6)

N ,
!

W (, ~ , l ) . ^* =
(^) ^{,^,\
.* . U
S
U S , ,
U S T. U 5
/,
jx*. U S N.
.*
.
.
2.
, (82:5)
(82.6). ,
N.
,* -.
. /,
V .
>

316

[. VI

. V ,
, N

. N .
(82.5)

(82.7),
In

._ ^-

^kT~

dS-^-kJ^pdN,
i
v Ei dNi dU.
, ^dNi d^Ni dN.
TdS = \idN + dU,

d4 = [idN.

^={).

= *

. ,
, (82.9) (82.10) .
.
84.
1. 1906 .
, (18641941) .
.

,
.
, .
.
,
.
.
,
.

.

84]

317

(84.1)

(, ,
()
.)
. ,
-> 0. 6Q
.
, .
,
,
,
. , ,
(84.1) - 0 ,
, .
,
.
S S
, ,
, (,
, , .).

.
.
, ,
.
()
.
.
, , ,
,
. , , ,
.
, .

,
.

,
. ,
, .
, , .

0

318

[. VI

,
,

. , , , ,
,

.
.
,
,
.
2. ,

.
, .
,
C
. , , ,
. 6Q = (') dT'.
,
v

. , == 0
.
0 g ' ^ ,
, ,
.
.

yv

dT = C

j,,,

. ,

\
dT ,
.
. , ^ C .
,
.

(. 66 68).
.

319

3.
.

(dS\
_
{)~~

ldV\
[dTJp'

!d_S\

_ !\
\dv)T~{dfJv'

,
.
,
1 fdv\
.
0 j

-.

\dTJv

,

.
,
( 8 4 . 2 )
. . ,

,
. , ( 8 4 . 2 )
,
,
. , ,
, .

(. 71).
.
, ,
, .

, . ,

\ _ (\
dVJT

\dfjv

'' \

{^gfj
0.
, ,
. (\dVjT'
^ ) , U, .
,
-
.
v

320

[.

VI

4. ,

(80.5).
. .
.
, ,
,
. .
.
.
.
,
, - ,
, .
.
(80.5) .
.
. ,
,
.
.
.
. ,
,
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
.
, . ,
, 2 ,
AS = k ln 2.
k.
10 ,
AS = 20k ln 10 46k. .

.
. .
20

- -
. , .
. = 0. -
( i = ), .
< < , i >

8 5 ]

321

. i = (
). '; = Z,-, Ni = 0.
(82.3), -,
. ,
. ,
-

(84.3)

N \(Z -N )\n

--

(84.4)

JV! ( Z . - l ) l

, .
Zj, Z,,, ', N .
.
(82.3) (82.4),
(84.3) (84.4). ( )
.
,
.

85.
1. ,
.
69.
. /V
, .
(81.13), ,
. ,
,

_
i ^
(81.13)
= N 2 1 giS~ i = N

N =
t

* = - i i = -as(lnZ),

(85.1)

Z=2#e- '=2#r*t

(85.2)
(85.2)
.
2.
.

e* = (' + Va)Av
(85.3)
11

. , , I I

322

[ . VI

(. 69).
ocftv

00

-~2'

Av

-
'" = 0

g-UftV I
z

d /1
- d a (

hv ,
Y + ^

rr\

hv

,
(

a
8 5

r
4

- )

- \

\l(kT).
/iv/2 .

. .
,
h v

= -7iv

8 5

- )

1900 .
. hv <^ kT,
hv

hv

, e ^ 1 -\-^ -
(85.5)
& = kT.
(85.6)
, kT ^> hv
,
.
3. (85.5)
.
, .

,
v.
, . . .
,
.

o.J
U = 3Nz = j f ^ ,
(85.7)
e -\
N .

k T

hv

kT

...

Cv =

(~)*

hv

- T l ^ % ^ kT

e -\

(85-8)

$ 85]

323

. ,
| ^ < ^ 1,
C =3R.
V

\,

C^=3tf(^)V^.

(85.9)

-> (85.8) (85.9) ,


.
4.
. (84.8) (84.9) ->0 C
.
,
, . . .

, .
,
, ,
.

.

.
.
,
.
, . . .
.

(18841966), (18821971)
(18811963).
.
. .

, .

. ,
,
.

,
. .
v

324

[. VI

,
.


. .

.
, ,
.

. -
.
5. , ,
, .
. ,
,
,
,
.
.
(59.8), . .
2

= / .
3

(85.10)

, 69,
.
84 .
- (,
) .
,
(. 71).

(. . 73, ).
,
.
,
. ,
,
,
. 73, . , -
.

= ..
kT.
. -
,
.

85]

325

. ,
. ,
, . .

.
, -
-> 0.
, = 0
,
. = 0 ,
- .

VII

86.
1.
(73.6).
. ,
, v
1700 /, 455 / 425 /.

.
, ,

.

.

.

, .
,
10 ,
. , .
.
. 12
. 20.
,
.
.
,
, .
,

, , .
, .
, .
, ,
.



.

2.
. -

86]

327

,
.
.
,
.
, .
,
.

, . . ,
.

.
.

,

. ,

,
.

.
,
. .
. 75.
.

,

,
.
,
,
. .
,
5 .
.

d. , ,
,
. ,
.
,
.
,
(. 75). -

328

[. VII

.
,
.
. V ,

S .

V, . . = Vn,
. ,

2d.
V, , . .
V ,
v. V = av, = nd
. ,
2

z = nav.

(86.1)

, , v.
,
:
, = ~ .

(86.2)
'

, (86.1) (86.2)
, ,
, ,
, . . .

, .

.
, (86.1) (86.2) ,
,
, .

. :
= 2=1>,

(86.3)
(86.4)

(86.3) (86.4)
(86.1) (86.2) ,
. ,
.
,
.

329


, .
2 1 / | / 2 , .
(86.1) (86.2)
, , ,

.
3. (86.3) (86.4)
.
(86.1) (86.2) .
1^2 .
.

, ,
. ,
v- . ni
. ;
(86.1),
Z; = nflvi
.

, . . I:
t

n av

= 2

i iora-

''

* =

(86.5)

(86.6)

>

,
= ^ v

v
-
.
4.
.

.
(, ),
.
. v v ,
v ,
, . N
, .

.
Fx, F , ... -

. v , v ,
v
, .
,
. >

,
o l a

lt

10

330

[.

VII

, ^
^-
, , . .
,
.
(, ) ,
. F F , ... ,
.

it

( = = ),

-~- = -jr.
FFLJ-j-
2
, ,
. F\, F , ...
,

. , ,
.
,
V2 . ,
tS = j / 2 , (86.5) (86.6) (86.3) (86.4).
5. ,
. 1 /
2 , .,
. 2 ,
(86.1) (86.2).
, , v v % = ( -f- ) .
1
d= riA~ . ,
(86.5) (86.6).
* 1 v
j/^p, Vm . .

OTII

12

lt

--Am,

~-\

myv\ = m vl

^ = + (86.7)
2

, 1
2 ,
12

12

= ftjO + ,

(86.8)

]2

1
^

1 = =

!... ,

- =

-.

(86.9)

mj = fftj (86.3) (86.4).

6. , .
,
.
, ,
.

331

,
.

= (2r ) = 4|,
t

1 2

= - = ( + ) ,
1

" = (2 ) = 4^.

22


(
):
=
1

(
1

1 ]

) ,

(
1

2 1

2 2

) 0 ,
2

(86.10)

+ '

=
a

(86.11)

"l 21 +

"2 22 '

1. ,
.

.
.

(86.12)

]/l+5+ o K22

28

2.
. 76.
,
,
.
.
.
(, ). ,
# v
u

=2v

sin-g-

(. 76). , v
+ d, (75.4). ,
x

= v \ sin -g- sin d d$ = -g- v.

(86.6)
3 1^
4 '

(86.13)

3. v
.

332

[. VII

.
(86.5). .
,
: , '.

2

v = = - - tf-av
2
2

ma

= ~ - n ev.
2

(86.14)

4. . .
v
.
.

1 2

1 2

= n n o w
I

l a

O T H

= j / ~ 1 +

ni20iaWi = | / " l + ^ n ^ o - i j W a

(86.15)

87.
1.
, ,

.
, = nd , d
.
, = = ( + ) .

,
.
, . . . ,
,
, . .
, , , .
,
,
, (
)
, , ,
. , ,
, .

(86.1), ,
v .
(86.1)
.

(86.1)
.
, .
2

12

333

, , ,
, . / =
= nv , . . ,
, ,
.
(86.1)

AN
a=
= -j-.
(87.1)
1

/ = ,
. ,
-
.
,
, (,
, , .), .
2. , ,
.
, , .


,
.
.

, . ,

.

,
,
,
.
.

.

.
.
,
.

3.
.
(18591912) 1893 .
, ,
.
, ,
,
. .

334

[.

VII

.
, ,
(. 77). v .
, . .
, ,
v . b > d,
.
, . 77, . b
,
, = .
= nd . ,
v b = vd, v
. , av% = . v
/ \iv = / yi.vl + ,


0

. 77.
, . .

= l\wl.

= (
4 - ),
l

, , ,
.
,
. ,
,
. .
, ,

. ,
,
.


.
,
1/
.
, ,

(87.2)
S , .
. (87.2) .

87]

335

4.
, (86.14) (86.15)

V = |

1 2

< O T

= n n (ay
1

(87.3)

> ,

O T H

),

(87.4)


, , .
(87.3) (87.4)
.
. (
!) (87.3)
,
, (87.4)
.
, , ,
,
,
P=vE.
(87.5)

,

.
.
,
2 (. 78).

m v + m v = 0.
1


7g

,
. ,
,
( ). - ,
. ,

2 + = , . . = -g

g" 6 = d s i n a =

= dcos-g-. = nd , da = 2nbdb
+ db. da = / nd sin -Odd.
dQ = 2 sin
da _ dQ
~" 4 '
2

. . dQ. 1/4
- , .

336

[. VII

88.

1. ,
. ,
. .
, , -
.
/ , ,
(. 79). J

\
I I
.
dx
5 = 1 .
nSdx - ndx.
(87.1)
,
dx
f* - . 79.
, Jo, - j
dx dN = Jon dx =
= dx.
0

dx,
dJ=

~dx.

(88.1)


J = J e-*/>:

(88.2)

- .
1/, .
(88.1) dx/k
dx, 1/.

.
(88.2) .
/ , ,
, ,

N = N e-'/^.
(88.3)
, (, + dx),
0

\dN\ -^N e
0

dx. ,

= ^ - ^ \ dN | =
, ,
,

dxX.

88]

337

2. (88.3) ,

. ,
,
.
.
,
. .
/ ,
. .
N = N^ / .

- .
, +
+ dx,
\dN\ = ~ N e- 'J dx
= Ndx/'l.
0

x %

3. (88.2) (88.3)

.
. (1882
1970) . 1921 .
.

,
.
4 1
. 80.
(. 80),

. .
,
. ( . 80
.)
90,
. ,

. .

, ,
. N N , N , N, ,
. (88.3)
lt

In


. NJN
3

338

[.

VII

, . , ( ,
X.
X
, .
, X
, (86.2).
4.
.
, , .
X
. ,
(86.3), -
, = ml .
(18211895)
.

.
: , .

I ,
.
,
- . .

.
.

, ,
.
.
,
.
.
,
(91.3).
.

.
2

89.
1.
.
CD (. 81, ) .
CD ,

339

.
. ,
, CD
.
,
.
-
.
,
. X (. 81, ).
, , = ().
, .
, () .
,
()

>.

'

.f

S)
. 81.

, ,
. .

. ,
.

.
, = ().
g ,
.
. , ,
,
, .
,
,
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
,
,

340

[.

VII

.
, .
.

.
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
2. .

.
v.
XI
,
,
"~~~^
,

,
.
,
-
,
^
2
.


.

.
X,
.
,
,
, . ,

v.
,

v.
.
(. 82) S.
.
,
S. , S
, (75.1), . .
+

g 9

A/

= V nv.
9

N
. N (88.3).

895

341

, ,
+ dx,
dN = ~

N<i~*

dx = ~ " d j c .


g () , ,
5 . ,
S / ,

G = \g(x) dN.
0

,
g () ,
, . . = + * ^ ^ ~ ^ -

G ^g \dN
+

i\e^xdx.

,
d

G = nvg
+

+ ~nvX .

(89.1)
1

, G = / nvg(K).
, G+ ,
, S,
X
.

. ,
.
(89.1). , ,

S, ,
, g.
,
zhX S,
.
g, .
(89.1) , ,
,
+

G_ = ~ nvgo - ~ nvX f .

(89.1 )

342

[.

VII

5 X ( ),
(89.1) (89.1).
G = - - ^ g = . - l n m ^ .

(89.2)

,

,

Ti =

=,

(89.3)

nmiA.

(89.4)

1
/3


(89.3),
.
3.
. g
~~ (. . I, 74).

, ,
.
, ,
, . 83.
i i .
dS
(. 83). , -,
, Y
,
X. - ,
().
,
dS. , .
,

dS ( X).
, dS ,
/ nu(k)dS. dG
= / mvnu (A) dS . ,
, , l nu('k)dS.

dG^ = l mvnu{X)dS

. dG = dG_ dG =
-

x y

yx

Jr

^-mvnK^

dS .

= - mnvX

89]

343

. ,
, = % .

4. ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.

. ,
& + <
S (. 84), (75.4), . .
/ / sin -Orff).
,

,
, cosft, X.

dG = ~ sin d dftg ( cos f}) cos# = -~ g sin 0 cos ft db +


+

-~ cos ft sin ft dft.

, ,
ft = 0 ft = /2.
_

nv

. nv\dg

G = - ^ - g o + - g - ^ _,
+

. G = G _ G =+

nvX dg

=
g- -~ ,
, , ) (89.4).
.
vk, . . (89.4)
\ =
3

<>.

(89.5)

,
, . .
\ = nnikv.
(89.6)

5.
.
. ,
,
= mc T,
c .

, X, 7\
.
,
. q
(89.2), g
= mc T.
v

dT

a^-~nmv\c - -.
v d

344

[. VII

(52.3),

= Vs ntnvc %.
(89.7)
v

,
.


, , .
,
. ,
2,
(89.2).
6. (89.6) (89.7)
^ = cv

(89.8)

,
^ = Ac ,

(89.9)

.
. . 9
.
, , .
, , , ,
>; ' .
(, ) ,
1 .
.
9
6

2,51
2,47
2,53
2,54
2,57
2,02
1,97
1,91

1,79

1,91
1,86

1,67
1,74
1,41

1,73
1,44

(. 69) ,
,
.
. , -

89]

345


/ , .
(18841950) . , = 2,25
= 81 = 2,37 = 21 , 0 = 2,02. (
, T ~ 175 .)
6

7. = nm, (89.6) (89.7)



t] = / pvX,
K = / pvkc .
(89.10)
1

X , ,

. ,
. ,
,
.

.
,
.

. ,
, .
,

.
8. ,
. , -,
,
. \
, d
X.
, X J > d,
.
,
. , ,

, .
. ,
,
.
(89.3) (52.3). )

. ,
.
(89.6) (89.7), X d
. ,

346

[.

VII


, X
- d (,
, ).
X d ,
.
: \
.
(. 1). d
X,

.
, X ~ d.
9.
,

. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
)
.
,
.
10.
) . (89.6)
(89.7) (86.2). :
_

mc _
v

^ ^

891

= 1 -

< >

, )
v, . . V .
. ,
. .
, (87.2),

VT

^-~,

(89.12)

.
]
. , , N (
76 250 ) 0 ( 21 302 ).

103 ( N ) 240 ( 0 ). (89.12)
.
(89.12) . , S,
(89.12) , 80
200 , 800 ".
2

347

1. Q
/
S.
. dx.

(17991869)
,

r\

dx '

, = 1/(8) (. . I, 97).
,
v\RT

dx

Q . )
.

2.
, .
, > ~ V'f.

(. 5 3 ) .
.
53 -*-^',
-^'[ ,

/
'3

90.
1. ,
.
- 1, 2.
. ,
.
.

.

.
.
, .
,
.
. ,
-
.
- .
,
, .
(, N ),
2

348

[.

VII


.
2. ,
.
X. =
= () + () ,
.
,
. 1
2

.
.
,
,
, .
.

(89.2).
g
= njn = . (89.2),

HVA

-
dx

-5- VA

dx

2.

= -%

r, = - D g .

(90.1)

= -\- ,
(90.1)

= - 0 ^ ,

r, = - D ^ .

(90.2)

,
- (,
), (90.2) .
(90.1).
= % - [ -
2

^ - f - ^ r = 0, = .

, .
(90.1) ,
. . D
.

= / 5.
(90.3)
1

91]

349

3.
. (90.3), , .
,

.

.
,
, .

.
.
,
.
(90.3).
.
,


: .

.
.
, .
92
, ,
.
91.

1. 64
.
,
.
, ,
.
F,
. ,
.
F
. F
.
F.
.
, , :

350

[.

VII

= (v). ,
F.
.

F:
u = BF.

(91.1)

, .
, .
2. , -
. ,

.
, .
. F ,
,
,, = Fx. (, X
.)
,

_ 1?

Fx

~ kf
kf.
(91.2)
,
. ,
.
X
= Ddn/dx.
,

= BFn.

-D + BFn = 0.
= = /

nffi

(91.2),
3

kTB.

(91.3)


.
92.
1. ,
X.
, = () + ()
.

12

dx '

dx'

351

> 1 2, a D
2 1.
X.
-
(91.3) > D
. .
2. .
- , 1.
. F
1,
uj ,
= B F . , F
, 1 .

. 1 (
) .
1 ,
.
.
, 1
,
. 1
z Api.
,
F\. ,
, . ,
,
.
F = z (A/?i).
(86.8). Ap

, .
1 ( ) = ( A i ) .
2, 1.
,
, 12

2 1

12

2 1

12

12

1 2

12

lt

. V =

,
(. 87). ,

. ,
V. tt\

"

^ till~ "
" ^

'

92)

'

<

.
, ,
1 , ,

Ui "i> - - . ,
.

352

[.

VII

, n tt -f- = 0. ,
,
.
x

"

"H-12

12

(86.8),

, V vi + vr

(91.3)
kT
D = D = '

vj + .

l a

(92.3)

12

(92.3) , . ,

. .

93.
1. 64
.
.
, .
-
.
D
,
. D
(91.3),

(64.4).

.


(),
X.
,
X.
. 85.
dS (. 85).
,
,\
, () . -
dNt, dS ,
ABB ' ;, . .
dNi^n-i

() dV.

dS ,\
dV dV = dSdx

dNi~-=dS')ni(x)dx

= dS

ni(x +
0

l)dl,

353

dS. , , , , ; ( + | ) |
.
0

i=

rt,.(0)(iS

dt + tfi)

dS

[dx;

x=x

s
- Ax.


.
1 dll; ..
" < * ' ~ 2 dv

dJV,- = dS

( V V ; )

.,'
"

Xq , ,
dnjjdx dS.
dN , dS
X, ,
,
:
dN--

. ,
dS,
.
,

,-, , .
( )
.

,
,\dn
" V dn;
( )
dx
2

dN
2

dN =

-dS

( )_ dn
dx '

,
dS .
2

< > dn

(93.1)

dx

,

2

D= -

2.

( ) ~ .
64. ,
2

1 < )

(93.2)

D
, (93.2) ,
,
(91.3),
2

(Ax )=2kTB\.

(93.3)

354

[.

VII

.
(64.4) . , (64.4)

. (93.3) ,
.

.
,

D=

(93.4)

3. (93.2) (93.4), ,
. ,
.
.
. , , (93.4)
. , ,
.
. , ,
X = vx.
(93.4) ( A r ) = X ,
2

D= =
6

= -

Kv

(90.3)
!/ .
2

94.
1. ,
, ,
,
.
.
,
, .
,
, ,
.
, , .


.

.
. , -,
.
. ,
,
F
l / r , , ,

355

v = 5.
v = 5 . ,
F ~ 1/ ,
. -
.

1917 .
.
.
.
,
.
.
2.

.
, .
,

. ,
, , ,
50% 0 50% N ,
0 500 . , ,
50,27% N 49,73%
0 , 49,73% N 50,27% 0 .
1 2.
,
1
5

at]

dT

dx '

T^~nD +n
12dx

(94.1)

= njn =
-f /) -
, D , D
.

12

(94.2)
k D /D

. = 0,

T

l2

dcj

dx

T dx '

dT

,
c {T)-c {T )
1

k \r.~.
T

(94.3)

356

[. VII

() ( )
. k
, ,
(94.3) ,
.
3. (
)
.

1938 . .
, |

|
(. 86).
^

.
,
.

(94.3).

,
( ).
,
.
510 10 .
,
10001700 .
, .
, ,
.

.

95.
1. % ,
d,
, , .
, ,
, X ~ 10~ . ,
10~ (
),
.
: 1) , %
d, , 2) ,
d, 3) ( ), X
5

95]

357

d. .
<^ d.
.

( 8 89).
, ,

.
.

(. 89, 8).

.
,
, .
,
~ d.
2. .
. , .
s.
, ,
(75.5) (75.6), . .
(95.1)
, I/ ^-.
, s. ,
?
,
.


.
, .
,
.

, .
(95.1) ,
,
. ,
,
.
. ,

358

[. V I I

, ,
.
,
. (95.1) .
,
X.
,
, .
, : .

. ,
s ,
Cs /'

# = - =

- = = --^4= ,

(95.2)

, , , .
,
, N , . .

-4= =

(95.3)

, ,
: 1
m 2 .
1 , 2 .

1 .
2. 1

.,
/ . *
.'
,\

lt

1<

2 :
/, =

Cs

l ,

,
2

'

| 7

,
1

, ,

359


.
.
.
3. . 1 2
(. 87)
] .,.

,

.

:
. 87.
.
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
(95.3)

(95.5)

,
,
.
,
,
7\ .

. (

. 88.
).
(95.5).
. ,
.

(18711949).
(. 1884 .)
. ,
(. 88).
,
.
,
.

rmw

360

[.

VII

,
.
.
.

.
,
. ,
.
4. (95.5) . ,
.
1 2.
, . ,
.
Ni = / n o s . 1,
2.
A/i2 = tftAiViS&n,
1 2. 2 1 ,Y = iUi v a i
,
.
Nii = N , . .
1"1^1 = <.
(95.6)
1

1 2

21

2 1

21

= ^ .
, -, , .

,
, .
.

. ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
,
.
, = . (95.6)

niV n v ,
(95.7)
1 2

1 2

2 1

1 2

2 1

(95.5). ,
(95.5) ,
= ^ .
1 2

5. .
, .
,
. ,
.
(95.5). > , N < / . ,

361

, .
.
,
U- (. 89).
.

D,
.


,
.

.
,
,


.
6. .
,
. 89.
.
,
, X
(. 90).
.
,
+
.
-,

|

,

,
V7777777777777777777777Z , .
^dT

dx
,
. 90.
.

.
X, . .
.
.

,
. v ^-
,
X. -
.
, , ,
x

362

[.

VII

+ " (. 89,
2). ,
X v (x + )
v (x .) -(- .
.

v {x-\-\ )
u = v { ) + ,

u-i

dx

= ;. + = -4- ~ = %. ,
^=

X/V 3. mvj.xkT.

dT_

^^'

dT

InTdx-

,
, . ~ MP.

7. .
, , ,
,
.
,
. ,
, .
.
-
.

(. . 91,
. ).

, . . .
, , .
, ,
,

.
.

, ,
. ,
.

. ,

363

(95.8).
.
.
.


(18321919).
,
,
. , . 91.

.
.
.

(
)
.
. , ,
.
, . .,
. ,
10 ,

?
2
.
N
^.

96.

1.

. ,

.
.
. ,
,
, .

, .
,
.
2. ,
I

364

[.

VII

. (
.)
,
N ,
. N,
. N
. ,
, ,
, ,
, , . . N = N .

. ,
, . /V
.
,
N, N , I.
,
N/N{ii all.
: jj~ f (/1),
x

/ ^ y j ,
.
f (0) = 0, = 0 N ,

N , / ( ) "
,
.
v

N = CN

|-,

,
. ,
,
.

Nj , N .
,
,
2

N = Cj(N -N ).
1

(96.1)

, .
Pi 7\,

96]

365

7.
,
2

N = / Sn v ,
1

N =

/ Sn v ,

S .
=

~ ~~ P = nkT,

N
N.

-?..{- '--- '-'

(96.2)

:
= -=-.-

(96.3)

Ink '

'

,
,
Q=AV

(96 4)

^i[v^rm\-

3.
.
,
.
. , N = DS dn/dx, D = / Kv
( X ).
N = const, dn/dx = const.
, dn/dx = (n ),
1


.
.
2. ,

'2

.-.-"1N = ~avS

'

iV = { " ( i V - i V ) .
1

(96.5)

(96.1) ,

,
N Q

366

[.

VII

. ,

1-^

= \

. ,
f(^j)

.
(96.2) (96.3)
(96.6) .
4. (96.4) ,
Q .
. ,

V , ,
, v .
v <^ V, .

,
V
V.
5.
-
.



.
,
,
, .
,
,
.
,

.
, .
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
,
.
, 5
/V . dN ,

CT

cr

96J

dQ,
S (. 92).


, ,
.
.
dQ, S >
, S cos ft
dN,
.
(75.5), . . A/ = V nv. , ,
tT

dtf = ^ p c o s 0 d Q .

(96.7)

6. .
, .
Q ,
S, (. 93).
5 YZ, X
. dS
5.
Y
\dx'\
>

\dS

1
>
\

t
V
1
1 1
;
I
/
/
/
/
/
/
1
1

dS'

. 93.

dx'
dS'. dS' dS
dS cos 1

dQ ^ .
dN,
dS' dS ,

1\ N
,
/
cos ft cos ft' , , ,
cr

J C

IR

dS

dS

368

[.

VII

R , &
, .
Af dS'
: N = /V ().
N,
S , dN
5 .
dS'
S, dS'
2nadx.
dQ Y, . 93.
z dS.
CT

CT

CT

cos#=^,

N = 2a ydS

COSIJ'==|-,

N(x)-~dx.

_ L

N ,
. . , N () xlR*
, .
, N ()
,
:
cr


,
, i

N=2 a ^

J ydS J g d * .

,
.
5 ,
. cos ,
=
= + , dS = rdr dtp,
2

2acoscp

96]

369


-4-

1
2

*-\-

j . _

\2

X
B

2 r -f-x

\+ ^
2

~ 2

,
W=

N,
. ,
/V = / 5,

CT

dN

CT

A/t /

(96.8) (96.5).

, , .

1. I = 5 V = 1
.
6,1 .
,
.
? ,
,
= 300 .
t
. =
' = = 5 10 = 83,4 .

2. I =
= 3 V = 1 (0 ).
D = 0,1 .
,
.
? ,
( 1)/ = 0,628
,
= 300 .
2

\ 1
12W
= - - - - - = 3 10" = 5 10" = 8,33 .
nu^v

3. Vi V
/, .
,
n ?
3

1 0

30

370
.
:

[.

VII


,
,
,
n tii
dn.i _
dt

'
dt

3VJ

3VJL

2?'

"

2na v'

,
d .
(
7

.
)=-

= 1

1 .

,
_ t_
==(/ )

10

20

2 0 * 2 + 50*1

VIII


* *

97.

1. .
, .
,
PV RT
.
.
. ,
.
,
,
.
.
.
,
. ,
,
. ,

, .
, . . .
( ,

.) ,
,
, ,
.
.
(, ).
,
.
.

, .

.
,

372

[.

VIII

,
.
2.
. - (18371923) ,
.
,
,
? ,
. -,
.

,
.
-,
,

, .
.
1 2
, E
,
. 2 ,

.
, . .

. ,
.
.
,

( ).

- .
, .
, - .
,
.
.
,
.
, .
.
,
. lt

373

. ,
, -
.

, , -

.
, .
,
.
, .

.
, )

, ,

.

.
,


,

. ,
, ,
, ^. 4.

.
.
,
.
3.
U (),
.
U () ,
. 94. ,
.

V ():
>

FLJHFLJ .
. ,
--.

374

[.

VIII

(
F = dU/dx). /
( ). ,
.
--
. U ()
,
, . 94 . d
,
, d.

,
. .
,
. .
d . ,
.

, . ,

,
. ,
,
, . .
6

-7

98. --
1.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
.

, .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
.
. ,
. ,

, .
,
,

--

375

. .

, . ,
,
.
.
, V
/ 2,
(. 95).
. - .

,
(. 59).
, ,
2,
, ( /)
.
.

, d.
2 d,
86
. "
/ . 95.
. ,
. ,
, 1,
2 , . .
/ ( .
.
N .
,
/ N ,
.
N' N12
V = 2. V
, N12
. .
, , V .
, ,
4

v-

V-b

,
P(V-b)

= RT,

(98.1)

376

[.

, , - d = - y Nd ,

VIII

. .

N .
2. .

, d/2.
d/2. . 95 .
S -d/2, S
. . ,
S -d/2 < J b, . . S
/ nNcP.

R,
i

R<^dVN.
8

(98.2)
4

d ^ 10~ R < ! 10 = 100 .


<~~> 10~ .
3. ,
(98.1) , V > .
V = b = .
. b
. ,
, . , ,
ft/4,
.
. (.
. 175, ) ft/4 7 ( 3 ] / 2 ) =
= 0,74 (. 134). ,
, ,
9

ft 0,337 , , (98.1).
(98.1)
? ,
, , .

,
.
4. .
, , .
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
. ,
,
, (. 96).
4

98J

--

377

,
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
/, . /
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
59
.
,

,
/ ( ).
,
,

. 96.

, ,
. ,

, . ,
,
,
.
, a P (
),
.
1

P+

Pi^Vznm^},

P + P = nkT.

(98.3)

,
. .
, .
,
. , -f- Pi
- .
.
Pi .
P (N f), / ,
, /
t

378

[.

VIII

, .
P
< 7 V , > .
( >
.
, ,
t

= ,

(98.4)

, .
(98.3)
(P + y*)v=RT.

(98.5)

5.
. ,
,
. (98.1)
(98.5)
.
,
(P + -T%)(V-b)
= RT.
(98.6)
, --. - 1873 .
(98.6)
b<V,

~<.

(98.7)

, ,
,
. ,
b .
--,
, .
.

--
.
. ,
--, --.
, .
--
v . V,
V/v. V
(98.6).
[P + ^r)(~-b)

= RT,

(98.8)

[P + ^-)(V-vb)

= vRT.

(98.9)

--

379

6.
,
. ,
--.
PV , .
, ,
= uVV. (98.6)
R

V-b

(98.10)

V'

V V /
p

J * T _ a _

'

, .
.
, . > bo, ,
6= ^ ( 1 - ] / ^ ) .

(98.11)

,
. ,
,
, .
.
, , ,
. ,
.

. ,
,
. RTbla = 1 ,
6 = 0. , ,
.
' = -

(98.12)


.
.
:
.
.

380

[.

VIII

99.
.

1.
, .
,
. ,
. ,
,
.

(99.1)

U .
. U
. .
U . (
.)
,
^. , ,
:
a>

= n k = n k
0

k T

(99.2)

U .
0

U <^ kT,

1+

P-r-rtJJ^nJT.

(99.3)

, ,
U , = NIV.
U = ^,
. ( + ) =
n kT,

,
,
0

= aiV . (98.5).
, U
0

o=^y-

(99.5)

2.
, .
.
: --
. ,
. .
F, -
, . ,

99]

381

. .
, .
F . , Fj
F. , ,
--, .
U' ()
.
t

(99.3)

F . f,
/ = dll'/dx.

dx ndx. ,
x

Fj=

^ nf dx= ^ n - ^ - d x =

ndU'.


, F = ' . F,
x

P-F-F^nJiT-nJJb,
(99.3). , .

, ,
. .

.

, ,
CD
(. 97). ,

.
CD ,

, , ,
.
3. (99.2),
. (99.5)

RT

= .

--

"

RTV.

,
.

PW

ty^RTe"*.

(99.6)

. , <^ V, < RTV, (99.6)


--.
, (99.6) .

382

[. VIII

6 .
.
-- . ,
(98.10).
,
--.
(98.7).
--,
.
4. --,
.
, ,
, --.
--


.
.
:
(p +

T T

^ ) ( K - 6 ) = i?r.

(99.7)

( +T(V

c ) z )

<"- >

...),

(99.9)

:
PV = RT[\

+ ^-

+ | f +

, , ... ,
. .
33
. ,
(99.9). (99.9)
,
, .
--
, .
(. )
--.
. --,
.

(. ).
2

,
.
.

=-

(990)

100]

383

--

100. --
1.
-- .
(98.6) (98.10),
.
(98.10) .
, = 0 V . = const

.



(98.6) V .



2

PV -(RT
+ Pb) +
+ - = 0. (100.1)

V,


.

,

, .
(, ) ,
= const . ,
, . ,
, ,
. MN
(. 98).
(100.1) V V , V .
= const
L, , G (. 98). LBCAG.
( DB),
,
.
V Vz, V .
.
FKH ,
/, .
.
lt

384

[.

VIII

. P , V
T . ,
,
( , ) .

,
--.
,
,
.
, .
,
-. , --
.


,
.
, ,
,
.
-. ,
.
,
,
--.
2. P , Vk, T ,
(100.1)
k

P V -(RT
k

+ P b) V + aV-ab

= 0.

Vk,

3

P (V-V )
k

= 0.

, :
P Vi = ab,
h

3PVk = a,

3P V
k

= RT + .
k

,
V = 3b,
h

* = - 2 ^ ,

= -2^-

(0.2)

, ,
,

100]

385

--

\dV )

'

(100.3)

\*)

(98.6),
(100.2).
Kk = -p-rh .
--

= 2,67.

Pv
k

(100.4)


8/3,
. 10.

3,03
3,13
3,42

ol

3,42

so

3,60
3,76
4,46
4,49

10

, --,
(98.12)
27 -

(100.5)

- T = 3,375Tk
k

.
T , ,
3,5, 3,3, 2,4.
3. ,
. , ,
, .
:

V
=

(100.6)

, ,
. - (100.2)

--

386

[. VIII

0 0

( + | - ) ( - ) = 1 - )

.
. ,
--, .

. , :
a, b R. , ,
, , ,
.
.
,
, .
,
, , - ,
, . .
.

1.
, .
. (99.6),
. (^jy~J , ,
/ (V) = RTV
+
+ (V 6). V ^ , . .
. ARTb > 0, Vi
V , = Vj < V . V = V V == V , T

' \
, dV } '

DBAE

(. . 98). ARTb < 0 / (V) (\

, I "^ L ,
MN.
4RTb = 0 .
RT^V*-\-
(V ) = 0. ,

'

'

= 47Y

(100.10)

2. .
.
2

(100.11)

101]

387

101. . .


1. , -, .
, .


\

(51.14), . .
0

w)r< '

10U

( >

,

.
, V
.
. 99.
,
--
(. 98). , ,
,
.
,
. 99.
,
EGA BLD, . ,

.
;
. , BD
, ,
;
.
, , --
.

.
2.
. VP
(. 99). ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. , ,

388

[.

VIII

G, ,
:
.

GL .

L G .
,
, L,
.

18 (17501837).

. .

, .
, 7 ,
,
. 7
. ,

.

.
(17911867).
,
. .
,
, .
.
(18131885),
18611869 .
(0 )

. ,
(31 ),
,
(72,9 ). , 31
, . .
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
, .
2

Mil

389

3. GL
,
1 = 0.

(101.2)

, G (. 98)
L :
GCL
GACBL,
.
GCLBCAG.
,
6 Q = = 0 . , 6Q = dU + PdV, dU = 0,
PdV = 0,
I PdV+
GCL

PdV = 0.

LBCAG

:
$ PdV =
LCG

PdV.

LBCAG

, QLGR
QLBCAGR. ,
GCL , GACG CBLC,
. 98.
. 112 ( 2)
.
4. ( D
), ,
, ,
L,
.

LCG. G
.
GE, .
,
GA BL.
. GA
, BL .
.
, ,
. ,
, .
,

390

1. VIII

*).
. X.
5. . 100
. ALKG,
, VP .
ALKG = 0
. ,
,
, .
= 0 ,
.

. 100.

ALKG == 0, ,
.
. ,
ALKG, ,
,
, . , -
,
. -, ,

*) .
, ,
, .
, .
. - ,
, , .
, ,
, .

101]

391

.
, ,
.
6. -
(. 100). ,
, .
. ,
.
NL NG ,
VM NM.
m , ,
r

= NM = mJlL + m NG.
t

+ = 1,

( + m ) NM mJNL + m NG.

NG NM
NM NL '

m
m

iK

_ MG
~~" LM

(101.3)

, M LG LM MG,
.
.
7. . 100,
.
/ .
. G .
L.
L2 .
/ 2
,
. .
,
( 13). ,
, ( 32).
2, . . .

, ,
, - .
/ 2
.

, 1 2.
,

392

[.

VIII

.

2.
,


.
.

ALKG, , ,
, .
.
, , --,
.
ALK.G,
,
,
.
8. --, ,
,

.
, .
,
.
.
,
, - ,
.
--
, ,

. ,


, , .
.

1. LBCL CAGC (. 98)
(101.2). , LBCL CAGC
, . . LBCAG LCG.
?
. ,
.
, ,

393

102]

. , , LBCL.
CL
. .
. (38.5).
PrfK=gO ,
LBCL

LBCL . . LCBL
, . ,
, . .
. GACG.
GACG , .
2. ,
ALKG (. 100)?
. = . ,
.

102. .

1.
, ,
(0 ).
(17761859)
. . (18341907). 1822 .
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
. ,

.
,
,
.
. . 1861 . ,
, . .
.
.
.
, ,
.
2.
,
(. 100, 1). ,

(. . 100).
2

394

[.

VIII

P , V , T ,
.
. ,
LG , ,
.
.
3.
, .
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
(. 101).




(4 = 31 , P =
72,9 )
( 4 = 1 9 4 C , P = 35 ).


.


V
.
. 101.
. 102.
,
. ,
, /,
, ,
(. 102).
, 1..
, .
.

-
.
, , ,
T . ,

.
,
.
.
, .
k

ft

102]

395

, ,
.
4. , ,
. , ,
2
2L (. 102). L,
,
. ,
.
.
,
.
, , .
3
3G. G, . .
,
. , ,

.
,
.
, ,

. ,
.
.

.
,
, . ,
(100.3)
:
(102.1)


, .
1892 .

.
, . 11
( ), . 3 . . .
(. ).
t ,
.
7

16

396

[.

VIII

t = t ,

t / = 1, /

0,2

3,8

4,6

5,8

6,8

0,273

0,235

0,205

0,195

0,185

0,252

0,240

0,230

0,215

0,200

11

0,2355 / , 266,8 ,
26,8 . ,
6,6
37%, - 22%,
100%.

h = 6,6
= 273 .
ie. =

= 0,82-10-5 = 0,82- 10~ %,

. . ,
.
,
. ,

.


(. . )
. .
, ,
.
,

.
5.
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
.

105.1

397

, ,
. ,
,

,
.

,


.


( . 103)
,
(
/
. 103). , . .

, . .
/ ( + ,,)- ,
.
=
.

. 104.

6. . . (18581886),
. . (18351895),
. ,
.
. 104. -

398

[. VIII

F.
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
(, ), , ,
( ).
, , -

.
7.
. (35.3), . .
(102.2)
, C

. ,
,

.
,
, C .
, ,

(. 2 ).
,
. C ,
, ,
, C . ,
-, .

.
,

.
,
,
.
. .
,
, ,

,
. ( )
1015 .
v

103]

--

399


, --,
.
I \
I * \
.

2,

("jrH

= 1 dV )~^'

0 0

--
(100.2),
-

= ~-^-

16

(i/_V )3
A

(- ).

Vk

V = /V, .
, = 9,

i!=*= _ 4

I/

?==

(2.3)

Pfc
3
RT
h , ,
. , = /,
k


2 V6 ( RT \2/
= ^ \ ^ )

(, 28,8,

= 132,5 )

= 1 8700, ( Pk)/Pk ~ 1/100.

103. --
1.
,
V
.
(34.2). --, ,
.
(34.2):
dU_\
dV

)~

_ (_

103

Vw) - - (

>

400

1.

VIII

--
1

\ jv

V-b

V*


U = -

+ f(T),

(.)

f () ,
.
(18.3)
,,,,.
, C --
.

)
\ {)\
,
v

U=^C {T)dT-~.

(103.5)

,
:
U^C T
V

~.

(103.6)

,
.
.
. , ,
(103.3),
,
, ,
,
.
2. (103.5) - .

.


.
,
. ,

S 104]

--

401

( )
.

. ,

= alV ,
. ,
,
.
V V
2

$ PidV^

jj ^dV-

VT

j ' + lr = - -y + const.
1

VT

/(),
(103.3).

--.
dS\
... , fdS\
. dS = ( ^,-) _rfV + j
dT.
,
d S

=[wh

d V +

d T

T-

(45.17)

, -- .

c {T)
v

S = R\n(V-b)

+ \

-i^-dr

+ const.

(103.7)

dT -\- const

(103.8)


V vb
In-

C (T)
V

v ,
. ,

V vb
1
S = v\Rln - + C ^ l n T + const .
(103.9)

104.
--
1. 46
.
. ,
--.
. 46

402

[.

VIII

,
= ,
,
,
2

L^(*L)

Urjp

\dPJi

,
.

(-^->),


,
^ " ^ * ^ ^ ,

(~^")

--
,
V.
dV\
,

fdV_\ (\

^_(_\

\ )\

\ jv/

jv

\dV

(104.1)
\ jv^

[dV

(104.2)

'

\~dv)r

[j^fj


v
,
2

bRT

/\

{iw.a)

P\cWJ

2. .
, , .
,
. V b

I \
,
V, --)
.

104]

--

403

- > 0,
> 0, . ,
, - b < 0, -^ < 0, . ,
b = 0, ^= 0 ; = 0, b =f= 0
. ,

.
,
.

, ,
. ,
. = 0, --
(V b) = RT. *)
I = U + PV=(C

+ R)T~ Pb
v

= C T + Pb.
P

-\- bt\P 0, . .

C l\T
P

^ = _ -* -^< '

(104.4).
= 2/Rb .
Ti = -^-^- T
r

= 2T

(104.5)


.
, .

. .

.
, . . .
3. .
--, ,
.
--, .
-
, .
, {j^

*) (35.2) , .
= -\- R .

404

[.

VIII

(104.3). ,
. . ,
bRT

,,

- ^ > 0

',2

(104.6)

, . .

2 I V--b
Rb
V

\2

(104.7)


~~ Rb \

(104.8)

-- b ,
. (104.8)
VT ,

.


= --|^-^-|.

(104.9)


. 105
. ,
,

( < ; 0 ) .
( A v " > 0 ) . < 1/3
, -- V
, , > 1/3.
(104.9)
, .
-- (100.7).
(104.9) ,

= 2 4 5 - 12-27.

(104.10)

,
= (1

(104.11)

. 106 (
). , ,

104]

--

405

( < 9),
.
( < 0)
.
.
, ,
(. 106). --
,
. , - ,

.
>0
. 106 .
( = 33,3 , =
= 12,8 .)
4.

. 46
,
,
,
12

.
. 106.
7\
(46.2),

dP.

(104.12)

Pi


,
. ,
,
, . .
.
,
.
100200
, ,
.
.
, ,
; .
,

2

406

[. VIII

.
, 80 .
.

.
7 \
(, ).

?
(104.12).
7 \ \ (
). (104.12)
2

dPj

- )
v

dT

dP

(\
\ / / | = = /

, :
=0

Y""gjfj ~

= ,
1

=7\.

(104.13)

. , ,
,
.
, ,
(104.12) . ,
,
,
. (104.12),
.
(103.5), --

jj C (T)dT--~

+ PV ^

J C {T)dT-~

PV.
2

, , .
a/V P V =
= RT .
2

|j C (T)dT^
v

+ P V = RT .
1

--.


7 \ .
2

104]

--

407

,
. ()
7 \ <

^
() 7 \ >
Rb
V
" - t *
v - t ,
-Vi

, V, , 1.

'i-w

.

.

. (104.15)
,

.
, (104. 15)
27
4

1/3
<

(104.16)

(104.16), . 107 (
).
,
,
(104.16)
,
.
,
. . 107

.
.
. , ,

12 18
(
),
. 108.
() .
,
,
(104.12) .
,
. , VT,
, ,
.
(104.16), ,

= 3/4 81.

(104.17)

, , . 108
.
.
(, < 27)
.

408

[.

VIII


, .
.

= ^ { \
5 _

= (8 )

~)'

= 8 ^ 1

105.

1.
: 1) , 2)
, 3)
.
. ,
20 ,
77 .

. 2) 3) .
2) (104.12).
3)
(21.4).
. ,
, .
3),
.

S.
,
:

1 / TdS \

OS \
)

1 / 6Q \

\~df~jp

{~)

, (45.18)
dS \ _
~

fdy_
\

IdV \

-' - -

ST
I
^[dPJs~

'
' \

(105.1)

10|

409

(
),
.
(105.2)
(104.12), ,

, .
,
. ,
,

. -
67. ,
.
,
.
.
. ,
.
(. 46),

.
2. . 109
,
.
(. ) 1895 .
(18401900) (18421934) .
(. 109)
(18161892) 1857 .
1902 .
.

.

.
.
/ 2. .
, 2, 5.
4,
. . ,
3.

3,

410

[.

VIII

. . ,
2,
6, .
:
. ().
, ,
,
.
,

3)

. 109.

. .

.
.
,
. , ,
,

.
3. ,
,
. ,
,
.


. ,
,

105]

411

, .
,
: .
.
,
. . .
(. 1894 .) 1934 .
.

^ 0,035 ( 30 ),
, .
,
0,25 ,
^ 5 ,
.
.
.
, ,
. (1842
1919) 1898 . , , 30- .
. .
.
.
.
4. , ,
.

. (1832
1913) 1877 . , (1846
1915) 1887 . .
,
.
.
,
.
, .

1932 .,
.
. . 1935 . ,
.
,
.
, .

412

[. VIII


.
.
5. ,
,
.
(18451888) (18201883),
.
, .
.
,
130 (. .
118,8).
,
.
, ,
, .
6. (18421923)
1898 . .
.

, ,
, .
, - (18531926)

. 15
.

, .
( )
4,2 .
, 0,71 .
1 ,
(3,2 ).
, 0,3 .


.
.
, ,
0,0014 .
4



= 10 ( ).
, P 1 ,
7'j 4,2 ( ).
0

105]

413

,
. 4,2
q = 20 /. .
.
. , (,
, ) .

.
,
.
.
() ()

PdV = R dTV

dP
dP = R dT RT p

+ R,

A S . C , , ,
AS ,

fob

IX

* *

106. ,

1.
.
,
, ,
98 (. . 96), .
,
,
, .

. , ,

,

.
, ,
(. 45). ,
,
= ^ 4-
0

(106.1)

W , a 7
. ,
( ,
).
47
.
( )
.
V ,

iJ) = 4r /V 17V. ty
,
. , i[) V
W.
47 i|) V .
, ,
o5

o6

o6

o6

o6

o6

W
1

= aF

U J

>

106]

415

F ,
. ,
,
.

. ,
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
. , ,
,

.
2. - /[
z^jj
? [
|
]
.
, (. 111).
If
CD
B D . . ill.
ABDC
.
.

, . ,
, CD
. CD
,
. ,
2/, ,
f. /.
, /
. CD
.
= 2/ .
2AF = 2 ,
C D , a L\F
, .

= 2AF = 2 . ,

= | .

(106.2)

416

[.

IX

, .

. .
.

, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
(, ) .
.

,
, . ,

. ,
,
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
3.
, . ,

,
. ,

, ,
, ,
.

. ,
75,7 /,
73,2 /.

.
4. ,
.
,
(. 112).
, .
,
,
, . 112 .

106]

417

ABCD
(. 113). .
,
. , ,

=*

' -

'

. 112.

. 113.

,

.
(. 114)
BD. . ABDC
, , , . 114
.
,
. , .
,

.
, ,
- .
. ,
, .
, .
,
. , ,

\7

. 114.

, .
,
. .
, . . .
,
. , ,
.
. ,
.
.

418

[.

IX

,
.
.
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
. , ,
2 10~ .
28% ,
. 1 10" , ,
.
(18011883) ,
, , ,
, .
, .
, ,
.
, .
,
. , , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
.
.
, .
. ,
, ,
. .
, .
, .
, , ,
. ,
.
. ,
, , .
7

5.
. , ,
. .
.
,
,
.
.
,

.
,
.

106]

419

.
, ,
.
.
,
, .
.
.
.
, .
.
, ,
,
.
.
,

. 115.

, .
,
.
6. ,
.
,
.
.
. 115.
, ().
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, .

, .
,
, . .
,
.
,
. 80

420

[. IX

, , .
, .
2025 1012 ,
. 80100 .
, .
( 23 ) .
80 ,
.
. ,


3

7.

.
. ,

. ,
,
.

,
, . ,

, .
.

, ,
.
-
, .
(, ,, NH ),
(,
).
,
.
.
-
, ,
.
-
.
( )
,
.
,
.
2

107]

421

(, ),
.

, .

.
107.
dF
odF. 6 =
odF. 6Q = dU -4- 6
dQ = dU-odF.

(107.1)

5 ,
dU = T dS + odF.

(107.2)


V = U-TS,

(107.3)


dW = SdT + odF.
S = {^7~) '
F

(107.4)

,
U

V = + {w) P

107

< -)

= oF.
, .

U = (o-T-p)F.

(107.6)

Q = AU-oF =
T^dF.
,
,
q = -T-r.

(107.7)

, , ,
. q
. (
(107.7) . 1 .)

422

[.

IX


1. (107.7) .
.
.
F, (. 116).
.
.
1.
,
1. 2.
. \ = (Tj)AF, AF

12.

. , I
?
Q = qi\F. 2
U
/

/
'
'/
3,
/
2
.
,
. 3


4. - 116 AF,
% = ( ) AF.
4 1. 23
41 , .
, ,
t

= + =

[0

( ) - a (TJ) AF =
2

( - ,) AF.
2

.-

Q
(107.7).
2.
.
.
lP

(107.8)

dT = ~- -dF,


F, a q (107.7).
.
3. / i = 1 0 ~ = 300 .
,
, .
0,15 / 1.
. ^ = c h (c
),
3

^-^-^^-..
( 2 , -~ .)

1081

423

4. ,
, . .
da
l i m i S L = 0.
- dT

(107.9)

( ,
.)
. (107.7) q = TAS, AS
.

%

, . . AS = 0. (107.9).

108. .
1. , 1,2,3 (
)
, ( . 117
,
; ,
).
-

. 117.

? ,

, ,
.
.

S, . 117, .
. ,
, S,
.
* , , ,
, S
, ,
12

23

31

424

[. IX

.
,
S. .
/ ~ pnr g, ,
. ~ 1 / ,
~ 1 0 , / ~ /,
. ,


2

-8

-12 + - + (% = ().

(108.1)

23

, ,
, , , (. 117,6).
(108.1) ,
, 0 , 1 .


. ,


,

, 0 ,
.
,
, .
2. , ,
.
(. 118).
(108.1) :
12

12

2 3

23

31

23

31

013

012 COS

-(- 0

2 3

r> ,

COS

(108.2)

12

sin O'i = 0

2 3

sin > .
3


C O S

cos

fli--2o0

1 3

o-

'

1 2

(108.3)

& .
, 0 < + ,
(108.2).
. , ,
. > + ,
1

1 3

13

12

12

23

23

108]

425

fti ft , (108.2).
, 3,
.
.
, .
, 3
2 ( ).
3.
(. 119). ,
.
* + " +

3

12

23

3 1

. (108.1)

( +
+ . > ,
^ = ft
(108.2).
cos ft = ~ .
(108.4)
31

12

1 3

2 3

ft . ,
, 2.
0 1 3

0 , 2 3

> 1, . .

1 3

>

12

+ , (108.4)
23

12

. 2 ,
,
(, ).
,
. , ^
<; 1
. . > + , ft,
(108.4).
, . (
,
.) ,
.
13

13

12

426

[.

IX

( 0 < < , . 119, ),


( < < , . 119, ).
,
(. 120).

(108.4).
4.
.
.

. ,
.
(
) ,

.
. , ,
.
. .
.
,
, .

. . ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
. .

109.
.
1. ,
.
.
,
.
. 121.
, .
, b
.
F = 2bo sin , F = bay,
. =
, a R
=

,
(109.1)

109]

427

S = ab
. F S,

:
2. ,

.
,
. 121.
, , D,
(. 122).
, . . ,
. ( . 122 ,
AD .
'.)
ABCD.
. R
. DC
Rj . AD
.
.
(109.1) F =
S, 5 x

ABCD. , ,
,
DC,
f = - ^ - S , # 2 AD.
( .)
,
,
ABCD,
a

5 ,
:
- = (1 + ^ ) .
(9.2)
2

. 122.

(109.2)
. R R%

.
,
. .
t

428

[. IX

-4- ^- .

.
.
.


- .

.
3. , R R = R,
(109.2)
2

P -Pi
a

(109.3)


, (109.3), . .
2-1--

It'

, :
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
:
.
,

,

.
,
.
,
(. 123).
. Ki ,
. ,
.
.
4.
(. 124).

2

429

109]

.
.
^- + ^->
(109.2). ,
R = R . \

' \&
.
2

R =

cos d '

ft .
,

.

Pi-P*

= Pgli,

%. 124.

h ,
. (109.3),
=

PgR

Pga

COS

(109.4)

ft.

.
ft , . . , h
, . . ,
.

1. = 0,1
, ,
& = 0. F,
d = 10~ ?
( 18) = 73 - .
.
. ,
, . = d/2.
1
1
2
=- +
= - . 4

-1

i%i

= 2a/d. S =
= m/(pd), .

F = 5AP = ^ =
1,46- 10 = 1 , 4 6 - 104 .
2. .
F ,
R = 5 .
( 15) a = 487 -" ,
= 40.
1

. F = ^

0 3

^ = 630 ( ).

430

[. IX

3. F
, ,
d = 0,1 ? / = 10 , = 73 -"" , f) = 0.
, .
_

2a /cos2f>
. F=
10 .
1

Pgd

4.
, ,
(. 125).
,
.
. X ,
,
Y ,
.

,
.


(. 125) = pgy,
.

=
= /,

.
,
0
pgy = oK.
(9.5)
0

=
=dtplds,

ds
, ,
. dx dy : dx = ds cos <p; dy = ds sin <p.
,
. 125.

dep .
, Sill .
dy

(109.5), :
Pgy dy + sin cp d<p = 0,
8 dx -f- a cos dep = 0.

(109.6)
(109.7)

(109.6) q> = = 0, :

^21/^cosf.

(109.7)

= 0 = /2

i + sinf)

(Y2-1)
. (109.9)

pg

pg

p g

I 1 _ sin-2-) (2 + 1)

431

$ 109]

(109.8) (109.9)
.
5.
h
D MN (. 125) .
F,
, .
q, .
. D = MN
h (. 125)

= 0 = . (109.9) = ^

D^a-2

[/2-

In

2 +

D] = a-

^ , = 0, :

1,066

j/"jL

(109.10)

a < 1,066 a/ pg, D .


= 0 .
> 1,066 V/pg.
(109.6), = 0:

(109.11)
98


pgh.
F = q + pgha = q-\-2aVpgo.

(109.12)

: < 1,066 / pg.


= 2/-^ -|,

(109.13)

1/JL

1 _

+ 1 [

- V

?i_

_ .

(109.14)

\ / 2 2 / 2 V pg (^_ ^ V2+l)
sin

,
2 sin ,

F = ^-|-2aT "pg0cos|- + 20 sin .
(109.15)

/ pg, .
(109,14) /2, = / 2 . ,
< '/ pg
/

F = q + 2a,

h=Yf .
g

6.
.
.
h, .
. Y ,
, X ,
0

432

[.

IX


(. 126). :

JL
PS

II

W'2

4>\ ,

2/2

(l+cosf)(/2-l)

-cos H

In-)

00
PS

( l _

(
, (109.16)
| j ( / 2 + l )

s,n|.

(109.17)

D MN
| |
= ,

D = a - 2 ] / ~ J | ( / 2 - I n (2+1)) = - 1 , 0 6 | / ^ ,

(109.18)

< 1,066 Vol pg, D 0, =


,

~ ~

~~~

. 126.
> 1,066 Valpg.
(109.17),
= . | |
== 2 / pg.
pg (h +
+ ). .
, ,
Pg (h + I |
) = PoS>

ft = - / ^ - .

(109.19)

< 1,066]^ /pg.


sin

PS

(109.20)

- -

(l cosl)(V2~l)
+

109]

433

:
=
l/^
- g

a<

^^/^f)^>

s i n

+ - ^ , .
2
ga(p -p)

(109.22)
^
'

. ,

(109.21), = /2, :
=

^77-1

= ^-)>

(109.23)

. .
.
7. F,
= 8 , .
= 73 . .
. , ,
:

, /
,
F = 2 pgcr== 1.1.
8.
, . {
. . 4.
-1

= I/

(1sind).

Pg

9.
. .
=490 ~
0 = 140. = 13,6 .
- 3

. = 2 1 /

sin ^ = 3 , 6

10. , ,
(. 127). ,
D = MN ,
,

. 127.

. = 7,8 , =
= 73 - . ,
.
.
.
- 8

-1

434

[.

IX

. (. 128)
.
F = 2 sin . ,
, .
,
t

. 128.
F = pgh- = 2pghr &mb, ,
. , ,
F , ,
, . . F pgr (ft sin cos ).
Fi, F% F . :
%

2 sin & + 2pghr sin + p g r

(d sin 0 cos ft) = p g n / .


0

h = 2 "J/

sin

(.

6),
|

- ( -

sin 2 j J/- - Ar

sin * sin -

2 ( ?

= 0

(109.24)

D :
D = 2r sin + 2 l / " i L (2 cos + In tg

- 2 j / " ^ (^2-

ln ( j / 2 + l ) ) ,

_
ff=2rsin-|

2|A^sta

(109.25)
J
T

(109.26)

:
[ ^ 2 4 , 5 - ^ d sin2f}^|/-21,091 sinfl sin - 0 , 1 4 8 8 s i n 0 = O,
D = 2/sin 0 + 1 , 0 9 1 cos + 1,256 l g

t g ~ - 0,291.

(109.27)
(109.28)

(, .)
, .

D,

/',

0
0,328
0,471
0,583
0,680
0,763
0,840
0,903

0
0,481
0,975
1,49
2,03
2,58
3,15
3,72

80
90
100
110
120
130
139
13930'

0,955
0,990
1,005
1,001
0,977
0,922
0,846
0,842

4,29
4,85
5,35
5,82
6,20
6,45
6,59
6,60

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

435

1093

D,

1,98
1,91
1,68
1,24
0,65
0,04
0,00

100
1 . > 0,842 , :
& < 100, f> !> 100. < 0,842 ,
f) < 60,
0 > 6 0 (109.28) D .
/ - 0 , 8 4 2
6,60 .
11.
. , ,
, , ,
, .
.
(. 129, ).
.
. (. 129, )
.

. 129.
, . ,
, (. 129, ).
,
.
- .

, .
.

. 3

436

[. I X

.
, .
.
,
.
.
.
, , '
, .
12. , ,
, , ,
. .
13. () - ,
, ,
, .
,
.
.
.
14. ,

R,
21.
,
.
.
.

, .

, ,
XY (. 130). ,
3

-5- + -=- .
Rl

"2

, XY,
1
"
= ^
,j
( ).

, = R cos ,

2

YZ. cos , Ri = yV 1-\-'* (

). , ,
,
1

= 0.

(109.29)

d6

' = shO. 1 + '" = c h 0 , y ch J ^ .


, ' = s h 6 ,
d 6 / d x = 0, 0 = + , .
: / = =
h. 6 = 0,
. :
2

ch =~
(

2
4

~ \,
"

(109.30)

109]


aR = chah.

437

(109.31)

(109.30) X.
.
(109.31)
. , ,
- ^ - > 1 , 5 1 . ,
, , 2h
| /?=1,.
1,51
15.
,
, , , .
.
.
R.
16. 14 , ,
.

.
,

= - + 5 - . (
Ri
2
14 , , .)

"
-~onst^2K.
(109.32)
1

uVi+y

(i+yV'

, 14.) sh ,

1 I \
\
2

)= '

109 33

< ->

(109 34)

-+-

. sh 9
sh 0 = 0 1 = sh 0 , :
2

"-^

- -dy

+ B,

(109.35)

.
: = R h. (109.35)
.
= 0, (109.35)
(x-af+y^

~ ,

. = 0
R = \1 . ,
. = + \/
= + 1/, = , = -
R =
. ,
.

438

[.

IX

17. 15 ,

. , ,
, 2
. , ,
, ,
, .
, 2,
,
.
. (109.32)
'. 2

2 =
+ , \
~

--</".

. ,

>* *
2/=1_,'-.

(109.36)

2 ,
) = A cos + sin -4- ,
2

, 2/ .
^? , ) () . = h
) = 0, . .

A cos + = 0 . ,
cos

cos

, .
(109.36)

1 , A
2 ^ = 7 + 72
0

C 0 S

h
T'

2. .
< -2-, .. 2h , cos > 0.
. ,
. >

, . .

h
2h , cos < 0. ,
.
18. (. 131).
,
. , ,
. .
, /
, , h
, -

110]

439

g, .

.

. I-

19.
= 1 / = 10 . ,
R = 10 , , - .
.
, ,
?
= 50 /,
) = 1,8-10~ /(-).
.
. t
0

t =

(R*- - ) .
4

2 .
< = i olrl # 4 = 7,2-
20.

,
? ,

.
, 131.
. ,
.

. AT
>pj-21. ,
~ \0g. .
= 490 /,
: h ~ 5 , = 13,6 / ,
3

= % - _
aph

opgh

g=s=

1,5 - 1 0 ~ .

22.
, = 1 ?
= 50 /.
. = 1 .

= -~^

= | - - 1 0 - 4 = 1,33- 10~ ).

110. -

1. -


, ,
. , ,
.
- .

, .
, . . ,
.

440

[.

IX

-
. ,
, .

, ,
.
%.
. ,
, .
, ,
( ^>) .
, ,
,
-
, .
, ,
. ,
. .
-
.
X,
. X
, Z ,

x=ct,

z = rsin.

(110.1)

t,
2

2= rsin ^-.

(110.2)

. , ,
, .
.

C+V
. 132.
2. . 132 ABC
, ''
.
. ABC ''
. . v
, ,
, v, ,
, + . h = 2.

+1 ( - "> + = +

( + ?>

1 1 0 ] -

2pcv = 2pgr + (P -P ).
A

= -

441

(110.3)

2
=

1 1 0

- >

= + '
= - ^
(- )
.
dz/dx ,
(110.2):
4
(0.6)
dx*

(110.3) (110.4), (110.5) (110.6)


- :
2

1 7

+ --

< ->

, , . .
, .
, . . -
.

- ^

3. , | ^ > - ^ - , . . >2

1 /""

, (110.7)
2,
"

(110.8)

.
, X <J 2 Va/pg, ,
. .

<"">


.
.
v = /. .

nisv"
o-LJl.
(110.10)
4.
, . , .
,
^

! =
dz

()

'

( ). -,

p~? = - g r a d P .

(110.12)

442

[. IX

V
, .
(110.12) dvldt ,
dv/dt . ,
,
.
(
).

(110.12). , (110.12)

eh*
9

dt ~

'

, , :

,
z

c o s

Vx ox ( )
v

Vz = v

(tkx),

() sin

oz

(atkx+6),

, k, 6 .
(110.11),
kvo

() sin (cutkx)

sin (a>t - kx+6)

= 0.

,
6 = 0
teo*(*)+^

= 0.

( : = ,
v .)
(110.13)
oz

,
Vox dv

ox

= v

dvx, .

0e

vlx = vl -\- const. ,


, , . ,
ox oe = (z) .
z

v = C () cos (a>tkx),
x

= () sin (/ kx).

(
(mt
< i
\
= ^-sin
kx),
0

Zo =

cos ,(cort kx).

( )

C(z)
, =


* *

111.
1.
,
,
.
, ,
,
. .
: () ( ).
, :
() ( ).
.
(), () (
). .
, ,
. ,
, ,
: . ; ,
. ,
:
. ,
,
. ,
, ()
( ).
.
,
.
2.
, ,
, .
. ,
.


. ,

444

[. X

.
. ,

= , K j=r-\--ft

(. 109).
, ,
, .
.
,
,
.
. ,
.
,
. ,

.
.
3.
.
, .

.

.
.
.

.
,
.

.
.
. .
,
. ,
,
.

.
. ,
,
. ,
. . .
(a-, [J-, - -).
2

111]

445

(
, I II).
.
.

.
. (HgJ ). .
126 .
. 253
, - .
- -.
,
,
. ,
. ,
.
.
- -. .
.
. .
- -.
,
.
2

4.
.
. ,
,
. ,
.
.

. ,
, , . .
. ,
. , , ,
, ,
,
. . ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
. ,
1 2 ,
,

: 1 2

446

[.

2 1.
,
.
.

112.

1.
.
.
.
,
. ,

(. 50). .

.
, 1 2,
. ,
.
.
=
+ . \.

. (f q?
,
. , ,
m = + -
. ,
,
. cpj > ,
1 2 .
, 1
2. ,

- , < , 2
1.

( , ) = < ( )
2

(112.1)

. ,


.
U S

.
= U TS + PV
(, ) -

112]

447

.
(112.1).

cp (, ) (, )
dtp = sdT + vdP,
. (112.1) ,

. ,

.
,
t

. 133.

, ,
., ,
, .
2. (112.1)
. - ,
--,
(. 133, ). EG LD
: .
GA , LB
. .
,
.
LCG
. 101.
, ,
(112.1). , ,
,
(dT = 0)

dy = vdP,

y = \vdP.

(112.2)

448

[. X

,
,
, (. 133, ).
(, )
EACBD (. 133, ).
, .
dP , .
BD
.
,
. , GL,
L G

:
= .. , ^ v dP = ,

GACBL

vdP=

GAC

vdP.

LBC

, GACG CBLC,
. 133, . MN QR
GL.
P

PG

= -

\ v dP,
n

= 1 -

v dP,
x

v , . = ,,
a > ,
, < y , ^ < ,
EG
BL.
N,
,
. . ,
LD
, GA.
R Q,
, R ,
Q.
, ,
. G L
.
G L .
G L
.

5 113]

449

, ,
101 .

LG, , L G
.
LG ,
DB ,
(. . 99).
, ,
LG /. = .

( GA LB )
. 119.
0

1. ,
.
. ,
,
( = 250 ) ? , = 1,1 -~ .
.
= ,
. ,
.
RT
= =
. ,
1* "
3

= ^ 5 - =

10,5

2. ,
.
(1 ).

, ( = 300 ) ?
.

^ 5 = ^ = 0,08/ .
0

113. .
.

.
(112.1), .
.
, ,
.
TP (. 134).

450

[.

()
, .
DK. ,
(112.1). DK
,
. DK ,
, .
(112.1) , DK.

= ()

. DK

.

'
'
2.

, . . .
2 ()

?
.

/
. ,
1
'
=
\ / 1()
= ED
.
D Y
.

\
. . 134.

.
DK
.
.
,


. , , DK,
, ,
, . ,
, . . ''
.

. DK
-
, , . . .
DK,

. .
,
. ,

451

- , ,
.


. ,
,
. .
,
DK-
.
, .
3. .
dP/dT.
(112.1) dq>i = d<p .
dep = sdT + vdP,
2

i>i dP Si dT = v dP - s
%

dT,

s v \ s , u
. , ,
. ,
. ,
/
2
q=
T{s -s ).
2 /
. ,
,
, . q
.
. ,
, .
. q (113.1),

df
T( -v )(3.2)
lt

d p

Vl


.

.
.

,
, .

452

[.

, ,
(. 77,
7).
.
. ,
,
, .
4.
. ,
.
,
= const
= const. VP
.
/ (. 135).
, /
.
^
*
*
, ^
j^k,
, 4
3 . 1"
, .
. 135.
23,

. ,

. 3 34
41 /.
. ,
, Qy q. 12
Ay = () (Vy ), Vyv ,
34 , = ( ) (vy v ).
23 41 ,
.
v

= + = (
2

0 l

- v ) [ () - (,)] = % (v - v ) ( - ).
2

Qi

,
-,

QyU ,
(113.2).
5. , ,
, ,
,

453

, , , .
, ,

T(v*-v )

13

(- - )

? 2 , v
, .
<~ . ,
v >v ,
jjr > 0. ,
2

23

dP

. v <v ,
- ^ < 0 , . .
.
.
0
2

- = 9,1 10
3

/.

<7 = 80 / = 3,35 10 /.
,
dP
dT

3,35-10
273-9,1 -

= - 1,35-10 /( -) = 134 /.

,
0,0075
. 0,0072 /,
.
,
,
, . -
.
, .

1. 0 (18 ) .
Q, 100 ,
, ?
100 = 539 " .
0 .
.
. , ,
. Q
.
. 1) (
) 100 ,
1

454

[. X

. ,
, .
Qx = 18-100 = 1800 . 2)
, .
, .
Q = U U , U
100 .
= U
U + , 9 = 18 = 970 -
, ( = PV

RT = 1,98-373 = 739 -" ). , Q = U =

= 8970 -" , Q = Qi + Q = 1800 + 8970 = 10 770 - .


2. 0 4,58 . .
0 80 - ,
596 -" . t = 1 .
. 4,20 . .
3.
. , q
t = 196 . ,
2

-1

-1

-1

t, "

. .

-195
-196
-197

833
741
657

.
.
RT I 1 dP\
,
.
q = l^-p= 50 /.
2

4. 5 1
= 373 - ( ).
Am
= 1 .
.

, = | ^ ( | - 1 ) = 0,075 .
5. 0
. ,
= 100 ? Am/m
? v = 1 , = 1,09 -" .
0,6 .
3

-1

= ( 1 > - . ) = 0,72 ,
q

"

'

=-,

= 0,0054.
q

6.
,
--.
/ RT
2\
,. / RT
2\
. <7= n ( _

( _
~)>
n
v

.
7. ,
dP
= () (. ) , , ^
= 0.

114]

455

,
. II ,
(.
. 139).
. , q = 0.
(113.2).

114.

1.
q t , (113.2)

.
, q ,

. , ,

Pv RT. ( 1 v.) ,
*).
(113.2)
[
dT~'

Tv ~~ RT

dP _ \xq dT
P ~ R *

,
n

RT

1 = + .
(114.2)
,
- .

0

+ .

,
p

p eR{r
0

(4.3)

T t

2.
= 373 , <?=539 :/( ).

(114.1) R = 1,9858 / ( ),
= 18,
1 dP
dT

18-539
1,986 -373

= 0,0352

" .

*)
,

456

,
0,0352 27 . .
q ,
. , ,
= ( i> )

= = RT,

I
, .
q

= 5 1 = 0,076.

,
.
3. ,
.
, q .
" .
( ) . ,

11

< = ( - ) + ( -1' ).

(114.4)

,
.

=( - ) +

^.

, - =
0 l

) = ( u

) + ^ .

, ,
,

() dT,


( ).
(7\, ) "
" + R/ = ,

?=?,-1-(

-= 1) -( -^).
/

(113.2) . ,

dP

Qi + i^-cS)^

- "

1 ]

457

?i + (c*-<$)ri
,

fi

In = -= In ,

(114.5)

, , .
.
4. , (114.5), - .
, . ,
, ,
, , .
_ __

'

, .
, b . (
.) ,
/ .
0

qa

R T

= ne
0


_
R T

P = nkT=nJiTe

1 = - g i + ln + const.

(114.6)

.
, (114.6) (114.3).

1. = 20
/ = 80%.
, ?
20 = 600 /.
.
. (114.1)
dP/dT .

-,
2

RTj

.
/ / , ,

P ^=~jP
,

458

(114.2)

ln

?f

(T

Tiy

RT%\ *~

,

f
7 - 3 - ^ = 0,124?
()

\g( p).

.
7\ = 7\. ,
:
= 0,124 lg/== 3,52 .
1

(),
: 7 \ = 3,66705 - ,
: 'i=
3,67313 , : 7" 7\ =
= 3,67360 - \ 3,67 -
, dPIdT
~ 10%.
2. ( . .)
. ,
0 .
2

t,

-10
0

1,950
4,579

0
+ 10

4,579
9,209

. q , q q
t = 0 , = 1 , = ,
23

23

i,n

riln

H^ e- ^b

] 3

8 1 /

( = 273 , 7 \ = 263 , = 283 , , -


, = = ).
3. = 10 ,
, . .
,
, ,
, = 84 /? ,
,
.
0

= i-~

'nfl+J^-V

= 404 ,

t = 131 ( ).
4!
, .
,
0

5]

459

. ,
, ,
,
, ,
. , . .
, h = 90 .
_
Am
(
Ti)
.
1-14%
m
q
( ,
1 10 ).
10

i u

] 0

115.
1. ,
,
. dT
6 Q . bQ/dT
. ,
;
, .
,
,
.
. .
1) , , ,
(),
.
. 2) , ,
,
.
.
. 3) ,

. = 0.
2. .

8 Q = di vdP, i , a v
. ,
. ,
,
. di /dT = .

dp v dPIdT. ,
, dP/dT
(114.1), ,
n

5-.

(.1)

40

[. X


8 /( ),
= 8/18 = 0,444 /(-).
= 373 7 = 539 /.
, 1115.1) = 1 /(-).
. ,

.
3. (115.1) ,
, . . .
,
. , , -
.
, 8Q = di v dP.

_ _ iiH.
-~

dT

JEV

dT

dT

'

di"ldT dP/dT ,
.
(114. 1),
a

di

q_

dT

di /dT

<7 = + (v" - ) = i i .
,
, , ,
.
,

dt" _

dq_

dT

dT

di*
+

di = cfdT-{-v dP,

dT

.
di"
dT

_
-

,
~
r

= ,

dq
dT

,
c

1 1 5

= * - f + lrf( - )
= 373
<7 = 539 /, dqldT=* Q /(-), = 1 , 0 1 /(-).
, = 1,07 /(-),
7 %.

116]

461

1. ,
, . T
. .
q .
.
.
Tj.
lt

A,S = ^- (m m ^ .
2

,
. ,
,
6Q = dT =

m ^^dT.
2

dS = 6Q/T, q ,

2. ,
.
. s= c

In 7" -f- -= + const.

116. .
1. ,
, , .
, ,
. :
),

= (

= ),

( )=^(,
3

(116.1)

).

- ;
;
. .
.
(116.1)
, . . 12 (. 136).
23.
.
, .
31, . .
.

462

1 X

(116.1). ,
, ,
, , . .
.
31
12. ,
:
13

dT

TiVi vJ'

dT

,
.
, ,
, q = q + q . , < 7 >
dP ^
dP
>,
-^
.
ls

12

i3

1%


0,008
.
4,58 . .



,
(. 4,6,31).
. 136.
2. ,
TP
/, 2, 3 (. . 136). /
, 2 , 3
. TP
.
,
. , ,
.
.
, ,
, .
, ( ),
( ).
,
D,
.
. 104 ( 4) ,

.
, -

1161

463

(). ,

, .
56,6, 4,8 .

. .
3.
.

(116.1), , , .

, , , :
{,

)
2 ( )
( )

(
2

),

( ),
( ).

, , ,
. ,
. ,


. ,
, .
4. ,

, ,
TP, -
. TP
. TP,
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.
. ,
.
,

,
.
. 137
.
.
,

464

[. X

S, , L.
STL.
GSLF.
,
.
MN^N^Q.
,
(
N 95,5 ). N (
119,2 ) . (
444,60 ) .
.

'
L (1280 ),
'N'
.

.
N'
.
5.
. ,
,
.

. 137.

, . .
, .
,
.

.
.
()
.
,
, .
, ,
.
, , .
, ,
, .

() .
, .

117]

465

, (. 137)

117.
1.
, .
.
.
, ,

, . ,
,
. ,
. .
. ,
.
, ,
.

, ,

.

.
.
,
,

.

, .
,

.
.
2. ,
,
.
.
, .

.

466

,
. ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
,
. - .


. ,
.
15 ,
. ,
,
.
,
,
.
3. , ,
.
, . . ,
, . . , .
.
,
,
. .
,
. --
(. . 133)
LB,
LCG,
.
.
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
, - ,
.
,
.
,

1181

467

, ,
.
, ,
,
.
.
, ,
,
. .
, .

.

,
.
, , .
,
-, ,
.
, .
?
.

10 .
, . ,
,
0,2 .
, 760 . .?
57 -" ,
100 2,7 . . 1 .
. 100,59 ".
1

118.

1. , .
, (. 138, ).

. ,
, .
, .
.
.
,
.
. ,

468

(.

,

. , , ,

CD , EF,
. ,
. 138, .
, .
.
,
,

. ,
}( .
.
,
.
,
. .

.
, ,
. ,
.
,
CD
EF.
, ,
CD
EF. , .

118]

469


EF, ,
CD,
. , ,
.

. ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
2. = pgh,
, ah
.
.
v = 1/ .

/> = />_*.
(118.1)
0

"

h. '
CD. ' = p gh = gh/v ,
.
' = /, CD.

. ',
0

gh = v (P,-P-oK).
(118.1),

(8.2)

P = Po + zr^hrK.
"

(118.3)

"

.
, R R
, . .
, , .

,
.
3. ,
.
(118.1)
t

= -.

("8.4)

-
. gh (118.2) (118.4),

_ _

(8.5)

470

| 1 < | , (118.5)
(118.3).
In (1 + ) = ( ! * ! < ; 1),
=
/().
,
0

\\>\- \,

(8.6)

Uj$\P-Po\<l

(8.7)

(118.5)

8 8 )


R = 1 0 ( )
20 . * = 72,7 - , =
= 1,002 - , = 17,5 . . = 2,34-10* - .
= 77(. ) = 5,77-10 - .
= 2JR = 2 10 " . (118.3),
-6

-1

-1

-2

-1

= 252
0

- 3

0,19 . .

j \
,
(118.3). ,

1%.
R = ' .
(118.3) , (118.8).
/
2,9.
. ,
,
, .

, .
4. ,
. , ,
- .
.
, . 138, .
EF ,
.
. , ,
. ,
.
EF ,
. , ,
0

n + P-P

=f,

-=?,

CD,
, . gh,
= -\
0

^<_.

118]

471

(118.3).
, (118.5).

.
, , . * , , .

1. R 0,0005 .
,
10 , ?
, 10 , 9,2 . .
70 / . =

- ~ = 0 , 0 2 . .

2. 2
t = 20 .
?
20 = 1,7-10 / ,
= 72,5 /.
0

-5

= 4/?i 1 / - 1 ^ = 2 , 2 - 1 0 " r i .
( N

, . .
).
3.
= 1 / = 40%
t 20 .

= 1,7-10~ /,
D =
= 0,22 /
. ,
, ,
m = D-4nr dp/dr, .
, .
dp/dr = , = /(4). = / +
+
, ^ .
, [ , -
) .
.

= (- ) +
0

m==4nDa(p

H a c

(8.9)

0 0 )

-p ).

(118.10)

o 0

da

4
da
-^/i

= - - ^ - ) .

^_2(

^-

. 07

472

[. X

4. 0,1
, .
. (118.10) ,

- =

-^[()-

].

(118.3), v ,
x

00

= - ^
,

= {

8nDu.0

Poo

t =

4

Ji
=

1
- ^ 2 2 5 .

119.
1. ,
-
. ,
. ,
,

. ,

,
.
,
. ,
, , .
, ,
,
.
2. .
. - AG (. . 133).

. ,
, - .
, .
, ,
, , .
,
. , , .
, , -

$ 119]

473

,
.
.
.
, , ,
.
.
, ,
.
.

.
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
. ,
,
,
, .
.
,
. ,
.

, .
, .
3. ,
115,
.

.
,
(, , .)
(, .).
(
),
.
. ,
. , ,
, ,

, .
, .
. .
( ,

474

[.

,
,
. .)
.
4.
.
, . .
1952 .
, .
,
, .

.
.
,

.
. ,
,
. ,

.

.
.
,
, , , 0 . .
5.
.

. , ,
, ,
.
, 10 . ,
, (
) ,
, ,
0 . ,
,
.
,
. ,
,
, .
,
, 2

5 119]

475

. ( ,
.)

.

, , .

.

.
,
.

, .

. .
, .
, . .
. ,
,
.
. , , ,
.
. ,
,
.
, . ,
( ).
,
, ,
. .
, , , , .

18 . 18 ,
18 .
, ,
. .
, ,

. , ,
.
,
. (
)
.

476


. , ,
.
,
.
, .
.
.
.
, .

.

(18681912):
, .
,
.


. ,
,
,
. R ( ),
= 5 = 328 -
= 15 ,
4,46 - .
2
. R = -p
= = 9 - 1 0 . ,

Kp

-1

Kp

' '

"

120.
1.
- ,
. (, )
(. 112).
.
, (, )
,
. ,
,
,
.
.

--(&),. - , .

20

<> -'>

120]

477


s, v,
.
,
(, ,
). q,
,
1 2, -

,
(, , , ),
,
.
.
(120.1) , s v
. ,

, .


.

.
,

: 1) , 2)

= 1^=,) , 3)


2. , ,
, , -
.

, .
, ,

.

478

[.

.

. ,
,
.
.
.

(
I) ,
II. . 139.

,
1i

: I II.

.

60

.
/ .
I,

(
),
10
-,
.1
., -.,
1
-ir
'
'
'
II.
. 139.


.
.

.

(. 139):
1

= 1718 . ., = 5,20 , 7 < = 1,778 ,

Pv = 29,96 , 7 \ = 2,186 , Pi = 38,3 . .


II
. , . . , ,
II .
.
.
.
.

120]

479

3. (113.2)
.
(113.2)
, 0/0.

(18801933),
.

s v
. s
- ,

* - ( ) ,

< + ( & ) ,

,
'ds\
,

_ /ds\

'

_ 1

\1>

ds = % T-(^) dP.
d

(120.3)
(120.4)

:
d ^dT-(^) dP,
Sl

ds = -fdT-(^)
2

dP.

(, ) ( + dT, + dP) .
dPldT . ,

dsi = ds .
2

(*-)?-[(&),-(&),].

{ ^

(,20.5,

A (jffjp ,

fg|;j . (120.5)
.
.
s
.
p

t*, = -Tbl$\%.

(120.6)

480

X.


,
.
(120.7)
,
v,
.
(120.8)
, dv/dT, dv/dP, dP/dT (120.6),
(120.7) (120.8) .
, , ,

.
,

. ,
, -, . ,

, I ^ II
, -,
,
. , (120.3),

( 5 = )
^
, -, .

121.
1. ( ), ,
, . ,
() . ,
.
. , .
.

, .
2. , v
z
. dv, dT, dP v, ,
dz.

(121.1)

121]

481

, -
dz.
,

d v

^ ^

d T

+ [^) dP.

(121.2)

dP
dz.
( dP ,
, .)
dz > 0, . . , dv > dv,
,
. ,
. , dv < dv,
, . .
. (121.1), (121.2)
dz,

ldv\
ldT\
ldv\
dT
aA

ul

( I 2 L 3 )

WJpKdij^WJPdl'

dz > 0, , ,
(121.3) (dTjdz)
dT/dz,
dz .
, (121.3)

iA

121

>()

< -


. ,
.
3. , dT/dz,
, .
dT/dz, ,
^ (dT/dz) .
, s
. ,
aA

'ds]
dzjaz

_(ds_\
~ {dTJp

(d_T\
,(ds\
[dz / [;
+

dP
dz

(120.3)
dP/dz = pg = g/v,

dzjan

vc \dTJp
p

4. , , v f dv \
v
( = const), \pfj
f-
p

m
\

=-.

(12..5)

482

,
7 R
= , . ( = 2 8 , 8 ) .

()=-?1

= -

'

-K/M.

,
. ,
.
.
5. , .
,
.
.
,
.
, , .
,
. .
.
- , .
, , .

:
m s + m s + 5 = const,
(121.6)

s , s, s ,
. : + =
= const, dm = dm .
,
. , , dm ,
.
, (121.6)
B

ds

+ mds

+ (s s )
n

dm

= 0.

q =
= (s 5 ) .
, dm =-^dT,
,
n

ds , ,
, :
B

ds J^dT--fdP .
B

. ,
,

-^
aa-.
~L
,
: dP
v

dss

Sn

dP ]
n

dT.

"

dT

dT ) \ dz

p g dz = dz.
B

121]

483

, ,
. = pPjRT,

1 dm

dT"

rfp
d r

'
7"

rf

dT\T

1 dP

dT

T'

<*

' P

dT / J

,
:
dP _

dT
Tv '

fdT\

1
(121.7)
dzjan

_ 2? . . / _ \ 1 "
n

(121.7)
, .
, -,
.
_ TR

^-2 '

, g/c

pB

4R

- >

. \/,

(121.7)

<^ )

((), . '

,
, .
q ,
.
6. . 12 /
: + = 760 . .
+ = 380 . . ( ~ 5,5 ,
t=0C).
,
,
.
,
23 ,
. , . .
, .

484

= 760 .

700
f

- 3 0
-25
-20
-15
-10
5
0
5

\ =

0,94
0,91
0,86
0,81
0,74
0,65
0,62
0,54

10
15
20
25
30
40
50

0,47
0,40
0,33
0,28
0,23
0,16
0,10

30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0

12

= 380 .

0,88
0,83
0,76
0,68
0,57
0,47
041

. ,
.
, . . ,
,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
, . . ,
.
, ,
. . .
. ,
. .
,
- ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.

XI

122.
1. ()
.
.
,
, .
, ,
,
. ,

. ,
, .
.
2. ,

,
.
.
-
. ,
.

. ,
, ,
.
, .
,

,

.
18
:
(NH C1, .)
16,5
(NH N0 , .) 26,5
(, .)
+- 54,2
(H S0 , .)
+ 74,5
4

-1

-
-"
-"
-"

1
1
1

486

[.

XI


(. 17).

,
. NaCl
21 , 1 6 0 55 .
(. 105).

.
,
.
.

() .

.
.

.
. (
) .
3. , ,
.
.
,
.
.
.
.

.
( ) .
2

123.
1.
. ,
,
, .
,
.

: , ,
,
.
, , . -

123]

487

NaCl

,
(
NaCl ), .
,
, .
, .
.
,
.


. .
2. .
.
,
.
, . -

, .
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
.

, ,
,
. ,

. , (
) .
3. ,
. ,
. - ,
,
. . ,
( )
,
.


.

488

XI

, . . ( )
.
, . .
. (
- .)
,
. ,

.
1803 .
(17741836).

. ,
, ,
,
.
4.

, .
.
.
, ,
,
. ,


,
. .
5.
. ,
.
.
,
,
:
.
N N H 140
, 5 . .
6. .
,
: ,
(, ),
,
. ,

.
2

123]

489

( 20 6,5%
, 1,2% ).

,
, .
() ,

.
(
, ).
(
). . 140
100%
.

, NBK
.

, NBK
. MKN


.
, , ,

, ,
. 140.
. 66 NBK
-
. ,
,
.



-
(. 140) .
,

, . .

100

" V

'

,


.
+
= 1.

.

. ,

+ (\

- )-.

490

[.

XI

,
. ,
[

-
-

'

'

.
, ,
,
(
). [N(C H ) 1
(. 141).

100%

208 V

100% -+

'01V

. 141.

100%

100%

. 142.


.
: \
(. 142). 61 208
,
:
.
,
,
,
.

, .
2

124]

491

7.
.
.
. ,
.
.
.
. ,
, .
: .


, . ,
,
.
. ,
, .

.

, .

, .

, .

,

.

,

1 2 2 1.
. ,
, .
,
.

124.
1.
,
, .

, -

492

[.

XI

. ,
.
,
, .
.
.

. , , [Cu Fe(CN) ],
:
a

2CuS0 + K Fe (CN) = Cu Fe (CN) + 2 K S 0 .


4

,
, . .

.
K Fe(CN) ,
CuS0 .
(1845 1920),
.

,
, .
.
.
, .
, ,
. ,

.
, , , ,
,
.
, ,
, . ,
, .

, .
, .
2.
.


.
.
4

S 124']

493

,
(

).
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
3. ,
, . . 143 ,


(1877 .).
,
.
,
.

,
.
,

.
,
,

.
. 143.

:
= pgh,
, ah .
4. .

,
,
, . ,
, .


.
.

.
,
.

494

[.

XI


. , ,
,
.
, . .
. ,
^ ^ - ,

(124.1)

N v
V. (124.1) ,

, .
(18521911) .

,
. ,
1 ,
(124.1) 15

> =

288-0,0821

23

= >

, .
, , .
,
. .

.
.

. -
(124.1)
. N
( ),
(124.1) (,
).
.
, ,
(124.1).
(124.1)
,
, .
5.
.
,
. -

125J

495

5 20 .

(, ).
7,6
7,9 . ,
,
0,03 0,04 . ,
,

.
,
, .
( ).
125.
,

.
, .
,
,
.


, 118


.

,
(. 144).


,
_ . V7?77777777777777777577?

. 144.


. , ,
118,
. ,
h,
= p gh. , /> = p gh.
0

496

[.

XI

,
. / =
= njn, , a n
. ,
= n'kT,
= nkT ('
).
,

V
V

(125.1)

v v
. ,


.
(18301901)
.
126.

1.

(. 145). ''
,
, .
.
,

, . .
. ',
D

)
, .
/
J
S

S
S
. ,
\ /

4'
S

S

7"

S
S
S
.
/()

7" '
. 145.
A'D.
,
\ , 7 '
'.
, '
.
r

126]

497

,
,
' -

<7i8

'

q , ,
.
12

' _
'

'

RT

~ ~ v

P '

, ',
'-

'

RT*

pq '

v

(126.1)

(126.2)

---

2. ,
"
.
(. 146),

,
AD.

,

. ,
, .
, DA

(. 116).
,
(| I ) >
.
, ,

. ', ,
.
' .
' ,
''. AN
. , AM
. ,

NA

AM

W
'

498

1.

XI

EN

q u

A'N

EN
EN

'

EN

v' RT

gi

?12_9
<7

12

~q

1 2

, NA = 7",

"V P-<JL2

'-7 = ,

(126.3)

'-

(126.4)

(126.2) (126.4)

,
, .
, ,

, .

.

1. 2 2 0 100 .
.
. 100 0,96 -~ .
1 2

. 342;
-1

v = ^^

p,v = 0,96;

q = 539 ;
R = 1,98 ^ ;
7 = 373 .
(126.1), 7" ~ 0,0156 .
2.
.
. 7" = .0,0543 .

127.
1. ,
.
,
. ,

. ,
.
, ,
.
, , -

S 127]

499

.
.
,

, .

.
. .
.
. ,
, , . .
, , ,
,
. .
,
,
,
. , ,
, .
, , ,
,
. ,
,
,
0 .
.
0
0 .
, . ,
0 ( 0).

,
. -
.
( 0). 0
.
. .
.
,
0 ,
0 ; 0
, . .
,
.
2

500

[.

XI


-
.
,
.

. .
, , ,
.
( 0), ,
, . , ,
,
.

,
.
2. ,
. ,
.

.
. ,
. ,

.
,
, ,
.
,
(112.1), () . ,
,

. , 0
.
3. k, ,
, .

2

1>

1 =
" =
2

>

1 = . . . =

<!" ,

:/' = ... =

<">,

2,

' = * ' = . . . =

(127.1)

, ,
, . , !/' -

127]

501

.

,
.
, . .
. , ,
, .
k, a k 1 .
n(k 1).
, n(k 1) + 2
, (127.1).
k(n 1). ,
, ,
, . . k(n 1)
n(k 1) + 2.
n^k

+ 2.

(127.2)

, ,
,
.
.
116.
, n(k 1)
, (127.1), .
.
,
, , <}>, , ...
. ,
- .
,

,
.
, ,
, ,
: .
,
. (127.2)
=s k + 3.
n=^k-\-r,
,
.
= 2.
4. k -f- 1
: , k 1
. , -

502

[.

XI

k + 1 ,

. ,
, , ,
.
(), ,
. ,
, ,
, n(k 1) -f- 2. ,
, ,
, k(n 1) .
,
, / = (k 1) +
+ 2 k(n 1), . .
f=k + 2-n.

(127.3)

,
, ,
/ .
( = 1) / = k + 1, . .
k + 1 . = 2 (/ = k)
k
, = 3 (/ = k 1) k 1
. . , = k + 2 (/ = 0)
.
(k + 2)- . / = 0
.
, .
/ = 1 (n = k + 1)
, / = 2 ( k) , / ^ 3 ( ==S 1) .
128.
1. ,
k -f- 1 (k
).
, - k 1
.
,
. ,
.
k = 1 k = 2
.
-

128]

503

. k 1
. k 2 ( ). .
= const,
= const.
= const. 123
.

.
2.
. . (18561929).
.
,
1 (%

.

(. 147).

,

(,
= const)
. -195 "

,
.
100%
2 ( 0

ALB,
. 147.
AGB. ALB
,
AGB ,
.
.
/ (),
2 ().
MfiCLM^. L
, / 2
M L M L. G
1 2,
M G M G. ,
.
^,
GC LC ( ).
.
, ,
,
. 2

504

[.

XI

, .
DLYI. L
.

. , ,
. ,
. (
)
LFI,
.
,
. .
L, .
L
, G, .
, L.
,
, .
.
LB. ,
, .
, . . ,
. ,
,
.

,
,
.
,
(, ,
. .).
3. , , .
. 148 149. ,
0 H N 0
, .

, ,
. ,
. ,
. ,
, .
, .

, ,
. , . 148 2

128J

505

,
, .
,
,
. . 149
,
, ,
.
4.
(. 147) .
.

*
. 148.

100%

100%

. 149.

, , ,
, 33,5 (
49,7 ).

. ,

, ,
. 150.
, .
,
,
BGKB.
,
.
,
.
, , , (
).

506

[.

XI

(. 151). ,
,
. 1^1

. .
7

. 151.

.
.
CN.
,

10it

'

5.

.
(
+
, Ag Au, Ni,

AgCl NaCl),
(, Cr Fe,
962

Ti Zr, LiCl NaCl)
(, N a S 0
100%
CaS0 ,
).


. 152.
,

. , . 152
.
,
.
, .

.
2

128]

507

,
.
,

.
6.
(. 153) .
, ,
, .
.

.

.
*nni.
=
100%

, - 21. "
.
271 "


.
MON

,
.+.

. ,

*100%


. 153.
,

.
DE,
.

, .
- S
:

DS SE. , ,
OBNO, ,

.

HL. L
.
, .
LEO .
,

508

[.

XI

.

.
.
*
: ,
.
,

.
. ,
MN,
,
.

XII


* *

129.
1.
,
.
, ,
,
. : 1)
(
), 2)
, 3) , 4)
,
.

,

, ,,-
(.
154).
XY
,
(, , ) . 154.
(, , ).

,
.

.

. ,

OA ,
/ (. 155).
, . .
, (
).
= const, = const, 2 = const, (,
, ) ( , , ).

510

[. X I I

. ,

.

,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, - ,
.
. ,

. 155.

, ,
, .

: , , .
, ,
, ,
.
.
2. =
= 2/ ( 2, 3, 4, ...) ,
- .

, . ,
- 2/
. = 1,
= 2., . .
. , ,
.
. > = (2/),

129J

511

, , , .
= 2: (nip). ,
,
nip, . . . ,

(. 156)
, .
3. /
I \ .
I^N_
,
. ,
. , ,

( ),
,
: .

, |
, . ,
(. 156) . 156.
, .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
4.
2// ,
, .

,
- - .
, ABCD
. 157 -
. ,

. -
S .
. 157.
,
- -
,
-
. ( -
.) ,
S . 2 ,
.

512

[.

XII

.
,
. ,
. ,
S .
S . , S
- .
5.
,
. , -
S . , , S

A(x,y,z)
, .
, S 180
(. 158) "
'.
' .
S - ,
,
.

. ,
. ,

-
B(-x,-y-z)
,
. 158.
. ,
,
- ,
, .
. 158 , : ,

.
.
, , ,
. , ,
-
', - '.
' , '
. , .
6. ,

. ,
,
, .
.
, ,
n

129]

513

-
, , ;
.
,
,
:
.
.
. (18221895).
. .

. ,
.
,
,
,

,
. (
, ,
.)

I,

CHClBrI, , . 159 ( ).

,
.
, . ,

:
, . (,
.)
, .

, ,
.

.
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
4

514

[. XII

. :
1) + = () ;

2) +

^() .

,
, ,
.
1) + = () ;

2) + =

() ,

. . , ' .
,
, .
130.
1. ,
,
, ,
.
*).
, ,
.
,
. ,
(, ,
),
.
,

.
.
(18111863).

. , ,
1912 .
(18791960)
(18831968) (18831935)
.
2. ,
, .

. , *)
( ).

$ 130]

, ,
,
=
+ + ,

515

(130.1)

, ( ),
. ,
.

,
,



,
!, ,

,
.
. 160.

,
.

. , ,

.



,

,

(. 160).
.
.

, .

. ,

, , .
,
.
3. , .
, . . (. 161).
, , ?,

516

[.

XII

ABCD ACED.
(
/, 2 3).
, \, , '
, (130.1).
,

[, ' .
.

. ,
v = nV/N,
, N , a V
. nVIN .
4.
, .
, .
,

, , (. . 164, ).
.

,

.
, ,
. ,
. .
,

2

+ +

(130.2)

= ("1 + ) + ("* + ) + (" + ) -

( 1 3 0

3 )

:
' = ~

b ' ^ ^ t l ,

'=*=,

(130.4)

. . ,

.
^'+',

= ' + ',

='

+ ',

(130.2) (130.3)
= ( 4- ) ' + (n, + n ) V + (
2

r=(

+ ) ',

(130.2)

+ + 1) ' + ( + + 1) ' + ( ! + + 1) '. (130.26)


3

130]

517

= ' + ' + m c',


,
. ,
.
.
, -
,

' = ^f,

' = ,

=+*.

(130.5)


.
- .
, , ,
.
(130.4) (130.5) .
(130.4),
(130.5).

, , .
, ,
(. . 164,
).
(130.4), . . ,
sin (/2) = 1/]/3,
= 70 32'. (130.5)
(. . )
60. , ,
,
.
.
5.
, .
. ,
.
.
, -
-

, ^. ,
.
,
.
, ,

1(

518

[. XII

, .
,
(. 162).
MN .
N NP
, N. ,
, .
,
MN, NP
^/f
^/f
/2. ~7
J I
, g l / / 2 < .
I
*
/ /
, , /
II
,
/
>/
.
q

,

, .
. 162.

,

.
.
3

6. ,
, ,
.
, , , , . .

(130.6)
(. .1, 7, 9).

VV* = l.

(130.7)

, .
. :
a
i = i + "22> ' = ,
' .
(130.8)
V ,
*
1
a J = [ a a ' \ = a f ,
*
1
1
TLv
-2 = [ M = [ a e i ] + [ a a ] = a f - / i 2 a f ,
*
1
1
a

<* = [<* = = [Oia ] = af2


b* = a*,

bt = a'% + n. a*
z

= a*,

bf =

a*.

S 131]

519

(130.6).
.
(130.8).
.

131.
1.
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
.

.
,
,
.
2. ,
,

.
,
, ,
. 163.

, . -

2-, 3-, 4- 6- .
. -
, . . ,
(. 163).
- ,
, ,
.
.
= = 2/. , ,
', .

. ,
.
. , ,
'; '
. ' ' , =
= 60, .
' ' , ''

520

[.

XII

,
.
,
''. , ''
. '' = (1 2 cos ). 1 2 cos
(, , . .
cos = / , ).
, cos = 0, / , 1.
= 90, 120, 180, . . 4-, 3-
2- .
,
- .
3.
( ).
.
,
, ,
. . ,
. ,

, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
, (
, , ), .

. ,
. ,
,
. ,
7 ,
.

. 7
. , 14
, 7 .
.
.
. (. 164).
:
( ), (
/) ( F).
130 ( 4),
.
1

*^*V

<^

4-

. 164.

522

[.

XII


,
, .

.

.
13
: 6 ,
4 3
.

,
---~/~^-
I " , ^^gp--""

.
(
. 165.
) .

(. 164). ()
(/).
.
,
. . 165.
.

. ,

: .
4
.
,

.
:

.
. 166.
(
).
.
,
60 (. 166).

.
,
. .

131]

523

.
:
.
6 ,
.
(
R). .

.
.
.
:
( = 90
).
.

.
.
.
,
: .

.

, , , .
, :
(),
(/),
(F)
(), . .
. .
.

.
.
.
, ,
( ).
,
.
.
().
.
.
.
, ,
, , .
-

. .

524

[.

XII

2-

6
4
6
3
3
1

3-

4-

6-

3
1

13
5
7
4
3
1

14

.
.
.
,
.
,
.
132.

1. ,
,
. , ,

)
. 167.

, . 167, .

, .
,

132]

525

. 167, .
,
4-
2- . ,
.
.
2. ,
:
. - ,
2/
.
. 168 4-

. 168.

. , .
,

90 , .
, . ,
, ,
.
.
, 129.
, ,
,

. ,
, , .

,
,
, .

526

[.

XII

3. ,
,
: , ,
.
.

. 1890 .

. . (18531919), 230
,
:
36, 68, 27,
59, 13, 2.
230 11
.
. -,
.
, 53
.
4. .

. ,
,
(),

.
, ,
.

.

.
,
.

. , ,
.

(. . 164). ,
, = 1.

, ( 0).
() ,
. , ,
,
, , , .

132]

527

,
.
.


,
, .
,
.
.
, . ,
,
- ,
, .
, ( *
)
,
.
:
, , -
.
, , . ,

,
,
.
32 ,
:
5, 7, 7,
5, 3, 3, 2.
, ,
, (. .
).
5. ,
. ,
,
, .
.
( ),
. /
.
,
( < ). ,
,
.
.

528

[.

XII

,
.
:
.
.

, , =

.
.
,
,
, .
.
, . . (19081968),
,
. ,

(),
( ).
.

133.
1.

, .
,
.

. X Y
,
120, Z , .
Z ,
. ,
,
,
.
.
. ,
. ,

(V , /> /)>
XY
( / , / , 0).

.
1

133]

529


,
. ,
.
*).

.
,
. ,
.
2. ,
.
.
, .
, ,

.
.

^

(133.1)

, , ( ),
.
(
). (133.1) -
, .
() (133.1),
1/, l/B, 1/
.
. ,
(133.1)
hx-\-ky-\- lz = D,

(133.2)

h, k, I .
, ,
.
h, k, I

*)
.
,
, , ,
. . , ,
, ,
.

530

[. XII

.
,
(hkl). - ,
, , 1, 3 . .
(. 169).
= 1
+ \ + 0 = 1. ,
(010).
: (100)
(001).

= 0 , ,
(). ABC
(111).
3.
, ,
.
O^s
- jf
_
'
(hkl) (h'k'V).
. 169.
, , ', ',
( ),
.
(133.2), , . .

:: =
' : ' : ' = : : .

'

'

~~ ti ' k' '

V '

(133.3)

,
', ', ,
'/, 'IB, 1 .
,
. /', k', V
(133.3)
. ,
, ,
. .
4. -

134]

531

, .
(
,
). ()

. ,
(. 169) [111].
134.
1. ,
,
, , .
, .

.

,
.
0,56


, . . .

.

NaCl, CsCl,
CaCl ( ).
CsCl NaCl . 169
170. : CsCl
, NaCl .
,
. CaF
;
. 170.

.
, AuZn, MgAg, CdAg .

.

.
.
,
.
, .
, (100), (010) (001) CsCl
(. 169).
2

532

[.

XII

.
. NaCl
.
NaCl .
,

. ,
, , 0 . .
, ,
.
, . .
. ,
,
.


,
.


.
^ g ^ ^ *

dm
,

.
. 171.
, . .

.

.
,
--, . .
.
. 0 , 0 N
.
2.
.
(. 171). ,
.
,
.
2,3
.
--.
.
2

$ 134]

533

. , ,
. ,
:
-- .

, .
,
.
,
, .
,
V
(. . [111]),
(.
172).

,


.

,

.
.
3. 20
,
. 172.
(Ag,
Au, , Al .). 15 (Li, Na, . .)
.
.
,

?
, .
,
. ,
.
( ), .
,
. , .

. .
,
d. = / 6 = 0,52 . ,
4

534

XII

[.

.
,
2d. ]/~3,
2d = "3.
V = nd /3 = / / 8 = 0,68 .
, ,
.
4 , , =
== Y2 jtu /6 = 0,74 . , 52%
, 68%, 74%.
3

. 173.

. 174.

,
.
4.
. ,
.
,
. 173. ,
.
, ,
.
(. 174).
, , . 174
.
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
() ,
.
,
. -

135]

535

, . . ,

...,
, .
,
,
: 1) ABC ABC...
(
, . 175, ) 2) ...
(
, . 175, ).

)
. 175.

,
. ,
, ,
, 60.
,
N . v = ? /6 =
= / / 6 , / .
V = I I ~2. , v = nV/ (3 ]/2) = 0,74, . .
74% . ,
.
3

135.
1.
,
.
.
.
, ,

536

[.

.
. : 1)
- (, . 176, ), 2)
- (. 176, ),
3)
( , . 176, ).

.
. , ,
.

.

. ,

6)

8)

. 176.

1 , 3 ,
kT
(1084,5 ) 0,12 .
, , . ,

, ,

10

f*) ~ 10

,
.
.
.
2.
,
. ,
,
, .

135]

537


.
: .
. 177.
,
.
,
J_.
. ,

,

.


,





.


. 178
.
. 177.


( ).
. ,
,
.
. ,
,
. . 178 ,
EF .
,
.

.
.
.
,
.

538

[.

XII


.
, ,
. 10 10
10 10 "
() .
3.


(,
,
.).
, ,

.

,
, . .
. 178.


(. 179).
CD
.
2

11

12

. 179.

U () ,
.
= , , 2, ... = /2, /2, /2, ...
U () ,
. , U =
= U () .
< /2,
, . . . ,
= /2.

= .
,

135]

539

= 2, = . . ,
. ,
, ,
= /2.
.
,
U () :

C/(AT) =

C7 (1-COS^).
0

,

.
-- =
sin
.
d U

2 n U

dx

, . . 2 [ / / ,
. ,
.
2
= SIN-JJ-.
0

= ^.
, = Gy,
G , . = xlb,
b , . .
CD. ,
135

~'

( >

, ( = )
:

(135.2)

2 "


,
( .) ,
1000 10 / .
.
,
, .
,
, .
.
,
. ,

(. 180). ,
, + 1
. ( .)
.
2

540

[.

XII

, ( + 1) '.
.
4.
.
,
10
1 .
100 1000 .
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
2

*<'*%

. 180.


, ,
. . . (18801960)
,
5 / 1600 / , . .
, .

.

. , . . (18981972),

- ,
. -,

, .
,
.
,
.

. ,
2

135]

541

. .
. ,
,
. .
, 22, 16, 12,5, 8
2,5 220, 1000, 1400, 2000 5500 / .
,
22 2,5 25 . ,
(, ),
, ,
.

,
.

.
(, ) ,
, .
, ,
,
.

(, . .
, , . .
,
.).
2

397
35, 36, 186, 200 , 201, 210,
214, 215, 280, 281, 283, 322
424
- 139
8387, 185, 440
382
307310, 312, 314316, 319
23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 249, 379, 382,
385, 386, 388
186, 200, 201, 208, 210, 214,
215, 251, 274276, 278, 279, 281,
283286, 292 , 294296, 300, 301,
304 , 306, 308, 309, 312314, 320,
321, 338, 380, 381, 457
337, 338
323, 337, 338
514, 520, 522524, 528
155, 156, 159, 161, 162, 487
209
537
-- 143, 372374, 378,
379 , 381387, 392, 399406, 447,
454, 466, 472, 532, 533
388
494
473
412
248, 303
247, 255, 257
248, 255, 300, 301
- 27, 35, 70, 186
44, 89, 140, 141, 150153
488
66, 67
136, 138, 140, 141, 150, 151, 307,
501, 503
474
395
395
236
36, 186, 193, 209

419
323, 324
- 249
76, 78, 81
373
44, 5154, 58, 6972, 74, 75,
85, 89, 110, 132, 143, 144, 146, 162,
225, 226, 401412
356
271, 307310, 312, 313, 315, 319
380382, 408
355
15, 346, 412
224, 225
540
411, 412
- 382, 412
393, 394
411, 478
215
323
10, 8890, 97100, 102104,
106, 108, 109, 114, 117, 119121,
125, 131, 200, 422, 452
( ) 25, 71, 72,
85, 89, 9194, 99, 100, 102, 116,
120, 124, 139, 143, 144, 146, 153, 162,
180182, 401412, 462, 469, 472
457
36, 37, 70, 72, 77, 97, ,
200, 201, 347, 371, 375, 402, 406, 449,
451, 452, 454456, 460, 462, 479,
483 497 498
'89, 9294, 99, 114116,
118, 119, 121, 123127, 129131,
136, 139, 149, 186, 295, 326, 327, 382,
389, 392, 393, 449, 451, 452, 462, 479,
483, 497, 498
76, 78, 81
409, 411
356
514
359 , 363
503

225, 226
363
411
272, 273
477, 478

543

75, 220, 222, 254, 300


492494

305
271, 273
528
80, 81, 426428, 430, 441, 469
514
163
373
155
409
264
185
279
338
210
44, 73, 74, 77, 83, 89, 97,
403, 456
142, 162, 186, 208, 245,
251, 255, 258, 259, 270272,
278, 279, 284, 285, 306, 328, 329,
346, 355, 366, 387
23, 35, 72, 80, 185, 379,
36, 393
436
272, 273

112,
250,
276,
345,
388

495, 496
540
411, 418, 439
270
333, 334, 346
409
411
476
211
300, 305, 311
211
, .
30
153, 388, 412
526
271, 307310, 312, 313, 315, 319
271
348, 349
305
262, 539
514
63, 164
409

387
316320, 323, 324, 423, 455
80, 81, 182, 183, 185, 187, 361,
381

272, 273
26, 462

411, 412
90

395
195, 196, 271, 273

513
209, 213, 214, 280283, 353
411
9194, 99, 116, 120, 139, 229,
294, 296, 316, 469
418, 419
559
224, 225
347, 363

345
177, 208, 428, 441, 442
138, 211, 213, 307310, 312,
314316, 319, 321324, 338, 349,
350352
271, 273
388, 392394
355
479, 480

344, 355


* *


101
24, 25,
103
444
75
483
483
75
222, 223
223
75
481, 483
504
527
515
() 515
()
515
275
514
- 314
308
209, 352
214
, 213
356
() 357
356
356
502
537
515
233
234236, 240, 241
236
296
336
, 236
, 238, 239
296

, 238,
244
238
106, 382
()
377
338, 342
444
- 249
285
287
17
313
-- 378
390
249, 319
35
, 193
35
151
, 152
486
441
395
22
510
510
510
514
409
535
, 536
, 536
535
535

536
535
539
539
61

462, 463, 489,


502
374
234
124
41
536
536
536
387
348
326
347
347, 350, 2
, 530
247
85, 144
529
I 478
II 478
389
474
541
35, 186, 200
23, 35
494
132
- 27, 35, 186
488
66
36
72
185
324
185
488
275
255, 256
496

530
386
348
63
444
513
513
46
502
502

46
383
--
387
46
509
254
333
444, 465
234

545

383

58
58
() 61
(-) 61
61
473
-

439
, 441
441
98
98
117
97
437
371
45
45
( ) 25,
102
35
465
36
36
59

, 63
127
495
(
) 93
486, 499
480
480
444
506
444
537
486
486
486
486
342
348, 351
27, 39
90

546

336
166
165, 344
183
183
355
() 303
461
503
450
444
503
461
527
529
520

528
531
531
531
531

154, 155
384, 393, 505
385
384
384
384
520

84
541
537
537
41
43
43
41, 297
540

63
241, 244

33
394
389
466

412
78
409

(
) 142, 146
108, 142
74
529
333
9
- 9
35
532
89
534
541
88

, 91
, 92,
93
, 9193
, 9193
16
44
316, 317

392, 451
114, 119
45
229
118, 125
206
50
206
15, 52
15
17
9
527
475
509
528
493
492
495
492
515
510
525
- 510, 511
- 510
242
240
509
509
242
, 248

,
248
242
242

242
243
448
, 455
, 459
() 445
389, 445
138
520
517
509
444
36
90
61, 90
32
444
56
415

525
510, 511
- 511
244
538
164
51, 75
- 420
414416
509
332
532
444
445
76
, 76
137,
492
372
200
229
334
373
225
224, 225
389, 449
391, 489
501
() 539
509

547

509
385
385
385

261
155
176
334
332
245
75
71
46
46
46
45
45
93
50
() 97
94
94
94
94
76
64
92
540
474
332
46, 51
150
59
150
46
89
126
16
17, 443
14, 17
14, 17
14, 15
444
17
363
362
362
356
356, 359, 363
356
312
275, 312
307
279, 306

548

312
475
485
485
485
487
487
487
() 485
491
491
491
485
487
485
66
66
504
16
22
34
33, 34
523
515
516
514
518
516
515
520
514
515
347
201
478
478
()
532
531
523
408
503
371
-- 372, 532
376
- 372
372
371
373
372
372
509
520

52

499
307
499
() 502
15
15
() 502

()
502
499
502
50

()
245
81
81
194
257
194
194
285
425
234
234
234
234

235
239
235
, 235
238
- ()
235
, 235
486
386
, 303
479, 480
296
88
15
31
31
241
327,
328, 330
428

308,
312
- 304
308, 312
12
321
233
233

266, 298
303
206
228
43
43
513
188
260
375
259
444
321
374
327
14, 15
25
104
393
379
249
200
465
383, 385, 393
31
489
490
- 490
23
200
20
23
177179
, 178
, 178
20

29
436
159, 162

206, 208, 263
428
234

226, 321
,
323
216
224
136, 295
316
65, 140
188
361

549

63
66, 485
67
224
67, 225
68
68
67
58
410
164, 343
182
182
, 171
13
65, 140
451
451
66
421
451
485
451
30
(
) 354
27,
39
9
12

314
12
10
()
12
10

99, 102

314
314
- 88
140,
142
355
21
28
23, 24, 28
28, 29
28
29
30
28, 29
28, 30
21
21

550

19
32
15
19
307
19
270
202
363
363
477
514
509
20, 461, 463
285
36
529
529
514
36,
62
75, 222
382
-- 378
141, 150,
151
381
- 382
36
451
382
73
36
35, 37
69
140
43
385
69
166
303

() 303
() 303
388, 443
, 446
302
20
444
476
477
302
302
308

483
12
42, 291

295
294 , 296
366
(
) 427
( ) 81
( ) 80
322
347
334
305
211
() 469
( )
350
196
, 196
48

246, 250

230,
231
313316
93
89

510, 512
50

201
206, 502
153

419
20
- 23, 32

33
()
22, 28, 99
26
508
507
411
372

201, 202
510
525
44, 54, 55
25, 229, 322
57
140, 142
150
44, 62
65, 142
127, 133, 294
317
294
71, 143,
294
143, 401

, 404
,

403
,
405

551

,
405
144, 405
, 407
, 407
402

402
332, 333
358
361
357
359
338
515
515
302
515