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O MATEPhAJIAXVl TEXHVKEPhCYHKA

PABOTA HAA OAHOCEAHCHbTM|4 prlCyHKAMt4,


HAEPOCKA M'l V 3APhCOBKAMh

Ila,ra"qo cepbe3Hbrxsausrrft pacyHKoM HelpeMeHuo flpeAnoJraracr


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ltoJilr('1ililtl),it60'r/tJrrrreJrbHocrbro He 6onee 2-3 tlacos, To ecrb oAHo-
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o('ttotlll,t(' ltl)onoptutn npcAMeroB HaTypbI,KoHcTpyKrlr4ro H o6beMHocTb
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c coo'r'ilc]'crByrorrlHMu MarepHaJraMHu npaB],znaMr.r IIoJtb3oBaHhflttMr.r.
li lirnrruruocrn or oco6esuocrefi Harypbl r.r lls6panuoro npneMa
l, u('y'il Ka..il il 6pocxa Moryr 6lrrs ucno.nueHblKap aHAarrroM,nepoM, yrfl eM,
c;rrrrrrrroii,Kr.rcrbro,na,roqxoft r{ Ha pa3JIurlnbrx.copTax 6yvrarn.

Pncynor KapaHAarrroM

O/trroceaHcsbreplrcyHKu MoxHo AeJrarb Ha uornofi, xopouo npo-


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r r r t r r r l l p a n a u - c r e n e H br B e p A o c r r , ( l M r n e p x e 2 M , O M c a u l r f i u t r x n f t ,
rr 5'l'- canrr,riirnepauli). HasnaHns KapaHAar.xeft,Hanpuuep, <<flro-
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r\'/r.o)rilruKnMeer 6oraruft nlr6op KapaHAauefi no rnepAocrn, ToHy
r xirl)ar('rcpy txrpr{xa. Bu6op oflpeAer'rflercf KoHKperuoft sa4aueli pn-
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B pllcyHI{e cnJlbHee or,'IHrla,'Iucbor TeMIIbIX ToHoB, a pI{cyHoK no,'Iyqa.[,
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a ocraB,rfld'Iorxrpr{xH AaX{e ilpI{ JIeTKOMrrpr.rKocHoBesnu. Bonee rnaA-
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20
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22
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23
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24
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MacrepoB.M., <Co-
sercrrrriixvgoxHrrK>,1958,crp. 57.

26
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27
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28
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29
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38
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39
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40
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42
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TflMuxo,rlcTa.Cnofi KpacKLr
coxpaHrirbsepHLrcryroSaxrypy xo,'tcra.
Moxso Hcno,Ilb3oBarb14cMecb cBI{HuoBbIX6enan c ullHKoBblMll
(oaHfittIIIzHKoBbIe6enuna Nts fpyHroBKI{ He llpuMeHnrorca). Taxoft
rpyl'tr rpe6yer Anure,rnuoti (He lreulue oAHoro ro4a) npocyul(lt B xo-
pouo BeHrI4,'It4pyeMoM cyxoM noMeu{eHHlr.Ho n nepecyuilBarb ero
HeJlb3r,TaK KaK rlepeAepxaHHufi nnac,'lgHltfirpyur rlJloxo cuerlJlrercfl
c KpacoqHbrMcJIoeM.
Mac,{o Il3 KpacoK, noSToMy
MacnqHrte fpyHTbI IIoqrI{ He BIIHTbIBaIoT
fi He I,I3MeHSIOTIIX TOHa,HO nocKo,'IbKyKpacoqHblecnon c,la6o cqen-
dltllOTCt C MaCd'IflHbIM rpyHTOM, T O H e J I b 3 f l A € J I a T b C J I 1 4 I U K O Mn a C T O 3 H y I O
pe"rreQuyro,'IerrKy$opmu, TaK KaK KpacKa Mo)Kerocblnarbcfl.
Sruwu rpyHTaMLiqaure Bcero flo,'Ib3ylorct xyAo]KHI'tKI'I.KoropHe
.nn6sr Npacouustfi cnoil c 6recxorrl, 111HBonI'lcb rny6oNoro, IIBeroBoro
.TOHa n nacbMo c JreccI4poBKaMII.
MOxuO ilO.Irb3OBaTbCfl. v qBeTHbtTIU epAHTAUu.B 6ennna nocJlcAIIc'
rO C"'tOgfpyHTOBKLIAO6an,rqrcr HeMIlOrO cyxOti I{pacKn- tlcpll()ii, I(o-
puuUenOr?Lrilv KaKOfr-,ru6o4pyrOfi, n 3anltctlMocl'lr oT TOI'11,lial(Ofo
'l'oritil, l'lof/(a
oTTeHKarpylIT xoTgT lo,lyquTb, 3t'o tttyleelcMblc,'l/[cJla'l'b
cO6HpatOTCfl n H C a T b t t C c r ' t t t L l t K o MI t a c ' f o 3 l l o , o c o 6 c t t t l o B lloJlyl'clltX
I { T e H f l X ,I { K O f A a e C T bo l r b l T I l a c T p a u B a H u t l} K l l l l o l l } l c t t } 3 a A y M a l l l l o l i
TOHa,'lbHOCTIl, C nCIO,rlb3OBaltHeM qBeTa rpyHTa KaK <<l(aMepTolla)) )l{}l-
BorrricH. IJ,eer rpyHra BJIHter Ha cocroflHl'Ie KpacoqHblx c,'IoeB' Ha rpyH-
Te TenJIOfOUBeTaflelrle BblAepxaTb >KI{BO[I{Cb B TeI1/IOM KO"IOpUTe' Ha
c e p o M- B c e p e 6 p l 4 c r b l xT o H a x , H a T e M H O M - B T e M H b I XT O H a X . B O r
noqeMy IIBerHoIi rpyHr B )KltBolllcn cpoAHH KaMeproHyB My3bII(e'
HaqusarculllM xyAox(HI4KaM,g,roynorpe6naIoIlrnM pe3KHMIl I'l lrpe'
AeJIbHOflpKIIMI.lKpaCKaMH -Xe,/ITbIM KaAMI'IeMBMeCTOOXp, KpacHbIM
KaAMr4eMBMeCTOaHTJII{fiCKOfi KpacHoft, nod'Ie3Hononpo6oBarb HanI{'
caTb xoTrl 6u oAvs grloA Ha cepoM rpyHre, Ha KoropoM o6blqHaf
cBerJlag oxpa 3ByqLITflprle opaHxeBoro KaAMIltl. SrOr onltr noMox(er
ygcHHTbBO3MOX{HOCTI.T HefpKLIX3eM,'IflHbIX KpaCOK,eCJIIinX flpaBI'l"lbHO
coqerarb c cepe6pucrblMll It cepoBaro-ro.ny6umu flo,ryroHaMl{.
Vlraw, ecrb rpyHTbl rflHytque, cu,IIbHoBnl'ITblBalourueMacJIo I43 Kpa-
coK, a nosToMy npLIAaIOq[e KpacoqHoMy CJIOIOpaBHOMepHyl0MaTo-
BOCTb,KOTOpyIO He C,qeAyerrlyraTb c floxyx,'Iocrblo B BIIAe Ii3O,'InpoBaH--
HbrXnrrTeH.-MUOrneMacTepa xLIBOnnCUJIIO6I{,111 NlarOeuft .Kpac6qHblfi
CJIOft , npI4BJIeKaloqaft Mfl rKocTbIO I.r Bo3AyIuHOcTblo OTreHxOe.MarOshq
111lIBOnlrCb ,'Iyqge CMOTpIITCfl nplr r'Irc6bIX yCJIOBI'IqX OCBeUIeHlltlKap-
T],IHbI.
Ho upeeuepHorsHyitllie rpyHrbt Moryr BbI3Barbcepbe3Hble4e$exru
B KpacoqHoMc,'IOe.flOerouy flepeA pa6_oroftux npHxoAl4rcsnpoMacJII{-
RATb CH,'IbHOOT}KATOfrMAC,'IflHOfiBATKOft I{JIIZNPOTHPATbqCCHOKOM,COX
KOTOpOfO fl BlrItercff ,'iaKoM pacTI'rTe,'IbHoro npoflcxox{AeHilfl.
lpyurlt cpeAHerffHyurue' I{ KoropbIM orHocsrctl MHof He BI'lAbl
3Mv!'rbclroHHbrx fpyHrqB, raK)Ke Hepe4Ko nepeA pa6orofi [poKJlel'lBaor
qacru
oaHurr,1c,ToeM cJIa6OfO pacrBopa xeJIarHHOBOfo KJICT (npr'rnnepHoI
K.rreff Ha 50 qacreli eo4u). B erONI oco6esHo HV)KAaIorcfl Qa6plturrt,re
KOTOpblxxyAo)KHHKyHe
rpyHToBaHHblexoJICTbI'Cnoco6 npHroroBJleHHfl
BCerAa H3BecTell.
rpyHroB npr'r-o6peraercn
3uaulte scex ceoficrB pa3JII4qHbIxenAoB
rpyHraMI'I c-o6crseHuorolI3-
nparrNxoti, nogroMy nyuur'e noJIb3oBarbcg
xo"lcra'
i6tou"tt.uri, npo6yi pa3Hblecnoco6u rpy'roBKI'I
ocHoBaHI{enol *""o*cb MacJIoM'Ho Ao-
Vlraw, xoJlcr-,lyquee
H Apyrl{x MarepI{aJIoB'O4uaxo so scex'c'[Y'
nvcrllMo ItcnoJIb3oBaHLIe rx noA
co6.trroaa*npanu'nanoAroro--:Y Mare'
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no n.'.nua*"ii, u t.po*;;"fft' noarbro"t<a KaproHa AJIfl
KaKofr se o6naAaerynpy-
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tgcrblo xoJlcra n" sepunirort Qaxrypu' flocneAu-ltft-
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Eue ryque
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Barb Kaprouuapneft,a noroM rpyHToBarb' onu$ofi
flepea rpynronxofi KalroH npon"tuutor uarypanlnoft cBiluuo-
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Id cyurar AB,e-T,p,n
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u-oia*o",i.rr. b.ril nrpib" xopo6utca, ero-HaAonpu6url x noAPaM'
Hnr(y,a noTOM rpyl'lToBarb.
Haao fio:
ii,y,itouanltitft KaproII npoAaerctl,Ho ero' KaK npaBI'IJIo' Kretl'
KpHBarb o/utttM c.nobrra xriAr<o pa3BcAeHtloro xe"IarI'IHoBoro
H I I A T I CX } I I I O N H C b M O ) K C T I I O } K Y X I I Y T b
I
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Euuuea. I{rfl glto/\oB IIccJIo}KllbIxnefreaxgHx erI,oAoB
p.nu'r,,T"6"il";,;6;,'-*y., " ". A.l,_{f" rroAroroBr.rrerlbHblx
(earltan' noly-
n 6yltary
K 3cKlt3aMxotunoslrEl,ftMo)I{HoucrloJlb3oBars KaK oqellb
6url raK
se6o'nbIIII'IMII' Aax(e
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;I||;;;:;" oy*u.u Qaxrypua''Ito6r't nucarb
"Lao"tutouno
- sHo pe.nleSultr'tn Ma3KaMI'I'
s iur
Ha 6ytrlare BbInoJlHrJII.l
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iii paoorbl xopouo coxpanr'r'nucl' n113rl MHoro'
Mrofue Macrepa, '
"
neirlaxsue rtlbrilsbl ua 6ytrlare He peKoMeHAyercfl'
'-'"Cioii1'ioaaoroiiu
nnunouor. 6ntr sa
Ogi,oeu.Eyi,rary, xoiopan AorI)KHa
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2 cu ruupe I'I AJIHHHeexaito"a,
qairefi cKllrllAapa Ha I seco-
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qacTb ,,uanr"* do"rau) , [poMacJIlIBaroT JIbHflHbIMMac"IoM A,',ltl
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n xopouro flp-ocyull{Balor'
xr.rBonflcl{ (a Mo}KHoroJIbKo npoMacJlHrb ee)
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ir,o,rpe1nnenorc
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TlrBHbrxpa6orax, JIaKoM'
creKJIy tr"n""ot*" npua*uon", pa3BeLeHHbrMucKu[[AapHbIM
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cJIoflMl{' fpyuronarl
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Kpenqe' qeM
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xtlwtuqecruu cnoco6otvt'
rra t,'raAKoM. Mutouoctb nplrAarb i'loxno
HexoropuexyAoxHIIKIInncaJII{ge6onruruegTIoAbIuua$anepe'Ho

44
rpeIqI4HbI Iyglnl^*Opouue
rrepe3onpeAeJre'HoeBpeMs roflBJIflJII4cb
ropasAo " {€M noAro'
cJIo)I(Hee'
p;'G;: K;oMy xe rfyuroaxa Qauepu
roBKa KapToHa noA )KIIBOIIICb.
peKoMeHAoBarbvr AepeBo'
flo eirN{ xe coo6pixenl{rM He Mo}I(eM cropoHbloHa
He coneryeMnortsoe-arbcfl raK
KJIeeHKoIl, iax c oAHoft
I',l3- xI{BOnHCn>>'a c
oqeHb fJIaAKafl Ii Moxer IIpuyqI',ITbK <<3a'tI4SaHHoiI
ToHKHX. HI',ITefi' KOTOpoe JIerKo 3a6I{'
HaHKUHMeeTTaKOe[eperrJIeTeHLIe
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ocnoBaHlls noA )KI4BoIlI4cb
lpvabt A€JIo;€c,rlh r,laAKaR rloBepxnocrb Cneqnanlno
coorBercrByer TexHI'IKe I{ xapaKrepy cauofi >KIIBonI4CI'I'
cBolo poc[I]cb' xyAox{HITKI'{
urnNQyI,or II JIaKI'rpyrcTnanbe-Ma[Ie noA
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HI'l I{JII{ rl I4ca''
ff un.iiu. uaa rcurr.?.fi xyAox q a c ro Ha qep'
( u n n ' n o u r n t o n o n u ) H a K " I e e H K eA, 3 K r o M y x e
"-uofi,
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o n ee rou s ceoeir x{uBoIIlIcH'
iip"*a"sio, ,l KapToH-opfaJrLtr, raK KaK c il3HarrKlrorl I{Mcer rloxo-
tte xopo6urt" l1-o
}I{ee Ha sepHo xo.ncra rucHeune, BoAOcroeK'rlpoqcll'
;;;il*;nn pa6oru Ha rrd,reHspe, e r o r r e p a u ' o u a f l b u op e 3 a r b l r a l l e '
6olrutue
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HI4CM CIIHTCTI'IqCCKOIO KJICi N 9MYJIbCIIN.

Kncrn
[paBI{JIbHo|o
He uegruee SHarIeHHe B x{I,IBon[cu I,IMeIoT II KI,ICTI4oT
su6opa LI KaqecrBa Koropblx 3aBIIcLlrBblpasureJlbuocrblryl*''
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n.nacruqHuft Ma3oK paenofi ry-
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crorbl, Ma3oK-MosaI'IKy, rpaHflIlluft Qopuy' Xopourue'
HaHOCltTb Ma3KlI pasnruuofi' TofllqI'IHbI' pasnoo6pasuoro
Iro3BOJIflroT
(puc' I l ' a) ' Hennsn rucarl)
xapaKTepa,qro oqeHbBJII'IflerHa )KI'IBoIIncs
purno"*uuaHHbIMr,r u,'tn o6pesaHHbIMI4, nJIOXO n64O6-pauuu.t)ll'
Kr.rcTflMU,
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o e H o f IB n 3 K r I( P u c . I 1 ' 6 ) '
D"-ii".i, l.IMercr
" uotpi6atorearoics pa3Hbtx toMepoB, tlo llaqullalo[lue

ffiH qHrR\
HH Fffiffiffi
x
.Puc.tl.
6
Puc' 12'
nplrcrpacrne r( MeJrKrrMKrlcroqKaM. llpann,'lrnee nu6nparb KI{crLt
c yqeroM rex 3aAaq, Koropbre craBflrcff nepeA gTloAoM.Haqrsanr srn-
Abr urupoKHMr.rKHcrflMH (Ne l0-12) , raK rtc'r [pexAe BCero H&{o tt€-
peAarb rrc Me'rKHeAeraJrH, a ocnoBHbreQopvrlr fi rxnpoKo 3anlicarb
xo,qcr. 3anepruarcr pa6ory ro)Ke rxrrpoKvMn Ktrcrflnau,o6o6u1afl 1erantw.
Kncru Ne 3-5 Hy)KHbrrolrbKo ArIfl AeranrupoBKlr.

P n c .1 3 .
B npoqecce pa6orbr ABe-rpil Kr{cru o6qgarentHo BblAerqtorcr ro,'Ib'
Ko AJrn xo.roAHbrxorrcHKoB u cnnecefic xod'toAHbIMH cLIHHMn,3ed'IeHbIMII
KpacKaMH,qro6u n36c>Karb rpfl3l1 rra nadrlrTpeLI B gTIoAax. He.nlsn
6parr oArrofi tt rofi >xc Kucrbro r(pacKI{TeMHLIeII cBer,ttble.Boo6nle ne-
pcA'r'cM,I(aK /(cJraTbrroRyrocMccb r{pacoK,K}rcTrirraAo BblTr.rpaTb TpsII-

Puc.14.
Kofi, Berourro, uro6sr y^anvrb crapbrecMeclt.Ilocne pa6orlt Itx rula'
Ted'IbHO MOIOT C Mbl,'IOM A ren,'IOfi BOAe, OnOJIaCKI'lBalOT, BbIT[paoT,
a floroM o5f3are,'rbHo3aBopaqHBarorB 6yuary, qro6br Bor'rocHe Tonop-
u{rrJrcflnp14cyuKe (puc. 12).
Kucrl clry)Kr.rrxyAo)KHrzKyAJrr ,'renKr.r @opuu Ma3KaMI4, A,rrflco3Aa-
H l r f l p a 3 H o o 6 p a e H o rQ
i a x r y p u - K p a c o q H o f oc , r o n . f l p n e r o M e M y H a A o
nocToflHHor4MeTbB noJIe SpeHI4fBecb 3TI0A.3Haqnr, KIIcTb,KaK It Ka-
p a r { A a u r ,H a A o A e p } K a r r 6 n n x e K K o H r I y4 e p e n r n u o r l p y q K n ( p u c . 1 3 ) .
Hepe4xo Klrcrb .4ep)Kar il TaK, KaK roKa3aHo Ha puc. 14. B eror,r
no,'r6xenr.rxyAo6Hee BbIcrlz/'rarbMa3KI4 no Sopue. floeoportt pyKLI,
lepNaqcl'r Krrcrb, Mox{Ho cpaB}il.trbc <<oulynblBaHl{eM>> n <<nupy6ann-
eu> Qopn,tucKy,rbrrropoM.

40
.[,nn HaueceHut roHKr4x MagKoB-3aceqer Haqr4Hal,oulrenu6upam
KLtcrHMe.[Kr{xndruepon,a Macrepa u ruupoxoft Kncrbro cAeJrarcryerr.rfi
Ma3oK, ,qeftcrnyr KpaeM nnocrofi <<,'IoIIarorIKH>)urerIIHbI. !.ns gToro
To)Ke Ba)KHocJleAHTb,qro6u Kncrb,He JloxMarlInacr. Magxfl HaHocgT
IIo xo,'IcTy vilr4 Ty'
orpbtBlzcrblMu yAapaMll Kl,tcrr1,eto HeJIb3fl<<BoALITb>>
luCBATb.
He scerAa yAaercfl np,no6pecruKr4crrrraKI4e,KaKneHyxttu. flo'
gToMyrlx MoxrHocAeJrarbcaMr.rM.Brparqe paccKaxeM06 erom, tto
Cpa3y >Ke npeAynpell{AaeM, r{TO KIICreBtl3aHI4e- AeJIO OqeHb KpOIOT,'IlI'
noe, rpe6yrcu{ee cnopoBr<uu 6o,nruroro onblTa, LIcKycHocrII.tleno cronr
ToJrbKo[oAo6parb Bo,roc-qernHy no ee roJIIrrItHe,AJIHHeu rn6xocru,
qto6t't B cepeAr.InenyqKa Klrcrtr oKa3aJlacb caMan ynpytan qerfllla,
octl, o6pasynurafl ocr{oByKr.rcru.
I{rq u1erllHnutx xucreft np}lroAIIa urerl{t{a csntteti (co6uparct eo
BpeMfl ux ,truHrNu|; A,,trrMffFKHX- Bo,'toc6c,txu, xpacnoii nuguql,t (xo-
.roHxa), KyHLIubr,xopbKa, co6axt.r,Ko3bI It yurrrou Bor'loccBl'lllbl'l.Inas'
Hoe [paBLL'IoflpfiroroBilervr, Bor'toca- tre o6pesarb efo KoHubl,ocraB'
n*s. o6s.sareJlbHoecrecrseuuoe ocrpne NaxAoft ulerllllKu. B xpaftHem
cJryqae qerl{HKn, Koropbre ronopuarcfl uo 6oxau KI4crIt,,'Iyque cro'
qurb Ha)KAauuofiurxyprofi .
Crprur BoJIoc HaAo Ha He6o,rylruoitt yqacrKe fi cpa3y coprapoBarb
no A.IIr{He.Bo.noclt, co6pauHlte B IIyqoK, BcraBJItlor nepa6out'ltt'ltlxou'
uaMr4B 6auout<y (anreuHyro, Halpnuep) H, JIerKo flocryKl{eafl, BbIpaB'
HI4Banr, 3areu BbIHIIMalor,KpenKo 3ax{aB na,'IbqaMI'!,BblqecblBalor
c Hepa6ouefi cropoutt nyx u'cop, cBff3bIBaIoTI'I onycKaloT B'aBHaIlIloH'
uHfi- 6eHsr.rHHa ABoe-rpoe cyroK A.[s o6esxr4puBatvn. flocne sroro
BoJIoc eIue flponoJlacKI{Balorn 6eHgrne HecKoJIbKopa3, noKa ror He
craHer qLIcrbIM.fia.nee BoJIoc,sanepuyruti a 6yuary, BblcyunBaerctl'
flpoKa.flr.rBaercrB nequ nptl reMneparype + 150" oKoJIo uaca (uro6u
BoJrocHe noAropar, ero KJIaAyr Ha noJIeIIbqB npoBoJloqrloftnanxe_).
HeAora.nesuufi oo.noc,ecJIHero cMoqurb no4ori, KyApflBurcfl. O Ao'
craroqHocru npoKa,rKn Mo)KHo cyAHTb no 6enouy Bo,'Iocy, xoropufi
HeMHorono)KeJlTerb.flepexaneHttHfi soroc "ro['Iox.
,u,oJI>KeH
floArorosneHHtui taxuu o6pasonn n eqe pa3 rlpoqecasultfi BoJIoc'
nu6paHuuft no Ar'rvHeu Heo6xoAllmoftrolult'IHe, [oMeuraror n Qopnto'l'
xu (puc.15).
flocryuan ro Qoptrloure,
B O J I O C K H B b I P A B H I - T B A I O TI I C B ' I .

Mffi
3brBalorsuri<ori(puc. 16, 17).
C uepa6oueficropolru nyqoK
noApe3arcT, JIa-
rlponl,lrblBalor
KOM 14 K,'IeeM (nyqille Bcero
xann$ollto) n BcraB,'tfllor B
B
M e r a , ' r / r n q e c K y l oo n p a B y c e e .
g
ruxpoKofo n9nY, IIO.(ratlKLt-
Bas [ar'roqKo[. JaTeM BTyJIKy
o6xnvanr no pyqKe (pyqxy Prc. 15.
47
nyqu€ cAe,'IaTb H3 OCLIHbI,a BryJrKytr3 >Kecrr.t
or KoncepBnux6anox).
Iorcoyrc Kr.rcrbcMaxr,rBaror, nocJlecyruKu pacqecbrBaroT,
rroKa oHa He
cTaHerpouHori.

Puc. 16.

Puc. 17,

KPacxr
FIaqzsarcull,te xyAo]KHHKn o6uqHo crpeMffTcff orbrcKarb raKHe
KpacKlr' KOTOpbreB TOlrHoCTLt 6w qnery re.na ililu
. COOTBeTCTBOBaJTH
JIHCTBbT'ue6a nnn BoAbr. Ho raxux KpacoK Her r.r He Moxer 6urr. or-
reHKIt r{ro6u nepeAarb Hx, npzxoAHTcfl cMerrruBarb
{pLtpoAbrcJroxHbr,
KaxAbrr,r.pa3 ABe-rps KpacKIr. Kpacxt AJrs cMecH no4o6parr Jrefqe,
ecJllt-naJrr4rpacocra.BJreHa
r.r3HeMHorr.rx,
Ho caMbtx ueo6xo4amux Kpa-
coK. Bor npulrepuufi cnncoK KpacoKAJrsgrroAoBi
Esllllaa qHHKoBbre
oxpa cneraui-__- )
Oxpa rer'rHaq I
Csena HarypanbHarr !seunnHueKpacKn,ocuoBHbre
LlreHaxxeuafl ls clrecsx
Vru6paHarvDaJrbHa n I
Map'c r<opl.ruireourri
coernnfi |
AHnnnficxaq KpacHas I
Ka,quurl:xeliufi, rpacunfi u opauxeBurft(o cMeca c oxpaMn
LtyJrbTp
aMap[.ruoM vepueer)
48
CrpoHunaHbean r(eJrrafl
$ty*pyAHafl seJreHar (uenrar cMerrrnBarb
c xpan.naxou)
no"rrKoHcKoriroBafl 3eJreHa.fl
(muorueflpeAfioqr,rraroT
ee rr3yMpyA-
nofi, xor4a nrz"rlyrntcrny).
Xpou se.nenua r
-
Ko6anrr cauufi
Ko6a.nlr @noneroouft
Y,'lbTpaMaDHH
Kocri xx'e.na"
Kpan.naxcpe4nufi
B sroM nepeqHeABaAuarb KpacoK, oAHaKo Hr.roAHy 143Hr{X serbgn
IlepeHecrn Ha xoJrcr c yBepeHHocrbro, qro oua 6yAer 6ilwera K TeM
orreHKaM, Koropbre MolKHo yBlrAerr B Harype. fras o6HqHo pagJlr{-
qaer rbrcflrrnorrenKoB, a rJra3 xyAoxHHKa
ocrpee B AecqrKrapasl Mex-
Ay TeM HSBeCTHO, qTo cTapbre MacTepa noJlb3oBaJlficbBcero ceMblo.
BocbMbroKpacraMr,r,co3AaBaqHa Hx ocnoBe rxeAeBpbrro.nopura. .[,e.no
He qKorlrqecTBe KpacoK,a B yMeHIiI{nOJIb3OBaTbcg rjMll.
E. tr4onaHcoH peKoMeHAoBaJr Ar'rrrHaqaJra<<6e4uyro>> na.nnrpy: 6enn.
JIa ULIHKoBbIe n raAmufi xenrlrft, raAnnHfixpacunfi, Kpan,'IaK,xo6algt
cuwnft lura yJrbrpaMaprru, cJronoByro Kocrb )Kx(euyro Hd'Irdcax(y, oxpy
cBerJlyro, oxpy Kpacuyro, BoJrKoHcKor.T.<3ro <6eAsafl>>naJrr.rrpa Kpa-
coK,- roBopr{JI Macrep,- Ho BnoJIHe AocraroqHati qro6n HaqHHarb
nHcaTb>).
qro B groM.cnucKeHer ffpKr.rxgeJreHbrx KpacoK (r-rsyMpyA.
_.3anerure,
Hofi, xo6anbra 3eJreuoro), rz ero xoporuo, w6o uauulrinulne gnoynor-
pe6nrror LIM{z,KorAa [umyr JIIzcrBy AepeBbeB,TpaBy, oBouln, geJleHbre
ApanlrpoBKr4.,Ilyvue npunuxuyrl 66xoar.rrlcn s;raqi;re 6es gerexbrx,
pe3Krrx tto orreHr(y KpacoK, r..troJrbKo floroM, KorAa 6yaere gnarr,r
cKoJIbKO14KaK I{x npr.rMe[rHBarb, qro6ur 9Ta peSKOCrblt€ n€pcASJlacb
cMecflMHa_naJlxrpeu oTTerrKaMB grroAe, Mo)Klronepcftrn H K uHM.
- A s o r H . F p a 6 a p b p e K o M e H A o g a Jerl q e H s
Dccx xerrblx KpacoK
crpoHur.raHoByro H ynpaxHnrbcfl B cMecflx cJreAyrcufix KpacoK:
lparr
oeJII'IJIauHHKoBble,crpoHuHaHoBaflx(eJlTafl, KpanJlar(, xa4nanfi rpac-
tru_f,,ynrtpaMapr4H,_KocrbxxeHar, oxpa cBerJlafl LI KpacHaRfiJIn aHr-
.nl.rricxaq.KpacHaR. Bu camn Moxere y6e4urrcr, qro ng cuecefi erux
KpacoK (no naparvraJtr{ ro rprz rpacxr,r caMoe 6o.nruee) Mo}KHOnoJry.
lll,rrb Bce orreHKr.r Aaxe Beqepneri eapn H .nbrJlaloqeto Kocrpa.
OsHa xolr niucfl c HeKoropu rr,r n cooficrB a Mr.rgTrrx KpacoK.
, Macnssue KpacKr4 noApagAeJrsrorcr Ha Kpor,orqlreHenpogpaqHbre
(Hanpauep, 6enuila, xa4uufi, erpogrlr4anoBaqxefiraa), nonynpo3paq-
HUe (6O;rtruuHcrBoSeMr'rflHbrx xpacox) H npo3parrHue neccnpoBotrHbre
(rpannar, HgyMpyAnaflseJreHas,cuena uarypa.nrnar, yu6pa, BoJrKoH.
cKor,rr,y.nrrpa uap un) .
Ecnu no sHcoxrrrefi Kpacre HaHecrH ronxnfi fleccnpoBortuuft cfloft,
TO NOTYqIATCS HOSHfi OTTCHOK, KAK OT HAJIO>I(CHHfl UBCTHOTO CTCKJIA.
onurHue )K?rBonucrlbrHaHocfiT fleccapoBorrHbrecJroa E no cBelr(efi xn-
BOIIHCr{(.neCCnpOnxil<<nocuporuy>). iloerouy rexHr.rKaruacnqHofi xn-

49
BOIIHCr4 ..CTpOrlTCfHa coqeraHr.rLtKopfiycHori, nacro3Hoft nponHcKLl
c roHqariuaMr.rJlecc[poBKaMH.B cnleclrc-6enunamu Bce KpacKr.rcraHo-
Btrcq KpolouraMH14,KpoMe 3Toro, oHtt I{HTepecHoMeHflIor user. I-Ia-
rlpIrMep,B CMeCU6enun c Kocrbro xxeHoft no,'ryqaHJTcsHe cepbre,
a noly6onarbre orreHKu, KpacK,Lr Kaxyrcfl xo,rloAuulauu pas6ene.
,rIrc6onuruo lpocr'reAr4rbn nosAericrnr4eKocrl x*esor? npn cMerx,,l-
BaHilu B pa3Hbrx nponopuuqx c ApyrrzMz KpacKaMr.r.Ho Henres c no-
Morrlbro srori KpacKu noJryquTb cMecb Enfl TeHr.r Ha rrpeAMere,
npr.rMerlraBaqee K UB_ery, KoropbrM npo,'IolKr.r.[tt ocBeII{eHHyto qacrt
groro xe npeAMera. 3THNI gtr ro,rbKo 3aqepHr,rrereHb, a qBera
ee He
HafiAere. Ecnn xe nonpo6onarb npr.rMecb-se6o"nlruoro Ko,rrr4qecrBa
KOCTH)r{>KeHOft r crpoaquasonofi )re,lror?, To noJlyqr.{TeIIpHflTHbre3eJre-
lroBarble orreHKr.r,r xpacHoit-d'InrroBarbre, kHorAa Aaxe 6o"ree ltoA-
xoArrulile,qeM cMecfi KpacHbrxKpacoKc y,'rbTpaMapr.rHoM.
Ponr 6ennn r{ Kocr'r xxesori noao6sa so'gaerlire'ro <<MyrHbrx cpeA)>
Ha qBer Harypbr. I(ax ryuaH npaAaer KpacKaM npltpoAbr xo.rroArrbre
orreHKrr, rax u 6enula cnoco6ubr B npriMecHr rennoti no uBery )K)Ke-
ruoli oxpe HJr4 x>KeHori yu6pe Aarb xoJroAHbreorreHKr4. cocranlre
ra6nuuxy cuecefi 4nyx nn6ux KpacoK c. nocreneHubrM yBed'rur{eHueM
B HLIXlponopuaft 6enr.rn,u Bbr no,'ryrir.]TeHeoxHAaHHo lilnpoKyro txKa,,ry
uBeroBbrx orreHKoB. Ltpe3MepHoepas6e.nunauaecMecn npr.rAaerKoJro-
pr.rry gTrcAaxo,loAusrfi v 6nexnuft ToH,Aa)Ke ec,tH rrpu gToM BbrAeplKa-
Irbr oct{oBHbreuBeroBbreorHorllerrHrr.xfisonuct pnAa MacrepoB KoHIIa
XIX scxa noroMy H rrMccr xoJ'roAuoBarr,rri xo,roplrcrn,{ecKariirpoi:i, vro
B c M c c u B B o n H d l o cM
b t r o f o6 e . n n n .
FIe.nu:n s"noynorpc(r.rrRrr6cnn,rarr,lll,oco6eHuo npa nso6paxenua
ilerpKHx no [ncry npcAMeroBtr B npolflcKe reHeli.
flonpo6onaB Aa,rce cMecb KpaililaKa c nsyMpyAHofi senenoft ttltu
oKHcbloxpoMa' Bbl 3aMerHTe'qTo noJlyqaercfl cMecb fpg3HoBaToro,He-
onpeAcJreI|ilororoHa. Iloerouy He coBeryeMnpa6erarn -(ne x raKr.rMcMecrM.
CNaeurueafirese 6onee AByx-rpex rpacox cunran 6enn.n).
rloc'reneHHo Bbr saMerr,rre u neycroftquedcrr Hexoropbrx KpacoK
B CMeCflX,O6UCHneUyp xHMr.rqecxofiHecosNlecruMocrbr,o trx, rz lpyru.
Mll npuqnHaMri.
ila.nurpa
Kpacxn BbrAaBJlr,rBaror ng trc6uxoB r{ cMerrruBa}oTHa [aJrr4Tpe,Ae-
peanHHofiunu Qauepuofi, np.o^naraHsori uacnoM u r{Meroqeli ornepcrun
naJrbrlaa rucreft (puc. 18).,[,nn Haunnaorrlrx peKoMeHAyeru
,u,Jrs 6e.rue
naJrrzrpbrr.r3npsMoyro/rbHoro creKra, oKpa-
IIreHHorocHlt3y 6enunamu HJIa oKJteer{Hoto
6enofi, 6yrr,tarofi.Ha rarofi nar'rr.rrpe.nefqe
HaxoAHTbHylr{HbreoTTeHKr4.
,ITE.'ITbIE flpeNae scero noga6orbrecb o nopflAKe
OEJIEHbIE HaJroxeHnfl Kpacor Ha naJrr.rrpy. Eecnopx-
oHHAE'
ItrEPIIbIE Aoqnoe HaHeceHlre KpacoK rparine 3arpyA-
Hser noucKn seo6xoArzMbrxorreHKoB H qac-
Puc. 18. To sBJrrrercnnpnuuHofi rpnaHoro rlBera cMe-
60
ceti.--.IlyuueBcerojxe Ha na.rrr4rpe pa3Ae,nzrlKpacKHHa rerr,rrbre
JtoAHbre z xo-
orrenKn.Tgya ;rerue6y7ei <<yra4arr>>, KaKHeKpacr{HBxoAflT
B cocraBncKoMorol{Bera,n yao6Heecrueurasarb
Hx na na.nurpe.
^_ lr_a-nono>Kr4re KpacKuHa csoei raJrr.trpenpr4MepHo rax (nauuuaa
-"r"ra,
or Hr-rx{HeroyrJra I'o Kparo naJrnriu) :'
Bce"IeBoro
3e/'IeHbIe' 3areM
JII4MoHHo-)Ked'ITbtg "nu,irnu HaKoHeu3eM-
opaHxeBbre,KpacHble,
*
JIffHbre cr'reHbl. vna6pu,oxpu. Ee,rn,ra [oJIO)KETe OTA.JTbl{o B yrJry,
r ornepcrurcA,'rsnaJrbua,raK KaK ux rpe6yercn
911*"
ucrroJrb3yrorcfl lruoro (oHu
noqrrl e xaxAofi cnrecn)
^ ---1:^otopbrexyAoxnnKr'rr(JraAyr6enunaHe B npaBoMBepxHeM
a^H-ecKoJrbKo yf,ry,
orcryn'-B!'reBo or Hero;cnpaaa or 6enr.rn prJ*nuaor"uo"
seM/lflHlleKpac*u' cr'teBarlo nopflAKy: KpanJIaK
xpacuutr,
'ttt."; xenrslir
raAlruri,AaJree3e,[eHbre, crrHr{ez, saxoueq,qepHyro. xyAo)r(Hr{-
eKoMeHAoBarb cHaqaJra BbrAaBurb B rrpaBoMBepx rreMy rrry
:lJ.:iyt^"gp
oeJinJra, a sa HnMulto BepxneMy H reBoMyKparrMnannrpil paclo,To-
:1.T":f9:rlraHoByro xed'rryro,oxpbr,Aarrccr<aAunr.i xcnir,rft n Kpac-
Hblk' 3a H H M K p a n , ' I a K , n o r o M K o p t { r r t c B b r e3 c M J I r t b r c
I(pacKt, 3c,rrctbre,
clrHne, qepHyro (puc. l9).

OEMJI{flbII DEN'NA

c;ItHnE

Przc.19.

,v xaxAoro xyAo)KHaKa ecrb cBos )KHBoflr4cHaff


- JroflrKa B roM lrr,rr.r
r?HoMpacnpeAeJreH'lrKpao.oKHa naJrr4rpe.v on
run npr"oi^*, n aoo.-
y{^i_".L"{t{, rrro Mo)Ker 6parl xpacxn Kucrbro, }re rr,rrAl Ha HHx.
\ p a c K l l y x e H e n . . T l T _ " ! g c p a 3 y r e p c A r , r r a S a M HH.x
crpot rro Kparo
na/'Ilirpbr caM tro ce6e c-ragoevtrcnxpacnBbrMH qeM-To
6,rrnsxrll{K uBe-
T O B T 'M
I IA M M AM, CNOI1CT'CHHbIM TBOPq.ECTBY
X Y A O ) K H UN A . X V A O X H N K H O T
rpr{poAbr pasnbre, n na,rr.rrpbrux paiaue. Hb ecerAa ,rilnrrp.
crepa Aorx(en 6r,rrn fiopflAor(. ?to vt HaAo sal1oMa6rt, *r-
"u eH6zpafl,
ce6s, u au6o,l ee no,ry rc6 aBrrreecrr p a cn odrox(eH Alrl
He Kpa coK.
He cxynnrecj npn BbrAaBJrr.rBarrufl KpacoK , cnoec"x,qro6rt Ma3oK
ne 6un cyxHM. Bcl cepe4aHa naJrrrrpbrAoJrx(Ha"ocraBarbcfl
q
ceo604uofi
AvrIfl COCTaB,TeuV cl,Ieceli.
Henbsq nlrcarb noAcoxtlr4-
MIt KpacKaMI't, ocTaBlUi.tMI4Cfl
Ha IIa,]]fiTpe nocr'le npeAblAy-
url4x saunruft, oro Moxer
crarb npaunHoii <<TyueBaH-
tuofi>>, setrorrluori trpotrr.rcrH
Qoplru ts 3rro,u,e.flosroN{vno
Psc. 20.

5t
OKOHIIaHqhpa6oTbl Bce KpacKI,Ic NAJIIITPbIYAATflfITC MACTI.IXI,IHOM
(puc. 20) u nurupalire ee IIaqilcro IIpoMacJleuHofi rpanouxolt'
Hepeaxo ttoA cJroBoM<<ttaJll4rpa>> [oApa3yMeBal'or He npocro I'IH'
BeHTapb AJIfl )I(ABOn:,1rC'LIvt Aa)Ke He nOpflAOK paCnO"IOXeHIrflKpaCOK
ua ueli, a Heqro 6o,ltruee. fonopr o roM, tITo JIeTHI'le 3aHflTI'IgHa nJIeHS'
pe noMofyr <<pacuupnrbBaIIry naJII4Tpy>>, MbI ?lMeeMB BI{Ayxe yBeJIIr-
qeHne silcJra KpacoK na.nrErpe A6 6ecxoueuHocrH, a o6ocrpeuue
Baruefo qyrbg "a
uBera H HaKonJIeHIre HaBbIKoBB cMecflx KpacoK' I4e rex
XpaCOK,KOTOpbTMH HAqaJrWpa6Orart HaA,'IeTHIIMI4 3TIOAaMI{, Bbl IIayqn-
orreHKoB' ropa3Ao qaqe
recb [oryqarb fopagAo 6ontrue pasJII{qHbIx
6yAere saxoAatr cosayuNe I4x, corJlacoBaHHocrbno IrBeroBbIM orHo'
lIeHIIflM. BCe erO nOMO}I{eTBaM Ha[I{caTb STIOAX{IIBO.Ii KpacI{BO'
3saHze rraJrr'trpbr14 paclxl4penne ee npltxoAflT no Mepe pasBilrl'lfl
TBopqecxux cnoco-6socrefixyaoxHfixa. OsraAesas MeroAoM cpaBHe'
HLIfl, HaKan ilrB afi.)KHBonIIcHble Bneqar,leHur, nup a6 arblB a g yMeHue Ha'
xoAIIrb qeeronofi nJIaH peuennn 6yayutero gTioAa' Br'I oAHoBpeMeHHo
6yAere coBeplxeHcreosait cBolo naJInrpy. HexoropbIe.. HarIIiHa!oulae
xyAoxnr.rrn bco6euno ll He sa6otsrcfl o nol'IcKax cuecefi Ha na"Il4rpe,
noJlaraff, qro ocHoBHafrr4x.SaAaqa-nepeKJIaAbIBaTbKpacKI'Ic Hee Ha
xoJlcr 14pacrllparb I{x raM B Kourypax p?lcyHra' floerouy lzx pa6orut
noJlyqar,orcs pacKpaIIleHHbIMIIIi ynpoqeHHbIMI4 nO IIBery' a He XI4BO-
NHCHbIMH.
9ro6tr Bbl noHtt,ru Bo3Mo)KHocrH naJII'lrpbI, [ocoBeryeM TaKoe
ynpa)KneHneH c e M H o r oK p a c o K : 6 e i l n i l a , c r p o H -
. a n a n u r p y B L I A a B H TH
rluaHonyro xe,'ITyio, oxpy cBerJlyto, cueHy narypanruyrc, autniltcxyro
xpacrryrc, Kpa[JIaK, oKl{cb xpoMa, yJlbrpaMapx_H11 KOCrb xxeHyIO'
Ha.rHr;re c uerssecrHblx BaM cueceft KpacoK. Hanpnuep, Bo3bMlire
-
crpoHIIHaHoByn xeJlryl,o, B Hee Ao6aslre HeMHoro uepnoli xocri,
no,'ryqr{re se.[euonartifi orreuor. 4o6anlre qyrb 6ontrue KocrI'I
B ry x(e KpacKy-n 6yler HecKoJrbrrc usoh SeJreHOBATbIft OTresox.
flocreneuuo yBeiluq1IBaqKqJIlrqecrBoKocrll x(>Kenofi,no,ryuure pflA 3e-
JIeHOBaTbIX OTTeHKOB, KOTOpbIe Ma3OK3a Ma3KOMSaIIOJIHflT nepnuft pa4
Ha KaproHe. Boel},rlIre yJrbrpaMapr{H n oxpy. flocreneHsoe yBeJII{qeHIIe
npruecn cusefi KpacKLIK oxpe Aaer BTopofr pna HoBbIx SeJIeHoBarbIx
OTTEHKOB.
floronr K cMecflMTex xe nap KpacoK[ocreneHHonpu6an.nnftre6e'
.rruna.Llonyqeunufi pflA cpaBnl'rrec npeAbIAyqHMtI'Omeurlt 6yayr
or,'Il4qaTbcqHe ToJIbKorlo cBeTJIOTe, HO I{ nO cBoeMy xapaKTepy: oAHH
TeI],Iee,ApytHe xo/IoAHee.
Aane6 CMe'1rusaftreoKricb xpoMa ri oxpy cHaqaJla6ee 6entl.n,a no-
ToM c 6ena,raivlu;cneAynuufi pflA-cI'IeHy H yJlbrpaMapHHB pa3Hblx
flpoflopUl{flXc 6e,rn;rannr.CocraelTe raKlie X(e pqAbl lls cl4ecell B pa3'
Irbrx npolopu[rrx: yJrbrpaMapr,rHau aur,'luficrofr rpacuoir c 6e.nunauu,
sareM crpoHrluaHosoft xenrori c asrnuficroft xpacuoft u oxpoft, oxplt
C aun.luricr<ofixpaqrofr. Bu ynu4ure, KaproH 3a[oJIHHTCgpgAaMI4ca-
Mbrx Heo)KI'lAaHHbIX rIOKpacoTeu pasnoo6pa3I',IIO OTTeHKOB.
Cocrastre nrtop-*o'pt: xapioQe"'ro ileounrlllessuft tz oquqensBiYl,
cfiHffl O6JtHsttar MllCKil hJII..IKpyX(Ka. HanEUIUTeSTIOA<<CKyttoft> 1IaJIIIT'

62
pofi: 6enu,ra, cBerd'rafloxpa, anfJll,IficxagKpacHafl, Kocrb lKlKegan' flo-
TpyAIiBlxL{CbHaA CMeCflMrrsrHX KpacOK,BbI yAllBuregb: cKoJIbKO}KI-IBbIX
OTTeHKOB MO)KHOII3BJIeqbH HenJIOXO [epeAaTb HaTypy, He"HMefl Bo3-
MoxHocrl{, oAHaKo.,clrHtoroMI.IcKynoKpaclzrb I4MeHHocnueft xpacroft,
a raproSe,rb - roJrbKoxoplluueeori.
fioc"re grllx ynpa)Knenuft BaM [oKaxercfl oqeHb 6orarofi u TaKafl
narlirpa: 6enuni, irpouqzaHoBafi )I{eJlrafl,oxpa cBerJlafl, aurnnftcKaq
KpacHaf, Kparrr'raK,n3yMpyAHas SeJreHas,yJlbrpaMapnH, KOCTb)I(x(e'
Haq. nOCreneHHOy6ex4asCl Ha O11bITe, Xat<OftggI{CTOIIII{MHfi SanaC
IlBeroBbtx xou6nsaquft, napzaHrot cueceft npeAocraBJlfferII eror MI{'
HllMyl\'l KpacoK, BL'Inor{yBcrByere, KaK KpenHyr Ba[In xI'IBon[cHbIe
Hasilxn. b4HoepeueHuo"pasnunaa cnoco6uoctb IIpeAcTaBJIflrb cebe
uBeroBoepe[IeHHe grloAa fiepeA HaqafioM pa6orbl, BbI Hayql'ITecbuefle'
K p a c K a MH o B b I e .
c o o 6 p a s u oA o 6 a B r f f r b K y K a S a H H b I M
tr4 cxontxo 6H sH KpacoK Ha na,'II{TpeHu Bltrox<firu, pa6oraftte
c KaxAbtM pa3oM Bce HacroftquBee,TaK KaK, noBToptleM,oqcllb peAKo
waxan-Un6yAbKpaCKapOAHTCq A,'Ifl nepeHoca Ha XOJICT B TIHCTOM oll1e.
<<XorRae.tr6ne;r6rxoe, npo6yfire I,try, r.rety rpacKy, cocraBrnfirc nue-
-
cre It Bce c Harypbr - c6o6iaxafire... flcpisrl usnnnl tta narypy, 2
Ha rraJlfirpy,3 - na lrarypy, 4 - na naJll.{rpy...)>r
Vqrure u raxofi coBer: IIe 3aMe[II,tBaftrega TIaJII'ITpe KpacKI'IAoJlro'
KaK 3aMa3Ky.Henpome[IaHHblecMeCI{IICKpflTCg1pOXI.IJIKaMI{paSHbIX
KpacoK a orreHK,oB,Ma3oK taxoft oMecblo oMorpnr,c'ffHa xoJlcre xl{Bee.

Pacrnoputern

Tn6axoeHe KpacK1t, KaK npaBhro, I4Melor BnoJIHe.npI4eMJleMylo


rycrory u pas6anntrb ltx Her seo6xoAnMocrn. Vmu MoxHo AeJIarb
H ToHKHe,r{ ToJrcrbreMa3KH.Ecnn xe xaxas-nn6o KpacKa ryqe Apylyx'
T o n p n M e H r r r o r c rp a 3 6 a B L I r e J I HH.a u a x n l I H e H n y a f i r - c n u p r - s a u 6 o '
nee yHr.rBepcaJIbHble.
Vdirr-cnupr (pas6asrare.nl N 2), no.nyuaeuuft ns HeQrI'I,BbIroAHo
orJrr{qaercrror Apyfux reM, qro coBepIxeHHo6ecuneres n 6ucrpo y.ne'
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flBCTBSHHO, KaK rOBOpflr e MOCKge.Het, MHe KalKeTCs,IITOMeficOttle
Hr.rCKOJrbKO He yIUeJIAaJIbIxeMaJIOXyAOXeCTBeHHbIx QnauauAqeB: BaH-
gep-Xanrcra, Heruepa ll Apyfux. HesHHocI.{Nlo QororpaQuefi orAaer>>0.
Bor raxoe uenpznrHod BrIeqarJIeHIienpov3Bera ua 6o.ttltuoto xyAox-
HI{Ka<<ruIaAKafl)> )KI4BonIlcb, Koropyto uo ea6nyxAeHLIrcHeKoropl,lxcq}i-

r B.' C v p n r o s . f l u c s M a1 8 6 8 - 1 9 1rr.
6 M.-.[., <Hcxyccrno>,1948,crp. 70.
2 V . P e n u s. ilucrrr.ra.1873-1898rr. M.-,4.; <l4cxyccroo>,1946,crp. 73-74.
8 B . C y p u x o a . f l n o u a 1 8 6 8 - 1 9 1rr.
6 M.- .II., <Hcxyccroo>, 1948, crp. 64.
57
3aKoHqeHHofi.3aecr noA BHeturHeil<<3arosqes-
Taror caMofi Kpaci.lBol?,
HOCTblo>> paBHOAyIU[e
cKpbIBaJIOCb Harypa,rflcra K x{H6ofi cyrn [pl{po'
noSToMy ero pyKa c xo,'IoAHbIMpacrleroM BbI'
Abr, AericTBI{Te,IIbHOCTI.I,
IILICbIBaJIaBTOpOCTeneHHOe' KOTOpbIe'KaK MLltuypa' npUKpbI'
MeJIOq14'
o6pa3Horo Haqa,la B KapTI'lHe.
BaJrr{ilycToTY,oTcyTcTtsl.ie
B ncropnu HcKyccrBa MIIoro [plzMepoB I{ yroHqeHHoMoAeJII'lpoB-aH--
c rny6Ornm CMbIC/'IOM
HOfi x14eOilUCfi,HCnoJIItetlHOft I'I flopa1(apu1eu
cgJrofi xyAox{ecrBenHolinupasureJlr,Iiocru. KaprNHu Epeftrena, Hanpfl-
Mep, IIOKa3IIBaIOT)Kl43rlb B CaMblx, Ka3ariIOCb6U, Ue3HaUllTe,lIbHblXI'I 3a'
r{aaTyFo Mpar{Hblx, ypoAJIHBbtx lloApo6ilocrflx, Ho I4 3Aecb oH ocraBaJlcfl
Ha Bbrcore 1ilr{poKr.{x$n.nocoQcxHi nsrnnAoB rra cyAb6bI JInAeiI, noJly-
qHBIIIttx BbtpaxenI.Ie s llSsCCiuOii Kapl'Hlle <<C,'lctlt,le>>. I(aprxrlu fO'rr-
6eftHa, Inp,rauAafio, Bau-3fixa H 6o,'tcc rro3/r,trHC nop'rperbl HaIIII4X
X{I4BOIIHCIIeB,rleBL1UKOfO, POKOrot zt o'rJllpl a loTctl TtllaTc!'lbHOcTblo AeTa'
Jrr{poBKI.{14B TO }Ke BpeMl IIeIogrllOC'l'blo pcUIcllHtl, 1xly6ulloli Ko,'lopHTa.
H o q r o 6 u x l . B o p a c K p b l r b n c p c l l s p H l ' c J I C MM o l u b H n " I a c r ' t l e c K o e
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gpKI.IX BCTIbIlueKCBCTa, COItHOCl'hlIBCTa, )KHIIOIIncqbl HaHOCtIT Ma3KI{
nHOrAa r{ B 11aJIeqTOr'ttUHHot.i, <11a[IyT KLIcTblo>).Hepe4xO 3TO npoucxo.-
qcpe3 pyl(y Ha Kl.lcTb llepeAaeTcg ToK, BbI3BaHHbIfi
ArrT rre no pacqeTy:
BcnbuuKofr 6o.nuuoro l'Bopqecl(Ofo BOr'IHeHI'Itl,OXBaTIIBIUeIO XyAOx(HIl'
Ka, BOCXlllucHHoro )KHBOTIIICHOCTbIO HaTypbI, rlpklpoAbI.
Tan xe, KaK <<r,'taAKafl>> XUBOnI4Cb 6Or'Ib[IOrO MacTepa He IrMeeT
HI4qefO O6UlefO C All,'IeTaHTCKOft <<CK,'II43KOft>> TyIXeBKOfI KHCTbIO, TaK
H TeMlepaMeHTHax JIenKa SOpuU KpynHeiIuI4X )KITBOIIUCqeB, OCHOBaH-
,Harr
Ha ToqHoM 3HaHHlr fl orpoMHOM OnbITe, He MO)KeT 6SI:rr noAAenaua
<<Maurlrcroil> pyKofi He6pex(Hofo paBHoAyIxHoro xyAolI(HI4Ka'
foeopt o pa3Hbrx MaHepax xl{Borrncll, MbI xoTLIM fipeAocTepeqb Bac
oT cJrellofo noApaxaHrrf Aaxe caMbIM ,'In6I{MbIM MaCTepaM. BeAo
r{ y HHx, HaeTOqUIaX XyAOXHHKOB, TexHIiKa HI1KO;La He [bIJIa CaMO-
rleJrbro!
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H3O6pasHTe,'IbHOft 3aAaqe
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'grroaa. HenpanunlHo 6bL'IO 6U g,ytuarn, qTo B MaCJIflHOft)KI4BOIIUCH HeT
r r r . r K a 6 o f ic n c r e u l r . H a o 6 o p o r , B noucKax pa3Hoo6pa3Hblx npHeMoB
;6LIBO1HCIIO;OBblpax<CIIllfl BneqaT,'lellHR, 3aMblCr'IOB HaAO npl'IAeplKlI-
B a T b c f l T o f i H J I n H t r o f i c g c . r c M L t r r H c b M a ,o n p c A c r ' l c r r s o r o n o p f l A K a < < p a c -
' M a c n s r txorcra.
KpbrTllfl> unrn
I{pacr{aM1 niltrryT B gclloBlloM AIlyMfl CIIOCO6aMII:
C n o d M A / L e S K O r uv 1 n 6 e s t l o A N 4 a , ' I e B K af l.c p B l l l i C l l O C o 6T p e 6 y e T M H O t o '
KpaTHOro Bo3Bpau1eHiltl K llaTypc ll cJIo)KIIolli noAroroBKe <JIOX{a>> AJIq
) ,O S r O M y o l l l l p t l M e H f l e r c f l B O S H O B H O M
) K H B O n f i c H ( 1 O A N , 1 a " T e s x an A,Ttl
pa6oTbt B MaCTepCKOft,pex{e - B AJ'lHTCJIbllblxMIIOIOCSaHCHbIX STIOAaX
ia aosAyxe. llnpe ncno,tb3yror n'fopo,1 ciloco6, KoropbrM Mo]KHo BbI-
noJlnflTb I,I MHOfOCeaHCHbIeSTIOAbI, U KpaTI{oBpeMe}IHbIe <<Haul,IeIIKH>>.
B rrpouecce pa6orbl FIaA srloAoM 6ca noAN{a,{eBKa Mo}l(Ho Ae,'iarb
n lteccuposKtl, To ecTb Ha,llox{eHI'laTOIIKIIX CJIOeBKpac_K.liHa yx(e IIpO'
NIICAHHbIEyTIACTKI4A,'Iff NOd'IYqCHI'Ifl HOBbIX OTTCHKOB.HO ETO TPC6YET

68
6o,lturoro yMeHHst1 oflbrra. Ha nepnux nopax os,'raAellreo6o6tqesHol2
nenxoti $opnrn, a B ocHoBHoMorpaHr{qaeaftrecr grloAaMa no oAHoMy
t" t^, 'J;:;'iX)n'
ff !l8i:"fl u..r, KparKoBp
eMerrrr Bbry)Ke
breor'oAbr,
3Haere u3 BBeAeHr4fl, a renepb paccKa)KeMno,qpo6Hee,xax nucat 6eg
n oAMa JreBKa 6on ee .u.Jr
areJlbHble orlo,u.br.

Texuurca a-,4n npu,Ma (a,ttta npuiva). ?ta rexHr{Ka B Hacrofixlce


BpeMs uau6onee flolyJrrrpna, TaK KaK 6onlure Apyfzx orBeqaer 3aAa-
u a u n e o 6 p a x e H r r s < < $ o p n u B c p e A e > >3,a A a q a M n , r c l r a p n o f i) K t r B o n r r c n
c npncyuefr efi nos4yrulrocrr,ro,Mflfxocrbto H IlpocBcrdtcrntoct'bro r(o,'ro-
p I r r a , a r a K x < e t r e n o c p c A c r B c l t r r o c l ' bM
r oa r r c p r , lrr c n o , ' t t r c r r HO
f l .r r a 6 n c r -
p e c p a 3 B H B a e rr r a B b u ( Hl l e J r o c l ' t r o r op c r l r c u r r r g l l o / [ o t ] .C y r r c c 3 a K " [ r o -
q a e r c n B T o M , r l r o < < . . . x y A o ) l { u tcrrKa B i l r c c 6 c 3 a A a r l yc p a 3 y B o c r r p o t r 3 -
B o A H T bB K p a c K a x B c e r o , r { T o o t r B } t A r 4 rB l r a r y p c , ' r . e . r l B c r , r l , o p u y ,
cBeroreHb tr trp., He npu6enar. K pacqvrreHeHlrro erorl c,noxuofi saAaqn
Ha orAe/'tbHbleMoMeHTbt pa6orlt>1.
flpu erou, KaK rrpaBr.r,'ro, pa6ora BeAercrr <<no cbrpoMy>. [aNe
noc,'te nepBoto ceaHca x{IlBoIII4ceunfi[IeT IIo HeBblcoxlxeMy C,'IOrcr,rr'Ir,l
onpeAeJreHHuuo6pasoM ocBe)Kaer norrBr.rBrxyrcca Ha HeM noAcbrxao-
u,ylo [,'renKy. 3ro nepnurl a sau6o,ree pacrpocrpauesHtrft cnoco6 a-,rs
npnMa. flosronry Macrepa crpeMsrcn nucarrJ arroAbrs groft TexHr{Ke3a
oAr4HnpneM. Tar sarucauat Vl. Penaslrn 3HaMeHurbregrloAbr K Kap-
rHue <<focyAapcrBeuHbrfi coner>>.Ho se ecsxuia xyAo)KHzK,reu 6o,ree
Haqr4uarouurl,moxer cnpaBlrrbcn c pa6orori 3a oAr.rnceaHc.
Kax nucarn a-Jrfl flpuMa B oAHH rrp[eM, Bbr yxe 3Haere. Kax xe
pa6orarr <<nocbrpoMy>> HecKo,TbKo ceaHcoe? Llro6u xpacou,uur?c,roli
MeAJIeHHee BbICbrXaJI, He3aKOHrIeHHHfi grFOACTaBflT<<JII{IIOM> K CTeHe
B npox,'IaAHOM,HO He CbrpOMrrOMeuleril4rl. vnO'rpc6nrrroTTaK)Ke MeA-
J I e H H oc o x H y r r l n eq H r r K o B b r6ec n u n a . E c n l r n , r c r r r ( an a K p a c o r l r r o Mc , ' I o e
Bce-TaKullottBII"Iacb,To cc pac'rlopnlor'. !,,rtlt 3lofo Ilcpcll rraqa,'rorrt
o q e p e A H o f oc e a H c a K p a c o q H y r cf l o B c p x r r o c l ' br l p o T i l p a l o ' rc p 0 3 o MA o , r b -
KH qecHoKa (nyxa) HJII4,'IaKoMAJ'Irr)KuBorurcu,Ec.ryurrJreHKyrre yAa-
Jrr{Tb,To KpacKr.lHeMuHyeMonoxyxHyT u noJlyqHrcflTo yBsAaHHeIIBeTa,
necTpoe qepeAoBaHI.IeMaToBbIx, Io)KyxJIbIx rrflTeH c coxpaHflBr.ulrMH
6necr KpacKaMH,Koropoe rax yApyqaer HeorrbrrHbrxr{}IBorIHc{eB,He
co6nroAaroqux npaBHJIaflucbMa <<lro cblpoMy>>.
Xnnolucn B TexHHKea-Jlfl npt4Ma, KaK npaBndTo,BeAercn rrc6zxo-
BbtMHKpacKa[,IH,6es ux pa36aB,'ieHI.Ifl.
Pa6oras [acro3Ho, xyAo)I{HHKAo,IIxeH ga6orizrlcg o roM, .rro6H
BHar{a,'Ie ge 6ttno cr'IHIxKoMTo,'Icroro crog I{pacKn, oco6euHoB nepBoM
ceaHce.tr4s6Hrox KpacKlr cHnMaercr MacrltxuHoM,a $arrypr{oMy nrrcb-
My orBoAqrcfl noc,'IeAyr,oq[eceaHcbl,Ha KoTopblxHaHocrrcfi Haa6o,ree
cor{HbreMa3Krzr.ruBera npeAenlnorl crrJIbITaM, rAe )KvBonHceuonpeAe-
, ' I H , ' IC A M b I E f l P K H C U B C T O B b I C I ' I T H A M O T I 4B A .

t , [ , . K r r n " ' l H K . T e x s n x ax u B o n u c f i M
. . - r t l . , < H c x y c c r r o > 1>9, 5 0 ,c r p . 2 3 6 . I

59
Cucrenra nocrpoeHl{fl qserosoft faMMbI s eroft TexHHKe'KaK BbI yxe
SHaeTe'3aK'IIOqaeTCfB ToM' IITO xOJIcTcpa3y B HeCKOJIbKI{X MeCTax
HacTpal4BaercgB ocHoBHbIxuBeroBux orsoureHugx' HoraHcon o6paeHo
cpaBHHr'Isror npOqeCCC pacKJlaAxoficHa'raJlaKpynHblx KaMHefiqser'
HOIIMOgafixl{.a gaTeMsCe 6OIee n 6O.neeMeJIKI,lx KaMetrrKoB pa3JII{qHbIX
OTTeHKOB IIO BCeMyXOJICTyCpagy. MerOAOl,t <<paCKJIaAKlI>> BbI[or'IIleHbI
nogAHr.re srroAbr Peu6p aH4ra.
Ec.nn, uanpniuep, nnuryr nefi3ax{, To oAI'IH-ABaMa3Ka tta6pacunanr
TaM, rAe Ha6nrcAarcrcaMoe noHflT-Hoe no qBeTy nRTHo;Tyr xe ABa-Tgi,I
Ma3Ka Hauocqr ua uso6paxenl'Ie He6a, AepeBa,TpaBbl,IlocrpofiKl'IH T' A,'
HUUnrn C.IIOBaMI,I, BCKpbIBaIOT IIBeT BCeXSJIeMellTOB tt nt'itsaXe OTAeJIb'
HbIMn yAapaMr{ rro BceMy xod'rcry.flocne cpaBIIcllllR H yToqllellIlfl pa3-
JIOX{eHHblx KpyIIHblxMagKOBHaHOcttTlIOBblct(Bg'l'ol}l,lc OT'l'cllKI'l. He Sa-
6*nan o qed'IOCTHOCTH gTIOAa,Bce 1OJIttCepacl(pblltulloTxoJIcr B IIBeTe.
'rgfi 3aAa'
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r{I,I,Koropyo npecJleAycr xyl(oxttHl( n clocii 1la6orc. B rcxttltxc a-'ns
r i p n r r , r aB o 3 M o x i l { oK a K o t l c l l b 0 6 o 6 t t t c t t t t r l cu 3 o 6 p a x i c l l H et l a T y p t J ' T a K
n rOsqafiUee MOAeJT r{poBailHctfOprrrl<10 IlocJlcAIIHxTOqeK>)(IIO BbIpa-
x e H n r o t l l r c r n x o n a) .
Hepc4xo c1aqa,la nlluyy1clg Ten,lee I{ CBerJIee, a ocBeilIeHHble
Mecra rcMrrec H xo,'lo/lgcc,To ecrb BbIAepx{I'IBaI,Or O6qyto raMMy gTIOAa
B npI{rJIylrtclrl,tX 'ro1ax, KaK 6bI ocTaBJIflf npo 3aIIac AJIf 3aBepIxarc-
u{IIx yAapoB Kncrbro nalr6olee flpKl{e uBeroBbleKoHTpacrbl. Kar npa-
BHJIO,CaMbleCHJIL,llbIeqBeToBbIeSByqaHHfl Ha CBeTyH TeHII aKueHTI',Ipy'
lorcfl B nocJleAHLIfiMoMeHr,KOrAapa6ora noAxoAllr K KoHIIy.3Aecl oqeHb
yMecTI{bl p euvTeJIbHbIeLI gHepr?IqHbleyAapbl IIacToSHbIM 1I MaSKaMI{.
.[nn peruenu'l MoTHBoB c pe3Ko Bbrpa]KeHHbrM KoHTpacToM cBeTa
H TeHI4I4CrrOJIbsyIOT LI IIpUeM BeAeHHflgTIOAaOT CaMOIOTeMHO|OqBeTa
K CaMOMyCBeTJIOMy. OAnarO OH,XOTSU nOMOraeTHafiTI.IcBeTOTeHeBbIe
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teneft. QrO6u gr0rO Hg6exaTb, yqI{TeCb BbltlBJIqTb KOHTpacT OCBeIqeH-
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rAe IIBeT Te[JIee I{ HacbIIqeHHee - B TeHL IIJI}I Ha CBery.
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Bbrx Macc (naren) MorflBa.
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00
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n p H e M bo r 6pa6orxu Saxrypu.
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oco6essocrfi nroinea, AdlI{Te/IbHbte OTI9AbInpeAIIa3rIaqeHbIA,Ilfl 6onee
nod'lHoroLI3yqeHLIrHarypbr. 3Aecl craBnrcfl 3aAaqa- 3a HecKO"IbKO
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a B Macrepcxoft Ao rpex qacoBi He ro,tbKo rlepeAarb ocHoBHbIe uBeroBble
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62
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;;;;;;, coaAaroureii Qaxrypy. n.ns xyAoxecrBeHHofoBocilprrrril{rr
ee
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sanilsiHHofi,,rry6ouuofi,'rto6urenlcNorl rex-
,brflyp np6.""fdetc" ot
iri*"' i .pyoot rop u Haf
yuetruqecKl4x poMox(Aeunfi xp acoK"' n'o
BrIJIorb
sepHucroun.tacrnquocrlrIl Marepuan,;soit xopnyqHocru olt4epxattuofi
na'*tt"n" Tuquasa I{JI}IJIeTKI{xpacqerJll'lBblxyAapoB KI{cr?IBeJIacKe3oB-
pfl.u.oM.
cKofo MacrepcTBa.oar<rypa a MacrepcrBo croflT BIIJIOTHyIo
@ar<rypn^annonepxubcrr,, noAo6so floqepKy rIltcbMa' HaxoAl{rcff
I{ reMrIepaMeHToM aBropa; g nefi naoxso
s recHoft-censuc xapaxrepoM
MHOfOeBblql,lraTbo caMoM aBTOpe...
ceoftcrnQarrypu'
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ou""o 6onluoe 3HaqeHrie B oTHOIIeHLII{ AOCTIIXeHI'IS MaKcI4MaJIbl{oH
ITHTeHcIIBHocTIIIIBera I{ cHJIbIcBera...>>1
Ma3-
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He Mo)Ker6nru npeA"to)KeHo'
ron u rpacoqHblxcd'IoeB 9'iil9{:}il1l",
OT OCO6eHHOcTet't ltSOOpaxaeMOH
Tep Ma3Ka HaAO rrCKaTbB SaBIICI4MOCTI4
r roft unu usoh TexHItKe ficnoJlHeHl',lq.
HaTypbr tr cBoflx cK,'roHHOCTeft
O;;;; [s6eraflre raK?Ix oulu6or: yBJ'IeqeHI4n npueMaMll Qaxrypuoro
Ha IIpaK-
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o ( r o p o r , 3 a r y l t l c l l b l l r a l l , l l t l M a 3 l ( o B 1 4n p H T I ' l p a H H f lI ( p a c o K '
iloo.ryc,t I t c l l o J It , : i o l l i l ' l ' t rT ' J I b l ( o ' l ' c l l p u c M b l , , l ( o r o p b l e "n p o B e p e H b l
'lt J t l ' l n o M O t l l , l ' l ' (I)r , r t t t t i t i i / t t : t t l , lC i I M O C ' t O t l l ' C , n b l Il 0 - l.e X a n e U r e B p e M e H I I
o Ml l i l C ' l ' o l l l l l , l x t l c [ ) l ] O l l a q a r r l b llblX I I p O n U C O KM a C T H -
ilit l)it(:'ilt(:1 1(y CJllllllK . r ' n o / t , t ( i t r ( r o l I o l ) t t t ' M a c T e p a , < < o rr o u l I 4 x K ) K I { p H b l M
x,,,i,,*, , t . r . o 6 i rt r ( ' ( . , t . 1
npe)KAe qeM
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' l
o ' i l r ( ' l ) l ' i l y 'll, y l t , r l l l l, l l l y l o c M C C I T ' I l o J ] y q e H H y ] o H a I I a J I I ' , l T p eE' u n a e r ' u r o
o.r,t.('lt0t(, l ( i l r r i l l l l l l l l l l c t l I I c y A a q r l b I M , x o p o u o B I I 1 4 C b l B a e T cBg 9TIOA'ecJlH
a He Bep'
l o J r o ) l i l r ' t ' r ,( ' t ' o / t l ) y l ' l ' l M M a 3 K o M ( H a n p u n a e p ,l o p l { 3 o H T a ' [ b H b I M '
, l . l l f ( i l Jt rt t l n M ) r r , u r rn p n x a T b M a 3 0 K I I a d ' I b I I e MM , a C T U X I I H o Mu T . n .
paclI]H-
o/trrrrm cJ,rolloM, no Mepe I{aKon,'leHI,ItlonblTa B xl{Bonllcll
flonnuure' qro He
pa3d'IllqHofo nocrpoeHl'lfl $axrypst'
;lrriiTc l.r IIoHcKII
; t . o n l x o x a p a K r e p M a 3 K o B , u o u S a r < r y p a X o J I c r a I i M e e r S r I a q e H H LB' n o -
crpoeHltx Kpacol{Horo c,'lofl 9T}OAa.
Eeceatt o TexH?rKe)Kr.IBOIUC?r [OMOryT BaM flolltlTb 3llaqeHHe tsbl6o-
pa xoJtcroB, rpyHToB, pag)KI{)KI{Te,left, uace'r, JIal(oB' xucreii, Macrl'lxu-
i,;;';',r.;. n6it"n.nno BbrHaKonr.rre xpacox.Bce
onbrrLrB cMelueHuu
KaK
3TO T€CIIO CBfl3aHO C TBOpr{eCKnUtt npO6'reMaMn' BO3HflKaIO[lItMI4
u HaKo['
pe3y,lbTar ynopHoro I1 cIICTeMaTI'lqecKofo u3yqeHua HaTypbl
"rteH 14f Bn ell aT,'IeHI{I,1.
B peurenau KoMrroSHUr{OnHblx3aMblc,lloB Ha/Io yMeTh cosHareflbHo
<<B texnlrqecxu
rcno,rtb3oBarl pasHoo6paSHble rexHul{ecKl{e I]pHeMb-l'
yAap KI'IcrIl u raxAuft uBer B KoHeqHoM
nDonvMaHHofi pa6ore xaxAlifi
.',i.:il aon*""'ootto crpofi uliu nstpaxeu neM ooAepx a HI'Ifl>2'
Tit. 1937,crp. 154-155'
M., I4sorlre,
tO o H. O Nusonrrctl.
2 'l' a u N e, crP. 153.

66
AKBAPE'Ib

3rrcAu noJ're3Ho,a qacro n npocro seo6xoArmo Bbrnor'rnrrrbHe


TO,lbKoMacJIoM,HO I{ aKBapeJIb}O,KOTOpafl nplryqaeT II}tcaTb qlzqe,
npo3paIIHeerro uBery, yBepeHHee,n n pa6ore HaA HeKoropbrMrzMorH-
BAMH HCSAMCHI1IMA.
Axnape,rl - gro )Kr4Bonncbrrpo3paqHbrMr.r BoAarrbrMr.r KpacKaMr.rrra
6yuane. Ecna rexnnKa Mac,rrrrHofi xrsonr.Icrz ct'porrrcrr rra nprrMeHeHIIIi
n oAnoii lt roft xe pa6ore r.rKopnycHbrx,I{ ToHKOcnoiirrr,rx rrponncoK,To
a KBaper'lb ocHoBaH aHIII{To,IIbKon pffi p aq HbLx Kpacor{Hblx
a Ha I4cnoJIbSoB
CJIOCB.
B .rHcroft aKBapern HeAonycrlrMonprzMeHeHwe 6ennn, TaK KaK orru
Herrpo3paqHbrH MyTar uBer KpacoK. <<Pas6e,r>> orreHKoB Aocrrlraercr
HaJIo)KeHHeM npospaqHbrx c.[oeB KpacoK ua 6e",ryrc6yuary: qeM Torrb-
ue cnofi, TeM crzJrbHeenpocBeqlrnaer 6yrvlara I,I TeM, c!'reAoBare.nbHo,
cBerr'reeorreHoK uBera. OrcrcAa 6o,rbruaq 3aB[cr.rMocrbaxBapeJlbHbrx
grloAoB or Kar{ec'rBa6ynaarlr fl caMHX KpacoK, or r.rx npogpaqHocrr.t
U tiI{CTOTLl IIBeTa.

Eyrvrara
OcHosaHr.reNr
A,'rrraKBapeJrrr 6y-
c,'ry)Kar,ryuilue copra or6e,'reunori
- nor'ryBarMaH
Mafr.r u,Tu BarMaH.He roAizrca 6yuara xe,rrarr nd'rH
ceparr,a raK)KeoqeHbtJIaAKag.,rr'tflHueBl4Taq,c KoropoitcreNaerr<pac-
Ka. Hy;111s6ymara6enan,gepHucrar,xoporxo[poK,rreeHHan u pocfa-
Tor{Horr,lorHafl, qro6lt sa seil MaBKI,IHe pacreKa/Tlrcb,He cfl.rtbHoBrIrr-
TbIBa,Tucbrr B To )Ke BpeMrr Mor,'rn cMblBarbca eoAori. 3ru r<aqccrrra
onpeAeJrflrornpo6HurnavMasKaMv KpacKr4.Bu6part xoponyro 6ynrar.y
A , ' t f la K B a p e / T H n o M o r a e r c J r e A y l o r u l l inl ip u c u : x p a l i , r r r c l t n ( ) / t r ( ( ' r r J l r n ( , 1 '
HOrTen4,HeMHOTO OTBOAflTr,r OTrryCKarOT; CCJII{rrplr 9't'oM (:,/ilrillln'Crl
p e s x u r i i l l e " r r q o I ( ; 3 r r i l r r r( rr ry n a r a n J r o ' r ' r r a r ro, p M i l J n , n or r l ) o r ( . / l ( ' c r u i r r .
O A r r a x o5 ' r o I r c 3 n a r n r r ,( n ' o p r , r x J l i l 6 r ry u ; r r l r ( ' o r r ( , 1 ) n l ( ' r u (r 'on l ) r r ' o / l -
Ha Ar'rfa l K B a p c J I I rl (. o t ' / t i t t i l , tr r y l t t 0 6 1 l t " r ' (o' 'irl'lc, l ' r ' ,l ' 0 ( ' r \ 4 o ) r ((e, t' il l r ' tc p c c i l o
p e r x a T b a K B a p c J r b t r r ,3l cJ ' t o ^ l , t t r t i l 6 y m i r t ' ( '/ l J t i l , ( : r i l fi l r r ) r xr r i t 6 J r 0 c r i o B ,
K o r o p y r c B b r n y c K a n l ' B c I I e [ l r z l J n , r r t l, r i.u\ n c r x . l J r r ; t t r i u t t ' i l r cr t i t r r r l r i i
Jryque 6pam 6e.uyro!r nJroruyro6yualy.
B u n a e r , q r o r . rH a n p u r o 4 H o i .Ai r ' r aa r { D a p ( . " r6r uy v r rl t . M ( ' ( : ' t ' i r MMni r : } r ( n
r a x 6 l r c B o p a i l r B a r o r c r . T a x y n 6 y n , t a r y I r c l ) c / l 1 t i t 6 o ' r ' o ini l ) o r \ 4 r n n i l r o ' t
rennoli nog,oI?,Koropan yAaJIHT cr'IeAbI xcrpit, Jllnlturoro rtllrlr<;tciir<y,
r{ KpacKa 6yaer Jroxr.rrbcrrpaBHoMepHo.
6yuara r.rMeercsoficrso xopo6urrcr or B,'rafn. 3r'o uo;rrr''r'3it1'l)yA-
HI{Tb HcIIoJIHeHIze 3TIoAa. floerouy ee HarrrfrrBarol ril crr('rlrirJurnr,ui
n r ' r a H r r e(rp u c . 2 1 ) .
!,enae'rcn 3To orregr,npocro. Bogrur.rre .nucr' 6yual'n nrnpc n 71,11 1111-
Hee ILrraH[Ieraga 5-6 cM. HaJIo)KI,ITe ero Ha ILIIailuc't lt 01'o|ilHl'cr(0afl.
B a r N o f i , o 6 r l . l l r u o c M o , { e H n o fBi B o A e I { 3 a r e M o r r x a ' r o i i , p : r n r r o u c p r r o
nporpr.rre 6ynaary, He rpofafl ororHyrblx KpaeB. 3rir Kparr cMalKbre
c r o J r r p H b l MK , ' I e e M3, a r e M , p a B H o M e p H H o a r g r n B a r l rl t o r r c c x , ' I b t t o( , r n c r
tlfi* 67
MOXeTJronHyrb) tr Tal(,, qro6br He Sburo Mop-
rrI,HH,trphKJreri_Te
rzx K 6oKoBbrMrpaHflM nJraH-
rxera. KofAa 6y,MaraBbrcoxHer,oua panuouep-
Ho Harqnercff Ha [JraH[rer v He 6yAer xopo-
6nrtcn noa Kucrbro.
flpnroronneHHas raKr.rM o6pasou 6yuara
oco6esso yAo6Ha AJrs grroAoB, TaK KaK nJraH-

ffi
Irer Mo)KHocraBnrb ua uo"nl6epr, nepeHocHTb,
A S T I O A I , I C T I O J I H H T bP A 3 J B I I H b I M I I NPIICMAMU.
DyMary HarflruBanTrr 3aKpenJrrrcru 6eg
KJrerr
Ha crr.rparopax(cu. puc. 2I). Taxr4Ha3br-
BaroTABe paMKr4,BxoAflrrlueoAHaB Apyryrc n
nJIorHonpHrHaHHbre. BnyrpeHHsqpaMKaMo-
xer 6url o6ura Sanepofi, KaK nJranuer.Ha
Hee KJraAyrnucr 6yuaru, a BHeruuefi pauroft
ero o6xnuaror r.IBa,Kpen,'Iglor.
Puc.9 l
KPacxn
Haura flpoMbrrxJleHlrocrb BbrnycKaerM[roro aKBapeJrbHbrx KpacoK,
llo TaK Ha3blBaeMbre (<yqer{r4qcc_KHe>)
KpacKilB rr.rIHTKaXAJIgXyAO)KeCT
neuHofipa6oru HenpuroAilbr. onlr uano npoepalrgbrt4 rrocJreBbrcr,rxa
HHr l4yTHcrcr..[l,,rnJr(]TilrrxSrroAoBueyao6ulr r{ KpacKLIn rrc6uKax,
orrrr.6rrcrpo rttep/tclol..
Lparlrilr'r'cJil,rro
JryrrureApyrnx KpacKr.r n $apsopoBbrx qarrJeqKax
nHnycKacMbrc JIcrruurpaAc-K?rM saBoAoMxyAoxecrBeHHbrx Kpacor (ua-
6oprr <JlerrrurrpaA> Ne l, 2, ll a lla n ropo6r<e-nanurpe).'llpuroaH
,r(JrrxnBonncn v KpacKr{<<MeAosbre> MocKoBcKoro gaBoAa<<Kpacuuli
xyAoxlrr'rK>, a raK)Ke<<MocKga>>. Ho u cpe4u HHXnoflaAarorcflKpacKn
(raxric, xar ro6anil geneHuftcnernufi), rrMerorrlHe uyrHuft uBer,Ma!,ro
rrpo3paqHbre. HaAo npzo6pecru gna-r!z na6opa u "us Hnx oro6parl
ryvune KpacKH, npo6yaHXMa3KaMr{ Ha 6yuare.
B u.a6op<<JI.eHuHrpa4> Nb I BxoAqr 24 xpacxu: xaAuuft illluonlrbrft,
KaAMHIixe,ttttti, oxpa cBerJlaff,cLIeHaHarypa,'rbHafl goJl,oTncro-)r(er,
Tatl' xaAMI4fiopauxenuri, oxpa r(pacHarr,cHeHa )K>KeHafl, x(eJIegHafl
KpacHafl,alrafl, KpanilaK xpacnufr, KapMItH,KpanJIaK
yJlbrp.a Suo.ueronuli,
Maprnn,Ko6arbr, ro,ry6at, nsynrtriyau aa seJreHas, flepMarreHr3e_
leHlrfi, rpaBflHaff3e,'reHaff, yrr,r6pauaiypanruaa, Mapc KopnvHeebrft
yu6pa xrx(eHas,oneHaueftrpa.nrnaruepHan,
!,nr uaunualoqrx xr4BonncueB Aax(eyAo6'ee 6o,reecKpoMHaq na-
{lrpa aKBapeJrbHbrx KpacoK,Hanpr.rMep ua6op <<.IIeuzHrpaa, Nb 2 He
I 6 ueeros.
{pacxr B KroBerax (6aHovrax) Moryr sarprr3Hflrbc, B cMecrrx.
Hro6u ng6exaru grofo, xltcrt ony'cxafire uoay xaxAufi pas, KorAa
Oepereelo Apyryrc Kpq.cKy.flocne pa6oru "o6ssirenrHo o6brpure uu-
croli nnqrKoft rpanovrori nce xpacxu B KroBcrax,uro6u yAaJrr.rrb cBepxy
rpHI{ecuApyrr{xKpacoK.
KPACKI.I T{STIo6HXOA BbIAABJIABAIOTHA NAJIHTPY TOPOIIII.IHKAMI.I
[PII.
MCPHO B TOM }I{C NOPgAKE, IITO T{ MACJIffHbIC,A TI.O6I4KU HCMC,q,JICHHO
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Hyr noqrr'rHepacrBoprrMbrMr
n ue 6yayr slrAasJiana$ca.ArnapeJrbHbre
KpacKHHyx(Ho xpaHrrb B npoxJraAuoMMecre, o6eperaru or nyuefi
co.rlHua.

Ilanurpa
B, raqecrne naJrilTp
brAJItrcMerx,rBatrilfl ax'a per'IbH
brx KpacoKMoxer
cJly)Kr'rrb
6e.nasnJrocraf rapeJrKauJrHnpflMoyio,rtuurixycox creK,/ra,
oKpa[reHHbrfi cuusy 6e.nunauu.flpo6r,r cMecHAe,lator Ha orAeJrbHoM
JltrcrKe6yuaru, a noroMHaHoctrHa 9TroA.

Kucrn
B axnapenrsori-xunonucunpilMeHffrorcq
Kpyrrne 6ennqrn uJfli Ko-
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JroHKOBbre

?I,:Tit:l:ff#Tfe"J'nule,1f3il1i#'.?.f".,T;ff
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np[foAHblrus o6o6utesuorinponucKr4, O$ron- W
HyroAerad'rupoBKy Qopnarr.
M,oxHonp,oBecrr.r yrxncrirc Ne 16.ec- Iili
Iru olra r.rMeerocrpuft KoHerI,Ho rrlfipoKneMa3Kr.r n ea_ lilll
ilHBKn,(eJrarorrorbKo r{pynHbrMu Kr.rcrflMn.Merxne l$
(ueurrue 16-ro Houep{'kucrvr HaraJrKHBaro,;;*_ I I
Halouero Ha npexAeBpeMeHHyro AeraJrripoBr{v, sa- I fl
rpyAuflIorIIoIIcKI4ocHoBHbrxUBeroBbrx orHblrerluri,Aa- I {
I,OTCyXOBaTbre, MaJrolpo3paqHbteMaSI{H.
A r c n a p e . r l l H u eK p a c K H ,K n c l i l , n a J r l t l . p yl t 6 a n o , l x y
A,rrflBoAbrHa sarrfl.r.Hrr srnAaMr{ y4o6trec iloctt.r.t, B
c[eq[aJrbHoM flUIHqKe,noxox{eM Ilil sTlol(l[ili ltJl,r Mac_
,[rHblx KpacoK, uo 6o,ree nr'locKoM. Moxllo .taK)Kc
Cu-ul! CyMKyc orAe,lleH'HflMI't AJIRBcex npHnaAJre)Knoc-
reft. Tau xe AoJr)KHa 6uru n rpnnouxa AJrfl Bbrrr.rpa_
sng xucreri.

O rexunxe aKBaper[ Puc.22.

flp'aelru 'cocraBJIeHHqcr,recefi Ha naJrr,rrpe B ar{Bape/rr4re }Ke, sro


H E MacJrrrgotlxfisonuclr, Ho HaqI.rHaIouuMHe peKoMeHAyeuBBoAHTb
B,cMecH 6enuna, r.rHaqe3TloAbr6yayr ncnopvedu. I,Icrouue orreHKr.r
B aKBa'p'ed'IbHbIx3'l'IoAax noryqanr raK: Ha [aJlllrpe cMeIII,IrBarorABe-
TplI Kpa,c,Krar{ nepeHocsr HX B srroA }rd'rr4HaHocsr npospa,{uuft cnoir
yxe IIo BbrooxlreMy KpsCOerHOrM]r cnOrc. E,C.lrz, cxaxbir,r,'IIo xeJrr,oMv
[poJroxr-rrb Ma30K xpacnofi KpaoKH,TO ilOJyqHrcq o,pauNonuft qner,
nponrcKa cuueft xpacrofi no xenroft Aacr oeJreHufiqeer u r. ,{,.
tr4ssccrHoHecKo,'rbKorexHHqecl(nx [pIieMoB pa6oru aKBapeJIb]o.
H a e o e e l l T p Ho c H o B u b r x .
Cnoco6 orJ\tbLBKu. flepntrfi eran pa6orbl 3aKJlloqaercfiB npofi]'IcKe
cr.r!'rbrro pas6anneHtrrtt'ln no4oft KpacKaMI4, [epeAanqI'IMI{ ocHoBHbIe
orHoueurrfl uBeroBbIXuacc (nnren) Haryptt. Bropofi nponucxoft ycz-
r'rrrBaroruBer [o,'ryrorloB,Tperbeil n nonHyrc c].IJIy[epeAa]or qBer reseft
n BBoArrrAeraJII4.Kaxaufi HoeHfi NpacouHutl cnoft uanocgr rlo npo'
coxlxeMy c,'torc.Ocneu,eHHbleBblrlyK,'IocrtlnpLI SroM ocraB,'Iflor He3a-
nucaFrHblMlt4o rpertefr rrpon]IcKli, KorAa oHI,IcJIerKa noAcBer{I.IBalorcfl
r coorBercrBlrll c orrerlxal,ln 6luNoB B Harype (6nuxu ncer.4aqnerHue)'
flpz Hano>xeHuIIoAHoro c,tlofl Ha apyroft yuzrunafire Bllunrve H14-
)r{eJrexaqux cJIoeBHa uBer Hosofi npo[acKl4 II I'Ic[oJlb3yilre Hoerte
cJror.rKpacoK AJIfl noayqeHufl ueo6xoAttl,tux orreHKoB. Kpan Ma3Koll
Mo)KHocMrfqarb sraxuorl qncrofi KI{crbIo.
He 6ofirecl reKyqecrll aKBape,IIbHbIx MaSKoB,a yqlirecb elo ynpaB'
nsrr. ll.ryau[Ier Mo)Kuo lpuloAHtrb, TorAa noATeK KpacKI4ocraHoBI'IT-
cfl, r.rr'rllocymeuuofi Kficrbro [poBecTn qepTy Ha nyTH [oATeKa Iz 9THM
orpaHl,rqrzrbMa3oK.Cyxar Kucrb roxe <<BbIIIber>> Ii3,'II4IxeK KpacKH.
B reryuecrv u cJruntul4 MagKoB- rlpedrecrb aKBape,'IbHoiltexHuKl'1,
cc,ril Klrcrblo BOAHTonblTHaf pyKa.
Ilr,rro/lrro npuMeulrb IuepoxoBaryrc 6yn,tary,tno Koropoli sanusKH
n o , i r y r r a r o ' r ' oc cu o 6 c r r r r oc o q r r l i M l t ,T a K K a K M e ) K A ye e S e p H a M Hc K a r I J I I l -
l l i l l ( ) ' lC t l | | i l ( ' l r l l l l ( ' l l l l l , l C Il IIpC)3patlIIl,lC CrlOI{ i{paCKII.
O t t o t ' o 6 1 t u 6 o ' r ' t , (t n o ( t i l l ) o n r l > . I ) i t c t < p t , t n a r S T I o A B I { B C T e ,I { a H o c f l T
l i i r ; t i / t r , r iri \ r i r r ( ) rl (u l / \ o M ( ' r l ) ( ' / ( t , t / t Y I t \ t t Mt l,o t i a ' t ' o r c t r l . cI I c r p o c o x , 3 a x B a -
' n , l r l i l r r ( , N u r o r ' oc o c t ' l 1 t r t t i i M i l l o l i , 6 , r l i t t ' o , r 1 a pul lc n , t y o 6 p a s y e r c n u a r r n t l
n ( , 1 ) ( , \ o / t .i ) ' r ' r o / (l l t t l t c t , r t l i t t o ' l ' 6 t , t c ' t ' 1 t oc, ' t p c M t t c b S a K p b l T b B e c b Ao
' l o I ( ) , l ( i l l ( | l ( ) , r ( C o . \ | | (V) 'll' / [ ( ' J l b l I b lIC ItlTIIa. "Illcr
t l l o 6 r , r i r i r \ 4 ( ' / [ , r u 1 ' r ]' rl n
, c r , t x a l t H eK p a c o q l - { b t xr g r e H , > K e d I I a r e J I b HA oo-
(xlr,ll't'1, ti ctiu(;ln c noAoii HecKoJIbKo KaIIe,lb f,tfiIlepI'rHa.
/lptltoii c4toco6 pa1orat <<nocbrpo.M!j>>. flepe4 pa6orofi JIucr noKpbI-
lllr()l rtrr(:t.oii to1Oil 11Aa]oT nOABflHyTb. fluuyr rro eu1e B,lIa)KHOMy
Jlllcf)/, 6,raro4apn qeMy rloJlyqaloTctl MfiIKI'le nepexoAbl OrreHKoe. Ecnlt
6ynara rrarrrHyra Ha crr4parop, To noAAepxuBarb BJlaxHocrb Jlucra
roN{o)Ker KaproH, cn/rrbHoyBJIa)KHeHHbIfiu npl4xarttfi cullsy.
flpumeuianaa cMe[IaHHafl TexnfiKa, KofAa qacrr uso6paxeHufl npo'
rrl{cbrBaercfl orMblBKorl I{JIH nepBbIM croco6om <<rrocblpoMy>>,a, Harrpl't-
uep, lre6o c pacnJlbIBqarblMIz ,'terKl4Ml.to6fla,.rKaMLIrJIH BoAa nl{myrctl
no yB,ra)KueHuofi 6ymare. Moxso raK)Ke B,rlrBarb oAIIH lrBer n apyroii
u,rn ocna6,rrrrb ero npr.rKocHoBeHneM ql,rcrofino.nycyxotl Ntlcrn.
C.ne4nre, r{To6brHe Henpo3paqHbIe,
rroflB!'rrJIr.rcb fpfl3gble no uBery
nrrrHa. Bce HeyAauHbleyqacrxlr. >xllBonhclrorNrHsafire qacroft, cHJIbHo
],8,1alKHeHr{oir KHcrbro.Ho yvrure, qro orMbIBKaHe BcerAayAaercfl no,I-
luocrblo, nooroMy or aKBape,'rucrarpe6yercs rorrHocrb I.I yBepeHHocT'b
n pa6ore, Tu{areJrbHaflnpoBepKa cueceri npo6auu Ha orAeJrbHoMJn{cre
6 1r i r r r n .
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To cro MolKrlorronpaBurb,rroAcraBr.iB noA poBHyrocrpyro soAul. tr4snnrx-

70
He yro,'iqeHHbre c,'rot4KpacoK cMor,orcfl,orreHKI4 o6o6qaTcg Ll cMtf-
qarcfl. Hoeoft nponncxoti c yqeroM ocHoBHbIxqBeroBblx otuouestlri
srloAy Mo)KHoBepHyrb cBelKpcrb.
llpn ucronr3oBaHLIunrc6oro cnoco6a aKBape,'tbHofi rexHnru co6,qn-
AaeTcfl eLvHafl A,llfl BCex3TIOA0BnOCJI€AOBaTeJIE,HOCTb
{BeTOBOIO peue-
.HHfl<<oro6qero K rracrlroMyH onrrrb K o6tr{eMy>>.

ornAbt aKBapeJtbK)
Kax nrcaru AJtltreJlbHbte

,(,,rnre,rlHnrl ernA aKBapc,'lbto rrarlnttaroucMy rpyAHee HaIIHcarb


B TexHI,rKea-JIfl npI.IMa,Aax{e ecJII'tB uefi yxe yAaqtto Bblrlor'IHtlr'IHcb
KparKoBpeMeHHbIe gTIoAbI.B srox4 c,rlyqae,KaK u3Becrtto,ycJIo)KHttIor-
cfl 3aAar{u Ko,lopncTl4qecKofopelxeHl4fl3TI,OAa.
B arnape.rlHblx oAHoceaHcnblxgrloAax, BbInoJIlIeHIrbtx B or,trH trpl]-
eM, B OAHynpo3paqHyroKpacoqHylo^[ponl{cKy,r{acro olqyqaercfl He.[o-
craroqHar ?rHreHcr.IBHocrb KpacoK. C.na6uil pacrBop I(pacoK, HecMorpfl
Ha flpaBrrdrrbHo sgqrnii uBer, rrepeAaer KaK 6u npHspauuslii tuupax,
B x o r o p o M n p e A M e r b rK a x y r c l H e B e c o M b t MLLIr J I L t [ I e H H b t r a$ua x r y p u r .
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Ay[rHocrbr,ou He)KHocrbloKo!'IopI{Ta(TyMaHHOeyrpo, ryMaH B cyMep-
ru), ro orroA, AalKe BbInor'IHeHHbIir <<nocblpoMy>, .npoIl3BoAIlTcBe)Kee
BneqarJIeHHe. Ho e grloAax HarlopMoproB, a Bnoc!'IeAcrBxH H B 3TrcAax
rOr'IoBbIA Surypu qeJIoBeKay HaquHaloillu* nofiB,'IflercflcrpeM,rIeHI{e
r{aK-ToHacbrrl4Tbuser. O6HvHo"oHLt npn6eranr K HacJraLrBaHuIo ryc-
rbrx, Herrpo3paqHbrx Ma3KoBaKBape,ttbto. 3rtlM Aocrsfaercfl B KaKoiI-To
Mepe x{e,'rare,'lbHoe ynJIorHeHI.Ie IIBeTa, HO To,flbKOAO roii nopbl, lloKa
BOAarre ucnapH,qacbII3 KpacKu. I{eu 6o,rrure BblcblxaeT3rloA, TeM 3a-
MerHeeTycKHeeTIr lrloxrleT IIBer fycrblx Ma3KoB.
nnrr Aocri{xeHUfl nJlorrtocrrr UBCTaI} at{BapcJlttrtctlo.rlb3ytorH Apy-
r o f i n p u e m : H a r o c t t l ' K p a c K y I t a o t t ( ' t t u I l t c p o x o l l i l l ' y l oc r " l y 6 o x t l v t ' l
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p r , r 3 o H T a J I b ut ot oer ' r o ) K c t t t t e . 3 r /' t ta c t ' y t l J I o ' l ' t t c t l l l ol l ] c ' f i l , I I o l o M y t l l ' o
K p a c K a , 3 a r e K a r o u a rM l e ) K A y3 c p l t t l M ! t6 y r n a r t t ,t l a c b l u { i t t ' T ' lut l l c l ' , t t e
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Ho oHa Bce-TaKHHe Aaer Bo3Mo)KFIocrH AJII'lre,'lbHo MoAe,'Illponarl Qop-
My u pacKpr,ITbToHqalluue tpaAallnl4 cBerorelln. A.ns A.lure,'lbllb'lx
3TTOAOB HyXHa 6o,ree [JIorHafl 6yltara.
Pa6ota HaA A'rIITer'tbHbIMa aKBape,tlbHblMI,I 3TloAaMlt yc,'IoBHopac-
naAaercfi Ha HecKo,'Ibt<o craAuli. 3Aecl oHI4 npllBoAflTcf A,{g TO|O,qro-
6u xy4OxgHK MOr co3HaTeJIblIO flx ppHAeplKHBaTbCq B cOOTBeTcTBI{lt
c xapaKrepoM Harypbl H saAaqell grloAa. Ho ue coBeryel{ ncax,nti pa:
[eAaHTI4qHO r{IeHATb fpaHI]UbI II SaAaqIt 3TIIX 3TaIIOB, a KOIAa Hy}KIlO,
peur.rTer'rbHo IIepeBoAHrb eTIoA c oAHoH cTa(r4lt B Apyfy]o.
II ep ao il c r ad ue rt Bbtrro,rlneHlIfl AJII{TeJIbHoro orloAa aKB a p cd'lbto crl il-
T a e T c f lI I a H e c e H H eK o H r y p a .
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r,ry6oxoro npocrpaHcrBa Ha n,'IocKocrll3TloAzt,To Kollryp
BneqarJIeHI4e
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uoe aso6paxeHr.re,HaltpHMepcBqgarb opHaMeHTaJIruufiysop c IIoBepx-
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opHaMeHra. Konryp Ao.rr)KeH6nrl qerxnM r4 BI{AI{MbItu4o roHqa pa6o"-
ru. Hasocurcs oH TBepAbrMrpaSrlrorvrHJrr.r Aa)r(enepoM c HecMblBaeMofr
TyIIIbIo Ha npoqHylo, nJroruyro 6yuary lrerKIIMn JII{Hr.rflM14,
Koropble BbI-
rOAHO HECKOJIbKO YTOJIIqATb JIIIIIIb TAM, TAC KOHTYP AO,'IX{CH 6ITTI SflACH
T I O AT E M H b I M U B C T O M .
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[ocraBJreHasar\asauso6paxeuuflc,ro)KHofiQoprun,Koropaflrpe6yer
Aerad'IbHoro r4 BbrBeperrHoronocrpoeHns.Ho npu ncefi cTporocTl{pI4-
cyuKa KoHryp 3Aecbyxe Hocrrr uuoft xaparrep, qeM B pI{cyHKerIoA
opHaMeHr.Jlnnvn AoJrxHacrpo,r4rbo6rem,uyr,o Qopmy u cJryxurb ocno-
eoftAng cno6o,quori JIenKr.r
ee o6T,eMa,a HecK,oBbrBarb Kr{crb.
VKaeas Meclo A,'rR MaBKa, BcrroMorarentuuftKoHTyp r,o"IX(eH
(cKpblThcfl>>Aa)Ke ltoA flpoSparrur,rM c,IroeMKpacKI{,cneAonare,rluo,
pHcyHoKnoA aKnape,rbr,oJIlI(eH6urn oqeul JIeIKI'IMI{ cKynbIM Ha
ulrpux. .IlyurueBcero KoHrypAeJrarbnpnMo Kncrbroc ,ctIJIbHo pasBe-
Aeunofironydor:rrpacxoft, Koropafl ocodeuHoxopouo nqpeKpbtBaercfl
rIocJIeAyroil{?rMLI
nponucKaMra. Ho t<ucrun Mo}KHoHapl4coBarb gJIeMeH-
rH nefisaxa, npocrbreilpeAMerbrHarropMopra.Pucyuox 6onee cflo)K-
Hutx{topn,I- roJroBhr unr,r$nrypnr qei'roBeKa, nHrepbepard apxl,IreKryp-
HoronefieaN a Heo6xoAr.r arb Kapar{AauoM.
Mo AeJr
Hro6u r{e BarprrBHflTb Jrr4crMlroroKparlrbrMn 14He
HcnpaBd'IeHI,rfrl\,II4
noBpeAHTb ero KaparrAarrloM HJIHpesnlrxofi,JlyquerrapucoBarb MoAeJtb
H? OTA€JrrrlrOM!'rHCTe6yrUarn,H3yqaflcrpocrrnen xapaKTepHue oco6eH-
ltocln $opn,tbr,a na 6ynnare,npHforoBJlerlrrofi noA aKBapeJlb,cAeJlarb
cKyIHMr.rJru{rrrrrrMH6oncc JraKoHHqHbrri n ynepeHHuIfipHcynoK. flpn
STOM CaMt,lc Bbtnyt(d'Iblcrlacru sopmbl, fiepBbte nJIaHbI nocTaHoBKg LIJII{
M0'r'HBa xc,'tareJlbHo nepeAaTb 6onee TeMHbIMH IIITpHxaMllt, KaK I{ TeHH
fia lrpellMerax, a yAa,'reHr{bre*Ha6pocarr ToHKHMIi JIe|KLIMI.IJII4HI.ltlMLl.
3)rau yxe s nanefrnoN,r uso6paxeuua s xaKoir-ro Mepe 6yayr [epe.[,aHbl
npocrpa$crBeHHbrerrJranbrr{ HaMetrenbrHerfi6H Qopnau renflx. Bunon-
HUB pr.rcyHoKKapaHAa[roM, Jrrcr Hy)r{HottpoMbrrb soAofi, ]KeJIareJlbt{o
Aax<e uurbsori, qro6u yAa,'IaTb xupoBbre nflTHa z ocna6ntt toga
rrrTpHxoB.
Mecra 6,nrlron, Koropbre He HaAo Ha nepBblx flopax Ba[ItcbrBarb
IIBeroM, Mot(Ho oqepTr.{rb.Ho .nyuure rrx 3aKpblrb pegl{HoBbIMKJIeeM.
Eucrpo 3acoxHyB, oH 3alqrrr,r.rror oKpatrrr.IBaHrlflTo Mecro, rAe [oJIa-
raercs 6urr 6,ruxy, Aa)Ke ec,'Inrr{caTb ur4poKo. KorAa srtqgrqlot 6nt,t-
Krr, x.refi nerxo yIaJrflercfl pesnHxori. O6pasonanurufics npocBer
ocraeTcfl JIr.rUlb cJIerKa I]por'IeccIIpoBaTb IIBeToM, cooTBeTcTBylouII'lM
AanHoMy6rlrxy.
Crarns, HaHecer{I4flKoHTypa rroA aKBapeJIbopraHllqnee cod'Ibercn
c Har{afloMpa6orrr uBeroM, ecJlr.tilpoBecrl't[peABapLlreJIbHyIo
o6o6qen-
Hyro nporrncxy $optuu cpa3y Klrcrbro oAHofi xpacxofi (npuuenaHe ro.Jlb'
72
Ko roJly6oft, KaK roBop[Jrocb, Bbrilre, a KofAa Hyx(Ho r.ITentofi). Ho ne'
o6xoAnrrronbrr, .rro6H npaBfiJrbHonpeAyraAarb rrBer noA aKBapenbHylo
)X,I,IBONI,ICb.
Bropan cradua - BbrgBr'reHr{eocHoBHbIx IIBeToBbIX ottlouegnft
H rpa4aqraft cBeroreHr.r.
B ornuqne or gTroAaMacJroMaKBape,rbBeAyr He or reMHoro K cBer-
JIoMy, a or cBer,'Iofo K TeMHoMy,ecJru pa6orarcr B TexHr{KenocrerleH'
Horo ycr.rJleHrrflrlBerocr.{abraKBape,rbHblx [po[HcoK. 3ra nocJleAoBa'
TeJlbH'ocrbo6tqcusercrr reM, qro BcerAa l4MeercrrBo3MolKHocrbnyreM
Jlecc[poBoK yreMHrirb ror ]r,rfi l.rHoft qser, a Bor BbrcBerJII-lTbxaxofi-
;tn6o yuacroK grroAa y)Ke rpyAno. Iloaroruy qaqe Bcefo Ha*I,IHaIor
c npolrncblBaH'uqocBeildenl{brxu noo6ule caMbrx cBerJlbrxMecr no Bce-
My gTrOA,y, COrJraCOBbIBatr HX rIBerOBbleOTTer.rKIi.3arenn IIpoKpblBalor
Cpa3y Ha'tscex [peA,MeTax,TaK)Ke cpaBHltBaf HX OTT€HKII
nO,'IyTeHI'I
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Hrl, To ecrb Bce 60nee lr 60,ree norauator ToHa or cBeTJIblxK TeMHbIM,
HACbIIIAR UBETOM oTI.OJI,
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no ncefi ocseqeuHoft qacri,r npeAMereB r.rcpagy rlurxyr TeHI,I,cotJlaco-
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reHrE.HaseceHr4eoAHoro npo3paqHonocJrofl na gpyrofi, Toxe npospaq-
HHfi, cosAaer B aKBaperu doraryn firpy uBera, Aaer boSnnoxuocrs
npbaoAnft BceBoSMolKHbre fleccnpoBKH.
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t<u slecg cMrrrqarorcrrdenarn,tuBeroM 6ymarn H nMetor ocoOeutto nplt"
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poBKaMr.r reHH rrorrrttAo seo6xoAl{MororoHa, cpa3y )Ke ny)Klro noAnlt'b
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ToJIbKo<<qserHoilBo4ofi>>,a n norycyxoft xuctgto. Sravr lrpueMoM, I{e
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ru, npuAaBarr reM caMbrM HeKoropyro $axrypHocrb ocBeIIIeHHbIM Me-
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Ko KaIIJIIo.HanomHaM, qro B groM crTyrlaenr'Iauuery ryr{ue npnAaBarb
rroqrfi rop r.r3oHTaJIbHoe noJIoxeHI4e.
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KpacKr.rutu 6enuil. Ho Aenarr oro HaAo ocropoxftto. A saqnsanuluu
73
II BoBceHe crouT no,ltb3oBarbcflgrtlM npLIeMoM,TaK I(aK 6ennna BHecyr
B grFoAMyrHo-rpfl3HHfiuser.
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rrurb SopMy 11nepeAaer oco6eHHocrn noqepKa xyAo)KHHKa' ero BooAy-
UeBJIeHHocTb U 3Hepfhrc. B aNnapeJIII MOXHO AOCTuraTb Tollqaliunx
[epexoAoBoToTTeHKaKoTTeHKy,cilVBaflMa3KIl,HaHoc'I-I{x<<noMoK.
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ropbre
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6ogrcg lloao6tlbrx <noATeKoB> H, BMecro rofo t{To6bl yttuTbcf <<vnpaB'
JIflTb)>LIMIt, IIHiIIVT no7rycyxofi KI'IcTblo, xax 6u pacTyuerBblBas KpacKy
ri TeM caN{blM 3acyul{Bafl arloA.
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nponucaTb v KacaljKfl.
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rro sopMe r1 IIo TOHy, AOCTr.rra]oT MflrKOfO nepexoAa, pacfiJlblBr]aTofo
<<KoHrypa>>, nepeAaloulero oKpyfr'Iblti zeru6 rloBepxHocrfl SopM bl. Mox<-
HO MeX(Ay gTI,tMIIMa3KaMIZ B"II{Tb }I nepeXOAHltfi OrreHOx, ecd'lHO}{ yBu-
,teH n Haiype. Konrpacr IIBera rlpeAMera It uBera 6.luxafiruero.K HeMy
.vr{acTKa 6oga, KaK i.ISBeCTHO, Or{eHb Ba)KHO FIa6"lIOAaTb lI nepeAaBarb'
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3ToMy B pa6ore IlaA A"IHTer'lbHbIMH3TIoAaMtl HaAo y)Ke rIo"IIi3oBarbcf
ue oArroii-AsyN,rr K,ucrflMH Ne l6-24, a Ha6opoM aKBapeilbtlblx KI4-
crcit.
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xorOpoil oHa rIpA-
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lraAJtC)Kt1',uO UBCI'OBOMyOt'TellKy, CBCI'OCH,'Ie H 1rpOnOpqgqM. Cr'IeAnre,
q'ro6br ile llorytlH,rlocb necrporl,r. ,[,yuafire, KaKI]e AeTaJIII Heo6xo/(llMo
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xOAr{MO B3BeCIITb,qTO6bI AeTa,'lIlSIrpyrcUli4eMa3KI,IIIOJIO}KLITb yBepeHIlO,
TOqHOU CBe)KO.
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xpacroii, Koropar, BbIcbIXafl, 11pI4o6peraer MyrHbIIi il f,'Iyxoii To]1, BbI-
pbrBaloilIr4ficfl I43 06lqeto aKBapeJIbHoro roHa.

74
3 anepruaroqee o6o6u,euHeBeAercrr
u?rpoKuMr{ Mn,tr r-,c-
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uao6opor, AJIflyoI{JIeHI.rrr qBera BbrnyK,Ilocreli nepntrx [,rIaHoB,uau6onee
corlHbrxH npKtrx B HaType.
EcnH s npouecce Aera,'inpoBr{u3TroA npuo6pe"r HecKoJIbKe<<3at\{y-
qeHsrtti>>BHL u 6nn c,tuurroM neperpyx(eH Hac,'roeHunMuKpacoK, rra-
[ p l { M e p B T e H s x , T o r r e p e A 3 a B e p u a o q H M r 4 n p o r r H c K a M re4r o J r y q u e
orMbrrb. Anq ororo erroA noAHocrrr Ha ndrlaH[rere noA BoAoflpoBoA-
uufi xpaH Lr Becb 3a,'rr.rBaror soAoir. Ecnu saAo orMbrrb ro,'rbKo qacrb
er'm4a, ro 4eft,crnyrct uupor<oft, cu,rbFro yn,raxneHuofi r<llcrlro. 3a-
TeM penHTe,lbHbrMtrI]ponucKaMr.rB MaHepe a-Jrfl rrpHMa cMed'ro0)KHB-
,rlRIoT3TrOA,BOCKpeIIIaflrepBOe, Han6onee 'IpKoe BneqaTJeHLt,e oT IIa-
rypbr.
llpunaeuaercff rarlKe cnoco6 o6o6u\euus, roropufi ycu,ri.rBaerrIBe-
roeori $ou errcAa B ue,'roM.Ec,ru A,rq Morr.{Ba,Hanpr,rMep, xapaKTepHo
npeo6,ra4auLre ren"rrbrx roHoB, To 3aBeprxarcuee o6o6ilIeHue MolKr-ro
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cKofo peueHLrfl9TroAa.

rYA[IJb, TEMNEPA h NACTE'Ib.

Vsrei<ascr, B ocHoBHoM Mac,'IrHofi )KriBonIrcbro,caMoAetrrcr'rbtrbrc


x y A o x H u K r . rn p e n e 6 p e r a r o r r y a r u b r o ,r e u r e p o f i , p e A r i o r r p o 6 y r o l p a ( r o -
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c K r 4 eB o 3 M o x { H o c r r M J .u o r r r c x y / ( o ) K r r u r ( nM o r , r u 6 r , r < r r a i i ' r r rc c 6 u > , p ; r -
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n p t r B r r l e K a r e J bl br rcro c o 6 c lrtl o c t ' t r ,

l'yaurs

f y a u r r - K , T e e B a r r K p a c K a .O H a c o 4 e p x i l T B K a q c c r B ec B r 3 y r o r r t c f o
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arrlbronnnyT B ocHoBHoMna 6yn,{arevJru Ha KapToHe,KaK aKBaperrbn.
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70
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Teunepanrn HagbIBaroTKpacKu, B cocraB Koropblx B KaqecrBe


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78
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79
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80
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ecrb oKoHr{are,'rbrryn o6no4xy 6yxn 4nn nan6onrurefrroquocrr nx
oHeprSHiHfr, qeTKocrtrr{ Kpacorbr,Ae,Taror'enunavu, flpar4a, K TaKr.rM
npI'IeMaM rlaqe npfl6erarcroQopmurefiwKHr.rr, Ho He BpeAHorrx sHarb
I HaqfiHaroulum qro6u u c noMorqbroperyruri oH[l
curpr-rQroBr.rKaM)>,
yrru/'rncbprrcoBarb6yrnu, nacarb r,rxcpagy Kl4crblo.Co npeueHeM cra.
lter MeHbIrJe HerorrHocrefi a HauepranuzrupaQroBn notBr{TcryMeHfie
noI{TI,r6es peryurrznrrcarbfyarubtoltJraKarblr,rgaroJIoBKa B creHrage.
Tax n Ha cTeH,[ax.
IIIpn$rn nrrttryr rorrKr,rMtrrE6onee ro,'rcrbrMrlKo,']oHKoBbrMt4 uiln
n xpaftueu c,'Iyqac6enn.tnr'rN4tr IorcrflMu,o6ngarenurtofiMetoulnMI,I ga.
octpeHunrlKorreu.I4cnonrsyroru peiicrficAcpl,r, Kol'opbre3arrpaBJrrrror
fyarrteBbtMr4 KpacKaMtr Kilc't'bro,
ilc /loilycKarr
npil STOM noATcKoB Kpac.
Nv,.JTut-tuttper:rc$caepoM rlpoBor,rnno .ln,rrrciit(e,
ItMcrorqeficxoc. Hcr
o6eoAxaKonrypa mpn$ra peiic$e4epoMc nocd'reAyroruleii ero saJlr{nNor'l
rpacNofiHe Aacr BogMoxHocrlt rupa6orarb raKUXxopotiluxrraBblKon
urpHQToBKII, (K'penKylo>> pyKy, KaK ynpa)KHelruq c KrlcTbro,rrogToMy
flyque ucfibrrarb Hezsbexnue Ha nepBbrx
nopax HeyAa'{uH OropqeH}.lrr B pHcoBaHI4r.I
LUpHQTOB XI{CTbIO, HOSaTOOBJraAeTb CnO.
co6aun ucnorHeHr.IflcaMbrx KDac14Bbrx rr
r r Jar c r n q r r b r xu p n s r o n , K a K H M Hr r B r r r r o r -

ilil
crr prrcoBarilIble,a rre BblqepqeHHble,
lllpnQrr,r J'ro3yrrroB Ha KyMaqeBbrrro,'r-
Hflror rurlpoKllMHrrlerr.rHrrblMa KIICTqMLI I{
4axe S,refiuavn (puc. 24). Hexoropue
o$opn,rure,ru .rrro6flr yr{opaqrrBarl AJrfi
gTOfOAJ[trry qeTrilrr)t.Ho ,'tenars 3To Ha.

4* 83
Ao orHro4b He o6pesKofi Bo,'Ioca!Harpetire MeTaJIJII{qecKyIo BTyJII(yKHc-
TLI HaA [,'raMeHeM crrIIqK,Idt.L'IIi cBeqn, noKa pacn.IlaBaTcfl ranHQolr,
cK,'rerrBalotr1an BHyrpeHHuftroseq uerI.IHbI (no.rroca), H BABHHbTeee
Buyrpb BTyJrKnHacroJrbKo, Hacno.rlbKoHylKHo yKoporr,rrb Kucrb. Konla
ocrblBiuafl xauu$o,'rr ongrb gaKpenaT qerr.rHy, Kucrbto uoxHo pa6o-
rarr. O6pesasnrrfi Bo!'roc4aer 6opoe4bl,<<pBaHbIe>> Kpafl Ma3KoB.
Ha ci<opylo pyKy BbIrIoJIuaof lrpurpril nnaxariultl.t (puc. 25, a)
n oco6uun rpy6uarultn flepbffMu p\Jlfl, qeprexnblx rupnQroo
(puc. 25,6). Ho Harrr.rHaroilIfirrn o$oprr,rarersMeoo6qe HeAonycrrzMopa-
6ora' ' Hac[ex, H6o nerpe6oBareJlbHocrl r csoell pa6ore, yKopeHuB'
a H4au u oSop MnreJlfl >)
rr rrcb, Hcrroprlir axyc. Jlyuure ucrroJlb3oBarb <<Kap

n (nflat(Rpr,r>,B il0(o1'opoM orrrouellllH IIanoMnHaloque $.nouacTepbt


c Qctponurrrrr c'r('p)KrtrMrI, rro IIe uMeIoIqHe npylKliH BHyrp14,croJlb
pncyHKoB<<)Kr{Bofi
BSXrilrrx/lJrfl Br,trtor'rHcrrHrr nugneft>>(puc.25,e). Onw
gattpaBKu.
lxc r.c'tb u lrpoAax{e BMecre co cnequaJlrHofi xpacxofi Lns
I-lo cc,ru nog urprlQr cAeJraHuseruoft Qon ryaruenumn nru reMlep-
uLrMrdKpacKaMr.r, To u tttpuQrst no HeMy HaAo nllcarb reMh )Ke KpacKa-
trlu. FIn B KoeM cJryqae He roAHTcfl TyT L Tylxb, Koropafl nocJle BbIcbI-
xaliurr o6gsarenrHo orlleJlyrxurcfl .
LleerHas ryrrrb, oqeHb nottyJlflpHaff y Haql.{Halou1,tzx, oco6eHuo ttpn
TaK Ha3brBaeuou<<ua6pblgre>>, gB,'IgercflsllHosHt,tqeftrpy6oir v necrpofi
pacKparxeHHocrrlcreHrager, o6bflB.uennftu ApyrHX pa6or. HaAo 6urt
oqeHb onL,ITHbIM MaCTepOM,.nO6H rIO,U,qIrHLITb KpaCHBOMyqBerOBOMy
perueHrzrcpesrnft (<xr.rMrrqecKlrft>> qaer rylxll H 6necr gaJII.rBoKero.
Tpe6yer 6o,rr,uroro BKyca u pa6ota <<cBerslqnMucfl>> n,'taKarHbIMIl
KpacKaMrr,oco6esuo rpacnofi a opauxenoli.
Ocsonasug AJIg BbI[o,'rHeHLIrr o$op n,ture,rbcKltx p a6ot eu6np anrcn
B gaBlrcr.rMocnlor MecrHbrx yc.nonufr u Bo3Mo)Krroctefi,xapaKTepa Ba-
Kaga u ero 6yayuefo zc[o,lb3oBaHvn. Kyuau, xortcrbl lt 6qsr HcnoJIb-
Syrorcs AJIff TpaHCrrapaHToB rr creHAoB, r{arflIlyTblx Ha noApaMHIIKI4.
Kpoue ryauIz r,r reMrrepbl, no HrrM MoxHo nl]carb upuQrn rr cMecbn
npocefl[rHoro MeJra n.nu sy6uofo flopolxKa n )KIz,{,Kofo cro.IlspHoro
(nnoxno u MaJrflpHoro) x.nea. llponopuun roro n Apyforo HaxoAffr

84
onbrrHbrMrryTeM, raK KaK pa3Hbre copra MeJra n noporrrKa rpe6yroT
pa3Horo KoJInqecTBa Kdlefl.
MacnqHH[{n KpacKaMrrpa6oranr no Qauepe, Koropyo HaAo xopo-
IIIO npoTepeTb pa3orpeTbrMMacJroM,Ha cTeKJIe,a TaK)r(eH Ha TaKHX
HOBbTX MaTepr,rar'rax, KaK ApeBecr.roBoJloKHrrcTbre u cTpyxeqHble nJrr{Tbr,
opraJrfir. Ha nocneAunx c ycncxoril pa6orarcr r.rcaMbrMaynorpe6uuul-
tuu n oQoprvrJtcHrrH KpacKaMn- ryailrbto u remnepoil. Hepe4ro Ha creH-
A b I M o H T n p y r o rH a K J r a A r r u curp' l l Q l r , r H A C K o p a r n B r r b rner ' r a H K r .Br ,b r p e -
gaHHbreLr3 nctronr'racra u lopoJlor.ra,H3 BbtcoKoKaqecrncrtHofi
QaHepst
HJILrH3',r'Oto )KCOpra,lItTa-KapTOHa.
O n p a n 4 s r n a e r c e 6 q t z n c r o , r b 3 o B a H r { eA e p e B f l H H b r p x eeK, tHyrbrx
rpy6 tt noJIocoK >Kecru, pa3/'tr4r{Hbtx Apyrgx noApyr{Hblx MarepilaJIoB,
Ho, KoHer{Ho,nptl yc,'IoBI,lH co6,rrcAeHr{fiocHoBHbIXnpuHUHnoBAeKopa-
THBHofoperueHHrr,r{oropbtMuyN4 rua6noH, noBropeHue ug6zrrbrx,npr{-
cKyqxBrxr{x nprreMoB oQopunenrzn. To,lnro rTeHocrbro Boo6paxeHHrr
Mo)KHoo6tgcsarl Mexaur.rqecKoe HcIIoJIb3oBaHue I{ npueMoB, u <<MoA-
Hbtx> Marepuar'toB.A uex4y reM cI(oJIbKoMecrHblx Mareplla,'IoB,Tpa-
Ar{IIUOirHbtx npHeMOBXyAOX{eCTBeHHbtX npOMbIC,'IOB, Ky,'IbT}IBIIpyeMbIX
B HapoAe,osopltrarenu rre Hcno.[b3yror.
f l o e r o u y n a u r p a 3 f o B o p o M a r e p r { a r ' r a x x o q e r c r g a K o H r { H TH be
AJIHHIItIM I I e p e q H e Me u e H e H a 3 B a H I l b I a
X K p H J I a T H b I L
X ',I a C T M a C C O BbIX
I.l TOJIbKOr{TO BbInyuIeHHblXrrpoMblIxJIeHHOCTbIO HOBLIHOK - I{eer}Ioll
u iuyapoeoft Qoltrn, a coBeToMrroBH[MaTer'rbHeeoTHocrHTbcfl K eUIe
,HeI'lcnoJIb3OBaHHbIM pe3epBaMBbIpa3xTeJIbHOCTI{, CKpbITI,IM B MecrHblx
H TpaAlrrlfioHHbrxMaTepr4aJrax.
flocerlae KpynHbre o6qerocy4apcrBeHubre r.r MexAyHapoAHb]eBbr-
craBKu, caMoAerrreJrruurixyAoxgnK Mo)Ker 6url oruenoMJleHs$Qex-
TAMI,ICBCTOTCXHI,IKH, TCJIC.H KHI{OKAAPOB, UBCTHbIX IT CTCPEOCKONI'qC.
CKIIXAHanO3I,iTI{BOB, IIOJIH3KpaHa I4 TOJIbKO-TO,'IFTKO [OffBLISUeftCg rOnO-
rpaSnn c ee MeroAauu npeo6pa3oBaHr.tscBeroBbrx BoJrH Ha ocHoBe
HoBef{milxAocru)Kerrflfi conpenrenuoftQnsuxn. Ho sayMqrarstfi aHanlrs
yBHAeHHoroAoJr)Kerry6eAurs B oArroM,rrro ro,tbKo BbrcoKoeMacTepcrBo
H 6eeyxoplrsrrerrrrl,rri nxyc cnoccl6rrlrnpeo6pa3oBarb nciu arot uoultrnu't
a p c e H a J lo { r o p n n l n e n b c K n xc p c l l c ' n r c o n p o M ( } r t l l o c ' fBu xy.(o)KccrBctrIIoe
q e , ' r o e .I { y , a B K y c r { M a c r e p c r B o x y A o ) K l r u K i r - l l c t { o p a r o p a Aacr cMy
B O 3 M O X ( } I O CUTC b K p O M i r b r MC1p4e A C ' r ' B a M ArO{ C I ' l l r a T bi l e M c l l e e C O B p c -
MeHHbrxrr BbrcoKoxyAo)KecrBeHHblx peuerruii, palrutLla 'foJtbKou Mac-
r u r a 6 e p a 6 o r u . f l o e r o t r r y e m 6 o p r e x H I { K ,M a r e p u a f l o Bt r r p H c M o n I I a A o
c o p a 3 M e p f l T bc H a 3 H a q e H n e M u uacrura6ou oQoputlrc.ntcxttx pa(lor
B Kax{AoM orAedylbHoM cJlyqae, co cBoHMu Bo3N,Iox{HocrflMli H cnocoC,r-
HOCTA\'I I4,
!,eNoparaeuo-o$opltare,'IbcKoe ncI(yccrBo cBx3aHo c 6onuuraltlt
BarparaMr.l ua npuo6pereurre KpacoK, pag,'It,tqHr,tx MarepHaJIoBLI Ha
clo,,rRpHbre,no4co6ur,te, cJlecapHbleI,t Aa)Ke orAe,'toqHble,Ma,{t{pHble
pa6oru. Ecnn gaxasrruKr.rpacnoJlaralor cpeAcrBaMli uJru ecilr. oQopnt-
Bbl cl,IcTCMaTI{qecKI4
JIeHI4elvl 3aHl{MaeTecbcaMI'I,TO paquoHa,'IbHoO63a'
Recrl{cb raKuML{ npu6opauN, I(aK aeporpa{ilt, KpacKopacnbIJIHred'IH
n KpacKonyr'r brbr, r(oropsre o6nerq a Ior rpyA xyAox(HIrKa, oAHoBpeMeHHo
noMof af eMy l]oBblcljrb KaIlecTBo. KpacoqHoto IIoKpblTItflCTeHLOB Il Ae'
xoparr.rBHblxpucyHKoB, u3o6pa)KeH[il sKCnOHaroB.AsporpaQbI, Aalo'
x{Ee Bo3Mo)KHocrbpaBnoMepHofloKpblBarb 6o,lnrune fl,rlocKocrl{Kpac'
KaMI4B OAHHl4JlllHeCKOJIbKO TOHOB, a TaKXe <<pI4COBarb>>CBeToTeHeBbIM
cnoco6ou uJtrr c noMoulblo rpaQapera, pa6orarcr Ha Aoporocrotllr{Hx
H rpOMo3AKnxKoMIIpecgop ax. llOnurx1r UC11O,'1b3OBaTb aBTOM06Hnlttltft
Apyfoft sacoc nepeMeuHoroAeftcrBl.IflHe AarcT raKofo
l.rJruKaKori-JII'I6o
, 4eilcreyrculHx Ha c]Ka-
pe3ydlbrara. lloaronay or Kp acKopac[bl/'IHTedrIeft
TOM BO3AyXe,BbtIOAHOOTJIIIqaeTCs g,leKTpI{qeCKIllinI1CTOJIeT-paCnbl,'lU
re.lr <<OpeoJI>> HanpnxeHlieM s 220 sonrr, IzMeloqnft nHyrpu Kopnyca
orreKrpoBlr6parop,Koropblft Il npLIBoAI'IrB AeficrBl4eMIIHuarIopHbIilIla'
coc, 3acacblBalolul-IfiH C Cll,'tOIiBbl6pacblBaloul4iirlepe3 con,/toKpacKy.
<<(DaxenpacnbIJIa>)KpaCKI.II.IACOrrJIaMOx<HO pefyJlHpOBaTbCIIet1na,'Ib'
HbIM BI{HTOM.

Puc.26.

Carrrt,rfi IeIxeBbtfi g,'IeKTpoKpacKopacnbIJII'ITeJIb BblnycKaer 3aBoA


<fu4pouernpu6op> (r. CaQouoBo CMoJleHcrofio6n.) IIo rrny SBK6
(roxe Ha 220 nonlr) . Ho <pnconarb>>HM He,'Ib3fl,rlplI6op roAeH roJlb'
KO AJrf nOKpblrEq rnocKocrefi paelnuHofi nJIoIqaAH poBHbIMKpacoq'
rrbrMcJroeM.Tetu, xto 3HaeT,KaK Tpy.sHoSaKpacHTbocHoBaHlleIloA Ae'
KoparHBHbIepa6orbl sletluauu, xopouo nocJly)Kar fi KpacKonyrbrbl.
flpOAanrCn OHHB MafagnHax xO3TOBapOB Har'lox{eu'
IIJIK BbICbLIarcTCfl
HbrM rrJraTelr(oMII nO gaKasaM IleHTpaJIbHofi6asofi Corogn6gltrrTopna.
lopas4o rpyAuee npuo6pecrn pe3aKa A,tfl oprcreKJla II neHonJlacra'
rrosToMy osopurarensM, I{cIIoJlb3yl,ouu{M3TI{ MaTepna/'lbl B cooefi pa-
6ore, npuAercg cannuu llgtoroB'itflTbraKue Hec,'Ioll(Hble, xa3arocl 6nt,
HO He OCBOeHHbIe npoMbllxJlellHocrbloI'rHcrpyMeHTbI H3 ocTpo sarol{eH-
Hbrx HanfiJrbH?IKoB (puc. 26, a) unu H3 ca[oxHblx Horxeli u orpa6orau'
Hbrx cJrecapHblxnI{JIoK(puc. 26,6). Lns pe3KI'topfcreKJla H aKptl,Tara
HaAOTaKX(eLrMeTbMeTpOBylO TO,'ICTyIOXe"'Ie3HylO nlruetlxy c oAHHM
Mp a e M( p u c . 2 6 , e ) .
c K o r x e H H b IK
fipyrue I4HcrpyMeHTbI, a raKxe npl'tcMblpa6orbl, MarepuarTblH crlo-
co6H fix I{cno,[b3oBar]*4E, l.t3o6peratlorcauu oQopul'ITe,'Irno Mepe Ha-
xonr'teHl,tfl onura n npl.rffioco6leHttgK Mecl'llLlMycJloBnfM.

86
TPABTOPA

B noc,neAulteroAbl pacurrpu"icn Kpyr ,rrc6ltreleft fpaBIopbI,>xeJlalo'


IIIfix ycBoI{TbocHoBbIrexHHKLlpa3llblx ee MaTepl4a,qoB u BlIAoB.
3austtus, rpanrcpOir uMenT rt ocoClettttocTllMeTOAI{qeCKOrO IlvllaHa'
TAK KaK B sTOM B i l A e H 3 O r ) p a 3 l l ' , r c , r l b l lIoI c
r t
o ( y c c r B ac B o l i c r B a p a3l{blx
CI'ICTeM peIlJerll{trIIr'IOCI(OCl'll, o I(OTOpl,lxyX{e IIIJIa peqb' Bblpa}KeHbI
c r l p u c y u { e f t[ p a 0 l r K e t r e r K o c ' l l' 0
t Il onpeAC,lellllocTblo.
A s e A t H a n e p B b r f iB 3 f / t f l Ac p e A c r B ar p a $ H K u I { a x y l c f l K p a f i H ec K y '
IIbrMrJ:qcplloe, 6enoe H cepoe; uTpHx, ToqKa, JII'llInq 1t'l11Cfl,rlouHoe
u e p H o e( 6 e " r r o e n ) r r H o . H o u u e H s o u e p H o - 6 e , r o eI { 3 o O p a x ( e H u e B, K o r o '
poe MacTepa fpaBI,opbIBK,'IaAblBaI,oT 6o,Tbulylocl{Jly Bblpas}lTe,'lbnocTl{'
noxasusaet, qro LlcKyccrBo- He KorII'IflHarypbl, He KoIII4noKpyxarc'
ulero Hac Mupa. 3ro niopoir MI'lp-AyxoBHbljt, oro6pa)Kal'ounir Hame
qyBcrBoBaHueAeftcrellre"'IbHocrHH BHyTpeHHee<<fl>> xyAoxHuKa. Mac'
Tep MoAer'rupyeT, Ho He Ay6,'Iirpyer MIlp, oKpyx(alounfi efo, u 6epercff
ga U3O6palKeHHe He C UeJIbto<<BOCnpOH3BeAeHHfl>> pear'lbHocTllI{ TOJIbKO,
Ho B cr.{JlyHeO6xoAl{MOCT1I, HenpeoAo,'IuMofinoTpe6Hocrl{ BbIpa3I{Tb
Cnoii sal.Iltce.[, rep€rtoa'tltlrBlulle AyIUy rlyRcrBa, Bod'IHytoqueyM Mblc,l[.
flnn uHrepecy rcqlrxcrr rex]r rlKori ]rso6pa)KeHr.rfl f p aBropa,'Ircl6onblr-
Ha eUIe I{ TeM, qTO ttCHO noKa3blBaeT, KaKI,lM tl3bIKOM <<MHpBHegllllil>
p a l K a e T c nB < B e i l { Hx y A o } K e c T B e H H O I T > .
B b r-PasuooSpa3lible
xyAoxecrBeHHble pe[IeHLIff rpaBlopbI o6beA[Htiror
OcTpOe BHI{MaHIIe xyAO)KHIIKOB K npO6,'IeMe nOCTpOeHvfl,rI paCKpbITI'{fl
u3o-6p a3ure,'IbHoft n,locKocrll. B r<axAoft M acrepcKoft f p aBlope, oco6eH'
HO B COBpeMeHHOft,OT,lnqaloilIeficR, rax u3Becrgo, oco6ofi - <<orKpbITO'
CTblo)>rpaQu,{eCKI4x cpeAcTB, BHAHO,IITO LI3O6pa)I(eHI'Ier,'Iy6OKOIO npo-
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nOAq II HeHO n np VHa !,JIex( I'lT II/'lOCKOCTH,'lHCTa.
I4sltnau CJIOBaMU,I{3o6paxellUe npocTpaIiCTBa He IlMeeT Htzqero
O6111er6C H,'L'Ilo36pttofi nepcAatteil eto B IIaHOpaMax t4Jlr1ilaTypar'IIlCTI'I'
qecKOiI xfiBonuct{. OAltoBpetn{cttttoBblcol(oXyAo)KecrBcllllatl fpaBlopa
1 1 O K a 3 b I B a eITI p a 3 t t t { t t y M e ) K / l y < 1 I T _ O C l ( l l Ml l>3 0 a ) p a } K C l l l l ( ' MH < < n , l O c K O -
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H e M e H e e I I o K a 3 b l B a e l ' , < ( t l ' l ' o6 , ' t t t > t i c ,r l ' l ' o , r l i l J l b l t l c > .I ' o 3 0 1 l n 3 ' l ' 0 , M 6 l l l c
C J I y q a fH i o y n o M u H a , ' r u r e p M l l i l ( x y 4 o ) r i c c ' i l l ( 'i l t t o o l ) 0 l l l c l l l l c > , . 1 1 o , 4 ' l cl p( H -
p a , ' i f i , q T o p e q b r . r A e To M d C T C p C r ( O iBr r , t C O r i O X ) ' / t 0 ) Kr (' l' lc( ' , l l l l o i if p a l t l o p e .
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He c,'IeAyer Ba6,'IyXAaTbcq, qTo CaMa Il0 c('f)e
QBoficrBaMarepHa,la n o M o f y r H a q I { H a } o l l l e M y c ' l o r l ( , o c l ' b l op e l l l l t l ' b n p o '
tinertry u3o6pax{egfifl. Ha n,locKocrl4 I'I Bbl6parb cBoii llo1x(ul K llcfi.
OeflaAeHue MarepHaJIoM, TBopqecKoe ycBocllltc ltplleMoB' a tle Ko-
'fAli )KC llCO6,\0.qtlMb,I
11I.tpOBaHHe IAg-TO IIOAXBaqeHI]bIX<<npHeMqlll{OB>,
B TeXHriKe rpaBrcpbI, KaK It B /II,06OM BHAe H3o6pa3ll'lcilbllOl'O llcKyC'
crBa, 14Tpe6ylor He MeHbIlI4X ycI{JII{tl u 6olbuoro Aapol}altnfl. V rax
111e, KaK K,)KI{BO1UCU HaAO IIMeTb C11OCO6HOCTLt,'rat< ]l B rpaq)lll(e IIe-
o6xoA[MbI oco6afl cKJIoHHocrb, wrTylltptfr, I{ <<qyBc'l'Bo Ma1'epHadTa>>'
flplrryn,reHxe gTofo'qyBCTBa, nonblTKll co3AaTb I'{rrlrllo3ll1rll{aTypbI lt'lfi
MexaHIiqecKI{ nepeHecTH rty>Kue np?IeMbI I{eMnHyeMo nPllBoAt{r K pa3-
87
rpaBlopbl, JIItUaIor ee opraHnrlecKofi UeJIbHOCTH
pyueHulo nJIOCKOCTI'I
r.r llcKpeHHOCTH.
rpaBlopbl II npl4eMax
o rexHlzKe pa6otu B sroM
Koporxo PaccKa)KeM
ucKyccrBa'
nu4e uso6pa3llreJlbnofo

Cnoco6 (npflMoro nepeBoAa>


pa3HbIX
flepexo4 or cranKoBoro rona"Ibuoro pucyHll l-:qi"-:le^<B cno-
B pegy'rbrare pa6oru
TexHI{Kaxo6lerqaercfi Il rIoAroraBJIIlBaercg
Ha38aHI{e <<np
n uoii nepeBol']j---
co6ou, noryrrrlBilrfl M ycJroBHoe
Bltno,rHlrep"ana6pocKoBHgc-HonpeAcTaB],IBKoM[o3I4qI{apI,Icy
co3AaHHOrO BOsAytuHbll\{u
r<a,xoropurfi ruHcnurcs's ru4e uso6pa)KeHns, pHCyHKa
MO)KHO Ue npu6eraTb K TyIueBKe
nflTHaMrrTOHa r{ JrrrHlrflMH, rnnoln
;; ;;il;r;;. C".*no IIoKpbIBaIor oqeHbroHKrIMc!'IoeM
nruuna uepHofi) ' Ha er9-creKrlo KrIaAyr rll{cr 1f-1llll
qI{croI'I
;;;;il 1an"
'Ropo,uo 6yy1yj roAt'Ircn
ai;;;;. cna6onpo*"IeeHHyn \Ho
"*""o'
pHcoBaJIbHaa (me,ronaHian, oqcer*afl' 'r T' A')' npeABapl'{-
u o6srqnaq
I'I BbICyueHHaflB cTOnKe
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Ha rrr.rcr HaKrraAbrBaercspucyHoK ueo6paxenu-
fi;;;; qepe3
eM BBepx, npl{KpblBaercr Bce xanrxofi' Ilusnw pflcyHKa' BilAI.{MbIe
"".r"".'l"nee
npoBoAfl IO HItM OCTpIteM KapaHAa-
np03paqllylo KarbKy, orrllcKnBa-lor,
KItcrI{ H T.'u" Ho Aenaff gro
ua, ocrpo orro".,,,,ofi ttarouxofi, KoHIIoM
l l c M c X l l l I I I r l c c I ( I l ' I I e n p o c T o K o n n p y ' l K o I I T y p b lg, e KaKAI'IBbInIIJ'o IIIBaH
( : l l o ( ' n os a N a u c r a ' - E u l c suAg rotoeblfi r'
t l n l ' l l l l l l R a l l t t t la' c Y ' t c'';l;;ii;i;;'i
lrou 'rllt'
ce6c, qro noryqnrcfl Ha neu'
'ncx, t'1ritQr,*n,,rt*",,
H a I I ( I { M ,M a 3 o K
r r e f i l r r , r ipi t . t c y l O K' l r / l o l i o , r r r ' t c r r r a l ' t r a M HT O H a ,A e J t a f l orrl{cK
ItaJIbucM TaM, tAe xoqer noflyqarb
*oiru,,*oil ti,,ru lrlrut,,o
K pacl(ll.
"t"'ii.,iipuO,ii.rc nepeBoA>>
cAcnarr raKyro pa6ory. 3aKoH'Ius <<npamoft
KaKOft OTTIICK IIOnyqU'C' Ha JIIICT.' JIeX{aB[IeM
plrcyrrriii, noCUorpure, qro Bac He yAoBae-
i,, i,*puiuartltoti nonepxHocrl'lcreKJIa' ,Il'onycxaeu'
npo6nuft oTTI4CK, HO c KaN{AbIMpa3OM
TROp'T trH rrepBbrr{,uir AeCnruft pa-3BHBarbcfi'
Syaer
yMclrue flpeAcraBl',lrbro' qro xorIITe IIOJIyq[Tb' ((HaxI]MoB>>'
n B HCnoJIHeHilIl OqepKoB ?I
a c IIuM IIpI'IAeT<<cHopoBKa>>
cof,'IacHO3 aMbICJIyKOMIIO3llllnI{'

MoHorunus
nOJIyqeH
HaseaHlregrono c[Oco6aj-yxasunaer Ha ro' uro--6yAeT
oco6aq npe'
oAHHorrl{cx (tuouoc no-rpeqecxuoAun)' Ho
To,rrbKo
JIecTberoSacTaBJIfleTxyAo>KHI.IKoBI.IATI{I,IHaTaKoexecTKoeycJIoBI{e
TCXHI]KI,I.
Oco6ennocrbMoHorl'lI]IIll-MqrKocrbilepexoAoBToHoB'oTTeHKoB
Mox(er 6uru -yn'rax(Hega
uBera n o6qeil u"a"ouo;t-taMMbI' Byn'rara Tor4a noly'
COCTOflttltu.
u ucno,,tb3oBaHaArrr oTTr4cKaB [oABflHyBIIIeM uo
qllrcs ngo6palKenl'Ie,Ha[oMl4Ha]oqee aKBapell' Orrucx Ha
-cyxofi'
x{I'IBonI{cb'
;;;;;
-- npotin"""noft 6yrilare 6o'nilue floxo)K Ha MacJIflHyIo
Sray*otBarb Mo)KHoKaK o,[,HollBerHoe' TaK I'I MHofolrBerHoepeue'

88
Ha ToHaJIUHOU
HAe,HOA,ltflHaqa,rlaocTaHoBr'IMcrr (Uepnoftunu Kopl4q'
Henofixpacxoft).
flpuueHserig s erofi rex'uKe xax o4cerHo-nrrorpaQcKaflKpac*a,
n ry6ax'
puruai.nnrq cna6oti o,ru6ofi, ra^ Ii o6lt'I'as MacJIflHafl
kpr.ni HaHocl{rcrua 4ocxy, rpeABapureltlbnonporeprylo onuQofi'
KoTopa'BbIcbIXaeTMeA,'IeHHo'nosToMynHaHoc}lTbKpacKyHaAocK
qeM 6ucrpee Bb]II6JI'
uoxiro 6es oco6ofi cfie[rKrr. Ho sce xe noMHHre,
Hsercfl pa6ora, reM cBex{eeflo,'IyqnTcflorrucK.
Map,tleetrru raMnoHoM I'lJIIt na,rbueM HaHocqT B nepBylo oqepeAb
TOHKfieC,rO11 fipggpaqHblxKpaCOK,a SaTeMHa TeMHbIeMeCTa6Onee ry'
crbre KpacKLI,3aMeLuaHHbIe Ha fycTofi OJII4S^e..[OCry C KpacKofi noMe-
rrlaror B 3alKLtMyroJIKoB (cu' lanee puc. 35) u-npl'IKpbrBaryfl"t9y
6vuars, ua xoropoli co6nparcrcn [o,'Iyq]'trb llso6paxeuue' AeJIatl or'
qro
,h" ^ xocroqrofr'(pyxonrrioft sy6noft tqerKLI,rpe6eruxotu), yqrltre,
MecTa.c caMbrMr,rTeMHbrMrITOHaMT.I OTTI{CKHBaIOT npH otteHb cIaooM
ua 6YuarY.
Ha)KuMe
Srnu cnoco6ouno mePeoBJIaAellHfi IIM MO)|(IIOno,'IyqaTb tt MIlolo-
IIBCTHbIC OTTI'CKI{, BbINOJII.I'Ifl r a A o c K e H s o 6 p a N c n t { e
pa3tlblM}l lipacxa'
Mr,rB saAyMautpft raMMe.
TAK KAK
Vqrnre, qro cMe[IHBarb xpacKu llaAo ToJlbKo lla flaJlilTpc,
SaMec Ha nel{arHofi Aocre npI'IBOAIITK rpf3H B OTT}icKe'

cnofi na JlaKe>
Cnoco6<<sePHncrufi

cnoeo6pasnuftes$exrHuft nepexoAor plrcyHKaKHcrblo, or fpl'l-


eafinuK rpaBropenpeA.rroxu.rrxyAoxHLIKA. KopeHqOn. llpurOrOBJltI'oT
xopotxo npoMeuaHHyrocMecb qepHoroHI4TpO/'IaKa(u,ru 6ecueeTHoro,
oxpaurenHoroB rlepnblfi
ltser rlpnMecblorpacxu) . ygf n9
:pocesuHblM
peuuuu[ecKoMuJInHa>KI.aKoMIlHaHocflTHaAocKy(HaII,'IaCTIIH
,qrcpa.nr,AepeBqHHyIoAocKy,KapToHI'IJIIiKa"'IbKy'HaKJIeeHHyIOHaKa
MeHeeIyCrblM
roH) r<ucrlro B TeMHbrxMecrax ueo6paxeHus 6onee VJIH -
ble p asuoo6p asHble or rycro-
c,'roi:*r.f p a4aqrzu roH a noJlyqalorcfl ca M
qepHo|o ao npoupuuno.o. Mo'y' 6lttl szAust c,lIeAbIKI,ICTIj'xoropoft,
JIaKa
fAe HaAo, HaHocrrTMa3Kr{,JrL|ilHrL,lIlTpI{xH. 3epul.craa cMecb
noMoraoqee gCHO npeACTaBETb peSyJIbTaT
U neCr<aAaer UeO6pa)KeHLIe,
B OTrr{cKe.BltCOXrueenso6paXeuae MOX(HO CxO6JtI'ltl,KaK AJIq I{CnpaB-
JreHr4s pucyHKa (noc-neqero onflrb IIoKpbITbraKoM) , TaK u AiIfl [oryqe'
Hr{fl AonoJIHLITe,'IbHoro e$Qexra lurpHxoBKlI'
Ha oronqaTed'rbHo Bbr[oJIHeHHyrO U Bblcoxuylo AocKy BaJIHKOMHa-
KaTL,rBaroT KpacKy (xar oro Ae,rraTb, npoqTlzTeunxe)' a 3aTeMloJlyqa-
r,or orrl{cK yxe rlsnectublM BaM'cnoco6ou. Taruu xe o6pa3oM Mox{llo
e
noryr{urb AanlgeftueM Il uBerHoft omucr.

JInnorPanrcPa
s 1106oll
Marepua,r Anq srofi rexHnKI{ (;rnHoneyrra)MoxHo Aocrarb
H,itI{ [OAJIeX(aquX CHOCykrlt'u KArtLt'
xOSsftCrsbHHOMMara3flHe AOMaX,
raJIbHoMy peMoHry.
8l)
xenarenlrro nu6upar:b JrHJroJreyM rs.nquuofi r b, n xpariHenncry-
qae Ao 2,5 lr.lr,6es pucynra. JIaHoneyu (crapr,rftr.r
rpeABapH-
Ter'rbHo
unzQynr ruopcrcor:r "o"otrt;
neusofi {xycox pacnn/I}rr[, [ono,rlaM r{ Te-
perb oAI{y no/'IoBI'{I{Ky
o Apytyto, noKa oH'14He c'TaHyr f,'rarKHM}r

Pnc.27.

(puc. 27r.a). 9ro o6ecneqr.rraer xoporrry$ uJrasonr<y(puc. 27, 6) nuuo-


JIcyMa.floronr efo rraKJrer4earor Ha a6cr<yu,,rir4aneipy, ,{ro6d' oH He
xopo(ru,rcn(puc. 28). Ecnu npe4no.naraeicsrpanropa"6oneeb0 cru no
c'l'opotrLl,'r'o
A.rilrrrrroii MareprraJr tra Aocl{yrre rra6rrnaror,
a uro6u yAo6-
rtcc 6t,t"'topc3arb tro ttttrpottol:i
nnocxocritJrHcra,ero Aax{e cBeut{BaIoT
(tac'l
ilruto co c'to/1i1,

JII{HOFP;BI{)PI

pnc. 28.

ocnosHrrrr{ rlHcrpyMeHTo* AJI'^- rpaBr4poBarr'r rlo JIr.rHoJIeyMy


fltsJrflercflyrJroBaf craMecKa (pue, 29), KOrOpafl,{odl)KHa6ura c4e;laHa
us xopoureri.craJrH n o6qsareRbHo aMerb BHyrpr.l KoHycHofo yinyone.
lraa ocrpuli yron (puc. 29, e), anarre peserr He Aacr rouKyro, KaK BoJroc,
crpylKKy. .{,"ra nnenrlrx KdIII4[IeHy]KHa CTaMeCKaAJIITHOTOB 0 cu unaecre
c py,lxoft A,'rff ynopa.
o6rrxHoee'uufi neporunubrft Hox, saroge'Hufi Ha yrJroBoeocrp,e
(puc. 30,6) roxe nocdryl*nr .E{E BbreMKu6e.nnx ,ec"" u n"uronayrc
HJrrrAJrfl no"'ryqeHnfl ToHKr-rx[ITpIrxoB s touosor? fpaBnpe.
g0
,A f^
..#tttf_

TOHISTITEJII{

,u@a f f i ffi.

,v
IINilD|tADA(' HBNPABIINbHO

PEoLlbl
Puc. 29.

Zs gonrnqltLlx clruu Mo>Ktto cAcrarb pc3tll,t pa3,'n{rltoro npo$tt,rn


Il roHrrlruxe.tn (cu. pue. 29). flonyxpyrnuc craMccKu-1'orulrruxcJru
[peAHa3HaqeHbr AJrn ElreMKH 6elux Mecr, a pe3UaM]r-uruxedtBr\,rl
AeJ'IarorJrHHtl,upasnoft ToJIrquHbI. Tpy,unocru H3foroB.rreHufl mrlt-
xeneri I,I3 3oHrh.rgblx cnuq B ocHoBHoM cBr3aHa c lrpoqeccoM
sarailKr. Tyr nerxo ilepeKaJrnrb rrJlrr He4ot<anum. floyuurecb sar(aJnr-
BaTb pesubl y onbrTHoroKy3He[a I4JIH
cJrecapfl,a npl,rlaTb HM ocTpoyroJrbHyro
SoprrrycMo)r{erecaua or6nnxoir cnsqn,
ryro 3aKpen,resuoft Ha Hanr,rJrbHuxe (cn.
puc.31).'
Eule seo6xoAr{MoHenpemeHHoHa-
yrrr,rrbcfl3araqr4rBaTb
pffirlbr. .ILrs eroro
Ba)KI{o npI'IBLIKHyTbAepx{arb JlOKOrbIIO-
Bbrue u r{enoABH)KHo,a BoaIlTb ToJIbKo
Kacrbro x ce6e u o6parHo, rlJtorno npfi-
)KaB pe3eu K i{aMHo. IIpn 3ToM Har.o
creArlTb, qro6u efo noBepxrtocrb craltu-
B a J r a c bp o B H o ( c ' n . p u c . 3 0 , a ) . T o q a r I l a
KaMHfix,Ha3brBaeMblx Saurur n g,rnurefin
(rax u cnpaurueaitre i.rx e nnaraaunax),
CMOI{CI{HbIX CMCCbIO MAruI{HHOTO.MACJIA I{
cr{HnHAapa r{Jrr.rKepocI{Ha.
Haxoueu, Hyxr{a eul.e Kox(aFras aJrI{
xo,luroBaff noAy[rKa, sa1uras necKoM.
Ee nerxo cAe,rrarb,crxr.rnABa Kpyra Ka)K-
Ai,rrl AnanaerpoMB lB cnr. Cruarufi rpyr-
..ilt'tti MeI,IlOKBbIBOpaEIHBarcr,ea6nnarct
A O O r K a 3 an e c K o M ,a o T B e p c T H 3
ea u t f i B a - Prrc.30.
0t
ror._foroByro[oAyrxKy pa3paBHr.rBaror
AocKoil.oua uyxua AJrfi roro,
qro6tr o6ecneqnrnpe3Kyrrl{crbrx noJryKpyr/rbrx
H n/raBHoLr3ofHyrbrx
nnurrrl(puc.32,a).

Pqc. 82.

3anouHnre, KaK gro Ae"'Iaercfl.Ha noAyurNy KJraAyr AocKy c Ha6w-


rbrM rTuHoJreyMoM r.rK HeMy rlp'n)Kr.rMar,or npanofi pyxoli ocrp.r4epe3ua.
llpn broM pyKa c peeqoM Ao,'rxHa ocraBarbcrr HerroABt4x{Hot, io,rixo
ycLrJrwBafl,unu ocna1nfifl Hax([rMHa pe3eII, OTr{eroIIuHufl MeHfler cBoro
To,'IuI[Hy, a usrw6 ee Aocruraercrr 6naro4apt rroBoporaM AocKu Ha
rroAyrxKeneeori pyxofi. Pyvra pesrla yrupaercrr B JraAoHbMexAy yKa-
3are"rbHbrMu 60n]'.mur,n narlbqaMr.r.flptlrue rxrpilxH HaHocrrr oi [e6n
BnepeA, c,'refKa B!'IeBo.t{ro6u Kogeu nHcrpyMenTa He cpbrBaJrcff,oH
orrnpaercrr Ha rad'reu.leeorl pyr<u (cu. puc. J2,6), xoropufi raxxe no-
Mor_aeT Br,IAep)I{aTb Hy)KHOeHa IIp a B,'IeHLIemTpII Xa.
KorAa Ae'ralor rpaBlopy 6onlrrroro pasMepa, rAe roHKocrb rrrrpr{-
xoBKH }re raK Bax(Ha rr perxeHue 6onee AeKoparrrBHo,6epyr cTaMecKy
c Anrftrnoft pyuxoft 14Aepx(aT ee raK, qro6u Mo)KHo 6lIno sanocnrt
92
AJIHHHbIe u IIIHpoKne j[HHvIn, a npeoAor'IeBaTb conporllBJleHlte Ma"epua-
JIA C MEHbIIII{M VCHJII..IEM.
Bcerr,ry gTOMy MOX{HO Hayqr.rrbcfl, TpeHr.rpyscb E npoBoAq npflMbre
It noJlyKpyrilbre ilrrljun, r]rrptrXH pasHori ToHaJrbHocrr, pa3Hofo xapaK-
repa (puc.33). CnAerbHaAorpflMo, a pyKtrAepxarb Ha Becy.

Puc.33.

fle.Iaranze c I'oroBbrx r{Jrnue rpe6yer 6onruoro HaBbrKa,a raKxe


ocHoBareJIbHOfO r43yqeHHflcsoficrB KpacoK, nplreMoB noJlyqeHr.iflxopo-
ulero HaKaTar(pacKHHa KJIrrUe14orrltcKoB c AOCKtl.B nOc.leAgeM,ecJrft
BbI AEJIAJ'IflOTTIICKI,IYKA3AHHbIMI4 BbIUJE ABYNIfl CN.OCO6AUN,
Y)KE CCTb
IIpaKTI'lKa' a Bor pacKarKy KpacK'I{ AJIfi JII'tHofpaBIopbt HaAo I,IByqLITb.
AeJrarorpaoKzrKy oHaqa"rano creKJry(puc. 34, a) vanuxornr(xynu-
-rrnr.r
re B MafasuHe.Qoro.npr.rHaAJrexHocreficaenarlie caMr.rfi3 KycKa
pesr,Honori
rpy,6xz,H'arnpymrtHa Kpyf,ryo naJrKy-cKaJrxy(puc. 54, e),

Prrc.84.

Ha Korqpbllr Kpacrry K,raAyr Ho)KoMpaBHoMepHo,ToHKrrMcnoenl.


!,e_
JIalor 3To Ar'Is paBHoMepHocrl4KpacoqHoto cJlor LI Adrff flpoBepKH,rre
norla,rru JIIr B KpacKy <<neHKa>>
or Sacoxueil nnesxpt u. KaKafl-JIL\6OUe-
)I{eJIareJIbHar npHMecb.3arem 6epyr foroBoe Kdrrr{ue[r ret{ x(e Ba,r?rKoM
HaKarbrBaror KpacKy Ha JrprHoJreyM, paBHoMepHo{,Br{ra_fiBAilLTKoT ce6fl
fi_K ce6e, a Aocxy npHAep>K.HBan y,tfia (cil. puc,34,6).
sa ABa Hr.rll<Hinx
Hi{ e Koera cfiyqae npE grom HeJrbgg<<Bo3ltrb)> BaJIHK no rratpaBltpo-
BaHHoMyJrnHo/reyMy,r{Halre npacKa nona,qer r 6opos4r<r,r turpr.rxoB,
< < 3 a B a d l H rTp)a>B I O p y .

Prac.35.

V6eAreuncb, qro Kpacxa HaKarana paBHo*{epHo14roHKr.rM, Hex(rrp.


rrr,rMcJloeM,6epyr 6ymary fi HaKJraAbrBarorua KJfirure (puc. Ji), nerno
nprf,rra)KrrBarcr pyxoft. 3arenn nporaparor 6yruary eocKola t.r etr1e pa3
xocroqxori qepe3 roHK]1,fi nucr KaproHa, r<oroprifi Harepr rpaQuiona
u 6yAer ocraB,rlflTbua 6ynnare ortuiN Bo Bcex Bbrnvx/rbrx nrecrax. grnnr
MOlKrror{oHTpo,Tr4posart ce6q I{ cfieAldrb,Bcg JIH nonepxHocrb fpaBro-
pbr nporepra nocroqxoft. Koraa npGreprbr Bce BbrrryK"rrbrerrlrpr{xn
il KpyrrrrbrenJrorrlaAlrnflTerr, paBrroueprro cHr.IMaloT6yuary c yfJla,
c,{cnrra uorfiflrRas cc r ce6e (puc. 36). Ec.nu orrncr rrJrn orAe,rrbHbre

Puc. 36-

C f O M E C T A H C A O C T A T O I { H Oq E P H b I , T O H A K J I H I I I E T ' J I I { H A X A X O I I - T O
YqACTOK
TIOAKATbIBAIOT BAJII{KOM EII{C KPACKY. ECNrE KPACKH H3J'I}IIUEK I{ NO,'IY'
r{arorcrr}Kr.rpgbre
yroJrrqeuHbre
rurpaxa, ?o Ho>xoM(runaxrenem) Haao
cl{flTb xpa.gKy co cTeKJIa' cHJIbHo Ha Hero Hax{HMafl u Dpn>KwMafi K cTeK-
ny npanofipyNofi.
Eonee no4po6utrecEeAeurtso rexnaKe fpaBropbrHafiAereb cne.
III4a,'lbFIblxpyKo_B-oAcTBaX' Ho cKagaHHoro BII0JIH0AocTaTorrHo AJtfi.Ha-
qa"Ia 3aFrqrnft,Mnoroe y3Haere I43 codCTBeHHOrO
onbrra, TaK KaK
xa x<Auir Haq HHaFoIItrII1 audn no-cBoeMy npHHopaBrr4Baercfl K rex HrrJKe
-rr
r{ Marepr{aJraM,HaxoAHTcBordnpaemu u cnoco6u pa6oru.

e4
OPfAHl43 FrLlAfrFAEOI{EFO,\dECTA

Hro6u Becrrr 3a*rrrfiq x(r,rBonacbro H rpa$axofi 6ca novex, c Hacr-


poeHueM' n o6ctauoeKe rBopqecxofi cocpe4oroqerrrrocru,ueo6xo4nuo
I4MerbecJruHe Macre_pcKyrc, ro o6opyaosaHHHft pa(rouufi yroJror(.
"rlyuure ncero asl6pafn lrrecro y'ieuepHoro uJrH ceBepo.BocroqHoro
oKHa' rofAa Ha nporflMer{ulr Bcefo A}rR ycJroBHr ocBexleH}rfl MoAe,'rn
14 xor'rcra
!e 6yAyr pesKo MeHflrbcfl. PosHoe paccesHHoe ocBerrleHrre
oueHr yAo6rro AJrfl pa6oru.
Ho ue y Bcex caMoAegreJlbHbrxxyAox{HHKoBH*eercfl BogMo}K'ocrb
3AHJ4M,ATbCfl Y CCBCPHOTO OXHA, AA I,THCJIbSg HCH3MCHHO CTABI,ITb HATYPY
To!'rbxo B yc,roBnflx paccesHgofo ocBerrlenlis. Ecnu npr_rAeTcflpa6orarl
y loxHofo n loro-3anaAHoro oKHa' To Ha BpeMfl, KofAa B KoMHary
rlaAaloT c,'IeJlflqne cod'IHeqHble JIyqH, MelllarcIltue ilucarb, Mo]KHo gaBe-
IIJHBaTboKHo llo/xcuHeHHblMr.t6enuun 3aItaBecKaMH, Xanrxori unu
oroABlrarb uo;l6epr H Harypy s r,rly6l KoMHarH.
tj TeX Cr'ryqafl.\, KOrAaSaAyMaeTeflficaTb HaTrpMopT B KOHTpaCTHOM
coIHer{HoMocBelqe}IHHrXoJIcTrlocTaBbTelra xopouo ocBeIIIeHHoeMec-
To, Ho rax, qto6uI r{a Hero }re [aAaJrfl rrpturrle ryr.ru cBcra. Henlsn
nucarb B lloa'llTbM€tlpKo ocBeuLfltrryroilarypy; rJ'Ia3aycTaHyr or no-
cTorrHHorope3Kofo nepexoAa oT cBeTar( no.nyTbMc.
llepnoe npaBHr'Io rudopa Mecra Alt- :arrrrrrfi: ocBeuleHHocrb
xor'tcra (iznn pncynxa) ne AoJIxHa pe3rio orrr4qarbcrr ()1.ocBeureHHocru
Harypbr. Bropoe npanmr'ro:cBer Ha xoJrcr {ana pucyrrox) Aonxeu na-
Aarr o6sgare,'IbHocJIeBa.PuexoeaHHo rrEcarb npoTHB cBera: nocrpa-
Aaer speiiue. Ecnn cne.rrrAer cffpaBa, ro pyKa pucytoqero or6pacunaer
T e r r b H a x o " ' I c r ,c o 3 n a B a r i r o m e x nn p a 6 o r e .
CreHu KoMHarbr>KeiIareJIbHo BbtKpacarb B cBer,ro-cepufi uner,
a noro/roK - n 6ennft. Padoeurl yfoJroK AoJrx{efl 6u'm AocraroqHo
ltpocropHbrM,uro6lr HMeJiacb Bo3Mox(Hocrb craBrrrb HarropMoprbl
rI pacno,IaraTbcfi oT HHX Ha paccTorrHHrl , pasqa,JnSsyu-rpe.u uau6olo-
tuuj4 uS.nepeHuntr Hargpbt, Ta ecrb rarc,.qro6bt trroJtcHo6autO oxearot-
B&Tb Bsetndo,t'LBCt{,\OCTAHOBK|S qerto.M.3ro Heo6xoArrMoa,irfl ue,'ro-
crHoro Bocrrpurrrnrr lrsodp axeu,ufl Harlop Mopra.
He rax4trii camogeerellnuft xyAoxuirx Mox{er nu6paru croJrb

e5
o6uttpHoe noMelr{eHl{eA.IIflgaHffTllft, ,rro6n B HeM Moxflo 6Hflo crasuru
n x(nByro MoAeJrb(pnconarr Surypy qeJIoBeKaneo6xoAauo c raKoto
c KaKoro ee MolKHooKI.IHyrbBsrJInAoMn uelovt). llooro'
paccroflHr,rrr,
My, BcefAa I.IMeflnpu ce6e anr6ou, 6o,'Itue saHu[{ai{recl ua6pocxauu
t,r 3aprrcoBKaMl{ Qurypu .{eroBeKa Ha y,'Ilrqe, Ha npol{SBoAcrBe'-
B crroprr{BHbrxsaJrax r.rAoMa sa o6HqHltNrLIgaHrrnflMlt. A s cBoeM pa-
6oqeu yro,qKeorpaHrqbrecb [ocraHoeroft N,IoAeneft Ans p[cyHKa rofio'
Bbr, pacnoJraraflcbAr'Irrgroro Ha paccToflHl{HHe MeHeeno/Iyropa'AByx
MerpoB or HaryplqHKa.
XyAoxuur< ao,rxeu sa6nrcAars B ueJIoM He roJIbKo Harypy, Ho
lr cBoropa6ory. A gro gHaqHT,qro HaAo HaxoAHTbcflnepeA erIoAoM HJIII
pncynxonr He lrutilce, qeJrlHa peccronHuu eonnugrofl pAKu. K^poirae
Toro, HaAo noqau.{eorxoduro or pa1orot u pacc.Marpularb ee ul)altu,r
npoBepflfi BneqaT,'leHIIe,KoTopoeoHa npoId3BoAI'IT,I't CO[OcraBJIflfl
uso6paxeHue I{ Harypy. 3ro nonloraer Jlyque cpaBHuBarb,a c,'IeAoBa-
TeJrbHo, BepHee flepeAaBarb IIponopIIvu, ToHaJIbHble H uBeroBble
OTHOIIIEHI{f ,
Heflrgs pl4coBarb ro,llbKo s ann6oMe. HaAo o6ecleqllTb yc"IoBaff

a 6

Pnc. 37.
90
rr AJrfl pr.{coBaHr.rfl
cu!.fr.n cTofl.fIoSToMyK Harrafiycepb$Hbrx3aHfiTr{fi
IKI{BOrrr.rcbK)H pHcyHKoMoo3aBeAr.rrecb cTaHKaM}r, Ha KoTopbrxMo}KHo
6uro 6u saKpenurbxoJrcrr4nwnttrcr6yrr,rarz. Taroft crasoK Ha3brBamr
uono6eprou. Ha puc. 37, a noKasaHoycrpoftcrno san6onee pacnpo-
crpaHeHHbrx ranoB uonr6epror, HacroJlbKo npocrblx,qro oHI,IHe Tpe-
6yror noxcueHuft.CAenarr no4o6Hueuolr6eprbr HerpyAuoKa)KAoMy,
KToMadro-MaJrbcKr.r B,'IaAeer py6aurou lr nunofi.
Vxaxeu npuMepHbre pagMepbrrrepBofoug Hr,rx!BbrcoraocnoBubrx
croer 150 cM, ToJrrqr.rHa oxono 4 cu npn ruupr.rHeAo 9 clr, rrlr-rptrHa
uons6epra oKoJro60 crvr.Cpe.qnarBeprr.rKaJrbHat peftxa, ua xoropofi
BBepxI{ BurroABn)Kercfl xoMyrHK, r.rMeer AJIr{Hy120 cu, To"rqI.{Hy
2-2,5 cM npr{ rxnpr{HeAo 9 cM. K xoir.ryruxyHa nerd'rerrpnKperrJ'rflercfl
nJIaHKa C BbrCTynaMn, KOrOpaq onycKaeTcflHa rroApaMHrlK H Aepxr.{rero
c KpeHoMBrrepeA.Har,ros xoJrcra nu6npafire raKofi, qro6u ero
nJlocl(ocrb6u,ra crporo neprrenAr.rKyJrflprra ilyrry 3peHr.rsxyAolKHr.rKa.
.(,na pzcooaHuay4o6eHnltaHuer, noxasaHlrnriHa puc. 37,6. Bsco-
ra ero npnMepHo120cm, ufipnHa45-50 cu. Cuusy npu6uoaercnpefi-
Ka c saKpanuoir,roroparr c.[yxur yAo6Horlno.noqxofi A,'rflKapaHAaueft,
pesLIHKI{, yrna. Otr<rlAubre Hox(KtrKpenqrcfl rra nerJrsx. OaHepa Ha
fiJIaHITIeTHaKJIeUBaeTCq LI 3aKperrJlteTCgMe,'rKriMr.I
rBO3AtrMr{,KOTOpbte
ga6lzsarcrcr irKK]pzl'rHo,Tax, ur,o6u He noBpeAr.rrb, poBHyro floBepx-
Hocrb, ua xoropori KHo[KaMr{HJrr{KJIeeM[pr.rKpenJrsercqrncr 6yuaru.
PeftNa Aeaaror r.r3xopouo npocylreHHoftApesec[HH cocHbr unu 6yxa.
Osn ue AoJIx(HbrHMerb BbrrraAarou.l{xcyrrKoB. Xopotuo Bbrcrpyfanubre

Plrc. 38.

97
periKu HaAo rrrKypr{rbAoH fiocJre c6opxu, a r,orosnfi l.ro,rr6epr noKpbtrb
cBer,IIbIMJraKoM A"lq Me6efi,Ia,uro6rt rerqe 6rtn.o c'oAep)Karb ero B qJ{-
crore.
3 a 6 o r n r e c o , q r o 6 u B c e , r I T oo K p y x a e r B a c H a 3 a H q r t 4 s x ,6 l t , r o r p a '
olBbrM n yAo6uuu.
!,.nr xpaHerrrrr 14nepeHoca KpacoK, xficrefi, IIaJIIzrpbr o6q3atenlno
nplo6perure r4Jrrrc4e"raftre srfiAuun n ropodxy AJII tyaueBblx Kpa'
cox. A,rn sat.nruft Ha6pccxanan yAo6nu aaa6outt c $yrnrpanrtr.rJltl
r(apaHAarlefi (puc. 3B).
Harroprraoprbl, Koropble co6npaetecb nncaTb oAIIH ceaHc, MoxHo
craBr4Tb sa o6r,tqnou croJle. Ho ecnu npegcrol4T nl{carr, IIecKo,'lbKo
ceaHcoB,HaAo crpyflIlhpoBarb npeAMerbl B Mecre' r4e ltx He"
cABHHyr Ao,Moqa4,ubl.Vaodno iaMerb or!,eJtb'Hylo "aKoM nodcraercg d.nn ua'
rrcp.r4oprol (puc. 39) sncoroft 70-80 cM, a MoxHo cn,errarb l{ [o.{Bec'
Hylo AocKy (pac. !0). Ha ncgnutt c"nyuafi Mecro KalKAono np-eAMeraIia
[oAcraBKe, a reM 6onee Ha croJle B KoH'Ilecea,Hcaouepuunafire MeJoM.

PNc, 39. Puc.40.

I'ICKyCCTBeH'
,[,,ra eanxrnft pnCyuxOM Egaqafie Uaa6Onee BbIIOAHO
Hoe oCBeIJteHIIe,TaK KaK ClIJIbHbIit nanpaa'neHHltfi cset JIaMnbl CO3AaeT
KorrTpaCTHyI,OCBeTOTeHh, KOTOpafi BLIpa3{lTeJlbgee BbIgBJIfleT_SOpttly
nno1e,ont.llO.nOxenne JIaM[bI MO114HO MeHgTb, CO3,{aBafl p aSHOO6paSuue
yc,,roBlts ocBerqeHr{fl HaTypbr. Ho npu STOM cJre,u.ure, uro6ll cBeT ,rIaMnbI
rill B KOeM C,Iyqae He naAaJI BaM B fJla3a H IIpuMepHo 0AI{HaKoBo OCBe'
r.rtaJrKaK Harypy, TaK Ir FHcyHot<. ,{,ns SToro ryrlme Bcero B3fiTb orAeJIb-
gyroJraMny, nepeHocHyta (pue.4l) unu noABecHyro c 3aKpbr,'rxaMrlua
a6axype(puc.42).
Er,rnaer, qro IIa Harypy naAaer cBer or JIaMIIbl, BI{cRIIreIIe o6rieri
KoMtraTe.t{ro6r,r gTofo He 6ulo, cBOftyTOJIOK
OTrOpoAnTeoT 9rorocBe'
g8
Prrc.41. Pnc. 42,

ra. Harypy u pucyHoK EalKHo ocBerqarb oAHr{M rrcToqHr.rKoMcBera,


r4HaqecBeroreHb <<pacnJlbrBaercfl>>,
ycJlox(Htnorctr yc/IoBHff AJIfl pr{co-
BAHH'I.
Xueonucoto He,Lbsfr &&HaM&Tbcnnpu ucttgccrseLHon ocoet4eHuu.
TAK KAK XCJITbIC ilYIIIT 9,TCKTPOJIAMNbI MEHgIO? OTTCIII(?! I(PACOK IIA
[a/'rr.rTpeIr Ha xo,{cTe, cagr.rft IIBeT, HanpHMep, TeMlrecr, xc,Ilrr,il.i cnc.r'-
Jreer, Teprrer Hr{TeFrcrrBrrocrb. B arrc4e, IlanncatilroM rrpil JtaMtrc,c.Bc1.-
JII{e nJIaHbIOKa3r,rBaIOTCg I{aK 6U nO>Xent.eBllillMil, TeMilt,lc- llcl)cclt.
IieHHbtMLI, pe3r(trMil IIo [BeTy.
fIo neuepalr Mo)Kno nr{ca'r'r,'r'oJn,r(o l'pue:ril'ltt,xr(rtoc'r'r,rorx;'rrcrr<lii
H"tluyna6pottc 6e,tu,rannlr).3ror cfloco6 pa3Bilr]ile'f yMcttile Jtcrril'r.r,
tDopttly KIlcrbFo, rIaxoAI{Tb cBerocttJtblbtc oruoutcllrl 1 loJI(':t('tt lto
MHofliM Apyrr4M coo6pa>xeunam.
O4Haxo caMoAerrreJibnblru xyAolr(HnKaM, )KutsyilurM rra Kpairrreu
Cenepe, fAe nod'rflpnaflHorrbAJIr4Tcfl HecKoJrbl{o Mecrucl B roAy, npltxo-
ALlTCfrBCe-TaKrr3aHI1IMaTbCg ]Kr.rBonrrcblonpH 3,'reKTpHrtecr(oMcBc.r.e.
I{m xe,nare,rlHo npnodpecta nriuaHecqeuTnbre JraMrrbrAueBrroro nJrH
reit,roro cBera u o6opyAonarr coQnrr,r (cnerunluraxu) u3 AByx-rpex
'r'axux ,'raMrrB xou6usaqan c o6H'rHori .naunofi
HanailnBrr.r4s s 75-100
cseqer?.flpunaepnar KoHcrpyxqan coQnror trogasaHana puc.42.
O q eHl xop otuo, ecr'Itr ca MoAeflTeJrbHbre xy,qoxHllKrr o6teAnHqtcq An n
gaHrrrurt B rpyrrnbr rz 4o6lrcrcR KoMHarbr rrog MacrepcKyro B MecrHoM
xny6e vilfi Ha npeArrpr{firun. 3ro nosBoJrrarfiyrrue o6opyaooarb pa6o-
que Nlecra A,Tfl 3ar{rrr{ft, a raK}Ke, rrro oco6eHgo BaxHo, cogAarb ycJlo-
Brrg A,'rflo6ruesa onbrrom r{ BBaHMonoMoIrln.
nPhcnocoBnEHrl'' Afl'' 3 AHgTnn
HA OTKPbITOMBO3AyXE
3assrzs JreroMHaAoqaqe Becrr.r Ha nJreHope.
[a u n ApyroeBpeMfl
foAa xyAoxnltxu coqeramr pa6ory B MacrepcKofic pery.urpHbtMu Bbr-
egAaMHHa grrcAbl.BeAr so MHoruxcrolKerHbrx KapraHax,noprperax,
He roBopr y)Keo nefi3axe,a raK)KeHarrtipuoprax,uso6paxeHr.re nplr.
poAbrrrMeer6o,rtruoegHaqeHr{e.
Bu yxe gHaere,rrro npa ou6ope Mecra AJrrr nJreHgpHorosrroAa
BaxHo naftru BbrroAHyro AJrs KoMnoezrlunneftsaxa rorrKy speHrn. Tyr
>xeua)o noea6orutacn u o rou, qro6at nprcufi co.ouequtu) c6er u/u)
peQtterccoLor rue6a,serteuoil KpoHbt depeea He nadaau Ha xortcr.
I'Iuaqevx qBeroBbre orreHKH,oKpaur{Barr xoJrcrro e ro.ny6oBaro-cepe-
6pncruti, To B3oJIorI.IcrltftunwgeJreHoBarbrfi
qser, a ro troKpbrBaflero
pasHouBerubrMr4 rrflrHauu,xpaftue 3arpyAHflTnoucxrr qBeroBbrxorHo-
ureuuft.C.nengqenpxr.rftcBer corHeqHuxnyueft,npflMouaAarcrqnxHa
xo,'IcT, He ToJIbKO yTOMJIJIeT r,'Ia3a XyAO)KHI{Ka, HO n, KaK npaBI,IJIq
lpuBoAIrr K HeyAarree pa6ore HaA 3rroAoM.KorAa npr.rHecere aorraofi
grroA,HaflI]casHuftHa ffpKoMcBery, To oKaxercg, rITo oH noryr{Lurct
xaKIIM-Tope3KI.rM 14B To )Ke BpeMflo6ecqseqeHHbrM, He nepeAarcIqvM
roft co.nseqHocrnMorlrBa,paLV xoropofi ynopHo rpyArrJrHcb.
3rn0 u naturpa Aonatuat o6nearenouo uaxodurocn a reHu,
TOeCTbnprzMepHo B TaKHxx{e ycJroBlrflxMqrKocTrIpaccetHHofoocBe-
rqenurr,B KaKr.rx
noroM o6r,rrsonerrno14cMorpqr npougBeAeHvfl x<n-
BOI]lrcn.
Bor noueuy Bbre3xalor Ha srroAbrco cneqrraJrbHbrM 3oHToM(puc.43),
roropulli craBrrr rax, uro6H oH flpureHr{Jr3TroA u naJrr.rrpyB pyKax
xyAo)KHHKa.Ecnu Her 3oHTa, Mo)KHocaMrrMcAeJlarb cx,raAsofr HaBec.
Cnepxy o6tnsnre ero 6e,ruu noJrorHoM, a cHa3y o6ertre noAxnaAxoft
I.{3rrepHoropenca, caru[a. B r<paiiHeucJryqae,ec,nriHe LrMeereHH Tofo,
Hr.rApyforo, nat6upafire Mecro B reHrz or nocrpofiKr{, AepeBa, Ho noBep-
Hrire grroAHHKTaK, qro6u Ha Hero He naAa,'Ifi pe$nexcu or grrlx
o6reKron, coJrneqnbrerrtrHa n ilp,, wJtHcAenafire gKpaH-HaBecr.I3Jrncra
6enofi 6vlrarn. fa3erbr.
.Il,rn y4o6cr:ea pa6oru Ha nJleHgpe Heo6xoAlrrvr u cnequarrsufi
nepeHocHufi (ua peuHe) flrrruK AJrff KpacoK H flaJrurpbr- ern)nurc
(puc. 44). Des Hero coBeprxeHno HeBo3Mox{Ho.nrcarb Ha nJreHgpe.
Ecnu grrcAHuK nocraBzTb Ha Kor'reH14 I4JIHHa KaKoe-Jrn6onosauueulte,
To oH Mox(er 3aMeHr.rl'bH uonr6epr (uo rorrxo Anq He6onluux no
pa3MepaM srroAoB. I] srorvr cryqae xopouo uMorb crcttaduoticrAJxbtluK
(puc. 45).
B nogteAsne toAbr B 3naqure,rbrroM KoJII{qecrBe Bbl[ycxalorctl
errcduurcu, crcoufuuupolaHHbte c rpeHu{Hurco,v (puc' 46). llogo6nrte
<t<ou6afisu>>,KaK Hx rIa3brBalor xy4oxrrtrKH, oAHoBpeMeHHocJlyx(ar
u uonr6eptoM, r{ guruKoMAJII KpacoK, rlrcreir H qeM-ToBpoAecroJrrrKa,
Ha KOTOpOM MOX(HO paC[OJIOXil4Tbar(Bape"'Ib]IbreKpaCKHrI np]IHaAJre)K-
'fi
Hocrlt, a BMecro xoJlcra nocraBuTb trJlarruer c JIHcroM 6yuaru aald.il-
Marbcfl aKBapeJrbuoftxusonllcrro. Qa6puxa XyAoxecrBeuHofo Qou4a
I
100
Puc.43, Puc.45.

Pnc.44. Puc. 46.


II3TOTOBJIfleT
ABa Tr.rfia <<KoM6afiHoB>>,
OT,'IUqarOqr4XCfl
Apyr oT Apyfa
B OCflOBHoM pasMepaMl4,149TIO.4HuKLI,[pLIBIIHqIjBaIOulueCfl
K TpeHOxi-
HrrKy-cKJraAHoMy Mo/'rb6epTy.flIl1uxu MeHbruefo pasMepa, KoHeqHo,
Jlerqe, Ho Bce xe yHr.rBepcaJrbHee6onturofi <<KoM6arirr>>
(53X39,5cM),
3a uuu Mo)KHo pa6orarb Lr B Macrepcxoft, KaK 3a croJIoM ?rJIIr
y nront6epra.
Ecnn y Bac y)Ke ecrb grroAnuK, To K HeMy MoxHo rrpnKpenrirb
cK'raAHyro)epeenruugn nodcraorcg (puc. 47). flo4 ue6ontuue orroAHu.

Puc. 47, Puc.48.

Kr4 MolKHo npHBuHqHBarbH cKr'laAsoli uratun, o6brr{Honcnonleyentufi


a"'tn QororpaQraponauns c 6ontuofi eugepxroh (puc,4B). flnr sroro
B AHHrqearroAHriKasxreijire ue6o,rtuyl,o Aoueq6y, B Hee BMolirupyftre
BryJIKy AJrrrrxrarr4Ba. [oAo6urre BTyrrKr4HMer,orcflBr.ur3y$oroannapa-
Ta, flx MoxHo npro6pecrn vJrLr3aragarb B MacrepcKlix no peMorrry
6brrosnx npn6opon.
B ,qa,rluefrureM BaM npr4foAr{rcfl n 4pyroii BnA grFoAHaKa - Ma-
JreHbKI{tl,o6JietqeHHbIfisIr1uqex c orBepcrr4eMAJIrrnar'rbqa H BblABu}K-
uori nannrpofi (puc.49). Sror snoduurc depncar s p!/Ke, KaK noKa3ano,
xorAa nt{ulyr ge6o,rturue gTroAbI-Halx,'ietixu,
Qur<cupya MIlMo,lerrloeco-
t02
l)rre..11).

-Fffi
'
+?5f

Puc.50.

crosHrje npfipoAbl. ou oqegl JrerKr.rri


r [opraTr4BHbrft,efo xoporxo Bcer.-
Aa HMerb npa ce6e, qro6br He ynycrrrrb HeoxuAaHHOO6UapyxeHHbleMO-
THBbrrr flilcaTb rroBcroly.
[,,rn He6o,rbuIHXorroAoB Aocraroqno rex KpacoK, Koropbre 3apanco
BbrAaBJreHbr Ha na/Tnrpy. Halo ror'rbKoB3flTbnpo sarrac cpeannrl ro6lrr
6enun Aa ABa-rpn HanoJroBr4Hy ficnoJrbsoBausllx rro6uni f,py.,,* lipu-
coK, Koropbrey Bac oco6esgo B xoAy.
He sa6y4rre saxBarlrrb Ha grloAbr 6yuary E rpqnKy gna xucrefi,
Koropbre AoJr)KHbr6urn qnctltMu BcefAa. tlacro rpflguble Kucru vcKa'
>tr\arcrrIBeTB oTroAeHepaArlporo >xnBo[r]cqa.
Ecnrz He o6gase,'I[cl <<xotr.t6afisoM>, To nanl norpe6yercn cxla4uoft
uonr6epr (puc. 50), ua roropuft craBllrcn xoJlcr. V lto,'rl6epra Moxno
pa6orarl u cHAn, Irt cros, a gHar{Iir, uMerb Bo3Moxuocrr aso6paxara
nefisaxn c BbrcoKI4M II HI{oKI4Mropu3oHToM,pasuoo6pa3llrb IIx KoMrIo-
3I'IIXru.
Bce ern npucnoco6neHr.rrrMolKHo cAe,iraTbfl caMoMy, o qeM HaAo
noga6orarlcs 3apaHee, Ao HarIa/Ia JIeTHI{x eatnruft. OHIa upuroAflTcfl
u 4,nn pa6orbl B noMeIqeHHIr.
A"rn sail{urbr rJra3 or ffpKoro cBera, Me-
ilarcurero sa6.nrcAarl roHKHe uBeroBble or-
reHKr4,peKoMeHAyeM cAeJIarbKosbtpercx3 Kap-
roua, o6raayroro xoJlcroM(puc.51 ). Haro-
Heu, yirT,r.rTe, fl,pr{oerr!'IaTbe,6'e.nagpy6auxa Ha
xyAo)KHuKero)Ke Mofyr or6pacunarb Ha srloA
uexenare.rrnue peQ;rexcu. flio3roMy yAo6-
uee pa6orarb B oAexAe ceporo HJIIIsaullzrHo'
ro [Bera.
.II lo 6 Hr en q Naa KBa p ed'Ib HbIx gTIoAoB p eKoMeH-
P u c .5 1 . Ayem npHo6pecrll srIoAHtrK c nnacruacoonoii
n a.nurpofi LI ApyrIiM n np I4HaA.IIe>KHOCTfl MI4, OT'
Be(ratouuMI't r p e 6 o e a H u n MT e x H H K Ha K B apeJIH.
H a s r n 1 s t u c n p e M c t l t t ol t a , q o 6 p a r s K a p a l l A a u u a r b 6 o M , B K o r o '
pou 6yAe.rc Ac.na,rt ua6pocxLl Baprlatll'oB KoMIosHIILIII6yAyIUero arn'
c acno,toxeHue nefrsax-
a u , u t b a r u rs a r c M n u 6 p a 1 u r r a r r s b r r o A r r c i i u e p
Horo Mort'ula rta xo;lcrc. A,'Ib6oi\anpHroAllrcR u AJrfl'gapLrcoBoKAeraleft
MorHBa c ucdrblo6onee KoHKperlloro fi3yl{eH11r ux Qoptuu, a raK]I{e AJIfl
116nyTlbtx ga6poCxOn Tex MOTIIBOR, KOTOpbIe He ygneeTe HanI'lCaTb'AJIfl
ua6pocxon Quryp .lrrcAefi,pa6oraroqux B"nod're, .qJrs3apllcoBoK)KI4BoT'
l r b r xB n e f t s a x e .
!,na ycneuruofi pa6orlr AoMa r{ Ha npr.rpbgeuado ea6naeoBpeileHHo
san&crucb yaTepua/tolt lttn pucgnrca u Jfiulonucu. fiocraroqgslfi sanac
rpyrrToBaHHOIO XOJICTa pa3HOrOTI{na, XapTOH.a, pa3HbIXCOpTOB 6yir'tarlr
Aaer B93MO)KHOCTb nU6parl n HyxHuil MoMeHr sav6o;ree [oAxoAqilIl4e
uatepranu lr Qopnnaru AJIfl sTIoAoBI.{pucyHKoB.Kpoue rofo, rpyHro'
naHHUfi XO,'ICT I,I KapTOH,KaK BbI y)I{e 3HaeTe,Ba)KHOBbIAepXaTb' XO-
pouo npocyur{Tb. A A,rs fpaBrop xopouo r{MeTbBcerAa yBr'ra}KHeHHyITO
6 y u a r y B c r o l l K a x , r u n o r p a Q c r y l o K p a c K y p a 3 H o f o r o H a 1 4 . q B e r ao
' r-
urnvQoeauHufi .tuuo,leyM Ir saroqeHllble pe3IIbI' BocK, pasHoll
,9JtHQy
rvcroror" 6eHSI.IHIIJII4 AeHarypar A,1fl qI'IcTKIl .U,ocoK.He npuxo4urcn
ii,uop"to o heo6xo4nMocrpr rlMerb no,lnuii Ha6op_KpacoK u xllctefr,
N xoiopuu y)Ke npltBblKnuHa csoeft na,tl4rpeu n pa6ore.
flo naepepa,cxo,u,oBaHr4fl MarepHaJra ef,o 3anac [ocrorrHHo nonoJl-
Irrrfire u Abpxure cBoft apceHan i.s [o,'IHoft 6oeeoft foToBHocrll>. Bor
rorAa He 6yaer neoxlzAaisocreft u AocaAHbIxnoMex B .pa6ore.

104
. XPAHEHhE h PA3BECKA PA6OT

3 a x o r r q e H n u e p u c y H K H ,B b r n o J r H e H u urep a Q u r H b r M nK a p a H A a [ r a M H
ld oco6er{HoyrJreM, rpe6yor 6epexHoro xpaHeHrlfl u HepeAKo crreun-
aJlbHoro 3aKperJreHr'I a ( Quxczpo n auvrn). f p a Qnr p acryrxeBbrBaercfl or
TpeHilflJIIZCTOB 6ylrarn, narlKaercrr.
"rlyurue Bcefo xpaHr.trbpHCyHKLI noA
creKJroM,B nanKax, qro6u 6yuara He xed'rreJlaor cBera. B xpaliueru
c,tyqae Moxrro nepeJro)Kr{Tlrax4ufi pHcyHoK Jrr4croMqncrofi 6yruaru
(xerare,'rbHo nattupoouoft unu ranrxoii) a 3aBs3arb B nJrorHyroflanKy
LIgKapToHac gaKpbIJIKaMr4, 3arrlr4ularcurHMr.I ptrcyHKr4or nbrJru.XpaHHr
ee B Beprr4Ka/'IbHoM norlox(enrir{,uro6u rpa$ur He nepexoAx.rlc oAHoro
fiucra Ha Apyrofi.
IIeHsue p[cyHKtz, npopa6oraxubre caHrnuofi unu coycoM, Heo6xo-
At4MOHCKyCCTBeHHO 3aKpe[JrflTb.

<DnxcarHsur

O 6 e s x r p e H H o e o r c r o e u H o e M o J r o K oM o x c r c J r v x u r b r r c n J r o x H M 3a-
KpenHTeJreM T a, K K a K Q a x r n u e c x n 3 r o p a c r B o p i l a i y p a . n u l r o r ' oK a s e H l t a .
Monoxo HeMrroropaa6annlrcr uoAofi ll n r.axou tinAe Hr'rlrc lo6asre-
nrena qarluofi noxxl-r caxapa Ira craKatr Hclor'rb3ytorxax tprrr<caruBAJrrl
rpaQuruux It yfodrbHr,rxpHcyHKoB.
Xe.[aruHosufi Quxcau.rB cocraBJrrrrorH3 AByx qacrefi ]xe,raruHa,
pacrBopeHHoro n 100 qacrflx BoAbr c Ao6anneHueru10-30 nporlegroB
AeHaTypaTa r4JrlrBHHHOTO Clr{pTa. 3rau cocrasoM oco6eHHOXopOtXO
SaKperrJrsTbyro,'rbHbIeplrcyHKLr.
I4uercrcs peqerrrbr cnrrproBbrx$aNcarunon. flpocrefiurufi ue Hux-
pacrBop xauuSo,'lu B AeHarypare HJInqr4croMcrrripre.
.Ifto6oft lzs grrrx $zxcarznon HaFrocrrrHa foprzgoHraJrbHo floroxeH-
uuft pncyuoK c noMorqbro fiyd'rbBepn3aropa.flpn erou cdlreAflr,r{T06bl
Ha noBepxHocrr,rHe o6pasona,rzcb KalJrrr pacrBopa (npz nonn,reHrrlrvx
6rtcrpo cHr4MarornponroNatuxor?),xoropsre Moryr Bbr3Barb r4cKa-xe-
une nso6palKe,Hrl&_ PanHonaeprronoKpbrB Quxcarnnonr p,IlcyHoK,Aanr
eMy fipocoxuyru. Ecnu oH cpa3y He 3al{pennJr:fl.rr ilaqKaer, err1epa3
[poBoAflT Suxcnponauile reM xe npneMoM. flynrnepr.rsarop Mo]KHo
saMe,HHTbulerxori l.r ceroqxoft n 4epenaunori onpaBe. llporo4n
ulerxorl, c.rlerxa cnroqennoftn Qurcarnne, no cerKe, rroJryqarcT poB-
noe_ pae6pbrsf,?rBagr.re cocraBa tto [oBepxHocrx prlcyHKa (puc. S2).
Ecrl eule o,{ltH cnoco6 6uxcu-
poBaur.rqyroJrbHbrx pl.rcyHxon.Ey-
Mary npeABap'HreJrbHoflpoKJrer.lBa-
roT pacTBopoM )r(eJraTLIHa,BbICy-
[IEBaIor ]t gareM no seft BbrnoJrHg-
lor pr.rcyHoKyr,'reM. Ec.rrn 6ylrary c
l l s o 6 p a x e H n e Mn o A e p ) K a r bH a A n a -
poM Knnqtr1eftn,o4r,r,ro xlefi pac-
rBopr.lTcfl r, cBrrxeT yro,'IbHble
rurplrxn c 6yuarori. Puc.52.

tOrt
vutnre, rITo or 0axcarmroe Bcex BaAoB, a oco6ellHo cflr{proBbrx,
reMHeror pHcyHKrlu 6eaue yqacrKn 6yttatu.
vNagasHrrna' cocra*a*n $Nxcnpyror r{ nacredrb, Ho oga np' oroM,
KaK roBop["rocb Bbrrrre, cr4JrbHo npeo6paxrae?cfl r{ npuo6peraer B}rA,
TeMnepL,r.ilacte,nr cogepruelrno ne4ouyirnrvro
$lrxcrEponari .n"p.o"or.
ruu suxcautBaMr{, or Koropbrx oHa He rGJrbKoreMHeer, Ho It ocbrnaercfi.
3rrc4rt, Bbr[o,rIHeI{HbIe tIacreJlbro, pagBeru{Baror Ha creHax, Ha Koropble
He naAaer cJILrrxKoM flpxuft ceer.
Axrape,rrurre pa6bru losres B ocHoBrro* cBera rr cbrpocrr.r. or
cBera xeJrreer 6ynnara r4 EErroparcT KpacKH. IOarouy aKBape,'rbHbre
9Tr,OAbr xparrflT. B nanKax E cyxoM noMeilreHHn,a ecJflr )r(eJIaFoTr4X no.
Becr{Tb,To rloMelrlaror troA creKJIo. IIpn sroiu creKJr,oHe Ao,lxHo Ka.
caTbcrl)KHBonIlclt.
3rro4sl, HarrucatrtrrlteMacJIoM, lrao6opor, lrc6gr cBer, ro.ropufi
ycKopfle'I'flpocyul(y Kpacoqllbtx cJtoeBI{ npHAaer 3Byqrrocrb ,'reccHpoB-
KaM 14nacro3HbrMnpojrlrcKaM.Ho ntr.nn H cbrpocrb*sneriuue Bparfi
rr,rac,rqHoft )KlrBorrucr{.Ilosrorny 3rroA, xoropufi co6Hparcrca nucarb erqe
r{ecKo,lbKoceaHcoB,TrldareJrbHoooeperarcr or nbIJIr{, a saKoHqeHHbtft
BbrcyufiBaror, 3aKpbrB tr rrocraEr,rBero <<JrauoM>> K cTeHe. flOCne rOro
KaK KpacoqHbrecdror{aoco.urorso BbrcoxHyr
{nprarvrepHoqepes roA-rroJt-
ropa), KapTI{HbIIIepeAKo lloKpblBamr cneqHaJIbHbIMJIaKoM, cJIerKa
nporHpafl Bcr,oKpacoqHyro[oBepxHocrb ]r HHrAeHe AorrycKarr[oATeKoB
s,'rlr fycrbrx uacnoenaft (npe4rapare/rbH0 KaprHHy oqilualor or flbrJrlr
aarxor?,c,'rerr(aclroqenuoft r cxuna4ape).
tr{acnssne grroAbr flyrr,ue rcero xpanr4rb B cyxoM noMeqeHa' Ha
cre,'r,'ra)Kax,Ha Koropbrx oHprxopomo flpoBerpltBarorcff r.I o6eperanrcr
oT yBJtaMrreHHfl.

llogroronra pa6or K pa3BecKe

Ecnn xortre BbrBecr4Tb cEoH fiyqruae pa6orsl, llx HaAo oKaHToBarb


HrTHrroMecrfiTb B paMy (ayurne Bcero co creKJIoM AJIff [peAOXpaHeHrrff
or rrlr,ru). B rou rr ApyfoM cfiyrrae neodxoAauo nponnzir BKyc H no-
HHMailtrccBrr3r.r oKarrroBK?rL4JIVpAw:fj,C XapaKTepou H o6qeft tosala-
Hocrbro npolr3BcAerrrrrr, a raKxe c uBeroM cTeHbI, Ha xoropofi 6yayr
BI{CeTbI{apTIIIil,I.
P r ' r c y r r x rnr r p a ( r r r . l e c r c r rpca 6 o l l r r r : l r i J r e n B a r o r crrrra n a c n a p r y n p e -
rrMyuecrBcilrro il3 (lc"rofi 6ynaaIll, aKBSpCJilt - rre roJ'IbKoHS 6-enbft,-HO
H rr3 cneur4a,utrrorirloTrrori irymaru, unncroutcfrrreli.rpa.urnsrfi yu6put-
crHft user rioreMHeBureroxoJlcra. lta a rotsn ctlJ4ae He/rbsnbenara
nacnaprA us qaeruofi Hacro/rbqoti 6guazu, uner xoropor? a4onrr u
sa-
6usaer. KpacKr'rgrroAa. flacnapry Aonxrrc rap*orr'poBarl c qseroeori
raunorl 3TloAa nnu 6lrrn [efirpanurr,rM, noMorafl uocnpznHntaro **-
BON IICHbIE AOCTOI.IHCTBA TIPOHSBEAEIIII'I.
b]y )Ke rpe6onannnM AoJr]Krl,r.orBeqarb . r, p aMbr. lloerouy
,0arerbr
^ _[9199" <cyca,rlbHofi>>
H3 nosoJloqenuofi nenuHHrr, c,'IIIIIIKoM BbrrrypHHe
n,rH Tfx(eJroBecHbre,HenpufoAHbr. .rlyurue scelo sH6lrparb cKpoMHbIe,
.
r06
6 e n o - x p c u o l l r c , KoprIrilrcBble aJIH
npocTtle {epeBtHHble Heor{paIIJeilrrbre
nJIafiKll.
rrarr.ryeiixe
p1c-qHxawfir4srrlAa, rpa$nuecNoripa6oru
_^_ll,l raxno Ha nac-
I:pry rpaBrrflbuopacnorroxari no.,,". B ;;;^i""^;",noro*."
npocrofi cnoco6 (puc. 5S)'. Ilono:xare cHaqa,rra
pr4cyHoKBn,rrorHyro
BepxueMyyrury, no"rred6 -B pa3,4,ennre
:^i:"""^y-y ?
norroJraM.tr4s nolyveuHor?,oon"
ilpou"grr.
BepTI4 Kar'Ib BM. 3areu pa3Ae"[.r,rre
nonor,raM
"ii
19ig CI unpauori
nponeAare npi*yio-c En. ro"$
9oernHrrre nwnnifi roqrofi C."IIo_
JIyqeHHar Ha JIrrHu[4 BM raqr<a{ a noxaxer
Mecro Hr,xHefoflpaBoroyrJra pHcyHKa
napry. fl.puxnennarbprrcygoxny.ruie nri-
"a
*pu"*urru_
ruu-x,reficrepoM r.rd,rH 4excrplzHo"nr. foadrcs a He-
rycrolr cronapHufi x",left.Ho
u noe* clyqae
ue no,rleyfi Tecbcr.rrT
r.rKaTHbIM",nonrop"o H KJre-
r.r
flMI4 14CAHAeTI{KOHOM: oHh Aauo" x"rrbre"ttailrTrra
H froprflr pHCyHOK.
^_-,flranrpry MolKer 6urt
oKoIIJKa,
cAeJrzuloH B BH.nc
Ha,rI,o)KetrHor-o
Ira plIcynoK, r<oropltfi c
o_6paruoficropoHbr npoKJrer{Baror
rpeMq no/rocxa-
rur-r-
6yruaru. Oopuar Bblp$a nu"nup"y
cryqae Hecxo.rrbKoMeHbrue,rreM n 3roM
pubyi*a: no,rr"
MOXHOOnpeAe,'U.ITb
3;;;; ;;,ffiffi .'fiI.ffiff ""ff*
1
::5"TJ_f""j
BbrnaroTcsrro/TocKaMr.r
xo.neuxopaa"aa reuuofi,
uepuori 6ynaru. B rapior, ri roropufr
19 "1.
Haxrr-er4Baercs
pflcylg1,, ue sd6y4bre npegBapr4-
TeJrbHOBK,lreHrb yIIKI{
AJIg Hrlr"_nole"cu.
Mox,no o'oftrwca o.* o*inr"#ir--lr*runu
nac[apry, ecdrr
H r{crroJrbgoga
rb cneq"a"rusoft +;,p"- Puc.53.

N
naHcxo6n (puc. 54)
,n:^y.:ll"ou,
xrlMaM,Hcrex"'rar-rnoA,rrox(K,
pre. 84.

Koropbrecrryr{ar oAHoBpeMerj}ro
G
3a-
* np*ooii^ arq iloqre.m"ud"ru pa6,r.rrr
Ha cTery. 9ru cr'r<o6uMOlKeraeiorouaro
,nrc60r1cJrecapb'3 ,',.x()/rolt

t07
6etoro MeTa,/rJra,cTaJrrH.Kpa,cninu ,paM,KH'y3rllilTlHrHblx1py6oK, rqpoAa.
roTbn pagHblx $opMaTOB ,B Mara36rHaxXyAQOHao H rHBIOr6lB.IIfIOTct{ He'
M 11
bI.M,HMa,CTSpCIKII
I(OT,Op rB I{pyflrHbIX nopOAaX.
Plzcyuxu a eiraunu Belxalor BnJIorHyrcK crene. 9rrcAu pacno"Ia-
faIOT C TaKIIM HaK,'IOLHOM,qTO6bI,IlX IJIOCKOCTb I.{ ,{yq SpeHi'Iq qeJI'OBe-
Ka, paocMalpr.rrBaroqeno pa6oTy, yroJl,
cocTa,B"rIflJrLI 6ttusxuit K'n,pff-
-
MoMy. Ocneureulreno Bo3Mo)KHocrHHaAo nu6uparl cJIeBaH pacceflH-
HOe.
KOHCyJIb-
floAroran.lr.lBafl pa6orbr K OrlpaBKe Ha BbICraBKyVrJrItHa
ynaxyfiTe B IIJIoTHbIe [aKerbl'
TaIIuro, cHI{MI,trexo!'Icrbl c noApaMHl.lnon, t
I'lHaqe oHI'I coMHyrcfl I'IJII{ noKo-
H"^auopuu"BaiITe pHcyHKLIB rpy6xr'r, 'xo'ncr I
poOoi.i. B xpafiH'ertl!,lyuae, ec,'llt 6o'llruoil, a cAeJIarb A"Ifl
It
KapTr.rHbr qu{r.rKrpyAHo, ero HaKarbrBa}orHa To,'lcTyrorpy6Ny llr'In lladt- *
, I I o e MB l l y r p b . P a 6 o r n t u a n e p e ' c y m e u -
n y ' n o o x s a r e J r b H o - K p a c o q H b cl M
fpyllTax cBepTbIBaI{Hfi IIe BbI-
HbIX Mac"'lfltlblxI{ Ha xpyrlKl4x KJIeCBblX
a toT, p acTpecKl{ Ba IOrCfl lI OCblII a loTcu'
Aep)KHB

lIPocn'rorP Pa6ot

B b I K p o H Tlb{ a c .
B N a x o e 6 u n p e u r r o A a B b l H u 3 a H H M a . n I { car , 'H a A o
qro6lt nocMoTpeTb BCe HaIIUCaHHOe I',IHapI{-
npyroii cBeT,,roronpeueHn,
coBaHHOe.
CTeHbIKOMHaTbITaK'
Pa6ortr HaAo paccTaB,'tttTbBAOJIbCBo6oAHOft
qTo6bl CBeT rI3 OI{!Ha ,IIaAa"t Ha HLIX CJIgBa rI{ rHe Br,I3bIBaI 6"IU]KOB'
B pflA Hyx(Ha v Ntfl roro, uro6lt [pocfleAl'{Tb xo'u' sa-
PaccraHoexa
cBol'I rBopqec-
Hqrr.Ift sa onpeAeJleHslrftorpe3oK BpeMeHPI' 3aMer'Hrb
B STIO-
Kl,tft pOCT,tI Allfl,rOfO, utO6lI yBI'IAeTb' HeT ,'IH OAgOO6paeUfl
Aax'HeKoqyI,oTJ|I4olfiwI{Te)KenpI4BbIIrHbIe<<3aMecbl>>I{3pa6o
u pa6oty.
' craBfl orloAbl-.
flor6u cMorpl{Te Kax{AyIo pa6ory no orAeJIbHocrI{'
6uyto
nu roni6.pr (ranyuue BceroroMeqaflnpl{ sroM1-t1!^o"*lry
UJIU Harypa',tbHoft ApeBecilHbl',
fi"qfl cepvrc paMoqKy H3 TOHKITXflJIaHOK qro6nt
llllip^ildp oil;i. O""i;"t. o" pa6ornHaAon)KHoe paccro'Hl4e,
'r cyA1lrbo roM,HacKoJrbr(o ueJrocrHoco6pa-
;;;;r; u'n.fr u"e B ueJroM y6eaurncn,
JIlr KpacKH,yAaaocrilru nlr4epNaTbIaMI{y. 9ro6n B STOMBBepxHo'
pa6ory
npfioeranr Aaxc I( ral{oMyrpnKy: nonofiauunaror Cpa3y IIeox{l'l'[allllOMBnAe
raMI,r H OInTb cMoTptrT u:tAa.llll. B laxou
SaMeTFIbITenflTlla'I(oTopblclIeltIlltcaJIl{cbBraMMy,ocTa,ll{cb<qyx(H.
<r'py6<luxy>' cocr'aB.lIeHHyrcII3 KLc-
rur.rr. I4soraa cMorptlr lta pa(rory tt
tefipyx,I,IJIHB3epKa,rIo'I]KoTopoMcl.allol|'t1.c'I3aMcTHbIMI,InorpelxHo.
crl{ B pl'tcyHKe.
< < l l l l c r p y M e H T o M >B>a H a J I f i 3 e
H o ' o c u o n H u M T o q H b I Mu 6 e c n o u { a A l I b l M
aBl'opa' xynbkuur<a' VlreHun elt-
cBoux pa6or fln,'Irercn rJIag caMoro
pa6orax IIaAO yq}tTbcfl' IIOMHq I',IraKoe IIpaBI',l-
AeTb HeAOqeTbrB cBor{x
oqeHb HpaBl{rcff B 3roAe rlJll{ pl{cyr{Ke' ro-Aaft BpeMfl'
;;;A;;;"o-,ln6o
f.Ila3 OT Hee' n oofl3areJlr'Ho
ocTbIHb, nocMoTprI{ pa6ory, KOrAa .orBblK
IIMeHHo B roM, qro oco6erlHo HpaB[JIocl npex4e' h6o
safiAu HeAoqerbl

r08
He lvtoxcT 6l,l'r'r,Mccla caMoAoBoJIbcTBy B TBopqecTBe,fi BeqIIaflHeyAoB-
lM tBIfleTCfl ABI{faTeJIeMHOBbIXnOUCKOB.
b C/ICJIalltlt
fleTBOpClltIOC'l

HaAceucn, qro BaM 6uflo no,resHogar,'IgHyrb B <<xltBonlrcHyloKyx-


HIO>>H, pa36Hparrcb B peMecJIeHaIrlefo AeJIa, rIoHflTb TecHyIo cBfl3b
npueMoB,Texrrr4KrltI Bbr6opa MarepLIa,IIoBc MeTOAaMIa pnCyHKa v )Kn'
BOnr{cH.
3rn 6eceAu He npereuAylor Ha no,'IHory cBeAeHLIfi.Anrop crpeMl'Ircq
gsaH'ufi TexHo,lloruu xI,IBorIrI4oflH pllcyHKa,
Aarb Jlr{rub raroft MHHI-{MyM
rpaQnKH, xoropufi 6un 6u AocryneH Haqr{HarcIqeMyxyAoxHllKy u Mor
6um nu co3HareJlbHolicnoJrb3oBaH.
KPATKA' BV16
IIUO| P A(!Z|fl

X B rr 6 e p. Xueonrrcs rr ee cpeAcrBa.M., tr4sl_soArafleur.ru


xyaolKecrR
( ] C C P ,I 9 6 I .
A. B. B lr H x e p. Texrrnxa xriBo'uc' coBercKHXMacrepoB.
M., <<Conercruii
x y r o x H u x > ,1 9 5 8 .
A. I{. Kafl,ir}rK. Texutra xusonncri.M._rT., <<l4cxyccreo>,
1950.
B. A. /'I e n rr K a u. XneonHct txBaperbro..,M., tr4sl_roAra4euux xyAoxecrB
C C C P ,I 9 6 I .
n. n. P e B q K r.ru. Texlrura arnapenurroiixlBonuclt. M., loc.
r.i3A_Bo
r,lnrepa,
rypbl IIo crpol-IrenbcrBy'apxxrexType , crporirer'rbHrJu
uarepuanau, rg5g.
B. B. T rc T ro H u n r<. Marepnar,rbrtI TexHHKaxr.rBonr{cu.M.,
I,Is4-noAxaneunil
xy.qoxecrBCCCp, 1962.
B. B. T ro r ro H n u x. fpyHroeaHHbrri xo,,rcr r!,lfl uac,rsuofi
xrraonucn. M.,
1 4 r 4 - e oA r a q e v H nx y a o x e c r BC C C p . l g 4 g .
-1.H. r a.nr. I(o,ropurB xuBonucu. M., <tr4cr<yccrso>, lgS7.
K. IO o rr. ,O xunonuor.M., tr4sorus, 1987.
K o , r , n e K r u Ba B T o p o n . p u c y u oH
x x l i B o n u cBb .2 - xr . M., <Hcxyccrno>,
l 9 6r
f . C e v r e p o n . f l y n r K r r c K y c c r BM., y . <<Conerc,raq Poccur>, l969.
IO. AxccuoB, t\1.
" r I e B r . r A o B aCauoAesre,rtuoMy
. xyAolKrrrrxy.M., <Co-
B c r c r i a fPl o c c r t n >I,9 7 3 .
Peu 6 p a rrAr, A.'rr,6om M.. , < l l c r r y c c . r n o1>g, 7 4 .
H. LII r<a p o B c rt a n. Ilirpoluoe caMorenrc,lhloe Hct(yccrno.
.II., <Anpopa>,
1975.
TI PHMEtIAIII{ E . o ' n o p , r c c r u c ' c c x y n o M t r r y r , r xB r e K c r ex y A o x H r . r * o r l
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