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2Англ

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Физическая культура
и спорт

ACADEMA
* :' £ S t. Л А и г к

ВЫСШЕЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ ^ ^


НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ, СПОРТА И ЗДОРОВЬЯ им. П.Ф.ЛЕСГАФТА
(САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГ)

АНГЛИИСКИЙ язык
ПЛЯ ФИЗКУЛЬТУРНЫХ
СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ

ENGLISH FOR STUDENTS


OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Допущено
Учебно-методическим объединением
no направлениям педагогического образования
в качестве учебника для студентов высших учебных заведений,
обучающихся по направлению 540300 — Филологическое образование

5-е издание, стереотипное

9
ACADEMA
Москва
Издательский центр «Академия»
2012
УДК 802.0+796/799(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
------ А647------------ —'

Авторы: § г
Е.А. Баженова, А. Ю. Гренлунд, Л.Я. Ковалева, А. В. Соколова

Рецензенты:
кафедра психолого-педагогических дисциплин и иностранных языков
Педагогического института физической культуры Московского городского
педагогического университета (зав. кафедрой — кандидат педагогических наук,
профессор В. В. Анисимов)',
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры английской филологии
Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета Е. И. Варгина;
доктор педагогических наук, профессор, зав. кафедрой иностранных языков
Воронежского государственного педагогического университета Ж. В. Перепелкина

Английский язык для физкультурн


» I 3 № '■ і Щ * ■
стул
/ [Е. А. Баженова, А. Ю
JI.Я. Ковалева, А. В. Соколова]. — 5-е изд., стер. —М .: Изда­
тельский центр «Академия», 2012. — 352 с.
ISBN 978-5-7695-9370-3
Учебник содержит фонетический и грамматический справочный мате­
риал, профессионально ориентированные, страноведческие и художе­
ственные тексты, лексические и грамматические упражнения, направлен­
ные на развитие навыков устной речи, чтения и понимания специальной
литературы. В конце книги дан англо-русский словарь спортивных тер­
минов. В 3-е издание были внесены изменения и дополнения.
Для студентов вь
1

«нов
,s П М У - Д І Ң б ъ ь * 66 0+796/799(075
: Бейсембаев БК 81.2 Англ-9

гЫнші-макет данного издания является собственностью


. Г й Лі ■» ___л . : _____
Издательской ifewh%q\«AtopdeMUH*, и его воспроизведение любым способом
- ^ бе^согтак правообладателя запрещается

Баженова Е. А., Гренлунд А. Ю., Ковалева Л.Я.,


Соколова А. В., 2006
Баженова Е.А., Гренлунд А. Ю., Ковалева Л. Я.,
Соколова А. В., с исправлениями, 2007
Образовательно-издательский центр «Академия*, 20<
ISBN 978-5-7695-9370-3 © Оформление. Издательский центр «Академия*, 2007
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Учебник предназначен для студентов физкультурных вузов пер­


вого и второго курсов, составлен в соответствии с требованиями
программы по английскому языку для неязыковых специальностей
высших учебных заведений и может быть использован как для
аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы. Ввиду того что в
нем предложен материал для групп разного уровня подготовлен­
ности, структура книги построена на основе грамматико-темати-
ческой, а не поурочной организации и позволяет преподавателю
творчески планировать процесс обучения.
Учебник состоит из вводного фонетического курса и основного
курса.
В вводном фонетическом курсе рассматриваются такие понятия,
как ударение, звуки, мелодика английского предложения. Для ус­
воения фонетического материала предложена характеристика зву­
ковой системы английского языка в сопоставлении с русской, спе­
циальный раздел посвящен звукам, не имеющим соответствий в
русском языке. Тренировочные упражнения и тексты базируются
на спортивной лексике.
Основной курс состоит из двух частей. В части I, предназначен­
ной для первого курса обучения, рассматриваются особенности
строения и функционирования частей речи, система видовремен­
ных форм, модальные глаголы и страдательный залог. Часть II со­
держит материал второго курса обучения и начинается с темы «Гла­
гол», которая введена для повторения видовременных форм, изу­
ченных на первом курсе. *“
Логическая последовательность расположения грамматическо­
го материала выполнена по принципу нарастания трудностей. Все
темы сопровождаются достаточным количеством упражнений, раз­
нообразие которых служит осуществлению задач по овладению
грамматикой, лексикой и способствует развитию коммуникатив­
ных навыков. Часть упражнений предполагает творческое участие
студентов в учебном процессе. Многообразие текстов, упражнений
и диалогов позволяет варьировать их отбор при презентаций учеб­
ного материала для каждой группы студентов и индивидуально с
учетом уровня владения языком.
Каждая часть заканчивается текстами для дополнительного чте­
ния и заданиями к ним. Здесь представлены не только профессио­
3
нально ориентированные тексты, охватывающие широкий диапа­
зон спортивных специализаций, но и страноведческие и художе­
ственные.
В приложении помещена таблица основных форм неправиль­
ных глаголов.
Книга снабжена англо-русским словарем спортивных терминов.
Авторы преподаватели Национального государственного уни­
верситета физической культуры, спорта и здоровья им. П.Ф.Лес-
гафта (Санкт-Петербург) выражают искреннюю благодарность ка­
федре психолого-педагогических дисциплин и иностранных язы­
ков Педагогического института физической культуры Московско­
го городского педагогического университета, заведующему кафед­
рой профессору В. В. Анисимову, кандидату филологических наук
А. С. Джанумову и заведующей кафедрой иностранных языков НГУ
им. П. Ф.Лесгафта доценту Н. А. Пикач, чьи полезные замечания
способствовали улучшению качества этой книги.
ВВОДНЫЙ ФОНЕТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС

ОСОБЕННОСТИ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ПРОИЗНОШ ЕНИЯ

Одной из главных задач при изучении иностранных языков яв­


ляется овладение произношением и правилами чтения. При про­
изнесении звуков английского языка имеются свои особенности,
которые необходимо учитывать.
1. Позиция языка.
Когда мы говорим по-русски, язык чаще всего находится внизу
и относительно расслаблен.
Задание. Произнесите свое имя. Обратите внимание на привычное поло­
жение языка при произнесении русских звуков.
При произнесении же английских звуков требуется, чтобы язык
был напряжен и почти всегда находился у неба (вверху), боковые
края языка должны упираться в верхние боковые зубы (эффект при­
ставшей к верхнему небу конфеты). При соблюдении этих условий
тембр голоса становится «английским», т.е. несколько «металли­
ческим» по сравнению с русским.
2. Позиция губ.
Для английских звуков характерен так называемый «плоский ук­
лад» или «рекламная улыбка». В тех ситуациях, когда при произ­
несении русских звуков (например, звука [у]) губы сильно округ­
лены и выдвинуты вперед, в английском языке, напротив, плос­
кие губы напряжены и растянуты в подобие улыбки, причем вид­
ны верхние и нижние зубы.
Задание. Произнесите слово foot [fat] стопа ноги. Следите за тем, чтобы
звук [о] не был похож на русский звук [у]. Повторите его несколько раз.
3. Особая роль звуков [т ], [п], [I].
Для английской речи очень важна музыкальность и долгота та­
ких звуков, как [ml, (п], |1]. Русские звуки [м], [н), [л) (их называ­
ют сонантами) не столь музыкальны и длительны, как английские,
поэтому при овладении английским произношением следует при­
давать длительности этих звуков большое значение.

5
Задание. Произнесите фразу My name is ... + свое собственное имя «на
английский манер». Тяните сонанты.

ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ЗВУКОВ
1. Для русского языка характерно полное оглушение звонких со­
гласных звуков [б], [д], [г], [з], [в], [ж] в конце слова перед паузой,
а также перед другими согласными. В английском языке оглуше­
ние конечных звонких согласных недопустимо.
Задание. Произнесите слово good [gud] несколько раз. Не забывайте о
положении языка и губ.
2. В русском языке существуют пары твердых и мягких соглас­
ных, выполняющих смыслоразличительные функции: быт — быть,
мол —моль и т. д.
В английском языке смягчение звуков не выполняет смыслораз­
личительной функции. ^ ь й Г>wЩ-.Іж- U\v-k.
Запомните! Смягчение согласных звуков вносит весьма заметный ак­
цент в английское произношение и является характерной ошибкой учащихся.
Задание. Произнесите слово team [tiim] команда (спорт.). Звук |tl произ­
носится твердо. Тяните звук [т ].
3. В русском языке долгота гласного звука не меняет значения
слова: умный — у-у-умный, море — мо-о-оре.
В английском языке значение слова изменяется в зависимости
от краткости или долготы гласного звука: live [lrv] жить — leave
[lrv] уезжать, покидать. Долгота звука обозначается знаком [:}.
Таким образом, ошибки в долготе и краткости звуков могут при­
вести к искажению смысла высказывания.
Задание. Произнесите слова live и leave, акцентируя внимание на долготе
звука.
4. При произнесении английских согласных [t], [d], [n], [1] кон­
чик языка смыкается с альвеолами, т.е. бугорками над верхними
зубами, что помогает избегать смягчения и оглушения твердых и
звонких согласных. ■
Задание. Поднимите кончик языка, аккуратно прикоснитесь к бугоркам
за верхними передними зубами так, как будто хотите поставить аккуратную
точку. Помните, в английской речи язык почти всегда напряжен. А теперь
произнесите слова good и date [deit] несколько раз. Если вы все сделали пра­
вильно, то почувствуете, что не оглушать согласные достаточно легко.
5. Английские звуки [р], [t], [к] произносятся гораздо энергич­
нее, чем соответствующие русские глухие согласные. Их особен­
ность состоит в том, что они произносятся с придыханием.
6
Задание. Произнесите слово «копыто». Постарайтесь, чтобы звуки [к],
[п], [т] звучали более энергично, чем в русском языке.
6. В отличие от русского звука [х] английский [h] звучит прак­
тически бесшумно (как легкий выдох).
Запомните! Русский звук [х] однозначно воспринимается носителями ан­
глийского языка как [к].
Задание. Произнесите слово house [haos] дом, обращая внимание на бес­
шумность произнесения звука [Һ].

ПРОИЗНОШ ЕНИЕ АНГЛИЙСКИХ ЗВУКОВ

В силу ряда исторических причин в английском языке существу­


ет значительное расхождение между написанием слов и их произ­
ношением.
Поэтому в большинстве англо-русских словарей после каждого
слова в квадратных скобках дается его фонетическая транскрипция,
причем каждый знак транскрипции соответствует одному опреде­
ленному звуку.
Ниже приводится таблица всех английских звуков (20 гласных
и 24 согласных) с фонетической транскрипцией в сопоставлении
со звуками русского языка.

1. Гласные звуки

Характеристика звуков Примеры


Близок протяжному русскому звуку [и] в слове team,
красивый beam
beat
Близок краткому звуку |и | в словах игрок, икра.
Произнесите несколько раз звуковую пару [и] — (ы).
Английский звук (i) будет средним между этими двумя
звуками
Несколько похож на протяжно произнесенный звук [о) sport
в словах толк, полный court
ball
Напоминает короткий звук [о] в словах кот тот knock,
lost, top
Несколько похож на протяжно произнесенный звук (а:) start, bar
в словах галка, каска, мало. Звук долгий car
Сходен с русским звуком (а] в безударном положении run, cup
в словах камыш, Москва. Так называемое «скупое» [а] must

7
Окончание

Звуки Характеристика звуков Примеры


[з:] Сходен с русским звуком [ё] в слове Гёте turn,
learn, 1
hurt 1
[э] Краткий безударный звук. Практически совпадает swimmer,
с русским безударным звуком в словах город, комната, boxer,
\вода driver
[u;] Сходен с русским протяжно произнесенным [у:] в слове pool,
разумный snooker,
do 1
M Несколько похож на русский звук [у] в слове душный foot,
took,
stood
[эе] Подобного звука в русском языке нет. Он представляет 1mat, ban, 1
собой нечто среднее между русскими звуками [а] и [э]. 1bad
Приблизительно напоминает звук [а] в слове пять
[е] Близок русскому звуку [э] в слове эти 1set, net,
1 best, ten

Тренировочные упражнения
1. be [bi;] been [bin] deep [dip] team [tLm]
me [mi:] deal [di:l] meet [mit] beam [bi:m]
tea [ti:] meal [mi:l] seat [sit] see [si:]
2. kick [kik] stick [stik] six [siks] in [m]
bin [bin] Ш [il] limb [hm] bit [bit]
nil [ml] did [did] till [til] ht [lit]
3. sport [spat] floor [Ad:] door [do:] brought [bro.t]
for [fo:] lawn [Ion] court [ko:t] draw [dro:]
force [fas] bought [bo:t] saw [so:] fall [fo:l]
4. lost [lost] cost [kDSt] rock [mk] clock [klDk]
got [gDt] not [m>t] hockey [Іюкі] rob [rob]
hot [hot] top [top] knock[nDk] lot [lDt]
5. ask [ask] start [start] pass [pars] task [task]
heart [hat] party ['pcutij cart [ka:t] far [fa]
fast [fast] dart [dat] park [pa*k] art [at]
6. run [глп] cup [клр] must [mASt] gun [длп]
cut [lovt] some [saiti] come [клгп] begun [Ы'длп]
love [Lvv] done [dAn] blood [bkd] country ['k/vntri]
8
7. first [f3:st] turn [t3:n] learn [1з:п] bum [Ьз:п]
burst [b3:st] heard [h3:d] hurt [h3:t] verb [v3:b]
her [һз:] firm [f3:m] serve [s3:v] term [t3:m]
8. swimmer ['swima] boxer Cboksa] doctor ['dnkta] driver ['drarva]
bigger [*biga] faster [’fa:sta] hotter ['hota] sprinter [’spnnta]
loser flu:za] winner [Vina] teacher [‘tltja] player f'pleia]
9. pool [pid] snooker ['snirka] do [du:] food [lu:d]
lose [hrz] loser ['lixza] move [mu:v] root [ru:t]
noon [nu:n] who [hit] too [ta] shoot [fu:t]
10. foot [fut] took [tuk] hook [huk] put [put]
nook [nuk] stood [stud] good [gudj pull [pul]
look [luk] book [buk] cook [kuk] crook [kruk]
11. man [maen] ban [baen] bad [baed] land [laend]
can [kaen] sat [saet] mat [maet] sand [ssend]
cap [kaepj back [baek] fat [faet] bat [baet]
12. get [get] let [let] net [net] said [sed]
held [held] led [led] kept [kept] men [men]
meant [ment] met [met] set [set] best [best]

2. Дифтонга
Дифтонг — гласный звук, состоящий из двух элементов. Ударе­
ние должно всегда падать на первый элемент. Второй элемент зву­
чит менее отчетливо и произносится без ударения слитно с первым.
Звуки Характеристика звуков Примеры
[ai] Близок сочетанию русских звуков в словах дай, чайка style,
line, ice
[ei] Сходен с сочетанием русских звуков в слове шейка fail, relay,
take
[Dl] Сходен с сочетанием русских звуков в словах разбой, point,
мойка choice,
oil
[au] Сходен с сочетанием русских звуков в словах пауза, ground,
маузер, сауна bout, now
[au] Сходен с сочетанием русских звуков в слове клоун coach,
cope,
open
[ea] Первый элемент близок звуку [э] в слове эта, care,
второй — похож на русский звук [а] в безударном fare,
положении air

9
Окончание
Звуки Характеристика звуков Примеры
[1Э] Первый элемент немного похож на русский звук [и|, here,
второй — на [а] в безударном положении cheer,
near
[иэ] Первый элемент похож на русский звук [у], но язык cure
должен быть немного выдвинут вперед, второй —
на русский звук [а] в безударном положении

Тренировочные упражнения
l. island ['ailand] eye [ai] try [trai] child [tjaild]
buy [bai] ice [ais] style [stail] mild [maild]
2. weight [weit] pay [pei] paid [peid] way [wei]
eight [eit] say [sei] lay [lei] date [deit]
3. point [point] soil [soil] voice [vois] joy [tfcoi]
noise [noiz] choice [tjois] boy [boi] foil [foil]
oil [oil] boil [boil] join [c&oin] toy [toi]
4. allow [a'lau] about [a'baut] bout [baut] brown [braun]
town [taun] stout [staut] count [kaunt] how [hau]
out [aut] down [daun] ground [graund] now |itau]
5. row [rau] total [tautl] hold [hauld] toe [tau]
know [паи] known [naun] told [tauld] boat [baut]
show |Jou] goal [gaul] coach [kautj] road [raud]
6. hair [hea] fair [fea] air [ea] share [fea]
where [wea] there [без] care [kea] rare [rea]
stare [stea] spare [spea] chair [tjea] ware [wea]
7. fear [fia] here [hia] dear [dia] mere [mia]
clear [kha] ear [ia] sphere [sfia] deer [dia]
cheer [t/ia] fierce [fias] steer [stia] rear [na]
8. moor [mua] tourist ['tuanst] cure [kjua] plural [pluaral]
poor [pua] boor [bua] sure [fua] pure [pjua]
tournament tourniquet cruel [krual] furious [’fluanas]
ftuanamant] ['toam,kei]

3. Согласные звуки
Звуки \ Характеристика звуков Примеры
[p] Практически соответствует русскому звуку [п], но про­ play,
износится с легким придыханием, напряженные губы prize,
размыкаются с сильным шумом puck

10
Продолжение

Звуки Характеристика звуков Примеры


[Ъ] Практически соответствует русскому [б], но произно­ ball, body,
сится более энергично break
М Похож на русский звук [т]. В отличие от русского [т] team,
кончик языка напряжен очень сильно и плотно прижат take, top
к альвеолам
fdl Сходен с русским [д]. Кончик языка — на альвеолах do, said,
draw
W Напоминает [кх) (где [х] звучит очень легко). Произ­ coach,
носится с придыханием catch, ke
[g] От русского [г] отличается большей напряженностью go, good,
органов речи game
(ml Губы плотно сомкнуты. Отличается от русского [м] meet,
большей музыкальностью и продолжительностью зву­ muscle,
чания make
In] Кончик языка прикасается к альвеолам. Отличается net,
от русского [н] большей музыкальностью и продол­ number,
жительностью звучания nose
[1] I Кончик языка плотно прижат к альвеолам. Отличается let, life,
от русского [л] большей музыкальностью и продолжи- look, all
тельностью. Смягченное [л] произносится в начале
слова перед гласным звуком, более твердое [л] —
в конце слова
[f] Отличается от русского [ф] тем, что нижняя губа при­ fan,
жимается к верхним зубам не с внешней, а с внутрен­ finger,
ней стороны fist

[V ] Отличается от русского [в] тем, что нижняя губа have,


гично упирается в верхние зубы не с внешней, а с вну- move,
стороны very
[S ] Кончик языка находится у альвеол. От русского [с] see, fast,
отличается большей «пронзительностью» stop
М От русского [з] также отличается большей «пронзи­ lose,
тельностью». Кончик языка находится у альвеол zone,
please
in Органы речи слегка расслаблены. Звук отличается shin, shirt,
от русского [ш] значительно большей мягкостью shoes
[3] От русского [ж] отличается значительно большей measure,
мягкостью. Напоминает русское [ж] в слове вожжи pleasure

11
Окончание
Характеристика звуков Примеры
Похож на слабый звук, когда дышат на стекло. head,
Русский звук [х] гораздо более шумный

Несколько похож на русский звук [р] в слове жрица. room,


Кончик языка — у альвеол. Губы — в положении про­ carry,
изнесения русского звука [у] rest
Напоминает русский звук [й] перед гласной буквой yet, yes,
(как в слове если [йэсли]). Русский звук [й] более you
шумный
Звук отличается от русского [ч] большей твердостью chin,
Кончик языка — на альвеолах chain,
coach
Мягче русского [дж] judge,
gym, age

Тренировочные упражнения
1. palm [pcum] play [plei] puck [рлк]
push [puj] puU [pul] point [point]
2. ball [bo:l] body [bodi] back [baek]
break [breik] bout [baut] bar [ba: ]
3. team [ti:m] test [test] top [tDp]
train [trem] turn [t3:n] take [teik]
4. dive [daiv] dip [dip] drop [drop]
5. catch [kaetj] cup [клр] coach [kautj]
kick [kik] stroke [strauk] key [ki]
6. go [дэи] game [geim] goal [дәиі]
ground [graund] grip [grip] get [get]
7. muscle [rrusl] move [rmrv] mouth [таив]
much [nutj] match [maetf] meet [mi:t]
8. neck [nek] know [пэи] net [net]
knee [ni:] shin [fin] sign [sain]
9. limb [lim] list [list] lawn [tan]
law [Id:] leap [li:p] lift [lift]
10. finish ['finij] first [f3:st] faU [fo:l]
feel [fi:l] find [faind] fight [fait]
И. vault [vo:lt] visit [Vizit] vital [vaitl]
vote [v3utj move [mirv] view [vju:]
12. set [set] sport [spo:t] skill [skil]
start [start] skate [skeit] ski [ski:]
13. zone [гэип] prize [praiz] lose [lu:z]
nose [пэиг] choose [tjkz] says [sez]
14. shoot [firt] shoulder [’Jduldd] shot [fot]
show Цзи] should Lfud] push [ptif]
15. mesure ['тезэ] pleasure ['ріезә] vision [vi3n]
16. hand (haend] head [hed] hold [hauld]
heart [ha:t] half [ha:f] horse [hxs]
17. run [глп] race [reis] rule [ru:l]
rib [rib] round [raund] raise [reiz]
18. yacht [jot] knew [nju:] suit [sjut]
few [flu:] cue [kju:] you [ju:]
19. chest [tjest] choice [tjbis] change [tjeind3]
coach [kdutj] chin [tjrn] cheek [t]l:k]
20. gym [d3im] large [la:d3] judge [d3Ad3]
age [eid3] range [reind3] stage [steid3 ]

4. Звуки, не имеющие соответствий в русском языке


— —

Звуки Характеристика звуков Примеры


[Ө] Напоминает произношение русского звука [с] шепе- throw,
лявящими людьми. Самый кончик языка находится think
на нижних зубах, а воздух при произнесении звука
проходит между языком и слегка касающимися его
верхними зубами. Верхние и нижние зубы обнажены L . -

[6] Звонкое соответствие звука [Ө], т.е. шепелявое произ­ bathe,


ношение русского [з] there
[Q] Напоминает произношение русского звука [н] челове­ strong,
ком с сильным насморком (не путать с русским [нг]). skiing
Рот при произнесении этого звука открыт
[w] В русском языке подобного звука нет. Произнесите win,
русский звук [у]. Напряженные губы образуют круглую weight
щель. В данном положении произнесите русский звук
[в]. Нижняя губа не должна касаться верхних зубов

Тренировочные упражнения
1. throw [Өгәи] threw [Өги:] think [Өіпк]
thought [Өэл] bath [Ьа:Ө] three [Өгі:]
13
2. this [dis] that [5aet] bathe [beid]
there [деэ] breathe [brird] these [di:z]
3. strong [strorj] skiing [ski:ir>] thing [Өіц]
long [lor)] ring [rig] swing [swirj]
4. win [win] won [WAJl] waist [weist]
whistle [wisl] warm [worm] weight [weitl

УДАРЕНИЕ

Словесное ударение

Выделение в речи одного или двух слогов в слове называется сло­


весным ударением. Иногда ударение имеет смыслоразличительное
значение (т. е. если изменить ударение в слове, то изменится зна­
чение слова). Например: мука и мука, замок и замок. Но даже в тех
случаях, когда ударение не очень важно, слово с неправильно по­
ставленным ударением сразу же обращает на себя внимание слу­
шающих. ! 1' !
В разных языках ударный слог выделяется по-разному. В китай­
ском или вьетнамском языке ударный слог выделяется при помо­
щи повышения тона {мелодическое ударение). В русском языке удли­
нение гласного звука в ударном слоге меняет значение слова (му-ука
или мука-а). Таким образом, в русском языке ударение длительно-
стное. В английском языке ударный слог произносится с большей
энергией (силовое ударение). Не случайно рок-н-ролл был создан
именно носителями английского языка. В этом музыкальном сти­
ле отражен ритмо-энергичный склад английской речи, который
формируется при помощи силового английского ударения.
В английской транскрипции ударение обозначается знаком ['].
Оно ставится перед ударным слогом. Например: rowing ['гэиц)] греб­
ля, participate [pa: tisipeit] участвовать (в соревнованиях и т. п.).
В многосложных словах часто встречаются два ударных слога_
один слог имеет главное ударение ['], а другой — второстепенное [].
Например: goalkeeper [^әи1,кі:рэ] вратарь, competition [.kompi'tifni
соревнование, specialization [,spejblai'zeif(a)n] специализация.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Прочитайте и запомните названия видов спорта. Следите за произно
■пениемзвуков. -V ... "1 • |Ш*- _
gymnastics [d^m'nsestiks] — гимнастика
rythmic ['пӨшік] gymnastics — художественная гимнастика
aerobics [e(e)'raubiks] — аэробика
4
shaping ['/еірц)] — шейпинг
track [traek] -and-field [fidd] — легкая атлетика
football ['ftjtbo:l] — футбол
volleyball [Vohbprl] — волейбол
basketball [ba:skrtbo:l] — баскетбол
handball [’haendbod] — гандбол
Oriental [,o:n'entl] martial [ma:Jl] arts [a:ts] — восточные единобор­
ства
boxing [boksirj] — бокс
kick-boxing [ЙкЪюквЦ)] — кикбоксинг
wrestling ['resin)] — борьба
■К
Запомните словосочетания:
• играть в футбол — play [plei] football (play используется для всех
игровых видов спорта)
• заниматься борьбой — go [дэо] wrestling (go употребляется для
всех неигровых видов спорта)
• играть в хоккей — practise ['praektis] hockey, заниматься вело­
спортом — practise cycling (practise употребляется для игровых
и неигровых видов спорта).
2. Прочитайте и запомните названия видов спорта.
hockey ['hold] — хоккей
Mass [maes] Outdoor ['autdo:] Healthy[’һеІӨі] Activity [aek'tiviti] —
М ассовая ф и зку л ьту р н о -о зд о р о ви тел ьн ая работа и туризм
(М Ф ОРиТ)
night ('nait] orienteering [,э:пәп'и(ә)пі]] — ночное ориентирование
cycling [’saikhrj] — велоспорт
skiing [‘skiiiol — лыжный спорт
alpine [‘aelpain] events [iVents] — горнолыжные виды спорта
ski-jumping [skii'd^mpiQ] — прыжки с трамплина
mountaineering [Ішаип1і'ш(ә)пц] — альпинизм
tobogganing [іәЪвдәпц)] — санный спорт
skating ['skeitir)] — конькобежный спорт
figure-skating [’figs^keitiQ] — фигурное катание
rock [rok] climbing ['klaimiq] — скалолазание
fencing ['fensiq) — фехтование
jogging ['d3 Dgirj] — бег трусцой
rowing f’raorrj] — гребля
canoeing [кэ'пшг)] — байдарочный спорт
yachting ['jDtio] — парусный спорт
weightlifting ['weit.liftir)] — тяжелая атлетика
bodybuilding ['budi.bildirj] — бодибилдинг
swimming j'swimir)] — плавание
diving ['damrj] — прыжки в воду
water polo [Vorta .рэиіэи) — водное поло
15
horse-racing ['һэ^гешг)] — конный спорт
horse-riding [,ho:s,rai<lir>] — верховая езда
table ['teiblj tennis ['tenis] — настольный теннис
lawn [1э:п] tennis — большой теннис
billiard [t>ilj9d] — бильярд
golf [golf] — гольф
darts [da:ts] — дротики
curling ['кз:1іг)] — керлинг
3. Составьте словосочетания с названиями видов спорта из упр. 1, 2 и 3.
Используйте глаголы play, go, practise.

4. Прочитайте текст вслух. Следите за произношением.


The students of Lesgaft University practise gymnastics, swimming and
skiing regularly. These events are in the University curriculum. Besides,
students practise wrestling, boxing, weightlifting, bodybuilding, play
football, hockey, handball, go rowing, fencing and so on. It depends on
their sports specialization.
Sport is in progress. Some new sports are practised in the University
They are taekwondo, shaping, aerobics, curling, sports orienteering
diving.

Фразовое ударение
Выделение в речи некоторых слов в высказывании называется
фразовым ударением. Ударное слово во фразе обозначается знаком
[ ], который ставится перед ударным словом.
Неударными обычно бывают служебные слова: артикли, вспомо-
также
альные
Все остальные части речи являютсяударными. Не за(
английское ударение формируется путем более энерп
изношения, а не «растяжения» слова, как в русском язі
мер: His eVent is 'swimming, (event [iVent] — вид спорта)

Тренировочное упражнение
His eVent is 'swimming. He 'goes ['дэог] 'swimming.
Her eVent is 'diving. She 'practises ['praektisiz] 'diving
Our eVent is 'basketball. Wfe 'play 'hockey.
Their eVent is 'football. They 'practise 'football.

Логическое ударение
Выделение одного или нескольких слов в предложении, наибо-
важных по смыслу, называется логическим ударением. Его могут
16
иметь любые слова (как ударные, так и неударные). Например: 'His
event is 'swimming. 'Her event is 'diving.

МЕЛОДИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ

Мелодика — это изменение в высоте тона различных слогов в


предложении. Это изменение может быть нисходящим, восходящим,
ровным.

Нисходящий тон
При нисходящем тоне каждый слог произносится, как прави­
ло, несколько ниже, чем предыдущий. Нисходящий тон изобража-
ется стрелкой, направленной вниз и стоящей перед ударным сло­
гом. Например: т у е *ч vent.
Нисходящий тон употребляется:
1. В утвердительных и отрицательных предложениях. Например:
His eVent is •> cycling. His eVent ~ч isn’t skiing.
Отрицание всегда отмечается фразовым ударением.
2. В повелительных предложениях. Например: 'Do this ~ч exercise!
3. В специальных вопросах. Например:
'What’s your 'sports grade? — Какой у тебя разряд?
4. В приветствиях и в других случаях. Например: ~ч Hi!

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания. Скажите, где вы тренируетесь.
Следите за ударениями в словах. Начните так: I have training sessions....
in the gym [d3im] — в спортзале
in the swimming pool ['swimiij pu:l] — в бассейне
at the stadium [ 'steidiam j — на стадионе
at the sports ground [graond] — на спортплощадке
hold [hauld] (held [held], held) — проводить (соревнования и т.п.)
sports facilities [fa'silitizj — спортивное оборудование
training session [Чгеіпщ ,sejn] — тренировка
2. Прочитайте текст вслух. Следите за произношением. Соблюдайте ин­
тонацию.
The structure of Lesgaft University includes many sports facilities: the
swimming poo^-jhe-training complex in the settlement Kavgolovo, the
Olympic cycling centre, the rowing station, the stadium and gyms. All
the students have regular training sessions. Swimmers train in the
swimming ppol, gymnasts — in the gyml The race takes place on the sports
в
;дагы ғылыми j]
Восходящий тон

При общем восходящем направлении тона каждый последую­


щий ударный слог произносится несколько выше другого. Восхо­
дящий тон изображается стрелкой, направленной вверх и стоящей
перед ударным слогом: is _> he?
Восходящий тон употребляется:
1) в общих вопросах;
2) при перечислении однородных членов предложения;
3) при расставании и в других случаях. Например:
'Are you an -> athlete?
'Have you а -> coach?
-> One, -> two, -> three.
Bye! I ' ■

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Прочитайте тексты, соблюдая правильную интонацию.
™ nLT^ e uV™Verf / durin§ its 100-уеаг history has trained more than
30,000 highly-qualified specialists. Among them there are a lot of Masters
of Sports, Merited Masters of Sports, Masters of Sports of International
Level, European (Уиәгә'рі:эп]), world record-holders and Olympic
champions. ,

b) A COACH AND HIS ATHLETES


Mr Smith is a football coach. John is a football player. Mr Smith is
John s coach. Mr Smith is a Merited Master of Sports. John has the first
grade. He is a very good football player. He often takes part in
competitions. Ц
When the weather is warm, football players often have training sessions
outdoors - on the sports ground or on the football pitch (поле). In winter
athletes have their training sessions indoors.
Mr Smith is a good professional coach and a former amateur football
player. He trains and motivates his athletes. There are two Masters of
Sports m the team. The team often participates in the city competitions
and wins prizes. It’s one of the city top teams.
Who is Mr Smith? He is a coach. What’s his sports level? He is a
Merited Master of Sports. Is John a Master of Sports? No, he isn’t. He
has the first grade. Is Mr Smith a former football player? Yes he is. He
was one of the top football players in the past.
ЗапомнитеІ Если название вида спорта на английском языке заканчи­
вается на -mg — например: boxing, то, заменив окончание -ing на -ег мы
назовем спортсмена, который занимается данным видом спорта, — boxer
[bDks3] — боксер.

18
Если речь идет об игровых видах спорта, то используется слово player.
Например: hockey — hockey player.

Тренировочное упражнение
A boxer practises boxing.
A swimmer practises swimming.
A wrestler practises wrestling.
2. а) Скажите, как называются по-английски спортсмены, занимающие­
ся следующими видами спорта:
.. kick-boxing, figure-skating, rowing, diving, weightlifting, fencing
б) Назовите по-английски спортсменов, которые специализируются в сле­
дующих спортивных играх:
football, volleyball, handball, basketball, water polo
3. Прочитайте правильно следующие слова и словосочетания:
athlete [’аеӨІЛ] — спортсмен, спортсменка
coach [kautj] — тренер
have the first [f3.*st] grade [greid] — иметь первый разряд
have the second [’sekand] grade — иметь второй разряд
have the third [03:d] grade —иметь третий разряд
be a Master [’ma:sta] of Sports [spots] — быть мастером спорта
be a Master of Sports of International [.inta'naefnl] Level —быть мас­
тером спорта международного уровня
be a Merited ['mentid] Master of Sports — быть заслуженным мас­
тером спорта
record-holder ['rekord.haulda] — рекордсмен
champion [Ч/aempian] — чемпион
Запомните: gymnast ['djimnaest], tennisist ftenisist], cyclist fsaiklist], track-
and-field athlete, ski racer freisa].
4. Переведите выделенные слова и словосочетания с ними на русский
язык.
be: Master of Sports / Candidate of Master of Sports / Master of Sports
of International Level
have: the firet grade / the second grade / the third grade
events: cycling, rowing, skiing, wrestling, track-and-field, fencing,
speed-skating, gymnastics, figure-skating, basketball, volleyball, moun­
taineering, artistic gymnastics
5. Прочитайте вопросы и ответы. (Работа в парах.)
1. Are you engaged / involved in sport? — Yes, I am. 2. Are you an
athlete? — Yes, I am. I am an athlete. 3. Are you a swimmer? — Yes, I
am. / No, I am not. 4. Have you a coach? — Yes, I have. 5. What is your
19
sports level? — I am a Candidate of Master of Sports. / I have the first
grade. 6. Is your coach a Merited Master of Sports? — Yes, he is. / No,
he is not. 7. Where do you train? — I train in the swimming pool / at the
stadium / on the court / on the track / on the ground. 8. Do you
participate in the competitions? — Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. 9. Do you
win prizes? — Yes, I do. / No I don’t. 10. Are you a skier / a gymnast / a
skater / a rower? — Yes, I am. / No, I am not. 11. What is your sports
specialization [.spejalai'zeiftajn]? — I am a boxer.
6. Закончите высказывания.
1 . 1 practise .... 2. My event is .... 3 .1 am a .... 4. My coach is .... 5 .1
train in the .... 6 . 1 began to practise .... 7 . 1 take part in ... competitions.
8. The tournament took place in .... 9. My favourite sport is ... but I also
like ...,... a n d __ ’
7. Скажите по-русски:
athlete; coach; compete; event; practise; competitions; participate; win
prizes; referee; perform; judge; performance; be good at
8. Ответьте на вопросы, используя слова в скобках.
1. Where do gymnasts train? (in the hall, in the gym, on the sports
ground)
2. What events do athletes practise? (fencing, cycling, track-and-field)
3. What sports grade does this athlete have? (thefirst grade, the second
grade)
4. In what competitions do athletes participate? (swimming, cycling,
boxing)
9. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.
Athletics (track-and-field) is not only the oldest but also the most
popular sport. Running, jumping and throwing were popular in some
ancient countries: Greece, Egypt and Assyria. Modern athletics began in
the 19th century. Running races were held on open fields and later on at
the stadiums, where athletes trained and competed. The first Russian
athletics club appeared in 1888 in Petersburg. It started the development
of Russian athletics. Many Soviet athletes showed good results in running,
the Znamensky brothers were among them. Soviet athletes began to
participate in international competitions in 1946. Wfe know world and
Olympic champions: V. Borzov, V. Brumel, V. Katz and many others.
10. Скажите по-английски:
современная атлетика; наиболее популярный вид спорта; сорев­
нования по бегу; древние страны; проводиться; соревноваться; по­
явиться; показывать хорошие результаты; принимать участие; меж­
дународные соревнования; чемпионы мира и Олимпийских игр
20
11. Выучите следующие глаголы:
catch [kaetj] — ловить
compete [кәт'рі.1] — состязаться
dive [daiv] — нырять; прыгать с вышки в воду
fall [fo:l] — падать
go [дэи] — идти, ехать
jog [d^og] — бегать трусцой
jump [ёзлтр] — прыгать
lose [lirz] (lost [lost], lost) — проигрывать
move [mirv] — двигаться
participate [pa'tisipeit] — принимать участие (в соревнованиях
и т. п.)
pass [pas] — передавать (мяч, шайбу и т.п.)
run [глп] — бегать
serve [S3:v] — подавать (мяч в игре)
shoot [fat] — стрелять
skate [skeit] — кататься на коньках
ski [ski:] — ходить на лыжах
swim [swim] (swam [swaem], swum [swaiti]) — плавать
throw [Өгэи] (thew [Өга], thrown [Өгәип]) — бросать, метать
win [win] (won [wmi], won) выигрывать
12. Заполните пропуски, используя глаголы движения:
go, swim, dive, move, run, jump, participate, win, lose, fall
I am a student of Lesgaft University. I ... to the gym nearly every day.
I often ... in the swimming pool too, but I can’t ... at all. If you are an
athlete, you should ... perfectly. You have to ... better than ordinary people.
I’m a gymnast. I regularly... in competitions. Sometimes I ..., sometimes
..., but I like t o __ I don’t like t o ___
13. Прочитайте диалог. Соблюдайте правильную интонацию. (Работа в
парах.)

ANY QUESTIONS?
Sergey: Can you tell me something about the words game and sport,
please? How can I use them?
Mr North: What’s the difficulty, Sergey?
Sergey: Well, football and tennis are games, aren’t they? Swimming
and rowing and rock-climbing are not games, are they?
What’s boxing? Is that a game or sport?
Boris: They have running and jumping and all sorts of things at the
Olympic Games. But running and jumping are not games.
Mr North: There are many things at the Olympic Games that are not
games. They’re athletic events. Let’s take the word game first.
Football and tennis are games. When we use the word game,
21
we generally think of some kind of sport in which there are
two sides or teams and eleven men in a football team, for
example, or fifteen if it’s rugby football.
Mrs North: It’s right to say that most outdoor games are played with balls,
isn’t it?
Mr North: Yes, most of them. Ice hockey’s an exception.
14. Закончите предложения.
1. Football and tennis are ... . 2. Most outdoor games are played
w ith.... 3. Running and jumping a re .... , . '' / .
15. Прочитайте диалог. Соблюдайте правильную интонацию. (Работа в
парах.)

ANY QUESTIONS?
Сcontinued)

Sergey: Games are played. That’s a useful thing to remember. But


what about boxing?
M r North: Boxing’s a sport, not a game. It’s true that we talk about
boxing matches and football matches You can say, “ Do you
play football? But if you ask about boxing, you must say,
“ Do you box? ” or “Are you a boxer?” •|
Sergey: You said that running and jumping were athletic events didn’t
you? ’
Mr North: Yes, athletic events. The high jump, the long jump, the hop,
step and jump, these are called field events. So are all the
events in which the athlete throws something — a heavy
weight, or discus, or a javelin. Running races are called track
events. The track is the ground that has been made for
running on. The marathon race is run across country, so it’s
not a track event. -•
16. Закончите предложения.
The high jump, the long jump, the hop, step and jump, these are
called .... 2. Running races are called .... 3. The track is the ground that
has been made fo r.... 4. The marathon race is run across country, s o __
17. Прочитайте текст.

ABOUT MYSELF
\ * ‘ үһ A lin фАТ А Д
Let me introduce myself. My first name is .... My surname is .... I was
bom m St Petersburg (Moscow, Sestroretsk) on the 2nd of May, 1983
Now I’m a first-year student of the Lesgaft State University of Physical
Education. My sport (kind of sport) is .... I have been doing it for 10
22
years. I’m a Candidate of Master of Sports. My coach’s name is .... He
is a Merited Master of Sports and a Master of Sports of International
Level. I train 6 times a week in the stadium or in the gym. I participated
in district (city, zone, Russia) com petitions, European and World
Tournaments (championships) and some other events. Sometimes I won
the titles (I have never won the titles).
18. Составьте рассказ о себе. Пользуйтесь лексикой упр. 17.
19. Составьте рассказ о своем друге. Расскажите, каким видом спорта он
занимается.
20. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык. (Письменно.)

ABOUT MYSELF
(continued)
My hobbies are: reading, watching TV (listening to the music, going
to the theatres, museums, discos and clubs, cooking, sewing, knitting).
In summer I like playing football (volleyball, basketball, badminton).
Tennis is also one of my favourite sports. Besides, I’m fond of swimming
and sunbathing.
In winter I usually practise skiing and skating. I’m a great figure-
skating fan. Sometimes I’m engaged in shaping (boxing, aerobics, body­
building) and I always enjoy riding a bike and going to the swimming pool.
After graduating from Lesgaft University I’m going to become a coach
or a physical education teacher.
21. Составьте рассказ о себе, пользуясь лексикой упр. 20.
I ш

22. Объедините два рассказа в один и перескажите их.


23. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.
top team — команда, занимающая лидирующее положение
amateur ('aemat(J)a] — любительский
professional [pra'fejnal] — профессиональный
Football is very famous all over the world and it is a very popular game
in Britain. It is called soccer in this country. The British are interested in
this sports event since early childhood. Every boy in Britain knows a lot
about the game. He can tell you the names of the players of top teams.
He has pictures of them and knows the results of many matches.
The soccer season begins in the middle of August, usually on the
second Saturday. All amateur and professional teams do their best and
train hard to win their matches.
Football is also played in the USA, but American football is quite
different from European soccer.
24. Прочитайте текст и диалоги. (Работа в парах.)

23
FOOTBALL
This afternoon I ’m taking my cousin and my uncle to a football match.
Simon s never seen a professional game. Uncle Guy hasn’t seen one for
years. Today’s match is between Arsenal and Liverpool.
Both of these teams are very good this season. I haven’t seen Liverpool
this season. They’re often the best teams in the first division. I often go
to the football matches. I usually go to Highbury to see Arsenal. Their
games are always good. I sometimes go to see Chelsea. Some of their
games are good, others are bad. Rugby’s another exciting sport, but I don’t
usually go to a rugby game.
The best sport’s football.

THE TEAMS
Пт: Look, Simon. The teams are coming onto the field. Have you
ever seen Arsenal?
Simon: No, I haven’t.
Tim: What about Jane? Has she ever seen a football match?
Simon: No, she’s never seen one. She doesn’t like football. Have your
parents ever seen a professional game?
Jim: No, they haven’t seen any professional games.
Simon: Which ones are Arsenal?
Tim: They’re in red and white.
Simon: Who’s kicking off?
Tim: Liverpool.
Simon: Are both teams good this season?
'Пт: Yes.
Simon: Which one’s better?
Пт: Liverpool is usually better than Arsenal, but this year Arsenal
is the best in the division.
Simon: Do they ever lose?
Пт: Oh yes. They sometimes lose, but they usually win. They
don’t often have a bad day.
Simon: Which team do you support?
Пт: I’ve supported Arsenal.
Simon: Me too. Dad’s never liked Arsenal

A GOAL
Пт: Liverpool hasn’t scored yet... what’s wrong?
M r Hunt: I’m not worried yet. They’ve only been on the field for half
an hour. This is only the first half.
2 " ‘’ # f f ok’ there’s Moor. He’s running up the wing. He’s good.
Mr Hunt: No, he isn t, he’s bad. He’s worse than the other winger.
24
Tim: He’s already scored one goal for Arsenal. Oh look! He’s near
the penalty area. And there’s Blaire. He’s Liverpool’s worst
defender. He’s tackling Moore.
M r Hunt: That’s not Blaire, that’s Blake. He’s Liverpool’s best player.
Tim: Collins is better than Blake. Look! Moor’s in the penalty area
now. He usually scores... Yes! Look at that a goal!
Mr Hunt: What’s the score now?
Tim: Arsenal two—Liverpool nil. What a game!

THE END OF THE GAME


Simon: Who’s winning now?
Tim: Arsenal is... three—nil. They’ve scored another goal.
Simon: Is this the last fifteen minutes?
Tim: Yes, it is.
Simon: Good. Liverpool can’t score four goals in a quarter of an
Mr Hunt: Yes, they can. Look! There’s a man running up the left
Now he’s got the ball.
Simon: jlays for Liverpool. He always scores,
Mr Hunt: right. Pass it, Hedge. He’s trying for a goal. Shoot!
Shoot! A g __
Simon: No, it isn’t.
Mr Hunt: Yes, it is. What a goal!
Simon: And that’s the end of the game. Arsenal has won again
three—one.
Mr Hunt: Yes, and Liverpool has lost. Oh well... they sometimes win.
other times they lose. That’s football!

A TERRIBLE GAME
Bob: What a terrible game!
Harry: Yes, Slade usually scores, but he hasn’t scored this afternoon.
Bob: He’s the team’s worst player. He hasn’t kicked the ball this
match.
Harry: He hasn’t been lucky.
Bob: Look! Baker’s scored a goal.
Harry: That’s the end of the game.
Bob: What a terrible match! It’s been the worst same this season.

ПРАВИЛА ЧТЕНИЯ ГЛАСНЫХ БУКВ


Следует иметь в виду, что в английском языке отчетли
носится только ударная гласная буква, безударные же (ка
произносятся вполсилы и практически все звучат
реже

25
Наибольшая трудность заключается в том, что у каждой глас­
ной буквы, за исключением о, есть четыре основных варианта чте­
ния в зависимости от типа слога. Различаются четыре типа слога:
I тип — открытый (оканчивающийся на гласную букву);
II тип закрытый (оканчивающийся на согласную букву);
III тип — гласная + г;
IV тип — гласная + г + е.
I Буква I тип слога II тип слога III тип СЛС IV тип слога
(открытый) (закрытый) (гласная + (гласная + г + е)
I Aa Ijei] name, take 1[ae] man [а:] саг, far [еэ] fare, саге
|E e I [r] he, she | [e] best, tell [з:] her [іэ] here
1[ai] life,~by 1[i] big, did [з:] first, fir [аіә] fire, tyre
1Oo [эи] rope I [t>] box [о:] fork [э:] more
1Uu [ t(j)u:] student I [л] bus [з:J curling Циә) pure

Следует учесть, что буквы i и у в английском языке читаются оди­


наково.
Деление на слоги в английском языке, в цринципе, такое же,
как в русском, но во внимание принимается не фактическое деле­
ние (как звучит слово), а условное (как оно пишется) Так буква е
в конце слов не читается (name, take), за исключением тех Случаев
когда она является единственной гласной (he, she, me), но условно
считается, что в первой группе слов два слога, и, значит, первый
слог — открытый (оканчивается на гласную) и читается как в ал­
фавите: na-me [neim], ta-ke [teik].
Граница слогоделения в словах с удвоенными согласными про­
ходит между удвоенными согласными буквами (din-ner), хотя в ан­
глийском языке две буквы п произносятся как один звук.

ЧТЕНИЕ СОЧЕТАНИЙ ГЛАСНЫХ БУКВ


В УДАРНОЙ ПОЗИЦИИ

Сочетание Положение в слове Транскрипция Примеры Исключения


Caesar
rain, stay

August, lawn
please, speak break [breikj
bread, head great [greit]

26
Окончание
Сочетание Положение в слове Транскрипция Примеры Исключения
ее и seen, been
ear] [19] hear, dear earn [з:п],
I ее Jг+ г earth [з:Ө]
I еу, ei [ei] veil, they eye [ai],
either ['aida]
eu, ew ІШ neutral, few sew [s o t ]
I ей + г [оэ], [jora] Europe,
eureka
ie Щ piece, believe friend [frend]
igb [ail high, night
оа [эо] boat, oak
оа + г [*]. [ээ] oar, soar
о i

1
-

[oil point, boy


о

--
-

оо перед к, d, t [и] book, good blood [bLvd]


м room, soon
оо + г [оэ] poor, boor
on перед 1, d [ао] house, about country
[UJ could, would [’lovntn]
OW [ао] now, down
[эо] low, slow
ou + r I [аиэ] our, sour
ш [и:] cruise, fruit

ЧТЕНИЕ СОГЛАСНЫХ БУКВ И БУКВОСОЧЕТАНИЙ

Буквы
и букво­ Положение в слове Транскрипция Примеры Исключения
сочетания
b [Ъ] ball,
badminton
Не произносится lamb [laem],
в конце слов climb [klaim]
после m

27
Продолжение
Буквы
и букво­ Положение в слове Транскрипция Примеры Исключения
сочетания
1. П ереде, і, у cent, city
2. Перед а, о, и, clock, cut.
всеми согласны­ cap, come
ми и в конце слов
3. Перед суффик­ social, suf
сами -ial. -ient ficient
child, each
В словах грече character,
ского проис­ chord
хождения
back, black
В окончании finished
-ed после глухих stopped
согласных,
за исключе­
нием t

nasties
ругих случаях go, against

He произносится
после i
Перед гласными hand, heart
major
В начале слов

lamp, school
He произносится calm [kcum],
в сочетаниях aim, half [ha:f]
alf
В конце слов autumn
Гэ: tom]
В конце слов spring, ring
В словах латин­ physical,
ского происхож phonetics
дения
В начале слов psychology
Продолжение
1 т и г л и и . ..
ш л ---------

Буквы
и букво­ Положение в слове Транскрипция Примеры Исключения
сочетания
рп В начале слов [П] pneumonia
qu Перед гласными [kw] quick,
question
г Перед гласными. [г] dry, race
Не читается:
1) в комбина­ centre '
ции с немой е
2) в конце слов far [fa:],
или перед соглас­ part [pcut]
ными
S Между гласными, [S] so, speak
в конце слов М roses, sons,
после гласных ties, orga­
и звонких со­ nism
гласных,
в суффиксе
-ism
sh 1Л shaping,
she
sion ІЗПІ television
ss Перед ia, io, иге Ш Russia, mis­
Ф
sion, pres­
sure
tch После кратких ИЛ kitchen
гласных
th В начале и в кон­ [Ө] think, bath
це знаменатель­
ных слов.
В начале место­ [б] the,there,
имений, служеб­ then, this
ных слов и между
гласными
tore [t/э] nature,
picture
wfa В начале слов IwJ when, why, who, whose
перед всеми white
гласными,
кроме о

29
Окончание

Буквы
и букво­ Положение в слове Транскрипция Примеры Исключения
сочетания
W T В начале слов [г] wrong, write,
перед гласными wrestling ;
X Между безудар­ в
example,
ной и ударной exist, exert
гласными.
Перед согласны­ [ks] except, box
ми и в конце
слов
Перед гласными i

yes,
1 у
yacht (Jut J
ОСНОВНОЙ КУРС

ЧАСТЬ I
П Е Р В Ы Й К У РС О Б У Ч Е Н И Я

ИМ Я ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ

количественные и порядко­
вые:
Количественные
one - один (the) first - первый
two -д ва (the) second - второй
three -т ри (the) third - третий
ten - десять (the) tenth - десятый
twenty-five - - двадцать (the) twenty-fifth - - двадцать
пять пятый
Количественные числительные
Количественные числительные (Cardinal Numerals) обозначают
шчество предметов и отвечают на вопрос How many? Сколько?
1своему строению они делятся на простые, производные и слож-
простым
one -- один five —пять nine девять
two -- два six —шесть ten десять
three - - три seven —семь eleven — одиннадцать
four - - четыре eight -—восемь twelve — двенадцать
Числительные от 13 до 19 называются производными и образу­
ются от числительных первого десятка при помощи суффикса -teen:
four fourteen четырнадцать
six sixteen шестнадцать
seven seventeen — семнадцать
eight eighteen восемнадцать
nine nineteen девятнадцать
образован
t h ree — thirteen — тринадцать
five fifteen пятнадцать
31
Все числительные с суффиксом -teen имеют два ударения.
Числительные, обозначающие десятки, также относятся к про­
изводным. Они образуются от соответствующих числительных пер­
вого десятка при помощи суффикса -ty:
six — sixty — шестьдесят
seven — seventy — семьдесят
eight — eighty — восемьдесят
nine — ninety — девяносто
При образовании числительных 20, 30, 40, 50 их основы меня­
ются: ' -fi?Һ
two — twenty — двадцать
three — thirty — тридцать
four — forty — сорок i
five — fifty — пятьдесят
Числительные с суффиксом -ty имеют ударение на первом слоге.
Сложными называются числительные, обозначающие десятки
с единицами, начиная со второго десятка. Сложные числительные
пишутся через дефис (черточку):
twenty-one — двадцать один thirty-two — тридцать два
twenty-two — двадцать два forty-one — сорок один
thirty-one — тридцать один forty-two — сорок два
В английском языке слова hundred сто, thousand тысяча, million
миллион являются именами существительными, поэтому перед
ними ставится или неопределенный артикль а, или числительное
one:
a hundred, one hundred — (одна) сотня
a thousand, one thousand — (одна) тысяча и т.д.:
Но эти слова не имеют окончания множественного числа -s, ког­
да перед ними стоят числительные two, three, four и т.д.
two hundred — двести (две сотни)
two hundred and fifty — двести пятьдесят
three thousand — три тысячи
five million — пять миллионов
Не gets eight thousand dollars a year. Он получает восемь тысяч дол­
ларов в год.
Эти слова приобретают окончание -s во множественном числе
для обозначения неопределенного, неточного количества сотен,
тысяч, миллионов и т.д.:
Thousands of employees work for Тысячи рабочих работают на
him. него.
32
Слова half половина, third треть, quarter/forth четверть, fifth пя­
тая часть и т.д. также являются именами существительными. В
единственном числе они требуют артикля а или числительного one,
во множественном окончания -s:
a (one) half половина three fifths три пятых
a (one) third треть two sevenths две седьмых
a (one) quarter четверть one and a half полтора
two thirds две трети three and a quarter — три с четвертью
В десятичных дробях принято произносить точку и каждую циф­
ру отдельно:
6.0 six point zero / six point nought
2.31 two point three one
4.139—four point one three nine
для
номеров домов, квартир, комнат, трамваев, троллейбусов, автс
сов, рейсов самолетов, страниц, глав книг и т.д. При написании
обозначаются цифрами, стоящими после определяемого слова
Существительное при этом употребляется без артикля. Наприi
They live in Apartment 5 (Apart­ Они живут в квартире 5.
ment five).
Ann opened the book at page 30 Энн открыла книгу на тридца­
той странице.
I go to the institute either by bus 7 Я езжу в институт или седьмым,
or by bus 22. или двадцать вторым автобу­
сом.
Read pharagraph 3. Читайте третий параграф.
Right number 59 has arrived. Рейс 59 прибыл.
Количественные числительные обозначают также номера теле­
фонов. Каждая цифра номера произносится отдельно. Например:
His telephone number is 311-22-18 Номер его телефона 311-22-18.
(three-one-one-two-two-
one-eight или three-double one-
double two-one-eight).
обозначении
совпадает с употреблен
1. Даты обозначаются количественными числительными и чи­
таются так:
1900 nineteen hundred 1900г. тысяча девятисотый год
1905 nineteen о[эи] five 1905 г. тысяча девятьсот
(в официальном языке пятый год
nineteen hundred and five)

33
Слово year после обозначения года не употребляется, но иногда
ставится перед ним в сочетании in the year:
In the year 2005... В две тысячи пятом году...
Queen Victoria died in the Королева Виктория умерла
year 1900. в тысяча девятисотом году.
2. Даты обозначаются порядковыми числительными. Например,
9 мая 1945 года можно выразить следующим образом:
9th May, 1945 The ninth of May, nineteen forty-five.
May 9th, 1945 May the ninth, nineteen forty-five.
May 9,1945

Порядковые числительные

Порядковые числительные (Ordinal Numerals) обозначают поря­


док предметов при счете и отвечают на вопрос Which? Который ?
Read the first sentence. Прочитайте первое предложение.
They took the second place. Они заняли второе место.
Порядковые числительные до 20, за исключением first первый,
second второй, third третий, образуются от количественных путем
прибавления суффикса -th:
four - (the) fourth - четвертый
six - (the) sixth - шестой
seven - (the) seventh - седьмой
ten - (the) tenth - десятый
eleven - - (the) eleventh -- одиннадцатый
thirteen - - (the) thirteenth -- тринадцатый
При образовании порядковых числительных пятый, восьмой,
девятый, двенадцатый их основы меняются:
five — (the) fifth
eight — (the) eighth
nine — (the) ninth
twelve'— (the) twelfth
При образовании порядковых числительных от количественных,
имеющих окончание -у, происходит изменение буквы у на i и к этой
основе добавляется суффикс -eth. Например:
twenty — (the) twentieth — двадцатый
thirty — (the) thirtieth — тридцатый
forty — (the) fortieth — сороковой

34
При образовании порядковых числительных от сложных коли­
чественных числительных изменению подвергается только послед­
ний компонент:
twenty-one — (the) twenty-first — двадцать первый
twenty-two — (the) twenty-second — двадцать второй
one hundred and one — (the) one hundred and first — сто первый

Употребление числительных

В предложении числительное может быть подлежащим, допол­


нением, определением и именной частью составного сказуемого.
Существительное, имеющее при себе определение, выраженное
порядковым числительным, употребляется с определенным артик­
лем:
The second girl to the right in this Вторая девочка справа на ф о­
picture is my sister. тографии — моя сестра.
There are three musicians in this В группе три музыканта. Пер­
group. The first is a violinist, the вый скрипач, второй
pianist is the second, but I don’t пианист, а третьего я не
know the third. знаю.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Прочитайте и запомните. В числах с 13 по 19 два ударении (первое —


слабое, второе — главное). Четче делайте второе ударение, иначе в быстрой
речи может произойти путаница между 13 и 30, 14 н 40 и т.д.
0 zero I'zirrau] 11 eleven [I'levn]
1 one [WAjn] 12 twelve [twelvj
2 two [tu:] 13 thirteen [,Өз:Чі:п]
3 three [OiiJ 14 fourteen [,fD:'ti:n]
4 four [fa:] 15 fifteen [.fiftirn]
5 five [faiv] 16 sixteen [,siks'ti:n]
6 six [siks] 17 seventeen [.sevn'tizn]
7 seven [sevn] 18 eighteen [.erttnj
8 eight [eitj 19 nineteen [,nain'ti:n]
9 nine [nain] 20 twenty j'twenti]
10 ten [ten]
2. Прочитайте и запомните. Обратите внимание, что ударение в десятках
только одно — на первом слоге.
30 thirty ['03:tiJ 70 seventy ['sevntij
40 forty f'forti] 80 eighty ['eitil

35
50 fifty [Tifti] 90 ninety [ nainti]
60 sixty ['siksti] 100 one hundred ['h/vndndj
1,000 one thousand [’Gauzand] 1,000,000 one million ['miljan]
3. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

G &G

Ekaterina Gordeeva and Sergey Grinkov were one of the most


celebrated pair skaters. They were two-time Olympic champions (in 1988
and 1994) and four-time world champions (in 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990).
In the beginning they were two mismatched kids: a tiny serious girl of
eleven and a fun-loving boy of fifteen. But they were talented and
dedicated, and together they won not only four world championships and
two Olympic gold medals, but the hearts of millions of fans as well.
Gordeeva and Grinkov (G & G as they were affectionately known)
managed to parlay their intense emotions for each other into an exquisite,
passionate skating style — the one that became even more luminous after
the birth of their daughter.
Partners in life as well as on the ice, they were rarely apart. Somewhere
along the way, between training and competing, the couple fell madly in
love. They got married in 1991, and their daughter, Daria, was bom in
1992. Twelve days after that, Ekaterina and Sergey began to train again.
The European championships in 1994 were in Copenhagen, which was
a good sign for Ekaterina and Sergey, since they had been there in 1986,
the first year they won the Worlds. As a result, they felt absolutely
confident and comfortable with both their long and short programmes.
Ekaterina thought the European championships were the best that they
skated, better even than the Olympics.
Then, unfortunately, on November 20, 1995, Sergey suffered a fatal
heart attack during a routine training session in Lake Placid.
4. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When did they first win the world championships?
2. When did they first win Olympic medals?
3. When did they get married?
4. When were their last Olympics?
5. Скажите, какие события происходили в жизни фигуристов в эти годы.
1986 — ... г М і М Ш н Ш я V,
1988 — ... '■ Е jS F firf-
1991 — got married
1994 — ... paa** '
1995 — ... И ШШ Ф>
36
ИМ Я СУЩ ЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ

Имя существительное (The Noun) — это часть речи, которая обо­


значает предмет, т. е. то, о чем можно спросить: Who is this? Кто это?
или What is this? Что это?
Существительные в английском языке обычно употребляются с
артиклями и часто сочетаются с предлогами. Артикль и предлог яв­
ляются основными признаками существительного: a table, the table
стол, on the table на столе, under the table под столом.

Множественное число имен существительных


Исчисляемое имя существительное в английском языке имеет
два числа: единственное и множественное.
Основным способом образования множественного числа является
прибавление окончания -s или -es к форме единственного числа:
шар — карта maps — карты
bag — сумка bags — сумки
glass — стакан glasses — стаканы
tom ato — томат tomatoes — томаты
Имена существительные, оканчивающиеся на -s, -ss, -х, -sh, -eh,
-tch, образуют множественное число с помощью окончания -es.
Имена существительные, оканчивающиеся в единственном чис­
ле на -у с предшествующей согласной, при образовании множе­
ственного числа меняют букву у на i перед окончанием -es.
Некоторые существительные, оканчивающ иеся на -f или -fe,
образуют множественное число путем изменения f на v и прибав­
ления окончания -es или -s: half — halves, self — selves, life — lives,
wife — wives.
Ряд существительных образует форму множественного числа не
по правилам. Такие существительные необходимо запомнить.
Единственное число Множественное число
man мужчина men мужчины
woman женщина women женщины
foot нога feet ноги
tooth зуб teeth зубы
mouse мышь mice мыши
child ребенок children дети

Существительные, заимствованные из латинского или гречес­


кого языка, сохранили форму множественного числа, которую они
37
языках crises, analysis — analyses, basis bases
thesis — theses, phenom enon — phenom ena, criterion — criteria,
datum curriculum curricula
употребляются
ной форме (с глаголом в единственном числе):
advice совет / советы
news новость / новости
knowledge знание / знания
money деньги
information сведения
creai сливки
hair волосы

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных
Образец: athlete —> athletes, man -9 men
1) foot 7) address 13) person
2) coach 8) sheep 14) holiday
3) ball 9) tooth 15) sandwich
4) country 10) club 16) child
5) knife 11) game 17) mouse
6) woman 12) goal 1 9 )leaf
2. Is или are? Употребите соответствующую форму глагола.
Образец 1: This ... a sports ground. —» This is a sports ground.
Образец 2: These ... sports grounds. —» These are sports grounds.
1. H er eyes ... blue. 2. His story ... interesting. 3. My feet cold.
4. She known athlete. 5. Where Where .. the
running
changing-room. 9. What co lo u r... the flag o f your country? 10. Who
Where My cold. 13. Your
mistake bad.
3. Выберите правильный вариант.
Образец
goes swimming two
1. H e ... always busy, (is or are?) 2. Wfe... to play tennis. (like or likes?)
3.1... to the University by bus. (get or gets?) 4. An athlete... injured during
the races, (was or were?) 5. How many players... there in the football
team ? (is or are?) 6.... he box? (Do or Does?) 7. Jane... reading for her
exams now. (is or are?) 8 .1... just finished my work, (has or have?) 9. H e...
going to study medicine, (is or are?)
38
Притяжательный падеж
Существительное в притяжательном падеже служит определени­
ем другого существительного и отвечает на вопрос Whose? Чей ?, обо­
значая принадлежность предмета. В форме притяжательного паде­
жа употребляются, как правило, одушевленные существительные.
Притяжательный падеж (The Possessive Case) существительных
в единственном числе образуется путем прибавления к существитель­
ному окончания -*s, которое произносится так же, как окончание
-s множественного числа имен существительных. Например:
the girl's hat — шляпа девушки
Jack’s friend — друг Джека
Притяжательный падеж существительных во множественном
числе образуется прибавлением лишь одного апострофа:
the boys’ books — книги мальчиков
Если существительное во множественном числе не имеет окон­
чания -s, то притяжательный падеж образуется, как и в единствен­
ном числе, путем прибавления окончания -*s:
the children's toys — игрушки детей
Наряду с существительным в притяжательном падеже для вы­
ражения принадлежности часто употребляется существительное с
предлогом of, также соответствующее в русском языке родитель­
ному падежу:
the teacher’s question —
the question of the teacher — вопрос преподавателя
Однако окончание -s используется чаще с одушевленными су­
ществительными, а предлог of — с неодушевленными:
the capital of Russia — столица России
my friend’s name — имя моего друга

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Изучите информацию, данную в таблице. Заполните пропуски в пред­
ложениях.
Образец: Jack is Ann’s husband.
Ann and Jack are married.
They have two children, Tom and Ann + Jack
Mary.
Mary is married to Robert. Tom
Mary and Robert have a daughter,
Jane. Jane

39
1. Ann is ... wife. 2. Tom is ... brother. 3. M aiy is ... wife. 4. Ann is ...
grandmother. 5. Jane is ... a n d ... granddaughter. 6. Ann is ... sister. 7. Robert
i s ... husband. 8. Tom i s ... uncle. 9. Robert i s ... father. 10. Mary i s ... and
... daughter.
2. Образуйте притяжательный падеж по образцу.
Образец: the book / Jack —» Jack’s book
1) the ball / the player; 2) the nam e / your coach; 3) the friend /
Robert; 4) the job / your m other; 5) the students / M r G reen; 6) the car /
your father; 7) the flat / our friends; 8) the programme / David; 9) the
birthday / his sister; 10) the favourite film / my m other; 11) the address /
Mary; 12) the com puter / Ann.
3. Составьте предложения по образцам.
Образец 1: I like .... (the parks / St Petersburg) —» I like the parks of
St Petersburg.
Образец 2: Where is ...? (the pen / my sister) —» Where is my sister’s pen?
1. What is...? (the nam e / your coach) 2. What is...? (the address /
Mary) 3. Do you like... ? (the bridges / St Petersburg) 4. Where a re ... (the
keys / your brother) 5. What was... ? (the cause / the injury) 6. ... is near
the city centre, (the flat / my parents) 7. ... is very interesting, (the job /
my m other) 8. ... is very good, (the spoken English / Nick) 9. For me,
spring is... (the best period / the year) 10. The swimming pool is a t....
(the end / the street) 11. ... is table tennis, (the favourite sport / Jack)
12.... is really beautiful, (the masterpiece / the architect)

А ртикль

Артикль (The Article) является определителем сущ ествительно­


го, он придает значение определенности или неопределенности су­
ществительному и при этом не имеет собственного значения. В ан ­
глийском язы ке используют два артикля: определенный the и неопре­
деленный а (ап). Н еопределенный артикль а перед словами, начи­
наю щ имися с гласной буквы, приобретает форму an: an answer —
ответ. <
Употребляемый в современном английском языке артикль имеет
исторические корни. Определенный артикль произош ел из древ­
неанглийского указательного местоимения that тот и в некоторых
случаях сохраняет это значение: This is the sort o f thing I like. — Это
mo, что я люблю. ; -• > Щ
Н еопределенный артикль произош ел из числительного an (one
один). Это значение он сохраняет и сегодня: Just a minite! — Одну
минуту! Поэтому неопределенный артикль может сочетаться только
с существительными в единственном числе.
40
Неопределенный артикль
Существительное с неопределенным артиклем (The Indefinite
Article) представляет собой название предмета вообще, а не назва­
ние определенного предмета. Так, a student вызывает представление
о студенте вообще, т.е. об учащемся высшего учебного заведения,
но не об определенном лице. Часто значение неопределенного ар­
тикля можно выразить в русском языке такими словами, как один,
один из, какой-то, какой-нибудь, некий, всякий, любой, каждый.
Неопределенный артикль употребляется в следующих случаях'.
1) когда речь идет о лице или предмете именно данного класса
в отличие от лиц или предметов другого класса'.
When I write, I always use a pen. Когда я пишу, я всегда пользу­
юсь ручкой (именно ручкой,
а не карандашом).
2) когда существительное обозначает, кем или чем является лицо
или предмет, о котором говорится в предложении:
My brother is a swimmer. Мой брат — пловец.
3) когда имеется в виду всякий, любой представитель данного
класса лиц или предметов:
A child can do it. Ребенок (всякий, каждый ребе­
нок) может сделать это.
ш

4) когда речь идет об одном каком-нибудь лице или предмете,


еще не известном собеседнику:
Не bought a book yesterday. Он купил (одну, какую-то)
книгу вчера.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. А или ап? Выберите правильный вариант.
1) ... book; 2) ... English book; 3) ... athlete; 4) ... Germ an athlete;
5) ... coach; 6) ... writer; 7) ... American writer; 8) ... hour; 9) ... injury;
10) ... bad injury; 11)... university; 12) ... city centre; 13) ... hamburger;
14) ... airport; 15) ... economic problem; 16)... nice performance
2. Составьте предложении по образцу. Используйте д а н н ы е слова:
animal, sports equipment, fruit, river, game, athlete, museum, language,
country
Образец: A horse? I t ... —» It’s an animal.
1. The Hermitage? I t __ 2. England? I t ___3. The Neva? I t ___4. A net?
It — 5. Hockey? I t __ 6. A wrestler? I t __ 7. English? I t .... 8. A banana?
I t ....
3. Скажите, кем были эти люди. Используйте данные слова:
runner, football player, swimmer, gymnast, figure-skater, cyclist, basketball
player
Образец'. Belov? He was ... —» He was a basketball player.
1. Kazankina? She w as__ 2. Pele? He w as___3. Dityatin? He w as....
4. Salnikov? He w as__ 5. Urmanov? He w as.... 6. Nelyubin? He w as___
4. Скажите, где необходимо употребить неопределенный артикль.
Образец: I saw film yesterday. —» I saw a film yesterday.
1. He is athlete. 2 .1 am first-year student. 3 .1 have coach. 4. Basket­
ball is very popular game. 5. Britain is industrial country. 6. Tennis is
played on pitch. 7. You need stick to play hockey. 8. Referee has whistle.
9. The team stayed at expensive hotel.
5. Скажите, о каких профессиях идет речь. Употребите данные слова:
gymnast, coach, fencer, swimmer, discus thrower, boxer, long-jumper, tennisist,
hockey player t
Образец: Ron does swimming. —> He’s a swimmer.
1. Jack plays tennis. 2. John boxes. 3. Sarah trains young athletes.
4. Mary practises gymnastics. 5. Ted throws the discus. 6. Tom plays
hockey. 7. Liz does the long jum p. 8. Charles practises fencing.
6. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Употребите неопределенный ар­
тикль там, где это необходимо.
1. Are you ... students? 2. Ted’s g o t... perfect teeth. 3. D o you like ...
coffee? 4. W h at... nice jeans! Where did you get them ? 5. Wbuld you like
to be ... teacher? 6. What ... beautiful day! 7. Jack has got ... very long
legs, so he’s ... fast runner. 8. You need ... passport to b u y ... ticket. 9. Jack
is ... coach. His parents a re ... coaches too. 10. When we left the University,
... shops were still open. 11. Do you enjoy going to ... football matches?
12. When he w as... child, he wanted to be ... doctor.

Определенный артикль
Определенный артикль (The Definite Article) указывает на опре­
деленное лицо или предмет (лица или предметы). Так, слово the
students вызывает представление о соверш енно определенных сту­
дентах. Значение определенного артикля можно часто передать в
русском язы ке словами этот, эти, тот, те.
Определенный артикль употребляется в следующих случаях:
1) когда из ситуации или контекста ясно, какое именно лицо или
предмет имеется в виду:
Close the window, please. Пожалуйста, закройте окно.
42
2) когда лицо или предмет, уже названный ранее, снова упоми­
нается в беседе или тексте:
The gymnast is training now. (Этот) гимнаст сейчас тренируется.
3) перед существительным, обозначающим лицо или предмет,
являющийся единственным в своем роде или единственным в дан­
ной обстановке:
The earth is millions of kilometres
Земля находится на расстоянии
from the son. миллионов километров от
солнца.
4) перед фамилиями, употребленными во множественном чис­
ле для обозначения членов одной и той же семьи:
The Petrovs arrived from Moscow Петровы приехали вчера из
yesterday. Москвы.
5) перед названиями океанов, морей, заливов, рек'.
the Pacific Ocean — Тихий океан
the English Channel — Английский канал (пролив Ла-М анш )
the Neva — Нева
6) перед названиями горных хребтов'.
the Alps — Альпы
При этом названия отдельных горных вершин употребляются
без артикля:
Everest — Эверест
7) перед названиями групп островов:
the Azores — Азорские острова
8) перед названиями гостиниц:
the Metropol — «Метрополь»
9) перед названиями газет и журналов'.
The Times

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Прочитайте предложения. Употребите неопределенный или определен­
ный артикль.
1 .1 am cold. Can you close... window, please? 2. Jack h a s ... com puter
and ... p rin ter.... com puter is m odem and very expensive b u t... printer is
very old and cheap. 3. He has a cat and a d o g .... cat is very old b u t... dog
is only two years old. 4. There i s ... swimming pool and ... stadium in the
to w n .... swimming pool is n e a r... stadium.

43
2. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Употребите неопределенный или
определенный артикль. (Письменно.)
1. Could you close... window, please? I am cold. 2.... Lesgaft University
is not far from ... centre o f the city. 3. Did you like ... football match you
watched yesterday? 4 .1 have... interesting magazine with me__ magazine
is in my bag. 5. What is ... name o f your coach? 6 .... student who helped
you yesterday is our best athlete. 7. The classes were over, so we decided
to go to ... library. 8. He usually has ... cup o f... coffee and ... sandwich
in the morning. 9 .... President is the head o f the state in America. 10....
Queen is the formal ruler o f England.
3. Ответьте па вопросы. Используйте образцы. (Работа в парах.)
Образец 1: “Was it an expensive hotel?” —» “Yes, it was the most expensive
hotel in the city. ” | -t
Образец 2: “Was it a good match?” —» “Yes, it was the best match of the
season.” . - '--v чщгтУ'^ Н вІУДУУЗДЬІІч/.
1. “W&s it a difficult period for you?” “Yes, it was ... most difficult
period o f my life.” 2. “Is it a good stadium ?” “Yes, it is ... best stadium in
the city.” 3. “Was it a good idea?” “Yes, it was ... best idea.”-4 . “ Is it an
interesting film?” “Yes, it is ... most interesting film o f the year for me.
You must watch it.” 5. “ Is the painting so beautiful?” “Yes, I think it’s ...
most beautiful painting o f this artist.” 9
4. Произнесите предложения, используя определенный артикль, где не­
обходимо.
1. After ... Moscow ... St Petersburg is ... second largest and ... most
im portant centre of science and culture in ... Russia. 2. ... Hermitage is
... biggest museum o f art in our country. 3. ... USA is a highly developed
industrial country. 4 .... Pacific Ocean is between ... America and ... Asia.
5 .... English Channel is between ... England and ... France. 6 ... Everest
is ... highest m ountain in ... world. 7 .... Times is a well-known newspaper
in ... England. 8. ... UK is made up of four countries: ... England, ...
Scotland, ... Wales and ... N orthern Ireland. 9. ... Panama canal joins ...
Atlantic and ... Pacific Oceans.

ПОБУДИТЕЛЬНЫ Е ПРЕДЛОЖ ЕНИЯ


В побудительном предложении (The Imperative Sentence) выра­
жаются различные побуждения к действию — приказ, просьба, ре­
комендация, совет и т.д.:
Take off your hat! Снимите шляпу!
Come to see us, please! Приходите к нам в гости,
пожалуйста!
Let’s go, darling! Пойдем, дорогая!
44
В английском побудительном предложении, как правило, нет
подлежащего, хотя подразумевается, что действие должен выпол­
нять тот, кому адресовано обращение.
Глагол-сказуемое употребляется в повелительном наклонении
(в неопределенной форме без частицы to):
to think думать — Think! Подумай!
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи don't:
Don’t cross the street here! He переходите улицу в этом
месте!
Don’t talk during the lesson! He разговаривайте на уроке!

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык. (Письменно.)

CHINESE FITNESS EXERCISES


Physical fitness exercises have been practised in China for thousands
of years. The ancient Chinese were well aware of the im portance of
physical fitness and continuously sought ways for its improvement.
In recent years, many physical education institutes, sanatoriums and
hospitals in China have created a variety of remedial exersises. The
Chinese assimilated useful elements from traditional exercises. These
exercises are based on modem theories of anatomy, sports physiology, and
biomechanics. These new exercises are designed to suit the needs of
different people.
2. Скажите по-английски:^.
китайцы в древности прекрасно осознавали важность физиче­
ской подготовки; коррективные упражнения; китайцы использо­
вали ценные элементы из традиционной гимнастики; удовлетво­
рять нужды разных людей
3. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык. (Письменно.)

CHINESE FITNESS EXERCISES


(icontinued)
This exercise may be practised both in the morning and in the evening.
Persistent practice will sharpen your appetite, help you to sleep more
soundly and increase your resistance to disease.
Sit upright, stretch legs forward, feet shoulder-width apart. Place palms
on the floor at your sides, thumbs should touch the body, fingers should
point forward. Look straight ahead.
45
Bend forward, and use your hands to grasp the ball and the toes of the
foot. Pull back the top o f the foot as you thrust the heel forward. Repeat
with the other foot. Eyes should follow the foot that moves. Repeat 12
times. Remember! You should take a deep breath each time. Sit quietly
for a few minutes. You can gently close your eyes and mouth. Move your
tongue around inside your mouth to produce saliva and swallow it quickly.
Repeat six times. Then shrug your shoulders and twist your waist. Finally,
relax your whole body.
4. Скажите по-английски:
сядьте прямо; вытяните ноги; ноги на ширине плеч; поместите
ладони на пол; большие пальцы рук должны касаться тела; смот­
рите вперед; повторите упражнение 12 раз; каждый раз делайте глу­
бокий вдох; потяните носки на себя; подайте пятки вперед; пол­
ностью расслабьтесь
5. Используй команды из предыдущего упражнения, попросите партнера
выполнить их. Затем поменяйтесь ролями. (Работа в парах.)
6. Представьте, что вы тренер и работаете с английскими спортсменами.
Напишите команды, необходимые, чтобы провести разминку.

ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ В ПРЕДЛОЖ ЕНИИ

В русском языке, благодаря наличию падежных окончаний, мы


можем переставлять члены предложения, в результате чего основ­
ной смысл высказывания не меняется. Н апример, предложения
Студенты изучают эти планы и Эти планы изучают студенты со­
впадают по своему основному смыслу. Подлежащее в обоих случа­
ях — студенты, хотя в первом предложении это слово стоит на пер­
вом месте, а во втором предложении — на последнем.
В английском языке такие перестановки невозможны. Возьмем
предложение The students study these plans. (Студенты изучают эти
планы.) Если подлежащее и дополнение поменяются местами, то
получится бессмыслица: These plans study the students. (Эти планы
изучают студентов.) Произош ло это потому, что слово plans, по­
пав на первое место, стало подлежащим.
Английское предложение имеет твердый (фиксированный) по­
рядок слов:
а) подлежащее, глагольное сказуемое, дополнение — в утверди­
тельном предложении: The students study these plans.
б) глагольное сказуем ое, подлеж ащ ее, дополнение — в во­
просительном предложении: What is your sports level?
Вопросы в английском языке бывают двух типов: общие и спе­
циальные .

46
Общий вопрос не содержит вопросительного слова, и ответом на
него являются слова да и нет. Не случайно в английском языке та­
кие вопросы называются “yes / no questions” .
Are you a Master of Sports? — Yes, I am.
Специальный вопрос содержит вопросительное слово (what, when,
why, where, how и др.):
Where do you live? — I live in St Petersburg.
В английском предложении должны обязательно присутствовать
подлежащее и глагольное сказуемое. Как же тогда можно перевести
на английский язык русское предложение, в котором нет глаголь­
ного сказуемого, такое, например, как Я студент!
В этом случае на помощь приходит глагол-связка to he в соответ­
ствующей форме, который переводится как быть, являться, находить­
ся, но очень часто переводу не подлежит. Например: I am a student.

СПРЯЖ ЕНИЕ ГЛАГОЛА B E

Утвердительное предложение Вопросительное предложение


I am. Ami?
Не / She / It is. Is he / she / it?
You / Wfe / They are. Are you / we / they?

Краткий ответ
Утвердительный Отрицательный
Yes, I am. No, I am not.
Yes, he / she / it is. No, he / she / it isn’t.
Yes, you / we / they are. No, you / we / they aren’t.

В прошедшем времени глагол-связка be имеет две формы:


was — для единственного числа и were — для множественного.
Утвердительное предложение Отрицательное предложение
I / He / She / It was. I / He / She / It was not (wasn’t).
You / We / They were. You / We / They were not (weren’t).

В будущем времени глагол-связка he имеет форму will he.


Утвердительное Отрицательное Вопросительное
предложение предложение предложение
I / You / He / She / It / I / Y o u / Н е / S h e / I t / WiD I / you / he / she / it /
We / They wiD be. We / They wiD not be we / they be?
(won’t be).

47
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Заполните пропуски, используя am / i s / are.


1. Sorry, I ... late. 2. This game ... very exciting. 3. Ball games ... very
exciting. 4. I ... hungry. 5. My brother and I ... good tennis players.
6. Ann ... good at gymnastics. 7. 1 ... a student. My sister ... a coach.
8. He ... a M aster o f Sports. 9. T h ey ... record-holders. 10. My b ro th e r...
at hom e.
2. Составьте предложения. Используйте am / i s / are.
Образец: (my running shoes / dirty)... . —» My running shoes are dirty.
1. (this swimming suit / very good) ... .2 . (the examination / difficult)
.... 3. (I / not tire d ).....4. (these skis / very expensive).... 5. (the gym /
not open to d ay ).... 6. (my coach / forty years old) .... 7. (I / a first-year
student) .... 8. (the examination / not difficult).... 9. (these races / very
dangerous) .... 10. (he / angry with his friends) ....
3. Составьте утвердительные и отрицательные предложения. Используйте
am / am not / i s / isn't / are / aren't.
Образец 1: (St Petersburg / the second largest city of Russia)... . —>
St Petersburg is the second largest city of Russia.
Образец 2: (I / an athlete) I am an athlete.
1. (I / late) ... . 2. (I / hungry) ... . 3. (we / busy) ... . 4. (my hands /
co ld ).... 5. (Everest / the highest m ountain).... 6. (the water / w arm )....
7. (Alpine skiing / a dangerous sp o rt).... 8. (dogs / friendly anim als)....
4. Составьте вопросы. Используйте am / i s / are.
Образец: (your coach / in the gym) ... ? -> Is your coach in the gym?
1. (the athletes / at the stadium) ... ? 2. (this hotel / expensive) ... ?
3. (you / interested in hockey) ... ? 4. (the libraries / open today) ... ?
5. (the reading-room / open today) ... ? 6. (you / busy now) ... ? 7. (we /
late) ... ? 8. (you / thirsty) ... ? 9. (he / a boxer) ... ? 10. (she / a gymnast)

?• • •
г** i
5. Составьте вопросы с what / who / how / where / why. Используйте is /
am / are.
Образец: (what colour / his T-shirt) ... ? —>What colour is his T-shirt?
1. (how old / you) ... ? 2. (what / your sports level) ... ? 3. (how old /
your coach ... ? 4. (what / his sports level)... ? 5. (where / you from?) ... ?
6. (how m uch / these running shoes) ... ? 7. (what / your nam e) ... ?
8. (where / your coach from) ... ?

48
6. Составьте краткие утвердительные или отрицательные ответы.
Образец 1: Are you married? —» No, I’m not.
Образец 2: Are you a swimmer? —>Yes, I am.
1. Are you a first-year student? 2. Are you a coach? 3. Are you tired?
4. Is it dark now? 5. Are your hands cold? 6. Are you an athlete? 7. Are
you often angry with your friends? 8. Are you thirsty? 9. Are you interested
in history? 10. Are you interested in anatomy? 11. Are you afraid of
dentists? 12. Are you 20 years old? 13. Are you a Master of Sports?
7. Изучите информацию, данную в таблице. Составьте предложения. От­
ветьте, где студенты были вчера в 5 часов вечера.
Образец' Bill was at home.

Students Time Places


ВШ 5 o’clock at home
Ann 5 o’clock at the stadium
John and Mary 5 o’clock in the gym
Ted 5 o’clock on the sports ground
Ben 5 o’clock in the reading-room
Rose 5 o’clock at the dentist’s

8. Заполните пропуски в предложениях глаголом to be л настоящем или в


прошедшем времени.
Образец: This year she ... a first-year student, but last year she ... a
schoolgirl. —>This year she is a first-year student, but last year
she was a schoolgirl.
1. He ... a kick-boxer now, but three years ago he ... a boxer. 2. I ...
thirsty now. I’d like some juice. 3 .1 ... so thirsty after the training session
yesterday that I drank the whole bottle of lemonade. 4. “Where ... the
students?” “ I don’t know. T h ey ... in the gym five minutes ago.” 5. D on’t
do this exercise now. I t ... too dangerous. 6. Wfe ... tired at the end of the
classes, so didn’t go to the library. 7. You must go home now. You ...
very tired. 8. Gagarin ... the first man in space. 9. It ... very cold today.
10. Alexander Belov tragically died in 1974. He ... a famous basketball
player. 11. Where ... the athletes yesterday morning? 12. Why ... she so
angry yesterday?
9. Составьте предложения, используя was / wasn't / were / weren't.
1. Tom began to practise wrestling when he ... 14 years old. 2. Kate
left school when she ... only 13 years old. 3. At first, I wanted to buy these
jeans, but th e y ... good enough. 4. Jack ... in the University because he ...

49
ill. 5. The book ... interesting for me because there ... useful inform ation
in it. 6. “Where ... you at 5 o ’clock?” “I ... at the dentist’s.” 7. “Why ...
you late yesterday?” “The traffic ... b a d .” 8. “W^hy ... you absent
yesterday?” “I ... in the city. I took part in regional competitions.” “... you
the winner?” “N o, I ... the winner.”
10. Задайте вопросы по образцу.
Образец: I saw a hockey match. (interesting) —>Was it interesting?
1. I ate the cake up. (tasty) 2. I perform ed the exercise, (difficult)
3 .1 gave her a present, (pleased) 4 . 1 had a nice granny, (kind) 5. I had a
cup o f coffee yesterday evening and couldn’t sleep then, (strong) 6. He
bought an original English book yesterday, (expensive) 7. She wasn’t in
the University yesterday, (ill) 8. He shouted at me in the morning, (angry
with him) 9. She couldn’t do the exam last term, (upset)
11. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

SPORTS IN GREAT BRITAIN


N ational sports in G reat Britain... It is a very interesting question,
because many kinds o f sports have their origin in England.
Englishmen love sports. They are called sports-lovers in spite o f the
fact that some o f them neither play games nor even watch them . They
only like to talk about sports. Some kinds o f sports are professional in
E ngland. P opular and fam ous players earn a lot o f money. M any
traditional sporting events take place in England, for example, cricket. It
is played from May till September. This game is associated with England.
There are many cricket clubs in this country. English people like to play
cricket. They think that summer without cricket isn’t summer. Cricket is
the English national sport in summer. If you want to play cricket, you
must wear white boots, a white shirt, and white long trousers.
There are two teams. Each team has eleven players. Cricket is popular
in boys’ schools. Girls play cricket, too.
12. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Englishmen love sports, don’t they?
2. What kind o f traditional sporting events in England do you know?
3. Are there any cricket clubs in England?
4. Do Englishmen play cricket in w inter or in summer?
5. What is the most popular game in Britain?
13. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

BASKETBALL
Basketball is a very popular game in America. The official basketball
season is usually during the winter, but it is a game which can be played
50
at any time of a year. Basketball is played on a court. The game is played
with a large ball about 30 inches in circumference. A team is made up of
five players.
In the United States, teams compete in basketball at many levels. There
is a professional league called the National Basketball Association (NBA),
primary and secondary schools and universities compete against each
other, and in many towns there are local leagues in which anyone who
wishes may play on a team . Basketball is also a popular spectator sport.
Many Americans watch basketball games in arenas and on television.
Basketball is a very exciting game which can be played formally, in a
league, or casually, just for enjoyment. It is easy to organize a game
wherever there is a court, and many Americans play a lot of basketball
for exercise and recreation.
14. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When is the official basketball season in the USA?
2. Where is basketball played? II
3. How many players is the team made up of?
4. How is a professional league called?
5. Is basketball a popular spectator sport?
6. Do the Americans play a lot of basketball for recreation?

СПРЯЖ ЕНИЕ ГЛАГОЛА HAVE


Иногда при изучении английского языка возникают сложности
с употреблением глаголов be и have.
Глагол have употребляется в качестве смыслового глагола со зна­
чением иметь, обладать.
Так как вместо я имею, я имел, я буду иметь, я не имею, я не имел, I
я не буду иметь в русском языке обычно употребляются обороты
у меня есть, у меня был, у меня будет, у меня нет, у меня не было, у меня
не будет, то часто ошибочно употребляют глагол be. Чтобы избе­
жать ошибки при переводе, следует обращать внимание на нали­
чие в русском предложении предлога «у»:
I have the first grade. У меня первый разряд.
I am a M aster o f Sports. Я мастер спорта.
Утвердительное предложение Отрицательное предложение
I / Ybu / Vk / They have. I / Ybu / Vfe / They have not (haven’t).
He / She / It has. He / She / It has not (hasn’t).
Вопросительное предложение Краткий ответ
Have I / you / we / they? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.
Has he / she / it? |I Yes, he has. / N o, he hasn’t.

51
В прошедшем времени глагол have имеет форму had, в будущем
will have:
I have a grade. У меня есть спортивный разряд.
I had a grade. У меня был спортивный разряд.
I will have a grade. У меня будет спортивный разряд
Глагол have употребляется в сочетании с некоторыми существи­
тельными, утрачивая свое основное значение иметь, обладать и
образуя с ними смысловое целое. К таким сочетаниям относятся:
have dinner обедать
have breakfast завтракать
have a rest отдыхать
have a walk гулять и др.
В этих случаях вопросительная и отрицательная формы глагола
have образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола do.
When did you have dinner? Когда вы обедали?
Did you have a good rest last Хорошо ли вы отдохнули
summer? прошлым летом?
We didn’t have supper at home Мы вчера не уж инали дома
yesterday.
В разговорной речи часто вместо have употребляется have got
1 have got the book. У меня есть эта книга
He has got a cat. У него есть кошка.
Have you got a family? У тебя есть семья?

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Задайте вопросы по образцу.
Образец: (you/a visa) ... ? —» Have you got a visa?
1. (you / a c a r ) ... ? 2. (you / any English books) ... ? 3. (you / a pen)
... ? 4. (he / a flat) ... ? 5. (she / a swimming suit) ... ? 6. (he / a crash
helm et) ... ? 7. (you / a p a ssp o rt)... ? 8. (you / a cam era) ... ? 9. (she /
a dictionary) ... ?
2. Изучите информацию, данную в таблице. Составьте предложения.
Образец л1:m(Liz / running shoes)
1m i l l i n g м ш и ; ... Liz
. —> L iz has
lists ggot
u i running
shoes r u n n in g

Образец 2: (I / running shoes) ... . —» I’ve got running shoes.


Liz Ted You
running sh oes yes yes 9

a sports suit yes yes 9


52
Окончание
Liz Ted You
a bicycle no yes •

a ten n is racket yes no 9


a hockey stick no no ?

1. (Ted / running shoes) .... 2. (I / running shoes) .... 3. (Liz / a sports


suit) ... . 4. (Ted / a sports suit) ... . 5. (I / a sports suit) ... . 6. (Liz / a
bicycle) .... 7. (Ted / a bicycle) .... 8. (I / a bicycle) .... 9. (Liz / a tennis
racket) ... . 10. (Ted / a tennis racket) .... 11. (I / a tennis racket) ... .
12. (L iz /a hockey stick).... 13. (Ted / a hockey stick).... 14. (I/a h o c k e y
stick )....
3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя have got в соответству­
ющей форме.
1. Every part o f a human body ... its own function. 2. Jane ... the first
grade. 3. A ru n n er... strong legs. 4 . 1 can’t buy this book now. I ... money.
5. John studies and works. He ... much time for rest. 6. “W hat’s wrong
with you?” “I ... something in my eye.” 7. Tom ... a higher education, so
he can’t do this work. 8. It’s a nice sports centre. I t ... a swimming pool,
two sports grounds, changing-rooms, two gyms and so on. 9. Kate is at
the dentist’s. She ... toothache. 10. Julia worked too much. Now she ... a
headache. 11. John is going to the doctor. He ... a stomachache. 12. I’m
not going to the University today. I ... a bad cold. 13. I ... many friends,
so I am always busy.
4. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

MEALS
People usually have four meals a day. They are breakfast, lunch, dinner,
and tea or supper. Most people never have supper because they don’t want
to eat much before going to bed. If they happen to feel hungry late in the
evening, they have a cup o f tea with a small slice o f bread and butter and
maybe some ham or sausage. The children, as a rule, have porridge and
milk.
Usually, people have lunch at work. They cannot get home for this
meal so they eat it in a cafd, or take food from home — such as sandwiches,
biscuits — and have lunch at work.
D inner is a substantial meal for most of the people. At home, they
usually have a three-course dinner, especially on weekends. On Saturdays
and Sundays all the family eats together, as a rule. For the first course,
people have soup. Then they have some kind o f meat with vegetables.
For dessert, they often have a cup o f coffee, or tea, and maybe some juice
with cakes or sweets.
53
By the way, in England “tea” is not only a drink like coffee and juice,
but it is a meal, too. “5 o ’clock tea” is a meal when people have a cup of
tea (often with cream) with sandwiches, cakes, and scones (a kind o f cake
with raisins).
5. Скажите, верны ли данные утверждения.
1. People usually haven’t got any breakfast.
2. People usually have lunch at home.
3. A dinner usually consists o f three courses.
4. Most people like to have a big meal late in the evening.
5. All people have lunch at work.
6. Расскажите, как и где вы питаетесь, какие блюда вы любите.

МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ IT
В БЕЗЛИЧНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯХ
М естоимение it в безличных предложениях употребляется:
1) когда речь идет о времени:
What time is it? I t’s 10 o ’clock. It’s late. It’s time to go to the University.
2) когда нужно назвать дату или день недели:
What day is it? I t’s the 1st o f September. I t’s Tuesday.
3) при обозначении расстояния:
How far is it from St Petersburg to Moscow?
4) когда мы говорим о погоде:
I t’s raining. It snows. It rained. I t’s warm. I t’s windy. I t’s a nice day
today.
5) во фразах типа: It’s easy / difficult / dangerous / safe / cheap /
expensive / nice / good to... и т.д.:
I t’s difficult to perform this exercise.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя it is (it’s) или is it.
Образец: What day ... ? —» What day is it?
1. How far ... from Lesgaft University to the nearest underground?
2. “... raining now?” “Yes, ... . Take an umbrella with you.” 3.“... very
late. Please, stay at hom e!... dangerous to walk at night.” 4. “What time
... now?” “ ... 10 o ’c lo c k .... high time to begin our classes.” 5. ... not far
from Lesgaft University to the swimming pool. 6. ... expensive to rent
a flat? 7. ... difficult to speak English? 8. ... A nn’s birthday today. She’s
18. 9. ... difficult to take exams? 10. ... true th a t he is an Olym pic
champion? 11.... good to help your friends.

54
2. Задайте вопросы, используя How f a r ....
Образец: (your house / the nearest underground)... ? -» How far is it from
your house to the nearest underground?
1. (Lesgaft University / St Isaac’s Cathedral) 2. (your house / the bus
sto p )... ? 3. (St Isaac’s Cathedral / the Kazan C athedral)... ? 4. (St Isaac’s
Cathedral / the m onum ent to Nicholas I) ... ? 5. (the Peter and Paul
Fortress / the Hermitage) ... ? 6. (Lesgaft University / the “New Holland
Archway”) ... ? 7. (Lesgaft University / the nearest swimming pool) ... ?
8. (Lesgaft University / the nearest undeground)... ? 9. (St Petersburg /
M oscow)... ? 10. (the Hermitage / the Russian M useum )... ? 11. (Lesgaft
University / the Mariinsky Theatre) ... ?
3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте данные ниже выра­
жения:
It’s dangerous to go out alone at night.
It’s very useful to perform them.
It’s very pleasant to wear it!
It’s very interesting to read it.
It’s stupid to have heavy meals at night.
It’s very pleasant to communicate with them.
I. You must find this book, ... . 2. You should try to practise Chinese
fitness exercises, — 3. You’ll never lose w eight,__ 4. You shouldn’t leave
home now,.... 5. Your parents are very friendly,.... 6. What a nice dress!....

ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ С КОНСТРУКЦИЕЙ THERE IS / ARE


Оборот there is / are часто встречается в английском языке со зна­
чением имеется, находится, есть, существует. Такой оборот начи­
нает предложение и стоит перед подлежащим. В таких предложе­
ниях говорится о существовании, наличии предмета, лица, явле­
ния, еще неизвестного собеседнику или читателю:
There are two sides to every У каждого вопроса есть две сто-
question. роны.
There was somebody there. Там кто-то был.
Эта конструкция не употребляется, если речь идет об известном
предмете или если внимание привлекается не к самому предмету,
а к месту, где он находится. Сравните:
The man is in the room. Человек в комнате.
There is a man in the room. В комнате (находится) мужчина.
Первое предложение является ответом на вопрос: Where is the
man? Где человек? Второе — на вопрос: Is there anybody in the room?
Кто-нибудь есть в комнате ?

55
Если в предложениях с оборотом there is / are употребляются обсто­
ятельства места или времени, то перевод начинается с них:
There is a telephone in the hall. В прихожей есть телефон.
There will be a concert tonight. Вечером будет концерт.
В этих конструкциях there не имеет самостоятельного значения
и на русский язы к не переводится.
Глагол be после there может сочетаться с модальными глаголами:
There must be some butter В холодильнике должно быть
in the fridge. масло
Сказуемое в таких предложениях согласуется в числе с подле­
жащим. Если подлежащее употребляется в единственном числе, то
и глагол be — тоже в единственном. И, соответственно, наоборот:
There is a lamp on the table. На столе лампа.
There are lamps on the table. На столе . іампы
Когда в предложении имеются несколько подлежащих, глагол-
сказуемое согласуется с первым из них.
There is a table and some chairs В комнате стол и несколько
in the room. стульев.
There are some chairs and a table В комнате несколько стульев
in the room. и стол.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Изучите информацию, данную в таблице. Расскажите о достоприме­
чательностях Петербурга. Используйте образец.
Образец: There is a great number of museums in St Petersburg.
Places of interest How many? Where?
museums many in St Petersburg
parks a great number of
monuments a lot of
squares many >>
bridges many »
galleries plenty >>
cathedrals a lot of
fountains plenty »
theatres a great number of
libraries many

56
2. Пользуясь таблицей, расскажите о том, какое спортивное оборудова­
ние находится в спортзале.
Образец: There is a horizontal bar in the gym.
a horizontal bar (перекладина) yes
climbing ropes (канаты) two
a trapeze (трапеция) yes
a balance beam (бревно) yes
a vaulting horse (гимнастический конь) yes
a boxing ring (ринг) no

3. Расспросите своего товарища о спортивном комплексе. Используйте


предложенные в скобках словосочетания.
Образец: (a swimming pool)... ? —» Is there a swimming pool?
1. (sports grounds) ... ? 2. (a gym) ... ? 3. (a tennis court) ... ?
4. (changing-room s)... ? 5. (shower-rooms) ... ?
4. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте there is / there isn't /
is there / there are / there aren't / are there. (Устно.)
Образец:... a great number of theatres, museums, beautiful parks in
St Petersburg. —» There is a great number of theatres, museums,
beautiful parks in St Petersburg.
1. ... a gym in that building. 2 .... a m onum ent to Nicholas I in front
o f St Isaac’s Cathedral. 3__ a swimming pool in your town? 4__ a boxing
contest today. It will be tomorrow. 5 .... any athletes in the gym now. It is
closed. 6. ... m any students in your group? 7. ... a bus stop near here?
8 .... any milk in the fridge. " .
5. Выберите правильное число: 12, 24, 15, 4, 30, 50. (Устно.)
Образец: (months / a year) .... —»There are twelve months in a year.
1. (states / the USA) ... . 2. (players / a rugby team) ... . 3. (days /
N ovem ber)__ 4. (seasons / a y ear)___5. (hours / a d ay )....
6. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте there was / there
wasn't / was there / there weren't / were there / there will be. (Устно.)
1__ a boxing contest yesterday. 2. “I had training sessions at a modem
sports centre last year.” "... a swimming pool?” 3. I was hungry, but ...
any food in the fridge. 4. ... any injuries during the match? 5. "... many
students at the conference?” “Yes, ... many.” 6. ... a car in front of the
house. The driver didn’t want to wait for us. 7. ... hot water yesterday. It
was difficult to do washing up. 8. Are you going to the party tomorrow? ...
many interesting people at it. 9. You should work h a rd .... many exams to
pass in three months.
7. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.
LONDON
London is the capital of G reat Britain. It was the biggest city in the
world until World Wkr II. Nowadays, London is smaller than many other
cities — Tokyo, New York and so on. Nevetherless, London is still one
o f the most interesting and magnificent cities in the world.
London is a well-known cultural centre. It has a huge num ber of
historic buildings, such as St Paul’s Cathedral which has a famous dome,
the Houses of Parliament, with its exclusive clock, Big Ben, many brilliant
theatres, museums, and parks.
There is a great number o f people in the world who want to visit London.
People watch films about the city, enjoy colourful pictures in magazines, and
have “their own opinion about London” after it. But a foreigner is usually
disappointed at his first sight o f London. It seems noisy and overcrowded,
over-large, and there are many buildings, many o f them — Caxton Hall,
Albert Hall Mansions, the Hotel Russel — in more than dubious taste.
London is a city which was never planned. It has accumulated. For
this reason, London is no longer, at first sight, overtly beautiful. London
has no kind o f symmetry. London is nothing but a mass o f villages —
Kensington, Tottenham , Paddington — and so on.
The architectural beauties of London are most often unexpected. They
are sometimes hard to find. N ot many people know that if you open the
wooden gates o f the Deanery at St Paul’s, there will be a magic courtyard
with plain trees and a brick town-house by Sir Christopher Wren at the
distance. r » , ,X 7C
Even many Londoners have never seen the sphinxes in Chiswick Park,
the splendid N orm an pillars of Waltham Abbey, the Italian villas on the
Paddington Canal and so on.
Nevertheless, it is safe to say that the three most famous buildings in
England are Westminister Abbey, the Tower o f London, and St Paul’s
Cathedral — if you only want to, you find the beauties o f London and
feel the city’s unique character.
8. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Is London the biggest city in the world nowadays?
2. What places o f interest are there in London?
3. Is London a popular place to be visited by tourists?
4. What does London seem at first sight?
5. Are the architectural beauties o f London easy to find?
6. Was London ever planned?
9. Скажите по-английски:
Лондон был крупнейш им городом в мире до Второй мировой
войны; в Лондоне сосредоточено громадное количество историче­
ских памятников; люди составляют свое впечатление о Лондоне по
58
фильмам и фотографиям; увидев Лондон в первый раз, иностра­
нец, как правило, испытывает разочарование; Лондон не является
плодом плановой застройки; даже многие лондонцы никогда не ви­
дели многих архитектурных достопримечательностей города; архи­
тектурные достопримечательности нелегко обнаружить
10. Прочитайте.
A Joke
“How far is your house from the station?”
“Only a 10-minute walk if you run.”

МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ

М естоимением (The Pronoun) называется часть речи, которая


употребляется вместо имени существительного и прилагательного:
I saw Ann yesterday. She was Я видел Анну вчера. Она была
very sad. очень грустная.
М естоимения делятся на следующие группы: личные, притяжа­
тельные, возвратные, указательные, вопросительные, относительные
и неопределенные.

Личные местоимения
Личные местоимения (Personal Pronouns) всегда являются мес­
тоимениями-существительными.
ІК - - я
you - - ты
he - - он
she - - она
it - - он, она, оно
we - -мы
you - - вы
they-- они
Личные местоимения имеют формы двух падежей: именитель­
ного падежа (The Nominative Pronouns) и объектного (The Objective
Pronouns), выполняющего функции всех падежей, кроме имени­
тельного. Последние называются еще личными местоимениями в кос­
венном падеже.
Личные местоимения в именительном падеже отвечают на воп­
рос кто?или что?и, как правило, выполняют в предложении функ­
цию подлежащего:
I like tennis. Мне нравится теннис.
59
Личные местоимения в косвенном падеже выполняют в предло­
жении функцию дополнения (прямого или косвенного): Jack helps
her. Джек помогает ей.
I - me -- мне Jack helps me.
you -- you -- тебе, вам Jack helps you.
he - him -- ему Jack helps him.
she -- her -- ей Jack helps her.
it -- i t - ему, ей Jack helps it.
we -- u s - нам Jack helps us.
they -- them -- им Jack helps them.
Обратите внимание на совпадающие формы: it — it, you you.
Здесь чаще всего подразумеваются неодушевленные предметы
или животные.
I live in St Petersburg, and I like Я живу в Петербурге и очень
it very much. его люблю.
A kitten couldn’t get out o f the Котенок не мог выбраться из
box. Jack helped it to do it. ящ ика. Джек помог ему
сделать это.

УПРАЖ НЕНИЯ

1. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя местоимения в косвен­


ном падеже.
1 .1 can’t translate the text. Can you h e lp ... ? 2. He can’t find the book.
Can you h elp ... ? 3. They can’t do the test. Can you h e lp ... ? 4. \b u simply
can’t do it yourself. Can we help ... ? 5. She can’t do this exercise. Can
they help ... ? 6. A kitten can’t get out o f the box. Can I help ... ?
2. Найдите лишнее слово:
a) you, he, it, I, we, her, they, she;
b) us, them , it, you, I, him, her.
3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя те / us / him / her /
it I them.
1. She is very shy. Please, don’t laugh a t __ 2. The bread is stale. D on’t
eat ... . 3. He is very lazy. D on’t help ... . 4. I ’m talking to you. Please
listen to ... . 5. They are really nice people. You must m e e t... . 6. These
running shoes are nice. Let’s b u y .... 7. The cat is hungry. Please, feed ....
8. She must have the information. Ask ... about it. 9. He is a very good
coach. Please, listen t o .... 10. Vfe have a party tomorrow. Come to see —
11. Wfe’d like to know about your plans. T e ll... a b o u t....

60
4. Используйте местоимения в косвенном падеже. (Устно.)
1. If you see Jane, te ll... the news, please. 2. Do you like John? I don’t
like ... at all. 3. Wfe must go now. They are waiting fo r.... 4 . 1 meant well.
D on’t be angry with .... 5. He is interested in hockey. Take ... with you to
the stadium.
5. Прочитайте текст. Скажите, какие существительные можно заменить
местоимениями в именительном и косвенном падежах.
\fera is a Russian athlete, but Vfera is living and has training sessions
abroad now. Vfera practises skiing, Alpine skiing, so \fera is in Austria at
the moment, \fera has parents in Russia and often writes letters to her
parents. She has a brother, too. Sometimes Vera phones the brother,
sometimes the brother phones \fera.
Wfe are Vfera’s friends. When \fera is in St Petersburg, we like to visit
places o f interest with Vfera, and have parties. Now we send \fera cards
and letters, and \fera receives the letters and cards very often.
6. Прочитайте текст еще раз, заменяя существительные местоимениями
там, где это возможно. Например: “\fera is a Russian athlete, but she is living...’’.

Притяжательные местоимения
Личным местоимениям соответствуют притяжательные место­
имения (Possessive Pronouns), выражающие принадлежность и от­
вечающие на вопрос Whose? Чей? Притяжательные местоимения
имеют две формы: одну, называемую собственно притяжательным
местоимением, и другую, называемую притяжательным местоиме­
нием в абсолютной формёГ

Собственно притяжательные местоимения


Собственно притяжательное местоимение всегда стоит перед су­
ществительным и является его определением. Оно исключает упот­
ребление артикля перед этим существительным:
My pencil is on the table. Мой карандаш на столе.
I - my -- мой I like my job.
you -- your -- твой You like your job.
he - -h is -- его He likes his job.
she - - her -- ее She likes her job.
it --it s - его, ее (неодуш.) It (the tree) loses its
we - - our - - наш Wfe like our job.
you - - your - - ваш You like your job.
they -- their - - их They like their job.

61
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Заполните пропуски в предложениях.
1. He washes his hands. I w ash... hands.
They w ash... hands.
\Nfe w ash... hands.
You w ash... hands.
2. She is angry with her friend. I am angry with ... friend.
He is angry with ... friend.
They are angry with ... friend.
>Afe are angry with ... friend.
3. I sit at my desk. Wfe sit a t ... desk.
She sits a t ... desk.
You sit a t ... desk.
They sit a t ... desk.
4. Wfe perform our exercises. You perform ... exercises.
I perform ... exercises.
She perform s... exercises.
They perform ... exercises.
2. Переделайте предложения. Используйте our / your / their.
Образец: His book and my book are on the desk. —>Our books are on the desk.
1. His car and her car are in the street. 2. Your coach and my coach are
in the gym. 3. His birthday and her birthday are in April. 4. Your T-shirt
and my T-shirt are in the changing-room. 5. H er bag and his bag are in
the classroom.
3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя притяжательные мес­
тоимения.
Образец: I do ... morning exercises at 7 o’clock. —> I do my morning
exercises at 7 o’clock.
1 .1 have a c o a c h .... coach is a M erited M aster o f Sports. 2. He has a
sister.... sister lives in Moscow. 3 .1 like this to w n .... streets and parks are
beautiful. 4. She has a family. ... parents work as schoolteachers. 5. ...
favourite sport is table tennis. I play a lot during the holidays. 6. Julia
wants to keep fit. V- favourite occupation is jogging. 7. I’m a first-year
stu d en t.... name is Nick. 8. Wfe’d like to invite a ll... friends to the party.
9. Mary is a doctor, b u t... brother is an athlete.
4. Прочитайте текст. Скажите, какие существительные в притяжатель­
ном падеже можно заменить притяжательными местоимениями?
Yesterday Jane had a very busy day. Jane’s daughter, Lucy, is a young
gymnast. She became interested in gymnastics five years ago. Now she
takes part in com petitions in another town. So, Jane and Jane’s husband
John went with Jane and John’s daughter to watch her performance.
62
First Jane went to the dry cleaner’s and collected Lucy’s dress and
Lucy’s jacket. Then she had a serious talk with Lucy’s coach. After that
she took Jane, Lucy and John’s tickets, packed Jane, Lucy and John’s
suitcases and many other things.
5. Прочитайте текст еще раз, заменяя существительные местоимениями
в притяжательном падеже там, где это возможно. Например: Yesterday Jane
had a very busy day. Her daughter...

Притяжательные местоимения в абсолютной форме


В русском языке притяжательные местоимения употребляются
как с существительным, которое находится непосредственно пос­
ле местоимения, так и без него. Например: Это — моя книга. Эта
книга — моя. Это — моя (книга).
В английском языке притяжательные местоимения должны со­
провождаться существительным. Например: It is my book.
После притяжательных местоимений в абсолютной форме су­
ществительные никогда не употребляются, поскольку местоимение
заменяет существительное, определяемое притяжательным место­
имением:
This is not my pencil, mine is blue. Это не мой карандаш, мой —
синий.
На русский язык такие местоимения переводятся так же, как и
обыкновенные притяжательные местоимения, а по-английски пи­
шутся и произносятся несколько иначе, чем обычные притяжатель­
ные местоимения:
I - my - - mine ■ It’s my book. It’s mine.
you -- your - - yours It’s your book. It’s yours.
he -- his - - his It’s his book. It’s his.
she - - her - - hers It’s her book. It’s hers.
we - - our - - ours It’s our book. It’s ours.
th e y - - their - - theirs It’s their book. It’s theirs.

I Местоимения
I Личные Притяжательные
1 I me my mine
I we us our ours
you you your yours
1 he him his his r ^
she her her hers
they them their theirs

63
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Заполните пропуски, используя mine / yours и т. д.


Образец: It’s my book. It’s .... —> It’s mine.
1. They are my running shoes. They are .... 2. It’s her dictionaiy. It’s ....
3. They are their seats. They are .... 4. They are our tickets. They are ....
5. It’s his car. It’s .... 6. It’s her cassette. It’s ....
2. Заполните пропуски притяжательными местоимениями в соответству­
ющей форме.
1. Tell him not to forget... ticket, she m ustn’t forget... either. 2. Whose
books are those? Are th e y ... o r ... ? 3.1 see that he has lo st... pen, perhaps
you can lend h im .... 4. Lend th e m ... dictionary, they have left ... at home.
5. My bag is heavier than ... . 6. Wfe have taken ... dictionaries, has she
taken ... ? 7. Those seats are n o t..., they are — f
3. Замените русские местоимения английскими эквивалентами.
Образец: Bring (ему) (его) racket. -» Bring him his racket.
1. Give (им) (их) books. 2. Show (ей) (ее) schedule. 3. Take (свое)
coat and put (его) on. 4. Bring (нам) (нашу) clothes. 5. Put (свои) tests
on (мой) desk. 6. Show (мне) (мою) room, please.
4. Закончите предложения по образцу.
Образец: It’s m ine....... —> Give it to me.
1. It’s ours....... 2. They are m ine........ 3. It’s his.........4. I t’s ours........
5. They’re hers.......6. They’re his........ 7. It’s m ine........

Возвратные местоимения

Возвратные местоимения (Reflexive Pronouns) образуются путем


прибавления к притяжательным местоимениям my, our, your, лич­
ным местоимениям him, her, it, them и неопределенному местоиме­
нию one окончаний -self" (в единственном числе) и -selves (во мно­
жественном числе).
I myself I am pleased with myself.
you yourself You are pleased with yourself (ед. ч.).
he himself He is pleased with himself.
she herself She is pleased with herself.
we ourselves We are pleased with ourselves.
you yourselves You are pleased with yourselves (мн. ч.)
they — themselves They are pleased with themselves.

64
В отличие от личных местоимений 2-е лицо возвратных место­
имений имеет отдельные формы для единственного числа (yourself)
и множественного числа (yourselves):
D on’t hurt yourself, Jack! He поранься, Джек!
D on’t hurt yourselves, students! He пораньтесь, студенты!
Возвратные местоимения соответствуют в русском языке:
1) частице -ся (-сь), которая присоединяется к глаголам для того,
чтобы придать им возвратное значение, и показывает, что действие
переходит на само действующее лицо:
Не defended himself bravely. Он храбро защищался.
Be careful! D on’t cut yourself. Будьте осторожны! He порежьтесь.
При глаголах wash умываться, dress одеваться, shave бриться,
bathe купаться, hide прятаться возвратные местоимения часто опус­
каются:
Hide behind the tree. Спрячьтесь за деревом.
2) возвратному местоимению себя {себе, собой):
I am pleased with myself. Я доволен собой.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя myself, yourself и дру­
гие возвратные местоимения.
1. You looked a t .... (ед. ч.) 2. She looked a t .... 3. We looked a t ....
4. He looked a t ... . 5. Jack and I looked a t ... . 6. The children looked
a t ... •
2. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя образец.
Образец: Не h u r t ... during the training session. -» He hurt himself during
the training session.
1. Jane can answer this question .... 2. They want to paint the walls ....
3. He repaired his com puter.... 4. My mother c u t... with a knife. 5. Aren’t
you tired o f... ? 6. We are proud o f .. . . 7. After swimming don’t forget to
dry ... with a towel. 8. I’m not angry with you. I’m angry with ... . 9. He
is very selfish. He thinks only a b o u t.... 10. The water is very hot. D on’t
bum ...! 11. He defended ... bravely.

У казательны е местоимения
Указательные местоимения (Demonstrative Pronouns) имеют от­
дельные формы для единственного числа — this этот, это, эта, that
тот, та, то и для множественного числа — these эти, those те.
65
М естоимения this и these указывают на предметы, находящиеся
рядом с говорящим, в то время как that и those указывают на более
отдаленные предметы:
This young man is my brother. Этот молодой человек мой брат.
(Речь идет о человеке, стоящем близко к говорящему.)
Do you know that man? Знаете ли вы того человека?
(Речь идет о человеке, находящемся на некотором расстоянии
от говорящего.)
Указательное местоимение, являясь определителем существи­
тельного, исключает употребление артикля перед существитель­
ным, к которому оно относится:
Не lives in that house. Он живет в том доме.
Не lives in that white house. Он живет в том белом доме.
После местоимений this и that часто употребляется местоиме­
ние one вместо повторения упомянутого ранее существительного:
Will you give me another racket? Дайте мне другую ракет ку.
I don’t like this one. М не не нравится эта (ракетка).

УПРАЖ НЕНИЯ
1. Составьте словосочетания, а) Используйте this или these.
1) ... prize; 2) ... competitions; 3 )... distance; 4 )... town; 5 )... running
shoes; 6) ... stadium; 7) ... book; 8) ... swimmers
б) Используйте that или those.
1)... photograph; 2) ... disks; 3) ... children; 4 )... building; 5) ... apples;
6) ... students; 7) ... library; 8 )... bags
2. Переделайте предложения, употребив существительные в форме мно­
жественного числа.
Образец: Look at that woman! -» Look at those women!
1. Call this man! 2. This athlete is a swimmer. 3. Give me that book!
4. Buy this apple! 5. Show me that picture! 6. Ask him this question!
7. Open this window! 8. Close that door! 9. Give me this pencil. 10. D on’t
miss this class!

Неопределенные местоимения
К неопределенным местоимениям (Indefinite Pronouns) относят­
ся местоимения some, any, по (и их производные), none, much, many,
little, few, all, both, either, neither, each, every (и его производные),
other, one.
66
Местоимения SOME и ANY
Some употребляется в утвердительных предложениях, a any —
в отрицательных и вопросительных.
Не asked me some questions. Он задал мне несколько вопросов.
Have you got any interesting Есть ли у вас (какие-нибудь)
books? интересные книги?
Some и any употребляются в качестве определителя существи­
тельного в тех случаях, когда недопустимо употребление неопре­
деленного артикля а (ап), а именно с существительными во мно­
жественном числе или с неисчисляемым существительными:
Give me some bread, please! Передай мне хлеб, пожалуйста!
There are some students В комнате несколько студентов.
in the room.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Используйте а (ап) или some.
Образец /: bread —» some bread
Образец 2г ball —>a ball
1) cup; 2) salt; 3) tea; 4) basket; 5) exam; 6) oil; 7) newspaper;
8) stadium; 9) pen; 10) money
2. Заполните пропуски в предложениях.
Образец: I had ... tea,... sandwich and... apple. —>I had some tea, a sandwich
and an apple.
1. It’s time to do shopping. Vfe need ... food and ... bottle of mineral
water. 2. It’s a very small town. There a re ... nice buildings a n d ... museum
in it. 3. He has ... wife, ... son here and ... relatives abroad. 4. Let’s buy
this vase. I have ... money with me. 5. Vfe can prepare for the exam now.
I brought... books from the library. 6. She likes animals a lot. She has ...
d o g ,... mouse, and ... cats at home. 7. Wfe must take ... exams. 8. Wfe met
... interesting people at the party yesterday. 9. He has ... victories during
the season.
3. Some или any? Заполните пропуски в предложениях.
Образец 1: Wfe have g o t... dictionaries. —>Wfe have got some dictionaries.
Образец 2: Are there ... new students in your group? —>Are there any new
students in your group?
1. Have you g o t... English books at home? 2. Are there ... places of
interest in St Petersburg? 3. They haven’t g o t... friends. 4. 'Vtere there ...
mistakes in the test? 5. He had ... problems yesterday. 6. Can you speak ...
67
foreign languages? 7. Are there ... Masters of Sports in your group? 8. Do
you know ... museums in London? 9. Is there ... sports equipment in the
gym? 10. Wfe haven’t g o t... bread, so I’m going out to buy .... 11. When
we were in Moscow, we visited ... very interesting places. 12. I have ...
magazines in my bag.
4. Some или any? Заполните пропуски в предложениях подходящими мес­
тоимениями в сочетании с данными ниже словами:
swimmers, new buildings, track-and-field athletes, photos, friends, time,
famous pictures, problems, gyms, food
Образец: There weren’t .......in the shop. —» There weren’t any skis
in the shop.

1. There a r e .......in this sports centre. 2.There w ere.........in the


swimming pool. 3. There weren’t ...... on the sports ground. 4. Are there ...
... in your street? 5 .1 haven’t got my camera, so I can’t take........ 6. Sorry
we’re late. Wfe h ad ...... with the traffic. 7. Is there....... in the fridge? I’m
hungry. 8. Why are you doing it yourself? Have y o u .......to help you?
9. We can’t stay here any longer. Wfe haven’t g o t......... 10. It was very
interesting to visit this gallery. There were........

М ест оимения, производные от SOM E, ANY, NO, EVERY

Неопределенные местоимения some и any в сочетании со слова­


ми one, body и thing образуют неопределенные местоимения someone,
somebody, anyone, anybody кто-то, кто-нибудь, something, anything
что-то, что-нибудь.
Подобно some и any местоимения someone, somebody и something
употребляются в утвердительных предложениях, a anyone, anybody
и anything — в отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях:
Somebody is knocking at the door. Кто-то стучит в дверь.
There isn’t anybody there. Там никого нет.
Слова body и thing сочетаются также с местоимением по, обра­
зуя отрицательные местоимения nobody никто и nothing ничто:
Wfe saw nobody there. Мы никого не видели там.
Every в сочетании с body, one и thing образует местоимения
everybody, everyone каждый, всякий, все и everything всё.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Измените предложения по образцу. Используйте nothing / nobody.


(Устно.)
68
Образец: There is’t anybody in the room. —»There is (there’s) nobody
in the room.
1. There isn’t anything in this box. 2. There wasn’t anybody in the
gym. 3. There isn’t anything on TV tonight. 4. We didn’t do anything.
S. I haven’t got anything to do.
2. Закончите предложения. Используйте anybody / anything. (Устно.)
Образец: There is nobody in the room. There isn’t .... —>There isn’t
anybody in the room.
1. I’ve got nothing to eat. I haven’t g o t.... 2. There’s nobody in the
changing-room. There isn’t .... 3. I can see nothing on the desk. I can’t
see .... 4. There was nobody on the plane. There wasn’t .... 5. He asked
nobody to help him. He didn’t ask....
3. Ответьте на вопросы. Используйте nobody / nothing.
Образец I: What did you do?.... -» Nothing.
Образец 2: Who helped him?.... —>Nobody.
1. Has anybody in this group got a dictionary?__2. Is there anybody
here who knows French? .... 3. Who knows the answer? .... 4. What did
you buy? .... 5. What happened? .... 6. Who was late? ....
4. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте nobody / nothing /
anybody / anything. (Устно.) ,l
1. “Did he say ... about it?” “No, he said ... .” 2. “What shall I do
now? The training session is over.” “You can do ... you like.” 3. There
was... in the street because it was very late. 4.... wants to see him. 5. Can ...
tell me how to get to the nearest underground? 6. Blind people can’t see
..., they can see .... 7. “Do you know... about his problems?” "... knows.”
8. Did you m eet... on your way to the gym? 9. There was ... on the table.
10. He has ... to help him. He hasn’t g o t... to help him.
5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте somebody / nothing /
anywhere / somewhere / и т.д. (Устно.)
1 .1 put my bag... ten minutes ago, and now I can’t find it. 2. There is...
in the gym. Do you know him? 3. “What’s her address?” “I know... about
it. She lives ... in Moscow.” 4. “Did you do it yourself?” “Yes, I did. ...
helped me.” 5 .1 see ... I know on the sports ground. 6. “Do you know ...
at that sports club?” “I’m afraid that I don’t know__” 7. There are many
bridges in St Petersburg. They are ... in the city. 8. You can find the sports
centre easily. ... will help you. 9. “What’s in this box?” " .... It’s empty.”
10. “Is there ... in the gym?” ".... You can lock the door.”
6. Закончите предложения, используя данные ниже выражения:
something to read in English, anywhere to go, nowhere to stay, something to
do, nobody to help me, something to eat
69
Образец: I don’t want to go there. There is .... —»There is nothing to do.
1 .1 am going to do it myself. There is .... 2. “Why are you at home?”
“Because there isn’t . . . 3 . Why are you so lazy? You need .... 4. Take
this English book. You need .... 5. All the hotels were full. There was__
6. I’m very hungry. Give me .... |
7. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Употребите somebody / something /
anybody / anything.
1 .1 don’t w ant... at the moment, thank you. 2. “How much did you
pay for these running shoes?” “I didn’t pay__They were a present from
my parents.” 3. I’d like to tell you ... interesting. 4. Phone me tomorrow.
If I am o u t,... will be at home. 5. There isn’t ... at work now. The office is
closed. 6. Do you know ... about him? 7. Do you know ... who has the
information? 8. Don’t lift the box alone. Ask ... to help you.
8. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте every + одно из дан­
ных ниже существительных: j
day, year, student, athlete, word
1. ... should have an individual training programme. 2 .... of Lesgaft
University should do sport. 3. Never leam the topic by heart if you can’t
translate it. You should understand ... . 4. If you want to improve your
English, you should study .... 5. They go to the South__
9. Every или all? Заполните пропуски в предложениях.
1. Не has training session ... day this year. 2. He was in good form ...
the season. 3. I had a toothache ... day. 4. “Shall we meet tomorrow?”
“Sorry. I’ll be busy ... week.” 5. “Shall we meet tomorrow?” “Sorry. I’ll
be at work ... week.” 6. The weather was nice last summer so we had a
swim nearly ... day. 7. You can’t trust her. She changes friends ... time,
they are not interesting for her. 8. It was her best performance. ...
programme was beautiful. 9. I saw Jack at the party. He was there ...
evening. 10. It rained ... day yesterday.
10. Прочитайте предложения. Заполните пропуски, используя everybody /
everything / everywhere.
1. What’s wrong with the traffic today? ... is late. 2. Let’s go hom e....
is tired. 3. Now you can do ... you want. 4. It’s a public holiday today.
You can see a lot of people ... . 5. There are many parks in this town.
Trees and flowers a re __6. She is very friendly.... likes her. 7. Sometimes
you can’t do ... you want. 8.... should have a medical check up regularly.
11. Ответьте на вопросы. Используйте everybody.
Образец: Do you practise sport? —*Yes, everybody practises sport here.
1. Do you take part in competitions? 2. Do you have training sessions
regularly? 3. Have you got a coach? 4. Do you like the museums in St
Petersburg? 5. Wfere you glad?
70
Местоимения MUCH и MANY
Местоимения мисһ и many (много) употребляются со значением
много. Much употребляется перед неисчисляемыми существитель­
ными, обычно в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях,
a many — перед исчисляемыми:
You spent too much time Вы потратили слишком много времени
on this translation. на этот перевод.
Не has many friends there. У него там много друзей.
A lot (of) употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисля­
емыми существительными также со значением много:
Не has a lot of books. У него много книг.
She drinks a lot of coffee. Она пьет много кофе.
A lot (of) в отличие от much никогда не употребляются в слово­
сочетаниях (например: слишком много по-английски будет звучать
как too much, very much).
A lot и much употребляются также в значении много, когда мы
характеризуем процесс:
“Does he read much?” «Он много читает?» — «Да, много*.
“Yes, a lot.”

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте much или many.
1. Don’t drink so ... coffee. It’s bad for you. 2. There are so ... places
of interest in St Petersburg! 3.... in this work was too difficult for me. 4 ....
of their answers were excellent. 5. I never eat ... bread. 6. There are ...
departments and faculties in Lesgaft University. 7. There are ... students
in our group. 8. Is there ... milk in the fridge? 9. She can speak ... foreign
languages.
2. Ответьте на вопросы. Используйте фразу Гжgot some but not much/many.
1. Have you got any time? 2. Have you got any friends? 3. Have you
got any problems? 4. Have you got any relatives? 5. Have you got any
m oney? 6. Have you got any new spapers? 7. Have you got any
photographs of your brother?
3. Задайте вопросы. Начните с how much ... или how many....
Образец: There are some Masters of Sports in our group. —» How many
Masters of Sports are there in your group?
1. There are some books on the desk. 2. I’ve got some friends. 3. I’ve
got some money. 4. I’ve got some coffee. 5. He has some beautiful pictures.

71
6. We have some players on the team. 7. You must take some exams.
8. There were some students in the reading-room.
4. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте a lot / a lot of / much /
many. (Устно.)
1 .1 know very ... about this writer. 2. You study too .... 3. Hurry up!
Wfe haven’t g o t... time. 4. “Do you w ork... ?” “Yes,....” 5. There are ...
sports grounds in our city. 6. “Do you like the performance?” “No, n o t....”
7. He had ... victories during last season. 8. Don’t speak so ... on the
phone. 9. They have ... friends. 10. He eats ... fruit. 11. There are ...
modem buildings in the town.
5. Составьте вопросы и ответы. Используйте much и a lot.
Образец 1: (play basketball) N o , .... —> “Do you play basketball much?”
No, not much.
Образец 2: (train) Yes,.... —> “Do you train much?” “Yes, a lot.”
1. (go swimming) Yes, ... . 2. (play tennis) Yes, ... . 3. (use the
computer) N o ,.... 4. (use the phone) N o ,....

Местоимения LITTLE и FEW

Местоимения little и few (мало) употребляются со значением


мало, little подобно much употребляется перед неисчисляемыми су­
ществительными, a few подобно питу — перед исчисляемыми су­
ществительными:
I have very little time. У меня очень мало времени.
Не has few friends. У него мало друзей.
Little и few могут употребляться с неопределенным артиклем —
a little немного и a few немного, несколько:
Give me a little water, please. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, немного воды.
I have a few books on this У меня есть несколько (немного)
subject. книг по этому вопросу.
A little немного и a few немного, несколько употребляются в смыс­
ле некоторое, хотя и небольшое количество, в то время как little и
few мало употребляются в смысле недостаточно, почти нет:
I’ve got little time. У меня мало (недостаточно) времени.
I’ve got a little time. У меня есть немного времени.
A little употребляется также в значении немного, когда мы опи­
сываем процесс или состояние:
“Are you tired?” “A little.” «Ты устал?» — *Немного».
72
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Ответьте на вопросы. Используйте a little / a few.
Образец 1: “Have you got any time?” —» “A little.”
Образец 2: “Have you got any books with you?” —>“A few.”
1. “Does she speak English?” 2. “Did he ask any questions?” 3. “Wfere
you afraid?” 4. “Am I late?” 5. “Have you got many friends?” 6. “Are
you tired?” 7. “Have you got any difficulties?” i
2. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте a little / a few.
(Устно.)
1. “Wauld you like some coffee?” “Yes, ... .” 2. Don’t buy so much
coffee, buy — 3. Don’t close the window. Wfe need ... fresh air. 4. There
were ... athletes in the gym. 5. “Does he train much?” “No, only... times
a month.” 6. “Have we much work to do now?” “No, only ....” 7. Now
I need ... water. 8. Bring me ... chairs, please. 9. Wfe have ... free time
now. Let’s go to the caf<£. 10. I’d like ... ice-cream. 11. Don’t invite many
people — invite__
3. Прочитайте предложения. Заполните пропуски, используя very little /
veryfew.
1. N\fe can’t go there now. Wfe’ve g o t... time. 2. Last summer was very
cold and rainy. There were ... hot days. 3. You have ... practice. You could
make this mistake easily. 4. There were ... new words in the text, so we
could translate it easily. 5. It’s a very small village. There are ... houses.
6. There is ... water in the kettle.
4. Прочитайте предложения. Заполните пропуски, используя little / a little /
few / a few.
1. Give me ... water please. I am thirsty. 2. I’m going to write ... letters
now. 3. There is very ... bread for dinner. Vfe must go shopping. 4. I’m
not ready now. I need ... time to prepare. 5. It’s a very ordinary town.
There are very ... places of interest in it. 6. What a nice day! Let’s walk....
7. “Does he do sports?” "... .” 8. I have g o t... very interesting books at
home. 9. I’d like to buy... exercise-books. 10. I’ll be back in ... days.

И М Я ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

Именем прилагательным (The Adjective) называется часть речи,


которая обозначает признак предмета и отвечает на вопрос What
kind? Какой? Например: white белый, good хороший, Russian русский.
Имена прилагательные в английском языке не изменяются ни
по родам, ни по числам, ни по падежам: a young man молодой чело-
12
век, a young woman молодая женщина, young people молодые люди, with
a young man с молодым человеком. Имена прилагательные в англий­
ском языке могут изменяться только при образовании степеней срав­
нения: hot, hotter, (the) hottest горячий, более горячий, самый горячий.
Имена прилагательные образуют, как и в русском языке, две сте­
пени сравнения: сравнительную (The Comparative Degree) и прево­
сходную (The Superlative Degree).
He is a very tall boy. Он очень высокий мальчик,
(tall — основная форма)
Не is taller than his brother. Он выше своего брата.
(taller — сравнительная степень)
Не is the tallest person in the family. Он выше всех в своей семье,
(the tallest — превосходная степень)
Односложные прилагательные образуют сравнительную степень пу­
тем прибавления к основной форме прилагательного суффикса -ег.
Превосходная степень образуется путем прибавления суффикса -est.
Прилагательные Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
sharp острый sharper острее (the) sharpest самый острый
cold холодный colder холоднее (the) coldest самый холодный
deep глубокий deeper глубже (the) deepest самый глубокий

Большинство двусложных прилагательных, а также прилагатель­


ные, состоящие из трех или более слогов, образуют сравнительную
степень при помощи слова more, а превосходную — (the) most.
Эти слова ставятся перед основной формой прилагательного.
Прилагательные Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
active активный , more active активнее (the) 1Dost active самый
актившый
famous знаменитый more famous более (the) most famous самый
знаменитый знаменитый •

difficult трудный more difficult труднее (the) пfiost difficult самый


трудн ый

Некоторые прилагательные образуют степени сравнения от дру­


гого корня.
Прилагательные Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
good хороший better лучше (the) best лучший
bad плохой worse хуже (the) worst самый плохой
little маленький less меньше (the) least самый маленький

74
*

Окончание
Прилагательные Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
far далекий farther (the) farthest самый от-
более отдаленный (the) furthest даленный
further дальнейший

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
Образуйте сравнительную степень следующих прилагательных
Образец: big —»bigger, difficult юге difficult, good —>better
1. strong 6. weak 11. near 16. expensive
2. bad 7. tall 12. difficult 17. old
3. hot 8. deep 13. easy 18. brave
4. cold 9. high 14. far 19. nice
5. beautiful 10. interesting 15. young 20. warm
2. Подберите антонимы к следующим прилагательным
Образец: nearer — further
1. worse 5. more expensive 9. bigger
2. weaker 6. nearer 10. faster
3. more difficult 7. hotter
4. older 8. better
3. Закончите предложения, используя прилагательные в сравнительной
степени.
1. This wrestler isn’t very strong. Our wrestlers a re .... 2. This distance
isn’t very long. That one is ... . 3. This magazine isn’t interesting at all.
That magazine is ... . 4. Our car isn’t fast. His car is ... . 5. These
photographs aren’t very nice. Those ones are .... 6. His idea wasn’t very
good. Her idea was.... 7. This basketball player isn’t very tall, that player
is.... 8. Her English test isn’t bad. Her knowledge in chemistry is.... 9. This
song sounds good, but that one is .... 10. My flat isn’t very comfortable.
Yours is ... . 11. Britain isn’t very big. France is .... 12. This town isn’t
very beautiful. St Petersburg is ... . 13. She doesn’t work very hard. He
works__
4. Раскройте скобки. Употребите прилагательные в скобках в соответ­
ствующей степени сравнения. Используйте than.
Образец /: The \blga is (short) than the Mississippi. — >The \blga is shorter
than the Mississippi.
Образец 2i This book is (interesting) than that one. -* This book is more
interesting than that one.

75
1. Mary is a (good) gymnast than Jane. 2. The Alps are (high) than
the Urals. 3. The Tames is (short) than the Volga. 4. Chinese is (difficult)
than English. 5. Spanish is (easy) than German. 6. Today the weather is
(cold) than it was yesterday. 7. The new sports centre (modem) than the
old one. 8. Moscow is (old) than St Petersburg. 9. July is (hot) than April.
10. This box is (heavy) than that one. 11. This hotel is (expensive) than
that one.
5. Закончите предложения. Используйте a bit или much + прилагательное
в сравнительной степени.
1. Nick is very good in swimming. I ’m not good at all. Nick is ... .
2. A black bag is 50 pounds. A blue bag is 51 pound. The blue bag is ...
(expensive). 3. His performance was brilliant, hers wasn’t very good. Her
performance was.... 4. The first box weighs 20 kg, the second one weighs
21 kg. The second box is ... (heavy). J У
6. Прочитайте предложения. Образуйте сравнительную степень прилага­
тельных в скобках.
1. His English is bad, but hers is much (bad). 2. (Good) late than never.
3. Today she looks (good) than yesterday. 4. The bus stop is (far) than you
think. 5. It’s (good) for you not to do it.
7. Поставьте прилагательные из упр. 1 в превосходную степень. Не за­
будьте употребить перед прилагательным определенный артикль.
Образец: big —>the biggest
8. Замените основную форму прилагательных в скобках прилагательны­
ми в превосходной степени.
1. The London underground is the (old) in the world. 2. It was the
(bad) mistake in his life. 3. He is the (good) athlete in the group. 4. February
is the (short) month of the year. 5. It was the (happy) day of her life.
6. It was his (good) performance. 7. What is the (high) mountain in the
world? 8. What is the (long) river in the world? 9. Who is your (good)
friend?
9. Составьте вопросы и ответьте на них. (Работа в парах.)
Образец: What / large / city in your country? —>What is the largest city in
your country? Moscow is the largest city in our country.
1. What / large / country in the world? 2. Who / tall / student in your
group? 3. What / long / river in the world? 4. Who / good / wrestler in
our country? 5. What / large / continent in the world? 6. Who / old /
person in your family? 7. What / old / building in St Petersburg? 8. What /
big / museum of art in St Petersburg? 9. What / large / cathedral in St
Petersburg? 10. What / new / swimming pool in your city?
76
10. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте прилагательные в
превосходной степени.
Образец: It’s a very interesting film. It’s the ... film for me. -> It’s the most
interesting film for me.
1. He is a very popular wrestler. He is the ... wrestler in the world.
2. It’s a really beautiful building. It’s th e ... building in the town. 3. It was a
really bad day. It was the ... day in my life. 4. It was a very bad injury. It
was the ... injury of the season. 5. He is a fast runner. He is the ... runner
in our group. 6. She is very serious. She is th e... girl I’ve ever known. 7. It’s a
very dangerous kind of sport. I think it’s the ... one. 8. That summer was
very hot. It was the ... summer in the history of the town.
11. Закончите предложения. Используйте as... as....
Образец: Moscow is older than St Petersburg. St Petersburg
isn’t — -* St Petersburg isn’t as old as Moscow.
1. These running shoes are better than those. Those running shoes
aren’t .... 2. The English Channel is wider than the Straits of Gibraltar.
The Straits of Gibraltar aren’t .... 3. Nick is a better swimmer than Jack.
Jack isn’t .... 4. Alpine skis are more expensive than cross-country skies.
Cross-country skis are n o t... . 5. Our swimming pool is more modem
than yours. Your swimming pool isn’t .... 6. play better than they play.
They don’t play ... . 7. Sergey’s English is better than Mary’s. Mary’s
English is not ... . 8. Kate is lazier than her brother. Kate’s brother
isn’t .... 9. The first athlete’s performance is more difficult than the second
one’s. The second athlete’s performance isn’t .... 10. The new gymnasium
in our district is much bigger than the old one. The old gym isn’t ... .
11. He was more careful than me. I wasn’t ....
12. Скажите, где следует употребить as, а где than.
1. Our warm-up is a bit more difficult... yours. 2. Their room in the
hostel isn’t ... big ... ours. 3. She isn’t ... busy... I am. 4. Great Britain is
smaller ... Russia. 5. The Arctic Ocean is colder ... the Indian Ocean.
6. Chinese is more difficult... English. 7. He isn’t ... tired... you are. 8. His
work isn’t ... difficult... mine. 9. Jack isn’t ... strong... he thinks. 10. She
isn’t ... punctual ... her mother. 11. Our task isn’t ... difficult ... theirs.
12. Her performance is much more interesting... his. 13. This book is more
expensive... that one.
13. Составьте предложения. Используйте the same as.
Образец: (you train / in swimming pool / I train) .... -» You train in
the same swimming pool as I train.
1. (your sports suit / colour / m ine).... 2. (you live / hostel / 1 live)....
3. (you have / coach / 1 have).... 4. (you make / mistake / I m ake)....
77
14. Выучите названия частей тела

HUMAN BODY

Torso Limbs Inner Organs


and Other Pari
eyes blades legs arms heart
face shoulders ankle forearm lungs
ears chest, thorax shin upper arm liver
chin waist knee elbow abdomen
cheeks hips thigh wrist stomach
nose ribs ball fingers throat
mouth vertebrae foot palm
forehead spinal column sole back of
hair toes the hand
neck instep

15. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

CHAMPION OF THE WORLD!


On June 24th, 1964, Cassius Clay, now known as Muhammed Ali
became heavyweight champion of the world. He defeated Sonny Liston
in the sixth round of the fight, lifted his arms in the air and shouted to
the reporters, “I am the greatest!”
16. Сравните двух боксеров. Используйте информацию, данную в таблице.
Образец: Liston was... Clay, (old/ young/ than) -» Liston was older than Clay.

Height Chest Reach Wfeight

Liston

1 . ... had a longer reach th an .... (Liston / Clay)


2. Clay s chest w as... than Liston’s, (broad/ small)
3.... was heavier th a n .... (Liston / Clay)
4. Liston was... than Clay, (tall / short)
5. Liston’s waist was... than Clay’s, (narrow / big)
17. В предложениях упр. 16 поменяйте местами имена спортсменов. Про­
читайте предложения. Используйте образец.
Образец: Clay was younger than Liston.
18. Прочитайте, переведите на русский язык. Найдите лишнее слово.
a) face, nose, eyes, knee, head, mouth, hair;
b) elbow, arm, upper arm, forearm, ribs, hand;
c) shin, foot, ball, knee, ankle, fingers, sole;
d) back of the hand, fingers, wrist, thigh, palm
19. Составьте словосочетания (глагол + существительное). Используйте
следующие глаголы:
wash injure pull bend
train twist stretch open
break lift swing put
relax straighten cany show
Составьте словосочетания (прилагательное + существительное)
пользуйте следую
beautiful
big, large
21. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами.
1. The swimmer opens his ... in the water. 2. The player broke the ...
of his left leg. 3. The weightlifter puts the bar on h is... and then performs
the last movement. 4. The wrestler put his opponent on the ... . 5. The
action of the ... is very important in the throw. 6. Every part of his leg —
his thigh, his ankle and ... was put into action. 7. He has weak ... and
can’t swim the stroke properly.
22. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What parts of the arm does a volleyball player use?
2. What parts of the leg does a football player use?
3. What organs are the most important for a swimmer?
4. What parts of the torso does a gymnast use?
5. Do you know the parts of the face?
6. What are the inner organs of the human body?
7. What parts of the leg are involved in skiing?
23. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык следую
ния:
have weak limbs; injure the wrist; perform the exercise on the toes;
relax the upper arm; lift the shoulder; bend the head; play ball with one’s
fingers; fill the chest (lungs) with air; turn the hips to the left; shift the
weight from the thigh; raise one’s eyes; use only the calf and the shin;
direct the feet forward
24. Назовите по-английски движения, которые вы выполняете во время
тренировки:
leg movements, arm movements, head position, where you shift the
weight, where you turn, how you breathe

79
НАРЕЧИЕ

Наречие (The Adverb) — часть речи, которая указывает на при­


знак действия или на обстоятельства, при которых протекает дей­
ствие. Наречие относится к глаголу и показывает, как, где, когда и
каким образом происходит действие:
Не works hard. Он работает усердно.
She came late. Она пришла поздно.
Did you sleep well? Вы хорошо спали?
Наречие может относиться к прилагательному или к другому
наречию, указывая на их признаки:
Ann is a very good friend. Энн — очень хорошая подруга.
The work was done quite well. Работа сделана довольно хорошо.
В предложении наречие всегда является обстоятельством.
По своему строению наречия делятся на простые, производные
и сложные. iiffi*
1. Простые наречия не имеют никаких суффиксов. К ним отно­
сятся: often часто, seldom редко, never никогда, still все еще, near близ­
ко, now сейчас, then тогда, here здесь и др.
2. Производные наречия образуются главным образом с помощью
суффикса -1у, который прибавляется к основе соответствующего
прилагательного или существительного:
day — день — daily — ежедневно
bad — плохой — badly — плохо
Слова hard, early, late, fast, near могут являться как прилагатель­
ными, так и наречиями: , i .у. +
Не is a fast runner. Не runs fast.
Другие суффиксы встречаются реже: -wise — otherwise иначе',
-ward — forward вперед, впереди.
3. Сложные наречия образуются от двух и более основ: inside внут­
ри, outside снаружи, sometimes иногда.
Многие наречия могут иметь степени сравнения, которые обра­
зуются так же, как и степени сравнения прилагательных.
Односложные наречия образуют сравнительную степень путем
прибавления суффикса -ег, а превосходную степень — суффикса
-est к основной форме:
Наречие Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
fast быстро faster быстрее fastest быстрее всего (всех)
hard усердно harder усерднее hardest усерднее всех
late поздно later позднее latest позднее всего (всех)

80
Наречия, образованные от прилагательных при помощи суф­
фикса -1у, образуют сравнительную степень при помощи more, а
превосходную — при помощи most:

Наречие Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень


clearly ясно more clearly яснее most clearly яснее всего
bravely храбро more bravely храбрее most bravely храбрее всех

Следующие наречия, как и соответствующие им прилагатель­


ные, образуют степени сравнения не по правилу :

Наречие Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень


well хорошо better лучше best лучше всего (всех)
badly плохо worse хуже worst хуже всего (всех)
little мало less меньше least меньше всего (всех)
m uch много тоге больше most больше всего (всех)

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Определите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова. Пере­
ведите их на русский язык.
1. The questions were so easy that everybody could answer them. 2. He
answered all the questions easily. 3. Please speak loudly. 4. Wfe heard a
loud noise in the street. 5. Wfe went straight to the swimming pool. Wfe
didn’t stop anywhere. 6. This road is quite straight. 7. He has very little
knowledge of the subject. 8. He works more and better than he used to.
9. I have more books than you. 10. 1 am an early riser, I go to bed early
and get up early. 11. Wfe talked very much that evening. 12. Wfe haven’t
had much rain this month. 13. He is playing worse than usual. 14. The
patient is worse this morning.
2. Выберите нужную форму из слов, стоящих в скобках.
1 .1 did not rest very (good, well) last night. 2. It is not (good, well) for
you to miss classes. 3. He was (angry, angrily) yesterday. 4. He spoke (angry,
angrily). 5. It isn’t (bad, badly). 6. He did his test (bad, badly). 7. He acted
very (brave, bravely). 8. He is a (brave, bravely) man. 9. This is quite (clear,
clearly). 10. This (clear, dearly) shows the difference. 11. She spoke to
him (cold, coldly). 12. The weather is (cold, coldly) today. 13. This is a
(comfortable, comfortably) chair. 14. Wfe travelled (comfortable, comfortably).
15. He is ( dangerous , dangerously) ill. 16. T he ice is ( dangerous,
dangerously). 17. My opinion on this book is (different, differently) from
yours. 18. The two sisters were dressed (different, differently). 19. Your
8
description is not quite (exact, exactly). 20. I don’t know (exact, exactly)
when he will come. 21. The children seem to be very (happy, happily).
22. They lived (happy, happily). 23. Wfe saw a (heavy, heavily) loaded car.
24. The box is too (heavy, heavily). 25. She looked round (helpless,
helplessly). 26. She is quite (helpless, helplessly). 27. The work was (perfect,
perfectly) done. 28. The weather during the last few days has been (perfect,
perfectly). 29. He came into the room very (quite, quietly). 30. The sea
was (quiet, quietly). 31. He goes to the swimming pool (regular, regularly).
32. It is (sad, sadly) that you have been ill for such a long time. 33. She
looked at me (sad, sadly). 34. The answer was not (satisfactory,
satisfactorily). 35. He is working (satisfactory, satisfactorily). 36. Do you
(serious, seriously) want to go there? 37. It is a very (serious, seriously) thing.
38. The explanation was quite (simple, simply). 39. The question was quite
(simple, simply).

ОБОРОТ BE GOING TO

Для выражения намерения совершить действие или уверенно­


сти в его совершении очень часто употребляется оборот be going to.
I am going to learn English Я собираюсь (намерен) изучать англий-
next year. ский язык в будущем году.
Оборот be going to может также употребляться для выражения
большой вероятности или неизбежности совершения действия в бу­
дущем.
The sky is clearing up, the Небо проясняется, дождь прекратит-
rain is going to stop in ся через минуту,
a minute.
He is going to win this time. Сейчас он (наверняка) выиграет.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Скажите, что вы собираетесь делать завтра.


Образец: (play volleyball) Гш going to play volleyball / I’m not
going to play volleyball.
1. (have a training session).... 2. (take part in competitions).... 3. (at­
tend classes at the University).... 4. (do exams) .... 5. (learn English)....
6. (watch TV) .... 7. (eat at the restaurant).... 8. (help my parents) ....
2. Спросите своего друга о том, что он собирается делать завтра. Исполь­
зуйте лексику упр. 1.
Образец: Are you going to play volleyball tomorrow?
82
3. Составьте вопросы из предлагаемых слов.
Образец: (when / you / have a training session) ... ? —» When are you going
to have a training session?
1. (when / you / take part in competitions) ... ? 2. (how long / you /
prepare for the exam )... ? 3. (how often / you / attend English classes)... ?
4. (what time / you / get up tom orrow )... ? 5. (how long / you / study at
the University)... ? 6. (what time / you / have a meal today)... ? 7. (when /
you / have a rest) ... ? 8. (when / you / have a h aircu t)... ?
4. Закончите предложения. Используйте оборот be going to + одно из дан­
ных словосочетаний в соответствующей форме:
buy a bottle of lemonade, buy it immediately, have a shower, have a rest, have
fan, take medicine, have English classes
1. I’m tired. I’m .... 2. I’m too hot. I’m .... 3. He is thirsty. He is ....
4. I’m bored. I’m ... . 5. She doesn’t know English well. She is ... .
6. H e’s got a terrible headache. He is ... . 7. She likes this dress a lot.
She i s ....
5. Поделитесь своими планами.
Образец 1: Is the dinner ready? (just / cook) -» Not yet. I’m just going to
cook.
Образец 2: Does your father know anything about your plans?
(phone / later) —>Not yet. I’m going to phone him later.
1. Is your training session over? (just / finish) 2. Are you ready for the
exam? (study / tomorrow) 3. Is your sister at home? (come back / in two
hours) 4. Is your brother a student? (fust / have entrance exams) 5. Have
you got this book? (buy / tomorrow) 6. Do you know the result? (just /
find out)
6. Задайте вопросы по образцу. (Работа в парах.)
Образец: I have a toothache, (when / you / visit a dentist?) -» When are
you going to visit a dentist?
1. I ’m hungry, (when / we / eat?) 2. My brother has his own flat now.
(when / he / invite us?) 3. My jeans are very dirty, (when / you / wash
them ?) 4. They have so many things to do. (when / they / begin with it?)
5. Jack and I are not friends any more. He is very angry with me. (what /
you / do with it?)
7. Ответьте на вопросы. (Работа в парах.)
Образец: Did you phone Jack? -> No, I was going to phone him but
I changed my mind.
1. Did you visit your friends yesterday? No, I ... . 2. Wfere you at the
disco yesterday? N o, w e .... 3. Did you buy that bag? No, I .... 4. Did he
take part in competitions? N o, he ... . 5. Did your friends come to see
83
you? No, th ey .... 6 . Did they build a new hotel as promised? No, th e y ....
7. Does your brother still want to be a doctor? No, he ....
8. Скажите, что, по вашему мнению, должно случиться. Используйте
слова в скобках.
Образец: The sky is grey, (it / rain) -> It’s going to rain.
1. Her eyes are full o f tears, (she / cry) 2. It’s nearly the end o f the
game, and the score is 6 — 1. (they / win) 3. This vase is on the very edge
of the table, (it / fall) 4. Jack’s injury isn’t bad, and the treatment is perfect.
(he / recover) 5. They are still in the sun. The day is very hot. (they /
bum themselves)
9. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык два текста.

A YOUNG FIGURE-SKATER’S PLANS


My name is Liz. I’m twelve years old. I practise figure-skating. I have
training sessions three times a week now, and I ’m good at dancing. I’m
going to give beautiful performances. I am going to wear nice dresses.
I’m going to be rich and give my parents many presents. Then I’m going
to have nice friends. I m going to have good parties and many guests at
weekends. I m going to be famous. I’m going to become a cham pion of
the world in figure-skating. I’m going to win many times. I’m not going
to marry until I ’m 30. Then I’m going to have a family. I’m going to have
a handsome, romantic husband and three children — two boys and a girl.
I’m going to teach my daughter how to skate and dance. I ’m going to
have nice children. Then I’m going to be a figure-skating coach and have
my own school. I’m going to be a famous coach, too!

A FIGURE-SKATING COACH
I’m Mary Brown. I’m nearly 55. I’m a figure-skating coach. I like my
little athletes very much. I work very hard and teach them to do the same.
Sometimes I think about my future. I’m going to retire one day. I’m going
to spend more time with my family. I ’m going to read a lot and bring up
my granddaughter. She is only two years old now. I ’m not going to teach
her how to skate. I m tired of it. I’m going to visit theatres and museums
with her and read interesting books. I ’m going to buy a house in the
country and grow beautiful flowers. Then I’m going to have a dog. Now
I haven’t got much time to look after it, but I think that in future I’m
going to have much more free time.
Then I’m going to cook everything I want. I like cooking. I always
relax when I cook something delicious. Then I’m going to knit and sew —
I like unusual clothes. I was going to travel a lot earlier—but now I don’t
know... I travel too much now. I’m going to write a book instead. I’m
going to write a very interesting book about my life.
84
10. Прочитайте данные утверждения. Какие из них являются планами
Лизы, а какие — ее тренера?
— I’m going to show beautiful performances.
— I’m going to spend more time with my family.
— I’m going to have nice friends.
— I’m going to buy a house in the country.
— I’m going to be famous.
— I’m going to have a dog.
— I’m going to be a famous coach. I
— I’m going to write a book.
— I’m going to have nice children.
11. Расскажите сначала о Лизе, а затем о ее тренере. Используйте об­
разец.
Образец: Liz is going to be a famous figure-skater. She’s going to ....

12. Ответьте на вопросы о планах Лизы.


1. What’s she going to be?
2. What’s she going to do?
3. When is she going to marry?
4. How many children is she going to have?
5. What is she going to teach?
13. Расспросите о планах Мери Браун.
14. Составьте небольшой рассказ о ваших планах на будущее.
15. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

ST PETERSBURG
St Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It was
founded by Peter the First in 1703. It is situated on 42 islands. The river
Neva runs through the city. It runs from the lake of Ladoga into the Baltic
Sea. At night the bridges are raised over the Neva. In May and June, the
sun shines very late in the evening. People call these nights the White
Nights.
Many Russian and foreign architects took part in the construction of
the city. The first building was the Peter and Paul Fortress. It was designed
by D.Trezzini.
The magnificent building of the Winter Palace is a masterpiece of
another great Italian architect B. Rastrelli. The Admiralty of the Russian
architect A. Zakharov also evokes the admiration of Peterbuigers and their
guests.
St Isaac’s Cathedral is the greatest cathedral in Russia. It belongs to
the best works of the court architect, Auguste de Montferrand. The
cathedral is the heaviest building in the city, and its dome is the largest in
85
Russia. The m onum ent to Nicholas I, that is in Isaac’s Square in front of
the cathedral, was designed by this architect too and created by the
sculptor RK lodt. . , ... '
The Kazan Cathedral is connected with the name o f the architect
A. \bronikhin. The grating near the cathedral is also called the \bronikhin
Grating. There are two monuments, to Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolli, in
front o f the cathedral which are the symbols o f Russian weapon. They
were created by the sculptor B. Orlovsky.
The other m asterpiece o f world architecture is the C hurch o f the
Saviour on Spilt Blood. It was built on the place where Alexander II had
been killed. The architect — A. Parland.
There are many architectural ensembles near Lesgaft University. The
“New Holland Archway” is one o f the highest achievements o f Seigey
Chevakinsky and Vallen de Lam ont. M any people say it’s the most
beautilul place in the city. •
The St N icholas Cathedral and the Belfry also dem onstrate the talent
of the outstanding Russian architect Seigey Chevakinsky.
The Mariinsky Theatre brought fame to the architect A. Kavos.
One o f the most famous m onum ents is the Bronze Horseman. This
name was given to the m onum ent to Peter the First by A. Pushkin. The
author of the m onum ent is Etienne Falconet.
There are many museums in St Petersburg. The Hermitage is the
biggest museum o f art in our country. The Russian State Museum is the
second laigest one in St Petersbuig.
The main street is Nevsky Prospect, and the laigest square is the Field
o f Mars.
After Moscow, St Petersburg is the second largest and the m ost
im portant centre o f science and culture in Russia.
16. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When and whom was St Petersbuig founded by?
2. Why do people call nights in May and June the White Nights?
3. What was the first building of the city?
4. Whom was the Winter Palace designed by?
5. Which is the greatest cathedral in Russia?
6 . Where is the m onum ent to Nicholas I situated?
7. What m onum ents are the symbols of Russian weapon?
8 . Where was the Church o f the Saviour on Spilt Blood built?
9. What is the most marvellous building near Lesgaft University?
10. Who gave the name Bronze Horseman to the m onum ent to Peter
the First?
17. Используя ответы на вопросы упр. 16, подготовьте рассказ о Петер­
бурге.
18. Прочитайте диалог.
— What is worth visiting in St Petersbuig?
86
1

— If I were you, I would go to the Hermitage, o f course. It’s the biggest


museum of art. Then, the Russian Museum has a wonderful collection
of Russian paintings by famous Russian artists, such as Repin, Serov
and many others.
— What do you do for entertainm ent in St Petersburg?
— There is a lot to do. I recommend you to visit theatres and see the
operas and ballets o f famous composers. And while you are in St
Petersburg, you should visit its beautiful suburbs — Pushkin, Pavlovsk
and so on.

В РЕ М Е Н А ГРУП П Ы SIM PLE

НАСТОЯЩЕЕ ПРОСТОЕ ВРЕМЯ

Настоящее простое время (The Present Simple Tense) использу


ется, когда мы говорим о стабильных явлениях в нашей ж изни, со
бытиях или фактах. В основе действия регуляр
ность
The sun rises in the East. Солнце встает на востоке.
I train six times a week. раз в неделю
пень стабильности подчеркивается при помощи следующих
выражений, которые часто употребляются при образовании
стоящего простого времени:
usually обычно
often часто
seldom редко
sometimes иногда
from time to time время от времени
every day (month, year, week, каждый день (месяц, год, неделю,
summer, evening, lesson, etc.) лето, вечер , урок и т .д.)
never никогда
Глаголы, выражающие мысли, чувства и желания, могут употреб
ли ться во временах группы Simple. К числу наиболее употребитель
ных из этих глаголов относятся:
want хотеть like находить приятным
love любить hate ненавидеть
need нуждаться prefer предпочитать
depend — зависеть know знать
Строение утвердительных предложений
времени сходно со строением русских предложений, за исключе

87
нием ф и кси рован н ого п орядка слов. Н априм ер: I take p art in
competitions. Я принимаю участие в соревнованиях. Схема строения
предложения — местоимения I / you / we / they + инф инитив без
частицы to (I + (to) run = I run. Я бегаю.) или местоимения 3-го лица
единственного числа he / she / it + глагол с окончанием -s (Н е +
(to) run =7= Н е runs. Он бегает.).
Строение же вопросительных и отрицательных предложений зна­
чительно отличается от привычной организации русских предло­
жений. Вопросительные и отрицательные предложения содержат
вспомогательный глагол do (does), который при переводе на русский
язы к опускается. Например: Do you run? Ты бегаешь'?; You do not run.
Ты не бегаешь. С местоимениями 3-го лица единственного числа
(he / she / it) употребляется форма does, а смысловой глагол упот­
ребляется без окончания -s.

I / You / We / They take part / participate / practise,


He / She / It takes part / participates / practises.
Do I / you / we / they take part / participate / practise?
Does he / she / it take part / participate / practise?
I / You / We / They do not (don’t) take part / participate / practise,
He / She / It does not (doesn’t) take part / participate / practise.

УПРАЖ НЕНИЯ

1. Образуйте форму 3-го лица единственного числа данных глаголов


1. play — ... 5. jum p — ... 9. move
2 . go — ... 6 . take — ... 10 . lift
3. watch — ... 7. pass — ... 11. practise
4. run — ... 8 . perform — ... 12. participate
2. Употребите глагол в скобках в правильной форме. (Устно.)
training sessi
ie swimming
We often {play)
S. The swimming
m orning
has got many books. He (read) a lot. 9. She (practise) gymnastics. 10. Jacl
is a coach. H e (train) young football players.
3. Составьте отрицательные предложения по образцу.
Образец: I play basketball every day. —» I don’t play basketball every day.
1. He does his m orning exercises every day. 2. They play tennis a lot
3. She works very hard. 4. He scores a lot o f goals. 5 .1 drink a lot o f coffee
88
5 .1 study at the medical institute. 6. She cooks every day. 7. He buys things
every week. 8 .1 leave home at 7 o ’clock. 9. They practise sport. 10. A long
jum per does the high jum p.
4. Напишите предложения с противоположным значением (утвердитель­
ные или отрицательные).
Образец I: Wfe don’t train in the gym. —» We train in the gym.
Образец 2: He lives in Moscow —» He doesn’t live in Moscow.
1. They participate in competitions. 2. She doesn’t win prizes. 3 .1practise
yachting. 4. He goes in for swimming. 5. He doesn’t like to watch football
matches. 6. She doesn’t like reading. 7. Wfe practise swimming every day.
8. He trains under a coach. 9. She drinks a lot of coffee. 10. He doesn’t
drive a car very often.
5. Изучите информацию и составьте предложения с глаголом practise.
Образец: Tom practises weightlifting. Jane doesn’t practise weightlifting.
Kate and Jack don’t practise weightlifting.

weightlifting?
curling?
figure-skating?
skiing?

6. Составьте отрицательные предложения. Используйте don't / doesn't +


один из следующих глаголов:
ride, read, train, speak, play, visit, have, work, eat, wear, use
1. His performance isn’t very good because he ... very hard. 2. She
likes cooking, but she ... much. 3. They are very lazy. They ... very much.
4. He has a bike, but he ... it very often. 5. They have many books, but
they ... very much. 6. She goes to England very often, but she ... English
well. 7. She likes tennis, but she ... very often. 8. We have a nice house in
the country, but w e... it very often. 9. She has a beautiful dress, but she ... it.
10. They have a computer, but th e y ... it. 11.1 like dancing, but I ... much
time to go to the disco.
7. Составьте вопросительные предложения, а) Начните с вспомогатель­
ного глагола do / does.
Образец: I practise sports. And you? —>Do you practise sports?
1. I study at the Lesgaft State University. And you? 2. I play hockey.
And Jack? 3. He wants to be famous. And you? 4. Wfe have training sessions
five times a week. And you? 5. They train in the sports centre. And she?

89
6. He trains under a coach. And you? 7. She often wins prizes. And you?
8. Wfe do exercises every morning. And you? 9. I often take part in city
competitions. And they?
б) Начните с вопросительных слов where / what time / how often / how much.
Образец: I train regularly, (where / you?) -» Where do you train?
1. I live in St Petersburg, (where / you?) 2. I often have training
sessions, (how often / you?) 3. I usually have dinner at home, (where /
you?) 4 .1 study English, (where / you?) 5. She phones me every day. (what
time / she?) 6. It often rains in St Petersburg, (how often / it?) 7. They
have a lot o f money, (how m uch money / they?) 8. He likes to read, (what
kind o f books / he?)
8. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык два текста.
JANE
Jane lives in Sweden. She lives in a small town near Stockholm. She
has a rhythmic gymnastics school. She trains girls and teaches them to
enjoy the sport. Jane spends a lot o f time at her school. She is an excellent
coach. There is a swimming pool in her school, too, but Jane doesn’t
teach swimming. She has a fam ily—a husband and a daughter. H er
daughter goes in for skiing. Jane often enjoys skiing with her family in
her free time. She likes to cook and read, too.
JACK
Jack lives in America. He lives in New York. He has a body-building
club. It’s a m odem club with beautiful equipment. M any people train in
his club. Jack likes people and spends a lot o f tim e with them . He teaches
people to work with their bodies and be healthy. Jack uses the newest
methods o f training, offers different kinds o f diets, and has good results.
Jack hasn’t got a family. He spends his free time with a few friends. They
like watching baseball and hockey matches.
9. Скажите по-английски:
получать удовольствие от занятий спортом; художественная гим­
настика; посещать занятия; современный клуб; хорошее оборудова­
ние; жить в; управлять своим телом; использовать новейшие мето­
дики; разнообразные диеты; хорошие результаты; проводить время
10. Дополните предложения недостающей информацией. Используйте
образец.
Образец: She lives in a small town near Stockholm. He .... —> He lives in
New York.
1. She has an artistic gymnastics school. He .... 2. She has a swimming
pool in her school. He ... . 3. He teaches people to ... . She teaches ... .
4. She has a family. He .... 5. He likes his job and she ..., too.
90
11. Расспросите вашего друга о его / ее тренере / брате / сестре / отце /
матери и т.д. Используйте образцы.
Образец /: Where / live? ......? —>Where does he / she live?
Образец 2.m... he / she / like his / her work?..... ? —>Does he / she like
her work?
1. W h a t/d o ? ......?
2. Where / work? ...... ?
3 .... he / she / play hockey? ......? I
4. How / spend / his / her free time? ......? 1
5__ he / she / practise team sports? ....... ?
6 .... your sister have a family? ...... ?
12. Расскажите о своем друге / матери / отце / тренере и т.д. Начните
рассказ словами: M y friend Ann is a student. She lives in ....
13. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

BOAT RACES
The English are great lovers o f competitive sports, no wonder that
students pay much attention to the competitions. There is a great number
of students in England—in Cambridge only, there are more than 6,000.
There are a lot of sporting societies, and sporting activities are as varied
and numerous as the societies, and, o f course, there is keen rivalry between
the colleges. The most popular sport is rowing. Usually the Oxford-
Cambridge Boat Race takes place in spring. It is an interesting contest
between the universities o f Oxford and Cambridge. At the end of the term,
long, narrow, light boats, with eight men in each one, com pete in the
“ Bump Races”. Boats start at short intervals, one after the other, and try
to overtake and touch (or bump) the boat ahead. If there is “a bum p”,
the boat moves up one place in a table, and the College at the top o f the
table is known as the “ Head o f a River” — a great honour. D on’t forget
that boats should try to hit each other. The event usually takes place on
the Thames River. The first such race was in 1820.
14. Скажите по-английски:
обращ ать внимание; спортивны е общ ества; сильное соперниче­
ство; состязание; конец семестра; пытаться догнать; табель; задеть;
ударить

ПРОШ ЕДШ ЕЕ ПРОСТОЕ ВРЕМЯ

Глагол в ф орм е прош едш его простого времени (The Past Simple
Tense) выражает действие как факт , совершившийся в прошлом'.
It happened five years ago. Э то случилось пять лет тому назад.

91
Другими характеристиками прошедшего простого времени яв­
ляются:
1. Повторяемость в прошлом (начиная с двукратного повторения).
2. Указание на то, что действие произошло однажды в прошлом.
Указатели времени — ago (тому) назад, yesterday вчера, last month /
year / week в прошлом месяце / в прошлом году / на прошлой неделе
И т.п. .
Yesterday we lost the game. Вчера мы проиграли.
Глагол в форме прошедшего простого времени часто принима­
ет окончание -ed. Такие глаголы называются правильными: work —
worked; live — lived; stay — stayed; start — started.
Глаголы, которые образуют форму прошедшего простого време­
ни не единообразно, называются неправильными. Для того чтобы
употребить такой глагол в форме прошедшего простого времени,
нужно воспользоваться таблицей неправильных глаголов (вторая
форма). * ;
be — was / were
break— broke **** ■■■■<■.■
bring — brought
win —won и т.д.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы в прошедшем простом
времени образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола do, ко­
торый принимает форму прошедшего времени did.
I / You / He / She / It / We / They played / won.
Did I / you / he / she / it / play / win?
I / You / He / She / It / We / They we / they did not (didn’t) play / win.

Did / didn’t употребляются с инфинитивом без частицы to: Did I


play? I didn’t play.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Употребите правильные глаголы в форме прошедшего простого времени.
1. play — ... 2. practise — ... 3. start — ... 4. pass — ... 5. live — ...
6. open — ... 7. participate ... 8. finish — ... 9. move — ... 10. score — ...
2. Употребите правильные глаголы в скобках в прошедшем простом вре­
мени.
Образец: I (watch) a football match yesterday. —» I watched a football match
yesterday.
1. He (score) a brilliant goal yesterday. 2. He (live) in Moscow last year.
3. Last week the competitions (start) at 5 o’clock and (finish) at 7 o ’clock.
92
4. She {practise) gymnastics some years ago. 5. Wfe {participate) in the last
competitions. 6. He {pass) all the exams last week. 7. They {play) tennis
yesterday. 8. She (visit) many foreign countries. 9. Yesterday she (walk)
to the University. 10. Wben he was young, he (dance) very well. 11. She
(help) her friends yesterday.
3. Назовите форму Past Simple следующих неправильных глаголов:
1. hold — ... 7. see Ф 0 Ф 13. take —.. 19.speak —
2. take —... 8. go Ф Ф • 14. do — .. 20. throw —
3. win — ... 9. hear Ф Ф Ф 15. write — .. 21. have —
4. make — ... 10. find 1 Ф Ф Ф 16. teU 22. come —
5. run — ... 11. teach - Ф Ф Ф 17. lose — .. 23. break —
6. leave — ... 12. know - Ф Ф Ф 18. think — .. 24. leam —
4. Напишите предложения в прошедшем времени. Используйте yesterday /
last week и др.
Образец'. Не always gets up early. Yesterday he ... . — »Yesterday he got up
early.
1. She always does her morning exercises. Yesterday she .... 2. Wfe have
a training session nearly every day. Yesterday we ... . 3. He takes part in
competitions very often. Last week he .... 4. He spends every summer in
the south. He ... last summer in the south. 5. I usually leave home at
9 o’clock. Yesterday I ... . 6. They come to see me every Sunday. Last
Sunday they.... 7. Wfe go skiing every winter. Last winter w e.... 8 .1 go to
bed at 11 o’clock every day. Yesterday I ... . 9. He wins every time. Last
time he ... again. 10. They lose all season. Last time they ... again. 11. Wfe
usually do our shopping on Monday. Wfe ... last Monday. 12. His father
goes on a business trip every month. Last month he .... 13. Wfe often take
photographs. Last weekend we ... . 14. She has a cup of coffee every
morning. Last morning she ... . 15. She buys some fruit every day.
\festerday sh e....
5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте образец.
Образец: I practised swimming but I ... diving. — » I practised swimming but
I didn’t practise diving.
1. Wfe learnt English but we ... German. 2. They went to America but
they ... to England. 3. Wfe saw Jack but we ... his brother. 4. She ate an
orange but she ... an apple. 5. He taught anatomy but he ... mathematics.
6. Wfe met Boris but we ... Ann.
6. Составьте вопросительные предложения. Используйте образец.
Образец: I took an exam yesterday. And you? — >Did you take an exam
yesterday?
1 .1 watched a football match on TV yesterday. And your brother? 2 .1
walked to the University. And you? 3. They took part in competitions.
93
And she? 4. Wfe won. And you? 5. They lost. And you? 6. He knew the
answer. And she? 7. Wfe saw this film. And you?
7. Что вы делали вчера? Ответьте утвердительно или отрицательно.
Образец: go to the University —> I went to the University yesterday. /
I didn’t go to the University yesterday.
1) get up before 7 o ’clock; 2) have breakfast; 3) take a taxi; 4) catch a
bus; 5) speak English; 6) take an exam ination; 7) have a training session;
8) take part in com petitions; 9) watch TV; 10) have an early night; 11) go
to sleep quickly
8. Составьте вопросы. Начните их с вопросительных слов who / what /
where. ' .' el
Образец: I phoned somebody. Who... ? —»Who did you phone?
1. He bought something. W h at... ? 2 .1 saw somebody. W h o ... ? 3. They
read something. W h a t... ? 4. He lived somewhere in America. Where ... ?
5. They went somewhere last year. W here ... to? 6. He helped somebody
yesterday. W h o ... ? 7. They left home early yesterday. What tim e ... ? 8. He
said som ething. W h a t... ? 9. She did som ething. W h a t... ? 10. I realized
som ething. W h a t... ?
9. Употребите глаголы в скобках в форме прошедшего простого времени.
Предложение может быть вопросительным, утвердительным или отрицательным.
1. Yesterday Jo h n was ill so he (not / go) to w ork. 2. You (like)
yesterday’s perform ance? 3. H e (begin) to train three years ago. 4. W hen
you (come) back from the com petitions? 5 .1 (not / take) part in that game.
6. He (win) the first place in this contest. 7. He (break) a record? 8. W hen
you (begin) to practise sport?
10. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE GAMES IN ANCIENT TIM ES

The origins o f the Olympic G am es are generally attributed to the gods


and heroes o f A ncient G reece. It is said that H eracles organized a race
with his four brothers, and presented the w inner with an olive w reath.
However, historical facts date back to the ninth century BC. Two kings
(o f Elice and Sparta) joined forces to organize the games every four years
at Olym pia. They did it because they w anted to stop the w ar and the
plague, and the oracle told them that games were so dear to the gods.
At first, the cities d id n ’t want to participate, but an epidem ic o f the
plague and the oracle soon m ade them see reason.
11. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. W hat did H eracles organize?
2. W hat did he present the w inner with?
94
3. What did the two kings decide to do?
4. What did the oracle say?
12. Скажите по-английски:
организовать соревнования; наградить победителя; объединить
силы; прекратить войну; остановить эпидемию; принимать учас­
тие; видеть смысл
13. Выпишите из текста упр. 10 глаголы в прошедшем простом времени.
Разделите их на две группы — правильные и неправильные. Назовите форму
инфинитива. Переведите их на русский язык.
Образец: attributed — to attribute made — to make
14. Расскажите о зарождении Олимпийских игр.
15. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE OPENING OF THE GAMES


During the fifth and sixth centuries BC, the Games lasted for five days,
during the month of July. All the Greek city-states participated. The
Games became a symbol of their unity: a period of time during which all
combatants laid down their arms, a time when athletes and their families,
pilgrims, artists, and scholars could travel to Olympia and back to their
homes in safety.
16. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. How long did the Olympic Games last?
2. Who participated in the Games?
3. What did the Games become?
17. Скажите по-английски:
продолжаться в течение пяти дней; принимать участие; стать
символом; сложить оружие
18. Выпишите из текста упр. 15 глаголы в прошедшем времени. Назовите
форму инфинитива.
19. Расскажите о том, как проходили Олимпийские игры в древности.
20. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE CONTESTS
The first event was running in the short-distance, long-distance, and
the armed races. Then, the pentathlon, comprising foot races, the long
jump, the discus, the javelin, and a wrestling contest came.
The contests took place on wet, slippery sand, naked, the athletes
covered their bodies with oil. The winner of a wrestling match was
95
declared if his opponent gave up or touched the ground three times. The
loser called his own defeat. . * . *v |
21. Скажите по-английски:
бег; бег на короткие дистанции; бег на длинные дистанции; пры­
жок в длину; диск; шест; борьба; победитель; проигравший
22. Расспросите вашего друга о том, какие виды спорта были представ­
лены на Олимпийских играх в древности. Начните так: What was the first
event?
23. Составьте диалоги из трех-четырех реплик к каждому из текстов упр. 15
и 20. (Работа в парах.)
24. Составьте вопросы, которые будут служить планом пересказа текста
упр. 20.
25. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE GAME OF DARTS '


developed from archery —произошедшая от стрельбы из лука
In the bar of every English pub there is a dart-board, and on most
evenings people play darts. This is a traditional English game, developed
from archery, which served military interests in the Middle Ages. The first
record of something like the modem game appeared in a sixteenth-
century description of a tournament where people threw missiles at a
target by hand, athletes didn’t use a bow. The Pilgrim Fathers, who sailed
to America in 1620, played darts during their voyage.
The dart-board has numbered sections, and the score depends on the
section in which the dart lands. The darts are small, about five inches
long, and have a steel point, a metal body, and three feathers. A player
has a set of three darts, and everyone throws them in turn. Expert players
usually have their own private set of darts, but pubs always provide a set
for occasional performers. Style is a matter for the individual, but you
must have a good eye and steady hand.
26. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What do people do in English pubs on most evenings?
2. What did the archery serve to?
3. When did the first game of darts appear?
4. Who played darts in 1620?
5. What does the dart-board have?
6. What must a player have?
27. Скажите по-английски:
играть в дротики; служить военным интересам; современный
вариант игры; появиться; метать стрелы; цель; использовать лук;
96
пронумерованные секции; личныи комплект дротиков; металли­
ческий наконечник; метать по очереди; стиль игры индивидуален;
зоркий глаз; твердая рука

БУДУЩЕЕ ПРОСТОЕ ВРЕМЯ


Будущее простое время (The Future Simple Tense) употребляет­
ся для выражения действия, которое совершится в будущем.
I ’11phone you tomorrow. Я позвоню тебе завтра.
Другими характеристиками будущего простого времени являются:
1. Многократность действий в будущем.
2. Однократность действия в будущем.
Указателями времени являются следующие слова и словосоче­
тания: next week на следующей неделе, next month в следующем меся­
це, next year / week / lesson / spring / evening в будущем году / на буду­
щей неделе, tomorrow завтра.
He’Dgive me the book next week. Он даст мне эту книгу на
следующей неделе.
I / You / We / They will (’11) be / win / come.
Не / She / It will not (won’t) be / win / come.
Will 1 / you / we / they be / win / come?
WiD he / she / it be / win / come?

В 1-м лице допускаются формы shall и will:


I shall be late tomorrow. = I will (I’ll) be late tomorrow.
I think we shall win. = I think we will (we’O) win.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Ознакомьтесь с расписанием экзаменов, которые будет сдавать Елена.
Составьте предложения.
2nd June English
10th » Anatomy
14th » Specialization
20th » Mathematics
25th » Ecology
Образец: She’Ddo English exam on the 2nd of June.
2. Составьте предложения о себе. Скажите, где вы будете в указанное
время.

97
Образец: (tomorrow at 10 o’clock).... -» I’ll probably be at the University.
1. (two hours from now).... 2. (at midnight).... 3. (at 2 o’clock tomor­
row afternoon).... 4. (a year from now ).... 5. (a month from now )....
3. Составьте отрицательные предложения.
Образец: She’ll phone you. She .... -» She won’t phone you.
1. I’ll do it. I .... 2. He will help them. He .... 3. They’ll buy this car.
They.... 4. He will be a coach. H e.... 5. She will write you a letter. She ....
6. We will play golf. Wfe .... 7. He will take part in competitions. He ....
8. They will win. They .... 9. He will lift the bar bell. He .... 10. He will
score the goal. He ... . 11. She will win the game. She ... . 12. I’ll be at
home in the morning. I __
4. Составьте предложения. Используйте I think....
Образец: (my sister / pass the exam) ....-> I think my sister will pass
the exam.
1. (our team / win the gam e).... 2. (they / come back tomorrow)....
3. (he / a champion) ... . 4. (they / play tennis at the weekend) ... .
5. (she / help) — 6. (he / write a book)__7. (I / come to see you tomor­
row) .... 8. (it / be a nice party).... 9. (I / be at home this evening)....
10. (I / phone you tomorrow).... § ;
5. Составьте предложения. Используйте I think Г 11или I don't think Г11.
Образец: (I / buy a crocodile) I don’t think I’ll buy a crocodile.
1. (I / be a cham pion).... 2. (I / take part in competitions).... 3. (I /
pass the English exam ).... 4. (I / get “a five” for the English exam )....
5. (I / live in England).... 6. (I / live in St Petersburg).... 7. (I / have ten
children).... 8. (I / swim in summer).... 9. (I / practise sport).... 10. (I /
watch TV in the evening)....
6. Предложите свою помощь. Используйте Shall I...? (Работа в парах.)
Образец: I’m tired, (help you) -» “I’m tired.” "Shall I help you?”
1. I’m hot. (open the window) 2. I’m cold, (close the window) 3. It’s
dark in the classroom, (turn the light on) 4. I’m late, (giveyou a lift) 5. I’m
hungry, (give you a sandwich) 6. I’m thirsty, (buy somejuice) 7. I’m bored.
(tell you a funny story)
7. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.
A LETTER ТО A FRIEND
23rd June, 2000
Dear Victor, * *
I am very sorry I couldn’t write to you last week, because I was very
busy. At last, I’ve taken my Literature examination, and I’m free now.
98
When my wife takes her last exam next week, we’ll go to Yalta for a holiday.
I hope we shall have a good time there. You know how we love the sea.
Wfe are going to swim, lie on the beach, and sunbathe two or three hours
a day. You write that you can’t forget the holiday which we spent there
two years ago. I can’t forget it either. I’m awfully sorry you will not be
able to go with us this year.
When are you going to have your holiday? Is your wife’s health still
poor? I hope that she will soon be all right. How long do you intend to
stay in the country? Is there a river and woods there?
I’ll be back early in August in order not to miss my mother’s birthday.
She will be sixty on the tenth of August, you know.
I think I’ll be able to see you some time at the end of the month.
I shall be very glad to hear from you before we leave.
Love to you all,
Boris
8. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык со словарем.
CAMBRIDGE “SINKS” BUT RACE GOES ON
squall —шквал
buoy —буй
The Cambridge University Boat Race crew sank in a heavy squall at
Putney yesterday. Their boat is in.bad condition now. They had no way
to repair it by the date of the race. But the race will go on. Cambridge
will row in their second boat.
Cambridge went down in high waves just off the boat houses. The
crowd which included the Oxford crew, watched it on the bank. They
drifted down on to a large buoy in midstream to which a tug was attached.
Six of them scrambled up the buoy on to the tug. Athletes picked up the
other three boats from the water by the following lunch. Conditions were
bad when Cambridge went out, but not impossible, and it was a sudden
squall which blew up just after they started which wrecked them.
Soon, they will repair all their boats. They probably will be winners
next season.
They will again do their best next time. Wfe hope we will see their names
“at the top of the table”.
The annual contest between the universities of Oxford and Cambridge
is one of the greatest sporting events in the world. Next time it will be
held as usual at the end of March or in early April. The course will be
4.25 miles of river between Putney and Mortlake. The time of the race
will vary between about midday and three o ’clock.
This race was first held at Henley in 1829, but the modem course took
place in 1845. By 1966, Cambridge had 61 victories, Oxford — 50. People
watched the competition on the riverbank, in boats, and at home on
television.
(From The Daily Worker)

99
9. Скажите по-английски:
ежегодные соревнования; гонка впервые проводилась...; побе­
да; победитель; невозможно; плохие условия; починить лодки; на­
блюдать за соревнованиями; возможно
10. Выпишите из текста упр. 8 по три предложения в настоящем, про­
шедшем и будущем простом времени. Напишите предложения в вопроситель­
ной и отрицательной форме.

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ CONTINUOUS

НАСТОЯЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ

Спортивные комментаторы, журналисты, ведущие репортажи с


места событий, употребляют настоящее длительное время (The
Present Continuous Тense), что позволяет как бы воочию «увидеть»
происходящее.
I ага reading now. Сейчас я читаю.
Ivanov is dribbling the ball now. А сейчас мяч ведет Иванов.
Действие происходит в данный момент, а мы его «фотографи­
руем», фиксируем во времени. Этот момент может быть выражен
такими указателям времени, как: now сейчас, at the moment в дан­
ный момент и т. д. : $■ : Ч-
I am (’m) working.
Не / She / It is (’s) working.
Wfe / You / They are (’re) working.
I am not (’m not) working.
He / She / It is not (isn’t) working.
Wfe / You / They are not (aren’t) working.
Am I working?
Is V y^ . he / she / it working?
Are we / you / they working?
Настоящее длительное время не употребляется, когда мы опи­
сываем очень краткое действие.
Не has scored the goal. Он (только что) забил гол.
Никогда не употребляется настоящее длительное время, если мы
описываем наш внутренний мир (чувства, желания, убеждения
и т. д.).
100
Глаголы want, like, love, hate, need, prefer, depend, know, mean,
understand, believe, remember, forget и т. д. никогда не употребляются
в Present Continuous. Вместо Present Continuous используется Present
Simple:
I don’t understand. What do Я не понимаю вас. Что вы
you mean? имеете в виду?
Не употребляются в этом времени также глаголы восприятия:
see, hear и др.:
Speak louder, please. I can’t Говорите громче, пожалуйста,
hear you. Я вас не слышу.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1* Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в соответствующей форме.
Образец: I (read) for the exam. -» I’m reading for the exam.
1. “Where is Tom?” “In the hall. He (wait) for somebody.” 2. They
(have) a training session now. 3. “You (sit) on my place.” “Oh, I’m sorry.”
4. Wfe (have) English classes now. 5. “Where is Jane?” “In the kitchen.
She (make) coffee.” 6. Turn off the radio. The children (sleep). 7. Jack
(dribble) the ball at the moment. 8. They (have) dinner now. 9. She
(perform) a very difficult exercise.. 10. She (cook) a meal.
2. Скажите, что сейчас происходит.
Образец 1: (I / eat) .... —» I’m not eating.
Образец 2: (it / rain).... —* It is raining.
1. (I / have / a training Session) ... . 2. (I / run) ... . 3. (I / learn /
English) .... 4. (I / sit).... 5. (I / speak).... 6. (the sun / shine) .... 7. (I /
wear / shoes) ... .8 .( 1 / swim).... 9. (it / snow).... 10. (I / take part / in
competitions) .... 1 1 .(1 / read) .... 12. (I / speak / on the phone)....
3. Задайте вопросы. Используйте what / where / why и др.
Образец: He is making something. What . . . ? - » What is he making?
1. They are running. Where ... ? 2. He is reading. W hat... ? 3. He is
eating. What ... ? 4. She is waiting for somebody. Who ... for? 5. He is
carrying something. What ... ? 6. She is speaking to somebody. Who ...
to? 7. He is watching something. W hat... ? 8. I’m looking for something.
W hat... for? 9. She is eating something. W hat... ?
4. Задайте вопросы. (Работа в парах.)
Образец: (you / watch / a football match)... ? -» Are you watching
a football match?
1. (our team / playing)... ? 2. (what / you / d o )... ? 3. (you / read for /
the exam )... ? 4. (what / laugh at) ... ? 5. (it / snow)... ? 6. (that radio /
101
work)... ? 7. (why / you / cry)... ? 8. (who / you / wait for)... ? 9. (what /
you / w rite)... ? 10. (what / you / look fo r)... ? 11. (why / you / ru n )... ?
5. Ответьте на вопросы. Используйте Fes, lam / TVo, it isn't и др.
Образец: Are you having a training session now? -» No, I am not.
1. Are you wearing running shoes? .... 2. Are you writing? .... 3. Are
you learning Russian? ... . 4. Are you learning English? ... . 5. Are you
feeling well?.... 6. Is it raining?.... 7. Are you swimming?.... 8. Are you
jumping? ... . 9. Are you wearing jeans? ... . 10. Are you sitting at the
desk?.... "'-’ъ •• ‘ j
6. Present Continuous или Present Simple? Используйте am / is / are / do /
does / doesn't / don't.
1. “Wbuld you like a cup of coffee?” “No, thank you, I ... like coffee.”
2. Have you got an umbrella with you? I t ... raining. 3. “W hat... he do?”
“H e’s a coach.” 4. “... you speak English?” “A little.” 5. “Have a
cigarette.” “Thank you. I ... smoke.” 6. He lost because he ... train very
often. 7. He ... train under a coach. 8. “Can I speak to Ann?” “Sorry,
she ... taking a bath at the moment.” 9. He ... like tomatoes. 10. “Where
is Jack?” “In the garage. He ... repairing the car.”
7. Present Continuous или Present Simple? Употребите глагол в скобках в
соответствующей форме.
1. Liz (have) a training session at the moment. 2. They (not / go) abroad
very often. 3. Look! She (run). 4 .1 (not / like) coffee. 5. I’m busy at the
moment. I (help) my parents now. 6. “Where is Mum?” “In the kitchen.
She (cook).” 7. “You (stand) on my foot.” “Oh, I’m sorry.” 8. “What (she /
do)?” “She is a coach.” 9. “What (she / do) now?” “She (make) coffee
for us.” 10. What time (she / leave) home usually? 11. How often (you /
have) your training sessions? 12. We usually (get) to the swimming pool
on foot. 13. What time (you / have dinner)? 14. (you / understand) me?
15. Listen! Jack (play) the guitar. 16. He says he’s a champion in rowing
but I (not / believe) him.
8. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

A RADIO FEATURE

Sportscaster: Wfell, friends, it is sure to be a grand match judging by its


opening stage. A typical cup meet.
Only seven minutes passed from the kick-off but the going is already
pretty tough. The guests are outplaying and outmanoeuvring the hosts.
Now, it’s looking like a goal for the guests! Ivanov, their inside-right,
has got a long pass from the kick-off dodge! He does it! I don’t think the
goalie will make a save. A blinding shot, and there it is! One — nil in
favour of the guests!

102
The hosts are beginning from the midfield. A ground pass to the left­
winger, he sends it on to the inside-left who is not guarded at the moment,
and the latter is breaking through to the close approaches of the goal.
His opponent is trying hard to rob him of the ball. No luck! A fierce drive!..
Oh, what a muff he is! To be in a superb shooting position and to kick two
metres wide of the upright. Evidently, the boy feels jittery. No wonder —
it is his first try-out. On the whole, he is not bad: quick on the run and
good at taking situations.
9. Скажите по-английски:
первый удар; передача; вратарь; упорная борьба; правый полу­
средний; левый крайний; «мазила»
10. Найдите в тексте упр. 8 предложения, описывающие длительные дей­
ствия в настоящем времени.
11. Составьте вопросы к тексту. Ответьте на них.
12. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

A RADIO FEATURE
(icontinued)
Ten minutes are left before the breather, and the game is running as it
used to — the guests are playing an attacking game and enjoying a clear
territorial advantage. The hosts are in a tight comer, so they can’t direct
the play.
Oh, here it comes! The right back of the guests is sending the ball to the
right-winger. What an accurate pass it is! The right-winger is tackled by his
opposing number but manages to keep the ball all to himself by a series of
good feints. Now, he’s sending it over to the centre forward. A lightning
thrust into the goal area! Oh, what bad luck for the hosts! They bring him
down just in front of the goal mouth. A penalty kick for dirty play!
A hush has fallen upon the stadium. All players but number 9 are
leaving the penalty area. A run-up! A jetlike shot! And the ball finds its
way into the net! He’s smacked it right into the drive over the bar and,
thus, to deflect it for the comer, but it was no go.
VVfell, the visitors lead 2—0. The home eleven seem stunned and
paralyzed. Will they find the fighting spirit to get out of the hole and pull
up even? I hope so.
The referee’s whistle brings the first half to a close. So, it is half-time
and the home side is 2 goals down. Now, I return you to our central studio,
only to meet again in a quarter of an hour.
13. Скажите по-английски:
иметь территориальное преимущество; выровнять игру; быть в
тяжелом положении; перекинуть через перекладину; мощный удар;
сравнять счет; точная передача
103
14. Составьте диалог, пользуясь прочитанным текстом. Используйте
Present Continuous там, где это возможно.

ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ


Прошедшее длительное время (The Past Continuous Тense) упот­
ребляется:
1) когда действие происходит в указанное время в прошлом:
Since 7 till 9 7+-------------------------------------- +9
At 5 o’clock ------------------+ 5 + --------------------
На русский язык переводится глаголом несовершенного вида.
I was training at 5 o’clock yesterday.
Вчера в 5 часов вечера
я тренировался.
2) когда одно действие прерывается другим:
When we arrived, she was making Когда мы приехали, она
coffee. готовила кофе.
I / He / She / It was working.
You / Wfe / They were working
I/H e/S h e/It was not (wasn’t) working.
You / VVfe / They were not (weren’t) working.
Was I / he / she / it working?
Were you / we / they working?

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Изучите информацию, данную в таблице. Составьте предложения.
Образец'. At 5 o’clock Bill was at home. He was sleeping.
Students Time Places Actions
Bill J ---------
5 o’clock at home sleeping
Ann 5 o’clock at the stadium watching a game
John and Mary 5 o’clock in the gym having a training
session
Ted 5 o’clock on the sports ground playing volleyball
Ben 5 o’clock in the reading-room reading a book
Rose 5 o’clock at the dentist’s having a checkup

1. Ann ... . 2. John and Mary ... . 3. Ted ... . 4. Ben ... . 5. Rose ... .
6. And you?
104
2. Скажите, что Елена делала вчера. Пользуясь таблицей, составьте пред­
ложения.
Образецр At 9.4S Helen was swimming.

Time Action
7 .5 0 - 8.15 have breakfast
8 .3 0 - 9.30 go to the University
10.00 -1 1 .2 0 swim
11.40 -1 3 .0 0 have an English lesson
13.20 -1 4 .4 0 have an Anatomy lesson
15.00 -1 6 .2 0 have a training session

1. At 8.00 .... 2. At 9 о clock .... 3. At 10.20 .... 4. At 14.00 .... 5. At


16.00....
3. Составьте вопросы. Используйте was / were + -ing.
Образец: (where / you / play football / at 11 o’clock) ... ? —»Where were
you playing football at 11 o’clock?
1. (What / you / watch / at 11 o’clock) ... ? 2. (what / she / do / at
5 o’clock)... ? 3. (what / you / speak about / when I came in )... ? 4. (what
language / you / study) ... ? 5. (who / stand / near the window) ... ?
6. (you / have a break) ... ? 7. (you / sleep) ... ? 8. (it / rain) ... ?
4. Составьте предложения. Употребите глаголы в скобках в Past Continuous
или Past Simple.
Образец: (Jane / sleep) (the phone / ring) (she / wake up) —»Jane was sleeping.
The phone rang. She woke up.
1. (the boys / run / about the park) (one of them / fall) (the other
boys / stop / immediately) 2. (Jane / sit / at the desk) (she / read / a book)
(her brother / come into the room) 3. (Jack / have supper) (he / watch TV)
(a cat / come to the table) 4. (Nick / play / basketball on the beach) (the
sun / shine) (he / take / the sunglasses)
5. Past Continuous или Past Simple? Употребите глаголы в скобках в соот­
ветствующей форме.
Образец: Vfere they {watch) TV when he (arrive)? —>Were they watching
TV when he arrived?
1. It (rain) so we (take) umbrellas with us. 2. He (hurt) his leg badly
while he (run). 3. He (not / understand) you. 4. He (play) well all the last
season. S. He (score) three goals during the game. 6. Wfe (swim) when he
felt bad. 7. The guests (come) when we (cut) bread. 8. (do) a test when
105
he (enter) the room. 9. The sun (shine) and we (go) to the beach. 10. They
(walk) along the street when it (start) to rain.
6. Скажите по-английски.
1. Они приехали (arrive), когда она смотрела телевизор. 2. Он
повредил (injure) руку, когда играл в теннис. 3. Когда начался дождь,
они играли в баскетбол. 4. Он заснул (go to sleep), когда готовился
к экзаменам. 5. Коля (Nick) ушел в спортзал. Он сейчас тренирует­
ся. 6. День был жарким, ярко (brightly) светило солнце, и мы по­
шли на пляж (beach). 7. Мария на кухне. Она сейчас готовит обед.
8. Джон сейчас принимает душ (have a shower). 9. Когда я шел (walk)
по улице (along the street), я встретил (meet) Джека.
7. Прочитайте н переведите текст на русский язык.

THE GIRL WAS SAVED


This happened in a small village. Yesterday afternoon, two young men
smelt that something was burning. That time they were walking along the
road. Soon, they realized that a small pretty house was burning. One of
the men rushed to call the fire brigade, the other ran to the house and
saw a small girl through the window. She was trying to open the window,
but she couldn’t. The young man managed to take the girl out of the
house. They both were burnt a little, so they are staying in a local hospital
at the moment. The doctor says that they are much better now and will
leave the hospital soon.
8. Найдите в тексте упр. 7 предложения в форме Past Continuous. Какие
действия в них описываются, продолжительные или краткие?
9. Перескажите текст упр. 7.
10. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

НЕ LOST HIS WAY


A five-year-old boy from a little village lost his way in a forest.
Suddenly, he saw a big butterfly and wanted to catch it. In fifteen minutes,
he found himself alone in the forest. He couldn’t see his parents. He began
to cry and shout. His parents heard him but couldn’t see where he was.
In the end they found him. He was only a 500-metre distance from them.
11. Перескажите текст упр. 10, добавив следующие фразы:
he was picking mushrooms with his parents; he was running after it
for a while; they were looking for him for about half an hour
12. Составьте диалог. Используйте следующие предложения: Where were
you? What were you doing? (Работа в парах.)
— at 10 o’clock this morning?
106
— at 7 o ’clock this morning?
— this time a week ago?
— this time three days ago?
— an hour ago?

БУДУЩ ЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМ Я

Будущее длительное время (The Future Continuous Tense) упот­


ребляется, когда действие происходит в будущем в указанное вре­
мя: at 5 o ’clock; from 7 till 9 и др.
1 will be training a t 5 o ’clock tom orrow. Завтра в пять часов я буду
тренироваться.
I / You / He / She / It / We / They will (41) be training.
I / You / He / She / It / We / They will not (won’t) be training.
Will I / you / he / she / it / be training?
we / they

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Изучите информацию в таблице. Составьте предложения.
Образец: At 5 o’clock Ann will be at home. She will be reading a book.

Name Time Place Action


Ann tomorrow, at 5 o’clock at home read a book
Jack and Sue at the court play tennis
Tom » in the gym have a training session
Marsha Ш at the party a dance session
My parents > at the concert listen to music
- ___________- —

1. Jack and Sue .... They .... 2. Tom __ He .... 3. Marsha .... She ....
4. My parents .... They .... 5. And you? I ....
2. Составьте вопросы. Используйте форму будущего длительного времени.
Образец: (how long / they / do the exam)... ? —» How long will they be
doing the exam?
1. (how late / your brother / train today)... ? 2. (how much longer /
you / swim )... ? 3. (how far / we / walk today)... ? 4. (how long / you / do
a washing u p )... ? S. (how late / he / have a training session today)... ?
6. (how much longer / you / wait for them)... ? 7. (how long / we / drive)
... ? 8 . (how late / your sister / play the piano)... ?

107
3. Прочитайте, что Том будет делать завтра. Составьте предложения.
Образец: At 9.45 he will be studying at the library.
Time Action
8.10 — 8.25 have breakfast
8.30—9.10 go to the institute
9.30— 10.00 study in the library
10.20 11.00 have an exam in Anatomy
11.20— 11.40 have a talk with a friend
11.50— 12.30 do some shopping
12.30— 1.00 go home

1. At 11.45 ... . 2. At 9 o ’clock ... . 3. At 12.50 ... . 4. At 8.15 ... .


5 . At 1 0 . 3 0 . 1ь ш In w •"
4. Раскройте скобки. Составьте предложения. Употребите глаголы в со­
ответствующей форме будущего времени.
1. Sorry, but I c a n ’t com e to your party tom orrow. I will (train).
2. I (do) skiing the whole w inter and I think I (w in) after that. 3 . 1 (not /
play) tennis at 5 o ’clock tomorrow. You can take my racket. 4 . 1 (w alk) in
the park from 10 to 12 tomorrow. You can find me there. 5. The students
in your group (have) an exam ination from 1.20 to 2.40 tomorrow. 6. The
team o f rhythm ic gymnastics (give) a very interesting perform ance from
5 till 6. You should see it!
5. Представьте, что завтра у студентов начинаются каникулы. Скажите,
что они будут делать утром в данное время. Используйте образец.
Образец: (Jack / sit in the garden) (11.15)....-» Jack will be sitting
in the garden at 11.15.
1. (M ary / sleep) (10.20) ... . 2. (Tom / ride a bike) (11.45). 3. (Liz /
make a delicious m eal) (10.05) ... . 4. (M arsha / speak on the phone)
(11.30)__ 5. (N ick / help his farther in the garden) (11.30) — 6. (Jane /
drive her car) (10.45) .... - *
6. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.
Tom orrow w ill be Saturday. We are going o n a hike. If we take
something to eat, it will be a picnic. First, we are hiking through the forest
to the lake. Wfe are having a short bath in the lake, then we are going to
th e forest again. Alice will be carrying the topographical m ap and a
compass, and Cyril will consult the m ap from tim e to tim e. H e will be
carrying the rucksack, so he won’t be able to carry the tent. 1 am going to
carry it. Wfe are planning to spend a whole day and night in the forest,
then in the early m orning on Sunday, we shall be clim bing up a m ountain.
7. Составьте вопросы к тексту упр. б.

108
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT

НАСТОЯЩ ЕЕ СО ВЕРШ ЕН Н О Е ВРЕМЯ

Настоящее совершенное (завершенное) время


Tense) употребительных Это время упот
случаях
важны его последствия (суть, результаты)
На русский язы к настоящ ее соверш енное время переводится
глаголами соверш енного вида:
I have passed all exams, (настоя­ сдал все экзамены, (прошел
щее соверш енное время) шее время)
При выборе временной фот
прошлом
или будущем), но и как оно происходит, а это уже касает
с какой точки зрения говорящий оценивает происходящее
^стоящее соверш енное время употребляется:
или
ему интересен
Have you won the match? Ты выиграл матч?
I have never eaten avocado. Я никогда не пробовал авокадо.
She has never been to Paris. О на никогда не была в Париже
Have you ever been to Riga? Вы когда-нибудь были в Риге?
Сравните:
Present Perfect Past Simple
The train has left. The train left a t 5.00.
Поезд ушел, (я опоздал) Поезд ушел в 5.00. (простой факт)
результат «налицо» (действие влияет
зависимо от его воли):
Сравните:
Present Perfect Past Simple
I have just lost my key. ost my key two weeks ago.
Я только что потерял ключ потерял ключ две недели назад
(Н е попаду в квартиру (Сейчас «я это не волнует,
у меня сейчас есть I момент результат
проблема.) важен.)
5) когда мы говорим об отрезке времени, оцениваем какое
действие или событие не только с точки зрения данного моме
времени, но подчеркиваем то, что действие длится уж е какое

109
время и можно сказать, что имеется
полнения этого действия):
Сравните:
Present Perfect Past Simple
I have lived in London fo r ten years. I live in London. Я ж иву в
Я ж иву в Л ондоне 10лет . Л ондоне, (простой факт)
(Человек обращ ает внимание
на то, что у него уже имеется
опы т прож ивания в Л ондоне.)
ати, если вы прочитали перевод внимательно, то обратили
яие на то, что в данном случае при переводе на русский язы к
употребляться глагол несовершенного вида («живу»), так как
случай употребления
ит
употребляется с наречиями времени
ju st только что
never никогда находятся в предложении обычно
ever когда-нибудь перед третьей формой глагола.
already уж е
I have already seen this film. Я уж е видел этот ф ильм .
since с
for в течение
yet еще (не) (в конце отрицательного
предлож ения)
I haven’t seen you fo r ages. Я не виделся с тобой целую вечность
I haven’t read this book yet. Я еще не читал эту книгу.

I / You / Wfe / They have (’ve) cleaned / finished / done / been,


He / She / It has (’s) cleaned / finished / done / been.
I / You / We / They have not (haven’t) cleaned / finished / done / been,
He / She / It has not (hasn’t) cleaned / finished / done / been.
Have I / you / we / they cleaned / finished / done / been?
Has he / she / it cleaned / finished / done / been?

УП РАЖ Н ЕН И Я

1. Измените время глагола на Present Perfect. Используйте already. Пе­


реведите предложения на русский язык.
Образец'. I’m having my breakfast. —» I have already had my breakfast.

110
1. Wfe are drinking water. 2. He is bringing them the book. 3. She is
putting the dishes on the table. 4. They are having tea. 5. She is doing the
washing up. 6. They are putting on their running shoes. 7. The students
are taking a test. 8. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem.
9. I’m learning English words. 10. She is telling them an interesting story.
11. Kate is going to the University. 12. She is opening a box of chocolates.
13. John is taking clothes out of the bag. 14. Susan is buying a new sports
suit.
2. Составьте вопросы, используя have you ever.
Образец 1: (be / to London) ... ? -h>Have you ever been to London?
Образец 2i (play / curling) ...?-» Have you ever played curling?
1. (win / a competition) ... ? 2. (speak / English to Americans) ... ?
3. (eat / frogs) ... ? 4. (find / money)... ? 5. (lose / your way) .... 6. (call /
the ambulance) ... ? 7. (dye / your hair) ... ? 8. (break / your arm) ... ?
(swim / in the English Channel) ... . 9. (drive / a car) ... ? 10. (make / a
repairing yourself) ... ? 11. (make / clothes yourself) ... ?
3. Составьте короткий рассказ о Джоне, которому 70 лет. Он прожил ин­
тересную жизнь. Расскажите о том, что ему удалось осуществить в своей жиз­
ни. Используйте Present Perfect.
Образец: (he / visit / many countries) .... — >He has visited many countries.
1. (he / win / many competitions)__2. (he / many / interesting people)
__3. (he / write / some books).... 4. (he / take part / in Olympics twice)__
5. (he / train / many athletes)__6. (his athletes / win / many titles)__
4. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте Present Perfect.
Образец 1: Nick studies English. He ... for two years. — » He has studied
English for two years.
Образец 2: I live in St Petersburg. I ... since childhood. — » I have lived
in St Petersburg since childhood.
1. John practises wrestling. He ... for seven years. 2. Mary practises
gymnastics. She ... for ten years. 3. Jane works as a coach. She ... as a
coach since the beginning of the year. 4. Wfe study at the Lesgaft State
University. Wfe ... from September. 5. They practise swimming. They ...
for twelve years. 6. Jack lives in London. He ... since 1992. 7. Tom lives
in New York. He ... there since 1990. 8. He is a bus-driver. He ... a bus-
driver for fifteen years. 9. They work hard. They... hard since the beginning
of the term. 10. Mary has a car. She... a car for three years. 11. She teaches
Anatomy. She ... Anatomy for twenty years. 12. Jim is a Master of Sports.
H e ... since 199S.
5. Составьте вопросы, используя how long.
Образец /: He practises wrestling. How long ...? — >How long has he
practised wrestling?
I ll
Образец 2i I know his coach. How long ... ? —» How long have you
known him?
1. T hey are in M oscow now. H ow long ... ? 2. H e takes p a rt in
com petitions regularly. How long ... ? 3. H er brother lives in Spain. How
long ... ? 4. Bill is a coach. How long ... ? 5. She practises aerobics. How
long ... ? 6. They build sports centres. How long ... ? 7. I have a family o f
my own. How long ... ? 8. I live in St Petersburg. How long ... ? 9. He
works as a ski instructor. How long ... ? 10. She is a doctor. How long ... ?
6. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя since или for.
Образец 1: He’s been in Moscow since November.
Образец 2z He’s been in London for a month.
1. He has practised football ... ten years. 2. She has been a M erited
M aster o f Sports ... 1990. 3. They have m ade sports e q u ip m e n t... 1950.
4. H e is in the gym. H e has been in the gym ... three hours. 5. She is in
the University. She has been in the University ... 9.30. 6. H e is ill. H e has
been i l l ... Tuesday. H e has been i l l ... two days.
7. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя fo r или since.
Образец'. They play football. They began to play football seven years ago.
They have . . . . —» They have played football for seven years.
1. H e plays volleyball. H e began to play volleyball ten years ago. He
has — 2. Sue practises figure-skating. She began to practise figure-skating
in 1995. She has .... 3 . 1 study at the Lesgaft State U niversity o f Physical
Education. I started four m onths ago. I ’v e __ 4. H e has a car. H e bought
it in 1998. H e has .... 5. I train under a coach. Wfe started two years ago.
I ’ve .... 6. M ary lives in Boston. She moved there in 1995. She has ....
8. Present Perfect или Past Simple? Раскройте скобки. Употребите глагол
в соответствующей временной форме.
Образец'. My friend (study) at the University for five years. —» My friend
has studied at the University for five years.
1. H e (be / abroad) five years ago. 2. (you / ever / be) to Canada? 3. H e
(not / fin ish ) his training session yet. 4. (you / ever / be) to the U nited
States? 5. She (just / go) out. 6. They (leave) St Petersburg two days ago.
7. W/hen he was a child, he (like) sport a lot. 8. She (leave) the gym a m inute
ago. 9. Last m onth we (take part) in competitions. Wfe (win) a prize. 10. He
(won) this prize.
9. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

TENNIS PLAYER
Jane M itchell lives in Australia. She is a young tennis player, and she
has w on m an y to u rn a m e n ts in h e r life. S he h as w on m an y lo cal
112
competitions, too. She plays well. She started playing tennis at the age of
five. Last year she had a bad injury and didn’t take part in competitions.
This year she has completely recovered from the illness and has finished
school. Last month she participated in a tournament in England. She
hasn’t participated in the Olympics yet, but her coach thinks that she will
be a winner one day. Two years ago Jane travelled to Russia with her
parents. She liked the trip very much.
10. Ответьте кратко. Используйте образцы.
Образец 1: Has Jane won many competitions? —» Yes, she has.
Образец 2: Did she go to Moscow last year? -> Yes, she did.
1. Did she have a bad injury last year? 2. Did she start playing when
she was three? 3. Did she participate in a tournament in England last
month? 4. Has she finished school? 5. Did she go to Russia two years
ago? 6. Has she completely recovered from the illness? 7. Has she
participated in the Olympics yet?
11. Скажите по-английски:
теннисистка; начинать заниматься теннисом; поправляться пос­
ле болезни; играть хорошо; победить в соревнованиях; принимать
участие в Олимпийских играх; победитель
12. Представьте, что вам нужно взять интервью у Джейн. Составьте и за­
пишите вопросы.
13. Расскажите о Джейн человеку, далекому от тенниса.
14. Расспросите вашего друга о его спортивной биографии. Используйте
следующие выражения:
1. When did you start... ? 2. Have you travelled ... ? 3. Have you ever
been to ... ? 4. Did you go to ... last month / last year / last week? 5. Did
you w in... ?
15. Расскажите о своей жизни в спорте. Начните так: I havepractised sports
fo r ... years.
16. Прочитайте шутки.
• —>Vaiter!
— Yes, sir!
— What’s this?
— It’s bean soup, sir!
— No matter what it’s been. What is it now?
• Golfer: Absolutely shocking! I’ve never played so badly before.
Caddie: Oh! You have played before, then?
113
• Boxing instructor (afterfirst lesson): Now, have you any questions
to ask?
Beginner (dazed): Yes, how much is your correspon­
dence course?

П Р О Ш Е Д Ш Е Е С О В Е Р Ш Е Н Н О Е В РЕМ Я

Прошедшее совершенное время (The Past Perfect Tense), или «су­


перпрошедшее время», употребляется для того, чтобы показать, что
какое-то событие или действие в прошлом произошлораньше, чем дру­
гое. Зачем это нужно? Иногда это единственное средство, помога­
ющее разобраться в том, что произошло.
Чтобы лучше понять употребление прошедшего совершенного
времени, прочитайте два варианта рассказа.
1. Jack came home late that evening. When he entered the room, he
heard a telephone ring. He answered the phone. “Help me!” It was his
friend, Tom. “W hat’s happened?” Jack cried. But the line was
disconnected. Tom lived not far from Jack. Jack rushed out of the house,
got into the car, and drove to Tom’s house. When he arrived, he saw that
the front door was open. Jack came in. There was nobody in the house.
The window was broken, and there were spots of blood on the floor. Jack
rang the police immediately.
2. Jack quietly came through the front door. There was nobody in the
house. The window in the hall was broken, and there were spots of blood
on the floor. Jack rang the police immediately. He said that he had come
home late in the evening. His friend, Tom, had phoned him and asked
for help. Then the line had been disconnected. Jack said that he had
arrived at his house an d ....
Во втором отрывке события изложены не в том порядке, в кото­
ром они происходили в реальности.
Почему Джек оказался у Тома? Почему он вошел в помещение
осторожно? Единственным ответом на этот вопрос является вре­
менная форма Past Perfect.
Прошедшее совершенное время образуется при помощи глаго­
ла had + третья форма основного глагола.
Past Perfect употребляется:
1) когда нужно показать, что одно событие произошло раньше дру­
гого (сначала Том позвонил Джеку, а потом, как следствие, Джек
поехал к другу, чтобы узнать, что произошло);
2) когда действие заканчивается к какому-то моменту:
Не had learned the text by the exam. Он выучил этот текст к экза­
мену.
114
пда он выучил, неважно: накануне вече]
назад или только что, важно, что выучил
had (’d) learned / met / visited,
had not (hadn’t) learned / met / visited,
I / you / he / she / learned / met / visited?
it / we / they
Например:
I had visited. Had I visited? (Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t.)

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Раскройте скобки, используя Past Perfect.
Образец: There weren’t many old friends in the town. They (leave). -»
They had left.
1.1didn’t recognize many people. They (change) a lot. 2. My favourite
dog wasn’t alive. It (die). 3. John wasn’t a student any longer. He (became)
a doctor. 4. Rose wasn’t a schoolgirl any longer. She (get married) and
(have two children).
2. Раскройте скобки, используя Past Simple или Past Perfect.
Образец: Kate (give) me the book which she (buy) the day before. -»
Kate gave me the book which she had bought the day before.
1 .1 (not / know) that my friend (not / come) yet. 2. He (study) French
before he (enter) the University. 3. Lanny (say) that he (get) his education
in London. 4. Jack (not / know) who (attack) him in the darkness. 5. The
team (play) better after John (score) a goal. 6. She (be) glad that she (find)
a seat near the window. 7. By the time we (come) to see him, he (return)
home. 8. During the holidays my friend (visit) the village where he (live)
in his childhood. 9. When they (enter) the hall, the performance already
(begin). 10. Where (you / train) before you (enter) the University? 11. By
two o’clock, the professor (examine) all the students. 12. All my friends
(be) glad to hear that I (pass) all my exams successfully.
3. Соедините два простых предложения в сложное. Один из глаголов ис­
пользуйте в форме Past Perfect.
Образец: I finished my training session and left the gym. (after) ->
After I’d finished my training session, I left the gym.
1. I read the letter. I threw it away, (when) 2. He passed his driving
test. He bought a car. (as soon as) 3 .1 took the book back to the library.
I finished reading it. (when) 4. I didn’t go to bed. I did my homework.
(until) 5 .1 spent all my money. I went home, (when) 6 .1 read the book.
I saw the film. (Ъфге) 7. Her children left home. She started writing, (after)

115
4. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужную форму. Используйте об­
разец.
Образец: I was hungry because I (not / have breakfast) in the morning.
I was hungry because I hadn’t had breakfast in the morning.
1. He didn’t win because he (not / work) hard. 2. She spoke English
well because she (have) an education in England. 3. He bought an
expensive sports suit because he (earn) a lot of money. 4. He didn’t score
a goal because he (injure) his leg. 5. He was late because there (be) a traffic
jam. 6. She got ill because she (drink) a glass of cold water.
5. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

THE ANGRY MAN


he had to believe — ему пришлось поверить
shouting that — крича о том, что
to let the water out of the pool — выкачать воду из бассейна
This happened in Australia during a water-polo game that was one of
the main sports events of the season. There was nothing exciting at the
beginning of the game, but suddenly one of the players jumped out of
the water and ran to the referee. He said that while he was swimming under
water, one of the forwards of the other team had bitten him in the leg.
At first, the referee thought that it was some kind of a joke, but when
the player pointed at blood on his leg, he had to believe that it was serious.
He called the forward and asked him why he had done such a strange
thing. Though the forward insisted that he had not bitten anybody, the
referee made him leave the game.
They began again, but a few minutes later, two players, one from each
team, climbed out of the water, shouting that somebody had bitten them.
There was blood on both players’ legs. The game was stopped, and they
began to let the water out of the pool. When almost all the water was let
out, everybody saw a young crocodile at the bottom of the pool.
Somebody had put the crocodile into the pool, but why?
The truth became known when the players returned to their dressing-
room after the game and found a letter there.
“I have been a water-polo fan for many years,” the author of the letter
wrote, “and I am not satisfied with the way the players seem to act. They
have allowed the game to become slow and uninteresting, and I have decided
that I must do something to make them move faster. I don’t think I can
do this well myself, and I have decided that my crocodile will do it better.”
б. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Where did it happen?
2. Why did one of the players jump out of the water and run to the

116
3. Did the referee believe the player when he said that one of the
forwards had bitten him in the leg?
4. Why did the referee have to believe it?
5. Did the forward insist that he had not bitten anybody?
6. The referee made him leave the game, didn’t he?
7. What happened a few minutes later?
8. Why was the game stopped?
9. What did everybody see at the bottom of the pool? i
10. Do you think everybody was surprised? Why?
11. What did the players find in their dressing-room?
12. Who wrote this letter?
13. What did he write in his letter? Read the letter.
7. Выпишите из текста упр. 5 по два предложения, в которых глаголы
употреблены в форме Past Simple, Past Continuous и Past Perfect. Объясните
их употребление в каждом конкретном случае.
8. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

SOCCER HAS NEVER SEEN ANYONE


LIKE THE GREAT PELE

He was the consummate soccer player: scorer, creator, passer, even


a defender when the need arose. When he came on the scene in 1958 as
a slight, wide-eyed 17-year-old boy from Brazil, his amazing grace and
talent was such that he made that year’s Viforld Cup tournament his own.
He scored three goals in the semi-final, two more in the final — and
that was only the beginning. By the time the World Cup had seen the
last of Pele, he had collected two more winner’s medals, in 1962 and
1970.
He was bom in a small village some 170 miles northwest of Rio de
Janeiro, and played 18 years with club side Santos, during which time he
scored 1,200 goals, including 97 in 110 games for Brazil.
And even then, he wasn’t done. He came to the United States and
played two-and-half wildly successful years with the New York Cosmos
in the North American Soccer League.
9. Прочитайте текст и дополните следующие утверждения:
1. Pele was the consummate soccer player.
2. He made the Wbrld Cup tournament his own in 1958.
3. He wasn’t done after he had played 18 years with club side Santos.
10. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык отрывок из интервью, дан­
ного Пеле, в котором он рассказывает о начале своей спортивной жизни.
“My father had taken me to the youth team. I went with three other
boys. Then the coach said, ‘All of you go back except this black boy.’ I was
nervous. At first I didn’t believe him.

17
My mother wanted me to become a teacher or a doctor, but my father
said, ‘This is his chance.’ Remember, he was a soccer player.
Soon I was selected to play for the national team after 1 had been on
the first team at Santos. I was 16 then.”
11. Расскажите о Пеле, используя информацию из двух текстов упр. 8 и 10.

БУДУЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ


Будущее совершенное время (The Future Perfect Tense) выра­
жает действие, которое совершится ранее некоторого момента в
будущем и как-то связано с этим будущим моментом, т. е. его по­
следствия будут важны в будущем, причем к (by) какому-то мо­
менту. * 'л^'
Не will have learned the text Он выучит этот текст
by the exam. к экзамену.
Нас интересует результат, а именно: будет ли данный студент об­
ладать необходимыми знаниями к конкретному моменту.

I / You / He / She / It / We / They will (’11) have visited / brought / done.


I / You / He / She / It / We / They will not visited / brought / done.
(won’t) have
Will I / you / he / she / it / we / they have visited / brought / done?
- ---- -- - -- -- --------

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ
Изучите информацию в таблице. Составьте предложения по образцу. Рас­
скажите о том, что ваш друг выполнит к указанному сроку.
Образец: Не will have passed exams by the end of the month.

Action 1 Date
1. pass exams by the end of the month
2. rent a flat by the end of the year
3. write ten letters by the end of the week
4. buy a new tennis racket by May
5. buy a new expensive suit by Christmas
6. visit his parents by June
7. buy a computer by August

118
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Времена гругаіы Perfect Continuous употребляются:


1) для обозначения действия, которое началось дс
х> момента и все еще продолжается в указанный мо
I have been learning English Я изучаю английский язык десять
for ten years. лет (и сейчас еще изучаю).
He has been practising Он занимается борьбой десять
wrestling for ten years. лет.
When she entered Lesgaft К моменту поступления в универ­
University, she has been ситет имени Лесгафта она за­
practising figure-skating нималась фигурным катанием
for 13 years. уже 13лет.
Next year they will have been следующем
playing football for 11 years футбол
для обозначения действия, которое
тия в указанный момент:
I’m hot because I have been Мне жарко, потому что я бежал
running.
I was hot because I had been Мне было жарко, потому что я
running. бежал.
I’ll be hot because I will have Мне будет жарко после бега.
been running. v
Формы длительного вида (Continuous) выражают действие в про
цессе его совершения и исключают его законченность. Поэтому i
форме Perfect Continuous употребляются те же глаголы, что и в груп
пе времен Continuous, например: learn изучать, work работать, pla;
играть, run бежать, бегать и т.д., которые могут выражать длитель
ные, растянутые во времени действия:
Не has been runningfor Он бегает уже в течение часа.
an hour now.
She had been waiting/or К тому моменту она уже ждала
twenty minutes by that двадцать минут.
moment.
They will have been living В январе будет десятьлет, как они
here for ten years by January. здесь живут.
В перфектной форме эти глаголы выражают действие, начатое
о момента высказывания:
She has been waiting for me Она ждет меня в течение двух
for two hours. часов.
119
этом предложении говорящий сообщает о том, что его не толь­
d
ко ждут сейчас, в данный момент, но что начали ждать до этого мо­
мента, что состояние ожидания началось в прошлом и продолжа­
ется сейчас.
Сравните:
Present Continuous Present Perfect Continuous
She is waiting for me there. She has been waiting for me there for
Она ждет меня там (сейчас, two hours.
в данный момент). Она (уже) ждет меня там в тече­
ние двух часов.
Глаголы, относящиеся к кратким действиям, например: start на­
чинать, stop останавливаться, прекращать и др., и глаголы, отно­
сящиеся к миру наших внутренних чувств, например: love любить,
hate ненавидеть, like находить прятным и др., не могут быть исполь­
зованы в этой временной форме. В данном случае следует употреб­
лять форму Perfect.
I’ve loved sport since I was a child. Я люблю спорт с детства.
Cricket has always been popular Крикет всегда был (и остается)
in England. популярным в Англии.
Perfect Continuous употребляется со следующими обозначения­
ми времени:
1) for an hour / a month / a year, etc.; for a long time; since morning /
five o’clock, etc. в течение часа / месяца / года и др.; в течение дли­
тельного времени; с утра / с пяти часов и др.
We have been waiting/or a long Мы давно ждем,
time.
It has been snowing since morning. Снег идет с утра.
Не has been training hard of late. Последнее время он очень много
тренируется.
2) How long? Since when? Как долго ? С каких пор ?
How long have you been doing Как долго вы занимаетесь
your sport? спортом?
Since when have you been С какого времени вы занимаетесь
studying at sports school? в спортивной школе?
Формы Perfect Continuous образуются при помощи вспомога­
тельного глагола be в соответствующем времени Perfect (прошедшем,
настоящем или будущем): had been, have / has been, will have been и
смыслового глагола с окончанием -ing. Например: had been doing,
have / has been doing, will have been doing:

120
She has been working here Она работает здесь с 1980 года,
since 1980.
She had been workingybr two Она работала в течение двух часов
hours before her friend came. до того, как пришел ее друг.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

I / You / We / They have (’ve) been working.


He / She / it has (’s) been working.
I / You / We / They have not (haven’t) been working.
He / She / It has not (hasn’t) been working.
Have I / you / we / they been working?
Has he / she / it been working?

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


........... ............................. ■ ■' ■ ■■■■■■ ■ ■■■■ ■■
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

I / You / We / They / He / She / It had (’d) been working.


I / You / We / They / He / She /It* had not (hadn’t) been working.
Had ]V I / you / we / they / been working?
he / she / it

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Данная временная форма употребляется крайне редко. Вместо


нее часто употребляется Future Perfect.

I/Y ou/W e/They/H e/She/It will (9I1) have been working.


I/Y ou/W e/They/H e/She/It will not (won’t) have been working.
Will I / you / we / they/ have been
he / she / it working?

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Переведите на русский язык.
1. How long have you been learning English? 2. He says he has
practising wrestling for a year. 3. He said he had been practising
weightlifting for a year. 4. I’m looking for Jane. I’ve been looking for her
the whole day. Have you seen her? 5. He is running now. He has been

121
running for an hour without any rest. He has run a lot for an hour.
6. What are they doing now? 7. They are working in the reading room.
They have been working there for some time. They have read a lot for
their exam. 8. “Where is he now?” “He is in the gym. He is playing
volleyball. He has been playing the whole morning. He hasn’t stopped
playing volleyball yet.” 9. When I came home, he was sleeping. He has
been sleeping for some time. He hasn’t woken up yet. 10. It was raining
when they left the house. It had been raining heavily during the whole
morning. It hadn’t stopped raining yet when they left the house.
11. They had been sitting on the platform for 15 minutes before the train
arrived.
2. Ответьте на вопросы, а) Начните словами: I have been....
1. How long have you been doing your sport ’ i f o r ... years, etc.)
2. How long have you been learning English? (for ... years / months, etc.)
3. How long have you been studying at Lesgaft University? (for ...
months) ~
4. How long have you been studying history? (for ... years)
5. How long have you been living in St Petersburg? (for ... years /
months / all my life)
б) Начните словами: I have + третья форма глагола.
1. How long have you known your best friend?
2. How long have you known your English teacher?
3. How long have you known your coach?
3 . Прочитайте предложения. Задайте вопросы, используя how long. (Ра­
бота в парах.)
Образец: I have been doing my sport for ten years. -»
How long have you been doing your sport?
1 .1 have been working the whole day. 2 .1 have been watching TV for
an hour. 3. He has been playing basketball since morning. 4. They have
been waiting for a long time. 5. She has been trying to get you on the
phone for two hours. 6. I’ve been studying at Lesgaft University since
September. 7 .1 have been learning English for ten years.
4. Скажите по-английски.
1. Я уже десять лет занимаюсь спортом. 2. Я изучаю английский
язык девять лет. 3. Я обучаюсь в спортивном университете с сен­
тября. 4. Он занимается борьбой уже шесть лет. 5. Он занимается
боксом с прошлого года. 6. Она разговаривает по телефону уже два
часа. 7. Дождь идет с утра.
5. Прочитайте текст. Скажите, кто лучше разбирался в музыке — юный
Рахманинов или пожилая дама?

122
A HUMOROUS STORY OF RACHMANINOFF
nobleman — дворянин
Everyone has heard of Rachmaninoff. He was a famous pianist. He
was also a famous composer. Rachmaninoff liked to tell this story about
himself.
“When I was a very small boy, I once played the piano at a party in
the house of a Russian nobleman. I was only eight years old. But I had
been playing the piano for several years. I played well. I played the
“Kreutzer Sonata” by Beethoven.
But the “Kreutzer Sonata” has in it several very long rests. In each of
these rests I took my hands from the piano and waited. To me this was
very dramatic. I had been playing for some time and I had already made
some dramatic rests when an old lady came up to me. She said: ‘My boy,
why don’t you play us something that you know?’ ”
б. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Have many people heard of Rachmaninoff?
2. What do you know about Rachmaninoff?
3. Did he like to tell stories about himself?
4. Where did he play the piano once?
5. How old was he then?
6. What piece of music did he play?
7. What did he do in each of the rests?
8. What did the old lady ask him to do?
7. Прочитайте рассказ. Как вы думаете, пошел ли Марк Твен со своими
знакомыми в театр еще раз?

A STORY ABOUT MARK TWAIN


One of Mark Twain’s friends invited him to go to the opera. The
friend’s wife had been talking since they took their seats without a rest.
She was talking so much and so loudly that it was difficult for Mark Twain
to listen to the opera. He had been trying to concentrate all the time, but
it was useless —he could hear nothing.
Towards the end of the opera she said to Mark Twain: “Oh, my dear
friend, I invite you to the opera next Friday night again. I’m sure you
will like it — the opera will be Carmen.”
“Thank you very much,” said Mark Twain. “That will be fine. I have
never heard you in Carmen”
8. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Who invited Mark Twain to the opera?
2. What had the friend’s wife been doing since the beginning of the
opera?

123
3. How was she talking?
4. 'Was it easy for Mark Twain to listen to the opera?
5. What did the friend’s wife say to Mark Twain towards the end of
the opera?
6. Where did she invite him?
7. What did Mark Twain answer her?
9. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

SAINT PETERSBURG NATIONAL STATE UNIVERSITY OF PHYSICAL


EDUCATION, SPORTS AND HEALTH NAMED AFTER P. F. LESGAFT
physical activities физическая деятельность
were turned into были реорганизованы
work out разрабатывать
it comprises зд. охватывает
management division отдел управления
methodology board кафедра методики обучения
deans’ offices деканаты
editorial-publishing division — редакционно-издательский отдел
be admitted быть принятым
grant
adaptive physical education — адаптивное физическое воспитание
assign приписывать, прикреплять
regular (medical) checkups — регулярные (медицинские) осмотры
is involved занимается
qualified квалифицированный
The University was founded on the basis o f Lesgaft Courses for
instructors of physical activities in 1896. The outstanding Russian scholar
and teacher, P. F. Lesgaft taught the students Anatomy, the Theory of
Movements, Pedagogics, and the Histoiy o f Pedagogics. Academicians
A. P. Ioffe, V. L. Komarov, L. A. Orbeli, E. V. Tarle, A. A. Ukhtomsky taught
at the Courses. P. F. Lesgaft (1837—1909) was the founder o f the scientific
system o f physical education in Russia.
In 1919, the Courses for instructors of physical activities were turned into
the State Institute of Physical Education which was named after P. F Lesgaft.
The Institute had two main tasks: to work out the Soviet scientific system
of physical education and to train qualified coaches and PE teachers.
In 1992, the Institute was reorganized into the Lesgaft State Academy
o f Physical E ducation and in 2005 it was elevated to the status o f
University. The University, in its 110-year history, has trained more than
30,000 highly-qualified specialists working in our country and abroad.
Among them are a lot of European, world record-holders and Olympic
champions. The Lesgaft State U niversity o f Physical Education is proud
o f its graduates, who won 180 Olympic medals in the last 40 years. Among
the top-class athletes are Kazankina (runner), Salnikov (swimmer),
Dityatin and Davydova (gymnasts), Valova and Vasilyev, Seleznyova and
124
Makarov, Mishkutiyonok and Dmitriyev, Urmanov and Yagudin (figure-
skaters), Yekimov and Nelyubin (cyclists). Merited coaches trained them
at the international level.
The course o f training at the University lasts five years. It comprises
the functional capabilities of the athlete’s body. Participating in sports is
the foundation of an athlete’s future career.
The structure of the University includes administrative and management
divisions, the education and the methodology board, the deans’ offices, the
editorial-publishing division, sports facilities, a swimming pool, a training
complex in the settlement Kavgolovo, the Olympic cycling centre, a rowing
station, a stadium and gyms.
At present, 7 faculties and 28 departments train specialists in pedagogic,
physiology, psychology, socio-humanities, sports, and sports medicine.
Laboratory research in biochemistry and computer training are in the
University’s curriculum. A lot of students are members of the students
scientific society. They write undergraduate theses and practise sports at
the same time. 4,000 students, among whom are the students from 14
countries, are studying at the University at the moment. The applicants
m ust pass com petitive entrance exam inations to be adm itted to the
University. The academic year is divided into two terms. At the end of
each term , the students receive credits and take examinations. Most of
the students are granted state scholarships.
After graduating from the University, the students work as coaches,
PE teachers. They also become specialists in adaptive physical education
and physical therapy.
Sport is in progress. Some new sports have appeared recently: kick­
boxing is one of the sports practised at the department o f oriental martial
arts. Taekwondo, shaping, aerobics, curling, sports orienteering, and
diving are being practised in the University. The Adaptive Physical
E ducation D epartm ent and the D epartm ent o f M anagem ent and
Economics have been founded.
Special courses for foreign students are offered at the University. The
students study the Russian language while training. All athletes are under
constant m edical supervision. Every athlete is assigned to a sports
dispensary where he has regular checkups.
The staff o f the University is involved in a wide range of research.
Postgraduate courses are attended by 150 students. After defending their
theses they get the degree of candidate of sciences.
M ore than 350 teachers and lecturers are on the staff, including
academicians, honoured scientists, doctors and candidates of sciences,
honoured Masters o f Sports, honoured coaches, and Masters of Sports.
The main task of the staff is to train qualified specialists, combining
high mastery and erudition.
The students o f the University are faithful to the glorious traditions of
the oldest higher educational establishm ent o f physical education in
Russia. They are constantly improving their skills and mastership.
125
10. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When was the Lesgaft University o f Physical Education founded?
2. W hat tasks did the Lesgaft State Institute o f Physical Education
have?
3. How many Olympic medals did the graduates win during the last
40 years?
4. What is fundam ental to an athlete’s future career?
5. W hat subjects are in the student’s curriculum ?
6. How long does the course o f training at the University last?
7. How many students are studying at the University now?
8. What new departm ents have been founded recently?
9. Are all the athletes under constant m edical supervision?
10. W hat can you say about the future professions o f the students o f
the University?
11. Используя ответы на вопросы, подготовьте краткий рассказ об уни­
верситете.
12. Прочитайте диалог н переведите его на русский язык.
— Your University is nam ed after Pyotr Frantsevich Lesgaft. W hat do you
know about him?
— Wfell... He lived in Russia, but his grandfather was a G erm an jeweller,
and his father moved to Russia with his family...
— So, where did he study?
— He graduated from the M edical-Surgery Academy.
— What was he interested in?
— He liked anatom y very m uch, and he was interested in the theory o f
movements.
— Why is he famous?
— He was a well-known scientist. He wrote m any scientific works on
anatom y, pedagogics, and physical education, and he becam e the
founder o f the scientific system o f physical education in Russia.

МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ
Модальные глаголы (M odal Verbs) не выражают конкретных про­
цессов, состояний или действий, а лиш ь показы ваю т отнош ение
говорящ его к действию , даю т оценку действия. М одальные глаго­
лы могут показывать, что говорящ ий рассматривает действие как
возможное, необходимое, сомнительное, предположительное, долж­
ное, допустимое, требуемое, запрещенноеу принудительное, разре­
шенное и т. д .: .• *.• •
I cannot go with you. Я не могу пойти с вами.
М одальный глагол cannot означает, что говорящ ий считает, что
у него нет возможности пойти с ними.
126
Модальные глаголы отличаются от всех остальных глаголов тем,
что не имеют неличных форм (инфинитива, причастия) и, за ис­
ключением глаголов can (could) и may (might), имеют только одну
форму настоящего времени группы Simple.
Смысловые глаголы после модальных глаголов употребляются
в форме инфинитива без частицы to. Вопросительная и отрицатель­
ная формы модальных глаголов образуются без вспомогательного
глагола do.
Все модальные глаголы имеют две отрицательные формы: пол­
ную и краткую:
Полная форма Краткая форма
- Л
. Аж
may not mayn’t
______________ _________ - . -

must not mustn’t


should not shouldn’t
would not wouldn’t
Полная форма Краткая форма
need not needn’t
cannot can’t
(not пишется слитно)

Глагол CAN (COULD)


Ф

Этот модальный глагол может выражать физическую или умствен­


ную способность, возможность, сомнение, удивление, недоверие.
Глагол сап имеет две формы: can для настоящего времени и
could для прошедшего.
Can you swim? Ты умеешь плавать?
They could win any competition Они могли выиграть любые
when they were young. соревнования, когда были
молоды.
Глагол can может выражать:
1) возможность:
I could get only two tickets. Я смог достать только два
билета.
2) сомнение и удивление:
It can’t be true! Не может быть, чтобы это
была правда!
3 ) запрет:
You can’t play football here. Здесь нельзя играть в футбол.
Наряду с сап иногда употребляется сочетание be able быть в со­
стоянии. Оно употребляется как вместо сап и could (I am able, I was
127
able), так и вместо недостающих форм глагола can (I have been able,
I will be able и т.д.):
I can do it. = I am able to do it. Я могу (в состоянии) это
сделать.
I could do it. = I was able to do it. Я мог (был в состоянии) это
сделать.
I will be able to do it. Я смогу (буду в состоянии) это
сделать.

I / Y o u / H e / S h e / I t / W e / T h e y can / could play.


I / You / He / She / It / We / They cannot (can’t) / play.
could not (couldn’t)
Can / Could I / you / he / she / it / we / they play?

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите, что вы умеете (или не умеете) делать. Используйте данные
глаголы и словосочетания.
Образец: I can play hockey.
I can’t play hockey.
swim, ski, dive, dance, fence, drive a car, speak English, run ten
kilometres, ride a horse, lift 100 kg, play hockey, play golf, wrestle, play
baseball
2. Скажите, что вы умеете (или не умеете) делать, используя / am able
(Гт not able).
Образец: Г т able to swim.
I’m not able to swim.

3. Спросите вашего друга, что он умеет делать. Используйте словосоче­


тания и глаголы из упр. 1.
Образец 1: Can you swim?
Образец 2: Are you able to swim?
4. Раскройте скобки, используя сап или can’t + глагол в скобках.
Образец 1: Mike (run) very fast. -» Mike can run very fast.
Образец 2: They (not / understand) French. —>They can’t understand
French.
1. Kate (speak English) well. 2. You (not / lift) this box: it is too heavy.
3. My friend (not / come) in time. 4. My brother (help). 5. She (not / see)
well. She has to wear glasses. 6. You (have) a rest if you want. 7. He (ride)
a horse perfectly. 8. This old woman (not / sleep) at night.

128
5. Раскройте скобки, используя could или couldn’t + глагол в скобках.
Образец 1: Не (swim) the English Channel. —» He could swim the English
Channel.
Образец 2: She (not / solve) the problem. —> She couldn’t solve the problem.
1. They (win) the prize. 2. He (not / perform) the exercise perfectly.
3. Wfe (not / go) to the disco yesterday. Wfe had a training session. 4. He
(pass / the exam) in time. 5. She (win / a title) at the Olympics. 6. He
(not / enter) the institute last year. 7. They (do) it earlier. Why didn’t they
do it? 8. They (not / take) part in this serious sports competition.
6. Изучите информацию в таблице. Скажите, что студенты умеют делать
и чего они делать не умеют. Составьте предложения, используя образец.
Образец: Tom can lift a bar bell, ski, skate and play hockey. He can’t play
golf.
Tom Jane Kate and Jack You
lift a bar bell yes no no 1 ^ 1
play golf no yes no 1 ^ 1
skate perfectly yes yes yes ?
ski yes yes yes ? I
play hockey yes r W
no no 1^ 1
1. Jane .... 2. Kate and Jack .... 3. Everybody.... 4 .1 .... 5. You ....
7. Скажите по-английски.
1. Ты сможешь сделать эту работу завтра? 2. Завтра я смогу по­
мочь тебе. 3. Мы можем поехать в Нью-Йорк в будущем году? 4. Мне
не удалось переговорить с тренером вчера. 5. Ты можешь говорить
по-английски? 6. Он не мог прийти вчера. Он был болен. 7. Она
умела плавать в возрасте 7 лет. 8. Он смог переплыть Ла-Манш.

Глагол MAY (МЮНТ)


Этот модальный глагол имеет две формы: may для настоящего
времени и might —для прошедшего.
Глагол may употребляется для выражения разрешения совершить
действие:
Granny, may I eat all of it? Бабушка, можно мне съесть
это целиком?
Yes, you may. If you can. Да, можно. Если сможешь.
В разговорной речи вместо глагола may разрешение может быть
выражено глаголом do:
129
May I smoke here? Можно ли здесь курить?
Please do. Да, пожалуйста.
Для выражения разрешения в прошлом или будущем времени упот­
ребляется словосочетание be allowed to или глагол allow:
think they will be al думаю
with us tomorrow. завтра
Я не разрешал тебе оставаться
здесь, не так ли?
Will you allow Tom to borrow Ты разрешишь Тому взять твое
your rifle? ружье?
В отрицательной форме глагол may выражает запрет:
May we leave him with you? Можно нам оставить его
с вами?
No, you may not. Нет, нельзя.
Но чаще в этом значении употребляются модальные глаголы
can’t, mustn’t или просто отрицательная форма повелительного на­
клонения:
You mustn’t enter the room. Тебе нельзя входить в комнату.
You can’t enter the room.
Don’t enter the room! Не входи в комнату!
Глагол may может выражать неуверенность или предположение:
It may rain. Возможно, будет дождь.
Форма might употребляется в следующих случаях
правилу согласования
употребляется
You said I might take the dog Вы сказали, что я могу взять
with me. собаку с собой.
2) в утвердительных предложениях для выражения
а) упрека:
You might play better! Ты мог бы играть получше!
б) пожелания:
You might call me. Мог бы позвонить мне.

I / You /Н е /S h e / It /W e/They may / might go / play.


I / You / He / She / It / We / They may not / might not go / play.
May / might I / you / he / she / go / play?
it / we / they

130
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
используя глагол may. Переведите
язык
Образец
him
night. 4. "Vbu... ask him about it. 5. You... take mv bag. 6. Wfe
2. Перепишите предложения из упр. 1 в прошедшем времени. Прочитай­
те их.
3. Представьте, что вас расспрашивают о ваших планах, а вы еще ничего
точно не знаете. Используйте при ответах на вопросы may или might + одно
из данных ниже слов и словосочетаний:
go away; some shoes; Spain; disk; this evening; swimming; tomorrow
Образец: Are I haven’t decided yet. I might go.
Are vou eoin I’m not sure......
2. Is your son going to practise weight­ He hasn’t decided yet....
lifting?
3. Are you going to buy this book? I haven’t decided yet......
4. Are you going to visit Ann tomorrow' I haven’t decided yet......
5. Are you having training session in the I haven’t decided yet......
evening?
6. Are you going to take part in competiti I’m not sure......
7. Is his daughter going to enter Lesgaft She hasn’t decided yet....
University?
4. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя to be allowed to.
1. Мне разрешили участвовать в соревнованиях. 2. Нам было раз­
решено сдать экзамен на прошлой неделе. 3. Я думаю, что тренер
не разрешит мне пропустить тренировку. 4. Тебе позволили взять
эту книгу? 5. Ей разрешили не посещать занятия (miss classes).
5. Составьте короткий рассказ. Расскажите, что вам разрешали делать,
когда вам было 10 лет. Используйте be allowed to.
Образец: I was allowed to visit my friends sometimes.

Глагол MUST
Этот модальный глагол имеет только одну форму — форму настоя­
щего времени, но может употребляться в косвенной речи в главном
предложении после глагола, стоящего в форме прошедшего времени:
Mother told me I must cot Мама сказала мне, что я должна
it into three equal parts. разрезать это на три равные части.

131
Глагол must в утвердительных и вопросительных предло;
выражает долженствование, обязанность или необходимость
Must іаке a fire to cook dinner? должны
обед?
You must put it away! Ты должен убрать это!
отрицательных предложениях глагол must выражает запреще­
ние производить действие:
You mustn’t go home alone! Ты не должна ходить домой одна!
Для передачи отсутствия необходимости
гльных предложениях употребляется другой модальный
гол need:
Must I do my homework for Я должен сделать мою домаш­
tomorrow? нюю работу на завтра?
No, you needn’t. Нет, не нужно.
Must 1 read all the books by Я должен прочитать все эти кни­
tomorrow? ги до завтра?
No, you needn’t. Read only one Нет, не нужно. Прочитай только
of them. одну.
служит также для выражения вероятности или
положения
It must be cold outside. должно
лодно.
Your friends must be playing football Твои друзья, должно быть, сей-
now. футбол
Peter must have been here a few должно
minutes ago. >ko минут назад
e

прошлому или I
щему передается глаголом have to:
I had to go yesterday. Вчера мне пришлось уйти.
I’ll have to go soon. Вскоре мне придется уйти
Настоящее время
I / Y o u / Н е / She / I t /We/They must go there,
I / You / He / She / It / We / They must not go there,
Must I / you / he / she / it / we / they go there?
I / You / We / They have to go there,
He / She / It has to go there.
I / You / We / They don’t have to go there,
He / She / It doesn’t have to go there.
Do I / you / we / they have to go there?
Does he / she / it have to go there?
132
Прошедшее время
I / You / He / She / It / We / They had to go there,
I / You / He / She / It / We / They didn’t have to go there,
Did I / you / he / she / it / we / they have to go there?
I / You / He / She / It / We / They will (not) have to go there,
WO I / you / he / she / it / we / they have to go there?

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
a) 1. Students must pass exams in time. 2. Hockey players must wear
crash helmets during the game. 3. Athletes mustn’t take drugs. 4. Athletes
must have early nights. 5. You must have a passport and a ticket with you
when you travel by air. 6. It must be cold outside. 7. Everybody must come
to the University on time. 8. Don’t phone him: he must be very busy.
9. You must not make notes in the books. 10. I must help my parents
today. 11. You must work hard at your English. 12. It must be difficult to
learn Chinese.
b) I. I had to do a lot of work yesterday. 2. She had to stay at home
because she did not feel well. 3 .1 have to go now. 4. He has to wear glasses.
5. You will have to phone him tomorrow. 6. Will you have to get up early
tomorrow? 7. You had to help your friend. Why didn’t you do it? 8. It
was very late, and we had to go home. 9. I missed the bus, so I had to
walk to the University. 10. He has to take medicine. He is ill.
2. Перепишите каждое из следующих предложений дважды: в прошедшем
и в будущем времени. Переведите их на русский язык.
1. You must listen to your coach. 2. You must take your examination
in English. 3. The doctor must examine the child. 4. You must take part
in the competitions. 5. He must work hard to reach the top. 6. He must
start getting ready for his exam.
3. Задайте вопросы.
Образец: I have to leave early. Why ... ? -» Why do you have to leave early?
1.1 had to do something. W hat... ? 2 .1 have to stay at home. Why... ?
3. I’ll have to get up early tomorrow. What time ... ? 4. I’ll have to visit
somebody tomorrow. Who ... ? 5. She had to wait a long time. How
long... ? 6. He will have to work all summer. Why... ?
4. Добавьте свое предложение, используя don’t / doesn V / didn Vhave to.
Образец: Why are you doing it yourself? -» You don’t have to do it yourself.
1. Why are you shouting at him? 2. Why did you come back so early?
3. Why do you want to do it now? 4. Why does he miss classes? 5. Why
do you have late nights? 6. Why do you have heavy meals?
33
5. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя must или его
эквивалент.
1. Он сейчас должен быть в спортзале. 2. Вы должны были про­
читать этот текст. 3. Что вам придется сделать завтра? 4. Вам при­
дется позвонить ему завтра. 5. Мне пришлось помочь ему вчера.
6. Ему придется обратиться к врачу.
6. Заполните пропуски в предложениях, используя have to / has to / had to
или must.
Образец: It’s a very interesting book, you ... see it. -» It’s a very interesting
book, you must / have to see it.
1. Tom is an athlete. H e ... train five times a week. 2. Rugby players...
wear crash helmets. 3. If you want to take part in competitions, you ...
train more. 4. In basketball, you... score by getting the ball into the basket.
5. In tennis, you... hit the ball over the net.
7. Прочитайте текст. Переведите его на русский язык.
Wfell, there are a lot of things I can’t do! I can’t drive a car but I’ll be
able to in three months because I am taking lessons now. I can speak
English a little, and I hope I’ll be able to speak much better in two years.
I can speak German a little too, but I don’t study it at the moment — I
haven’t much time for it. I can use a word processor — my elder sister
has a computer at home. I can look after animals because I have a cat
and a dog at home. What about sports? I can ski, I can swim, and I can
ride a horse — it’s my sports specialization. I can play basketball, volleyball
and tennis. I can’t play hockey and football, of course. I can play musical
instruments — the guitar and the piano a little. I can cook and knit a
little.
8. Расскажите о том, что умеет делать Катя (упр. 7).
9. Расспросите вашего друга о том, что он умеет делать. Начните слова­
ми Can you ... ? ■
10. Расскажите о том, что умеете делать вы.
11. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

CHILDREN IN SPORTS
KATE
Kate is twelve years old. When she was eight, her future coach came
to school to watch a PE lesson. Kate was very slim, and had a lot of
stamina. She could run a lot without rest and jump very high. Her legs
were very long, and she moved as if she danced.
After the lesson had been over, the coach examined Kate. He asked
her to bend in different directions, and raise her legs. Kate was able to do
134
it nearly perfectly though she had done it for the first time. She was very
flexible.
The coach phoned Kate’s parents and told them that their daughter
“had passed an artistic gymnastics exam”. The parents were very proud.
They decided to allow Kate to practise the sport seriously.
Now Kate isn’t allowed to eat sweets or cakes. She has to train a lot
and take part in competitions. She has already reached the second grade
and hasn’t any free time at all. Nevertheless, she has been able to do well
in her school too. Her favourite subject is literature.
12. Скажите по-английски:
обладать выносливостью; стройная; долго бегать без отдыха;
быть гибкой; она умудрилась прекрасно выполнить упражнение;
позволять; ей удается хорошо справляться со школьной програм­
мой
13. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

MARSHA

Marsha is a Kate’s elder sister. She is 15 now. When Marsha was a


little girl, she wanted to practise gymnastics very much. But that time
Marsha was a bit overweight.
She liked to move, but she couldn’t run as fast and long as Kate.
Besides, she was very shy because other children often teased her. The
reason was her weight. So she became a little tense and wasn’t able “to
do” her best. The coach didn’t recommend her to practise artistic
gymnastics.
At the age of 14, she unexpectedly lost her weight without any diets.
She became very slim and was able to dance without rest for a long time.
Many people asked her that time: “Do you practise gymnastics?”
Now Marsha thinks that it'stoo late for her to begin.
14. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Is Kate happy?
2. Is Marsha happy? Why?
3. What should Marsha do?
15. Скажите по-английски:
иметь лишний вес; быть стеснительной; дразнить; быть замк­
нутой; похудеть; оказалась неспособна продемонстрировать свои
сильные качества
16. Согласны ли вы с тем, что Марше не стоило заниматься гимнасти­
кой? Начните следующими словами:
1. The coach should (shouldn’t ) .... 2. Marsha should (shouldn’t ) ....
3. Marsha’s parents should (shouldn’t ) ....
135
17. Расскажите, как вы стали спортсменом / спортсменкой. Что вас от­
личало в детстве от других детей? Используйте could / couldn’t / was able to /
wasn’t able to.
Образец: I liked to move and could run without rest.

18. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

VOLLEYBALL

An official volleyball team is made up of six players who rotate through


six playing positions: left forward, centre back, and right back behind the
front positions. The opening of the game is the serve, which is made by
the right back player. He continues to serve until the team loses possession
of the serve. The serve is made from behind the line, anywhere between
the sidelines. The receiving team may play the ball no more than three
times before it goes back over the net. The ball must be played in the air
and must be clearly hit or batted. It may not be thrown or lifted. The ball
is played back over the net until one team fails to return the ball or to
play it legally. •
If the serving team fails to make a legal return, a sideout results, and
the receiving team becomes the serving team.
19. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE DOCTOR’S ADVICE

Mr Bell felt very bad. Every day he had bad headaches. He couldn’t
eat and sleep. One of his friends said that Mr Bell had to see Doctor Green
who always gave his patients good advice. Mr Bell phoned the doctor and
was told to come the next day.
After the doctor had examined Mr Bell, he told the patient that he
had to go to a village and stay there not less than a month. He also added
that Mr Bell had to go to bed early, drink milk, eat a lot of vegetables and
fruit, and smoke only one cigar a day. “You should follow my advice,”
said the doctor, “and in a month you will feel as well as before.” Mr Bell
looked a little surprised when he heard the doctor’s advice and said, “Can
I ask you..,” but the doctor had already invited another patient in and
Mr Bell had to leave not having asked his question.
As you remember, Mr Bell had to come to see the doctor a month
later. When the doctor saw him, he said: “You look much better now. Has
my advice helped you?”
“Thank you, doctor,” said Mr Bell. “I did everything you had
recommended: I went to the country, I ate a lot of fruit and vegetables,
drank milk but had to give up one of your recommendations. You see
one cigar a day nearly killed me. It is impossible to begin smoking at my
age.” . .•

136
20. Скажите по-английски:
чувствовать себя очень плохо; рано ложиться спать; пить моло­
ко; есть много фруктов и овощей; выкуривать только одну сигару
в день; следовать совету; выглядеть слегка удивленным; пригласить
другого пациента
21. В тексте упр. 19 глагол have употребляется в трех различных значе­
ниях. Объясните употребление каждого из них.
22. Расскажите историю о докторе вашему другу.

СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ
Значение действительного и страдательного залогов в русском
и английском языках совпадают. Глагол-сказуемое в действитель­
ном залоге показывает, что действие совершает лицо или предмет,
выраженный подлежащим:
Ann often asks questions. Анна часто задает вопросы.
Глагол-сказуемое в страдательном залоге означает, что действие
направлено на лицо или предмет, выраженное подлежащим:
Ann is often asked questions. Анне часто задают вопросы.
Все формы страдательного залога в английском языке образу­
ются при помощи вспомогательного глагола be в форме, соответ­
ствующей нужному времени, и Participle II смыслового глагола:
be + Participle II.
Количество времен в страдательном залоге меньше, чем в дей­
ствительном, в нем отсутствуют формы будущего длительного вре­
мени (Future Continuous), а также все времена группы Perfect
Continuous.

Время Несовершенный вид Совершенный вид


Простое It is translated. It has been translated.
Настоящее
Длительное It is being translated.
Простое It was translated. It had been translated.
Прошедшее
Длительное It was being translated. g
Простое It will be translated. It will have been
Будущее translated.
Длительное I — 1
137
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Составьте из данных слов предложения с глаголами в страдательном
залоге.
Образец 1: (this game / play / all over the world).... —
»This game is played
all over the world.
Образец 2: (where / the last Olympics / hold) Where were the last
Olympics held?
1. (St Petersburg / situate / on 42 islands) ... . 2. (what / this sports
equipment / use for)... ? 3. (bread / eat / every day).... 4. (many houses /
build in our town every year)....
2. Составьте из данных слов предложения с глаголами в прошедшем вре­
мени.
Образец 1: (the room / clean / yesterday).... —
»The room was cleaned
yesterday.
Образец 2: (when / the room / clean)... ? —
»When was the room cleaned?
1. (St Petersburg / found / by Peter the First) ... . 2. (the Peter and
Paul Fortress / design / by Trezzini).... 3. (the monument to Nicholas I /
create / by the sculptor Klodt)... .4. (the Bronze Horseman monument /
create / by Etienne Falconet) ... . 5. (where / the letter / send to) ?
6. (how / the window / break)... ? 7. (anybody / injure / in the accident)... ?
8. (the doctor / send fo r).... 9. (at the station / they / meet / by their
friends)... ?
3. Запомните шуточный мини-рассказ. Перескажите его.
Не was talked about. Не was sent for. He was waited for. He was looked
at. He was listened to. He was laughed at.
4. Замените действительный залог страдательным. Обращайте внимание
на место предлога.
Образец: Wfe often speak about her. -» She is often spoken about.
1. Wfe thought about him all the time. 2. The doctor will operate on
him in a week. 3. They sent for the doctor. 4. They looked for the keys
everywhere. 5. Nobody saw him. 6. Mother asked for the telegram.
7. Everybody listened to the lecturer. 8. The senior students laughed at
the freshman. 9. They spoke to the coach yesterday. 10. Nobody lived in
that old house. 11.1 can solve the problem.
5. Составьте предложения no образцу.
Образец: (Kate / in Moscow).... -» Kate was born in Moscow.
1. (Nick / in St Petersburg).... 2. (Jack / in London).... 3. (Linda /
in New York).... 4 .1 / in .... 5. My friend / in .... 6. My mother / in ....
138
6. Скажите по-английски.
1. Ее часто посылают на соревнования. 2. Об этом матче много
говорили. 3. Над ними будут смеяться. 4. Его вчера никто не ви­
дел. 5. Катя родилась в Москве. 6. Дистанция была пройдена
(cover). 7. Гол был забит. 8. В футбол играют во всем мире. 9. Эк­
замен будет сдан. 10. Хлеб едят каждый день. 11. За врачом по­
слали.
7. Переведите предложения на английский язык, употребляя страдатель­
ный залог после соответствующих модальных глаголов.
Образец: Эту проблему можно решить. —
»This problem can be solved.
1. Перед едой нужно мыть руки. 2. Куда можно поставить ко­
робку? 3. Это упражнение нужно делать очень внимательно. 4. Как
можно перевести это слово? 5. Детям нужно давать фрукты. 6. Эти
спортсмены должны быть отправлены на соревнования. 7. Этот
спортсмен мог получить травму. Он должен быть осмотрен врачом.
8. Этот приз мог быть выигран нашей командой.
8. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN ANCIENT GREECE

The love of athletics and the practice of this form of sports were
important features in Greek times.
Wherever Greek colonies were — in Asia Minor, Egypt, Crimea, for
example — gymnasiums and stadiums were built, even in the smallest
villages.
Sport fathered the complete m aturation of the individual. It
contributed to hygiene, health, beauty and to the development of the
character. An idiot was described as someone who could “neither read
nor swim”!
Bringing up a healthy generation in Greece is a historical fact. The
principle was “mass participation” which meant giving everybody a
chance. Considerable part of the population was drawn into sports activities.
9. Скажите по-английски:
были построены спортивные залы и стадионы; развитие харак­
тера; всестороннее развитие личности; в маленьких деревеньках
10. Закончите следующие фразы, пользуясь текстом упр. 8.
1. The love o f ... , practice of this form o f ... . 2. Gymnasiums and
stadiums.... 3. The complete maturation .... 4. The development o f ....
5. An idiot....
11. Расскажите о том, какое значение придавали древние греки физиче­
скому воспитанию.

139
12. Сделайте письменный перевод текста на русский язык.

SPORTS IN CHILDHOOD
The practice o f several sports started in childhood: foot racing,
jumping, discus-throwing, wrestling and the pancratium.
The athletes were completely naked, oil and sand were rubbed into their
bodies in the gymnasium, which could be compared to a modem sports
centre. It included a sports ground, surrounded by a conference and
meeting room, changing rooms, washrooms, storehouses for oil and sand,
a massage room, a punching bag, a terraced stadium, and a covered track.
13. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When did people begin to practise sports?
2. What kinds of sports were practised at that time?
3. What was rubbed into athletes’ bodies?
4. What did the gymnasium include?
14. Скажите по-английски: ,
покрыть тело смесью из масла и песка; можно сравнить; спор­
тивная площадка; раздевалка; помещение для массажа
15. Спросите о том, как начинали заниматься спортом в Древней Греции.
Поинтересуйтесь, как выглядели тогда спортивные залы. (Работа в парах.)
16. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

EDUCATION OF THE CITIZENS


Physical education was continued until a young man reached the age
of eighteen, when he was taken in hand by the state. He was required to
do two years of military service training, he spent the second in the field,
or in a garrison on the frontiers.
Then a person was given a period of moral and religion preparation
which would enable the young man to assume fully his rights and duties
as a citizen.
17. Составьте диалог по содержанию текста упр. 16. (Работа в парах.)
18. Перечитайте тексты упр. 8, 12 и 16 о том, как относились к воспита­
нию гражданина в Древней Іреции. Составьте рассказ на эту тему.
19. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

FOOTBALL
The history of football goes back almost as far as that of cricket. Here
is a quotation from a set of rules: do you recognize the game?
“The players form two sides, and the game is started when a person
throws the ball into the air from half-way line that separates the teams.

140
As soon as the ball is in the air, the players make a dash for it, the aim is
to run with the ball and touch it to the ground upon a line behind the
opponents. ”
Rugby Union, you think? The game which resulted from an afternoon
at Rugby School in the early part of the nineteenth century, when William
Ellis picked up a football and ran with it?
No, these rules were written by Roman soldiers who played the game
and called it “ harpastum”.
Football in the M iddle Ages in England was played by teams formed
of whole villages, and there were no very clear rules. With as many as a
hundred people on each side, the teams struggled to score goals with a
ball made of the inflated bladder of a pig. You could attack the ball, or
you could attack members of the opposite team instead. In some villages
the annual football match was regarded as a perfect opportunity to settle
grievances against neighbours, who during the course of the game could
be thrown into the duck pond. There were many injuries, some of them
serious, and several times laws were passed to forbid the game, not only
because of these injuries but because it interfered with practice for archery,
which in those days was not so much a sport as an essential part of national
defence.
Football became a more orderly game in the nineteenth century, and
eventually a group of keen players met to form the Football Association,
the parent body of Associations all over the world and of the International
Football Association, which sees that rules are universal, and also runs
the Wbrld Cup Competition every four years.
20. Закончкге предложения.
1. The history of football goes back.... 2. Football in the Middle Ages
in England ... . 3. You could attack the ball, ... . 4. In some villages the
annual football match was regarded as .... 5. There were many injuries,
some of them serious, ... . 6. Football became a more orderly game in
the nineteenth century,....

НЕПРАВИЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

Большинство английских глаголов (около 90%) очень легко из­


меняются, позволяя образовывать от начальной формы (инфини­
тива) форму прошедшего времени. Например:
visit — посещать visited — посещал
open — открывать opened — открывал
При помощи прибавления окончания -ed можно образовывать
не только форму простого прошедшего времени (Past Simple), ко­
торая соответствует второй форме глагола, но и страдательное

141
причастие, которое соответствует третьей форме глагола. Напри­
мер:
visit посещать visited — посещал; посещенный
open — открывать opened — открывал; открытый
Используя данное страдательное причастие, вы можете образо­
вывать формы страдательного залога, а также времена группы
Perfect. Например:
The door was opened. Дверь была открыта.
Не is asked a lot of questions. Ему задают много вопросов.
I have visited John. Я побывал у Джона.
Однако в английском языке существует 175 глаголов, которые
этому правилу не подчиняются и называются неправильными гла­
голами (irregular verbs). Прошедшее время и страдательное причас­
тие (причастие II) этих глаголов образуются не при помощи окон­
чания -ed, а путем изменения основы слова. Например:
еа^ есть ate — ел eaten — съеденный.
Большая часть неправильных глаголов относится в английском
языке к разряду частотной лексики — т. е. они являются теми сло­
вами, которые используются чаще других, поэтому, не зная их,
нельзя научиться говорить по-английски даже посредственно. Сло­
ва есть eat, пить drink, идти go, покупать buy, думать think гово­
рить teD и др. относятся к данной категории слов. Между тем, час-
то встречаясь в речи, они запоминаются достаточно легко.
Следует заметить, что изучению неправильных глаголов необ­
ходимо уделить большое внимание, тем более что многие из них
могут не только переводиться по-разному, но в сочетании со слу-
жебными словами (послелогами) получать другое значение. Напри­
мер: go идти, ехать', go on продолжать.
По способу образования второй и третьей форм неправильные
глаголы делятся на четыре группы:
первая группа — все три формы одинаковы:
cut — cut — cut;
вторая группа — совпадают вторая и третья формы:
• лч make — made — made;
третья группа — совпадают первая и третья формы:
come — came — соте;
четвертая группа — все три формы различны:
go — went — gone.
142
Неправильные глаголы первой группы
(все три формы одинаковы)
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод
burst [b3:st] burst [b3:st] burst [b3:st] взрыватъ(ся) , прорываться;
burst into ворваться;
burst into tears, burst out
crying расплакаться;
burst out laughing рассмеяться
cut [kAt] cut [kAt] cut [kAt] резать; порезать; стричь;
разрывать; разъединять;
cut off отрезать
hurt [h3:t] hurt [h3:t] hurt [h3:t] причинять боль; вредить;
портить; повреждать;
ушибать
let [let] let [let] let [let] разрешать, позволять
put [pot] put [put] put [pot] класть; ставить; помещать
put on надевать;
put up воздвигать
set [set] set [set] set [set] устанавливать

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
a) 1. Не is bursting with energy. 2. The bomb has burst. 3. They were
bursting with envy. 4. The police burst into the house. 5. She burst into
tears. 6. He cut his finger. 7. The gas is cut off. 8. This knife cuts both
ways. 9. Don’t cut yourselfl 10. He is not cut out to be an athlete. 11. It
hurts me walk. 12. The sun hurts my eyes. 13. He hurt himself. 14. Love
hurts. 15. His stomach hurts. 16. My back hurts. 17. Let me think! 18. Let
me help you! 19. Don’t let this happen again! 20. Let him go. 21. Let’s
take the bus! 22. Put the book on the table, please. 23. Put all in order!
24. Put on your sweater! 25. I will put an advertisement in a newspaper.
26. Set the alarm for 6.00. 27. Set the table for six. 28. This monument
was set many years ago. 29. Winter set in very early this year. 30. You
should set an example to children. 31. You should set a task for yourself.
b) 1. The story was so funny that we burst out laughing. 2. H er
performance was so nice, that the fans burst into applause. 3. Her guests
have burst into the room. 4. You should sharpen your knife. It doesn’t cut!
5. Mary is in the kitchen. She is cutting bread. 6. The knife is very sharp.
Don’t cut yourselfl 7. The trees were very old, so they cut them down.
8. The meat cuts easily. 9. A little girl burst out crying because she hurt
her knee badly. 10. What’s up with your foot? Does it hurt? 11. It hurts to

143
be on my back. 12. If it hurts, you should go to your dentist. 13. Excessive
caution never hurts. 14. I have cut my finger and it hurts badly. 15. The
athletes are very tired. Let them go home. 16. Because of cold weather
he put a hat on. 17. If you want to be the winner, you should put your
heart and soul into it. 18. Don’t take my book! Put it back, please! 19. Has
she put on her warm coat? It is rather frosty. 20.1 wouldn’t set foot in her
house! 21. The house is set back from the road.
2. Заполните пропуски в предложениях глаголами из таблицы на с. 143.
Образец: The story was so sad that my sister.... —>The story was so sad
that my sister burst into tears.
1. She looked so funny, that we .... 2. The boil was very old and the
pressure was very high, so i t ... yesterday. 3 .1don’t like her. When someone
gets something good, she simply .... 4. There were clouds of smoke over
the house. The door was locked. The fire brigade ... the house. 5. The
knife was so sharp that she ... herself. 6. This swimming pool is ... back
from the road. 7. It’s very cold today.... on your warm coat. 8. I cut my
finger and i t ... badly. 9. He is very tired .... him go. 10. It is very late....
us go home. 11. This monument to Peter I is ..r near the centre of the
city. 12.1 don’t want to be late at work.... the alarm-clock at 6.00.
3. Укажите вспомогательный глагол, который нужно употребить для об­
разования отрицательных или вопросительных предложений.
1. They will burst this old building tomorrow, a) has
2. She puts on this warm coat in winter. b) did
3. He hurt his hand yesterday. c) do
4. She has set the record. d) will
5. She is cutting the bread in the kitchen. e) does
6. Let them go! f) is
4. Выберите соответствующий модальный глагол.
1. You (следует) put your hat on. It’s very a) can
windy today.
2. You (должен) set this document right if b) may
you want to get a visa.
3. They (могут, имеют возможность) c) should
burst this old building.
4. You (придется) let him home. d) must
5. Don’t look at the sun! It (может) hurt e) will have to
your eyes.
5. Переведите предложения на русский языі
. Определите время непра-
вильных глаголов.
а) 1. She cuts bread with this knife. 2. She cut bread with this knife.
3. She has cut bread with this knife. 4. Bread is cut with this knife. 5 .1 cut
bread with this knife.
144
b) 1. He puts on this sweater in cold weather. 2. He put on this sweater
in cold weather. 3. He has put on this sweater because the weather is
cold. 4. This sweater is put on when the weather is cold. 5 .1 put on this
sweater.
6. Соедините левую часть предложений с правой.
Образец: The stadium burst into applause.
1. The stadium a) hurts me now.
2 .1 was too long in the sun. My back b) set in 1992.
3. This record was c) put on your warm sweater!
4. He is very tired, d) burst into applause.
5. You are cold, e) let him gc home
7. Скажите по-английски.
1. Бомба уже взорвалась. 2. Полиция только что ворвалась
квартиру. 3. Он рассмеялся. 4. Она расплакалась. 5. Стадион взо]
вался аплодисментами. 6. Электричество отключено. 7. Он пор
зался. 8. Деревья вчера срубили. 9. Порежь хлеб! 10. Он noDam
13. Пусть он идет.
опаздываем Этот памятник бі
новлен в начале ГХ века. 16. Надень пальто! На улице (outside) очень
холодно. 17. Маша сейчас режет хлеб на кухне. 18. Мне больно хо­
дить. 19. Солнце слепит мне глаза. 20. Она была такой энергичной!
Хлеб режут
надела теплый
ел ал стрижку. 26. Зал
8. Догадайтесь о значении следующих выражений:
Let the cat out of the bag. 2. Let
Let
тощ ие слова и словосочетания
burst — взрыв: burst o f flame — вспышка огня; burst o f thunder —удар
грома; burst o f energy — прилив энергии
cut — порез; разрез, надрез: deep cut — глубокий надрез; a cut o f
meat — кусок мяса; cut for a dress —раскрой платья; cut in prices
снижение цен
set — прибор; комплект; комплекс: desk set — письменный прибор;
set o f apparatuses — комплект гимнастических снарядов; set of morning
exercises — комплекс упражнений утренней гимнастики’, sets — обя­
зательная, квалификационная программа (гимн.); good set — хоро­
шая подача
Для справки: для английского языка достаточно характерно совпаде­
те форм инфинитива и однокорневого существительного.

145
10. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопрос.
This game is played on the field. The field is covered with grass which
is cut with the help of some mechanisms. Two goals are set at a distance.
One goal is opposite the other. There are usually many fans during the
game. When there is a goal, they usually burst into applause, shout and
whistle. They put on scarves with the name of their favourite team on it.
What is the game?

глаголы второй группы


(совпадают

также
такие
можно разбить на три
1. Подгруппа А — вторая и третья формы глагола образуются
ічания инфинитива, например: bend, bent, bent
2. Подгруппа Б вторая и третья формы глагола образуются пу
* изменения кс іевой гласной основы, например: lead, led, led.
3. Подгруппа В вторая и третья формы глагола образуются пу
тем изменения корневой гласной основы и прибавления оконча
ния к форме инфинитива, например: buy, bought, bought.

Подгруппа А
(совпадают вторая и третья формы, которые образуются
путем изменения окончания инфинитива)
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод
bend [bend] bent [bent] bent [bent] сгибаться; гнуть
build [bild] built [bilt] built [bilt] строить; build up воздвигать
have [haev] had [haed] had [haed] иметь
make [meik] made [meid] made [meid] делать; совершать; заставлять
send [send] sent [sent] sent [sent] посылать', отправлять',
send for посылать (за кем-либо)
spend [spend] spent [spent] spent [spent] проводить (время);
тратить (деньги)

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
arms
knees

146
6. This road is being built by a well-known company. 7 .1 have a family of
my own. 8. They are having dinner now. 9. They have already had
breakfast. 10. He makes progress. 11. What is this made of? 12. You should
make your dress shorter. It’s too long for you. 13. She often makes me
wait. 14. Mary is making dinner. 15. You should send a telegram. 16. You
can send this letter by airmail. 17. She sent the children into the garden.
18. She is very ill. Wfe must send for the doctor. 19. She spends too much
money. 20. They spend a lot of time in the swimming pool. 21.1 spent a
sleepless night. 22. The storm has spent itself. 23. You should spend some
time abroad and you’ll improve your English greatly. 24. John wants to
work hard to make a name for himself. 25. The team made ten points.
26. Please, stop making fun of me. It hurts my feelings.
2. Напишите данные предложения в прошедшем времени.
1. In order to recover from injury she bends at hips 50 times every
morning. 2. She bends too hard without warming-up. 3. In this position
he is bending his body very slowly. 4. He makes too many mistakes for a
top athlete. 5. She is making the third attempt now. 6. I make no secret
of it. 7. They spend their summer holidays at the seashore. 8. He has
breakfast at home. 9. They will set this monument near the stadium. 10. It
hurts him walk. 11.1 will let him go home. 12. He puts his bag on a little
table in the hall.
3. Составьте предложения в страдательном залоге. Используйте образец.
Образец: A house can be built.
a house bend
a letter build
coffee send
an arm spend
money make
4. Напишите предложения в страдательном залоге. Необходимый пред­
лог дан в скобках или выделен в предложении.
Образец: This company builds houses, (by this company) -» Houses are
built by this company.
1. Boris sends telegrams, (by Boris) 2. Wfe send /o r the doctor when we
are ill. 3. Mary usually makes coffee for us. (by Mary) 4. They build
swimming pools, (by them) 5. Bill spends a lot of money, (by Bill) 6. Mary
spent a lot of free time in the gym. (by Mary)
5. Из правой колонки выберите правильный перевод глагола, выделенно­
го курсивом.
1. Она только что выполнила a) has bent', b) is bent',
наклон вперед. с) is bending; d) bends

147
2. Он отправил телеграмму вчера. a) has sent, b) is sent,
с) sends; d) sent
3. Они обычно проводят свой отпуск a) have spent; b) are spent;
в Болгарии. с) spend; d) spent
4. Она сейчас делает кофе на кухне. a) has made; b) is made;
с) made; d) is making
6. Выберите соответствующий модальный глагол.
1. You ( следует) bend better. a) can
2. You ( должен) send a telegram immediately. b) should
(приходится) с) may
4. You (можно) have dinner. d) has to
5. You (следует) make a decision. e) must
7. Заполните пропуски в предложениях соответствующими неправильны­
ми глаголами.
1. When you arrive in the city, please ... a telegram immediately. 2. My
back hurts me. I can’t ... forward. 3. I’m very sleepy. Please,... me some
coffee. 4. You should work hard if you want to ... the competition. 5. Are
you hungry? Would you like to ... dinner? 6. They are very rich. They
usually... their holidays abroad.
8. Скажите по-английски.
1. Наклонитесь вперед (forward)! 2. Отправь телеграмму! 3. Те­
леграмма была отправлена вчера. 4. Они часто проводят свое сво­
бодное время в спортзале. 5. Деньги были потрачены очень быстро
(very quickly). 6. Мне прислали письмо вчера. 7. Это спортивное
оборудование производится в Англии. 8. Эти столы делаются из
дерева (of wood). 9. Джейн не может подойти к телефону (answer
the phone). Она сейчас обедает. 10. Мери сейчас делает кофе на кух­
не. 11. Машины марки «Мерседес» производят в Германии. 12. За­
ставьте его появляться на работе вовремя (in time)! 13. Заставьте ее
работать больше (harder). 14. Они строят сейчас стадион. 15. Вам
следует вызвать врача. 16. Они проводят много времени за границей
(abroad). 17. У них сейчас тренировка в бассейне. 18. Они трениру­
ются 6 раз в неделю. 19. По утрам она выпивает чашку кофе. 20. Они
тратят слишком много времени на развлечения (entertainment).
9. Скажите по-русски.
1. То build castles in the air. 2. Make hay while the sun is shining.
3. Don’t look at me. I have clean hands. 4. Jane! You have eyes bigger
than your stomach!
10. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания.
• bend — изгиб; сгиб; излучина: bend of the river — излучина реки
148
Подгруппа Б
адают вторая и третья формы, которые образуются путем
изменения корневой гласной основы инфинитива)
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод
find [faind] found [faund] found [faund] находить; считать; убеждаться;
find out узнавать что-л.
get [get] got [gpt] got [gpt] получать; добираться
bold [hsuld] held [held] held [held] проводить; держать
lead [li:d] led [led] led [led] вести; лидировать
meet [met] met [met] met [met] встречать; встречаться
stand [staend] stood [stud] stood [stud] стоять; stand up вставать;
stand up straight стоять прямо
understand understood understood понимать; предполагать;
[.Anda'stsnd] [.Anda'stud] [^nds'stud] уславливаться
win [win] WOn [WAIl] won [WAJl] выигрывать; побеждать

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
1. She finds no sense in it. 2. He wants to find his way. 3. I find it
necessary. 4. Why don’t you know the facts? You must find them out.
5. You are spending too much time watching TV. Find some time for
learning. 6. If you go now, you can find him at home. 7. How can I get
to Lesgaft University? 8. Where can I get my money? 9. Let’s go to a
football match. Who can get tickets? 10. Boys! Girls! Get to work!
11. Boris! Get my bag from the classroom, please! 12. It gets dark early
in winter. 13. He hasn’t recovered from the illness yet. He gets tired in a
moment. 14. She is very nervous. She gets angry when something isn’t
perfect. 15. They hold these competitions every year. 16. Let’s hold a
meeting and decide what to do. 17. Hold your head high! You will be the
winner! 18. They are holding elections now. 19. Fans, during football
matches, often hold hands and make “a wave”. 20. Hold your temper!
21. This road leads to town. 22. This method of training leads to nothing.
23. As a wrestler, K. leads. 24. She was leading a child by the hand. 25. Wfe
seldom meet. 26. Meet your mother near the underground station at 6.00.
27. Wfe will meet on Friday 28. I would like to meet my coach. 29. He
reads a lot. 30. She is reading a book now. 31. I can’t read her mind.
32. The book reads easily. 33. Sometimes you should read between the
lines. 34. She was standing in the doorway. 35. They were standing in line.
36. The record did not stand for long. 37. The house still stands. 38. This
149
colour will stand. 39. He will stand this test, I am sure. 40. Stand up,
children! 41. Stand up straight! 42.1don’t understand it. 43. No one could
understand anything from his words. 44. What do you understand by this?
45. He always wins prizes. 46. She often wins. 47. He always wins his
freedom. 4 8 .1 think he will win a gold medal. 49. As a figure-skater, he
leads. He often wins applause. 50.1 will win your heart!
2. Образуйте пары глаголов по образцу.
Образец: win —»won
understand found
lead held
hold got
stand met
find understood
get won
win read
read led
meet stood
3. Найдите в каждом списке липшее слово.
a) stand, meet, win, met, understand, find, lead, get
b) understood, got, led, met, hold, stood, found, won
4. Подготовьте короткий рассказ на тему «Спортивное состязание». Ис­
пользование модальных глаголов (must, сап, should и др.) поможет вам про­
ще и быстрее составить предложения.
5. Расскажите о том, что вы должны делать для того, чтобы хорошо учиться.
6. Скажите по-русски.
1. I found out that this train arrives at 11.45. 2. We met her at the
station. 3. She didn’t put on a coat that day and got ill. 4. Last year he
won men’s title in figure skating. 5. Who has won? 6. I got a letter
yesterday. 7. I didn’t take an umbrella with me yesterday and got wet.
8. I was lucky and found him at home. 9. When I got home yesterday
evening, I found the door open. 10. We met in the swimming pool
yesterday. 11. They read for examinations yesterday. 12. The telegram
read as follows: “Let the sleeping dog lie”. 13. The house stood on a hill.
14. The chair stood in the comer yesterday. Where is it now? 15. The
door stood open. 16. She stood back and burst into tears. 17. The first
Olympics were held in Greece. 18. This football competition was held
in Japan. 19. The races were held in settlement Kavgolovo. 20. A chance
led him to sport. 21. He led an army during the war. 22. He led him to
this idea. 23. He can make himself understood. 24. I understand that
you are going abroad. 25. It was understood we had to meet at dinner.
26. He won her heart.

150
7. Напишите предложения в прошедшем времени.
1 .1 find him attractive. 2 .1 find the competition interesting. 3. It gets
cold in autum n. 4. He gets tickets for every friend. 5. He holds
competitions for young athletes. 6. The rope holds his weight. 7. This road
leads to our old house. 8. He leads this expedition. 9. Wfe meet in the
swimming pool. 10. He meets her near the undeiground station. 11. Wfe
read aloud. 12. She reads up for a test. 13. People stand at the bus stop.
14. When there is a goal, many fans stand up. 15. Her parents understand
her very well. 16. I often win prizes.
8. Напишите предложения в настоящем совершенном времени (The Present
Perfect Tense).
Образец: He finds friends everywhere. —» He has found friends everywhere.
1. She finds difficulties in any task. 2. It is getting cold. 3. It is getting
warm. 4. He holds these competitions. 5. The Olympic Committee holds
the Olympic Games. 6. This path leads to the sports complex. 7. The
coach leads his team to the top. 8 .1 meet him at the airport. 9. Wfe meet
in the gym. 10. I read English books. 11. She is reading an article in a
newspaper. 12. She stands up straight. 13. Fans stand up when a goal
happens. 14. I understand you. 15. The coach understands the athlete.
16. He wins games. 17. She wins prizes.
9. Напишите предложения в страдательном залоге.
Образец: Wfe found Boris at home. —> Boris was found at home.
1. Wfe found Helen in the swimming pool. 2. They hold the Olympic
Games in Greece. 3. They hold these competitions in Moscow. 4. Jack
met Mary, (by) 5. Parents met Jarie at the airport, (by) 6. Boris reads that
book, (by) 7. Wfe understood we had to meet at dinner. (It was ...) 8. The
vase stood on the table. 9. The bag stood near the desk. 10. Our team
won the game, (by) 11. Our athletes won this competition, (by)
10. Раскройте скобки. Переведите модальные глаголы в скобках на анг-
лийский язык. Прочитайте предложения вслух.
1. Wfe (должны) find him. 2. Wfe (придется) to find out the information.
3. You (можете, сумеете) get to Lesgaft University on foot. 4. You (мож­
но, разрешено) get your money. 5. You (можно, разрешено) hold these
competitions at the stadium. 6. You (следует) hold the competitions in
time. 7. They (следует) meet her at the station. 8 .1 (должен) meet them
near the University. 9. She (может) read this book in the original. 10. Wfe
(придется) to stand. There are no vacant seats. 11. You (следует)
understand it. 12. He (должен был) to understand it. 13. You (должен)
win. 14. He (мог) win.
11. Скажите по-английски.
1. Ты должен найти своего тренера. 2. Вам следует узнать рас­
писание тренировок (a schedule). 3. Осенью становится холоднее.

151
4. Зимой темнеет рано. 5. Первые Олимпийские игры проводились
в Греции. 6. Задержи дыхание (your breath)! 7. Не води меня за нос
(by the nose)! 8. Он лидирует в борьбе. 9. Давай встретимся в спорт­
зале! 10. Они встретили меня у библиотеки (near the library).
11. Выпрямись! 12. Они стояли в очереди. 13. Ты должен меня по­
нять. 14. Они поняли меня правильно (right). 15. Ты должен выиг­
рать! 16. Он победил на соревнованиях.
12. Скажите по-русски.
1. Не often gets the last laugh. 2. She always gets to the heart of the
matter. 3. If you train hard, you will be the winner one day. 4. You must
find out the facts! You should leave no stone unturned. 5. He couldn’t
win him. He had finally met his Waterloo.
13. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания;
• find — находка; приговор (суда): it's a real find — это настоящая
находка
• hold —владение; захват: he gets hold of it —он завладел этим ; власть;
влияние: she gets hold ofherfriends — она оказывает на своих друзей
плохое влияние
• lead — лидерство: he is in the lead — он лидирует ; инициатива: she
is taking the lead — она берет инициативу в свои руки
• meet — соревнование: track meet — легкоатлетические соревно­
вания
• stand — стенд; столик; этажерка: there is a stand on the wall — на
стене находится стенд; стояние: a long stand in line — долгое сто­
яние в очереди; подставка; эстрада; ларек; киоск; стоянка такси;
гастроли: one-night stand — однодневные гастроли
• win — победа: six wins and two losses — шесть побед и два поражения

Подгруппа В
(совпадают вторая и третья формы, которые образуются путем
изменения корневой гласной основы и прибавления окончания
к форме инфинитива)
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод
bring [bnrj] brought [brort] brought [bro.t] приносить; приводить
buy [bai] bought [bort] bought [bort] покупать; buy up скупать;
раскупать; закупать
catch [kaetj] caught [ko:t] caught [ko:t] ловить; схватить; успеть;
попадать; попасться;
catch cold простужаться
deal [di:l] dealt [delt] dealt [delt] deal with иметь дело (с чем-л.)

152
Окончание
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод
keep [kirp] kept [kept] kept [kept] держать; хранить
lay [lei] laid [leid] laid [leid] класть; накрывать; lay down
складывать; устанавливать
, leave [Itv] left [left] left [left] уезжать; покидать;
оставлять; забывать
learn [1з:п] learnt [b:nt] learnt [h:nt] учиться; учить ( что-л.)
learned [b:nd]
lose [lirz] lost [lost] lost [lost] проигрывать; терять;
упускать
mean [mi:n] meant [ment] meant [ment] значить; иметь в виду
pay [pei] paid [peid] paid [peid] платить
say [sei] said [sed] said [sed] говорить; сказать
teach [tfctj] taught [tot ] taught [tort ] учить; преподавать
teD [tel] told [tduld] told [tduld] говорить

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
a) 1. Bring me my book from the room, please! 2. Let’s bring someone
to dinner. 3. Bring your dictionaries tomorrow. 4. They often bring things
from abroad. 5. Wars bring suffering. 6. Let’s buy this book! 7. Where did
you buy this bag? 8 .1 should buy a new dress. 9. Where can I buy a good
tennis racket? 10. Let’s buy this cassette! 11. Where can I buy a ticket to
Pushkin? 12. Catch a ball! 13. Hurry up! We must buy the ticket and catch
the train. 14. He often catches cold. 15. Paper catches fire easily. 16. He
deals with computers. 17. She deals with sports equipment. 18. They refuse
to deal with this company. 19.1 must deal with a problem. 20. She deals
generously with her friends. 21. He keeps money in the bank. 22. She
keeps it secret. 23. Keep order! 24. He keeps to himself. 25. They keep a
dog. 26. He always keeps his word. 27. Keep to the right!
b) 1. Lay the table! 2. Lay the injured athlete on a stretcher! 3. You
should lay the foundation. 4. He always lays the blame on other people.
5. Let’s lay down the law. 6. The train leaves at eight. 7. Leave the door
open! 8. Leave the children at home! 9. Don’t leave me! 10. Leave it to me
to decide. 11. Seven minus five leaves two. 12. You can’t lose this game!
13. You can lose your train! 14. It will lose me my place. 15. You shouldn’t
lose your head! 16. There is not a moment to lose. 17. You should learn
how to swim. 18. He learns from other athletes’ mistakes. 19. Learn it by
heart! 20. You should leam to be more careful.

153
с) 1. What does this mean? 2 .1 didn’t mean to offend you. 3. He means
you no harm. 4. What do you mean by that? 5. Who do you mean? 6. You
don’t mean it! 7. You should pay ten dollars. 8. If you have no ticket, you
have to pay a fine. 9 .1 can’t buy expensive things now. I must pay a debt.
10. You should pay the cashier. 11. This job pays well. 12. He often pays
women compliments. 13. The job pays $10,000 a year. 14. You should
pay attention to methods of training. 15. I should pay for my room.
16. They say he is leaving. 17.1 have nothing to say. 18. He says he didn’t
do it. 19. Let’s say it’s true. 20. You might say so, but it will hurt her
feelings. 21. She teaches Russian. 22. They teach English. 23. They teach
a course of English. 24. She teaches students how to swim. 25. History
teaches that wars bring suffering. 26. Tell the truth! 27. Can you tell me
how to get to Lesgaft University? 28. Tell me this story, please! 29. Time
will tell. 30. The clock tells time. 31. It’s hard to tell.
2. Образуйте пары глаголов.
bring bought
buy taught
catch brought
teach dealt
deal caught
keep laid
lay learnt
leave kept
learn lost
lose left
mean paid
pay told
say meant
tell said
3. Найдите в каждом списке липшее слово.
a) bring, buy, catch, taught, deal, keep, lay, leave, learn, lose, mean,
pay, say, tell
b) brought, bought, caught, dealt, kept, laid, leave, learnt, lost, meant,
paid, said, taught, told
4. Скажите по-русски.
1. It brought tears to my eyes. 2. He brought this dog from abroad. 3. She
brought some pictures from home. 4 .1 bought a book yesterday. 5. They
bought many cassettes. 6. They dealt with sports equipment. 7. She dealt
with many athletes. 8. They kept a dog. 9. They kept it a secret. 10. The
scene is laid in France. 11. They laid down their arms. 12. He left. 13. She
left for Florida. 14.1 left my book home. 15. They learnt English. 16. She
learnt Russian. 17. He lost his way. 18. She lost the game. 19. They meant
well. 20. He meant ill. 21. He paid for his room. 22. She paid her hills
154
23. Lesgaft taught a course of Anatomy. 24. A coach taught him a lesson.
25. He told a lie. 2 6 .1 told you so! 27. Do as you are told!
5. Заполните таблицу ранее изученными глаголами. Разделите их на две
группы. Первая группа глаголов должна помочь вам подготовить рассказ о
спортивной тренировке, вторая —о походе в магазин.
My training session Shopping
teach

6. Подготовьте краткий рассказ на тему «Моя тренировка». Начните так:


/ have a training sessionfive (four, etc.) times a week ...
7. Подготовьте краткий рассказ на тему «Поход в магазин». Начните сло­
вами: In shops we buyfood ...
8. Подберите глаголы, противоположные по значению. Заполните табли­
цу. Помните о многозначности английских глаголов. Если потребуется, ис-
пользуите для разных глаголов совпадающие по написанию антонимы.

win

teach

9. Напишите вторую и третью формы глаголов из таблицы.


10. Скажите по-английски.
1. Принеси мне сумку (my bag), пожалуйста! 2. Привези что-
нибудь из-за границы (from abroad). 3. Он привез сувениры из Ин­
дии. 4. Она купила новое платье. 5. Это спортивное оборудова­
ние закуплено за рубежом. 6. Нам нужно успеть на поезд! 7. Он
простудился. 8. Ты можешь поймать мяч? 9. Она имеет дело с
компьютерами. 10. Он имел дело со спортивным оборудованием.
11. Ты можешь (тебе разрешено) держать собаку дома. 12. Нужно
держать свое слово. 13. Положите его на носилки (on a stretcher)!
14. Он уехал из города. 15. Она вышла из дома поздно (late). 16. Ты
должен научиться многому (a great deal). 17. Ты должен выучить
неправильные глаголы наизусть. 18. Они проиграли. 19. Она по-
теряла ключи (her keys). 20. Что ты имеешь в виду? 21. Это значит
так много (much) для нее. 22. Он заплатил за книгу. 23. Она ска­
зала, что оплатила счет за электричество. 24. Кому ты об этом рас­
сказал?
11. Скажите по-русски.
1. You shouldn’t buy a pig in a poke. 2. He hardly has enough money
to keep body and soul together. 3. When he trained hard, his sister kept
the home fires burning. 4. Before that game the coach laid down the law.
Wfe all knew exactly what to do. 5. You should find out the facts. You
should leave no stone unturned. 6. John is more afraid of losing face than
losing money. 7. You can’t miss training sessions so often. You’ll have to
pay the piper some day.
12. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:
• buy — покупка: you got a good buy — вы сделали удачную покупку
• catch — захват; улов; добыча; выгода: that is not much o f a catch —
барыш невелик
• deal — количество: there is a deal of truth in it — в этом есть доля
правды', сделка, соглашение: he made a deal with this company — он
заключил сделку с этой компанией', правительственный курс, сис­
тема мероприятий: New Deal — «новый курс» (система экономи­
ческих мероприятий президента Ф. Рузвельта)
• keep — содержание, пища: she earns her keep — она зарабатывает
себе на пропитание
• lay — песнь: the Lay of Igor’s Host — «Слово о полку Игоревен
• leave — разрешение, отпуск: sick leave — отпуск по болезни’, absence
without leave — самовольная отлучка
• pay — плата; зарплата; жалованье; оклад: receive по pay — не полу­
чать зарплаты
• say — слово: have one’s say — сказать свое слово

Неправильные глаголы третьей группы


(совпадают первая и третья формы)

Infinitive Past Simple Participle 11 Перевод


become [Ы 'клт]! became [bi'keim] become [Ы'клт] становиться
соте [клт] came [keim] come [клт] приходить; come about
происходить; слу­
чаться', come across
наталкиваться на;
come along идти;
приходить
run [глп] ran [ran] run [глп] бежать

156
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
1. Put on your warm coat. It’s very cold and you can become ill.
2. Stop hurting his feelings! He can become angry. 3. It becomes cold
in autumn. 4. What has become of him? 5. Come here! 6. I’m coming.
7. Here he comes. 8. She didn’t come. 9. The dress comes to her knees.
10. How is your work coming? 11. New Year’s Day falls on a Thursday.
12. В comes after A. 13. He got what was coming to him. 14. He wants
to come along with us. 15. She wants to come back early. 16. Nothing
can come between us. 17. How are things coming along? 18. He comes
from California. 19. She comes from a good family. 20. Where did this
thing come from? 21. He is running fast. 22. The elevator isn’t running.
23. The road runs along the coast. 24. I’ll be running along.
2. Напишите предложения в прошедшем времени.
, ^ has become cold. 2. It becomes warm. 3. It becomes interesting.
4. Dreams come true. 5. He comes from London. 6. Things will come
right. 7. That has come from your carelessness. 8. She has come in first.
9. He comes off with honour. 10. He comes off a loser. 11. How fast the
years run by! 12. It runs cold. 13. It runs dry. 14. He runs mad. 15. She
has long legs and runs fast. 16. They are running too fast. 17. The car has
run out of petrol very quickly.
3. Скажите по-русски.
1. She became ill. 2. It became cold. 3. He became a coach. 4. She
became a top athlete. 5. He became a Master of Sports. 6. He came along
with us. 7. They came home late. 8. The sun came out. 9. Help came in
the middle of the game. 10. One goal came after another. 11. Ill luck came
to him. 12. He came in first. 13. It came into being.
4. Объедините соответствующие предложения из левой и правой ко­
лонок.
Oh, look! Не wants to become a good coach.
He works hard. The elevator isn’t running.
Wfe’ll have to go upstairs. Who is coming?
5. Из правой колонки выберите правильный перевод глагола, выделенно­
го курсивом.
1. Становится холодно. a) will be; b) is becoming;
с) has become
2. Он (уже) пробежал 2 километра. a) is running; b) ran;
c) has run
3. Он пришел домой поздно вчера. a) has come; b) comes;
с) came

157
6. Выберите соответствующий модальный глагол.
1. Не (может быть) become famous. a) can; b) may; с) must
2. You (придется) come back. a) have to; b) will have to;
c) should
3. He (может) run marathon. a) may; b) can
7. Измените предложения, используя образец.
Образец: Не is getting tired. -» Не is becoming tired.
1. It is getting dark. 2. It got cold yesterday. 3. I’m getting hungry. 4. It
gets cold in autumn. 5. It is getting warm.
8. Скажите по-английски.
1. Позвольте мне пойти с вами. 2. Становится холодно. 3. Надень
теплое пальто. Становится холодно, и ты можешь заболеть. 4. Иди
сюда! 5. Лифт не работает. 6. Смотри! Она бежит первой! 7. Он не при­
шел вчера. 8. Он стал тренером 10 лет назад. ). Мой день рождения
приходится на среду. 10. Она вернется поздно. 11. Она бежит быстро.
9. Догадайтесь о значении следующих выражений:
1. I’ll be home for the holidays, come what may. 2. I’ll do it, come
what may. 3. Get organized and stop running in circles. 4. If you run
around in circles, you’ll never get anything else.
10. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:
• run — бег, пробег: at a run — бегом; on the run — на ходу; короткая
поездка: a run up to town —кратковременная поездка в город; спрос,
оборот: the book has a considerable run —книга хорошо распродается

Неправильные глаголы четвертой группы


(все три формы разные)
Глаголы от be до draw
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод
be [bi:] was / were been [bi:n] быть; являться; находиться
[wt)z]/[w3:]
begin [bi'gin] began begun начинать; to begin with во-первых
[bi'gaen] [bi'g/vn]
bear[Ьеэ] bore [Ьэ:] born [Ьэ:п] носить; переносить; перевозить;
выдерживать; borne рождать
break [breik] broke broken ломать; рызрывать;
[Ьгэик] [braukn] разбивать; побить (рекорд)

158
Окончание
Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод
choose [tfurz] chose chosen выбирать; предпочитать
[tjbuz] [tfouzn]
do [du:] did [did] done [cLui] делать; вспомогательный глагол,
употребляется для усиления
значения
draw [dro:] drew drawn тащить; вовлекать; задергивать;
[dru:] [dro:n] натягивать; рисовать; чертить

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
, 1. Скажете по-русски.
1. Have you ever been to China? 2. Has she ever been to England?
3. Let us begin! 4. To begin with, as a football player he leads. 5. You
should begin your work. 6. The training session is beginning. 7 .1 can’t
begin to tell you. 8. Will the ice bear today? 9. This University bears
Lesgaft’s nam e. 10. W hat do you bear in m ind? 11. He bears a
resemblance to his mother. 12. Our apple-tree didn’t bear fruit this year.
13. The bridge was not able to bear up the traffic. 14. She can’t bear
them. 15. Be careful! Don’t break the window! 16. You should break
the ice. 17. She can break a record. 18.1 need to break a dollar. 19. You
shouldn’t break his heart. 20. You should break with this tradition.
21. Let’s choose up sides and play basketball. 22. Can’t you choose a
dress for you? 23. Let’s choose a leader! 24. Whom did you choose?
25. He did not choose to see her. 26.1 cannot choose but go. 27. Nothing
to choose between them. 28. What are you doing? 29. What do you do?
30. I should do the dishes. 31. He does a lot of reading. 32. It’ll do you
good. 33. What can I do for you? 34. What did you do to him? 35. Do
as you are told! 36. Do pay us a visit! 37. Do be quiet! 38. Draw him
aside! 39. Draw the curtain! 40. Can you draw a line? 41. He is drawing
a map. 42. Don’t forget to draw your parachute! 43. A horse draws a
carriage. 44. Draw the bow!
2. Напишите предложения в прошедшем времени.
1. She is a first-year student. 2. They are very tired. 3. I am late. 4. In
figure-skating you often begin to skate in a very early age. 5. She begins
to take part in competitions. 6. He bears no relation to it. 7. She bears a
resemblance to her mother. 8. She breaks in on her friend’s conversation
very often. 9. He breaks secrets sometimes. 10. She chooses the best
variants often. 11. They choose the same way in different situations. 12. He
does his best. 13. She always does the dishes. 14. The coach draws athlete’s
attention to elements of this style.

159
3. Пользуясь таблицей, объедините три формы соответствующих непра­
вильных глаголов.

be broke born
begin chose done
bear did drawn
break was / were been
choose drew begun
do bore Щ broken
draw began chosen

4. Скажите по-русскя.
1 .1 was in Sweden two years ago. 2. Wfe were at the concert last night.
3. They began to work at 8.00 o’clock yesterday. 4. He began to do sport
at the age of 7. 5. You began this work at the wrong end. 6. These trees
bore fruit. 7. This institute bore Lesgaft’s name. 8. She broke her promise.
9. He broke the record. 10. She broke his heart. 11. She chose a nice hat
in the shop. 12. They chose a house near the park. 13. She did a lot of
reading. 14. He did sport some years ago. 15. They did their work well.
5. Найдите в каждом списке лишнее слово.
a) be, begin, bore, break, choose, do, draw
b) was / were, began, bore, choose, did, drew
c) been, begun, bom, chosen, done, drew
6. Напишите данные вопросительные предложения в прошедшем времени.
1. Is he an athlete? 2. Are you tired? 3. Am I late? 4. Why do you
begin this work? 5. Has he broken the window? 6. Does this rope bear his
weight? 7. Can you draw a line? 8. What does he do?
7. Составьте предложения в страдательном залоге. Используйте образец.
Образец'. A lesson can be begun.
1. a lesson a) bear
2. this work b) begin
3. a child \ c) draw
4. a window d) break
5. a line e) do
8. Напишите данные предложения в будущем времени. (Замените выде­
ленные глаголы на will be able to, will be allowed to, will have to.)
1. You may begin it. 2. This rope can bear his weight. 3. You must draw
a line. 4. You must come in time. 5. You must do this work.

160
9. Заполните пропуски. Выберите соответствующий вспомогательный
глагол: am I is / are; do / does / did; have / has.
1. He ... bursting with energy.
2. When ... you begin to do sport?
3. Which book ... you chosen?
4. He ... drawn a line.
5.... you ever been to Moscow?
6.... she ever been to New York?
7.... the ice bear the weight?
I®. Скажите по-английски.
I. Что ты сейчас делаешь? 2. Что он будет делать завтра в пять
часов (at 5 o’clock)? 3. Чем она занимается (вообще)? 4. Ты когда-
нибудь бывал в Нью-Йорке? 5. Она была когда-нибудь в Англии?
6. Он родился в Санкт-Петербурге. 7. Она родилась в Москве. 8. Он
сломал ногу вчера. 9. Посмотри! Кто-то разбил окно! 10. Она сей­
час рисует картинку (a picture). 11. Он уже начертил карту (а шар).
II. Расскажите о себе. Используйте выражения: to be born, to begin to do
sport, to become, to choose и др.
Образец: I was born in St Petersburg and ...
12. Глаголы make и do переводятся па русский язык одинаково, но обра
зуют разные словосочетания. Изучите таблицу.
Глагол Словосочетание Перевод
do do homework выполнять домашнее задание, делать
уроки
do the housework, выполнять работу по дому, мыть
do the dishes, do some посуду, работать в саду и др.
gardening, etc.
do English, do sport, etc. заниматься английским, заниматься
спортом и др.
do shopping ходить за покупками
do a course проходить курс
do research заниматься исследованиями
do (someone) a favour делать ( кому-л .) одолжение
make make a mistake ошибаться, совершать ошибку
make a meal (make coffee, готовить еду (готовить кофе,
make dinner) готовить обед)
make money зарабатывать деньги
make friends подружит ься
make a decision принимать решение

161
Окончание

Глагол Словосочетание Перевод


make make a noise шуметь
make progress прогрессировать у развиваться
make a bed заправлять постель
make a phone call звонить
make an attempt совершать попытку

13. Скажите по-английски.


1. Ты сделал домашнее задание? 2. Вы должны выполнить это
домашнее задание к пятнице. 3. Она выполняет всю работу по дому.
4. Он сейчас моет посуду. 5. Он занимается спортом с 5 лет (since).
6. Она занимается спортом десять лет (for). 7. Кто-то должен схо­
дить в магазин за продуктами. 8. Борис уже сходил за покупками.
9. Джон сейчас занимается научными исследованиями в Оксфорд­
ском университете. 10. Он заработал много денег, когда жил в Ка­
наде. 11. Вчера я пришел домой поздно, поужинал, сделал несколь­
ко телефонных звонков и лег спать. 12. Нужно заправлять постель
утром. 13. Сейчас она выполняет третью попытку. 14. Мы подру­
жились в школе. 15. Тебе нужно принять решение. 16. Нельзя так
шуметь! 17. Как фигурист он очень вырос.
14. Скажите по-русски.
1.1 can’t help you with it. You just have to bear your cross. 2. The ice­
cream shop does a land-office business in a hot day. 3. You can’t make
her work so hard. For a whole month she has done a land-office business
for you. 4. What is done cannot be undone.
15. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:
• bear — медведь; грубый, невоспитанный человек: Great Bear —
Большая Медведица; to play the bear — вести себя грубо
• break — перерыв: let’s have a break — давайте устроим перерыв; об­
молвка; ошибка: to make a bad break — сделать ошибку; сделать
ложный шаг
• do — участие, доля: fair do’s!— всем поровну!
• draw — жеребьевка; лотерея; жребий; выигрыш; то, что привле­
кает, нравится: the play is a draw — пьеса имеет успех; игра вничью

Глаголы от eat до lie

Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод


eat [i:t] ate [et] / [eit] eaten ['Lin] есть

162
Окончание

Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод


give [giv] gave [gerv] given [givn] давать
go [дэи] went [went] gone[gon] идти, ехать', go on
продолжать
grow [дгэи] grew [gnu] grown [дгэип] выращивать, становиться',
grow up расти
faU [fad] fen [fel] fallen [Тэ:1эп] падать', спускаться;
fall in love влюбляться
know [паи] knew [nju:] known [пэип] знать; know how уметь
lie [lai] lay [lei] lain [lein] лежать; находиться

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
а) 1.1 do not eat meat. 2. He eats well. 3. They simply eat her out of
house. 4. What did you eat for breakfast? 5. Give me your book, please!
6. I would give anything to win. 7. I give my word. 8. This gives him a
right to complain. 9. The sun gives light. 10. Let’s go for a walk. 11. Who
goes there? 12. The train goes to London. 13. He usually goes by train.
14. She usually goes by plane. 15.- It is time for us to go. 16. Let me go!
17. Things are going well. 18. The car won’t go. 19. He often goes skiing.
goes swimming
When
When
student. 26. He grows old. 27, I’m growing tired. 28. Be careful! Don’t
fall down the stairs. 29. Darkness is falling. 30. New Year falls on a Wednes­
day. 31. She often falls in love. 32. I don’t know. 33. You should know
As
doesn
play from memory. 37. He was lying on the ground. 38. The difficulty
lies in the fact that our forward is ill. 39. Your leg is broken. You should
lie still. 40. Life lies in front of you.
b) 1. She ate her words after it. 2. He ate a sandwich and two bananas
in the morning. 3. I ate two cakes yesterday. 4. She gave a nice present
to her mother. 5. She gave us hope. 6. She gave my book back yesterday.
7. He gave up smoking five years ago. 8. They went to France last year.
swimming

everywhere
the stairs and broke his arm. 16. Rain fell during the night. 17. They met
at the disco and fell in love immediately.

163
2. Пользуясь таблицей, объедините три формы соответствующих непра­
вильных глаголов.
eat lay fallen
give knew gone
go fell eaten
grow grew known
fall went given
know gave lain
lie ate grown

3. Объедините соответствующие предложения из левой и правой колонок.


Образец: Who is this man? Do you know him?

Who is this man? Don’t fall down the stairs!


Be careful! j I should give it back.
If you want to lose weight, Life lies before you!
It’s not my bag. It’s growing cold.
You are so young! Let’s go home.
Let’s go home! Do you know him?
It’s too late, and I’m tired. you shouldn’t eat so much in the
evening.

4. Изучите информацию, данную iв таблице. Запомните значения указан-


ных глаголов.
Глагол Примеры
lay (laid, laid)
класть; положить Let’s lay the foundation! Давайте по­
начало; заложить фундамент ложим этому начало!
lie (lay, lain) — лежать; lie down — The road lies before you. Дорога про-
прилечь; простираться; распола­ i стирается перед вами.
гаться, находиться

5. Скажите по-английски.
1. Мой брат (сейчас) лежит на кровати. 2. Положите его на кро­
вать! 3. Газета лежит на столе. 4. Положи газету на стол! 5. Лондон
располагается на берегу Темзы.
6. Скажите по-русски.
1. The food went bad. 2. You can go sick. 3. He grows old. 4. It is
growing dark.
7. «Завершите» действие.
Образец'. She is eating an apple. -» She has eaten an apple.
1. I’m giving you a book. 2. Tom is going to Sweden. 3. Mary is making
coffee. 4. They are setting a monument. 5. They are building a house. 6. My
sister is drawing a picture. 7. They are winning, I think. 8. She is loosing.
8. Измените время глагола.
Образец: Не doesn’t eat meat (for ten years). -> He hasn’t eaten meat for
ten years.
1. She gives English lessons (for twelve years). 2. He goes swimming
(for eleven years). 3. She grows roses (for thirteen years). 4. They know
him (for twelve years). 5. He does sport (for ten years). 6. He draws maps
(for twelve years). 7. This University bears Lesgaft’s name (for many years).
9. Напишите предложения в прошедшем времени.
1. Не eats well. 2. She eats Chinese food with pleasure. 3. She gives
English lessons. 4. This gives him a right to complain. 5. They go
swimming. 6. W; go skiing. 7. She grows roses. 8. He grows tomatoes.
9. Pnces fall. 10. His birthday falls on a Monday. 11. She knows about it.
12. He knows three languages. 13. Life lies before him.
10. Скажите по-английски.
1. Ешьте больше фруктов! 2. Она не ест мяса. 3. Дай мне мою сум­
ку! 4. Он вернул книги. 5. Дети растут быстро. 6. Кофе выращивают
в Бразилии. 7. Хлеб едят каждый день. 8. Ник выполнял сальто и сло­
мал руку. 9. Что вы знаете о спорте? 10. Дорога простирается перед
вами. 11. Борис занимается плаванием десять лет. 12. Цены падают.
13. Виктор знает их уже 15 лет. 14. Это дает вам право жаловаться.
11. Догадайтесь о значении следующих выражений; используйте значе­
ния слов из упр. 12.
1. Не gives but not breaks. 2. The blue scarf goes well with this blouse.
3. He always goes with the tide. 4. The Fall of man (библ.) 5 .1 know my
own business. 6. Lie on the bed one has made.
12. Запомните следующие слова и словосочитания:
• eat — съестное, пища
• give — эластичность, податливость: give and take — взаимная ус­
тупка, компромисс; уравнение условий (спорт.)
• g o — движение; ход; ходьба: to be on the go — быть в движении,
в работе
• fall — падение; снижение; грехопадение; выпадение осадков;
осень (амер.): thefa ll was very cold — осень была очень холодной', во­
допад: Niagara falls — Ниагарский водопад
• lie — положение; направление: the lie of the ground — рельеф мест­
ности; ложь; лгать

165
Глаголы от rise до write

Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Перевод


rise [raiz] rose [rauz] risen [nzn] подниматься
see [si:] saw [so:] seen [sfcn] видеть; понимать
shake Lfeik] shook Lfuk] shaken [feikn]трясти; shake hands здо­
роваться за руку;
shake off избавляться
show [fau] showed Lfaud] shown [faun] показывать; show off красо­
ваться, щеголять
speak [spi:k] spoke [spook] spoken [spaukn] говорить
strive [straw] strove [strauv] striven [stnvn] стремиться
swim [swim] swam [swaem] swum [swAin] плавать
take [teik] took [tuk] taken [teikn] брать, принимать
write [rait] wrote [raut] written [ntn] писать; write down запи­
сывать

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
а) 1. The sun is rising. 2. The road rises in the hills. 3. He wants to rise
in the world. 4. She rises to the occasion. 5. Can you see in the dark?
6. Wbuld you like to see it? 7 .1 see what you mean. 8 .1 should see a doctor.
We
thermometer.
Let
shake these troubles out of your head. 17. Show your ticket! 18. Show
me the way, please! 19. I’ll show you how to do it. 20. They wrote down
every word. 21. Don’t show off! 22. Speak to him. 23. Speak her the truth.
24. She speaks English fluently. 25. You should speak your mind. 26. Speak
for yourself. 27. Speak louder, please! I can’t hear you! 28. Can you speak
German? 29. You must strive for victory. 30. You should strive against
your fear. 31. This country strives to become independent. 32. You should
strive to know more. 33. He can swim the English Channel. 34. He swims
like a stone. 35. He swims a race every year. 36. Can you swim this
distance? 37. Take a book from the shelf. 38. He wants to take a prize.
39. I’ll take her to the theatre. 40. How did he take it? 41. It takes an
hour to get from his house to the village. 42. It takes twenty minutes to
get from Lesgaft University to Sennaya Underground. 4 3 .1 must write a
letter to her. 44. This pen writes well. 45. If I write it down, I won’t foiget
it. 46. He writes a good hand. 47. She writes laige. 48. You should write an
application. 49. She writes for a living. 50. He writes for The Times.
166
b) 1. He rose in the world. 2. The moon rose and we saw the road.
3. Prices rose but salaries were the same. 4 . 1 saw him come in. 5. Wfe saw
a play yesterday. 6. Wfe rarely saw each other. 7. She shook off a cold. 8. He
shook it out of his head. 9. They shook down apples. 10. Wfe showed our
tickets. 11. She showed them to the door. 12. The clock showed 6.00.
13. He spoke without book. 14. She spoke her mind. 15. The facts spoke
for themselves. 16. He spoke at a meeting. 17. They won because they
strove for success. 18. That time America strove to become independent.
19. He strove to do his best. 20. She swam a race. 21. Everything swam
before his eyes. 22. They swam against the stream. 23. Who took my
umbrella? 24. They took a prize. 25. He took an offer. 26. She took
medicine. 27. He took a train and left. 28. She took a bus and went to his
work. 29. He took half an hour over his dinner. 30. He took it coolly.
31. He took pictures during his vacations. 32. In childhood she took cold
easily. 33. Wfe took a newspaper and two magazines. 34. He wrote a check.
35. He wrote for a living. 36. She wrote an application. 37. She wrote out
it fair. 38. They wrote down every word.
2. Пользуясь таблицей, объедините три формы соответствующих непра­
вильных глаголов.
rise took taken
see wrote risen
shake spoke written
show strove shown
speak shook swum
strive showed striven
swim swam spoken
take rose seen
write saw shaken

3. Напишите предложения в прошедшем времени.


1. Не raises that problem. 2. The prices rise. 3 .1 see what you mean.
4. I see he is running the first. 5. He writes a good hand. 6. When they
meet, they shake hands. 7. She often shows herself. 8. He never shows
his cards. 9. She speaks English well. 10. He speaks like a book. 11. He
strives to win. 12. She strives for success. 13. She swims well. 14. He swims
in luxury. 15. He takes part in competitions. 16. She takes part in races.
4. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в соответствующей форме.
1. The sun is (rise). 2. Have you (write) it down? 3 .1 (see) him yesterday.
4. Wben will you (come) and (see) us? 5. Let’s (shake) hands. 6. He has
already (shake) it out of his head. 7. She has (show) me the way. 8. Don’t
167
(.show) off! 9. She is busy now. She is (speak) to the manager. 10. You
should (strive) for victory. 11. Now he is (swim) the first. 12. In summer
we will (swim) in the sea. 13. He (takepart) the in the last competitions.
14. Can I (take) this book? 15.1will (write) it for you. 16. Have you (write)
it down?
5. Подберите из правой колонки подходящее продолжение высказывания.
Образец: When people meet, they often shake hands.
When people meet Somebody is swimming in the river!
Look! they often shake hands.
If you want to win, She is speaking to the manager.
It is going to rain. He is writing a letter,
I can’t find my book anywhere! you should strive for victory.
Days are short in winter and Have you seen it?
Can you Take an umbrella with you.
She is busy now. show me the way to the post-office?
He is busy now.

6. Выберите из правой колонки соответствующий модальный глагол.


1. Prices (могут) rise in any moment, a) can; b) should; c) must',
d) has to
2 .1 (может быть) see him next week, a) can', b) may, c) should;
d) must
3. You (следует) shake hands. a) may; b) should; c) must;
d) has to
4. (Можете) you show me the way a) may; b) can; c) must;
to the theatre? d) should
5. You (должен) strive for victory. a) can; b) may; c) must;
d) should
6. They (приходится) take part a) must; b) should; c) have to;
in competitions very often. d) has to
7. (Можете) you speak English? a) may; b) could; c) can;
d) must
8. You (не следует) swim in cold water, a) mustn’t; b) can’t;
шЙ c) shouldn’t
9. This pen (должно быть) writes well, a) must; b) have to; c) has to;
d )should
7. Скажите по-английски.
Температура
шается. 3. Ты видел Джека сегодня? 4. Многие животные ____
могут видеть в темноте (in the dark). 5. Взболтайте перед употреб
168
лением (before using). 6. Он быстро избавился от простуды. 7. Она
показала нам дорогу. 8. Я ему покажу! 9. Вы говорите по-англий­
ски? 10. Она сейчас разговаривает с тренером. 11. Вы должны стре­
миться к победе! 12. Вы умеете плавать? 13. Все поплыло у него пе­
ред глазами (before his eyes). 14. Он часто принимает участие в со­
ревнованиях. 15. Возьмите их с собой на концерт! 16. Эта ручка хо­
рошо пишет. 17. Запишите новые слова!
8. Догадайтесь о значении данных выражений.
1. If you don’t improve your English, you can’t pass your English exam.
Can’t you see the writing on the wall? 2. Seeing is believing. 3. He spoke
straight from the shoulder. 4 .1 had just mentioned Jim when — speak of
the devil — he walked into the room. 5. He swims like a stone. 6. If you
want to get something done, you’ve got to take the bit between your teeth
and get to work. 7. There are good days and bad days. But every day you
take the bitter with the sweet. That’s life. 8. If we are going to solve this
problem, someone should take the bull by the horns.
9. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:
• rise — повышение, возвышение, восход (солнца, луны), возвы­
шенность, холм: to look down from the rise — смотреть вниз с горы
• see — епархия, престол: the Holy See — папский престол
• shake — встряска; кивок; рукопожатие; дрожь; страх: with the shake
o f the head — кивнув головой; all o f a shake — дрожа; to give smb. the
shakes — нагнать на кого-л. страху
• show — показ, шоу, зрелище; спектакль; выставка; видимость: for
show — для видимости

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ

( 1)
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
A BAD CENT
bad cent — фальшивый цент
master — хозяин
pavement — тротуар
to play a trick on ... — сыграть шутку над ...
A man had a very clever dog. That man lived in a small town and
everybody knew his dog there. When his friends met his dog in the street,
they often gave him a cent and the dog took it in his mouth, went to the
shop and bought some food for himself. One day the dog met one of his
169
master s friends in the street. That man decided to play a trick on the
dog and gave him a bad cent. The dog took it and went to the shop. But
when the shop assistant saw the cent, he gave the dog nothing for it. Then
the dog took the cent in his mouth, left the shop and came to the man
who was still standing near the shop window. The dog put the bad cent
on the pavement, went away and never took anything from that man again.
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Where did the man live?
2. What kind of dog did he have?
3. What did the man’s friend give to the dog?
4. What did the dog buy in the shop?
5. Why did the dog give a bad cent back to a man?
3. Скажите, сколько в тексте неправильных глаголов. Выпишите их в на­
чальной форме и переведите на русский язык.
4. Закончите предложения, выбрав подходящий вариант.
1. One man had .... a) a cat; b) a dollar, с) a dog
2. That dog was very.... a) big-, b) clever, c) small
3. His friends often gave him .... a) a sweet; b) some meet; c) a cent
4. The dog went with i t .... a) home; b) to the shop; c) to the park
5. A bad man gave the dog.... a) a bad cent; b) a cat; c) a newspaper
6. The dog was given.... a) a big piece of meet; b) a cake;
7. The dog.... c) nothing in the shopfor this cent
a) gave back the bad cent; b) brought
the bad cent to his master, c) lost it
5. Скажите по-английски.
1. У одного человека была собака. 2. Все знали эту собаку. 3. Со­
бака была очень умная. 4. Друзья хозяина давали собаке цент. 5. За
этот цент собаке давали в магазине что-нибудь поесть. 6. Один че­
ловек решил подшутить над собакой. 7. Собака вернула шутнику
фальшивый цент.
6. Перескажите текст.

(2)
1. Прочитайте слова. Скажите, о чем, по вашему мнению, будет идти речь
в тексте. Прочитайте текст.

A MINUET FOR A BEGGAR


beggar нищий, попрошайка
coin монета
come up подойти
170
minuet [.minju et] — менуэт
Mozart — Моцарт
publisher ['рлЫі/э] — издатель
One day Mozart, a well-known composer, was walking in the streets
of Vienna when a beggar came up to him and asked for a coin. When
Mozart heard the man’s sad story, he wanted to help him very much. But
he had no money about him. However, telling the beggar to follow him,
Mozart went to a coffee house. There he sat down and composed a minuet
in a few moments. He wrote out the music of the minuet, gave it with a
letter to the beggar and asked him to take it to his publisher. The beggar
did as he was told and to his surprise he was given five silver coins for it.
Long afterwards he learned that his friend in need was the great Mozart
himself.
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Who came up to Mozart when he was walking in the streets of Vienna?
2. Why didn’t Mozart give the beggar any money?
3. What did Mozart tell the beggar?
4. Where did they go?
5. What did Mozart do in the coffee house?
6. How long did it take him to compose a minuet?
7. What did Mozart do with this minuet?
8. Where did the beggar go to?
9. Why was the beggar surprised?
10. When did the beggar learn that his friend in need was the great
Mozart himself?
3. Выпишите из текста неправильные глаголы. Скажите, в какой форме
они употреблены. Дайте их перевод и укажите три формы.
4. Закончите предложения, выбрав подходящий вариант.
1. One day M ozart....
a) was running, b) was driving, c) was walking in the streets of Vienna
2. A beggar....
a) came up to Mozart, b) ran away from him; c) took moneyfrom him
3. They w ent....
a) to a theatre; b) to a coffee house; c) to a cinema
4. Mozart composed ....
a) a song; b) an opera; c) a minuet
5. Mozart gave the m in u et....
a) to the beggar, b) to his publisher, c) to his friends
6. The beggar... leamt that it was Mozart.
a) immediately; b) soon; c) long afterwards
5. Скажите по-английски.
1. Мой друг прогуливался по улицам Москвы. 2. Спортсмен по­
дошел к тренеру. 3. Он очень хотел помочь ей. 4. Он написал пись­
171
мо за пять минут. 5. Им дали за это много денег. 6. Он не скоро
узнал, кто ему помог.
б. Перескажите текст.

A GOOD FRIEND
hut хижина
even if it were a lion даже если бы это был лев
rushed towards him зд. помчался за ним
stumble спотыкаться
“Here you are, mates!” «Пожалуйста, друзья!»
skin зд. сдирать шкуру
Three men were travelling in South Africa. For about a week they had
almost no food. At last one of them said that he would go out of the hut,
where they were staying, and bring back something to eat, even if it were
a lion. He had not gone far when he met a lion. As the lion rushed towards
him, he turned and ran in the direction of the hut. When he ran up to the
hut door, which was open, he stumbled and fell and the lion burst into
the hut. The man jumped to his feet, closed the door, and shouted to his
friends inside:
“Here you are, mates! Skin that one, while I’ll be looking for another.”
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Where were three men travelling in?
2. How long did they have no food?
3. What did one of them say to his friends?
4. Where did he meet a lion?
5. Where did the lion rush?
6. Where did the man decide to run?
7. What happened when the man ran up to the hut door?
8. Where did the lion burst into?
9. What did the man do?
10. What did he shout to his friends?
3. Скажите по-английски:
хижина; путешествие; не иметь продовольствия; принести что-
нибудь поесть; встретить льва; броситься; побежать по направле­
нию к ...; споткнуться; упасть; ворваться в хижину
4. Скажите, можно ли применить к главному герою английскую поговор­
ку: “A friend in need is a friend indeed?”.
5. Перескажите текст.
172
( 4)
1. Прочитайте текст.

SKIN TROUBLE
skin trouble болезнь кожи
local местный
sent the results direct to направил результаты (доктору)
cause причина
package сверток
shopping list список покупок
Mrs Black was having a lot of trouble with her skin, so she went to her
doctor about it. The doctor sent her to the local hospital for some tests.
The hospital, of course, sent the results of the tests direct to Mrs Black’s
doctor, and the next morning he telephoned her to give her a list of the
things that he thought she should not eat, as any of them might be the
cause o f her skin trouble.
Mrs Black carefully wrote all the things down on a piece of paper,
which she then left beside the telephone while she went out to a ladies’
meeting.
When she got back home two hours later, she found her husband
waiting for her. He had a big basket full of packages beside him, and when
he saw her, he said, “Hello, dear. I have done all your shopping for you.”
“Done all my shopping?” she asked in surprise. “But how did you
know what I wanted?”
“Wfell, when I got hom e, I found your shopping list beside the
telephone,” answered her husband, “so I went down to the shops and
bought everything you has written down.”
O f course, Mrs Black had to tell him that he had bought all the things
the doctor did not allow her to eat!
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Was Mrs Black in good health?
2. What did she do?
3. Where did the doctor send her?
4. What did Mrs Black do with the list of things that she shouldn’t eat?
5. Where did she leave a piece of paper?
6. What did she do then?
7. Was she glad to see a big basket with food?
3. Выпилите из текста неправильные глаголы. Дайте их перевод и ука­
жите три формы.
4. Скажите по-английски:
кожные проблемы; отправить на анализы; список; причина за­
болевания; записать; оставить около телефона; вернуться домой;
173
покупками; приш лось
позволять
Объясните употребление времени Past Continuous в еле,
Mrs Black was
Перескажите эту историю с точки зрения мужа мисте
Блэка. Начните так: When I came home, I found a piece of paper beside
iphone. Используйте также следующие слова и выражения:
Unfortunately... К несчастью ... :.
It was a mistake, because ... Это было ошибкой, потому что ...
My wife was very upset. Моя жена была очень расстроена.
She wasn’t allowed to have Ей нельзя было есть ничего из этого
anything from it. (этих продуктов).

(5 )

1. Прочитайте текст.

REAL TROUBLE
real trouble серьезные неприятности
look after ухаживать, присматривать за (кем-л.)
neighbouring town городок, расположенный по соседству
his own sister его собственная сестра
catch a train успеть на поезд
arrival приезд
porter зд. служащий станции
You are having a lot of fun Вы неплохо развлекаетесь.
Mrs Baker’s sister was
— <ш т

She had someone to look after her from


w а ж a h л я m m ■ ■ m л ■ щ ш ■ щ ■ ■ ■ * ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ш

Monday to Friday, but not at the weekend, so every Friday evening Mrs
Baker went off to visit her sister in a neighbouring town. As M r Baker
was alone at the weekend and he couldn’t cook, his own sister came from
another town to help him.
This m eant that M r Baker had quite a busy tim e when he came home
from work on Friday evenings. First, he had to drive his wife to the station
to catch her train. Then, he had to wait until his sister’s train arrived in
order to take her to his house.
^ и°^гәе’ ° n Sunday evenin8 be had to drive his sister to the station
to catch her train back home, and then wait for his wife’s train, in order
to bring her home.
One Sunday evening he had seen his sister off on her train and was
waiting for his wife’s arrival when a porter, who had often seen him at
the station, came over and spoke to him.
“You are haying a lot o f fun,” he said. “But one day one o f those women
going

174
I
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Whose sister was ill?
2. Whose sister came to Mr Black’s house at the weekend and why?
3. What did Mr Black do first when he came home on Friday evenings?
4. What did Mr Black have to do after that?
5. What did he have to do on Sunday evening?
6 . What did a porter say to Mr Black?
3. Скажите по-английски:
присматривать; навестить сестру; так как мистер Блэк оставал­
ся один; ему приходилось; везти жену на машине; успеть на поезд;
ждать до тех пор ...; провожать; приезд жены; заговорить с ним; ве­
селиться; однажды
4. Выпишите из текста неправильные глаголы. Дайте их перевод и назо­
вите три формы.
5. Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на
перевод глаголов take и bring в данном контексте. Найдите закономерность
их употребления.
1. Приведи своего младшего брата из школы. 2. Отведи своего
брата в школу. 3. Принесите на занятия словари. 4. Заберите сло­
вари домой.
6. Перескажите историю с точки зрения работника вокзала. Начните так:
Every Sunday evening I was watching the same picture: a middle-aged man was...
Ив

Используете следующие выражения:


Не looked very nervous and tired. — Он выглядел очень взволно­
ванным и уставшим.
Both women seemed to love him very much. — Казалось, что обе женщины
его очень любят.
Не was very surprised to hear it. — Он очень удивился, когда
услышал это.

( 6)
1. Прочитайте текст.

A BUTCHER IN A HOSPITAL
butcher ("but/d] мясник
he managed ему удалось
do accounts заниматься бухгалтерией
was already feeling frightened уже испытывал страх
be operated быть оперированным
fainted away потерял сознание
175
Dick was a clever boy, but his parents were poor, so he had to work in
his free time and during his holidays to pay for his education.
One summer, he managed to get a job in a butcher’s shop during the
daytime, and another in a hospital at night. In the shop, he learnt to cut
meat up very well, so the butcher often left him to sell meat while he was
doing accounts. In the hospital, of course, Dick was allowed to do the
simplest jobs. Both in the butcher’s shop and in the hospital, Dick had to
wear white clothes.
One evening in the hospital, Dick had to help to carry a woman from
her bed to the place where she was to have an operation. The woman was
already feeling frightened at the thought of the operation before he came
to get her, but when she saw Dick, that finished her.
“No! No!” she cried. “Not my butcher! I won’t be operated by my
butcher! ” and fainted away.
2. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Why did Dick have to work? І
2. What did he manage to do one summer?
3. What did he learn to do very well?
4. What did the butcher do while Dick was selling meet?
5. What was Dick allowed to do in the hospital?
6. What did Dick have to wear both in the butcher’s shop and in the
hospital?
7. What did Dick have to do one evening in the hospital?
8. What did the woman feel and what did she cry?
3. Выпишите из текста неправильные глаголы. Назовите форму, в которой
они употреблены, и дайте их перевод. Затем выпишите правильные глаголы.
4. Скажите по-английски:
ему приходилось работать в свободное время; удалось получить
работу; мясной магазин; научиться нарезать мясо; заниматься бух­
галтерией; ему позволяли делать простейшую работу; ему прихо­
дилось носить белый халат; быть испуганной; упасть в обморок
5. Перескажите текст.

(7)
1. Прочитайте текст.

POST HASTE
By Colin Howard
post haste — почтовые хлопоты
“I say, I am pleased to see you,” said the little man who was standing
by the post-box.
176
“Oh, hello!” I said and stopped. “Simpson, isn’t it?”
The Simpsons lived not far from us, but they got here not long ago
and my wife and I had only met them once or twice.
“Yes, that’s right!” Simpson answered. “Could you help me? I need
three-ha pence. I ve got a letter to send, and I’ve just noticed it isn’t
stamped. My wife told me to send it. It must be sent out to-night — it
really must! I understand that I couldn’t find a post-office open at this
time of the night, so I couldn’t buy a stamp. So I should get a stamp out
of the machine, only I haven’t any coins on me.”
“I’m very sorry, but I’m afraid I haven’t either,” I told him after I had
tried to find coins in my pockets.
Oh, dear, dear!” he said. He got upset more than earlier and it seemed
to me that he was ready to burst into tears.
“May be somebody else,” I said.
Wfe spent some time but couldn’t find anyone because it was too late.
“Yes, well!” I said and was ready to move off. But he looked so sad,
that I really couldn’t hurt his feelings.
Tell you what,” I said. “Let’s get to my house, it’s near here, and I’ll
try to find coins there. ”
“It’s really good of you!” said Simpson.
At home we found the necessary coins. Simpson got them and it let
me relax. But he got back soon.
“I say, I am sorry to trouble you again,” he said. “But how can I get
to the post-office? Wfe are newcomers here.”
I spent some time explaining but he couldn’t understand where the
post-office was, so I understood that I should lead him there myself.
I led the way to the post-office. Simpson put a penny in the automatic
stamp machine. But there was no stamp after it.
“It’s empty,” I said.
“Oh!” said Simpson. „
“I suppose it must be set out to-night,” I said.
“Dear me, yes! My wife made me promise to send it.”
“I’ve got a book of stamps at home,” I suddenly remembered.
“It’s a real find,” Simpson said.
Wfe spent much time trying to find the book of stamps. Then we found
it. It was empty.
“Funny,” I said. “You’ll have to post it unstamped, that’s all,” I said.
I was getting tired of him.
“Oh, could I do that?” he asked with a hope.
“Of course, you do. The other person will have to pay double some of
money in the morning. That’s all.”
Simpson left the room, but soon burst into the view again
“Sorry!” he said. “How can I get to the post-office?”
I didn’t even start to explain. I had finally met my Waterloo. I led the
way to the post-office again. He put in his letter and then, to finish my
job, I had to take him home.
177
“Thank you very much,” he said to me from his doorstep. “I — I can’t
do anything for you. That letter — it’s only an invitation to dinner, to —
oh, my God!” i
“Why, what’s the matter?”
“Nothing. Just something I’ve understood.”
“What?”
But he didn’t tell me “good-night” and burst into his house.
All the way home I was wondering what it was he had understood.
But I stopped wondering next morning when I had to pay the postman
threepence for a blue envelope, which, as I understood, contained an
invitation to dinner.
2. Перескажите текст.

(8)
1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с транскрип­
цией. )
AQUATIC SPORTS
formed — сформированный
the first official tournament — первый официальный турнир был
being held in 1860 проведен в 1860 году
The first sports club of a new type was the St Petersburg River Yacht
Club, formed in 1860. Its members were not drawn exclusively from the
aristocracy, as had been the case with the famous Imperial Yacht Club,
that was organized in 1846, whose membership had been restricted to
150 noblemen — the Grand Dukes, the high dignitaries of the Court, the
Tsar’s court and a few foreign diplomats. Although the new club admitted
the middle classes, it was still socially exclusive, it stressed its amateur
status and excluded anyone who had ever been employed in manual labour
for wages. One novel concession it did make, however, was to admit
women (in 1866). Besides yachting, the club also held regular rowing
races, the first official tournament being held in 1860. A Scot, MacGregor,
set up the first canoeing club in the 1860s. In 1867, a yacht club was
opened in Moscow, others were founded along the W ga, Dnieper, the
Black Sea and the Baltic Sea costs. By 1898, there were over 40 such clubs
in existence to form the All-Russia Association of Rowing and Yachting
Clubs. A separate association for rowing was formed in 1908, and national
championships were held every year from 1896 to 1914 and a total of 24
rowing clubs were in existence by 1914.
In 1908, a swimming school was opened in Shuvalovo, near the capital.
In addition to the various styles of swimming, it also gave lessons in diving
and water polo. Although no outstanding successes were gained
internationally, water sports grew steadily in popularity. In 1912, an
78
I
Amateur Swimming Society started up in Moscow, which inspired the
creation of the Sanitas and the Skhodnya swimming clubs and the Society
for Mountain Skiing and Aquatic Sports in the city. All water sports were
pursued outdoors because there weren 7 indoor swimmingpools in the country.
By 1914, it is estimated that some 1,500 swimmers belonged to the various
clubs.
2. Переведите на русский язык два предложения из текста, начинающие­
ся словами:
1. Its members were not drawn ... .
2. All water sports were pursued__ ,
3. Найдите в тексте подтверждение следующим утверждениям:
1. The St Petersbuig River Yacht Club was socially exclusive.
2. A separate association for rowing wasn’t formed that time.
4. Скажите по-английски:
проводит регаты; яхт-клубы были основаны на берегах Волги;
Всероссийская гребная ассоциация; различные стили плавания
5. Назовите синонимы следующих слов:
aquatic sports; unprofessional
6. Пользуясь информацией, данной в тексте, составьте краткий ряггоя»
на русском языке. Расскажите о существовавших в то время спортивных клу­
бах, времени их образования и той Деятельности, которую они вели.

(9)
Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. Кто играл в России в большой теннис, когда игра еще только
зарождалась?
2. Как назывался первый теннисный клуб в России?
3. В каком году был образован первый теннисный клуб?
4. Почему теннисные клубы существовали только в Москве и
Санкт-Петербурге?
5. Когда и где были заложены теннисные корты?

LAWN TENNIS
... taking ар the game — ... принявших эту игру
having been played by British residents —зд. играли люди, приехавшие
из Британии
they seem to have made little impact — не произвели особого впечатле-
оо Russians ния на русских
179
After its introduction in mid-century, lawn tennis soon attracted a
following among the rich. Like its English parent, the Russian offspring
gained royal patronage with several of the tsars taking up the game, which,
of course, made it fashionable with both the gentry and the middle class.
The Neva Lawn Tennis Circle came into being in St Petersburg in 1860,
to be joined, eight years later, by the St Petersburg Tennis and Cricket
Club. Both clubs played cricket and croquet, but these games do not
appear to have caught on among Russians outside the twin capitals (partly
owing to lack of grass). The games imported by foreigners were, of course,
not always intended for Russian consumption, although cricket and field
hockey were reported as having been played by British residents as far
apart as Odessa and St Petersburg between 1870 and 1890, they seem to
have made little impact on Russians. Tennis did, however, and courts had
been laid in Moscow, Rostov, Taganrog, Kiev, Odessa and Nizhny
Novgorod by the end of the century. By 1913, as many as 115 lawn tennis
courts had been laid in Moscow and St Petersburg, and the National
Association of Lawn Tennis Clubs, formed in 1907, had the large number
of 48 member clubs in 1908. I

( 10)

1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с транскрип-


циеи

WINTER SPORTS
covering —покрывающий
unsurpassed — непревзойденный
having been refused —получив отказ
With snow covering European Russia for six or seven months of the
year, and parts of Siberia all the year round, winter games naturally played
an important part in organized winter recreation. During that part of the
year when the rivers were icebound, yacht clubs not infrequently turned
themselves into ice-skating or figure-skating organizations. In effect, the
first skating club arose in the capital in 1864. Somewhat later, the Society
of Amateur Skaters sent its members abroad to take part in competitions
and, in 1883, A. P. Lebedev won the unofficial world figure-skating title
in Helsinki — the first Russian success in international competitions.
When the official world championships were inaugurated, Lebedev won
the men’s title in 1890. A member of the same society, Alexander
Panshin, won the Austrian speed-skating championships and went on to
win the world title in 1889 at the Amsterdam Speed Skating Club. A month
later, he won the first ever Russian speed-skating tournament, held in
Moscow.

180
In the first decade of the 20th century, the great Russian figure-skater
Nikolai Panin dominated Russian, European and world figure-skating and
won a gold medal at the 1908 London Olympic Games. In speed-skating,
too, Russians continued to do well internationally. In 1910 and 1911,
Nicolai Strunnikov won European and world titles and set a world record
that remained unsurpassed for 17 years. The following year, however, he
left the sport in protest against the parsimonious attitude of the Russian
authorities, having been refused financial support for his journeys to
compete abroad. His vacant European title was won in 1913 by Vasily
Ippolitov.
Moscow became the centre of organized skiing with the establishment
in 1895 of the famous Moscow Skiers Club. In 1910, a league was set up
with ten member clubs and a National Skiers’ Association founded, so
they initiated the first national ski championships over 30 versts (32 km).
Long-distance skiing became very popular: in 1911, four Moscow skiers
completed the Moscow —St Petersburg run (a distance of 725 km) in
12 days, 6 hours and 22 minutes. The next year, the first ski-jumping
contests were held at Plaigolovo, near the capital.
Ice hockey was another game cultivated by the St Petersburg Circle
of Amateur Sportsmen after 1889, and a city championship was held with
eight teams which took part, including Yusupov Sad, Narva and Merkuiy.
Yusupov Sad became strong enough to make a successful foreign tour in
1907, winning six of its eight games against Swedish, Norwegian and
Berlin teams. In that year, the Petersburg League had 15 clubs which
formed the nucleus for All-Russia Ice Hockey Association of 32 clubs
formed in 1914.
2. Пользуясь текстом, закончите следующие предложения.
1. Winter games naturally played__
2. During that part of the year when the rivers were icebound ....
3. In effect, the first skating club ....
4. In 1883, A. P. Lebedev won ....
5. In the first decade of the 20th century, the great Russian figure-
skater ....
6. In speed-skating, too, Russians continued ....
7. In 1910 and 1911, Nicolai Strunnikov ....
8. Moscow became the centre of organized skiing ....
9. Long-distance skiing became very popular....
10. Ice hockey was another game ....
11. Somewhat later, the Society of Amateur Skaters sent its members....
12. Alexander Ranshin won the Austrian speed-skating championships....
3. Найдите в тексте следующие словосочетания и переведите их на рус­
ский язык:
won the unofficial world figure-skating title; won the men’s title;
speed-skating championships; the world title
18
(И)
1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова.

FENCING AND RIDING


increasing popularity — возрастающая популярность
equestrian sports — конные виды спорта
venues — место сбора / встречи
so providing a living for... — обеспечивая тем самым уровень жизни для...

Another sport at which Russians did well internationally was fencing.


It had long had many adherents among the aristocracy but now gained
increasing popularity among the middle class.
An Officers’ Fencing Gymnasium opened in the capital in 1857 was
followed by similar military clubs in the other parts of the Empire, notably
at Warsaw and Kiev. In 1900, Alexander Zakovorot, a working man by
birth, one of the few who broke through the social barriers, gained the
world title in France.
Equestrian sports were very popular. Horseracing as an institutionalized
sport had begun as far back as 1826, organized by noblemen in the small
town of Lebedyan on the River Don. Since then, it had been mainly a
sport for cavalry officers but, by the turn of the century, race courses had
been laid out — not in the English open grass course style, but more
commonly as dirt tracks in the Greek style of “hippodromes” — which
could also be used for other spectator sports, like cycling, athletics, soccer
and even motor-cycling. (In fact, after 1880, they were as much the venues
for cycling as they were for horseracing, trotting, steeple chasing and
hurdling.) By the end of the century, horseraces were attracting crowds
of between 10,000 to 20,000, so providing a living for professional jockeys
who were engaged by various noblemen’s stables. That their skill was
relatively high is evident from several notable victories abroad: Konstantin
Avalov rode the winner of the British Grand National at Aintree in 1912 —
the toughest steeplechase in the world — and a Russian officer won a
major hurdle race in Vienna in 1914. Horseracing had long enjoyed royal
and noble patronage, the nobility taking a pride in the improvement of
horseracing stud and importing bloodstock from areas of the Empire
noted for their fine horses — e.g., Caucasus, Turkestan and Bashkiria.
The Orlov stables gained world renown in the late 19th century for their
excellent bloodstock. Greyhound and whippet racing, so popular with
the English working class, were evidently never introduced into Russia.
The skills of horse riding were by no means confined to the
hippodromes. At the turn of the century, a small band of cavalry officers
who had studied horse riding in Italy, carried off most of the honours at
the Russian riding concourse and also won the King’s Cup, awarded to
the best horsemen at the London Show Jumping Tournament, for three

182
years in succession (1912—1914). The Russian cavalry followed the system
of riding taught by an excursus rider, James Fillis, an Englishman who
had been invited to Russia to teach horsemanship at the Officers’ Cavalry
School between 1880 and 1909, and who rendered the principal influence
on the Russian riding style right up to World War I, if not later. Apart
from the amateur horse riding societies and the private riding academies
in St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Warsaw and Riga, riding of a traditional
kind was, of course, extremely popular among the various peoples of the
Russian Empire, particularly among the Cossacks, Georgians, Bashkirs
and Kirghiz.
2. Используя текст, составьте краткий словарь спортивных терминов.
3. Составьте реферат по тексту.

(12)
1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с переводом
и транскрипцией.

CYCLING
Cycling gained prominence in the 1880s, both as a participant and as
a spectator sport. The first cycling races in Russia were held on the Field
of Mars in the centre of St Petersburg in 1882, a year later, the first club
was formed — the Tsarskoye Selo Cycling Circle. At first, it was relaxing
entertainment, then cycling began to be taken seriously, races were first
held along the dirt paths of Catherine’s Park, then cement track was laid
nearby and a stand for spectators built. Several other clubs grew up — so
that, by 1892, there were as many as 17 and some other cities had their
own tracks and stadiums — even as far away as Tashkent in Central Asia.
(The Tashkent Amateur Cycling Society was formed in 1885.) Many of
these were constructed and patronized by foreign bicycle firms, who not
only saw a profitable outlet for their goods but also the prospect of big
money in the first real Russian spectator sport, for cycling was drawing
large crowds —on July 24, 1883, some 25,000 spectators watched cycling
races at Moscow Hippodrome. Similarly, large crowds attended cycling
meetings in St Petersburg’s Semyonov Hippodrome.
In winter, racing took place indoors on wooden tracks, the first ones
were laid in Moscow’s manage on Manage Square in 1892, in the
St Petersburg Riding Academy and in Tula in 1894. The extent of the
sport’s popularity may be judged by the fact that the manage used by the
Petersburg Amateur Cycling Society was open daily from 9 a.m. to 1 a.m.
Besides lessons in cycling, the society also provided instruction in a variety
of sports — from tennis to tag. Entrance fees were high, but ladies were
admitted free, though as spectators only.

183
The first national champion, 1893 (over 80 km), was George Davis,
an English resident in Moscow. But Russian cyclists were no novices.
Internationally, they gained a reputation that they have hardly matched
since. In 1896, on the Catford track in London, Mikhail Dyakov won
the 25-mile cycle race. He held four world records between 1894 and 1898
while Russian national champion, his compatriot, Nicolai Malkevich
from Kiev, made the long-distance tours Kiev—Alexandria —Cairo,
Chernyayev —Irkutsk—Moscow, and St Petersburg —Paris. In 1895,
Mikhail Dzevochko beat the Austrian road champion, Franz Herger, in
the Petersburg—Moscow road race (725 km).
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When and where were the first Russian cycling races held?
2. Where was the first cycling club formed?
3. Why many of the tracks and stadiums were constructed and
patronized by foreign bicycle firms?
4. Where did racing take place in winter?
5. Who was the first national champion? t
3. Переведите письменно последний абзац текста на русский язык.

( 13)
1. Прочитайте текст. Составьте англо-русский словарь по спортивным при­
способлениям, используя лексику данного текста.

ATHLETICS
Athletics was given a boost by the St Petersburg Circle of Amateur
Sportsmen, founded at Tyarlevo near the capital in 1888. It had grown
out of the Petrov Amateur Running Society formed a couple of years
earlier. By 1893, its athletics programme included jumping, hurdling,
running, discus and javelin throwing. The next year, it was paid 90,000
rubles for a large area of wooded land on Krestovsky Island, which was
turned into a sports centre incorporating a soccer pitch, pavilion, shooting
gallery, two tennis courts, a running track, jumping pit and an area for
field sports. The Circle was financed mainly by subscriptions from
members (largely servicemen and foreign residents in the capital) who
still numbered only 50 in 1900. By this time, athletics clubs existed in all
the major cities: Moscow, St Petersburg, Kiev, Kharkov, Nizhny
Novgorod, Riga, Warsaw and Odessa.
Although no athletes were sent to the 1908 Olympic Games, the first
All-Russia athletics championships were held that time and a National
Amateur Athletics Association was formed in 1911 in preparation for
the 1912 Olympics. Despite the failure to win any Olympic medals,
athletics was popular enough to warrant some 50 athletics clubs in 1913.
184
It is worth noting that none of them accepted women, whose participation
in sport in general and athletics in particular was not yet socially
acceptable.
2. Переведите текст на русский язык. (Письменно.)

(14)
1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с переводом
н транскрипцией.

WRESTLING AND W EIGHTLIFTING


watching and betting —наблюдая и делая ставки
weighing only 53 kg —которая весила всего 53 кг
Russian strongmen had long had their following among both the
populace and the nobility who often sponsored them. Professionals per­
formed mostly in circuses and travelling fairs — of which there were
more than 6,500 in the mid- 1860s: “no circus performance was complete
without its wrestlers, boxers and weightlifting, boxing and feats of
strength — all under the general heading o f‘heavy athletics’.” Members
of the gentry and businessmen spent hours watching and betting on
wrestlers many of whose bouts were “fixed” in the best commercial
tradition. Such strongmen as Georgy Hakkenschmidt, “the Russian
Lion , Alexander Zass, Sampson”, whose finale was to carry on his
shoulders from the arena a grand piano and pianist plus a dancer on
top of the piano, Yevgeny Sandow, whose speciality was to wrestle with
an African lion in the circus ring (he was also author of the first Russian
“body building” book in 1904), and Ivan Lebedev, editor of the journal
Hercules and the man on whom Anton Chekhov (a great patron of the
sport) based his character Uncle \fonya, are still the names revered
among world strongmen.
One of the most popular circus performers, Ivan Poddubny, was six
times world heavyweight wrestling champion up to 1910. The amateur
wrestlers, A. Petrov and N. Orlov, won silver medals at the 1908 London
Olympics, and M. Klein won a silver medal at the 1912 Stockholm
Olympics. At the 1913 world weightlifting contest in Copenhagen, as
many as six Russians were placed in the six weight divisions.
Even the “weaker sex” were allowed to take part in “heavy athletics” —
to attract more paying customers. At the end of the 19th century,
“Madame Atleta” pressed 89.5 kg and raised 52 kg with one hand and a
certain Mrs Trefiola-Bubnova, weighting only 53 kg, pressed 57 kg and
came third in a (men’s) featherweight contest. Women wrestlers were
regular members of circus troupes, the redoubtable Masha Poddubnaya,
wife of the great weightlifter, Ivan Poddubny, was women’s world
185
heavyweight wrestling champion and would invite all comers to wrestle
her in the circus ring after she had disposed of her fellow troupers.
The popularity of weightlifting and wrestling — the Greco-Roman
style was employed — may be judged by the existence in the 19th century
of more than ten books published on “heavy athletics”. In 1885, Dr
V. F. Krayevsky set the sport on a “respectable” footing by founding the
first wrestling and weightlifting club and propagandizing the art and beauty
of the sport. In 1896, the professional wrestler Lebedev founded the
famous Hercules Club, this was quickly followed by the equally famous
Sanitas, which put out the following advertisement in the press:
Sanitas Physical Development Club
98, Nevsky Pros., St Petersburg
Heavy athletics: Wrestling, Gymnastics, Therapeutic Body Building
with a guarantee of increasing chest measurements by 5 —15 cm.
Medical examination.
Special hours for women.
Similar clubs sprang up in Kiev and Moscow in 1898 and in Riga and
Chernigov in 1899. Despite the success of Russian strongmen and their
obvious popularity among the public (and commercial promoters), the
social stigma officially attached to “heavy athletics” prevented the forming
of a national association until 1913.
2. Переведите на русский язык предложения из текста, начинающиеся
словами:
1. Russian strongmen had long h ad ...
2. Professionals performed mostly in circuses...
3. In 1885, Dr. V. F. Krayevsky set the sport on ...
4. Despite the success of Russian strongmen...
3. Верны ли следующие утверждения? Докажите, используя текст.
1. Professionals performed mostly in circuses and travelling fairs.
2. Businessmen didn’t like wrestlers.
3. Ivan Poddubny was the only famous strongman that time.
4. Even the “weaker sex” were allowed to take part in “heavy athletics”.
5. The professional wrestler Lebedev founded the famous Club, that
was the only wrestling and weightlifting club in Russia.
4. Пользуясь текстом, заполните таблицу на русском языке.

Имя тяжелоатлета или борца Чем знаменит

186
( 15)
Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с переводом
и транскрипцией.
BOXING
The first boxing manual, English Boxing, was published in 1894 by
Baron Kister of the First Life Guards Regiment in Moscow; he set up
Baron Kister’s English Boxing Arena, which held boxing displays and
sparring sessions every Saturday evening; he also, in 1895, arranged the
first public match between a London professional boxer, Fred Harrison,
and a Russian resident, Hennigsen; this was described in the magazine
Tsiklist, although the result was not reported. Boxing, however, tended
to be regarded as muzhik’s sport, violent and dangerous, devoid of grace
and skill — even when confined to the Marquess of Queensberry’s Rules
(formulated in England in 1866) as it was. As a Guard’s officer and a
gentleman, Kister was ostracized for his association with the sport, and,
even though he transferred the Arena to his wife (it became Baroness
Kister’s Arena), he was eventually discharged from the army. The club
continued successfully, putting on “athletic” evenings on Saturdays, in
which boxing was the highlight, until 1901. Boxing was further boosted
by the arrival in 1898 of the famous French pugilist, Emeste Lustalla,
who set up another boxing school. It was not until the eve ofWorld W&r I,
however, that the first national boxing championships were held.
2. Переведите текст на русский язык. (Письменно.)

( 16)
1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с переводом
и транскрипцией.
GYMNASTICS
subject —зд. человек
marching —маршируя
turning —выполняя повороты
wheeling —передвигаясь по кругу
forming sections —выстраиваясь
Gymnastics became very popular at the beginning of the 20th century
partly for political reasons. Russia’s defeat in the Crimean Wkr in 1855,
like Prussia’s defeat by Napoleon, resulted in searching for ways to
stabilization. Just as the German Tumen gymnastics societies, the Czech
Sokol and the Scandinavian gymnastics movements of the 19th century
had been attempts to regenerate their peoples after military disasters, so,
some Russian officials hoped the same could be done for Russia
187
The first gymnastics club arose in St Petersburg in 1863 (although a
Swede, de Pauli, had opened the first Gymnastics Institute in Russia back
in 1830) and was followed in the same year by the famous Pal’ma
Gymnastics Society which soon had branches in five other cities. In 1868,
the Moscow Gymnastics Society was formed and held its meetings in a
large hall on Tsvetnoi Boulevard (nowadays the Dinamo Club
gymnasium). Pyotr Lesgaft, the “father” of Russian physical education,
introduced gymnastics on the Prussian model into the army in 1874 and,
in 1896, for civilians. The first national federation for any sport, the
Russian Gymnastics Society, was formed in 1883 on the initiative of
several social reformers, including the writer (and medical practitioner)
Anton Chekhov.
The physical exercises were introduced into Russian schools and
colleges in the 1870s. They largely served the interests of the army.
Kozlovsky, who was at the head of this movement, pointed out that
gymnastics could be a direct form of military training. So-called
“disciplinary exercises” were designed to produce “a disciplined subject
in peacetime and a fearless fighter in war”. The official school gymnastics
manuals of 1872 and 1878, in fact, prescribed exercises modelled on the
Prussian military drill regulations of 1847. Marching in ranks and columns,
turning on the march, wheeling, forming sections, etc., were to be practised
under the command of a gymnastics leader or drill instructor.
Nonetheless, there existed the nationalistic Sokol school of gymnastics
that was mainly assimilated into Russia in the 1880s by the new gymnastics
societies. They have the base among the aristocracy and middle class. They
made gymnastics popular enough for a team to be sent to the Olympics
of 1912 and actually to win medals.
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Why was gymnastics so popular at the beginning of the 20th century?
2. When and where did the first gymnastics club arise?
3. What was done by P. F. Lesgaft to develop this sports event?
4. What is associated here with the name of A. P. Chekhov?
5. What was gymnastics like that time?
6. What school formed the team to be sent to the Olympics?
3. Нанднте в тексте предложения, начинающиеся следующими словами,
и переведите их на русский язык:
1. Just as the German Tumen gymnastics societies ...
2. The first gymnastics club arose in St Petersburg in 1863 ...
4. Дайте письменное описание двух направлений развития гимнастики в
начале XX века. Используйте текст и следующие выражения:
The text is devoted to the early days of gymnastics in Russia.
There existed two branches in the gymnastics development....
The first branch was formed on the basis o f....

188
The second branch was assimilated ....
The most popular was ... because they formed the team ....

( 17)
Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Выпишите незнако­
мые слова с транскрипцией.

OTHER SPORTS
Ivan the Terrible — Иван Грозный
would sit and play chess —бывало, проводил время за игрой в шахматы
The American-invented team game of basketball was introduced into
Russia at the turn of the century: in 1906, the St Petersburg sports club,
Mayak, formed several basketball teams that competed with teams from
the Bogatyr Society and, in 1909, even defeated a touring side from the
USA. A nother American invention, volleyball, appears not to have
penetrated p re-1917 Russia.
O f the cerebral sports, chess has had a long tradition among the
aristocracy and intellectuals. The historian, Yhsily Klyuchevsky, describes
how Ivan the Terrible enjoyed long and frequent games of chess with his
favourite opponent, Malyuta Skuratov, while Peter the Great “would sit
and play chess with simple sailors”. It was a popular game among dissident
intellectuals and revolutionaries, too, men like Lenin, Gorky, Trotsky and
Lunacharsky did a lot to promote it after the revolution. Even on the eve
of war, in 1914, the All-Russia Chess Association had more participants
than most other sports associations. By contrast, the Russian Tourist
Society had only a few hundred members and the Russian Mountaineering
Society only 134 members in 1914.

( 18)
1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с переводом и
транскрипцией.

SOCCER
connecting i t ... —связав его ...
The team sport that has the greatest spectator interest today, soccer,
began to take an organized form in 1890. It quickly became the most
popular organized sport in terms of numbers of both participants and
spectators.
In the early days in Russia, the game was played, first, by the British
among themselves and, a little later, by mixed teams o f British and

189
Russians. The Russian players were mainly students, cadets and clerks.
In 1894, Harry Chamock, general manager of the vast Morozov mills (and
one of four soccer-playing brothers in Moscow), introduced soccer to his
workers. He wanted to change their lifestyle, connecting it with health
and pleasure.
The only free day was connected with soccer as a matter of fun since
then. The first recorded soccer match among Russian athletes was played
in the interval between cycling races at the Semyonov hippodrome in
St Petersbuig in 1892. The rules of this game of kick-and-rush were primitive,
and there was no referee — since nobody knew exactly how the game was
played. A Russian-born Frenchman, Georges Duperont (later to become
President of the All-Russia Football Association and, in Soviet times,
Chairman of the Petrograd Football League), a member of the St Petersbuig
Circle of Amateur Sportsmen, was the first to translate literature on the
game and to arrange the first Russian match to be played, in 1896, on
Krestovsky Island, roughly according to the rules adopted by the Football
Association of England. The next year, Duperont’s team was challenged
by the Petersburg Sports Circle, which played on the Square of the First
Cadet Corps, this is regarded as the birth of organized Russian soccer.
In the meantime, a number of teams of foreign residents were being
formed and were playing friendly matches against one another. The
Victoria Football Club was formed in 1894 by English and German
employees in St Petersburg. They played occasional matches within the
club in the capital which attempted to codify and unify the laws about
1899. The united English college students’ team played under the name
of Gloria. In 1899, it played matches against Victoria, the Scottish Circle
of Amateur Footballers, the English Football Club and Germaniya F. G.
(made up of German employees, primarily of the Putilov factory). The
following year, teams of foreign residents played their first games against
Russian teams. In the same year, nine new soccer teams appeared, they
included seven Russian teams — the Yekaterinhof Circle of Amateur
Footballers, the Lakhtinsky, Petrovsky and Krestovsky soccer circles,
teams from the Kolomyagi and Staroderevo Amateur Sports Circles, and
the Rossiya Circle of footballers — and two foreign residents teams —
Prussiya, attached to the German Football Association, and a team from
the British diplomatic corps under the pretentious title of “The Special
Circle of Sportsmen for Playing Football and Lawn Tennis of the Superior
Society of the English Colony”.
2. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык письменно предложе­
ние, начинающееся словами:
The rules of this game of kick-and-rush ....
3. Закончите предложения, используя информацию, полученную из тек­
ста.
1. Soccer began to take an organized form ....

190
2. The game was played, first, by ....
3. The Russian players were .... f
4. The first recorded soccer match among Russian athletes w as....
5. The birth of organized Russian soccer was ....
6. In 1900 nine new soccer teams appeared__

( 19)
1. Прочитайте текст. Ответьте на вопросы по-русски.
1. Насколько был распространен футбол в начале XX века?
2. Кем были представлены «неофициальные» футбольные клубы?
3. Что нам известно об этих «неофициальных» клубах?
4. Почему «неофициальные» клубы были допущены в лигу?
5. Каковы были результаты первых игр русских футболистов с
* командами других стран?
6. Каков был результат выступления команды России на Олим­
пийских играх 1912 года?

PRE-REVOLUTIONARY FOOTBALL DEVELOPMENT


Football was so widespread then, that in 1914, at the height of pre­
revolutionary football development, 23 teams played in the Petrograd
Football League, a total o f 9 soccer clubs with 97 teams played 324
matches in the capital, and 34 soccer clubs with 93 teams from seven
districts in and around Petrograd played 368 matches for the Dacha cup.
In Moscow, 25 teams contested the Moscow League in 1913 and leagues
existed in several southern towns, especially in the mining communities
o f the Donbass. The game was organized both to warrant the publications
in the football periodical, Vestnikpetrograds/coifutbolnoi ligi ( The Petrograd
Football League Herald), published for the first time on 17 August, 1916,
and to have a permanent panel of football referees which survived until
1923.
Alongside the official clubs and leagues, however, there existed the
unregistered “outlaw” workers’ teams which had been refused entry to
the Russian Football Association. They usually played on rough and open
ground, watched by fellow workers. Murzinka Football Club, which took
its nam e from the village where a pitch was tented, was formed by
employees at the Obukhov Factory in Petrograd. There was another soccer
club — on the base of the Putilov plant. Both these workers’ soccer clubs,
Murzinka and Putilovsky, when it was time to play against the gentlemen
am ateurs in 1904, entered team s in the leagues (four and three,
respectively).
One reason for permitting workers’ soccer clubs to take part in the
League was to improve the chances o f Russian teams against foreign

91
opposition — since, after 1910, Russian teams had greatly developed
international ties and the government was taking an interest in encouraging
Russian success againstforeign opposition.
In 1910, the first foreign team, Corinthians from Prague, came to
Russia and played three matches in St Petersburg. These matches were
watched by large crowds of paying spectators. The three matches with
St Petersburgers evoked enormous interest. For the first time, tickets
for the matches were sold prior to the games at the Central Ticket Office
(23, Nevsky Prospekt). Each match was watched by 4,000 —5,000
spectators. Corinthians won two matches and lost one to a combined
city team. The next year, an English professional club, The Wanderers,
came to St Petersburg and played three days. The press commented: “As
expected, we lost these international matches, but, after all, we were
playing against the founders of the game.” In 1912, Russia sent the first
team of Russian nationals abroad to represent their country in the
Olympic Games, held in Stockholm. It lost to Finland and to Germany.
That was the first and last time a Russian national team competed abroad
in tsarist times. f
2. Составьте реферат на русском языке по материалу данного текста.
Пользуйтесь ответами на вопросы задания 1.

(20)
Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите его на русский язык.

THE OLYMPIC GAMES


Russia was an important member of the modem Olympic movement
and Russian sportsmen first participated in the Olympic Games in 1908
(the Fourth Olympics, held in London). A team of five contestants went
to Britain. They were sponsored by voluntary contributions. It did
surprisingly well, winning a gold medal in figure-skating, two silvers in
wrestling. Russian athletes took the 14th place overall (among 22 nations).
For the next Olympic games, which were held in Stockholm in 1912, the
sports societies were prepared to sponsor a much larger contingent. The
government set up a Russian Olympic Committee, which was headed by
Baron F. Meyendorf. A team of 169 athletes gathered to take part in all
15 sports on the Olympic programme. In the Games, Russia shared the
15th place with Austria, out of 28 countries, and won few medals. The
best performance came from a wrestler, M. Klein. He broke his arm in
the semi-final and had to lose his chance to wrestle in the final. But he
won a silver medal. The only other medals were one in gymnastics, second
place for the Russian team in pistol and revolver shooting and third places
in shooting and clay pigeon shooting.

192
In the result, the government decided to hold national championships,
“Olympiads” on the model o f the Olympic programme. They had to
stimulate the work of the sports societies and prepare athletes properly
for international competitions.

(21)
Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем ответы на вопросы. Постарайтесь не
пользоваться словарем.
1. Как обстояло дело с организацией спорта в начале XX века?
2. Где были сосредоточены спортивные клубы и школы?
3. Чем была вызвана необходимость создания спортивных лиг и
ассоциаций?
4. Каков был уровень оснащения спортивных клубов?

SPORTS ORGANIZATION
The early days of the 20th century were a busy time for the organized
sports movement. More and more clubs were formed, schools and courses
of physical training were established in the larger cities, and leagues and
national associations appeared because they had to provide competitions
in specific sports. In 1909, the first Russian sporting weekly, Russky Sport,
appeared, though typically soccer and racing filled more pages than lawn
tennis, gymnastics and wrestling put together.
There existed 1,266 sports clubs, societies and circles in 1913, with
an average membership of some 60 persons. Although many of these clubs
were located in the major Russian cities, particularly St Petersburg and
Moscow, the relatively industrialized provinces also accounted for a large
number; the Ukraine had 196 sports clubs with 8,000 members and
Byelorussia had 1,000 members in its clubs.
Many clubs were well-equipped. The Morozovsky soccer club, for
example, had an excellent pavilion with its own dressing rooms. Baths, a
dining room, a large hall for social gatherings and a cinema — facilities
as good as, if not better than, most amateur clubs in Britain had at the
time.
Ч А С Т Ь II
ВТОРОЙ КУРС ОБУЧЕНИЯ

ГЛАГОЛ
Глаголом (The Verb) называется часть речи, которая обозначает
действие или состояние лица или предмета. Глагол отвечает на во­
просы:
What does the person / thing do? Что делает лицо / предмет?
What is done to the person / thing? Что делается с лицом /
предметом?
They play this game with a ball of a different shape.
This game is played with a ball of a different shape.
Основные формы неправильных глаголов даны в таблице на
с. 311 —313. Полная таблица имеет четыре колонки. Возьмем, на­
пример, глагол to give давать:
I II III IV
to give gave given giving

Обратите внимание на то, что таблица поделена пополам меж­


ду колонками II и III. Все дело в том, что среди данных четырех
форм только две являются собственно глаголами, а две — прича­
стиями.
Очень многие глагольные формы образуются на основе инфи­
нитива. Рассмотрим таблицу.
I — инфинитив. Неопределенная форма глагола в русском язы­
ке оканчивается на -ть, реже — на -ти и -чь (работать, соревно­
ваться, нести, беречь). В английском языке показателем инфини­
тива является частица to.
II — глагол в прошедшем простом времени (Past Simple).
III — причастие совершенного вида, страдательного залога.
IV — причастие несовершенного вида, действительного залога.
При образовании глагольного сказуемого в английском языке
употребляются различные глагольные формы.

194
Глагол в Present Simple совпадает с формой инфинитива (без ча­
стицы to) во всех лицах, кроме 3-го лица единственного числа, при­
нимающего окончание -s: to give — I / We / You / They give. He /
She / It gives.
Глагол в Past Simple образуется путем прибавления во всех ли­
цах окончания -ed к основе инфинитива (без частицы to) для пра­
вильных глаголов: to play — I played или используется соответствую­
щая глагольная форма из колонки II для неправильных глаголов: to
give — I gave.
Глагол в Future Simple образуется при помощи вспомогательных
глаголов will и shall и основы инфинитива смыслового глагола.
В отличие от русского языка, где существует как будущее слож­
ное — буду читать, так и будущее простое — прочитаю, в англий­
ском языке форма будущего времени образуется только при помо­
щи дополнительных слов will и shall.
Внимание! Во всех остальных временных формах, а также в страда­
тельном залоге, где используются причастия (из колонок III и IV), употреб­
ляется дополнительный глагол-связка, чтобы обеспечить необходимое при­
сутствие глагола в сказуемом:
I am playing. — Present Continuous; I was playing. — Past Continuous;
I w ill be playing. — Future Continuous.
I have played. — Present Perfect; I had played. — Past Perfect; I will
have played. — Future Perfect.
This game is played. — Present Simple Passive; That game was played. —
Past Simple Passive. That game w ill be played. — Future Simple Passive.

В О П РО С И ТЕЛ ЬН Ы Е П РЕДЛО Ж ЕН И Я

Чтобы иметь возможность рассмотреть различные типы вопро­


сов, нужно запомнить вопросительные слова:
who кто where где
whom кого when когда
whose чей why почему
what что, какой how как
which который how many сколько
how much сколько
Примеры:
Who is there? Кто там?
Whom do I see? Кого я вижу?
Whose book is this? Чья это книга?
What is this? Что это?
What do you see? Что вы видите Ш

195
What letter is this? Какая это буква?
Which book do you want? Которая книга вам нужна?
Where are you? Где вы?
When do the visitors come? Когда приходят посетители?
Why do you tell me this? Почему вы мне это говорите?
How do the ships go into Как суда входят в доки?
the docks?
How many apples? Сколько яблок?
How much water? Сколько воды?

Особенности вопросительных слов


1. Местоимение whom постепенно выходит из употребления и в
современной речи обычно заменяется местоимением who. Так,
предложение Кого вы хотите видеть ?по-английски чаще звучит как
Who do you want to see?, чем Whom do you want to see?
2. Местоимение what может быть подлежащим, дополнением и
определением. В первых двух случаях оно переводится словом что,
в третьем — какой:
What keeps the house cool? Что делает дом прохладным?
(подлежащее)
What do you know? Что вы знаете? (дополнение)
What building is this? Какое это здание? (определение)
3. Which который употребляется там, где речь идет о выборе из
нескольких предметов:
Which building is the library? Которое из этих зданий — библиотека?
4. How many и how much переводятся словом сколько. Буквально
эти словосочетания означают «как много». Many употребляется,
когда речь идет о множестве отдельных предметов, much — когда
дело касается массы (вещества) или абстрактного понятия (время,
досуг и т.д.). Поэтому говорят: How many ships? Сколько кораблей?,
How much water? Сколько воды?

Общие и специальные вопросы


Вопросительные предложения могут представлять собой общие
вопросы и специальные вопросы.
Общими вопросами называются такие, на которые можно ответить
«да» или «нет». Они начинаются с глагола:
Do they know him? — Yes, they do. Знают ли они его? — Да.
Специальные вопросы имеют целью выяснение какого-либо факта
или обстоятельства. Они относятся не ко всему предложению, а к
одному из его членов. Начинаются они с вопросительного слова:
196
What do you know? Что вы знаете?
Как в общих, так и в специальных вопросах в английском пред­
ложении имеет место инверсия (т. е. обратный порядок слов). Напри­
мер: I am learning English. — утвердительное предложение; Am I
learning English? — вопросительное.

Образование вопросительных предложений


Все английские глаголы можно разделить на две группы. Коли­
чество глаголов, составляющих первую группу, крайне немногочис­
ленно — их легко можно выучить наизусть. Это модальные и вспо­
могательные глаголы, которые называются глаголами 1-го порядка'.
be, have, can, may, must, shall, will, do и их формы. Выполняя в пред­
ложении функцию сказуемого (I am an athlete.) или являясь час­
тью сказуемого (I am learning English.), они помогают утвердитель­
ное предложение превратить в вопросительное путем простой пе­
рестановки глагольного сказуемого, стоящего после подлежащего
(прямой порядок слов), на позицию перед подлежащим (обратный
порядок слов). '
Обратите внимание на глагол have. Этот глагол не всегда явля­
ется глаголом 1-го порядка. Когда глагол have утрачивает свое ос­
новное значение иметь, обладать, он приобретает другое лексиче­
ское значение, а именно:
1) выступает в функции заменителя модального глагола must —
have to:
Do 1 have to go there? Нужно ли мне идти туда?
2) употребляется в устойчивых выражениях типа: have breakfast,
have tea и т. д.:
When do you usually have breakfast? В какое время ты обычно
завтракаешь ?
И наоборот, выступая в качестве вспомогательного глагола в
группе времен Perfect, он всегда является глаголом 1-го порядка:
Have you read this book? Ты прочитал эту книгу?
Глаголами 2-го порядка являются глаголы live, practise и т.д. Их в
английском языке большинство. Эти глаголы не могут занимать в
предложении место перед подлежащим. Для образования вопро­
сительного предложения с ними употребляется глагол do. В воп­
росительном предложении глагол do ставится перед подлежащим
в качестве дополнительного слова, в том числе он добавляется и «сам
к себе»:
Не does the same thing every day. Why does he do the same thing
every day?
197
Чтобы составить вопрос к любому английскому утвердительно­
му предложению, вы должны определить, есть ли в его составе гла­
гол 1-го порядка. Если да, то вопрос образуется при помощи меха­
нической перестановки членов предложения:
Не is ап athlete. Is he an athlete?
I have scored the goal. Have I scored the goal?
I can ski. Can I ski?
Если глагола 1-го порядка в предложении нет, тогда следует ис­
пользовать глагол do в качестве дополнительного слова. Данный
глагол представлен в нашей таблице в трех формах: do, does и did.
В настоящем времени с подлежащим, которое можно заменить ме­
стоимениями I, you, we, they, употребляется форма do:
I live in St Petersburg. Where do you live?
Форма does употребляется тоже в настоящем времени, но уже с
подлежащим в форме 3-голица, единственного числа, которое мож­
но заменить местоимениями he, she, it: г
Не visits his parents often. How often does he visit his parents?
Обратите внимание на то, что окончание -s у смыслового гла­
гола visit теперь отсутствует.
В прошедшем времени используется форма did:
I got up early yesterday. And you? Did you get up early yesterday?
Зная, глагол какого порядка находится в составе сказуемого дан­
ного утвердительного предложения, можно построить и отрица­
тельное предложение. Частица not ставится только после глаголов
1-го порядка. Если же в составе сказуемого имеется глагол 2-го по­
рядка, следует использовать глагол do. Форму данного глагола мы
выбираем по тем же правилам, что и в вопросительном предло­
жении:
I am an athlete. I am not a taxi-driver.
Не does the same thing every day. He doesn’t do the same thing
every day.
He practises swimming. He doesn’t practise skiing.
I can speak English. I can’t speak German.

Сводная таблица спряжения глагола PLAY


Действительный залог
Tense Simple Continuous Perfect
Present 1 /Y ou/W e/ I am playing. I / You / We / They have
They play. He / She / It is playing. played.
He / She / It plays. You / Wfe/ They are He/ She/It has played.
playing.

198
Окончание
Tense Simple Continuous Perfect
Present I / You/ We/ They j l am not playing I / You / We / They
do not play. He / She / It is not have not played.
He / She / It does playing- He / She / It has not
not play. You / Wfe / They are played.
not playing.
Do I / you / we / they Am I playing? Have I / you / we / they
pl^y? Is he / she / it playing? played?
Does he / she / it play? | Are you / we / they Has he / she / it played?
playing?
Past * I played. I / He / She / It was | * I had played
playing.
You/Wfe/They
were playing.
* I did not play I / He / She / It was * I had not played
not playing.
You / Wfe / They were
not playing.
* Did I play? Vfes I / he / she / it * Had I played
playing?
Were you / we / they
playing?
Future * I will play. * I will be playing played
* 1will not play * 1will not be playing * I will not have played
* Will I play r “>
wiii Will I have played
что
и употребляется только одна грамматическая форма
Сводная таблица спряжения глагола ASK
Страдательный залог
Tense Simple Continuous Perfect
Present I am asked. I am being asked I / You / We / They
He / She / It is asked. He / She / It is being have been asked.
Y o u / They are asked. He / She / It has been
asked. You / We / They are asked.
being asked.
I am not asked. I am not being asked. I / You / We / They
He / She / It is not He / She / It is not have not been asked.
asked. being asked. He / She / It bas not
You/ Wfe/They are Y ou/\te/They are been asked.
not asked. not being asked.

199
Окончание
Simple Continuous Perfect
Present Am I asked? Am I being asked? Have I / you / we / they
Is he / she / it asked? Is h e /s h e /it being been asked?
Are you / we / they asked? Has h e / s h e / i t been
asked? Are you / we / they asked?
being asked?
I / He / She / It was I / H e / S h e / I t was I had been asked
asked. being asked.
You/W fe/They were You / "W fe/ They were
asked. being asked.
I / He / She / It was I / Н е / S h e / It was I had not been asked
not asked. not being asked.
You / Wfe / They were You/W fe/They were
not asked. not being asked.
W&s I / h e / s h e asked? Wis I / h e / s h e / i t asked?
Wfere you / we / they being asked?
asked? Were you / we / they
being asked?
Future I will be asked I will have been asked
I will not be asked
asked
I be asked? I have been asked?
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Как образуется форма будущего времени в английском языке?
2. Какая форма глагола является основой для большинства гла­
гольных форм?
3. Какие глаголы подчиняются правилу инверсии?
4. Какой глагол нужно использовать для составления вопроса и
отрицания, если в составе сказуемого отсутствует глагол 1-го
порядка?

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Составьте отрицательные предложения.
Образец: They are good athletes. -> They are not good athletes.
1. He has the second grade. 2. It was cheap. 3. I’m going to Spain.
4 .1 can play chess. 5. I’m hungry. 6. You should read this text. 7. They
were late. 8. It’s hot today. 9. She’s had dinner. 10. These jeans are made
in the USA. 11. Do it! 12.1 like swimming. 13. She learns English. 14. Look
at me! 15. Phone me tonight. 16. I’ve got a camera. 17. They went to the

200
gym. 18. Open the window. 19. can do these exercises perfectly. 20. The
fans enjoyed the performance. 21. She will be a Master of Sports. 22. They
practise skiing.
2. Заполните пропуски. Используйте isn’t / don’t / haven’t и др.
1. I’ve been to Italy twice but I ... been to England. 2. “Where is
Mary?” “I ... know. I ... seen her today.” 3. She speaks English but she ...
speak German. 4. He will be pleased but I .... 5. It’s raining. I t ... snowing.
6. My mother enjoyed the film but my father ... . 7. My brother ... visit
me very often. He prefers to phone. 8. “Who wrote this terrible letter?”
“Not me! I ... do it.” 9. “W>uld you like something to eat?” “No, thank
you. I ... hungry.” 10. He ... play yesterday because he ... very well. 11.1
don’t like this film. I t ... very interesting. 12. Phone me tonight,... phone
me tomorrow. 13. ... buy these running shoes! They are expensive. 14. I
can’t wash my hair! There ... any shampoo. 15. It was very difficult to
play. Wfe tried to win but we ....
3. Задайте общие вопросы.
Образец: I can play volleyball. —» Can I play volleyball?
1 .1 study at the Lesgaft State University. 2. It’s a beautiful day. 3. I’ve
lost my key. 4. Most students of my group were bom in St Petersburg.
5 .1 slept well last night. 6. They won this game. 7. She’ll have finished
her performance by 2 o’clock. 8. The clock is working. 9. There is a film
in this camera. 10. He knows this athlete. 11. She had dinner with
somebody. 12.1have to practise more. 13. He was able to swim the English
Channel. 14. She was allowed to participate. 15. You must have your
passport with you. 16. She’ll be showing a new programme during the
break. 17. I’ll do it tomorrow.
4. Задайте специальные вопросы.
Образец: I want to watch a film. What... —»What film do you want to
watch?
1 .1 was late this morning. W hy... ? 2 .1 broke my leg. H ow ... ? 3. My
parents have gone. Where ... ? 4. It’s difficult. Why ... ? 5. She’ll do it
tomorrow. What time ... ? 6 .1 practise sports. What event... ?

Вопрос к подлежащему

Вопросы, которые относятся к подлежащему, начинаются с воп­


росительных местоимений who кто и what что. Глагол после who и
what употребляется так же, как и после вопросительных местоиме­
ний кто и что в русском языке, т. е. в форме 3-го лица единствен­
ного числа:
Who has broken the window? Кто разбил окно?

201
В отличие от других вопросов в вопросах к подлежащему упот­
ребляется порядок слов утвердительного предложения. Глагол пос­
ле who и what употребляется так же, как и глагол после кто и что в
русском языке, т.е. в форме 3-го лица единственного числа: Who is
reading a book? Who gives you English lessons? What is broken?
Иногда глагол-связка согласуется в числе с существительным
(если оно стоит после глагола-связки): Who is a coach? Who are
athletes? ,

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Поставьте вопросы к подлежащему.
1. Somebody has scored the goal. Who ... ? 2. Somebody won the
game. Who ... ? 3. Something is very interesting. W hat... ? 4. Somebody
will give you a present. Who ... ? 5. Something can be made. W hat... ?
6. Somebody will be allowed to participate. Who ... ? 7. Something
will have been read by tomorrow. W hat... ? 8. Somebody took my book.
W ho... ? 9. Somebody is swimming. W ho... ? 10. Somebody has to know
it. Who ... ? 11. Something is written on the blackboard. What ... ?
12. Everybody should do it. Who ... ? 13. Everything has to be in order.
W hat...?
2. Задайте вопросы. Используйте образцы.
Образец 1: 1said something. What... ? -» What did you say?
Образец 2: Somebody saw me. Who... ? -»Who saw you?
1. Somebody does this work. Who ... ? 2. He has found something.
W hat... ? 3. She bought something. W hat... ? 4. Something will be more
expensive. W hat... ? 5. Somebody lives in this house. Who ... ? 6. Some­
body did the washing-up. Who ... ? 7. Somebody opened the window.
Who ... ? 8. They have lost something. What ... ? 9. I took photos of
somebody. W ho... ? 10. Somebody saw your performance. W ho... ? 11Д
want something. W hat... ? 12. Wfe did something. W hat... ? 13. Something
went wrong. W hat... ? 14. Somebody phoned you. Who ... ?
3. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.
My name is Nick Pavlov. I live in St Petersburg. I’m a student of the
State University of Physical Education. I’m in my second year now. I
practise sports. My sports event is swimming. I have training sessions three
times a week. Sometimes I train in the swimming pool, sometimes in the
gym. Now I have the first grade. My coach is a Merited Master of Sports.
I often participate in the competitions. Sometimes I win prizes.
I began to practise sports at the age of 7. I did sport every day that
time.
After school I often went running with my friends. Then I went
swimming. I also cycled to school.
202
Swimming is an excellent way to keep fit. It makes your body very
flexible and strong, but I should go running, too. Running is very good
for your heart and lungs.
4. Запомните следующие выражения.
Yes No
T hat’s right. 1 n T hat’s wrong. 1„ I don’t know. — He
T hat’s correct. > That isn’t correct. > e знаю.
T hat’s true. J B °' That isn’t true, J верно. j ’m n o t sure
O f course. — Конеч- O f course, not. — Ко- I’m not certain,
но, (да). нечно, (нет). He уверен.
I agree. — Согласен. I disagree. — Я не со­
гласен.
5. Задайте общие вопросы вашему другу. При ответах на вопросы можно
использовать не только «да» или «нет».
Иногда вы можете задавать «каверзные вопросы». Например, спросите
хоккеиста: Are you a wrestler?
Ваш друг не должен отвечать «да» или «нет». Он должен использовать
выражения из упр. 4. Например:
Are you Dima? — That’s correct. I’m Dima.
Are you 40? — Of course, not! I’m 18!
Do you live in St Petersburg? — I live in St Petersburg.
Подготовьте 15 вопросов. Потом поменяйтесь ролями. Если вы затруд­
няетесь составить вопросы, воспользуйтесь текстом упр. 3.
6. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE OLYMPIC GAMES


The Olympics have a very long history. They began in 776 BC, and
were held for nearly 1,200 years at Olympia, Greece. The citizens of all
the Greek states were invited to take part in the games. The prizes were
wreaths made o f branches o f olive trees. Ancient Olympic Games were a
great athletic festival and included many different kinds of sports: running,
boxing, discus throwing, wrestling, the pentathlon (five different sports)
and others. In 394 AD, the games were stopped by the Roman Emperor
Theodosius.
Only fifteen hundred years later, in 1894, a Frenchm an, Baron
Pierre de Coubertin, managed to persuade people from fifteen countries
to start the Olympic Games again. The International Olympic Committee
was set up in 1894, and the first of m odem series o f the Games took place
in Athens two years later, in 1896. There were competitions in many kinds
o f sports: running, jum ping, boxing. All the nations o f the world were
invited to send their athletic teams. From then the Olympic Games have
been international and the num ber o f events on the programme have
increased.
203
In these games only amateurs, or non-professional athletes can take
part. Each country sends teams for as many different events as possible.
The winners of each event are given a certain number of points. The
International Olympic Committee decides where each Olympics will take
place. They ask a city (not a country) to be the host.
The Olympic Games are attended by thousands and thousands of
people every time they are held. They provide an opportunity for lovers
of sports of all nations to meet together.
7. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. When did the Olympic Games begin?
2. Where did the Olympic Games originally take place?
3. What were the prizes?
4. What events did the Olympics include?
5. What athletes can take part in the Olympics?

УСЛОВНЫ Е П РЕДЛО Ж ЕН И Я

Придаточные условные предложения (Conditional Sentences) яв­


ляются частью сложных предложений, которые состоят из двух про­
стых предложений: главного предложения и придаточного предложе­
ния, соединенных подчинительной связью. Такие предложения чаще
всего разделяются запятой, а придаточное предложение вводится,
как правило, союзами if если, on condition that при условии что и др.:
If you go right now, Если ты пойдешь прямо сейчас,
you will come in time. то ты придешь вовремя.
Придаточное предложение выражает условие, а главное — след­
ствие, вытекающее из этого условия. Поскольку осуществление
действия в главном предложении зависит от условия, выраженно­
го в придаточном предложении, подробное рассмотрение прида­
точного предложения возможно только при одновременном рас­
смотрении главного предложения.
I fl have time, I’ll do this work. Если у меня будет время,
я выполню эту работу.
В английском языке условные предложения очень разнообразны.
При описании этих предложений их можно разделить на три типа.
1. Условные предложения первого типа (реальное условие):
Ifl see him tomorrow, Если я его завтра увижу,
I’ll ask him about it. я спрошу его об этом.
2. Условные предложения второго типа (маловероятное условие):
I fl were the President, Если бы я был президентом,
I would forbid exams. я отменил бы экзамены.
204
3. Условные предложения третьего типа (нереальное условие):
I f I had been the captain o f Titanic, Если бы я был капитаном «Тита-
I would have been more attentive. ника», я был бы намного
внимательнее.
Придаточное условное предложение вводится союзами:
if — если
I f l find your book, I ’D ring you up Если я найду твою книгу, я тебе
immediately. немедленно позвоню.

provided (that) — при условии (что), в том случае (если)


We can hold these competitions Мы можем провести эти со-
provided (that) we have enough ревнования, при условии
time to prepare. что у нас будет достаточно
времени на подготовку.
unless — если не
Wfe will be late for the lecture unless Мы опоздаем на лекцию , если
we hurry. не поспешим.
in case — на случай если (в случае если)
I always have two pens with me Я всегда беру с собой две ручки
in case one o f them doesn’t write. на случай, если одна не будет
писать.
on condition that — при условии что
Не was allowed to train on condition Ему было разрешено трениро-
that he didn’t work hard. ваться, при условии что он
не будет перенапрягаться.
even though — несмотря на то что
Не won the game even though he Он победил в этой игре, несмот-
got an injury. ря на то что получил травму.
supposing (that) — если (и др.)
Supposing it rains, shall we go Мы поедем за город, если пойдет
to the country? дождь?

Условные предложения первого типа


Представьте себе такую ситуацию: талантливый спортсмен А не
может освоить сложное упражнение на брусьях из-за того, что он
часто пропускает тренировки. Его тренер говорит:

205
If you train more, you will be able Если ты будешь тренироваться
to perform this exercis< больше, ты сможешь выпол­
нить это упражнение. (В дан­
ном случае спортсмен А име­
ет все шансы на улучшение
своего спортивного уровня.)
Условные предложения первого типа чаще всего выражают ре­
альные условия получения результата в будущем времени. При этом
глагол-сказуемое придаточного предложения употребляется в
Present Simple (I do, I go, he does, he goes, etc.), а главного (резуль­
тат) " ' соответствующих
ских условных предложениях будущее время употребляется
(я буду делать
дет и др.):
I f you do this exercise faultlessly, пи ты выполнишь это упраж­
vou will win the comnetition нение безукоризненно, ты
можешь победить на сорев-
нованиях
I f you miss training sessions, пропускать
vou will lose the comnetit тренировки, ты проиграешь
нованиях
Suppose you begin to train more now, Предположим
will improve your results больше тренироваться
m any case только сейчас, тогда ты все
равно улучшишь свои пока­
затели.
в придаточном предложении условия сказ
ражено сочетанием should с инфинитивом бе:
дает условию оттенок меньшей вероятности:
I f he should come, I will Если он (все-таки) придет,
to wait. ождать
предложении иногда встречается сочетание will
инфинитивом
вежливости
will be obliged if you will help us. Мы будем вам очень обязаны,
если вы (будете столь любез­
ны, что) поможете нам.
В главном пред ложении может употребляться повелительное на­
клонение'.
I f he rings (should ring) Если он все-таки позвс
him about it. спроси его об этом.
206
Если действие относится к настоящему или прошедшему време­
ни, то время русского глагола будет совпадать со временем англий-
ского глагола:
I f he is here, he is playing Если он находится здесь, то он,
basketball, o f course. баскетбол
I f l had spare time, I spent it было
on training. время, я посвящал его трени­
ровке.
Однако условные предложения такого рода встречаются значи­
тельно реже, чем предложения, выражающие предположения, от­
носящ иеся к будущему.
Характерным предложением этого типа будет:
I f you train regularly, you will Если вы будете регулярно трени­
be able to achieve good results. роваться, вы сможете достиг­
нуть хороших результатов.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Выберите подходящее окончание фразы. Переведите на русский язык.
Образец: You will send for a doctor if ... (you are well; you are ill) —»
You will send for a doctor if you are ІП.
1. Your parents will be glad i f ... (you pass exams well; you have problems
with a police officer). 2. Your coach will be glad i f ... (you are the last in
the race; you are the first in the race). 3. Your friends will be happy if ...
(you invite them to a party; ask them to walk in the rain). 4. Your teacher
will give you a good mark i f ... (you have good knowledge in the subject,
you know nothing in the subject). 5. You will be safe i f ... (you are not walking
around the town during a night; you are walking all nights long alone).
2. Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы в соответстующей временной
форме.
Образец: If you (phone) me tomorrow, I (give) you the necessary information.
—»If you phone me tomorrow, ГП give you the necessary information.
1. If I (practise) more, 1 (achieve) better results. 2. I f l (achieve) better
results, I (be able to win) the next com petition. 3. If I (can win) the
next com petition, I (become) a M aster o f Sports. 4. If I (become) a
M aster o f Sports, I (be able to join ) a better team. 5. If I (can join ) a
better team , I ( take part) in the world cham pionships. 6. If I (take part)
in the world cham pionships, I (be able to win) one day. 7. If I (can win),
I (take part) in the Olympics. 8. If I (takepart) in the Olympics, I (be able
to win) one day. 9. If I (can win) the Olympics one day, I (be) a famous
and rich person. 10. If I ( become) a famous and rich person, I (open) my
own sports school.

207
І
3. Пользуясь таблицей, составьте условные предложения
live in England, help my mother with housework
have tickets, improve my English.
come home early, go to the concert
come home late, be very happy,
pass my exams well go to bed at once

4. Задайте вопросы, пользуясь образцом.


Образец: If I have free time tomorrow, I will go to the football match.
(What... ?) -* What will you do if you have free time tomorrow?
1. When I arrive at the station, I will ring you up immediately. (What... ?)
2. If nobody helps me, I will try to do it myself. (W hat... ?)
3. If they are late, I will not wait for them. (What... ?)
4. I’ll ring you up as soon as I get the information. (When ... ?)
5. I’ll give you a good mark for your English as soon as you do this
exercise. (When... ?)
6. He will help you on condition that you explain him what to do.
(On what condition ... ?) ■
5. Скажите по-английски.
1. Если ты будешь больше тренироваться, ты достигнешь луч­
ших результатов. 2. Когда придешь домой, позвони мне, пожалуй­
ста. 3. Если ты не сможешь сделать это сам, я помогу тебе. 4. Если
я найду эту книгу, я скажу тебе об этом. 5. Если погода будет хоро­
шая, мы поедем за город. 6. Если он придет в университет, скажи
ему об этом.
6. Прочитайте отрывок из письма. Какой совет вы дали бы автору в сло­
жившейся ситуации? Подойдет ли такой: “If you train regularly, you will be
able to achieve good results”?
“A few days ago I was quite happy, but now I’ve got a problem. I’m
bored of my future. You know, when I was five, I practised gymnastics.
At first I was glad. It was interesting. I took part in competitions several
times, and won prizes from time to time. Then I found it boring. It was
too difficult. I wanted a fresh challenge. I began to practise track-and-
field athletics after it, but my parents were furious, they said that I was
not a serious person. They asked me not to change my mind so often.
Wfell,1 had been practised track-and-field some years, I was very good at
running. I took part in Junior City Competitions. To tell the truth, I was
the best in my team. My parents were glad, but one day I had to go to the
swimming pool with my class, and I liked swimming very much. Just
think! If I want, I will be able to swim in warm water even in winter, and it
was great! The coach in the swimming pool says that I am good at swimming,
208
too, but my parents got very angry. They say that if I want to swim, they
will help me, but it will be for the last time. Then, if I want to change my
mind, I’ll have “swimming” or “nothing” in any case. Why are they so
selfish? What will I do if I want to practise figure-skating one day?”
7. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What will happen if the author changes her mind once more?
2. Will her parents be glad if she changes her mind again?
3. Will it be good for her health if she practises figure-skating after
swimming?
4. What results will she reach on condition that she begins to practise
swimming at the age o f twelve?
5. What results will she reach if she begins to practise figure-skating
at the age o f fifteen?
8. Скажите по-английски:
заниматься гимнастикои; принимать участие в соревнованиях;
завоевывать призы; время от времени; слишком сложно; занимать­
ся легкой атлетикой; менять реш ения; городские соревнования;
полюбить плавание; разозлиться; в любом случае
9. Найдите в тексте упр. 6 условные предложения. Дайте их письменный
перевод.
10. Используя упр. 6, скажите, действительно ли родители девочки эгои­
стичны. Напишите ответ автору письма. Начните так: If you change your mind
very often,... Используйте следующие слова и выражения:
age limits — возрастные ограничения
common sense — здравый смысл
achieve good results —достигать хороших результатов
stamina — выносливость
future — будущее
boring periods of life — неинтересные периоды жизни
have fun — развлекаться
work hard — много работать

Условные предложения второго типа

Предложения второго типа выражают маловероятное условие со­


вершения действия в настоящем или будущем времени.
I f I were taller, I would practise Если бы я был выше ростом, я
basketball. занимался бы баскетболом.
В придаточном предложении, выражающем маловероятные ус­
ловия, употребляется Past Simple (I did, I went, he visited, etc.), а в
главном — сочетание глагола would с инфинитивом без частицы to
(I would do, he would go, he would visit, etc.); допустимо также упот-
209
местоимениями I и we (I should do. we
’• BiJidBHOMи придаточном предложениях переводится
русский язык сослагательным наклонением глагола в форме про-
дшего времени с частицей бы (сделал бы, поехал бы и т.д.):
I f I won one million do lars, Если я выиграл бы миллион
I would buy a yacht. долларов, я купил бы яхту.

Главное предложение Придаточное условия


Форма глагола, совпадающая
would* + Simple Infinitive (без to)
с формой Past Simple
I would do. he would on I did, he went, they visited и т.д.
he should go и т.д.

I f you listened carefully, you Если бы вы слушали вниматель­


would understand me. но, вы поняли бы меня.
употребляется в придаточном предложении
в форме сослагательного наклонения were
местоимениями (I were, you were, he were, she were и т.д.).
употребление формы was для
является
I f he were (was) here, he Если бы он был
would help us. бы нам.
черкивается малая вероятность выполнения условия

сложении употребляется форма were
--------- -------- . 1’ -------- — И "

to + Simple Infinitive или ф


глагола без частицы to:
I f I were to choose a place fo au бы я выбирал место для
training, I would take this тренировки, я выбрал бы
stadium. этот стадион.
If I т бы я увидел его завтра, j
I would ask him about it. спросил бы его об этом.
В придаточном предложении иногда встречается сочетание would
инфинитивом глагола без частицы to {if you would help, if they would
d, etc.). Данная форма служит вежливым выражением просьбы в
или
Wfe would be obliged if you would send Мы были бы очень вам
us your article. если бы вы были так любезны
выслать нам вашу статью.
“Shall I open the window?” «Открыть окно?» — «Да, пожа­
“Yes, please, if you would луйста, будьте так любезны».
210
Иногда вместо условного придаточного предложения употреб­
ляется выражение I wish в значении мне хотелось бы:
I wish I coaid swim better. Мне хотелось бы уметь плавать
лучше.
Возвращаясь к ситуации талантливого спортсмена-прогульщи-
ка, мы могли бы сказать ему:
If I were you, I would train На твоем месте я тренировался
more regularly. бы более регулярно.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Прочитайте и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. O f course, you may act as you want, but if I were you, I wouldn’t
behave like that. 2. You are too stubborn. I am sure that if you were older,
you would understand me. 3 .1 don’t trust him. If I trusted him, I would
follow his advice. 4. I think you got ill. It’s very cold today. If you put on
your warm coat, you would not catch (a) cold. 5. If you went to this shop,
you would be able to buy an excellent sports bag. 6. If you have a bad
memory, take a piece o f paper and write down the information. 7. If your
sister should go shopping, tell her about New Year’s presents. 8. He looks
as if he were ill. 9. What would you do if you had a few free days? 10. If
she were here, I should be speaking to her as I am speaking to you. 11. If
you were not so lazy, you would go there yourself and get documents in
time. 12. It wouldn’t surprise me if he didn’t want to speak to me. Wfe
have quarrelled. 13. If I didn’t have a headache, I should stay a little longer.
14. If you should hear from him, let her know. 15. If somebody should
ask about me, I would be back soon. 16. If I had tim e, I would study
French. 17. If he were here, Г would speak to him.
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
What would you do if one day ...
1. your friends bought a crocodile for you?
2. your best friend were an alien?
3. someone invited you to Hollywood?
4. you became a world champion?
5. you found a wallet with a lot o f money?
6. you got a job in Australia?
3. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужную форму.
1. I would visit you if I (not / live) so far away. 2. If I (know) history
well, I would help you. 3. If our coach (be) with us now, he would give
us much useful advice. 4. If he (not / be) so lazy, he would pass exams
much better. 5. If she (have) more free tim e, she would took part in city

211
competitions. 6. If we (have) more money, we would be able to buy
expensive equipment.
4. Скажите по-английски.
1. Если вы были бы на ее месте, вы поступили бы точно так же.
2. Если они хотели бы, они могли бы принять участие в соревно­
ваниях. 3. Если не было бы так поздно сейчас, я пошел бы к нему.
4. Если я переводил бы эту статью, мне потребовалось бы много
времени. 5. Мне очень нравятся эти кроссовки. Если они не были
бы такими дорогими, я купил бы их. 6. Если мы выехали бы завт­
ра, мы были бы в лагере в понедельник утром.
5. Прочитайте текст. Скажите, почему пассажир был шокирован отве­
том ребенка.
intelligent —умный
passenger —пассажир
An intelligent small boy was sitting in a bus. A passenger, who was
sitting next to the boy, decided to have a talk with him.
“And how old are you?”
“I am four,” answered the child.
“I wish I were four,” said the passenger.
He was considerably taken away, however, when the child looked at
him and said: “But you were four once!”
6. Найдите в тексте упр. 5 условное предложение и скажите, к какому
типу оно относится.
7. Прочитайте текст. Скажите, согласны ли вы с автором письма.
of practically no education —зд. без образования
made mistakes —делал ошибки
spelling —правописание
A man of practically no education was writing a letter. He made mistakes
in almost every word he wrote. “What a terrible spelling you’ve got!”
exclaimed his friend. “Wfell, how can one write well with a pen like th at/’
saidtheman. “If I had a better pen, I would certainly write better grammar.”
8. Найдите в тексте упр. 7 условное предложение и скажите, к какому
типу оно относится.

Условные предложения третьего типа


Вернемся к ситуации нашего талантливого спортсмена А. Не­
смотря на советы тренера, он легкомысленно отнесся к посещению
тренировок. В результате на соревнованиях он не смог хорошо вы­
полнить одно упражнение. Более того, он исполнил его настолько
плохо, что не попал даже в состав первой тройки победителей. Это
212
і
было тем более обидно, что остальные упражнения он выполнил
не хуже, чем те, кто прошли в финал.
Его тренер говорит ему:
I f you had been a bit cleverer, Если бы ты был хоть немного
you would have never done such умнее, ты никогда такого не
a thing. сделал бы.
I’m sure, i f you had trained more Я уверен (в том), что, если бы
regularly, you would have won ты тренировался более регу-
these competitions. лярно, ты победил бы в этих
соревнованиях.
Однако соревнования уже состоялись, а наш спортсмен А побе­
дителем не стал. Он упустил свой шанс. Именно поэтому такие пред­
ложения называются нереальными. Изменить что-либо именно в дан­
ном событии (проигранное соревнование) уже невозможно:
I f you had been a bit more serious, Если бы ты был хоть чуть-чуть
you would have never missed серьезнее, ты никогда не
your training sessions. пропускал бы тренировки.
Условные предложения третьего типа выражают предположе­
ния, относящ иеся к прошедшему времени, и поэтому являются не­
выполнимыми (нельзя сейчас посетить тренировки, которые спортс­
мен пропустил в прошлом). Как и условные предложения второго
типа, они соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям
с глаголом в сослагательном наклонении в форме прошедшего вре­
мени с частицей бы (сделал бы, сказал бы, понял бы и т.д.).
If\ had known about it earlier, I would Если бы я знал об этом раньше,
have never done such a thing. я никогда такого не сделал бы.
В условных предложениях третьего типа в придаточном пред­
ложении (условия) употребляется форма Past Perfect (had done, had
gone, had visited), а в главном предложении (следствия) — сочета­
ние would с Perfect Infinitive (без to) (would have done, would have gone,
would have visited и т.д.).
Главное предложение Придаточное условия

+ Perfect Infinitive Ф орма глагола, совпадающая


would с формой Past Perfect
would have done, had done,
would have gone, had gone,
would have visited и т.д. had visited и т.д.

Кроме громоздкой формы в условных предложениях третьего


типа есть еще одна сложность — они требуют дополнительной кон­
текстной информации.

213
В английском языке существуют две формы сослагательного на­
клонения (второй и третий типы условных предложений). Напри­
мер: Такая хорошая погода! Если бы завтра была такая же, можно
было бы съездить за город. (Будущее время — второй тип условных
предложений в английском языке.)
Или:
Если бы в прошлые выходные была такая же хорошая погода, мы
поехали бы за город. (Прошедшее время — третий тип условных
предложений в английском языке.)
Для того чтобы определить, относится ли данное русское услов­
ное предложение ко второму или третьему типу английских услов­
ных предложении, необходимо предварительно установить, к ка-
кому времени относится высказываемое в нем предположение.
Так, например, из предложения «Если бы ты выполнил это упраж­
нение, ты победил бы в соревнованиях», взятого изолированно, не
видно, к какому времени относится данное предположение.
Это может быть определено добавлением специальных поясни­
тельных слов (сегодня, завтра, вчера и т.д.) или содержанием по­
следующих или предшествующих предложений. Например:
1. «Если бы ты выполнил это упражнение, ты победил бы в сорев­
нованиях. Все остальное ты делаешь намного лучше своих сопер­
ников. Но если именно это упражнение завтра ты выполнишь так
же плохо, как обычно, ты не победишь».
Данное условное предложение относится к будущему времени, что
определяется содержанием последующих предложений. Поэтому это
предложение является условным предложением второго типа'.
I f you performed this exercise well, you would win the competition.
2. «Жаль, что ты так и не научился хорошо выполнять это уп­
ражнение. Если бы ты выполнил это упражнение, ты победил бы в со­
ревнованиях вчера».
Данное условное предложение относится к прошедшему време­
ни, что определяется предшествующим предложением и словом «вче­
ра*, и относится к третьему типу:
I f you had performed this exercise well, you would have won the
competition.
Итак, если установлено, что русское условное предложение с
глаголом в сослагательном наклонении относится к настоящему
или будущему времени, то оно переводится на английский язык ус­
ловным предложением второго типа. Если же условное предложе­
ние относится к прошедшему времени, то оно переводится условным
предложением третьего типа.
I f you had listened attentively, Если бы вы слушали вниматель-
you would have understood me. но, вы поняли бы меня (но вы
не слушали).
214
В условных предложениях второго и третьего типов для выра­
жения сослагательного наклонения могут использоваться глаголы
might и could, которые в этом случае сохраняют свое лексическое
значение: might — вероятность; could — физическая возможность
или умение и переводятся на русский язы к с помощью слов веро­
ятно, мог бы.
В условных предложениях второго типа в главном предложении
might и could употребляются с Simple Infinitive без частицы to (might
go, could do и т. д.):
I f it were Sunday, she might go Если бы это было воскресенье,
with us to the stadium. она, вероятно, пошла бы
с нами на стадион.
А налогично, в условных предложениях третьего типа может
употребляться might и could с Perfect Infinitive (might have gone, could
have done, etc.).
I fit had been Sunday, she might have Если бы это было воскресенье,
gone with us to the stadium. она могла бы пойти с нами
на стадион.
Иногда вместо придаточного условного предложения употреб­
ляется выражение I wish со значением мне хотелось бы.
Наш спортсмен-прогулыцик мог бы сказать:
I wish 1 wouldn’t have missed Мне хотелось бы, чтобы я
training sessions very often, i (в прошлом) не пропускал
тренировки так часто.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
I. Переведите предложения на русский язык. (Устно.)
1. If she had asked me about it yesterday, I would certainly have told
her all about it. 2. If he hadn’t been so busy, he would have visited the
museum with us yesterday. 3. If she hadn’t been at the training session,
she wouldn’t have learnt this difficult exercise. 4. If you had read a few
pages every day, your vocabulary would have increased greatly. 1 wish you
knew more English words. 5. If we had known your plans before, we would
have done something. 6. If you had not wasted so much tim e, you would
not have missed the train. 7. If you had not missed the train, you would
have arrived in time. 8. If you hadn’t missed the teacher’s explanation,
you would have done your test much better. 9. If you had done your test
better, you wouldn’t have got a “two”. 10. If you hadn’t got a “two” , you
would have been given a credit already. 11. He would have never phoned
you if I hadn’t reminded him to do it. 12. If you had put the ice-cream
into the refrigerator, it wouldn’t have melted. 13. If I had known the result
yesterday, 1 would have phoned her immediately. 14. If you had let me
know yesterday, I would have brought you my book.
215
іложений. Переведите их на русский
1 If you train more regularly, you will achieve better results.
If you trained more regularly, you would achieve better results.
Г Ж У * i __ _ i д % t л • «

winner
today.
2. If you use more scientific methods of training, your team will play
better.
If you used more scientific methods of training, your team would
play better.
If you had used more scientific methods of training, your team
would have won the Cup today.
3. If you pass all exams well, you will get a scholarship.
If you passed all exams well, you would get a scholarship.
If you had passed all exams well, you would have got a scholarship.
4. If you read English regularly, you will learn more words.
If you read English regularly, you would learn more words.
If you had read English regularly, you would have learnt more words.
5. If you have a dictionary with you, you will translate an examination
text easily.
If you had a dictionary with you, you would translate an exami­
nation text easily.
If you had had a dictionary with you, you would have translated an
examination text easily. Why didn’t you bring it?
3. Составьте предложения. Используйте таблицу.
If I had read for the exam better, I would have bought that book,
warm been a Master of Sports
not believed him, had a better job now.
known English better, had bad troubles now.
trained more regularly, caught a cold,
had more money with me, got a better mark for it.

4. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужную форму.


Образец: If you (phone) me, I (tell) you a secret. -> If you had phoned me,
I would have told you a secret.
1. If he (come) to our house yesterday, he (meet) his friend. 2. If he
(not / help) me, I {be) in a very difficult situation. 3. If she (not / pass)
(not/get) a scholarship. 4. If only you (let) me know.
(go)
your activities. 6 .1 (not / miss) so many training sessions if I (not / hurt)
my leg. 7. If you (speak) English every day while you were living in London,
you (improve) your English greatly. Why did you speak Russian with your
friends all days long? 8. If she (return) earlier, she (be able to) see him
before he left.
216
5. Скажите по-английски.
1. Если бы он знал, что вам это не понравится (like), он этого не
сделал бы. 2. Если бы мы не пропускали занятия (miss classes), мы
говорили бы по-английски лучше. 3. Если бы мы не опоздали на
поезд (miss the train), мы прибыли бы (arrive) в город вчера. 4. Если
бы ты не позвонил мне, я забыл бы о ее дне рождения. 5. Если бы я
не взял с собой зонтик, я промок бы и простудился (get wet, catch
cold). 6. Если бы он не посещал регулярно тренировки, он не по­
бедил бы в соревнованиях. 7. Если бы вы послушались моего сове­
та тогда (take my advice), вы не были бы сейчас в таком затрудни­
тельном положении (in so difficult a situation). 8. Если бы он не был
так занят вчера (be busy), он помог бы вам.
6. Прочитайте текст. Скажите, в чем заключалась описанная в тексте про­
блема на самом деле.

A PROBLEM WITH A TREE


where to plant a tree — где посадить дерево
strangers — зд. чужие
will steal — украдут
will rob — ограбят
greedy — жадный
A rich farmer in England once had a friend who grew very good apples.
One day this friend gave the farmer a fine apple-tree. The farmer was
pleased with the present but when he came home, he did not know where
to plant the tree. He thought: “If I plant it near the road, strangers will
steal the apples. Ifl plant it in my field, my neighbours will come at night
and rob me. If I plant it near my house, my children will take the apples.”
At last he planted the tree deep in the forest where the tree died. When
the fanner’s friend heard o f it, he got very angry and asked the farmer
why he had planted the tree in such a bad place. “Where could I plant
it?” said the farmer. “If I had planted the tree near the road, strangers
would have stolen the apples. Ifl had planted it in the field, my neighbours
would have come at night and robbed me. If I had planted it near my
house, my children would have taken the apples.” “ But then somebody
would have enjoyed the apples,” said his friend. “If I had known how
greedy you are, I would not have given you the apple-tree.”
7. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What was the farmer given one day?
2. What was the problem with the tree?
3. Why didn’t the farmer want to plant it near the road?
4. Why didn’t the farmer want to plant it in the field?
5. Why didn’t the farmer want to plant it near his house?
6. Where did he plant it?
217
7. Why did the tree die?
8. Would it have died if the farmer had planted it near his house?
8. Найдите в тексте условные предложения и определите, к какому типу
они относятся.

Бессоюзные условные предложения


опущен в условных предложениях всех трех
типов.
овных предложениях первого типа союз If опускается, ког-
емое придаточного предложения выражено сочетанием
инфинитивом (should do, should go и т.д.). В этом случае
подлежащим
Should he come, ask him to wait. Если он придет, попросите его
іе, ask him to wait. подождать.
іложениях второго типа союз if опускается
придаточных предложениях имеются глаголы had, were, со
iould. В таких случаях эти глаголы ставятся перед подлежащим
Had I time, I would go to the club. я было время
I f I hi іе, I would go to the club. клуб.
Were] был
If he бы нам.
Could е, we would be very glad. Если бы он смог прийти, мы
If he could come, we would be very glad были
Should I see him tomorrow, I would
ask him about it. ибы я встретил его завтра
If спросил бы его об этом.
him
сложениях третьего типа при отсутствии
подлежащим
Had you listened carefully,
you would have understood. Если бы вы слушали вниматель­
If но, вы поняли бы.
understood
употребляются определенные слово
сочетания
if it were not for (второй тип);
if it had not been for (третий тип).
Такие словосочетания часто употребляются в бессоюзных пред
ложениях с инверсией:
218
were it not for = if it were not for;
had it not been for = if it had not been for.
Например:
Were it not for her arrival, we would Если бы не ее приезд, мы смот-
watch this match on TV. рели бы матч по телевизору.
Словосочетание but for тоже имеет значение если бы не:
But for my coach’s help, I would Если бы не помощ ь моего тре-
not have won this competition. нера, я не выиграл бы сорев­
нование.
Вместо условного придаточного предложения употребляется со-
' четание but for + существительное или местоимение.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1 .1 wish I would have passed my exams well. 2 .1 wish I spoke English
better. 3. Should he come, I will ask him about it. 4. Should we win, we
will be very pleased. 5. Had I tim e, I would help him. 6. Could I help
you in this situation, I would do it immediately. But I don’t know what
to do. 7. Wfere she more serious, she would work harder. 8. Had he known
it, he would not have gone there. 9. Had she had tim e, she would have
done it herself. 10. But for my parents, I would not have bought this sports
equipment. It was too expensive. 11. Had it not been for her situation,
I would have never asked you about it.
2. Переведите предложения на русский язык, определив тип условных
предложений (реальное, маловероятное или нереальное условие).
1. If he trains regularly, he will be a good athlete. 2. If I go for a trip to
the South, I will go by plane. 3. If we go to the stadium today, we will see
a very interesting match. 4. If I had time, I would visit my coach, living
in Kavgolovo. 5. If I see him, I will ask him about his taking part in that
match. 6. If they were not so busy, they would certainly tell us about their
participating in the Olympic Games. 7. If he were a specialist in volleyball,
we would show him a num ber o f books in this kind o f sport. 8 .1 wouldn’t
bother about it if I were you. 9. If the coach used new methods o f training,
our team would play better. 10. I slept well that night and I would have
slept better if it had not been for the noise outside. 11. Had he been to
England, he would have spoken English much better. 12. If we had got
tickets, we would have gone to the stadium to see this match. 13. If I had
seen him, I would have asked him about his taking part in the Olympic
Gam es. 14. Had he arrived here, he might have been present at the
ceremony o f the opening o f our Institute’s competition.

219
3. Раскроите скобки и употребите глагол в соответствующем времени, об­
ращая внимание на указанный тин условного предложения. Переведите их
на русский язык.
1. If he I train) three times a week, he (be) quite right. (I)
2. If I want {look through) the latest sports periodicals, 1 usually (go)
to the reading-room of the Institute. (I)
3. If we (go) there, we (find) him. (Ill)
4. If we (get) tickets, we certainly (go) to see this contest. (II)
5- jf (g°) to the stadium yesterday, we (see) a very interesting match.
6. If he (be) to England, he (see) everything for himself. (II)
7. Wfe (do) it if we (have) enough time. (I)
4. Раскройте скобки. Напишите по три условных предложения каждого
типа (а, Ь, с).
Образец: If I (see) him, I (tell) him this news. -»a) If I see him, ГП teU him
this news, b) If I saw him, I would tell him this news, c) If I had
seen him, I would have told him this news.
1. If we (get) tickets, we (go) to see the match. 2. If he (be) to England,
he (see) many places of interest there. 3. If the weather (be) good, I (come)
to see you on Sunday. 4. If you (train) more regularly, you (win) the
competitions. 5. If you (learn) English words better, you (pass) your
English exam.
5. Прочитайте текст. Скажите, в чем заключалась шутка издательства.
Знаете ли вы выражение “an Aprilfool”!

A NEWSPAPER JOKE
the rest of the newspapers — остальные газеты
enemy — враг
fool —дурак
This happened more than fifty years ago, in a little American town
Springfield. The newspaper Springfield Voice had a very difficult life.
Had they published some interesting news in The Springfield Voice,
the rest of the newspapers in the town at once published the same news
as their own. People bought these newspapers and didn’t buy The
Springfield Voice. As a result, the newspaper hadn’t enough money. The
Springfield Voice decided to teach its enemies a lesson.
In the morning, April 1, The Springfield Voice published the news that
a coffee king whose name was Lirpa Loof had come from abroad and was
going to visit Springfield. Of course, this was tremendous news in such a
little town. That same afternoon, all the other newspapers in the town
wrote about Mr Lirpa Loof. One of the newspapers published an interview
with the rich businessman, another newspaper gave an interesting story
of his life. The other newspaper told its readers that Mr Lirpa Loof had
220
had a meeting with the businessmen o f the town, who were planning to
buy coffee from him.
The next day, April 2, The Springfield Voice wrote: “O f course, we are
proud that the other newspapers believed our story about the rich foreign
businessman Lirpa Loof. But they must not forget what the date was
yesterday. Had you read the first, then the second word — LIRPA LOOF —
from the end to the beginning, and you would have seen why they must
not have forgotten that date. ”
б. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Why did The Springfield Voice decide to teach its enemies a lesson?
2. What did The Springfield Voice publish?
3. What did the rest o f the newspapers do?
4. What did The Springfield Voice publish the next day?
5. What does the name “Lirpa Loof” mean if you read it from the end
to the beginning?
6. How do you think, was The Springfield Voice successful after it?
7. Найдите в тексте упр. 5 условные предложения. Определите их тип.

С О ГЛ А С О В А Н И Е В Р Е М Е Н

В русском языке сложные по структуре предложения, в которых


в одной части употребляется прошедшее время, а в другой буду­
щее, не противоречат грамматическим нормам. Например: «Пре­
подаватель вчера сказал, что экзамен состоится в пятницу» или
«Позавчера на тренировке тренер сказал, что я приму участие в сле­
дующих соревнованиях». Для английского языка такое совмеще­
ние (будущее и прошедшее время в составе одного сложного пред­
ложения) невозможно.
В английском языке время глагола в придаточном дополнитель­
ном предложении зависит от времени глагола в главном предложении.
Употребление времен в придаточных предложениях подчиняется
следующим правилам согласования времен:
1. Если сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем или
будущем времени, то сказуемое придаточного предложения может
быть употреблено в любом времени, которое требуется по смыслу
(как и в русском языке):
I think he is the winner, он является победителем
Я думаю,
(that) he was the winner, он был победителем,
he will be the winner. (что)
он будет победителем.
I will where she is now. Я спрошу ггде она ( находится ) сейчас
ask him
where she was yesterday, его, где она была вчера,
where she will be где она будет в 5 часов.
at S’oclock.

221
2. Если же сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем
времени, то и сказуемое придаточного будет стоять в одном из про­
шедших времен, а именно:
а) если действие придаточного предложения происходит одновре­
менно с действием главного предложения, то сказуемое придаточно­
го предложения стоит в Past Simple (I went, he visited и т.д.) или в
Past Continuous (I was going, he was travelling) и переводится на рус­
ский язык глаголом в настоящем времени:
Не thought (that) his train Он думал, что его поезд отправ-
left at 11 o’clock. ляется в 11 часов.
I was sure (that) he was playing Я был уверен, что он играет
basketball in the gym. в баскетбол в спортзале.
б) если действие придаточного предложения предшествует дей­
ствию главного предложения, то сказуемое придаточного предложе­
ния стоит в Past Perfect (I had gone, he had visited и т. д.) и переводит­
ся на русский язык глаголом в прошедшем времени:
I didn’t know what had happened Я не знал, что с ним случилось.
to him.
в) если в придаточном предложении нужно передать действие,
которое совершится в будущем, то сказуемое этого предложения
будет выражено формой глагола в Future in the Past (будущее в про­
шедшем). Будущее в прошедшем образуется путем замены will на
would в соответствующей форме будущего времени:
Future Simple Future in the Past
I / You / He / She / It / We / They I / You / He / She / It / We / They
will go / do / take. would go / do / take.
Например: He said he would phone you soon. Он сказал, что вско­
ре позвонит тебе.
Future Continuous Future in the Past
I / You / He / She / It / We / They I / You / He / She / It / We / They
will be running. would be running.
Например: She said she would be playing tennis at 5 o’clock. Она ска­
зала, что в 5 часов будет играть в теннис.
Future Perfect Future in the Past
I / You / He / She / It / We / They I / You / He / She / It / We / They
will have done it. would have done it.
Например: He said he would have done the work by Monday. Он ска­
зал, что выполнит эту работу к понедельнику.
Допустимо употребление глагола should с местоимениями I и we
(I should do, we should be running, I should have done и т.д.):
222
was afraid (that) I should be боялся, что опоздаю на трени
for my training session. ровку.
г) если к дополнительному придаточному предложению дс
ляется придаточное предложение времени или условия, то гл
в этих предложениях также подчиняется правилу согласования
мен, а условное предложение строится по своим правилам:
said he would сказал
if he had time. сенье, если у него будет время
I thought I would do it when I came Я думал, что сделаю это, когда
home. приду домой.
В придаточных дополнительных предложениях, выражающих
общеизвестный факт, могут наблюдаться отклонения от правила со­
гласования времен:
Не said that Karelin is the best Он сказал , что К арелин явля­
wrestler in Russia. ется сильнейш им борцом
в России.
Отклонением от правил согласования времен являются и слу
модальные
ought
said [ сказал, что вы должны
ти сюда вовремя.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

1. Скажите по-русски.
1 .1 knew that she was ill. 2 . 1 knew that she had been ill. 3. Wfe found
out that he practised wrestling. 4. Wfe found out that he had practised
wrestling before. 5. He said that the training session was in the gym and
asked us to hurry. 6. He said that the training session had been in the
gym two hours ago. 7. Ws learnt that we had enough time to do this work.
8. Wfe learnt that they had had enough time to do this work, but they didn’t
do it.
2. Напишите предложения в прошедшем времени.
1. She says she is having dinner at the moment. 2. He says he is a
student o f the Lesgaft State University. 3. She says she practises gymnastics.
4. He says he has just come back from abroad. S. They say he has won in
the competitions. 6. They say she has won the title o f Master o f Sports.
7. He says he will buy a new sports suit. 8. They say they will have finished
the work by Tuesday. 9. She says she will be jogging at 8 o ’clock in the
evening.

223
3. Раскройте скобки, выбрав правильную форму глагола.
Образец: She said she (live) in Sweden before. -» She said she had lived
in Sweden before.
1 .1 think he (be) a good athlete in some years. 2. She said she (work)
at school two years ago. 3. He said he (leave) tomorrow. 4. 1 asked her if
she ever (be) to England. 5. They said they (come) to the station to see
me off tomorrow. 6. The athletes were said that the coach just (go) out
and (be) back in ten minutes. 7 .1knew they (wait) for me in the University
and decided to hurry.
4. Скажите по-английски.
1. Я думаю, что он а) живет в Англии; б) жил в Англии; в) будет
жить в Англии; г) играет сейчас в теннис; д) уже ушел из универ­
ситета; е) будет играть в баскетбол завтра в это время.
2. Я думал, что а) он играет в футбол в /гот момент; б) она жи­
вет в Америке; в) мы поедем завтра за город; г) она уже ушла до­
мой; д) он выполнит эту работу к понедельнику; е) они будут смот­
реть телевизор в это время.

ПРЯМАЯ И КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ

Повествовательное предложение
Косвенная речь — это передача высказывания другого лица.
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Не said: “I have finished this work.”
He said (that) he had finished that
work.
Он сказал: «Я закончил эту работу». Он сказал, что уже закончил эту
работу.
При переводе прямой речи в косвенную в предложении необ­
ходимо произвести следующие изменения:
а) соответственно изменить личные и притяжательные место­
имения, а также форму глагола-сказуемого в придаточном предло­
жении (если это необходимо по правилу согласования времен или
в связи с заменой местоимений);
б) если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошед­
шем времени, следует соблюдать правило согласования времен и
соответственно заменять указательные местоимения и наречия:
this этот — that тот, этот
these эти — those те, эти
She said: “I know this man. ” She said that she knew that man.
Она сказала'. «Я знаю этого Она сказала, что знает того
человека». человека.
224
now теперьшШК
—» then тогда
today сегодня —> that day в тот день
tomorrow завтра —» the next day на следующий день
yesterday вчера —» the day before накануне
ago тому назад before раньше
here здесь there там
Не said: “I will meet her at the station He said that he would meet her at
tomorrow. the station the next day.
Он сказал: «Я встречу ее на вокзале Он сказал, что встретит ее на
завтра ». вокзале на следующий день.
She said: “ 1 saw him here She said she had seen him there the
yesterday. ” day before.
Она сказала: «Я видела < Она сказала, что видела его там
здесь вчера *. накануне.
He said: “I am an athlete. I study at sports school.”
He told me that he was an athlete and studied at sports school.
He said: “I passed my English exam yesterday”
He told me that he had passed his English exam the day before.
He said: “I have been doing my sport for ten years.”
He told me that he had been doing his sport for ten years.
He said: “ I will teO you about it tomorrow.”
He told me that he would tefl me about it the next day.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Раскройте скобки. Выберите правильный вариант.
Образец: Не thought his coach was in the gym (now, then). —» He thought
his coach was in the gym then.
1. Boris said he was in the swimming pool (today, that day). 2. He told
me he had bought a ticket (yesterday , the day before). 3. Last week my
mobile went wrong. 1 asked my friend to help me, and he promised to do
it ( tomorrow , the next day). 4. Vfe decided to meet at ten ( tomorrow, the
next day). 5. When I came home, my m other told me that somebody had
phoned me half an hour (ago, before). 6 . 1 had been looking for her for a
long time. Then I went to the library and was lucky to find her (here,
there). 7. He said that he had given him (this, that) book (yesterday , the
day before). 8. Wfe decided to hurry (now, then). 9. In the end they decided
to buy (these, those) jeans.
2. Замените прямую речь косвенной.
Образец: Не said: “They arrived in Moscow yesterday.” -> He told me
that they had arrived in Moscow the day before.

225
1. I said: “I will help you tomorrow.” 2. “I’m shivering with cold,”
said the girl. 3. “My friend lived in Moscow last month,” said Nick.
4. “You haven’t done your work well yesterday,” said the teacher to me.
5. The coach said to the athletes: “We will discuss this problem tomorrow.”
6. She said, “We have bought these books today.” 7. He said: “I saw this
film last year. ” ■>
3. Скажите по-английски. Используйте образцы.
Образец 1: She said she practised wrestling.
Образец 2: She said that she was watching a film that time.
Она сказала, а) что ее родители живут в Москве; б) что она учит­
ся в спортивной школе; в) что она сейчас готовится к экзамену (read
for exam); г) что идет дождь; д) что она встает в 7 часов утра; е) что
ее родители смотрят телевизор. * .. . ..»
Образец 3: Не said he had passed his English exam.
Образец 4: He said he had been playing footballfor ten years.
Он сказал, а) что уже видел этого человека раньше; б) что закон­
чил эту работу вчера; в) что перевел эту статью на прошлой неделе;
г) что видел этот фильм в прошлом году; д) что занимается боксом
уже шесть лет; е) что учится в спортивной школе с прошлого года.

Вопросительное предложение
1іри обращении прямого вопроса в косвенный он становится до­
полнительным придаточным предложением, которое вводится со­
юзами if или whether, если это был общий вопрос, или вопроситель­
ными словами who, which, whose, when, why, how если
это был специальный вопрос.
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
She asked me: “Do you know She asked me if (whether) I knew
the way to the stadium?” the way to the stadium.
Она спросила меня: «Ты Она спросила меня, знаю ли я
знаешь дорогу на стадион?» дорогу на стадион.
Порядок
предложении, т. е. глагол-сказуемое стоит
лежащего.

Не asked: He asked (me)


“Where do you live?” where I lived.
“Where do you study?” where I studied.
“ How long have you been waiting how long I had been waiting for
for me?”__________________ him.
226
Продолжение
UWhen did you begin to practise
when I began to practise sport.
sport?”
When wffl you go home? ” when I would go home,
иWhat are you doing now? ”
what I was doing then,
“Do you practise sport? ” i f I practised sport.
uAre you listening to me?”
мHave you passed your English whether I was listening to him .
whether I had passed my English
exam? exam.
uHave you been running? 99

иDid you skate last winter? 99


whether I had been running.
whether I had skated the winter
before.
t t

Will you see your coach whether I would see my coach


tomorrow ?” the next day.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
1. I asked if they had taken the injured athlete to hospital. 2. I asked
her if she had a headache. 3. I wanted to know when he had broken his
leg. 4 . 1 asked him if he had passed his English exam. 5 .1 asked her if the
doctor had examined him. 6. I asked her if she was feeling better then.
7 .1 asked him how long he had lived in St Petersburg.
2. Замените прямой вопрос косвенным.
Образец и Have you done your test?” —» My teacher
asked me if I had done my test.
The UWhere ” 2 .1 asked him: “How long
swimming 99
3. She asked: “When did he
leave St Petersburg?” 4. She asked: been 99
5. He
99
asked: “Where has h 6. They asked: “When 99

7. She asked: “What 99


8. He asked: “How are you? 99

3. Скажите по-английски, используя образцы.


Образец 1: She asked me if I would go to the concert the next day.
Она спросила, а) будем ли мы изучать английский язык; б) что
он сейчас делает; в) была ли я когда-нибудь в Америке; г) занима-
ходил
чил ли он свою работу.
Образец 2: Не asked when the conference would open.
Он спросил, а) где я учусь; б) когда я принимал участие
долго я играю
стадион; е) куда я сейчас иду.
227
Повелительное предложение
наклонение инфи­
нитивом:
I said: “Train п
asked him to train
Если прямая речь представляет собой приказание, то глагол say,
вводящ ий прямую речь, зам еняется глаголом tell велеть, сказать
или order приказывать:
I said: “G o home. I told him to go home.
прямая речь выражает просьбу, то глагол say заменяется
голом ask просить:
Не said: “Help me with Не asked me to help him with
English grammar, please.” English grammar.
Он сказал: «Помоги мне, Он попросил меня помочь ему
пожалуйста, разобраться разобраться в грамматике
в грамматике английского английского язы ка.
языка».

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Скажите по-русски.
1. Не ordered us to go hom e. 2. My m other asked me to buy some
bread. 3. He told us to send him a telegram as soon as possible. 4. They
asked us not to stay there long. 5. He asked me to phone him the next
day. 6. She asked him to bring a cup o f coffee.
2. Прочитайте и перескажите текст.

AESOP AND THE TRAVELLER


Aesop was a very clever m an who lived hundreds o f years ago in G reece.
He wrote m any fine stories and was known as a m an who was fond o f
jokes. '
One day, as he was walking along a country road, he m et a traveller.
The traveller greeted him and asked:
“K ind m an, can you tell me how soon I will get to tow n?”
“G o ,” Aesop answered.
“ I know I m ust g o ,” protested the traveller, “but I want to know how
soon I will get to tow n.”
“G o ,” Aesop said again angrily.
“This m an is m ad,” the traveller thought and went on. A fter he had
gone some distance, Aesop shouted after him : “You will get to town in
two hours.”

228
The traveller turned round in astonishment. “Why didn't you tell me
that before?” he asked.
“I didn’t know how fast you could walk,” answered Aesop.

НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА


В английском языке имеются три неличные формы глагола: при­
частие, герундий и инфинитив. Неличные формы глагола не изме­
няются по лицам и не употребляются самостоятельно в роли ска­
зуемого. Помимо глагольных свойств неличные формы глагола об­
ладают признаками других частей речи.

Причастие
Причастие (The Participle) — это неличная форма глагола, ко­
торая имеет признаки и глагола, и прилагательного:
Летящая птица. Летящая — причастие (от глаго­
ла лететь).
Причастие обозначает такой признак предмета, который указы-
или состояние предмета
река бегущая
состояние реки.
Бегущий спортсмен. Причастие бегущий указывает на
действие, совершаемое спортс­
меном.
Причастие, как и прилагательное, является в предложении оп­
ределением:
Прибывающий поезд. Поезд какой? — прибывающий.
Сравните:
Скорый поезд. Поезд какой? — скорый.
Прибывающий — причастие, скорый — прилагательное, а функ­
ция в предложении одна и та же — определение.
В русском языке есть причастия действительного и страдатель­
ного залога, а также причастия совершенного и несовершенного вида:
Переводчик, переводящий Переводящий — причастие дей-
статыо. ствительного залога, несовер­
шенного вида.
Переводчик, переводивший Переводивший — причастие дей-
статью. ствительного залога, несовер­
шенного вида.
Статья, переводимая перевод- Переводимая — причастие стра-
чиком. дательного залога, несовершен­
ного вида.
229
Статья, переведенная Переведенная — причастие
переводчиком. страдательного залога, со­
вершенного вида.
Статья не переведена. Не переведена — краткое при­
частие совершенного вида.
Английское причастие соответствует русским причастию и дее­
причастию.
Деепричастие — это такая форма глагола, которая имеет призна­
ки глагола и наречия, обозначает добавочное действие при основном
глаголе и отвечает на вопросы что делая ? что сделав ?:
Приехав на вокзал, мы пошли Приехав —деепричастие,
прямо в кассу.
Друзья возвращались домой, Разговаривая — деепричастие,
весело разговаривая.
Деепричастие обладает некоторыми грамматическими призна­
ками глагола, а именно: бывают деепричастия как совершенного, так
и несовершенного вида:
читая —деепричастие несовершенного вида;
прочитав — деепричастие совершенного вида.
Как наречие, деепричастие выполняет в предложении функцию
обстоятельства (отвечает на вопросы: как?когда?почему?при ка­
ком условии происходит действие ?):
Он сидел у стола задумавшись. Сидел как? — задумавшись
(деепричастие).
Сравните:
Он задумчиво сидел у стола. Сидел как? — задумчиво (на­
речие).
Обладая свойствами прилагательного, английское причастие слу­
жит определением к существительному. В этой функции оно соот­
ветствует русскому причастию:
There is a broken cup on the table. На столе —разбитая чашка.
Обладая свойствами наречия, причастие является в предложении
обстоятельством. В этой функции оно соответствует русскому дее­
причастию. На русский язык английское причастие переводится де­
епричастием несовершенного вида, когда добавочное действие, вы­
ражаемое этим причастием, и главное действие, выражаемое гла-
голом-сказуемым, происходят одновременно:
Не stood at the window, thinking Он стоял у окна, думая о бу-
of his future. дущем.
230
Если действие, выражаемое английским причастием, соверша­
ется до начала действия, выражаемого глаголом-сказуемым, то при
переводе употребляется русское деепричастие совершенного вида:
Throwing the letter into the fire Бросив письмо в огонь, он
he left the room. вышел из комнаты.
Причастие I — несовершенного вида, действительного залога:
reading boy — читающий мальчик.
Причастие II — совершенного вида, страдательного залога: read
book — прочитанная книга.

Причастие I
Причастие I (Participle I) выражает действие, являющееся при­
знаком предмета (people entering this room — люди, входящие в эту
комнату) или сопутствующим действием (Entering the room, he
said... — Входя в комнату, он сказал ...).
Причастие I (причастие в форме несовершенного вида, действи­
тельного залога) образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к
глаголу в форме инфинитива (без частицы to):
to read читать — reading читающий', читая
to stand стоять — standing стоящий’, стоя
to study изучать — studying изучающий', изучая
The facts illustrating his theory Факты, иллюстрирующие его
sound convincing. теорию, звучат убедительно.
Illustrating his theory, he gave Иллюстрируя свою теорию, он
a lot of historical facts. привел много исторических
фактов.
Причастие I I
Причастие II (Participle II) (в форме совершенного вида, стра­
дательного залога) выражает состояние или качество предмета,
явившееся результатом воздействия на предмет извне (a frightened
woman — напуганная женщина, a broken window —разбитое окно).
Причастие II правильных глаголов образуется путем прибавления
окончания -ed к глаголу в форме инфинитива (без частицы to):
to ask спросить, спрашивать — asked спрошенный
to order заказать, заказывать — ordered заказанный
Причастие 11 неправильных глаголов соответствует третьей фор­
ме глагола (третья колонка в таблице неправильных глаголов):
to give дать, давать — given данный
to buy купить, покупать — bought купленный
Причастие II переходных глаголов всегда пассивно по значению.
231
Перевод причастий на русский язык
Выступая в качестве определения, причастия I и II переводятся
на русский язык соответствующими русскими причастиями:
approaching train — приближающийся поезд (несовершенный
вид, действительный залог)
asked question — заданный вопрос (совершенный вид, стра­
дательный залог)
Иногда причастия имеют при себе пояснительные слова, обра­
зуя определительный причастный оборот (т. е. оборот, выступающий
в предложении в качестве определения), и стоят после существи­
тельного, к которому относятся.
В английском языке определительные причастные обороты за­
пятыми, как правило, не выделяются и переводятся на русский
язык соответствующим причастным оборотом или придаточным
предложением: w 1~
The woman standing at the window Женщина, которая стоит
is my elder sister. у окна, моя старшая сестра.
Обладая свойством деепричастия, английское причастие может
образовывать причастный оборот, выступающий в предложении в
качестве обстоятельства. Такой оборот выделяется запятыми, а
причастие выражает действие, относящееся к подлежащему.
Причастный оборот, выступающий в предложении в качестве
обстоятельства, переводится на русский язык деепричастным обо­
ротом или придаточным предложением:
Travelling in Africa, he saw a lot of Путешествуя no Африке, он
interesting things. увидел много интересного.
В оборотах данного типа причастию могут предшествовать со­
юзы when, while, которые при переводе на русский язык часто опус­
каются:
When reading books, he always Читая книги, он всегда выписы-
wrote out interesting expressions. вал интересные выражения.
When asked about it, he didn’t Когда его спросили об этом, он
say a word. не сказал ни слова.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Дополните предложения. Используйте образец.
Образец: I saw a girl. She was dancing. I saw I saw a dancing girl.
1. He listened to a boy. The boy was singing. He listened to .... 2. Wfe
noticed a bird. It was flying. Wfe noticed ... . 3. They watched athletes.
232
They were swimming. They watched ... . 4. I saw children. They were
playing. 1 saw __ 5. She looked at the ship. It was sailing. She looked at —
6. He laughed at his roommates. They were arguing. He laughed at ... .
7. She burnt herself with water. It was boiling. She burnt herself with ....
8 .1 saw a car. It was moving. I saw __ 9. The police caught two teenagers.
They were fighting. The police caught ... . 10. C hildren watched an
elephant. It was eating. Children watched ... . 11. They ran out of the
house. It was burning. They run out o f ....
2. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимания на пере­
вод причастий.
1. She spoke to the crying child. 2. He was knocked off because he
didn’t notice the moving car. 3. The playing girl is my cousin. 4. D on’t
play w ith the eating dog. 5. Be careful with boiling water. 6. D on’t
interrupt speaking people. 7. It was a nice picture of a sleeping baby.
8. Everybody looked at a running girl. 9. Entering the room, she turned
on the light. 10. Coming to the theatre, she saw that the performance
had already begun. 11. Looking out o f the window, he saw his m other
watering the flowers. 12. Hearing the sounds o f m usic, we stopped.
13. Leaving the room, she locked the door. 14. Writing the dictation, he
made only one mistake.
3. Составьте вопросы и ответы по образцу.
Образец: ... a cat washing itself? —> Have you ever seen a cat washing itself?
Yes, I’ve often seen a washing cat. (No, I’ve never seen a washing
cat.)
1.... a man walking? 2 .... a horse running? 3 .... a dog standing on its
head? 4 .... a cat walking on two legs? 5. ... a horse dancing? 6. ... a dog
eating? 7. ... a bird flying? 8. ... a man jum ping over a chair? 9. ... a boy
throwing stones? 10.... a baby reading a book? 11.... a student reading a
book? 12__ boys kicking each other?
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. My sister likes boiled eggs. 2. Wfe stopped before a shut door. 3. They
saw overturned tables and chairs and pieces of broken glass all over the
room. 4. She put a plate o f fried fish in front o f me. 5. D on’t keep broken
cups at home.
5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на при­
частия I и П.
1. a) A fish taken out o f the water cannot live, b) A person taking a
sunbath must be very careful, c) Taking a dictionary, he began to translate
the text. 2. a) A line seen through this crystal looks double, b) A teacher
seeing a mistake in a student’s dictation always corrects it. c) Seeing clouds
o f smoke over the house, the girl cried: “ Fire! Fire!” 3. a) The word said
by the student was not correct, b) The man standing at the door o f the
233
tram carriage and saying goodbye to his friends is a well-known athlete,
c) Standing at the window, she was waving her hand. 4. a) A letter sent
from St Petersbuig today will be in Moscow tomorrow b) He saw some
people in the post-office sending telegrams, c) When sending the telegram,
she foigot to write her name. 5. a) Some of the questions put to the lecturer
yesterday were very important, b) The girl putting the book on the shelf
is the new librarian, c) While putting the eggs into the basket, she broke
one of them. 6. a) A word spoken in time may have very important results,
b) The students speaking good English have to help their friends, c) The
speaking doll interested the child very much, d) While speaking to Nick
some days ago, I foigot to ask him about his sister.
6. Раскройте скобки и выберите соответствующую форму причастия.
1. a) The girl (writing, written) on the blackboard is our best student,
b) Everything (writing, written) here is quite right. 2. a) The house
(.surrounding, surrounded) by tall trees is very beautiful, b) The wall
(.surrounding, surrounded) the house was very high. 3. a) Who is this athlete
(doing, done) these exercises? b) The exercises (doing, done) by the athlete
were difficult. 4. a) The girl (washing, washed) the floor is my sister, b) The
floor (washing, washed) by Helen looked very clean. 5. a) Wfe listened to
the girls (singing, sung) Russian folk songs, b) We listened to the Russian
folk songs (singing, sung) by the girls. 6. Do you know the girl (running,
run)! 7. a) The book (writing, written) by this scientist is very interesting,
b) Translate the words (writing, written) at the top of the page. 8. Wfe could
not see the sun (covering, covered) by dark clouds. 9. The (losing, lost)
book was found at last. 10. (Going, gone) along the street, I met Mary
and Ann. 11. Read the (translating, translated) sentences once more.
12. Name some places (visiting, visited) by you last year. 13.1 picked up
the pencil (lying, lain) on the floor. 14. She was reading the book (buying,
bought) the day before. 15. Yesterday we were at a conference (organizing,
organized) by our students. 16. (Taking, taken) the girl by the hand, she
led her across the street. 17. It was not easy to find the (losing, lost) racket.
18. I will show you a picture (painting, painted) by Hogarth. 19. Here is
the letter (receiving, received) by me yesterday. 20. Look at the beautiful
flowers (gathering, gathered) by the children. 21. His hat (blowing, blown)
off in the wind was lying in the middle of the street. 22. “How do you
like the film?” he asked, (turning, turned) towards me. 23. When we came
nearer, we saw two boys (coming, come) toward us. 24. I think that the
student (standing, stood) there is the person we need.
7. Переведите следующие причастия и деепричастия на английский язык:
приносящий; принесенный; принося; переводящий; переведен­
ный; переводя; давая; читающий; берущий; данный; сказанный;
делая; взятый; рисуя; идя; пишущий; прочитанный; говорящий;
беря; написанный; читая; идущий; дающий; нарисованный; стро­
ящий; играя; рассказанный; видя; построенный
234
8. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN


custom обычай
bowler hat котелок (головной убор)
gift подарок, дар
sweetheart возлюбленный
pancakes блины
Shrove Tuesday вторник на Масленой неделе
housewife домохозяйка
Lent Великий пост
Some English customs and traditions are famous all over the world.
Bowler hats, tea and talks about the weather, for example. From Scotland
to Cornwall, the United Kingdom is full of customs and traditions. Here
are some o f them.
Valentine is the saint of people in love, and St Valentine’s Day is
February, 14. People send gifts and hand-m ade valentines to th eir
sweethearts. Originally, a valentine was a colourful card with a short love
verse composed by the sender. Now thousands of ready-made valentines
are sent through the post every year.
Pancake Day is a popular name for Shrove Tuesday. Many people still
traditionally eat pancakes on that day. One o f the main events of Shrove
Tuesday is th e pancake race at O lney in B uckingham shire. The
competitors in the race are housewives from Olney. Spectators enjoy the
performance of running women. The housewives have to make their own
pancakes and run from the village square to the church.
The fourth Sunday in Lent is Mothering Sunday — a day of small family
reunions. On this day absent sons and daughters return to their homes.
9. Запомните следующие выражения:
I want to tell yon about... Я хочу рассказать о ...
То begin w ith,... Начнем с того, что ...
The text describes ... В тексте говорится о ...
The most interesting fact for me Самым интересным для меня
i s ... является...
10. Перескажите текст упр. 8. Используйте при пересказе выражения из
упр. 9.
11. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN


( continued)
April Fool’s Day День смеха
Middle Ages Средние века
servant слуга

235
waster —хозяин
are very keen supporters —с энтузиазмом поддерживают традицию
of the tradition
trick —проделка, проказа
dew —роса
Maypole —майский шест
April, 1 is April Fool’s Day in Great Britain. This is a very old tradition
from the Middle Ages. At that time, servants were masters for one day of
the year. Now April Fool’s Day is different. It’s a day for jokes and tricks.
Any person, young or old, important or not, may be made an April Fool
between the hours of midnight and noon. Children are, of course, very
keen supporters of the traditions. Most of their “supporting” tricks have
now become traditional.
May, 1 was an important day in the Middle Ages, too. In the very early
morning, young girls went to fields and walked there washing their faces
with dew. They believed this made them very beautiful for a year after
that. Also, on May Day young men of each village tried to win prizes
competing in arrowing, then people danced round the Maypoie.
12. Ответьте на вопросы к текстам упр. 8 и 11.
1. What proves that the United Kingdom is a country of traditions?
2. How is St Valentine’s Day marked?
3. What is April Fool’s Day?
4. What are the old traditions of May Day?
13. Скажите по-английски.
1. В Соединенном Королевстве много обычаев и трад и ц и й, из­
вестных во всем мире. 2. День святого Валентина, святого влюб­
ленных, отмечается 14 февраля. 3.1 апреля —День смеха, день шу­
ток и проделок. 4. 1 мая — праздник прихода (coming) весны.

Конструкции с причастием
1іричастие в сочетании с существительным или местоимение»
может образовывать синтаксические конструкции, выполняющи
функции некоторых членов пред ложения и равноценные придаточ
ным предложениям.
существительное
(в общем падеже)
1ЛТЧЛ д. причасти© u гг
или + (I или и ) = причастным оборот
местоимение
косвенном палі
Let Джон
guitar играет на гитаре.
236
Данная причастная конструкция выполняет в предложении функ­
цию сложного дополнения.
Сравните:
I saw Tom. Я видел (кого?) Тома.
I saw Tom passing our house. Я видел (что?), как Том проходил
мимо нашего дома.
На русский язык причастный оборот переводится дополнитель­
ным придаточным предложением с союзом как или что:
I saw him (Jack) entering the room. Я видел, как он (Джек) входил
в комнату.
She heard the door shut. Она слышала, как (что) дверь
захлопнули.
Сложное дополнение употребляется после некоторых глаголов:
1) после глаголов, выражающих физическое восприятие', see ви­
деть, hear слышать, watch наблюдать, notice замечать, обращать вни­
мание и др.:
I saw him running. Я видел, как он бежал.
2) после глаголов, выражающих желание: want хотеть, wish же­
лать, would like желать, хотеть:
Не wants the work done imme- * Он хочет, чтобы работа была
diately. сделана немедленно.
после глагола have в конструкции have sth done. Конструкция
ает, что действие производится не лицом-подлежащим, а ка­
ким-либо другим Л1
I had my suit cleaned Я почистил костюм (его мне по­
чистили, я отдавал его
в чистку).

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Составьте предложения.

Where can I the film developed?


When will you this parcel delivered to the airport?
Could I have a dress cleaned?
Why didn’t you your visa extended?
When did you your tooth filled? I
your tooth pulled out?
these things taken away?

237
2. Скажите по-русски.
1. I have this suit cleaned every month. 2. I’ve just had a new coat
made. 3. Why did you have your dress shortened? It was quite all right.
4. Have them brought here immediately. 5. I’ve just had the knives
sharpened. Don’t cut yourself. 6. Jack has his nose broken in fight. My
roommate had his money stolen on a train.
3. Закончите предложения. Используйте образец.
Образец: “Did your mother make that dress herself?” -» “No, sbe had it
made.” .
1. “Did they paint the walls themselves?” 2.“Did you cut your hair
yourself?” 3. “Did your parents repair the car themselves?” 4. “Did your
father install a telephone himself?” 5. “Did you develop this film
yourself?” 6. “Did you take your blood test yourself?”
4. Прочитайте и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1 .1 ve never seen him running before. 2. We saw them playing tennis.
3. They wanted us invited to the party. 4. I heard his name mentioned
several times during the conversation. 5. I had my luggage sent to the
station. 6.1 saw them walking along the bank of the river. 7. The coach
watched the athletes preparing for the races. 8. The athlete wanted his
running shoes repaired.
5. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

CELTS
Celts - кельты
weapon -- оружие
chariot -- колесница
tribe - племя
temple -- храм
invaders -- завоеватели
Two thousand years ago, Britain was very different from the country
you know today. The people who lived in Britain were called Celts. They
lived in wooden huts in small villages. Thick forests full of wild animals
surrounded the villages. The Celts men were good hunters.
The Celts were farmers, too. Living in villages, they grew all their own
food. They also made things from wood and iron like weapons and
chariots.
They lived in groups called tribes with their own king and queen. The
tribes built forts on the hills which were very difficult to attack. Forts give
us the information about how the Celts lived. Helmets, shields, cooking
pots were found inside the forts nowadays. The Celts had no books. They
could neither read nor write. So we don’t know much about the Celts.
238
Who were the first invaders who attacked the Celts? They were known
to be Romans and they lived in the country called Italy now. They were
very different from the Celts. They lived in big cities, like Rome, full of
buildings made of stone. There were shops, baths, temples and theatres.
The Romans could write and read. Their country was highly developed.
The Romans wanted Britain to lose its independence.
Julius Caesar was the first Roman who attacked the Celts in 55 BC.
But after a few weeks he had to leave.
6. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What can you tell us about Britain two thousand years ago?
2. How were the people called who lived then in Britain?
3. Did the Celts live in villages or in towns?
4. How did the Celts live? (in separate families, groups, tribes)
5. What was found inside the forts?
6. Could the Celts read or write? Did they have books?
know
Was
from the life of the Celts?
Who was the first Roman to attack the С
Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский

CELTS
(icontinued)
attempt — попытка
conquer — завоевывать
be defeated — быть побежденным
invader — захватчик, завоеватель
After the unsuccessful attem pt, Caesar tried to attack the Celts once
more a year later. He won a few battles but he could not conquer the Celts.
Nearly one hundred after it, Emperor Claudius sent a large army for
the same purpose.
The Celtic Queen Boudicca gathered a large army and fought bravely
against Romans. Boudicca and her soldiers killed many Romans but
were finally defeated. Soon the Romans occupied a part of Southern
Britain.
Since then, Britain had lost its independence. During the centuries,
the history o f England became the history of wars. Different invaders
changing each other had a great influence with the development of the
country.
As for Romans, they stayed in Britain for nearly four hundred years
leaving a significant cultural trace. Romans made roads, built military
fortresses grown into English towns later. Besides, being more developed,
the language of Romans influenced the dialects of different British tribes.
239
8. Выразите свое отношение к данным высказываниям. Докажите свою
точку зрения, используя текст упр. 5 и 7.
1. Caesar could conquer the Celts. 2. The Celts were defeated because
Boudicca couldn t gather a large army. 3. During the centuries, the history
of England was the history of wars. 4. Romans left a significant cultural
trace in England. 5. The dialects of different British tribes influenced the
language of Romans.

Самостоятельный причастный оборот


В английском языке есть причастный оборот, не имеющий пол­
ной аналогии в русском языке. Он называется самостоятельным
причастным оборотом. Такое название связано с тем, что в этом
причастном обороте есть самостоятельное подлежащее.
Существительное
(в общем падеже)
или + причастие _ самостоятельный
местоимение @ И) причастный оборот
(в именительном падеже)
The student knowing English well, Так как студент хорошо знал
the examination did not last long. английский язык, экзамен
продолжался недолго.
Самостоятельный причастный оборот the student knowing English
well имеет свое подлежащее the student. По-русски мы не можем ска­
зать: «Студент, зная... экзамен продолжался...». Поэтому самосто­
ятельный причастный оборот надо переводить придаточным пред­
ложением, а иногда и самостоятельным предложением. Этот обо­
рот чаще всего выражает причинную связь, что видно из примера:
«(Так как) студент хорошо знал английский язык, экзамен продол­
жался недолго».
Такая конструкция с причастием выполняет в предложении функ­
цию сложного обстоятельства и выделяется запятыми.
Если самостоятельный придаточный оборот находится в нача­
ле или в середине английского предложения, то он переводится на
русский язык обстоятельственным придаточным предложением с
одним из подчинительных союзов: так как, поскольку, ввиду того
что, после того как (когда)'.
The weather being fine, they went Так как погода была хорошая,
for a Walk. они пошли гулять.
Если самостоятельный причастный оборот завершает англий­
ское предложение, то он переводится на русский язык самостоя­
тельным предложением с одним из сочинительных союзов: причем,
в то время как, а:
240
He read some books in English, Он прочитал несколько книг
the latest being about holidays по-английски, причем по­
in England. следняя книга была о празд­
никах в Англии.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на са­
мостоятельный причастный оборот.
Образец 1: The day being very cold, he had no desire to walk. —» Так как день
был очень холодный, у него не было желания идти пешком.
a) 1. The next morning, it being Sunday, we all stayed at home. 2. There
being nothing else on the table, Oliver replied that he wasn’t hungry.
3. The athlete being tired, the coach told him that he could have a rest.
4. There being little time left, they took a taxi to get to the airport in time.
5. It being now very late, we left the gym. 6. The weather being cold, he
put on his overcoat.
Образец 2: His story being told, he leaned back and sighed. —» Когда его
история была рассказана, он откинулся назад и вздохнул.
b) 1. The concert being over, the lottery came next. 2. The exams being
passed, all the students had a holiday. 3. The training session being over,
the students went home. 4. The task being done, he was nervous about
results. 5. The Olympic Games being over, all the athletes came back to
their countries.
Образец 3: He stood silent, his lips pressed together. —» Он стоял молча,
плотно сжав губы.
c) 1. Jack sat silent, his long legs stretched out. 2. The speaker faced
the audience, his hand raised for silence. 3. Tired, his heart beat fast, the
athlete finished his performance. 4. She rose from the chair and stood
motionless, her hands put into her pockets. 5. He prepared for the exam,
his topics all learnt by heart.
2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя самостоятель­
ный причастный оборот.
Образец: As the front door was open, she could see straight through the house.
—» The front door being open, she could see straight through the
house.
1. As our work was finished, we went home. 2. As the weather was
perfect, Linda played tennis every day. 3. As the underground station was
not far, we walked there. 4. There was, in fact, nothing to wait for, and
we got down to work. 5. There was very little time left, we had to hurry.
6. When the working day was over, she went home. 7. As the last month
was a very busy one, she could not go swimming.
241
3. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

HALLOWEEN

All Saints9Day — День всех святых


believed in devils. верили
witches and ghosts
sharp-witted — остроумный
Paradise — рай
soul душа
И И Hell
ЦИИИ— ад
pumpkin — тыква
candle — свеча
evil spirits — злые духи
trcat —угощение
scare — пугать
Halloween is a popular British tradition. It is celebrated on October
31, the eve of All Saints’ Day. Halloween’s customs date back to a time
when people believed in devils, witches and ghosts. A legend told us about
a man who was very intelligent and sharp-witted. Once a devil tried to
play a trick on him. The man being very clever, the devil was tricked
himself. After that the man forced the devil to let him alone. The devil
promised the man not to have affairs with him. Our hero was very pleased
But the man having the agreement with the devil, his soul wasn’t taken
to Paradise. His soul wasn’t taken to Hell, the devil promising the man
not to have affairs with him. Since then, the man’s soul had been walking
around the earth. The man’s soul was carrying a pumpkin with a lighting
candle inside.
Now most people do not believe in evil spirits. Today, the holiday is
usually marked by costume balls or fancy-dress parties and is a popular
tradition with young people and children.
On the night of Halloween, children or grown-ups visit houses and
ask the residents if they want “trick” or “treat”. If the people in the house
give the children a “treat” (usually money or sweets), then the children
will not play a trick on them. Another Halloween custom is to scrape out
a pumpkin, cutting out eyes, nose and mouth in its side and lighting a
candle inside. This is made to scare their friends.
4. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What time do the Halloween customs date back?
2. What did the legend tell us?
3. Why wasn’t the man’s soul taken to Paradise?
4. Why wasn’t the man’s soul taken to Hell?
5. Is it always good to play tricks?
6. How is Halloween marked today?
7. Do we celebrate Halloween in Russia?
242
5. Скажите по-английски.
1. Обычаи Хэллоуина, праздника накануне Дня всех святых, вос­
ходят к временам, когда люди верили в злых духов.
2. Однажды черт решил подшутить над человеком.
3. Поскольку этот человек оказался очень умным, черт сам был
обманут.
4. И з-за того что человек заключил соглашение с чертом, его
душа не попала в рай.
5. В ад душа этого человека тоже не попала из-за того, что черт
обещал никогда не связываться с этим человеком.
6. В ночь Хэллоуина дети и взрослые стучатся в двери домов и
просят их обитателей дать им угощение.
7. Если дети не получают угощ ения, они устраивают розыг­
рыши.
6. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE NORMAN CONQUEST


ruler — правитель
Norman duke — норманнский герцог
William the Conqueror — Вильгельм Завоеватель
battle of Hastings — битва при Гастингсе
dignity — знать -
During the centuries England had many wars and foreign rulers. In
1066 a Norm an duke William the Conqueror won the battle of Hastings
and became the king of England.
Norman knights became the English upper class, the English dignity
being killed or forced to leave their own houses.
The Scandinavians by origin, the Normans had lived for a long time
in France so they brought to England French customs and the language.
English wasn’t allowed in England, N orm an French was the official
language. Since then in England there were even kings and school
teachers, which did not know a word in English.
England had spoken French for 300 years. Only the poor spoke
English. The poor and the rich naturally spoke “different languages” , till
the upper class realized that it was impossible to make all the population
o f England speak French.
In 1362 there was a sensation. The speech from the throne was made
in English by the king Edward III! After a hundred years there was a new
victory — English was spoken in schools again. In 1477 the first printed
book appeared in English. But a great difficulty appeared in English since
then. During the centuries the spoken English had changed greatly, as
the written English hadn’t been developed since the Norm an Conquest.
T hat’s why it’s so difficult to read English. There is a great difference
between the spelling and the pronunciation. Now it’s a problem not only
243
for the Russian students learning English, but for English children and
adults as well.
7. Составьте реферат на основе текста упр. 6.

Формы английского причастия

форму — совершенного
страдательного залога разбитая чашка).
Причастие I имеет формы, указывающие время и залог
страдательный

Причастие I
Форма времени Действительный залог Страдательный залог
Длительное doing делающий, делая being done делаемый
Совершенное having done сделав having bee!
сделанным

соответствуя
скому причастию, или что делая
му деепричастию:
The sportsman doing the exercise Спортсмен, выполняющий уп­
is a Master of Sports. ражнение мастер спорта.
Doing the exercise, the sportsman Выполняя упражнение
injured his hand. мен повредил руку.
Being explained in English, Тему было нелегко понять, та]
the subject was not easy как ее объясняли по-англий
to understand. ски. (Букв. Объясняемая по
английски, тема была нелег
кой для понимания.)
форме
выраженное им действие предшествует действию, выражен
ному сказуемым:
Having Сказав это, я должен
олжать
Having been invited to the meeting, Будучи приглашенными
time шенные) на собрание, мы
пришли вовремя.
да различие между причастиями в форме длительного
5нного времени можно выразить в переводе, употребляя
случае деепричастие несовершенного вида, а во втором
;eeпричастие
244
Сравните:
coming приходя — haying come придя
solving решая — having solved решив
spreading распространяя — having spread распространив
working работая — having worked проработав
Обратите внимание на способы перевода на английский язык
русских причастий и деепричастий:

Прича- Действитель- несовершен- бросающий throwing


стие ныи залог ныи вид
совершен­ бросивший having thrown
ный вид
Страдатель­ несовершен- бросаемый being thrown
ный залог ныи вид
совершен­ брошенный thrown, having
ный вид been thrown
Деепри- Действитель- несовершен- бросая throwing
частие ныи залог ныи вил
совершен- бросив having thrown
ный BHJ
Страдатель­ несовершен- будучи бро- being thrown
ный залог ный вид саемым
совершен­ будучи бро­ having been
ный вид шенным thrown

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
I. Переведете предложения на русский язык.
I. I heard the news being announced. 2. Wfe watched the boxes being
carried up the stairs. 3. When crossing the street in London, look first to
the right, then to the left. 4. While playing tennis, be sure you hold the
racket in the right way. 5. Having been shown the wrong direction, the
travellers soon lost their way. 6. Having descended the m ountain, the
athletes saw a flat place for rest. 7. Having heard the news, he decided
not to tell it to their friends. 8. Having visited the doctor, he went to the
chem ist's. 9. The exercise being done now is his top achievem ent.
10. Having being examined by the physician, they began to practise more.
11. Having finished his training session, he went home. 12. Finishing his
training session, he hurt his arm badly. 13. Drinking tea, she read the letter.
14. Having drunk tea, she did the washing-up. IS. Having written out
and learnt all the new words, he was able to translate the text easily.

245
2. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Назовите форму причастия.
a) 1. Explained again, the rule became clear to everybody. 2. The rule
explained, we started doing the exercises. 3. The rule being explained is
not easy. 4. The rule explained is not easy.
b) 1. The man saved was an English scientist. The man saved an English
scientist. 2. All the children having been saved, everybody felt relieved.
3. Having saved the boy s life, the doctor felt relieved. 4. The passengers
are being saved. n
3. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

GREAT BRITAIN
the United Kingdom of Great Britain —Соединенное Королевство Вели-
and Northern Ireland кобритании и Северной Ирландии
total area общая площадь
urban городской
be made up of sth. состоять из чего-л.
English Channel пролив Ла-Манш
incredible невероятный
tunnel туннель
mild мягкий, умеренный
surface поверхность
flat плоский, ровный
mountainous гористый
castle замок, дворец
establish основать
chief industry ведущая отрасль промышленности
shipbuilding судостроение
constitutional monarchy конституционная монархия
the Queen королева
Head of State глава государства
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated
on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great
Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total
area is over 244,000 square kilometres.
The United Kingdom is one of the world’s smaller countries. It’s
population is over 57 million. About 80 per cent of the population is urban.
The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, \\kles,
Scotland and Northern Ireland. In everyday speech “Great Britain” is
used in the meaning of the “United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland . The capital of the UK is London. English is the official
language.
A long time ago, Britain was joined to France. Then, about 8,000 years
ago, the level of the sea rose and Britain became an island. The result
was the English Channel which is situated between France and England.
246
Now it is one of the busiest sea lines in the world. It is about 563 kilometres
long and no more than 34 kilometres wide.
One of the most incredible pieces o f engineering is the Channel
Tunnel. It joins England and France under the ground. The Channel
Tunnel was opened in 1994 after six years of work. Its size is 50 kilometres
and it is situated 130 metres under the sea. The climate of Great Britain
is mild. It is not too hot in summer neither too cold in winter. It often
rains in England. Rain falls in summer and in winter, in autumn and in
spring. Snow falls only in the North and \\fest of the country. The surface
of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and >№les are mountainous.
Many parts of the country have beautiful villages.
People often say that the Englishman’s house is his castle. They mean
that the home is very important and personal. Most people in Britain live
in houses rather than flats.
There are many rivers in Great Britain. The longest river is the Severn.
It is 350 kilometres long.
There are 44 universities in Britain. They are divided into three types:
1. The old established universities, such as Oxford (founded in 1249),
Cambridge and Edinburgh. Oxford and Cambridge together are often
called Oxbridge.
2. The 19th-century universities such as London and Manchester.
3. The new universities established after Warld War II, such as Essex,
Lancaster and so on. ,. '
The UK is a highly-developed industrial country. It produces and
exports machinery, electronics, textile. One of the chief industries of the
country is shipbuilding.
The U К is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and the Queen
as Head o f State.
The British are a sports-loving nation. Cricket, soccer, rugby, tennis,
squash, table tennis, badminton, canoeing and snooker were all invented
in Britain. The first rules for such sports as boxing, golf, hockey, yachting
and horse-racing also originated from Britain. Sports is on the programme
of all state and private schools and universities. Sports is a part of everyday
life in Britain.
4. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What islands is the United Kingdom situated on?
2. What is the country’s population?
3. What is the United Kingdom made up of?
4. What do you know about the English Channel?
5. What do you know about the surface of the British Isles?
6. What is the climate of G reat Britain?
7. What do you know about universities in G reat Britain?
8. What are Britain’s chief industries?
9. What is Britain’s political system?
10. What do you know about sports in Britain?
247
Герундий

Герундий (The Gerund) это неличная форма глагола, которая


ведет себя как существительное. В русском языке аналогичной фор­
мы нет. Герундий образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к
основе глагола (инфинитиву без частицы to). По своему значению
герундий приближается к русским отглагольным существительным,
обозначающим процесс (.хождение, чтение, плавание и т.д.), и
встречается в предложении в следующих случаях:
1) в функции подлежащего:
Motor-racing is a dangerous sport. Автомобильные гонки — это
опасный вид спорта.
2) в функции дополнения:
I practise swimming. Я занимаюсь плаванием.
3) в словосочетаниях, эквивалентных русским словосочетани­
ям глагол + глагол в неопределенной форме (Я люблю плавать.) или
глагол + существительное, обозначающее процесс (Он закончил чте­
ние статьи.). В данных словосочетаниях герундий употребляется в
качестве второго составляющего компонента, а его употребление
определяется первым глаголом, т. е. герундий употребляется после
целого ряда глаголов, а именно: avoid избегать, finish заканчивать,
keep держать, хранить, mind иметь в виду, risk рисковать, suggest
предполагать и др.:
Avoid injuring your legs. Избегайте травмирования ног.
Среди данного ряда глаголов особое внимание обращают на себя
глаголы, выражающие эмоциональное отношение к чему-либо (кому-
либо). like находить приятным, любить, prefer предпочитать, hate
ненавидеть, love любить и др.:
I hate watching TV games. Я ненавижу смотреть игры по
I like playing myself. телевизору. Я люблю играть
сам. явим ■ » Ш
4) после предлогов:
I’m good at running. Я хорошо бегаю.
I like the idea watching TV. Мне нравится идея посмотреть
телевизор.
Герундий может переводиться на русский язык:
а) существительным:
I like his method o f teaching. Мне нравится его метод препо­
давания.
248
б) глаголом в неопределенной форме'.
It’s no use talking to him. С ним бесполезно разговаривать.
в) деепричастием (сопутствующее действие):
Не left without saying a word. Он ушел, не сказав не слова.
г) придаточным предложением:
Не was suspected o f keeping Его подозревали в том, что он
something from us. что-то от нас скрывает.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Укажите • предложении герундий. Переведите предложения на русский
язык.
Образец: Smoking is a bad habit. —>(Smoking — герундий.) Курение —
плохая привычка.
1. Walking fast is good exercise. 2. Jogging is her favourite occupation.
3. He finished reading the book. 4. I remember doing it. 5. Vfe are fond
of dancing. 6. After having dinner they watched TV. 7. Thank you for
coming. 8. He likes inviting his friends to his house. 9. He felt satisfaction
in helping them. 10. There is no sense in going there today. 11. After saying
this he left the room. 12. Excuse me for being so late. 13. Besides being
talented he works very hard. 14. I enjoy listening to music. 15. Skating is
pleasant.
2. Прочитайте предложения. Переведите их на русский язык.
1. Avoid catching cold. 2. It’s very dull discussing the same thing from
early morning till late at night. 3. His main occupation is coaching. 4. They
stopped arguing. 5. Avoid lying in the sun. 6. The suit needs cleaning.
7. Vfe are interested in attending our English classes. 8 .1 hate interrupting
people. 9. She hates disturbing people. 10. William likes reading detective
stories. 11. D on’t leave without speaking to the coach. 12. It’s no use
talking about it. 13. Tom’s taking the medicine surprised us. 14. His
knowing English will help him in his work. 15. If your going there is a
question o f money, I might help you.
3. Раскройте скобки. Употребите герундий. Прочитайте предложенния вслух.
Образец'. It isn't worth (eat) late at night. —* It isn’t worth eating late at night.
1. What is worth (do) is worth (do) well. 2. These words are not worth
(remember). 3. Such people are not worth (speak) about. 4. It’s not worth
(swim) in cold water. 5. This match is worth (watch). 6. This competition
is worth (take part) in it. 7. This book isn’t worth (read). 8. This film is
really worth (see). 9. It’s no use (get angry). 10. This country is worth
(visit). 11. These old clothes are not worth (keep).

249
геруқі
missing
him
no good (lose) things. 4. It’s no good (help) him. 5. It’s no use (teach)
them. 6. It’s no use (talk). 7. It’s no good (go) there. 8. It’s no good (wait)
for her.
5. Составьте предложения из данных слов и словосочетаний.
Образец".You can become famous only by working hard.
Vfe leam to speak English working hard.
Wfe can’t leam a foreign language only running.
One leams to swim speaking
A child leams to run arguing.
You won’t change anything reading books
You won’t achieve anything swimming.
One can become famous only shouting.
[елайте предложения по образцу. Прочитайте их
After.... —>After having
a cup of coffee I left home.
* ™ piauuseu юг a long penoa and then decided to take part in sports
competitions. After.... 2. The plane took off and soon afterwards it crashed
After
Ann of Л. ---- ------------ — w • • • • w/ • k / J I V l i U V I I I V I v i l l l l l v l

but first she washed her hands. Before .... 6. She began to practise again
What
What
7 . Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский « ш г
Yesterday Mary got up at 7 o’clock. She washed and dressed. Then
she had breakfast. After that she went to the University. At first she had
English classes. Then she studied Anatomy. Next she went to the swimming
pool for the training session. After that she did some shopping and arrived
After
classes. Then she watched TV.
Ответьте на вопросы, используя after или before.
Іразец: When did Mary have breakfast? (before) -> She had breakfast
before going to the University.
When did Mary wash and dress? (after) 2. When did she have English
ss? (before) 3. When did she go to the swimming pool? (after) 4. When
250
did she do shopping? ( before) 5. When did she have dinner? (after)
6. When did she prepare for her next-day classes? (before) 7. When did
she go to bed? (after)
9. Составьте рассказ о том, как вы провели вчерашний день, используя
предлоги after / before и герундий.
10. Раскройте скобки. Употребите герундий.
Образец: My leg was injured during the races so I couldn’t help (lose). —*
My leg was injured during the races so 1 couldn’t .help losing.
1. She was so funny that we couldn’t help (laugh). 2. They played in
such a bad weather that they couldn’t help (get ill). 3. He did his best. He
' really couldn’t help (win). 4. She has lived in England for some years.
She couldn’t help (speak. English fluently). 5. He has practised sports
since 4. He couldn’t help (play well). 6 .1 was tired. I couldn’t help (sleep
until 12 o'clock). 7. It was very sunny there. She couldn’t help (get very
brown). 8. It was very tasty. I couldn’t help (eat it up). 9. The film was so
sad that we couldn’t help (cry). 10. The situation was so bad that he
couldn’t help (speak to the coach). . , ’ '
11. Составьте предложения, используя следующие словосочетания:
go skiing; go swimming; go riding; go shopping; go climbing
1. There isn’t any food in the fridge. Wfe have to .... 2. The students of
the Lesgaft State University have to ... . 3. Wfe are going to the Alps this
year. Wfe’11be able to ... there. 4. She is a “rock star” (звезда скалолаза­
ния, альпинист высокого уровня). She often .... 5. If you like horses,
you sh o u ld ....
12. Составьте предложения по образцу. Прочитайте их вслух.
Образец: 1 have many books. I like (read). —» I have many books. I like
reading.
1 .1 hate (watch TV) in summer. I like (sunbathe). 2. They work in the
zoo. They love (look after) animals. 3. He hates (play football). He likes
(play hockey). 4. My sister loves (cook) but she hates (wash) up. 5. “WTiy
do you always wear jeans?” “ I like (wear) them .” 6 . 1 don’t like this coat.
I hate (wear) it. 7. “Why do you never go to the beach?” “ I don’t like
(sunbathe)” 8 .1 like (arrive) at work in time. 9. My father hates (do) sports
but he likes (watch) sports games on TV.
13. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

TRAVELLING
luggage — багаж
essential — необходимый
local customs — местные обычаи

251
offend — обижать, оскорблять
medical kit — медицинская аптечка
Look at the recommendations which we give a person who is going
abroad for the first time.
Luggage. Avoid packing too much luggage in order not to carry around
many things you will never use. Only take what is really essential. Make
a list of everything you pack for checking your things every time you re­
pack on the journey.
Ttavel Information. Read a good travel book for finding out the most
interesting places to visit, best way to travel.
Local Customs. Find out as much as you can about the local customs
of the country you suggest visiting in order not to offend people there.
Language. Learn some basic languages so that you can communicate
with the people of the country you are going to visit. Don’t foiget to use
expressions like: “Hello”, ‘“ Goodbye”, “Yes”, “No”, “Please” “Thank
you”, “You’re welcome”, “I’d like” and so on. f
Health. Take along a basic medical kit in case you become ill. Include
m it essential medicines, such as antibiotics, pain killere, and something
for insect bites and stomach complaints. Remember also to take a supply
of bandages and plasters.
14. Дайте совет вашему другу, уезжающему на соревнования в другой го­
род или страну. Воспользуйтесь текстом упр. 13.

Герундиальный оборот
Герундиальный оборот состоит из существительного (в притя­
жательном или общем падеже) или местоимения (притяжательно­
го или личного в объектном падеже) и герундия.
Существительное
(в притяжательном
или общем падеже)
или + герундий = геРУНДиальный
притяжательное местоимение оборот
(или личное местоимение
в объектом падеже)
The physician was against Sergey’s Врач был против того, чтобы
taking part in competitions. Сергей участвовал в соревно­
ваниях.
Существительное или местоимение в составе герундиального
оборота обозначает лицо или предмет, к которому относится дей­
ствие, выраженное герундием:
Do you mind our being present? Вы не возражаете против того,
чтобы мы присутствовали?
252
Герундиальные обороты переводятся на русский язык придаточ­
ными предложениями. Существительное или местоимение, к кото­
рому относится герундий, становится подлежащим придаточного
предложения. 1 '

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите, к кому/чему
относится действие, выраженное герундием.
1. I’ve never thought of going to England. I’ve never thought of my
sister’s going to England. 2 . 1 remember phoning Helen. I remember his
'phoning Helen. 3. Wfe don’t mind co-operating with that organization.
Wfe don’t mind your co-operating with that organization. 4. He doesn’t
mind playing this time. His coach doesn’t mind her playing this time.
5. Do you mind helping him? Do you mind his helping you? 6 .1 remember
winning this prize. I remember his winning this prize.
2. Составьте предложения из данных слов и словосочетаний. (Устно.)
Образец I: My friend gave up the idea of becoming a champion.
Образец 2: My coach gave up the idea of her becoming a champion.

gave up becoming a champion.


ш

My coach suggested being a Master of Sports.


My friend doesn’t mind the idea of speaking to the coach.
Who hates/likes (her, his) taking a holiday in January.
doesn’t like going to Spain now.

3. Закончите предложения, используя герундий. Повторите вопросы и ответы.


Образец: “How did you like his running?” “I enjoyed ... —>“How did
you like his running?” “I enjoyed his running.”
1. “Wbuld you like to walk a bit?” “N ot in this rain. I hate . . . 2 . “ Is
Alex still dreaming of becoming an athlete?” “H e’s given up the idea of
....” 3. “ Do you often talk to your coach?” “He avoids . . . 4 . “Will you
paint the walls?” “Yes, the walls need . . . 5 . “ Did they cross the river?”
“N o, they didn’t risk ... .” 6. “Did you laugh a lot?” “Wfe couldn’t help
. . . 7 . “The dinner is very good, isn’t it?” “Jane cooked it.” “Yes, Jane
is good a t ....” 8. “ He always interferes in everybody’s affairs.” “Yes. I’m
tired o f... .** 9. “ Did you hear him say goodbye?” “N o, he left without
... .” 10. “What did Jack say to our joining them ?” “ He didn’t like the
idea o f ... .” 11. “ Did he say that listening to spoken English was
im portant?” “Yes, he stressed the importance o f ... .” 12. “ I know you
were reading for your exam yesterday. What else were you doing?” “ I did
a lot o f things besides ... .” 13. “Wfe shouldn’t argue with them .” “ Right
you are. W hat’s the use o f . . . .”
253
Отличие герундия от причастия I
геруңі сегда легко. Обра-
ия
выступает в предложении в роли подлежащего или
ния. Рассмотрим
;ДУющих предложениях reading является причастием
My brother is reading a book.
In the library you can see many people reading books.
Reading his newspaper, the old man fell asleep.
следующих предложениях герундий:
Reading a good book gives me a lot of pleasure
I like reading a good book.
thinking of reading
Признаки герундия: Признаки причастия:
1. Перед герундием может стоять 1. Причастие входит в состав
предлог, существительное времен группы Continuous
в притяжательном падеже,
притяжательное местоимение:
on coming — по приезде', They are coming. Они приезжают
John’s coming — приезд Джона; It is being done. Это делается.
their coming — их приезд
2. Если герундий выполняет 2. Причастие в функции обстоя­
функцию обстоятельства, тельства употребляется без
перед ним стоит предлог: предлога:
Eat something before starting. Standingat his side, I saweveiything.
Съешьте что-нибудь до отъезда. Стоя рядом с ним, я все видела.
On learning the news, we left.
Узнав эту новость, мы уехали.
3. Перед названием предмета 3. Перед названием предмета
герундий обычно указывает на причастие обычно является
назначение этого предмета, его определением, отвечает
отвечая на вопрос для чего ?, на вопрос какой ? и перево-
и переводится на русский дится причастием или прила­
язык словосочетанием: гательным:
a dancing lesson урок a dancing child —танцующий ребенок
a sleeping bag — спальный м a sleeping bird спящая птица
laughing gas —веселящий газ a laughing girt —смеющаяся девочка
Важно понять, что в сочетании «герундий н
речь идет не о свойстве, а о назначении предмета
bag «спящии мешок*, а мешок, предназначенный для того
254
чтобы в нем спать, т. е. спальный мешок, laughing gas — это не «сме­
ющийся газ*, а газ, способный вызывать смех, т.е. веселящий газ,
и т.д.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык.
1. Причастие /:
the escaping gas, the falling tree, working people, the living organism,
a flying bird, a writing woman, the dying man, the existing difficulties,
growing children, a touching story
f у» a "■ g*v > ‘ " * - ' «■ * 1 : ’A . * • *v j . щ . . / t <; - v * . v ,

2. Герундий:
a smoking carriage, a writing table, building materials, a swimming
pool, running shoes, drinking water, a reading-room, a looking-glass
2. Причастие или герундий? Прочитайте предложения и переведите их на
русский язык.
1. They continued playing football. 2. He was looking at the plan &flying
overhead. 3. Watching the playing kittens was great fun for the children.
4. It is no use going there now. 5. Coming out of the wood, the travellers
saw a ruined castle in the distance. 6. My greatest pleasure is travelling.
7. Growing tomatoes needs a lot ofsunshine. 8. Growing corn in his island,
Robinson Crusoe hoped to eat bread one day. 9. Growing roses takes a lot
of care and attention. 10. Just imagine his coming first in the race! 11. The
children were tired of running. 12. Wishing to learn to skate, she bought
herself a pair of skates. 13. While translating the text, I looked up many
words in the dictionary. 14. I helped my mother by washing the dishes.
15. Entering the room, I saw my friends smiling at me.
3. Причастие или герундий? Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. a) When we entered the room, we saw many students writing at the
desks, b) Do you mind my writing with your pen? c) They were writing
the test when I entered the room. 2. a) The athletes listened to the coach
criticizing their last performance, b) Criticizing the work of our sports
club, he said that it was not good enough, c) Wb were criticizing that way
of running at the moment, d) I have no objection to your criticizing me.
3. Running water is always better than standing water. 4. John likes studying
history. 5. You should retell this English story without looking into the book.
6. Everybody ran to meet the athletes returning from the competitions.
7. Never jump off a moving train. 8. You can learn what the new words
mean by looking them up in the dictionary. 9. Before going to meet his
friend he went home to change his clothes. 10. a) The remaining cakes were
given to the children, b) The cakes, remaining from the evening, were given
to the children. 11. a) They went out to meet returning friends, b) Returning
home after a good holiday is always pleasant, c) Returning home after a
255
good holiday, he looked the picture of health. 12. a) They went home
quickly, protecting themselves from the rain by walking under the trees,
b) In this sports school much attention is paid to protecting the health of
the athletes. 13. He stopped moving and looked around. 14. Playing
volleyball is a good activity for teenagers. 15. She left the room without
saying a word. 16. Wfe had the pleasure of seeing the performance.

4. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык.

OUR TRAINING
take up sports заниматься спортом
train according to the trainer's
тренироваться в соответствии
instructions с инструкциями тренера
pay great attention to уделять большое внимание
mastering technique овладению те>никой
prevent pulled muscles предотвращать растяжение мышц
perfect совершенствовать
Wfe study at the Lesgaft State University of Physical Education. The
students of our University take up different kinds of sports.
They train in different places: gymnasts — in the gymnasium,
basketball, volleyball and handball players — on the indoor and outdoor
sports grounds or in sports halls, tennis players — on the tennis courts,
track-and-field athletes usually train on the stadiums in the open air.
Three times a week we have special training lessons. As a rule, each
training lasts about 3 hours. Every training session begins with a warming-
up period which lasts about 20 minutes. It consists of slow running for about
a half mile, then fast running for about a quarter mile. Next, the sportsmen
do a few exercises which depend on their event. After the warming-up we
rest for about 5 minutes before we start practising. The warm-up of the
body is very important. It helps to prevent pulled muscles. Wfe train
according to the trainer’s instructions. The coach enjoys athletes’ perfecting
their skills. He or she pays great attention to mastering technique, tactics
and the main elements of sports. Sometimes we train with a team or a
partner. Wfe perform different exercises and get ready for contests.
5. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. How often do you have your training?
2. W/ho is your coach?
3. Where do you train?
4. When do you attend your special training lessons?
5. Have you a coach or do you train by yourself?
6. How long does your training last?
7. Wbat do you begin your training with?
8. How long do you warm up?
9. What is the aim of your training?
256
6. Прочитайте и переведите отрывок из научной статьи “Reaction Time
by Dr A.K.Uppal and Mr Rajender Singh.
elapse — проходить, протекать (о времени)
application — применение
response — ответ, реакция
exhibit — показывать, демонстрировать
Reaction time is the time elapsing between the moment of application
of stimulus and movement response. In sprinting events the athlete has
to react to the auditory stimulus of the gun, where as in other games and
sports such as judo, football, hockey, wrestling, volleyball, basketball and
boxing the players have to react or respond to various situations which
develop during the game and exhibit successive reactions throughout the
duration o f the play.
There are sports which call for quick response only from certain parts
of the body. A footballer needs better foot reaction time, a judo player
requires good reaction time of hands and feet, a cricket requires quick
hand, foot and stepping reaction times, whereas a boxer needs to be quick
in upper extremity. Scholars studied reaction times of forty-six men who
differed in their participating in physical education activities. The analysis
shows that a highly significant relationship exists among hand, foot and
stepping reaction times.
7. Запомните следующие слова и выражения:
article — статья
the article is written by ... — статья написана ... ( имя автора)
author — автор
the main idea is ... — основная идея заключается ...
the title of the article is ... — статья называется ...
the article is devoted to ... — статья посвящена ...
Расскажите содержание статьи “Reaction Time”.
8. Прочитайте шутки и переведите их на русский язык.
• “What on earth do you mean by telling Mary that I am a fool?”
“ Heavens! I’m sorry — was it a secret?”
• “ Now, McTavish,” said the doctor, “you have either to stop with
whisky or lose your eyesight, and you must choose.”
“ I’m an old man now,” said McTavish, “and I think I have seen
everything worth seeing. ”
• “The man who is always punctual in keeping an appointm ent never
loses anything by it.”
“N o, only about half an hour waiting for the other fellow to com e.”
• Jack: Say, what’s the idea of your wearing my raincoat?
Roommate: Wfell, you wouldn’t want your new suit to get wet, would
you?
257
• Lawyer. Now that we have won, will you tell me confidentially if you
stole the money?
Client Wfell, after hearing you talk in court yesterday, I am beginning
to think I didn’t.
• Never tell a woman a secret. She will either think it is not worth
keeping or it is too good to keep.
• A bad memory today is really an advantage. It permits you to enjoy an
old film on television without realizing you saw it years ago.
• A man telephoned to doctor excitedly. “Quick!” he insisted. “My wife
has appendicitis! ”
“No, no,” said doctor. “I took your wife’s appendix out five years ago.
I never heard of anyone having a second appendix. ”
“Maybe not, Doc,” replied the anxious husband. “But did you ever
hear of a man having a second wife?” I
• “Any fishing around here?”
“ Some, ” answered the boy.
“What do you catch?” Щ
“You said ‘fishing’, not ‘catching’.”
• “What made you lose your hair?”
“Wforry.”
“What about?” 4 ?
“ Losing my hair. ” i A.
• “You say you are suffering from a skin infection. Do you think it was
caused by biting insects?”
“No. I think it was caused by insects biting me.”

Формы герундия

Вы уже знаете, что герундий имеет свойства как глагола, так и


существительного. Его глагольная природа выражается прежде все­
го в том, что он имеет формы времени и залога. Рассмотрим таб­
лицу форм герундия.
Действи­ Страда­
Форма тельный тельный Выражает действие
времени залог залог
Простое inviting being не связанное с определенным
время invited временем или происходящее
одновременно с действием,
выраженным сказуемым
Совершенное having having предшествующее действию,
время invited been invited выраженному сказуемым

258
1. Герундий в действительном залоге:
Reading is useful. Чтение (читать) полезно.
Переводить эту статью было
Translating this article was not easy.
нелегко. (Перевод этой статьи
был нелегким делом.)
2. Герундий в страдательном залоге:
We do not like being laughed at. Мы не любим, когда над нами
смеются. >
Through being left out in the sun, Вода стала теплой из-за того,
the water got warm. что ее оставили на солнце.
(букв, из-за оставления на
солнце)
3. Герундий в форме совершенного времени:
I told them about my having written Я рассказал им о том, что на-
an article. писал статью. (... о «написании
мною» статьи)
They did not know about our having Они не знали, что мы изменили
changed our opinion. наше мнение. (... об изменении
нашего мнения)
Герундий в форме совершенного времени как в действительном,
так и в страдательном залоге выражает действие, предшествующее
действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме.
Так, в примере “I told them about my having written an article” ге­
рундий в форме совершенного времени означает, что написание
статьи произошло раньше, чем автор рассказал об этом.
4. Герундий в форме совершенного времени в страдательном
залоге:
They did not know about the plan Они не знали о том, что план
having been completed. уже
плана)
been Я был уверен, что работа уже
finished закончена.
Из этих примеров вы видите, что простая форма герундия пере­
водится обычно существительным или инфинитивом, а сложные
формы герундия — придаточными предложениями.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
:дите предложения на русский
being interrupted. 2. Geoigi
TV. 3. My sister likes being
259
having a friend like you. 5. He must be proud of having won the prize.
6. Helen is surprised at being treated like that. 7. She was surprised at being
laughed at. 8. The coach didn’t doubt his team having been admitted to
the competitions. 9. Athletes were proud of having been spoken to as good
ones. 10. An athlete mentioned having seen the coach. 11. The athlete
mentioned having been asked to come to the gym that time. 12. We were
surprised at not having been asked anything. 13. The swimmer was
surprised at the coach not having asked him anything. 14. Helen was
disappointed at not being invited to yesterday’s party. 15. Helen is
disappointed at her sister not having been invited. 16. Mrs Blank
apologized for having caused trouble. 17. Mrs Blank apologized for her
children having caused so much trouble.
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


stretch простираться

include - включать в себя


in honour - в честь
navigator - мореплаватель
reach - достигать
originally первоначально
-

be settled быть заселенным


-


native American - коренной американец
Ж # +
-

in origin - по происхождению
Independence Day - День независимости
-

Statue of Liberty - статуя Свободы


-

torch - факел
gift подарок, дар
-

copper медь, бронза


-

skyline - панорама
motto - девиз
coin - монета
skyscraper - небоскреб
Rocky Mountains - - Скалистые горы
federal union - - федеральный союз
Chamber - - палата парламента
The USA is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia,
Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and
stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska
in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The area of the USA is
over nine million square kilometres.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special
federal area where Washington, the capital of the country, is situated. The
capital was named in honour of the first President, George Washington.
The population of the country is about 250 million. The official language
260
of the country is English. Although America is named after the Italian
navigator Amerigo Vfespucci who made several voyages to the New World,
it was another Italian, Christopher Columbus, who first reached America
in October 1492.
Originally America was settled by Indians. Nowadays the Americans
are made up of nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native
Americans though the American population is mainly European and
African in origin.
One of the most important holidays in America is Independence Day,
after the country’s becoming independent after a war with Britain.
The USA is famous for its Statue of Liberty. The lady with the torch
was a gift from France to young America in 1886. The French sent her to
-New York in 214 packing boxes. She’s 151 feet high and she weighs 225
tons. In one hand the copper-coated lady has the D eclaration o f
Independence. Inside the statue you can go up to her head to see the
New York skyline.
The National M otto of America is “In God Wfe Trust”. Nobody knows
exactly who designed it. Originally, it was printed on some coins during
the Civil War, now it’s on all paper money and coins.
America is the country of skyscrapers. The tallest building in the world
is situated in Chicago.
As the USA is a large country, the climate is different in different
regions. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is
arctic, the climate of the central part is continental, the south has a
subtropical climate.
The United States is a land of rivers and lakes. The northern state of
Minnesota is a land of 10,000 lakes. The longest rivers in the USA are
the Mississippi and the Rio Grande. The highest mountains are the Rocky
Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada.
The USA became the world leading country at the beginning of the
twentieth century.
The USA is a federal union, consisting of fifty states. Each of these
states has its own government. Congress is the American parliament which
consists of two Chambers. The president is the head of the state and the
government. He is elected for four years.
Americans pay much attention to physical fitness. Many sports and
sporting activities are popular in the USA. People p articip ate in
swimming, skating, squash and badminton, tennis, marathons, track-and-
field, bowling, archery, skiing, skating, etc. But five major American sports
are hockey, volleyball, baseball, football and basketball. Basketball and
volleyball have been invented in America.
Some unusual kinds o f sports originated in A m erica. They are
windsurfing, skate-boarding and beach volleyball, parasailing, kite-
surfing, triathlon and many other. Triathlon includes swimming, bicycle
racing and long-distance running. Now these sports are becoming more
and more popular in Europe.
261
3. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Is the USA one of the largest countries in the world?
2. What kind of area does the USA have?
3. How many states are there in the USA?
4. What is the capital of the USA?
5. Who was the first President of the United States?
6. Who discovered America?
7. What do you know about the population of the USA?
8. When do Americans celebrate Independence Day?
9. After what event did America become independent?
10. What do you know about the Statue of Liberty?
11. What is the National Motto of America?
12. What is the climate of the country like?
13. How can you characterize the economy of the USA?
14. What is the political system of the USA?
15. What do you know about sports in the USA?
4. Расскажите о Соединенных Штатах Америки.

Инфинитив
Инфинитивом (The Infinitive), или неопределенной формой гла­
гола, называется та его форма, которая отвечает на вопрос: что де­
лать ? что сделать ? Например: бегать, прыгать, кричать. Призна­
ком инфинитива в английском языке является частица to:
I want to learn English. Я хочу изучать английский
язык.
Мы уже говорили о том, что инфинитив участвует в образова­
нии множества производных глагольных форм.
Инфинитив употребляется как с частицей to, так и без нее.
1. Инфинитив с частицей to употребляется:
а) для выражения цели:
I went to the shop to buy some bread. Я ходил в магазин (чтобы) ку­
пить хлеба.
б) для передачи приказания, требования и совета:
Не advised me to practise more. Он посоветовал мне больше
тренироваться.
в) после некоторых глаголов: plan планировать, hope надеяться,
pretend притворяться, оіТег предлагать и др.:
Не hoped to take a taxi. Он надеялся поймать такси.
г) после некоторых прилагательных: difficult сложный, easy про­
стой, happy счастливый и др.:
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I'm glad to see you. Я рад видеть вас.
2. Инфинитив без частицы to употребляется:
а) после модальных глаголов:
I can play football. Я умею играть в футбол.
б) после глаголов let, make:
L e f s go home. Давайте пойдем домой.
M ake her do it. Заставьте ее сделать это.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Выберите подходящее окончание фразы и прочитайте предложения.
Образец: Не went to the post-office .... ( a) buy an envelope; b) watch afilm )
—» He went to the post-office to buy an envelope.
1. Jack worked m u ch __ (a ) pass the exam; b) lose weight) 2. In winter
people wear coats and hats ... . ( a) keep warm; b) look nice) 3. Usually
people save money ... . ( a) get rich; b) buy something) 4. Playing rugby,
athletes wear crash helmets ... . ( a) protect their heads; b) play better)
5. The referee in football has a whistle .... ( a) make music; b) control the
game) 6. You do this exercises ... . ( a) learn English; b) learn Russian)
7. People go to the sh o p __(a ) spend money; b) buy somefood) 8. Athletes
eat carbohydrates .... (a ) have energy; b) have pleasure) 9. Athletes wear
good shoes .... ( a) look well-dressed; b) protect theirfeet) 10. People use
alarm-clocks .... ( a) get up on time; b) decorate their rooms)
2. Переделайте предложения, используя образец.
Образец: I was able to ski at the age of five. I could ... —>I could ski at the
age of five.
1 .1 have to attend classes. I m u st.... 2. I am able to swim well. I can
... . 3. Perhaps I’ll do it. I may ... . 4. Perhaps I will be a champion. I
might ... . 5. He is at home now, I’m sure. He must ... . 6. Perhaps I’ll
learn English. I can .... 7. My coach is able to train and motivate us. He
can ... . 8. I’m sure he is good at sport. He m u st... . 9. Am I allowed to
do it? May ... ?
3. Закончите предложения.
Образец: Some people forget... ( a) switch on the light,; b) switch off the
light) —» Some people forget to switch off the light.
1. Most people want ... . ( a) be happy; b) have a good appearance)
2. Most students mean ... . ( a) pass exams; b) become great scientists)
3. Most athletes ex p ect.... ( a) befamous; b) be school teachers) 4. Most
mothers managed ... . ( a) visit theatres; b) give their children the best)
5. Some people hope .... ( a) live abroad; b) live in the country) 6. Some

263
children forget.... ( a) visit theirfriends', b) do homework) 7. Some children
refuse .... (a) visit a doctor, b) eat sweets)
4. Прочитайте и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. His girlfriend is hard to please. 2. The fact is hard to prove. 3. Wfere
your parents easy to deal with? 4. Her performance is nice to watch.
5. Jack was glad to see you. 6. His English is difficult to understand. 7. Walter
was sorry to be late. 8. He is sure to approve of everything. 9. Is English
easier to learn than German?
5. Составьте предложения из данных слов и словосочетаний.

This exercise to please


This event is hard to deal with
The language is easy to remember
The name is difficult ' to learn
This athlete to practise
He to perform
б. Переделайте предложения, используя образец.
Образец: It was very difficult to win this prize. This prize .... -> This prize
was very difficult to win.
1. It’s easy to find our hostel. Our hostel.... 2. It’s not very difficult
to pass this exam. This exam ... . 3. It’s very interesting to live in St
Petersburg. St Petersburg.... 4. It’s hard to buy good running shoes. Good
running shoes .... 5. It was very difficult to get money. Money .... 6. It’s
impossible to translate some words. Some words ... . 7. It’s not safe to
ride this horse. This horse.... 8. It’s difficult to perform some movements.
Some movements .... 9. It is safe to drink this water. This water....
7. Составьте предложения по образцу и прочитайте их вслух.
Образец: Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
Last competitions I was the first man to come.
Neil Armstrong was the main thing to complain.
She was the next bus to walk on the moon.
He was waiting the last person to reach the finish.
His arriving is the second person to know.
This athlete was the third news to show his best.

8. Прочитайте и переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите вни­


мание на перевод инфинитива.
1. Не wants to teach you throwing. 2. She didn’t expect to meet you
at the match. 3. Robert is proud to train with the champion. 4. To see is
264
to believe. 5. It’s unpleasant to live with such people as my roommate.
6. How to prove it to him is a problem. 7. Which way to choose is your
own business. 8. When to let him know is not important. 9. To live is to
struggle. 10. She was too tired to enjoy the trip. 11. The time was too short
to do the task. 12. To hesitate is to lose. 13. To understand is to forgive.
14. The problem is how to prevent a conflict. 15. The easiest thing to do
is to say “N o”. 16. The question is how to let them know.
9. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

CAREER PROBLEMS IN SPORTS

. reach the top — достичь вершины


pressure — давление
survive — выживать
There are a lot of kinds of sports: your event may be traditional or
modem, competitive or non-competitive, it can require special equipment
and be very dangerous... Practising sports you have to do training sessions,
take part in competitions, have injuries. What skills and what kind of
personality do you think an athlete needs to reach the top? What do you
know about world champions? What should a person do in order to
become a champion?
At first, you should begin to practise sports as early as possible. “As
early as possible” doesn’t mean to start at the age o f two, o f course.
Young athletes live under the great pressures — com petitions, crowds
o f fans, daily training sessions... It’s very dangerous to begin when you
are not strong and old enough to survive in these conditions. But you
should remember that you can begin to grow roses at the age of 50 and
become famous in the result, but it is impossible to begin to practise
swimming at this age and to do your best. Usually, we tried sports at the
very young age. If we found it to be the most exciting, we began to work
harder and harder. If we are lucky, we have an excellent coach. And that
is the start...
And the last but not the least. You should be in love with your event.
You should like it a lot and feel comfortable and at home when you do
your sport.
10. Выразите согласие или несогласие с данными утверждениями.
1. You can begin to practise sports when you want to reach the top.
2. It’s very useful for children to practise sports from the age of two or
three.
3. It doesn’t m atter what kind of coach you have — professional or
not. All depends on you.
4. You should be in love with your event.
5. The main purpose of practising sport is to become a champion at
all costs.
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Отличие герундия от инфинитива

Из материала предыдущих занятий вы узнали, что в словосоче­


таниях, эквивалентных русским словосочетаниям «глагол + глагол»,
после одних глаголов употребляется герундий, а после других — ин­
финитив. Герундий чаще употребляется после глаголов, выражаю­
щих чувства (I can’t stand speaking to him), а инфинитив — после
глаголов, имеющих значение умственной деятельности (I decided
to go there). Разделение это, однако, очень условно. Для того чтобы
не ошибиться, нужно точно знать, какую неличную форму требует
данный глагол.
Следует запомнить, что инфинив употребляется с глаголами:
offer, decide, hope, agree, plan, manage, forget, learn, refuse, а герун­
дий с глаголами: stop, finish, imagine, deny, miss, delay, consider.
Например, после глагола ask используется инфинитив (I asked
her to do it), а после глагола practise — герундий (I practise swimming)
Существует определенный ряд глаголов, после которых в сло­
восочетаниях данного типа может употребляться как герундий, так
и инфинитив.
Например, глагол try пытаться, пробовать + герундий означает
попытку достичь чего-либо:
Tiy practising more and see the Попробуй тренироваться больше
result. и посмотри, что получится.
(Подчеркивается целесооб­
разность попытки и вера в
положительный результат.)
Глагол try + инфинитив обращает внимание на сложность вы­
полнения данного действия:
I tried to do this exercise but with Я пытался выполнить данное
no success. упражнение, но у меня ни­
чего не получилось. (Под­
черкивается, что данная по­
пытка была неосуществима.)
Глагол regret сожалеть + герундий означает, что говорящий со­
жалеет о том, что он совершил в прошлом:
Не regrets going away that time. Он сожалеет о том, что ушел
тогда.
Глагол regret + инфинитив означает, что говорящего не радует
то, что происходит в настоящем:
She regrets to say that she isn’t able Ей очень жаль, но помочь она
to help them. им не сможет.

266
Инфинитивный оборот в функции сложного дополнения
Инфинитивный оборот может выступать в функции сложного
дополнения или сложного подлежащего.
Инфинитивный оборот в качестве сложного дополнения образу­
ется при помощи существительного (в общем падеже) или лично­
го местоимения (в косвенном падеже) и инфинитива.
Существительное
(в общем падеже)
или + инфинитив = инфинитивный оборот
личное местоимение
.. (в косвенном падеже)
I’d like you to hurry them up. Мне хотелось бы, чтобы вы их
поторопили.
Такое сложное дополнение употребляется:
а) после глаголов, выражающих желание:
I w ant you to stay. Я хочу, чтобы вы остались.
б) после глаголов со значением физического восприятия: see,
watch, notice, hear и др. Инфинитив после этих глаголов употреб­
ляется без частицы to:
Have you ever w atched them Вы когда-нибудь наблюдали,
play golf? как они играют в гольф?
Everybody heard him say it. Все слышали, как он это сказал.
в) после глаголов, выражающих просьбу, совет, разрешение, по­
буждение к действию'.
Не asked me to check the facts. Он попросил меня проверить
эти факты.
They m ade me repeat my story. Они заставили меня повторить
этот рассказ.
Let him talk to her. Пусть поговорит с ней.
г) после глаголов, выражающих предположение:
Wfe expect him to arrive tomorrow. Мы ожидаем, что он приедет
завтра.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Заполните пропуски в предложениях. Используйте таке или let в соот­
ветствующей форме.
1. The story was so sad that it ... my sister cry. 2. My teacher ... me
miss classes today. 3. He often ... us laugh. 4. Cold weather ... me feel
267
uncomfortable. 5. The pain in my leg ... me stop. 6. Good salary... him
buy expensive clothes. 7. She is very shy. She didn’t ... us help her. 8. The
coach ... us do these exercises once more. 9. A bad cold ... her stop
training. 10. Adaptive physical culture ... handicapped people do sports.
11. She didn’t ... me read the letter. 12. Some parents ... their teenage
children do housework. 13. Some parents... their teenage children wear
what they like.
2. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.
When Mary was fifteen, her parents let her make a party for her class­
mates. Father and mother said that they would leave home before
5 o’clock and come back after 10. They asked her daughter to say “good­
bye” to her guests before this time. They added they didn’t want to do
washing-up and clean the house after the party. Mary was said that it was
her business to do. Mary promised to do it herself but asked mother to
help her with cooking. Parents decided to help her with sandwiches and
salads.
3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту упр. 2, используя инфинитив. Следите за
употреблением частицы to.
1. What did Mary’s parents let her do when she was 15? They let her....
2. What did they offer to do? They offered.... 3. But what did they refuse
to do? They refused ... . 4. What did Mary promise? She promised ....
5. What did her parents decide to do? They decided....
4. Пользуясь ответами на вопросы упр. 3, перескажите текст.
5. Составьте предложения, пользуясь таблицей.
Образец: Не allowed us to go home.
I allow me to use his telephone.
He allows us to go home.
Wfe do not allow anyone to read his letters.
They does not allow everybody to go skiing in such
allowed him weather.
ordered you to stay at home.

б. Переделайте предложения, используя образец.


Образец: The referee said to the player: “Leave the pitch!” The referee
ordered the player.... —>The referee ordered the player to leave
the pitch.
1. “Don’t forget to phone me,” my mother said. My mother reminded
me.... ' - щ
2. “You should have a rest now,” my coach said. My coach advised
m e.... >- ш | : gj • | »-.• Щ •, <i
3. “Don’t move,” the doctor said to her. The doctor told her n o t....
268
4. “Would you like to have coffee with me?” Mary said to Jack. Mary
invited Ja c k ....
5 .1 told her: “You shouldn’t miss the classes.” I told her n o t....
6. “You can use my telephone,” she said to me. She allowed me ....
7. “ I don’t let you smoke,” the doctor said to him. The doctor didn’t
allow ....
7. Составьте предложения, пользуясь таблицей.
Образец: She wants me not to catch a cold.
I want to forget it.
She wants to remember that,
They want not to catch a cold

to tell the truth,


to learn it by heart
to win at any price

8. Составьте инфинитивный оборот.


Образец: (You must com e in tim e.) I want. . . . —» I want you to come in time.
1. (You must learn these words.) I want you .... 2. (D on’t phone me
late at night.) I don’t want you . 3. (Shall I help you?) Do you want
me ... ? 4. (Please don’t be angry.) I don’t want you ... . 5. (Shall I wait
for you?) Do you want me ... ? 6. (Listen carefully.) I want y o u .... 7. (You
must practise more.) I want you__8. (You must be careful.) I want you —
9. (You must not lose the key.) I don’t want you ... . 10. (You must not
say anything.) I don’t want you ....
9. Скажите по-русски.
1. He heard the telephone ring. 2. Wfe watched the planes take off. 3 .1
saw him get on the bus. 4. Have you ever heard him play the piano? 5. Did
any of you see him enter the gym? 6. Nobody noticed him put the book
in his case.
10. Закончите предложения, используя образец.
Образец: “D oes she ever pass exams in time?” “I’ve never heard her . . . . ” —>
“I’ve never heard her pass exams in tim e.” / “Yes, I heard her
pass exams in tim e.”
1. “ Did Jack score that goal?” “Yes, I saw him . . . . ” 2. “ How do you
know he left?” “ I saw him ....” 3. “ Did the phone ring?” “ I’m not sure.
I didn’t hear ... .” 4. “Did Mary lock the door?” “Yes, I heard her ... .”
5. “ Did she buy the shoes?” “ I didn’t see h e r....” 6. “ Does your brother
ever dance?” “I’ve never seen h im ....” 7. Does your roommate ever write
letters to her parents?” “ I don’t know. I’ve never seen ....”

269
Инфинитивный оборот в функции сложного подлежащего
Сложное подлежащее состоит из существительного
или
Существительное
(в общем падеже)
или + инфинитив = инфинитивный оборот
местоимение
(в именительном падеже)
Не is believed to know English. Считается, что он знает ан-
глииский язык.
сложного подлежащего употребляется
частицей to.
Сложное подлежащее употребляется с глаголами в форме стра
залога
а) физического восприятия: see видеть, hear слышать, notice за­
мечать:
принуждения заставлять
жен ия, ожидания, осведомленности: suppose <
ожидать, think думать, believe верить, know
ть, say говорить, сказать, report сообщать,
объявлять
The girl was seen to dance. Видели, как девочка танцевала
He was made to agree. Его заставили согласиться.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
1. Составьте предложения, пользуясь таблицей.
Образец: Pele is considered to be a good football player.
John Lennon a good runner,
Pele is considered to be a good football player,
Kazankina is said to be a good gymnast,
Salnikov was said to be a good swimmer,
Dityatin was considered to be a hard-working student
Davydova
He
2. Скажите по-русски.
Wilde
considered to be a very good stylist. 3. Elizabeth was considered to be
runners. 4. Who is considered to be the best swimmer
Who
270
3. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN
‘American dream” — «американская мечта»
ay rise from the lowest — мог подняться из низов до высокого поло-
to the highest position жения в обществе
hardly had any education — не получил почти никакого образования
improve his education — продолжить свое образование
lawyer — юрист
enter politics — начать политическую карьеру
force — сила
Abraham Lincoln is the most famous example of the “American
dream”. America is said to be a land where a man may rise from the lowest
to the highest position. That was exactly what Lincoln did.
was bom in 1809 on a small farm in Kentucky. When
was
had any education, he only learned to read and write and do simple
arithmetic. In 1830 Abraham left his father’s farm and went to Springfield,
Illinois. There he became a clerk in a store and worked hard to improve
his education. In 1836 he became a lawyer.
He entered politics, too, and in 1834 became a candidate to the
Parliament of Illinois. Soon he was considered to be a force in the political
life. In 1847 he went as a Congressman to the National Assembly
(National Parliament).
4. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Why is Lincoln the most famous example of the “American dream”?
Where
good
5. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN
(continued)
slavery — рабство
burning question — больной вопрос
abolish slavery — уничтожить рабство
Civil Wtr — Гражданская война
did not lose courage — не терял мужества
surrendered — сдался
admire Lincoln for — восхищаются умеренной политикой Линкольна
his political moderation
In I860 Lincoln was elected President of the USA. That time slavery
was declared to be a burning question in American politics. Many people
271
in the Northern states wanted to abolish it, the Southern states opposed
the abolition. In 1861 seven states left the Union and elected their own
President, Jefferson Davis.
Lincoln was known to be strongly against slavery and even more
strongly against the break-up of the Union. In 1862 the American Civil
Wfor between the North and the South began.
At first the war went badly for the North. The Southerners headed by
General Robert Lee won some brilliant victories. But Lincoln did not
lose courage. On April 9, General Lee surrendered. The Civil W&r was
over. ‘
On April 14, the President and his wife visited a theatre in Washington.
During the performance Lincoln was shot. He died next morning.
People admire Lincoln for political moderation. He is a symbol of
American democracy.
6. Скажите по-английски.
1. Авраам Линкольн поднялся из низов до самого высокого по­
ста в Америке. 2. Не имея почти никакого образования, он много
работал над своим образованием и стал юристом. 3. Занявшись по­
литикой, он вскоре стал значительной фигурой в политической
жизни страны. 4. В 1834 году Линкольн стал кандидатом в парла­
мент штата Иллинойс, а в 1847 году — конгрессменом. 5. Важней­
шей проблемой в политической жизни Америки была отмена раб­
ства. 6. Линкольн был избран президентом США в 1860 году. 7. Семь
южных штатов вышли из союза. 8. Линкольн выступал против раб­
ства и распада союза. 9. В начале Гражданской войны южане одер­
живали победы над северянами. 10. Линкольн — символ американ­
ской демократии.
7. Расскажите о Линкольне.
8. Прочитайте шутки и переведите их на русский язык со словарем.
• “Are caterpillars good to eat?” asked little Tommy at the dinner table.
“N o,” said his father, “what makes you ask a question like that while
we are eating?”
“You had one on your lettuce, but it’s gone now,” explained Tommy.
• Guest. Look here! How long must I wait for you to bring me the half­
portion of duck I ordered?
Waiter :Ti№ somebody orders the other half. Wfe can’t go out and kill
half a duck.
• Ralph: If you loved me, why did you refuse me at first?
Alice: Just to see what you would do.
Ralph: But I might have rushed off without waiting for you to explain
the reason.
Alice: Hardly. I had the door locked.
272
• “Is ink so expensive, father?”
“Why, no, what makes you think so?”
“Wfeli, mother seems to be quite angry because I spilled some on the
carpet.”
• “My wife is very hard to please.”
“But she wasn’t always that way.”
“How do you know?”
“Why, she married you, didn’t she?”
• Diner. Waiter, the portions seem to have got a lot smaller lately.
Waiter. Just an optical illusion, sir. Now that the restaurant has been
enlarged, they look smaller — that’s all.
• “Why are you dating the letter the 21st, Emily? Today is only the
10th.”
“I’m giving it to you to post.” .
• “Waitress, you have your thumb on that fish.”
“I know, madam. I don’t want it to slip to the floor again.”
• “You don’t seem to realize on which side your bread is buttered.”
“What does it matter? I eat both sides. ”

Формы инфинитива
Инфинитив имеет формы действительного и страдательного за­
логов, а также формы времени. Временные формы инфинитива вы­
ражают лишь относительное время (т. е. одновременность или пред­
шествование действия по отношению к другому действию).
Рассмотрим таблицу:
Форма времени Действительный залог Страдательный залог
Простое время to write to be written
Длительное время to be writing
Совершенное время to have written to have been written

Из таблицы видно, что в действительном залоге инфинитив име­


ет три формы по количеству времен. В страдательном залоге есть
только две формы.
Инфинитив в действительном залоге во всех трех формах, пере­
численных в таблице, имеет значение писать или написать, а в стра­
дательном залоге — быть написанным. Однако сложные формы ин­
финитива имеют смысловые оттенки. Самое важное то, что инфи­
нитив в форме совершенного времени выражает действие, предше­
ствующее другому действию. Сравните:

273
I like to read. Я люблю читать.
(Инфинитив в форме простого времени.)
Не seems to be thinking. задумался
длительного
I was happy to have received Я был счастлив получить ваше
your letter. письмо.
(Инфинитив в форме совершенного времени.)
В последнем примере действие, выраженное инфинитивом, про­
изошло до какого-то другого действия, а именно: сначала было по­
лучено письмо, а затем говорящий обрадовался его получению.
Рассмотрим еще несколько примеров на все формы инф ини­
тива.
итив в форме простого времени в действительном залоге:
I want to see your test контроль-
ную работу.
You must pay for it. олжны за это заплатить
Инфинитив в форме простого времени в страдательном залоге
It can be done. Это может быть сделано.
The mistake must be found Ошибка должна быть найдена
3. Инфинитив в форме длительного времени в действительном
залоге:
Wfe thought him to be sleeping. Мы думали, что он спит.
Wfe knew him to be working in his
Мы знали, что он работает в
room. своей комнате.
4. Инфинитив в форме совершенного времени в действительном
залоге:
I remembered to have seen her Я вспомнил, что где-то уже
somewhere. видел ее.
You must have read this story. Вы, должно быть, уже читали
этот рассказ.
5. Инфинитив в форме совершенного времени в страдательном за­
логе:
Wfe made. Мы знали, что испытание уже
было проведено,
Wfe thought the mistake ve Мы думали, что ош ибка уже
been found. найдена.
модальных глаголов can, may, must, need
еть, слышать и т. п.) инфинитив во всех
формах

274
УПРАЖНЕНИЕ
Скажите по-русски.
1. Не wants to teach you English. 2. He wants to be taught English.
3. Wfe’re happy to be working with a man like him. 4. She was expected to be
offered a good job. 5. Wfe were sorry not to have taken the chance. 6. They
were glad not to have been noticed. 7. Are you sorry to have left so early?
8. Give me something to read during my trip. 9. The first thing to do is to
work out a plan. 10. She has nothing to be displeased with. 11. He was
considered to have been good athlete. 12. She is believed to know five
languages. 13. She is believed to be studying Spanish. 14. She is believed
to have studied Spanish and Italian in her childhood. 15. English is known
to have adopted a lot of French words.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Носители русского языка безошибочно чувствуют родственность


таких слов, как «приезжать» и «уезжать», «приносить» и «уносить»,
«открывать» и «закрывать» и т.д. Иностранцу же, изучающему рус­
ский язык, данные слова в предложенных парах могут показаться
разными. Можно, конечно, обратиться к помощи словаря, но луч­
ше ознакомиться с правилами словообразования. Это важно для
изучения многих языков, в том числе и английского. Предложен­
ный ниже материал знакомит вас с основными способами образо­
вания слов в английском языке.

Префиксы

Префикс — это часть слова, находящаяся перед корнем (аналог


русской приставки).

Префиксы со значением отрицания

on- Употребляется в словах, относя­ limited unlimited (ограни-


щихся к разным частям речи ченный неогран нченн ый )
im- Используется в некоторых словах, polite impolite (вежливый
корневая часть которых начинается невежливый)
с m или р
Используется в некоторых словах, legal — illegal (легальный
корневая часть которых начинается нелегальный)
с буквы I
К —

ІГ- Употребляется в некоторых regular — irregular (правиль­


корень которых ный неправильный)

275
Окончание
Употребляется в некоторых прилага­ honest —dishonest (честный
тельных, реже —глаголах бесчестный)
Употребляется редко visible —invisible (видимый
невидимый)

могут
воположное. Например: appear появляться — disappear исчезать.

Префиксы с разными значениями


два, дважды bilingual —двуязычный
ех- бывший (-ая) ex-champion —бывший чемпион
mis- плохо, неправильно mistranslate —перевести неправильно
micro- микро- microcomputer —микрокомпьютер
multi- много- multinational —-многонациональный
over- слишком много overtrain —перетренироваться
post- после postgraduate —аспирант
pseudo- псевдо- pseudoscientific —псевдонаучный
re- повторное действие reread —перечитать
semi- полу- semi-final —яолуфинал
sub- под- subdivision —подразделение
under- недостаточно underwork —недоработать

Суффиксы
Суффиксом называется часть слова, которая стоит после корня
и обычно служит для образования слов.

Суффиксы существительных

-er, -ог Человек или предмет, выполня- Iworker —рабочий; boxer


ющии действие боксер; sailor —моряк
-hood Абстрактное существительное childhood етство
Указывает на профессию или tennisist —теннисист;
принадлежность анархист
деятельности
Существительное, образованное flexibility —гибкость
от прилагательных

276
Окончание
-ment Существительное, образованное enjoyment — наслаждение
от глаголов
-ness Существительное, образованное happiness — счастье
от прилагательных
-(t)ion Существительное, образованное education — образование
от глаголов
-ship Абстрактное существительное mastership — мастерство

Суффиксы прилагательных

-able/-ible recognizable — узнаваемый; edible — съедобный


-al cultural —духовный
-ful useful — полезный
-ive productive — продуктивный
-less useless — бесполезный
-ous delicious — восхитительный'
-er, -est big, bigger, the biggest

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ


'A ff

«я ш і (1)
1. Прочитайте текст. Найдите ответы ва следующие вопросы:
1. What do the Olympic Games consist of?
2. How do the athletes m arch into the stadium at the opening
ceremony?
3. Who lights the Olympic flame?
4. Why were the modem Olympic Games organized?
5. What does the Olympic symbol represent?
6. What is the Olympic motto?

THE OLYMPIC GAMES


attend — посещать
resort — курорт, курортное место
apart — зд. через
impressive — впечатляющий
release —зд. выпускать
represent — представлять, символизировать

277
encourage —поддерживать, поощрять
promote —содействовать распространению, развитию
interlock —соединять
The Olympic Games bring together thousands of the world’s finest
athletes to compete against one another. No other sports event attracts
so much attention. Several million people attend the games, and hundreds
of millions throughout the world watch them on television.
The Olympic Games consist of the Summer Games and the Winter
Games. The Summer Games are held in a major city, and the Winter
Games are held at a winter resort. The Olympics have normally been held
every four years, with both the Summer Games and the the Winter Games
taking place the same year. Beginning from 1994, the Summer Games
and the Winter Games are scheduled to occur on a four-year cycle two
years apart. For example, the Winter Games were held in 1994 and 1998
and the Summer Games in 1996 and 2000.
Colourful ceremonies combined with athletic competitions are to
create the special feeling of excitement that surrounds the Olympics. The
opening ceremony is particularly impressive. The athletes -of Greece
march into the stadium first, in honour of the original Olympics held in
ancient Greece. The other athletes follow in alphabetical order, depending
on the spelling of each nation’s name in the language of the host country.
The athletes of the host country enter last.
The head of state of the host country declares the Games open. The
Olympic flag is raised, trumpets play, and cannons boom in salute.
Hundreds of doves are released into the air as a symbol of peace.
The most dramatic moment of the opening ceremony is the lighting
of the Olympic flame. Runners in cross-country relays bring a lighted
torch from the valley of Olympia, Greece, where the ancient Olympics
were held. Thousands of runners take part in the journey, which starts
four weeks before the opening of the Games. They represent Greece and
each country that lies between Greece and the host nation. Planes and
ships transport the torch across mountains and seas. The final runner
carries the torch into the stadium, circles the track, and lights the Olympic
flame. The flame is kept burning until the end of the Games. This custom
started in 1936,
The modem Olympics were organized to encourage world peace and
friendship and to promote amateur athletics. The Olympic symbol consists
of five interlocking rings that represent the continents of Africa, Asia,
Australia, Europe, and North and South America. The rings are black,
blue, green, red, and yellow. The flag of every nation competing in the
games has at least one of these colours. The Olympic motto is Faster
Higher, Stronger. ’
2. Скажите по-английски:
лучшие спортсмены; привлекать внимание; посещать игры;
смотреть по телевизору; состоять из; курорт; четырехлетний цикл;
278
церемония открытия; в честь; Древня алфавитном
рядке; принимающая страна; глава государства; выпустить голубей;
зажжение олимпийского огня; зажженный факел; олицетворять
Грецию; обежать круг стадиона; поддерживать мир во всем мире;
пять переплетенных колец; девиз Олимпийских игр
3. Выберите правильный вариант. Прочитайте предложения.

1. The Olympic Games consist o f the a) Summer Games


b) Winter Games
c) Summer and Winter Games
2. At the opening ceremony the ath­ a) first
letes o f G ieece march into b) second
the stadium c) in alphabetical order
3. The athletes o f the host country a) first
enter b) last
c) second
4. The most dramatic moment o f a) raising o f the Olympic flag
the Games is the b) lighting o f the Olympic flame
c) bringing o f a lighted torch
5. The flame is kept burning a) one day
b) one weak
c) until the end o f the Games
6. The Olympic symbol consists o f a) five rings
b) four interlocking rings
c) five interlocking rings
7. The Olympic motto is a) Faster, Higher, Stronger
b) Better, Faster, Stronger
c) Stronger, Better, Faster

4. Заполните пропуски недостающими словами из текста. Задайте вопро­


сы. (Письменно.)
Образец: The Olympic Games bring the athletes together .... What... for? -»
What do the Olympic Games bring the athletes together for?
The Summer Games are held in .... W here... ? 2. The Winter Games
are held in .... Where ... ? 3. • • •
Winter Games
are scheduled to occur on a four-year cycle two years apart. Since what
year... ? 4. Colourful ceremonies combined with athletic competitions
W hat... for? 5. ... is particularly impressive. W h at... ? 6. The athlete
Greece march into the stadium Why enter the stadium last.
Who ... ? 8 .... declares the Games open. Who ...
moment of the opening ceremony is .... What 9 9 9

279
(2)

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык.

THE OLYMPIC GAMES


(continued)
Each national committee provides uniforms for its country’s athletes
while they prepare for and compete in the Games. Each committee also
furnishes transportation for its team to the Games and back. The host
country provides food and housing for all the athletes. Most countries
use government funds to pay the expenses.
Every country represented in the Olympics has a National Olympic
Committee that selects the athletes who compete in the Games. Each
committee is responsible for ensuring that the at hletes meet the Olympic
and international sports federation eligibility requirements.
An athlete who represents a country in the Olympics must be a citizen
of that country. Until 1988, only amateur athletes competed in the Games.
Professional athletes are now eligible to compete in basketball, ice hockey^
football, and teirnis. In addition, the IOC voted in 1974 to allow national
Olympic committees to pay athletes during an unlimited training period
before the Olympic Games. Each athlete may receive expense money,
plus the equivalent o f the salary that he or she would earn by working
instead o f training.
In many countries, athletes qualify by winning, or finishing high, in
competitions called selection trials. Participation in most o f these trials
is by invitation only.
In some Olympic sports, a nation may enter as many as three athletes
in each individual event and one team in each team event. Five sports —
archery, athletics, shooting, swimming, and weightlifting — require
athletes to m eet a minimum standard o f performance if their country
enters more than one com petitor in an event within the sport.
Up to 12 teams can compete in each m en’s team sport, except football,
which involves 16 teams. N o more than 20 teams take part in each team
sport that has com petition for both men and women. If more than the
maximum num ber o f nations want to com pete in sport, a qualifying
tournam ent is held before the Olympics. Such tournam ents are the
responsibility o f the international governing body o f the sport involved.
Several methods of judging are used in various Olympic events. For
example, the eight fastest athletes qualify for the finals in most swimming
and athletics events. The medals in diving, figure-skating, and gymnastics
are awarded on the basis o f points given by judges. In bobsleighing and
luge, each contestant or team makes a certain number of timed runs down
the course, and the lowest total time wins. Speed-skaters are tim ed as
they race, two at a tim e, over a course. The placing in shooting is based
280
only on accuracy. In wrestling, each man competes against at least two
opponents. In boxing, each man remains in competition only until he
loses one bout.
The top three athletes in each Olympic event receive a medal and a
diploma. The next five receive only a diploma. The first- and second-
place medals are made of silver, but the first-place medal has a gold
coating. The third-place medal is made of bronze. All the members of a
winning relay team get a medal. In team sports, all the members who
have played in at least one of their team ’s games receive one. The design
of the medals for the Winter Olympics is different from the design for the
Summer Games. The design is changed for each Olympic Games.
The winners receive their medals at an impressive ceremony held after
the event. The three medal winners stand to attention while the flags of
their countries are raised. A band plays a short version of the national
anthem of the homeland of the gold medal winner.
Olympic com petition is intended to test the skill and strength of
individuals, not nations. Therefore, the IOC does not keep an official
score among the competing countries. No nation “wins” the Olympics.
However, newspaper and television reporters from all parts of the world
tell the public how many gold, silver, and bronze medals have been won
by each country.
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Who selects the athletes competing in the Olympic Games?
2. Who pays athletes during an unlimited training period before the
Olympic Games?
3. How do athletes qualify?
4. How many athletes may a nation enter?
5. What methods of judging are used in Olympic events?
6. How are the winners awarded?
3. Скажите по-английски:
спортивная форма; отвечать за; представлять страну; неограничен­
ный тренировочный период; зарабатывать; зарплата; судейство; на­
граждать; лучшие спортсмены; командные виды спорта; гимн; сила

(3)
Переведите текст на русский язык. Постарайтесь не пользоваться сло­
варем.

THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COM MITE Е

1. What is IOC?The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is the


governing body of the Olympic Games. The Committee approves the
sports to be included in the Olympics. The IOC also selects the host cities,

281
one for the Summer Games and one for the Winter Games, six years in
advance. The selection process includes a presentation by the mayor of
each city that wished to host the games.
2. Who plans the Games? The organizing committee o f the host city
and the international governing body for each Olympic sport work with
the IOC in planning the Games. The host city decides the num ber of
sports to be included in the Games. The host city and various international
sports federations plan the events within each sport, the maximum number
o f athletes allowed to enter, and the schedule o f events. The international
sports organizations also conduct each event and appoint the judges and
referees. "Ліг .>
3. How are new members o f the IOC elected? New members o f the IOC
are elected by the current members. A representative may be elected from
any nation that has a national Olympic committee, but only nations that
have hosted the Olympics may have two representatives.
The IOC has no set rules regarding which eligible nations shall be
represented. As a result, the size o f the Committe varies as members die
or retire and new members are chosen. In 1991, the Com m ittee had 94
members. Originally, members were elected to the IOC for life. Today,
any member elected after 1965 must retire at the age of 76. The members
o f the Committee accept no instructions on voting from any government
or other group or individual.
4. Who handles the IOC business ? The IOC meets annually and during
the Summer and W inter Games. Between meetings, its executive board
handles the Com m ittee’s business. This board consists o f the president,
four vice presidents, and six members who serve four-year terms. The
Committee elects these officials from among its members. The president
serves an eight-year term and then may be reelected to any num ber o f
four-year terms.

(4 )

1. Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем ответы на следующие вопросы:


1. What historical period is described in the text?
2. D id population o f Russia practise sport outside the organized
movement?
3. W&s the hygiene at the high level then?
4. Were there sporting performances outside the organized sport?

POPULAR GAM ES IN OLD RUSSIA

intervene вмешиваться, мешать


fist кулак
adult взрослый
282
advance —продвигать, выдвигать
abundance —изобилие
diversity —разнообразие
lock — зд. шлюз
agile —проворный
siege —осада
hygiene —гигиена
spear —копье
hurl —метать, швырять
Organized sport was rather popular in pre-revolutionary Russia. Russia
was a leading member of Olympic movement.
Outside the organized sports movement, popular games went on being
enjoyed by some part of the population — as long as the authorities did
not intervene. Village “wall-to-wall” fist fights were common even in the
19th century: all adult members of one village would line up and advance
against a similar wall of opposing villagers.
The abundance of waterways and their strategic importance
encouraged the transportation of cargoes in sailing and rowing boats on
rivers and lakes. Fishing and shooting took place from boats, rafts and
river banks. Although these were labours of necessity and not of sporting
love, the water did provide a playground for rowing races, swimming and
diving. The Russian traveller, Glagolev, described the diversions of the
people of Tula “One can only be amazed at their daring when they throw
themselves into the river from a pile, bridge or lock four or five sazheni
(8.5—10.7 m) high. They are quite agile and use virtually all known
swimming styles... although one would never even suggest that rules and
schools exist.”
In winter, ice skating and the old favourite of a snow fortress siege all
had their support among the common people, hunting and dancing were
common to all seasons. Although hygiene was rudimentary, many
Russians seemed to attach great importance to bodily cleanliness and
physical stamina. The weekly steam bath followed by a dip in the icy river,
or sometimes a roll in the snow, was an almost religious duty.
Professional entertainers or jesters (skomorokhi) treated spectators to
displays of fencing with pikes and swords, acrobatics and tight-rope
walking. And at folk festivals, combatants would measure their strength
and skill by tossing and lifting weights, throwing stones at targets or for
distance, hurling the javelin and leaping over fires.
2. К какой части речи относятся данные слова? Как они образованы?
transportation, cleanliness, movement, villager, combatant
3. Скажите по-английски:
вмешиваться; выстраиваться; транспортировка; рыбалка; охота;
гребные гонки; плавание; прыжки в воду; осада снежной крепости;
283
гигиена; физическая выносливость; баня; хождение по канату; ме­
ряться силой; прыгать через костер
4. Верны ли данные утверждения? Докажите.
1. Village “wall-to-wall” fights were common even in the 19th century.
2. People of Tula can’t show all styles of swimming.
3. In winter, people practised ice-skating and snow fortress sledging.
4. The population of Russia preferred monthly steam bath.
5. Jesters practised fencing, acrobatics and tight-горе walking.
6. At folk festivals, combatants took part in “wall-to-wall” fights.

(5)
1. Какие спортивные игры практиковались на Руси? Найдите ответ в тексте.

POPULAR GAMES IN OLD RUSSIA


(continued) Ш0- *Й У' >
Being very popular from earlier times — and ones which still have
considerable support among Russians even today — were Russian folk
games with various-sized balls, sticks, bones and stones, including the
following:
gorodki — a game in which a 50-cm stick is hurled at a square
containing wooden pegs, the aim being to knock, successively, various
configurations of pegs out of the square;
lapta — a game similar to rounder or baseball;
lunki — a game in which a ball is rolled along the ground to a hole
some distance away;
shariki — a game similar to marbles;
babki — a game using bones, one bone is used to knock two or more
configurations of bones out of a circle, some 40 versions of the game are
currently practised in Russia;
svaika — a game in which a spear is thrown to land in the middle of a
metal ring lying in the ground some distance away;
kila — on the left-hand side of a yard, 8 or 9 men play kila which is a
leather hair-filled ball, the size of a man’s head. The two sides come
together “wall-to-wall”, one player kicks the ball and tries not to lose it
to the other side ... the aim being to force the ball into a gorod (town)
marked by a line. Anyone who breaks the rules has his neck “soaped”.
Players shout kila “when the gorod is taken”. This game was evidently a
primitive version of football, it was played both in summer and in winter
(on ice). v .
2. Скажите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:
considerable, evidently, configuration, version, currently, successively
284
3. Найдите в тексте два предложения, начинающиеся следующими сло­
вами, и дайте письменный перевод этих предложений.
1. Being very popular from earlier times ....
2. The two sides come together “wall-to-wall”....
4. Найдите в тексте предложения, содержащие страдательный залог. Пе­
реведите их на русский язык.
5. Назовите игру. Расскажите по-английски правила игры. Ваш друг дол­
жен сказать, как эта игра называется. Используйте информацию, получен­
ную из текста. Например:
— It’s a game similar to baseball.
— I think it’s lapta.
— Yes, it’s true.

(6)
1. Прочитайте текст. Выпишите из него незнакомые слова с переводом и
транскрипцией.

PYOTR LESGAFT
The figure who made the most important impression on Russian and
Soviet physical education was Pyotr Frantsevich Lesgaft (1837—1909),
biologist, anatomist, educationalist and social reformer — the founder
of the new discipline of physical education in tsarist Russia.
Lesgaft started his career in 1861 as a teacher of anatomy at the
St Petersburg Academy of Medicine; he was subsequently invited to take
up a professorship at the University of Kazan and went there in 1868,
but was soon dismissed for his outspoken criticism of the unscientific
methods used. For a while, from 1872, he worked as consultant on
therapeutic gymnastics in the private surgery of Dr Berlindt but, after the
publication of several articles and books (including a descriptive history
of sport in Europe and ancient Greece and an article, published in 1874),
he was in charge of the physical training of military cadets. The next year,
1875, he was commissioned by the War Ministry to spend two summers
in Western Europe studying the systems of physical education current
there. Altogether, he visited 26 cities in 13 Western European states. The
British system was evidently most to his liking, although he abhorred the
“strict orders, fagging and lording of senior pupils over juniors” that he
witnessed in some public schools. He also visited the Central Army
Gymnastics School at Aldershot, the Royal Military Academy at Wbolwich
and Oxford University. What especially took his fancy was “ English
predilection for strict rules of hygiene, competitive games in the open
air, long walks and boat trips, swimming and other regular exercises”. On
his return, in 1877, he published his Relationship of Anatomy to Physical
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Education and the Major Purpose ofPhysical Education in Schools, in which
he outlined a physical education programme for military colleges. He was,
in fact, able to supervise its progress in twelve academies. At the same
time, he took a keen interest in organizing courses for physical education
instructors for the military academies — provision for which, until then,
had been non-existent.
2. Какие события происходили в жизни П. Ф.Лесгафта в следующие
годы:
1. 1861? 2. 1868? 3. 1872? 4. 1874? 5. 1875? 6. 1877?
3. Прочитайте следующий текст и ответьте на поставленные в нем во­
просы.

1. Why was the “Societyfor the Encouragement of the Physical Develop­


ment of Student Youth ”organized?
While supervising officer training, Lesgaft published his major works,
Family Upbringing, Teaching Physical Education to Schoolchildren and
Fundamentals of Theoretical Anatomy. His desire to organize sport in
civilian schools was for some time thwarted by the authorities, who still
tended to look on it as frivolous and tending to encourage academic
idleness. This led Lesgaft in 1892 to found and become Secretary of the
“Society for the Encouragement of the Physical Development of
Student Youth” which quickly spread its branches to Odessa, Kiev and
Moscow.
2. What did this organization exactly do ?
Besides encouraging public development both in the home and in
school, this philanthropic organization constructed play areas in a number
of towns and provided sports amenities for children of the poor, arranging
for them competitive games, camps and excursions as well as boating in
summer and ice skating and sledging in winter. The Society finally, in
1896, persuaded the Minister of Education to set up the first civilian
physical-training courses for men and women instructors with Lesgaft in
charge. However, Lesgaft was accused of inciting student unrest and the
courses were closed down in 1907. After the October Revolution, Lesgaft’s
“Courses” were reorganized into the famous Institute of Physical Culture
in Leningrad that today bears his name.
3. Were women admitted to practising sports ?
The admission of women to training was certainly novel: the official
view in Russia had long been that sport was the preserve of men and
that women were not suited to it by their social status and anatomical
structure. For much of his academic career, Lesgaft espoused the cause
of women s sporting rights, giving official physical education and
anatomy courses to women students at his home and, after 1896, at the
university, 100 women students attended them in the first year and 166
in the second. Lesgaft regarded women’s participation in sport a means
to social liberation: “Social slavery has left its degrading imprint on
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women. Our task is to free the maidenly body of its fetters, conventions
and drooping posture, and return to our pupils their freedom and
suppleness which have been stolen from them. We must develop in them
firmness, initiative and independence, teach them to think and take
decisions, give them knowledge of life and make physical educationalists
out of them. ”

(7)
1. Прочитайте текст и выпишите из него незнакомые слова с переводом и
транскрипцией.

PYOTR LESGAFT
(continued)
Lesgaft’s medical studies of the human system led him to the
conclusion that it was in constant development and change, partly under
the influence of the social environment; physical education instructors
should, in his opinion, have a knowledge of chemistry and physics,
particularly the general laws of mechanics, so as to be able to apply them
to the “human mechanism”.
On the basis of his theory, he elaborated and recommended a system
of physical education for the school and the home:
1. The child starts by simple movements which are explained to him
but not demonstrated, he has to analyse them himself and distinguish one
from another, then begin to understand them. The movements, recom­
mended for early school classes, consist of normal walking, running,
jumping and throwing a ball.
2. The child then learns to master exercises of gradually increasing
complexity in various conditions, after which he can tackle more difficult
tasks swiftly and easily. These exercises are designed for the intermedi­
ate classes and consist of running against the clock, long and high jumping
and distance throwing.
3. The child then learns to harmonize his movements in time and space
and in relation to surrounding objects, already foreseeing the result. By
these exercises, he develops muscular control and learns to act in the best
possible way in any circumstances. Exercises are for the upper forms and
include running at a set speed, target or distance ball-throwing, exercises
associated with an understanding of special relationships and the tem­
poral distribution of effort.
4. Simultaneously with these groups of exercises, the child checks the
skills he has acquired and consolidates them by employing difficult actions
during games, excursions and work movements.
At each stage of physical education, different, increasingly complica­
ted, pedagogical aims are pursued, the main purpose being to teach the
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child conciously to master the movements of his body and to attain the
best results with the minimum energy and time expenditure. In Lesgaft’s
opinion, just as in intellectual education, the child should not merely
accumulate knowledge but be able to apply it, so in physical education,
he should both develop physical skills and be prepared to apply them in
the best way possible. I b>
The exercises to be included in this system were mainly gymnastics,
team games, expeditions and tumbles. Lesgaft, however, opposed the
German system and any gymnastics that employed special equipment:
“Exercises employing equipment involve sharp sensations, they therefore
blunt the emotions of young people and make them less receptive and
impressionable, it is hardly surprising that, when young people go to
university, they smoke heavily, have late nights and so on...”. Further, in
his opinion, the type of gymnastics in vogue in Germany and Sweden
did not correspond to children’s anatomical structure and were, therefore,
physically harmful. He favoured the type of free gymnastics that is today
known in Russia as “artistic gymnastics”, which would satisfy the
children’s natural desire for physical movement and achievement, and
also encourage such qualities as will power and initiative: “A person
develops in the family, the family gives him affection, warmth, makes him
responsive and kind, the school develops his mind, gives him the ability
to form his own views, judgm ents and thoughts; along with an
independence of thought the person’s moral values are formed. Physical
exercises develop activity in a person and he acquires the ability to
subordinate all his desires to his will.”
2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What were the exercises to be included in the system?
2. What was Lesgaft’s opinion about the German system?
3. What type of gymnastics did Lesgaft favour?
4. What is the role of the family in the personal development of the
child from Lesgaft’s point of view?
5. What is your personal opinion about Lesgaft’s theory and system of
physical education?
3. Закончите предложения, используя текст.
1. The human system is in .... 2. Physical education instructors should
have .... 3. Lesgaft elaborated and recommended .... 4. The child starts
by ... . 5. These movements consist o f ... . 6. Then the child learns to
master .... 7. More difficult exercises are designed .... 8. The child then
learns to harmonize his movements .... 9. Exercises included running at
a set speed__10. At each stage of physical education ....