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ENGLISH
GRAMMAR

PREPOSITIONS

LINKING WORDS

With Keys

SintfwCoqu
PUBLISHER SLJ-S

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81.2-2
75

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.: (812) 326-01-27, 326-01-28
e-mail: sales@bookstreet.ru


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www.bookstreet.ru

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75 English Grammar : Prepositions & Linking Words. With Keys : .- .:
, 2 0 1 0 . - 112 .

ISBN 9 7 8 - 5 - 9 4 9 6 2 - 0 9 1 - 5
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81.2-2

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19.04.2010. 8 4 x 1 0 8 / 1 6 .
PragmaticaCTT. .
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199053, -, .., ., 4
.: (812) 326-01-27, 326-01-28
sales@bookstreet.ru

CtP
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197110, -, ., 15.

ISBN 9 7 8 - 5 - 9 4 9 6 2 - 0 9 1 - 5 . ., 2005
, 2010

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CONTENTS
THE PREPOSITION
1. D e f i n i t i o n 6
2. P r e p o s i t i o n s of Place 7
2.1 Preposition of Place At, In, On 10
3. P r e p o s i t i o n s of D i r e c t i o n 12
3.1 Moving in Space 13
4. S o m e P r e p o s i t i o n s C o n f u s e d 17
5. Revision 20
6. P r e p o s i t i o n s w i t h Forms of T r a n s p o r t 20
7. The P r e p o s i t i o n s of Time 22
7.1 Prepositions For, During, While 24
7.2 Prepositions Before, Till/Until, By 24
7.3 Prepositions Since, From, In time/On time 25
8 . P r e p o s i t i o n s E x p r e s s i n g A b s t r a c t Relations 30
8.1 Prepositions By, With 30
8.2 As and Like 30
8.3 About, On 31
9. C o m p o s i t e P r e p o s i t i o n s 32
10. Revision 33
1 1 . The Use of P r e p o s i t i o n s in Set Expressions 34
12. T e s t s 35

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE


AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE
The C o m p o u n d S e n t e n c e 38
The C o m p l e x S e n t e n c e 38
1. S u b j e c t Clauses 39
2. P r e d i c a t i v e Clauses 40
3. O b j e c t Clauses 41
4. A t t r i b u t i v e Clauses 43
4.1 Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses 44
4.2 Subject and Object Relative Clauses 44
4.3 Which Referring to the Whole Sentence 49
4.4 Clauses Introduced by What, That, Which 50
Revision 52

4
5. Adverbial Clauses 54
5.1 Time Clauses 54
5.2 Adverbial Clauses of Place 57
5.3 Adverbial Clauses of Manner 57
5.4 Purpose and Reason Clauses 59
5.5 As and Since in the Clauses of Time and Cause (Reason) 61
Revision 62
5.6 Contrast Clauses 63
Revision 65
Tests 69

EMPHASIS
1. The E m p h a t i c Do 72
2. Double Negation 73
3. The E m p h a t i c C o n s t r u c t i o n " I t is ... That, W h i c h , W h o , W h o m " 74
4. The E m p h a t i c C o n s t r u c t i o n " I t is not Until ... T h a t " 74
5. The E m p h a t i c " N o t ... T i l l / U n t i l " 75
Translate these Complex Sentences into Russian 76
Tests 78

Appendix 1. P r e p o s i t i o n s and H o m o n y m o u s A d v e r b s . The M e a n i n g a n d Use 79


Appendix 2. S o m e V e r b s Used w i t h P r e p o s i t i o n s 82
Appendix 3. The List of V e r b s Used w i t h P r e p o s i t i o n s 89
Appendix 4. The C o m p o u n d S e n t e n c e . C o n j u n c t i o n s a n d C o n n e c t i v e s 93
Appendix 5. The C o m p l e x S e n t e n c e . C o n j u n c t i o n s a n d C o n n e c t i v e s 94

The Keys 96

Literature 112
THE PREPOSITION
1. DEFINITION
Prepositions as a class of w o r d s , are used t o s h o w h o w t h i n g s are related in s p a c e or in
time, t h e y m a y e x p r e s s a b s t r a c t relation a n d serve t o c o n n e c t the w o r d s in a s e n t e n c e .
Accordingly prepositions m a y be divided into p r e p o s i t i o n s o f p l a c e a n d d i r e c t i o n (under,
next to, towards, through, etc), p r e p o s i t i o n s o f t i m e (after, before, till, at, for, during, etc)
and t h o s e e x p r e s s i n g a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s (by, with, because of, etc).

There are m a n y "small w o r d s " in English such as up, down, by, away, etc. They can be used
as prepositions or a d v e r b s . A preposition m u s t have an o b j e c t (a noun or a p r o n o u n ) .
Prepositions are always f o l l o w e d b y a n o u n g r o u p :
A c r o s s the road; over the wall; d o w n the mountain.
An a d v e r b d o e s n ' t n e e d an o b j e c t , so it is m o r e closely r e l a t e d t o a v e r b :
D o n ' t g o near the fire! Stay away.
W e jumped back.

Prepositions Adverbs

He w e n t u p the stairs. I looked u p and saw an airplane.


B e f o r e the war he lived in Kiev. I've read this b o o k b e f o r e .
We'll g o there a f t e r dinner. I never saw him a f t e r .

S o m e prepositions consist of m o r e than o n e w o r d : in between, in front of, on top of, etc.


Many prepositions have more than one meaning and many express similar meanings.
N B ! Note that most prepositions in the Russian language d o n ' t coinside with those in English.

The table is a t the w i n d o w . .


The lessons begin a t 8 o ' c l o c k . 8.
He w o r k s a t a factory. .
They laughed a t him. .

. The b o o k is o n the table.


. looked a t me.
. I'm a n g r y w i t h him.
. I'm going t o the S o u t h .
. I lived in the N o r t h .
. I'm g o i n g t h e r e f o r t h r e e days.

6
2. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE
in f r o n t of (opposite) A car stopped in f r o n t o f the house.
// ( ) .
Please, go in f r o n t o f me.
, .
behind The boy was hiding behind a tree.
// .
There was an orchad b e h i n d the house.
.
Walk close b e h i n d me.
.
beside/next to/near t o / Sit b e s i d e me.
by/close by ( ).
/// The hotel is near t o the station.
.
My house is by the river.
.
under/underneath/below We passed u n d e r a bridge.
// .
I looked u n d e r n e a t h the bed.
.
It's 10 b e l o w zero.
10 .
The people in the rooms b e l o w are very noisy.
, ( ), .
over /above
1
There was light a b o v e / o v e r my head.
/ .
between 2
The Mediterranean Sea is b e t w e e n Europe and Africa.
(
) .
among 3
I saw him a m o n g the people (the crowd).
( , .
, )
round The shop is r o u n d the corner.
() .
inside Don't let the dog come inside the house.
// .
There is a woman waiting for you inside the cinema.
.
outside The telephone box is just o u t s i d e the bank.
/ , ()
.
below The temperature was five degrees b e l o w zero.
/ .

7
NOTES:
1. ^ A lamp w a s hanging o v e r t h e t a b l e .
O v e r ^ - T h e r e w a s o v e r a h u n d r e d p e o p l e at t h e m e e t i n g .
V 4
/ Chkalov w a s t h e first pilot t o fly o v e r t h e North Pole.
\ prefix "-" The b o y c l i m b e d o v e r t h e wall of t h e g a r d e n .
2 . W h e n b o u n d a r i e s are c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e m a y be m o r e t h a n t w o limits.
G e r m a n y lies b e t w e e n Poland, France, Switzerland a n d Austria.
3 . A m o n g is always followed by a plural noun.
I c o u n t y o u a m o n g m y friends.

EXERCISES

Ex. 1 . (A) Look at t h e pictures a n d c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s .

1. The box is t h e table.


2. The g a r d e n is t h e house.
3. The kite is the trees.
4. T h e r e is a p o n d t h e house.
5. The m a n is s t a n d i n g the window.
6. The w o m a n is sitting her c h i l d r e n .
7. The b o o k s h e l v e s are t h e pictures.
8. T h e r e is a nice little h o u s e t h e river.
9. The b a n k is t h e c i n e m a in t h e main street.
10. The child is sitting his f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r .
11. The t e a c h e r is s t a n d i n g his pupils.
12. The d o g ran the corner.

8
Ex. 2 . (A, B) Fill in the prepositions f r o m the right c o l u m n .

I
1. The boy w a s hiding a tree. over
2. She w o u l d like to live the sea. beside
3. There are s o m e t r e e s the house. behind
4. C o m e a n d sit me. below
5. W h e n the sun sets it g o e s the horison. in f r o n t of
6. W e w e r e flying the c l o u d s . among
7. I saw him the c r o w d . near t o
8. The Earth m o v e s the S u n . above
9. A servant held a large u m b r e l l a his m a s t e r ' s h e a d . round
10. It is c o n v e n i e n t living so the station. by

II
1. I c o u l d n ' t see w h o w a s g o i n g me. below
2. Skirts this y e a r reach just the knee. over
3. W e had a w o n d e r f u l d a y the sea. between
4. A p p l i c a n t s m u s t be the a g e of 2 1 . by
5. Switzerland lies France, Italy, Austria, and Germany. among
6. t h o s e present w e r e the Prime Minister, the Bishop in f r o n t of
of B a r c h e s t e r and M r s Proudie. round
7. Drake sailed the w o r l d . next to
8. She invited the n e w c o m e r t o sit her.

Ex. 3 . (A, B) Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , .
5. , ?
6. ? - , .
7. (sign) , ?
8. .
9. .
10. (bend) .
11. (referee) (fight) .
12. .
13. (wire) (ugly).
14. , .
15. , .
16. , .
17. , (keep) ,
.
18. (jewelry) (casket) .

9
2.1 PREPOSITION OF PLACE AT, IN, ON
PREPOSITIONS OF SPACE

a t the b u s - s t o p () -
a t the t a b l e / d o o r
a t the w i n d o w / b l a c k b o a r d
at the station/airport
at s c h o o l / c o l l e g e / t h e lesson
AT
at home/work
at the c i n e m a / r e s t a u r a n t
at the o f f i c e / p l a n t
a t 5, W e s t o n Road
a t M i k e ' s (house) -
in S p a i n / i n Europe , ,
in the S o u t h of France
in the p a r k / i n the c o u n t r y
IN in L o n d o n / i n York , ,
in a village
in a little b o x / i n the house -
o n the s o f a / g r a s s / p a g e 7 -
o n the t o p of the TV set
ON o n the A 3 4 road -
o n the north c o a s t ( r o a d , river,
o n the Volga railway, coastline)

at I had a hard d a y a t the office.


in I left m y c o a t in the office.
A T o r IN
at The University is a t 25, Booth Street.
in T h e y live in G a r d e n Lane.

P r e p o s i t i o n s a t , i n , o n are used in the following expressions:

AT
a t t h e t o p / b o t t o m of the p a g e - /
a t t h e e n d o f the street -
a t / o n t h e c o r n e r of the street -
a t t h e f r o n t / b a c k of a b u i l d i n g / h a l l / c i n e m a / g r o u p of people - / /
; / / . . .
at t h e traffic lights -
at t h e s e a s i d e -

IN
in a r o w / i n r o w f i v e - /
!But: o n t h e f r o n t / b a c k row - /
in a l i n e / q u e u e -
in a n a r m c h a i r -
! B u t : o n a c h a i r -
in a p h o t o g r a p h / p i c t u r e / m i r r o r - / /
in t h e s k y -
in t h e f r o n t / b a c k of a car - /
in b e d -
in h o s p i t a l -
in p r i s o n -
in t h e w a t e r / s e a / r i v e r - / /

ON
on t h e right/left (hand side) - /
o n t h e g r o u n d / f i r s t / s e c o n d . . . f l o o r - / . . .
o n a s m a l l i s l a n d -
o n t h e w a y t o . . . - ...
o n a f a r m -

o n t h e f r o n t / b a c k o f a letter/paper - / /

EXERCISES
Ex. 4 . (A, B) Put a t , i n , o n in t h e c o r r e c t position.

1. There is s o m e o n e the d o o r .
2. I sat d o w n the sofa.
3. T h e y live C o r o n a t i o n street number 32.
4. Meet me the b u s - s t o p the e n d of Bristol Road.
5. M y b o o k is the table the sitting r o o m .
6. When I was Spain it w a s terribly hot.
7. I've applied f o r a j o b the United Nation Geneva.
8. Oxford is the A 3 4 (road) b e t w e e n B e r m i n g h a m and L o n d o n .
9. There w a s a note the table. It w a s f r o m Elsie. She had s i g n e d her n a m e
the b o t t o m .
10. Hello. This is Doris. J i m Athens the A c r o p o l i s Hotel.
11. There is a g o o d film the c i n e m a .
12. It w a s very c o l d the c i n e m a .
13. I'll see y o u F r e d ' s house.
14. When we were the south w e stayed a small hotel
the c o a s t .
15. W e had a busy d a y the s h o p .
16. I had t o return as I had f o r g o t t e n t o switch off the light in the s h o p .
17. J a c k lives a flat Park street the third floor.
18. I had a seat the f r o n t row.

11
Ex. 5 . (A, B) Translate the prepositions in b r a c k e t s .

1. I'll m e e t y o u () airport.
2. T h e y ' v e sailed to the Pacific. T h e y are p r o b a b l y () the Pacific now.
3. W h e n I g o t o the c i n e m a I prefer to sit () the f r o n t row.
4. W h o is that w o m a n () that p h o t o g r a p h ?
5. W h o is m a n standing () the d o o r ?
6. D o n ' t sit () that armchair. It's b r o k e n . Sit () that chair.
7. P o r t s m o u t h is () the south c o a s t of England.
8. Our house is () the e n d of the street.
9. T h e r e ' s a report of the football m a t c h () page 7 of the n e w s p a p e r .
10. You'll find the s p o r t results () the b a c k page of the n e w s p a p e r .
11. Turn left () the traffic lights.
12. I w o u l d n ' t like an office j o b . I c o u l d n ' t s p e n d the w h o l e d a y sitting () a desk.
13. Bitterly tired he lay d o w n the s o f a his c o a t a n d fell asleep.

Ex. 6 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

1. .
2. ( ) .
3. .
4. , , .
5. .
6. , .
7. .
8. .
9. , .
10. .

3. PREPOSITIONS OF DIRECTION

to w e n t t o s c h o o l / t h e d o o r / t h e m e e t i n g .
// / / .

go t o America g o t o a party
fly t o M o s c o w be taken t o hospital
g o t o the b a n k return t o Italy
be sent t o prison drive t o the station
c o m e t o England g o t o the t h e a t r e
walk t o w o r k go t o bed

12
into D o n ' t wait outside! C o m e i n t o the house.
() He . .
out of I t o o k it o u t o f the water.
() .
toward(s) w a s walking slowly t o w a r d s the sea.
/ ( ) .
from travelled f r o m Rome t o London.
// .
j u m p e d f r o m the wall.
.
Bees g o f r o m flower t o flower.
.

off 1
to fall o f f a l a d d e r / a tree
(-) /
The ball rolled o f f the b e n c h .
.
g o t o f f the train.
.
onto/on to The a c t o r s t e p p e d o n t o the stage.
( ) .
She t r i p p e d on a r o c k and fell o n t o the g r o u n d .
.
past He w a l k e d p a s t the house and t u r n e d right.
.

NOTES:

yc/ The knife fell o f f the table.


OFF<
^ Cut a bit o f f the r o p e , it's t o o long.

3.1 MOVING IN SPACE


across I live a c r o s s the road/river.
// / .
() They w e n t a c r o s s the f i e l d / t h e ice.
/ .
over j u m p e d o v e r the wall.
(- ) .
through The road w e n t t h r o u g h a forest.
(, ) .

13
The cat c a m e t h r o u g h the w i n d o w .
.
along W e w e n t a l o n g the s t r e e t / t h e grass.
/ / .
There are t r e e s all a l o n g the r o a d .
.
up/down The elevator w a s m o v i n g noisily u p a n d d o w n .
/ .
(a)round, about We w e r e walking a r o u n d / a b o u t the t o w n .
, ( .
He's travelled a b o u t / a r o u n d the w o r l d .
) .

EXERCISES

Ex. 7 . (A) Y o u ' r e discussing with your friend the a r r a n g e m e n t of pictures on the wall of your
r o o m . Translate the prepositions in brackets.

I think y o u s h o u l d put the p h o t o of this a c t r e s s (1 ) the t w o flower pictures


and the a c t o r ' s p h o t o (2 ) it. (3 ) t h e m I'd place this beautiful
landscape a n d (4 ) t h e m this w o n d e r f u l s c e n e r y . The C a t h e d r a l and the view
of R o m e are s o m e h o w lost (5 ) all t h o s e bright pictures. Place t h e m (6 )
all the pictures. Now, t h a t ' s m u c h better.

Ex. 8 . (A) Fill in the g a p s with the prepositions f r o m the box.

o u t of to off across through o u t of past off up


past along down from into along under

1. Be c a r e f u l ! D o n ' t fall the stairs.


2. Please, take y o u r f e e t the chair.
3. W h y are y o u looking the w i n d o w ?
4. He e a r n e d m o n e y g o i n g town town.
5. I w a s walking the road with m y d o g .
6. The d o g s w a m the river.
7. The old road g o e s the village.
8. A man came house and g o t the cat.
9. They walked me without speaking.
10. A lot of English w o r d s c a m e Latin.
11. We walked the hill the house.
12. Go this r o a d , the c i n e m a , the b r i d g e , a n d the hospital is
y o u r left.

14
Ex. 9 . (A, B) S o m e b o d y asks y o u t h e w a y t o a place. You say w h i c h w a y t o g o . Look at the
picture a n d write s e n t e n c e s .

Ex. 1 0 . (A, B) Put in a preposition of d i r e c t i o n .

1. A b o o k fell t h e shelf.
2. I c a n ' t see it, hold t h e picture up t h e light.
3. A woman got t h e car.
4. The M o o n travels t h e Earth.
5. Fish c a n ' t live water.
6. She f a i n t e d a n d fell t h e floor.
7. H o w far is it here t h e airport?
8. He w a s sitting with his f e e t t h e fire.
9. We walked t h e c o r n e r a n d s a w t h e lost cat.
10. She w a s sitting with t h e b a c k t u r n e d the window.
11. Three m e n pulled t h e cart t h e ditch ().
12. You c a n ' t talk t o Mr. Green t o d a y . He is t o w n this w e e k .
13. I enjoy looking t h e w i n d o w a n d w a t c h t h e p e o p l e in t h e street.
14. The cat g o t the house the window.

15
Ex. 1 1 . (A, B) Translate the w o r d s in b r a c k e t s .

1) He t o o k his h a n d k e r c h i e f () his p o c k e t . 2) He t h r e w the letter () the fire. 3) I have to


return the b o o k () the library t o m o r r o w . 4 ) At 6 o ' c l o c k the taxi s t o p p e d () the d o o r , w e
got () it and w e n t () the station. 5) I l o o k e d () the w i n d o w and saw a little boy running
() the street. 6) He has just r e t u r n e d () his flight () the N o r t h . 7) He j u m p e d () the
river and s w a m a b o u t . 8) On m y w a y h o m e I walk ( ) y o u r office every day. 9) He
o p e n e d the d o o r and w e n t out () the street. 10) Italy has t o i m p o r t coal and oil () other
c o u n t r i e s . 11) I've received a letter () m y f r i e n d , he writes that he'll s o o n return () the
South.

Ex. 1 2 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

1. ?
2. , .
3. , .
4. ,
.
5. .
6. , (climb)
.
7. .
8. , (energy) ,
(push) .

Ex. 1 3 . ( B , C) Use the prepositions f r o m the box to c o m p l e t e the s e n t e c e s .

in past round in front of in


by on from in out of in

T W O LEGS I N O N E B O O T
It w a s late in the a f t e r n o o n . Inspector M a y h e w had an hour t o g o before he finished w o r k for
the day. He sat 1 his police car w a t c h i n g the traffic g o 2 . S u d d e n l y , he
sat up! A w o m a n in a blue c a r d r o v e slowly 3 a n d the inspector clearly s a w a pair of
m a n ' s legs sticking 4 the boot! Inspector M a y h e w i m m e d i a t e l y gave c h a s e . The
woman drove 5 the t o w n . The blue l a m p 6 t o p of the police car w a s
flashing, but the w o m a n paid no attention t o it. The inspector finally g o t 7 her and
m a d e her s t o p . " W h a t ' s the m a t t e r ? " the w o m a n a s k e d . " Y o u ' v e g o t a b o d y 8 the
boot!" the inspector said. There w a s a loud laugh 9 the boot. "But I'm alive," the voice
said. " I ' m a car m e c h a n i c a n d I'm trying t o find the c a u s e of a s t r a n g e noise 10 the
b a c k of this car."
(from "Longman Enqlish Grammar Practice", p. 107)

16
4. SOME PREPOSITIONS CONFUSED
BETWEEN A N D A M O N G
Between is used for t w o people or t h i n g s , among - for m o r e than t w o .
Between is also used w h e n the s p e a k e r sees the s u r r o u n d i n g o b j e c t s separatly, t h e r e are
not very m a n y of t h e m , a n d e a c h o n e is clearly distinct f r o m the other:
Switzerland lies between France, Italy, Austria and Germany.
W o r d s like divide and share are followed by between w h e n w e use several singular nouns:
He shared his property between his wife, his daughter and his sister.
I divide my time between teaching, writing and gardening.

EXERCISE

Ex. 1 4 . (A, B) S e l e c t the p r o p e r p r e p o s i t i o n .

The fleeing animal w a s s o o n lost ( b e t w e e n / a m o n g ) the t r e e s . 2. The t h r e e hikers c o u l d n ' t


divide their scanty () meal ( b e t w e e n / a m o n g ) t h e m . 3. " M a y misunderstanding never
c o m e ( b e t w e e n / a m o n g ) us," said the bride to her h u s b a n d . 4 . ( B e t w e e n / a m o n g ) the Indians
on the o n e h a n d , and starvation on the other, the early settlers had the bad t i m e of it. 5.
( B e t w e e n / a m o n g ) all the days of the days of the w e e k , I like S a t u r d a y best. 6. D o n ' t s m o k e
( b e t w e e n / a m o n g ) the courses.

BESIDE, BESIDES A N D EXCEPT


Beside m e a n s "alongside of, at the side of". Besides m e a n s "in addition t o " , or plus (+).
Except m e a n s "excluding", or minus (-).
Besides can also be an adverb and act in the s e n t e n c e as a parenthesis, w h i c h is separated
by c o m m a s :
I haven't the t i m e , and b e s i d e s , I a m not interested.
W e sat b e s i d e the water.
I haven't any other living relations b e s i d e s this cousin of mine.
T h e y are all relatives of mine e x c e p t Olivia.

EXCEPT A N D BESIDES
" " except
He d o e s n ' t k n o w any foreign language e x c e p t G e r m a n .

", " besides


He knows two foreign languages b e s i d e s G e r m a n .

EXERCISES

Ex. 1 5 . (A, B) Select the p r o p e r preposition f r o m the b r a c k e t s .

1. The d o g sat ( b e s i d e s / b e s i d e ) his master.


2. T h e y f o u n d n o b o d y in the house ( b e s i d e s / b e s i d e ) the caretaker.
3. (Besides/beside) the lake g r e w beautiful wild daffodils.
4. H o w m a n y people ( e x c e p t / b e s i d e s ) y o u are g o i n g t o the g a m e ?

17
5. M a y I sit ( b e s i d e s / b e s i d e ) y o u at the c o n s e r t ?
6. ( E x c e p t / b e s i d e s ) a bottle of brandy, w e d r a n k a bottle of c h a m p a g n e a n d s o m e beer.
7. I like all c o l o u r s ( e x c e p t / b e s i d e s ) grey.
8. Divide this ( a m o n g / b e t w e e n ) y o u both.
9. G e r m a n y lies ( a m o n g / b e t w e e n ) the f o u r countries.
10. I saw y o u ( a m o n g / b e t w e e n ) the c r o w d .
11. He g e t s up very early ( b e s i d e s / e x c e p t ) Sunday.
12. N o b o d y w a s late ( b e s i d e s / e x c e p t ) me.
13. Five o t h e r w e r e late ( b e s i d e s / e x c e p t ) m e .

14. M y t h i n g s w e r e e v e r y w h e r e ( b e s i d e s / e x c e p t ) w h e r e t h e y o u g h t t o be.

Ex. 1 6 . ( B , C) Fill in the blanks. Use beside or besides.


1. W h o ' s the pretty b l o n d e sitting Keith? 2. l a n g u a g e s , w e have to
study literature and history. 3. W h o w a s at the theatre A n n e and J o h n ? 4 . I d o n ' t
like this dress; , it's t o o expensive. 5. "Perhaps you'll be lucky this t i m e , " he said as
he settled himself her in the car. 6. It's t o o late t o g o out, and , you
haven't d o n e y o u r w o r k . 7. the a p p l e - t r e e w e ' v e g o t a f e w very tall p e a r - t r e e s in
our g a r d e n . 8. I d o n ' t feel like g o i n g any w h e r e . , it's starting t o rain. 9. D o n ' t
stand that wall - it d o e s n ' t look safe. 10. I d o n ' t like h i m ; he is c a r e l e s s and lazy,
and he is impatient.

Ex. 1 7 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

1. , .
2. , .
3. , , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , .

ACROSS, O V E R , T H R O U G H
f o r large areas
T h e y are laying a pipeline a c r o s s Siberia (the d e s e r t ) .
Across
m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h water
She s w a m a c r o s s the Channel.
for v e r b s like "wander" (here a n d t h e r e )
W e w a n d e r e d o v e r the c o u n t r y s i d e (over the w o r l d ) .
Over
for the o b s t a c l e s like a wall/a fence
He j u m p e d o v e r the low f e n c e .

A c r o s s and o v e r both m e a n " f r o m o n e side t o the other":


M y house is a c r o s s / o v e r the r o a d .

18
refers to s m t h like a tunnel
Through
< through a pipe
s m t h dense
t h r o u g h a forest
N B ! With n o u n s like "park" w e can use either across or through.

EXERCISES

Ex. 1 8 . (A, B) S u p p l y suitable preposition: across, over, through.

1. There w a s a small s h o p the r o a d .


2. The G r e e n p e a c e is against a pipeline Alaska.
3. The river is t o o b r o a d , y o u c a n ' t s w i m it.
4. W e ran the field.
5. The pipe is c l o g g e d , nothing can f l o w it.
6. On m y w a y to the office I w a l k e d the park every day.
7. Will y o u row m e the lake?
8. The river T h a m e s f l o w s London.
9. While thinking it over he d r a w a line the sheet of paper.
10. He has traveled Europe.
11. He w a s looking a telescope.
12. She s p o k e t o m e her shoulder.
13. She p a s s e d a c o m b her hair.
14. There is a new b r i d g e the river.
15. The road g o e s the forest.
16. I looked the h e d g e but saw n o b o d y .
17. He is f a m o u s all the w o r l d .

IN A N D INTO
In is used only w h e n no c h a n g e f r o m outside to inside is meant.
I n t o m u s t be used w h e n an area or a s u b s t a n c e is p e n e t r a t e d .
F o r b i d d e n t o leave the p r e m i s e s , he s p e n t his t i m e walking in his g a r d e n .
He w a l k e d right into the r o o m w i t h o u t k n o c k i n g .
N B ! W h e n the a r e a / s u b s t a n c e is not m e n t i o n e d , w e use t h e a d v e r b i n : Walk right in!

EXERCISE

Ex. 1 9 . (A, B, C) Select the p r o p e r w o r d f r o m the t w o in b r a c k e t s .

1. Most people cannot help dropping something (in/into) a blind man's cup. 2. He drove the nail
(in/into) the wall as high as he could reach. 3. Someone carelessly dropped a lighted cigarette (in/
into) a pile of rubbish. 4. He thrust a pipe (in/into) his mouth and began to fill it. 5. After searching
all over the house, they found him walking (in/into) the garden. 6. Something soft and slippery fell
(in/into) her lap. 7. He drove from France (in/into) Italy. 8. How did he get (in/into)? 9. I divided the
loaf (in/into) five parts. 10. "Let me (in/into)," he cried, and forced the door by main strength.

19
5. REVISION
EXERCISES

Ex. 2 0 . Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

I (A)
I . . 2. . 3. . 4 .
. 5. . 6. ,
. 7. , . 8. .
9. . 10. .
I I . . 12. . 13. ,
. 14. . 15. .

II ( B , C)
1. , . 2.
, , . 3.
. 4 . , ,
. 5. , . 6.
, . 7.
. 8. . 9. ,
, . 10.
. 1 1 . . 12.
(spoil) , , . 13.
. , . 14.
, 2 5 .

6. PREPOSITIONS WITH FORMS OF TRANSPORT

T y p e s of vehicles or t r a n s p o r t w e Physical position of the p e r s o n


use t o travel (what t r a n s p o r t he is in/on)
by car/by bus/by bicycle - by road in t h e c a r / i n a v a n / i n a t a x i / i n a l o r r y
by boat/by ship - by sea on the bus/on m y bicycle/on a big ship/
by t r a i n - b y rail on a liner/on a ferry
by plane - by air on the train/on the 6.45 train
on the plane/on a jet

N B ! On foot ( ) f o r c a r s a n d taxis
(on) for bicycles a n d public t r a n s p o r t

G e t i n ( t o ) / g e t o u t o f a car/taxi - / / .
Get o n / g e t off a b i c y c l e / b u s / t r a i n / p l a n e - / //
/.

20
He g o t i n t o the c a r a n d drove off.
He j u m p e d o n t o the old bus, w h i c h w a s e m p t y .
M r W a r d g o t i n t o his lorry.
She w a s carried o u t o f the a m b u l a n c e .
The c a r w a s traveling a t 5 0 km an hour w h e n the a c c i d e n t h a p p e n e d .

EXERCISES

Ex. 2 1 . (A, B) C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s with the prepositions f r o m the box.

by in on at

1. Do y o u like traveling train?


2. J a n e usually g o e s t o w o r k bike or foot.
3. The plane is flying 6 0 0 miles an hour.
4. H o w long d o e s it take f r o m N e w Y o r k t o Los A n g e l e s plane?
5. Get the train! Quick! It's r e a d y t o leave.
6. W e traveled f r o m Paris t o M o s c o w train.
7. I d i d n ' t use m y car very o f t e n . I prefer to g o m y bike.
8. I saw J a n e this m o r n i n g . She w a s a bus w h i c h p a s s e d me.
9. I d i d n ' t feel like w a l k i n g , so I c a m e h o m e a taxi.
10. At last the bus arrived and I g o t the bus.
11. I have to g e t the train at the next s t o p .
12. Let m e help y o u t o get y o u r t h i n g s the car.

Ex. 2 2 . ( B , C) Put in the c o r r e c t prepositions.

1. Since I b r o k e m y leg I have t o travel bus b e c a u s e I c a n ' t g e t the


car.
2. W e w e n t f o r a trip up the Nile a big boat called Felucca.
3. It t a k e s a b o u t half an hour t o g e t h o m e m y bike and a b o u t t w e n t y minutes
the bus.
4. I have o f t e n traveled plane but I've never b e e n Concorde.
5. The m o s t c o m f o r t a b l e w a y of traveling is luxury liner. I'd love t o s p e n d a
holiday a luxury liner.
6. This plane flies supersonic speed.
7. The bus w a s so c r o w d e d that I c o u l d hardly g e t it.
8. I f o l l o w e d t h e m m y car and s a w that t h e y j u m p e d the bus and
run into the nearest cafe.
9. He w e n t plane, the last thing he w a n t e d w a s to s p e n d ten days a
boat.
10. The p a s s e n g e r s the plane w e r e beginning to panic.
1 1 . M r Bixby s t e p p e d the train a n d w a l k e d quickly t o the exit.
12. W e d r o v e t o the airport a taxi.

21
7. THE PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
A T is used for:

1. exact t i m e at 10 o ' c l o c k ; a t half past t w o ; ( a t ) w h a t time...?


2. meal times at lunch; a t dinner
3. points of time at night; a t dawn
4. festivals at C h r i s t m a s ; a t Easter ( b u t ! O n Christmas D a y )
5. age at the a g e of 14
6. moment/time at the m o m e n t / a t p r e s e n t / a t t h i s / t h a t t i m e
7. beginning/end at the s a m e t i m e / a t the w e e k - e n d
at the end of the m o n t h / m a t c h / f i l m / J a n u a r y
at the beginning of the g a m e

O N is used for:

1. d a y s of the w e e k on Monday(s); o n Sunday


2. parts of the day on M o n d a y morning; o n Sunday afternoons
3. dates on July 1 ; o n the 3 of M a r c h
s t d

4. anniversaries on y o u r birthday
5. festivals on N e w Y e a r ' s Day
6. particular on that d a y
occasions

IN is used for:

1. parts of the day in the evening/in the afternoon ( b u t ! O n M o n d a y m o r n i n g )


2. months in May
3. years in 2050
4. seasons in (the) spring
5. centuries in the 2 0 c e n t u r y
t h

6. periods in t w o y e a r ' s t i m e ; in a f e w minutes; in the end

NOTES:

We d o n o t use a t / o n / i n before:
t h i s - this m o r n i n g / t h i s w e e k / t h i s M o n d a y
l a s t - last A u g u s t / l a s t w e e k / l a s t Christmas
n e x t - next T u e s d a y / n e x t year
e v e r y - every d a y / e v e r y w e e k
Are y o u g o i n g out t h i s S a t u r d a y ?
The g a r d e n w a s lovely t h i s s p r i n g .
W e are g o i n g on v o c a t i o n n e x t w e e k .

22
EXERCISES

Ex. 2 3 . (A) C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s with the p r e p o s i t i o n s of t i m e .

1. I start w o r k 8 o ' c l o c k . 2. I'm g o i n g on holiday O c t o b e r . 3. W h e r e


will y o u be C h r i s t m a s ? 4 . Are y o u busy the m o m e n t ? 5. I always feel
tired the e v e n i n g . 6. G o o d b y e ! I'll see y o u a f e w d a y s . 7. W e are
g o i n g t o the c o u n t r y the w e e k e n d . 8. I d o n ' t w o r k S a t u r d a y s . 9. I
d i d n ' t sleep well last night, s o m e b o d y called midnight. 10. I left s c h o o l
1994 a n d e n t e r e d the University the 1 of S e p t e m b e r 1995. 1 1 . Are y o u d o i n g
s t

anything S a t u r d a y evening? 12. W e m e t lunch Monday and I


haven't seen him since. 13. In Russia children g o t o s c h o o l the a g e of s e v e n . 14.
The C h r i s t m a s holidays start the e n d of January. 15. that d a y n o b o d y
w o r k e d at the office. 16. W e m e t the spring of 1945. 17. I'll be b a c k
a f e w m i n u t e s . 18. W e live the 2 1 c e n t u r y . 19. I'm m e e t i n g Jill
s t

Monday morning.

Ex. 2 4 . (A, B) Put in prepositions of t i m e if necessary.

1. I d o n ' t w o r k M o n d a y s , but last M o n d a y I had to w o r k , w e ' r e full


the e n d of the m o n t h . 2. I'm leaving Friday, I g o t o m y c o u n t r y house
every other Friday. 3. Will y o u be at h o m e this evening? - I'm afraid not,
let's m e e t the a f t e r n o o n . 4 . W e usually g o to France s u m m e r , but it has
b e c o m e so c r o w d e d there that w e d e c i d e d to g o t o Spain this s u m m e r . 5. I d o n ' t
often g o out night, but this night is a special o n e , m y son is g e t t i n g
m a r r i e d . 6. I p h o n e Robert every S u n d a y , t h a t ' s the first t i m e I d i d n ' t m a n a g e it
Sunday.

Ex. 2 5 . Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

I (A, B)
1. 15 . 2.
. 3. , . 4 .
. (last) . 5. .
, , . 6. 14 ,
- (go out) . 7.
, . 8. , -
. 9. ,
. 10. !
. 1 1 . . 12.
.

II ( B , C)
1. . , 6 . 2.
. . 3. 17 , 1967, 15

23
. 4 . 10 , ? 5.
, . 6. ,
, 6 ? 7.
? - , . .
8. . ,
. 9. .
. 10. .

7.1 PREPOSITIONS FOR, DURING, WHILE


1. I For + p e r i o d o f t i m e | f o r six d a y s ; f o r t h r e e h o u r s ; f o r a w e e k ; f o r a g e s
I've lived in this house f o r t w e n t y y e a r s .
We w a t c h e d the g a m e f o r t w o h o u r s .
Are y o u g o i n g away f o r t h e w e e k e n d ?
I haven't seen y o u f o r a g e s .
2. during + noun during the war; during the film
We m e t a lot of interesting people d u r i n g t h e h o l i d a y .
It m u s t have been raining ^ d u r i n g t h e n i g h t .
3. | while + subject + predicate | while he w a s e a t i n g / w e w e r e w o r k i n g
I fell asleep w h i l e I w a s w a t c h i n g TV.
W e s a w Ann w h i l e w e w e r e w a i t i n g for the bus.

NOTES:

during + noun while + subject + predicate

We s w a m a lot d u r i n g o u r h o l i d a y s . W e s w a m a lot w h i l e w e w e r e on holiday.


I fell asleep d u r i n g t h e f i l m . I fell asleep w h i l e I w a s w a t c h i n g the film.

7.2 PREPOSITIONS BEFORE, TILL/UNTIL, BY


1 . b e f o r e - , ;
t w o days b e f o r e C h r i s t m a s
b e f o r e the war/revolution
b e f o r e Christ () -
T h e y arrived b e f o r e holidays.
.
2 . t i l l / u n t i l - ,
: , ; , ;
Let's wait t i l l the rain s t o p s .
, .
I'll wait u n t i l ten o'clock.
10 .

24
U n t i l then I had known nothing a b o u t it.
.
till n o w -
t i l l t h e n -
U n t i l .
3 . u n d e r -
children u n d e r sixteen - 16
4 . f r o m . . . t o - ...
f r o m Romul t o our time
.
5 . b y -
b y t h e t i m e s m t h h a p p e n s - ,
You should have received m y letter b y M o n d a y .
.
B y t h e t i m e I f i n i s h e d , I w a s very t i r e d .
, , .

7.3 PREPOSITIONS SINCE, FROM, IN TIME/ON TIME


, (- )

since .
Perfect T e n s e s . (see "English G r a m m a r " , p. 4 2 )
I've b e e n w o r k i n g s i n c e 12 o ' c l o c k .
12 ( ) .
I haven't seen him s i n c e M o n d a y .
.

from ,
.
w o r k s f r o m eight till four. T o m o r r o w he'll w o r k f r o m t e n .
, .
studied English f r o m the a g e of five.
.

F r o m :
f r o m t h e r e -
f r o m here -
f r o m n o w h e r e -
f r o m t h e n -
f r o m n o w - ,

from:
f r o m ( t h e ) b e g i n n i n g t o ( t h e ) e n d -
f r o m d a y t o d a y -

25
f r o m m o r n i n g t i l l n i g h t -
f r o m t i m e t o t i m e -

S i n c e , ; /:
I haven't seen him s i n c e he returned f r o m Kiev.
, .
S i n c e y o u are busy I'll d o the w o r k .
, .

On time In t i m e
,
( ) ( ; , )

The train left o n t i m e Will y o u be h o m e in t i m e f o r dinner?


(according t o the s c h e d u l e ) . ?
(
).
I'll m e e t y o u at 7.30. Please, be t h e r e I w a n t to g e t h o m e in t i m e t o see the
on time. football match.
7.30. ,
( ) . ( ,
...).

EXERCISES

Ex. 2 6 . (A) C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s with the prepositions f r o m the box.

for, d u r i n g , while

1. Ron is g o i n g away t w o w e e k s in s u m m e r .
2. I'll call y o u s o m e t i m e the day.
3. M y h u s b a n d usually reads I w a t c h TV.
4. I'm g o i n g to France next w e e k . I h o p e t o visit Paris I'm t h e r e .
5. I've b e e n waiting f o r y o u half an hour. W h a t have y o u b e e n d o i n g ?
6. w e w e r e in N e w Y o r k w e stayed at the Hilton.
7. our stay in L o n d o n w e visited a lot of m u s e u m s .
8. I w a s running high t e m p e r a t u r e t h r e e days.
9. T o m and Ann usually g o out on Saturday, t h e y never g o out the w e e k .
10. Please d o n ' t s p e a k t o m e I'm r e a d i n g .
11. W e played tennis t w o hours.
12. We didn't speak w e w e r e eating.
13. M y g r a n d m o t h e r o f t e n falls asleep the film.
14. I've b e e n living in G e r m a n y a year.

26
Ex. 2 7 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

1. , .
2. .
3. ,
.
4. .
5. , Wall Street Institutes
.
6. , , .
7. ?
8. - , . ?
9. .
10. , , .
11. .
12. . , .
13. , .
14. .

Ex. 2 8 . (A, B) Put in p r e p o s i t i o n s before, till/until, by.

1. He w o r k s f r o m m o r n i n g night d a y after day.


2. Everybody is nervous exams.
3. I w a s tired this m o r n i n g , so I s t a y e d in b e d half past t e n .
4. W e ' d b e t t e r hurry. W e have to be at h o m e 5 o'clock.
5. He lived at h o m e his f a t h e r ' s d e a t h .
6. I always have breakfast g o i n g to w o r k .
7. T o m ' l l be away Monday.
8. I've p o s t e d t h e letter t o d a y , so I t h i n k t h e y ' d receive it Monday.
9. I'll wait 10 o ' c l o c k . I have very little t i m e t o spare.
10. g o i n g t o sleep I read a f e w p a g e s of m y b o o k .
11. The film w a s very b o r i n g , w e left the end.
12. n o w I k n e w nothing a b o u t it.
13. W h e r e is A n n ? She s h o u l d be here now.
14. I'll live in a hotel I rent an a p p a r t m e n t .

Ex. 2 9 . ( B , C) Translate t h e prepositions in b r a c k e t s .

1. Y o u r n a m e c o m e s ( ) mine o n t h e list.
2. D o n ' t wait for m e . I'll be w o r k i n g () 10 o'clock. S o I hope I'll finish this w o r k () Friday.
3. I'm g o i n g to ask y o u a q u e s t i o n . Think carefully () answering it.
4. W e d o n ' t e x p e c t t h e d i r e c t o r () t h e e n d of t h e w e e k .
5. If w e leave n o w we'll be at y o u r m o t h e r ' s () 12 o ' c l o c k . J u s t in t i m e for lunch.
6. Tell m e () Friday w h e t h e r or not y o u c a n c o m e to the party.
7. Let's have a c u p of c o f f e e () g o i n g out.
8. () going to a foreign country, it's a g o o d idea to learn a few w o r d s of the language.

27
9. Let's wait () arrival of the post a n d t h e n call t h e m .

10. I h o p e to finish this w o r k () the e n d of the m o n t h .

Ex. 3 0 . (A, B) Translate the preposition in brackets.

1. She hasn't b e e n h o m e () her marriage.


2. W h e r e have y o u been () our last m e e t i n g ?
3. I've b e e n w o r k i n g f o r the c o m p a n y () 1996 to now.
4. I've been waiting here () 5 o ' c l o c k .
5. (C) O c t o b e r the w e a t h e r has b e e n awful.
6. He said he had b e e n waiting for y o u () five to seven p.m. You had never c o m e .
7. M y y o u n g e r b o y has b e e n using c o m p u t e r () the a g e of four.
8. He has been here () M o n d a y .
9. The library is o p e n () 9 a . m . t o 8 p.m.
10. Richard has been in C a n a d a () January.
11. It usually rains here () N o v e m b e r to February.
Ex. 3 1 . ( B , C) C o m p l e t e the s e n c e n c e s with in time/on time.

1. It's a very g o o d train service here. The trains always run .


2. Our car is being r e p a i r e d . I h o p e it's ready f o r our holiday.
3. I usually g e t up t o w a s h m y hair and m a k e up.
4. M y friend is sick, I h o p e he'll be fit t o g o hiking.
5. Our d e a n is very p u n c t u a l , our m e e t i n g s always begin .
6. I'm having m y evening f r o c k d r y - c l e a n e d , t h e y said it'll be ready for m e to
w e a r it this evening.
7. D o n ' t w o r k yourself up, the play'll begin .
8. I nearly sat d o w n on a painted b e n c h , he s t o p p e d m e just .
9. Father is always very angry with me when I'm not for dinner. He likes everything
to be .

REVISION

Ex. 3 2 . ( B , C) C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s with suitable prepositions.

1. The t e m p e r a t u r e the S o u t h Pole w i n t e r is usually 50


degrees zero.
2. M o n a Lisa, w h i c h is the Louvre Paris, w a s paited well
400 years ago.
3. The O d e o n is directly the bus station, a f e w m e t e r s the s q u a r e .
If y o u ' r e a p p r o a c h i n g it west, turn the left w h e n y o u see the
university y o u r right.
4. "Try t o arrive time the f u t u r e , " he said t o m e in a wisper.
5. G comes F the a l p h a b e t , a n d H.

28
6. He w a s w o r k i n g at the painting five w e e k s the s p r i n g .
7. He w a s busy making notes a pencil a b o o k w h i c h lay
him.
8. The news had b e e n b r o u g h t w e s t people w h o k n e w his f a t h e r a n d brother.
9. P e g g o t y a n d I w e r e sitting that night the parlour () fire alone. I had
been reading her crocodiles.
10. the first of A u g u s t he arrived Moscow and was met
the station his wife a n d d a u g h t e r s .
11. Our train s t o p p e d five m i n u t e s a small station.
12. I was awakened a loud noise a street a n d looking
the w i n d o w I saw a m a n k n o c k i n g the g a t e a stick.
13. He w a s b o r n 1930, I think May, 3.
14. He o p e n e d the b o o k c a s e his writing table a n d t o o k several b o o k s it.
15. I e x p e c t t o get an a n s w e r him a f e w days.

Ex. 3 3 . Put in suitable prepositions. S o m e can be used m o r e than o n c e ; m o r e than one


answer is possible in s o m e cases.

across along by down for


into outside over past round
through to towards under until

Let m e tell y o u h o w to g e t (1) o u r place. Are y o u c o m i n g (2) car? OK.


You drive (3) the A 1 7 3 4 (4) B l a c k s t o n e (5) a b o u t twelve
miles; g o (6) the first t u r n t o S t r o o p , take the s e c o n d t u r n , and t h e n g o straight
(8) the c r o s s r o a d s , (9) a petrol station take the next right a n d drive
(10) the park. On the o t h e r side of the park, g o (11) the canal b r i d g e ,
(12) t h e hill, t u r n left (13) the M a r k e t S q u a r e , k e e p straight on
(14) the railway bridge and you'll c o m e (15) Miller Street. It's probably
best to park there, b e c a u s e there isn't usually a s p a c e (16) our house. W e ' r e just
(17) the c o r n e r f r o m the p o s t - o f f i c e - 3 7 J a c k Lane.
(from "The New Cambridge English Course")

29
8. PREPOSITIONS EXPRESSING ABSTRACT RELATIONS
8.1 PREPOSITIONS BY, WITH
B y - refers to m e t h o d , m e a n s or a g e n t
W i t h - indicates tools or instruments

This c h u r c h w a s d e s i g n e d b y W r e n .
He m a k e s a living b y t e a c h i n g .
The car w a s b r o k e n b y a fallen tree.
I c a n ' t c u t it w i t h this knife, it's dull.
I s a w it w i t h m y o w n eyes.

EXERCISE

Ex. 3 4 . (A, B) Fill in the blanks with by or with.

1. M y letter w a s answered the secretary, not the boss himself. 2. The bridge was
built soldiers during the war. 3. He t o o k m y hand his both hands and
s h o o k it. 4 . This information is given a m a c h i n e , it should be c h e c k e d .
5. S h e ' s hurt her a r m scissors. 6. The w o o d w a s wet, I c o u l d n ' t burn it a
m a t c h . 7. The story told him s e e m e d to be true. 8. She t h o u g h t that the medicine
prescribed the d o c t o r w a s sure to help. 9. They said that the old picture in my
g r a n d m o t h e r ' s b e d r o o m was painted a f a m o u s painter. 10. It was so difficult for her
to walk c r u t c h e s . 1 1 . W h e n they played c h e s s she loved to play white
pieces. 12. He rubbed the mirror his sleeve and saw the face he couldn't recognize.

8.2 AS AND LIKE


L i k e is used t o c o m p a r e things. It can also m e a n " s u c h as" or "similar t o " :
There is no o n e like J o h n .
W e d o n ' t invite p e o p l e like Frosts.
It w a s l i k e a d r e a m .
A s m e a n s in the role of, in the c a p a c i t y of:
I w o r k a s a receptionist.
He a c t e d a s usher at his b r o t h e r ' s w e d d i n g .

EXERCISES

Ex. 3 5 . (A, B) Select the p r o p e r preposition f r o m the t w o in b r a c k e t s .

1. They w o r k e d (as/like) beavers ( ) to finish the cabin on t i m e . 2. S t o p that nonsense!


You are a c t i n g (as/like) a baby. 3. The m a n a g e r hired him to act (as/like) a fool in o n e of
S h a k e s p e a r e ' s plays. 4 . The w a t e r felt (as/like) ice t o her t e n d e r skin. 5. I feel (as/like) a

30
fool, having all this f u s s m a d e over m e . 6. (As/Like) a nurse I c a n ' t a p p r o v e of y o u r decision
to leave hospital so s o o n , but (as/like) a m o t h e r I u n d e r s t a n d y o u perfectly.

Ex. 3 6 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

1. , .
2. .
3. .
4. , , .
5. , , .
6. , .
7. ?
8. !
9. , .
10. .
11. , .
12. , .
13. , , .
14. .

8.3 ABOUT, ON
We can use about and o n to m e a n " c o n c e r n i n g " .
O n in a f o r m a l way, for e x a m p l e , t o d e s c r i b e a t e x t b o o k :
a t e x t b o o k o n physics
A b o u t is informal:
a b o o k about animals

EXERCISE

Ex. 3 7 . (A, B, C) On or about?

1. I've read a lot of b o o k s ( o n / a b o u t ) animals.


2. Read this article ( o n / a b o u t ) the Antarctic.
3. At h o m e he often t h o u g h t ( o n / a b o u t ) his family but at his w o r k he w a s s u p p o s e d to
dwell ( o n / a b o u t ) other subjects.
4. He w a s the leader of the party, he reflected ( o n / a b o u t ) the f u t u r e of the c o u n t r y .
5. I know very little ( o n / a b o u t ) plants.
6. Our professor delivered a lecture ( o n / a b o u t ) the m o r p h o l o g y ( ) of plants.
7. V. Bianki w r o t e a lot of b o o k s ( o n / a b o u t ) animals.
8. At that time Darvin's treatise () ( o n / a b o u t ) animals w a s a new step in science.

31
9. COMPOSITE PREPOSITIONS

according to (- A c c o r d i n g t o the s c h e d u l e the s t e a m e r


) arrives at 7 o ' c l o c k on M o n d a y .
in a c c o r d a n c e He a c t e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h our
with instructions.
as c o m p a r e d The o u t p u t has greatly increased as
with c o m p a r e d w i t h the last year.
as f a r as ( ) I'll g o with y o u a s f a r a s the station.
as t o / a s f o r A s t o ( a s f o r ) our plans we'll s p e a k a b o u t
t h e m later.
because of - We d i d n ' t g o t h e r e b e c a u s e o f the rain.
by means of It can be d o n e b y m e a n s o f heat treatment.
due to; owing -; He achieved these results d u e t o hard work.
to
We c o u l d n ' t g e t t h e r e o w i n g t o the s t o r m .
thanks T h a n k s t o his help w e could finish the w o r k
in time.
except for ; Y o u r e s s a y is g o o d e x c e p t f o r a few
mistakes.
in s p i t e o f We finished the w o r k in t i m e i n s p i t e o f all
the difficulties.
instead of We bought a new car i n s t e a d o f the old one.
irrespective of In US every person can study at a University
i r r e s p e c t i v e o f age.

EXERCISE

Ex. 3 8 . Use the prepositions f r o m the table above to c o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s .

1. O u r s u c c e s s w a s luck. 2. t h e Bible, G o d c r e a t e d t h e W o r l d in six


d a y s . 3. y o u , I never w a n t t o see y o u a g a i n . 4 . W e f o l l o w e d t h e m the
river a n d s t o p p e d , w e had no boat. 5. T h e y w e n t o u t t h e rain. 6. Shall w e have
fish m e a t ? 7. T h e f l i g h t s w e r e c a n c e l l e d t h e strike. 8. W e w e r e late
heavy traffic on the r o a d . 9. The b o o k s are placed on the shelves
a u t h o r s . 10. this p r o b l e m , I'll deal with it on M o n d a y . 1 1 . " your
w i s h e s , Sir, w e ' v e s e n t t h e f l o w e r s t o this a d d r e s s . " 12. H e ' s lost his j o b bad
health. 13. If y o u d o n ' t feel like it, I'll g o t h e r e y o u . 14. all his e f f o r t s
he failed.

32
10. REVISION
EXERCISES

Ex. 3 9 . ( B , C ) S u p p l y the p r o p e r preposition f r o m the box.

b e t w e e n , a m o n g , in, into, as, like, at, by, w i t h , besides, beside, e x c e p t

1. The thief d r o p p e d the w a t c h his p o c k e t a n d ran. 2. I left him standing


the w r e c k of his car. 3. I a c t e d c h a i r m a n at the m e e t i n g of our
club y e s t e r d a y . 4 . As s o o n as he s a w the child fall the water, he j u m p e d after
her. 5. C o m e early; t h e r e will be n o b o d y h o m e m y b r o t h e r and m e . 6. There
w e r e t w o people the station m e . 7. " L e t ' s g o that
store first," he s u g g e s t e d to his f r i e n d . 8. " M y t h e o r y is," he c o n t i n u e d , "that the letters
w e r e put the w r o n g envelopes." 9. He stayed his a u n t ' s during the
w h o l e of his c h i l d h o o d . 10. Even the b a n k e r s of Wall Street t h e r e are very f e w
w h o w o u l d not o b e y s u c h a law. 1 1 . As w e p r o c e e d e d to c r o s s the avenue, w e realized that
a t r e m e n d o u s n u m b e r of soldiers w e r e stationed that very spot. 12.
the intersection of Broadway and Fifty-Nineth Street there w a s a huge traffic j a m . 13. He had
a very large box of c a n d y him on the table. 14. Y e s t e r d a y he c a m e to see his
little niece a n d b r o u g h t a p r e t t y p u p p y him. 15. " L o o k , " he said, pulling up a
chair the b e d . 16. She paused on the pavement, feeling the envelope
her fingers. 17. She t o o k o n e puff a n d laid the cigarette the ash-tray. 18. I saw
something lying the b e n c h . 19. She w a s standing laughing a crowd
of her a d m i r e r s . 2 0 . W h a t ' s the d i f f e r e n c e a c r o w a n d a rook? 2 1 . I have a
n u m b e r of p o e t s a n d a c t o r s m y friends. 2 2 . She w e n t to the party d r e s s e d
a bunny (). 23. It's funny how she always talks a distinguished
professor! 24. A m a n w h o w a s t e s m o n e y is k n o w n a spendthrift. 2 5 . Their
house is the M o s q u e , the r o a d s i d e . 2 6 . T h e y travelled t h r o u g h all
parts of Great Britain Ulster. 2 7 . I like w a n d e r i n g the w o o d s all by
myself. 2 8 . The tall c a s t l e t h e y had built t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e had a l r e a d y
d i s a p p e a r e d . 29. He knelt her, p u s h i n g away the s a n d .

Ex. 4 0 . ( B , C) Translate into Russian using the p r o p e r prepositions.

1. . 2. .
3. , . 4 .
; . 5.
. 6. . 7. , ,
. 8.
. 9. ( c h o p p e d ) .
10. (latitudes) ,
(take r e f u g e ) . 1 1 . . 12.
. 13. , . 14.
. 15.
, . 16. ( r e a c h e d )

33
. 17. . 18. ,
. 19. , , ,
. 20. ? 2 1 . , ,
.

Ex. 4 1 . ( B , C) Dictation-translation.

1. . 2. . 3.
. 4 . , ! 5.
. 6. , , !
7. (supplies) . 8. ,
. 9. , , . 10.
. 1 1 . ! 12.
. 13. . 14.
. 15. .

11. THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS IN SET EXPRESSIONS


ABOUT t o b e a b o u t - -
t o b r i n g a b o u t - -
a b o v e all - ,
ABOVE a b o v e m e a s u r e -
a b o v e s u s p i s i o n -
AFTER a f t e r a l l -
t h e d a y a f t e r t o m o r r o w -
l o n g / s o o n a f t e r - /
n a m e a f t e r s m b - -
ALONG c o m e a l o n g - ()
g e t a l o n g -
all a l o n g -
AT at t h e a g e o f -
n o t a t all -
a t all c o s t s -
a t d i n n e r / l u n c h / t e a - / . . .
a t t h e e x p e n s e o f - -
a t t h e e n d -
a t f i r s t -
at o n c e -
a t a n y r a t e -
a t a t i m e -
at a s p e e d of -
a t t h i s / t h a t / t h e s a m e t i m e - / /

34
at s o m e b o d y ' s d i s p o s a l / s e r v i c e - -, -

at h o m e -
BEFORE t h e d a y b e f o r e ( y e s t e r d a y ) - ()
l o n g b e f o r e -
BEHIND b e b e h i n d t i m e -
b e h i n d o n e ' s b a c k - -
b e b e h i n d s m b - -
BY b y a c c i d e n t / c h a n c e -
b y h e a r t -
b y l a n d / s e a / a i r - / /
by m e a n s of -
b y n o m e a n s -
by t h e w a y -
s t e p b y s t e p -
by retail -
s i x b y e i g h t m e t e r s - 6 8
b y s i x m e t e r s - 6 ( / )

DOWN u p a n d d o w n - ;
d o w n t o -
u p s i d e d o w n -
FOR f o r e v e r / g o o d -
f o r e x a m p l e / i n s t a n c e -
f o r a g e s -
f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g -
t o g o f o r a w a l k -
IN in a n y c a s e -
in c o n c l u s i o n -
in t h e d i r e c t i o n o f -
in e x c h a n g e -
in f a c t -
in g e n e r a l -
in t h e m e a n t i m e -
in p a r t -
in ink/pencil - /
in R u s s i a n / E n g l i s h - /
in s i g h t -
in s t o c k - /
in r e t u r n -
ON on the average -
on b u s i n e s s - /
on b o a r d -
on c o n d i t i o n t h a t - ,

35
o n t h e c o n t r a r y -
o n d e m a n d -
on t h e o n e / o t h e r h a n d - /
o n t h e p a r t o f - -
on p u r p o s e -
o n sale -
on the whole -
a n d s o o n -
l a t e r o n -
b e o n - ( , )

OUT OF out of d a t e -
out of d o o r s - /
out of n e c e s s i t y -
out of p i t y -
out of o r d e r -
out of u s e -

TO to m y d i s a p p o i n t m e n t / s o r r o w / j o y - / /
to t h e e n d -
to t h e r i g h t / l e f t - /
to a n d f r o - -
to t h e N o r t h / S o u t h - /
UNDER be u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n / r e p a i r - /
u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s -
u n d e r t h e a g r e e m e n t / c o n t r a c t - /
UP u p t o -
u p - t o - d a t e -
b e u p -
T h e t i m e is u p . - .
W h a t ' s u p ? - ?
WITHIN w i t h i n r e a c h / s i g h t / h e a r i n g - / /

w i t h i n t h r e e m i l e s o f -

12. TESTS
I
A . Put in the c o r r e c t preposition.
1. Let's g o a concert.
2. I've s p e n t a d a y York.
3. W e usually m e e t the University.
4. T h e y are delivering the furniture m y flat Tuesday.
5. Do y o u think y o u c a n finish the painting Easter?

36
6. She sat d o w n m e a n d started looking me.
7. W e w e r e in a little valley high m o u n t a i n s .
8. She w a s s t a n d i n g a c r o w d of c h i l d r e n .
9. It's interesting t o w o r k her.
10. We went the field a n d t h e n the w o o d s .

B. Put in at, in, on,


1. Easter
2. Friday
3. 1944
4. the evening
5. M o n d a y evening
6. May
7. next S u n d a y
8. w h a t time?
9. s u p p e r time
10. this S a t u r d a y
11. that m o r n i n g
12. S u n d a y afternoon

II
A . Put the c o r r e c t preposition.
1. S t o p s h o u t i n g me.
2. Can y o u repaire m y w a t c h Tuesday? I'm leaving on W e d n e s d a y .
3. Can I b o r r o w y o u r byke? when?
4. S o m e b o d y has p a r k e d m y g a r a g e d o o r , I c a n ' t g e t m y car out.
5. I sent it London yesterday.
6. I w e n t t o see m y f a t h e r Canada.
7. Our house is the w o o d a n d the river.
8. We'll c o m e and see y o u s o m e t i m e C h r i s t m a s and Easter.
9. I f o u n d the letter s o m e old p a p e r s .
10. It's difficult t o s w i m the river.

B. Put in at, in, on,


1. next M o n d a y
2. I d o n ' t k n o w w h a t t i m e it's now.
3. 1998
4. Tuesday
5. M o n d a y morning
6. the a f t e r n o o n
7. April
8. d i n n e r time
9. this Friday
10. that evening
11. Christmas
12. S a t u r d a y evening
THE COMPOUND SENTENCE
AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE
THE COMPOUND SENTENCE
It is a s e n t e n c e w h i c h c o n s i s t s of t w o or m o r e clauses c o o r d i n a t e d with e a c h other, e a c h
c l a u s e has a s u b j e c t and a predicate of its o w n .
In a c o m p o u n d s e n t e n c e the clauses m a y be c o n n e c t e d :
a) by m e a n s of c o o r d i n a t i n g c o n j u n c t i o n s : a n d , o r , e l s e (), b u t or connective
a d v e r b s : o t h e r w i s e (), h o w e v e r ( ) , n e v e r t h e l e s s ( ) , y e t / s t i l l
( - , ) , t h e r e f o r e ( ) :
He w e n t to his s t u d y b u t he c o u l d n ' t w o r k .
There w a s no news, n e v e r t h e l e s s , she w e n t on h o p i n g .
S h e ' s vain ( ) and foolish, a n d y e t people like her.
He has t r e a t e d y o u badly: s t i l l , h e ' s y o u r b r o t h e r a n d y o u o u g h t t o help him.
Do w h a t y o u ' v e been t o l d , o t h e r w i s e , you'll be p u n i s h e d .
He w a s m i s t a k e n , h o w e v e r , he w e n t on d o i n g his way.
b) without a conjunction:
The rain fell softly, the house w a s quiet.
S o m e c o n j u n c t i o n s are used in pairs (correlatively): b o t h ... a n d , e i t h e r ... o r , n e i t h e r ...
n o r , n o t o n l y ... b u t ( a l s o ) .
These c o n j u n c t i o n s are m o r e widely used in simple s e n t e n c e s t h a n in c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s ,
but s o m e t i m e s t h e y c o n n e c t simple s e n t e n c e s :
E i t h e r y o u ' r e lying o r he m u s t be an absolute w i m p .
N o t o n l y did t h e y w i n , b u t t h e y a l s o c h a n g e d the nature of their t e a m .

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE


A c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e is a hierarchical s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h c o n s i s t s of an i n d e p e n d e n t (main)
clause and o n e or m o r e d e p e n d e n t ( s u b o r d i n a t e ) clauses. The s u b o r d i n a t e clauses may
f u n c t i o n g r a m m a t i c a l l y as subject, o b j e c t , predicative, attribute or adverbial modifier in a
main clause. The subordinate clauses are generally introduced by subordinating conjunctions
a n d c o n n e c t i v e s . T h e s e c o n j u n c t i o n s a n d c o n n e c t i v e s are o f t e n p o l y s e m a n t i c a n d
multifunctional, w h i c h m a y c a u s e c o n f u s i o n in usage and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . W e shall consider
here only t h o s e t y p e s of s e n t e n c e s a n d c o n n e c t i v e s w h i c h m a y present s o m e difficulties in
understanding and translating.

38
A s u b o r d i n a t e clause m a y follow, p r e c e d e or interrupt the principal clause:
I a s k e d him w h y h e h a d c o m e .
S i n c e it w a s S a t u r d a y , he d i d n ' t g o t o his office.
The m a n w h o l i v e s n e x t d o o r is very friendly.

1. SUBJECT CLAUSES
Subordinate subject clauses are introduced by the following connectives:
that - ,
what - , ; ... , ...
if, w h e t h e r - -
who - ; ,
whoever - ... , ...
which - ;
whatever - , ; ...
where - , ; , ; , ; ,
when - , ; ,
why - , ; ,
how - , ; ,
how + adjective - +

T h a t h e w i l l n e v e r a g r e e t o t h i s p l a n is absolutely clear. - ,
, .
W h e t h e r h e w i l l a g r e e t o j o i n u s is not quite clear. - ,
.
W h a t w a s d o n e c o u l d not be u n d o n e . - , .
W h o h e r m o t h e r w a s , w a s the q u e s t i o n . - - .
W h e n w e s h a l l s t a r t is uncertain. - , .
W h o e v e r is e l e c t e d P r i m e M i n i s t e r , lives at 10 D o w n i n g Street. -
- , , 10.
H o w i m p o r t a n t it is t o s t a r t t h e w o r k r i g h t a w a y is clear t o everybody. -
, .

NOTES:

1. W h e n a s u b j e c t clause is p l a c e d at the e n d of the s e n t e n c e , it is i n t r o d u c e d by the


anticipatory it:
It is surprising h o w y o u r voice hasn't c h a n g e d .
2. S u b j e c t clauses are n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m the principal clause by a c o m m a .

39
EXERCISES

E x . 1 . ( A , B) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into Russian.

1. That e l e c t r o n s c o m p o s e the a t o m w a s s e t t l e d , but w h a t an e l e c t r o n is w a s y e t t o be


d i s c o v e r e d . 2.It is very difficult f o r m e t o k n o w w h e t h e r to say " y e s " or " n o " . 3. W h e t h e r
there is life on M a r s has b e e n a m o s t intriguing p r o b l e m since the exploration of s p a c e
started. 4. H o w this can h a p p e n m a y be s h o w n on a d i a g r a m . 5. W h a t s e e m s to us t o d a y to
be a banal truth w a s by no m e a n s trivial six c e n t u r i e s a g o . 6. That the e n v i r o n m e n t affects
man in a g r e a t variety of w a y s is a point b e y o n d d i s c u s s i o n . 7. W h e n this s h o u l d be d o n e
remains to be settled yet. 8. W h y he did it has been puzzling m e these t w o days. 9. Which of
t h e m is g o i n g t o w i n , has s u d d e n l y b e c o m e a m a t t e r of primary i m p o r t a n c e for everybody.
10. W h a t e v e r t h e y say or d o b e c o m e s i m m e d i a t e l y k n o w n t o the h e a d m a s t e r . 1 1 . It is my
belief t h a t t h e y w e r e lost while trying t o locate their c o m p a n i o n s . 12. That he e x c e e d e d his
authority () s e e m s practically certain.

Ex. 2 . ( B , C) Translate f r o m Russian into English.

1. , , . 2. , ,
. 3. -
, . 4 . ,
. 5. , . 6.
, . 7. ( m e a n )
, . 8. , , .
9. - - . 10.
, . 1 1 . - .
12. , , . 13. , , .
14. , . 15. -
( m a t t e r ) . 16. , . 17. ,
, , - ,
.

2. PREDICATIVE CLAUSES
A s u b o r d i n a t e predicative clause t o g e t h e r with the link-verb in the main clause f o r m s a
c o m p o u n d nominal predicate to the subject of the main clause. The connectives introducing
predicative c l a u s e s are the s a m e as with s u b j e c t clauses (See p. 3 9 ) .

This decision is w h a t w e h a v e b e e n h o p i n g f o r . - - ,
.
But his chief t r o u b l e w a s t h a t h e d i d n o t k n o w a n y e d i t o r o r w r i t e r ... -
,
.

40
As a rule predicative clauses are n o t s e p a r a t e d by a c o m m a .

S o m e t i m e s w e need to translate the link-verb to be into Russian. The r e c o m m e n d e d ways to


d o it are:
, ...
, ...
, ...
, ...

EXERCISES

Ex. 3 . (A, B) Translate into Russian.

1. This was what I wished for. 2. This book w a s what is often referred to as an autobiographical
novel. 3. The t r o u b l e is that have lost his a d d r e s s . 4 . The p r o b l e m is w h e t h e r they'll be able
to help us. 5. The mistake w a s that he had never had to earn his living. 6. The b o y ' s only
excuse w a s that he had had no time t o study. 7. This w a s w h y he had t h o u g h t of Bosinney.
8. The g r e a t e s t difficulty is h o w y o u are t o g e t a c r o s s the b o r d e r . 9. It is w o n d e r f u l a n d
beautiful h o w a m a n a n d his d o g will stick t o o n e another, t h r o u g h t h i c k and thin. 10. The
m o s t i m p o r t a n t thing is w h e t h e r t h e y c a n deliver the parcel in t i m e .

Ex. 4 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into English.

1. ,
. 2. ,
. 3. - , . 4 .
- , . 5. ,
. 6. , . 7. -
, . 8. ,
, . 9. , . 10.
- , .

3. OBJECT CLAUSES
O b j e c t c l a u s e s p e r f o r m the f u n c t i o n of an o b j e c t t o the p r e d i c a t e v e r b of the principal
clause:
I don't know w h a t y o u ' r e t a l k i n g a b o u t .
He told us t h a t h e f e l t ill.

1. O b j e c t clauses are c o n n e c t e d t o the principal clause in the following ways:


a) by m e a n s of c o n j u n c t i o n s that, if, whether (see p. 3 9 )
Time will s h o w w h e t h e r I ' m r i g h t o r w r o n g .
The p o l i c e m a n inquired if I h a d a d r i v i n g l i c e n c e .

41
b) By means of the connectives who, which, what, whatever, whoever, whichever; connective
p r o n o u n s where, when, how, why, etc.
I'll d o w h a t I s a y .
I'm always ready to listen t o w h a t e v e r y o u m a y s a y .
I f o u n d out w h o h a d d o n e it.
I don't know w h e n he will c o m e .
c) Asyndetically
He said h e f e l t t i r e d .
I'm afraid t h e y ' l l b e l a t e .
2. As a rule o b j e c t clauses a r e n o t s e p a r a t e d b y a c o m m a f r o m the principal clause.
3. For Indirect S p e e c h (see "English G r a m m a r " , p. 98)
4. W h e n the predicate v e r b in the principal clause is e x p r e s s e d by the v e r b s : t o d e m a n d ,
to require, t o insist, t o advise, t o r e c o m m e n d , t o s u g g e s t , t o p r o p o s e , t o a g r e e , to
a r r a n g e ( ) , t o o r d e r , t o c o m m a n d , [ s h o u l d + i n f i n i t i v e is used in the
object clause:
They i n s i s t e d (that) w e s h o u l d h a v e d i n n e r with t h e m .
, .
She d e m a n d e d (that) I s h o u l d a p o l o g i e s t o her.

NOTES:

1. O t h e r s t r u c t u r e s are possible t o o :
What do you s u g g e s t we s h o u l d d o ?
What do you s u g g e s t we do?
Jim i n s i s t e d I s h o u l d s e e a doctor.
Jim i n s i s t e d I s e e a doctor.
2. W e use should in a s u b o r d i n a t e clause after the adjectives: i m p o r t a n t , s t r a n g e , f u n n y ,
natural, surprised, essential, unbelievable, odd, typical, interesting, surprising,
d e s i r a b l e , etc.
It's s t r a n g e that he s h o u l d b e late. H e ' s usually on t i m e .
I w a s s u r p r i s e d t h a t he s h o u l d s a y s u c h a t h i n g .

EXERCISES

Ex. 5 . (A, B) Write a n e w s e n t e n c e with the s a m e m e a n i n g using the v e r b s above.


Model: "You m u s t stay in b e d for t w o d a y s , " the d o c t o r said t o m e .
The d o c t o r r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t I should stay in bed for two days.

1. "Why d o n ' t y o u visit the m u s e u m after l u n c h ? " I said t o t h e m .


2. "Help m e ! , " he d i d n ' t ask, he d e m a n d e d and it s o u n d e d rude.
3. "I think it's wise t o a c c e p t s u c h a g o o d offer," he advised m e .
4. "Arrange everything for the j o u r n e y , " the d i r e c t o r o r d e r e d the secretary.
5. "If I w e r e y o u , I'd start early," she a d v i s e d .
6. "You really m u s t stay a little longer," she insisted.
7. "Let the prisoners f r e e , " the officer c o m m a n d e d .
8. "You m u s t c o m e with us," he insisted.

42
9. "You o u g h t to be present. The situation here requires that."
10. "Why d o n ' t w e start at t e n ? " the g u i d e p r o p o s e d .
11. "You must pay by the M o n d a y evening," the landlord d e m a n d e d .
12. "Why d o n ' t y o u g o away f o r a f e w d a y s ? " J a c k s u g g e s t e d t o me.

Ex. 6 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

I
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .

II
1. , .
2. , .
3. , 5 .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .

4. ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSES
Attributive clauses serve as an attribute t o noun (pronoun) in the principal cause. A c c o r d i n g
to their m e a n i n g a n d the w a y t h e y are c o n n e c t e d with the principal clause t h e y are divided
into relative and appositive ones.
Attributive r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s quality the nouns or pronouns.
Attributive a p p o s i t i v e c l a u s e s disclose their m e a n i n g .
The f a c t s t h o s e m e n w e r e s o e a g e r t o k n o w w e r e visible. (attributive relative
clause)
The fact t h a t t h e r e c t o r ' s l e t t e r d i d n ' t r e q u i r e a n i m m e d i a t e a n s w e r would
give him time t o think. (attributive appositive clause)

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4.1 DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
RELATIVE CLAUSES

Defining Non-defining

It defines (= explains) It also gives information a b o u t the s u b j e c t


exactly w h o or w h a t is being d i s c u s s e d . b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , b u t it is not e s s e n t i a l
No c o m m a s u s e d . information.
"I saw that man again." Commas used.
"Which m a n ? " - A man, w h o said he k n e w m y
"The m a n w h o w a n t s t o b u y m y f a t h e r , c a m e t o see m e yesterday.
house". (It's an interesting fact but it is extra
The letter t h a t a r r i v e d t h i s m o r n i n g rather than essential information.)
was w r o n g l y a d d r e s s e d . N o n - d e f i n i n g clauses are used mostly in
writing. In conversation two short sentences
can be e n o u g h :
I'm g o i n g to Sheila. I told y o u about
her y e s t e r d a y .

4.2 SUBJECT AND OBJECT RELATIVE CLAUSES


The m a n w h o n o r m a l l y w o r k s h e r e is ill.
Main sentence: The m a n is ill.
Clause: [who] normally w o r k s here.
= h e normally w o r k s here.
" h e " is the s u b j e c t , so this is a s u b j e c t r e l a t i v e c l a u s e .

The m a n y o u s a w y e s t e r d a y is ill.
Main clause: The m a n is ill.
Clause: w h o I y o u saw y e s t e r d a y .
= y o u saw | him | yesterday.
" h i m " is the o b j e c t , s o this is a n o b j e c t r e l a t i v e c l a u s e .

Subject Relative Clauses Object Relative Clauses

The thing [that really s u r p r i s e d me] was The thing [that I really l i k e d a b o u t her]
his attitude. was her kindness.
The w o m a n [who lives next d o o r ] is very The w o m a n [who y o u m e t y e s t e r d a y ]
friendly. lives next d o o r .

44
You c a n leave out ( ) that, who or which w h e n t h e y are t h e o b j e c t of the v e r b in
the relative clause:
The w o m a n you met yesterday lives next door.
The thing I really liked about her w a s her kindness.

There are prepositional v e r b s : rely o n , s p e a k a b o u t , pass by, etc.


W h e n that, who, which are left out i n o b j e c t r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s , the preposition usually
comes after "the verb + object":
A lot of b o x e s ( w h i c h / t h a t ) f o o d is p a c k e d i n c o u l d be r e c y c l e d .
The w o m a n ( w h o / t h a t ) w e b u y o u r e g g s f r o m k e e p s t w e n t y hens.
N B ! In formal style the preposition is usually put before the relative p r o n o u n . In this case that
cannot be used:
The s u c c e s s of the b r e a d can d e p e n d on the oven in w h i c h it is b a k e d .

RELATIVE P R O N O U N S I N D E F I N I N G A N D N O N - D E F I N I N G CLAUSES

Clause Person Thing

Defining Subject w h o (or t h a t ) that (or w h i c h )


Object (or t h a t ) (or t h a t )

Non-defining Subject , who , which


Object , w h o (or w h o m ) , which

NOTES:

In the table the w o r d s in b r a c k e t s are possible alternatives t o the relative p r o n o u n s , but


they are less c o m m o n .
W h o m is used only in formal English.
O b j e c t relative clause d o not normally n e e d w h o or t h a t .
W h e r e , w h e n , w h y can also be used to introduce defining and non-defining relative clauses:
W e visited the t o w n w h e r e I w a s b o r n . (defining)
I b o u g h t t h e m at the s u p e r m a r k e t , w h e r e I m e t M r s Butler. (non-defining)
There m u s t be a reason w h y y o u said that.

EXERCISES

Ex. 7 . (A, B) Join the s e n t e n c e s b e l o w using who, whose, which.


Model: I m e t J a n e ' s father. He w o r k s at the University.
I m e t J a n e ' s father, who works at the University.

1. Ursula is studying Russian. She has never b e e n to Russia.

2. M a n c h e s t e r is in the N o r t h - W e s t . W e are m o v i n g t o M a n c h e s t e r .

45
3. M a n c h e s t e r is a big city. It's o n e of E n g l a n d ' s fastest g r o w i n g t o w n s .

4. This is D o r a . W e stayed at her house f o r o u r holiday.

5. You'll m e e t A n d r e w . His b r o t h e r is o n e of m y closest friends.

6. She is the girl. I b o u g h t a box of s w e e t s f o r her.

7. He is the m a n . I sent a letter t o him.

8. I d o n ' t understand people. They dislike animals.

9. T h a t ' s the boy. H e ' s just g o t a place at university.

10. The bus d i d n ' t have e n o u g h seats. They sent it.

1 1 . I d i d n ' t receive the letters. She sent m e the letters.

12. T h a t ' s the magazine. It arrived this m o r n i n g .

Ex. 8 . (A, B) Join e a c h pair in two different w a y s : informal and f o r m a l .


Model: T h a t ' s the chair. I sat on it.
a) T h a t ' s the chair I sat on.
b) T h a t ' s the chair on which I sat.

1. She is the girl. I gave f l o w e r s t o her.

2. T h a t ' s the park. I p a s s e d by it.

3. T h a t ' s the d r e s s . I've payed for it.

4. This is the music. W e listened t o it y e s t e r d a y .

5. T h a t ' s the m a n . I s p o k e to him the o t h e r day.

6. I'm looking for a m a n . One can rely on him.

7. I s a c k e d () a sales assistant. I had a terrible a r g u m e n t with him.

8. T h a t ' s m y h o u s e . The b u r g l a r s b r o k e into it the o t h e r day.

9. She is the girl. I told y o u a b o u t her.

46
Ex. 9 . ( B , C ) Fill in right c o n n e c t i v e s , w h e r e necessary.

1. Gerry w o r k s for a c o m p a n y m a k e s c a r s a n d buses. 2. The b o o k is a b o u t the


man m a d e this w o n d e r f u l discovery. 3. It s e e m s the Earth is the only
planet life exists. 4 . The a c c i d e n t had h a p p e n e d the d a y b e f o r e w a s
my fault. 5. She gave m e the a d d r e s s , I w r o t e d o w n on a piece of paper. 6. Have
y o u f o u n d the n o t e - b o o k y o u lost? 7. W h a t w a s the n a m e of the m a n
wife w a s t a k e n t o hospital? 9. I a s k e d the w o m a n w a s walking a child if she had
seen a d o g . 10. A n e w c i n e m a , holds 2 0 0 0 p e o p l e , has b e e n o p e n e d in New-
York. 1 1 . That m a n , n a m e I d o n ' t r e m e m b e r , w o r k e d for our c o m p a n y s o m e
years a g o . 12. W e often g o t o visit our f r i e n d s in O s t a n k i n o , is only 6 0 k m away.
13. Is t h e r e a s h o p near here I c a n buy s o m e b r e a d ? 14. The reason
I'm p h o n i n g y o u is to invite y o u to a party.

Ex. 1 0 . (A, B) M a k e relative clauses with a preposition.


Model: I d i d n ' t g e t the j o b (apply f o r it).
I d i d n ' t g e t the j o b I applied for.

1. The house (live in it) w a s built in the 19th c e n t u r y . 2. I enjoy m y classes


b e c a u s e I like t h e people (study with t h e m ) . 3. I like the girl ( d a n c e with
her) . 4 . The g a m e (join in it) w a s very heated ().
5. The t r a g e d y (just learn a b o u t it) is in the news report. 6. The s u b s t a n c e s
(the m a t t e r c o n s i s t s of t h e m ) are rather d a n g e r o u s . 7. I t h r e w away the
p a p e r (the p r e s e n t / w r a p in it) . 8. The article (the a u t h o r / r e f e r to it)
w a s written by an A m e r i c a n scientist.

Ex. 1 1 . (A, B) Translate the s e n t e n c e s f r o m Russian into English.

1. , , .
2. , ?
3. , ?
4. , , .
5. , .
6. - , ?
7. , .
8. , , .
9. , ?
10. ( ) .
11. , , , .
12. , ?
13. , ?
14. , .
15. , ?
16. , ?

47
Ex. 1 2 . ( B , C) Fill in who, which or whose. Say w h e r e that c o u l d be used instead and
w h e r e the relative p r o n o u n c o u l d be left out.

W H E N THE R A I L W A Y ARRIVED

It w a s a village (1) population had little sense of t i m e until the railway arrived.
After that, it w a s not the sun but the trains (2) villagers n o t e d t o k e e p t i m e .
M o s t people (3) lived along the line k n e w the t i m e t a b l e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y : the
train (4) arrived at 8.19 w a s called the Eight, the o n e (5) left at
11.37 w a s the Twelve, a n d so o n . A n y o n e (6) w a n t e d t o c a t c h the train g o t to
the station at least half an hour b e f o r e the train.
M o s t of the trains w e r e " m i x e d " trains, (7) carried both p a s s e n g e r s and g o o d s .
On the evening train, a driver (8) n a m e w a s Bill M a i n d y o f t e n gave whistling
p e r f o r m a n c e s f r o m the l o c o m o t i v e . If the owls a n s w e r e d b a c k Bill stayed even after it w a s
time for the train to leave.
The locomotives (9) the railway c o m p a n y used w e r e quite unequal t o the work,
(10) r e q u i r e d trains (11) had g o o d b r a k e s . C o m i n g d o w n the hill
f r o m Bovey, trains o f t e n p a s s e d the station; and p a s s e n g e r s (12) w a n t e d to
get off had t o walk back.
Apart f r o m s t o p p i n g at the stations, drivers s t o p p e d at places (13) were famous
for their heather honey, (14) is still a great favourite round here. M o s t villagers,
(15) w o r r i e d little a b o u t time anyway, merely s h o u t e d loud c o m m e n t s while the
g u a r d g o t out and fixed the hives.
(from "Grammarin Profile")

Ex. 1 3 . ( B , C) This is a s u m m a r y of the beginning of A g a t h a Christie's f a m o u s novel "The


Body in the Library". Answer the questions, using c o n t a c t clauses with prepositions.

THE B O D Y I N THE LIBRARY

The s t o r y starts in Colonel B a n t r y ' s house. The house is in the village of G o s s i n g t o n . The
Bantrys w a k e up one morning and find a b o d y lying in their library. It's an unknown blonde girl
in a white evening d r e s s . She w a s killed with a belt f r o m the d r e s s , at s o m e t i m e b e t w e e n
ten and midnight.
At o n c e , M r s Bantry s e n d s for her f r i e n d Miss M a r p l e . Miss M a r p l e c o m e s f r o m the village
of S t . M a r y M e a d . Of c o u r s e , t h e police arrive, t o o , w i t h I n s p e c t o r S l a c k in c h a r g e . Their
first s u s p e c t is Basil Blake. T h e police g o t o his h o u s e . Basil Blake w a s s e e n w i t h a
m y s t e r i o u s b l o n d e girl t h e w e e k e n d b e f o r e . But this girl - Dinah Lee - is later f o u n d living
with Blake. The police discover that the d e a d girl w o r k e d at the Majestic Hotel in D a n e m o u t h .
So the police talk to Josie Turner. The d e a d girl (Ruby) w o r k e d with her. Ruby had d a n c e d
an exhibition d a n c e at 1 0 . 3 0 p . m . a n d s h o u l d have d a n c e d a n o t h e r at m i d n i g h t . B u t she
d i d n ' t a p p e a r at m i d n i g h t . She w a s last s e e n d a n c i n g with a y o u n g m a n called Bartlett, at
a b o u t eleven. However, t h e police are m o r e i n t e r e s t e d in Colonel Bantry. T h e y talk t o him
next...

48
Example: W h a t role d o e s G o s s i n g t o n play in the story?
It's the village the Bantrys live in.

1. W h a t ' s special a b o u t the library? - It's the r o o m . . .


2. W h a t ' s special a b o u t the white d r e s s ? - It's the d r e s s . . .
3. W h y is the belt i m p o r t a n t ? - It's the t h i n g . . .
4. W h a t is i m p o r t a n t a b o u t the period f r o m t e n t o m i d n i g h t ? - It's the time...
5. W h a t ' s interesting a b o u t S t . M a r y M e a d ?
6. W h o is Basil Blake?
7. W h o is the mysterious blonde girl?
8. W h a t is her relationship with Blake?
9. W h a t is the Majestic in D a n e m o u t h ?
10. W h o is Josie Turner?
11. W h a t is the i m p o r t a n c e of 10.30 p.m.?
12. W h o is Bartlett?

(from "Grammarin Profile")

Ex. 1 4 . (A, B) C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s with where, when, why.

1. W e visited the s c h o o l my father taught.


2. I m e t her last m o n t h , she c a m e t o our house.
3. W e all w o r k e d at the place the fire had s t a r t e d .
4. I m e t him in the c a f e , he w a s w o r k i n g as a waiter.
5. Do y o u r e m e m b e r the t i m e w e lived in Africa.
6. Did he tell the reason t h e y w e r e late?
7. The c a t sat on the wall, it had a g o o d view of the birds.
8. I'm talking a b o u t the t i m e t h e y d i d n ' t have cars.
9. Last year I s p e n t m y holiday in S p a i n , I m e t Andy.
10. I c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d the reason t h e y w e r e so rude.
11. W e w e n t away in A u g u s t , the children w e r e on holiday f r o m s c h o o l .
12. I never liked the house my husband was born.
13. T h e y arrived in the e v e n i n g , at a t i m e w e w e r e all out.
14. I listened to m u s i c late at night, the children have g o n e t o b e d .

4.3 WHICH REFERRING TO THE WHOLE SENTENCE


W h i c h in relative clauses generally refers t o nouns:
He t u r n e d on t h e t e l e v i s i o n , w h i c h looked new and expensive.
He t u r n e d on the television, w h i c h I t h o u g h t w a s r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g .

W h i c h in the s e c o n d s e n t e n c e refers to the a c t i o n of t u r n i n g on the TV set, no just to the


w o r d television. W h i c h can be used like this only in n o n - d e f i n i n g relative clauses.

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EXERCISE

Ex. 1 5 . ( B , C) Express t h e s e pairs of s e n t e n c e s as o n e , using w h i c h .


Model: I love the c o u n t r y s i d e . T h a t ' s w h y I w a n t to g o a n d live t h e r e .
I love the countryside, which is why I want to go and live there.

1. T h e y stayed f o r hours. I w a s very a n n o y e d a b o u t this.

2. He p a s s e d all the e x a m s . This s u r p r i s e d us.

3. T h e y f o r g o t a b o u t m y birthday. This w a s a bit disappointing.

4. The pilot s h o w e d us h o w t o fly. It w a s e x t r e m e l y interesting.

5. I c o u l d n ' t g e t a flight to Paris. This upset the c h i l d r e n .

6. The store w o u l d n ' t a c c e p t bank c a r d s . I f o u n d this rather surprising.

7. He w a s rude. His behavior m a d e m e very angry.

8. The m a n a s k e d for directions. This m a d e m e a bit suspicious.

4.4 CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY WHAT, THAT, WHICH


. w h a t (relative p r o n o u n ) I told y o u w h a t I know.
, ;
w

" t h a t (conjunction) I told y o u t h a t I k n o w a b o u t the plan.


I told y o u everything t h a t I know.
Which: I told y o u a b o u t the plan, w h i c h is e n o u g h for the present.
, /
.

NOTES:

1. W h a t is always s t r e s s e d ; t h a t is always u n s t r e s s e d :
I told y o u w h a t I know.
I told y o u that I k n o w .
2. The conjunction t h a t can be left out. The connectives w h a t and w h i c h are never o m i t t e d .
3. W h i c h here refers t o the w h o l e main clause.

50
EXERCISES

Ex. 1 6 . (A, B) S u p p l y that or what.

1. The thing is I c a n ' t d o without a dictionary today. 2. You should have apologized
to A n n e , t h a t ' s I'm driving at. 3. All glitters is not g o l d . 4 .
they will get t h e r e at n o o n is out of the q u e s t i o n . 5. puzzled us w a s the w a y he
d i s a p p e a r e d after the c o n c e r t . 6. He'll d o anything will be n e c e s s a r y t o help
Lizzie, t h e r e ' s no d o u b t a b o u t that. 7. The point is she always says she
means. 8. I'm absolutely sure he'll d o nothing m i g h t d o her any h a r m .
9. I'd like t o k n o w is w h e t h e r he'll have s o m e t i m e to s p a r e on M o n d a y m o r n i n g .
10. That w a s all he w a n t e d to ask us. 1 1 . he should have refused t o go
to the skating-rink is very strange. 12. I'll d o m y best to get everything you'll w a n t
for your work. 13. he really said w a s he was feeling unwell. 14.
I m e a n is the proof of the p u d d i n g is in the e a t i n g .

(From "A Practical Guide To Better English")

Ex. 1 7 . ( B , C ) Fill in the p r o p e r c o n n e c t i v e s : that, what or which.

1. I a m afraid y o u overlook the thing y o u have been requested to d o it


immediately. 2. I felt certain now I had seen him s o m e w h e r e . 3. He w a s deeply
displeased by had o c c u r r e d that day. 4 . She walked ten kilometers that day,
w a s pretty g o o d for a w o m a n of 68. 5. You can have everything y o u like.
6. I'm sorry. That's all I know. 7. Steve w e n t out with Susan, m a d e Jane
very angry. 8. Do y o u w a n t to k n o w I've learnt? 9. The thing I'd like is a
digital c a m e r a . 10. I'd like is a trip to Turkey. 1 1 . You are the one knows
where to g o . 12. she and Elliott wished to find out f r o m Dr. Nelson w a s
Larry intended to d o . 13. He told m e all he knew. 14. I will not f o r g e t you
have told me. 15. He w a s cruel to the poor boy, surprised m e at the time.
Ex. 1 8 . ( B , C) Tick the s e n t e n c e s in w h i c h c o n n e c t i v e s m a y be o m i t t e d ( ^ ) .

1. They d o n ' t s e e m t o s p e a k with o n e another, w h i c h is s o m e h o w strange. 2. I gave her just


the m o n e y that she needed. 3. I passed him a large glass of juice which he drank immediately.
4. S h o w m e the b o o k that y o u have r e a d . 5. The air w h i c h s u r r o u n d s us c o n s i s t s of various
elements. 6. W h e r e is the girl that asked a b o u t M r Wilson? 7. Thank y o u for all that y o u have
done for me. 8. Are y o u not glad that w e c a m e ? 9. I d o n ' t understand w h a t y o u are driving at.
10. W e s c a r c e l y noticed that it had s t o p p e d raining. 1 1 . The t h o u g h t instantly o c c u r r e d to
me that the p a p e r w a s a note f r o m A u g u s t u s . 12. There w a s a c o y n e s s a b o u t her very w a y
of p o u r i n g out the t e a , w h i c h T o m quite reveled in. 13. It w a s not the sort of house that he
was a c c u s t o m e d t o . 14. Are y o u saying that y o u haven't k n o w n a b o u t it? 15. I gave her
everything that she c o u l d wish for.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

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Ex. 1 9 . Translate into English using that, which or what w h e r e necessary.

I (A, B)
1. , . 2. , .
3. , . 4 . , . 5.
, . 6. ,
. 7. , . (2 variants) 8. ,
. 9. , .

II ( B , C)
1. , ? 2. ,
. 3. , ,
. 4 . , . 5.
, ? 6. ,
. 7. ,
. 8. , (obtain) , .
10. , (need) - ,
, - , , . 1 1 . , . 12.
, . 13. ,
(by the s q u a r e mile)? 14. ,
(has a disposition) (patronize). 15.
, , , . 16. , . 17.
, . 18. , ?
19. , . 20. , ?

REVISION
Ex. 2 0 . The following text is incomplete. To improve it, and to make the meaning clear, add
the additional information given below, in the f o r m of relative clauses (formal style).

B R I T A I N BEFORE THE R O M A N S
A b o u t the year 5 0 0 0 BC, the w a t e r s the English Channel and the North S e a joined together,
and Britain b e c a m e an island.
The human population of the new island at that time was a f e w h u n d r e d s (1)

But at the very t i m e (2)


. A revolution w a s o c c u r r i n g t h o u s a n d s of
miles away in the Near East (3)
. He w a s learning not m e r e l y t o hunt and
kill f o r his f o o d , but t o k e e p the animals. He w a s learning, t o o , t o g a t h e r the s e e d s of the
g r a s s e s and s c a t t e r t h e m a b o u t him t o g r o w into the f o o d (4)
. He w a s learning, in short, to
be a f a r m e r .
M e n with this new k n o w l e d g e did not c r o s s the still w i d e n i n g w a t e r s b e t w e e n Europe a n d
Britain until a b o u t 2 3 0 0 BC. A n d w h e n t h e y c a m e t h e y had t o k e e p to the chalky and s a n d y

52
soils w h e r e t h e y c o u l d t u r n the g r o u n d over for their s e e d s t o g r o w . So the a r e a (5)
w a s very limited.
These first settlers on the c h a l k ridges w e r e m e n (6)
. T h e y c r o s s e d it only if t h e y
had to a n d t h e y c r o s s e d it w h e r e it w a s narrowest. But t h e r e w e r e o t h e r s (7)
men
living along the c o a s t s of Spain or Brittany. W h e n t h e y c r o s s e d , it w a s w h e r e the English
Channel w a s wider. The s e t t l e m e n t s of t h e s e people c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d t o d a y by their
r e m a r k a b l e burial p l a c e s (8)

It w a s a b o u t the year 9 0 0 BC t h a t a large w e s t w a r d m o v e m e n t of races on the E u r o p e a n


continent p r o d u c e d another invasion of Britain, by a people (9)
. These w e r e the Celts, and t h e y
s p o k e a l a n g u a g e (10) .
(from A History of England by J. Thorn, R. Lockyer & D. Smith)
The additional information:
They lived by hunting with roughly m a d e stone instrument.
This separation of Britain f r o m the continent w a s taking place.
It w a s t o c h a n g e for ever the life of m a n .
The animals provided f o o d in captivity ().
He w a n t e d t o m a k e f o o d .
T h e y settled on this area.
To t h e m the s e a w a s a natural barrier.
For t h e m the s e a had f e w e r t e r r o r s .
Its roof is a g r e a t stone.
These people are the first to have left on this island something more than material remains.
The t o n g u e s of Ireland, Wales and the highland of Scotland are direct d e s c e n d a n t s of this
language.

Ex. 2 1 . ( C ) . Fill in the s p a c e s with an attributive clause referring to the noun in italics. First
read the story.
Model: A cobbler, who was young and cheerful, lived...

A cobbler ( ) lived in an attic at the t o p of a high building,


and m a d e just e n o u g h m o n e y every day to k e e p him alive. But he w a s perfectly h a p p y and
w a s always singing with joy, and w h e n the day c a m e t o an e n d , he slept soundly.
A rich banker , lived in a large house o p p o s i t e , and w a s so far f r o m being happy
that w h e n the day , e n d e d , he w o u l d not sleep f o r thinking of all the money
, a n d w a s d i s t u r b e d early in the m o r n i n g by the cobbler . O n e d a y he
sent over t o the c o b b l e r a present of a h u n d r e d pounds . At first the c o b b l e r w a s
overjoyed, but he s o o n b e g a n to lose his cheerfulness. He began t o be afraid that s o m e o n e
w o u l d steel his gold , and b e g a n t o lose his sleep t h r o u g h the fear that s o m e o n e
might c o m e into his room . His songs c e a s e d , a n d at last he felt he
could bear it no longer, so seizing the bag of gold , he w e n t t o the banker
a n d t h r o w i n g d o w n the m o n e y e x c l a i m e d , "Take b a c k the h u n d r e d pounds
and leave m e m y happiness , f o r m y h a p p i n e s s is all ."

53
5. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Adverbial clauses refer to a verb, an adjective or an adverb of the main clause in the function
of an adverbial modifier ( ) . Adverbial clauses are c o n n e c t e d with the main
clause by m e a n s of s u b o r d i n a t i n g c o n j u n c t i o n s and c o n n e c t i v e s . S o m e c o n j u n c t i o n s are
polysemantic and can introduce different types of adverbial clauses, which may be confusing.
Besides, m a n y English c o n j u n c t i o n s , prepositions and a d v e r b s are identical in f o r m , w h i c h
also may create s o m e difficulties in understanding the meaning of a sentence. It is necessary
to differentiate t h e m by their functions.

Prepositions c o n n e c t phrases t o the w o r d s t h e y modify:


A f t e r the presentation the g u e s t s w i l l b e a b l e t o b u y s o m e p r o d u c t s .

Subordinating conjunctions c o n n e c t clauses to the w o r d s they modify:


A f t e r the p r e s e n t a t i o n is over, the g u e s t s w i l l b e a b l e t o b u y s o m e p r o d u c t s .
O n c e the p e r f o r m a n c e starts, t h e y w i l l n o t a l l o w e n t r a n c e .

The adverb, unlike the preposition and c o n j u n c t i o n , is a part of the sentence - an adverbial
modifier:

O n c e the t o w n s w e r e i n d e p e n d e n t entities.

EXERCISE
Ex. 1 . (A, B) Define the function of the w o r d s in italics. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Before y o u read his answer, tell me the circumstances. 2. The rope will tighten considerably
after it has been s o a k e d . 3. Until a b o u t 1900 s m o k i n g w a s almost entirely a masculine habit.
4. Once introduced t o Europe, the habit of s m o k i n g s p r e a d round the w o r l d . 5. I w a s hoping
that once I w a s in the right a r e a , I w o u l d g e t s o m e f r e s h i m a g e s . 6. No m a t t e r w h a t they
t e a c h y o u once y o u believe it's t r u e . 7. If y o u are wise y o u will leave before he sees y o u . 8.
I k n o w w h a t w e shall have for dinner, for I have seen the m e n u . 9. I haven't seen him since,
not once. 10. For several days w e didn't hear f r o m t h e m . 1 1 . D o n ' t make any hasty decisions
until Father c o m e s h o m e . 12. He d i d n ' t start t o read her letter until late that night w h e n the
w h o l e family had settled f o r the night. 13. She d i d n ' t begin to read before she w a s seven.
14. W h a t d o y o u think w a s after? 15. C o m e T u e s d a y night, but not before.

5.1 TIME CLAUSES


W e use t i m e clauses to say w h e n s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n s .
Time clause are introduced by conjunctions when, after, before, while, till, until, as, since, as
soon as, as long as.
N B ! The verb in the time clause can be in the present or past tense (see "English Grammar", p.
24). We never use a future tense in a time clause, we use one of the present tenses instead:
I'll look after the children w h i l e s h e g o e s t o L o n d o n .
I'll d o it w h e n I've f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g t h i s l e t t e r .

54
N o c o m m a s are u s e d , w h e n t i m e clause f o l l o w s the main clause, if it p r o c e e d s the main
clause, it is s e p a r a t e d f r o m it b y a c o m m a :
W h e n h e h a d f i n i s h e d r e a d i n g , he looked up.
a) W h e n , a s , w h i l e are used to say that t w o events h a p p e n at the s a m e time (
...), (see p. 24)
W e arrived w h e n t h e y w e r e l e a v i n g .
She w e p t a s h e t o l d u s t h e s t o r y .
J o h n arrived w h i l e w e w e r e w a t c h i n g t h e f i l m .
b) W h e n o n e event h a p p e n s before or after a n o t h e r event the c o n j u n c t i o n s a f t e r , a s s o o n
a s , b e f o r e , w h e n ( ), a s l o n g a s (, , ...):
Can I see y o u b e f o r e w e g o , Helen?
A s s o o n a s w e g e t t i c k e t s , w e ' l l call y o u .
c) W h e n w e want to say that something happens w h e n a situation ends, w e use a time clause
with t i l l or u n t i l a n d a p r e s e n t or past tense:
We'll s u p p o r t t h e m t i l l t h e y f i n d w o r k .
They waited until h e h a d g o n e .
N B ! After t i l l / u n t i l no negation is used as the conjunctions till and until are negative in meaning.
d) A clause introduced by s i n c e d e n o t e s the starting point of the action (situation) described
in the main clause. The v e r b in the s i n c e - c l a u s e m a y be past or p r e s e n t perfect.
N B ! W e use past indefinite or past p e r f e c t in the t i m e clause; present or past p e r f e c t in the
main clause (see p. 4 2 , 6 0 ) .
I've b e e n in politics since I w a s at university.
Janine h a d b e e n b u s y ever since she h a d h e a r d the news.
e) Time clauses are s o m e t i m e s i n t r o d u c e d by phrases: a t t h e t i m e ( ), b y
t h e t i m e ( t h a t ) ( ), t h e m o m e n t ( ), t h e d a y (
), t h e n e x t t i m e ( ):
T h e m o m e n t I s a w h i m I u n d e r s t o o d that s o m e t h i n g had h a p p e n e d .
I'll ask him a b o u t it t h e n e x t t i m e I s e e h i m .
I w a s i n f o r m e d a b o u t it t h e d a y I a r r i v e d in M o s c o w .
f)
w h i l e W h i l e I slept, it rained.
a s l o n g a s He read a s l o n g a s the lamp b u r n e d .

b e f o r e He w o r k e d hard b e f o r e he r e a c h e d his goal.


t i l l / U n t i l He w o n ' t stop u n t i l he achieves g o o d results.

indicates the longer situation, which started before the shorter event, and, perhaps
w e n t on after it:
A s t h e y w e r e driving along the main r o a d , t h e y saw a b r o k e n car s m a s h e d
into a s h o p w i n d o w s . ()
AS
is used to talk a b o u t two developing situations:
A s the city g r e w , m o r e and m o r e people w e r e attracted t o the new capital.
( ; )
is used t o say that t w o short actions both h a p p e n e d at the s a m e t i m e :
J u s t a s he passed u n d e r the w i n d o w , the lights in the r o o m w e n t off. (
)

55
EXERCISES

Ex. 2 . (A, B) C o m p l e t e the sentences with one of the conjunctions or phrases f r o m the box.

while by the t i m e the m o m e n t after


since before as s o o n as till
as long as when until as

I. I g o t h o m e , I f o u n d that Jill had painted her r o o m . 2. She w a s an e m p l o y e e at


the post office she started her o w n business. 3. Can y o u look after the children
I a m out? 4 . Wait here I c o m e back. 5. You'll feel better
y o u ' v e had s o m e t h i n g t o eat. 6. Y o u can use m y c a r I a m on holidays. 7. The
building had a l m o s t burnt d o w n the fire brigade arrived. 8. W e realized that
s o m e t h i n g had g o n e w r o n g w e saw him run t o w a r d s us. 9. You'll get a surprise
y o u o p e n the d o o r . 10. W e w a i t e d at the airport he arrived.
I I . I w a t c h e d her she o p e n e d the letter. 12. W e ' v e b e e n staying in this hotel
w e arrived t o L o n d o n .

Ex. 3 . (A, B) Decide which conjunction is c o r r e c t in this situation. Cross out the o n e which
is w r o n g .

1. After/before y o u leave, y o u m u s t visit the m u s e u m .


2. D o n ' t say anything while/when T o m is here.
3. Wait here after/until he has g o n e .
4. W e saw Ann when/while w e w e r e waiting f o r the bus.
5. She had already o p e n e d the letter when/before she realized it w a s n ' t a d d r e s s e d to her.
6. The alarm w a s raised as long as/as soon as the fire w a s d i s c o v e r e d .
7. While/when I w a s reading, J o a n w a s playing the piano.
8. At the time/by the t i m e w e arrived, the party had finished.
9. I've been living by myself from/since I e n t e r e d university.
10. Before/since I w e n t out, I p h o n e d A n n .

Ex. 4 . Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

I (A, B)
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4 .
15 ( 15 ) . 5. , ,
. 6. , . 7. ,
( c h e c k ) ( c o n t e n t s ) . 8. ,
, . 9. , .
10. , ?

II ( B , C)
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4 . ,

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. 5. , . 6.
, . 7. .
, . 8. , . 9.
, . 10. ,
. 1 1 . , . 12.
, . 13. , ,
. 14. , . 15.
(hear f r o m ) , .

Ex. 5 . ( B , C) Fill in the blanks with till/until or before.

1. He recalled that d a y he fell asleep. 2. D o n ' t take any s t e p s y o u learn


w h a t is in this letter. 3. T h e y r e m a i n e d in the g a r d e n t h e y g o t quite c o l d . 4 . A
q u a r t e r of an hour p a s s e d the lessons b e g a n . 5. He slept t h r o u g h the early g r e y
of m o r n i n g the direct rays of the sun fell on his f a c e . 6. I w a i t e d the
next train c a m e . 7. M e g strained her eyes u p o n her w o r k it w a s t o o d a r k t o see
the t h r e a d s . 8. She listened patiently he had finished his lecture. 9. He w o r k e d
slowly, first writing the m e s s a g e , t h e n r e w o r d i n g it he w a s satisfied. 10. He
waited the girl had g o n e , t h e n he w a l k e d over to the closet w h e r e his street
clothes w e r e . 1 1 . w e start our e x p e r i m e n t , I w a n t y o u to read t h e s e notes.
12. He w a s sure that she w o u l d n ' t say anything the children left for s c h o o l .
13. D o n ' t t r o u b l e t r o u b l e the t r o u b l e t r o u b l e s y o u .

5.2 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF PLACE


To say w h e r e s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n s , w e use c o n j u n c t i o n w h e r e and c o n n e c t i v e adverbs
wherever, anywhere, everywhere:
This is the exact s p o t w h e r e the a c c i d e n t h a p p e n e d .
Please sit w h e r e v e r y o u find place.
Y o u are not allowed to park a n y w h e r e y o u like.

5.3 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF MANNER


1. M a n n e r c l a u s e s are used t o say h o w s o m e t h i n g is d o n e . T h e y are i n t r o d u c e d by
c o n j u n c t i o n s a s (), a s i f / a s t h o u g h ( / ), l i k e . The m a n n e r clause
always c o m e s after the main clause. A d v e r b s just, exactly, precisely are often used in front
of a s f o r e m p h a s i s :
T h e y p l o u g h land exactly a s t h e i r a n c e s t o r s d i d .
He c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t everything just a s I k n e w h e w o u l d .
W e can also use "the way (that)", "in a way (that)", "in the way (that)" t o talk how s o m e t h i n g
is d o n e :
T h e y did it in a w a y ( t h a t ) I had never s e e n b e f o r e .
W e m a d e it move in t h e w a y ( t h a t ) w e w a n t e d it t o .

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2. A s i f / a s t h o u g h are used to say h o w s o m e o n e or s o m e t h i n g l o o k s / f e e l s / s o u n d s , etc:
She felt a s if she had a fever.
He looked a s if he h a d n ' t slept m u c h .
M a r y s o u n d e d a s t h o u g h she had run all the way.
3. A s i f / a s t h o u g h are also used to indicate that the information in the manner clause m i g h t
n o t b e t r u e , or is d e f i n i t e l y n o t t r u e :
She a c t s a s if she o w n s the place.
4. W e use past t e n s e after a s i f / a s t h o u g h t o s h o w t h a t the idea is not real:
She t r e a t s him a s t h o u g h he w e r e her o w n s o n .
N B ! When the action in the manner clause is described as unreal w e r e is used instead of w a s .

THE USE OF TENSES AFTER A S I F / A S T H O U G H (UNREAL A C T I O N )

Principal Clause Manner Clause

He t a l k s as if he k n e w everything. (Past Indef.)


Simultaneous
T h e y w a l k e d slowly as t h o u g h they w e r e c a r r y i n g something
Action
heavy. (Past Continuous)

I r e m e m b e r the story as if I h a d just r e a d it.


Prior Action He d e s c r i b e d her as if he h a d m e t her b e f o r e .
(Past Perfect)

EXERCISES

Ex. 6 . (A, B, C) C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s with the w o r d s f r o m the box.

as the w a y in the w a y as if

1. I think y o u should write the p a p e r I s h o w e d y o u . 2. He did he w a s


desired. 3. He kept looking at the e n t r a n c e he w a s waiting for s o m e b o d y . 4. You
never d o anything y o u ' r e a s k e d t o . 5. He s t r e t c h e d himself () on his
bed a d o g s t r e t c h e s himself. 6. He s p e a k s he k n o w s the s u b j e c t
well. 7. I think the c a k e is exactly m o t h e r m a k e s it. 8. He d e s c r i b e d the t o w n
he had s e e n it himself. 9. Her smile w a s s w e e t a n d innocent just it
had ever b e e n . 10. He left but she w e n t on talking nothing had h a p p e n e d .

Ex. 7 . (A, B) Put the v e r b s in b r a c k e t s in the c o r r e c t t e n s e f o r m s .

1. W h y d o y o u talk a b o u t her as if she (be) old? She is only fifty five. 2. T h e y ate their dinner
as if t h e y (not eat) f o r a w e e k . 3. T h e y s p o k e as t h o u g h t h e y never (part). 4 . I'm not a child
but y o u s p e a k t o m e as if I (be) a c h i l d . 5. The sky is full of black c l o u d s . It looks as if it (be)
g o i n g t o rain. 6. He felt as if he (see) him s o m e w h e r e . 7. Y o u write as if y o u (not k n o w ) the
rules. 8. I'm in love. I feel as if I (float) on air. 9. He looked at m e as if he never (see) m e .
10. T h e y m e t as if t h e y (be) f r i e n d s . 1 1 . He ran as if he (run) f o r life. 12. W h e n I told her the
news she r e a c t e d as t h o u g h she already (hear) it. 13. Y o u act as t h o u g h y o u (be) m y boss.
14. It s o u n d s as if it (rain).

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Ex. 8 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

1. , . 2. ( s o u n d ) , .
3. (limp), . 4 . .
, ? 5. . 6.
, . 7. ,
. 8. , . 9.
, , . 10. () ,
. 1 1 . , ,
. 12. , .

5.4 PURPOSE AND REASON CLAUSES


We use a reason clause to say w h a t o n e ' s intention is w h e n he d o e s s o m e t h i n g .
Purpose clauses are i n t r o d u c e d by c o n j u n c t i o n s s o , s o a s t o , s o t h a t , i n o r d e r t h a t
(, ).
A p u r p o s e clause usually c o m e s after a main clause. The m o s t c o m m o n t y p e of p u r p o s e
clause contains a m o d a l and is i n t r o d u c e d by s o t h a t :
I have d r a w n a d i a g r a m s o t h a t m y e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l b e c l e a r .
She said she w a n t e d t e a r e a d y at six s o t h a t s h e c o u l d b e o u t b y e i g h t .
Father lifted Philip o n t o his s h o u l d e r s o t h a t h e m i g h t s e e t h e p r o c e s s i o n .

To m a k e a p u r p o s e clause n e g a t i v e , w e use s o t h a t . . . w o n ' t / w o u l d n ' t :


I hurried s o t h a t I w o u l d n ' t be late.
We use a reason clause w h e n w e want to explain w h y one d o e s something or w h y it happens.
It is i n t r o d u c e d by c o n j u n c t i o n s b e c a u s e ( ), s i n c e o r a s ( , ):
S i n c e it w a s S a t u r d a y , he stayed at h o m e .
A s h e h a d b e e n u p s i n c e 4 a . m . , he w a s very t i r e d .

REASON CLAUSES

A s - and s i n c e - c l a u s e s can be used t o give the r e a s o n f o r an action or situation. T h e y are


used w h e n the reason is already well k n o w n , or is less i m p o r t a n t than the rest of the
s e n t e n c e . S i n c e is a little m o r e f o r m a l than a s :
S i n c e y o u refuse t o pay, w e shall be f o r c e d t o take legal a c t i o n .
A s I had no m o n e y with m e , I d i d n ' t pay him.
W h e n the reason is the m o s t i m p o r t a n t part of the s e n t e n c e b e c a u s e is generally u s e d .
B e c a u s e - c l a u s e usually c o m e s at the e n d of the s e n t e n c e :
Y o u will never learn b e c a u s e y o u a r e i d l e .
Y o u w a n t t o k n o w w h y I d i d n ' t tell y o u ? I d i d n ' t tell y o u b e c a u s e I f o r g o t , simply.
F o r s u g g e s t s that the reason is given as an explanation for the a c t i o n , as an a f t e r t h o u g h t .
F o r - c l a u s e s never c o m e at the beginning of the s e n t e n c e :
I k n o w w h a t w e shall have for dinner, f o r I h a v e s e e n t h e m e n u .

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In a formal and literary style f o r is used t o indicate the reason for mentioning w h a t has been
said previously:
The visitors will be well c o n t e n t to walk a r o u n d at their o w n pace.
F o r it is a long d a y ' s walk, a n d the s c e n e r y is very enjoyable.

EXERCISES

Ex. 9 . (A, B) C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s with the c o n j u n c t i o n s f r o m the box.

so that because since as so

1. I walk t o w o r k every m o r n i n g I can g e t s o m e exercise. 2. no one


a n s w e r e d m y call, I left a m e s s a g e on the a n s w e r - p h o n e . 3. I w e n t a w a y there
was no one there. 4 . He spoke slowly everybody may understand him. 5.
n o b o d y m e t m e at the station, I had t o c a r r y the l u g g a g e myself. 6. you've
finished y o u r w o r k , y o u m a y g o h o m e . 7. I'll call him at o n c e he w o u l d n ' t wait for
me. 8. it's a public holiday, y o u w o n ' t find m a n y s h o p s o p e n . 9. I'll write the letter
immediately t h e y c o u l d receive it by the e n d of the w e e k . 10. He w a l k e d quickly
he w a s in a great hurry. 1 1 . He d r e w a street plan she m i g h t be able to
find the house easily. 12. He left the c a r in the road he w a n t e d t o k e e p it o u t of
sight. 13. S p e a k louder I m a y hear y o u . 14. I c a m e to live in the c o u n t r y
I w a n t e d t o have t r e e s a r o u n d m e instead of buildings. 15. I w a n t e d t o s t u d y in
England, I studied English. 16. I've written it very clearly the old m a n m a y be able
to read it easily.

Ex. 1 0 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

I . , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4 .
, . 5. ,
. 6. , . 7. ,
. 8. , .
9. , . 10.
, .
I I . (The Air Traffic Controllers) (be on
strike), . 12. , ,
. 13. (have s m t h d o n e ) ,
- . 14. ,
.

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5.5 AS AND SINCE IN THE CLAUSES
OF TIME AND CAUSE (REASON)
As and since m a y be used t o i n t r o d u c e the clauses of t i m e and c a u s e . (see p. 5 5 , 59)

EXERCISES

Ex. 1 1 . (A, B) Define the functions of the conjunctions since and as. Translate the sentences.

1. She had left t h e m after a brief visit, saying that as the day w a s a special day, she should
hurry b a c k h o m e and get ready for the party. 2. The M a n c h e s t e r train c a m e just as he
reached the station. 3. He s t o o d w a t c h i n g her as she w e n t out of the s h o p . 4 . He knew that
the arrival of letters for him w a s impossible since n o b o d y knew his a d d r e s s . 5. She t o o k her
bag f r o m Denis, w h o had carried it since it fell. 6. W h a t have y o u been doing since G e o r g e
has been away? 7. As the twilight w a s beginning to f a d e , they heard the s o u n d of h o r s e ' s
hoofs. 8. After lunch, since the a f t e r n o o n w a s so fine, I t o o k out a d e c k c h a i r ( ) into
my little rose g a r d e n . 9. As it is already late, y o u had better g o . 10. As the f o g w a s collecting
rapidly, it began to g r o w dark. 1 1 . You've been getting thinner since I last saw y o u . 12. Since
our birthdays fall on the s a m e day, our lives are probably parallel. 13. He rose to his feet and
pulled on his j a c k e t as Elizabeth e n t e r e d the r o o m . 14. As the news had already s p r e a d
t h r o u g h the picket lines, there w a s nothing left for t h e m to d o , but start negotiating. 15. He
hasn't w o r k e d since y o u sacked him. 16. Since the Russians launched the world's first artificial
satellite in 1957, this newest branch of science has advanced in great strides. 17. M a n y times
since the Earth w a s y o u n g , the place had lain under the sea. 18. I've been able t o d o it since
I w a s a child. 19. As life on Earth began t o b u r g e o n (), as plants c o v e r e d its
surface and its waters t e e m e d () with creatures, the planet began to add further layers
() f o r m e d f r o m this new, organic life it had b r o u g h t into being. 20. As w o m e n w e r e not
s u p p o s e d to serve in cavalry, she disguised herself as m a n and joined the fighting army.

Ex. 1 2 . ( B , C) Fill in the blanks with the p r o p e r c o n j u n c t i o n : as, since, because or for.

1. the light fell on his face, he t u r n e d r o u n d . 2. I asked her and looked curiously at
her she l o o k e d so curiously at m e . 3. it w a s late, w e d e c i d e d t o s t o p
w o r k and g o h o m e . 4 . Ten d a y s had p a s s e d the news had c o m e . 5. Here o n e
m a y d r e a m whilst the g r e a t white c l o u d s mirror t h e m s e l v e s in the w a t e r t h e y pas
a b o v e . 6. he w e n t d o w n the stairs, I w a l k e d a c r o s s t o m y w i n d o w a n d pulled the
curtain. 7. This r o o m w a s chill, it s e l d o m had fire. 8. You m i g h t as well wait for me
in the lobby, I m a y stay in his office awhile. 9. He c o u l d be w r o n g , especially
he isn't even sure a b o u t the car. 10. "Isn't it a g o r g e o u s d a y ? " Miss Pulteney said
she w e n t by, flashing a smile a n d looking just exactly like a q u e e n . 1 1 . She had
had t o give up d o i n g overtime at w o r k t h e r e w a s so m u c h to d o at h o m e .
12. W h e n they d o find w o r k as extra (), they get peanuts (.: ) ,
only the stars m a k e m e g a b u c k s . 13. Her skin - this w a s her sixth m o n t h with
child - had a c q u i r e d a w o n d e r f u l t r a n s l u c e n t quality. 14. The d r o p of her head
she bent over her sewing w a s curiously tranquil. 15. She w a s n ' t really w a t c h i n g him but she

61
knew w h a t he had d o n e she heard t h e ice c u b e s falling b a c k against t h e b o t t o m
of t h e e m p t y glass. 16. "Then w h y d i d y o u ask t h e m ? " The q u e s t i o n slipped o u t b e f o r e I
could s t o p myself a n d I r e g r e t t e d it at o n c e , it is a rule with m e never t o provoke
my wife if I c a n help it. 17. USSR M o t o r b o a t Federation has j o i n e d t h e Union
Internationale Motornautique (UIM) in 1969, many Soviet and Russian sportsmen w o n a number
of titles a n d a w a r d s in international c o m p e t i t i o n s . 18. A m e r i c a has been the N e w World in all
t o n g u e s , t o all peoples, all those w h o c a m e here believed they could create upon
this continent a new life. 19. I have seen m a n y w o n d e r f u l things I've been in Cairo.
20. our birthdays fall on the s a m e day, our lives are probably parallel. 2 1 .
he d i d n ' t c o m e , I w e n t away w i t h o u t waiting f o r h i m . 2 2 . The picture fell the cord
broke. 2 3 . England has never b e e n invaded William of N o r m a n d y c o n q u e r e d it in
1066. 2 4 . Emily a n d I are astrologically in sync ( ) , I'm able to tune in to
her t h o u g h t s . 2 5 . "Tell C h r i s t o p h e r Swatt hello f o r m e , " she said, enjoying t h e startled look
on W r i g h t ' s f a c e she left his office. 2 6 . y o u raise no o b j e c t i o n , I
presume y o u agree to what I suggest. 27. I can't d o this exercise I d o n ' t understand
the rule.

REVISION

Ex. 1 3 . ( B , C) M a k e o n e c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e o u t of t h e t w o simple o n e s given, using the


c o n j u n c t i o n s f r o m t h e box. O m i t s o m e w o r d s w h e n necessary.

b e c a u s e , for, until, since, as, b e f o r e

Model: The lane c a m e t o an e n d . W e had to retrace o u r s t e p s . - As the lane came to an


end, we had to retrace our steps.

1. W e started on our way. Just then it began snowing. 2. He walked with care. He did not wish
to fall. 3. The spring is n o w well a d v a n c e d . W e shall s o o n hear the c u c k o o ' s voice again.
4. The g a m e w a s s t o p p e d . A heavy rain s t o r m broke out. 5. She w e n t to Italy in April. I haven't
received a single letter f r o m her. 6. The c h a m p i o n g r e w weaker. His o p p o n e n t ' s attacks
b e c a m e m o r e a n d m o r e violent. 7. I d e c i d e d to s t o p and have lunch first. I w a s feeling rather
hungry. 8. D o n ' t send this t e l e g r a m now. I w a n t Father to read it first. 9. I m a d e the decision.
Then that p h o n e call c a m e . 10. D o n ' t g o there at o n c e . Let t h e m ring y o u up first.

Ex. 1 4 . ( B , C) Translate t h e s e n t e n c e s into English.

1. , . 2.
, . 3.
, . 4 . ,
, . 5.
, . 6. ,
. 7. , . 8.
, . 9. ,
. 10. , .

62
5.6 CONTRAST CLAUSES
We use c o n t r a s t clauses w h e n w e w a n t t o m a k e t w o s t a t e m e n t s a n d o n e of the s t a t e m e n t s
m a k e s the other s e e m surprising.
Contrast clauses are i n t r o d u c e d by c o n j u n c t i o n s : a l t h o u g h , t h o u g h , e v e n t h o u g h :
A l t h o u g h h e w a s l a t e , he s t o p p e d t o buy a n e w s p a p e r .
She finished the race, e v e n t h o u g h s h e h a d a b a d f a l l .
S o m e t i m e s the w o r d s still, nevertheless or just the same are used in the main clause t o a d d
e m p h a s i s t o the contrast:
A l t h o u g h I w a s s h o c k e d , I s t i l l c o u l d n ' t blame him.
A l t h o u g h she hated t h e m ; she a g r e e d t o help t h e m all t h e s a m e .
W e c a n also use d e s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t or i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t o f o r m a c o n t r a s t
clause. In s p o k e n English it is possible to o m i t that:
They ignored his order, in s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t they would probably get into trouble.
He insisted on playing, in s p i t e o f t h e f a c t he had a bad c o l d .

NOTES:

1. To r e n d e r the s a m e idea w e c a n use i n s p i t e o f


d e s p i t e ' + n o u n / p r o n o u n or - i n g
A l t h o u g h the traffic w a s b a d , I arrived on t i m e .
In s p i t e o f the traffic, I arrived on t i m e .
I c o u l d n ' t sleep t h o u g h I w a s very tired.
I c o u l d n ' t sleep d e s p i t e being tired.
2. W e use i n s p i t e o f but d e s p i t e w i t h o u t "of".
In s p i t e o f p o o r h e a l t h , m y f a t h e r w a s always c h e e r f u l .
D e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e in their a g e s t h e y w e r e close friends.
3. E v e n t h o u g h is a s t r o n g e r f o r m of a l t h o u g h .
E v e n t h o u g h I w a s really t i r e d , I c o u l d n ' t sleep.

EXERCISES

Ex. 1 5 . (A, B) M a t c h the t w o parts of s e n t e n c e s using the conjunctions: although, though,


in spite of the fact that t o i n t r o d u c e the c o n t r a s t .
Model: It rained a lot. W e e n j o y e d our holiday.
Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.

1. She w a s n ' t well. She w e n t t o w o r k .

2. I'm not tired. I've been w o r k i n g hard all day.

3. The house isn't very nice. I like the g a r d e n .

4. I've never seen him b e f o r e . I r e c o g n i z e d him f r o m a p h o t o g r a p h .

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5. I d o n ' t play the piano now. I used to w h e n I w a s y o u n g e r .

6. Y o u look very m u c h as y o u r g r a n d f a t h e r . Y o u ' r e not as tall as he w a s .

7. W e w e r e hungry. W e had no time for lunch.

8. W e are poor. W e still have our pride.

9. He w a s difficult t o u n d e r s t a n d . His English w a s very g o o d .

10. W e started early. W e only arrived just in t i m e .

1 1 . It w a s very w a r m . She had her c o a t o n .

Ex. 1 6 . ( B , C) Use either a noun g r o u p or o n e of the phrases to c o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s .


C h o o s e the right c o n n e c t i v e : although, despite, in spite of.

his recent illness I had planned everything carefully.


his English name I haven't g o t m u c h m o n e y .
all his precautions I'm afraid I w o n ' t be able t o .
his injury You write well.
I worked hard.

1. ,a lot of t h i n g s w e n t w r o n g .
2. I'm g o i n g very well, .
3. he is in f a c t G e r m a n .
4. I'm g o i n g t o buy a car, .
5. I'd like to help y o u , .
6. , his m o n e y has b e e n stolen.
7. , I still have t o take w o r k h o m e .
8. , y o u w o n ' t be p u b l i s h e d .
9. He c o n t i n u e d the race, .
10. , I failed m y e x a m s .

Ex. 1 7 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

1. , ,
.
2. , .
3. , , , .
4. (exhausted), .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , ,
.

64
8. 2 4 , .
9. 9 , .
10. , , .
11. , , .
12. , .
13. , , .
14. , .

REVISION

Ex. 1 . (A, B) Fill in the c o n j u n c t i o n necessary.

1. it w a s very c o l d , he w e n t out w i t h o u t an overcoat.


2. I w a s feeling t i r e d , I w e n t t o b e d early.
3. It smells s o m e o n e has b e e n s m o k i n g here.
4. Robert s u d d e n l y b e g a n t o feel ill he w a s d o i n g the examination.
5. s h e ' d finished her w o r k , it w a s t o o late t o g o s h o p p i n g .
6. I'm g o i n g out now. I'll be b a c k in an hour. Will y o u stay here I'm back?
7. The h o u s e s are k n o c k e d d o w n t h e y c a n be r e p l a c e d by car parks and
office b l o c k s .
8. I heard the noise, I i m m e d i a t e l y t e l e p h o n e d the police.
9. W e s p o k e quietly, w e d i d n ' t w a n t t o disturb anyone.
10. I've read the b o o k g o i n g t o see the film.
11. She w a s told t h e r e w e r e no t i c k e t s left.
12. It's t w o w e e k s n o w I w r o t e to y o u .
13. He behaves he d o e s , b e c a u s e his f a t h e r w a s very strict with him.
14. These are the people Catherine w a s referring.
15. That w a s the s a m e r o o m w e stayed f o r our h o n e y m o o n .
16. Can y o u lay the table I g e t the d i n n e r ready?
17. t h e y are out of w o r k , t h e y still can a f f o r d the rent.
18. The p h o n e rang just I sat d o w n t o eat.
19. It looks he isn't g o i n g to c o m e .
20. I w a t c h e d her she w a s o p e n i n g the letter.
21. I d i d n ' t g e t the j o b , I had all the required qualifications.
22. Y o u ' r e t o o late to c a t c h the train leaves at 2.15.

Ex. 2 . ( B , C) Fill in the blanks with the w o r d s f r o m the box.

till, in, into, as, like, by, o n , w i t h , at, o n c e , after, b e c a u s e

Even Higgs, I t h o u g h t , w o n ' t be able t o find m e here.


I sat d o w n (1) the e d g e of the lake and pulling off m y shoes and s o c k s put m y feet
(2) the water. It w a s c o l d (3) ice. (4) a m o m e n t I bent over
and splashed s o m e of the water on m y hot face. I could see the faint outline of m y reflection,
staring at m e (5) a stranger.

65
I realised s u d d e n l y h o w tired I w a s of running away. First the night flight (6) the
small stuffy plane, t h e n the long tiring j o u r n e y (7) the p a c k e d train, the bus, the
talkative lorry-driver f r o m w h o m I had hitched a lift and t h e n the eight mile w a l k a c r o s s
unfamiliar c o u n t r y (8) I r e a c h e d the lake. There w a s a tiny c o t t a g e (9)
the far side of the lake (10) a plume of s m o k e c o m i n g f r o m the c h i m n e y . I still had
a little m o n e y . Perhaps t h e y w o u l d give m e a b e d a n d s o m e f o o d .
(11) I w a t c h e d , a m a n c a m e out of the c o t t a g e a n d d o w n t o a little boat that lay
b o b b i n g (12) the lakeside. He g o t (13) it a n d b e g a n t o row unhurriedly
t o w a r d s m y side. I c o u l d not see his f a c e at first (14) the boat w a s (15)
s h a d o w . He c o n t i n u e d steadily a c r o s s the lake a n d , w h e n he w a s a b o u t halfway a c r o s s , he
rested his oars a n d the boat drifted (16) a p a t c h of sunlight. He lifted his hand in
a friendly gesture of g r e e t i n g . I w a s a b o u t to raise mine (17) reply w h e n , all at (18)
, I saw his f a c e clearly. It w a s Higgs!

Ex. 3 . ( B , C ) Fill in the blanks with the suitable w o r d s f r o m the box.

b e c a u s e , in, like, that, w h a t , till, after, b e f o r e , besides, w i t h , as, a m o n g , by

FROM " P Y G M A L I O N "


(after B. Shaw)

HIGGINS: In six m o n t h s I shall m a k e a d u c h e s s of this flower girl. We'll start t o d a y . M r s


Pearce, is there a g o o d fire (1) the kitchen? S h e ' s so deliciously low - so horribly
dirty - Take all her clothes off and burn t h e m . Ring up Whitley for new ones. W r a p her up (2)
b r o w n p a p e r (3) they come.
LIZA: I ain't dirty. I w a s h e d m e f a c e a n d h a n d s (4) I c a m e here.
M R S PEARCE: Y o u m u s t be reasonable, M r Higgins. You c a n ' t walk over e v e r y b o d y (5)
that.
HIGGINS: I never had the slightest intention to walk over anyone. All I propose is (6)
we s h o u l d be kind to this p o o r girl. W e m u s t help her to p r e p a r e and fit herself for her new
station (7) life. If I did not e x p r e s s myself clearly, it w a s (8) I did not
wish t o hurt her delicacy. W h a t ' s the matter?
MRS PEARCE: The matter is, sir, (9) y o u c a n ' t take the girl up (10) that
as if y o u w e r e picking up a p e b b l e on the b e a c h . (11) a b o u t her parents? She
may be m a r r i e d .
HIGGINS: Married indeed! Don't y o u know (12) a w o m a n of that class looks a worn
out d r u d g e ( ) of fifty a year (13) s h e ' s married?
LIZA: W h o ' d marry me?
HIGGINS: By G e o r g e , Eliza, the streets will be strewn (14) bodies of m e n shooting
t h e m s e l v e s for y o u r sake (15) I've d o n e (16) you.
PICKERING: Excuse m e , Higgins. If the girl is to put herself (17) y o u r hands for six
m o n t h s for an experiment in t e a c h i n g , she must understand t h o r o u g h l y (18) she is
doing.
HIGGINS: How can she? She is incapable of understanding anything. (19) , d o any
of us u n d e r s t a n d (20) w e are d o i n g ? If w e d i d , w o u l d w e ever d o it? No use
explaining. (21) a military m a n y o u o u g h t t o k n o w that. Give her her o r d e r s ;

66
(22) is (23) she w a n t s . Eliza, y o u are t o live here f o r the next six
m o n t h s , learning h o w to s p e a k beautifully, (24) a lady (25) a florist's
shop. If y o u ' r e g o o d , y o u shall sleep (26) a p r o p e r b e d r o o m and have lots t o eat.
If y o u ' r e n a u g h t y a n d idle, y o u will sleep (27) the b a c k kitchen (28) the
black beetles, a n d be w a l l o p e d ( ) (29) M r s Pearce (30) a
b r o o m s t i c k . At the e n d of six m o n t h s y o u shall g o to B u c k i n g h a m Palace (31) a
carriage. If the King finds out y o u ' r e not a lady, y o u will be taken (32) police to the
T o w e r of L o n d o n , w h e r e y o u r h e a d will be c u t off (33) a w a r n i n g to o t h e r
p r e s u m p t u o u s flower girls. If y o u are not f o u n d out, y o u shall have a present of s e v e n - a n d -
sixpence t o start life with (34) a lady (35) a shop.

Ex. 4 . (A, B) Read the text. Fill in the blanks with the suitable w o r d s f r o m the box, w h e r e
necessary. Y o u m a y need s o m e of the w o r d s m o r e than o n c e .

o n c e , o n , as, in, after, with, by, into, that, until, w h a t , b e f o r e , o n , w h i c h , besides

FITTING I N
(after M i k e Quin)

(1) t h e r e w e r e t w o philosophers, w h o , having a n s w e r e d an a d v e r t i s e m e n t


(2) the n e w s p a p e r , g o t t h e m s e l v e s j o b s (3) lighthouse k e e p e r s on a
lonely island w a y out (4) the middle of the Pacific O c e a n .
T h e y w e r e t h e o n l y h u m a n b e i n g s (5) t h e island a n d t h e r e w a s o n l y o n e
little h o u s e f o r t h e m t o live (6) . (7) t h e y had b e e n put a s h o r e
(8) all t h e i r b e l o n g i n g s , t h e y p i c k e d u p t h e i r s u i t c a s e s a n d s t a r t e d w a l k i n g
towards the house.
A l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e both p h i l o s o p h e r s , t h e y had entirely different views.
(9) t h e y w e r e walking a l o n g , o n e of t h e m said, "This is a lonely place hardly ever
visited (10) m e n , but (11) m y p h i l o s o p h y s h a r e d (12) many
people all over the w o r l d , I'm sure (13) I will be able t o fit myself (14)
it. Given s o m e time, I can a c c o m m o d a t e myself to anything. It is merely a matter of adjusting
o n e ' s mind to it."
"It is lonely e n o u g h , " the o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r replied (15) he l o o k e d a r o u n d , "but
I'm sure (16) w e will be able to fix it up so (17) it is suitable t o our
needs. It is just a m a t t e r of a little hard w o r k a n d p e r s e v e r a n c e . "
So saying t h e y w a l k e d (18) the house. Everything w e n t well (19) they
c a m e t o the b e d r o o m . (20) t h e y c a m e (21) it, t h e y s a w t h a t the b e d s
w e r e t o o little for t h e m .
"We'll certainly have t o c h a n g e this," e x c l a i m e d o n e . " N e i t h e r y o u nor I c o u l d sleep
(22) those!"
"I c a n see (23) y o u are of t h o s e radical c o m p l a i n e r s , " said the other. " W h y d o n ' t
y o u take the things as y o u find t h e m ? T h a t ' s m y philosophy. Fit yourself (24) !
W h y try to c h a n g e the w o r l d ? Take it as it is a n d m a k e the best of it!"
The o t h e r said, " W o u l d n ' t it be wiser t o m a k e the b e d s larger (25) a little effort?
T h a t ' s (26) I'm g o i n g t o d o (27) mine."
"You're an unpractical d r e a m e r , " said the conservative philosopher. "Think of all the trouble.

67
In the first place, y o u w o u l d have t o c h o p d o w n a t r e e , saw it (28) b o a r d s , and
then y o u ' d have t o h a m m e r nails (29) t h e m . It's all very well f o r y o u t o s p e a k
a b o u t y o u r Utopian ideas, but just try t o put t h e m (30) practice. S u p p o s e the tree
falls on y o u or y o u miss the nail (31) the h a m m e r and hit y o u r t h u m b ? "
"Do as y o u please," said the other and started c h o p p i n g d o w n a tree (32) an axe.
The o t h e r m a n t o o k off his c l o t h e s a n d s t e p p e d (33) a t u b filled (34)
cold w a t e r . (35) he w a s a t t r a c t e d (36) the c h a t t e r i n g of t e e t h , the
industrious p h i l o s o p h e r left his w o r k a n d w e n t t o find out (37) w a s the matter
(38) his c o m p a n i o n . The other explained (39) he w a s shrinking himself
to be exactly the right size t o fit the b e d . (40) he had failed t o s h o r t e n his length
and had c a u g h t a very b a d c o l d instead, the conservative p h i l o s o p h e r b e g a n to write an
essay on the benefits of d i s c o m f o r t , to justify his position. (41) the s u n d o w n , he
a p p r o a c h e d his c o m p a n i o n w h o by n o w w a s h a m m e r i n g the last nails (42) his
finished b e d and told him (43) he had d e c i d e d t o c h o p off his legs, (44)
would make him just the right size. (45) , his feet hurt him anyway. He rolled up his
pants, put o n e leg on the block, raised the axe, a n d t h e n c h a n g e d his m i n d . "If G o d m e a n t
m e t o s u f f e r , " he s a i d , "it is b e t t e r ( 4 6 ) I s u f f e r a n d not t r y t o i n t e r f e r e
(47) his will."
Late that night the industrious philosopher w a s a w a k e n e d (48) s o m e o n e shaking
his shoulder. "The t h i n g (49) I d o n ' t like a b o u t y o u C o m m u n i s t s , " said the
conservative, "is (50) in the e n d all y o u are thinking of is yourself. H o w can y o u
sleep c o m f o r t a b l y (51) that big b e d while I, a fellow h u m a n b e i n g , a m c r a m p e d
beyond human endurance?"
"Climb (52) ," said the radical, "and stop c o m p l a i n i n g . "
The conservative c l i m b e d (53) a n d s t r e t c h i n g out his legs s i g h e d in relief. T h e n ,
(54) he w e n t t o sleep, he said, "If y o u w a n t to put y o u r p r o p a g a n d a over on me,
y o u m i g h t as well f o r g e t it. I have a mind of m y o w n and I'm not g o i n g t o be d i c t a t e d t o . This
bed will p r o b a b l y collapse (55) m o r n i n g a n y h o w . S o d o n ' t say (56) I
didn't warn y o u . "

Ex. 5 . ( B , C) Supply the missing prepositions, c o n j u n c t i o n s and connectives.

MRS BENNET' DEAREST W I S H


(after Jane Austen)

Everyone k n o w s (1) a m a n (2) a g o o d i n c o m e w h o is not y e t married


must need a wife. W h e n s u c h a m a n m o v e s (3) a new n e i g h b o r h o o d , this truth is
so well fixed (4) the m i n d s of the families w h o live t h e r e , that t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y
consider him t o be the p r o p e r t y of o n e or other (5) their d a u g h t e r s . (6)
he himself m a y think a b o u t it is not a m a t t e r of any i m p o r t a n c e .
" M y d e a r M r B e n n e t , " M r s B e n n e t said (7) her h u s b a n d o n e m o r n i n g , "did y o u
k n o w that Netherfield Park has b e e n let (8) last?"
Mr B e n n e t a n s w e r e d that he did not.
"Well, it has. M r s Long has just b e e n here a n d she told m e . "
Mr Bennet said nothing.
" D o n ' t y o u w a n t to k n o w w h o has rented it?" cried his wife impatiently.

68
"You w a n t t o tell m e and I have no o b j e c t i o n (9) listening.
This w a s e n o u g h (10) M r s Bennet.
" M y dear, M r s Long says it has b e e n rented (11) a y o u n g m a n (12) a
large fortune. He c a m e d o w n (13) M o n d a y to see the place and w a s so delighted
(14) it that he plans to move (15) b e f o r e the e n d of this m o n t h . "
"What's his name?"
"Bingley."
"Is he married or single?"
"Oh, single, m y dear! A single m a n (16) a very g o o d i n c o m e , f o u r t h o u s a n d
p o u n d s a year. W h a t a fine t h i n g (17) o u r girls!"
"However d o e s it affect t h e m ? "
" M y d e a r M r Bennet, h o w can y o u be so a n n o y i n g ! (18) I m e a n is that he might
marry o n e of t h e m . "
"Is that his reason (19) renting Netherfield Park?"
"His reason? Of c o u r s e not! Still, it is very likely t h a t he will fall (20) love
(21) o n e of t h e m , so y o u m u s t visit him (22) s o o n (23) he
arrives."
"I see no need f o r that. Y o u and the girls c a n g o , or y o u can s e n d the five (24)
t h e m by t h e m s e l v e s . "
"But c o n s i d e r y o u r d a u g h t e r s . Just think w h a t a g o o d marriage it w o u l d be for o n e of t h e m !
You m u s t g o ! It will be impossible (25) us to visit him if y o u d o not."
" I ' m sure M r Bingley will be very glad t o see y o u ; and I'll give y o u a letter saying he has m y
p e r m i s s i o n t o m a r r y a n y of the girls he c h o o s e s - t h o u g h I m u s t r e c o m m e n d m y little
Lizzy."
"You will d o no s u c h t h i n g . Lizzy is no better (26) the o t h e r s a n d she is not
(27) pretty (28) J a n e nor (29) pleasant (30)
Lydia."
" N o n e of t h e m have m u c h t o r e c o m m e n d t h e m , " he replied. "They are all silly, stupid girls
but Lizzy is (31) least a bit m o r e intelligent than the o t h e r s . "
" M r B e n n e t , (32) can y o u be so r u d e (33) y o u r o w n children? You
delight (34) upsetting m e . Y o u m a k e m e so nervous. You d o n ' t k n o w w h a t I
suffer."

TESTS

I. Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

1. , .
2. , .
3. (signature), .
4. , .
5. , .

69
I I . C r o s s out the relative p r o n o u n in the relative clauses w h e r e possible.

1. I like people w h o are extrovert and sociable.


2. Careful with that! It's the bag in w h i c h I k e e p m y keys.
3. M o n k e y s w h i c h a n n o y people in one Indian state are locked up in a special jail.
4. As a vegetarian, there a r e n ' t m a n y things that I can eat in this restaurant.

III. Rewrite these s e n t e n c e s with:

a) a p u r p o s e c l a u s e containing a modal
1. He tied a knot () in his handkerchief, b e c a u s e he d i d n ' t w a n t t o f o r g e t s o m e t h i n g .
2. I w a v e d m y a r m s , b e c a u s e I w a n t e d t h e m to see m e .

b) a c o n t r a s t c l a u s e
1. M o s t of e m p l o y e e s w e r e w o r k i n g m o t h e r s , but the c o m p a n y refused t o provide nursery
facilities ( ).
2. W e live in the s a m e house, but w e hardly ever s p e a k t o e a c h other.

IV. C h o o s e the right c o n n e c t o r f o r the given s e n t e n c e .

1. W e w e n t out t o get that/what w e n e e d e d .


2. I k n o w that/what he b o u g h t a small kitten.

V. C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s using the c o n j u n c t i o n s f r o m the box.

in o r d e r not t o , as, till, b e c a u s e , while

1. waiting for the w a t e r to boil he m a d e a call.


2. You'll have t o wait w e ' v e finished here.
3. You m u s t c o n s u m e 2 2 5 0 calories daily lose or gain wait.
4. A n o t h e r advert () has b e e n b a n n e d f r o m c h i l d r e n ' s TV it f r i g h t e n s
children.
5. I serve m y c o u n t r y my father did.

II

I. Translate the s e n t e n c e s .

1. , , .
2. , , .
3. , , .
4. (limp), (hurt) .
5. , .

70
I I . C r o s s out the relative p r o n o u n in the relative clauses w h e r e possible.

1. W h a t ' s the best holiday that y o u ' v e ever had?


2. The d o c t o r has given m e s o m e new m e d i c i n e w h i c h is better than the old one.
3. T h a t ' s the w o m a n w h o told m e a b o u t the j o b .
4. W h a t d o y o u think a b o u t the t h i n g s that y o u did w h e n y o u w e r e y o u n g ?

III. Rewrite these s e n t e n c e s with:

a) a c o n t r a s t c l a u s e
1. Everyone d i s a g r e e d with h i m , but he insisted that he w a s right.
2. I'm exhausted. I've d o n e nothing all day.

b) a p u r p o s e c l a u s e containing a m o d e l
1. She left her a d d r e s s , b e c a u s e she w a n t e d us t o f o r w a r d her letters.
2. I'll fasten the byke, I d o n ' t w a n t it to be sfolen.

IV. C h o o s e the right c o n n e c t o r for the given s e n t e n c e .

1. There w a s a d a n g e r what/that t h e y w o u l d d e c i d e t o leave.


2. She a s k e d what/that I'd b r o u g h t with me.

V. C o m p l e t e the s e n t e n c e s using the c o n j u n c t i o n s f r o m the box.

in o r d e r that, since, t h o u g h , t h e r e f o r e , as

1. He previously w o r k e d in the Ministry of Finance, he c o m e s with a g r e a t deal of


experience.
2. he d r e w closer, picking his w a y t h r o u g h the r o c k s , he c o u l d see t h a t his son
was crying.
3. He b e g a n s m o k i n g he has s o m e t h i n g t o d o with his hands.
4. This w a s not an easy d e c i s i o n , it w a s d i c t a t e d by our duty.
5. It's over t e n y e a r s w e left college.
EMPHASIS
In t h e English l a n g u a g e t h e r e is a variety of w a y s t o e m p h a s i z e (, )
the m e a n i n g of certain parts of a s e n t e n c e . W e shall deal here with t h o s e that m a y c a u s e
s o m e difficulty in u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d interpreting t h e sense of t h e s e n t e n c e : e m p h a t i c d o ;
double negation; e m p h a t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s "it is... that/which/who/whom"; "it was not until...
that"; t h e e m p h a t i c phrase "not... till/until".

1. THE EMPHATIC DO
The v e r b d o is used to e m p h a s i z e t h e p r e d i c a t e of t h e s e n t e n c e . It is placed right b e f o r e
the p r e d i c a t e in t h e required g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m , a n d t h e predicate is in t h e f o r m of the
infinitive without to:
W e waited a n d waited, a n d finally , , -
he d i d c o m e . .
She d i d learn to drive at t h e a g e of 6 5 .
6 5 - .
He d o e s k n o w a lot a b o u t the o c e a n . .
She d o e s talk a lot, d o e s n ' t she? , , .

N O T E : t h e v e r b do in t h e s e c a s e s is always p r o n o u n c e d with s t r o n g stress.

EXERCISES

Ex. 1 . ( A , B ) Translate t h e s e n t e n c e s into Russian. Try to c o n v e y t h e exact m e a n i n g of the


emphatic do.

1. I d o n ' t have m u c h c o n t a c t with m y family. I d o s e e m y y o u n g e r sister, t h o u g h , w h e n I


c o m e t o L o n d o n . 2. I d o n ' t take m u c h exercise now, but I did play volleyball quite a lot w h e n
I w a s at s c h o o l . 3. He said he w o u l d c o m e a n d he d i d c o m e . 4 . N o w I see t h a t she d o e s
k n o w t h e s u b j e c t well. 5. W e d o not k n o w very m u c h of this author. But w e d o k n o w that all
the t h r e e p o e m s w e r e written by him. 6. O n e d a y a big wolf waited in a d a r k forest f o r a little
girl to c o m e along carrying a basket of f o o d t o her g r a n d m o t h e r . Finally a little girl d i d c o m e
a l o n g . 7. Materialism d o e s not d e n y t h e reality of m i n d . W h a t materialism d o e s d e n y is that
a t h i n g called the mind exists s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e b o d y . 8. I d o n ' t o b j e c t t o y o u r g o i n g to
the m o u n t a i n s , but I d o o b j e c t t o y o u r g o i n g t h e r e u n a c c o m p a n i e d . 9. This writer d o e s ,
however, b e l o n g t o that small a n d select c o m p a n y of c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s w h o s e best
w o r k will survive beyond their lifetime. 10. He d i d n ' t c o m e , but he did send t h e m the atlas as
he had p r o m i s e d .

Ex. 2 . ( B , C ) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into English.

1. , - . 2.
. 3. - , . 4 .

72
. 5. . 6. , ,
. 7. - ! 8. - .
9. . 10. - ,
.

2. DOUBLE NEGATION
The particle n o t b e f o r e a negative adjective or a d v e r b serves t o e m p h a s i z e the positive
meaning of the adjective or adverb. S u c h phrases are usually rendered in Russian by means
of the c o m b i n a t i o n s , , + ( ) :
not unusual -
not impossible -
not infrequently -
C o n s t r u c t i o n s of this t y p e are n o t u n u s u a l in this country.
S u c h o u t c o m e is n o t i m p o s s i b l e .
These m a c h i n e s c a u s e t r o u b l e n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y .

EXERCISE

Ex. 3 . (A, B, C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into Russian.

1. The total n u m b e r of German w o r d s in English is not inconsiderable. 2. Their contribution to


the c o m m o n cause w a s not insignificant. 3. This s e c o n d novel w a s savagely, but not unfairly
criticized. 4 . I w o u l d say, his reaction w a s not u n r e a s o n a b l e . 5. It is not u n r e a s o n a b l e to
g r o u p t o g e t h e r the painters w h o w o r k e d chiefly in Florence. 6. S t o r m s and hurricanes are
not infrequent in t h e s e parts of the w o r l d . 7. I'm afraid that w a s d o n e not irregularly. 8. This
last w o r k of his is not uninteresting a n d will not be u n s u c c e s s f u l . 9. Our life t h e r e w a s not
uneventful. 10. He looked d o w n at her not in an unfriendly way.

3. THE EMPHATIC CONSTRUCTION


"IT IS ... THAT, WHICH, W H O , W H O M "
This c o n s t r u c t i o n is a g r a m m a t i c a l m e a n s t o e m p h a s i z e s o m e part of a s e n t e n c e . The
e m p h a s i z e d part is placed b e t w e e n it a n d that, a n d the w h o l e s e n t e n c e is a c o m p l e x one.
Russian sentences c o r r e s p o n d i n g in meaning to such constructions, are usually simple, with
e m p h a t i c w o r d s b e f o r e the e m p h a s i z e d part of the s e n t e n c e . S o m e t i m e s , in Russian
s e n t e n c e s t h e s e e m p h a s i z e d parts are p l a c e d at the e n d .
It is always the unusual w h i c h alarms. -
.
It w a s he w h o had started t h e d i s c u s s i o n . - .

73
N O T E : most frequently used Russian e m p h a t i c w o r d s are: , , , .
In the negative s e n t e n c e s t h e y are: ; :
But it is not the Detective I n s p e c t o r w h o is the central figure in the film.

EXERCISES

Ex. 4 . (A, B) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into Russian.

1. It w a s in his d e a l i n g s with children that the best a n d s w e e t e s t side of his personality w a s


m a n i f e s t e d . 2. It w a s not w i t h o u t a certain wild pleasure that I ran b e f o r e the w i n d . 3. It w a s
on the b e a c h , close d o w n by the sea, that I f o u n d t h e m . 4 . A n d it w a s m y dearest friend w h o
first started m e on that c o u r s e . 5. It is no d o u b t to this quality that the great popularity of this
collection is d u e . 6. It w a s t h e n that the hunger, the e x c i t e m e n t of her e s c a p e , a n d the
scintillation of the o v e r h e a d lights c a u s e d Toni to s u d d e n l y feel as g i d d y as a falling m o t h .
7. O n c e past the t h e a t r e , t h e y w a n d e r e d on t o the library, a h a n d s o m e , s e r i o u s - l o o k i n g
r o o m , a n d it w a s just past it that Liane d i s c o v e r e d the w i n t e r g a r d e n , a n d she g a s p e d as
they s t e p p e d inside. 8.It w a s the first t i m e in the w h o l e year t h a t he had lost b a l a n c e . 9. It
w a s of Walter that t h e y n o w s p o k e . 10. It w a s while looking at the s p o t w h e r e the fine
porcelain vase had s t o o d that she felt a strange certainty of being w a t c h e d , and turning saw
a s t r a n g e r in the o p e n d o o r way. 1 1 . It w a s their identification of M s Balantine with a certain
school of A m e r i c a n w r i t e r s t h a t m a d e her s u b j e c t t o a p o w e r f u l line of a t t a c k on the part of
literary critics. 12. It is not f r o m outside, however, but f r o m within, that A m e r i c a n English has
m a d e the greatest additions t o its special w o r d s and their uses. 13. It is not only w o m e n w h o
go t o p a w n b r o k e r s , y o u know. 14. It isn't everyone w h o has mink, m y dear. 15. It is w h e n
m e n begin t o use t o o l s f o r social p r o d u c t i o n that t h e y also begin t o speak. 16. It w a s only
with the help of m y f r i e n d s that I m a n a g e d t o survive that t r a g e d y .

Ex. 5 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into English.

1. . 2. .
3. . 4. . 5.
. 6.
. 7. . 8. ,
, .
9. . 10. ,
.

4. THE EMPHATIC CONSTRUCTION


"IT IS NOT UNTIL ... THAT"
When an adverbial modifier of time is emphasized by means of this construction, it is rendered
in Russian by a simple affirmative sentence with emphasizing w o r d s :
It w a s n o t u n t i l noon t h a t w e w e r e able to resume our work. -
.

74
W h e n an adverbial clause of t i m e is e m p h a s i z e d , it is r e n d e r e d in Russian by a c o m p l e x
sentence:
It w a s n o t u n t i l t h e y r e a c h e d their house t h a t he r e m e m b e r e d a b o u t the letter. -
( ) , , .

EXERCISES

Ex. 6 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into Russian.

1. Actually, however, it is not until the other person begins t o s p e a k that y o u can f o r m a very
definite idea of his personality and his character. 2. It w a s not until 1846, w h e n "Vanity Fair"
b e g a n t o a p p e a r , that T h a c k e r a y attained any e m i n e n c e . 3. It w a s not until the e n d of the
seventeenth c e n t u r y that France b e g a n to p r o d u c e an art that, instead of e c h o i n g the f a d e d
g l a m o u r of Italy, reflected the lively if equally artificial life of Versailles. 4 . It w a s not till
i m p r e s s i o n i s m t u r n e d its attention t o the nature of light a n d especially to the c o l o u r of
s h a d o w that painters evolved a n e w w a y of s e e i n g . 5. It w a s not until seven y e a r s had
passed since the manuscripts had c o m e into this scientist's hands that they published t h e m
with the introduction translated into English. 6. It w a s not till a c e n t u r y and a half had passed
after Claudian c o n q u e s t that the E m p e r o r Severus m a r k e d the final limit of the northern
frontier b e t w e e n Scotland and England by renovating the wall that Hadrian had e r e c t e d .

(from . H. . .)

Ex. 7 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into English.

1. . 2. ,
, . 3.
. 4 . . 5. ,
, . 6.
. 7.
. 8. , ,
. 9. , ,
, . 10. , .

5. THE EMPHATIC "NOT ... TILL/UNTIL"


This negative c o n s t r u c t i o n is r e n d e r e d in Russian by m e a n s of an affirmative s e n t e n c e with
the e m p h a t i c w o r d s b e f o r e the adverbial modifier of t i m e .

Not till/until after =

T h e y did n o t c o m e b a c k t i l l late at night. - .


T h e y did n o t m e e t again u n t i l a f t e r the war. -
.

75
EXERCISES

Ex. 8 . (A, B) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into Russian.

1. The first part of his novel did not c o m e out until after his return f r o m the trip. 2. C o t t o n
was not i n t r o d u c e d to J a p a n f r o m China until later and w o o l w a s u n k n o w n . 3. The last novel
by C h . B r o n t e r e m a i n e d unfinished and w a s not published until the e n d of the 20th c e n t u r y
w h e n it w a s c o m p l e t e d by a n o t h e r a u t h o r e s s . 4 . In England ancient fields indicate that no
plough w a s used till late in the local bronze age, a b o u t 8 0 0 B. C., and then at first only in the
South. 5. Silver and lead w e r e not used in Britain till after 5 0 0 , t h o u g h Britain is well supplied
with lead ores.6. " U t o p i a " w a s written in Latin a b o u t 1516, and it w a s not translated till 1 5 5 1 ,
s o m e y e a r s after M o r e ' s d e a t h .

Ex. 9 . ( B , C) Translate the s e n t e n c e s into English.

1. . 2.
8 . 3. . 4 . 11 .
5. . 6.
. 7. . 8.
. 9. . 10.
.

TRANSLATE THESE COMPLEX SENTENCES I N T O RUSSIAN

I ( B , C)
1. M o r t i m e r r e m a i n s u n c o n s c i o u s of t h e d o c u m e n t until L a d y T i p p i n s s a y s , "The
C o m m e n d a t o r e is giving y o u the note. W h y d o n ' t y o u take it f r o m him?"
2. I saw her o n c e , y o u know, M a r t a . She c o u l d have had a g o o d life o n c e he b e c a m e
f a m o u s . But she refused everything a n d , just o n c e , he t o o k m e t o m e e t her.
3. I s u p p o s e , in view of everything, it's amazing that he ever fell in love with m e at all. A n d
t h a t ' s w h y I'll g o back.
4. "Things like t h a t only h a p p e n in A c t Three in O p e r e t t a . " - "It w a s surely pure o p e r e t t a
that y o u c a m e t o w o r k in H o c h h a u s e r - m y s o n ' s girlfriend d i s g u i s e d as a prim stage
d e s i g n e r - spying out the m y s t e r y of her lover's s e c r e t father."
5. There w a s a n o c k on the d o o r . " D ' y o u w a n t anything i r o n e d ? " Declan p e e r e d in the
mirror: "Only m y f a c e . " He gave her his suit, light g r e y a n d very lightweight, as he w a s
g o i n g to be u n d e r the hot lights f o r an hour.
6. I k n e w I had g o t it w r o n g again - t h a t w h a t w a s m e a n t to be g r a n d a n d r o m a n t i c w a s
funny and a mistake.
7. It w a s c u r i o u s , f o r all a r o u n d t h e m w a s noise, people talking, e a t i n g , the smells of the
kitchen wafting t h r o u g h and over t h e m , and y e t she felt t h e y w e r e c o c o o n e d in a silent
world of their o w n , images lifting and falling f r o m the past, making her understand things,
as he t a l k e d .
8. I haven't heard s u c h language as y o u r s since w e used to review the v o l u n t e e r s in Hyde
Park t w e n t y y e a r s a g o .

76
9. Y o u m u s t forgive m y g r a n d f a t h e r , for, as far as he is c o n c e r n e d , it is y e s t e r d a y that the
Civil War e n d e d , a n d besides, discretion has never been a m o n g his s t r o n g e s t traits.
10. " J a m e s will ask y o u y o u r idea of the perfect romantic hero, Ashley," Deirdre w a s saying
earnestly. "And it'd very nice if y o u c o u l d say: "You are, J a m e s " , w h i c h w o u l d bring
J a m e s in the c e n t r e of the interview."
11. The t r e e s r o u n d the house are very tall, w h i c h m a k e s the r o o m dark.
12. The longer I looked at the picture, the m o r e did it a p p e a l t o me.
13. Their lives, however, were uneventful and they had rather grown into the habit of expecting
Mr Hathaway to bring b a c k exciting tales of the people and a d v e n t u r e s he had m e t with
as he travelled about the country. "Well, did anything interesting happen?" M r s Hathaway
w o u l d ask as she h e l p e d him off with his o v e r c o a t in the hall. He had a little talent for
telling stories a n d if he a d d e d a little c o l o u r a n d e x c i t e m e n t , it hardly m a t t e r e d since
there w a s n o - o n e t o c o n t r a d i c t him.
14. An a n g r y a r g u m e n t s u d d e n l y d e v e l o p s b e t w e e n the clerk and the c u s t o m e r at the
c o u n t e r , or information is a s k e d for, w h i c h results in the clerk having t o ask a senior
official, or, if it's a particularly tricky p r o b l e m , d i s a p p e a r into a b a c k r o o m . W h y it takes
him so long, I d o n ' t know. Perhaps he has a q u i c k s n a c k but no, that c a n ' t be right
because w h e n at last m y turn c o m e s , he pushes f o r w a r d a printed sign, saying "Position
C l o s e d " and without a smile says briefly, "Sorry, g o i n g to l u n c h . "

II (C)
1. Later Robert, Earl of Leichester married the countess of Essex, which he also kept secret.
2. The fish, he thinks, were eaten raw, which, to s o m e extent, still is the c u s t o m of the Aleuts.
3. What the author really meant, and what he showed in his own work, w a s something quite
different f r o m w h a t he actually s t a t e d .
4. That translation is an interpretive art is a self-evident t r u t h . Yet it is a paradox peculiar to
the translator that he is the only interpretive artist w o r k i n g in a m e d i u m w h i c h is both
identical with, and different f r o m that of the original he sets out to render in his own terms.
5. What Greece and Rome have been to Europe, China has been to the nations of the Far East.
6. W h y the noble e x a m p l e set by C h a u c e r s h o u l d not have been followed up or even
d e v e l o p e d in other d i r e c t i o n s it is difficult to tell.
7. That many w o r d s which are separated in spelling are in reality c o m p o u n d s is also proved
by the f a c t that t h e y are g r a m m a t i c a l l y t r e a t e d as if t h e y w e r e single w o r d s .
8. It is natural, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the s p r e a d of the English l a n g u a g e to distant parts of the
world should have been a c c o m p a n i e d by linguistic c h a n g e s resulting in the development
of new dialects.
9. Exeter, the ancient capital of Devonshire, is a lovely city, p r o u d of being the only English
t o w n that has b e e n lived in c o n t i n u o u s l y since the t i m e of the R o m a n s .
10. Over m o s t of England the average peasant had to stay w h e r e he w a s , d o w h a t he w a s
t o l d , a n d w o r k f o r o t h e r s as well as f o r himself, since o t h e r w i s e the feudal c o n t r a c t
could not be fulfilled by his social superiors.
1 1 . It w a s d u r i n g the reign of T h e o d o s i o s I, the Great, 3 7 9 - 3 9 5 , that the O l y m p i c g a m e s
w e r e held at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e (393), a n u m b e r of antique m o n u m e n t s being b r o u g h t to
a d o r n the capital in h o n o u r of the o c c a s i o n .
12. And it is precisely here that the comedies of Johnson and Shakespeare differ most profoundly.

77
TESTS
I
A. Put in suitable conjunctions.
1. T h a n k s , but t h a t ' s not I wanted.
2. Always brush y o u r t e e t h y o u have a meal.
3. I k n e w her family, I did w h a t I c o u l d f o r her.
4. Can y o u w a t c h the kids I'm out?
5. W e w o n ' t k n o w w h a t has h a p p e n e d Sean p h o n e s .
6. He h a s n ' t looked at a n o t h e r girl he m e t Julie.
7. I'm quite sure s h e ' s telling the t r u t h .
8. Let's start now, w e ' r e sure t o have e n o u g h t i m e .
9. I feel I'm g e t t i n g a c o l d .
10. I'm sorry f o r the people haven't g o t a sense of h u m o r .

B. Translate the s e n t e n c e s .
1. , ( r e s p e c t ) .
2. , .
3. , , .
4. , .
5. ( b a d - t e m p e r e d ) , .
6. - , .
7. , .
8. , .

II
A. Put in suitable conjunctions.
1. The only thing m a t t e r s t o m e is y o u r happiness.
2. Do y o u k n o w a s h o p I can find sandals?
3. An o r p h a n is a child h a s n ' t g o t any parents.
4. The holiday w a s n ' t at all I'd e x p e c t e d .
5. I saw a girl b e a u t y t o o k m y breath away.
6. She c y c l e s to w o r k every day, k e e p s her healthy.
7. I w e n t t o b e d I was tired.
8. I'll c o m e r o u n d to y o u r place I've finished w o r k .
9. He w o n ' t g e t any m o n e y he finishes the w o r k properly.
10. It looks it's g o i n g to snow.

B. Translate the s e n t e n c e s .
1. , .
2. , .
3. , ( r o o m ) .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , .
7. , .
8. , .
APPENDIX 1

PREPOSITIONS AND HOMONYMOUS ADVERBS.


THE MEANING AND USE
about 1. , , We'll s p e a k a b o u t it t o m o r r o w .

2. , , looked a b o u t him.
3. , w a l k e d a b o u t the g a r d e n .
It's a b o u t five o ' c l o c k now.
above 1. , The plane flew a b o v e the c l o u d s .
The t e m p e r a t u r e is a b o v e zero.
2. , There w e r e a b o v e 2 0 0 people t h e r e .
across 1. The boy w e n t a c r o s s the street.
2. They built a b r i d g e a c r o s s the river.
after 1. returned h o m e a f t e r twelve.
Please, c o m e a f t e r .
2. , He ran a f t e r her.
3. : , They w e n t h o m e a f t e r the w o r k had been
completed.
along 1. They w e n t a l o n g the s t r e a m .
2. T h e y drove a l o n g the r o a d .
3. , They m o v e d a l o n g .
4. I've b r o u g h t m y sister a l o n g .
among , (- He w a s lost a m o n g the c r o w d of p e o p l e .


)
at 1. , , He s t o p p e d a t the d o o r .
2. I m e t him a t the t h e a t r e y e s t e r d a y .
3. , He studies a t the Institute.
He w o r k s a t the f a c t o r y .
He'll see him a t the lecture.
4. ( ) I g e t up a t 7 o ' c l o c k .
before 1. , We'll have a walk b e f o r e dinner.
( )
2. : B e f o r e being a d m i t t e d to the University he w a s
carefully t e s t e d .
behind , sat b e h i n d me.
below , Her p h o t o g r a p h is b e l o w that picture.
beside , , w a s sitting b e s i d e m e .

79
between ( She divided t h e c a k e b e t w e e n t h e t w o of t h e m .

)

by 1. ( We'll have finished t h e w o r k b y M o n d a y .


)
2. , , w a s sitting b y the w i n d o w .
3. He w a l k e d b y m e w i t h o u t saying a w o r d .
down 1. , ran d o w n t h e stairs (hill).
()
2. , They w e n t d o w n t h e corridor.
during D u r i n g my stay in London I visited many museums.
D u r i n g t h e w a r she w o r k e d at a plant in Siberia.
for 1. It's a great pleasure f o r me.
2. payed f o r t h e dinner.
3. I'll stay here f o r t w o days.
4. ( b o o k e d a r o o m f o r t h r e e nights.
We m a d e an a p p o i n t m e n t f o r 5 o'clock.
)
from , , This is a letter f r o m Mary.
(, ) He has returned f r o m Kiev.
He t o o k a b o o k f r o m t h e shelf.
in 1. (, ) W e live in M o s c o w .
NB! There w e r e several pencils in the box.
a t . . 103 They arrived in 1 9 3 8 / i n M a y / i n s p r i n g .
o n . . 109
2. He'll return in a w e e k / i n t h r e e days.
inside The children are i n s i d e t h e house.
into (, He put t h e letter i n t o his p o c k e t .
)
of 1. S o m e o f m y f r i e n d s c a m e to see m e off.
The w a t c h is m a d e o f g o l d .
2. , , She w a s thinking o f him instantly.

off 1. (- t o o k all t h e t h i n g s o f f t h e table.
)
2. ( He c u t a bit o f f the rope.
, ) The d o g ran o f f (away).
on 1. (- Put t h e magazine o n the table.
)
2. ( ) They arrived o n t h e 1st of M a y / o n Sunday.

80
3. , O n receiving y o u r letter I t e l e p h o n e d t o y o u r
( brother.
)
4. , , ( He delivered a lecture o n G r e e k d r a m a .
) W h a t is y o u r opinion o n the subject?
out of ( He ran o u t o f the r o o m .
)
outside , He w e n t o u t s i d e the house t o m e e t us.
(-) (/)
over 1. A lamp w a s hanging o v e r the table.
2 . , There w e r e o v e r a h u n d r e d c a r s waiting near the
bridge.
3. , - Y o u ' v e d o n e a lot o v e r the past t w o years.

4. He c l i m b e d o v e r the wall.
(a)round , The earth m o v e s r o u n d the S u n .
There w e r e a lot of f l o w e r s a r o u n d the house.
since 1. (- W e ' v e lived here s i n c e the war.
)
:
a) , I haven't seen him s i n c e he left M o s c o w .
b) , S i n c e the c a r is out of o r d e r w e ' l l g o by train.

through 1. , W e w e r e walking t h r o u g h the forest.
2. -, The a c c i d e n t h a p p e n e d t h r o u g h your
carelessness.
till, until , We'll stay here t i l l (until) Monday.
:
... I'll w o r k u n t i l I finish m y w o r k .
to , , () They w e n t t o the d i r e c t o r / t o s c h o o l / t o the party.
towards 1. , - The ship sailed t o w a r d s the sea.

2. , - He is friendly t o w a r d s me.

under 1. He w a s lying u n d e r the tree.
2. He is u n d e r forty.

up , The s t e a m e r sailed u p the river.


, I looked u p a n d saw him.
APPENDIX 2

SOME VERBS USED WITH PREPOSITIONS


ABOUT:
argue - inquire -
ask - protest -
boast - speak/talk -
care - tell - ,
complain - c h a t -
d r e a m - think -
fuss - warn -
g r u m b l e - w o r r y -
wonder - forget -
D o n ' t a r g u e with m e a b o u t it, m y decision is final.
Let's t a l k a b o u t it in the m o r n i n g
D o n ' t w o r r y a b o u t the c h i l d r e n , they'll be all right.
I f o r g o t all a b o u t it.

AGAINST:
a) , , :
agitate -
align -
c o m p l e t e -
conspire/plot -
fight -
play -
splash - ,
I p l a y e d a g a i n s t Jan B o t h a m only twice in this s e a s o n .
The USA c o m p l e t e a g a i n s t o t h e r c o u n t r i e s in t r a d e .
The g r o u p c o n s p i r e d a g a i n s t the G o v e r n m e n t .

b) , :
I saw Kuger l e a n i n g a g a i n s t a wall.
But the s a c k just lay t h e r e p r o p p e d a g a i n s t the d o o r .
Rain s p l a s h e d a g a i n s t the w i n d o w s .

AS: , - / - (),
:
He w a s r e g a r d e d a s a hero by m a s s e s of people.
The news c a m e a s a s h o c k t o him.
He w o r k e d a s a r e p o r t e r on the local radio.

address - classily -
certify - condemn -
characterize - consider -
choose - depict -

82
describe - label -
designate - m a r k -
diagnose - n a m e -
elect - regard -
employ - use -
establish -
I c e r t i f y this a s a true c o p y of... .
They c h o s e me a s their leader.
He c o n s i d e r s himself a s a d o c t o r .
He w a s l a b e l e d a s a d e m a g o g .
He w a s e m p l o y e d a s a waiter.

AT:
a) :
gaze -
glance -
glare -
look -
squint -
stare -
The child t o o k an a p p l e with a q u i c k g l a n c e a t her mother.

b) - :
bark -
s c r e a m -
s h o u t -
s n a p -
swear -
yell -
I'm sorry I s h o u t e d a t y o u .
She w a n t e d to s c r e a m a t him.

c) :
beat -
smile -
frown -
sneer -
wave -
wink -
He w i n k e d a t m e as an old f r i e n d .
She s m i l e d a t m e for the first t i m e .

d) :
aim - shoot -
g r a b - strike -
guess - throw -

83
pull - claw -
push - tear -
tug - w o r k -
be g o o d / c l e v e r / p r o f i c i e n t at - -
He g r a b b e d a t the o p p o r t u n i t y to g o a b r o a d .
C a n ' t y o u even g u e s s e d a t her age?
H e ' s w o r k i n g a t a new b o o k now.
They p u l l e d a t the r o p e t o g e t h e r .
He a i m e d his g u n a t the wolf, fired a n d m i s s e d .

BY:
go -
live -
stand - , ;
stick -
swear -
He l i v e s b y his wits.
I'll s t a n d b y y o u w h a t e v e r h a p p e n s .
How can y o u s t a n d b y and see s u c h cruelty?

FOR:
a) advertise - hunt - ...
aim - look -
apply - ... s e a r c h -
bargain - send - . . .
fight - . . . wait -
The c o m p a n y a d v e r t i s e d f o r an assistant in the local paper.
He a p p l i e d t o the Consul f o r a vise.
W e b a r g a i n e d with the f a r m e r f o r a s u p p l y of milk a n d butter.
I've b e e n w a i t i n g f o r y o u here for an hour.

b) , - :
appeal - long -
ask - play -
beg - press -
call - , . . . wish -
hope - yearn -
He w a s so p o o r that he had t o b e g f o r his b r e a d .
I'll c a l l f o r y o u at seven o ' c l o c k .
She l o n g e d f o r him t o say s o m e t h i n g .

FROM:
a) - :
beg - buy -
borrow - come -

84
elicit - ... inherit -
get - receive -
obtain - wring -
D o n ' t b o r r o w b o o k s f r o m m e - b o r r o w t h e m f r o m the library.
M u c h of the butter eaten in England c o m e s f r o m N e w Zealand.
I r e c e i v e a letter f r o m S a m a f e w days a g o .
They w r u n g a c o n f e s s i o n f r o m her.

b) , - , :
cut -
detach -
take -
disconnect -
r e m o v e -
s e p a r a t e -
Children w e r e t a k e n forcibly f r o m their mother.
R e m o v e the c r u s t f r o m the b r e a d .

c) - ,

c h a n g e - turn -
convert - fall -
switch - g r a d u a t e -
transform - translate -
Interest rates have f a l l e n f r o m 11 t o 10 percent.
The authorities e n c o u r a g e d people t o s w i t c h f r o m private t o public transport.
This y e a r has t u r n e d her f r o m a happy, gentle p e r s o n t o a d e p r e s s e d w o m a n .

d) - , , :
c o n c e a l - insulate -
guard - keep -
hide - protect -
shelter - withhold -
You w o u l d never h i d e this f a c t f r o m t h e m .
It should be p r o t e c t e d f r o m c o r r o s i o n .
W i t h h o l d i n g information f r o m us is a c r i m e .

e) - :
ban - discourage -
bar - dissuade -
deter - prevent -
He w a s b a n n e d f r o m attending the meeting.
Failure d i d n ' t d e t e r him f r o m trying again.
W h o can p r e v e n t us f r o m g e t t i n g married?

85
IN:
assist - interfere -
believe - invest -
collaborate - involve -
deal - join -
engage - meddle -
fail - share -
gain - specialize -
Do y o u b e l i e v e in g h o s t s ?
He f a i l e d in the s e c o n d a t t e m p t .
Please, d o n ' t i n t e r f e r e ( m e d d l e ) in m y business.

INTO:
a) - :
blossom - g r o w -
change - make -
convert - transform -
develop - translate -
divide - turn -
N o w a d a y s radiation f r o m the Sun is c o n v e r t e d i n t o electricity.
It w a s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o parts.
Could y o u t u r n this piece of p r o s e i n t o verse?

b) - :
brainwash - " " mislead -
bully - push -
con - seduce -
deceive - talk -
frighten - trick -
lull - w h e e d l e -
She d i d n ' t w a n t t o stay but I t a l k e d h e r i n t o .
D o n ' t try t o c o n the d o c t o r i n t o p r e s c r i b i n g a tranquilizer.
I b u l l i e d M o t h e r i n t o giving up that awful job.

OF:
approve - hear -
beware - k n o w -
boast - learn -
c o m p l a i n - s m a c k -
conceive - smell -
consist - speak -
d i s a p p r o v e - think -
dispose - w e a r y -
d r e a m -

86
The child s m e l l e d o f soap.
He d i d n ' t a p p r o v e o f m y d e c i s i o n .
She had i n f o r m e d us o f her intention.

ON/UPON:
base - frown -
blame - g a m b l e - (.)
f o r c e - hinge -
i m p o s e - impinge -
inflict - i m p o s e -
spend - improve -
bet - insist -
build - intrude -
check - plan -
concentrate - prevail -
count - rely -
depend - save -
eavesdrop - settle -
economize - verge -
focus -
A n o t h e r dinner w a s f o r c e d u p o n him.
I r e l y o n y o u to d o this w o r k .
I w a l k e d to the station instead of s p e n d i n g m o n e y o n a taxi.
B e f o r e g o i n g o u t she c h e c k e d o n the c h i l d r e n .

O V E R : , , :
agonize - fret -
argue - gloat -
b r o o d - (.) grieve -
clash - muse -
d i s a g r e e - quarrel -
fight - wrangle -
He g l o a t e d o v e r the ruin of his rival.
She g r i e v e d o v e r her f a t h e r ' s d e a t h .
She sat t h e r e b r o o d i n g o v e r her life.

TROUGH:
flip - run -
glance - sift -
go - thumb -
leaf - wade -
look - w o r k -
He t h u m b e d t h r o u g h r e p o r t s o n c e m o r e .
It w a s impossible t o w a d e t h r o u g h all the p a p e r s .
I l o o k e d t h r o u g h a small booklet.

87
TO:
a n n o u n c e - preach -
apologize - report -
complain - say -
c o n f i d e - () speak -
explain - talk -
mumble - write -
A n u m b e r of people c o m p l a i n e d t o the authorities.
She c o n f i d e d t o her sister.
Y o u d o n ' t have t o e x p l a i n anything t o me.

WITH:
) - -:
ally - discuss -
chat - interact -
coexist - m e r g e -
collaborate - negotiate -
collide - share -
conspire - trade -
d a n c e - w o r k -
debate -
I e n j o y e d w o r k i n g w i t h him.
I've d i s c u s s e d the m a t t e r w i t h the lawer.
Our f i r m h a s c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h the University over a n u m b e r of years.

) , , - :
argue - feud -
bargain - fight -
clash - quarrel -
compete - struggle -
disagree - vie -
I heard h o w the boy w a s a r g u i n g w i t h his father.
The boy c o m p e t e d in a race w i t h o t h e r s for a prize.

(from " . .")


APPENDIX 3

abbreviate to believe in consult about


abstract f r o m belong to continue with
accept from b e n d into, over contribute to
accomodate to blame for, on convert into
a c c u s e of boast of c o n v i n c e of
acquaint with b o r e with c o p e with
acquire by borrow from c o u n t a m o n g , f r o m , on
act f o r b o t h e r about, with cover with
a d a p t for, to break against, f r o m , into, create in
a d d to with c u r e of
address to bring f r o m , t o , with c u t f r o m , with
adhere to burn in, with
adjust to burst into d a n c e with
administer to busy with deal in, with
admire for buy f r o m d e c i d e b e t w e e n , on
advance against, on d e c r e a s e in
agree a b o u t , in, t o , with call for, t o d e e p e n in
aim at c a r e a b o u t , for defend against
amount to c a r r y by, f r o m , in, t h r o u g h , delight with
amuse with t o , with deliver f r o m
announce to c a t c h at d e m a n d f r o m , of
a n s w e r for, t o c h a n g e f r o m , into, t o depart from
apologize a b o u t , for, t o choose between d e p e n d on
appeal for, to classify by derive f r o m
apply for, t o close with descend from
a p p r o v e of collaborate with design for
approximate t o c o m e into, t o , with d e s p i s e for
argue about, against, with c o m m e n t on d e s t r o y with
arrange b e t w e e n , for c o m m u n i c a t e with detain f r o m
arrive at, with c o m p a r e t o , with d e t e c t in
ascribe to c o m p e t e against, for, in, d e t e r m i n e by, f r o m
ask a b o u t , for with d e v o t e t o die f o r
assign to
complain about, of differ a b o u t , f r o m , in
assist in
conceal f r o m dig with dine with
associate with
c o n c e n t r a t e on disagree about
assure of
c o n c e r n with disapprove of
attach to
c o n d e n c e into discuss with
attend to
c o n f e s s to dismiss f r o m
attribute to
c o n f i d e in, t o d i s p o s e of
confine to dissolve in
bathe in c o n f o r m to distinguish b e t w e e n , by
beat against, o n , with c o n n e c t t o , with distribute a m o n g , over
b e c o m e of consist in, of divide a m o n g , b e t w e e n ,
begin by, with console with by, f r o m , into

89
d o with flow over include in
d o m i n a t e over f o r c e out of incorporate in
drain of forget a b o u t increase by, in
d r a w for, f r o m f o r m f r o m , in infer f r o m
d r e a m about, of found on inform about, of
drink out of, with free f r o m initiate into
drive t h r o u g h , to inject into
dwell on gain by, in, over inoculate against
gather f r o m inquire about
eat with gaze at insist on
economize on generalize f r o m inspire into
emanate f r o m generate f r o m instruct in
end with get by, f r o m , into, t h r o u g h , insure against
engage in to interest in
enjoy with give to interpose between
enter into, t h r o u g h , with glance at, f r o m introduce to
entrust t o , with g o into, out of, over, invite t h r o u g h
equip with t h r o u g h , to
escape from g r a s p at, by join in
estimate for grieve at, over j u d g e by, f r o m
excel at, in grin at j u m p at, f r o m , over
e x c h a n g e with grind into
exclude f r o m ground on keep against, f r o m , on
excuse f r o m g r o w in, into, out of kiss on
exercise in, over growl at kill with
e x p e c t f r o m , of g r u m b l e about, at knit into, out of
expel f r o m guard against knock against, at
experiment in, o n , with g u e s s at k n o w a b o u t , f r o m , of
explain about, to
e x p o s e to halt between labour at
extract f r o m hang o n , with lade with
hate for laugh a b o u t , at, over
fail in heal of lay o n , over
fall against, f r o m , in, into, hear a b o u t , f r o m lead t h r o u g h , t o
over help w i t h , into, out of leak t h r o u g h
fasten b e t w e e n , to hesitate a b o u t lean against, o n , over
f e e d o n , to hint at hit on learn about, f r o m , of
feel for, with hold against, by, to leave with
fight against, for, with hope f o r lie in, on
fill with hunt with like for
finish with hurt with line with
fix in, o n , t o listen t o , with
flatten against identify a m o n g , by, with live o n , with
fling at illustrate with load with
float on immerse in look at, for, into, o n ,
flood with impress o n , with through

90
lose in prevail over resolve into
love f o r prevent f r o m resort t o
lunch with print in respect for
profit by respond to
m a k e f r o m , into, of, out of p r o p o s e for result in, f r o m
mark on p r o t e c t f r o m , with retire f r o m
m a t c h against, in, t o , with protest against return with
measure by provide for, with revolt against, at
mediate between pull at, o u t of, over reward with
meditate on p u m p into, out of ride in
melt in purify of rinse out of
mention about, between push against, at, t h r o u g h rob of
mistake for put into, t o rub against, into, with
m o c k at rule over
mount in quarrel about, over run against, for, over,
move against, f r o m , into, question about through
through quote from rush at

name for radiate f r o m sail in


nod at range f r o m say a b o u t , of, o n , t o
number a m o n g rank a m o n g scrape from
react t o s c r e w on
object to read a b o u t , f r o m , for, of, s e a r c h for
obtain by, over t o , with see a b o u t , into, t h r o u g h
o c c u p y in, with rebel against s e e k for
o p e n for, t o , with recall about seize at
originate in receive f r o m s e n d for, t h r o u g h , t o
r e c k o n with separate f r o m , into
part f r o m , with recognize by serve for, to
pass f r o m , o n , t h r o u g h , t o recover f r o m s e w on
penetrate t h r o u g h reduce to shade against
percolate t h r o u g h refer t o shake by, f r o m , out of
permeate t h r o u g h reflect on s h a m e into
persevere in release f r o m share a m o n g , with
persist in relieve of shelter f r o m
pin on rely on shield with
play at, for, o n , with remark about shine t h r o u g h
please with r e m e m b e r about s h o o t at, f r o m
plunge into remind of shout at
point at, to remove from sink in, into
pour into render into sit for, o n , with
prefer t o repeat a b o u t skate on
present t o , with r e p r o d u c e on ski on
preserve in require of slide on
press against, out of rescue f r o m slip t h r o u g h
pretend to research into smell of

91
smile at, to sway in understand about
s m o o t h with swell in unite in, to
s n a t c h at, f r o m switch f r o m use for, in
soak t h r o u g h sympathize with
speak about, against, of, vary in
to, with take by, f r o m , with visit with
specialize in talk a b o u t , into, of, out of, vote against, f o r
s p e n d in, o n , over, with to, with
s p r e a d o n , over tap with wait for
stand against, between, taste in walk t h r o u g h , with
for, o n , with tear at, f r o m , in, on wander through
star in tell a b o u t , f r o m , of, on want in
stare at terminate in warn about, against
start with t h a n k for w a s h f r o m , in, on
stay with think a b o u t , of, over waste in, on
s t e p into, o u t of, over threaten with w a t c h for, over, t h r o u g h
stick in, into, on t h r o w into wave in
stop from t o u c h o n , with weave out of
s t r e t c h over trade with welcome to
strike against transfer f r o m , t o win f r o m
struggle against, in, with transform into wipe o n , with
study with translate f r o m , into w o n d e r about, at
s t u m b l e over travel in, with work at, for, on, through, with
submit to treat with worry about
subtract f r o m t r e m b l e at w r a p in
s u c c e e d in tresspass on wring out of
s u g g e s t to trouble about, with write about, for, of, on, to, with
s u p p l y for, with trust t o , with
s u s p e c t of turn against, f r o m , into yield in

(from " ")


APPENDIX 4

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE.


CONJUNCTIONS AND CONNECTIVES
Conjunctions
Translation Examples
Connectives
Conjunctions

and
or Are y o u c o m i n g o r are y o u staying at h o m e ?
else () He m u s t be j o k i n g o r e l s e h e ' s m a d .
but He w e n t t o his r o o m b u t he c o u l d n ' t w o r k .

otherwise Do w h a t y o u ' v e b e e n told o t h e r w i s e you'll be


punished.
however He w a s w r o n g , h o w e v e r , he w e n t on d o i n g it his
own way.
Connectives

nevertheless There w a s no news, n e v e r t h e l e s s , she w e n t on


hoping.
yet/still - She w a s vain and foolish, and y e t people liked
her.
He has treated y o u badly; s t i l l , he's y o u r brother
and y o u o u g h t to help him.
therefore I'm w o r k i n g on M o n d a y , t h e r e f o r e I c a n ' t m e e t
y o u at the station.

b o t h ... a n d ... The key b o t h o p e n e d the d o o r a n d it kept the


door locked.
Correlatives

either ... o r ... You'll e i t h e r sail this boat correctly o r you'll never
sail with me again.
neither ... n o r ... Her nails were n e i t h e r long n o r were they painted.
not only ... ... Not only did they win, b u t they a l s o c h a n g e d the
but also nature of the t e a m .

93
APPENDIX 5

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE.


CONJUNCTIONS AND CONNECTIVES
Clauses

Conjunctions
Translation Examples
Connectives

that She felt t h a t s o m e o n e else w a s t h e r e .


if/whether Time will s h o w w h e t h e r I'm right o r not.
when He a s k e d w h e n w e w o u l d be back.
Object

what I'll d o w h a t I say.


where He a s k e d w h e r e w e had met.
how He s t o o d thinking h o w nice she l o o k e d .
why He w o n d e r e d w h y he s h o u l d d o it.

who The m a n w h o normally w o r k s here is ill.


that Have y o u s e e n the d r e s s t h a t I've just b o u g h t ?
Relative

which Have y o u read the b o o k w h i c h I gave y o u ?


whom I k n o w the m a n w h o m y o u m e a n .
whose Our sister w h o s e p h o t o I s h o w e d y o u is c o m i n g
tomorrow.

when W h e n he had finished, he t u r n e d out the light.


after Laura w e n t for a ride a f t e r Jan had left for w o r k .
before Read the d o c u m e n t carefully b e f o r e y o u sign it.
while She had t o e s c a p e , w h i l e t h e y slept.
till/until , W e waited u n t i l B r u n o ' s brother c a m e and told
us the news.
as ; The telephone rang a s he was unlocking the door.
Time

;


since , W h a t have y o u b e e n d o i n g s i n c e I last saw y o u ?
A s s o o n a s he g e t s the m o n e y he'll pay back.
as s o o n as
I'll never f o r g e t t h e m a s l o n g a s I live.
as long as
because B e c a u s e she w a s m y m o t h e r , I e x p e c t e d her t o
understand me.
as A s I haven't read the book, I can't tell you anything
Reason

a b o u t it.
since , You're sure to know him, s i n c e you seem to know
everyone.
for , He w a l k e d quickly, f o r he w a s in a g r e a t hurry.
(formal)

94
(just) as The c l o c k in the r o o m ticked loudly, j u s t a s I had
Manner remember.
as if/as She looked a t m e a s if the m e a n i n g e s c a p e d
though her.

so as (not) t o She s t e p p e d f o r w a r d a s t h o u g h hypnotized.


so W e started eating in our hotel r o o m s s o a s t o
alone.
so t h a t ... (), Take notes s o you'll r e m e m b e r all.
Purpose

(not)
() He a r r a n g e d for the taxi t o c o m e a t six s o t h a t
in o r d e r that she w o u l d n ' t have t o wait long at the station.
He talked to the bird softly in o r d e r n o t t o frighten
in o r d e r (not) it.
to
although He speaks fluent English ( a l ) t h o u g h he has never
Contrast

(even) though been to England.


in spite of He w e n t out i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t he had a
the f a c t that , bad c o l d .

if He'll g e t the letter t o m o r r o w if y o u s e n d it off


now.
Conditional

unless I'll g o there t o m o r r o w u n l e s s I'm t o o busy.


provided/ , M o t h e r will believe m e p r o v i d e d I tell her w h a t
providing she w a n t s t o hear.
(that)
in case I n c a s e y o u see h i m , give him the m e s s a g e .
THE KEYS

2. THE PREPOSITION OF PLACE


Ex. 1 (p. 8) 1. under; 2. b e h i n d ; 3. a b o v e ; 4 . in f r o n t of; 5. by; 6. a m o n g ; 7. below; 8. by;
9. next t o ; 10. b e t w e e n ; 1 1 . in f r o n t of; 12. r o u n d .

Ex. 2 (p. 9)
I. 1. b e h i n d ; 2. by; 3. in f r o n t of; 4 . beside; 5. below; 6. over; 7. a m o n g ; 8. r o u n d ; 9. above;
10. near t o ;
11. 1. in f r o n t of; 2. below; 3. by; 4 . over; 5. b e t w e e n ; 6. a m o n g ; 7. r o u n d ; 8. next t o .

Ex. 3 (p. 9) 1.The Dead Sea is below sea level. 2. W e flew over the Sahara. 3. Paul w a s sitting
opposite Feona and looked at her. 4. The girl w a s standing under a tree, it w a s raining hard.
5. W h o is the m a n , sitting next to Mary? 6. Is there a public telephone? - Yes, there is o n e by
the door. 7. Shall I sign o n , above or below the line? 8. The b u s s t o p is round the corner.
9. There is a beautiful fountain in front of the theatre. 10. The d o c t o r bent over the patient.
I I . The referee stood between the fighting boxers and stopped the fight. 12. The grandmother
divided the pie a m o n g the children. 13. The telegraph wires over the streets look so ugly.
14. There is a free seat beside me, sit next to m e / beside me. 15. The c i n e m a is just opposite
the busstop next to the cafe. 16. I c o u l d n ' t see very well because a tall y o u n g m a n w a s sitting
in front of m e . 17. Instead of keeping her m o n e y in the bank m y g r a n d m o t h e r hides it under
the carpet. 18. A n d she keeps her jewelry in a casket behind the w a r d r o b e .

2 . 1 PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE A T , I N , O N

Ex. 4 (p. 11) 1. at; 2. o n ; 3. in ... at; 4 . at ... at; 5. on ... in; 6. in; 7. at ... in; 8. o n ; 9. on ...
at; 10. in ... at; 1 1 . at; 12. in; 13. at; 14. in ... at ... o n ; 15. at; 16. in; 17. in ... in ... o n ; 18. o n .

Ex. 5 (p. 12) 1. at; 2. in; 3. o n ; 4 . in; 5. b y / a t ; 6. in ... o n ; 7. o n ; 8. at; 9. o n ; 10. at; 1 1 . at;
12. at; 13. on ... under.

Ex. 6 (p. 12)


1. The highest s k y s c r a p e r s are in C h i c a g o .
2. In m o s t c o u n t r i e s p e o p l e drive on the right side of the r o a d .
3. I usually buy a n e w s p a p e r on m y w a y t o w o r k .

96
4. She s p e n d s the whole day sitting at the w i n d o w and watching what is happening outside.
5. I read a b o u t the a c c i d e n t on the f r o n t page of the n e w s p a p e r .
6. W e normally use the f r o n t e n t r a n c e to the building but t h e r e is a n o t h e r e n t r a n c e at the
back of the building.
7. M r B o y l ' s office is on the third floor on the left.
8. D o n ' t let y o u r children play in the street.
9. M y m o t h e r g e t s up very early, she w o r k s in the fields.
10. She h a s n ' t g o t t i m e t o lie in b e d or look into the mirror.

3. PREPOSITIONS OF DIRECTION
Ex. 7 (p. 14) 1. b e t w e e n ; 2. next t o ; 3. under; 4 . a b o v e ; 5. a m o n g ; 6. a b o v e / o v e r .

Ex. 8 (p. 14) 1. off; 2. off; 3. o u t of; 4 . f r o m ... t o ; 5. a l o n g ; 6. a c r o s s ; 7 . t h r o u g h ; 8. o u t


of ... into; 9. past; 10. f r o m ; 1 1 . up ... t o ; 12. a l o n g ... t o ... over ... o n .

Ex. 9 (p. 15) 1. g o past the c h u r c h ; 2. g o u n d e r the a r c h ; 3. g o along the street; 4 . g o over
the b r i d g e ; 5. g o up the r o a d ; 6. g o t h r o u g h the park; 7. g o d o w n the s t e p s ; 8. t u r n the
corner; 9. go between the two houses; 10. cross the street; 11. go round the parking;
12. go across the field.

Ex. 1 0 (p. 15) 1. off; 2. t o ; 3. o u t of; 4 . r o u n d ; 5. out of; 6. on t o ; 7. f r o m ... t o ; 8. t o ;


9. r o u n d ; 10. t o w a r d ( s ) ; 1 1 . o u t of; 12. out of; 13. out of; 14. into ... t h r o u g h

Ex. 1 1 (p. 16) 1. o u t of; 2. into; 3. t o ; 4 . at ... out of ... t o ; 5. o u t of ... a l o n g ; 6. f r o m ... to;
7. into; 8. past; 9. into; 10. f r o m ; 1 1 . f r o m ; 12. t o .

Ex. 1 2 (p. 16) 1. W h e n are y o u going to Spain? 2. I've lost m y key but I m a n a g e d t o g e t into
the house t h r o u g h the w i n d o w . 3. M a r c e l has just r e t u r n e d f r o m France after t w o y e a r s in
England. 4 . W e ' v e b e e n driving f o r t h r e e hours, I w o u l d gladly get out of the c a r and have a
short walk. 5. The ball fell off the b a l c o n y a n d rolled o n t o the r o a d . 6. The gate w a s c l o s e d ,
we had t o c l i m b over the high wall a n d j u m p d o w n into the y a r d . 7. At last w e saw a lake in
the d i s t a n c e a n d ran t o w a r d s it. 8. The hill w a s rather s t e e p , I d i d n ' t have the e n e r g y to
cycle up it, so I p u s h e d the bike up the hill.

Ex. 1 3 (p. 16) 1. in; 2. by; 3. past; 4. out of; 5. round; 6. o n ; 7. in front of; 8. in; 9. f r o m ; 10. in.

4. SOME PREPOSITIONS CONFUSED


Ex. 1 4 (p. 17) 1. a m o n g ; 2. b e t w e e n ; 3. b e t w e e n ; 4 . b e t w e e n ; 5. a m o n g ; 6. b e t w e e n .

Ex. 1 5 (p. 17) 1. beside; 2. besides; 3. beside; 4 . besides; 5. beside; 6. besides; 7. except;
8. b e t w e e n ; 9. b e t w e e n ; 10. a m o n g ; 1 1 . e x c e p t ; 12. e x c e p t ; 13. besides; 14. e x c e p t .

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Ex. 1 6 (p. 18) 1. b e s i d e ; 2. besides; 3. b e s i d e s ; 4 . besides. 5. b e s i d e ; 6. besides;
7. besides; 8. besides; 9. b e s i d e ; 10. besides.

Ex. 1 7 (p. 18)


1. There w a s everyone t h e r e e x c e p t m y friend Ivan.
2. The library is o p e n e d every day e x c e p t W e d n e s d a y .
3. Everyone w e n t t o b e d e x c e p t father, he has a lot of w o r k to d o .
4. I m e t all our relatives at the w e d d i n g e x c e p t aunt A n n .
5. He'll take three e x a m s besides English.
6. There w a s n o b o d y in the g a r d e n e x c e p t an old m a n with a d o g .
7. Besides t h o s e t w o letters I've g o t a t e l e g r a m m e f r o m her.
8. There w e r e s o m e lectures t h e r e besides Professor G r e e n .
9. T h e y ' v e g o t m a n y p r e s e n t s besides y o u r s .
10. H e ' s read all the n e w s p a p e r e x c e p t "The T i m e s " .

Ex. 1 8 (p. 19) 1. a c r o s s / o v e r ; 2. a c r o s s ; 3. a c r o s s ; 4 . a c r o s s ; 5. t h r o u g h ; 6. t h r o u g h /


a c r o s s ; 7. a c r o s s ; 8. t h r o u g h ; 9. a c r o s s ; 10. over; 1 1 . t h r o u g h ; 12. over; 13. t h r o u g h ;
14. a c r o s s ; 15. t h r o u g h ; 16. over; 17. over.

IN A N D INTO

Ex. 1 9 (p. 19) 1. into; 2. into; 3. into; 4 . into; 5. in; 6. in; 7. into; 8. in; 9. into; 10. in.

5. REVISION
Ex. 2 0 (p. 20)
I
1. Sit by the w i n d o w . 2. Your d i c t i o n a r y is on the shelf. 3. He is in M o s c o w now. 4 . He
o p e n e d the d o o r and ran o u t of the r o o m . 5. The boy t h r e w a stone into the water. 6. I've
read all the stories, e x c e p t this o n e . 7. She w a s n ' t w a l k i n g , she w a s running along the
street. 8. Our school is o p p o s i t e the park. 9. There is a m o n u m e n t to Suvorov in front of our
house. 10. W e w e r e walking under big trees. 1 1 . There w a s blue sky above us. 12. W e w e r e
flying t o A m e r i c a . 13. It w a s raining hard and w e ran t o w a r d s the house. 14. The child fell off
the b e d . 15. W e w e r e walking d o w n the hill.

II
1. He c a m e into the r o o m , sat at the table, t o o k his p a p e r s out of the b a g . 2. W h e n I w a s
g o i n g past the post office I r e m e m b e r e d that I m u s t s e n d a letter to m y m o t h e r . 3. There
g r e w t w o big t r e e s by the river. 4 . W e have no o t h e r b o o k s , e x c e p t the b o o k s , w e ' v e
showed y o u . 5. The river flew between high banks, running t o w a r d s the sea. 6. She d i d n ' t sit
beside m e , she c a m e up t o the c h i l d ' s b e d a n d bent over the child. 7. In Austria the trains
often run t h r o u g h tunnels. 8. The s t e a m e r sailed d o w n the river. 9. I've read s o m e articles

98
on this s u b j e c t b e s i d e s the b o o k y o u gave m e . 10. T h e y w e r e walking behind us. 1 1 . They
didn't want to c o m e into the house and w e r e waiting outside (the house). 12. He has spoilt all
the pictures, b e c a u s e the sun w a s in front of us, w h e n it should be behind us. 13. He w o r k s
at the t h e a t r e . He left his c o a t in the t h e a t r e w h e r e he w a t c h e d a n e w play. 14. T h e y live at
25 Oswald street.

6. PREPOSITIONS WITH FORMS OF TRANSPORT


Ex. 2 1 (p. 21) 1. by; 2. by ... o n ; 3. at; 4 . by; 5. o n ; 6. by; 7. by; 8. o n ; 9. in; 10. o n ; 1 1 . off;
12. into.

Ex. 2 2 (p. 21) 1. by ... into; 2. o n ; 3. on ... o n ; 4 . by ... o n ; 5. by ... o n ; 6. at; 7. o n t o ; 8. in


... o u t of; 9. by ... o n ; 10. i n / o n ; 1 1 . off; 12. in.

7. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
Ex. 2 3 (p. 23) 1. at; 2. in; 3. at; 4 . at; 5. in; 6. in; 7. at; 8. o n ; 9. at; 10. in ... o n ; 1 1 . o n ;
12. at ... o n ; 13. at; 14. at; 15. o n ; 16. in; 17. in; 18. in; 19. o n .

Ex. 2 4 (p. 23) 1. on ... x ... at; 2. on ... x; 3. x ... in; 4 . in ... x; 5. at ... x; 6. x ... o n .

Ex. 2 5 (p. 2 3 - 2 4 )
I
1. C o l u m b u s d i s c o v e r e d A m e r i c a in the 15th century.
2. In England children g o t o s c h o o l at the a g e of five.
3. Y o u can see stars at night if t h e r e are no c l o u d s in the sky.
4. I haven't seen Ann f o r a new d a y s . I s a w her last on W e d n e s d a y .
5. I w o n ' t be at h o m e in the m o r n i n g . Could y o u call m e on M o n d a y m o r n i n g instead?
6. W e ' r e g o i n g to the t h e a t r e on the 14th of February, w e usually g o out on that day.
7. Mike w o r k s a lot d u r i n g the w e e k , he relaxes at w e e k - e n d s .
8. I d o n ' t like w h e n s o m e b o d y calls y o u at dinner time.
9. W e always have a party on C h r i s t m a s Day, n o b o d y w o r k s at C h r i s t m a s .
10. Hurry up! W e ' r e leaving in five minutes.
11. The t e l e p h o n e a n d the d o o r b e l l rang at the s a m e t i m e .
12. I invite y o u for dinner at a restaurant on y o u r birthday.

II
1. I'm rather sleepy. I w e n t t o b e d at midnight a n d g o t up at six in the m o r n i n g .
2. I like walking a r o u n d the t o w n at night. It's so beautiful and peaceful.
3. Carol g o t married at 17, it w a s in 1967, on the 15th of N o v e m b e r .
4. I'll call y o u on Saturday morning at a b o u t 10 o ' c l o c k in the m o r n i n g , okay?

99
5. It's difficult to listen w h e n everyone is s p e a k i n g at the s a m e t i m e .
6. I'm busy at the m o m e n t , c o u l d y o u call m e at the e n d of the day, at a b o u t 6 o ' c l o c k ?
7. W o u l d y o u like t o g o t o the c i n e m a on Friday night? - I'm sorry, I c a n ' t m a k e it this
Friday. Let's g o to the c i n e m a next Friday.
8. At the a p p o i n t e d t i m e in the evening M r Green d i d n ' t c o m e . His s e c r e t a r y said, h e ' d
c o m e b a c k in t h r e e days.
9. On that d a y w e g o t up at d a w n . Our j o u r n e y w a s t o b e g i n .
10. I pay all the bills at the beginning of the m o n t h .

7.3 PREPOSITION SINCE, FROM, IN TIME/ON TIME


Ex. 2 6 (p. 26) 1. for; 2. d u r i n g ; 3. while; 4. while; 5. for; 6. while; 7. d u r i n g ; 8. for; 9. d u r i n g ;
10. while; 1 1 . for; 12. while; 13. d u r i n g ; 14. for.

Ex. 2 7 (p. 27)


1. While t h e r e is life t h e r e is h o p e .
2. M y d a u g h t e r sent us a lot of p o s t c a r d s while she w a s on holiday in Spain.
3. I d o n ' t usually w a t c h TV during the day, but y e s t e r d a y I w a s ill and w a t c h e d TV for three
hours.
4. Everyone w a s b o r e d d u r i n g the lecture.
5. To learn English Ann w e n t t o evening classes at the "Wall Street Institute". She has
learnt a lot during the c o u r s e .
6. W o u l d y o u like to sit d o w n while y o u ' r e waiting?
7. Do y o u read during the meal/while y o u ' r e eating?
8. S o m e b o d y has b r o k e n the w i n d o w while I w a s sleeping. Did y o u hear anything?
9. M y aunt and uncle lived in London for f o u r years.
10. It w a s raining during the m a t c h but n o b o d y left while our t e a m w a s playing.
11. The sun gives us light and w a r m t h d u r i n g the day.
12. I'm g o i n g away for a f e w days. You can stay in m y flat while I'm away.
13. While he w a s living in Italy he studied music.
14. N o b o d y s p o k e during the dinner.

Ex. 2 8 (p. 27) 1. fill; 2. b e f o r e ; 3. till; 4 . by; 5. till; 6. b e f o r e ; 7. till; 8. by; 9. till; 10. b e f o r e ;
1 1 . b e f o r e ; 12. until; 13. by; 14. till.

Ex. 2 9 (p. 2 7 - 2 8 ) 1. b e f o r e ; 2. till ... by; 3. b e f o r e ; 4 . till; 5. by; 6. by; 7. b e f o r e ; 8. b e f o r e ;


9. until; 10. by.

Ex. 3 0 (p. 28) 1. since; 2. since; 3. f r o m ; 4 . since; 5. since; 6. f r o m ; 7. since; 8. since;


9. f r o m ; 10. since; 1 1 . f r o m .

Ex. 3 1 (p. 28) 1. on t i m e ; 2. in t i m e ; 3. in t i m e ; 4 . in t i m e ; 5. on t i m e ; 6. in t i m e ; 7. on t i m e ;


8. in t i m e ; 9. in t i m e ... on t i m e .

100
REVISION

Ex. 3 2 (p. 28) 1. in ... in ... a b o u t / o v e r ... below; 2. in ... in ... over; 3. o p p o s i t e ... a c r o s s ;
f r o m ... t o ... o n ; 4 . on ... in; 5. after ... in ... b e f o r e ; 6. for ... in; 7. with ... in ... b e f o r e ; 8. by;
9. by; t o ... a b o u t ; 10. on ... to ... at ... by; 1 1 . f o r ... at; 12. by ... in ... out of ... at ... with;
13. in ... o n ; 14. by ... o u t of; 15. f r o m ... in.

Ex. 3 3 (p. 29) 1. t o ; 2. by; 3. a l o n g / d o w n / u p ; 4 . t o w a r d s ; 5. for; 6. past; 7. until; 8. o v e r /


a c r o s s ; 9. past; 10. t h r o u g h / a c r o s s / i n t o / p a s t ; 1 1 . o v e r / a c r o s s ; 12. u p / d o w n ; 13. i n t o /
r o u n d / b y ; 14. u n d e r / o v e r / a c r o s s ; 15. t o / i n t o ; 16. o u t s i d e .

8. PREPOSITIONS EXPRESSING
ABSTRACT RELATIONS
Ex. 3 4 (p. 3 0 ) 1. by; 2. by; 3. w i t h ; 4 . by; 5. w i t h ; 6. w i t h ; 7. by; 8. by; 9. by; 10. with;
1 1 . w i t h ; 12. w i t h .

Ex. 3 5 (p. 30) 1. like; 2. like; 3. as; 4 . like; 5. like; 6. as, as.

Ex. 3 6 (p. 31)


1. I s p e n d m o n e y like a millionaire.
2. People like J o h n s always envy their neighbours.
3. I o n c e w o r k e d as a bus c o n d u c t o r .
4. Y o u ' r e just like m y b r o t h e r d o n ' t keep y o u r promise.
5. He w a s w e a r i n g a hat like this o n e a n d a g r e e n coat.
6. He is m o r e like his m o t h e r than his father.
7. W h o ' s used this vase as a h u m m e r ?
8. There is no place like h o m e .
9. The old m a n ran like an athlete.
10. He w a s r e s p e c t e d b o t h as a j u d g e and a m a n .
11. He a c t s like a king.
12. He w r o t e a b o u t N a p o l e o n as a s t a t e s m a n , not as a soldier.
13. It looks like g o l d , t h o u g h I'm not sure.
14. As a lawyer, I w o u l d n ' t advise it.

Ex. 3 7 (p. 31) 1. a b o u t ; 2. o n / a b o u t ; 3. a b o u t ... o n ; 4 . o n ; 5. a b o u t ; 6. o n ; 7. a b o u t ; 8. o n .

Ex. 3 8 (p. 3 2 ) 1. d u e t o ; 2. a c c o r d i n g t o ; 3. as for; 4 . as far as; 5. in spite of; 6. instead of;


7. b e c a u s e of; 8. d u e t o ; 9. a c c o r d i n g t o ; 10. as t o ; 1 1 . in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h ; 12. o w i n g t o ;
13. instead of; 14. in spite of.

101
10. REVISION
Ex. 3 9 (p. 3 3 ) 1. into; 2. beside; 3. as; 4 . into; 5. besides; 6. w i t h ; 6. at, besides;
7. into; 8. into; 9. at; 10. a m o n g ; 1 1 . at; 12. At; 13. beside; 14. in f r o m of, w i t h ; 15. beside;
16. with; 17. into; 18. o n ; 19. a m o n g ; 20. b e t w e e n ; 2 1 . a m o n g ; 2 2 . as; 2 3 . like; 2 4 . as;
25. like, at; 26. e x c e p t ; 2 7 . in; 2 8 . by; 29. beside.

Ex. 3 9 (p. 33) 1. at m y uncle's; 2. beside my bed; 3. a m o n g ; 4 . by the sea; 5. by bus; 6. as a


bus driver; 7. as in Italy; 8. as a hammer; 9. with an axe, by the stove; 10. At noon, in these
latitudes, f r o m it, in the house; 1 1 . between you and me alone; 12. a m o n g ; 13. besides him;
14. beside herself; 15. anybody like you; 16. reached into her handbag; 17. no difference be-
tween t h e m ; 18. like a young man; 19. like your daddy; 20. besides you two; 2 1 . except Vasya.

Ex. 4 0 (p. 3 4 ) 1. with us; 2. beside m e ; 3. by the d o o r ; 4 . like a t e e n a g e r ; 5. with a knife;


6. b e s i d e s e a t i n g ; 7. by train; 8. e x c e p t y o u r s t u d e n t s ; 9. by the b a c k d o o r ; 10. at my
girlfriend's; 1 1 . b e t w e e n us; 12. a m o n g friends; 13. into f o u r parts; 14. as the Five Corners;
15. at the Five c o r n e r s .

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE


1. SUBJECT CLAUSES
Ex. 2 (p. 4 0 ) 1. W h o d o e s n ' t k n o w this d o e s n ' t k n o w a n y t h i n g / k n o w s nothing. 2. W h a t I was
trying t o find o u t w a s very i m p o r t a n t f o r o u r investigation. 3. W h e t h e r she ever tried to
c h a n g e it or no, lay h i d d e n in her o w n heart. 4 . It is surprising h o w little the district has
c h a n g e d . 5. W h a t I like best a b o u t the Colonel is his m o u s t a c h e . 6. W h a t e v e r y o u d o d o n ' t
say " y e s " on the s p o t . 7. W h a t e v e r she had m e a n t t o say r e m a i n e d u n s p o k e n . 8. W h e r e
they w e r e to move w a s not d i s c u s s e d . 9. W h e t h e r t h e y will ever m e e t again is a mystery.
10. H o w difficult it w a s to a c c o m p l i s h this w o r k is seen f r o m her diary. 1 1 . W h o e v e r did it is
a g e n i u s . 12. W h a t y o u have d o n e is unforgivable. 13. W h a t t h e y e n j o y e d d e l i g h t e d m e .
14. W h e n y o u will d o it is of no i m p o r t a n c e t o m e . 15. H o w y o u will d o is a n o t h e r m a t t e r
entirely. 16. H o w y o u are g o i n g t o d o it is not c l e a r t o m e . 17. W h e t h e r t h e r e is life like
that o n t h e Earth s o m e w h e r e else in t h e Universe has always b e e n of g r e a t interest to
scientists.

2. PREDICATIVE CLAUSES
Ex. 4 (p. 4 1 ) 1. The m o s t unpleasant c o n d i t i o n is that w e must... 2. His p r o p o s i t i o n is that
they will make and deliver... 3. S u c h w o r k is w h a t is called... 4 . The greatest riddle is h o w he
has g o t here. 5. The funniest t h i n g is that... 6. The p r o b l e m is w h a t he'll tell us. 7. Your
s u p p o r t is w h a t she n e e d s m o s t at the m o m e n t . 8. The p r o b l e m is w h e t h e r they'll c o m e in

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time t o help us. 9. The reason is that... 10. His g r e a t e s t h o p e is that the e x p e r i m e n t will
prove s u c c e s s f u l .

3. OBJECT CLAUSES
Ex. 5 (p. 4 2 )
1. I s u g g e s t e d t h e y (should) visit the m u s e u m after lunch.
2. He d e m a n d e d w e (should) help him.
3. He advised m e I (should) a c c e p t s u c h a g o o d offer.
4. The d i r e c t o r o r d e r e d t h a t the s e c r e t a r y (should) a r r a n g e everything for the j o u r n e y .
5. She a d v i c e d t h a t w e (should) start early.
6. She insisted (that) I (should) stay a little longer.
7. The officer c o m m a n d e d that the prisoners (should) be let free.
8. He insisted that I (shoud) c o m e with t h e m .
9. The situation reguired that I (should) be present there.
10. The g u i d e p r o p o s e d that w e (should) start at t e n .
11. The landlord d e m a n d e d that I (should) pay the rent by M o n d a y everning.
12. J a c k s u g g e s t e d (that) I (should) g o away for a f e w days.

Ex. 6 (p. 4 3 )
I
1. It is desirable that t h e y (should) take part in this w o r k .
2. It's important that all the d o c u m e n t s should be signed by Tuesday.
3. It's unbelivable that he should know nothing a b o u t it.
4. It's nessesary that the d o c t o r should examine him immediately.
5. It's desirable that y o u should g o there youself.
6. It's only natural, that the parents should w o r r y a b o u t their children.
7. I w a s s u r p r i s e d that he s h o u l d say s u c h a t h i n g .
8. It's s t r a n g e that he should leave w i t h o u t saying g o o d b y e .
9. It's very i m p o r t a n t that everyone should listen very carefully.

II
1. The d o c t o r advised t h a t she should g o t o the S o u t h in a u t u m n .
2. T h e y insisted that this p r o b l e m s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d at the next m e e t i n g .
3. He o r d e r e d that everything s h o u l d be ready by five o ' c l o c k .
4. M y b r o t h e r s u g g e s t e d w e should s p e n d our vacation in the villiage.
5. The c u s t o m e r insisted that the g o o d s s h o u l d be t a k e n b a c k t o the s h o p .
6. The client d e m a n d e d that the w o r k should be finished on t i m e .

4.2 SUBJECT AND OBJECT RELATIVE CLAUSES


Ex. 7 (p. 4 5 - 4 6 )
1. Ursula, w h o has never been to Russia, is studying Russian.
2. W e are m o v i n g t o M a n c h e s t e r , w h i c h is in the N o r t h - W e s t .

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3. M a n c h e s t e r , w h i c h is o n e of E n g l a n d ' s fastest g r o w i n g t o w n s , is a big city.
4. This is Dora at w h o s e house w e stayed for our holidays.
5. You'll m e e t A n d r e w w h o s e b r o t h e r is o n e of m y closest friends.
6. She is the girl f o r w h o m I b o u g h t a box of s w e e t s .
7. He is the m a n to w h o m I sent a letter.
8. I d o n ' t understand people w h o dislike animals.
9. T h a t ' s the b o y w h o has just g o t a place at university.
10. The bus w h i c h t h e y sent d i d n ' t have e n o u g h seats.
11. I d i d n ' t receive the letters w h i c h t h e y sent to m e .

Ex. 8 (p. 4 6 )
1. She is the girl I gave f l o w e r s t o / . . . to w h o m I gave flowers.
2. T h a t ' s the park I p a s s e d b y / . . . by w h i c h I p a s s e d .
3. T h a t ' s the d r e s s I've payed f o r / . . . for w h i c h I've p a y e d .
4. This is the music w e listened t o y e s t e r d a y / . . . t o w h i c h w e listened.
5. This is the m a n I s p o k e to the o t h e r d a y / . . . to w h o m I s p o k e .
6. I'm looking f o r a m a n o n e can rely o n / . . . on w h o m o n e can rely.
7. I s a c k e d the sales assistant I had a terrible a r g u m e n t w i t h / . . . with w h o m I had a terrible
argument.
8. That's m y house the burglars broke into/... into which the burglars broke the other night.
9. She is the girl I told y o u a b o u t / . . . a b o u t w h o m I told y o u .

Ex. 9 (p. 4 7 ) 1. t h a t / w h i c h ; 2. w h o ; 3. that ... on w h i c h / w h e r e ; 4 . that; 5. w h i c h ; 6. that;


7. w h o m ; 8. w h o s e ; 9. w h o ; 10. w h i c h ; 1 1 . w h o s e ; 12. w h i c h ; 13. w h e r e ; 14. t h a t / w h y .

Ex. 1 0 (p. 4 7 ) 1. w e live in; 2. I study with; 3. I d a n c e d with; 4 . I joined in; 5. I have just learnt
a b o u t ; 6. the m a t t e r c o n s i s t s of; 7. the present w a s w r a p p e d in; 8. the a u t h o r refers t o .

Ex. 1 1 (p. 4 7 )
1. The m a n w h o p h o n e d y o u d i d n ' t give his name.
2. W h a t ' s the n a m e of the river w h i c h / t h a t flows t h r o u g h the t o w n ?
3. Have y o u seen the p h o t o s (that) Ann t o o k ?
4. Everything (that) I said is true.
5. Y o u always ask q u e s t i o n s t h a t / w h i c h are difficult to answer.
6. Do y o u k n o w a n y b o d y w h o w a n t s t o buy a car?
7. I have a friend w h o is very g o o d at repairing cars.
8. The dinner (that) y o u c o o k e d is very g o o d .
9. W h e r e are the f l o w e r s (that) I gave y o u ?
10. I like the j a c k e t J a c k is w e a r i n g .
11. I think e v e r y b o d y w h o w e n t to the party e n j o y e d it very m u c h .
12. W h y d o e s she always w e a r c l o t h e s w h i c h are t o o small f o r her?
13. Did y o u like the hotel y o u stayed a t / w h e r e y o u stayed?
14. These are the b o o k s I told y o u a b o u t .
15. Do y o u k n o w the m a n Jill is talking to?
16. Have y o u f o u n d the m a p y o u w e r e looking for?

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Ex. 1 2 (p. 4 8 ) 1. w h o s e ; 2. w h i c h / t h a t ; 3. w h o / t h a t ; 4 . w h i c h / t h a t ; 5. w h i c h / t h a t ; 6. w h o /
that; 7. w h i c h / t h a t ; 8. w h o s e ; 9. w h i c h / t h a t ; 10. w h i c h ; 1 1 . w h i c h / t h a t ; 12. w h o / t h a t ;
13. w h i c h / t h a t ; 14. w h i c h / t h a t ; 15. w h o .

Ex. 1 3 (p. 4 8 - 4 9 ) 1. It's the r o o m the b o d y w a s f o u n d in. 2. It's the d r e s s the killed girl had
o n / w a s w e a r i n g . 3. It's the t h i n g the girl w a s killed with. 4. It's the t i m e the girl w a s killed at.
5. It's the village Miss Marple c o m e s f r o m . 6. H e ' s the m a n the police w e n t first t o . 7. S h e ' s
the girl (Dinah Lee) Ruby w o r k e d with. 8. She is the girl Basil Blake lived with. 9. It's the hotel
the killed girl w o r k e d at. 10. He's the m a n the police talked t o . 1 1 . It's the time Ruby d a n c e d
the exhibition d a n c e at. 12. H e ' s the y o u n g m a n Ruby d a n c e d with.

Ex. 1 4 (p. 4 9 ) 1. w h e r e ; 2. w h e n ; 3. w h e r e ; 4 . w h e r e ; 5. w h e n ; 6. why; 7. w h e r e ; 8. w h e n ;


9. w h e r e ; 10. w h y ; 1 1 . w h e n ; 12. w h e r e ; 13. w h e n ; 14. w h e n .

Ex. 1 5 (p. 4 9 ) 1. ... w h i c h a n n o y e d m e . 2. ... w h i c h s u r p r i s e d us. 3. ... w h i c h w a s a bit


d i s a p p o i n t i n g . 4 . ... w h i c h w a s e x t r e m e l y interesting. 5. ... w h i c h upset the c h i l d r e n . 6. ...
which I f o u n d rather surprising. 7. ... w h i c h m a d e m e very angry. 8. ... w h i c h m a d e m e a bit
suspicious.

Ex. 1 6 (p. 51) 1. that; 2. w h a t ; 3. that; 4 . That; 5. W h a t ; 6. that; 7. that, w h a t ; 8. what;


9. W h a t ; 10. that; 1 1 . That; 12. that; 13. W h a t , that; 14. W h a t , that.

Ex. 1 7 (p. 5 1 ) 1. that, that; 2. that; 3. w h a t ; 4 . w h i c h ; 5. (that); 6. (that); 7. w h i c h ; 8. what;


9. that; 10. W h a t ; 1 1 . that; 12. W h a t , w h a t ; 13. (that); 14. w h a t ; 15. w h i c h .

Ex. 1 8 (p. 5 1 ) ( ^ ) - 2; 3; 4 ; 7; 8; 10; 13; 14; 15.

Ex. 1 9 (p. 52)


I
1. I heard that he had already returned to M o s c o w . 2. I k n o w w h a t he had told y o u . 3. S h o w
me w h a t y o u ' v e b o u g h t . 4 . He told m e that he had written a letter t o m o t h e r . 5. I told the
s t u d e n t s w h a t I had seen in L o n d o n . 6. I'm sure that they'll be b a c k s o o n / t h e y will return
s o o n . 7. I k n o w w h a t / t h a t s h e ' s written t o h i m . 8. I'd like t o k n o w w h a t y o u ' v e told h i m . 9. I
think (that) it'll rain t o m o r r o w .
II
1. ...that s t o o d . 2. w h a t y o u ' r e g o i n g t o say. 3. The lullaby (that) m y f a t h e r used t o sing...
4. ...which c a m e as a surprise even to himself. 5. ...that used t o s t a n d . 6. ...what m a d e y o u
so angry. 7. ...to w h a t he did or said. 8. ...by the idea that... 9. That in his n e w c a p a c i t y he
displayed g r e a t talent a n d o b t a i n e d g r e a t s u c c e s s is u n q u e s t i o n a b l e . 10. W h a t y o u need is
w h a t every w o r k i n g girl n e e d s , a holiday, that is a rest. 1 1 . T h a t ' s w h a t I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d .
12. The t r o u b l e is t h a t I'm sleepy at night. 13. Do y o u k n o w that in Holland t h e y g r o w tulips
by the s q u a r e mile? 14. The s e c r e t of the m a t t e r is that... 15. ...which is, of c o u r s e ,
pleasant. 16. I k n e w (that) y o u w o u l d c o m e . 17. I see (that) y o u d o n ' t feel like g o i n g there.
18. W h e r e ' s the b o o k (that) I b r o u g h t . . . 19. ...says (that) h e ' s already l e f t / g o n e . . . 2 0 . You
know w h a t I m e a n , d o n ' t you?

105
REVISION

Ex. 2 0 (p. 5 2 - 5 3 )
1. ... w h o lived by hunting with roughly m a d e stone instruments.
2. ... that the separation of Britain f r o m the c o n t i n e n t w a s taking place.
3. ... w h i c h w a s to c h a n g e for ever the life of m a n .
4. ... he w a n t e d to m a k e .
5. ... t h e y settled o n .
6. ... t o w h o m the s e a w a s a natural barrier.
7. ... f o r w h o m it held f e w e r t e r r o r s .
8. ... w h o s e roof is a g r e a t stone.
9. ... w h o w e r e the first t o have left this island s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n material remains.
10. ... of which the native t o n g u e s of Ireland, Wales and Highlands of Scotland are the direct
descendants.

5.1 TIME CLAUSES


Ex. 2 (p. 56) 1. w h e n ; 2. b e f o r e ; 3. while; 4 . until; 5. after; 6. while; 7. by the t i m e ; 8. as
s o o n as; 9. the m o m e n t ; 10. till; 1 1 . as; 12. since.

Ex. 3 (p. 5 6 ) 1. b e f o r e ; 2. while; 3. until; 4 . while; 5. b e f o r e ; 6. as s o o n as; 7. while; 8. by


the t i m e ; 9. since; 10. b e f o r e .

Ex. 4 (p. 5 6 - 5 7 )
I
1. I'll wait at h o m e till y o u give m e a call.
2. W h e n w e w e r e in L o n d o n , w e visited the Tower.
3. I'll give him the m e s s a g e as s o o n as he calls.
4. I haven't played football since I w a s fifteen.
5. After I f i n i s h e d / h a d finished w o r k , I w e n t h o m e .
6. T h e y had l o c k e d the gate b e f o r e I g o t t h e r e .
7. I rang the s h o p up as s o o n as I had c h e c k e d the c o n t e n t s of the box.
8. After I've read the book, y o u c a n have it.
9. T o m w a s reading a b o o k while I w a t c h e d TV.
10. W h a t are y o u g o i n g t o d o while y o u ' r e waiting f o r t h e m ?

II
1. Let's have the m e e t i n g after w e ' v e had lunch.
2. I c a n ' t w o r k b e f o r e I've had breakfast.
3. I've lost w e i g h t while I w a s ill.
4. W e w a i t e d at the airport till t h e y arrived.
5. Sally told m e a b o u t her e n g a g e m e n t w h e n she w a s here.
6. I'll c o m e as s o o n as I've finished/finish m y work.
7. I'm g o i n g to L o n d o n next w e e k . I h o p e t o see T o m while I'm there.

106
8. He'll w o r k in the g a r d e n as long as it is light.
9. T h e y s t o p p e d several t i m e s b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h e d the station.
10. He w o n ' t g o h o m e until they return.
11. T h e y left while I w a s s p e a k i n g t o the d o c t o r .
12. I w a s i n f o r m e d a b o u t it the day I arrived t o M o s c o w .
13. By the t i m e he arrived, the police had already b e e n there.
14. I'll bring y o u the b o o k w h e n I c o m e next t i m e .
15. T h e y haven't heard f r o m him since he left Russia.

Ex. 5 (p. 57) 1. b e f o r e ; 2. b e f o r e / u n t i l ; 3. until/till; 4 . b e f o r e ; 5. till; 6. until; 7. until;


8. until; 9. until; 10. until; 1 1 . B e f o r e ; 12. b e f o r e / u n t i l ; 13. till.

Ex. 6 (p. 5 8 ) 1. in the way; 2. as; 3. as if; 4 . t h e way; 5. as; 6. as if; 7. as; 8. as if; 9. as;
10. as if.

Ex. 7 (p. 58) 1. w e r e ; 2. h a d n ' t e a t e n ; 3. had never p a r t e d ; 4 . w e r e ; 5. is; 6. had s e e n ;


7. d i d n ' t know; 8. a m floating; 9. had never s e e n ; 10. w e r e ; 1 1 . w e r e r u n n i n g ; 12. had
heard; 13. w e r e ; 14. is raining.

Ex. 8 (p. 5 9 )
1. It looks as if T o m is not c o m i n g .
2. Ann s o u n d e d as if she g o t a c o l d .
3. She w a s limping, as if she had hurt her leg.
4. W e ' v e never met. W h y is she smiling at m e as if w e have already met?
5. He talks as m y f a t h e r d o e s .
6. The bricks are m a d e as t h e y w e r e in R o m a n t i m e s .
7. I w a s never allowed to behave the w a y I w a n t e d to.
8. T h e y w e r e d a n c i n g in a w a y I had never s e e n before.
9. I d o n ' t like p e o p l e w h o behave the w a y he d o e s .
10. She refuses t o d r e s s the w a y her c o l l e a g u e s d o .
11. He said he w o u l d w o r k as the o t h e r s if he w a s paid as t h e y w e r e .
12. He looks as if he had s e e n a g h o s t .

Ex. 9 (p. 60) 1. so that; 2. a s / s i n c e ; 3. b e c a u s e ; 4 . so that; 5. as; 6. since; 7. so that; 8. as;


9. so that; 10. as; 1 1 . so that; 12. b e c a u s e ; 13. so that; 14. b e c a u s e ; 15. as; 16. so that.

Ex. 1 0 (p. 60)


1. I w r o t e d o w n all the f i g u r e s so that he w o u l d n ' t f o r g e t t h e m .
2. S p e a k louder so that I c o u l d hear y o u .
3. She o p e n e d the d o o r quietly so that the children w o u l d n ' t w a k e up.
4. Put the w a t c h on the table so that the children w o n ' t break it.
5. The girl hid b e h i n d a tree so t h a t her b r o t h e r w o u l d n ' t notice her.
6. Switch on the light so t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e a d .
7. I told t h e m a b o u t it o n c e again so that they w o u l d n ' t f o r g e t .
8. I gave him the journal so t h a t he c o u l d read y o u r article.
9. The s e c r e t a r y put the mail on the tablle so that the d i r e c t o r m i g h t look it t h r o u g h .

107
10. The service in this hotel ought to improve because there's been a change in management.
11. As the Air Traffic Controllers are on strike, w e ' v e c a n c e l l e d our holiday.
12. Since s h e ' s never in w h e n I p h o n e , I'll have t o write t o her.
13. I've had to have the d o c u m e n t translated since I c o u l d n ' t read it in G e r m a n .
14. I'm up so late b e c a u s e I w a n t t o w a t c h the film at 11.30 p.m.

5.5 AS AND SINCE IN THE CLAUSES


OF TIME AND CAUSE (REASON)
Ex. 1 1 (p. 61) 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4 . ; 5. ; 6.
; 7. ; 8. ; 9. ; 10. ; 1 1 . ;
12. ; 13. ; 14. ; 15. ; 16. ; 17. ;
18. ; 19. ; 2 0 . .

Ex. 1 2 (p. 6 1 - 6 2 ) 1. as; 2. b e c a u s e ; 3. as; 4 . since; 5. as; 6. as; 7. b e c a u s e ; 8. since;


9. as; 10. as; 1 1 . b e c a u s e ; 12. since; 13. for; 14. as; 15. b e c a u s e ; 16. for; 17. since;
18. b e c a u s e ; 19. s i n c e ; 2 0 . s i n c e ; 2 1 . s i n c e ; 2 2 . b e c a u s e ; 2 3 . s i n c e ; 2 4 . s i n c e ;
25. as; 26. since; 27. b e c a u s e .

Ex. 1 3 (p. 6 2 ) 1. J u s t as w e started on our way, it b e g a n s n o w i n g . 2. He w a l k e d with care


because he did not wish to fall. 3. Since the spring is n o w well a d v a n c e d , w e shall s o o n hear
the c u c k o o ' s voice a g a i n . 4 . The g a m e w a s s t o p p e d b e c a u s e a heavy s t o r m b r o k e out.
5. Since she w e n t t o Italy in April, I haven't received a single letter f r o m her. 6. As the
c h a m p i o n g r e w w e a k e r , his o p p o n e n t ' s a t t a c k s b e c a m e ... 7. I d e c i d e d t o s t o p a n d have
lunch first - f o r I w a s f e e l i n g ... 8. D o n ' t s e n d this t e l e g r a m until F a t h e r r e a d s it.
9. I m a d e the decision b e f o r e that p h o n e call c a m e . 10. D o n ' t g o there before t h e y ring y o u
up.

Ex. 1 4 (p. 6 2 ) 1 . B e f o r e y o u s t a r t a r g u i n g , ... . 2. Until t h e e n g i n e e r c o m e s , ... .


3. Since y o u c a n n o t reach an a g r e e m e n t , ... . 4 . As t h e y c l i m b e d higher a n d higher, ... .
5. J u s t as t h e y s t e p p e d u n d e r the a r c h , ... . 6. ... b e f o r e t h e y c o m e . 7. ... b e c a u s e she
d i d n ' t w a n t t o m e e t t h e m . 8. ... , for on the w h o l e he isn't a debater. 9. ... , until your parents
c o m e . 10. T h e y have lived in this house since their b r o t h e r left for L o n d o n .

5.6 CONTRAST CLAUSES


Ex. 1 5 (p. 6 3 - 6 4 )
1. A l t h o u g h she w a s n ' t well, she w e n t t o w o r k .
2. I'm not tired t h o u g h I've b e e n w o r k i n g hard all day.
3. The house isn't very nice, I like the g a r d e n t h o u g h .
4. A l t h r o u g h I've never seen him b e f o r e , I r e c o g n i s e d him f r o m a p h o t o g r a p h .
5. I d o n ' t play the piano n o w t h o u g h I used t o w h e n I w a s y o u n g e r .

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6. In spite of the f a c t I used to play the piano w h e n I w a s y o u n g e r , I d o n ' t play it now.
7. Y o u look very m u c h as y o u r g r a n d f a t h e r t h o u g h y o u ' r e not as tall as he w a s .
8. (Al)though w e w e r e hungry, w e had no t i m e for lunch.
9. T h o u g h w e ' r e poor, w e still have our pride.
10. He w a s difficult t o u n d e r s t a n d t h o u g h his English w a s very g o o d . / A l t h o u g h his English
w a s very g o o d , he w a s . . .
1 1 . A l t h o u g h w e started early, w e only arrived just in t i m e . / In spite of the f a c t t h a t w e
started early, w e only...
12. (Al)though it w a s very w a r m , she had her c o a t o n .

Ex. 1 6 (p. 6 4 )
1. In spite of the f a c t / a l t h o u g h I had planned everything carefully, a lot of t h i n g s w e n t on
wrong.
2. He l o o k e d very well, in spite of his r e c e n t illness.
3. Despite his English n a m e , he is in f a c t G e r m a n .
4. I'm g o i n g t o buy a car t h o u g h I haven't g o t m u c h money.
5. I'd like to help y o u , although I'm afraid I w o n ' t be able to.
6. In spite of all his p r e c a u t i o n s , his m o n e y has been stolen.
7. (Al)though I w o r k h a r d , I still have t o take w o r k h o m e .
8. Although y o u write well, y o u w o n ' t be published.
9. He c o n t i n u e d the race despite his injury.
10. A l t h o u g h I w o r k e d h a r d , I failed m y e x a m s .

Ex. 1 7 (p. 6 4 - 6 5 )
1. I quite e n j o y e d his last book, in spite of the f a c t that it w a s n ' t very well w r i t t e n .
2. I can never r e m e m b e r his n a m e , (al)though I have k n o w n him for years.
3. W o m e n retire earlier than m e n , in spite of the f a c t t h a t t h e y live longer.
4. I'm e x h a u s t e d , (even) t h o u g h I've d o n e nothing all day.
5. I really e n j o y e d the play, dispite the f a c t w e d i d n ' t have very g o o d seats.
6. He died poor, a l t h o u g h he had w o r k e d hard all his life.
7. Even t h o u g h I've s t u d i e d French f o r tree y e a r s , I still find it difficult to s p e a k French in
the street.
8. T h o u g h I haven't eaten for 2 4 hours, I d o n ' t feel hungry.
9. (Al)though it w a s only nine o ' c l o c k , t h e r e w e r e f e w people in the street.
10. A l ( t h o u g h ) he is very busy, he'll find t i m e to help us.
11. He w e n t o u t in spite of the f a c t t h a t he had a bad c o l d .
12. (Al)though it w a s late, w e d e c i d e d t o g o there.
13. In spite of the f a c t t h a t he w o r k s m u c h , he is not well p a y e d .
14. I love music, t h o u g h I d o n ' t play a musical instrument.

REVISION

Ex. 1 (p. 6 5 ) 1. a l t h o u g h ; 2. as; 3. as t h o u g h ; 4 . while; 5. by the t i m e ; 6. until; 7. so that;


8. as s o o n as; 9. b e c a u s e ; 10. b e f o r e ; 1 1 . that; 12. since; 13. as; 14. t o w h o m ; 15. w h e r e ;
16. while; 17. t h o u g h ; 18. as; 19. as if; 20. while; 2 1 . t h o u g h ; 2 2 . that.

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Ex. 2 (p. 65) 1. by; 2. i n / i n t o ; 3. like; 4 . After; 5. like; 6. in; 7. in; 8. till; 9. o n ; 10. w i t h ;
1 1 . As; 12. at; 13. into; 14. b e c a u s e ; 15. in; 16. into; 17. in; 18. o n c e .

Ex. 3 (p. 66) 1. in; 2. in; 3. till; 4 . b e f o r e ; 5. like; 6. that; 7. in; 8. b e c a u s e ; 9. that;
10. like; 1 1 . W h a t ; 12. that; 13. after; 14. w i t h ; 15. b e f o r e ; 16. w i t h ; 17. in; 18. what;
19. B e s i d e s ; 2 0 . w h a t ; 2 1 . a s ; 2 2 . t h a t ; 2 3 . w h a t ; 2 4 . like; 2 5 . in; 2 6 . in; 2 7 . in;
28. a m o n g ; 2 9 . by; 3 0 . w i t h ; 3 1 . in; 3 2 . by; 3 3 . as; 3 4 . as; 3 5 . in.

Ex. 4 (p. 6 7 - 6 8 ) 1. O n c e ; 2. in; 3. as; 4 . in; 5. o n ; 6. in; 7. After; 8. w i t h ; 9. As; 10. by;
11. w i t h ; 12. by; 13. - / t h a t ; 14. into; 15. as; 16. - / t h a t ; 17. that; 18. into; 19. until;
20. As; 2 1 . into; 2 2 . in; 2 3 . - ; 2 4 . in; 25. w i t h ; 2 6 . w h a t ; 2 7 . w i t h ; 28. into; 2 9 . into;
30. into; 3 1 . w i t h ; 3 2 . with ; 3 3 . into; 3 4 . w i t h ; 3 5 . As; 3 6 . by; 3 7 . w h a t ; 3 8 . w i t h ; 3 9 . that;
40. After; 4 1 . B e f o r e ; 4 2 . into; 4 3 . t h a t / - ; 4 4 . w h i c h ; 4 5 . Besides; 4 6 . that; 4 7 . w i t h ;
48. by; 4 9 . - ; 5 0 . that; 5 1 . in; 5 2 . in; 5 3 . in; 5 4 . b e f o r e ; 5 5 . b e f o r e ; 5 6 . - .

Ex. 5 (p. 6 8 - 6 9 ) 1. that; 2. w i t h ; 3. t o / i n t o ; 4 . in; 5. of; 6. W h a t ; 7. t o ; 8. at; 9. to;


10. for; 1 1 . by; 12. w i t h ; 13. o n ; 14. w i t h ; 15. in; 16. w i t h ; 17. for; 18. What; 19. for;
20. in; 2 1 . w i t h ; 2 2 . as; 23. as; 2 4 . of; 2 5 . for; 26. t h a n ; 2 7 . as; 2 8 . as; 2 9 . as; 3 0 . a s ;
31. at; 3 2 . how; 3 3 . a b o u t ; 3 4 . in.

EMPHASIS
3. THE EMPHATIC CONSTRUCTION
"IT IS ... THAT, WHICH, WHO, W H O M "

Ex. 5 (p. 74) 1. It w a s J o h n w h o said it. 2. It w a s after the w a r that stone buildings a p p e a r e d
h e r e . 3. It w a s s h e w h o s t o p p e d t h e c a r . 4 . It is n o t I a l o n e t h a t a m t o b l a m e .
5. It w a s only the following m o r n i n g that she noticed the d i s a p p e a r a n c e of that p h o t o g r a p h .
6. It w a s not by this road t h a t t h e y c a m e f r o m the w o o d . 7. It w a s t h e n t h a t he r e m e m b e r e d
about the old architect. 8. It is only after y o u have learned to swim that I will allow y o u to take
part in t h a t boat trip. 9. It is not this artist w h o has painted D a d d y ' s p o o l . 10. It w a s just
before the p e r f o r m a n c e b e g a n that t h e y c a m e .

4. THE EMPHATIC CONSTRUCTION


"IT IS NOT UNTIL ... THAT"
Ex. 7 (p. 7 5 ) 1. It w a s not until the following d a y that the plane s t a r t e d . 2. It w a s not until he
saw t h e m again that he u n d e r s t o o d his mistake. 3. It w a s not until late at night that the match
o u t c o m e b e c a m e k n o w n . 4 . It w a s not till the early spring that w e first heard f r o m h i m . 5. It
was not until they arrived at the station that they knew the train had been c a n c e l l e d . 6. It was
not till the e n d of April that the s n o w m e l t e d away. 7. It w a s not until she arrived at her new

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h o m e t h a t she let t h e m k n o w a b o u t her decision to leave. 8. It w a s not until his b o o k w a s
published that he w a s able t o leave his j o b in the hospital. 9. It w a s not till he s a w that letter
that he believed everything w a s over. 10. It is not until y o u d o it yourself t h a t y o u can
understand it.

5. THE EMPHATIC "NOT ... TILL/UNTIL"


Ex. 9 (p. 7 6 ) 1. He d i d n ' t start writing p o e t r y until after g r a d u a t i n g f r o m the university.
2. He d i d n ' t call until 8. 3. T h e y d i d n ' t leave until midnight. 4 . The p e r f o r m a n c e d i d n ' t start
until 1 1 . 5. I c o u l d n ' t leave until after lunch. 6. W e w o n ' t be able t o m e e t until after the show.
7. I'm not g o i n g t o start translating this until after m y holidays. 8. W e d i d n ' t fall asleep until
dawn. 9. They w o n ' t c o m e b a c k till a u t u m n . 10. They d i d n ' t get married until after the birth of
their s e c o n d baby.
LITERATURE
AlexanderL. G. L o n g m a n English G r a m m a r Practice. - L o n g m a n , 1995.
Helleger-Jone M. A., Lampater P. G r a m m a r in profile. - Ernest Klett Verlag: Stuttgart,
1991.
MurphyR. Essential G r a m m a r in Use. - C a m b r i d g e Univ. Press, 2 0 0 0 .
Swan M., Walter C. H o w English W o r k s . - O x f o r d University Press, 2 0 0 2 .
Swan M., Walter C. The New Cambridge English Course: Practice 4. - Cambridge University
Press, 1997.
Walker E., Elsworth S. G r a m m a r Practice. - L o n g m a n , 2 0 0 0 .
Willis Dave. S t u d e n t ' s g r a m m a r . - L o n d o n : Harper Collins Publishers, 1 9 9 1 .

. ., . ., . . . -
. : , 1973.
. .
: . - . : ,
, 1970. - 213 .
: . - .: , 2 0 0 4 .
. : . - .: ,
2004.