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I

H.

C.-EETEPEYPrTB.
Tnnorpa(|)iH M. M. CTACIOJIBBHHA, Bac. Corp., 5 JIHH., 28.

1900
SAMfc^EHHHS IIOrPlilllHOCTH.

7 ctp., 13 cipOKa cHH3y, nponymeno: SJECB BT> 493 r. OHH ocHoeanH CBOG
KOpOJieBCTBO.
137 cip., 7 cipoKa CHH3y, BM. X H XI, HyatHo XI H XII.
13 cip., 4 cipoKa CBepxy, BM. 1353, nyKHO 1357.
'

140 cip., 4 cipOKa CHHsy H 179 cip., 5 cxpOKa csepxy, BM. XIII, nyatHO XI.
OrJIABJIEHIE.

A.

CTPAH.
.' Ill V
I. Pacnafleme PHMCKOS HMnepiH H BuctynjieHie repMancKHxii Hapo-
.HOBI 1
II. BucTynjieHie apadosi H o6pa30Baeie MycyjBMaHCKaro Mipa .... 33
III. Moaapxia Kapaa BejHKaro . 47
IV. $eoAaaH3Mi, 55
V. PasjvBJieHie nepKBefi H BHcrynjieHie MaBflBCKHXi) Hapo^ost. ... 73
VI. KpecTOBtie noxo^H 95
VII. Hepexofli ort cpe^eaxt siKOBt K-B HOBOMy speiieHH 137
'

VIIL Cpe^BeBtKOBaa Kyjitxypa 178


ia (ct OT^JIBHHM'I, orjaBieHieMi BI odmem aaroiOBK'fe 3Tiix'b

205

B.

OTHomeHia cpe^HHx-& BiKOB-B, rap. 110, 39 41, 4751,


7378, 95107, 137141, (157159), 180183.
H,epKOBHHa OTBOinema cpe.nnHX'B BiKOB-Bt a) do paadnjiemn iteptteeu, cip.
10 20, 41 45, 5455, 7880; b) nocjvn> pasdnAenin v/epneeii, crp. 8085,
107117, 141152.
06m,ia iepTH iiciopiw aanaAao-eBponegcKiix-B napOAOB'B, cip. 2023, 5254,
55-68, 117122, 152155, 190204.
06tn,ia qepiti iiCTOpin cjaBflHCKiixi BapOAOB-B, cip. 8789,9091,135136,
170171, 186-187.
MycyjiBMaHCKiii Mipi, cip. 3341, 7778, 138141, 187190.
AHoia, cip. 26, 124131, Ibl 165.
Bojrapia, cip. 8990 H 171.
- VIII

Bearpia, cip. 94-95, 171172.


,
cip.2732, 4546, 8687, 169170, 183186.
(CT> 843 r.), cip. 70-72, 131134, 165169.

Hia-iia, cip. 79, 45, 48-49, 6970, 72, 96-97, 113114, 115116, 153,
180182.
noJiBina, cip. 9194, 173177.
$pamua, cip. 2325, 5254, 6869, 122124, 155161.
^lexia, cip. 91, 136, 191, 144146, 148149, 172-173.

K A P T LI.

Ta6inua
TJIABA I.

Pacnaflenie PHMCKOH HMnepin H BticTynjieHie repnan-


CKHXT,

I. MejKAyHapcwiHH OTHOinenia ( 1 14).


II. IJepKOBHHa OTHOinema ( 15 27).
III. BnyxpeHHaa ncxopia BapsapcKHxi rocyjapciBt. 06maa xapaKxepncxHica.
28 31). $paHKCKaa Mcmapxia ( 32 33) H anrjio-caKCOHCKoe rocy^apcTBO
34-37).
IV. BH/ipeHHaa HCTOpia BHsaHiiH ( 37 44).

1* iKHBIUHX-B PiiMCKaa HM-


/I,peBHflfl HCTOplfl HapOAOB-B, BOKpyrt CpeAH36M-
naro Mopfl, saseprnHJiacb o6j>edunenieMb UXK at oduo ipomadnoe 10-
]

cydapcmeo PuMcnyw umnepm


), KOiopaa cnycia
CTO ji-feTi nocjii
P. X. saHHMajia npocxpaHCTBO npn6jiH3HTejibHO Mea:j;y 10 H 60
BOCTOIHOH .HOJirOTH H MeZK^Y 30 H 50 C-feBepHOH IHHpOTH. El> CO-
cxaBi, 9xoro rocyAapciBa BXO^HJIH caMHfl cxapBia KyjiBiypHBifl cipaHti,
KaKOBti ErHnex-B, $HHHKia, IlajiecTHHa H
T. n., H SCMJIH, npio6-
in,HBiniaca KI> HCiopHHecKOH SIHSHH, .nunt 6,iaroAapa PHMCKHMI. sa-
BoeBaHiaMTj. HepBEia cocTaBjra.TH eocmonnyio nojioeuuy UMnepiu,
BiopBia sanaduyw. Co BpeneHTb MaKe,a;oHCKaro saBoeBania cxapne
BOCToqHLie Hapo^u no^HHHJiHCb cHJibHOMy BjiaHiio rpe^ecKOH o6pa-
SOBaHHOCTH (d.MUHUSMt), -
1TO BLIpaSHJOCB MCH^y npO^HMl H Bt
pacnpocxpaneHiH rpeiecKaro aatiKa cpe^a 3THxi> Hapo^OBi), i-or^a
B-L sana^HOH HOJIOBHH'B HMnepin BOCTOpatecTBOBajo PHMCKOC
(pOMauu3ait,ifi), H ^.aate npOHcxo^HJio BBiT'ECHenie M-BCT-
Hapiqifi npOCTOHapOAHLIM & JiaTHHCKHMl) aSBIKOM'B, HS'B KOTO-
r
HBIXl,

paro noiOMt H oSpasoBajracb HOBtie pOMancme asiiKH. TaKHMi,


o6pa30Mi> nojiumuuecKu edunan PnMCKaa HMnepia C'B caMaro Ha-
Ky.nmypnoMi omnoweniu Ha
l
ia.ia pa:5;vkia.iacB <?a

') CM. Kapiy I.

(TE,IHfl HCTOPM.
HBIH BOCTOK/B H pOMaHHSHpOBaHHHH 3ana^t, H 9TO OOVfOaieJIBCTBO
BecbMa BaiKHoe sHaienie ^IH scero flaaLfrBfiniaro xo^a Bce-
HCTOpiH. FpaHHua Meat^y OS-EHMH no.iOBHHaMH HMnepin
npH()JiH3HTeJiBHO no 37 BOCTOIHOH AOJiroTBi, Meat^y O^OHMH
u,eHTpajiBHBiMH nojiyocipOBaMH CpejjHseMHaro Mopa, Fpeuieft H I'h-a-

KOTOpBix'B H BBiiMO o6 Be,n;HHeHie


f

lieH, HST, .upeBHaro Mipa rpeqe-


CKOIO odpasoBaHHOCibK) H PHMCKOH) rocyAapciBeHHOCT&io.
2*. BTB cociaBi) PHMCKOH HMnepin BOUIJIH Hapo^H, HST. KOTO-
CHaiajia CBOK) oco6yio pejiHriio, HO
OOT,eAHHeHlC v
PHMCKOH HM- HOCTOflHBarO KyJIbTypHarO BSaHMOATBHCTBlfl Me^K^y p6JIHri03HBIMH BTB-
poBaeflMH pasHtixx HapOAOB-L npoHCxoAHJio c-iHateme H ^ae ea-
CM-Biiieme (cuHKpemttsm) STHX^ B-fepoBaHitt BI H^KOiopoe no-
o6meH pejinriH rpeKO-pnMCKoe flsuqecTBO, CMJILHO npOHHK-
meecfl npe^ciaBJieHiflMH BOCTOIHHXI, KyjiBTOB-L. Maao-no-Majy, o^naKO,
cxapLie asBiqecKie Ky.iLTBi SHJIH ebimncueuu noeoto pejiuiiew xpu-
cmiancmeoMv, BOSHHKIHHM^ B-B O^HOM-B HS'B oi^a.ieHHHX'B yroJKOB^

HMnepin. B'L nepBBie Tpn B'fiKa csoero cymeciBOBania


pejinria, UMnewafi y&ce ue ucmiouaMmiu, a yuueepcaMmiu
noABepra^acB jRecTOKHM'B roHeHiaMi> co ciopOHBi Bjra-
CTeii H asBiqecKaro oSmecxBa, HO B-B IV B. ona BOCTOpateciBOBaja

Ha#i fl3BiiectBOMi, H xpUcmioucmdO cdrbJiajioc'b locydapcmeenuou pe-


miieu PUMCKOU uMnepiu. Em,e BI caMOMi* Haia.ii OTAfeBHBia ofimHHLi
HOBaro pejiHriosHaro ygenia cxajiH cKjaABisaTBca BI
pacnpocTpanHBrnyioca no BC-BMI> o6jia-
ciaMi> HMnepin H nojryiHBniyio HassaHie eceMHCKOu weptmt. Bx IV B.

cym;ecTBOBaHie STOH opraHHsanin ^HJIO npHsnano PHMCKHM-B rocy-


^apCTBOMi,. 6.iaroAapa qeaiy nojiHTHiecKoe
Mipa, coBepuiOHHoe PHMOMX, ^OHOJIKHJIOCB
r

HBIM-B, C03Ji;aHHBIM B XpHCTiaHCKOK) !J,epKOBBK). JQBHBfflHCB, KaKT>


oo'meiejiOB'EqecKaa,xpHCTianciBO nponoBijtoBajiocB, o^naKO,
HBIMX napo^aMi na HX% HSBiKaxx, HO xaKi KaKi ET> CMBIC.I'B pac-
npocTpaneHHOCTH HH O^HHX asBiKi) He MOFI. conepHHiaxB ci rpe-
leCKHM-B H .laTHHCKHMI), TO Ha nepBHX-B Y^te nOpaXI, H 67> Ca.Mfi.Ml,
xpucmiaHCmerb ofipasoecuioc'b mwomopoe pas^unie Mewdy ipene-
CKUMZ BocmoKOMt u puMCKUMT) 3anadoMz.
3. OCHOBHOH (JjaKT-B Ky.iBTypnaro pacna^eHia HMnepin Ha rpe-
1';: M'AHneme H qHCTO-DHMCKyK) HOJIOBHHBI BBlpaSHJICH H BX TOM1>,
^eCKYK)
J J
BocTosa M 3a- .

CT> xeqenieMi) BpeMenn npOHsonuio pasorb^eme CHma.m


UMnepiu a nomoMr, u ece.ieHCKOu i^epneu HO, eocmouHyw u sanad-
,

uyw. IlepBoe oinocHTca K^ KOHn,y IV B. no P. X. (395), Biopoe


TOJIBKO K-B cepe^HH-B IX B. Cy^Bda o6'BHxi nojOBHH-B HMnepm
6HJia pasnaa. 3ana,a;Haa PnMCKaa HMnepia najia yace BO Biopofl no.io-
mini; V H. (476). BocioqHaa ate )iepe.Hcu.?a ee nonmu ua mucmy
.ut.nro no^i. HOBLIMT. HasBameMTE, HMnepin BusanmiucKOu. Bi, espo-
neHCKHX-b npOBHHuiax'b sana^HOH IIO.IOBHHBI HMnepin o6pa30Ba.iHCb
Hoeun locydapcmea, ocHoeanmiH pasmiMU lepMducKUMU
paBHO Haiti, H HiiKOTOpBia GBponeHCKm oftiacTH BnsaHTiHCKOH
fiw.TH saHHTH uapoddMu cAdemcKdio npoucxowcdemH, Koxoptie mate

ycipoii.iH 3A^cb CBOH rocy^apcTBa. Kairb ^epMaH^LI, Tanx H cja-


BflHe npHHHJH XpHCTiaHCTBO, HO Bl TO BpCMH, KaK-L nepBHC npH-
HKAia.iH ero HS'B PuMa, BiopEie 6o.ibmeK) yacTBK) HS'B BHsaHTin.
!
Bcero 9ioro BI EBponi oSpasoBaJiocb B'L cpe^nie B'BKa )
Mipa: ipeno-CJiaeHHCKiu npaeoc-iaenuu BocmoK<>
H poMdHO-iepMaucKiu mmojiuuecKiu Sanadz.
Hanaro ofipasoeaniH leprndHcnuxi locyddpcme* omnocumcH KO
I'd.. c.iaemcKifi we locyddpcmea opiauuaywmcH WIOMKO ez cmo- IX
.mmiu. (Bt npOMeatyTK^ neatly BTHMH .nsyMfl 9noxaMH, BI> VII B.,

coBepmH.iocb saBoeBanie 6o.iBnieii qacra asiaiCKHxi. H


KancKuxi, npOBHHi^iii HMnepin apa^ann, yxBep^HBniHMH
pejinriio HCJiaM't).
re P M a H "
4. CT. repMani^aMH, KOTOPHMI> cyat^HO 6ujio paspyniHib 3a-
iiMnepiro, pHMJiaHe nosHaKOMHJHCb BnepBbie em,e
PHMCKyio
Bl KOHIJ'E^0 P. X. (ct KHMBpaMH H TCBTOHaMH) H BT, 9HOXy
II B.

^aBoeBania FaoiH IJesapeMTb (co CBeBaMn). IlepBbifl ciuiKHOBenifl


Pujia C'brepManuaMH CHJIH nucmo eoennufi, HO Kor^a HMnepaiopLi
p'BnjeHia rpaHHi^t HMnepiH nociponjiH na Penni H
r

pa^i. ropOji,OB b, TO Majio-no-Majy repMannbi, atHBmie


K-L BOCTOKy H C'BBCpy OT'L BTHX'b p-BKI), CTaJH HO^qKHflTbCfl H Kl)M-
eMHuiw PnMa. Hacejreme 6:iHaiaHmHX'b K^ HMnepin qacieft
noABeprjiocb ^aate H-BKOTOPOH pOManH3an;iH. FepMaHnH BCTy-
na.iH HHor^a B-B cotOBHHiecKifl OTHOmema KI, HMnepin H ,a;aa;e ne-

nepecejiHJiHCb norpaHHMutifl o6jraciH HMnepiH H pasM^ma-


BI,

eaz^y piiMjanaMH ci oSasaHHOcibio 3ain,Hin,aTb HXI OTT> BTOp-


CBOHXI. ate conjreMeHHHKOB'b. FjiaBUbiMH sanaxiaMH repManrjeBi
()LI.1H CKOTOBO^CTBO H OXOia, HO OHH (5LLTH 3HaKOMH VatC H C'B SCMJie^'B-

Koxopoe no.p. PHMCKHMI, B-iianieM-B ciaao y nnx'b Ma.io-no-Ma.iy


.lieMi,,

pacmnpaTbca H yjiyimaibca. PnM.iaHe c.n'BJiajrHCb xaKate HX-B y^H-


Te.iaMH H B-b ^pyrax^ HCKycciBaxi, HanpHMtp-b, ET> HCKycciB-B npn-

roTOBjenia opyatia. Mem^y MCJIKHMH njieMenaMH, Ha Koxoptia pas-


^BJia.iHCb repManmi, npoucxodu.m nocmoHHuuH eoiiuu, HOTOMV ITO,
Hiu,a .ij
quiHxi. M^CTI,, 9TH njiCMena B^IHO Hanajta^n ^pyr^ na

') CpeflHHMH nt,KaMH npiiHHTO HasHBari. THCfltre-iiTie, OT^iijaioinee na^enie ->aua;i-


irOI! I'lIMCI.'Ofi OT'b
HMIIOJliH (47(i) OTKptlTifl AMepIIKlI (1492).

1*
PHMV Toate CTOH.IO Henajuxi xaonorb c,a;epatHBaTB repMaHn,eB-B BT>

HX-BHpe/rfc-iaxx. Bcji^CTBie axoro OKOJIO naxn CTOjrfeTifi nuia


o6oHMH napojiaMH 6opb6a, BO Bpesia Koiopofi Mejimn lepMamKi
Mena cma.m ecmynami MCMdy co6ow vz cowsu u CMieambcn ez 6o.me
npynuue napodu no^i. Haia.iBCTBOM'B repn.oroB'B H Kopojeft. FjiaBHHMH
!
repMaHCKHMH napoji;aMH BI anoxy pas^jrenm HMnepiH 6HJiH ): na
HnaiHeMi PenH'B (fipauKu, na HeKKapi 6ypiyndu, Ha BepXHeMi,
Pefini H Ha BepxHeMTb J^yHai adMManu, a ^BjAe no ,3,yHaio
6a&apUj eaudaau, Jiamo6apdu H ^omu. IIocjiivUHie, pas
na BOCTOHHBixi) H 3ana^HHXi> (ocmiomoez H eecmiomoei),
cxpann OTt HH30Bift ^ynaa ,a,o ^H-fenpa. 3a nasBaHHUMH
E% r.iy6nH'B (fipusu Meat^y PeftHOM-b H BesepoMt,
FepMaHin awuiH
cancu Meat^iy Beseponi, H 9jn>6oio H amMi. HaKonen.!., repMancKoe ate
Hace.ieHie HM^JII. H Cmndunaecmu noJiyocipos'L. O^HH HS-B BTHX-L

Hapo^OBx nocxeneHHO BI> IV VI BB. nepecejiH.iHCi) BI npe^kra


HMnepin, Apyrie ociajracb na po,a;HHi. H
'

PHMCKOH T^, H Apyrie


^OJiro ocTaBa^HCL flanqBHEaMH, HO yate VL cepe^HH^ IV B. K-L rep-
MaHii,aMi> cmaM npouunam^ xpucmiancmeo (cnaqa.ia BI BH^i apian-
CTBa). Panie scero npHHajin HOByro peJiHriro TOTBI, y KOTOpHX-L
ein,e AO HXI, nepecejienia B'B HMnepiro en. VMffium nepeBe-ii.
Ha Hapo^HHH HSBiK'B. Ilosaie Bctxi) flpyrnxt repMancKHXi,

5. Bo BTOpofi nojiOBHH'B IV B. npOHsouMO co6iiTie, KOTOpoe no-


-
B<3eK<IO 3a co6oio naqajio eejiumio nepecejienin uapodo&b. H3i> epejii-
Karo nepece- . .*
Hapo- HGH AsiH, qepes'B BejiHKifl Bopoia napOAOBi, neatly ypajrBCKHM'B xpeo-
TOMI> H KacniacKHM-L Mopeni,, flBHHyjica BI Espony napofli. xypancKaro

lyunu. 3xo 6ujiu flume KoieBHHEH, jinxie Hais^HHEU, rpa-


,

H paspymaBniie BCC Ha CBOCMI* nyiH. Hxi opflu nanajH


npeat^e scero Ha cjiaBani*, atHBinHxi, KI BOCTOKy oit repMaHn.eB'L, a
noTOM-B H Ha repMann.eBi), npnqeM-B HepiflKO caMH noSiatAeHHBie yse-
jraiHBajiH TOJinH rynnoB-B. OCTFOTBI BLinyatfleHBi 6ujin
HO eecmiomu cz pasprbmenm eocmonuaio UMnepamopa
nepewau uepest flyuau u nojiynum SCMJIU eo Spawn, CT>
CTBOMI> 3anj,Hm,aTB HMnepiro (375). SA^CB, o^naKo, OHH cKopo BOS-
CTajiH npOTHBi, pHMCKaro npaBHiejiBCTBa, H caMi, HMnepaiop-B
B-B OflHOH 6HTB !
1

CT> HHMH. 9lO B03Myffl,eHie BCCTrOTOB'B 6BIJIO

BJCHO OeodocieMt BesimuMZ, B-B noc-i^mn pa3i> coeflHHHBmHM-B


OflHHMi. CKHneipOMX 06^ no.iOBHHBi HMnepiH, HO Kor^a OH-B
(395), H HMnepaxopCKaa BJiaciB pas^THjacB Meat^y ero

Cp. uapry II, Ha Koxopofi, BiiponeMi), npeACTaBieHO paaceaenie repMaHiieBi


80.
(ApicadieMb BOCTOIHOH nojOBHHi H FouopieMo B'B sanaflHOH), Beci-
B'B

roxH CHOBa noflHHJiH Boscxame no^t Haia.iBCXBOM'B cBoero K0po.ifl A.m-


pn.ni. 3x0 HOBoe BOSMymenie sapBapOBi, 6tLio noflaBjeno oneKynoM-B
H nojiKOBoweMi) aanaAHaro Hunepaxopa, Cmu.mxoHOMz, KOxopBifi,
OflHaito, caM-B npOHCxoflHJi'B H3t repiiaHCKaro JKC mreiaeHH Ban^ajiOBt H
OXOTHO npHHHMa./i'B repJiaHn.eB'B B'B HMnepaxopcicoe BOHCKO. Upn
CA'fc.iajH Biopatenie B-B H onycxomaii
rajwiio H PlxaJiiio, rpadfl
H ApyrHxi> BapsapOBx, HO H
r

cipaHH, nojqHma Ban^aJiOB-L, 6ypryH^OB &


OHH OLI.IH OTpaJK6HH BOttCKaMH CTHJIHXOHa. BCKOp'B HOC.TB BTOFO OHt
6a.Tb \6uTi no npOHCKaMi> npH^BOpHBix-L HMnepaiopa,
ero B^ HaM'ipemH sosjioatHTL na ce6a HMnepaiopCKyio Kopony, H
A^iapHxi) pifflHJicfl nanacTL ea
caMiift PHMI>. Cmommi umnepiu
r,ua esHma eecmiomajuu H no^BeprjiacB pasrpadjeHiro (410). Hsi
PHMR A.iapHx-L HanpaBHJicfl HO SA^CL yMepi..
B'B roatnyro HxajiiK),
Ero npeeMHHKi Amay.nfl?, aaimioHHJi'B C-L HMnepaxopOMi, MHp-L,
no KOxopOMy ^,jia CBOHXO> BecxroxoBi, no-nym/ii. npaso nocejHxtca
BX loaiHoft H HcnaHin, r^-fe .naBHO yate CEnpincxBOBaJiH
FajLiiH
noji^nma Ban^ajOBi. H 5ypryHAOBi. B^ HasBaHHHX'B o6jiacxflxi. H
odpasoBajocb nepeoe eapeapcnoe wpojieecAneo BecmiomcKoe (412).
OKO.IO xoro ate 6ypiyndu yxBepji,HJiHCi> H o6pasoBaJH
BpeMenn
CBoe KOpojieBCXBO H COH^. Becxroxn ne cpasy sa-
no POH'B
HHJIH HcnaHiro: Hfeoxopoe Bpewa Ha IOPE nojiyocTposa ^epaia-
eanda.iu (^asmie HMH AHAa^ysin), noKa qepesx H-ECKOJILKO
He nepecejiH.iHCi) Bt fmBinyio KapearencKyio o6.iacxb BI
xaKate odpasoBajiH CBOC KOPOJICBCXBO (430).
f mei
6. Mea^y x'BMt ryHHH, noflB-ieme Koxopuxi. BI> Espon-B BHSBajio
jf
Be.iHKoe nepecejienie Hapo,a;oB'&, ocHOBajiHCb BT> OaHHomH (HLI-
H'BinHaa Benrpia), r^i npoflOJiataJiH ainxi, OX^IBHUMH op,a,aMH. BI.
nepBoft no.iOBHH-B V-ro B-BKa y HHXT> flBHJca 9HeprHiHHH H aiecxo-
Kift Boatflb B-L .IHI;^ Ammu.iu, KOxoptiH HCxpe6HJi'B flpyrnx'B Boatflea
H coeflHHHjn, BC'BX'B ryHHOBi) noflx. CBoero BJiacxBio. Bo MaB-B CBoero
uapo^a H coc'B^HHX'B repMancKHXi) H cjiaBflHCKHxi) njeMCH-B, 6BiBuiHxi

noflHHHHTBca ryHHaMi,, OHI, npednpuuHM saooeea-


noxodu
ci> 0,4,1610 rpa6eata HJIH no-iyiema BtiKyna. Cfia-

ryHHH Hanajin Ha BocxoqHyio HMnepiro; Axxnjia oxcxynHJTB oxi>


ea CXOJIHULI XOJBKO xor^a, Kor^a eMy 6ujn> npHCJiaH'B 6oraxtra BtiKyni).
B'B 451 r. OH-B Hauajn> Ha rajuriio,
no^i CBOHMT. HM-fca

nojyMHJiJiioHHoe BOHCKO HBI rynnoB-B H flpyrnxi, na-


Ha RamamyHCKOU paenunrb (OKOJIO llIajiOHa na Mapni)
C-B no.mmnaMH AXXHJBI BCXP'BXHJHCB (nofli) na^ajiBCXBOMi. Aau,in)

pHMjan-B H repManrteB-B, noce,iHBnraxca HesaflO.iro nepe^


BT> npefl-kiaxi, sana^HOH HMnepin. Axxn.ia noxepn'Bj'B nopa-
6 -

atenie H BBmyat^ent dbu-b BOSBpaxnxbca BT> DaHHOniK). Bi> 453 r.

OFL noBxopHJTb CBoe HanieciBie Ha SanaflHyio HMnepiio, Ha axox b r

pasi. flBHHyBHincb vaie ea caMLin PHM-L. OH-B He


#0 3xoro ropOAa, noxony gxo ET> ero BOHCK'B HaiajiH
Baxb noBa.ibHbia 60JTE3HH. OHT, onaxb B03BpaxHJica B-L
H CKOpo xoro ynepx. Co CMepxbio AXXHJLI OKOHmio csoe
noejrfc

cymecxBOBanie H ocHOBannoe HMT> i;apcxBO, cuoea pacnaeweecn na


opdu. FyHHCKoe nauiecxBie nponsBejio cnjibHoe Bneqa-
na coBpeMeHHHKOBT> H ocxaBHJio no ceSi nanaxb BI> no-
BX BHA'fc pasHBix^ JieTBERL (cnaceme Hapnata ce. /Keue-
sacxynnniecxBO sa PHMTB nann Jlwa I H x. n.)-
7. HaniecxBia BecxroxoBi,, dypryn^OB-L, BaH^ajiOBi, H rymiOB-L
oa-
p ani HO ocAafiu.iu
CT r Sanadnyw UMnepiw.f Eine B-B Haqaji'B V'-ro B l>Ka r

PMM- .
*

CKOH HMnepi0.,pfl 3am,HXLi HMnepiH oxi, sapBapOBi OEIJIH oxossaHH MSI, hpHxa-
H!H cxoflBiiiie xamt pHMCKie jierioHLi, H BCKOp'E B-L 9xy ocxaB.ieH-

Hyio npOBiran,nocxajin nepecejiaxLca HSX ciBepHoft FepMamH


anuu H caKCu (449), Koxopiie xoa^e oOpasosajiH s^icb CBOH KO-
pojieBcxBa. E^sa Hsdirmaa rynncKaro HaniecxBia Hxajiia BCKOpt
nocjri CMepxH AXXHJIH no^Beprjiacb HanaAeHiio co cxopOHbi BaH,n,a-

jOBi, Koxopbie daoice estuiu PUMK


(455), yqHHHBi> BT, H6Mi> cxpain-
Hoe paspymeHie naMaxHHKOBi, HCKyccxsa ( w BanAajiH3Mi").
BnponeMi,, orpaHHiHjracb Jinmb npocxbiMi) na6 BroM'b H
r

BI A(|)pHKy, HO HOCJTB 9xoro BT. caMOMi, PHM^ pacnopaaiajiHCb


BO^HxejiH HaeMHHXT. repnaHCKHXi. ApyiKHHi. OAHHI. HS'b HHXI,
repyjFb ) Odoanpz, ET> 476 r. CBepri, ci> npecxpja HecnocooHaro
l

HMnepaxopa PoMyjia-Aeiycmyjia, oxnpaBHBi snaKH HMnepaxopCKaro


^ocxoHHCXBa BI KoHCxaHXHHonojb. 3xo co6i.ixie H nojiyqHjo HasBanie
nadeuifi 3anaduou PUMCKOU umnepiu.
O^oaKpi, cxa.ii. npaBHXb
Hxajiieii Ka^ecxBi
BT> oco6aro Kopojra (rex), HO BT> caMOMi, EOHEC&
V B^Ka Hxajiia 6biJia yate aanaxa ocxroxaMH.
8. Bi, ro.n'b naflema Sana^HOH PHMCKOH HMnepiH Bci ea o6jiacxn r
2
KpOMi O^HOH, 6ujiu ywce &b
pymxt> eapeapcuuxi Kopoaeu ): BT>
aHTJio-caKCbi; Fajwia na rori, QTL .lyapbi
BpHxanin yxBep^HJiHCb
.
H Hcnania SLIJIH sanaxbi BecxroxaMn; loro-Bocxo^HOio nacxbio

A(})pHK B
r
BT>
6ypryHAti; Hxajiiefi ynpaBJiajiH repyjiu;
BaH,najibi. Ocxasajiacb BI. ynpaBJiemH pnMCKaro BoeHaqa.!ib-
Jinnib nowca SBMJIU ?& FaAMu Mewdy Jlyapoii u CQMMOU,
HO H ona nepes^ ^ecaxb .1^x1 6biJia sanaxa repMancKHMi> aie Ha-

(ppauKaMU. 3xox-b napOA'b, pasAi-iflBmiHca na


(j)paHKOBi>
H pnnyapCKHX'b, yase ^aBHO naqaai. jBHiKeme BI npe-
x
) fepyjn MCJKoe repmaHCKoe
2
) CM. Kap'ry II.
,Tfc.u.i PHMCKOH
HMnepin H B-B 3HOxy ea na^eHia yaie 3aHHMa.ii>
cxpany no HHjKHCMy xeqemK) Penna. Macxb cajmqecKHX'b (JtpaHKOB'L
np/iMo oij.ia npHHHxa ET> c'BBepo-Bocxo^HUH yrojii, Fa.uiH BT> Ka-
iecxBi> 3am,HTHHKOBi, HMnepin. ,11,0 KOHn,a \'-ro B^Ka y (|>paHKOBi>
He 6ti;io o6m,aro K0po.ua, HO Kanx-pasi, BT> anoxy na^enia HMnepin
3TOxi> Hapo.a.'L 6mn> o^e^HHenx O^HHATB HST> CBOHXT) i^apbKOBi,, XA<><I-

po^a Mepoeumoffi. XJIO^BHFI. pimnjica oiaaTL pHMCKyio


'B

ra.uiiH y ea npaBHiejia (Ciarpia) H Hana.iT> Ha Cyaccouo, KOTO-

PBIH H AOJUKeni 6Lun> npHsnaib ero BJiaciB (486), nocJi'B qero 6uja
:?aHHTa H sea cxpana Ha ciBep'L OTT, .lyapn. OEO.IO xoro aie Bpe-
M6HH BI raj.iiro BTOpr.iHCfc-6u.io aJUieMaHH, HO Xjio^BHri. oxpa-
siut 9xo HaoiecTBie B^ 6HTB-B npn ToAitfiamb (UrojiLnnxi.), H BCJI^A^
3a 9THM i> npHHfljn Bi, PeHMci Epeii^enie (496). OH-B 6mn> xeeaTi na
r

dyprvH^cKOH npwHE.ecc'B, HcnoB'B^OBaBuieH xpHCTiancKyio B-fepy H


na csoero Mytaa dojitmoe BJiianie. Bo BpeMa cpaaienia ci> a.i-
H.\ii>BnieH

jiejiaHaMH XjiOABHrx KpecxHTbca, ecjrn no6^AHT B Henpia-


Aa,TJ> od-BT-B
r

Te.ia, H Hcno-iKHJii. 310 ofrBmanie BM BCT B ct CBOHMH (|>paHKaMH.


P I

Oco6eHHO Baatno TO, qio (ppauKU npuusiMi xpucmiaHcmeo no


6&iJio

npaeocAaenoMy yuenm, KOTOpoe HcnoBij^OBajocL H PHMCEHMX nacejie-


meMi> T&juiiu: 3x0 CHHCKajro XjioflBHry pacno.ioaveHie ra.uio-pHM.iaHT,
H oojeryajio npejjnpHHaToe HMI, saBoeBanie loatHOH FajJiiH (AKBH-
TaniH), Haxo^HBuieHca no,n,i> BJiacxbio apiaH-L-BecxroxoBt. nociiAHie
OLI.TH Biix-BcneHLi Xjioji,BHroMi> H3T>
FajJim, H noqxH sea 3xa pnMCKaa
npoBHHn,ia Bonuia BI, cocxaBi> fipanKCKmo Kopo.wecmea. OAHHI HS'L
Xjo^BHra npHcoe,HHHHjn> K-L 9TOMy KOpOJieBCXBy H Byp-
MaJio-no-Ma,iy OHO pacuiHpnjo CBOH npe^JH H na npa-
BOMI, depery Penna.
9. B-L xo caMoe speMa, KaK'L Xjio^BHr-B OBja^Ba.!!. FajJiieK, Bt
.. .

JlmaMw no SOBV Bocxoinaro HMnepaxopa npnin.iH ocnnomu no,HT.

npeji;BO^HxejiLCXBOMi> Kopo.ia csoero, Teodopum (490). 3xoxi> na-


aBHJica do^a BI, Ka^ecxBii BOGHHOH CHJH, cocxoaBnieft na
nepiH. Hacejienie IIxajiiH 6H.io HeAOBOJibHO npHinejibn,aMH,
KoxopiiMT, ^ojiatHO6fciJio
ycxynnxb xpexb SCMJIH H Koxopue 6HJH
CBepxi, xoro apianaMH. IIosxoMy wb Hacaiemn Hxa.iiH cymecxBO-
Ba.io nocxoaHHoe mmomrbuie KT> eoscmameAemw HenocpedcmeenHon
v.tdcniu Busaniniu.
10. Pas^ienie PHMCKOH HMnepin Bt 395 r. H npeKpamenie HMne-
w r> Y 'v

paxopcKOH B.iacxH na .JanaA'B B-L 476 r. aa-ieno ne fouiu pacnaoe-


tiMnepiu ua dea coeepiaeuHO omdn>MHUH locydapcmea u noa-
ucuwnoeeniew ua 3anadn> caMOfi uden n .\inepiu. B-L cosna-
H!H coBpeMeHHHKOBi, HMnepia npOAOjma.ia coxpanaxb CBOG
H npaBHxe.iLCXBeHHLia pacnopaajenia Hs^aBaiHCb oxi, HM6HH
HMnepaxopOBx. Korjja O^oaicpx HH3.ioaiHJix PoMyjia-ABrycxy-ia, npasa
noc-TEAHaro BX cym,HOCXH nepeiiuH KX BOCxoqnOMy HMnepaxopy.
CaMH oapeapcnie nopoau npuzHaeajiu uadi co6ow UMnepamopci;fin>
ejiacmb. OHH CMOXP'BJIH na ce(5a, Jinnib KaKx Ha npaBBxejieft oxjjxMbHbixx
ofijiacxefi HAinepin H HaqajibHHKOBx ea BOOpyateHHiixx CHJIX. CaMoe BO-

ABOpeme HXX BX pasnbixx npOBHHHJaxx coBepmajiocb Cojibmeio qacxbro


ex corjiacia, xoxa 6u H BbiHyat^eflHaro, HMnepaxopoBx. Mem^y npo-
qnaix, atejiaa ysaKOHHXb CBOK> B.iacxb na^x M-BCXHHMX Hacejieniejix,
OHH ^,o6HBajiHCb oxx HMnepaxopoBx AapOBaflia HMX pasHbixx PHMCKHXX
Hanp., Becxroxcme KOpoJH 6tuiH ^MarncxpaMH MHJIH^H",
a
nojiyqajix HSX KoHCxaHXHHonojia XHxyjix n KOHcyjia
*
H x. n.
T(* *

KopeHHoe Hacejrenie PHMCKHXX npOBHHn;iH, sanaxbixx BapBapaiiH,


xojKe uyecmdoeajio ceow censb cz UMnepieu, ocoSenno BX BH^y xoro,
qxo BapBapu ^ojiroe BpeMa 6biJiH epexHRaMH-apiaeaMH. HOCJI'B 470 r.
OHO secbMa ecxecxBCHHO upHsnaBajro CBOHMX HMnepaxopowx xoro, KXO
uapcxBOBa.ix BX KoncxaHXHHonoJii. Ho BX nepBbia naxb^ecaxx
nocjii naflema 3ana^,HOH HMnepin BX BnsaHxiH ne 6mio
Hbixx npaBHxejieH, Koxopne MOIMH 6u BOSCxaHOBHXb na Sana^i ne-
nocpeACXBeHHyro Bjiacxb HMnepin.
11. Bx 527 r. Bcxynnjix na HMnepaxopCKiii npecxo^x JOcmu-
iionHTKa B03-
^w wg j (527 565), npocjiaBHBHiiH CBoe njapcxBOBame MHorHMH ^,'B-
HMnepiu JiaMHBHyxpeHHaro ynpaBJienia H nojiyqHBffliH HasBame BeJiHKaro.
IGcTHHiaHOMi.Qg^ npOHCXOAH.lX H3X CJiaBaHCKOH CCMbH, aiHBHieH B
H Aaate HM^JIX cjraBaHCKoe HMa YnpaB^a, HO yate ero
CBOK)
Kapbepy coji^axcKOH cjryat6oH, 6biJix HMnepaxopojix.
*aBx oxx Hero npecxojix, JOcxHniaHx BceH,x\io nponuKCH
u mpaduiifiaMU I-UMCKOU umnepiu. OHX nocxaBHJix csoeio sa^aqeiO'
BOscxanoBHXb HMnepaxopCKyio BJiacxb na 3anaji;4, omumz y lep-
:opOAeu saxeaneuuuH UMU npoeuHu/iu. 9xa sa^aqa o6,ier-
X^MX, qxo repMaHn,Li cocxasjiajiH Bce-xaKH MenbinaHcxBO BX
HacejemH ocHOBanHbixx HMH KOpoJiescxEX, H qxo 6ojibniHHCXBO 9xoro
Hacejema npo^ojiJKajio CMOxp'BXb Ha nnnepaxopa, KaKx na csoero sa-
KOHHaro rocyjjapa. BcKOpi no BCxyn^eHin na npecxojix IGcxHHiaHx
noc.iaJix BX A(J)pnKy BOHCKO no^x naqajibCXBOMx .lyqmaro CBoero mxi-
KOBO^n,a Bejiusapin, KOxopuH H omuHM Afipuny y eandajiofft (534).

3a Ban^aJibCKHMX KOPOJICBCXBOMX nacxynnjia oqepeji,b H KOpo.ieBCXBa


OcxroxcKaro BX HxaJiiH. K)cxHHiaHX BOcnoJibsoBajica pas^opanH BX
noxoMCXB'B Teo^opHxa H oxnpaBHJix BX Hxajiiro xoro ate Bejiusapifi,
Koxoparo Bnocji^cxBin saMx-HHJix Hapsecz. Ocxroxbi OKasaJH cn.ib-
Hoe conpoxHEJieme, H BOHHa saxaHyjacb Ha ^BaAH,axb jixx. OKOH-
qnjiacb H ona, o^HaKO, nod'Bioii HMnepin (555). Hxa.iia, oxnaxaa

y ocxroxoBx, cocxaBHJia OCOOHH dnsapxamz (HaMicxflnqecxBo),


H
9K3apxa
HaKOHei^B, lOcxHuiaHy .yja.iocB OXHUXB H y BecxroxoB-B Ht-
KOTOpue npHMOpcme ropoja H iipo.iHBT,, pTAfcunonpfi A^PHKV OTT>
Bci> 9XH npio6pn>inewifi fOcmtimarta fibuiu, odnano, ne-
H nocjrE Hero Bnaanxia cxa.ia nxi> .inmaxBca ojHoro sa

12. BHsanxiH onasajiocB B0o6me ne no CH.?aMi


3ana.ua. Yaie nepest xpn roji,a nowfe CMepiH
H)cTHniana IfmctMn nodeepwacb nawecmem flamotiapdott,
mnxt 3,0 i-oro BpeneHH Ha cpeAneMi* Teqenin ^ynaa (568).
CKoe BOHCKO, BtimeAniee KI, HHAiTb Ha Bcxp-Bqy, 6u.io pasdnxo, H
BCH ctBepHaa Hxajia c^'kiajact ^6u^ev) jaHroSap^OB-L ( n .loM-
oap^ifl"), npn ieMi> cxo.iHu.eio HOBaro rocy^apcxBa cxajia Haein. Ox-
cio^a jiaHro6ap,pi npe^npHnajH saBoeBanie H ^pyrHx-L lacxefi
r^'feMa.io-no-Ma:iy H yxsepAH^H CBOK) Bjracxt. IIpaB^a,
ropo^a CT Hxt OKpyraMH (BeH.en,m, PasenHa, PHMT,, Heanojt)
BHsauxia Bce-xaKH y^ajoct y^epataxB 3a co6oio, HO OHH ne co-
cxaB.iMH CMOfflHOH xeppHxopin, ^;a H CHoniemfl Hxi) ci. KoHCxan-
xHHonojeMi cj^JiSiJincb KpaiiHe 3axpy^HHxe.ibHHMH. TaKHM-L o6pa-
30Mi> HmaJifi 6* cymuocmu 6ujia nomepxna djin Bmanmiu.
IIe P B oe n -
13*. BejiHKoe repMancKoe ^BH^eHie JTHHII, cjrerKa KOCHy.iocB
J
.

^B.ieHie c.ia-
BOCXOIHOH PHMCKOH HMnepin HO saxo y nea HBHJIHCB ^pyne onac-
r

Hue Bparn: BI> Eeponi 9x0 6miH cdaeane, Bt Asin nepcu. Tlocji
xoro, KaKi. repMancKie Hapo^Bi jjBirayjiHCb Bt npe^jrn HMnepin, na
ocxaBjeHHBia HMH M^cxa naqajH nepece.THXBca cjraBSHCKia njieMena.
Ta e ^yHattcKaa rpaHHna, qepesi* Koxopyio npOHHKJH ET> HMnepiro

BecxroxBi, cxajra no^BepraxBca onacnocxH H co cxopOHBi HBHBuiHXCfl


cio^a c.iaBflH'B, KI> KOXOPBIMI, s^CB ci caMaro aie naqajia npncoeji;HHH-

.IHCB, KpOArfe xoro, 6odiapbi, Hapo^ xiopKCKaro npOHCxoat^enia,


paHBme na cpe^neM-B xeiemH BOJIH. (Bi VII B. Ha
^yHai noflBHJHCB em;e aeapu xypancKaro npOHCxom^eHifl).
xin GBLIO HG Ma.io xjionox'B c'B HOBBIMH ^yHaiicKHMH COC^AHMH. IIpo-
XHBI> CJiaBflH'B CXPOH.IHCB KpinocxH; HHor^a HXI. pasdHBajH H Hcxpe-
6;m.iH, HHor^a ox^ HHXT, oxKynajHCB, Hnor^a ate MaccaMH nocejflJiH na
nojiyocxpofii H ^aate B'B Majion Asin. OcodeHHO MHOFO
nocejiajocB na BajKaHCKOMx nojyocxpOB-B BI IX B., Kor.ua,
no BBipa/KCHiio nunepaxopa KoHcxanxHHa BarpaHOpo^Haro, ,,oc.ia-
"
sea cxpana BHJOXB ji;o loatnott rpen,m. Boo6me XOJIBKO
yda.wcb nrbKomopuMo c.meHHCKHMr, i/.teMemMo ocnoeann,.
ceou locydapcmea, KOxopBia, o^naKO, ne

CM. uapiy III.


10

az <-<ua,ro 6bi.ni oo.iadtbmi, ecrbMu eeponeucKHMti


UMnepiu.
EH-
BparoMi) BHsaHxw oLua Ilepciff ). CoBpeiien-
l

-
14: IpvrHMi.
L J
.

HHKOMI, lOcTHHiaHa Ha nepCHflCKOM'B npecxoJi'B oti.i'L yMHHH H npe^-


npiHM4HBBJH Xospou I, KOxopBift Hana^ajn> na asiaxcma HPOBHHHJH

HMnepin Cnpin H co cxopOHBi KaBitaaa. lOcxHHiaHy npHxoiHjiocb


BI>

H s^ics oxpaHSTL n.'EJiocTb HMnepin H ^eHbraMH, H CHJOK) opy/Kia.


Fepoft BaH^ajibCKOH H BecxroTCKOH BOHHI., BejiHsapift, ci> ycn'BXOM'b
BO^HJH) BHSaHliHCKifl BOHCKa H IIpOTHBTb nepCH^CKHXT, nOJlWW,T>. IIpH
npeeMHHKaxt H)cTHHiaHa kia ci> nepcaMH nouuiH xyaie. Bi nep-
r
,a,

BOH noJOBHH^ VII B. Xospou II OQAadrbM Cupieu ct lepycajiu-


MOMZ u Majioii Asieu (614) H yrpojKa.i'b canoft CTOJIHIJ'E HMnepin, na
KOTOpyio CA^ajiH HanaAeme H asapbi. 3io onacnoe HaiuecxBie Ha
BHsaHiiio 6biJio, EnpoqeM^, oipa/KeHo HMnepaTOpOM'B
(610 641), HaHecniHM'L nepcaMi> pfl^i- nopaatemfi. Ein,e He
OHH oxi 8TOro onpaBHTbcs, KaKi, na HCxopHqecKyio
HOBtie saBoeBaxejiH apafiu, Koiopue o^HOBpeMenno noKOpHJiH nep-
ciWKoe i^apciBO H OTHH.IH y BnsaHTiH MeconoiaMiio, CHpiro H
ErHnexi,.

II.
\

15 :::
. Bo BpeMH BeciroTCKHX'b nepece,ieHifi H pas^'Liemfl PHM-
CKO g HMnepin Bi Heii OKOHHameMHO ymaepdu.wcb xpucmiancmoo.
H06 TOp3K6CTBO .
/O<O\
.MHjraHCKiH QRUKTi, KoHciaHTHHa BejiHKaro (ol^j AapOBaji'B xpHcua-
HaMi> TOJibKO CBo6oAy B'fepOHcnoB'B^aHifl, HO asBiqecTBO eme ^epa;a.iocb
B-B HMnepia, H BI cepeAHHi IV B. c^JiaHa 6biJia ^a/Ke nonBiTKa ero
BOScxaHOBjenia (npn HMnepaxopi lOjiian-B). JI,o rpan,iaHa (375
383) Ha Sanaa's pHMCKie HMnepaxopii BCC eme npo^ojiata.iH HMC-
HOBaxLca BepxoBHHMH nepBOCBflHi,eHHHKaMH (pontifex maximus), H
BX pHMCKOMi> cenaxt cxofl.ia cxaxya 6orHHH IIoS^AH. To.ibKO npn
Oeodociu Be^unoMz (379 395) rocyAapcxBeHHHH 3aKOHi> sanpe-
mu.iz udoMCAyoKeme, npHpaBBflBi, ero KI> HanCojiie xaaiKHMi) yro-
.lOBHBiMi, npecxynjieHiflMt. Bi V
asbiiHHKOBi, HOCXOHHHO B. IHCJO
ysieHbHiajocb, HO em,e ^o VI B. BX AeHHax-L cymecxBOBa.ia HSBI-
^ecKaa niKOJia, B-B Koxopoft npeno^aBajiacb HeonjaxoHOBCKaa (|>HJIO-
co({ifl. 3xa uiKO.ia 6bi.ia sanpuma .mwb no npUKasanm
lOcmu-
(529). 3an;HXHHKH flSBiqecxsa B-B IV H V BB. o6i.flCHOH
HMnepin TH-BBOM!) 6oroB'b na npeKpamenie npHHOCHBHiHXca

) CM. Kapiy I.
11

H.MT. Hit'pnrt, H xpHCxianaMi) npHui.iocb Bospaacaxb npoTHBi xaicoro

16. lit 3xy anoxy oKOHiaxejbHaro xopatecxBa xpHcxiaucxBa


fl3Bi4ecTBOM-LcauoMi xpHCiiancTB'B npOHCxo^HJH BHyxpeH-
Bi>

pacnpn, BBistiBaBniiaca HeoAHeaKOBUMi noHHMameMi, flomaxoB'b


.
Eme B* nepBtie B'BKa B-L ijepKBH noaBimicb
epecu, x.-e.
OT-L npHHHTHX'B en) y ieHift H.1H npaBHJibHaro noHHMani;!
i

paiHriH (npaoocMieiR). BT> IV B. oco6eHHO aa/KHoe ana-


no.iyqH.ia epeci> Apia, ajeKcaH/tpincKaro cBflmennHKa, 6iiB-
maro coBpeMenHHEOM-b KoHCxaHXHHa Be^HKaro. Apift OTpH^a.Il
e^HHOcymie Cnna Boaim C-B BoroMi Omoni H yxBepaj/WLTB, qxo
CHHTB Bo/Kin nepsoe H coBepuieHH-BHiijee xsopeme
ecxb xo.ibKO

Boazie, HO ne Bor'b. Ero


nauuio xojKOBaHie
H pasAOpu Meat^y npasocjiaBHtiMH H
n,epKOBb o^eHb ^ojroe BpeMH. Xoxa epecb Apia H 6n.ia
Ha nepeoMo ece.ieucKOMr. co6opn>, co6paHHOMi. HMnepa-
xopOMi> KoHCxanxHHOM^ &b Huneib ei 325 i., H cocTaBHBineMT> CHJI-

BO.TB B^pLI, HO BO BXOpOH HOIOBHH'B I.\' B. 3a aplaHCXBO CXOHJIH


caiiH HMnepaTopu (KoHcxanuift H Ba.ieHxi.), Koxopae jtaaie cxpe-

eny xopatecxBO B^ HMuepin. 9xo nopoji,HJO HO-


CMyxH BI ^epKBH. Ci> Apyrpfi cxopOHH, ofipameuie lepManyeez
60 xpucmicLHCmeo Hcma.iocb Co npummia UMU apicmcnwa. Becx-
roxBi, y Koxoptixi. yate BI nepBOH noJOBHH'B IV B. 6ti.TB CBOH
enncKon-b (Yjb(J)HJia), ncnoB'B^OBajiH apiancxBo; apianaMH ate 611.111
H .lanroSapABi. H x-fe,
H /tpyrie ocxaBa.incb apianaMH H noc.rB sa-
HMH Fa.iJiiH, !IcnamH H Hxa.iiH.
17. B-B IV VI BB. BOSHHKaJH BX I^epRBH H ^pyrifl epeCH, BceJieiicnie

sacxaBJHJio costiBaxb HOBBie BcejencKie co-


C 6 PU -

HMnepaxopOBi
'

6opu. 9xH epecH noRejin.mc'b u


pacnpocnipauHMiCb IAVM-HUM*
ofipa.ioM'b en* ipenecKOii noAoeuntb umnepiu, r^t 6w,ia
6(Xn>maa na-
K.10HHOCXb KT, HOCXaHOBK'B H paSp-EmemK) OXEJeyeHHEIXTb
B^PH. Ho BT> BocxoqHOH aie HMnepin injia H 6oMbe
paspadomtca npaeocMenaio yyewH. 3^cb coonpajHCb H
CKie coCopu. Bxopofi coOopi. SLMT, cosBanx Geo^ocieM-L BCJH-
KHMT> BI KoHcxaHXHHonojrB (381) no noBO^y

doatecxBeHHyio npnpoAy CB. Ayxa. Tpexifi


B-L (431) npH Beo^ociH II; OHX ocyAH-it epecb
Eijiecib

Hecniopia, HasHBaBinaro Incyca Xpncxa HG Boro^eJOB^KOMi, a


BoroHOcneM-L, a CB. ^sy XpHCxopOAHueio, a He BoropOAHn,eio.
OnpOBepraa 3x0 yienie, O^HH-B KOHCxaHXHHono.ibCKiH
i, yxBepai^axb, HXO Bilncyci Xpacxi HyatHO
cxa.ii>

SoaiecKoe ecxecxBO, a He ABa (6oatecKoe H


12

3xa epecb no.iygH.ia Hassame M> Hocfiusumcmeaiiotieub CH.IBHO pacnpo-

cxpaHHJiacL. Ea saiipXHHKH ^a/Ke CK.IOHH.IH Ha CBOFO cxopony HMnepa-


Topa GeoAotia II, HO HOBBIH HMnepaxopi, (MapKian-B) cosBaj'L HPOXHB-B
nea qexBepxBiii Bcejencmfi co6opi> BT, Xa^nedonvb (451). Cnopm H pas-
Aopw, BBisBaHHBie noflBjemeM'b necxopiancxBa H Mono(|)H3HxcxBa, npo-
ern,e H B-B HaqajrE VI B., qxo saciaEHJo lOcTHniana Be-
cosBaiB B'L KoucmaumuHonojiifb naTHH BcejieHCKifi co6opi,
(533). O^naKO, H 9TOMy co6opy ne y^ajrocb BOscxanoBHTB Mnpi> BX
n;epKBH. Bi> nepBOH nojroBHH'B VII B. nfeoxopBie .enncKonH noco-
B^xoBajiH HMnepaxopy HpaKJiiro CKJOHHXB npaBOCJtaBHLixt H MOHO-
(|)H3HXOB'B KI> npHMHpeHiio Ha cpe^HeM'B ygemH, no Koxopoiiy BX
cjii^OBajro 6u upasHaBaxt ^Ba ecxecxBa, HO o^ny
Xpncxi
Ho
9xo yienie, nojiy^HBinee HasBanie epecn Mouooejiumo&z,
ne XOJILKO ne npHBejio K-B npHMBpeniro, HO BHCCJIO B^ qepuoBB
CMyxBi. B*B 680 r.
noaxony BI, fioHCmaHmuHono.m 661,11
uiecxoii coSopi, KOxopLift H ocy,nH.irB MOHoeejiBxcKyio epecb.
18*. 3noxa BcejieHCKHXi, coSopOB-B 6BMa 6oiama saMrbnameM-
HUMU iwpKOGHUMU nucamejiMMU, H3Tb KOxopBixi, Mnorie npocjiaBH-

I\%-V BB. JIHCBH CBflXOCXBH) 3KH3HH. (H-BKOXOpBIC K3T> HHXI, HOJTyqHJIH HaSBame
BejiHKHX &). KaKi BOCxoqHLie, xaKi H saiia^HBie OXD;BI n;epKBH SLIJIH
r

ci> dojiBrnHM^ (|)HJIOCO^)CKHM'B H jHixepaxypHtiMi, o6pasoBa-


Koxopoe OHH npio6p BxajrH,
r

yqacB BI, flSH^e


H caMocxoflxe.iLHO Hsy^aa aHXHqHyro Jinxepaxypy. D^JTHMH HXI,
xeji&HOcxH CBIJIH HcxojtKOBame CB. nncama H n,epKOBH&ixi,
H 6op&6a KaKi, ci, ocxaxKaMH asBiiecxBa, xaK'B H c
HBIMH epecflMH 3HOXH. Bi, IV B. BI KaqecxBi 6op^a npoxHETE, api-
ancxBa oco6eHHo npocjiaBHJCfl CB. Aeauaciu AMKcandpi&OKiu,
oaBHLiH npoxHBHHKi, Apia Ha nepBOMi, BcejieHCKOM-B co6op-B, ne-
Ma.io noxepniBiniii OX-B apian-B H cOiyBCXBOBaBHinxi, HM^ HMnepa-
Bi> IV aie BiKi /KHJIH BI, BOCXO^HOH HMnepiH BacuMu

, Ppmopiu Eoiocjioe* H loanm 3.4,amoycmb. IlepBBie


CBIJIH cBHsaHLi Mem^y co6oro X'BCHOIO Apy^^oro, HaqaBmeroca
B-B ro^Bi HX-B yqenia B-B AeHnax &. OHHr

6opOJiHCB ex apiaHcxBOM-B
B'B XO BpCMH, K0r.ua OHO HOJIBSOBaJIOCB
HOAAepatKOK) npaBHXe.TBCXBa,
H sa 9x0 noABeprajiHCB roHeHiaMi,. loaHH'B 3-iaxoycxi,, 3aHHMaBiuiH:
OAHO speMfl, KaKi H FpHropiH BorocjiOB-B, Kaee^py KoncxaHXHHO-
noJiBCKaro apxienncKona, npocJiaBH.TCfl CBOHMI, KpacHOp^qieM^ (ox-
Ky,na H
no.iy^HJii, CBOC nasBame Sjaxoycxa). CBOHMH odjiaqeHmMH
OH-B BOOpyatHJi, npoxHBTb ce6a nopognyro H BJiacxo.iiooHByK) HMne-

paxpnn,y EedoKciw (iKeny ApKaAia): ona Ao6H.iacb


loaena H oxnpaBKH ero BT, oxAajeHHyro ccBiJKy, BI Koxopofi
H cKonqajca. Bo MHOFHX'B cjEyiaaxi, Handojie BLiAaiomiieca n,ep-
13

KOBHue ;vJ>flTe.iif upoHv.ix.m OoMmyw npaecmneH-


axoft 9IIOXH B0o6m.e

nt/H> cn.ni, Koiopaa He Mona ocxasaxbca 6e3i> Bjiama Ha o6in,ecxBO.


Korfla, HanpMM., Oeo^ocift BejHKifi no^Beprb cxpaumoMy H36ieHiio BOS-
cxaBiuHx-b npOTHB-L Hero jKHxejreft OeccajiOHHK'L, apxienHCKon-b AM-

epociu MediojiancKiu (x.-e. MH-iaHCKiJi) He .nonycxHj-b ero


BOHTH BI>
xpajvrb, Kairb qejiOBiKa, npo-OBinaro
MHOFO KPOBH, H Ha.ioxH.ii Ha
nero u,epKOBHoe noKaaflie. Hs'B .laTHHCKHx-B omoBt u,epKBH san-fe-

qaie.iBHH ein,e 6.iaofceHHue leponuMt u Aeiycmum. IlepBBifi H3i>

HHXI> nepeBe.51. na JiaTHHCKifl asLiK'B BH^Jiiio, H ero nepeBO^-L, no-


HasBaHie ByjbraTH (Vulgata versio), ciajra yn
BxopOH OKa3a.ii> B0o6ni,e Bjianie Ha
H,epKOBbK>;
HVK) ^epKOBb oco6eHHO CBOHMI, coMMHCHieMt n O rocyAapCTB-B Bo-

19. BJ. ABrycTHHi,, CHHX xpHC'riaHKH H asHiHHKa,


Bt IOHOCTH CB^TCKoe o6pa30Bame H npeji,aBa.ica Becejon atH3HH, H te Dei"
B-L Aynii ero sojiro iiponcxoAH.ia 6opb6a, noKa OH-B ne ycnoKOHJica

Ha B^pi B-L HCTHHHOcib xpHciiaHCTBa. (OKI, ocxaBHJiT.


Hcnoetbdb, ET> Koxopon onHcajrB CBOIO aiH3Hb).
AMBpocia Me^iojiaHCKaro, OH-L ciaji. Becxn
H3i pyKi>
cxporin o6pa3TE> JKHSHH H CA^ajica Bnocji'B^cxBiH enncKonoM'b ro-
pofla HHHOHLI (BI. Cfe. A^PHK-B), r.a.'B H ocxaBajca AO caMoii CBOCH
CMepxH. B'B ero BpeMa sanaAHyro i;epKOBb Bo.iHOBajo y^enie 6pn-
xann,a JleAaiix, Koxopun HaxoAHj-B, qxo nejiOB'BK'b cnacaexca rjiaB-

HLIMl) o6pa30Ml> COScXBeHHHMH CBOHMH saCJiyraMH. ABryCXHHl B03-


cxaJTb npoxHEi 3xoro yqenifl, yMajiaBuiaro SHaienie BoaiieH 6.iaro-

^,axH B-b cnacenia, H, atejiaa, Hao6opoxi>, no^naxb SHaqenie


fl'BJiij

6;iaro^;axH, pasBBJii yueuie o npedonpednMuiu, no KOxopOMy Bori.


coBepnieHHO nenocxHatHMO O^HHXTJ nponsBO-ibno npe^i>H36paji b, a
f

Kpyraxi na npOHSBOjn. caMHMi> cedt. IlejiariaHCKafl epecb


ocxaBHJi'B
6biJia ocyajAGHa Ha noM'tcxHOM'b codop'fe Bt Kapeareni, HO u,epKOBb

HC npHHa.ia H yiema ABrycxHna, ynajiaBuiaro snaqeHie ,no6pbix'b


3arpo6Haro cnacenia. ABrycxHH'b, Kpont xoro, 6opo.ica H ct
3am,H[H,aa xpncxiaHCXBO oxi. axi) nana^OK'b H ^OKasHBaa ero
npeBocxoACXBO. Ont nanHcajri. ci> 3x010 i^^JibK) CBOH
xpaKxaxi De civitate Dei (o rocyAapcxB^ HJIH rpa^i
BI>KOXOPOMX pasBBJi^ yqcnie o ,pyxi> i^apcxaaxi. iiapcxBi Bora
H qapcxB-B ,zn>aBO.ia. C^ BXOH xoqKH sp-BHia on-b pascMOxp'B.i-L BCK>
ncTopiio npHnieji K-L xoMy BbiBO.a.y, qxo u,epKoei>,
qeJOB-feqecxBa H

yqpeat^eflie doatecxBCHHaro npOHCXOHWHia H roxoBamee qe-


K-b u,apcxBy Boatiio, neusMnpuMO eume locydapcmea, OCHO-

Bnocj-B^cxBin axa xeopia nojiyqnja na


pasBHxie H w&e npaKXHqecKoe
14

20 :c
. B-L IV VI BB. B0o6m,e ycTaHaB.iHBa.THCL BT> PHMCKOH HM-
5ciaiK.ii.ii-
nepin H B'L
BaDBapCKHXT KOpOJICBCTBaXl BSailMHMfl OTHOUiema M6HUV
Hie OTHOIIieHlIl
Meatfly nep- ijepKOBLK) H FOCyAapCTBOMTb. B'L nepBHC TpH BTBKa
KOBI.K) H rocv-
>(/ep K06b ciiw,ecm606a.m et asbmeCKOMo locydapcmm, H
-
Mew HHIIH
mjia oopLoa, HO ci> IV B. HaciyiiH.iH IJOBLIH speMena, Kor,u,a npo-
U30WAO co cmnpomi locydapcmsa npusname nepmu. Yme HMnepa-
TOpT> KoHCTailTHHl, BeJHKiR ^apOBaJl. XpHCliaHCKOMV ^VXOBeHCTBV
npasa H npenMymeciBa: ocBo6oji;H.n ero OT'B o6fl3aHHOCTH )

pa^^aHCKia ^O.TKHOCTH, a u,epKOBHHa seM.in OTT. im.io-

no3Bo.7rHJTB i^epKBH nojiyiait HMyni,ecTBa no ^yxoBHHMi. sa-


iflirL H T. n. OKa,3HBaa noKpOBHTe.ibCTBO xpHCiiaHCTBy, pnn-
CKie HMnepaxopLi, HaiHHaa ci> IV B., BM^CT-B CT. T-BM-B ^e.ia.in,
H nod'iunumb i^epKOenyto Mciiam ceoeMy ownum, H yate
KOHCiaHTHHTb 6HJII) KaK^ 6BI BH UIHHM'I> enHCKOnOMT," ll,epKBH.
r

Flpn HeM-B H noc.i'B nero BcejiencKie co6opLi coonpaiHCB no no-


HMnepaxopCKOH BJiacTH. Korfla na npecTO-ii BpeMeHno naxo-
npe^ciaBHTejiH OHH cipeMHJHCL CHJOIO .nocia-
apiaHCTBa,
BHTI> xopatecTBO CBoeMy HcnoB^aHiio. Beo^ocift BejHKift H ero
npeeMHHKH c^jajiH xpncTiaHCTBO rocyAapCTBGHHOH pejHriefi PHM-
CKOH HMnepin. OcoCenno CTpeMHJca K-B rocno^ciBy rocyji;apCTBeH-
HOH B./raciH B'L o6.iacTH n,epKOBHOft atHSHH K)CTHinan'L BejHKiH, no-
jroatHBt TtMi) caMHM'L Haia.io onpeA'B.ieHHBiM'B OTHomeHiaMi, MemAy
^epKOBLIO H rocy.napCTBOM'L Bt BnsaHTiH. B'L sana^HOH qacin HMne-
pin, r^-fe HMnepaiopa nepenwa Kt BapBapCKHMi> KopojmM-L,
BJiaciL
9mu oniHOwenin e.iowuMiC'b undue, noiony HTO y repMaiiCKHX'L ro-
cy^apeft ne 6HJio TOFO aBTOpHieia, KaKHM'B nojLSOBajiHCb pHMCKie
HMnepaxopu. SA'BCB
ijepKBH npunuiocb 3a,n;aqy BOC- B3HTb na ce6a
BapsapOBt, H Ma.io-no-Ma.iy BBipaSoiajacb meopin o uaeen-
n/epneu nadz lOcydapcmeoMz. Yqenie o npeBOCxo^CTB'B ^y-
XOBHOH BJiaCTH Hafl'b CB'BTCKOK) Cyffl,eCTBOBaJO H Ha BOCTOICE, HO
OHO nOHHMa.IOCb JTHHTb B'L HpaBCTB6HHOM'L CMBIC-li; HOJIHTH-

BBIBO^H c^'Ejaeu 6miH HSX 9ioro Bsrjra^a .innib Ha 3ana^'B.


21. 3noxa ycHJieniioH paspa^OTKH nepKOBearo yqema H ycia-
Ha 43.10 MOHa- HOBtieH i
U16CTBH-.
fl oTHOiHemH MeaiAV u,epKOBbio H rocy^apCTBOM-L 6bi,ia
. ,

BpeMeneM'L pacnpocmpaHemx n ynopnooHeniH MOHawecmea.


B'L nepBHa speMena xpHCiiaHCTBa cpe,a;H B^pyiouiiHX'L ciajiH

JIIO^H, CTpeMHBiniecfl K-L BBicuieMy ^yxoBHOMy coBepuieiiCTBy,


BOs^epataHia H
o6'BTbi ^'B^HOCTH H nposo^a atHSHb BI, MO-
H j^pyrnx'L no^Burax'b 6jaronecTia. Tame nojtBHatHHKH, HJH
acnemu, OTKasHBaBinieca OT-L pa^ocien '/KHSHH H y^pyiaBniie CBOIO
mioib, cnaqajia He yAa.miHCb HS'L Mipa, HO B'L KOHI^E III B. cwa.io
pa3Gueami>CH omme.>n>Hunecmeo,
15 -
iianMciuiiJxi, ArbcrB BT> H
nycTUBH (aHOXOpembL, epe-
ropBi
. TRKOM oowqafi BOSHHK'B Bcero na BOCXOKE, HMCHHO B-B
pairfce

Knurrfe, rAt nepBBifi upHM-Ep'B oxiireJiBHHyecxBa 611-11 noAae-B npemuofi-


juj.M'h Annu>n'n'Mn Jir.tHKtiM;, (Y.M. in, #:>(> r.). AirroHift Hameju. MHoro-

'iH<YieHHHXT> nocJi'EAOBaxe;ieH, xaKi ixo K-B ROHUJ ero SHSHH BO-


Bt KOxopoK OH'L cxa-in CGJIHTLCH H Apyrie
Kpyri nemepw, JKHJH>,
arcb o6pa30BajiacL nepsaH o6m,HHa OTmejiBHHBOB'b,
Apyi ^, HO noAyHHflBraHXCfl OAHOMV
1

OTA'B.ibHO Apyri, OTT.

KOTOpUH CTa.TL HaSBIBaTBCfl BnOCJI^ACTBlH Oin.OM'B (6Bp.


afiGamt). H'fecKo.ibKO nosAHie o6pa30Ba.iHCL oCn^Hiiu,
a:H3HB H
patfoxa BGJiHCB coo6m,a; xamfl o6m,nHBi
nasBanie KiiHoeiu UAU Monacmupeu. IlepEBiMi. ocHOBa-
co6cTB6HHO MonacTwpeH cqHTaexca npen. HaxoMiu, yMepinifi
BI> IV B. (Toate B-B Ernnx-B). OHI ycxpOHjn, H-BCKOJIBKO xaKHX-B 06-
IUHHI, AaB"B HMI. H o6a.3axejBHBiH npaBHJia, KacaBiiiiaca BC'fexi. cxo-

pOHi. atHSHH (nanpHM., OAejRAH, nHtu,H, pa6oxBi, noABHroB-B djiaro-


.

yeciia H x. n.). Hsi. Eranxa MOnaraecxBO pacnpocxpaHHJOCB B-B

Apyria npejKAe Bcero B-B IlajiecxHHii H CapiH. Me/s,Ay


cxpaHBi,
npoiHMi pacnpocxpaHeniio ero na BOCXOK-B neMajio cnoco6cxBOBaji &
r

JBaciuiiu BeauKiu, ^asmift eMy secBMa cxporin ycxas-B, Koxopuii


BnoM'BACXBiH Bomejii. na BOCXOK-B BO Bceo6in.ee ynoxpedjieeie. Ha
sanadih Mouawecmeo neu.ioc^ lopasdo noswce H ciia^ajra 6BiJio Bcxp-fe-

leno Hace-iemeM'B BpaaiAe6HO. PoAoeana.iBHHKOM'B sanaAHBix-B Mona-


cxBipeft OBIJT> fieneduKmz Hypciucuiu, KoxopBiH BT, nepBoft noJio-
BHH-E \'I B. ocHOBaji'B nepBHH Hacxoamin MonacxBipB B-B Monme
OHI, AaJi*B CBOHMI, MOHaxan^ ycxaBi), BBOAHBinift BT> MO-
JKH3HB 60^6 A'feaxejiBHoe HanpaBjieme cpaBHHxejiBHO
C-B qncxo cosepu.axe.iBHBiM'B nanpaBJieHieM'B, rocnoACXBOBaBiiiHMT. na
Meat^y npo^HMi,, OeneAHKTHHCKie Monaxn C-B oco6uMT>
saHHJiHCBnepenncKOio KHnrii. Ci> xeiemeMT, BpeMCHH
Mouacmupu no.iyuaMi ece 6oMwee u 6oMmee znaueuie ET> JKHSHH
o6in,ecxBa. Cnaqajia HHOKH HS'B CMnpema BOSAepatHBa^HCB npHHH-
Maxi, CBam,eHcxBo, HO HOXOM-B HS-B HHXT. cxajiH ocodenno OXOXHO
upaxB AajKe H Ha BHcniia ii,epKOBHHa AOJiatflocxH. Bo BpeMa dopB6Bi
ci> epecaMH MHorie HS'B MonaxoB-B npocjaBHJiHCB samnxoro npaBoaiaBia.

a HHBie CMJBHO coAMcxBOBa,iH H


pacnpocxpaHemio xpncxiancxBa
CBoeio nponoB-BABio eBanrejia cpeAH astiqHHKOB'B. Hsi. MonacxwpeH me
nua xapaKxepusyiomaa set cpeAnie B^Ka nponoendk acKemiuM.
x.-e. npesp'BHia K-B HJIOXH H Mipy BO HMa BBicmaro HpaBCXBennaro

coBepmeHcxBa. KpOM-B xoro, Monaxn mnpoKO saHHMajiHCB 6.iaroxBo-


Bjiaroiecxie B-BpyiomHX'B BBipaaiajiocB ne XOJ&KO B-B
MonamecxBa, HO H BTJ MHoroqHc.ieHHBixi. oxKasax-B OXB
16

COOCTBCHHOCTH Bfc no.iBsy MOHacTLipefi, KOiopBie no3TOMy nocie-


nenHO npeepamu.tucb ez Kpynmixz seM.ievMidtwbibeeo.

22*. Bt nepBBie BOCCMB B'EKOB'B 'nepnoeb ocmaea.'iacb edunow.


san- HSt BH'EHiHHx B
H OJI.HHM'L
r

BLipaateHiii 3Toro e^HHCTBa GBIJIH Bce-


. s v\r \r>
cooopH, cooHpaBimeca ABa pasa. BX B.IV B. B-B v
THHCKOK) nep- H
T0 3j e ^ Ba p a3a H no O,U,HOMY pasy B-L VI, VII VIII BB. TBMI,
Y y
He AteirBe, yate B^ 310 Bpema aaMtqaeTca HTBRoxopoe pas.iume
Memdy ipenecKUMK u PUMCKUMZ xpucmiaucmeoMt. Ha BOCTOK^,
Cpe^H rpeKOBI) H 3JJJIHHH3HpOBaHHHX L HapOAHOCTGH 3TOH HOJIOBHHBI
r

HMnepin, ocxajiacb npeaKHaa CKIOHHOCTB KI> (|>HJioco(|)CTBOBaHiK),


ciBie nero s^ics Han^oji'Ee o^pasoM^ H
A'BflTejiLHLiMt

paspadoTKOK) omejienennoii cmoponu xpHCxiaHCKaro E'Epoyienifl. Ha


BOCTOK-B B03HHKJIH H paCnpOCTpaHHJIHCB H MaBHHfl epeCH, H SfliCb ate
co6Hpa-inci> BceJiencKie co6opti, BI KOTOpHX'B yqaciBOBajo npeHMy-
BOCToqnoe ate ^yxoBeecTBO. 3ana^, HaoSoporB, HHiepeco-
6ojibnie npanmuuecKOio cmoponow i^epKOBHOH SRHSHH, H He ,na-
HMCHHO Ha Sana^t HBHJIOCL nepsoe i^ijiBHoe yqeeie o6i> OTHOine-
^epKOBBK) H rocy^apCTBOMi,. BEMO pasjrnqie H
yxoMt BOCTO^naro MOHameciBa H
HanpaBJiemeM'B MOHameciBa sanaAnaro. Ho oco6eHHO CHJIB-
Hoe BJiiaHie na o6pa30BaHie pasjinqia Meac^y BOCTOHHOIO H sana^HOio
nojiOBHnaMH BcejiencKOH n,epKBH oKasano CBMO pas^JiemeMi) HMnepin
H BOSHHKHOBCHieM'B BapBapcKHxi. rocyAapCTBi. BI> sana^HOH ea no-
JIOBHH'B.

23. Kor^a PfiMCKaa HMnepia npH3Haja xpncTiaHCTBO, i^epKOBB


y^-g
J
HM^a cjioaiHoe
,
BHyipeHHee ycipoftCTBO. B-B Hett pa3.iHqa.ocB
. N
i*. Miptwe H Kdupb (^yxoBeHCTBo), pas^JiflBiHiHca Ha cnucKonoffb, npe-
ceumepOGz u diaKOHoez. UofCL ynpaBJieHieMij enacKOHOBTb
enapxiu, coeji,HHaBHiiaca BI> CBOIO oqepe^B B-B oco6Bia

ynpaBjemeMi, nepBeHCTByioni,Hxx enHCKonoBi, HJIH


enHCKOHBi OAHOH H TOH ate odiacTH co6npa.iHCB na co6opBi.
noie-roMi. H BjrianieM'B nojiB30Ba-iHCB B^ n,epKBH enHCKOHBi
BI, KOTOPHX'B xpnciiaHCTBO 6BMO nacaatAeHO caMHMH anociojaMH H.IH

cymecTBOBajiH BBicmia xpHCTiancma yqnjiHma. Bx IV B. nepBLifi


codopx sanajica H yempoucmeoMz eceu iepapxiu, T.-e.
BX PHMCKOH HMnepin.
CTapuiHH- OHX npH3najx
CTBO sa enncKonaMH xpex-B MaBBMninxx ropOAOBx HMnepiH, HMCHHO
PnMa, AjieKcaHApin H AHTioxia, a xaKate sa 3K3apxoin> iepyca-
.IHMCKHMl.. BTOpOH C06opl> BT. TOMX ate B^K-B
3a eHHCKOHOM'B ptlMCKHMX HOCTaBHJIT) KOHCTaHTHHOnOJBCKarO,
enncKona w HOBaro PHMa". Ilpasa 3Tnxi> naxn enHCKonoB-B 6ujin
r

na qeiBepTOMTb Bce-iencKOM-B co6op B, KOTOP&IH


17

aa HHMH H nampiapxwo. Ilpaea 3x11x1 naxH iepapxoBi


xHxy.i'L
6u.iH pasHbia,HO nepBCHCTBO npH3Haao sa enHCKonoM-B PHMCKHM-L.
')xo nepeeucmeo He 6buo, odnaKO, iMeeHCnwo.m, noTOMy qxo Bep-
xoBHaa Bjacxb B-L n,epKBH npHHa^eatajia codopaM-b. T'EM'b HC Meeie
B.iacTb pHMCKaro enncKona Ha 3ana^ B Majio-no-Majiy Bbipocjia B-L
f

Hacxoain.ee oaBencxBO, H xaM-b Bnocji^CTBiH pHMCKifi enncKoni


c^iajca KaKi dw njepKOBHtiMi) MOHapxoMt.
24. PnMCKie enncKonu Becbsia pano cia^iH HasuBaTbca npe- n P HTO H B03
-

BHineHia nan-
HMymecTBenHO nanajuu, THxyjit, ooosHaiaBiniH n OTeqi> H HOCHB- CTB a.
niifica npeat^e MHOFHMH enHCKonaMH. Oco6oMy Eu^jieEm pHMCKaro
enncKona HSI. ociajibHOH iepapxm cnoco6ciBOBajiH BecbMa Mnoria 06-

cioaxejibCTBa. PHMI AO naqajia IV B. 6mii CTOJiHi^eio BceMipnofl MO-


Hapxin, H O^HO 3x0 npa^aBajio oco6oe SHaqenie enacKony aioro
ropo^a. Kor^a HMnepaiopu noKHiiyjiH PHMI., nepeumu
H6M7> cdn>AO,MtCbnanu. CTOJFHii,a Mipa npo^ojatajr
Ha npOBHHnja.iOB'b H BapBapOBT,, TIO oxpa^ajiocb H Ha nx'b OXHO-
memH KL nani. 3a nanoio nepKOBb npH3Ha.ia xHxyji, naxpiapxa, HO
xaKHxi, naxpiapxoBi) na BocxoKi <5mro lexupe, xor^a KaKi na 3anadrb
odum. Ha^eHie Sana^Hoft HMnepin C03,a,ajro irani coBepmeHHO
HCKJiFOHHxejibHoe HOJOJKeHie. KaKi H BCHKin ^pyrofi enncKoni,.
nana saBHC'ki'B QTL HMnepaxopa, KOxopOMy B0o6m,e npHna^JieaiaJio
npaso yxBep^eHia Hs^npaBHiaxca KJIHPOM-L H Hapo^oivrb enHCKonoBi>.
HO Kor^,a Sana^Haa MMnepia najia, H BOCXO^HBIH HMnepaxopi He Bcer.ua
HM^.Tb BOSMoaKHOcxb npoasjiaxb CBOIO B.iacxb Ha^i. PHMOMI>, 3a-
eucuMOcmi, nanu omz umnepamopa cmaMi yMeubwamwH. JlaHro-

6apACKoe BaBoeBanie coBcijM'b oxp-fesajio PHMI> H ero o6./iacxb oxi.


CHonieHin C-L BHsaHxiefi H nocxaBHJio nany B-b Heodxo^HMocxb
B^ CBOH pyKH u cen>mcKoe ynpaeMnie etbWbiMZ lOpodoMK. H B'b
xoBHOM b oxHOuieHin pHMCKie enHCKonii npio6pijiH ocodoe
r

OHH CMOxp-EJiH na ce6a, KaK'b Ha npeemnuKoez anocmosia Ilempa,


"
n KHasa anocxojiOBi, H m> CHJiy 9xoro oneHb pano (c-b KOHn,a
,

II B.) yaae saaBjiajiH npnxasaHia na npaso 6bixb BHCOHMH 6jriocxH-


^HCXOXH B-Epbi H nopa^Ka n,epKOBHOH HIHSHH. MHorie CHH-
jt^HCXBHxejibHO, sa paspimeHieMi,
o6para;aJiHCb KT. KHMI,
CBOHXT> HefloyirBHiH. B'b 3noxy noaBJiema epeceii Ha BocxoKij, Kor^a
ox'b npaBOCJiaBia oxna,na.iH Mnorie iepapxn H caMH HMnepaxopu, nanw

BbicxynaJiH ez Kanecmerb samunmuKOffz npaeocjiaein. HaKOHeu,!., Ha


npecmTE Hep-B^KO noaBJiajiHCb H saM^qaxejibBHa CBOHMI.
H 3Heprieft jinqnocxH.
25. CaMHMH BH^aromHMHca nanaMH V H VI BB. 6ujin JIeer>

Bejimiu H Fpuiopiu Be.imiu. IlepBbiH HSI. HHXX ^HJII. nanoro BX


V B. H oKasajrb ocodiia ycjiyrn PHMy, oxnpaBHBHiHCb ET> Jia-

HCTOPia. 2
18

repB ATTHJIH H y6^HBi> Bnocji-BflCTBiH Ban^ajiLCKaro Kopoja, nanaBinaro


na PHM-B, HC ydHBaiB awie-ieft ropo^a. JleBi BejiHKiK yase TOBO-
PHJI'L o ce6-B, OKI. o maB-fe n,epKBH, nociaBjeHHOM-B .pa xoro,
qTo6Bi nacTH cia^o XPHCTOBO. Ero rojoct HM'Li & 6o.iBmoe sna-
r

qenie H B* 6opt6'B npasocjiaBia ct epecaam V B.


Ho oco(5eHHO BaatHoe sHaneme B-B nciopiH BOSBBimemfl nan-
ciBa npHHa^jieffiHTi) FpHropiio BejHKOMy BI KOHU;'B VI B. Ilpo-
Hcxo,a,a H3^ snaiHaro po^a, o6.ia,a;afl 6ojiBmHM B cocTOHHieM'B H AO-
r

atHOCTH ropo^CKoro npe^eKia, OH-B nomeji> B-B


see CBoe HMymeciBO na nocTpoenie B-B PHM-B
n;epKBeH. KaK-B 3Haioin,ift H onHTHBitt qeJiOB'BK'B, OHT. cKopo
,
npe^CTaBHTejieM-B PHMCKOH ijepKBH npn BHsaHTiftcKOMi.
a saTEMT, pHMJtflHe BBi6pajH ero nanBi. rpnropiio npHin.iocB
B-B

pnMCKyio Kaee^py KaK^-pasi. B-B TO Bpeaia, Kor^a .lanro-


saBoeBBiBajH HiajiiK) H T-BCHHJIH caMBin PHM^. 3aBHca OTB
H ea HxajrBHHCKaro HaMiciEHKa (ansapxa), rpnropiH ne no-
jiyqajr&,o^naKO, OTI, HHXI> HHKaKoft noMOin,H, H Taitoe nojiomeHie Bemefi
sacmaeujio eio cdrb-iam^ca HacmoHiyuM'b ncmaMHUKOMz Pu.ua u eio
ofijiacmu. OH^ satfoTELica o samHii ropo^a OTI> jaHrotfap.noB'B H
o CHa6ateniH ero atHTe.ieH C^CTHBIMH npanacaMH, co6fipa,jn> Hajrorn
H HcnpaBJiajrB pHMCKin BO^onpOBO,!!.!,. Ho seaieme FpHropia H ^JH
II,epKBH 6BL30 OH6HB B6JIHKO. OEJ> HaHHCaJI'B H^CKOJIBKO COqHH6HiH,
nocBameHHBix-B Bonpocainh npaBCTBeHHOH atHSHH Ha seMJii H sa-
rpo6fiaro cymeciBOBama flyniH, a xaKJKe BneeB HSB-BCTHBIH nopa-
BI Soroc-iyateme. (3a AiajiorHqecKyio <|)OpMy CBOHXI COIH-
OHI, 6sun> HasBani, fleoecjioeoMz). HaKone^, eny
o6paimmi'b e?>
npaeoc.taeie oecmiomoez (cz uxz KOPOMMZ
u nojiowcum'b nauajio o6pam,enm et xpucmiaHcmeo nsuuuu-
amjio-caKCoez. Bjraro^apa 9THMi> ^ByM-B coo'imaMi., BJiaciB PHM-
CKaro nanBi nojryqnjia HOBoe pacmnpeme.
26. 06-iacTbH) pHMCKaro enncKona, r^t y Hero 6BL1H ocodna
PacinapeHie n p aBa nepBLift BcejieHCKifi co6opi. cflfatajLT* cpe^HioK) H roaKHyro Hxa-
flyxOBHOHBJia-
CTH nanu.
;

J1K)
..-.
GL OCTpOBaMH Cap^HHieH, CH^JIieH H liOpCHKOH. llpHH,HTie npa-
TT

BOC.iaBia BeciroxaMH nocmaeujio u Hcnaniw ez 6ojirbe mvbcwjw


C6H3b C5 PUMOMZ. Eme B'B SoJi'Be T-BCHyio CBasb ci PHMOM-B cia-ia

AHWW, Ky^a nana FpHropin Be.iHKin


oinpasHJi MHCcioHepoM-B
AeiycmuHd, nepBBiMi, enncKonoMi KeHTep6epin-
(HOTOM'B OH-B 6HJi
CKHMI>). 06pamenie anrjio-caKCOB-B, npeAnpHHaioe no HHHnjaTHB'B
nanBi H PHMCKHMH MHCcionepaMH, cos^ajro HOBVIO qepKOBB, KOTO-
paa C'B canaro naqa^ia cxajia B-B nofliimeHHoe nojioatenie KI PHMV.
06a coSBiiia xaKHM-B o6pa30M'b HM^-IH sna^eHie pacnrapema
HOH BJiaciH nanti sa
19

27*. B-B nepBLie etna xpHCxiancxBa wKOMnoe ofipasoeanie tfaynaaoin, o6pa-

PUMCKOU UMnepiu ocmaea.wcb conniCKUMt H asBiiecKHM'B, H


OXH.BI n,epKBH IV H V BB. no.iymiH oopasoBanie BX
CKHXI, HiKO.iax'B. BBicuiia xpncxiaHCKia ymnnma cymeciBOBajiH JIHIHB
BT> HeMHornxi. M'ECTax'B (BT> AjeKcaH^piH H BI> AnxioxiH). Bx VI B.
flpeBHaa ofipasoBaHHOCXB nauajia npuxodwm ei ynadoKt, ocoftenHO
ea 3ana^. Ci OAHOH ciopOHH, Hay^DHMi, H jrHTepaiypHUMi sa-
HHTiflMi, CH.IBHO KOTOpuMi, noflBeprajracB <?B
nospe^HJiH 6'BACTBifl,
IV B. PMCKaa
HMnepia, namecTBia BapBapOBi, Cesnopa^KH, HMH
BusHBaBinieca. Bt BTOM^ OTHomeHin BHsatma 6mia cqaciJiHB'Be
3anaji;a H jyime Mor.ia coxpauumb yMcmeenuoe Hacjin>dcmeo dpee-
HHIO Mlpa. Ct APyrOfi CTOpOHH, BTb 9TO Bp6Ma HOCJI'B.aiOBaJIO 3d-
h'pbimie cenmcKUOM WKOM, npenojiaBaHie B-B KOTOpHX'B CEIJIO CJIHIH-
KOM-B npOHHKHyTO npeJKHHM-B AyXOMX, KaR-B 3TO, HO KpaHHGH M-Bp^,
MHorHMi> KasajiocL; H-BKOTOpne ji;a3te ji;yMajra, HTO sanHMaTBca CB-BT-
CKOIO nayKOK) H jrHTepaxypoio, oSasaHHBiMH CBOHMX npOHCxoatAeHieMi,

aaBiinHKaM-B, dojiBraoii rp-BXTb. Ha xaKyio xo^Ky sp-BHia cxaHOBH-


.IHCB qacio H MonaxH, B0o6in,e ocyaiAaBniie BcaKift HHTepeci> K-B

9TOMy rpixoBHOMy Mipy. O^HOBpeneHHO ex T-BMI, KaK'B na 3ana,a;i


o6mecTBO see rjiyfiate H rjy6ate norpyatajiocB B-L MpaKi. neBi^e-
CTsa, H Ha BocioK'E sea o6pa30BaHHOCTB naiajra npHHHMaiB coBep-
inenHO HOBBIH xapaKiepi). YMCTBeHHEie HHiepecii ne TOJBKO yieHBixi)
IUH ^yxoBeHCTBa, HO H Bcero o6in,ecTBa cma^iu cocpedomonueambCfi
npeuMyw,ecmeeuHO na 6oiocjioecmxr> cnopaxz. CB^TCKaa jiHTepaiypa
noiOMy qio jry^mia syxoBHBia CH.IBI o6m,ecTBa nanpaeu-
6% cmopouy pe.imiu. KpacHOptiie, Bcerji;a 6BiBmee BI noiei"E y

rpeKOBi, HaniJO HOBoe npHirfmenie B-B n;epKOBHOH nponoB-B^H, co-


BB 9iy anoxy saMiqaiejiBHEie o6pa3n,Bi (loaHH-B S.iaToycTi).
ci> iio3THiecKHMi xajiaHTOMT) cocTaB.iaJiH cBam,eHHBia nicHO-

KOTOptiMH ciajio yKpaniaiBca 6orocjiyaieHie (PoMan-B Ojra.a;KO-


BI> VI B.). Bnij BTHXI o6jiacTeft BcaKoe jjyxoBHoe TBOp-
HscaiLio H saMnuuAOCb npocmuMV KOMnu.mmopcmeoMz. IIpo-
^peBHHx-B npespaTHJiHCB B-B HenscaKaeMLiH
pasnaro po^a BLinncoKi, coKpain,emH, TOJiKOBanift, 6ojrBineio
BcaKOft opHrHHajbHOCTH. BiHiTB HanpaBjrenieM'B
oco6eHHO ounqajiacB yienaa H jHiepaxypHaa
HO H 310 Bce-xaKH 6Bi;io Jiynme xoro, HXO nponcxo-
JJHJIO na SanaA^, r^ ^;aa:e pasynujiucb npaeuMuo nucamb no-m-
a ipeuecKiu nsuKb majio-no-MCUiy u coecrbMZ nosadujiu. Ha 3a-

JBo&yiu, KasHeHHLifi sa rocy^apcxBeHHyio HSM-BHV


ocxroxcKHMi, (525). OHB B-B cymnocxn sanHMaJica cocxaBJieHieM-B
2*
20

HSJioatemH H miKOBaniH rpe^ecKOH ifwjoco^iH, H


ero yqefmHEH flojroe BpeMa GUJIH oasHHMT) HCTOHHHKOMI,, HSX KO-
Toparo na Sanaa's noiepnajiH BCK> CB-BTCKyiq My^pociB.
"
nie Boauifl ff
06% yximeHiH B$ (Jmoco^in CAijaJOCB O^HOH)
HaH{5o.TEe nonyjrapHBiX'L KHnri, xoro

III.

28*. Hoc-iTE pacnaflema 3ana,nHOH PHMCKOH HMnepin na H r


-

HOBHX'B TOCyAapCTBt
CT> BapBapCKHMH KOpOJflMH BO

enympennee ycmpoucmeo emuxz iocydapcm&b ym-e ue MOIAO ocma-


npewHUMt, H noiOMy BHyipeHHafl HCTOpia oCmjeciBa H ro-
y sana.HHO-eBponencKHX'B Hapo^OBTb now.<ia no unoMy
nymu, un>Mb ei Busaumiu, r,n'B jiyirae MOOH coxpanHibca cxapue
H saKOHH. Offl^JibRun npOBHHiuH oana^a
nacejremeM'B npespaTHJiHCB BT> caMOCTOfliejiBHEifl

ciBa, VL KOTOpuxi. KI> pOMaHCKOMy Hacejemio npHM^majiocB H


repnaHCKoe, a HMnepaiopCKaa BJiacit nepenuia BI pyKH Bapsap-
Kopojrefi. H TO, H Apyroe ^ojiatno 6ujio HSM^HHTL ^tiit sa-
npOBHenitt, TaK-B KaifB lepManitu npuuecjiu cz cofiow uo-
eue eaiJittdu, uo&bie upaeu u o6wau, uoeun ynpeotcdemfi, a ci> Apyroft

CTOpOHH, H nOHfllifl H HOpfl^KH CaMHX'B TepMaHI^eB'B, CI. KOTO-


PBIMH OHH npnmjiH B'B HMnepiro, xo^e do.ioKHu GUJIU nodeepinymwH
IIo9TOMy BHyxpeHHafl acTOpia BapBapCKHxi Kopo-
&b 6opb6n u esauMHOMZ npucnocofijieniu PUM-
CKUXZ u lepMaucKuocz HOMOM o6iu,ecm6eHHOu u locydapcmeeHHOfi
OKU3UU.
29. PnMCKaa HMnepia 6tura a6cojiK)THOK) MOHapxien, ynpa-
HS^ n,eHTpa
BjisBineiocfl 6esycJiOBHO saBHC'BBinHM'B OTI, npaBHie.iB-
PHMCKOH HM- -r^
- CTBa iHHOBHHqecTBOATB. JojiacTB HMnepaiopa OLijra HeoipauuneHHOfi:
^ qT5 g.jaroyro.nHO HMnepaxopy, CHJiy saKona" (quod
TO HM^eT-B
principi placuit, legis habet vigorem), roBopmrn pHMCKie IOPHCTH.
OKOJIO 300 r. HMnepaTOpi. JI.ioKJieTiaH'B pas^'BJHJi'B HMnepiio Ha
diowsu, BO rjiaB-B
KOTOPBIXI eumpiu (nMnepa-
^BIJIH nocTasjieHBi

TOpCKie naM-BCTHHKH), H KOTOpne 6miH noflpasA&reHH Ha npoeuu-


ci> oco6biMH Ha^ajiBHHKaMH BO MaB^ (^ioniesoB-B 6u.io 12,
ifi
101). Hace-ieme PHMCKOH HMnepin ^JHJTOCB na ceo6od-
H HO pa6cTBO Majio-no-Majy CTajio ycxynaTB M-BCTO
paftoffb,

oco6oMy cocToaniio, Koxopoe HSB^CTHO HOA'B HMeneMi Ko^ouama.


KO.IOHBI 6HJIH KpecTBane, ciHTaBmieca JIH^HO CBo6o^HBiM, HO 6HB-
mie npHKp'EnjieHHBiMH KI, seMJii, Ha KOTOpoft atHJH H EOTOpyio
21

o6pa6aTBiBa.iH. B'B 9x0 nojo^enie nona^ajH, ci OAHOH cxopOHti,


pa6ti, H AJH KHXI 3x0 6ujio yjiyquieHieiTB (faxa, c^ Apyroii
HBie patfoiie, H Mejraie codciBeHUHKH, caflHBinieca na q
HJIH xepasinie CBOIO. Booduje KOAonamz GUM nepexodoM* omz an-
muHuato padcmea KZ cpedneeiwioeoMy KprbnocmuuHecmey Pafei pa- .

ooxajiH npflMO na CBoero rocno^HHa H Bt ero me XOSHHCTB-B, y


KpinOCTEHXl. JKC ^HJIO CB06 XOSflftCTBO, a rOCnOflHHy OHH TOJLKO

o6pOKi,.Bojitinaa nacis HM^nift, B-B KOTOPHXI> cymeciBO-


KOJiOHaii, npe^CTaBJifljia Comoro Kpynnyw coGcmeeHHOcmb (.tamu-
(pyudiu). TaKHMi o6pa30Mi> pnMCKoe o6m;ecTBO yae BI nocjikumn
pesHeft HMnepin rjraBHHMi> odpasoM'L COCTOSJIO, TaKx cna-
noMmyuKoez (nocceccopoffb) u Kprbnocmnuxb

OH.IO eme cocpedomoneme HaceMmn ez lopodaxt.


30. ^epMaH^H BI 3noxy CBoero nepecejrema BI BHTI re P MaH '
npe^-BJiH
PHMCKOH HMnepin ^HJIH coBC'BM & BT> ^pyrnx-B 4>opMaxT> 6Hia.
r

panda WSE^CTIH. o HHX^ MLI HM-Bent y pHMCKaro ncxopHKa Ta-


,
atHBmaro B-B 1 no P. X., HO aa TpHCTa-ieTBipecia JI^TB,
B.

OTI, 3xoro BpeMCHH ,a;o ocnoBania BapBapasiH CBOHXI


KopojieBCTBi, B'B HMHepin, 6z caMOu JTepManiu npousowjiu GoAbwia
nepeMiwu. Bi HaiajTE 9Toro nepio^a repMaHn;Bi ^-BJIHJHCB na MHO-
wecmeo u&6oAMK&3ft nMMenz, cocToaBnrax & r
HSI. OT^'BJI&HBIX'B po-

AOBT,, npnieM-B Kaat^oe HSI HHXI. HM^JIO CBoe Hapo^noe co6paHie, HJH
eme, B'B KOiopOM-B MorjiH npHHHMaiB yqaciie BCE BspocjiLie
MHHH. Ha B-BTB p-BmajiHCB Bci BaatHBia ^jia, a
BejHCB podoeuMU cmapmunaMU (principes), Ha BOHH-B
TeJBCTBOBaJIH OC06H6 BBl6opHEie BOGBOABI, HJIH lepU/OlU (duC6S), KO-
TOPHMT> npuHajpeaiajia ropas^o 66jiBniaa BJiaciB, ^wb POAOEHM-B
Podoeou 6umt> BHyxpn OT II;'BJIBHHX'& njieMen'B yate na-
i
I

pasjoaieniH; oaBHHM-B ero npoaBjeHieMi, SBIJIO JIHHIB TO,


ITO B'B cjyia'B y6incTBa Koro-JiH6o HSI HJieHOBi po.ua BC'B ocxa.iB-
HBie MCXHJIH yo'iHn.'B HJIH 6pa,iH C-B Hero eupy, x.-e. BBiKyni,. MexAy

repMani^aMH Boodme ne 6iuiQ OICHB P'BSKHX'B COC.IOBHHX'B pa3.iaqiH.


Pa6oBi, 6Bi.io Ma.io, a xaKate 6BiJio HCMHOFO H snamnuxt podoet, HM-BB-
mnxi npaso XOJIBKO Ha nojiyHenie 6ojiBnieH BHPBI cpaBHHxejBHO C-B npo-
CXBIMH CBOSO^HBIMH. Pa()BJ p'B^KO atH.lH B'B ^OM^ CBOHXI* I'OCHO^, HO-
xony ^xo odBiKHOBeHHO HMI> ^aBajiHCB B'B nojiBsOBanie yqacxKH SCMJIH,
Koxopne OHH H o6pa6axBiBajiH sa ofipOKt. OcodenHocxBio panHaro rep-
MaHCKaio 6fcixa 6ujo em;e xo, HXO semjin cnuma.iaci>
Koxopoe pacnpe^tjajo H nepepacnpeA'E.iajio
u,n>.iaio ri.ieMenu,

OXA'B.lBHBIMH CCMeHCXBaMH. SaHHMaaCB OXOXOK), CKOXOBO^CXBOM'B H


donaraecxBOii-B, repMani^Ei em,e ne u.Mtb.tu lopodoez: OHH aiH.iH HJIH
22

xyxopaxt, Hjm oyeuL He6o.ibniHMH nocejKanH. Haxo,a,acB


BI> nocxoflHHOH BpaatA'k neatly co6oio, OAHH n-ieMena Hana^ajiH Ha
.npyria H CM^nraBajiHCB O^HH ci .npyrHMH, ITO TOJIBKO cnoco&CTBOBa;io
pasjiostemio po^OBLixt COIOSOBI, HO E% TO ate Bpeiaa Bijqnaa Bonna
nopoatflawia Apyroe mieme dpyotcunnuu 6umz. OKOJIO BoeHHtixi>
Boatmen HJIH Boo6m;e jno^efi, OTJiHqaBinHxcfl npe^npiHMqHBOCTBro H
xpa6pocTbio, codnpajiHCB OTpa^H 6o.iBmero qacxtro HSI MOJIO^HX-L
KOiopLie ,a,o6pOBO.i&HO nociynajiH HOA'B HX^ Haqaj&CTBO,
noy^HTLca BoeHHOMy ^"fejiy no^ii HXI> pyKOBO^CTBOMi), H.IH
^oCnqn H cjraBLi. 3io H 6HJH dpyofcuubt, KOiopLia npnHH-
noTOMi) yqaciie H ET> paspyniemH PHMCKOH HMnepin. Eme npH
TaUHT-B y H^KOTOpHX^, HO TOJIbKO 6111,6 y HeMHOrHX-B repMaHCKHXI) Ha-
pO.meB'B 6BIJIH H KOpOAU (KOHyUlu). C.IHHIKOM'B HaCTBIfl H npOJi;O.I2KH-
T6JIBHBIflBOHHBI .O.'BJiajrH H606XOAHMBIM'B CymeCTBOBaHie HOCTOflHHOH
BJiaciH, BM^CTO BpeMeHHOH BjacTH repaoroBi., H KOi^a Memifi njie-
M6HO, ez III e. cmam cdueamwfi ez ftojivwie comu, TO nojym.ia
H KOpojeBCKaa BJiacTB. Ona, oflHaito, ne 6Bija HH na-
HH HeorpaHH^eHHOK). Kouymu 6bt6upajiuci> nowcus-
o6BiKHOB6HHO HS^ o^Horo H Toro ate pOj],a (nanp., y
EOB-B H3Tb pO^a MepOBHHrOBT,), H BJiaCTB HX'B ^BTJi

mneMt, KOTOpoe npo,a;ojiatajio cym,ecTBOBaTB H HOCJTE


KHXI> njreMCH'B B^ dojiie KpynnBie Hapo^HBie COIOSBI.
31. OCHOBHBaflCB pHMCKHXl. npOBHHnjflXTj, repMaHI],BI C6JIH-
B'B
CMimeHiere P-jiHCB
cpe,n,H posiaHCKaro nacejieHia, Koioposiy ycmynajiu ceoeto uu-
CMHuocmtw u nume, nomopaio cmonjiu u &z KyMmypmMt omnowe-
Majio-no-Majy npHniejiBnBi npHBBiKajra TOBOPHTB na HSBIK^ T\ -
T

npOBHHIl,lH. .

seMHaro Hacejrema H no,a; raHa.iHC& Boooin;e ero KyjiBTypt.


i
v rt s
oo- m
m;eMi, lepMCtHCKoe uamecmeie ue GUJIO saeoeeanieMt, sa KOTOPBIM'B
cjii^OBajio 6Bi o6pani,eHie no^'Bat.neHHBixi. BI> pa6cTBO H OToSpanie

y HHX'B Bcixi) seneJiB. repMaHn;Bi CC^HJIHCB B'B HMnepin 6ojBineio


nacTBio B^ KaiecTB-B ea samnTHHKOBi,, a HXI Kopo^n CMOTP^JIH Ha
ce6a, KaK'B Ha npaBHTejieH pOMancKaro HacejeHia no ^no^HOMoqiio,
OTT& HMnepaTOpa. IIoseMeMuaa coficmeeuHOcmb ocmaea-

3d en npeotcuuMU e.iadrbMitiaMU, KOTOpue ^ojiatHBi 6HJIH ycTy-


naTB npnuiejiBn.aM'B TOJIBKO HSBicTHyio ea iaciB. CBo6oAHoe na-
cejieHie npOBHHH,iH coxpaunjio ceoio Jiunnyw ceofiody, HiKOTOpBie
BapBapcme Kopojin (BI oco6eHHOCTH Teo^opHxi. ocTroTCKili) ,u;aate

cosnaTejiBHO CTpeMHJiHCB KTE, TOMy, qToSu coxpamimb npejfcnie nopndKit


BT> aji,MHHHCTpai],iH cy^, ^HHaHcaxi, HO STO HM-L B0o6m,e njioxo
?

ydaeajiocK HamecTBie conpOBoatAajiocB CTpauiHBiMi.


Bcero pnaicKaro 6HTa, npiiTOMi, y HOBBIXI rocnoA'B H He xsaiajo
ma ero no^^P^tHBaTB. Ho H BT> T^xi) cayqaaxx, Kor^a repAiaHH,n
23

310 #kiajH HMCHHO .laHrodapAii) napoiHo paapymajiH npeai-


nie nopfl^RH, HMT> TOate ne ydaecuocb coeepmenHO uxz ynunmo-

axoMy HPOXHBHJIHCB caMH Hpasti, o6w iaH H npn-


i
xau-B KaifB
nace.ieHia. Bx HOBBIXI. ycJTOBiax'B nojoatenie repMancKHxt
c/i, BJiajocB
r
deoucmeenubiMZ. IIo oxHOineniio KI repMan-
OHH ocmaea.iucbnonpewcneMy napodnbtMU oowcdHMu GO
eecbMa oipaHuuennow emcmbw, HO no OTHomemio KI cxapOMy nacejie-
Hiio npOBHHii,iH OHH diijiH npeeMHumMU a6co.itomnou eaacmu
wn.ri uMnepamopo&b. Bia jiiBOHCTBeHHOCTB no^epatHBajiacB em,e
HTO AOJroe Bpesia npeatnee nacejieHie cyduaocb no PUMCKUMI sa-
KOHaMt, a BapsapH, KaK^ caMH ce6fl HastiBajiH repMaHH,H, no
CBOHM-B. y nnxi ji;aa:e flBHJHCb aanncH BTHXT, saKOHOBi, HSB-BCT-
no^i. nasBanieMi) eapeapcnux* npaedi (leges barbarorum), HSTB
caMOio ^peBHCio oLLia ca.iHiecKaa npas^a. Ho BTOH
(|>paHKCKOMi rocyAapCTBi Bnpa sa y6nxaro (})paHKa
BI,

BABOC 6ojiLnie BHpn sa ydniaro pHM.iHHHHa, H 910 npaBHJio


pacnpocTpanfljiocb na KOpojreBCKHxt jtpyaiHHHHKOBi, H npHABOpKHXTb,
3a KOTOpHX'B nJiaTHJIH BTpOe 60JIBUie, q^MI> 3a o6BIKHOBeHHHXI>
r

(J)paHKOB bH PHMJTHHI.. IIonaTHO, 'ITO HMMenuoe erbue ne MOIJIO


ydepotcambCH &b npewcueMb eudrb C"B odpasoBanieMx o6uiHpHBixi>
KOpOJCBCTB-B Bl npOBHHEUflX'B PflMCKOH HMneplH. Ho CI> flpyFOH
cxopOHBi, H aHTH^HBiH iopodcKOu 6umv cmaM npuxodumb <?s ynadoKo
npn HOBBIXT> ycJiOBiaxi. o6m,ecTBeHHOH .JKHSHH. YKasaHHoe CMmueme u
pUMCnuxb u lepMancmxz naqaji. OCOOCHHO OTJIH-
Hcxopiio (fpauKCKOu Monapxiu. Hao^opoix, y
rori, EpHiamH, BOCxopatecTBOBajii nucmo
OKI pHMCKia naqajia CLI.IH oqeHB c.nao'Li BI> BTOH
HMnepin.
" 1
32. $paHKCKoe KOPOJICBCXBO, ocnoBaHHoe ca.inqecKHMH <j>paH-
^^
no^i. npeABO.a.HxejiBCXBOM'B HX-B Kopojia Xsiodema HS-B (j>aMH.iiH cnaro

~
Mepoeumoez. sanajio BCIO TajuiiH). HORJ> BJiacxBio Kopo.ieii axofi

jj;HnacxiH naxo^HJiHCB, ci.O^HOH cxopOHBi, rajuo-pHMjane, CT. ^pyrofi,


KpoirE (|)paHKOBi> (caJiHqecKHXi. H pHnyapcKHX-B), H .npyriji repaiaH-
CKia njieiieHa, noKOpenHtia <j>paHKaMH npn Xjo^BHr-B H ero npeeM-
HHEaxi. (ajijieMaHLi, 6ypryH^Bi, 6aBapu H xiopHnrH). nocji CMepxn
(511) y nero ocxajocB qexBipe CBina, Koxopwe, ne
xaKTb CKaaaxB, OXJTH^HXB rocy^apcxsa OXTB npocxoro HM^-
nia, pa3dib.mjiu Hacjindcmeo ceoeio omu/a na nemupe ydrbJia. Xoxa
M.iaiuieMy HSI, X.io^BHra (Kioxapy I) u y^a.iocB cnosa
CBiHOBen
coe.a.HHHXB Bee KOPOJCBCXBO noA'B CBoeio iuacxBK>, HO nooii nero
OHO onaxB pacnajiocb. Yate
npn CBIHOBBHX'B X.io^BHra Me/K^;y ox-
H MepOBHHraMH npOHCXOflHJH ccopbt u MeMdoycofiiti, OXJH-
24 -

1
qaBiniaca KpaflHeio pasnys^aHHOCTtH) H /KecxoKOCXbio npaBOB-b ).
Oxfl-kiBBbia qacxn KopojieBCxsa xoaze ne jra#HJiH Meat^y co6oro. GE-
Bepo-BOCTOHHyio qacx& MOHapxin (Aecmpasiw) nace.iajiH pnnyap-
cme $paHKH H Apyria repMancKia iLieMena, Koxoptia JIHUIB oqenb
CJia6o noAHHHjuiHCb PHMCKHMI* naqajiaMTb, xor^a KaK-B c-BBepo-sa-
na/j'B (Heucmpifi), roro-sana^'B (AKeumanifi) H wro-BOCTOKi) (Eyp-
6BMH, HaofiOpOTB, CHJIBHO
pOMaHHSHpOBaHLI. MepOBHHrCKle
CTpeMHJHCB EO^IHEHTb CBOCH BJiaCTH ({jpaHKOBl. HapaBITE CI>
MJiflHaMH, yaie npHBWKniHMH KI adcojiioTHOH Bjiacxn HMne-
Topa, HO <J>paHKH ne ocofienHO dpywcejiw6HO CMomptbm uaycuMnie
KopoaeecKou emcmu. Bi> 6ojrBraefi lacxn rocyjiapcxBa, o^naKo, (fipam-
CKIH uauajia 6uma npuxodu.m #z ynadom. Hdpoduoe enue, HM-BB-
mee rjaBHoe snaqenie Bt 6Bixy repMaHn;eBi. na HXI. po^HH'B, ywe
cdn>jiajioci> ueeosMOwcmiMo nocji'B xoro, KaKi
(|>paHKH pascejuLincB
no Been TajuiiH. Micxo B'fcieBHXi. co6paHiii sanajiH npa MepOBHH-
raxi> xaKTE,nasHBaeMLifl Mapmoecnifi HOAH, na Koxopbia Kopojin eate-
cosHBajiH CBoe BOHCKO, cocxoaBmee HS-B ^paHKOBi, H rajuio-
HO 9xo 6min cKopie eoeuuue CMompw, xoxa Ha HHX^ npo-
,

xaKJKe yxBep^eHie HOBLIXI* saKOHOBi, HJIH pasHBixi Kopo-

pacnopaffltemH. Bo rjras'B ox^'BJibHBix'B o6jiacxeH cxoa.iH

ipacfibi (comites), HasnaiaBinieca KOpojieMi H nojibsoBaBinieca 6o.ib-


HioH) BJiacxbK), HO pa/^OMTb ci HHMH nun 6oJi^e BaatHbixi. p$jn> npo-
M'BcxHHa B'Bia. TaKHMT. odpasoMi Kopojin ynpa-
RQjiwi&jiH cyra,ecxBOBaxb
BjrajH rocy,napcxBOMi) HO-PHMCKH ipe3i> HasHaiaBnmxca HMH HHHOB-
HHKOBI,; o^naKO, 3xa cacxeMa OKasajiacb neocymecxBUMOH no xorAaui-
HCMy cocxoaHiro o6m;ecxBa. rocydapc meeHuo& xosaucmeo ujunepiu
i

npu cfipaHmxz npHnuo B-B FajuiH ez pascmpoucmeo. 06m,ecxBo He xo-


xijio njiaxHXB najioroB-L, npaBHxejibcxBO He ynijio HXI. BSHCKHBaxb.
He HMia BI pacnopaaiemH rocyAapcxBeHHLix'b AOXO^OB^, (j)paHKCKie
KopOwiH naqajiH B03Harpa/K,a,axB CBOHX'B cjiyri, KOxopbiM-B nopy^a.iH
xi EJIR Apyria ji;ojraKHOCXH, nocucajioeauifiMU usz ceoux* uwiwiu.
B-B FajiJiiH B'B anoxy HMnepin 6biJio MHOFO noMicxiii,
HMnepaxopCKOMy <|)HCKy (Kasn'B); BXH noM-scxba
KOpOJaM-B, KOXOpblC CXa.IH CMOXp'BXB Ha KHXt, KaKl, Ha
CBOIO coocxBenHOcxB, H Haiajra me^po HX^ pas^asaxB sa

c,iyat6y, ne ^ijaa npRXOMi 6ojiBnioro pas^niia Heathy qncxo npH^BOp-


HHMM H rocy^apcxBeHHBiMH ,noj[^HOCxaMH. IIoKa xaKHXi. seaiejib ocxaBa-
JiocbMHoro, y MepOBHHroBi ^LI.IO q^M-B narpaat^axB CBOHXI, cjiyrx,
xo HOXOMI. OHH ofindnrMU u a> dmuMo nomepnm ceoe npemnee suaue-

') Bt 3TO BpeMa oco6eHHO cii.TbKa 6u.ia

EpynerH-ibju.
Hie. 3aio Bij otfmeciBij 6oMnww cujiy sa6pa^a snami. Ona cocia-
BHJiacb H3i> KpynHHX'b scM.ieB.ia.zrBJibijeB'b eme PHMCKOK anoxn H H3i>

npHO'jIHJKeHHblX'L H.1H CJiyn. KOpO.Tfl, o6oraTHBIIIHXCfl OTl


CKHXI, noffiaJTOBaHifi. snaTH oco6eHHO BH^BHHyjiHC&
HST* BTOH
nasLiBaeMiie mauopdoMU (major domus) HJH najraiHbie Mepbi (ma-
jor palatii), CTonBinie BO rjias-B Bcero Asop^Baro ynpaBJienifl; OHH
KOpOJeBCKHMII nOiTBCTtflMH H HX"L paS^aieK) H 6LLTH
ci> x BMT> HaiajibHHKaMH Kopo.ieBCKoft .npyffiHHH. Ocjaojeme
r

B.iacTH noBjeKJio sa co6oio ycHJienie snaTH. Bo-


raiBie H MorymeciBenHLie .IIO^H naqajin npumtbcufimb npocmou
uapodo: CHJIBBHC oiHHMajiH y cjia^HXi SGMJH, a HXI, caMHX-B
EHJH CBoett BJiaciH, npH^eMt MHorie 6 feAHflKH H CO,MU r

^,a6H iiafiTH ce6-B 3ain,HTy H noKpOBHTaibCTBO y


naro H 6oraiaro le-iOB-Bita.

33. Bi VII B. oaBHoe sHaqenie -BI ibpanKCKOM^


Aecmpaw*, r^TB cajbHTBe OH.IH cxapHe (ppanKCKie no-
H otitraaii. Bt BTOH
rocy^apciBa ^paHKOBi, BOSBH-
Hacin
CHJCH ManopAOMt Jlenunz FepucmaMCKiu, o6;iaAaBiniH oieH& MHO-
FHMH nOM^CTLflMH H OTJHqHBiniHCfl BI> 6opt6'B Ct CaKCaMH. ^OJTiK-
HOCTS Maftop^OMa c^-BJiajracB Hac-i^ciBeHHOio BI ero $aMHJiiH, H
caM-B OHX ^aate cxajFE HasHBaTbca repn,oroM-L aBCTpasificKHXi (f>pan-
KOB-L. CHHI ero Kap.tz, nposBanHHH MOJTOTKOM'B (MapmeM), no-
6'B^HJl'B H HeHCTpifiCKHX'L (f)paHKOB-B H SaCiaBHJIl HX1> nOfllH-
HHTLCH CBoefi BJiaciH; OHi> Haneci. TaKJKe y^apt ajjieManaMi, 6a-
H TiopHHraMi,, KOTOpne XOT^JIH BOSBpaiHTb ce6 fe caMOCTOfl- r

TaKHM-L oSpasoM'b Kapjit Mapiej'b co6pa^ eoeduno


cuooa oce tcopojeocmeo. MepOBHHrcKie KOPOJIH npn aBcipasiHCKHxi,
Mafiop^OMax'b 6ujiw. KopojiaMH jrainb no HMGHH; npecio-iOM-L pacnopa-
jKa.incb ManopflOMH. KpOM't BOHHI. ci> COC-EAHMH ABCTpasin, Kapjry Map-
iejy npHinJiocb em,e ompasumt nawecmeie ua Pa^nw apa6oez (732),
Toro saBoeBaBinnx'B Hcnaniio H BTOprmnxcfl B-b AKBH-
H 3ia noO-B^a Toate no^eajia ero aBTOpHTeT-B. Meai^y T-BM'B Ma-
cpe^CTB-L y nero 6bijio cjrHmKOMi) Ma^io, noiOMy qxo
KOpOJCBCKifl HM^Hifl nO^TH BCi 6BIJIH p03^aHH. Tor^a p BmHTeJIbHHH
r

cxaji'b nojbsoBaibca RJIH vAOBjeTBOpenm rocy^apcTBen-


noxpeSHOCTeft mn>MU UMywecmeaMU, nomopun
dyxoeeucmey u MOHacmupfiM?., qxo, KOHeqno, BH3Bajio
ciBie npe^CTaBHTejieft n;epKBH. CHHI, Kap.ia Mapieaa, Ilunum Ko-

pommii, yaie ne saxoT^i-b ocxaBaTbca Maftop^OMOMx H


na CBoro ro.iOBy KOpoJieBCKyio Kopony (752), ocHOsaBT.
l
Kapo.mmoe-b ).

') IIo HMCHH ero cuna Kap.ia Bc.iHi;aro; iioapo<)nf.e CM.


26

34 Anrjo-caKCH, gaiuiBinie BI V B. BpHxamio, Hain.iH


eiu,e oneMt c.ia6o poManusttpoeanHoe Ke.iBTCKoe Hacejeme.
BI> BpHxamH 6biJio cpaBHHxejibno Majro, H Kor^a ^la 3ain,HTH HM-

nepin H3i uea yAajeHBi 6ujin cxoaBmie xani, .lerioHti, TO pUMCmu


GZ cmpa/urb u coecn>Mv uwesz. Anrjo-caKCLi HcxpeonjiH HJIH
xHJiH SHainiejibHyK) lacxs KejiBTCKaro Hacejienm, a ^pyryio
sacxaBHJiH y^aJtHTbca B'B x-fe M-fecia ocxpOBa, r^fe H pHM.ia-
He y^aBaJiocb yciaHOBHib csoero Bja^biqecTBa. Bjiaro^apa 9TOMy,
oienb citopo lepMaHusupooamci,, H ea BHyxpeHHaa ncxopia
ne npeji.cxaBJiaex'L co6oio xoro BsaHMO^ficxBia Meat^y PHMCKHMH H
repMaHCKHMH naiajiaMH, Koxopoe HaSjno^aexca ncxopin $PEIHK- B'L

CKOH MOHapxin. IIo9xoMy BT> HOBLixt M-fecxaxx auoo-caKCii Jiyqme


cmapue lepMancnie nopadKU. (KejibXH y^epaiaJiHCb B'b
BI, yajbC-B ci. KopHy9JiBCOMi, H B'B EpjaH^iH).
35. AHiMO-caKCBi He odpasosajiH cpasy e^Hnaro rocy,a;apcxBa.
BpeMa B'B BpHxamn cymecxBosajio nncKOMKO MC^KUXZ KHH-
Koxopbia BoeBa,iH O^HO ci .npyrHMi H TOJBKO nocxeneHHO
CJIHBaJIHCB Me^AY C060H) B'b KOpOJieBCXBa. TaKHXi KOpOJICBCXB-B 6BMO
CHaiajra ceMt, saxiafB mpti, H JHIHB BI. Haqajri IX B. BecceKCKift

(x.-e. sanajtHO-caKCOHCKifi) Kopoib (9K6epm?>) oS-Be^HHHJH, HX-B B'B


Anrjiiio (827). Ho H Bnocji'B.ncxBiH rpaHHn,bi cxapBix-B KHaatecxB'L
BI, ^JiemH cxpaHBi na wdupu (shires, rpa<|)cxBa).
cxpofl GUJIT, qncxo-repMaHCKiii. Y aHMO-caKCOB-B co-
xpanajiHCB ^peBHie emeeue nopadnu BI, BH^ CCJIBCKHXI, CXO^OBX
B'B OXfl'BJIBHBIX'B ^epCBHaXI, H 'ICMOmOfft (B^HI.) KHaateCXBI,. CT>

npeBpamenieMi, BXHX-B KnaatecxB-B BT, o.a.Hy Anrjiiio


H o6m.ee co^paHie KOpOJieBCXBa, eumeHawMomt
(COB^X-B
Ky,na (|)aKXHHecKH MOMH aBJiaxBca, o^naKO, JHHIB Cojiie 6oraxne H
snaxHBie. Ho H B-feqa OXA^BEHXI, KHa/KecxBi, ne HC^CSJIH, npeBpa-
XHBIHHCB B'B BxopocxeneHHBia co6pania ox.n.'BJibHbixi, inafipOBi,. Ha-
KOHCI;!,, H cocjiOBHtifl cxpoft AnrjiiH 6mi'B HHCxo-repMaHCKift: Bee
na CBo6oAHBix B H pa6oBi,.
r
Hacejienie .H'BJIHJIOCB snaxHBix'B,
36*. C-B saBoeBanieMx BpnxaHiH aHr.io-caitcaMH HC^CSJO B'B

He g H xpncxiaHCXBO, HaqaBfflee SA^CB pacnpocxpanaxBca BO spe-


-

Mena pHMCKaro BJia^HqecxBa. Anr.io-caKCH npuwau cwoa HSUHHU-


KCLMU H ,a;ojiro HMH ocxasajiHCb. 06pam,eaie HXI, BI, xpncxiaHCXBO
naiajiocB cpaeuumeMHo nosdno, KOH^B VI B., x.-e. Jitxi, qepea'B
BI,

nojiiopacxa HOCJI-B HXI nepsaro noaB.iema na ocipOBi. IlepBUM-B KO-


npHHaBniHMi, HOByio Bipy, 6H.ii, Renim. Hpn no-
xpncxiaHcxBa H B-B AHr.iiio cxa.ia npOHHKaxB pOMancKaa
Kyjbxypa. AnrjiftcKiH MHCcionepi, Aeiycmum noAiHHH.ii, HOByro
n,epKOBb pHMCKOMy enHCKony.
27

37. BocioiHaa PHMCKan lumepia, otl><i>Hu,ia,iBHO HasuBaBinaacn


BX cpe,HHie Etna iiMitepieu POMJUCKOU, yHac.Tfe30Ba.ia OTB nepas- HMnei>in.

fl-BJiBHaro pHMCKaro rocyaapciBa npeatHaro BpeMCHH


ero yypeai^e-

nia, HO TEM-B He MCE-BC H en BHyTpeHiiiH 6tiT'B ciajii nocieneHHO


HSM-EHaTBCa HO,HT> BJliHHieM'B HOBB1XT, yC-IOBlH 3CH3HH, BCJ-EACTBle HCPO
ct TegenieMi, BpeMCHH xoate no.iymTB CBoeo6pa3HHH xapaKiept.
9io cpe^HeB-BKOBoe npOAO.iaienie PHMCKOH HMnepin npHHflio
BusanmiuCKOU umnepieu, a coBOKynHOCTs ea
eu3aHmuHU3MOM?>. Bx V B. rocy^apCTBeHHUMi,
BOCTO^HOH HMnepin 6tiJii. em,e jiamuHCiciu, HO yaie BX VI B.
saMfbna eio ipenecmMt, ycH-iBBmaaca BI VII GTOfl&np H
BI VIII. O^HaKO, H rpenecKiH ajieMeHii ne coxpaHMJica BI.
HMnepin BO Been CBOCH qncTOT-B. 3HaHHTe.iBHaa iacxB Hacejiema H
cocxoaja H3t ^uuHusupoeaHnuxz uuopodu,e&b, a BI> VI B.
no^iyocTpoB-B Ha^ajn -Bee 6oj4e H 6ojiie
KaK-B na 3anaA^ OTBOAH.IHCB Micia ^J
TaKi> na BocTOidj 910 ^JiaJiocB no OTHOineniio EI.
,

ero,e He cociaBjflJH CKOJiBKO-HH^y^B Kpyn-


Kor^a OHH
HBIXI njieMCHi.HMnepaTOpBi yate CT> VI B. namm' KOJOHHSHPO-
saxB HMH OKpanHHBia oo.iaciH, npe^ocxaBjaa HM-B SCMJH ^JH o6pa-
60TKH, HO He BM EIHHBaaC& BO BHyTpCHHia OTHOmCHia HXl 061H.HHI..
f

Bfl-BApaacB nocTeneHHO BI> KOpenHoe HaceJieHie BajKaHCKaro no.iy-


ocipOBa, cjiaBane ex HHMI cjiHEajiHCB, HHor.ua od^aa O^CHB snaqHTejiB-
HBIMH o6m,HHaMH, COXpaHaBfflHMH CBOH OOBIiaH, HJH ^aate BBTTECHafl
H3X BHyipeHHHXl HaCTCH CTpaHBI CaMHXI> rpCKOBl, KOTOpBie BCJI-B^-
CTBie axoro CKyiHBajHCB no deperani. 3iH cjaBaHCKie KOJIOHHCTBI.
6tiBmie HJIH BOHHaMH, HJIH seMJie^iBi^aMH, vs> VII H VIII BB. HHOr^a
nepenpaBjajiHCB npaBHiejiBCTBOM'B H BI Majiyio Asiio. IlHcarejiH VI
H CJi'E/i,yK)in,Hx & B-BKOBX ^aste JKajOBajiHCB, HTO cjasaue ynopCTByjoTt
r

BX CBOHXI. j;ypHLixi> o6Bi^aax B, Kor^a CCTB ropasjjo .ly^mie pOM9ft-


r

CKie saKOHBi. B-B X B. HMnepaxop'B .KoHcmanmum Eaip


"
,
HTO n Bca cipaHa oc.iaBaHHJiacB .
IIpaBAa, cann
9JIJIHHH3HpOBaJIHCB, HO OHH CHJIBHO USMVbHU.lU 9MHO-
cocmaez uace.ieHm ei eeponeucKuxt nacmnoco UMnepiit
u omaa^u 6oMwoe eMunie na en ofiuiecmeenmiu
38. FjiaBHLia qepiii oSmecTBCHHaro cxpoa BHsaHiin 6ujivL it me, 06mecT B eH- HHH (
*
T \} O H
ITO H EX SanaAHofi HMnepin. SA'BCB 6Bi.io
Kpynnoe
HOLE'S KpeCTBaHCTBOMl,, KOTOpOC HaXO^H- HMiiepin.
C*B npHKp'Bn.ieHHLIM'B Kl)
JIOCB B-B nOAIHHCHiH y CBOHXI) HOM'EIU,HKOB'!.. Pa3.IHqle SaKJUOiaJOCL
B'B TOMI,, ITO na Sanaa's ceMCKoe nace.ienie ece 6o.me u 6ojin>e sa-

KpibnoutaAocb, xor^a KaKi. B'B BHsaHiin CT> TeqeHieni. BpeneHH, na-

ooopoii,, npOHsouLTO HesaM^THLiMi) oopasoMi) paCKpiwoiyeuie upe-


28

Maccu, ixo HI BpeMa o6 BacHaiox'B


f

HacTOflni.ee
HMCHHO cjaBancKHxi. o^BmaeBi. H nopflji,KOB^. Ho
CKaa 3Hax& H BI> BHsanxiH HArLia <5ojrbinoe snaqeeie H
jiacb ciabHLiM'B BjiameM-B Ha o6miH XOA'B p$jn>. B'B IHCJTE Kpyn-
HLIXl SeMeJI&HLIX'B CO(5CTBeHHHKOBT>, KaifB H Ha SaWE, 6EL/1H H SAliCB
H,epKBH H MOHaCXBIpH.
39. BnsaHTiHCKiH HMnepaTOp-B, HJIH it/apt, (pc/.ads6c) npeeM-
CTBe HHO noji&soBajica TOR) ueoipanuuenHOw e.iacmtw, KOTOpan CJIQ-
BJIRCTB y -^

BX npeameMi. pnMCKOM^ rocy.napCTB'B. iiiin;e HMnepa-


yate
Topi ^ioKJieiiaHi) B^ EOHD.'B III H HaqaJi'B IV B. ciapajrca npn-
CBoeii BjacTH TOTI> CBam,eHHHH xapaKxepi), KOTOpuft ona HM-BJia
decnomittxz dpeeumo Bocmona, H BHsaHTiiicKie ero npeeMHHKH
ocymecTBHJiH 9iy ero H^eio. B'B cosHamH
o6in,ecTBa H cani*, H .IHIHOCTB rocy^apfl c^jajiH
noiiH pejinriosHaro no^HiaHia. BH'Bmme aiTpHSyTti BJiacTH
HHMI o6pa30Mi> nypnypnaa Manxia, HJH nopcfiupa) H
dmunemz, B'B oco6eHHOCTH s&e TOpaiecTBeHHHa it,epeMOuiu, conpoBO-
aG,n,aBfflia pasHLie CJiyiaH noflBJieHia HMnepaxopa nepe^ no^an-
HHMH, Toaie iHMynLiH oco6oe snaieHie H pasBHiie B-L BHsaHTiftcKOH
aiHSHH. HMnepaiopCKiH ,a,Bopi B-L KoHCTaHTHHonoji^ OTJiHgajrca HHHI-
HOCTBK) H BeJ!HK<M BIlieM'&, HO 3aiO
I
BTb HCMI> rOCHO^CTBOBaJIH paSHHe
noponu H BCJIHCB HOCToaHHiia unmpmu. Mnorie BHsaHTiflcme HMne-
OTJH^a.lHCB HSH^^eHHOCTBK) H CJiadOBOJlieM-B H .lerKO HOA-
Bjiamio iKeHmnH-L, ^aBOpHTOB^ H jiBCiei^oB-B. BHsaHTittcKaa
HCiopia HanojiHena no3TOMy saioeopaMU, BTB KOiopux-L
pasnLie HHxpHraHH H iecTOJiK)6n,Bi, B'B OCO^CHHOCTH JBOB-
,
iacTO caMH CTpeMHBmieca KI. BJiacin. Ceepmeuie cz npe-
Toate aBjemeMTb ^OBOJIBHO O^BI^HBIM-B B'B HCiopin
CKHXI HMnepaxopoB-B. Hnor^a ^,BOpn,OBHe nepeBOpoxBi
JTHCBpasHHMH otcecmoKocmHMU B'B po^ BHKajiHBaHia
noca HJIH ymen. C.iy^ajiocB .HOBOJIBHO iacio, ^TO npe-
OBJiajj/BBajiH nyxeni. nponcKOB-B H nacHJiia npocine juoj(E sap-

BapCKaro nponcxo;K,a,eHia H 663^ BcaKaro oSpasoBaHia. llpounuu nopn-


dom npecmojionac.mdifi nani-mo ne MOIZ ycmauoeumbCH ET>
B^;o6aBOK'B c'B 6opB6on sa BJiaciL paaHtix-B no.iHTnqecKHXx H
HMX^ napxifi coejuuHnxKCb peAuiiosnue pasdopu. KaatAaa peJiHriosnaa
napxia x.ionoxajia o XOJTB, qxo6n HM^XB Ha CBoen cxoponi HMnepaxop-
AaH caMH HMnepaxopti Hep-B^KO CXPCMHJHCB noeedrboamb
CKyioB.iacxB,
fftdiMaxtenpu. Bo BHyxpenHHX'B CMyxax'B npHHHiiajo 6ojjbmoe yqacxie
H Hacejeme rpOMa^noft CXO.IHH;BI. Bneqaxjnxeji&Hoe H no^BHaiHoe. ^is
ycnoKoema ero npaBnxe.iBCXBO npn6'Bra.io K-B pasdcmn* x.m6a H ycmpoA-
cmey sprbJim^ HO HMCHHO cxeqenie 6ojiBniHXx napo^HEixi. Macci> na
29

HpaBHBiuiaca BHsaHiiHu.aM'B KOHCKia pHciama lacio BJCKJO sa coooio


caMofi
cepbesHBie tfesnopaAKH, KOTopwe OKasiiRaJHCb onacHtiMH RJIK
ijapCTByiomaro HMnepaiopa. IIo3TOMy rocyAapH AOJJKHH
ce6a wapflieu, cocToaBiueii 6o.ifcnieio qacibio H3i
Ho H fit cymecTBOBaniH xaKoii rBap;uH 6mia
Toate CBoa onacHOCib, 'laira Kaira cobalt! H HX-L BoatAH HHor.ua

passirpHBajiH pojit ^peBne-pHMCKHXi. npemopiamteGt.


40 Bl TO BpeMfl, KaKl, B-B 3anaAHHXI> npOBHHI^iflXX pHMCKie
saKOHLi H nopa^OKi ynpaBJieHia ci npnxoAOM'B BapsapOBt ciajiH CTBO H ynpa .
saM^HflTbca repMaHCKHMH, BnsaHTia coxpannjia H saitOHOAaTejbCTBO, B.ieme.

H a^MHHHCTpaTHBHoe ycipOHCTBO npeAHAymeft anoxn. Ha SanaA'fe

PHMCKOG npaso ciajio BHT^CHHTbCfl repMaiiCKHMH ooHiaaMH, BT BH-


saHiiH H saKOHodameMnan dn>Hme.tmocnib locydap-
npoji;ojiatajiacb

cmea, XOTH, KoneqHO, H na nen CKa3HBa.iocb B.iiaHie HOBHXI. yc.io-


Bin JKH3HH. B-L BHsaHTiH y^ep^ajibcb H ynpae.ieuie cmpauow no-

cpedcmeoM* uuHoemmecmea,, nasHa^aBmaroca D,eHTpajbHOio Bja-


CTbK) H BHOJIH^ 6H nOA1HH6HHarO. ^HHOBIlHqeCTBO 6bIJIO paSfl'E.ieHO
na KJiaccbi CTb pasHiiMH THiyjiaMH, H sea CHCieMa ynpaBJienia OTJIH-
qa^iacb 6ojibnioio cjoaiHOCTbio. He y^epaiajiacb io.ibKO

/I,ioKJieTiaHa, KOTOPLIH BI npoBHHi^iax'B oi^'BJiHJi'b

ynpaBJienie OTI> BoenHaro. Ci leqenieMi. BpeMenn-


HMnepaiopH B03BpaTH.iHCb PHMCKOH CHCTeMi coeduwmx ez
K-L CTapoil
odwbxi pynaxb u eoeunou, u ipawdaucKOu eaacmu, T.-e. BI. KajK^oft
o6,iacTH rpaaj^aHCKie qHHOBHHKH 6ujivL noA^HHeHH TOMV ate caMOMy

Koxopoe EJ> 3TOH o6jracTH CToajio BO rjaBi pacno.TOJKeH-


jHii,y,
naro BX HCH BOHCKa (nosAH'Ee OH-L HastiBajica cmpammoMv}.
41. IlepBbiM'b saM-BqaTejibHbiMi rocy^apeMi. BHsaHTiHCKOH HM-
nepin H poAOHa^aJibHHKOMi, BHyipeHHHxt ea nopa^KOBi 6ujn> TOcmu- H
'HUM* Bejiuniu (527 565), KOTOPHH npocjraBHJi'b CBoe n,apCTBO-
Bame y^a^HtiMH BOHnaMH H saBoeBaHiaiiH Ha 3ana#E H ^ocxa-
BH.i'b OKOHqaTejibHoe TOpaiecxBO xpncxiaHCTBy B-B CBOGMX rocy/jap-
CTB-B. IIpeeMHHKH Oeo^ocia BejiHKaro Ha Bocioidj sa HCMHornMH
HCKviroqeHiaMH 6tLiH jitoflfi Ma.iocnoco6HHe. HunepaTOpCKiH npe-
CTO.TB jtocxajica lOcTHHiany HOCJI'B ero B-B
PJIXH. tOciHHa, KOTOPBIH
IOHOCTH npHmejrB Bi CTO.lHIjy npOCTLIMl, .HepeBCHCKHMTj MaJIblHROM-B
H nocTynHji-B BI BoeHHyio cjyat6y, ^ocjiyataiica Ha HCH %o caMHX!>
a HOTOM^ CA&iaJICfl HMHepaTOpOMl.. K)CTHHX SblJ-B
BLICHJHXTb qKHOB-B,

rpy6biH H Heo6pa30BaHHHH, HO 6epeazjiHBBiH H 9neprHi-


qeJiOB'BK'b

HHH, xaK-B ITO nepeAa.ii> CBoeMy njeMaHHHKy HMnepiro BI cpaBHH-


Te.ibHO xopomeMi cocToamn. HpOHCxo^a caM-B H3i> npocioro ssama
(H aaate HS-B cJiaBancKon K)cTHHiaH b atennjica na ^o^epH
CCMBH),
r

SB'fepaMH B^ H,HpK B, Seodoptb, KO-


r

CMOTpHTCJa HaA"B AHKHMH


30

ropaa npeayje fouia TaHH,OBm,HneH H eejia JierKOMBicjieHHBiH o6pa3-B


5KH3HH. Ona OKasBiBajia Bnocjii^CTBiH 6ojiBmoe BJiiarne Ha CBoero
Myata, oumiaacB BLiAaromHAica yatOM-B, HO BM^CT-B ct TB-MB H nena-
CaM-B tOcTHHiani. Tojue 6bun> le-iOB-BEt
u dnepiunnuu, cjiasy H pocKonn,, cipe-
JnoftHJTB

MHJICa K'B rpaH.niOSHBIM'B n.'B.IHM'B. 06a OHH OTJIHiaJIHCB 60JIBinHM'B


BH-BiniiHMi, 6jiaroiecTieM^, HO lOcTHHiant CKJionajicff H^CKO.IBKO KI,

MOHO(})H3HTCTBy. IIpH HHXI) npH^BOpnaH EBiniHOCTB flOCTHOa


BHcmaro pasBHik; Geo^opa, KoponoBaHHaa HMnepaxpHneH H
conpaBHiejiBHHi^eH CBoero Myata, Tpe6oBaja, RTOOBI B'B

cjiy^aflx-L BBicuiiH HMnepin


ji;o.iffiHOCTHBia jrHn,a

ry6aMH KI ea HOFB. K)cTHHiaHi> yKpacnj^ EOH-


CTaHTHHOnOJIB MHOFHMH B6JHKOJI BnHBIMH HOCTpOHKaMH, H31 KOTO-
T

PBIXT> rpoMKyro HSB^CTHOCTB noJiyqHJii> xpam^ Ce. Co$iu C-L ne-


6BiBajiBiMi, flOTOJi'E no rpOMa^HOCTH CBoeft KynoJOMi) H saM^qa-
T6JIBHBIMH M03aH1HBIMH H306paK6HiflMH. (B'B 1453 T. TypKH o6pa-
THMH BTOTTj XpaMi B'B Me^GTB). Bo BHyTpeHH6H HOJHTHK'B lOdH-
ftepasajicfl TOFO Bsoa^a, ITO BI, HMnepin ^ojatna 6nTB
odna eivpa, odum sanom. Hyat^aacB B'B 6ojibwnxT>
,

HBIXI. cpe^CTBax'B ,a;jifl CBOHXI> BOHH'B, nocipoeKi) H


pocKOfflH, OH'B eeeM Muowecmoo pasubixz cnocofioGZ
yeemHeniH locy-
doxodoez, Hanp., KaseiiHBia MOHono.iiH,
cos.naBaj'B
Hajrora na atHSHeHHBie npHnacti, ycTpaHBa^i npn-
sattMBi H OXOTHO HMy-
npn6'Braji'B
KOH(|)HCKai],iH KI,

(oco6eHHO y epeiBKOBi,). Bee 910 nciomajio CHJIBI HMnepin


H no.npLiBa.io MaiepiajBHoe 6jarococToaHie ea Hacejrenia.
42. lOciHHiaH'B He cpasy yiBepji;H.ica Ha npecTOJTE. B'B na-
H se- qaji !
1

n;apCTBOBaHia emy npHHijrocB Aaaze BBi^epHiaTB ceptesnoe uapod-


noe eoscmanie eo caMOii cmojiuwb. Hacejieme KoHCTaHTHHono.ia /i;aBHO
yate yBJieKajiocB KOHCKHMH 64raMH, KaKi, npeat^e pHMJiane Ma^ia-
TOpcKHMH nrpaMH. B'B CTOJiHqHBiH unnodpOMZ CTeKaJHCB ^.ecaxKH TH-
caqi. spHiejieii IIOCHOTP'ETB Ha cocxasaHia unQjiecERu^, H nep^KO
MHoroTBicaiHaa TOJina nojiBSOBajracB npncyTCTBieMi, HMnepaxopa B'B

Hacioamia no.iHTHqecKia ^eMOHCTpan,in B'B

HJIH TpeSoBaniH, KOiopna Tyi'B ate H


HMnepaiopy. HanSoJi'fce nonyjrapnBie Kyqepa na KOHCKHX'B
H,npKa HM^JIH CBOHXI. noK.iOHHHKOB'B, pacna^aBinHxca na napiin,
KOTOpna pasjinqajiHCB MejE^y codoro EtB^TaMH onesRRbi CBOHX-B ,iio6HM-
n.eB'B. ^ByMa oaBHBiMH napTiaMH nnno^pOMa cunie H seJienue, GBIJIH

KOiopBie Bpaat,a,OBajiH He TOJBKO ns'B-sa KyqepoB'B, HO H im-sa no-


.mmmecKuxT> eonpocoei. DcTHHiaHT, H oco6enHO Geo^opa noKpOBH-
T6JIBCTBOBa.TH CHHHMI) KOF^a-TO aHBHIC SeJCHBie OTKa3a.IH 6H B'B
31

npocB(5'Eox^aTb M^CTO ea oxija npn innpidj irropOMy Myaiy ea Maiepn,


H c^iuiaBniHCB HMiiepaTpHijeK), ona Mciiuia sa 8io sejeHinra. PasHBia
aojjKHociH KaKi. BBicmia, TaifB H HHsuiia pas^aBajiHCB TOJBKO CHHHMT,;
CHHie BcaqecKH Harpam^ajiHCs; HM-L see CXO^HJIO C*B pyira, ITO 6u OHH
HH CA'LiajiH. OAHaa^Bi nnnoApOM'B KT, IGciH-
3e,ieHBie o(5paTHJiHCB B-L

Hiany C-B oqeni, HaciOHiHBLiMH npe^CTaBJieHmMH, H Kor^a HMnepaiopt


OTKa3ajn>, TO nodunjiu &b wpodrb nacmoHiu^ee eoscmanie, nojyiHBiuee
^HnKa" on. 6oeBoro KpHKa (vtxa, T.-e. nod'BmAaHj, ci
BOscxaBinie npOHSBOiH.iH Hanafleme Ha npHBepateHii,eBx npa-
JEJiaH nojiOBHHa ropo^a crop'B.ia BO Bpeata axoro B03My-
H KI KOTOPBIMI. npnMKHyjia xaKate nacTb cHHHXTb,
BOSCxaBiiiie,
npOBOsoacHJH HOBaro HMnepaTOpa. tOcTHHiani. co6npajiCH cna-
6'fcrcTBOM'L, HO 6mii ocTaHOBJieHt Oeo^opott, npoflBHBineio
66jiLmyio TBep^ociL ^yxa. Ona nocoB'BTOBajia Myaty dopoiBca H

nopyiHTB ycMiipenie BOscTaBiunx-B 'Bejinaapiio. Ci> roiaMH H repy-


naxo^HBiDHMHCfl no^t ero Ha^ajiBCTBOMi., snaMeHHTBift HOJIKO*
nana.!!. na BOSCTaBinHxi,, Kor^a OHH co6pajiHCB BI> HHHO-
H H3py6HJT'B HXTb OKOJIO TpH^I^aTH TBIGflll ieJIOB'EK B. r

3a BTHM-B npaBHT6.IBCTBO VTBep^HJIO CB06 HOJIOateHi


HHMH KaSHflMH, CCBMKaMH H KOH(J)HCKan,iaMH.
(-' or
P us uris
43. BHyxpeHHaro npaB.ieHifl R)cTHHiana 6ujo
-

F.iaBHBiM'B A'B-iOM'B .i

cofipawe eoeduHO eceio PUMCKCMO npa&a, T.-e. BC'BX'B saKOHOBi, npn-


M^HflBmHXCfl CV^BflMH, H BC'BX'B TCOpW, HSJraraBHIHXCa
(juris prudentes) sa BC-B BpeMena PHMCKOH HCTOpiH. BTO
6mro coBepmeHO I^-BJIOH KOMMHCcieK IOPHCTOB-B, BO oaBi KO-
6tui> nocTaB,iem> Tpufiomawb. Yate panBiue ^ijajiHCB no-
DLITKH no^o6Haro po^a, HO TOJIBKO Corpus juris IGcTHHiana, co-
CTaB.iaBiniftca H^CKOJIBKO jiiTi,, aBHJica ,3,'BHCTBHTejiBHHM'B

pUMCwaio npaea, BBipa6aTBiBaBinaroca U.'BJCBIMH noKOJi'BHiaMH


CKaro naposa. Bx Corpus juris BOHMH: 1) CHCTeMaiHSHpOBanHBie
no cojjepjKamK) nod'anoBJieHia npeatHHX^ HMnepaTOpOBi ( n K)cTH-
KOABKCI."), 2) pyKOBo^CTBO B/B Hsyqeniio npasa ( W HHCTH-
H 3) CHcreMaTHiecKH me HSJioateHHBia MH j(mia aBTOpHTCT- r

HBIXl, JOpHCTOB-B, HSBJieqeHHBia H3-B HX% COIKHeHifi ( j^HreCTBl" H.1H


u
n IIaH^;eKTH ). K'B BTHM'B TpeMi qacTaMi. HOTOMI. npH6aBHjca
a
4) c6opHHK &
r
HOBBIXX nocTaHOBJiemH IDcTHHiaHa ( n HoBejiJiBi ), yme
6o.iBnieio qacTBio na rpeqecKOMi. asBiK'B, HO C-B jaTHHCKHM-B nepe-
BOAOMX. 9Ta pa6oTa, KOTOporo saeepwu./ocb erbKoooe paseumie
cmio npaea, HMieT-L ucmopunecKoe sncmeme nepBOCTenenHOH
CTH. Bo-nepEHX-B, IGcTHHiaHOBOnpaso noc.iyjRHJio OCHOBOK),
pasBH.iocL Bee eusanmiucKoe saKOHodameMcmeo, OKasaemee csoe
nie H na npaeo napodoez, Komopue 3auMcmeoea.m urn Bmanmiu na-
32

HCUIO ceoeu ipamdaucmeenHocmu. Casio PHMCKOG npaso cxajio H3Mi>-


HHXBCa BT> BnsaHxin HO^T, BJiianieMX HOBHXI> ycJOBin JKHSHH,
061. 9XOM1, CBHfl'Bxe.iiBCXByex'B 6o.iLHioe KOJHqecxBO HOBHXI>
caMHMi, IGcTHHianoM-L H H3,a,aBaBniHxcfl ero npeeMHH-
OB jjpyroH ciopOHii, 9x0 HSMinenHoe PHMCKOB npaso naqajo
CJiaBfliiaMH, Koxoptie npHHHMajiH oxi, rpeKOBi, xpn-
cxiancxBO. Bo-BxopHxx, BpeMeimoe o6jia^aHie Hxajiiea HOOTE na-
BX H6H OCXFOXCKarO BJiaAHHeCXBa ^aJO BOSMOatHOCTt K)CXH-
yxBep,a;HTb H B^-BCL CBoe saKOHOAaxejiLCXBO. OHO X^MX jrerqe
3,a,'BCB npHBHx&cfl, HXO ^LiJio, xaK^ CKaaaxb, XOJILKO nepene-
ceno na po^eyio noisy, na Koxopoii caMo nepBOHaiajiBHO BOSHHK.IO.
ua 3anadn> puMCKoe upaBO B'L XOMI> BH^'B, KaKoft OHO
npn fOcxHHian'B, cmcuio usynambCH ez eucwuocz
u npoeodum'bCH e* MUSH?), HXO H S^CL noBJieKJio a co6oio
pa3H006pa3HHXl, CJlt^CXBiH.
44*. H)cxHHiaHi>
npH^ajT, cBoeny n;apcxBOBaHiH) 6o.ii.nioH
H0 n P HnpeeMHHKaxi> CHOBa naqajHCB enympeHHiH
ero
pacnpu (oco6eHHO n;epKOBHBie pas^opn) H BH'EiHHia HamecxBm. B-B
YII B. ocoOoro atecxoKocxB^) npoaiaBHjrca HMnepaxopi.
npecxo^ri, nocpe^cxBOMi, Maxeaia H HaqaBmi
csoero npeflinecxBeHHHKa (MaBpHKia) H Bcero ero
ceMencxBa. HocJi'B KpaxKOBpeMGHHaro npaBJieHia OHI caarB
a&e yqacxn, Kor^a npoxHBi> nero npOHsonuro Boscxanie

HpaKJiia, Koxoparo npOBOsrjracHJiH HMnepaxopoii'B BOS-


MyxHBHiieca coj^aiH. 9xo GBMO epeMeueMt ynadna u npaeumeM-
cmeeuuou drbtmiejiwocmu B-B BHsanxin. TOJIBKO (liecxflme o^apeH-
HHH H 9HeprHqHHH HpaKjifi (610 641) H-BKOTOPHMH peJ)OpMaMH BI,
ynpaBjemn H BOHCK'B na spewa H-BCKOJBKO y.iyqniHj'B BHyxpeHnee no-
jroateme rocy^apcxBa, xoxa H ne BC^ ero npeAnpiaxia OKasBiBa-
JIHCB y^a^HLiMH (nanp., ero nonBixKa HOMHPHXB npaBOCJiaBHHX'B H
MOHO^HSHXOBI, Ha MOHoeejiHxcxB'B). HoB&iH nepio^TB BI Hcxopm BH-
sanxin Haiajica JTHHIB C'B BcxymiemeMi, na npecxo.i-B
VIII B. MCMoasiamCKOii UAU ucaepiucKOil dunacmiu.
33

TJIABA II.

BuCTynjieHie apaoos-b H oopasosame MycyjiLMancKaro Mi pa.

I. Apatfu H MaroMeTi. ( 4554).


II. MeawyHapoAHHa oTHomeaifl ( 55 59).
III. CocroflHie Bce-ieHCKOH n,epKBH ( 6065).
IT. BesaHTia npH HKOHoSop^ecKHxt HMnepaiopaxi> ( 66).

I.

45*. Co BpeMeH-L ycHJiema rpeiecKoii miOHHsanJH na cieTt


(j^HHHKiHCKOH, oftpasoBama Bfc Asifc nepCH^CKOH MOHapxiH (BI V B.
B0fi HCT P 1H -

#o P. X.) H noC'BAH Paiia Ha,p> AO P. X.)


KapearenoMi (WL III B.

npeo6jia^aioin,afl pojit BO BceMipHofi HCTOpin nepewjia omz ceMU-


pacu KZ apiucKou, H B'L KOHU.'B ^peBHefi Hciopin MHoria
cipaHu Haxo^HJiHct BI cocTaB'fc PHMCKOH HMnepin.
HHXt, Iy,a,ea, c^-BJiajiacb ttojtvfatw xpucmiancmea, HO
Hace.iflBfflie ee eepeu BI Macci ociaJiHCL B-BPHHMH Bipi CBOHXI,
npeji.KOB'B, 6^aro^apa ^eny, ^aate pasc'EHBrnncb no pasHUM-L o6jia-
CTHMI> PHMCKOH HMnepin, He CM-BrnHBajHCt ci. xyseamaMH H coxpa-
HIMU C6ow HautioHdMHyw uudueudyaMHOcmi). BTB cpe^nie B^Ka
na cn,6Hy Hciopm BHCTynHjn) Apyrofi ceMHTHqecmft Hapoflt, POA-
CTBeHHHH espeaMi, apafiu, KOiopBie xoate dcuiu dpyium napo-
daws Hoeyw pejimiw UCMIMV. KaifB xpnciiaHCTBO, TaKi> H Hc.iaMi>,
B03HHKIHH Cpe,HH .HByXI. CeMHTH^ieCKHX'L HapO^OBl, paCHpOCXpaHH-
JIHCB ,n,aJieKO sa npe^jraMH ceMHTHiecKoft pacti. XpacxiaHCTBO cjcb-
no npenjaymecxBy pejiHrieii eBponeftcKHxi. apifii;eBi), ncjaM-L
napoAOB'b asiaxcKHx-L H a$pHKaHCKHx B.
r

46*. PO^HHOH HCJiana Ctura Apasia. 3xy cxpany Hs^aBHa nace- paB1

ceMBXH^ecKia njieMena, Be^mia noneeyw oicusm, H jHmB r.iaB-


oopasoMi B-B leMenrb dujH ocnd.iue apa6u, saHHMaBuiieca seaue-
HMiBmie ropo^a H Berime mopioejiw cz cocmduuMU cmpa-
HCIMU. HH o^HOMy
saBoesaxejibHOMy i^apcxsy apeBHOCXH ne y^asajiocb
yxsepAHXb CBoro BJiacxb Ha^i* apaCaMH, xoxa nonuxKH BI> axoMi. Ha-
npaBJieHiH A'fe^ajrHCb HMH nocxoanno. AjreKcaH^p^ MaKe^OHCKin nepe^i*
CiiepxbK) Ay^ajii. o noxo^t BI> ApaBiro, a pHMCKiii HMnepaxopi, Tpaan-L
AajeKO H no^qHHH.n HMnepm
F

npOHHKi. B L cxpany ^OBo.ibHO


Ha c^BepHOH ea OKpaHHi. OXT, HHoaeMHaro
KHasefi

ApaBiio cnaca.m en nycmuuu, HO ont aie MJbwa.iu u


MCTOPIh. 3
34

ex ofioeduHemw. TijMx He Menije Kyjibxypnoe B-iianie, me^inee co


CXOpOHbl HCXOpHieCKHXX HapOflOBX, CTRJIO CKaSblBaXbCB BX ApaiUH
oqem> paao, BX ocodeHHOCxn BX o6.iacxH pejmriH. CaMH apa6bi
(5bIJIH rpyf)bIMH udOJlOnOKJlOHHUmMU, HO Kb HHMX npOHHKaJH H
60JI'Ee paSBHXbia B-BpOBaHifl flpyFHXX BOCXOHHblXX HapOAOBX. XOTfl HaCC-

jrenie ApasiH H 6mio pas^jreno BX nojrHTHiecKOM-L OTHomeniH na


Me.iKia njieMena, HO BX pejinriosHOMi, yate od'Be.a.HHflJiHCb BI nonuma-
niu cenw/eHHaio nepnaio KCIMHH, npHHecenflaro, no npe^cxaBJieHiK)
ct He6a. 9TOTi> KaiaeHL BX naqajri xpHcxiaHCKoft apn 6ujn,
BI> CT^Hy CBHTHJinma Kaafiu BT> ropo.n'B MeKK^, Koxopoe

ci. HesanaMHTHHX'L BpeMeHX cji.'BJiajiocB M^CTOM-L 6oroMOJiba AJfl

Bcixi. apa6oBi,. Bi> Kaa6"B noM^majiHCb H^OJIH ox.n'BJibHbix'B njie-


MeH-B, iHCJiOiTb ^o 360, H MeatAy HHMH 6biJiH H3o6paaieHifl Aspaajia
H BoroMaiepn CTB Ha pyKaxx. flfijio BJ, TOMX
MjiaAeHii,eMx IncycOM-b ?

ITO cpejjH apa6oB-b pacnpocmpauHauc'b u iydeucmeo, u xpucmiau


cmeo. EspeeB^ nocejinjiocb BTE> leMeH-B nejiajio HOCJI'B paspyineHia
lepycajiHMa BI I B. no P. X., a nos^H^e ne 663?, ycnixa Be-iacb
BX Apasin H xpHCTiancKaa nponoB-B^b. npecjfBAOBaHifl, KaKHMx
BX HMnepin noABeprajiHCb apiane, Heciopiane H MOHO^HSHTH, aa-
saciaBjiJiJiH nocjirbdo6amejieu dmuxz epeceu ucnamb y&wKwita ev
Apaeiu. HoBbia BlipOBaHifl ocxaBajiHCb ne 6esx BJiiaHia H Ha a3bii-
HHKOBX. CaMH H^ojonoKJiOHHHKH iipHSHasajiH cymecTBOBame H w Bce-
BLimHaro Bora" (AAMXK Tea.iH), HO 910 pejiHriosnoe noHaiie OTJH-
qajiocb y HHXX 6ojibnioio HeonpeflXMeHHOCTbio. Majio xoro: cpe^H
6ojilieodpasoBaHHbixx apa6oBx noaBHJiocb .name ocofoe pejimiosnoe
ynenie xaKX nasbiBaeMbixx xauucfioez, Koxopue B-spOBajiH BX e^Hnaro
Bora H BX sarpoSnoe Bos^aanie sa pfejia,, coBepnienHna qejioB-BKOMx H
epynenie cefin Eoiy, qxo no-apa6cKH
H oxjinqajiHCb Sojibmoio peJiariosHOCXbio,
HOK> CX HaKJIOHHOCXbK) KX MHCXHUHSMy H np036JIHXH3My (x.-6.
pacnpocxpanaxb CBOH Hjen). IIoBH^HMOMy, 9x0 y^enie H
OCHOBOK), HSX Koxopoft pasBHJiocb Bee MaroMexancxBO.
47. OcHOBaxejib HOBOH pejinrin MaiOMemz (npaBBJibH-se Mo-
OKOJio 570 r. BX ropoflx Memn>. OHX npOHC-
1

HSX H-ieMeHH KOpeuwumo8Z, Komopoe oxpautMO Eaa^y H


iLiioiaMH axoro CBaxHJiHiii.a, HO pOA'b, KX noxopOMy OHX
He 6buix 6oraxx. Maronexx ocxajica KpyrjiHMx CH-
POXOK) BX paHHCMX A'^TCXB'B H BOCnHXblBaJICa y CBOHXX pOACXBCH-
HHKOBX, obiBuiHxx xoate 6^RUMi. MajibiHKx pane Bbiny^ji.eHx
(5biJix caMx 3apa6axbiBaxb xji'B6x BX KaiecxB-B nacxyxa OBCI;X H
K03X, npHHa^JieataBniHxx ataxejiflMX MCKKH. JIlixx 23 24 OHX
nocxynnjix na c.iya:6y KX 6oraxoii B^OBii Xadudotcn, Koxopaa
35

TOproBJiio, H Haqaji. ct KapaBanaMH XO.HHTB BI. Cnpiro, cnaqajra

fipocxBiMi. noroHm,HEOMi,, HOxoMi. npHKas'lHKOM'B. MaroMexi.


noHpaBHJica Xa^H^ffi'B, H ona BBiimia sa Hero saMyati.,
qero OHI, cxa.ii. doraiHMt qejiOB-BKOMi,. Bi axo Bpena OH?. 06-

Haxypoft Manton H flajKe H^JKHOH, oxjmqajica


H noaxHqecKHMi, HacxpoenieM'B. Bi
FOHOCTH OHX npOBo^HJii. i^'BJitie flHH, He BH,u,fl ieJiOB^qecKaro
BCJii^CTBie ^ero Bi) neMi. pasBHJiHCL saflyMiHBOCTB,
HOCTB, naKJOHHOCTB K% rpycTH. Ero o^eHB saunmepecoeajiu pe-
'

eonpocu, H OH-B OXOTHO pa3roBapHBa.ii. o HHX'B KaK'B

espeaMH H xpnciiaHaMH, TaKi. H


xann^aMH. IIo BpeMe-
ci.

OHT> nem,epy ne^ajieKO OTI MCKKH H


y^ajifljca BI ropnyro
xaMi. MOJIHTB'B H nocxy. Ci> HHATB Hept^KO cjyqajiHCB

uepenue npunadnu, KOiopBie OHI. c^Hiajii. o^ep^aHieM'B 6'BcaMH, H


3TO ero CHJIBHO TpesoatHJio H Myqnjio, HO nnor^a y Hero GBIJIH dojiie
CB-BTJiBia BH^-BHia (ra-MtonHHauiii), H Tor^a OHI. cnpamHBaJi'B ce6a, He

npopOKi. JIH OHI. BceMorym,aro Axiaxa. MaroMexy HSI ero o'ec-E.n'B


c^ CBpeaMH H xpnciiaHaMH ^BMH HSB^CTHH eBpencKie npopoKH,
K'B KOTOpBiMi, OHI. npnqHCJiflJii. H Ipicyca Xpncia. BjiH3Kie
KOTOpHXI. OBL3H H XaHH(|)BI, yCHOKaHBaJIH CFO, H
y H OHH, H OHI, caM?> yenbpoeaau &z eio 6oyicecmeeHHoe no-
CMHHUuecmeo. OAHHI pasi. eMy HBHJICH CB-BTJIBIH roHOHia, KOTO-
PHH npHKasa^i. eMy H.HTH nponoB-EflOBaTB apa6aMi. Bipy BI, Bora
(610). Cflaqajia yB^poBajiH BI MaroMeia Xa^H,a;aia H ea .noqepn
OTB 6paKa C-B MaroMCTOMi., njieMannHKi, ero A.m, npieMBBiii CBIHI.
H (foraiBie Kynn,Bi Afiy-B&tpi H Ocjuam. (IIocJi^HiH ate-
Ha ero floiepn, a caMi, iipopOKi, nos^nie BCiynHJi'B BI.
c^ .no^epBio A6y-EeKpa). MaroMexi. BBicxynnjii. ci. nponoB-B^BK)
npoTHBT. H,nojronoKJiOHCXBa, qxo oieHB HC noHpaBHJOCB xpaHHxe-
jiaMi, Kaa6fir, H OHI. Cflijjiajica MHmeHBio ^Jia HXI,
Canoro ero HC xporajrn, noxoMy qxo y nero 6mia 6o.iBniaa
Koxopaa Mor.ia sa Hero sacxynnxBca, KaKi. sa csoero qejOB-BKa, HO
Maronexa HSI, 6'B^HaKOBi. H pa6oBi, no,a;BeprajiHCB
npec.TEAOBaHiaMT,, oxi, Koxoptixi., no ero coBiixy, cna-
61jrcxBOMi. B-B ASnccHHiio.
CKOpo, o^HaKo, npio^p-BJii, OHI.
OICHB BH^naro noc.i'B.a.oBaxejia BI. jmufa OMapa, neJOB-BKa B-B BBIC-
mefi cxenenn npeji,npiHMqHBaro H ji.'BaxejiBHaro, Koxoptift BHBe.ii.

sapOiK^aBmyioca pe.iHriio na nyxB SHeprnqnoH nponaraH^u. CaMi.


MaroMexi. 6tLTB qejiOBiiKi. CJIHHIKOMI, cosepqaxejiBBBift, CJTHHIKOMI,
MO.TO o^m.Hxe.'iBHBiH, xaKi. qxo H roBOpnjii,, BM^CXO nero,
qacxo A6y-BeKpi,; Onapi. ate c^jra-ica CKOpo ero npaBOto
3*
36

48. Ho-ioateme MaroMexa BI MeKK-fc CTRHOBHJIOCL BCG 6ojrfee H


H31>
6ojrEe HeBBiHOCHMBiM-B, HO sa TO OBI. npiotfp'BJi'B nonyjapnocxB Bt

Meduntb, aiHxe,iH KOTOpofi npHXOflHjH Ha eaicroflHoe noooHeme


KaaSi. Meatfly MeKKoft H MCAHHOH 6Hja cxapHHHaa Bpaat^a; npHxoMi>
BTOpOH H31> ^THXl) rOpOflOB'B 6BLI1> XOpOIHO HOflrOXOBJieH'B Kl
HflXilO HOBOH B^plI T^Ml, ^TO BI> HCMT> 6HJIO MHOFO
iy^efiCTBa H xaHmjwBTb. Majio-no-Majiy MeAHHa c^ BJia,iaci>
i

.iett

nocjii^OBaTejieH MaroMexa, Kor^a aie H caMOMy eaiy ciajia


r

atHm;eM &
Ha pOAHHt rpOSHTL OnaCHOCTb 6HTL y6HTHMl>, OHl 6n>9fCdM U3V MeKKU
ev Meduny, nropo^i. npopOKa". 3io co6HTie, HSB-Bcinoe no^ Ha-
ledwcpw OTHOCHTCH KI. 622 r., H OHO c,a,4jiajiocB Maro-
HCXO^HHM'B nyHKTOMi> HX'B JiiiocHHCJieHifl.
9poio, T.-e.

Me,a,HHn,Li npHSHajH MaroMeia npopOKOMi H npaBHT6JieM &. Bi>


r

ropOAi HanaJOCL H ycmpoucmeo noeou pe^imiosnou o6iyunu, a


6iiJianocxpoeHa MeieiB, yciaHOBJieHi, nopa^oK-L 6orocjryatemfl,
^ena ,u,ecflTHHHafl no,a,aTB Ha nyat^H pejiHriosearo o6nxo^a,
6mie npasAHOBanie naTHHn;H, y^peat^eHt 6nurs M-tcfl^HUH nocit
H T. n. Me^HHD;H cxa-iH oSpamaiLca KL MaroMeiy, KaKi. m> cy^B-B^
H ero piuiemfl, ocHOBaHHBia Ha Hapo^HLixi, o^HHaaxi) apa6oBt H
H^KOTOpLixi) BexxosaB'BTHBix^ nociaHOBJieHiax'B, nocjiyatHjiH ocuoeoio
dan eceio paseumin MaiOMemancmio npaea.
49. BcKop"B Meai^y MCKKOH H Me^HHOH BcniiXHyja BOHHa.
iiepBLie ateycnixa noc.Tfc^OBaTejreH BOHH^ ci MGKKOH
MaroMeia BI>

nO^HSJIH HX'B ^yXl> H SaCiaBHJH npHCOeAHHHTBCfl KX HOBOH CHJTE


xixx MeAHHnjeBt, KOTOpue He B^PHJIH ET> nocJiaHHHHeciBO Maro-
Mexa. Ho nofi'E.na oKasajia ne^JiaronpiflTHoe BJiiaHie Ha JIHHHHH
xapaKxepi> MaroMexa, BT> Koxopont cxa-iH npOflBjrax&Cfl BJiacxojK)6ie
H MCXHXCJIBHOCXL. OBI. %&3&e eouuy cz ne-
na^ajii. nponoB'fe.ziiOBaxB

etbpmiMU H npeAnpHHfljix saBoeBaxejfBHHe HOXOAH cpe^n OKpecx-


HLIXI, njieMeHi,. (Bi 8xo ate speMH MaroMexi) saBejii) rapeMx).
IIOA^HHHB'B CBoen BJiacxH 6jiHataHfflHx B cociAefi MeAHHu, Maro-
r

MCXI. pasocjiajii) doji^e ox^ajieHHLiMi KHasBflM^ nHCBMa ci> npHoa-


rneHieMi, HPHHSXB HCJiaMi). Eny y^ajiocB BBIFOBOPHXB y MeKKaHueB-B
npaso HJin ceda H RJIS. CBOHXI> nocjiiAOBaxejieH 6HBaxB na 6oroMOJiBl> B-L

MeKKt, H^MI. OHI> o^naatAH H BOcnoJiBSOBajica. Ho Ha Apyroft


OHi> pmuuMH saeoeeam'b Mewy, r^i OHX npioSp'BJii. H^CKOJIBKO
HBIX-B cxopOHHHKOBi BO BpeMa HyxemecTBifl npeABi^yinaro ro.ua.
OHI. HanaxB na CBflmeHHiiH ropOA^ apados-L coBepineHHO Heoatn-
^anHO H saHflji-L ee HOIXH 6e3i conpoxHEJiema co cxopOHBi ain-
xejrefi. MaiOMemt nocnn>muM ouucmumb Eaa6y omz udo.ioe*, HO
oxnecca ci> Be.3HHaHuiHMi> nogxeflieMi) KI CBameHnouy KaMHio
(630). ^nxejiH ropo^a ^BIJH npom,eHH, HO ^ojatHLi CLIJH npn-
Haxb HCJiaMi,; KasHCHbi 6unn xojibKO nexupe qejiOB-BKa, BI XOMI>
<mc.i1> o^na n'BBHH.a, coiHHaBHiaa nacM'feniJiHBbie CXHXH npoxHBx
npopOKa. Tenepb yate MeKKa cjrE.iajiacb pejiuiiosHUMK K^enmpOMo
H caMH MeKKanabi cxajin cojt'BHCXBOBaxb pacnpocxpanemK)
Haiajmcb saBoeBaxejibHbie noxo^bi BX 6o.i Ee i

st. Ct copOKaxbicaqnbiM'b BOHCKOM'b MaroMexx


HO Bepnyjica nasa^i H yMepx BI> Me-
noxoflx Ha Cnpiro,
ET> 632 r. cpe^H npHroxoBJiemH KX
HOBOMy noxo^y. IIocji^
ero CMepxH Haiajiocb-6biJio oxna^eme Apa6in oxx HCJiaMa, HO A6y-
BeKp-b H OMapx CHOBa yxsep^HJiH rocnoACXBo BI> neH HOBOH B^pbi.
50. Pejinria MaroMexa nojiyrajia nasBanie UCMMO,, qxo, KaKx
CKasano, SHainxx n nopyqeme" HJIH npe^ame ce6a*
Bory, a nocjii^OBaxejiH BXOH pejinrin cxajin Hasbisaxbca
uaMU (MOCJIUM*). n H-Bx b Bora, KpOM'B Bora, H
r
MaroMexx ero npo-
POKT,", xaKOBi, OCHOBHOH ^orMaxi, HCJiaMa. Bca
cxopona MaroMexancxsa oienb npocxa: 9x0 sipa B-b cxporoe
CXBO Boatie ex sanpem.eHieM'b Bcaitaro noKjioHenia KaKHM-b 6bi xo
HH 6biJio H3o6paa:eHiaMi>, B^pa Bt HCHSM'BHHoe 6oa:ecKoe npeAonpe-
KaKi> caMOH cy^,b6bi, xaKi, H BC^XI. nocxynKOBx nejiOB'EKa (<fia-

HaKOHen,x, B'fepa BX 3arpo6noe cymecxBOBanie ci BOS-


,

sa ji;o6pHa H sJibia xbji&, wt pan H a^i>, BI> BOCKpecenie


H cxparaHbift CVIT,. Maronexx cxapajica cexsamb ceoe
yneme iydeucmsoMK u xpucmiaHcmeoMt: OHX HastiBajix espeeBt H
cz

xpncxiaHx o6.ia^,axeJiaMH nncaHia" H roBOpHjn>, HXO MOHCCH H


IHCVCX
J
XDHCXOCI,
f 6biJiH ero npe^fflecxBeirnHKaMH, H ixo CBamennbia 9

EHHFH espeeBx H xpHcxiaHx yate npe^penajiH ero noaBJienie, Kanx npo-


pOKa Boatia. Y eBpeest ont saHMCXBOBajix H-BKOxopua nocxaHO-
BJienia BX po^B sanpemenia 'fccxb CBHHOC Maco, KT> newy OHI npn-
eme sanpeu^eme nnxb BHHO. CBOIO pejiHriro MaroMexx XOX^JITB
BceMipnoK) H nponoerbdoeaM coHw^eHHyto eouny npoxHEt
>, Koxoptie ^o.iatHbi
6HJH 6bixb o6pam,aeMbi BI HCJiaMx ^aate
CHJIOK). TojibKO no oxHomemio KX o6jiaAaxejiaMi> nncania" OH-B

^onycKajn> xepnHMOCXb no^x ycjiosieMx ynjiaxu HMH j^aHH. Bet


npaBOB-BpHLie, no ero y^emro, jtojiatHbi 6biJiH nojibsosaxbca
CXBOMI 6e3i pasjinqia npOHCxoat^eHia H o6m,ecxBeHHaro
MaroMexx 6ujn> epaioMz acnemusMa H ji,aaje pancKoe 6jiaateHcxBO
H3o6pa/KajrL BX HyBCXBeHHbix'b HacJiaatAeHitt, Koxopbia OHX o6'B-
BH.a.'B

BC'BM'b, norn6aK)n;HM'b BX BOHH'B ex HeB^pHbiMH HJIH HCHOJI-


sanoB^H npopOKa. EnponeMx, see ocxajibHoe csoe HpaB-
cxBCHHoe yqeflie OHX sanMCXBOBaJi'b HSI iyAencxBa H xpncxiancxBa.
51. Yienie MaroMexa nsjoateno 6biJio BX Kopann>, KOXOPHH K P aH1 -

snaqenie CBamennoH KHHPH, saK.noiaioin.eH BX cedt ox-


38

Boatm npopouy. MaroMex'b He


casn, nanHcaj-L 3xy Kmiry.
"
OxEpOBema KOxopBia OH-B nepe^aeaj'b c.iyuiaxe.iaM'B, JLTH sann-
,

CHBaJTHCB HMH, H.1H TOJIBKO SaHOMHHaJIHCB, H JIHIHB HOCJI'B 6FO CMCpXH


HX-B cxajin co6npaxb Boe,HHHO. ^ojiroe speMa cym,ecxBOBa.io H-E-
CKOJIBKO pas.iH'raBix'B pe.naKn.iH c6opnHKa ero nspeieHin H nponoB-B-

i, HO B-B cepejjHH'E VII B. 6uji& yate yciaHOBjena OKOHqaiejiBHafl


9Tofi KHHFH. Ho BH^mHOCTH KopaHi xaoTiiiecKaa CM-BCS
OTpLIBKOBl) Cl DOCTOflHELIMH HOBTOpeHiaMH H 016Hb
npoiHBOp'BqiaMH. Bi H6M-L 6oji'Be CTa cyp* (rjaBi,),
no^;-
na CTHXH. PanHia cyptr ^Limaxi, cipaciBio H o6.in-
B-B CBoesi-B aBxop'E CHJiBHoe BOo6pa3K6Hie, do.i'Be nos^Hia

MycyjiBMane SBIJIH y6'Ba:^;eHH, ITO KopaHi ne COTBO-


peni> BO BpeMeHH, no cymecTBOBaji-B npeK^e Bcixi B-EKOB'B H
HM6HHO BT> TaKOMI) BHA'fe, Bl> KaKOMT> OHH 6FO HOJiyHHJIH OT^

pOKa. KpOM-B KopaHa, wa. OAHOH qacxn MycyjiBMaH'B 6ojiBHioe


qenie nojiy^Hja cyuua, T.-e. CBam,eHHoe npe^ame, HO Apyraa
ee OTBepoa, 6jiaro^apa qeMy C-B caMaro naqaja BTB Mycy.iBMan-
CTBi npOH3omej[ b pacKOJii cynuumoei H miumoei.
r

52. Maronei-B 6ujn> RJIK o6 Be^HHeHHBix B HMI> apa6oB^ H npo-


f r

poKOMi, H rocy^apeMi., T.-e. BI ero jiHn, B coedunnAUCb u dyxoeuaa,


r

u C6n>mcKa,H ejiacmb. ^pyrHMH cjOBaMH, HCJiaMi) He sHaeiTb Toro

paajraqia, Koxopoe BI, xpHCiiaHCKOM'B Mipi o6pa30Ba.iocb neatly


n;epKOBBK) H rocy^apCTBOM-B, Meat^y ^yxoBHoro H CB^TCKOIO B,ia-
ciaMH: ^yxoBHBiH rjiasa (UMCLMO] y MycyjiBMani CCTB H
rjiasa o6m,HHLi. B^ BTOMI, saKJuoqaexca o^na HSI.

rocy^apcxBeHHaro npasa MycyjiBMaH'B. Ta ate caMaa BjacxB nepe-


HiJia H Ki> xasiucfiaMK, KaKi> cxa-in nasBiBaxBca npeeMHHKH Maro-
!
Mexa ).

53*.B-L MycyjiBMancKOMTb Mipi Ha ocHOBax'B Kopana H CVHHBI


BLipa6oxajiocB
r H oco6oe npaeo. Hc.iaM'B .
CKoe npaso.
HO HM-EXB 001*6 qexBipexi> ateHi, KopaHT aanpemaex-B. (3axBOpnH-
HCCXBO MycyjiBMaHCKHX'b aveHm,HHi CKOpie o6LiqaH, H-BM!) xpeCosa-
nie HXI, pejiHrin). HcAaMv omeepiaemv npaeo coficmeenHOcmu na
seMJiw. Bca seMJia npHHa^eaiHX'B, no yiemro MycyjiBMani), JHHIB
Bory, a pacnopaataxBca ero Moatex'B O^HHI, HMaM-B (xaiH^-B), no-
xoMy ixo OH^ x"BHB Bora na seMJii. ECJIH HMaM*B H nepe.naex-B
qacxHHM-B jran.aM'b, xo jiHmB sa ynjaxy HSB'BCXHBIX'B Ha.io-
i xpncxiaHCKOM'B Mipi BOBHHKJIO pasjinqie Meai,a;y rpaat^an-
H r^epKOBHBiMi, saKOHaMH, HO HCJiaMi H 3xoro pasiHiia co-
ne npHsnaexi, BCJi^ACTBie qero ecanoe usMfbneme 6t> npaerb
39

m,HcemcH MycyMMauaMK usMiwenieMb u &z pe^miu. 3io CHJIBHO


tfUBH'EHineMy pasBjrriio npasa BI MycyjiBMaHCKOMi, Mip'fe.
54*. HcjraM-B nojymji'B BecBMa (JoJiBuioe pacnpocTpanenie cpe
napOflOB'B. Ei Teieme nepsaro B^ita
CBOCH 9pti naroMe-
TancxBO oemdvbJio Cupieu, Ilepcieu, cpedneu Asieu, EiunmoMz u
crbeepnou Affipmou, paBHO KaKTb HcnaHiefi. Ha BOCTOK^ OHO npo-
HHOO &i> Hndm u Kumau, ea wri pacnpocipaHHJiocB Measly ne-
ipummcKUMU nAeMenantu AflpuKu ^a,ieKO sa 9KBaiopOMi,. Hc.uaMi>
npHHflJiH H saBoeBaieJiH BOCTOIHOH EBponn
B-B XIV XV BB., TaKi>
1TO Cl XpHCTiaHCKHM-L MlpOMl BTb VII 6. ()6pa306(lJlCfl 610,6
pflflOM'B
H
Mipt MycyAbMaHCKiii, KOiopLiii, 6jaroAapa CBOBH odmnpnocTH
CTOHKOCTH, saHSJii) oqeHt BaaiHoe M^CTO BO BceMipnoft Hcxopin.

II.

55*. OB BHCiynjieHieM'B apadoB'B na^HHaeTCfl HOBHH nepio^t


HCiopin Bciix'B ipex^ qacTeii Ciaparo CB^Ta. MaroMei"B OCHO-
pejinriio, KOTOpaa c cmpamuow 6bicmpomow cmajia pacnpo-
cpe^n Hapo^OBi Asin H A^PHKH, HPHTOM-B .najieKO aa
rpaHHn,aMH, B'B KOTOPBIXI. HM^JIH cnjiy B^imme rpeiecKofl o6paso-
BanHOCTH, BJiaciB pHMCKaro rocy^apCTBa H B'spOBaHia xpacTiaHCKOH
Od'Be^HHeHHHe MaroM6TOM & apa6Bi BHCTynnjiH, KaK-B .?-
r

ijepKBH.
eoeeamejiu, ocuoeaewie ipOMadnyw depwaey, H ona OTHa.ia y
BceMipnoft Monapxin no^TH BC-B ea asiaTCKia o6jraciH H
BC-B o6jaciH a<|)pHKaHCKia H Aaate nepenecjia CBOH sa-

BoeBania BI> Espony. Ci caMaro ate naiajia aioro HOBaro nepio^a


BOsropijiacB 6opb6a Mewdy xpucmmucmeoM^ u UCMMOMTJ, cocia-
BJiaromaa O^HO HSI caMBixi) BajKHBix'B aBJieniH ncxopiH cpeAHHX'B
B-BKOBl,.
n H*
56. Yaie MaroMex-B, o6xeAHHHB-B no^
CBoeio BjacTBio apa6- / fi?"
CKlJi o

CKia njeMena, ^yMajii npe^npHHaiB noxojt'B Ha CnpiK). BBIHOJIHHTB


9X011 npopOKa ssajica nepBHH ate ero npeeMHHK'B, npn-
sastT-B
HaBniiftTHiyjn ero naM-BCTHHRa (xcuiucpa) A6y-EeKp?>. 06cToaxejiB-
ciBa 6jiaronpiaxcTBOBajiH 9TOMy njiaey. ^aBHHniHaa 6opB6a BH-
aaHTin H Depcin ocjia6Hjra o6a 9TH rocy^apcTBa, H
9ioro 6BiJia xa JierKOCTB, C-B Koiopoio apa6ii,
H o^epHtHMBie pejinriosHBiMi) (|>aHaTH3MOM'B, saBoesajH pasnua
1
CTpanu, npHHa^eajaBuiia nepcaMi> H rpenaMi. ). BT.
KOpoiKoe
Bpe.Ma npn nepBBix-B ^syxi xa.iH(J)axi> (BTOPHM% 6BMi> O.vapz) OHH

') CM. Kapiy XV.


40

CHpieft, MeconoxaMien, Hepciefi H ErnnTOMt, qxo CHJIBHO


coKpaxHJio BHsaHxificKia BJiafl'BHia BHi EBPOHBI. 9xo 6BiJia cenmeH-
Han eoima, nfajibio Koxopon SBIJIO pacnpocxpaHeme ncjiaaia, H SBI-
cxpoxa, C'L KaKoro coBepmeHBi 6ujin saBoeBania, nponsBOfla sne-
qaxji-EHie ^yfla, em,e 6ojrke BocmiaMeHfljia apao'oB'b IT

npeflnpiaxisM'B xaitoro pofla. BnpoqeMTb, B^ H'BKOTOPBIX'B


saBoeBaxejiH ocieperajiHCB CHJOIO HaBfl3HBai& HOByro pejinriio
KAeHHHMX H flOBO.IBCTBOBa.IHCb JIHfflB npOCTOK) HXl HOKOpHOCTBK) .

57. Hst Apasin ci CTpanaMH, saBoeBanHLiMH A6y-BeKpOM'B


06pa30BaHie H
QnapOMi, o6pa30BajiocB MorymedBeHHoe rocy^apCTBO,
mee B-B Hciopin HasBanie xcuiufiama. IIo cnepxH Bioporo
naBmaro OTT. pyKH y6ifin,Bi, Hosoe rocyflapcxBO noxpacjiH
BHSBaHHLia BOnpOCOM-B KXO flOJI^eH^ CA^-iaXBCfl r HaM-BCXHH-
XOMI,,
KOM'B npopOKa". XpaHHxejH H xosaesa MeKKH, KOpeftmnxBi, pa3Ai-
Ha flBi napxin, H Meatfly HX^ KanflHflaxaMH, HS^ Koxopuxt
6BiJii> AAU, njreMaHHHK'B H 33XB Maroaiexa, a flpyrHMi,
Moaeiti, naqajBEHK-B BI Cnpin, nponsonuia 6opB6a, KOH-
BoftcKa

nopameHieMT, AJIH. 3xo Me^floyco6ie nopoflnjio H pejia-


pacKOJ'B BI MycyjiBMaHCKOM'B Mipi na cynHumoffb H utiu-
KOTOpBix'B OflHH, KpOM^ Kopana, cxajra npHSHasaxB eme
cyHHy, KaKi. aBxopnxexHoe xojrKOBame cBain;eHHOH KHHFH, a flpyrie
HMCHHO cxopOHHHKH AjiH
cyHHy, Haodopox-B, oxseprjiH. Moasia
Cfl-Lia-ica poflOHaqajrBHHKOMi, flHHacxin Ojitauadoez
(656 750), nepe-
HecmeH cxojrHniy xajrn^axa HSI. MCKKH BI ffaMM&e^ HSI 6'BflHOH H ne-
B'fcavecxBeHHOH ApaBm B^ 6oraxyro H EyjiBxypHyro CHpito. Sfl-BCB
nofli. BJiianieMi. cxapofi KyjiBxypBi xajH(|)axi npeBpaxnjrca B-B flep-
noMHHaromyK) CGOUMZ u xapaKmepOM7>
ycwpoucmeoMt
eocmoHHUH monapxiu. OMaftaflBi npOflOJnKa.0 H pacmn-
paxB rpaHHn,Bi xajin^axa. Bx Asin OHH BK-ITO^HJIH BT> cocxaB'B CBOGH
Monapxin Apmeniw H TypKecmam, BX, A^PHK^ npoeunt^m Bu-
sanmiu, oxnaxyio ero y BaHflajiOB-L, H Maepumaniw. B-B 711 r. apa6Bi
nepenuiH HS'B A<J>PHKH B-B Rcnaum nepes'B npojiHEi., KOxopBift no
HMCHH HXI, Boatfla TapnKa H cxa^TB nasHBaxBca rn6pajixapOMi)
(nepexoflT) TapnKa). BecxroxcKoe KOpojiescxBO CHJIO HMH saBoeBaHO,
a nepesi, H^CKOJIBKO Jiix^ apa^Bi BxoprjiHCB flaase BX Fajuiiro, rfli,
OflHaKO, noxepn^JiH CHJIBHOG nopaaieHie npn Ilyamw oxi. <J>paHK-
CKaro nojiKOBOflii,a Kapjia Mapmejia (732). BcKOpi DOCJI-B axoro
H pacnaflenie xajrn^axa. B-B 750 r. npoxHBi, OMafiaflOB-B
npaBHxe.iB oflnofl HST. npoBHHuiii IlepciH, A6yM-A66ac~ .

OHI> oBJiafl'B.ii MeKKoft H MeflHHOH H cfl^jrajica poflOHaHajrbHHKOMi,


HOBOH flHHacxin A66acudoet, cxojiHn,a Koxopoii 6njia nepeHecena BI
na Tnrp'E. B-B McnaniH ne npHSHa.iH axoro nepesopoxa, H
41

o6pasoBa.iH s.n'BCb oco6bifi xajmtyarb, r.iaBH&ixrb

KOioparo t>HJia Kopdoea.


H BH-
58*. Apaf)bi yKasaHHMMH saBoeBaniaMH ')Apa6n
He orpanHmiHCb
BHsaHTincKHX'b npOBHHnJH B'b Asia, HO npOAOJi/KaviH Hana^aTb H iia
Apyria qaciH HMnepin. HMT> y^ajiocb OBJiaA'BTb na speMa H'EKOTO-
PHMH ropo^aMH B-B MajiOH Asin H ocxpOBaMH ApxHnejara, H OHH
dame nodcmynamb KI camomy KoncmanmuHonoAK). B'b na-
VIII B. CTOJumij HMnepin npaMO yate rposn.ia onacHOdb
saxBaqeHHOH apadaMH, KOiopue OKpyatnjiH ee H c-b nopa, H
CT> cyrnn H flOJro HC XOT-BJIH yniH. Bi 910 BPCMB HMnepaxopOM-b
Jleffb III Hcaept (717 741), wcKycHHH H xpadpbift
saciaBHEffliH apaSos'b CHflTb ocajty. Meai^y npoiHMi

npoTHB-b HXI Kopaojieti C'b ycn-ExoMi. dbuii) npHM-BHeHi. Taicx Hasbi-


BaeMHH n rpeiecKiH oroHb", H^TTO BX pOA"B nopoxa, nocpeACTBOM'b
KOioparo BH3aHTiH^bI yM-BJin aa^Hraib HenpiaiejibCKia cy^a. He-
apa6oBi> noA'b KonciaHTHHonoJieMi ne npenpaTHJia, o^HaKO,
ci HHMH. Becb VIII Bijirb npomejii BI 6op^6n Busanmiu
u xajiufiama sa ofijiadanie Majiou Asieu u ApxunejiaiOMb, H
B'b KOHirfj KOH^BTB rpeKH y^epatajiH HXI sa coSoio.
59*. IIpeA^bi BnsaHTiHCKOH HMnepiw coKpainjiHCb HC mibKO npeit:m BH-
K
B-b Asin, HO H B^ EBpon'B. B-L VII B. cjraBHHe HaqajiH nocxe- H inepiH ^
HCHHO yTBepaiAaibca na c'BBep'B BajricaHCKaro nojryocipOBa. H.iJiupiH vni B.
6buia saxBaqena cepfiaMU, a Ha HHameBTL leqeHin ^ynaa CMimaB-

pyatHBinee CTpeMJienie KI AaJTbHinmeMy pacmnpemK); ci. VIII B.


meppumopifi BmanmiucKou ujwnepiu oipauuuueaemcH TOJbKO cpe,n-
HHMH H IOJKHBIMH qaciHMH BajKaHCKaro no-iyocipOBa, ocTposaMH
Apxniie.iara H Majioft Asieft C'b qncio rpe^ecKHMT, HJIH cnjbHO
.
v I

9JijiHHH3JipoBaHHLiM'b HacejieHieMi). B'b ginxi) npe^'BJax'b BHsan-


6buio yjKe HC xaK'b ipy^HO OTCiaHBaib cymecTBOBame
B'b BOHH'B na Asa $pOHTa C'b cjiaBanaMH H ci apa-

III.

60*. Apataia saBoeBania VII B. HanecJiH qyBCTBHxejibHbiH


ydapi> xpucmiaucmey ft* Asiu u Affipunrb. naxpiapxaibi iepyca-
aHTioxiHCKift H ajieKcaHApiftcKift noflBepr.iHCb HHOB BPHOMV^II
I
xui BB.

o6jacTH nx'b coKpaiHjHCb, naciBa yMenbrnnjacb.

x
) Cp. Kapiy III.
2
) Hapo^T> xropKCKaro npOHCxoHc.ieHia, KOTOPHH CKOpo Birojrat
42

eeponeHCKHXi naxpiapxaxoEfc OAHH-B, HMCHHO BOCXOHHBIH,


MHoro cmpadaM omi pasnwxz pejimiosmixt CMymz, HO saxo ApyroH,
sana^HHH, p$jiajn> HOBHH H HOBLIH npio6p fcxeHia H B'B cMLic.rh
r

pacwupenifi meppumopiu, H BT> CMBicji-B yeejiuuenifi uesaeucuMOcmu.


1

HO 6.HHHCXBO IjepKBH BC6 6111,6 nOflflCpatHBaJIOCB, H B'B KOHnll


VIII B. enje o.a.HH'B pa3i> 6HJi> co3BaHi BcejrencKiH cooopi.
61. rJiaBHtlM'B CO^HTieMt B'B HCTOpm U,6pKBH B"L BHSaHTiftCKOH
HKOHo6op- HMne piH B'B VIII B. 6LMO HKOHo6opCTBO. HMnepaxopi. Jle&b Hcaepv,
OTpasHBmift apadoB-B o-n EoHCTanTHHOnojfl, 6ux.i> po^osi^ HS-B Ma.ioii
Asin H flOJiro BI nen cnaqajia atHJi. SA^CB OH'L no,a;Beprcff H^JKO-
Topony BJiiamio epeca nae.tuKiam, OTBepraBmnxi,, Meat^y npoiHM^,
H noiHiaHie CBflTtixt HKOHI>. OEJ> caMi>
ITO nogHianie HKOHI> Haia.io npeBpamaitca B'B

HM-B, HanoMnnaromee co6oio H^oJonoKJiOHCTBO, H c^ejrs

HyatHLIM-B npHHSTB npOTHBl) 9TOFO M'fepBI. KpOM^ TOFO, y HerO 6BMO


o6paTHT& B'B xpHCTianciBO MaroMeiaH-B, a KaR'B-pas'B BI
HKOH'B MycyjiBMane ycMaxpHBajrH H^OJIOHOKJIOHCTBO, cxporo
3anpem,eHHoe sanoB'SAflMH npopOKa. B-B 726 r. JEeB-B HcaBpi> eu-
cmynuM npomm% nonumauia UKOHZ, npHKasaji'B HX^ CHHMaxB, BH-
H saKpainHBaxB BO BC^X-B n.epKBax'B HMnepin. 9xa M-fepa
6oJiBmoe pasApaateHie cpe^H pasHBix^ qacTefi o6m,ecxBa,
Koxopoe CKOpo pasA'BJiHJiocB no axony Bonpocy na UKonodywe^ H
UKOHOKMCmO&S, X.-6. HO^HXaxeJieH HKOH'B H HKOH06opn,eB'B. Ha CXO-
pony HKOHo6opcxBa cxajio BHcmee o6nj,ecxBo; ^aate cpe^n
iepapxin 6HJia CKJIOHHOCXB KI. 9xoMy HanpaBJiemio, H npn
HS'B npeeMHHKOBT) JlBBa Hcaspa, B0o6m;e AepsKaBmnxca HKOHo6op-

cxsa, (npn KoHcxaHXHHi IV) noKJiOHeme HKOHaMx 6Hvio ^aace (|>op-


ocyat^eno co6opOM'B, B'B KOxopon'B yiacxBOBajro O^GHB MHOFO
JIHH.'B. HaO^OpOXI,, B'B npOCXOM'B HapO^i H B'B HHSHieM'B
rocno^cxBOBajia npe^aHHOCXB cBflmeHHUMi nsodpaate-
XpHcxa, BoroMaxepn H CBflXBixT); ocodeHHBiMH ate samnx-
HKOHonogHxania SBIJIH ateHm,HHH BC^X-B KJiaccoBB o6mie-
cxsa H MOHaxH. Kor^a HMnepaxopCKoe pacnopaaveme cxajo npn-
BO^HXBca B'B HcnoJiHeHie, HaqaiHCB cxsaxKH H no6oHm,a. JeB-B Hcasp-B
H ero HKOHo6op^ecKie npeeMHHKH, Haxo.ua, TTO MOHaxn saSpajrn
CJIMfflKOMTb 6oJBfflyK) CH.iy B'B oSmeCXB-B KaK-B B'B HpaBCXB6HHOM'B,
xaK-B H MaxepiajiBHOM-B oxHOinemH H ^xo npHEHjerin MonacxLi-
B'B

peii Bpe^HBi ^Jia rocy^apcxBa, ecmynujtu ez omnpumyw f)opi>6y u


cv MOuawecmeoMv, a 3x0 XOJIBKO o6ocxpnjio CMyxtr. HKOHo6opqe-
CKoe npaBHxejiBcxBO Majro-no-Muiy nepeni.no Kt HacxoamHM-B rone-
niaMi) na HKOHonoiHxaxejefi H MonaxoB-B, H Mnorie HSTB nnx^, ne
aie.iaa no^iHHHXBCa HOBOH epecu, 6i/KajH na OKpanHBi rocy^ap-
43

(aiex^y npoiHMi Bt roJEHyio Hxajiio). TaKi> npo,a,o.iaxa.iocb


AO KOHija B-EKa, Kor,a,a HMnepaxpmja Hpuna, ynpasjaBmafl HMnepiefi
sa Majio.i'fcxcxBOM'b CBoero CHHa (KoHcxanxHua VI) H oxjumaBmaflca

HKOHonoqHxaHiio, cosBajia BI> Hunetb cedbMoii ece-


co6opi> (787), Koxopbift BOsciaHOBHJii. HKOHonoqHxame. Ho
HKOHo6opciBO He npeKpaiHJiocb, xoifl noc.i'B 9ioro xenepb yase
BparoBi HKOHonoiHTama ciajiH no^BepraiB npeai-BAOBaHiaM^. Bpe-
M6HHO BI> naqajit VIII B. (npn .JlbB-B APMHHHH'B) HKOHo6opciBO
oiiflib B3a.no Bepxi>; 6mia R&sie CAiJiana nontiTKa OTM'l>HHTb HO-
BbiMii cooopHLiM'b nocTaHOB.ieHieM'b noiHiaHie HKOH'b, HO npa-
BHBinaa rocyAapciBOM-b sa Majioji'BTCTBOM'b CBoero cbraa (Mn-
III) HMnepaxpHi^a Oeodopa co^pajia BI 842 r. cofiop'b,
pasi. ocy^HBuiiH HKOHo6opciBO, KaKi> epecb, H docmaeue-
miu OKonuameMuoe mopoicecmeo npaeocjiaem. JBi> o6in,efi CJO/K-
HOCTH HKOH06opCTBO npO^OJIffiajIOCb' SOJlie CTOJTETifl. Hsi 3aiU,HT-
npaBOCJiaBia BT> 3iy anoxy ocodenno HSB'BCTeH'b ce. loanm
OHTB 6H.ix noAAanHbiM'b 6arAa^CKaro xajH^a H
saHHM&ii BaaiHyro rocy^apCTBeHHyK) AO-iatHOCTb Ha ero
HO KOHIHJI'b JKHSHb Bi MOHaHieCTB-fe. Bl CBOHXT, COIHHemflX'b
HKOHonoquTaHie H, KPOM-B TOFO, jna,jn> nepeoe cucmeMa-
usjiowceuie xpucmiaucKaio 6oiocjiooin^ OHI npoc.iaBH.ica

odpasoMi,, KaK'b cocxaBHTejb npas.a.HHiHHX'b n-BCHon-BHiil

62*. Bo speMH roHemfi Ha HKOHH H Ha HXI, no<raxaxejeH KOH- OxHomeme


. - HKO-
IlUIlt Kl>

nampwpxaMU orbjiaAUCb cmopounuKU dmou no- H o6opcTBy.


Ha Sanaa's n,epKOBHHH cnopi., BbisBanHbifi noaBJiemeM-b
HKOHo6opcxBa, ne HM'ki'b B0o6me 6ojibnioro 3HaqeHia, nanu otce
eucmynujiu peeHOcmuuMU saut/umnuKaMU npaeoc^aein npomuez uno-
nopoffb, 3xo ein,e 60.1^6 no^Hfljio HXI>
BI oasax-b B'Bpyroui.HX'b H RSMO HMX BOSMoatnocxb
CBoro nesaBHCHMOCXb oxi. epexnqecKHxi. rocy^apett. Co-

HcaBpa Ha nancKOMi, npecxo.TB 6uju> Fpu-


lopiu 7J(715 731), Koxopbift oxKasajica noBMHOBaibca HMnepa-
xopCKOMy pacnopfl^eniio o6i> HKonax-b, npH3Ha.Tb
CB-BXCKOH BJaCXH B^ ^epKOBHbIa fl-fiJia HesaKOHHblMl. H
HKOHo6opcxBO epecbio, ox.iyqHBi> OXT> i^epKBH HKOHO^opqecKaro na-
xpiapxa. Hacejieme BHsaHxincKOH Hxa.iiH cMOxp-fejo Ha Hero, KaK'b
na CBoero samHTHHKa npoxHBx epexHqecKaro HMtiepaxopa, H sna-
qacxb BH3aHxiHCKHxi> BJiaAiHiH Ha no.ayocxpoB'B ct ro-
u
raBCHHOH npe^noijia ^aase ox^axbca noA'b B.iacxb jaHro-
.
IIpeeMHHKH FpHropia II ^epatajHCb xoro a:e HanpaB.ie-
44

His,H TOpasecTBO npaBOCJiaBifl BX BnsaHTiH 6turo H mopwecmeoMt


nancmea, ociaBiuaroca B'fcpHbiM'b npaBocjafiiio.
63. UpH nan's FpnropiH II Boo<5me sHaienie pnncKaro enncKona
em;e Sojrfce, ^MI npeat^e. Esiy npnxoAHJiocb
ii. Me/KAy BHsaHTifiijaMH H jraHrodapAaMH,ocnapHBaBiHHMH MeatAy co-
6ofo rocnoACTBO HTajien, HO ont ne ciaHOBHJca
najt'L
HH Ha iy, HH Ha ^pyryro CTOpony, T-BM-B He Men-fee saciaBjaa
ro6apAOB-B ^HCTBOBaTL BI CBOK) HOJibsy. Kopojb jraHro6ap^CKiH
nocj'B saBoeBania PaBCHHH jjaace noAapHj-B eMy
ropOATE. (Cyxpn), q^M-b H UOJOXHJ'B nepeoe uawjio cenmcKou
8Aacmu nam. KpOMi -roro, npn FpHropin II Haqa.iocb o6pau^euie
el xpucmiancmeo nsunecKOu
FepManiu, npH ^eni. npocB-BTHiejib
nepe^i oTHpaBjremeM'b na CBOFO npono-
CB. BonH<|)an,iH,
nani nncbMeHHyio luaiBy nodnuuumb lepManCKyw
K06b PliMy.
64. IlepBbiMH pacnpocipaiiHTejiflMH xpnciiaHCTBa cpejjH
TepMaHin CHJH upjiandcnie Monaxu (CB. KoJiyM6aHx), HO
Hxi> nponoB-B^b He ^asajia npOHHtix'b pesyjrbiaTOB'b, xan-b KaK-b OHH
^MCTBOBaJIH Bl O^HHO^Ky H HC HM-BJIH HOAAGP^KH HSBH^. IIpH
FpHropin II sa A^O o6pani,eHia FepManin npHHSJica anuo-cancon-
cmu Mouaxz JSoHucfiaitiu, aepKBH, Koiopaa ysse
npHHaA-iea:aBniiH
60.1-Be cxa jiiT'b BI TECH EHHieM b o6ui,eHiH c-b nan-
naxoAH^acb
i r

ciBOM-b. C'b Apyroft ciopOHbi, OWL nojibSOBajica H


npaeumeAwmea (HMCHHO Kapjia MapxeJia,
HH^aniiH naqajcb nponoB-BAOBaTb B'b
nepemeji'b BT> TenepeniHiil Feccen-b. OponoB'BAb ero HM^jra ycnixi,
HO OHI, nOHHMa.i'b, ^TO HOBaa lepMaucmH i^epKOOb Hymdaemcn e%
eduncmerb u nopndKtb, H 6ujn> My6oKO y^'BatAGH'b, qio TO H Apy-
roe en Moaserb AaTb jiHnib T^CHOC o6ni,eHie C'b PHHOirb. BOTI no-
^eMy, apxienHCKonOM-b MaiiHn.CKHM'b H npHMacoMi
CA^iaBuiHCb
FepMamH, OH'b CMOTptji-b na ce6a, jranib KaKi> na BHKapia (i.-e.
HaarECTHHKa) nanti. BoHH(|)ai];iH npiodp'BJ'b 6ojrbmoe 3HaieHie H BI
rocyAapciBi (JjpaHKOBi,. B-b cepeAHH-B YIII B. OHI. Aaate cosBajri.
HOMiCTHblH C060PI, Ha KOTOpOlTb SaC^AaJIH BM-BCT-B enHCKOHH
H FepMaHJH H na KOiopOM-b OH-b npOBOAHjrb iy
en>pu u nepnoeuaio ynpaeMuifi la^bcncm u
saeuctbmb omv i^epueu pUMCKou. CBOK)
iKHSHb BOHH(|)aHiH OKOHHHJI'b BO Bpeiia npOHOB-BAH CpCAH (})pH30Bl,
KOiopbiMH ocxasajiocb MHoro eme asbiiHHKOB'b. OHI Bos6y-
npOTHB-b .ce6a ci nx-b ciopOHbi BpaatAy, H OHH ero yfinjiH

(755).
65. Bo BpeMa saBoeBania janrodapAaMH HiajiH H rocnoACTBa
45

CB * T -
HKOHo6opn,eBi> BI> BHsanxiH nanciBO ,3,'kia.iocb ece 6o;in>e u 6oA,ne H***
CKoft B-iaCTH
omz UMnepamopCKOu ejiacmu. Ho nanaMi saxo no-
CTOHHHO rposHjm jraHro6ap^H. IIpOTHBT, nocJiiAHnxt OHH cmadu
ucKamt, noMOtu^u y cfipaHKO&t, y KOTOpwxi> em,e BI> VII B. BOSBHCHJIHCL
xaK-b nasiiBaeMbie MaiiopdoMU, cxoaBmie BO oaBt ynpaKieniH H
BOftcKa. apadoBi npn Ilyaibe H noKpojBHTejb CB. BOHH-
IIo6'BAHTe,ib

(f)au,ifl, Kapjii. Mapiejib, 6mn> TaKofl MaHOp^OMt, H yate KI> HCMy odpa-
TpHropiH II sa nocpeAHHqecTBOM b VL neperoBOpax'b ct .laaro-
r

Opn OAHOMT> HSX npeeMHHKOB-b 9-roro nanbi (SaxapiH) CHH-B


.

Kap.ia Mapxeja Uunum JKoponmti saxoiijn CA^aTbca Kopojem.


OHI nocjiaji cnpocnib nany, xoponio .IH, qio KOpOJieM-b He TOTX, KTO
Ha flfcji'k ynpaB.iaex'b rocy^apciBOMi,, H Kor^a nojiygnji. OTBin BI TOMX
CMbicji'B, qio jyqme 6nxb rocy^apeMx xoMy, KXO A'feHCXBHxejbHO no^b-
syexcfl B.iacxbK), xo npHHyAH^t xorflanrauro 4>paHKCKaro Kopojia (Xnjib-
B-b MOHaxn'H caMi> npHHajit Kopony (752).
III) nocxpH^bCfl
nonasaHia Ha napcxBO coBeprnHjn, na^x IlHnHHOMi, EoHH^aniii.
B-b djaroAapnocxb sa 3x0 nunHHi) KopoxKifi, KI> Koxopoaiy nana
Hi. II JIHHHO HBHJicfl npocnxb noMonjH npoxHBi> Jianrodap-
coBepmHJi'b flEa noxo^a BX Hxajiiro ^a sanjHXH nanbi H
H, oxHflB-b y jiaHro6ap^OBi> PaBenHCKiii SKsapxax-b, no^apHJii
Cxe^any (754). Bxoxx ji;ap b oceo6oduM nany omv Bu-
r

9xy odJiacxb
saumm u cdtb.mM eiocenmcKUMZ locydapeMz. BnocJi'B.aiCXBiH BOSHHRX
o xoMi), 6y^xo paMCKaa o6jrac rb 6bua no^apeHa nant
r

pa3CKa3i>
(Cn.ibBecxpy I) em;e HMnepaxopOMi> KoHCxaHXHHOM'B BejHKHMT>, H
BT> axoM-b CMbiCjii 6ujia .naa^e cocxaB.iena no^o^Hafl rpanoxa
( KoHcxaHXHHOBi ,n;api)"), Ha Koxopyio cpeAHeB^KOBbie nanbi oco-
6eHHO OXOXHO ccbi.ia.iHCb. PaBHHMi o6pa30M-b nanbi Bnoc-i-B^cxBiH
CCLIJKH H Ha xo, ixo ci nxt corjacifl H 6jiarocjiOBeHifl
B.iacxb y (J)paHKOBi) dHJia nepeHecena ci> O^HOH RK-
Hacxin na ^pyryio.

IV.

66. Hcxopifl BHsanxiH BX VIII H nepBofi HOJIOBHH'B IX B.

no.iHGHa BHyxpeHHeio 6opb6oK), Koxopaa 6biJia BbisBana


HKOHOtfopcxBa BI> Ha^ajii VIII cxcjiixifl. Hsinepaxopi. Met III
Hcaepz, no^HflBniiH roneHifl na HKOHH, nojro^KH.ii) naia^o H noeou
dunacmiu, Koxopaa HasuBaexca MdM-asiamcKon HJH ucaepiucKou.
npecxo.Tb nyxeMi, Boscxania, .IeBi> III oKasajca rocy^a-
cbMa 9HeprHqHHM-b He xoJibEo BT> BOHHaxi> ci rposHMMH
HO H Bi> drb.iaxz mympeHHmo npaeMnix. OHI, sa6oxH.ica
GOT, yjiyMinenin aAMHHHC'rpaxHBHOfi cncxeMbi (BT, 9x0 BpeMa
46

HOBCKoe A^enie HMnepin saM^najiocL HOBLIMI, na eenti), H ocodeHHO


peBHOCTHO sanfljicfl nojiooKenieMb KpecmwHCKOu juaccu. Bi> no-
OTHomemH JVEJIO JlLBa III npoflOJUKajn. H CBIHI. ero Kon-

EonponuMt, Toaie flepJKaBiniHca HKOHO(5opCTBa H 6BiBniiH

Bpenfl conpaBHiejieM'B oma. B-B HX-B npasjieHie 6mia HS/jana


T.-e. n BLi6opKa" saKOHOBt (70X6773 t(bv v6[icov) n ct Hcnpa-

fit caaiOMi sarjraBin 9ioro naMHTHHKa BHsaimHCKaro npasa.


Toro, Jleei H KoHCiaHTHHi us^ajiH seMJie^n.^ecKift saKOH-B HJIH
saM'EiaTe.iBHBiH no co-
<

ycmam KpecmwHcmii (vojioc Y0)pYt x,6c) ;

BepmeHHO HOBOMJ OTHomemio rocy^apciBeHHOfi BJiacTH K-B CBJIB-

CKOMy Hacejieniio HMnepin. IIpeatHie HMnepaTOpii, CTapaacB 3aiu,H-


THTB pa^OB-B OTI c.iHiiiKOM'B acecxoKaro odpamenifl, a KpinocTHBixi,
OT'B npOHSBOJiLHaro yBejrnqeHifl HajioroB-B, T-BM-B He Men-fee no^ep-
jKHBajH npHEpinjieHie KpecTBan-B KI SCMJI-B H no^gHHenie CCJIBCKOH
MaccBi Boodle BjacxH KpynnBix^ seMJieBJia.u'E.iBn.eB'B. HKoeo6opie-
CKie HMnepaiopBi AaJH CBoeii HOJIHTHK'B COBC BM B HHOC nanpaBJie-
P I

nie. Bi> ocHOBy KpecTbflHCKaro ycxasa JlBBa H KoHCiaHTHHa 6H.IH


nodowcenu uauajia JIUUHOU ceo6odu Kpecmwm u caMOcmofimeM-
Hocmu KpecmbfiHCKuxK o6v4um. 3io saKOHOflaiejibCTBO ^asajio no-
cejiaHaM b-apeH^;aTOpaM & npaso nepexo^a HSI OAHOFO HM'snia Bt
r r

Apyroe BI> noncKax'B sa dojiie BBiro^HBiMH ycJiOBiaMH H 6pajio


CBOe nOKpOBHTCJIBCTBO CCJIBCKia O^mHHBI, KOTOpHa MOFJIH
seMJierocoo6m,a H B^^aiB CBOH BHyxpeHHia ^ijia. Bi BTHXX HO-
BBIX-B nopa^Kaxi, BH^HH cji"bj(u cJiasaHCKaro BJiiania na JKHSITB
HMnepin. O^HOIO HSI sa^OT'B HMnepaiopOBi) VIII H IX B. ^BIJIO
TaKHM'B o6pa30Mi, oipawcdeuie KpecmwHCKOu nesaeucuMOcmu omv
snamu. Me^E^y npoqaM^ HKonodopqecKie HamepaTOpBi 6opojiHCB em,e
H npomue* ycujieuin Mouacmupeu u yeejiwienifi uxz
TJIABA ni.

MoHapxifl Eapjia BejiHEaro.

I.
MeawyHapOAHbia oTHomeHia ( 67 72).
II. BHyxpeHHifi 6HTt 4)puHKCKoB MOnapxiH BI anoxy Kapjia Be.iHKaro ( 73 74).
III. HancTBO BI IX E'ER* ( 7577).

I.

67*. OflHOBpeMGHHO CT. TBATB, KaKT. BH-fceBpOneHCKia o6jiaCTH HenpoiHOCTb


watHHXi Bap-
PHMCKOH HMnepm BOHIJIH BI> cocxaBi MaroMeiancKaro xa- BapCKHXl r o.
a BHsaniifl see em,e npOAOjatajra rocno^CTBOBaiL Ha BO-
EBponu H BI> MajiOH Asin, BI sanaAHOH EBponi
lOcydapcmeoMt* cdnjiaAocb nopojieecmeo
Bci>xi> eapBapCKHX'B rocy,a;apCTBi, na MaxepHK-B OHO OKasajroct
npoqHHMi>. Hiajia nst pyKt repyjroBi> nepenuia B-B pyKH
ociroTOB-B, y nocji^HHXi, 6tuia OTHaxa BHsaHTifirjaMH, HOTOMI
Beprjiact saBoeBamio co cxopOHH .iaHro6apAOBi>, HO H
CKoe rocno,a;CTBO He 6ujro npo.a.ojiJKHTejiBHiiM'L. B'B HcnaHiH sa
rOCHOACTBOM'L BaH^aJIOBl, HOCJI'BAOBajrO BJia^H-
BeCTTOTOBX, HO H OHH ^OJiaiHH 6&IJH yCTynHTfc CB06 M-BCTO
BaH^ajiBCKoe KOpojieBCTBO Bt A^PHK^ 6ujio paspyineno
em,e DcTHHiaHOMi,. 3ia nenpo^HOCTL roatHiix-L BapsapCKHxi, Kopo-
o6i>acHaeTCH, BO-nepBuxi., cjia6ocm bto && nuxb 'lepMancmio
/

H, BO-Biopuxi), cocrbdcnwoMz 6oAn>e moiyu^e-


6jiu3KUM*
locydapcme*. FOTBI, BaH^aJiBi H .ianro6ap^H cocTaB^ajiH
He3HaiHTejiBHoe MeHbmHHCTBO cpeji;H pHMCKaro Hacejenia
Hcnamn H A(J>pHKH H caMH CKOpo pOMaHHSHposajHCB. Ci
CTOpOHH, 9TH CTpaHH 6&MH CO-l-BG flOCTyilHLI J(Jia. 3aB06Ba-
noxo^OBt BHsaHTinneB-L H apa6oBi.
p
68*. Bi HflOMt no.ioateniH CLMO KOpojieBCTBO ^panKOB-L B-B.OO.'IfclllcH
'? *l*IJ* l
IIpO" .^_^

OHO Haxo^HJiocb B'L ^ocTaToqHOMi. oujaieniH H OTT> BH- HOCTH 4>paHK-


H OTB apaCcKaro xajH^axa, a BM'BCT'B C-L xiiM-i (j>paHKH, Ch
cpe^n pOMaHCKaro Hacejema FajuiH, npodojtmajiu
ez ofiuteuiu ci (ppauKaMU, ocmaemuMUCH na ceoeu
poduun. Bi MOHapxin BXO-
cociaBi) J)paHKCKott
CT> canaro naiajia H seMJin, r^-B npeo6jia^;ajio poMaHCKoe na-

ce.ieme (HeBCipia, T.-e. cipana Meat^y .lyapofi H COMMOH, AKBHiaHia H


F)ypryH^,ia), H cxpaHH C'L HacejeHieM-L HO^TH CHJOHJL
48

(Aficxpasia), H iiajio-no-Majy npeo6jia a,aHie


1
B^ rocyflapcxBij ne-
peffl.10 OX-B HeBCXpiHCKHX-B (j^paHKOB-B KT, aBCXpasifiCKHM-B.
CBOHMH BOCTOKa 6ojike c.iao'Bia repMaHCKia
coc'fe.naMH C'B

ajL/ieMaHOB'B, 6aBapOBi. H xiopHHroBTb, (JjpanKH IIOAIHHHJIH H HX-B


CBoefi Bjiacxn, H^MI nojro^HJiH nana.io saeoeeaniw caMOu FepManiu.

npaB.ua, HXI. rocyflapcxBy, B-B jcoxopoM-B xaKHMi, odpasoarB coedu-


ooeduuo o6mcmu
pOMaucKUMz u lepMCMCKUM* Hace.ienieMt,
&>
KaKt H BHsamiH, oicxaHBaTB ceda BI, 6opb6'B na ABa
t|>pOHTa C'L MycyjibMaHaMH H C'B c-BBepHBiMH BapsapaMH, HO apaou

jiHfflB o^Hy cepbesnyio nonBiiKy sasoeBaHia Ysuuiin,


O oxpajKeHHyio aBcipasiHCKHMx MafiopAOMOMi, Kap.iOMi Map-
(732), a c^BepHBie BapBapu (caKCBi, nojia6cKie, T.-e. npn-
9JiB6cKie cjiasane H asapBi) orpaHH^HBajiHCB jiHmB Had-fcraMH C'B
i^ijiBio rpadeata.
69. Bo BTOpon
no.iOBHH'fe VIII B., npH nepBBixi. AByx-B Kopo-
Pacnpocipa-
HeHie 4>paHK-
^^ HOBO n ^HHacxin KapojiBHroB-B, ApaHKH ew/e 6oAn>e pasdeuuym
citaro wwu-npeorbdu ceoeio nopoAeecmea, SKJiwnu&b ex eio cocmaet HO&UH po-
iccTna Ha
MaHCKiH u lepMduCKiH ofaacmu. 9x0 pacmHpeeie xeppHxopiH HXI> ro-
cy^apcxsa Ha^ajiocB C'B noduuuenin Go.nweu uacmu HmciMu. DepBtiH
.nHHacxin KapoJiHHroBi, Hunuw> Eopomniu (752 768),
BOSBe^.eHieM'B Ha npecxojii* pnMCKOMy nani, ci CBoeft

cxopOHH OKasaji'B eny noMom,b npoxHB'B jiaHrodapAOBi,, cxpeMHB-


Hiaxca saBJia^xB Been Hxajrien H Meat^y npo^HM-B PHMOM?>. BH-
saexia, Koxopaa JTHHIB HOMiraaJiBHO BJia^Jia H-BKOXOPBIMH qacxaMH
Hxajria, 6BLia He B-B cocxoaniH 3am,HXHXB PHSTB oxi jianrodap.noB'B,
H nana (Cmefiam II) BI> 754 r. oxnpaBHJica KI ^paHKCKOMy KO-
PO.IK) .IH1HO npOCHXB DOMOIHH npoxHB'B JaHro6ap^OBl>. IlHIIHH'B Ko-
poxKift coBepmHJii, xor^a ,o,Ba noxo^a BI Hxajriio H nod'B.nHJi'B Jian-
rooap,noBi>, ocBodoAHBi, PHMX oxi BcaKOH onacHOCxn H omeoeeaez
y jiamofiapdoez PaeenCKiu eKsapxamt, KOxopBift OHH ycn'kiH yaje
oxnaxB y BHsanxiH. OBI He saxoxiji^, o^naKO, Bocno-iBSOBaxBca
9XHMi> saBoeBaHieM'B, a no.a.apHJi'B ero nani, H'BM'B H nojio^HJH) na-
UCIAO cen>mcKOu e.tacmu pUMCmio nepeocefiiyeHHUKa (754). FpeKH
npoxecxosajiH npoxHB^ 9xoro, HO nHnHHi ne o6paxHJH) BHHMama
na Hxi) npoxecxi. nocjit CMepxn HnnHHa KopoxKaro na H-BKOxopoe
Bpena (J)paHKCKaa MOHapxia pas^JiajiacB Meat^y ero
aHOM* H KapJiOM* (768 814), HO KOiyja nepBBiii ESI
xo Bxopoft HC saxoxiji^ ^^HXBca ex ero CLiHOBBaMH. 3a
sacxynnjica HXT> A^A%
KOpo.iB .laHrodap^CKiii (Jfau-
depiu). Meat^y o6oHMH rocy^apaMH Haia.iacB Boiraa, Koxopaa OKOH-
saeoeeanieMo JIoMfiapdni (|>paHKaMH H B03.ioaieHieMi>
Ha roJOBv (f)paHKCKaro K0po.ia (774). Kapjii.
49

CBoero oma, HO BI> cym,HOCTH nociaBHJi'B B-L


CHMOCTB OTt ce6a H nancKyio o6.aacTB. Tannns, oftpasoM'B
qaciB HiajiiH Bonua BT> cocxaB-B (JjpanKCKoii MonapxiH. (Bi> IOJKHOH

70. KpOM^ HiajiiH, KapJCB, nojryHHBniiH HMH BejHKaro, npn- BOHHH H aa-
v . .
n Boeuama
Kl, CBOHM1. BJia^-BHlflM'B H MHOHfl Apynfl 36MJH. CaMyK) Kap:ia BejIH
.

K aro.
ynopHyro dopb(5y npnuurocL eny BEi^epatHBaxt caKCaMu, KOiopiie c'L

Ha64rn na norpaHHqHBia ofriacTH KOpojieBCTBa, a Kor,a,a Kapjit


saeoeeanie u ofipainewie cancooz &z xpucmiancmeo, TO
OHH OKasajH eMy CHJfcHoe conpoiHBJieHie. OHH no.ii>30BajiHCL
odcTOfliejiLCTBaMH, BI Kama ciaEHJiH 4>paHKCKaro
ero BOHHH, H noflHUMajra npOTHB'L nero Boscianie sa
(Mea^y npoiHM'B nofli, npeflBOflHiejiBCTBOM'B BudyKunda}.
Kap.ii atecTOKO HaKasHBaji'L caRCOBi H HacHj&HO sacTaBJiajni HX-B
KpeCTHTBCK, npHHHMafl BM'BCT'E Cl T-^MI, H CypOBHfl M^pBI flJIfl
npeatflenm HOBBIXI> BOSCTanift. Eopi>6a nponoJiatajiacB Tpnflii;aTB
HO Bl, KOHD.^-KOHl^OB'B no6'Bfla OCTajaCB Ha CTOpOH'B (jJpaHKOBl). CaKCH
ycMHpenBi, a rjaBHBiH HX'B Boat^B nofliHHHJiCH Kapjiy H
Kpemenie. Bi Haqajii CBoero n;apCTBOBaHia KapjrB
K!H BCJII. em,e eouuy cv apafiaMU ex Hcnauiu. OH-B noMunuifljr'B He
TOJIBKO TOMl,, 1TO()BI o6e30naCHTB AKBHianilO OTl HX1, Hatf'ferOB'B,

HO H OTBoeBaniH y HHXI, HcnaniH. OB aioro D^IBR) OH-B OT-


061.

npaBHJicfl c'L 6ojiBniHM & BOHCKOM-B sa UnpeHeH, HO flO.men'B SBIJITE, orpa-


r

HH IHTBCfl JIHHIB OtoCTBIO Meatfly IlHpeHeaMH H 96pO, KOFfla yBHfl'BJIl,


l

ITO yiBepffHTBca flaji'Be KT> 6mio du Tpy^no. (Bo Bpeua ero BOS-
rory
Bpain,eHm 6acKH B-B ropHBixi, npoxo^axi. HCTpe6HJH nepeflOBOH oipafl-B
apMiH Kapjia, np ICM-B Haqa.iBHHK'B ero, Pojiaudz, Hanie-i^ repoft-

CKyK) CMCpTB BT> POHCGBaJIBCKOH flOJIKHi. Ooi. 3TOM^ C06BITlH


CJ02KHJIHCB Bnocji'E.ncTBiH CKasaHifl). SaT^Mi, Kapjy
nosTHiecKia
npHnuiocB samnmaTBca H npOTHBi. aeapoez, flijiaBiuHxi.
Ha Bauapiio; $paHKH nanecjiH HMI xoaie CHJIBHOC no-
paaieHie, coKpymnBrnee HXI iiapciBO Ha cpeflneM'B ^ynai. B-B

KOHHI-B CBoero napCTBOBania Kap.ii. BejiHEiii npe^npHHHMajii no-


xodu npomu&z c.iaeam, atHBinHXi) Ha BOCTO'mLiX'B rpaHHi^axi, ero
rocy^apciBa.
HoflT) Kapjia BejiHKaro o6pa30Ba,iac& ipOMaduan dep-
B.iacTBK)
1

waea, oxBaTHBaBmaa HO^TH BCCB MaxepHKi) sana^HOH EBPOHBI ).


Bi cocTaBi ea BXO.HHJIH ioro-3anaflHBiH yro.TB IIcnaniH (^o 36po),
U'B.IHKOM'B Tenepeumia
(
I>pani;ia, Be.iBria, FoJ-ian^ia H UlBeiin,apia,
H cpe^naa Iliajiia H sana^HBia qacTH HBIH BHIHHX'B Fep-
I

:
) CM. napiy IV.

HCTOPIfl,
50

H ABCxpo-BenrpiH. Bocxoinyio rpammy MOHapxin cocxaB.min


npH6jiH3HTejibHO ,9jB6a ci Saajiofi, fljR&fi #0 Bnaflema THCCH H
Casa, HO H Ha BOCTOKI. oxt 9xofi jramH pacnpocxpaHfljiocb Beanie
<|)paHKCKaro Kopojia. fljia orpaayjema CBoero rocy^apCTBa ox'b coci>,neH
Kapjii BejiKKift cos^ajn, ocofaia Boeimo-norpaHMgHLia o6.iacxH,
BaBiniaca MapnaMU. TaKOBH
HcnaHCKaa MapKa sa Unpe
6bLiH
H BocxoHHaa Mapna, HSX
Koxopofl HOXOM^ BOSHHKIO rep^rcxBO
Aficxpia. OdpasoBanie xaKon Monapxin nponsBejio CHjibHoe Bneqax-
jiime Ha coBpeMeHHEKOBTb. Y (J>paHn,y30Bi> HMH Kapjia (Char-
les) H xHxyji) BejiHKaro, xaKi cuasaxb, cpocjincb BX O.HHO CJIOBO

(Charlemagne, x.-e. Carolus Magnus); y sanaAHbix-b cjiaBflHX 9x0


HMfl c^Jiajiocb Hapnn,axejibHbiMT& odosHaneHieM'b n,apCKofl
(Carolus Kopo-ib).
71. 3xo o6i.eflHHeHie 3ana^a no^t C^HHOIO BJiacxbio 6buro
^ H B03CTaHOBJieB i eMrB s^icb
npeameH HMnepiH. TaK^ CMOxpijH Ha
PHMCKOH HM- H COBpeMeHHHKH. XoXfl CXOJIHD[a 9XOH HMHepia H )LLia OX^aHa
flfejIO

nani, HO Kapjn> BejiHKifi CMOxpijit na ce6a, Kaifb na BepxoBnaro


rocno^HHa H canoro PnMa. Kor,a,a o^HaatAH B*B axoM-L ropo^i BOS-
HHKJH CMyxii, BO speMfl Koxopuxi CH.ibHO Hocxpa^ajii. nana JLeez III,

Kapjii) Be^HKift .OIEO BOscxaHOBHJii. BI> PHM-B nopa^OK^ H Bbicxynnjii


BTb pojiH cy,a,bH Measly nanoii H ero sparaMH. Tor^a BO BpeMa poat^e-
cxBencKOH o6 E,a;HHr

800 r. JleBi, III eowomuM na lOJioey Kapjia


UMnepamopCKyw nopony H noKJionnjiCfl eMy ^,0 SCMJIH npH

HMnepaxopx"! 3xo co6iixie H HOCHXI> BI, acxopin HasBanie eoscma-


iH Sanaduoii PUMCKOU Hmnepiu. B^ KoHCxanxHHonoji'B oxne-
KI> 9xoMy Bpaat^e^HO, KaK^ ifL CBoero po^a y3ypnan,iH XH-
BH3aHxiiicKHM napflMi, HO xaMi. BI
r

xyjia, npHHa^.ieataBHiaro O^KHM^ b


9x0 BpeMfl n,apcxBOBa.ia ajeHm,HHa (Npuua), HXO AO H^KOxopofi cxe-
neHH KaKi OH oc.ia6jifl.ito npHxasaHia rpeEOBX. Eor,a;a ona oLi.ia

COdCXBeHHBIM-b MHHHCXpOMI, H.UKU(f)OpOMt>, H 9X0X1 HO-


cant c.a.'B.iajiCfl HMnepaxopOM'b, OHX HH sa ixo He XOX-BJII

3a Eapjioni BCJIHKHMI, ero HOBBIH xnxyjii,, H xojbKO


nocjii HHSBepateHm canoro HHKH<|)opa HOBBIH HMnepaxopi (Mu-
corjracHJicfl npasHaxb Kapjia BejiHKaro BI> ero ^OCXOHHCXB-B,
sana^naro HMnepaxopa. BnpOHeMi., H BnocjrBACXBiH B-b BH-
He,a;pyiKejiK)6HO cMOxpijiH na npncBoeHie saua^HHMH rocy-
HMnepaxopCKaro xnxyjia, a na Sana^B, cjyiajiocb, cxapa.iHCb
BOCxoiHaro HMnepaxopa, HasBiBaa ero Himepaxo-
POMI xo HOBaro Pnaia", xo npOMoeBi," (romaei rpeiecKoe na-
3Bame pHMJiani.). TaKHMi) odpasoM-b HMuepia Kapjia BejiHKaro He
HO H codmicmeoea.ui o^oco6.feniw eio
,
omz BocmoKa. (^TO Kacaefca #0 OTHomemH Kapja Be.iHKaro KT,

xajn^aiy, TO OHH 6ujin EHO-IH^ MnpHBia H ,a;aate flpy-

72. 3eMJH, co6paHHBia BOCAHHO KapJiOMi. Be.iHKHM'B, He ^o^ro


M P
Kap.ia Be- K a p"a Be-
I no-iHTHqecKOMi. coe^HHenin. Yate CBIH-B

JIwdoeuKt Bmiouecmueuu (814 840), cmaM dn>.mmb u


nepedn.wmi) UMnepiw neatly CBOHMH CHHOBtaMH, qxo nosjieKJio sa
co6oio Me^oyco6ia, ne npeKpaTHBffliaca H nocJTB ero CMepiH. Haine-
THxyjTB yHacji'BAOBaji'& ero cxapmin CLIH'L JLomapb, HO
nero BOsciajiH ero MJia^niie 6paT&H JItodoeum
H Kap.u JLucuii, H3t KOiopux-L nepBiin CTOHJI'L BO oaB-B
HIIX-L (|)paHKOBl> H ^PyrHXT) repMaHCKHXT> HJieMeH-B, BTOpOH BO
H aKBHTaHH.eB'B. JIlO^OBHRl. H KapJTL H HXTb BOHCKa
Cipac6ypri H 3A*Cb npHHeora ^pyri pyry npn-
cary BT> B-BPHOCTH, npn qeM-B OHa.6mia npOH3HeceHa
Ha poMaHCKOMi) astiK'B, KapJiOMi. na repMaHCKOM-B, noiOMy
BT. 9TO BpeMa yaie pisKO pasdrbJiujiuM) den uapodnocmu (fipan-

uy3cmfi u HtbMeiwan. 3io Han,ionajiBHoe pasjinqie H Jierjro B^ OCHOBV


nepsaro pas^jrenia HMnepin Kapjia Be.iHKaro. Jloiapi. 6ujn> no-
2
^'B^eH-B, H BI> 843 r. no eepdeucnoMy ) doweopy cfipauKcmfi MO-
uapxin pacnamcb ua mpw Hcmiona^Hun uacmu: ^pan^w, Hma~
am u repMamw. KapjrL JHCHH y^ep^ajn. sa co6oro Fa.oiK>, KOiopaa
ciajia HOTOM-L HasHBaiBca ^panijieH, JIIO.HOBHKI FepMaHiio, HiajiiK)
ate CT> HMnepaxopCKHMi) THTyjoMi. nojiy^HJii) JIoxap'B, HO eMy ate 6BiJia

era,e ysKaa Teppniopia, jieataBHiaa Meatfly $paHii,ieH H Hia-


no POH^ H PeaHy. (IlpHpeHHCKaa qacTB STOH TeppHiopia no-
jiy
qn.ua nasBame Jlomapumiu) Ha STOM-B flpofijieme He ociaHOBH-
.

jioci., H Monapxia Kapjia BejiHKaro pacnaJiacB HOTOM-B na do-rfce

rocyflapCTBa, HO MUCM o npododOKeuiu Sanaduou PUMGKOU


ue X B. HOCHiejraMH HMnepa-
yjuupaAa, H ci cepe,a,HHBi
TOpCKaro THTyjia na Sana^t Kopojra
Cfl'BJia'jiHCB FepManiH. ,

Pacnafleme rocy^apCTBi., odpasoBaBinnxca HS'B Monapxin Kap.ia


BejiHKaro, Ha em,e Oojite MejKia BJia^-BHia (repnorcTBa n Knaate-
TBa, cociaBHBmiaca HSTB OT^'BJIBHBIX'B o6jracTen) ,ii,03BO.iHJO
CHOsa naqaxB Hana^ema na Sana^Hyio Espony. BTHMH
6BMH CKdHdumeu, MaiOMemane H MadbRpu, C-B ipexi ciopOH'B
A^iaBuiie HaSirn Ha OTfl-B-iBBBia cipanBi 6uBmeft ^epataBH Kap.ia
BejiHKaro.

J
) Bi BarjiaA^ B% aro BpeMfl itapcTBOBajit rapyHi-a-it-PamH^, npocjiaBBBinifica
CBOCIO CnpaBeAJlHBOCTBK).
2
) FopOA't Bepaeai Ha B. Tenepeiunefi ^panuie.

4*
II.

73. Bo BHyxpeHHeiis cxpoi HMnepin Kap,ia BejHKaro, RRKI. H


B0 BH y T P eHHeMl cxpofc (fjpanKCKaro KopojreBCTBa, 6"HBiiiaro
Kapjra Be-ea aflpOMt, npOHCXoflHJO HonpeiKHeMy CMmueuie wpMaucKuxz u
(popm?, 6uma. KapjrB BeJiBKifi (fauFb (ppamCKUMz nopo-
H npHxoM-B npOHCxo^HJii, H3i> ABCxpasw, ocxaBmefica
repMancKHMi, HaqajraM-B, HO OHI, OBJiaA'
Hia-defi H c^iajrca PUMCKUMK uMnepamopoMT>. B-B
canoMi, JIHII.'B Kapjia BejiHKaro xaKHMi, oSpasoM'L coe^HHHJiHCb rep-
MaHCKoe H PHMCKOG naqajo. OH'L HOCHJII napOAHHft KOCTIOM!) (})paH-
KOBI,, HO HaA'SBajn, H PHMCKOB HMnepaTOpCKoe o6ja^eHie. EOMWOU
noKAOHHUKt dpeeueu ofipasoeanHOcmu, KOiopyio OHI
HOBHTB, HaCKOJILKO TO BOSMOatHO, OH^ BM^CTi C^B T^MI,
6BIJTO

KT> TOM?, qio^H coxpaHHTB oxi> 3a6B6Hifl


ni>CHH. B-L
fli-iaxi ynpaBJieHia Kapjii OTAaBa;n> npa-
Moe npednonmeuie PUMCKUMZ ofipasu/aMZ. OH'B cxpeMHJca wst> pas-
CBoeft o6niHpHOH MOHapxin cos^axB oduo y/enmpam-

locydapcmoo, ynpaBJiaeMoe e^HHoro BO-ieto. Meat^y T^MI ein,e


npn MepOBirarax'B BI rocy^apcxB-B ABHJIHCB nABMeumie lepwiu, KO-
Toptie 6LMH dojiie, TEMI* ry6epnaTOpaMH CBOHXI> o6.iacTeii, H cxpe-
MHJIHCB cxaiB Hacxoflni,HMH Hxi) rocy,a;apHMH. Kapjix BejiHEin coKpy-
WHJIJ, xaKott cenapaxH3Mi>; npn HeMi, OT^JisHLia oojiacxH ynpa-
ipacfiaMU, HasHanaBniHMHca HMT, caMHMTb H BHOJIH-B OTL Hero
(IIorpaHHqHLia od.iacxH, HJIH mapuu naxo^HJiHCB noAt
MapKipatpofft). ^JLH xoro, qxo6u snaxB, xoponio ,IH
o^jzacxeii Hcnojiffaioxi rocy^apeBy BOJIIO, OHTb oxnpaB.iaji'B
BI, pasHiia iacxH Monapxin JTHI^X, dtiBHinxTb HSB-BCXHHMH
eMy oco-
6010 CBoeio npeji,aHHOcxBK> H noxoMy noJiBsoBaBmnxca ero ^.OB'B-

pieMi). 3xn locydapeeu noGJiau^u dommici) is^njiH no cxpanij,


(missi
sa BC-BM^ CMOip'BJiH H
coo6ni,ajiH caMOMy Kapjiy BejiHKOMy o6a
qxo BH/I.'BJIH. PaBHBiMi> oSpasoMi sa ^axejiBHOCxBro rpa^OB-B
6ioiJiE aii^Hxi) enHCKOHu, KOxopHMi, BM^HajiocB BI o6asaH-

HOCXB 060 BCEX!) ynyiD,eHiax'B H 3Jioynoxpe6jieHiax & ^OHOCHXB ro- r

cyAapro. ^pyrHMi, cpe^cxBOMi Bnecema B^ ynpaBJienie e^nncxBa H


nopaflKa OHJIH cmsdu
npedcmaemnejieii Mn>cmmu ipawcdaHCKOu w
dyxoonou ejiacmu, KoxopLixi eatero^HO ocemw Rapjit BejiHRin co-
stJBajTB ^Jia nojiyqeflia oxi> HHXI> CB'B^HiH o cocxoaHin
o,.ia coB^maHia C-B HHMH o
BC^X-B CKOJiLKO-HH6y^B BaatHBixi,
H ^,ja BLicjryiuHBama rocyAapeBofi BO.IH. Ha BXHX-B
cocxaB.ia.iHCB H pasnaro po^a nocxanoBjeHia o6ni,aro
53

1
xapaKiepa, HSBtcTHLie no^i misBaHieM'b mnumyMpieei ). Kap.n>
BejHKift npaBHJi'L HMnepien, KaKT> rocy^apb HeorpanHqeHHHH, H OTL
ciaparo B'fcqa HJIH MapiOBCKHX-L no.ieii MepOBHHrcKOH anoxn ocia-
.iHuib fio.muisi uapodnuH co6panisi, KOTOpna nponcxoflHjiH Ka/K-
eecuow H na KOTOptia MOIMH npnxoAHTb Bci> CBo6o,a,HLie.

codpaeiflMH Kapjii> BejiBKift nojissoBajiCfl,

Toro, qTo6ti pasysnaBaib nyiearB qacTHbixTb pascnpocoBx,

A^ajiocb, pacnpaniKBaib o nya:^ax b H o6H,a;ax b H T. n. Tyx'B


r r

me no cxapo-repMaHCKOMy o^H^aio OHI> npuHHMaJTB npHHOCHBmiecu


My noAapKH. HaKOHen;i>, na STHX-B ate coSpaHinxt o6xaB.iajiHCb Ha-
po^y H npe,3,Jara,iHCb na ero OAo6peHie rjiaBH-fenniifl nociaHOBjieHifl,
Ha oceHHCM'L codpaeiH rpa^ancKHxi, H AVXOBHHX'L BJiacien.
74. KaKi, HH CTapajica Kapjn> BejiHKift o BoaBHineHin H 061- He y^ aii a no-
nuTKH Kapjia
rocy^apCTBCHHOH BJiaciH no cxapo-puMCKOMy oopa3n,y.
(J)opMa o6m;eHifl ci napo.noM'b 6bijia

^ajiie, RJIR ynpaBJieHia u.eHTpajrasoBaimLiM'L rocy-


HyatHLi 6miH 6ojibinia ^enbrH, HO H y KapojiaHroB-B HX-B
He 6oJibme, qiMi y MepOBunroB'b. B-L xbji'b BOSHarpaaiAenia
3a cjryat6y Kapjii. BeJiHEiii H ero npeeMHHKH nociynajiH coBepmenHO

ate, KaK-B H npeatnie ({)paHKCKie Kopojin. He


Ha,ioroBi, H OHI OT^aBajii rpa^aM-b H
HHMl, JTHH.aMTb, a TaKatC CBOHM-L HpH^BOpHblMl, H
60 epemenuoe ejiadrbtiie, npn qeMi. no CMCPTH
BJia^'B.ibu.a HJIH
HMT> cjiyat6Li OTAanHaa eMy SCILM B03Bpaui,aJiacb BI
OT^aHHoro KOMy-jiH6o ^pyroMy. Tania
6biib

He$uy,ixMU 1 T.-e. mmajiOBaHiflMH (codCTBenno 6jraro,a^flHiaMH).


B'B 3TOH CHCTCM-B saKJiioqajica, KaKi* H npn MepOBirarax'b, sapoduim

locydapcmeeuHou emcmu, ISLKJ, KaKT. Bjia^Jibnibi 6ene-

crpeMHJiHCb saKpinnTb BTH BCMJIH sa CBOHMH A^TbMH. ,H,py-


rOH) noipe6HOCTbH) rocy^apCTsa dmio BOHCKO, HO H 9ia noipeSnocTb
Toate y,o;oBJieTBOpajracb xaK^, ITO BJieK.ia sa co6oro ocjiaSjeflie rocy-
AapCTB6HHOH BJiaCTH. IIo TCpMaHCKOMy npHHHHEy Bi BOHCR-B
yiacTBOBaib BcaKifi CBo6oAHBiH, Meat^y T-BMI IHCJIO

npeAH^ymyio anoxy, Aa H TE, Koxopbie


CH.ibHO coKpaiHJiocb B-L

oxpaHHJiH cBo6o^y, ^acTo OHJIH He BJ, cajiaxt no HeAOCTaioiHOCTH


H^TH Ha BOHHy. Kapjii BejiHKin cocmdeMui* ceou ono.i-
i.iaenuMt o6pa30Mi> usz Kpynubixz seMM
6biJiH nocxaBJiaTb H HSBiciHoe qnaio BOHHOB'L HSI.

B'b HXT, H OTl HHX-b SaBHC'BBniHX'b. MaJIO TOrO,


HM'BHiflX'b

6'BAHHX'B 6.oraTBiMi> 6biJio npnanaHO saKOHOM'b, H noiii-

') lIa:;Banie HXT, iipoasoui.io OT'b pas^t-ieHia Ha naBH (capitula).


54

rocno^HHOM-B H.IH ceuiopoMt (coociBeHHO


CHJi.'EBniHX'B Ha ero seMJii. Pasdana 6eue(f>uu,ieffb u ycma-
ceniopama OCHOB^ rocy^apCTBeHHyio BJiacTB,
no,a;pHBajiH B-B
H npn SjiHatafirnHx-L npeeMHHKax'B BHYKOBI, Kapjia BejiHKaro 6uctnpo
nowjio pasjioweme uxz locydapcm&t na MeAnin ceubepiu. CU'BjcTBieM'B
91010 6BMO ycTaHOBjieme BI O'BIBHIHX'B odjiaciflxi. HMnepiH Kap.ia
Bejimtaro ocodaro locydapcmeennaio u o6u^e cmeennaio ycmpoucmoa,
userbcmnaio nod* HaseauieMt

III.

75Kor^a VL VIII B. nanii HCKa^n 3am,HTi npOTHB-L jranro-


;:
\

y ApanKOBi,, OHH He ciHiajiH corosi. ci> HHMH ^JIH ce6a


J
snoxy Kapjia
BejHKaro. OnaCHBIMt. <PpaHKH OHJIH ^aJieKO, H HX'B IlOMOmLK) MOJKHO OHJO
ne xepaa CBOCH caMOCToaiejiLHOCTH. nnnHH-L Ko-
cpasy 006060^,^11. nany H OTX jiaHro6apAOB'B, H OTI, BnsaHTiH
H cxbjiajn, ero csiTCKHMt rocyAapeMi.. Ho npn Kapjrt BCJIHKOMI, om-
uomeniH Mevtcdy cfipanKCKUMi) locydapcmeoMt, u nancmeoMZ usMn-
uuAuc'b. JIanro6apACKoe KOpOJiescTBO najio H BOIMO BX cocxaBt

(|)paHKCKoft MOHapxm, a ea rocy^apB c^ajca HMnepaiopOM'B 3a-


na^,a, T.-e. Hacj^HHKOMi BC&X'B npasi npe^nnxx PHMCKHXI> HMne-
paiopOBi,. ElanBi BCJii^CTBie 3ioro ^OJI/KHBI 6BMH nonaciB BI sa-
BHCHMOCTB orB ero BJiaciH. He ^apOMi, JIcBi
III, EOpOHys Kapjia

HMnepaiopCKOH KOpOHOio, noKJiOHHJicfl eny ^o seMjra. HMnepia Kapja


BejiHKaro CHJIBHO codrbucmeooam pacnpompaHeniw dyxoenou e.tacmu
nam na ecemz 3anadrb, noxony qro H casi^ OET> npHSHasajni BI. nanax-B
npeeMHHKOBi. anocTOJia Deipa H odjia^aiejieH ^yxoBHaro rjiaBencTBa
B-B n;epKBH, XOTH 9xo OTUIOAB HC Miina-io eny cgnxaiB ce6n locyda-

peMZ u en> drbJiaxt v,epK06Huxt. OHI. HSAasaji'B CBoeio BJiaciBio


npaBHjia n,epKOBHOH aiHSHH, cosuBaji. ^yxoBEBie co6opu, B
enncKoncKia Kaee^pn, Hasna^ajn. WL MonacTHpn a66aTOB-B H T. A.

Kapjii, BejiBKiii He 6ujn> pacnojioateH'B K^ HKOHonogHiaHiio H CHJIBHO


pacnpocTpaneHiro Ha Sanaa's em,e paHBHie BOSHHKuiaro
K-B CaMBOJiy B^PBI CJIOBI. 061. HCXoav^eHiH CB. Jl,yxa
OT-B CiiHa" (Filioque).
76. Cjia6ocTB CBina Kapjia BejiHKaro, Jro^OBHKa BjaroqeciH-
Baro H p a3 ^ p H Meat^y CHHOBBaMH noc^-B^Haro CHOBa eepnyau na-
nancKaro raa-
naMK nesaeucuMOcmb. BiopOH npeeMHHK-B jlBBa III ooomejca yate
6e3i> yTBepat^enia HMnepaiopa. ,3,pyroH naiia BM^majica B-B pacnpio
BHyKOB-B Kapjia Be^HKaro, Kani BBicniift nocpe^HHK-B H MHPOTBO-
pen,!,. ^-BM^ 6ojBme pacna^ajiacB HOBaa Sana^naa HMnepia Ha
6ojrEe MCJinia qaciH, T-BM^, HaoSopoii., nprbnue o6wduHHJiaci sa-
nadnan nepnoeb nod* nancnum waeeucmeoMt. HpaBjja, em,e Bt ce-

pe^HH-E IX B. Hjjefl o nancKOM'B rjiaBeHCTB'E Bcrp-Eqa-ia 3HaqHie.ii>-


Hoe conpOTHEjenie co cxopOHH H-BKOTOPLIXT> enHCKonos-B, HO HM6HHO
B'B 9TO BpeMfl na noAMory nancKHM^ npHTflaamHM'B JIEHJIHCB xaifB
Jlwceucudopoeu dercpemaMU, c6opHHK'B HO.POJKHBIX'B no-
H nocTaHOBjremH, nanHcaHHBix'B 6y,HTO 6n nanaMH nepBHXi>
H COdpaHHHXT. EM^CTE OAHHM'B AyXOBHHM'B JTHII.OM'B HCH.HO-
B'B STHX-B ^eKpexajriax-B yTBepm^ajiacB HesaBHCHMOCTB enn-
CKonoBi OTI. cy^a CB-BTCKHX'B rocy^apefi H saflBJiajiocB, ITO nancKax
ecmb naueucman e^acm^ na semjirb. B'B HO^IHHHOCTB ji;eKpe-

HOB^PHJIH BC'B^ H OH'B Hena-io co^HCTBOBajiH ycTaHOBjeHiro nan-


CKaro rjiaBeHCTBa Ha Sana^i. Ha HHXT> ciajiH ccHjiaiBca H enncKonH
BI CBoeM-B cxpeMJieHiH c^JaTBCfl HesaBHCHMBiMH OTI rocy^apen.
77. HepBBiH nana, ocyiyecmeuewiu mania npumnsauifi ua ^

dn.m, GUM HuKOAau I (858 867). ApxienncKOirB paBeHHCEift


XOT^JII. 6BITB caMOCTOflxejiBHBiM'B naipiapxoM'B B'B CBoen enapxin,^
HO HHKOJiaH I OMyHHJI'B 6FO OT"B I],epKBH H SaCTaEHJII) CMHpHTBCfl.
ApxienncKon-B peHMCKiii (FHHKMap'B) ocy^HJi'B Ha M'BCTHOM'B
o^Horo enncKona, HO nana noipefioBajTB pfejio na nepecMOip'B
H, onpas^aB-B aioro enncKona, sacxaBHJii CMHPHTBCH ^pyrnx'B (|>paHK-
CKHX'B enHCKonoB'B, Kor^a OHH npoiecTOBaiB. OH'B BM-B-
CTajiH-6Bijro
TaKate B'B pfejio
pasBO^a H BiopnqHaro 6paKa jroxapHnrcKaro
H jiHrnHJi-B cana apxienncKonoB'B TpnpCKaro H KCJiBHCKaro,
BO TJiaB-B COdOpOBl), KOTOptlfl npHSHa^H paSBOJll. H HOBBIH
CTOflBfflHX'B

6paK'B K0po.ia saKOHHBiM-B. He orpanH^HBaacB yiBepasAeHieMT, CBoero


na Sanajii, HnKOJiaH I BjiacTno BM-Bmajca H BT> ^,-Bja
rpe^ecKOH. CT> BTOH cxopOHBi OHt BCT'P'BTHJ'B, o^naKO, CHJIB-
HHH oinopx, H eio pacnpn cz KOHcmaumuHono.ibCKUMZ nampiapxoMb
noeMwia 30, cofiow pasdrb-ienie

MABA IY.

I.
CymnocTb (((eoiaJbHaro ycrpoficTBa ( 78 94).
II. $paHu,ia ( 96), Hiajiia ( 97) H FepMamfl (98101) BI <[>e<wuii>Hyio anoxy.

78. Hnnepifl Kapja BejHKaro pacna.iacb BI cepe^HHt IX B. *

na Tpn Han;ioHajiBHBifl qacxn: $pann;iK), FepMaHiK) H Hiajiio, HO H


Ka/Kian HS-B HHX-B ciaja Apo6nTBCfl na 60^1^6 Me.iKia eme qacin,
noKa Apo6wT6Hie ne flonuio ^,0 KpaHHHX-B npe^JOB-L npeepaw,emx
56 -f

?> noMibcmiu ez ocofiusi e.iadvbuin. 3io HCTOpnqecKoe HBjeme


HaH6ojt>ineH CHjibi 05 X XI 66., Kor^a BI> sana^HOH
Espon-B H ycmauoeu.iCH mam uasbteaeMuu (fieodajiusMi, (UJIH MH-
naa cucmeMo), nojiyiHBiniH CBoe HasBame orb cjiosa (fieodz (feo-
dum), Koiopoe o6o3Haiajio co6oio Kaat,u;oe OTA^abHoe BJia
MeijKoe nasBaHie (|>eoAa Mm, Lelm).
Cyin,HOCTB (Jjeo^ajibHaro ycipOHCTBa saKJuoqajiacb B'L

xpexi, OCHOBHHXI. iipHSHaKaxi,:


Bo-nepBBixi,, cipaHa, r^i ycTaHaBJiHBa.ica ^eoAajHSM'B, pacna-
ua Mnowcecmeo MBAKUXZ 6Jtadnmu, KOiopna HOCHJIH HasBania
rpa^CTB-B, ceH&epift H T. n. O^HH HSI. BBX-B 6H.IH
,

6ojn>me, ^pyria MeHLme; O^HH dtuiH nacToamHMH KHa^eciBaMH,


6ojiie HOXO^HJIH na nosi-BCTLa, HO BCSA^ ejiadnjibi^u no.ibso-
npaeaMU, Komopua npunadMmamz oOuKuoeenHO locyda-

Bo-BTOpuxt, 3TH BJia^'BHia BI O.HHO H TO ate BpeMa 6tuiH u


mm 6u HacmoaiyuMU lOcydapcmeaMU, u mm 6u npocmuMU no-
FjraBHaa CHJia Kaat^aro (jjeo^ajiLHaro 6mia BI>
BJiaA'fe^tn.a

KOTOpyiO OH!> HM^JII): HMGHHO KTO BJia^-BJIt SHaiHTe.I&HLIM'B KO-


3eMJiH, H npasaMH rocy^apa. OAHHMI
TOT'S noiBsoBajica

CJIOBOMI>, BJiacTL (^eo^ajibHaro BJi&jifajibna, 6iiJia BJiacTtio wcydapa-


noMYbi^UKa um noMrbw^una-iocydapH. KTO SBIJI-B noKpynnte, TOTI.
6ojibnie noxo.n.HJi'L Ha rocy^apa, KTO noMejtie, TOT^ CKOpie
HanoMHHajri, noM-Biii,HKa, HO BX o6oHxi, cjiy^aaxx BI OAHOMT, JIHU'B
6ujn> E rocy^apb, H noM-Ein,HKi.
Bl-TpeTbHX'b, 9TH rOCy^apH-nOM'BII] HKH H nOM'BIJl.HKH-rOCy-
EC'S 1

.napn CTaHOBHJiHCL OAHH KX ^pyrHMi, BI onpe^-ieHHbia OTHomema.


Bojie MeaKie BJia^JibniLi HCKajn samHTbi H noKpOBHTejibCTBa y
6o.iie KpyiraBix'B, a Ti aiejiajiH HM^Tb y ce6a no6ojibme TaKnx^
COK3HHKOBi, KOTOpLie MOOH H HMT, OKaSblBaTb nOMOin,b. II09TOMy
6bl

ibn,bi saKjnoiajH Me^y co6oro doweopu, &b cujiy


eoo6wje fiojivbe, Mejinie ejiadrbMv/'bi dnjiajiucb eacccuiajim
a 9mu nocjitbdnie cmauoeuAUCb uxr> ceubepajuu
(dosepenaMH). TaKi> KaK^ BaccajibHHe BjaA^bi^H MOOH caMH 6biTb
cenbepaMH no OTnomeHiio KX .npyrHMi (T.-e. y BaccajOB-b MOMH
6tiTb CBOH Baccajbi), TO (j)eo^ajibHHe Bjra^'fe-iBu.H KaKi> 6ti pacno-
^araJiHCb na pasuuxz cmyneunxz ceoeio poda jirbcmHuy,u emcmu u
noduummH. ^pyrunn cJiOBaMH, neatly $eo,n;ajibHbiMH BJia^-BHianH
cymecTBOBajia HSBicTHaa rpa^aiua saBHCHMOCTH O.U.HHXI OTX ,a;py-
raxi. IIoBHffle CToajin T^ Bja^nia, KOTOpua 60-3-Ee HOXO^HJIH na
rocy^apCTBa, noHHate rE, KOTOpua CKOpie CHJIH npocTbiMH 110-

M-BCTbaMH.
_ 57 _
Ha ocHOBamn Bcero cKaaaimaro, ^eo^aJiHSMx MOstex-B
xaKHM-B odpasoMt: (^eo.a.ajiBHBiM'B ycxpoficxBOM-B
onpe.u'EJieH-B
Baexca 1) pacnadeuie cmpanu na Muomecmeo MC.IKUXZ ejiadrbniu,
2) 6uemuxb oduoepejueHuo u noMrbcmtHMU, u lOcydapcmeaMU u
3) naxoduemuxcfi ez eaccaMuuxz omHomeuinxz oduu KZ dpyiUMo.
(,3,pyroe onpefl-kieme: (Jjeo^ajbHoio cncxeMoio nasHBaexca
jieme cipaHH na MnoaiecTBo
rocyflapa cM^niHBajiacB ci> Bjiacitio noM'tmnKa H
iepapxH^ecKOii saBHCHMOCTH O^HH oit ,a;pyrHxi>).
ie npoHcxoayjema (Ijeo.a.ajibHOH CHCieMu (HJIH,
em,e roBOpaxi, npon,ecca (fieodajiu3aii,iu) noMoateT'L nonais H caMyio

cyin,HOCTb 9ioro ycxpOHCTBa.


79. Omueio npouaowAO
-^ *pacnadeuie omdnMuuxb cmpauz HO, ^
. .
(fieo-
HamoHa.ii>-
ejiadrbmn, u na KCLKIH nacmu pacncuucb 9mu cmpanuf HHXI rocy-
AapciBi Ha
pacna^enia 6u.io ocjiafiMnie M6.IK1H
npnqHHOK) (beoiaji&Haro BJi

KOpo.ieecKOu ejiacmu. ilpa KapojiHHraxi, KaK'B H npH MepOBHHrax'B H ia.

KOpo^H B03Harpaat,ii,aJiH sa rocy^apCTBeHHyio c-iyat6y pasdanew se-


M6M H TEH!, HO^pHBaJIH MaiepiaJIBHyK) OCHOBy CB06H CHJIH,
KaK'B EC'S CBOH ^OXO^BI flOJiyHaJIH H31> CO^CXBeEHBIXI. HM-BEUM.
ynpaBJiaBinift o6jiacxBK), sa CBOK> CJiyat6y nojiyiaji'B fieuecfiuu/iu (benefi-
cium), x.-e. nponcxoAHJio locydapcmeeuuou CAyotc6u u
coeduueuie
npn BJia.n'BJiBn.Bi 6eHe$Hn ieB'L, ^BiBinHxi TOJIBKO
^eMi> )

no/KajiOBaHiaMH, H BI TO SRQ BpeMa o6jia^axejiH rocy-


AOJiiRHOCxeH, HaxoflHBmieca, cJi^AOBaxejiBHO, JTHHIB na
jiyffi6'B, oieHB cKOpo o6HapyatH,iH cxpeMJienie o6pa-
u ceou 6eHe(fiuii,iu, u ceou doAwcHOcmu <?s
1
^ajiocB ^ocxnrHyxB xoro HJIH .npyroro ). Past
rpa(|)a ^iwiajiacB nacji'BACXBeHHOH), rpa^'B HS'B
npocxoro npaBHxejia
o6jiacxH cxanoBHJica ea KnaseM-B, H locydapcmeo pacnadajiocb ua
cmoMKO we KHfiotcecmez, CKOMKO &t HCM* 6u^o ipacpcm&t. OAHO-

HacJi'B.aiCXBeHHBiMH c.u'EJiaJiHCB H 6ene(|)Hi^iH, Koxopne cxa.iH


(fieoddMU HJIH MHO,MU (saiiMaMH). KpOMt IHHOBHHKOBI-
6eH6(|)HaiajiOB B,
r

(^eo.a.ajiBHBiMH BJia^jiBij.aMH jjIwiaJiHCB xanate H eo-


ofiwe npynnue seMAewadrbMuu, B-B ^HCJI-B KOxopux-B 6miH, Hanp. 7

enHCKonn, co6opHLie Kannxyjiij H MOHacxBipn. Kopojin cann HOMO-


xaKOMy npeBpameHiro seMjieBJiaA^BueB-B B'B Hacxoam.HX'B npa-

TOM't, HTO AOJatUOCTH H 6eH6(})HHiH CA'^JiaJIHCb HaC.TfcACTBeHHHMH oieHB CKOpO,


ejii.CTByeTi KepciucKiil Kanumyjiapiu (T.-e. H3AaHHbifi BI r. Kepcn) Kapjia .!H-
caro OTI 877 r.; OAHO BpeMH jj,aace Aj'JiajH, ^TO STOTI KaiiHTyjiapifi ysaKOHHji'B Hacjrfcj-
CTBeHHOcxt jo.iaHociefi. ^eoAa-ibKHe B-ia^Jiwiu Bucraaro panra HOCHJIH THTJ-JIH repuo-
roBi H rpac{OBi (HJH MapKipa^OBi-MapKHSOBt, jaH^rpa4>OBi, H n<{)ajibu,rpa({)OB B, BHiie- f

rpa^OBl-BHKOHTOBl).
58

i. BcjTEACTBie o6in,aro pascipoficTBa ynpaBjiema Kopojin HSLI-


H^JKOTOpBIfl nOM^CTLfl H3T. B'Efl'EHia CBOHX1> IHHOBHHKOB'L H
cmaeAHJiu CCIMUMZ seMJiee.tadtbMitaMz noddepwcueamb nopa-
u meopumb cydz &t> uxt noMrbcmwxz. Tama H3T>aTia nojiy-
HasBanie UMMynumema. CeaqaJia HMMynHTeiH ^aBa^HCB npe-
^yxoBHHMt 36M.ieBJiaA'fe^B>n[aMi, Koxopne Boo6iu,e
OOJI-BG yMt.io ynpaBJiflJiH CBOHMH HM-BHIHMH, HO noTOMt HMMyHHie-
TaMH nojiBSOBaiBCfl H cB'BTCKie Be.itMomH. KpoMi Toro, yaie
ciajiH
CJ> AaBHHX-B HOpI. JIfOAH CB06o^HLie, HO 6-BAHH6 H CJia^tie HCKa.IH
samiHTEi OT-L H npHT^CHeniH y .iro^eH CHJI&HBIXI H CoraTtix-B
06H.O;!,

(ne HCKjnoqaa H Kopojefi) H cmanoeujiucb KZ HUMS et oco6un om-


a
mweniH nodnuueHHocmu, ^'LiajHct HXI n jioABMH KaK-B xor^a ro- ,

H 9TO HasBisajocB KOMMeudaui/ieu TaKia OTHomenia 6Bi.in


.

H rocyAapciBeHHBiMH
saKonaMH. Ilpn Kapjrs
(|>panKCKoe BOHCKO cociaBJiajiocB H^B 36MJieBJia^'BJi&n;eB B, i

mnxi, ci co6oK> CBOHX-B ^jno^en". ,U,Jia nocji^Hnxi. TOTB HJIH


a SBIJI-B ceniopOMt, T.-e. CTapiuHM'B, H y Hero 6Bi.ia
HHMH HSB^CTHaa BJiaCTB.
aKHM-B odpasoMi. pacna^enie rocy^apCTBa na (^eo^aji&HLia BJia-
6BiJio wrbdcmeieMK ocjiaGMuw KOpoaeecKOu emcmu, H Ha-
9TOH BJiacTH c^JiajiHCB npaeumejiu ofijiacmeu u npyn-
uue se^Me.iadtbMitiU.
80.
npeAHAymee o^iacHaeii. H TO, KO,KUMI> o6pasoMo npouso-
06pasoBaHie mjl Q uepaspuenoe coeduueme noMSoeanin lociidapcmeenHOw
BJiaCTH nOMX- .'.--. T- y
cz 3eMM8Mon>meMz. BcjiTB^CTBie BosHarpajK^enia sa

cjiyat6y seMJiero KaatABift o6jiacTHOH


nacj'BACTBeHHBiM'B KHflseni,, 6mn, H 3eMJreBJlaJl;'BJrB^eM &, a BCJTBJI;-
r

ciBie HMMyHHTexa H cemopaTa Kaat^uH IIOM^UI.HK'B cxaHOBHJca


npaBHTejieM-B. CMimeHito rocy^apciBeHHaro H noM-femnqBaro npasa
MHOro noMorjro H TO, HTO repMaHn,Li B0o6in;e n/ioxo nonuMa.m pas-
Memdy lOcydapcmeenuuMU u uacmnuMU omnomeninMU. (Ha-
MepOBHHrcme Kopojin fl-EJiHJiH CBoe rocy^apCTBO
6y#TO OHO SBMO HX-B qacTHBiMi,
BTB 3Ty 9noxy 6ujio oSjia^anie 6o.iBiHHM'B KO-
CHJOIO
SGMJIH, a seMJieBJia^'BHie (JBIJIO Tor^a HMGHHO KpynHHM'B

(jiaTH(|)yH^iH, ocTaBiniaca OTT, PHMCKOH BHOXH, H 6eHe<J>Hu.iH, o6pa-

BI> (|)paHKCKOH Monapxin). Oco6BiMH rocy^apCTBaMH


ne TOJIBKO Kna^ecTBa repi^oroBi,, rpa^OB-B, enncKonoB'B
H T. n., HO H 6ojiBHiia noMrbcmbH ofiuKuoeeHmixt ceubepoez HJIH,
HX'B em,e HasBiBaJin, 6aponoez. TaKHXT* ceHBepift HJIH 6aponiH
Macca.
81. Kone^HO, ne Bet ^eo^ajiBHtie Bja^JLi^Bi HM-BJH
59

KOBoe SHaqeme: neatly HHMH CIH.IH (Jo-iiie BaatHbie H CHJiBHue H


MCR-EC suaiHTejiLHHe H doraTBie. TaKi, KaK-L npn yna^Ki o6in,eH

rocy,a;apCTBeHHOfi BJiacin dojrfce CH.TBHBie Boofrnje o6na;aj[H H npn-


60.1^6 cjia6Hxi>, TO nocjindnie uCKa.m saiyumu u no-
y Jiwdeu, nomopue 6u.m cuMHtbe uxt>. ^-BJiajiH xaKT>
a
He TO.I&KO npocTOJno,a;HHH, n KOMMeH^HpoBaBinie ce6a KaKOM
HO H doji-Be Me.iKie ceHBepn no OTHomeHiio EI
T.-e. odnu (peodaAu cmauoeusiucb eaccajiaMU dpyiuxz.
3xo 6u.io npflMoro Heo6xo,a,HMOCTBK) B^ 3noxy nocTOflHHBix
yco6iH, npOHCxoAHBHiKxi. Meat,a;y caMHMH aie <J>eo;i;ajiBHHMH
^aMH: cioBHtHmiH Mort OKasaiB samniy, HO H
j,ociaBHTB noMoin,B. yciaHOB.ieHie Bacca.itHLix^ OTeomemH conpoBO-
H, Hao6oporB nomajiOBaHie (|>eo^;a
BaccajiBnufl OTHonieHia. B'B KOHU.'B KOHI;OBI ecrb no-
cdtbJictAucb (fieodaMU, u naoKduil ceubepz 6uM vbUMv-JiuOo

Morynj,ecTBeHHLie $eo%suiu HM^JH fl 6ojiBmee KO-


.IHHGCTBO saccajiOBi, HO H cairn ciHiajiHCB BaccajaMH,
otcecemepOMz UAU cwsepenoMt, iJiaeoii (foeodajiwou jmcmuuit/bi,
KopoM. Ilpn BTOM^J OAnaKO, 6tuia BOSMomna 6oji&niafl nyiaHHn;a OT-
Houiemft. Hanp., B-B XII B. rpa<J)CTBO IIIaMnaHCKoe COCTOHJO
16 ^epesnoJOCHLixTb TeppnTopin, KOTOPHMH rpacJj'B
.lenaMH OTB ji;ecflTH crosepeHOB-B (T.-e. 6uj[i Bacca.ioM'B .necaTH ceHBe-
poei,); Meat,a;y HHMH 6miH repMancKift HMnepaxopi,, Kopojb <|)paH-

ay3CEiii, repn.or'B 6ypryH^CKiH, a oerajiBHEje SBI.TH OGCTB enncKO-


HOBI. H oflHH'B ad^aT'B, TaKaie, KoneqHO, cann qBH-JH6o BaccajBi, B-B
l
TO ate Bpesis HM-BBmie H ^pyrnxi. BaccajroBi> ). BT. CBOK) oiepe^B

rpac|)CTBO pa3A"BJflJOCB na MiioaiecTBO cenBepiii, B.ia-


KOTOptix-B SBMH Bacca.iaMH rpa(J>a. C^yqaJioCB, ^TO H caMt
flepaia.ii. KaKOH-jiH6o Me.iKin ^eofli. OT-B TOFO HJH ^pyroro
ceHBepa. B'B ^HCTO cxeMaTH^ecKOMi, BH^ <f>eo/i;aj[BHyio iepapxiio
r

o6pa30M B:
1 K P J B

T
CTyneHb.

I" ~l
2 cxyneHb fcpu,ori. fpatpv. EnncKonv

I 1 I 1 I 1

3 CTyneHb. *
J O eg O O
ft O
=8
ft
m w <i

Pan;apH.

CM. uapiy IX.


60

82. BsaHMHBia oxHomema ceHBepa H Bacca.ia (DBLIH

UHUX, WbM?j omHOwenifi locydapn u noddaunaio. Xora


eacccMz H npOHCxo^Hx-B OTX vassus, ixo SHainx-B cjiyia, n Bacca.ii.
HasBisajica wjoeibKOMZ (homo) ceHBepa, HO sa cancan, #4.1$ 910
6HJIH oxHomema paBHBix'B Mea^y codoK),
juo^eii
C-B .apyrous doiooopz, Bt cHJiy Koioparo ciapmiH
MJia^ineMy, a MjaAmin cxapmeMy AOJ^en-B 6HJH> HOMO-
raiB. BTOTI ^oroBop & CKprbn.wMn npucmow ez erbpuocmu, KOiopaa
r

OAHHaKOBO o6fl3HBaJia 064 CTOpOHH. TaKHMt o6pa30Mt B-B OCHOB'B


nojiHTHqecKOH CBHSH Meat^y (^eo.najrBHBiMH BJia^-BJiBuaMH Jieajajro BI>

cym,HOCTH sejiHKoe MHO^GCTBO Hacmnux* doioeopoez omdrbjiwuxo


cenbepoez u eaccaAO&z. Baccaj-B n ^ep3Kaj'B" OT^ CBoero ceHBepa
H dHJIl C-iyaSHTB BT BOHCK-B CGHBepa, BTb H3B4CT-
J(QJ13ReHT>

Jiyqaa^'B OKastiBaiB eny ,n;eHe,JKHyio noMom,B (nanpHM., yqa-


B-B BBiKyni cro H3i HJi-BHa), noMoraxB eMy Ha cy^i H
T. n. Ha ceHBepi xoate JiesRBJin HSB'BCXHBia odasaHHOCxn no OXHO-
inemio KT> Bacca^y, Me^,ny nponHMi, o6fl3aHHOCXB samnmaxB ero;
B-B cjiyiai Ma.aoj'ExcxBa Baccara, ceHBepi. nmsuics ero ecxecxBeH-
HHMI. oneKyHOMi). Baccajin o^noro H xoro me ceHBepa
Mewdy coCoto u a> ceoujuz cemepomb. 3xo
HX-B mpamu (pares, x.-e. paBHBie); ceHBep-B 6BiJii no-
9xoMy jiHfflB nepeuMz Mewcdy paenuMU (primus inter pares). B'B
CJiynai HSM'BHBI saccajra ceHBep'B Mori omnnmb y ueio (fieodt, HO
H Baccajii HM'BJi'B npaBO eoscmamb npomue% cemepa, CCJIH HOCJI'BA-
Hiii nocxynajiTj ci> HHM'B HecnpaBe^JiHBO. Bnpo^eMi>, BC^ cnopn
Mem,o,y (f>eo,a,ajiaMH ^ojiatHBi ^BIJIH pimaxBca cy^OMi. Kaat^HH ceHBep-B
oSasaHi 6ujn> KaKi ^jra pas6opa TR8i6i> Me^^y saccajraMH, xaKT>
H RJIO. paSCMOXp-BHlfl .HpyrHX'B odmBX-B flfcjl'L C03BIBaXB C'B'BS.Zl.H CBO-
Bxo 6BiJio KaKi.-6H co6pameM B ero ^sopa
HX'B BaccajiOBi,. r

H.IH

nypiu. (Ha SXHXI cy^ax^ xbjio pimajiocL cydefiuuMt


Meat^y cxopOHaMH, HSI Koxoparo BOSHHKJia nosAHMma
83*. YcxaHOBJieHie ^eo^ajiHSMa ^BIJIO Henocpe,a;cxBeHHBiMi pe-
O6mifi
B3rjiaAi>3y n)TaTOM1]b
ij
BHvxpeHHflro pasjioatemfl rocyAapcxBi.
Ha B03HHKHO- J . -r.

4>eoji;a-
H3i MonapxiH Kapjra BejiHKaro, HO B'B cym,HOCxH
ceoujuucmopOHdMU (fieoda.iuaMZ eocxodumz KZ epeJuenaMZ PUMCKOU
UMnepiu u dpeeue-iepMaucmio 6uma. Kpynuun noMncmbx (jiamu-
(fiyudiu) Ha sana^i EBPOHBI Be,nyTi CBoe Haiajio eme HS-B anoxn
PHMCKOH HMnepin, H yate xor.ua B'B 3XHXT> KpynHBixi>
cxajo pasBHBaxBca Me^noe xoamcmeo npHKp'BHJieHHBix'B
KpecxBani (KOJionatm). Kor^a repMaiiqu Sana. npOBHHn,iH HMnepiH,
OHH OHCHB 6BlCXpO OCBOHJHCB C^ xaKHM-B n036MeJIbHLIM B yCXpOH- 1

CXBOMI., npH neifB HX'B cejiBCKaa o6in,HHa npnnija B-B ynaAOKi>. TaKi.
61

Bt noc-TE^ma BpeMena PHMCKOH HMnepin


yate
H xoproBJia naxoflOHCb BI ynaflidj, H xaKi. Kaifb BapBapu, He
3HaBmie HHOFO xosaftcxBa, KpOMi seioe.zvBJibqecKaro, ne MOFJIH ocjra-
6nxb rocnoflCTBa axoro xossftcxBa, TO BT> nxt rocyflapcxBax-b seujie-

e,iadimie u nojiyuuAo nepeeucmeywu^ee suaueme, pas^aqa ate 6ene-


TOJILKO yeejiwium u 6esz moio fio.muoe Ko.imecmoo npyn-
CT> Apyron
seMMe.iadrbdbu/e&t. ciopOHH, yate Bt pnMCKyio
anoxy H CBotfoflHtie JHO^H, He HM^Binie SCMJIH, H MejiKie co6cTBen-

HHKH, Hyat,n,aBniiecfl BTB samHTi, ucKa.iu noupoeumeMCmea CUMHUXZ


u 6oiamuxi> seM.ieojiaeAadrb.iwe&b, Hepi^KO nepe^asafl HMX CBOC HMy-
in,ecTBO.rocy^apCTBeHHaa BJiacib 6opojiacb xor^a c^ TaKHMi> cxpe-
MjieHieMi)BI napo^'B, HO nocjii na^eHm HMnepia, B^ anoxy CMyrt
3TO CTpeMJieHie TOJIBKO ycHJiHJiocb. KoMMeH^ai^ifl 6ujia TOJibKO npo-
ciaparo o6biqafl, HO ona HM-fejia H ApyroH HCTOHHHK!) &b
omuoweHitiocK caMuxz lepMauy/eez, noiOMy ITO H s^^cb
u
nopyiajTB ce6a ^pyroMy, CTaHOBH.ica ero ,,B'EpHijM b
r

cjiyaje6HHKOMi. (eaccaaoMb), HaKonen.'b, em,e pHMCKie HMnepaiopbi


BpeMen-b HaiajiH ycTynaib Hrbuomopun USK
npae* npynuuMZ seMMeAadrbMi^aMZ, Bosjaran na HHXI
co6paTb Hajiorn HJH nociaBJiflTb cowri, Ha6jno,iiiaTb sa
H HaKasbiBaTb sa MCJime npociynKH. Ha^o^HOCTb BI
H-BKOTOPHXTB oCflsaHHOCTefi rocyAapCTBCHHHxi)
KOBI, noM^ni,HKaM'b TOJibKO ycHjiHjiacb npH BapBapCKHxi Kopojiax-b,
H HMMyHHTerb jiHHib saBepuiHJii) npoujecci), HaqaBffliHCfl em,e ET>
pHMCKyro 9noxy. TaKHM-b ofipasoMi, npn HMnepin yate
6u saqaTKH (J>eoAajibHHX'b ceHbepift B-b BH^ KpynHbixi,
C!> 3aBHCHMbIMl> HaCCJieHieMl H Cl> Cy^e6H
B.iacxbK) noM-BmHKOBi,. IIpH BapBapcKHXi> KOpojiflX'b sma
M0i.ia moMKO paseueamwfi, noiony ITO repMaHCKift CLITI Morb
coAiiicTBOBaTb ^aJibflMnieMy pasBHiiio H Kpynnaro
(pas^aqeio o'eHeifmH.ieB'b), H ^acTHoii oneKH HOM'BIIIHKOB'B
CBo6o^HbiM b HacejienieMT, (HeoSesneqeHHOCTbio JIHIHOCTH) H pacraH-
r

peniio nx-b BJiaciH (no HeyM'BHiro OTJiHiaTb qacTHbia OTHomeHifl orb


rocy^apCTBeHHHXi). repMann,M CMOTP'BJIH Ha
ynjiaiy na- BCflKyio
jora, KaKi. Ha npHsnairb HecBo60AH,
noiOMy ne xomtbAua CCIMU
H.fanmmb naAOioez, I-EMI JiHHia.iH Kasay AOXO^OBX; KpOM-fe xoro, H
na Kuwcdaio njiamHiyaio ofipow sa aeMAw onu CMomprbJiu, Kam>
na ympamuewaio Aunuyw coo6ody. HaKOHen,!), BI cxapOH repnaH-
CKOH Apyavimi BBipa6oTa.iHCb omnoiueniH saeucu.itocmu, KOTOPBIH
no repMaHCKOMy B3r.ia.aiy npHJHiecxBOBa.iH H CBo6oAHtiMi>
H Koxopua .ler.iH BHOWBACXBIH BI> ocHOBy Baccaanxexa.
62

Bdk onHcaHHbia aBJiema Ha6juo,naK>Tca ein,e BI>


MepOBHHrcKyio
anoxy. HepBbie KapojiHHrH H oco6eHHO Kap,ii BejrHKift aadepwcuu
npou/ecco pasjiosKema rocyjuapCTBa, HO OKI. T^M-B He neH^e
H npa HHXI>. Kor^a ci. KapojiHHraMH cjiyiH-iocb TO ate,
ITO H ct MepOBHHraMH, x.-e. Kor,a;a BJiacTb nxt noiepajia BcaKyro
MaTepiajbHyio ocHOBy, a deHe<j)Hn,iajibi, HaoSopOTt, yxBep^HjH 3a coooio
1
CBOH ^ojiatHOCTH H 3CMJIH, npou,ecc?> (peodaJiusauiu saeepwujica ).
84. 3>eoda,MHaR mbc,muu u a, ceu^epoez u eaccado&t onupajiacb
r
t

00111,6 CTBO.
euusy ocmciMHyw Maccy naceMHin. ^eo^ajiHBMi) pisKO
HO,
. ..
^
HacejieHie cipaHii Ha KMCCZ iocnoa^ u KAaccz npocmojwounoez.
cocTaBjaJii. SHaib HJIH 6jiaropoji;Hoe cocjiOBie, cocjOBie JIK)-
poAOBHTHxt (gentiles homines, oiKy^a ^paHDi. gentil homme),
KOTOparo H npoHsoniJio nos^nMrnee deopaucmeo. 3xo
scero cocaoeie eoenuoe, KOiopoe ^ojiatno 6HJio
ocmajiwoe uaceMnie. Ki. KJiaccy rocno^t npHHa^eaiajio H Bticmee
^yxoBeHCTBO, TO ate ooJiaAaBinee (Jteo^aMH H BEiCTaBJiaBmee
KOB^ <y& CBOHXt sene.ib (HacToani,HM &
r

npH3BaHieMi>
cqHTajiac& MOAumea). Bca ocTa.ibHaa nacca, T.-e.

H Haxo^HJiacB BI saBHCHMOCTH OTTE,


TOproBii,Bi, rf)eo-
H odasaaa 6mia CBOHMT. Tpy^OMi KOpMumb ceubepoaz u dy-
. TaKHMt o6pa30M L (

(|)eoji,ajibHoe o6ni,ecTBO pacna,/i;a.iocb na


KJiacca, H3-B KOTOpbixi O^HHI, MOJiHJica, Apyrott cpaatajca, a

OTHomema Meat^y ciosepeHaMH H BaccaJiaMH


MHOwecmeoMo o6unaee'b u o6pado&T>. YcTanoBJieHie Baccajb-
HOH CBasH conpoBoatAa.iocb TaKHMi> o6pa^OMi,: Baccaji
na KOJTEHH nepe.n'B ciosepeHOMi, H Kjiajrb CBOH pyKH EJ> ero
"
9TO 6tMO paBHOCHJibflHM'B o6^aBJieHiio ce6a nejiOB'BKOM'B (homo)
ceHbepa, OTKy^a H nasBame npncarn homagium (HJH hommage).
CeHbepi. n; BJiOBajii npn STOMI. CBoero Baccajra H pfajiann* eny KaKOH-
r

jm6o no^apOKt, CHMBOJiHSHpoBaBHiiii tljeoA'B (KOJibijo, nepqaray H T. n.).


Yate BTOFO Baccajt CKpinjiajii) CBOK> npe^aHHOCTb npHcaroro
nocji'ij

BI> BipnocTH (foi). ^eoAajibHoe npaso BbipaSoTajio u^jiuu Kodenci


o6H3dHHOcmeu ceuiepa u eaccaaa. HanpHMip^,
noMoraTb cenbepy na BOHHi He nenie copOKa
6LJJII)
2
ro^y, BbiKynaTb ero H3i> njina ), aBjaTbca BI, Kypito fljia no-
no KpafiHefi M'fcp'B, TPH pasa BI> ro^ H T. n.

repMaacKaro npOHCxoac^CHia. TaKOBH HMCHHO


J
) HtKoxopae TepMHHH ^eoAa-iHSMa
:
(|>eoAt, BaccavTi, 6apOHt H T. n.
2
) ^exHpe ,,([)eoAajbHHXi cjy^iaa", Kor^a Hyxna 6n.ia ^eneatHaa noMomb: n.itHi,

ceHbepa, Bbixo^t .nonepH ero 3aMyxi>, nocBameHie cbina BI> pbmapn H yiaciie Bt Kpe-
CTOBOMi
63

85.
^eoAa-iBHBie ceHBepu CBMH BI odmeni. cocjioeieM*
npuen-^
jmupoeanmixb eounoez. OAHOIO npHiHHT> pasBHxia HX^ B.iacxn
TUSK 3noxH.

HacejreiiieM'B OXA'BMBHBIX'B MicxHOCxefi 6u.io TO, ixo OHH a

m,a.iH ero OX-B pasnaro pOAa nanaAeniii H HamecTBift. PaAH axoro caMO
Hace.ieme iiOMora.no HMI cxponxB yKptbnMHuue SCIMKU, KyAa BX CJIY-
Ha,oio6HOCTH MoatHO 6mio cKpiiBaxtCfl. OflnaKO, 9XH ase saMKH no-
ceHtepaMi, Kponi xoro, oxcxaHBaxs CBOK> HeaaBHCHMOCXB OX-B
rocyAapcxBa H yKpljii.zmxB CBOIO BJiacxB naA*B OKpecxntiMH
CAijaBiuHCB rocyAapflMH, (|)eo,a;ajiBHBie ceiiBepBi cxa.in eecmu
coSow eoiimi, nana^axB ^pyrx na Apyra H rpadaxB BJiaA'BHia CBOHXI>
HenpiaxejieH. B-B noBO,a,ax'B K-B ^acxHiiMi. BOHnaM'B ((fadaMz) He 6ujio
cann ^eoiajiBHHfl oxHomeHia HX'B qacxo BBi3BiBajin,
te

nanpHM'Bp'B, oji,Ha cxopona napymajia BaccajBHBift .noroBOpi,.


yco6H^BI ^HJIH Hacxoflm.HM'B dnqeMx ^a Mnpnaro nace-
jrema. Ha noMomB KX neMy npmn.ia', OAHaKO^ u,epKOBB, Koxopaa nocj-fe

Hey#a4HBix'B nonBixoK'B o6m,aro Mnpa orpamiqHJiacB


ycxaHOB^eHia
nepejuupin Eomin
(treuga Dei), cocxoflBinaro B-B sa-
nana^axB Ha HPOTHBHHKOBX H Boo6m,e BoeBaxB BI AHH ne-
nocBflin,eHHBie BOcnoMHHaHiEO o cxpaAaHiax-B, CMepxn H BOCKpe-
CnacHxejia. $eoAajiBHoe ono-Meme COCXOBJIO rjraBHBiM-B o6pa-
30Mi> mi> KOHHHH,BI, H caMoe HasBanie ecaduma, ujiu puit/apn (H'BM.
Ritter, x.-e. Reiter) cxajio odosHa^axB co6oio uuswie paspndu $eo-
deopnucmea. Ho puijapCKoe ssanie nojiynnjio H Apyroe
PBin,apH CA^Jia-iHCB ci xeiemeMi) BpeiienH nonemnuMo
coc^oeieMZ, Bcxymreme B'B
Koxopoe coBepnia.iocB nocpeA-
ocodaro o6paAa nocefnuema H npHnaA-ieatHocxB KI KOXO-
najiarajia noduuneuie merbcmmiMK uucmo npaecmeeunbiMo
oanisiMK. CBIHOBBS pLmapeft (d&Mya,30, x.-e. rocnoA^HKH, (5ap-
BOCHHXBiBajiHCB npH ABOpaxi. 6yAyin,HX'B CBOHXI ceHBepOBi BI,
npHBHjerHpOBaHHBix'B cjiyri (naweu) H opywceHOcy,e67>,
noKa ne nojiy^ajiH pimapCKaro nocBflni,eHifl CT> codjuoACHieMi) AO-
BOJIBHO CJIOJEHOH o6pflAHOCxu, HM^BHieH pejiHriosHBiH xapaKxepx. Ilo-
CBflmaeMbiH nasajn* npn 9xoMi> puu,apcme ofinmu 3ain,Hin,axB u,ep-

KOBB, BAOB1, H CHpOXI., B006m,e B'C'BX'B H6BHHHO yrHexeHHBlXX, TO-


BopnxB BcerAa npaBAy, co6jnoAaxB Aannoe CJIOBO, Hs6'BraxB HCIH-
CXBIXI. cnoco^OB'B oCorau^eHifl H x. n. /KHSHB BBipa6oxajia Aante T&-
JIBIH PHAI> o6HiaeB'B oco6oft pMif/apCKOii necmu u etbwcAueocmu BT>
Aaase KX npoxHBHHKaM-B. Oco6eHHO pasBHjiocB BI> PBI-
atJiBBoe o6pain,eHie ex AaMawn, x.-e. rocnoataMH (dame
oxi jax. domina),nepeuieAniee Aaaie B'B ocodun KyMim daMU.
,3,ajrEe, KaatABift pBin,apB HMiju. npaBo na iep6t, KaK-B na CBOK)
9M6.ieMy HJIH OXJHIHXeJIBHWH 3HaK-B. EnpOqCMX, pBlUapH, BIIO.IH'B
64

CBoeny H#ea.iy, Bcxp^qajiHCb 6o.ibine B-L

nod.riu, TEMI. dmicmeumejimocmu. CBOC Bpewa puijapH


B-B

B-B BOHHaX-B, Ha OXOT-B H B"B npHM'EpHHX'B


6HTBaXl>, DO-
nasBame mypuupoen. YMCXBenHaa HX-B Kyjibxypa 6bLia
oienb cja6oro, a oxHoineme KB noflB.iacxHbiM'b ,/jajieKO He (>bi.io

HcnojHeHieM'B oft'Exa samBmaub cJiaCbix-b H yrHeTeHHtixi*.


86. ycTaHOBjreme ceHbepi>flji&HOH BJiacin ypaenum nojiowenie
Ce.iBCKoe ecrbxt KJiaccoez ceMcm^o naceMuiH ceuwpiu. KpecxBancTBO Aeo-
* *
#a>JH>HOH anoxH oopasoBajiocb HB-B HOTOMKOB'L KaKx paoo&z u KOAO-
ceHi,epiH. UOGK em;e PHMCKHXI, BpeneHi, xaK^ H HSTE. ^esse^e^&wwrcg w^w jwa^o-
seMeMHuocz ceofiodnuxt BapBapCKoft 9noxn. Pa^H H KOJIOHLI c^ ca-
naro Haiajia ne nojiBSOBajiHCb rpaat^ancKOio CBo6ojiiOH), CBo6o,a;Hiae
a?e CCIMU saKpnnoiyajiucb nyxeM-B KOMMeH^a^H. CenbepT,
H rocy,a;apeMi, H seMJieBjia.ai'kibn.eM'b, H rocno^HHOMi>
.no^efi, BC^XI, ypaBHHBajn. no^ CBoero BJiacibro. CejibCKoe Hace-
.iHie ox^'BJibHbix'B ceHbepiii cJi^Jiajiocb KpinocTHEiMT). Bua.ianu,
KaK'b HXI xenepb HastiBajiH, ^LTJIH B^ jiyqmeM'b nojio^eHiH, ^-BMT>
pa6H, HO Bce-xaKH HXI* nojioiKeHie 6buro TaatejHM'B. CeHbepti
B6JIH X03HHCTBO JIHfflb Ha He3HaiHT6JIbHOH ^aCTH CBOHXl 3eM6JIb,
Sojibmaa ate HXI> qacib cocxoajra HS^ Me^nuxi xosHucme* KpecmwH-
CKUOCZ. BHJIJiaHH HJiaTHJIH Cl CBOHXt ynaCTKOBl o6pOKU H OT6bIBaJIH

6apw<uHy, T.-e. pa6oTajiH na SCMJI-B cenbepa, H XOTH


oopOKa HJIH pa6oTti 6ojrbiueio lacxbio onpe^tjifljiocb ofiunaeM?,,
ne MCH^e nep-B^KO ceHbepBi Tpe6oBajH xoro HJH ^pyroro no CBoeMy
yCMOTp BHiK). Ob SPyrOH CTOpOHLI, KpeCTbflHe, ./KHBHlie BI> O^HOMl H
r

ate cejremH, oSpasoBbiBajiH HSI ce6a ceMCKin ofiM/urni, coo6ma

pasHbiMH yro^bHMH H #arae sanpaBjaBmia CBOHMH BHyxpeH-


HHMH ^JiaMH.
87. Oco6eHHOCTbio ^eo^ajibHaro seMjreB.ia-j'EHia 6mio TO, HTO
naotcduu depwaM 3eMJiw omz K0io-Mt6o eucwciio. CBodo^Haa co6-
cTBeHHOCTB Hciesjia saM-BHHJiacb coficmeeHHOcmbw yc.wouow. Ilpeat-
JH

fl nOBHH- flie CB06o^HLie C06CTB6HHHKH HpeBpailjaJIH CBOH 36M.IH


TH '

BaeMLie ajiodu) VL 6eH6(|)Hi^iH ox^aBaa ce6a no^^ oneny


;

a KpynHLie e^ttJ^BJia^JBrpBi xoate


KHMI Jiio.n.aM'b. 3a CBOH ^eo^i, Kaat^wH ^o.iateH'b 6Lui> neciH HS-

B'BCTHyio CJiyat6y. Ha xaKHx-b ate ycjroBiax'b ,nep?Ka.iH SCMJIIO H


Kpecibane, HO TOJIBKO OHH we cdywcujiu, a njiamujiu u^u pa6o-
majiu. CBOH o6pOKH OHH BHOCHJIH 6ojbHieio qacibio He AeHbraMH,
a namypow (XJI^OMX, CKOTOMT, H T. n.). Bapm,HHa cocioajia ne
To.ibKO H3i> nojieBbix'b pa6oii> na ceHbepa, HO H HS^ padoii. no

nOCTpOHK'B HJEH HOIKHK-B SaMKOBl, H T. TL. IIOKa ^ep/KaiCJIb 36MJIH


CBOH o6a3aHHOCTH, seM.ia ocxaBajacb sa HHMI> H nepe-
65

xodiua noHac.ubdcmey ort OTija KI CHHy. TaKHMt


6C.1H KpeCTbaHHH'b H 6u.ll. npHKp'fcnJieH'b KT. 3eM.lt, TO H
6bi.ia Ki H6My npuKpn>njiena. ITpaBa ceHbepa no OTHOinemio KI
KpecitflHHHy orpanHqHBajHCb OAHOIO CBHSLIO HX-L no seMjrfc.
ne
CeHbep'b 6ujii> H rocyflapeini BI CBoeMi BjaA^niH, a no OTHome-
Hiio K!> H'BKoiopbiM'b KiaccaMi cejibCKaro Hace.iema ero BJiacib
HM^jia flaate xapaKiepi, BJiacxH padoB.ia.a.'E.ibna. BI Ka^ecTBi ro-

ceHEepi. MOF-B ycxanaBjiHBaTb KaKia eny yroji;HO 6mro nojiaiH


cyjjapfl
H no^HBHTb KpecTBflHi KttKUMZ yioduo pacnopnmeuifiMb, BT> po^i,
HanpHM'Bp'B, o^flsaHHOCTH MOJiOTb sepHO HeupeM^HHO Ha cenbepba.ib-
HOH MejTbHHn.'E H neHb xjidi BI> ceHbepbfljibHOH ne^H (GanaAumemu)
HJH no HOiaMTb M^niaTb jiflryinKaM'b CBOHMI> KBaKanbeMi, napymaib
COHI, o6HTaTejreH saMKa. B^ KaqeciBi rocy^apa ate cenbepi,

pasHHMH nonuHHaMH, mipa^aMH H T. n. Bi caMOM-b


axo^HJiHCb T-B KpecmbHne, nomopue cocmoH.<iu KO,KZ 6u
<?5
paficKOMz noAOwcemu (cepeu). Cenbepi. 6biJii. .njia HHX'b He
HO H rocno^HHOMt. Tame
seMjeB.ia.ai'BJibi^eMx-rocyAapeMi,
BO 4>paHn,iH HasbisajHCb MeuMopmafijiHMU (MepiBOpyqHHKaMH),
HXI n pyKa dwjia nepTBa", Hio6bi nepe^asaTb HOCJI-B ce6a
'ETaM'b. OHH HC MOMH H BCiynaib BT, 6paKH Ses'L co-

r.iacia CBonx'b rocno.a.'b, a Kor,a;a cepBi, o^Horo cenbepa ateHHJica


na KpinocTHOH Apyroro, TO ^-BTH OTI Tanoro 6pana ^^HJiHCb no-
pOBHy MCJEfly O^OHMH TOCnO^aMH.
_-.
88. Fopoda moofce eowm 6* oGutyw Seodcuimyw cucmeMy. BJIftCTt
Booon^e ropo^CKOH OEIT-B npamejH. BI yna^OKi, em,e B-b 3noxy Bap-
KopojieBCTB^, H cejibCKaa atasHb Bsajia nepeB'BC'b Ha^i ro-
$eoAajrbHLie ceHbepn SKHJIH B^ saMKax-b cpe^a CBOHX^ no-
.

c-b CBOHMH .npy^HHaMH H cJiyraMH. IIocToaHHbie Sesnopa^KH H

BOHHH HanecjiH cipaniHEiH ydapb mopioeMfb. UpOMuuMeuHOcmb manofce


ynasia, T^MI dojite, HTO ^eoflajibHbie BJia^jbi^bi B'b qncjit CBOHXI
cjyrb HM'BJH H peMecjeHHHKOB i, pao'oTaBnmx'b Ha HHXI
H Ha BCK) HXI ^BOpHio. Bcjii^CTfiie 8Toro H Hacejenie
yMeHbfflHJiocb. Gb pa3Apo6jieHieM b CTpaHbi na (J)eo,zi;ajrbHHa
r

ropo^a oqyiHJiHCb no^ B.iacTbio OT^.'BJibHbix'b ipacfio&z, BO MHornxi.


ate ropoflax-b yTBep^Hjacb BJiacTb enucKono&t. ttojiowcznie lopoofcam
nosmoMy yxydwujiocb, TaKi. KaKi, Hep^AKO rpa^Li H enncKonbi cipe-
MHJHCb HH3B6CTH H rOpO^CKOe HaceJICHie Ha CTCnCHb BHJIJiaHOBI,.
89. ^eo^aJiHSM-b npH^aj-b ocoduft xapaKTep-b H caMoS KaTOJiH-
.
T-,
qecKOH n,epKBH. Bbicniie ^yxoBHbie caHOBHHKH, T.-e. apxienucKonbi,
enucKonu u afifiambi, a mawice mnumyau l ) cofiopuuxz u/epneeu cdtb-
co(5opOBT> HOCHT-B BI KaxoaHiecKOH n,e]n;mi
uie KUHOHUKOffb, KOJ.ierin Koxopuxi, H na.'iHBaiOTca
HCTOPW.
66

mowe tpeoda.ibmiMU ceubepaMU, BJia.a.'ExejiaMH KHaacecxB-L,


H Hace.ieHHBix'B noM'tcxiS, %HMH-jiH6o Bacca.iaMH H cro-
co6cTBeHHLix^ BaccajiOB-B, paBno Kau-B H rocno^aMH Kpii-
nocTHoro Hacejiemfl. 9xo npOHsomjio Bc.ii^CTBie xoro, ixo eni,e BT>

npeABiflyinyK) anoxy nepKOBB H MonacxupH ejiadn>.m GOMWUMU se-


MJWMU: pasi. Kaat,piH KpynHBiH seM.aeBJia.a.'EJien.'B cxanoBHJca (|)eo^a.ib-
HBIMT, cenbepoM'B, TO A^a-icH HMI H enncKorr&, H a66aTi,. CaMH ,T,V-

XOBHHH HMym,ecTBa o6pa30BajiHCB H3*B nofflepTBOBaHifl, .napemH H


nocMepTHHxi) saB'smaHift na noamm, .nymn. Mejime co6cTBeHHiiKH,
KpOM-B TOrO, OXOTHO KOMMeH^HpOBaJHCfc I^epKBH, OT^aBaa 6H CBOH
yqaciKH, KoxopBie nojiynajrH noxoM'L oOpaino B'B (j)opM'B 6eH6({)Hn,ieB'B.
Bl aepKOBHHXT, H MOHaCTBIpCKHXI. HMiniflMI, paH^G BCerO HOflBH-
JIHCL H TaKi. HastiBaeMHe HMMyHHTeifj. HaKonen;!., B'B ropoAax'B eme

npn PHMCKOH HMnepiH enucnonu UBCAU ua ce6rb HrbKomopun uucmo


npaeume.vbcmeeHH'biH ofixsaunocmu, qio TO.IBKO ycH.!HJiocb BO
MepOBHHroBi> H Kapo.iHHroB%. B'B ^eo^ajiBHyK) anoxy enncKoni.
jajcfl yate ripflMO AyxoBHBiM^ rpa^OM-B H BaccajiOMi. Kopojra (HJH
Apyroro Bjiaji.'BJiBn.a). Ha enncKoncxBO H./IH a66axcTBO cxajiH CMOX-
p-BXB, KaK-L na 4)eo#'L H 3xo coBepmeHHO ucmsujio cyw^ecmeo dy-
j

xoenaio caua. Ho cxeneHH o6pa30Banifl H o6pasy JKHSHH enHCKonu


H a66axBi HHor,o,a HHH&MT> He oxjinqaJiHCB OT-B CB^XCKHX-B fyeon&jiQBi,.
9O. Xapamnepz KOpOMecnou eAacmu mowce usMtbuuMx nodz
6MHHieM?> (fieodamsMa. KopojiH rocy^apcxB'B, ocHOBaiiHBix-B Bapsa-
Hapxia.
p aMH ^
f)LI(IH O^HOH CXOpOHBI, pUMCKUXZ UMH6pa-
HaCJli^HHRaMH, C"B

mopoez, ci.
flpyrofi lepMauocuxz Kouymoffb. B'B ncxopiH KOpojreB-
CKOH BJiacxH npn MepOBHHraxi. H KapojiHHrax B Bcer^a saM-B^aexcn r

9ia ^BoifcxBeHHOCiB, noKa (J>eoAa.TH3Mi> ne coodmnjrB BXOH Bjracxn co-


BepmenHO ocotftift xapaKxepi,. Hpn HOBOM-B nopaAR'B semen,

nodz ceoew emcmbw oduo urn (fieodctMuuxz


y nero He 6BiJio 6BiHHKaKOH CHJIBI, HHKaKOft onopBi.
(|>eojiia,iBHBiH KOpojiB yate He 6uJi% HH aocojuoxiiBiM-B rocy^apeMi, PHM-
CKOH 9HOXH, HH HapO^HBIMI, BOJKAGM-B 3HOXH repMaHCKOH, a JIHIHB
uiaeow (peodaAwou jirbcmnuwi. Y nero ne 6Bi.io noAAaHHBix'B HJIH
Hapofla, a 6BMH JTHHIB KpynHBie H MejiKie BaccajiBi, no oxHomeHiio KT>
KOXOpBIM-B OH-B CaMl SBMTb M6WCdy pOBHUMU. Ec.lH
TOJIBKO nep6UM?>

eny HyatHO ^BIJIO H3ji;axB KaKoe-JiH6o o6m.ee pacnopaateme, OHI, RQJI-


ateni 6BiJii cosBisaxB CBOHXI BaccajroB'B H HcnpaniHBaxB HX^ cooacie.
TaKOBoe co6panie yate He dBwo HH APGBRHMX BijieirB, HH n Map-
XOBCKHMX HOJICM-B" (fpanKCKaro KOpOJieBCXBa, HH C-B^SAOM-B CB-BXCKHXT,
H flyXOBHBIX'B CaHOBHHKOB'B 9HOXH Kapjia BeJIHKarO: 8X0 6BI.10 CO- -
6pame caMocxoaxejibHBix'B BJia^Bi^eB-B, ci> KOXOPHMH IIX-B ciosepen-B
Bt pasuLia #oroBopHBia corjauiemH. UocTaHOBjieHiH, BOS-
Tannin. nyieM-L, ne UMtb.tu 6oMwou CUAU H qacio na-

pyma:iHCB.
91*. XOTJI BOSHHKX H pasBHJica B-B cipaHaxi, o6pa-
(J)eo,najiH3M'B Pacnpocipa-
T-> -rr neuie (beo-
30BaBmHXCJi H3-L iiMnepm Kap.ia BejiHKaro, HO OH'B nojiyiHJi'L pac- Aaj(I)H H Xl
npocTpaneme H BH'B BTHX-L npe^iOBi.. Hat FepManiH MHorie (J>eo-
jajLHEie nopa^KH nepeiiiJH KT> ea coc^flMx, T.-e. ;a eempctMZ, CAa-
HmaMz u cmnduuaeaMb Ci> ^pyroii ciopOHH, (|)paHi],y3CKie p&in,apH
BI> cepe^HH-B XI B. saBoeBajH Anum H wwcuyw Hma.riw, Ky.ua
nepeHec.o (|)eoAaJBHHfl yqpea:ACHia. TaKHMi> ofipasoMi <|)eo-
^
napodoer, sanaduou Eeponu aejieHieMt 06-
Ho H BI HOBHXI> M^ciaxx OBI npio6p'BTaji'L pasjinqHHH xa-
paKiept. HaKOHeui), BI> 3noxy KpecTOBtixi. EOXO;I;OBI> sana^Hoe pn-
EBO^HJIO (|)eo^;ajfcHyio cncxeMy H BI sesuiflxi HMI> saBoe-
Bi> CnpiH c% ITa.iecTHHOH H Ha Ba.iKaHCKOM
r

, no.iyocTpOB'B. jE>

92*. ^eo^a.iHSM'B pasBMca JTHIHI, IIOC.TE pacnajieHiH nonap-


xin Kapja BejHKaro, HO BI.
cymnociH OHI, nodiomoe.iH.tcsi eiye

npu MepoeiiHiaxt. OHI. ^MJII, pesyjitTaTOMi) Ha^ema Ha Sanaa's


wcydapcmea u ueyMnuifi eapeapoei cnpaeumwH cz sa-
ynpaeACHiH Go.ibwuMu cmpanaMu. Bib BnsaHTiH, HaoOopoii,
H crapaa B.iaci&, H npe^Hie nopa^KH ynpaBJienia, a no-
TOMy 60 ueu ne GUJIO (peodaamMa. Bi, BTOMT. rocy^apcxB-B,
aiaBffleMi co6oio BocioiHyio PnMCKyio HMnepiro, Toate
CB-BTCKaa SHaiB H 6oraiaa seMJiaMH n,epKOBB, KOiopna npn

ycJtOBiaxT. paBHBiM^ odpasoM-L MOFJIH 6n o6pa30BaiB cocjOBie


HBIXl. CGHBepOB-B, T^MI, 60JTfie, ^TO H 3^CB COAep^aflla BOHCKa
fl,JlH

BoenHBiMi Jiro^aMi, noM^CTBa, HO HMnepaiopBi CBOHM-B


H
ynpaBJienieM't c^ep^HBajrH BejiBMoati. OTX
BCaKHX'B TaKHXT) ^MCTBifi, KOTOpBia MOFJIH 6BI VCHJIHTB HXl B.iaCTB
BI ymep6-B BjaciH H GAHHCTBV rocyAapCTBa.
93*. $eo^ajiH3M'L sa Sanaa's yTBep^HJca B-B X XI B P arH
BB., ^ep^
ata^caHa HSB-BCTHOH BLICOT-B BX XII XIII BB. H ciajrB na^aTB
BT, XIV XV BB. r^aeHbiMu epaiaMU $eoda,jiu3Ma 6um 3dnci> KO-
po.m u lopoofcaue. KopOJiH ne MOFJIH MHPHTBCB ex T^MI nojroate-
BI. KaKoe HXI. CTaBHJn>
$eo,a;ajiH3Mi.; noaioMy OHH EGJIH c'B

6opB6y, BI KOTOpofi HMi, noMorajiH Miucmu, T.-e.


HsyiaBmie PHMCKOB npaBO H BtiHOCHBuiie HS-B aioro
udew locydapcmea. KopoJiH npn BTOMT, BBinojinajiH mpou-
nyw sadany: OHH o6ie^HHa.in cipany B-B OAHO rocy^apcxBO, OTHH-
Ma. y KpynHHXT> 36M. ieBjaji, BJrBn,eB B npasa, npHHa&iejKamia TO.I&KO
i
< r

rocy^apaMi,, H HOA^HHOH nenocpe^CTBeHHO CBoen B.iacTH Bacca-


.IOB-B H EHJuraHOB-B, saBHC'BBiHHx^ npeaiAe JZHHIB OTB CBOHX-B ceHBe-
5*
68

He xoxtjiH MHpnxBca ex CBOHMX no.ioateHieMx pannuM^ 06-


H ropoatane, TOJEC BCxynnBinie Bnocj'B.nCTBiH B-B 6opb6y ex
ipOMX. HiTB XOX&IOCB OCB06o,HHXBCa OTTE,
,n.iia Toro, qxo6Bi ycxponiB caMOcmoHmejibHux
BX KOXOpBIXX BCi 6iMH 6u CB06o^HBI H KOTOpBIfl CaMH
6u CBOHMH ^ijiaMH. 9ia 6opi>6a ci $eo,a;ajiH3MOM'B
pasi. B-B TO canoe BpeMa, Kor^a (|)eo^ajBHoe ptmapCTBO
HHMa,io HOBLIH H HOBHfl

n.

94*. Bx pasHiixx HacTflxx Monapxia Kapjia BejHKaro

ROCTI* OTHO"
nojiy 3HJ B
i
r

HeoiHHaKOBBiH xapaKTepx. PoMaucKiH cmpauu


I (HmaMH u 3>panu,iH) cfieodoAusupoeajiucb u panbwe, u
6bicmptbe,
* . Bi. HTa.iin .naate ncqesjia KopojieBCKaa Bjacib. Bo
rep- - :
ona BI> HOJELIH H BI EOHq'B
- v
A B.
npnniJia yna^OKi>,
(987) nepeHecena ex Kapo-MHroBx, pacxepaBmnxx BC-B CBOH
6BiJia

3CMJIH, Ha HOByro ^HHacxiio BX JTHH.'B o^Horo HSX IHCXO <|>eo,a;a.iB-


HBIXX ceHBepOBx, Tyiona, Ranema. Bx xeieme scero XI Etna Ka-
nexHHrn ocxaBajiHCB BX CVIHHOCXH repnoraMH OAHOH He6ojiB-
JTHHIB
moft odJiacxH (EfjEB-^e-^paHca), H KOpojaMH XOJIBKO no HMCHH.
CJBIJIH

TiMx BpeMeneMx FepMania eme He pacnajiacB na C.IHHIKOMX Me.i-


Kia BJia^Hia, Kanx 9x0 H BX Heii npOHSonuio nos^Hie, HO H
B03BHCHJIHCB repnorH
L
6ojiBniHxx njreMeHHHXx o6jacxefi. xaKx
'
/

H'BMeil.KHMX KOpOJiaMX npHHTJIOCB BBI^epatHBaXB CHJIBHYK) 6opB6y, HX06BI


OTCXaHBaXB CBOH) BJiaCXB.
95. Ho r. $paHuia ^ocxajiacB
Bep,a,eHCKOMy .noroBOpy 843
BHyny
Kapjia BejHKaro, Kapjiy JIucoMy, HOXOMCXBO Koxoparo H n,apcxBO-
Bajo SA^CB AO KOHqa X B. (987). 3a 9xn no-ixopa cxo^iixia 4>paH-
l

n,ia pas^BJiHJiacB Ha Muowcecmeo (fieodaMuuxz e.mdrbuiu ),


HSX KO-
xopBixx caMHMH BaatHBiMH 6BL1H Upemaub, HopMaudia (064 rep-
EtorcxBa)H 0Aaudpifi (rpa^cxBo) Ha c'BBepo-aana^'B H cifiepi, Amu-
mauiH (repn;orcxBo) Ha roro-sana^'fe, ipaficmeo Tyjiy3CKoe na rori,
Eypiyudin, (repn,orcxBo) H IlIaMnam (rpa(J)CXBo) na BOCXOK-B, a BX
cxpaHBi ipaficmeo AuwyucKoe K lepuoicmeo
;x) ex ropo^OMx IlapHiKeMx. BBJJH H 6oj'Be
Aa H KpynHBia BX CBOIO oqepe,a,B no^pas^iajHCB na Maccy
Bci 9XH KnaatecxBa H ceHBepin 6Bi.in XOIBKO OICHB caa6o

CM. Kapiy VII.


69

co6oio BaccajBHbiMH oxHoineniaMH. nocji-B^Hie KO-


apOJIHHrOB'b H6 HM-B.1H HHKaKOft CHJIBI, TaK-L
KRK1) C06cXB6HHBia HXX BJia.U'EHia COCXOflJIH IViaBHHMl o6pa301TB H31
ropo^a JLaua (Laon) ci ero OKpyroMi. HaHtfojrfce MorymecxBeHHBie
fc Aaaie ^Boatiero MHJIOCXBK)".
Kane-
96. Bi 987 r.
4>paHn,y3CKie <J>eo,naji&i BBidpajm B-B KOPOJIH rep-nepsue
^paHuyscKaro (H.ib-Ae-$panca) H rpa<|>a napnatCKaro lyiona
.Kanema, po^OHa^ajitHHKa dunacmiu Kanemumoez, Koxopaa ^ap-
CTBOBa.ia Sojj-Ee xpex-B cioji'BTiH (987 1328), H on. Koxopoft npo-
Hsoin.iH AB^ CJiiAOBaBniLa aai'BM'B ^HHacxiH (Bajiya H BypSoHOBi).
3xo 6HJH 8Aadn>meAU neGoMwou ofijiacmu l ] XCJIBKO C-L ^ByMH sna-
qnxejibHHMH ropOAaMH (napnaieM'B H OpjieanoMi), ^a H S^-BCL 6ujio
em,e H^CKOJIBKO BaccajiBEHx-B ceHBepOBi. FyroHTb Kanexx
npHSHaeieM-B KOpoJieBCKOMi cani co cxopOHBi
B-B

Ha c^Bepi OTL JlyapBi, HO B'B cymHOCxn H ET> 9xoii


OH-B 6BIJTB JTHHIB mpouu Meotcdy paeuuMu. npHHflBT> B-B PeHMci
OH-B B03JOaiHJI & 66 npH atH3HH H Ha CB06rO
r

KOpOJIGBCKyK) KOpOHy,
CBina, qxo BOHLIO HOTOMI KB o^BiqaH BI <J)aMHJiiH KanexKHroB-B.
OdesneiHBaa xaKHM'B o6pa30Mi Kopony sa CBOHMI HOXOMCXBOMT),
2
nepBBie KanexHHrn ) uu ez veMt, oduaKo, ne npOH6An.ni ceoeio
mm Kopo.teu ^pani^iu. HMI 6ujio nofl'B CHjy 6opoxBca
C-B CBoeBOJBH&iMH BaccajiaMH BHyxpH CBoero repn;orcxBa fla

C'B 6jiHaiaHfflHMH coc^aMH


(oco6eHHO C'B HopMaH^ieft). HoaxoMy
OHH ne npHHHMa-iH HHKaKoro ynacxia BI KpynHBix-B co6Bixiax B csoero r

BpeivieHH. Ilpn HHXI toataHmie COC-B^H HXI o6jracxH, HOpMan^CKie


pi>mapH, noKOpnjiH roaiHyio Hxajiio^ H HX-B (|>eoji;ajiBHHH cenBe'pi, Bac-
caji-B $paHii,y3CKOH KOPOHH, 3aBoeBajn> Anoiio (1066), a
KHMH ^ecaxHjiixiflMH nosate MHoatecxBO cenBepOBi H
qacxeii
$pann;iH npe^npHHajio noxoA'B flja
oxi MycyjiBMaa-B (1096), HO see 9x0 cosepmnjiocB
BcaKaro yqacxia KanexHHroB-B. Hsi xaKoro naccnBHaro nojioatenia
(J)eo,a;aJiBHHe KOpOJH ^paHn.in BBIIUJIH XOJIBKO BX nepBofi HOJOEHH-B
XII B* K a.
97*. TaKoe ate ^eo^ajiBHoe pas^podjenie, KaKoe npoHsoui.io
BO <PpaHi^iH, eme panbrne coBepniH.iocb B-b ciBepHon H cpe^Heft Hxa-
Jim. B'B .loM6ap^m ox^-BJibHbie KHasBa ocnapHBa.TH Apyri y jjpyra

KOpojreBCKyio Kopony, H
expand locnodcmeoea^a auapxiH, XEK-B
B'B

KaK-B BI> pacnpi pasHBixi npexeH^eHxoB'B yqacxBOBa.ia H apwcxo-


Kpaxia. Meai^y nxajBaHCKHMH (J)eo,ii;a.iaMH OCO^CHHO BOSBBICH.IHCB
a
) CM. Kapxy VIII.
2
) OAHHI ESI nepBHxi KanexHaroBi (FeHpHxi I) 6ujix aceHaxi na ^oiepn flpo-
c.iaBa Myiparo (AHHt).
70 -^

(fipiyMCKiii, uopeuCKiii, mocKaHCKiii u cno.iemcmu] BOO-


BBICHJHCB xaiMEe apxienucKonu u enucnonu ropOAOB-B Jk>Moap;un,
a MeiKAy HHMH nepsoe JTBCXO sana.i'B apxienucnom Mumnctdu,
KOTOpiiH HM^JII MHoroqHCJienHBix'B BaccajroB-B H ()Hjrb OICHB B.iia-

XeJlBHBIM'B AyXOBHBIMl> KHHSeMTb BO BC6H C I>BepHOH


r

oficxoaxe.iBCXB'B H nanairB, OKI CB-BTCKHM-B


H ero o6jiacTH 1 ), mpydno 6ujio coxpauumb &z nenpUKOcuo-
eeunocmu ceou 6Jiadn>mH. IIorpaHHqHLia qacin oixoprajiH oit Ilan-
CKOH o6.iacTH cociAnie BJia^-BJibaLi; BHyxpn rocno,aiCTBOBa,in 6yu
nue 6apoubi, THTy,iOBaBmie ce6a KoncyjiaMH H naTpHn,iflMH H
no CBoeny npOHSBOJiy pacnopaiEaBiiiiecH caMHMi, CB.
Bl KOHI^i 'IX H B'B X B. HaCTOflmHMH CB^TCKHMH
PHMa 6LMH He nanBi, a pasHBie eeMMOMU, saxeamueaewe
&b ceou pym nyieM'B nacHJiia. CaMLift THxyjii> naxpHnia H cenaiopa

nojy ?HJi B
i r

y BBX-L SHaneme ceHBepa, H npn xaKHxi. npaEHxejiax-B-


nana MOFB ocxasaxBca XOJIBKO AyxoBHBiMi) jiHn,OMT,. PmicKie BejiBMoatH
^aaze c^JiajiH B'B X B. nancKin caHi KaKi> SBI HCKJEoqHxejiBHBiMt
CBOHMI AOCxoameMi). H xor.ua, Kor^a B03CxaHOB.ia.iHCB npasa naiiu,
KaKi. CB-BxcKaro rocy^apa, puMCnie 6aponbi cnumajiu ce6n duwi eio
eaccajia.wu. Hepi^KO OHH npaMO pas^oiiHHqajiH H rpa^HJin najiOM-
HHKOBlj, CXCKaBinHXCa B'B PHM'B Ha 6orOM0.1B6 H3-B

3anaAa. BaponBi He XOJIBKO cxpoajn ced-B saMKH BTB PHMCKOH


naHB'B, HO H yKp-EHJIflJIH CBOH ^,OMa B'B CaMOMI) PHM^.
98. B'B
TepMamH, BHA^HBnieHca HS'B Monapxm Kap.ia BBJIH-
Karo grj, 343 r duHacmin Rapojiumo&z npeKpamu.tacb So 911 r.
^
BO x TV
BXOpOH nO-IOBKHTJ IX B. H'BMenKHM'& KOpO^flM^ npHfflJIOCB BCCXH
ynopnyio 6opB6y C'B cjraBaHCKOio BeJiUKOMOpaecnow
depwaeow, 06-
pasoBaBnieiocfl B'B 9x0 BpeMfl
BOCXOK-B, Ha
eempaMU, KOXO- H ci>

PBIX'B CaMH JK6 HiMI^H HpHSBaJIH HpOXHETb CJiasaH-B. B'B 3Xy 9HOXy

rpa(|)Bi pacinHpHJH CBOH o6jracxH H npespaxH^HCB B-B


2
TaKHX'f. repijorcxBi o6pa30BajocB HHXB
iepu,oioei. ):

Jlomapumin, Eaeapin, IIIeaOiH u Cancon'm. Kpoarfc


xoro, 6ojBmyK) CHjy HOJIVHHJIH xpn npupeHHcme apxienncKona
K6MHCKm H mpUpCKlU. K^ HHifB H ApyrHMI, B6JBMO-
nepenuio H npaeo eufiupamb Kopo.ieii, ycxaHOBHBUieeca B'B Fep-
nocji npeKpamema AHflacxin KapojHHroB-B. SA^CB, o^HaKO,
He npOHSoniJio xaKoro CHJiBHaro Apo^-ienia, KaK-B BO <DpaHu,iH, H no-
xoMy KOpo.ieeCKOH e^acmb coxpauuAa usetbcmuyw cn.iy; XO.IBKO npaso
r

nepeni.io K-B (j)eoAa.mM B, Koxopue H3i3Hpa.iH Koro-.iH6o

') CM. Kapry VII.


2
) CM. napiy YII.
_ 71 __

CBoefi cpe^w, aepatacb HPHTOM-B 6ojbineio Hacxbro O^HOH


xaK'B qxo npHHu.HH'B Hsdpanifl coiexajca ci> HPHHH.HIIOM'B E
CTB6HHOH HepeflaiH BJiaCXH. TaKHMH (|>aMH.tiflMH 6fiLIH CaKCOUCKOH
B'BX B. H Haiaji XI B., (jipciHKOHCKaa BI, XI H Haia.i1} XII B.,
ci> cepe,a,HHH XII #o cepeflHHLi XIII H x. #. B'B o6iu,eMt

noBHHOBajiHCb Bn6opHOMy KopoJiK) oieHB naJio H, cjyia-


.iocb, BH^HpajiH o,a,HOBpeMeHHO AByxi Kopojiefl, no BJieKio sa co6oro
ia. BnpoqeMi>, ji;o cepeflHHH XIII B. KopoJiflMi. 6ojLmeio

y^asajiocb cnpaBjaxscfl ci HenoKOpebiMH BaccajiaMH, M xoJibKO


<?
cepeduurb XIII e.
(peodaMHoe dpofijieuie oKOHqaxe-ibHO Bocxop-
atecxBOBajio H B'b TepManiH.
CaKCOHC Kaa
99. Cnaqajia Hi>Mei^Kie ^vxoBHLie H CB'kxcKie BejibMoaiH BBI- .

Y
opajH BI Kopo^H repi^ora (jppaHKOHCKaro, HO HOCJITB ero cnepxH OHH
B03Be.iH Ha npecxoji b Feupuxa I Hmtvyejioea, repn,ora caKCOHCKaro,
r

^HHacxm Koxoparo H npaBHJia HOTOM-L FepManieH OKOJIO cxa


(919 1024). 3xoxi. KOpojiB Baa-B ycn-BraHBia BOHHH ci
H oaBflHaMH, oiOflBHraa rpaHHn,u csoero rocy^apcxBa na BOCXOK'B,
HacHJiBHO o6pam,aH npn SXOM-B atHxeJieH saBOGBaHHBix'B aeneiB B-B
xpncxiaHCXBo H cxpoa na rpauHn,ax B yKpinjienHBie saMKH. IIpH
r

qexn npHsnajiH Ha.a.'B co6oio BaccajbHyro saBHCHMOCXb OX-B

100. CaMHMi, T H Be "


Bbi.a.aiom.HMCfl rocy^apeMi, caitcoHCKOH ^Hnacxm .g
n,apcxBOBaBuiiH BI cepe^HHi X B. Ommom I Be.mniu (936
973). OHI ycirBiHHO npOAOjiataji'B 6opbdy ci cjiaBanaMH Meatfly
0.ib6oK) H O^epOM-B H HanecB BenrpaM-B cxpaniHoe nopameme na
nojirb (955), HOCJ-B qero Benrpbi nepecxajH 6e3HOKOHXB
H Majro-no-Majiy odpaxHJiHCb B'B xpncxiaHCXBO. KaK-B H
IIxHn;ejiOB'B, OXXOHI I flOJiaten-B 6ujn> BGCXH npo^oJiaiH-
xejBHyio 6opB(5y ci ^pyrHMH ^ep^o^aMH. Cuoxpfl Ha 3Bame repn,ora,
na rocyAapcxBeHHyro flOJiatnocxB, OH-B cmaM pasdaeamt lep-
ceoujuz podmuur,, HO 3xo He cnacjio ero Heo6xo^H-
oxi.
MOCXH H HXX ycMHpaxB, ne HCKJiioqafl co6cxBeHHbix B CBOHXI. 6paxa H
r

CBina. Bi 6opB6t ci. ^eo^aJiHSMOM'B OHI HCKajri HOMOIHU y enu-


b u affiamofft, BjacxB
Koxopbix-B He Morjia cpfejisubca Hacwi-Bfl-
CXB6HHOK) H HaSHaiCHie KOXOpblXI. OHi npHCBOH.Il KOpOJeBCKOH
B.iacxH. Ci CBOCH cxopoiibi,
flyxoBencxBO OXOXHO nofliepaiHBavio ero
cxpeMjeme KT. coxpanenm locydapcmeeuHa/io eduucmea. Oxxony axoro
yja.iocb flocTHrHyxr,, HO caii-B ate OHI, csoeio HxajBflHCKOii HOJIHXHKOH
nojoatn.!!) naiajio xaKHMi oxHomemflMi), Koxopna HenpeM'BHHO pano
H.IH nosflHO flOjatHbi 6biJH ocja^HTi, KOpojeBCKyio B.iacxB B'B Fep-
Maiiin.
72

101. IIxaJBaHCKie KHH3BH 9XOH 9HOXH B6.1H HOCTOHRHLIfl BOHHBI


Bxopoe BOS- jtpyrB flpyrosTB Meatfly npoinMi sa oGjiaflame HMnepaxopCKoft Kopo-
c'B

H0 ^' ^ TTOHfL I P^H-ICa BM^HiaTBCfl Bl npOHCXO^HBfflifl TaiTB CMyXBI Bi


KaiecxBij npeeMHHKa KapoJiHHroB &, aaeoeea^z ecw crbeepuyw Hma.riw
r

H aaKp'BnHJi'B CBoe npaso Ha Hee dpaKOMTb c'B BAOBOIO o^noro H3t


9(f>eMepHBixi. Kopo.ieii HiajiiH AdeMieudow, KOTOpyro OH-B 3am.HTH.TB
OTI rpa<J>a Eepemapa MepeuCKaio, Toate o6iHBHBinaro ce6fl Kopo-
.
IlpaB^a, saBoeBaHHoe KOpo.ieBCTBO 6HJio HMI noasajroBaHO BI
TOMy ate Bepenrapy, HO Korfla OH-B HSM'BHHJI'B OiTony, TO HOCJ^A-
Hiii, npHSHBaeMBiH B.nodaBOK-B H nanoio (loaHHOMi XII), npoiBBi KO-

Toparo B03JiyTH.iHCB pHMJiane, BTOPH^HO oinpaBBJca B-B HTajiro,


eoscmanoeuM &b ueu ceow ejiacmt u npunfiM ez PuMrb UMnepa-
mopCKyw Kopouy (962). C'B BTHX-B nop^ H Be^eii CBOG Ha^ajo
Cesm^ennan PuMCma UMnepia lepMaucnou Hai<,iu,
ee nasBiBajiH Bnocjr'BACTBiH BX Te^eHin H.'BJIHX'B cxojrETiH.
OTTOHX sa^ynajx npio^p-BCTH H roatnyro Hiajiiio H ex BTOIO IVEJIBIO
ateHHJi'BJCBoero CHHa Oxxona Ha njreMflHHHn.'E BHsaHxificKaro HMne-

paxopa (loaHHa H,HMHCxia) Geo^ano. OXXOHI> II aaeoeeam HeanoM


u Tapenmz, HO noxepn-BJu. nopaatenie oxi MycyjifeMan-B, ocxaBHB-B
sa^aqy yxBep^nxBca B% Hxajrin CBoeMy CBiHy Oxxony III. Ci> Oxxo-
HOB'B H HaiHHaexca B^^Hoe cxpeMJienie H'BMen.KHX'B rocyflapeft EI
ofimdaum HmaMeu, mm cocmaeuoio vacmbw PUMCKOU ujunepiu.
Jl^jia pasBHxia EopojieBCKOH Bjracxn BI, FepManiH xaicaa noJiHXHKa OKa-
sajiacB BecBMa TH^CJIBHOIO. 5Ke;raa rocno^cxBOBaxB BX HxaJiin, KOpo,iH
MHOioe mepxjiu 02 FepMauiu. HOXO^BI sa AJEBHBI sacxaBJiajiH ni-
MeuKHxi, rocy^apett na ^ojrroe spejia oxjiyiaxBca HSI. csoero rocy^ap-
cxsa, a BnocJi'E.ncxBiH OHH noKynajin co^HCXBie H-EMen.KHX'B (JjeoflajroBi)
pasnaro ycxynKaMH, Koxopna xi y HHXI> BBinyat^ajiH npn Bca-
poji;a
KOM-B yAo6noMi cjyia'B. Yate npn OmmoMb III (983 1002)
KOpojeBCKOH BJiacxn, yKpinJieHHOii ero
oc.ia(5jieHie

HojiyqHB'B upeKpacHoe odpasoBanie H oMa^Bi, Kpojii Jia-


xHHCKaro asHKa, rpe^ecKHM'B, OXXOHI npOHHKca aHXHiHon H^eeft HMHC-
plH H, OH6HB TOp^aCB CBOHMX HpOHCXOatAeHieM'B OXX BOCX01HBIX-B
H sana^HHX'B HMnepaxopOBi., cinxajTB CBoeft MHCcieft BOScxanoBHXb
O^ecm HMnepin na Sanaa's H HOAIHHHXB ero rocxBHianoBy sa-
Bx HOFOH-B sa 9xoro Meixoro OHX ne odpama.!!.
na xo, HXO 6t> FepManiu dyxoenue u cerbmcuie ee.iwowcu
onnmb 6o.me uesaeucuMWMU, u cuoea OMCUM caMOcmon-
lepwicmn e.iacmb. H^Mei^KHMi rocy.napaM'B
B-BKOBl, 6opB6a C'B HHMH CXOH-ia HC MaJO CH.TB H X.IOIIOX'B.
TJIABA V.

e n,epKBen H BHCTynJienie cjiaBancKHx-L napo-

I. MeatAyHapOAHHH OTHoaieHia ( 102 110).


II. Paa.u'LieHieu,epKBefi H naiajo nancKOH TeoKpaiia ( 111 122).
III. BHaaHxia ( 123 125) H ocHOBanie cjiasaHCKHxt rocyaapcTBi ( 126136;
o mmnrE 132133).

I.

102. Bfc cepeAHH-fc OKI 6bi Bxopoe nepece-


IX B. naqa-iocb
na 9TOTt
~
Hst CKan^HHaBia. FepiiaHCKia
.V, . namecTBifl.
repManijeBi, paai>
nacejiaBmia ^amto H HopBeriro H ourHqaBiniaca 6o.iLinoK)
9HeprieH, ciajH opraHHSOBaxt ^pyatHHii OXOTHHKOBI .no npHKJioHe-
Hin H #0 HaatHBBi H OTnpaBJiaT& HXI na dojr&fflHx-L jia^ax-L sa Mope
^o6tiqn. BoSTHXI ^C'BBepHHxi. Jiro^en", EJIE nopMan-
rjraB"B

npe^npiHMiHBBie eunumu, CBoero po,3;a ^Mopcnie KO-


cioajiH

poan", KOTOpne ci> ^pyatHHaMH y^ajTbi^eB-B nepenpaBJiaJiHCB repeal)


Mope H flajKe BXOAET^H BI yciBfl p-BKt H no p-BKaMi yrjiy6jiajiHCB
BHyip& cipaHH. Horpa^HBi, BI O^HOM-B M-BCTB, OHH yxo^HJiH BI
,a;pyroe, ocoCenHO Kor,a;a npOTHBi HHXI nociiJiajiocB
snaqHTejiBHoe BoficKO. Cjiy^ajiocb HMI BO speMa TaKHXi,
H nepeTacKHBaxb CBOH jia^BH no cyxoMy nyxn H3i> OJI;HOH P'BKH BI>
Apyryro, c^yqajroct saxBaTHBaiB na Bpena TO HJIH .aipyroe yKp4n.ie-
nie, cjiyqajioc& xaK^e BH^epatHBaTB HacToam,ia 6HTBH, B^ KOiopHxt
HOpManHH .HOXO^HJIH ji;o HOJinaro nencTOBCTBa. Mnpnoe nace-
jenie MHOFO xepnijio nana^eHift BTHXI MOPCKHXI pasdoHHH-
OT-B

KOBI, H BI ijepKBaxi. ^aate Bosnocnjiacb MOJiHTBa: n rocno^n, HS-


6aBi> nac^ OTI apociH nopManHOB-L". OTA^tHHa nopManncKia
^py-
JKHHH ciajiH ,a;a^e ceAumbcn et npUMOpcnuxb o6jiacm,HXt> FepManm
u (Ppamyw. Yate HMnepaxop'B JToTapi ne namej^ jryqmaro cpe^-
CTBa npOTHB-L HamecxBiH na ero BJia^Hia, KaKT> noce.iHTB y Bna-
Penna B-B Mope OflHy xaKyro ^pyatHHy, JIBHIB 611 ona 3ain,H-
cxpany oxi HOBLIX-L Bxop^eHili; HB-B 9xoro nocejieflia BOS-
HHOO noxoMi, oco6oe rpa(J)CXBO FoAAQHdix. Bo $paHi^in oxi nana^e-
Hiii npniujocb oxKynaxbca ^enbraMH, a HOXOMT, xaKate yciynnxB HOpMan-
naMi, i^ijiyK) o6.iacxB no HHatHeny xeqeniK) Genii, r^i B-B 91 1 r. npe^-
BO.pixe.ziB HXX POAAOHO H ocHOBajx rcpijorcxBO, nojiyiHBniee na-
SBanie HopMandiu. HopMannH nana^ajn, KpOM-B xoro, na anoo-caK-
concKoe rocy^apcxBO WL BpHxanin, Koxopoe o6pa30Ba.iocB B-B nepBOH
- 74

IX B. B^lb coeAHHema H'SCKO-IBKHXI, 6o.TEe Me-iKHXi E.ia-


H cxa.io HasBisaxBca Am.neu. Ilpn KOpojrB AM(fpedn> (871
901) jjaxqane OBJia^iH flaaie Bcero Anr-defi, H axosy
CTOHJO HCHMOB-BpHBixi) ycHJiiH oxBOCBaxb y HHxi) sana^Hyio
CBoero KOpojreBCTBa (878). Bopt6a Be.iacB ein,e nojixopa cxo-dma,
noKa flaxcKift KOPOJI& Kanym* (1017 1035) He oBjaalLTL H axoro

103*. Tlo^oSHO TOMy, KaKt na ciBepHtie H ^aate sanajune


capa-5 e p era
U,HHOBt.
EBponti nana^ajiH HopMaHHH, na roajHLie ea depera coBepma.iH
. .
^ . v o
pasooHHHKH, atHBinie B-B cxBepHOH
Mopcme ase
ci> ^pyrHMH MaroMeTanaiiH OHH HastiB&iHCb Bt

CTpanaxi, capawHdMU, H HX-L Ha6-BrH npOH3Bo,HHJiH TaKoe ate Bne-


na Eepony, KaKt H nopMaHHCKie. Capai^HHaMi) y^ajrocb yiBep-
EX CuvijUMu, npOHHKHyTB Bi K)JKHyK> HiajiiK) H ^aase AO-
AO PnMa. OHH Hana^ajiH paBHHM'L o6pa30MT. Ha nodepeatte
K)?KHOH $paHnJH H cxpOHJH xaMTb CBOH yKpiiLieHia.
104 :;<
.
HopMaHHH H capan,HHBi Banana* ci Mopa, qepesi.
cyxonyTHyro rpaHHuy cxajin BxopraxBca BI. sana^nyio
Espony eempu,
saHaBmie B^ KOHni'B IX B. naHHOHito H oxxy^a na-
iaBmie CBOH BxopateHia BI npe#BJH 6BiBHieH MOHapxin Kapjia Be-
jHKaro
!

). OHH OAHHI> past c^i-ia. Haoiri. Ha ctBepHyio


HO r.iaBHBiM'B o^pasoMi. coBepniajiH CBOH Hats^H Ha FepMaHiro,
KOXOPBIXT>cxpa^ajiH npeHMym,ecxBeHHO Basapia H TropHHria. Ho
oco6enHO BaaiHoe snaqeHie no.iyqH.io noaB.ieHie BenrpOBi B-B HCXO-
pin cjiaBaHCKHXi) napOAOBi>.
105. K-L BHOX-B pacna,neHia MonapxiH Kapja BejHKaro H nop-
MaHHCKHXl), CapaEtHHCKHXI, H BCHrepCKHX'B HaS'ferOB'L OXHOCHXCa H Htt-
'

_,
HdM locyoapcmieHHoii OKUSHU y caaefiHCKUX* napoooez. leorpa-
({>HiecKoe nojioaxCHie CJiaBaHi. na BOCXOIHOH rpaHHn,^ 3ana^HOH
HMnepin H Ha c^BepHOH ^paHH^'B BocxoqHOil cxaBHJio O^HHXI>
H3i. HHXI. Bi Henocpe^cxBeHHoe conpHKOCHOBenie ci> FepMameH,
^pyrnx-B Cfc BHsaHxieft. BjiHaiaHmie KI> cxapoMy ncxopHiecKOMy
2
Mipy CAaoane drbJiujiucb na den ipynnu: sanadnyw u wwuyio ).
Kx sana^HOH rpynni npHHa^eatajiH npeawe Bcero pasHBia njreMeHa,
Ha BOCXOKI> H sana^i. oxi> 9^6u (HJIH JIa6u, oxKy.ua HXT,
noAaficKiixi) H no depery Ba.ixiHCKaro Mopa y ycxBesx
O^epa H BHCJIBI (noMopaue). IIo.ia6cKie H noMOpcme cjiaBane He

a
) CM. Kapiy XI. Ma^bapu KOMeBajin BI cxenaxt xenepemHefi Beccapa6in, H KI
HHMI eme oCpamajica BHsaHTiflcKifi HMnepaiopi (.lest
J
VI $HJOCO^%) BI 6opk6t ct

n,apcTBOMi. OHH cHanajia HM^-IB st Bo.irapiH ycntxt, HO HOTOMI 6ujiH


H iBHHy.ract OTTyfla na
2
) CM. Kapiy XI.
75

caMocxoaxeJbiiaro rocyXapCiM H iiOABepraHCL OH-EMeieHho.


IIo cpeAiieMy H BepxneMy xeqeniro BHCJH H npHxoKaMi. O^epa C'b npa-
Boft cxopOHbi JKHJH JIHXU, HJIH no.wKU, na sanaA'B oxi> HHXI. BT> Bore-
M!H nocejiHJiHCb uexu (ci MopaaaMu}, a no THCC^ H sanaAHHirB Kapna-
TaMl CJlOOttKU. BflOCJI'BACXBiH 3Al>Cb CJIO/KHJIOCb ABa C.iaBflHCKHXI>

rocyAapcxsa yemcKoe H no.ibCKoe, B'b Ky.ibxypHOirb ate


sanadnue c.menHe nodnunujiuc^ pOMauo-iepMauCKOMy eMuniw.
naa rpynna CJiasaH-b cocxoajia H3i> Oo.iiapz na HHJKHCM'b
cep6oo6 u xopeamoeb no ^pasi} H CaBi H BI> c'EBepo-sanaflHOfi qacxii
nojyocxpOBa H c.toeeHu/e&b BI> Hcxpin H B'b BOCXOH-
Aubnaxx. Bojibniaa HXI. qacxb B-B KyjibxypHOirb oxHomemH
ouaanmiuCKOMy 6AinHiw, (KaK-b H Bocxomaa rpynna
njieMeHi., HS-B
KOTOpott oSpasoBajica HapOA'b pyccniu).
IGscHbie c.iaBHHe ocnoBajiH ^Ba rocyAapcxBa 6o.irapcKoe H cep6-
cKoe.
106. BosHumoeeme locydapcmeeuHOu otcmnu y Cjiaenm u Haia. rocy-
e.wbcmib cz mn>Mb npuufimie UMU xpucmiaucmea omuocfimcH KV
^3^^" cia-
IX e. H H Apyroe coBepmaexca OAHOBpeMenno H y roiKHbix'b,
TO,
H y sanaAHbix'b cjraBan'b. KaK^ pas'B B-B 3xy snoxy HayajiHCb cnopti
Me/KAy BOcxo4HbiM b H BanaAHLUfb AyxoBeHCXBOM^, noBJieKmie sa co-
r

6010 pasdn.ienie u,epK0eu, npHieM^ OABBM-b H3i> noBOAOB-b conepHHie-


cxBa iieaiAy HHMH CA'BJiajiocb otfpameme c.iaBflH'B B'B
Ycnixy xpncxiaHCKOH nponoB-BAH cpeAH cjaBaH'B
xo, HXO BI> cpeAHH^ IX B. ABa 6paxa pOAOMi HS'B CojiyHH, KoHCxanxHH'b
(B'B MOHamecxB'E KupujiM) H Meoodiu, nocBaxHBmie ce6a MHCcionep-
CKOH A'BflTejbHOCXH, npucnoco6ujiu ^pe ^ecKyM a36yny Kb t

tt

seymMb ( n KHpHJJiHH,a ) u nepeeejiu na c.iaeHHCKiu nsum


uoe nucauie u 6oioc.tyjice6HbiH KHUIU, q^Afb 6buo noJoateHO
H Boo6in,e cjraBaHCKOii nHCBMCHHOCxH. B'B 3x0 speMa cyntecxBOBajiH

yaie ABa CJiaBancKHx-B rocyAapcxsa Go.napCKoe H eejiuwMOpae-


!
CKOC ),
H o6a OHH npHHajia xpncxiancxBo HS'B BnaaHxin. Bx 864 r.
KpecxH.ica 6ojrrapcKiji KHHSB Eopucz, HBOcnpieMHHKOMi)ero 611.1^ caM'b
Hiinepaxopi. MuxauM III, HO 3x0x1 KHHSB ne XOX-BJITB aaBHC'EXL
oxi. BHsanxin H odpaxHJica-6bijro KT> nani HUKOJCLW I C'B npocb-
6010 npncjiaxb enHCKonoB-b H CBameHHHKOBi>. Xoxa nana CT pa-
Aocxbio oxosBajiCfl na o6pameHie K-b HCMy Bopnca, HO ocym,ecxB.ieme
sioro aiejania Bcxpixnjiocb ct pasHbiMH npenaxcxBiaMH, H BTB KOHH.'L
KOHUOBt Bopnci. AO.iaceH^B SBMX npusuanib saeucuMocmb ceoeu cmpanu
en nepuoenoM* omnoiuemu omb KoucmanmunoJia. ^pyrnMi, CJasaH-

CA^a-iocb rocyAapcxBO MOpaBOBi, oopasoBaBmeeca AJa

CM. Kapiy XI
76

3am,HTBi OTX naiHCKa HSX FepMamn npH 6.w;KaHiiiHxx npeeMHHKaxx


Kap.ua BejiHKaro. MopaBCKift KHSSB Pocmucmet odpamica EX Mu-
xamiy III ex npocBGoio npncJiaiB MHCcionepOBx, KOTOJme HaymiH
6ti HXX xpHciiaHCKOii B'fep'fe. Ha 910 npmuianieHie BX Mopafiiro OT-

npaBHJHCB KHPHJIJIX H MeeofliH, Koxoptie EX 865 r. H


odpamenie BX xpHcxiaHCTBO HOOTHHBIXX PocxHC.iaBa KX
ney^OBOJiLCTBiio HliMeijKaro npaBHiejiBCTBa H jtyxoBencTBa.
nee ciajio yTBepat^aiB, qio CBamenHoe iracame MoaterB cymeciBO-
na xixx xpexx flSHKaxx, na KOTOPBIX-B c^jana 6Bi.ia
Ha KpecrE Cnacniejia, H o6a MHCcionepa COIJIH ce6fl BBIHV-
ixaiB BT> PHMX ^Jia onpaB^anifl cBoeS nponoBi^H na c.ia-
BflHCKOMI,flyBIK-B. KnpH.M'B yMCpI. BO Bp6Mfl BTOFO HyieffleCTBifl (869),

a Meeoflifi nojiyqHJi'B OTX nanH (A^piana II) oji;o6peHie CBoeny


.H^jy H THiyjix apxienncKona RJIO. HaHHOHiH H MopasiH. HiMna
6BMH xaKHMi pimemeMx Bonpoca H npo^epatajin Me-
He,a;oBOJiBHBi

eoflj.ii OKOJO ^Byxi> J^T-B B-B saToqeHia. Ewy y^ajrocB em;e KpeciHTB
qemcKaro KHflsa Eypueon. II^epKOBB npHiHCJiHJia cJiaBflHCKHXx nep-
KX JiHKy CBflTBixx, H ex HXX HMeneMx dmra CBasana
o uawouaMHou caMocmoame.MHOcmu CAaoxncKaio n.ieMeuu.
107. IlepBBifl rocy^apciBa 6BMH Henpo^HBi,
cjraBflHCKia xoxa
HenpOMHOCTi, BCJltjliX 3a npHHflTleMX XpHCTlaHCTBa OHH H flOCTHraJIH Ha

yacnMio Ea.maHCKaio no.iyocmpoea H


l

oejiadrb.ia 6o. /i biu,ew

onacHoro canoMy KoHCTaHTHHonojno. CnMeonx HPHHHJIX


n;apfl, KOTOptift y cjiaBHHX SHJIX paBHOCHJieHx HMnepaxop-

CKOMy (qapB i;ecapB), H nasHaqHJix RJIO. CBoero i;apciBa oco6aro


naipiapxa. Ho 910 SBIJIX JTHDIB
BpeMenHBin ycn'Bxx. HoBOMy n;apCTBy
npani.iocB dopoiBca He TOJIBKO ex BHsanxieH, HO H ex
ex BenrpaMH, ne^GHiraMH H pyccKHMH (npn
HMnepaiopBi X B. (HHKH(J)opx $OKa, loaHHx U,HMH-
cxift H BacHwiift II) oTBoeBajn y 6oJirapx sanflTBia HMX o&iacTH
H T^MX noJioatHJiH Kouew nepeoMy GoMapCKomy i^apcmey (1018).
Tanaa ate H eejiuKOMOpaecKyw depotcaey, BX co-
cy^B6a nociHrjia
CTaBX KOTOpOH PoCTHCJaBX BKJIIOIHJIX ^exllO H 36MJIH HOJia6CKHXX
cjiaBSHx. He CMOipa na BpeMeHHBift ycnixx Jtro^OBHRa H^Men;Karo ;

njreMflHHHKx PocTHC.iaBa CenmonojiKb cnosa CHJIOTHJIX BOCAHHO mie-


Mena HaxoAHBHiiaca no^x BjacxBro ero AH^HJ H no6'B^OHOCHO oipa-
JKaJix H^Men;Kifl namecTBia (npn Kap.ii TOJICTOMX H
Ho 9TOMy fl-EHTej&HOMy rocy^apio OKasaaocB Tpy^HHiix
BaiB CBH3H ex BHsaHiicH, H OHX ciaJix noKpoeumeMcmoooam'b
muHCKOMy dyxoeencmey, KOiopoe Hanajio npecji^OBaTB
6orocjryateeie. Cx CBoeft CTOponu, H-BMeuKin KOpo.iB
ixo6ti C.IOMHXB Be.iHKOMOpaBCKyio .nepjKaBy, npuseaM npomuez uen
6eH^po6^) EOiopue H paspymiLiH 9x0 cJiaBHHCKoe rocy#apcxBO. Benrpu
(no.a.'B HaiajiBCXBOM'B Apuada) nocejiHJHCL BT. IlaHHOHiH, emucHye-

wucb Memdy sanadnuMU u WMUUMU cmennaMU, pasoo'mHB'B HX-B


xaKHM-B o6pa30Mi Meawy codoro H UO.IOJKHB'B npeipady dan Sesnpe-
cuoweHiu sanadnuxz c.me&m ci> Busanmieu. T^M-B
jiasflHCTBO nocxaBJieHO 6&uio BI 66jiBmyK) HO.IH-
H KyjiBTypnyio saBHCHMOCTB oil FepMaHin. TaKOBa 6BiJia
panHHX'B c.iaBHHCKHxi. Monapxifi, HO nos^nie cnoBa BOS-
HHKJH cjaBHHCKia TOcyAapciBa *Iejdfi, HoMwa, Eo.iiapin (Biopoe
n,apCTBo) H Cep&H.
1O8*. B-L IX H X BusaHTifl 11 "3 Ilp
BB. npo^ojiata.ia 6opoiBCfl cx?"^ ?

npe^HHMH BparaMH. BCTB CHJIBI xaKi, HasHBaeMoft MaKeooucKoii ou-


uacmiu BO BHinraeH HOJIHTHK'B ynurn Ha 6op&6y C-B 6oJirapaMH H apa-
6aMH. UpOTHBi, 6ojirapi. HMnepaxopBi BH^BHraiH BenrpOB-B, neqeHiroB-L
H pyccKHXi, noKa BacHjift II ^Bo^rrapodOHi^a" HG paspymnjiT. aioro
u,apCTBa. C'Bapa6aMH BOHHa BejacB sa ocipOBa H asiaicKia s.ia-
HuKucpopt &om OTBoeBajii. y KHXTB KPHT-B, rA'fe MycyjiBMane
rjaBHyro cioaHKy CBOHX^ KOpaSjieii, H cpfejistin* nontiiKy BOS-
BHsaHTin Cnpiio. PacnpocTpaHenie xpncxiaHCTBa BT> IX B.
lOffiHHX-B CJiaBflH-B, a B-B X B. CpeflH CJiaBHH'B BOCTO^HBIXl. (y
r

pyccKHX'B) 6HJio xaKate BajKHBix & flBJiemn B B HCiopiH


r

OAHHM'B H3i>

109*. Bo speMena Kapjia BejiHKaro H pacna^eHia ero MOHapxin


r> v T- .

Ha dana.pj H npaBJieHia MaKe^OHCKon .nHHaciiH B-B BHsaHim, BI> My-


cyjiBMaHCKOMi xajnNjjaT'E ^apCTBOBaJrH A66acudu, CTOJiHii;a KOTOPBIXX
6ELia BI BarAa.a.'B. Be.iumx saeoeeauin OKomuMtcb, H na^ajiacB anoxa

npOMBiuuieHHaro H KyjiBxypnaro npon.B'BxaHifl (oco^eHHO npn Pa-


pyHZ-aM-Pawudrb, coBpeMeHHHK-B Kapjia BejiHKaro). Ho
xajiH(|)axa He 6Buro npoqHHM-B, H eii],e npn Bon;apeHiH
l
HaiajiocB BBi^ijieHie HSI. Hero OX^.'BJIBHBIX'B rocy,a;apcxBi ). HepBOio
oxnajia Hcnanifl, r^i npeaiHafl ^anacxia OMaHfl n;oB & (
r

o6pa30Bajia
Eopdoecniu xajiufiamt. Sax-BMTb BH^^JiHJica ocoCiiH xajiH(J)axii <fia-
muMudoet BI Ernnx-B co cxojHn,eio B'B Kaupn>. HaKonen.'B, H npa-
BHXCJIH OX.U.'BJIBHHX'B npOBHHIUH, xaKl Ha3BIBa6MLie 9MUpU, CX8JIH

ce6a, KaKi, HesaBHCHMBie rocy^apH. B'B caMOM'B


Majro-no-Majiy cocpe.no qHjacB ET> pyKax-B
BoenHaro coc.iOBifl, rjiasHLie Haqa.iBHHKH Koxoparo,
"
aMHp'B-a.iB-oiipa) CA^ajiHCB Hacxofliu,HMn rocno^aMH no.io-
ia. B'B CBOK) apMiro xa.iH<JBi OXOXHO npHHHMa.in xpncxiaHCKHX'B

') CM. Kapiy XYI.


78

HanjoHajBHOCTGH, no.iyqaBiBHX'B CBO<5o^y


pasutixi.
nepexo.ua BI HCJiasit.
110*. HS-B BarAa^CKaro xa;iH(|)aTa HCJiaM-B npOAO.iaKa.iT> pac-
npocTpaHHTBCP H Ha coci^nHia CTpaHBi. OcoGeHHO Bamnoe
no.iymio
nepeinjia H nepeencmeytow^aH poM> ei MCHOMemanCKOMK
Cnaia.ia xajHi|)H 6pa.in na CJiyat6y TypeqKie OTPHAH, iTo6ti no-
HXTb BCIOAy, IMTB ^ElJa HaA06HOCTB Bl, BOHCK-B, HO HOTOMTE. TypKH
ocHOBWBaTi, CBOH co6cTBeHHHfl rocyAapCTBa, noj&syflCb c.ia-

HH-L H3i> Typeu,KHXi.


Ka6y.ia) AcfiianucmauoMt H
OB-ia^'Li'i.
H Hudieu, r^i ocHOBaji> oco6oe MaroMexaHCKoe n,apCTBO.
CKopo H caMLift Bar^aACKiji xa.iHcfjaT'B c^'LiaJiCfl docmofwieMz maui
ceMdwyKCimxi myponi, saxBainBrnnx-B ero BI, CBOH pyKH
TorpyjiE>6eKa). CejbAsayKCKie TYPKH
(BI XI B.) Cupieu u JIcMecmtmou, a B-L Mavioii Asm
PymcKoe (PHMCKOG) cyjnancTBO, c^JiaBTj CTOJinuero ero ropo^t HHEGIO.
JI^JIH BHsaHTincKOH HMnepin HaciynH.iH nocjii 9ioro CHOBa o^eHL
BpeMena.

II.

111*. BT, cepeAHH'fe IX B. OAHOBpeneHHO OKOHqaiejiBHO yiBep-


as-
.
rjaBencTBO nanBi BI>
,
n;epKBH H naiajiocB
sana/jHOH
Jieme nepKBen BOCTO^HOH (npaBOCJiaBHOii) H sana^HOH
CKOH). JlpuHUHU dmoio pa3dn.ieuiH Kopenujitici iJiy6oKO at

mypuoMz pasjiHiin 9jr.iHHH3HpoBaHHaro BociOKa H


naro Sana^a. B-B u;epKOBHOH atH3HH rpeqecKOH H .laTHHCKOH u,epKBett
Hs^aBna H^KOTOpBia ournqia, HO OHH ne
nona HC BOSHHKJIO cnopa Mea^y o6oHMH
BO speMfl Koioparo C'B oS-EHXTb CTOpOH-B BnepBBie
odBHHemfl BI OTCiynjieHiH OTB qncxoTBi B-BPBI. Ha BOCTOK'B H
BBipa6oiajiHCB, KpOM^ Toro, HO/TB BjiiaHieMi> pasHBixi.
cyAe6i> ueodunaKoebifi eosspibnia Ha i^epweb u no, en omHomenifi
locydapcmey. Ha 3anaji;ij yqenie o
CJO/KHJOCB
Ha^T> rocyAapCTBOM-B, na BOCTOK'B rjaBencTBOBajro rocy^apCTBO, XOTS
n;epKOBB H yn-fejia ^asaTB o'mopi> rocy^apaMi), BnaAaBrnHMi. BI> epecr>.
TaKOii /Ke OTnop-B OKasajia BOCTOiHaa n;epKOBB H cTpeMJieniio nam,
HO^HHHTB ee cBoeny rjiaBencTBy. Sana^naa n,epKOBB BH^IIMO ^kiajacb
Monapxieft, HO na BOCTOK^ nepBeHCTBO pnMCKaro naTpiapxa
JTHHIB BT> HpaBCTBeHHOM^ CMHCJTB. SacJiyrH nam> npeA'B
npaBoc.iaBieMi> Booome BBICOKO I^TJHHJIHCB rpeqecKHM-B AyxoBeHCTBOMi> 7
79

H OHO flaBajio nanaarb caMBie.noiexHue H jiec'nitie xHxy.m, HO BX


PiiMt oicio^a A^ajH XOX-B BBIBO;VB, ixo na BOCXOK-E npHSHaroxt H
nepBGHCTBO pHMCKOH Kaee^pti BI <mcxo ropHAHqecKOMi, CMBIC.TE.
Ho BTOT'B BHBOJVL OKa33JCfl OHIHO'OHHBJM'L.
112. OKO.TO cepeAHHH XI B. BI, BH3anxin BOCxopJKecxBOBa.io Cn P'B H
jiaa V ci
npaeocjiaBie Ha^'B HKOHOOOPCTBOM-B. BcKOp-E noc.ilB aioro naipiap-
XOMT> c^iajcfl Mwamiii, npe^cxaBHTeJib qHCxo-MOHamecKOH napTw,
HO OHI> HaBjieRt Ha ce6fl Bapdu, ^HAH HMnepa-
Hey^OBOJiBCTBie
Topa Muxau.m III H perenia HMnepin, CBOHMH o6jnqeHiaMH no-
pOHHOCTH 3Toro BcecHJi&Haro BejbMOJKH. Bap^a HH3.ioatH.ii,
(858) H CAtja.ii, naipiapKOM-L <Pomiji canaro yyeearo t
"
TOH 9HOXH COCTaBHieJJI OdHTHpIlOH
}
OH^JliOTeKH BLIHHCOKI H31>

ApeBHHX'L aBiopOBi, H KOMMeHTapieBi, KI, EHMI,, o6.iaAaBHiaro


BM-BCT-B Ct TBH-B 60JIBHIHMH SHafliflMH H Bl dorOCJIOBm. <I>OTiH H6
a saHHMajii, Ba/Knyio CBiTCKyro AOJISHOCTB H npn-
K-L DpaBOCJaBHofl napiin, ne BCG nopHqaBHieH BI A^H-
TeJBHOCTH HKOHOSopqeCKHXI, HMnepaiOpOBT>. Me^AV CTOpOHHHKaMH
HrHaiia H 4>OTia Haia.ica cnop &, B-L KOTOPBIH HG 3aMeA.in.ii
r

maTbCfl nana Hunojiau I. JI,.ia f-fcrneHia BOSHHKHieii BI,

HOHO.IBCKOH n;epKBH pacnpH 6ujLi cosBaH-B HOM-ECTHBIH co6opi, na


KOTOpLift 6BM-B npHrjiaraen'B H nana, HO HHKOJiaft I caMt na Hero
noixajii,, nocjiaBt, BM-BCTO ce6a, jeraiOBi,. Cooopi, yTBepAHJi
^oxia, H 9xo nocxaHOB-ieHie SBIJIO noAnncano nancKHMH jieraxaMH, npe-
BHCHBniHMH, OAHaKO, CBOH no.THOMoqia: HHKOJan I nopygnji, HMX .IHHJB
pasc.it AOBaxt ^10, a ptmenie oc'raBHJii sa co6oro.
HHH B-L nojBsy Hrnaxia cxopOHHHKaMH noc.i'BAHflro, Koxopne
euy ata,io6y Ha co6opHoe nocxaHOBJieme, nana odiflBHJii, ero ox-
a (fromiH Hus.wMeHUbiMz, CBOHxt ate jieraxoBi, oxjiy-
OX-B H,epKBH. IIpH 9XOM1, Ha C06op-B, COSBaHHOMT, Bl PM'B HO
Bcero Atja, HHKO.iaft I npOB03rjracHj b, ixo HH OAHH-B enncKoni, r

ne iioatexi jiHinnxBca CBOCH KaeeApn 6e3i, cor.iacia nanu. OAHO-


BpeMenHO ci 9X0MT, npOHCxo^Hjo o6pameuie ez xpucmiancmeo 6oji-

iapr>. TaK-B KaKi, HXT. napB Bopnci,, 6oacB nonacxB BI,


oxi, BasaHxiH, BM-fecxo rpeqecKHX'B
o6panj,eHie, npH3Ba.ii, jaxHHCKHx-B, xo
noc.ia.ii> BI, BojrrapiK) enncKonoBi, H CBameHHHKOBi,, KOxopLie cxa.in
saMtnaxb rpeqecKie ^epKOBHLle odnnaH PHMCKHMH. Tor^a $oxifi
o6paxHJic}i K-L ^pyrHMi, BOCXOIHBIM'B naxpiapxaMi, C-L OKpy.jfcnuMT) no-
cjianieMo, BI, KOxopOMi> aaKJuoqajocb n.-fejioe o6jiHqeHie nancKHXi, upH-
xasamH H oxcxynjieniH 3anaji,HOH qncxoxH npaBOC.iaB-
i^epKBH oxi,
HOH B^PH (^Filioque", nocxi, BT, cy66oxy, 6e36panie CBameHHHKOBi,
H x. n.). ITana oco6enHO o6BHHa.ica BI ate-ianiH CA B.iaxBCH r.iaBOio r
80

n,epKBH, KoiopiiM-L MOJKerB 6HTB xojBKO XpHCioci.. ^oiifi


Tore, ,npyrHXi> naipiapxoB-B Ha codopi. fljia cyAa Ha^TE> nanoft.
cocTOHJiCfi B'B 867 r., H nana mowe fiu.iz o6*H6.iem uu3-
CT> 9Toro H naiajiocB pasfl-kieHie ijepKBefi.
113. OojiKHOBeme nann HHKOjraa I ci> naxpiapxcM-B $OTieMi>
-

-
nOM eKjio sa co6oio H Apyrie cnopH areaK^y BOCTOIHHM'B H aanaji;-
'
,

HHMi, .nyxoBeHCTBOM'B, npoooAOfcaeiuiecti OKOAO oeyxz cmojirbmiu.


OKOHiaiejiBHLiH paspiiBi, Meat^y n,epKBaMH coBepmHjrca npn nann
Jlwn> IX u nampiapxrb Muxaujirb Kepyjimpiu ez 1054 r.,
Kor^a nancme JieraiH, flBHBmieca BI KoHCxaHTHHonojiB, nojroaiH.iH
Ha npecTOJit xpana CB. Co<|)iH nancKyro rpaMOxy, HajtaraBmyio
npOKifliie na BC^XI, ETO ne corjianiaeicfl C-B PHMCKOIO n,epKOBbio.
Ha BIO naipiapxi OTB'BTHJI'L cosBaHieM-L codopa, npe^aBmaro
jeraTOB-L nann H OCO^HM-L OKpyatHHMi nocjraHieM'B, B'B KO-
npoKJiaTiio,
TOPOMI. npe^ocieperajH. BBCB BOCTOKI OTI n,epKOBHaro o6m,eHia C'L
PHMOMI. Bi snoxy pas^JieHia i^epKBen nponcxo^HJio o6pam,eHie
B'B XpHCTiaHCTBO HOBBIXI) HapOJliOBi, npeHMym,eCTB6HHO C.iaBflH'B, H
HSI. HHXi) ci> caMaro naqajia npHMKHynH KT> PHMCKOH ii,epKBH
HSl CJiaBflH'B MOpaBBI, 16XH, HOJIflKH H XOpBaiBI, n03,Hi-

BenrpBi), Apyrie KI rpeiecKofi (6ojrapBi, cep6Bi, pyccme).


oco6eHHOCTeii pHMCKaro KaiojiHii;H3Ma c^feiajrocB uedo-
nymeuie uapoduuxo HSUKOQZ <?s GowcjiyoKenie: OHO BO BC^X-B n,epKBaxi)
T
3ana^;a ^OJiatHO SHJIO nponcxo^HTB nojraiBiHH ).
114*. IIoKa TflHyjiHCB cnopBi, OKOH^HBiniecfl pas^JieHieMi)
caMO nanciBO nepeatHBajio O^BBB Tpy^HBia BpeMena. CB-BT-
CTB21 Bt .A. x '
i i i

xi BB. CKaa BJiacxB, KaKoro nanBi cxajra no.ziB30BaTBca C-B cepe^HHij VIII B.,
ne npHHec-aa nanciBy HH^ero xoponiaro. Qa.'EJiaBiHHCB npaBHie.iaMH
PHMCKOH o6jiaCTH, OHH flOJIJKHBI 6BIJIH BOJieiO-HeBOJieK) npUHUMCimt
ynacmie &t> Me^onnou no.mmuuecKou 6opb6n> puMcnou apucmoKpamiu.
Hs^panie na nancKifi iipeciojiTb ciajio saBHC-BTB OTTB BjiiaTe.iBHBix'B
BI ropo.a.'E H o6jiacTH sejiBMoafB, a OHH J^JISUIE nanaMH, KOFO xo-
,
CBOHXT. po,a;HBix B H CBOHxi ^pyseii
r
H cM^majiH HXI, Kor^a
9TO ji;jia ceda yAodHBiMi,. CjiynajiocB, qio nancKHMi.
npecxoJiOM'B pacnopaKajiHCB nopoiHBia aienmnHBi, H ITO nanw
yMHpaJia OTI.
pyKH ySinn.'B. CaMH nanBi Hepi^KO omAma.mcb cmpam-
HOW GesHpaecmeeHHOcmbw, H cociaBH-iacB .naste jereH^a o TOM-B,

6y.aiTO oflHaa^Bi Kaeejtpy an. Ileipa 3aHHMa.ia 5KeHnj,HHa. B* cepe-


X B. na nancKOM-B npecioJi'B CH.H-BJI'B loanm XII, MOJIO^OH
npeAaBaBHiiHca KyieataM-B H KomyncTBy. Bi pHMCKia
npn HeM^ BM^niajica niMe^ift KOPOJB Ommour, Be.tmiu,

CM. Kapiy VI.


81

fi B-B 962 r. HMnepaxopa. OHI,


npHHa.i'B, THTy.i'B
;uia cy,na na^i. loaimoMi, XII, H nocjikumn 6ujn> HHSJIO-
. HocJii> BTOFO na H^KOiopoe speMa, 6jiaro,a;apa On-ony I H ero
nojioaceme nancTBa yjiyiinnjiocB, HO
npeeMHHKaii'B,
BI> Haqajrfe XI
aHapxia Bt PHATB ycH.iHJiacB, H 6ujii MOMCHTB,
B.
1
Kor,u,a cpasy 6mio mpoe nanz ), ocnapueaGwuxt e^acmb dpyn> y
dpym. IlaiiCTBO HecoMHijnHtiM'B o6pa30M'L iiyatAa^ocL B-B pe(j)OpMi,
H B'B cepeAHHi XI npOBeAena, 6jiaro^apa HO-
B. 9ia pe<|)opMa 6tiJia

BOMy ,a,BHffi,eHiK), BOSHHKmeMy Bt sana^HOH nepKBH.


KjK)H1 HCKOe
115*. Bo <I>paHE(iH cymecTBOBajit O^HH^ MOnacTiipL, uasiiBaB- .

ininca KAWHU H CJiaBBBniifica acKexHSMOM-L CBOHXI. MonaxoB-L. BTOTI


HSiflTI, HSl-nOA'b SaBHCHMOCTH OTI> KaKOH 6u TO
HH 6njo CBiiCKOH HJiH .nyxoBHOH BJiacTH H no^HHHeHt nenocpe^-
CTBeHHO CypOBua npaBH^a, npHHaTtia BI BTOMI, odmeatHTin,
nan-E.

pacnpocxpaHHJiHCfc oiciOAa H na MHorie ^pyrie MOHacTEipn, KOiopwe


CMOipijEH Ha KJnoniHCKin MOHacTEipL, BaBi Ha CBoero rjiasy. Bo Bciix'L
HHXI> rocnoACTBOBaJio cmpeM.ieme nodnunum^ omdrbAwun uanio-

u/epwu nann> H npOBeciH BI> atH3H& JlateacHAOpOBH ^e-


.
KjnomHn;H peBHOCTHO 6opojiHC& C'B 6e3iiopa,nKaMH, BKpaB-
BI KaiojiH^ecKyK) n,epKOBB, BI> oco6eHnocTM ate ci> eo-
wedwew m ofomau cuMonieu, T.-e. npioop'BTeHieMi. n.epKOBHbixi, AO.IJK-
HOCT6H 3a AGHBIH, H B'B TO SRQ BpGMfl OHH OTCTaHBaJH H63aeUCU-
dyxoenou e.iacmu omz cerbmcmio npaeumeMcmoa.
ci. OiTOHa Be.iHKaro iiMnepaTOpu Bpena OTI BpeMeHH
,-BJia n;epKBft BT> BH,ny PHMCKHXI. caiyx-B,
na CBO^OA^ H Oco6eHHO pi-
AOCTOHHCTB-II nanciBa.
nepBOH noJOBHH-B XI B. HMnepaxop'B Teu-
B'B

puxz III TPH pasa CBoeio


,
BjracTBio CTaBHBmifi nan'B. HOCJI'BAHHM'B
H3i HHX-B SBIJI-B ero flBoropoflHBiH 6paT-B J[en IX, npn KOxopoM-B
coseprnHJica OKOHqaxejiBHBiH paspBiBi, BOCTO^HOH H sana^Hoii i;ep-
KB6H. 3lO 6BIJTB peBHOCTHBlfl CTOpOHHEKT) KJIEOHiHCKarO ^BHatCHia, CO-
oacHBHiiHCJi CA^aTBCa nanoro jinmB 110,3,1. ycjOBieM'B no^TBepat^eHia
ero HasHaieHJa saKOHHBiMT. HsOpaHieM-B co CTOPOHBI KJinpa H napo^a
ropo^a PHMa. Oni aBHJica BI> PHM-B 6ocoHorHM-B najiHrpHMOM-B B-B
conpOBoacAeniH MOJIOAOFO Monaxa ruMde6panda, xoate CTOpOHHHKa
KJioHiHCKHX-B BsrjiflAOBi, HM'BBmaro 6ojBmoe MLflHie Ha HOBaro
naiiy. FmiB.netfpaH.n'B caM-B O^HO Bpena 6nun MonaxoM-B B-B KJIIOHH,
HO DOTOMI, nepecejiHJica B'B PHM-B, r^i npn H'BCKOJBKHX'B nanax'B
rjiaEHBiM-B pyKOBOAHTe.ieM-B HXI. HOJIHTHKH, noKa HC
nanow nodi UMCHCMZ Tpuiopin VII.

*) OAHHI H3i HHXI 6vun, BeHeAHKTi, XII, BOSBe^eHHHH aa npecTO.it 12

po^y H aa AeHtrH npo^aBinifi CBOC JTBCTO OAHOMY 6oraTOMy MCJioBtKy.


Hcxopia. 6
82 ,-

116. FpHropiH VII (1073 1085) GBIJTB caMuju&


yn
,, imuMb npedcmaoumeMMt cpeflneBiiEOBoro nancxsa. 9ro
P IH -
* *x. *.
qe.iOB'EK'B, rjryooKo yo'BJK.neHHBiH B-B npaBoxiB CBOHX-B

cxpacxHO 3affl,Hm,aBniiH HXI> npOTHBi scixt H Bcaitaro, C'L


9Hepriefi npOBO^HBiniH HXI> B-B SIHSHB. O^HH-B ero
CTOPOHHHKI,
C'L HHMi paxoBaBHiiH sa KJiioHiHCKifl
HACK (Heipi ^aMiaHx)
"
;ja
9iy cipacTHOCTb H Bnepriio nasHBajii) ero CBHTHM-L CaiaHOio .

RdeaAOMt I'pmopia MHfouia meoKpamifi(T.-e. 6oroBJiacTie),


ecejiencKaro xapaKiepa. OH'B CHJTB y6 atAemb BI TOMI, qxor

CTBO ^OJIJKHO rOCnOACTBOBait ESiJL^ CB BTCKHMl> O^meCTBOMl,, CaMO


r

Haxo^HTBCH VL desycjiOBHOM-L no^qHHemu y nanti. 3a^aqa


na sejuii noAroTOBJieHie KI> n,apcxBy Boatiio na ne6ecaxx, KJHOHH
Koxoparo HaxoAaxca y nann. liana oxB-BxcxByexi, nepe^-L BoroMt
sa nacoiioe HMI. cxa^o, HO eny ate npHHa^JieatHX'B H npaso ycxpoe-
Hia 36MHOH JKH3HH BH^y en He6ecHofi u.'BJiH. OBI. pacnopjmaexcH
B-L

H03XOMy 060HMH MC'iaMH BJiaCXH H flyXOBHHMl), H CB'BXCKHM'B, HO


MCH^ OHI, Bpyqaexi rocy,n;apio, CBoeny yno-iHOMOieHHOMy.
rocyAapB TOJIE>KO cxaBJieHHKi nann, sanMCXByioni.iH CBOH

CB-BXI, oxx nanu, KaK-B Jiyna oxi. cojiHHa. Hani


npaBO HHSJiaraxi. nainepaxopa H Kopojien, ocBo6oatj;axb HXT.
Cannon HM B npHCflra. TaKi> BLicoKO cxaBHjr& FpHropitt VII
r
HBIXI. OX-B

BjiacxB pHMCKaro nepBocBameHHHKa, HO OHI xox'BJi &, KPOM-B xoro, r

Hxo6ii H see AyxoBCHCXBO CBLIO coBepmeHHO HesaBHCHMO ox^ CB-BX-


CKOH BjiaciH H MipCKoro o6m,ecxBa. Y enncKonoBi) H
HC 6ujio 6BIXB HHKaKnxi. HHBIX-B rocy^apeH, KpOM-B
flftJiy&EO
H n;epKOBB flOJiJKHa 6BMa saM^HaxB HM-B CCMBIO. HonaxHO, ^xo H
H30panie na BC'E r^epKOBHBia AOJiatHOcxH AOJESHO CBIJO ^BIXB nesa-
BHCHMBiM'B oxi> MipCKHX'B jno^efi, x-BMx doj-Be Hsdpame nanBi.
117. Em,e ,a;o sanaxia nancKaro npecxo.ia FHJiBjiie6paH ];'& npo- (

Pe(j)opMHrpH- Bejll( ^ H y Beci)Ma BaatnyH) pe^opny. OH'B HC xoxiji^, qxo6n HS-


6paHie B-B nanBi saBnc-kio OX-B PHMCKOH snaxn
oxi HMnepa- HJIH

xopa, H BHyHiHjrb nani HnKOJiaK) II M&ICJIB H3^;axB ysasi. o HO&OMZ no-


pndKYb nancKuxz eu6opoe^>. Ilpaso saM-femema CB. npecxo-ia ^BMO npe^o-
cxaBJieHO oco6ofi KOJuterin (KOHKMuy) mpduHa.web,
JIHCB enHCKonBi PHMCKOH o6jracxH, a xanate CBamennHKH
qepKBefi canoro PnMa H H-BCKOJIBKO npHEHJierHpOBanHBixi,

(1059). Haxo^a HyatHBiMi, Kpinqe npnBasaxB ^yxoBencxBO K-B n,epKBH,


FHJiBji;e6paHA'B 6Bijn> cmoponmmoMz neMeHawi'b^ cenw/eHHUKOO^ H enje
npH nani JI&B^ IX no^epaHBajnb ibemdamz (6es6paqie)
cxBa; CA^aBmHCB nanoro, OH'B npaMO sanpexHjn, jKeHaxBiM
KaM^ coBepmaxB 6orocjyateHie flo X-BXI nopi., noKa OHH ue pa-
sofl^yxca ci ateHaMH. 9xa Mipa BCXp'BXHJia conpoxnBjeHie B^ sna-
83

MaciH flyxoBeHCTBa, HO FpnropiH VII CJIOMHJH ero npH


HapOAHuxt MaccT>, AyMaBnrax'B, HTO TaHHCTBa, coeep-
r

jio,n,nepJKK B
uiaeMUH sKeHaTHMH cBameHHHKaMH, HC flMcTBHTejiBHBi. Hstfpame
nanw KapflHHajiaMH H 6e36paqie AyxoBenciBa CA^JiaJiHCB ex xoro
OCHOOHUMU saKomjuu mmoAmecKOu ^epneu. Yate npea-
Fpnropia VII 6opoJiHCB npOTHBi CHMomn, H C-B caMaro
CBoero npaBJieniff OHT> TBep,a;o nocmanoeuM Hua.miamb
a noiOMi. H 600601,6 noipe6oBaji'B, ITO^H BC^ ^y-
XOBHHH jiHn,a, nojyiHBmifl .no.iatHOCTH OTX CB-ETCKHXTb BJiacien,
CJOJEH.IH C-B Ce6fl 9TH ^OJiatHOCTH HO^X CTpaXOMI. OTJiyqeHlfl OTt
i;epKBH. Ho Tony ate nocTaHOB-ieniro H CB^TCKie npaBHiejin, KO-
Topue ciajin 6n pas^asaTL no CBoeny ycMOip'BHiH) n,epKOBHEia Micia,
no^ieasajiH n,epKOBHOMy naKasaHiio. BTHMI HOCJI'BAHHM'B Tpe6oBanieMi
nana xoT-fejn, yHmmowcumb maui nasbieaeMyw umeqmumypy, 06-
nepe^aiy flyxoBHtixt ^OJi^HOCTeft CBiicKHMH npasH-
HJIH

dy.nyin.HM'B enncKonaMt, a^daiaMx H T. #. Ho 9iy M'fepy


npOBeciH OKasajiocB oqenb Tpy^HUMi.
118. Bi IX XI BB. sanaAHMfl rocy^apciBa pacna^ajiHCb H a Cn P l3aHH
'

MiioasecTBO MCJIKHXI. BJia^Hifi, rocy^apaMH KOTOPHXI.


H flyxoBHiia ^ojatHOCTHEia JiHn;a H KpynHtie
(repqorH, rpa<|)Li,enHCKOira, a66aiBi H T. n.) Bci>
iJiH BaccaJiaMH xoro HJIH ^pyroro CB^TCKaro
oco6eHHO AOPOH;HJIH AyxoBHHMH BaccaJiaiiH, xaKi,
OHH 116 6HJIH HaCJI-BACTBeHHBIMH B1> CBOHX1 SCMJIflXX; H09TOMy
paiop'B, KOpo.iH H flpyrie KHHSBH BX Hapymenie npaBHJn>
lecKaro HsdpaHia ermcKonoB-B H adSaxoB-B AyxoBesciBOMi. HJIH
ineciBOM'B caMH san-BinajiH BaKanTHBia flyxoBHHH ^OJiatHOCTH, nepe-
daeax eMrbcmn cz UUMU u npumdAewaewiH dmujuz do^otcnocmnM^
seM.iu. 9ia-TO nepe^aqa H HasMBa.iacB HHBecTHiypoio. 3anpem,afl
HHBecTHiypy, FpHropiH VII omnuMaM y carbmcKiixv wcydapeu
QAacmbHadz uxb dyxoeHbiMu eaccaACLMU, na ITO it ne MOOH, KOHeqeo,
cooacHTBCfl. BnpoqeM-B. FpHropiH VII npOBO^HJii. 310 Tpe6oBame
OCMOTpHTCJIBHO, HC ffiCJiafl CCOpHTBCfl Cl KOpOJIflMH, HpOTHBX KOTO-
PBIX'B eMy 6uJio 6u ipy^HO flMcTBOBaTB, H TO.IBKO ct lepMaucKUMt
locydape.m ncvtajicsi y neio amMeuumuu cnopi sa uueecmumypy,
nocji'B ero CMepin H B0o6in,e AJHBiniHca OKOJIO naiH-
JI-BT-B.

119. Cnopi. sa HHBecTHiypy, noAHaitiH FparopieMi VII, dBurb C


p^
JIHHIB naiajiOM^ (Jojin>e npodojimumeji'bHOu fiopbtfu Mewty nancmeoMo
u HMnepieii. Bi anoxy pacnaAenia MOHapxin Kap.ia BejiHKaro BOS-
TaHOBJieHHoe HMI, sana^Hoe HMnepaiopciBO npnmjo BI> yna^OK-B H
B'B atajKOiTB cocToafiiH OKOJIO n,^jiaro ciOwTBiia. Bospo-
6*
84

flHJTB KT> HOBOH JKH3HH H^CK) HMHCpiH HE SanRA^ JHfflB H-EMeHKifi KOpOJlb.

OxxoHTb BejiHKiH, npHHSBraiH HMnepaxopcityio Kopony B-B Puni BI>


962 r. Ci 9Toro BpeweHH UMnepamopaMu 3anada cdrb^a.iucb nn>-
Kopodu, H cana HMnepia, cocxoaBmaa B-B cymnocxH jiamb mi>
MeittKie

FepManiH H ciBepnofi Hxa.dH, cxajia Hasbisaxbca CefuuenHou PUM-


CKOU UMnepieu nrbMe^ou naniu. Majio-no-Majiy BBipadoxajiacb ivLiaa
meopia nancmea u UMnepiu, saKiroqaBmaaca BI> TOMI, qio Bor^ no-
cxaBHJi^ BO rjiaB'B Mipa ppfe Bticmifl BJiacin nancKyro H HMnepaxop-
CKyro, nopyqnB'L OAHOH ynpaBJiait ^yinaMH, Apyrofi T^JiaMH. CpeAne-
B^KOBHe n pHMCKie" HMnepaiopH CMOTp-fcjiH Ha ce6a, Kant na npeeM-
HHKOBI, flpeBHuxt ^e3apeH H Bjia^tiKi. Mipa. IIofloftHO Kapjiy Be-

jiHKOMy OHH xomnbAU ejiacmeoeaim u nadi nanamu. Oco6eHHO ia-


KHMI cxpeMJiemeMx OTJinqajrca CTapmin coBpeMeHHHK-L FpHropia VII,
^eHpux^ III, xoate atejiaBinin, ^Todu Mipane no^HHajiHCL
a ^yxoBeHCTBO nairfc, HO no^t T-BM-B ycJOBieirL,
nana no,a;qHHaJica HMnepaiopy. KOHG^HO, FpHropiH VII H era
npeeMHHKH He MOOH cooacHTtca CT> TaKHMTb noHHMaHieMi> HMne-
pin, xaKi. KaK-B CMOTP-BJIH na BsaHMHua oiHOinema o6'BHX L BJiaA^Hin r

coBepmeHHO HHa^e.
12O. Bopi>6a neatly H HMnepien Haqa.iaci. npn
nanciBOMi.
CBIH^ FenpHxa III, Fenpuxrh IV. FenpHxi III ynep-B (1056) enje
A Hs6paHia BI nanti Fparopia VII H Kor,n;a ero CHHy SHJIO TOJIBKO
naib Ji'^i'L. Bi MajojiiTCTBO MOJIOAOFO Kopoja BX FepMaHin npo-
HCXOAHJIH CMyiH, ^io 6tuio oqeHb BEiroAno .pa TorAafflHeH no-
JIHTHKH nancTBa. Kor^a FenpHXi IV npnineji'B BJ> coBepmeHHHH
BOspacTx, OHI, sanajica yKp-EnjieHieM^ B^ FepnaHin,
CBoeft BJiaciH

pacnaBmeflca na OTA'kibHBia repn,orcTBa ; BCTP-BTHB-L, o^naKO, conpoiH-


BJieHie H co CTOPOHH SHaiH, H co CTOpOHH napo^a. MejR,ny T-BMS

FparopiH VII Hsp,sun> yKas-B, sanpemaBmig HHBecTuxypy, HO Fen-


IV ne saxomrbM omz nea ommsambca. Ero
Koxopoe E% FepMama 6&MO Hacxpoeno Boofiuje
npoiHBi) pe^opsi-B Fpnropia VII. FeHpHX-L IV co3Ba.ii u,epKoe-
HUU COfiopV BopMCfb, Ha KOTOpOMX H^MeCiKOe AyXOBCHCTBO o6l.aBHJIO,
fft>

nana OTHHMaeTi> BJiaciB y enncKonoB-B H HTO noToaiy eiiy He CJTE-


noBHHOBaxbca. CaM'B Kopo-iB, Koxoparo nana o^BHHaji'B BX CHMO-
xpeSoBaJii KI oxsixy BI> PHMI, oxB-fexEJix FpHropiio VII, ixo OHX,
nana, HHcnpOBepraexi BoroM'B ycxaHOBjeHHbiH nopa^OKi, cxaBflmiH
BO rjiaB^ qejiOBiiecKaro o6m,ecxBa napCKyro BJiacxB H CBam,eH-
CXBO. FeHpaxi IV noxpe^OBajii. ^aaie, qxo6bi FpHropiii VII co-
meji'B ci.npecxojia H ycxynHJTB M-BCXO 601^6 ^.ocxoHHOMy. Ox-
B'EXOM'B Ha 9xo co cxopOHbi nanBi 6biJio oxjiyqenie oxi, n;epKBH H
enncKonOBij, H caiaoro FeHpaxa IV, Koxopbin,
85

Toro, 6u.i7> ofoxeMHi jimubHHUMi) Kopojieecmio cana; ero


CLIJIH ocBoSojRAeHH OT-L Cannon eMy npncarH. H'EMn.ti, ne-
CBOHM-B rocyAapeMi, nepenuiH Ha cxopony rposnaro nanBi.
OcxaB.ieHHLlH H npeJKHHMH COK)3HHKaMH, FCHpHX'B IV 3HMOK) 1077 T.
oxnpaBHJiCfl B-B Hxajiio npocumb y nanu npou^enin. B'B Kauoccn,
aaMidi MaiHJibAH, MapKrpa(f)HHH nponsonuio 3HaMeHH-
xocKancKoii,
Toe CBH^aaie neatly narrow H KopojieM-L. Cnanaja FparopiH VII
OTKasajiCfl npHHflTb FenpHxa IV, H noc.<TE,a, H ni ipn ,a,Hfl nposeji^ y

BOporL saMKa B-L o^sRfl^ Kaiomarocfl rpiinnHKa. XOTH HOTOMI, nana H


CHH,TL C'B nero OTJiyqenie, repnaHCKie KHSSLH Bce-iaKH ne XOT-BJIH ero
KOpojieMi. H ^.aate BBi(5pajiH ^pyroro rocy^apfl. HaiajiacB
6opt6a. FeHpHXi. IV onaiL 6tuLT OTJiyqeH-L, HO OH-L
H HTaJitaHCKaro ji;yxoBeHCTBa nsdpa
roro nann (aHTHnanti), BSKJTL PHMI> H BOSJioatH.Tt na ce6fl nwne-
paiopCKyio KOpOHy.
"
121. FpnropiH VII yjwepi BO Bpeiia BTOH BOHHLI, HO y Hero BopMCK1HKOH
Ha^aiaro HM^ jia. OCO^CHHOIO ,a,
r

HOCTbio OT-inqaJiCfl nana Vp6am II, ycBOHBniiK BHOJIH'B


Fpnropia VII H eme 6ojie BosBHCHBinin nancKyio BJiacTt CBOCIO

HHHi;iaTHBOK) KpeciOBHX'L noxo^OBX ,a;jifl ocBo6oa;ji;eHifl CB. 3enjiH


H3-B pyKi. HeB^pHLixi). Ilan&i co BC^X-B
cioponi no^,HHMa.in Bpa-
npoTHB-L HMnepaxopa, H no^Konei^x Ha nero HOUIJIH ero co6-
CLiHOBBjr. Kor^a FeHpaxi IV ynepi (1106), 6op&6y ci

nanciBOM'L ii-EKOiopoe Bpena npo^OJiaiaji'b ero CLIHI. PeupuxK If.

npe^MeiOMt cnopa 6E.ua HHBeciHTypa, H TOJIBKO B'B 1122 r.


npHMHpenie neatly HMnepaxopOMi H nanoro (KajuiHK-
CTOMI II) no TaK-B nasLiBaeMOMy eopMCKomy KOUKOpdamy. CnopHBifi
Bonpoci) 6sun> p'sraeni BT> TOMX CMBKMI'B, HTodu dyxoenua dojiotc-
nocmu saMVbWjCLJiucb no mnoHuuecKOMy U36pauiw u cz ymeepwcde-
HIH nanu, H qioSu Auwb noc.in> dmoio UMnepamopv daeaAz dyxoe-
HOMy Auu/y uneecmumypy Ha coeAHHeHHHfl C'B canoMT. Bja^Hia H
npasa.
122*. notf-BAa Bt KOHII;^ Konn.OB'B ocxajiacB Ha ciopon-B 1

nan-^ ^
CTBa. B'B IX XI BB. OHO BBIpOCJIO B'B D.'EJiyiO ^yXOBHyH) MOnapxilO najb HMne-
BI> TO caMoe BpeMfl, KaK-B CB-BTCKaa HMnepia, Hao6opoTi,, pacnajracB P ie

H8, OT^JIBHHfl HaCTH, H HMnepaTOpTj JIHIUHJICfl HOITH BCHKOH pe-


aJiBHOH CH.ILI. HMnepifl X XI BB. cocioajia JIHUIB HS-B FepuamH
H Hxajtin (a H xo ne seen), H B'B o6'BHX'B cxpanaxi> Bee
9XHXi>
<5oJTEe H 6ojr4e ycnjiHBa.TacB BJiacxB repn.oroB'B, rpa^os-B, enHCKO-
HOB-L H a66axoBt, Koxoptie Majio-no-Majy CA'fc-TajHCB caMH OKI. 6bi
SXH cxo-iima, Kor.a,a OKOuvameMno CAOMUACH cped-
rocy,a;apcxBeHHOM B H
r
B-B
86

6&ny Bbipa6oxa.iiocb H coBepmenHO ceoeodpasnoe ycxponcxBo cped-


neetbKoeou (peoda.msMo.

III.

123*. BcKoplj no OKOHiamn BayxpeHHHxi> pas^opOBt, BtiSBaH-


Bi> HKOHo6opCTBOM'B, Ha HMnepaxopCKifi npecxoji'b
BH3tUixiH
EJ) KoHCiaHTHHonoJi'fc Bcxyirajia ManedoucKaH dumcmia, ijapcxBO-
BaBmaa c^ HetfojibinHMH nepepuBaMH OKOJO .nByxcox-b JI-BT-L (867-
1056). OcHOBaieJib BTOH .HHHacTin, Bacujiiu I MauedouHHum^ npo-
KpeCTBflHCKOH C6MLH, BCK) MOJIOflOCTb

y (xwirapi., 6ajn, HOTOMI. KOHIOXOMI y pasHHxt


Ooraiefi H, noJiyiHBi, TaKyro ate ^OJI^HOCTB npn

HMnepaiopa, CHHCKajri, pacnojioffitenie Muxau.ia III, KOTOPHH H


ero faicipo noBtiraaTb BI npH^BOpHnxi) sBaHiaxi. BacHJiiii
Kecapejiiv, KaK-B HasiiBajiH conpaBHiejifl H

HMnepaTOpa. Kor,a;a, o^naKO, Maxanji^ III

ocBo6o,a;HTbCfl OTI. Bacajiia nocpe^CTBOMi, ydiftciBa, nocji-BAHiH cam


yMepiBHJi'b HMnepaiopa H sannjii npecTOJii. MaKedoncKan dunacmifi
cnoea oosebicujia UMnepiw BI y^a^HBixi, BOHHax'b co coc'B.n.flMH.
npo^HMt, HMGHHO npn HMnepaiopax-L STOH ^HHacxin eusan-
l
ucmopin conpmacaemcH cz pyccnow ). 9xo 6mia 9noxa
ifl IOJKHLIX^ H BOCxoqnBix% cjaBssi B-L xpHCxiancxBO H

124. O^HHI. HSX HMnepaxopOBi, MaKe^oncKOH ^HHacxin, KOH-


cmanmuHK EaipHHOpodnuu, asHBiiiin BI nepBofi UOJIOBHH'B X B.
taapCTBOBOJit B^ 912 959 IT.), BI CBOHX^ coqHHemaxi onnca.i'b.
BHsaHxiftCKaro ynpaBJienia. Bi 9x0 BpeMa
r

MaKeoHCKoflnopaji;oK b BnyxpeHHflro
HMne pj a ^jiujracb Ha eejuw, BO rjiaB-B Koxopbix'b CXOHJIH cmpammu
ci> BoeHHOio H rpa3K,n;aHCKOK) BJiacxbro. B^ cocxaBi BoficKa BXOAHJR
iacxbro noceJienHBie BX
HMnepiH unopodiw (amoro c.ia-
npn HeMi, BoeHHaa
cjiyat6a c^jajiacb CBoero po^a nacArbd-
sanfimieMz. fljin co,a,ep^aHia apnin BI> OTAiJBHHXt 06-
jiacxaxt cymecxBOBajiH ocodbia eouHCKln noMncmiH, xo/Ke A&aaB-
ffliaca HacJiiACXBeHHtiMH noA'b ycJiOBieMi> nocxaBKH Bt BoeHHyio

CJiyaf6y HSBicxnaro KO.omecxBa co-i^ax-b. (9xa noM^cxba HanoMH-


narox'b sana^Hbie 6eHe^)Hi^iH). YjKe nepBBie MaKejOHCKie HMnepaxopn
Miioro saHHMajiHCb saKOHodameMcmeoMv, npncnoco^Jiflfl cxapue sa-
KOHbl Kl HOBLIM-B yCJIOBlflMl,, HS^aBaH HOBLIfl DOCXaHOBJieHia H CO-

yne6HHKaxi pyccKofi HCiopiii ynoMHHaiOTCfl c^tayromie HMnepaiopn: JLen VI


J
) ~B%
KOHCTaHTHHf VIII Bai'pflHOpOAHUH, loaHHl
$HJIOCO(}>i, I U,HMHCXiH, BaCHjlifi II, KOH-
CiaHTHHt IX H KOHCiaHTHHt XI MoHOMaXT..
87

cxaBJiaa cCopmiKH exaptixT,. B-iaroAapa 3xoMy, CBOA'b lOcxHniana mxiy-


u
iiwb coBepnieHno HOBiift BHA'B BI xaira HasiiBaeMBixt BacnjiHKaxi
(to. ijapcme saKOHti). B-L CBOHX-B saKOHOflaxe.ibHbix'b
j5aaiXcy.a, x.-e.

nocxaHOBjieniax'b MaiceAOHCKaa AHnacxia ocoGeHHO eeMi 6opb6y c&


K.mccoMo Kpynnwxz seM.ieeJiadnMi^ee^ (fliraaxEi, Sovaioc), HSI KOTO-
6paJiHCb cipaiHrH, cy,a,bH H .npyrie IHHOBHHKH H Koxoptie,
CBOHMI* 6oraTCTBOMi H BJiacibK), pasopnjiu KpecmwHZ u
doeodujiu uxt do saKprbnoiyeuia. HMnepaiopn pasHHMH
cxapajiHCB oxpanflTL KpecibaHCKifl OOII],HHH, pasBHnmiflCH B'b

,iym,e>n> nepio^, T.-e. H jHHHyio CBo6o^y KpecTbaiii), H nx'b

caMoynpaBjenie otfm.HH'b. BM-BCT^ c-b T^MI, MaKe,noH-


npniiHiiaja Mipbi H IIPOTHBT, qpesM^pHaro pasBHiiH
aepKOBnaro H MoiiacTBipcKaro 3eM.ieB.iaAiHi}i.
125. MaKe^oiiCKOH AHHacxin nacji-BAOBajia dunacmin KOMHU- KOMHHHH.

no&b, ijapCTBOBaBinan OKOJO cxa TpH^aTH JI-BTI. (1057 1185),


BT, iiaqajij, ci> nepepiiBaMH, BO BpeMH
EnpoieM^ KOTOptixi) npa-
BHJIH HMnepaxopti He H^T. 9TOH ^HHacxin. OKOHqaxejibHO yTBepAHjn
B.:iac n, sa CBoen (J)aMHJiieH AjieKcrbu KOMHUW> (1081
r

1118). ITpn
KpecmwHCKaa ceo6oda nprnum 6i>
ynadoKb^ Meai^y npo-
noTOMy, ^TO ofaiiaH Kwkxnn cjiyaiHJiLix'b JHOACH nacejieH-
HLIMH SeM.lflMH, HJIH npOMHMU (TUpOVOta) npHBeJUb RT> yCHJieiHIO
K-iacca Kpynnux'b 3eMJieBJiaA'k ibijeB'b. llocjii KOMEHHOB-L BI> KOH-
;

CTaHTHHonoji'E CHOsa npOHSoniJia 6opb6a sa npecTOJiT,, BO


KOiopOH BHsaHTincKaa HMnepia Sw.ia naBoeBatm sanaAHbiMH
PJIMH. Em,e npn AjieKcM KoMimHii uaia.iHCF> HOXOAH sana.a.Hbix'b
jijipo^OBij ^.Jifl ocBo6oayi;eHia rpo6a Focno^n)!, HMiBinie 6ojbmoe
;;n;i4eHie H /wa BHyTpeuneii HCiopin BusauiiH.

IV.

126. C^ caaiaro Haiaja CBoero noaBJieHia na


.

CJABflHCSLfl njieitena Haxo^HJiHCb &t xyowuxz


repMaimu. Bo-nepBtixi), MeH'fce 6jraronpiaxHLiMH
yc.woiH saeaxuxi, HMH cxpani, o'earpaHHiHbia
Co.ioxa, jica, cypOBLin K.iHMax'b. Bo-Bxopux'b, H KyjitmypuuH ycjio-
eifi (lujH xya:e ^ojiroe cocrEflCXBO .minb ci napo^aMH, cxoaBniHMH
Ha oyenb HHSKOH cxyneHH pasBHxia. B'b-xpexbHX-L, Bc.iiiACXBie axoro
caanaue H ucmopuu'jCKUMU yc.ioeiHMU CLIJIH iiocraBjeHbi BI xanoe
no.ioaKenie, qio nosaie, ykwi> repMaimii, MOIMH Bocnpimaxb naqaxKH
o6pa30BanHOCXH H rpajKAancTBeHHOcxH. 3aHHMaacb
nosBOJiH.ia npHpo^a xofi HJH ^pyroii o6.iacxn, TA^
a r^t SB'EPOJIOBCTBOM'B *), OHH JKHJIH nepejvB BCiy-
B-B HCiopiro npnfijiHSHTejibHO BI> MCMOM* me 6umy, m
naxoduAUCb u lepMan^i Bt IB. no P. X., noscajiyH, flame
eme coxpanaa qepii, oiflajieHHOH ciapiiHH. Y nnxt podoeun
do-n-Be

omnomeHiH omjiuuajiucb 6oAbwew Kp-Enocibto, q'EM'B y repMaHn,eB B, r

a paficmeo coecibMt ue 6uAO paseumo. GnaBane atHJiH POAOBMMH


o6m;HHaMH, BT, Koiopiix'L rocno^CTBOBa^o paBeHCTBO qjieHOBt UQJCI>

o,u;Horo ciapraHHii H KOTOPHH coo6in,a BJia^-B^n CBoero seMJieio,


sci npHHHMaJiH yqacxie wi, o6meft pa6ori>. BHsaHTiticKie HH-
oBOpHJH, ITO cjaBane ^atHByi'B B-L ^eMOKpaxin H pfciraiorb
a
coo6m,a Measly COC^HEMH po^aMH nacxo cymccmeoecuia
.

epawda, Koxopaa ne npeKpamajiact H B^ Cjiyia-B coeAHHenia OTA^B-


BI njeMena. B-L BTHX-B njieMeHax'b, KaKi H y repMaHn,eBi,,
HLixi) po.noB'B
MH H KHfiseu, H ewe, H dpywunu. Ha B-Bqax
iiaxoflHM'B

npOHCXO^HJIH CXBaTKH, TaK^ KaK-L yiaCTHHKH H6 XOT-BJIH


HHTbca 6oJituiHHCTBy. IIoAodHO repMaHi^aM-B cJiaBane atHJH nocej-
a lopoda 6u;iH JiHrnt M^cxaMH, orpaiKAeHHHMH qacioKOJOMi, HJIH
,

r,n i Bt cjiyiai Hana,a;eHia OHH npaiajiH CBOH CGMBH,


r

CKOTI. H flpyroe HMymecTBO. KpOM-B BHyipeHeHxi, pas^opOBt,


cjatojiH coci^H, qacio HXI noKOpaomie (repMaHn;Tj,
H T. n.). O^meft pejinrm y cjaBan-L npn xaKon pasposneH-
HOCTH TO^e He 6ujio. CaMa 9ia pejiuiin coomenmcmeoeaAa podo-
eoMy 6umy, xaKt KaKi> BTE> nefi 6ojn>moe snaqeHie npHHa/i;jiejKajio
nouumanm npednoei, noKpOBHiejien CCMBH H po,a;a (^OMOBOH H
iypi>). Bora npHpo^H y pasnuxi njieMeHi. ^BIJIH pasHne (Ceapow,
6on> He6a; Hepywz 6or^ MOJinin H rpona; $aoKb-6oi?> 6orB
H T. XpaMOBTb H H^OJIOB-L y 60JIBfflHHCTBa CJTaBaH'B H6
,3,.).

,paBHO KaKi, H acpeiecKaro cocjOBia (KPOM-E 6a.iTiHCKHX'B


y KOTOpuxi 6miH H atpequ, H HAOJIII, H xpaMH, HO
MHoro nos^H^e). noaiOMy xpHCiiancTBO pacnpocipanajiocB Meat^y
CJiaBanaMH OICHB JierKO, H TOJIBKO y fiaMniuCKUxt cjiaenm muve-
cmeo OKdsajio cuMuoe conpomueMuie xpucmiaucKOu nponoevbdu.
127*. B^ OTHomeniH HCTOpnqecKOH cyAB6H CJiasaHe Moryxi
Li na qeTtipe KaTeropin. O^HH HSI HHXX OTA'BJIB-
HHMH CCMBaMH, pO^aMH TAJIK Ji;pyatHHaMH nepeC6A,flAUCb 67> Bu3dH-
miucMjw UMnepiw, idtb nocmenenno dji.iuuusupoecuiucb. 3io
.IOCB B'BH Tanyjiocb ji;o IX. B^ cepe^nn-B IX ciojrETia
VI B.

rie CJiaBane cma.iu ocnoeueamb caMOcmonme.tbmiH locydapcmea H


na rori (EoMapifi), H Ha sana^ (Bejiumn Mopaein), H na
BOCTOK-B (Pycb), HOCJI-B qero noaBHJiHCB H Apyria c.iaBancKia rocy-

UpOTHBOnOJIOatHOCTI. pyCCKHXl nOAftWb H


l
)
89

OKOJO xoro JEG BpesieHH BOSHHKJIO locydapcmeo eemep-


ctcoe, BX cocxaBx Koxoparo Bonuia, coxpaHHBx BX HCMX CBOIO

HanionaJiBHOCXB, xpexBH qacxB cJiaBHHx. HaKonenx, qexBepxaa


rpynna noflBeprjacB unMev/KOMy saeoeeauito H lepManusat^iu, npe-
HMymecxBeirao ex XII B.
128. Bx cepeflHH'E IX B. ooaBflHHBiniecfl GoMapu Ha HHJK- ne P B e B O;I-
rapcKoe ijap-
H6MX ^yHax ocnoBajiH OflHO HS-L nepBHXi. CJaBflHCKHXii rocyAapCTBTb
1
C TBO.

npH KHflS-E CBOGM-B EopUCrb, KOTOptlft IIpHHfl.TL H XpHCliaHCTBO


(864). Mest^y BHsaHiieii H 6o;irapaMH 6tua ciapHHHaH BpajK^a, H
Bopnc'L, npHHflB-B xpHCiiaHCTBO OT-B rpeiecKoft n;epKBH, noiOM-L ^y-
nOAIHHHTfc CBOK) CTpaHy Bl ^yXOBHOM-B OTHOIIiemH PflMy.
Bo.irapin, o^eaKO, yTBep^HJioc& eocmounoe ucnoetbdauie ut> 6010-
u cesnyeHHUMt nucaHieMZ na cjiaemcKOMK asbiurb. CHHI>
Bopnca Cumeom (888 927) 6&iji^ yme oieHb CHJIRHBIM-B rocysa-
peMi, xaKi. Kant BJia^it dojitmero qacibio BajiKancKaro H<My-
1
ocipoBa OT-L ci'kwL KoHciaHTHHonojifl #0 A,n;piaTHqecKaro Mopa ).

Ont ysKe ne ^OBOJiLCTBOBajiCfl THTyjiOMi KHHSS, a cia-nt HasBi-


u/apeM* tfojirap'B H rpeKOBi H HasnaqHJix wo. csoero n,ap-
oco6aro naipiapxa. UojiyiHBi. casi-L rpeiecKoe odpasoBaHie,
OHI, noKpOBHiejiBCTBOBaji'B nepeeodnunaMZ ipeuecKUOcz KHUIZ pejinrios-
naro H CB^TCKaro co^ep^aniH H flaaie caMi> yqaciBOBaji'B BT, JIH-
TCpaxypHBix'B Tpy^axx. Bi 9xy saM^iaiejiBHyK) anoxy sapoat^eHis VL
Bojirapin KyjiBTypnoH SKHSHH, pa^OMi ci'npaBOCJraBieM-B BI expand
cxajra HM'BXB ycnixi> H nponoB-B^B BOCXOHHOH epecH Mauuxeee*, KO-

xoptie npnsnaBaJiH ^Byxi> doroB-B, AoSparo H sjioro, oxKpBiBranxcfl BI


BexxoMi) H HOBOMI, saB^xaxi. Bi Bojirapin axa epecB nojyiHJia
HasBaeie COIOMUMCKOU (no HMGHH nona BoroMHJia) H oxcrofla ne-
pes-B qacxB EajraancKaro noJiyocxpOBa H ciBepHyio Hxa-
saiia^Hyro
jriro npOHHKJia B-B
loatnyio $pann;iH) (ajiBSnroHUBi XII XIII BB.).
Bee 9x0 YRasBiBaex'B, qxo BoJirapia IX B. cxajra B-B Kyjibmypnojm
omuoweniu CUMHO nodeepiambcx unocmpanHbtMZ eMnninMt. Bi, co-
H nojiKXH^ecKOMx oxHOffleniflX'B BojirapcKoe n,apcxBO xoaie
ousaHmiucKUMz nopndnaMZ, KOHeqno, npHM'BHeHHBiM'B K'B

HOBBIMI, ycjiOBisMi. Bo rjaBi rocy^apcxBa CXOHJTB iwpb, KOxopBift cxpe-

noflpaaiaxB BHsanxiHCKOMy HMnepaxopy. (Bojirapcme rocy^apn


Bcxynajin BI> 6paiHHa oxHOinenifl ex MaKe^OHCKOft
ex COC-BAHMH (KPOM-B BasaHxm, ex
cxien). J^jin Bejjemfl BOHHI,
H ne^en-BraMH, a xaKme H ex pyccKHMH npn CBaxocjaBi) 6o.irap-
CK!H n;apB HyjK,na,jiCfl BX 6ojiBmoMx eoucnrb, Koxopoe
6ujin nocxaBjiaxB 6oflpe, 0BiBmie caMH

*) Cp. Kapxy III.


90

9xH 6oape BMijcrfc CT> X'EMT, ynpaBJifljiH, Bt KaiecxBii IHHOBHHKOBT>


H cyAefi, KpecTBHHCKOio Maccoio, KOiopafl H nonajia no OTHomemto
KI KHMI, BI> dKOuoMunecKyw u wpudmecKyw saeucuMocmb. IIpH
CHnii (Ilexpij) m> cepejjHH'B X B. Bojirapia pacnajacB Ha
CHMeoHa
BOCxoiHoe H sana^soe n,apcxBa. BHaaHxificKie HMnepaiopti aaBoe-
sajiH CHaiajra nepBoe, a noxoMt H Bxopoe (1018), xait-B ixo B^
XI H XII BB. Eojrrapia 6mia yme npocxoro eusaumiuCKOw npoeuHu,ie\l
<x> cAaeHHCKUMb HaceMHieM*. (HjanepaxopTb BacuMu 11 EoMapo-
r

6ouu,a, no6'E,a;HB & CojirapCKaro u,apa CaMyma, oxnpaBH.i'B K-B neny


15 xHca^t nJiiHEHKOBTb, npe^BapnxejiLHO ocJi^nnBTb Hxt H XOJILKQ
coxaro ocxaBBB-B KPHBBIMI)).
He y,a;epiKa.zioCBOCH nesaBHCHMOCxn H jipyroe c-iaBflHCKoe ro-
B03HHKmee o,o,HOBpeMeHHO ci> Bojirapiefi.
129*. BejiHKOMOpaBCKaa ^epataBa, ocnoBaHHaa KHa3eMi> Po-
Mo- EBejiio ET> Heft H xpHCxlancxBO,
cmuc.iaeoMZ, Koxoptifi
KHpnjuiy H Meeofliro, K-B ipeneCKOu ufipneu, HO HOXOM-B
npn npeeMHHKi Pocmuc.taea, CenmonoAKrb,
CKOMIJ dyxoeencmoy repManiu. Bx cocxaBi, MOpascKaro rocyflapcxsa
KaKi. nojia6cKie cjiaBane, xaK'B H ICXH, HO eMy nocxoaHHO
omfiueamwfi omz nrbMu/eet. CBaxonoJiKi. MOpaBCidfi
ycniniEBia BOHHBI ci repMancKHMH KapojiHHraMH; xor.ua
eempoez, Koxopue H paspymnjin rocy^apcxBO MOpaBOB-B.
oflHaKo, na sana^i BOSHHKJIO rocy^apcxBO cpeflH
130*. HepBLia rocy^apcxBa oKasaJiHCB
cjiaBancKia
H MtweuuuMU nponnocmu. Kpoaii Bojirapin
cofiow
H MopaBin, B^B cepesHHi IX B. BOSHHKJia eme PyCB, HO BC^ xpn
nojiBXH^ecme n,eHxpa cJiaBaHi* 6BMH pas^e^HHeHH O^HHI, oxx ^py-
roro GOMWUMU npocmpancmeaMU, epaotcdeOuuMU nMMenctMU (ne-
^eHiraMH na BOCXOK'B, BCHrpaMH na sanafl'B) H pemiieu. (PycB AO

KOHii,a X
ocxasajiacB asBiiecKOio). HOCJI'B pas^jrema n,epKBH H
B.

namecxBia BenrpOBi) sanaflHBie cjiaBane SHJIH oxp'BsaHH oxi> roat-


HBIXI. IIojrHXHHecKH-MOJiOAHa rocy^apcxBa, BBicxynHBmia na HCXO-
pHiecKyro cn,eHy caMLiMi, d-iecxamnMi) odpasoM-B, CKOpo o6napy-
aiHJH BHyxpenHioK) CBOK) cjra6ocxB. IlepBOK) noraSjia BejiHKOMOpaB-
CKaa Aepatasa, sa Hero nocjiAOBajia Bojrapia, a BI> nepsoH no.io-
BHH-B XIII B. H PycB flOJiatHa 6BiJia nofliHHHXBCH MOHrojaMx. EIoflo6no

<|paHKCKOMy KOpojeBCXBy, H c-aaBaacRia rocy^apcxBa qacxo pacnada-


jiucb na ydrbJtu (oco6eHHO PycB HKoxopBie CBOHMH
IIo.iBma),

pacnpaMH ocji&6jifiJiw. odmee rocyAapcxeo H axHMT, IIPHBOAHJIH ero Kt


rn6ejiH. Bo Bxopofi UOJIOBHH'B cpe^Haxi, B-BKOBT, cymecxBOBajm CJ-B-
!
rocyAapcxBa ): 1) na BOCXOK^ Pyci>, KT> sa-

) CM. napxy XII.


91

orb nea 2) IIoMwa, a ein,e .na-JLiiie na sana,^ 3)


Ha K)rk 4) EoMapia B-B c. B. laciH BajucaHCKaro noJiyocrpOBa H
5) Cepfiix (TB 6) Xopdamieil BT> ijeHipij H Ha sana^'t. BT, B-Eponc-
noB'E.fl.HOM'B OTHomemH PycB, Bojirapia H CepCna 6njw.
HBIMH, IIojiBma, *lexia H XopBaiia KaiojiH^ecKHMH. HST.
ipexi, cjraBancKHX'B KaiojiHqecKHX'B cxpaH'B o^na CKOpo 6tuia sa-
ooeeaua eempaMU (XopsaTia), Apyraa Bonwa BI> nodHunennoe omno-
inenie KZ ComyeHnou PuMCKO-un>Me^ou ujwnepiu (^exia), xpeiba
paspocjiact BI GoAbwyio nojiumunecKyio cujiy (Ilojitnia).
131. CjaBancKoe njeMa vexoez BI KOHII'B V B. no P. X. aa-
Hie
Ha.no boreMiK) (r^i paH&me JKHJIH OOHH KejitTCKaro npOHCxoat,a,e-
nia, a noiOMt. MapKOMaHHH repiiaHCKaro), HO caMO no^najo
aBapOBt, nocJi'B ate na^eHia HXI u,apCTBa ciajo
CO CTOpOHLI H-BMI^eBt. BpeMGHHO H6XH BXOAHJIH B-B
cociaB'B BejiHKOH MopasiH, no B^ Ha^aji'B X B. y HHXT> aBHJica CBOH
Y^e Biopoft eronpeeM-
KHa3B, ocEQB&ieju>jiflBaivriu.IIp3fceMuc.406UHeu.
HHK'h, ce. Btmecmei npuuiMz xpucmiancmoo no sana^-
(Bau/jiaeb)
HOMy o6pa,aiy H npnsHaj'B ce6a BaccajiOMi H^Mei^Karo Kopoja Feu-
puxa IImuw.i06a (929). TaKHMi o6pa30M'B ^exia ci. caaiaro na-
ia.ia CBoero HCTOpnqecKaro cymeciBOBania no^najia noAi>
uoe u nojiumwiecKoe eMnnie lepManiu. IlpeeMHHKH
Jtaate noMorajin u'EMqaM-B BJ> HXI> dopBdi ci. BenrpaMH H
HXT, sparaMH. ojaro^apHoriB sa iio,a;o6HBia yc-iyra HMnepaiop-B
Bi>

FenpHX-B IV ^a.ii) yenicKOMy KHHSK) KOpoMecniii mumy.it, KOTOPBIH

V'fBepflHJica, Bnpo^eMi), sa qeuiCKHiiH rocyAapaMH JIHIIIB nos^Hie.


CKie KHasta OXOTHO npnB.ieKa.iH BTJ cipany utbMeij
oco6eHHO B-B HOBBie ropo^a, KOiopLie OHH CTPOH.IH. Ci* ^pyron CTO-
POHLI, OHH cipeMHjiHCB pacnpocipaHHTB CBOK) BJiacxB na^x cocrbd-
HUMU CM6HHCKUMU nJieMeudMU HO BHCJli H ET> CHJieslH, 1TO npH-
HXX T
BO^HJIO B'B cmoAKHoeeuie c% Ilo.ibmew. BHyxpn Iexiio ocjra-

y^JiBHHa yco()Hn,Bi H csoeBOJiie oopasoBaBmeHca B'B cipaH'li


6jiajiH

Koiopaa xoaie no^HHHJiacB irEMen,KOMy BjiiaHiro H cia.ia


Bt odpasii aiHSHH repaiaHCKHM-B Be.iBMoataM'B xoro Bpe-
M6HH. np^eMHCJiOBHqH uapcxBOBa.iH BI> ^exin AO Haqaja XIV B.
132. H'BCKOJIBKO TEMX B 03 KHOBe ~
.1HHJB nOS^H-fee, V
1 ^6X06^, B03HHKJIO me IIojtmH.
.

rocyAapciBO H y no.naKOB'B. Jlmacmfi rpynna CJraBancKHX'B


Meni) sanajia VI
cipany Meaj^y O^epOAfB, Ba-ixiHCKHM-B
BJ> B.

BHCJIOH H ^exiefi, C-B ipex-B CTOPOHI> cockw C"B ^pyrHMH


Oco6eHHOci& no.iBCKOH Hciopin B-B cpe^Hie B'BKa
TOM%, HTO leppniopia HXI rocyAapciBa, xaK-B CKasaiB, nepedeuui-
jiaci> Co sanada na eocmoKz. Cflaiaja nojaKH cipeMHJiHCB
CTpanoio Ki> sana^y OTI. HHX-B #0 caMOH 3.iB6u,
92

noJia6cKHX'B, HO
OHH ecmprb- s.u'ECB
a> MbMiwMu H cxajrn nepe^t HHMH oxcxynaxB. Haodoporb,
Kl BOCTOKy OTt HHXTb ffiHJIH <9m/Z .'lUmOeCKlH HMMCHa U UCLXOdu-
pa3dpo6u6waacH na ydn>Jiu Pycb: 9x0 HOSBOJIHJIO no.iaKaM'B
/
jiacb

HanpaBuxb CBOIO fl-feaxejiBHOCXb BI Ty cxopony, r^i conpoxHBJie-


nie 6LMO Men&niHM'B. FocyAapciBeHHoe o6i>eji;HHeHie JiamcKHxi, njie-
Meni) Hamiocs cpe,a;H njieMenH nojinm, Koiopne JKHJIH no npniOKy
O^epa Bapmn, H y KOTOpux'L B-L IX B. ya:e ^BIJIH KHHSba HST. po/ja
Hncmoet). Hxi
o6jiacT& nojryqnjia HOTOM-B HasBanie Bejiuuou HOMWU
(xenepB IIosHaHb), a Maaow HoMwew
ciajia HasHBaiLca roroBOc-
TOiHaa o6jiacTi> no BepXHeft BHWE, Tor.ua KaKi c'BBepo-BOCTOinaa 06-
jraciBno cpe^HeH BHC^ nojryiHJia HMa Masooiu, a roro-sana^naa
no BepxneMy O^epy Cu.wsiu. Cnaiajia peeTpOM-B HCiopHqecKOH
atH3HH nojrbCKaro napo^a 6njra BejiHKaa riojn>ma ex rjiaBHLiM^ ro-
PO.HOMX InrbSHOMt, IIOTOM^ Majaa C-B CTOjrHn,eH BT> Epanoen, a
nocji Bcero MasoBia, Kor^a CTOJinneft IIojiBniH (yme BI Konn,i
XVI B.) cA*BJa.iacB Bapinasa. Ilep&uMt noAWKUMK iocydapeM%,
Bjra^'BBfflHM'L 6ojitfflOH TeppHiopieft H npHnaBmHM'B xpucmiaHcmeo
(966), 6mrB MnwKO I
(Me^HCJiaB'L), KOTOPHH, o^HaKO, ^ojraieHi
6Hjri)npHsnaiB eaccaAOMZ UMnepamopa Ommona BCAUKCIIO.
ce6a
XpncTiancTBO npenrjo BX IIojiBmy HSI ^exin BM BCT B C-B qemcsoio
I I

JfoMfipoeKow, ci> KOiopOH) MmuKO BCTynHj-B BT> dpaifb.


o6pa30MTb H IIojiBnia C-B caMaro naqajra csoero cymeciBO-
Bania 6bua omnpuma dan eMmin pOMano-iepMdHCKOU
TOJIBKO 9TO Bjiianie HHKor^a ne SHJIO S^-BCB TaKx CHJIBHO,
Mexin.
133. Y CHna M-BniKa I, EoMcmea Xpa6paio (992 1025)
r
6BLi B BecbMa o6niHpHHH njranx cosdamt 6o/ibwoe u uesaeucuMoe
pa PHH-
sanadno-CJiaofiHCKoe locydapcmeo. OHI coe^HaHJn no^ csoeio
BJiacTLH) Bci jramcKia njieMena H saBJiaji.'BJix COC'B^HHMH cjraBan-
CKHMH 36MJiaMH MopaBieH, HOJiadCKHMH H HOMOpCKHMH CJaBaHaMH H
^epBOHHoro Pycbro, RjiR qero eMy npHnuocb BoeBaib H C'B *Iexieu,
H ct Pycbw. (Om> noSbiBaji-B H B-B KieB-fe). Cx FepManieH OH-B
naxoflHJica cnaiajia BJ> naHjryqmHX'b OTHoniemax'B, XOTH H OTT^C-
EHJVL ee Ha sana^. B-B 1000 r. HMnepaiop-B Ommow> III npi-
'Bsataji'B B"B FflisHO na
x^iy noKJiOHeHie ce. Boumnxa H npn
9TOM-B KOpOHOBaxb Bojiec.iaBa CBoero Koponoro, ^asx eMy THiyjix na-
xpni^ia" PHMCKOH HMnepin, a nana Cu.iwevmpv II yipe^HJi-B cano-
cxoaxejBHyio noMCKyw Mumpono.nw ez pHnsurb, qxo OCBO^OAHJIO
jdkcxHoe ^yxoBenciBO QTL BJiacxH apxienncKona Mar^e6yprcKaro,
KOxopOMy OHO 6biJio cnaiajia nofliiraeHO. Ho npeeMHHK-B Oxxona III,

Tenpux'b II, ne ate.iaa flonycxnxb ycHJiema noJbraH, Haiaji'b C'B


93

H6K) BOfiHy, KOIOpaa KOHmiaCb OXKa30Ml> 6fl JHfflb Oil H^KO-


xopuxi saBoeBamii na sana^i.. CaMOCxoaxejbHOCxb HOJILUIH
ynpoiena, H B b 1024 r. BojiecjiaBt Xpaftpufi npunHM
r

KOpoAH. 9xox-L TOcyAapb 6ujn> H nepBHM-L ycmpoumeMMt 10-

ci/daticmeeHnaio npaejieuifi WL IIojibnrE. MejiKie Kaasba yxpaxHjm


CBOK) BJiacTb, HO sa HHMH ocia^HCb pasHbifl npHBHJieriH H MHoro
36M.1H. Ba^HtHmifl ymiOBHUH 6uxo OTHHTH y po^OBLix'b ciap-
pfajia,

mHH'b H B-sqi H nepenuiH BI>


B'B.a.'BHie KOpojieBCKaro cy#a. Cxpa-
x
HOK) ynpaBJifljiH saMKOBue HaiajibHHKH, HJIH mwmejiHHbi ), CHA^B-
mie BX ipodaxt, coCHpaBmie ,a,aHb ci Hacejienia H Hana.ibCTBOBaB-
mie na^T) BoenHLiMH OTpflAaMH, Koxopue o6yiajiHCi> H Boopy^ajmcb
no H'BM6E(KOMy o6pa3ii,y. Tocy^apb npaBBJi-b HeoipauiweHHO npn
eAodum, a npocxoii napoji.!. yTpaiHBajrb CBodo^y
coaiOBifl
aqKHa,!!. KX seM^t.
npHKpi>njiflTbCfl
134*. KaKi, H Bt Apyrnxi noAodHbixi. c-iynaax-b, set STH
noJibCKaro rocy^apciBa 6miH nenpOAOJiatHxejibHBi. IIpH npeeM-
BojecjiaBa Xpa6paro cociAH cxajiH omuuManib y HOMWU
ofimcmu (iexH Mopafiiio, AaTqase EIoMOpbe,
H ^epBOHHyio Pycb H T. n.). IIomoMKU
BosciaHOBJieHie CBoen Bjacin. Hapo^x, Ha KO-
Ha.ioai6Hbi 6iMH pasHBia ji;aHH r oftnapyjKHBaji'b cipeiureHie sep-
fit asbinecTBo; Hanajiocb HsSienie CBflmeHHHKOB-b, cojKateme
H T. n. Ho 6ojrEe 9HeprHiHbie rocy^apn Biopon HOJIO-
BHHLI XI H nepBOH HOJIOBHHH XII B. OHflTb B03Bpain,aJH IIOJIbin'B

noTepaHHLia seuijiH, BOscianoBjajiH H yKpi-


KopojieBCKyro B,iacib
njiajH i^epKOBHyio opraHHsanjio. B-b KOHU;'B XI B. nponsonuio Bnep-
Bue H dpoftjieuie HOMWU HO, ydrbMHUH Knxwecmea, Koiopoe yiBep-
no CMepin KasuMipa Kpueoycmaio (1139). YA'BJibHBiH ne-
nojbCKoft HCTOpin npOAOJiataeTca ,no ""-"-? ^TY v jv^-^^y
HaqajHCb ycofiuiw, pasopafiniia Hapo^ H
oc.ia6jiaBniia cxpany KX 6ojibuiOH euiodrb dan MbMweez, Koxopne
BT> 9xo Bpena noKOpajiH sanaAHtix-L cJiaBanx. MeatAy npoinM-b, '

Knasba y^ibHaro nepio^a, no,u,o6HO lemcKHM-b rocyAa-


dojTEe paHHaro BpeMGHH, cxajin npHBJieKaxb B-b Hojibuiy un>-
Ko.wHucmofft, MaccaMH, xaK^
cejiHBiiiHxca s^icb 6o.ibmHMH
HXO BT> cxpanii B03HHKJIH .nepeBHH H ropo^a H'BMen.KHMx Haceje-
ci>

H oSmHHHbiMii ycxpoftcxBOMi (iMuuu, H^M. Gemeinde) H


no oSpasny caKCOHCKaro ropo^a Mar,ne6ypra ( n Mar-
npaBo"). Oco6eHHO MHOFO nocejiHJiocb H-EMI^EX BT> CH-

l
) Castellanus OTB castellum. OTI nocjtAHaro npoHsonuo H noJbCKoe CJOBO
(^epKOBb).
94

HaKOHen,"b, B'L 9iy a;e nopy B'B IloJibiirfe HSL


npeaiHHX'B njieMeHHtixs KHasen, KanrrejiaHOB'L H T. n. o5pa3ona-
jracB snamb (Mootcuoejiadcmeo), ELM nanu. IJepKOBb H MOHacrapH
BI Ilo-ibmi B-L XII XIII BB. -roate npio6p'E.iH MHOFO aeauH H
AOCTHIMH 6oJibinoro B-dama.
135. B'L npefl'fcjiax'L cjiasaHCKaro Mipa o6pa30Ba.iocB BCKOpi IIOC.TE

06pa30Banie ocHOBaiiifl ^exiii H IIojibinH


em,e O^HO rocy^apCTBO, Koiopoe no.iy-
>m '

IH.IO BaatHoe snaieHie BX Hcxopin 3Toro Mipa. 3io 6r>ua Benipix.


Bi> expand, jremaBmeii Meat^y BojrrapieH H Be.iHKOH MopaBien,
SH.IH cjiaBane, ne HM-BBmie eme y ce6a rocy^apciBeHHaro ycTpon-
CTBa. Cro^a, BI> THCO-^yHaScKyio .HOJIHHY BL KOHU, B IX B. npOHHKio
I

<j)HHCKoe njiena Madwpz (yipo&t, eeuypo&t) no npHrjiamemK)


Karo Kopojra (ApnyjiL({)a) npoiHB'L MopaBCKaro KHHSS
OHH noA^HEHJiH 066^ Bejiunyw Mopaeiw H Uannoum H
nana^aTL na coci^Hia cipanH, HO B'L KyjiimypnoMZ omuoweniu
OHU cnope nodmmuucb CAoeaHaMt, cpe^H KOTOPHX-L nocejrnjHCb H
B'L CTpairfe 6HJio 6oJibnie. q^Mx HXI caMHx-L. Hs-L-sa o6pa-

Ma^bap-b B-L xpacTiaHCTBO mate BOSHHKJIO conepHnqeciBO Meai^y


H sanaflHbiM'L jyxoBeHCTBOM'L, H no6-B^;a ocxa-iacL Ha
CTOpOHi sana^HOH n,epKBH. IlepBbiM'L xpucmlancKUMi locydapeM*
Benrpin 6mi'L Cmefiam Ceamou HSL ^HHacTin Apna^OB-L (997-
1038), KOTOpOMy nana BI> 1000 r. npncjiaji'L KOpojieeCKyw uopony.
Ilpn ero npeeMKHKax-L BI cocTaBi Benrpin BOHIJIH HOBtia SGMJIH,
npognMTb TpaHCUMeauifi, nacejienHaa pOMaHCKHMi njieMe-
BajiaxoB'L(B'L KOHU'B XI B. npn JLaducMm), H Xopeamia
AJwyieti (B'L Haiai XII B. npn KojiOMaunt}, HO COC'B^HHX'B pyc-
KHaaiecTBL BenrpaMT, saBoeBaib ne y^ajrocb. TaKHM-B o6pa-
BI, HaiajTE XII B. Benrpla HMkia yate TenepemHia CBOH

rpaHHn;Bi. Hacejreme rocyAapciBa 6ujio ci> caaiaro Haiajia pasuo-


nMMenuoe H .naaae flByxt pasuuxi xpucmiaHCKitxz ucnomda-
mu. S.H'BCL ajHJiH o6oK'L Apyr-L ci Apyrous Ma^bapLi^ c-iaBane (GJIO-
H xopBaibi), Bajiaxn (pyMHHn), H-Bimn. ^HHaciia Apna^OB-L
sa BC^JMH HapOAHOcxaMH paenonpaeHoctm, HO Bci BI
SHJIH B6Hrepn;aMH, a o$<|)Hn,iajbHbiM'b

HefiTpajbHaa Aamunb. Ha rpammaxL npaso-


c.iaBnaro BociOKa H KaTOJinnecKaro 3ana^a Benrpia K0.ie6a.iacb

Measly AByaia KyjrbiypaMH BHsaHiiHCKOH H pOMano-repMancKOH, HO


B'L KOHH.'E KOHH;OB L 63XAO eepxz sanadnoe eMfime, KOiopoe CHJILHO
I

oxpasHJiocb H Ha ycipOHCTB'B BenrepcKaro rocy^apCTBa, H Ha ero

136*. HpeAMeTOM-L 6opb6bi Meai^y ^ByMa KyjbiypaMH


. JiHCb H c.!aBHHCitia njieMCHa, sanaBmia ciBepo-sana^Hyio qacib Baa-
95

KaiicKaro nojiyocTpOBa. 3iH njenena pasA'^HJiHCb Ha dvib pod-


napodnocmu cepfioei u xopeamooz, oaBHoe pasjragie
KOToptiMH COCTOHTI. Bi> TOMI>, MTO cep6u npaeocAdGHbie, a
xopoamu KamoauKU. Focy^apCTBeHHaa atHSHb Ha^ajiacb panbuie
y xopBaiOB-L. OHH sanHMajm rjiaBHHMT> odpaaoM-b Hjimpiw H
HHHHJIHCS ceanajia TO BHaaniiH, TO
3>paHKCKOH MOHapxin,
BT> oC^acTH, rpaHHHHBmeft ci o6oHMH 9THMH rocy-
XpucTiaHCTBO Toate npOHHRa.no KT> HHMI. ci> o6'BHxi>
. Bx ropo^axi. AaiMaTHHCKaro noCepeatta npn saHHTin cTpanH
ociaBajioci) PHMCKOB nacejieHie, OT-L KOTOparo OHH H
xpHCTiancTBOMi, HO KB HHMI, npOHHKaja npono-
c'B

HOBOH pejiHrin H H3i rpeqecKOH n.epKBH. Feorpa(J)HqecKafl


KT> HTajrin (Meai^,y npoqnM'L KI BeHeu,iH, c^ KOTOpoio
BCJIH 6opb6y sa ,a,a.iMaTHHCKoe no6epeati>e) H HcropHqe-
cy.a.bo'a ocHOBaHHaro
xopsaTaMH rocy^apCTBa ji,ocTaBHJiH y
QTOH cjiaBHHCKOH Hapo^HOCTH nofindy KamoAuu,u3My. Cnaiajia xop-
KHustfl SHJIH BaccajraMH BnsaHTiH. Bt X B^ITE OHH npn-

THTyjii, EOpojieH XopBarin (B'B jiaT. (^opM^ Kpoav,i*\ a BI


XI B. XopsaTin H ^ajiManiH. Bi KOHi^i XI B. Kopojb foiumpiu
Kopojieft
3eoHUMUpz npHSHasaTb ce6a BHsaHTiHCKHM'b Baccajrojrt
OTKasaJica
H nepemejii, no^ noKpOBHTejibCTBO nann (FpHropia VII), HO BI
CKOpOM-L BpeMGHH nocJi'B ero caiepTH Xopeamifi 6ujia saeoeedHO,
eempaMu (1102) H Bonura VL cocTaBi, HXI, KopojeBCTBa (BX KO-
HaXOflHTCfl H #0 CHXX HOpl).

TJIABA VI.

KpecTOBBie

I. KpeciOBBie noxoin ( 137 152).


II. KaTOJHiecKaa uepKOBB BI anoxy KpecioBiixi noxoAOBt ( 153 164).
III. FocyAapcxBa aanaAHOH EsponH B'B anoxy KpeciOBuxi noxoAOBt. 06maa xa-

( 165170), $paHuia ( 171174), AHHW ( 175183) H Tep-


( 184188).
IV. CjaBflHCKifi Mipi. BI. anoxy KpecTOBuxt noxoAOBt (
189 191).

I.

137* 3aBoeBanie IlajecTHHH TypitaMH HM^JO BajKHtia no.iHTHHe-


TBifl. IIoKa lepycajiKMOJi-b BJi&xkw apa6u, xpncTiaHcme
naiOMHHKH (nHJinrpHMBi) ^l^trb.m ceoGodnuu docmym KZ eio cexmuHXM't,
96

noTOMy qxo apa6u Boo6m,e EQ npniiJCHajiH xpncxiaHi. H .name cann


OXHOCHJIHCBci> yBaatemeiTB K-B STHMT, CBaxBiHaMTb. J^Jin xpHCiiaHCKHXt

TOTi> HJH Apyrofi npieMi>, KaKofi Bcxp'siajiH B-B CB. 3eM.i-B

xyfla 6oroMOJim,H, He MOPL SLIXB BemjbK)


HOK), xaKt KaK'B axflxi o'oroMOJiBijeB'B ffljiH xticaiH. Korji,a,

lepycajiBMi, 611^^ BaBoeBam, TypitaMH, oOpameme HOBLIX!)


CBflmeimaro ropo^a CT> npaxo^HBrnHMH B^ Hero na.iOMHHKaMH
y^e cOEdbrL HHEIMT>. TypKH cxajiH HXI> npumrbcntim^ H
y HHXI. fleHBra. HsBicxia o6x axoMi*, KOHeiHO, npnxo-
si Espony, H B-B neii BOSHHima MBIC.I& onoJiHHXBCfl MR oceo-
Focnodnfi uzf> pijKb neen>pnuoc^
npnnHcajia HHHAiaxHBy Bcero
o^HOMyABHffi,eHia

Tlempy HycmbmHUKij, Koxopaft, pasitismaa no pasHHMi cxpanaMi,,


nponoB'B.noBaji'B Heo6xoAHMOCXB noxo^a B'B IlajiecxHey. Ci Koana
XI B. BX xeieHie ^Byxi. cxo.i'BxiH HBI. sana^HOH EBPOHBI oxnpaBJia-
JIHCB BX llajiecxHHy dojiBraia ono-oema pa,a;H .nocxnateHia axon 6.ia-
roiecxHBOH D.'BJIH. Ox.H'BJiBHBia npe^npiaxia axoro po^a n,o;iyqHJH B'B
Hcxopia HasBanie Kpecmoeux* noxodooz. B'B KpecxoHOCHBixi) OHOJI-
qeHiax-B npHHHMajiH y^acxie pasHBie sanaAHO-eBponencKie
HO npeHMymecxBenno <|)paHHy3Bi H
H'BMU.BI. npe^npiaxie 6Bi.io

nonyjiapHO B'B odm.ecxB'B, noxony qxo, Kpoait CBoefi 6jiaronecxHBOH


I^-BJIH, OHO BHOJIH'B COOXB'BXCXBOBaJIO CXpeMJiefiiaMI) OX^'BJIBHBIX'B K/iaC-
coB^Hace^eHia. 3>eoda,MHoe puij^apcmeo 6Bi.io Hacxpoeno BOHHCXBeHHO,
jno6njio atHSHB, HanojiHGHHyio no^BHraMH H npHKJiioqeHiaMH, ucmAO
saooeeauiu. Cpe,a,H saKprbnou^enHaio KpecmwHcmea xoase tftuio

MHoro jno^eH, Koxopue, 6y^,yqH He,a;oBOJiBHBi CBOGIO xaatKoro yqacxBro,


roxOBBi 6BUTH H^XH Bi. HOBLia 36MJPI ucKdmb dt/mueu dojiu. BXHU-B

o6m,ecxBeHHHM & nacxpoemeM'B HCKycHO nojiBSOBa^ocB nancmeo,


r

BsaBmee nodi ceoe nonpoeumeMcmeo H^ero KpecxoBBixi) HOXO^OB-B


H no CBOHM'B, IHCXO nojiHXHqecKHM'B coo6paaieHiaMX.
138. Cpe^n H-BEOxopoii qacxn sanaji,HO-eBponeHCKaro pBin;ap-
CTBa en* e " a>^ OJiro ^ Haqajia KpecxoBBixi noxo^OBi. o6HapyjKHBa-
XI B. JIOCB cmpe.MMHie omnpaejiumwH ez omdajiennufi cmpanu cz aaooe-
oameMHbiMU in/rbAnmu. OCO^GHHO xaKHMi, ^yxoMi oxjiHqajiocB puuap-
CXBO ciiBepo-(|)paHn,y3CKOH o6jiacxH HopMaudiu. 9xo repi;orcxBO GBMO
ocHOBano BT, naqaji'B X B. nopMaHHaMH, HO saBoesaxejiH CKOpo
B-B paMKH ^eoAajiBHaro o6m,ecxBa H npHHJum
$paHn;y3CKi5
COXpaHHB-B, O^HaKO, OXJHiaBfflyK) HX-B npe^KOBl CXpaCXB K'B
npHKJuoqemaM'B H saBoeBaniaM-B. 0<f)paHnj3HB-
mieca HOXOMKH BHKHHroBi>, K'B KOxopBiMi> npHCxasajH H puqapn
H3i> flpynixt M-BCX-B, B'B cepeAHH^' XI B. coeepmuAU H^CKOMKO sa-

doeeaniu u pacnpocmpanujiu ez noeuxz seM.wxz (fieodaMnue no-


97

ceoeu cppanibyscKOu podunbi. OflHaa&Ati BI lOJKHyio Hxajriio

npO'E3AOM & HSI IlajiecTHHH nonajrb OTpajTB HOpiwaHflCKHXi p&mapeH,


r

H BOTX Ki HHM'B M'ECTHLie atHTeJH (rpCKH) o6paTH.!HCB C'B npOCB60K)


HOMOIB HATB npOTHB'B capai^HHOBi, od'Em.aa sa 9TO flaTB HM-B MHOFO
H SCMJIH. Pwuapn, BO oaB-B Koxopuxi. CTOHJU. BUMIBMMZ
iH (c^e Hauteville) no nposBamio >3t.eji B3Haa PyKa, HCHOJI-
i

HH.IH 9iy npocb6y, HO Kor^a rpeKH


TO OHH npH3Ba.iH Ki ce64 na nosiomB HOBue
H flijjio KOHqn.iocB saeoeeameMt UMU WMHOU HmaMu. Ilocjit aioro
cociaBHJia oco6oe repn,orcTBO, rocy^apeM-B icoxoparo cxbji&Jicn
TE. BnjiBrejiBMa PoGepmz FwucKapz ( n Ce6'B Ha yM-fe"). 3io oy-
B-B 1060
a ^BiHa^;n,aTB jiiii) cnycTa HXI> Mja^mifl 6parB
r.,

Powcepz y capan,HHOBi H CUV,UMIO. (Meat^y npoHHMx, Po-


oiHflji^
6ujn> npHSBaei. na samHiy nanoro FpHropieM-B VII npoiBBi,
.

IV H BO BpeMfl BOHHBI C% HHMT> BSHJI'B H


PHMI>). BTH BoeHHLie ycnixn AO xaKofi cieneHH no,HHflJiH ca
peHHOCTB nod'B.HHTejieH, ^TO OHH sa^yMajin flaate saeoeeam^ Busan-
miucKyw UMnepiw H ciajin Hana/i;aTB na ea BJia^Hia. Bi cepe-
AHui XII B. H3-B rojKHOH HiajiiH ci> HeanojieMi) H Cni^HJiiH o6pa-
1
30Ba.IOCB OflHO KOpOJIGBCTBO C^ ({jeOAaJIbHBIMl yCTpOHCTBOM-B ). O^HO-

BpeneHHO CT> saBoesaHieM'B IOJKHOH HiajriH HOpMaH^CKiii repaori,

MHoro pBmapen H HST^ ^pyrHx-B qacieft


SBIJIO

AHIMW (1066) H Toate BBejii BT> neft (j>eo,aiaji&HBie nopa^KH.


9TH saBoeBania noKasHBaroT-B Meatj^y npo^HMi, KaKon
B-B sanaAHOMi pBmapcxB'B nepe^ na^aJiOMi KpecTOBBixi.

139*. Bl B03HHKHOB6HiH KpeCTOEHX-B BnsaHTia BO


nOXOflOB'B HrpaJIH HSBiCT-
T-. .
BTOpOH 1IOJIO-
Hyio POJIB H ousanrMucKiH omuowemfi. BocTO^naa HMnepia BO BTO- BHH t xi B.
pofi nojOEHH-B XI
B. no^seprajiacB onacnociH He TOJIBKO co CTO-
POHBI xypoKi, HO H co ciopOHBi HOpMaH^eB'B. Korji;a na BHsaH-
TincKiH npecTOJnb BCTynHJH> yMHBin H 9HeprHiHBra Ajieucrbu KOM-
uum (1081 1118), TO HanpaBHJTB CBOH CHJIBI oaBHBiMi. oSpasoMi,
na 6op&6y ci PodepTOM-B FiOHCKapOMi. OHT. uocjiajn, HPOTHB-B Hero
BOHCKO, cocToaBmee OTqacTH H3i> TypoKi), H OKa3ajii> BM-ECT'E C'B T-BM-B
^eHeatHyio noMom,B sana^HOMy HMnepaTOpy (Fe,HpHxy IV) BI ero
BOHH-B ci. nanoii (FpHropieMi, VII), sa KOTOparo sacTynnjca Po-
6eprB FioHCKap-B. AjreKc-Bio KoMnnny y^ajiocB OTpasHTB HOpMan^-
n.eB'B, HO TypKH OKasajiHCB 6o;i'Be ouacHBiMH BparaMH. Bi> BOHH-B C'B
HHMH BnsaHTia noTepajia Aumioxm H 9deccy, HTO sacTaBH.io HMne-

CM. Kapxy XVJI.

CPlAHflfl HCTOPW.
98

paxopa HCKaxB noMOin,H Ha Sana^i. Bi 910 Bpena na nancKOATB


npecxoJTE CH.U'EJI'B Yp6anz II, Koxoparo AjieKC'BH npocHJi HOMOIB
eny npoxHB-B neBipHuxi,. TaKHJTB ofipasoM-B H Busaumix yuacmeo-
en drb/m> eosfiyofcdeuia Kpecmoeuxz noxodoei. Sana^Hue na-

flOJHKHBi 6HJIH noco6HXB en BI> 6opB6ij ci> MycyjBMaHaMH, HO


Bt 3XOAT& 6ti.ia H Apyraa ciopona: pimapCKHM-B oiKmemflMt
fl'feji'B

npHxo,a;HJiocfc npoxodumb npesz eusanmiucmfi eAadnnia, mo OKasa-


JIOCB HMnepin BecLMa H BectMa HeSesonacHLiMt.
fljra

140.
liana YpdaHi, II OXOTHO corjiacnjcfl OKaaaiL A,ieKciio
cBoe cofliHCTBie. Boo6m;e nanu CUMHO noKpoeumeMcmeo-
t
_^ O. r^
earn saeoeeaHiw Ce. OBMAU. dio npe^npiflTie, HM-EBraee
nyio u$Jib H HaiaBmeeca no.n'B 6jrarocjOBeHieMi. naiibi,
snaMeneMt n;epKBH pimapcitm H Hapo^HLifl onoJiqeHia H T-BM'L
HpaBCTBeHHun aBTOpHierB. Em,e FpHropin VII
ycHJiHBajio ea
Ha ocBotfoiKfleme rpo6a Focno^Ha HS-L pyK-L neBipHLix-B,
Ha ^ijio, jjocTOHHoe xpnciiancKaro BOHHCTBa. 9xy ate ca-
MBICJIL npOBOAHj^ BT> cosname o6m,ecTBa H YpSaHi. II. Bi
1095 T. OH-B C03B8JEX COfiOpZ 6V E^epMOHTb (ffb OBepHH), Ha KO-
TOpHH C06pa10CB MHOateCTBO flyXOBHHXTb, pBIH,apeH H npOCTOJIIOAH-
HOBi). Bi> nojii OKOJO ropo^a 6ujn> ycipoeni HOMOCT^, ci KOTO-

paro nana npOH3Heca> nepe^i. HapoAOMi pi^B, npnsBiBaa ero ET,

ocBo6oat^emio rpo^a rocno^Ha. OTB^TOMX na BTO B033Bame


BOCTOpmeuHBift KpHK-B, BmreTiBmiH HS^ H^IBIX^ TBicaqefi rpy^efi: n T
XOIGTI, Bori>!" OxnpaBJiaBfflHMca BI HOXOA'B nanoro 6BMH

oxnymeHie rpixoBi H noneieme n,epKBH 06^ ocTaBJieHHBixi. ceMBax-B


H HMym,ecTBaxi. BH'fefflHHM'B npHsnaKOMi) yqacxia B-B HOXOA^ SBIJII.
na mraxBe Kpecx-B, oxKy^a H npOH30in.no HasBanie Kpecmo-
paBHO KaifB H CaMHXl. HOXO^OBl. TaKHMI) OflpaSOATB HHH-
n,iaxHBa nepBaro Kpecxosaro noxo^a BHnuia OX'B nanu, H
in,ie noxo^H xoate B036y^Aa^HCB nanann. Bi H-BKOXOPBIX-B

HMI, npocxo XOX^JIOCB XOJBKO ydaAiimb usz Eeponu onacnbtxz d.w


uuxb locydapeu.
141*. Bctxi. KpeCXOBBIXTE. HOXO^OB'B 6BIJIO HieKOJI&KO. 06BIK-
06ui,iH xapaK-ooBGHHO UXK HaCHUmWdawmt C6Mt> lAO8HUXb, H6 BKJKma Bl> 3X0
qHCJI0 M6H ^ e BaatHBia npeAnpiaxia xoro ate poji,a. I^-BJBIO Kpecxonoc-

n,eB-B 6BMO He XOJIBEO ocBO^oat^eHie rpo6a Focno^Ha, HO H aaeoe-


eauie uoebixz semeM. Bi 3x0 BpeMa eBponefir^aM-B, .nMcxBHxejBno,
y,a;aBajiocB noKOpaxB i^^JiBia cxpanBi, B'B KOXOPBIX-B OHH H ycmpau-
ea.m ceou locydapcmea xapaKxepa. Boo6in;e KpecxoBBie
(|)eo^ajiBHaro
IIOXO^BI 6BMH npednpifimieMz cpeodaMuaio Mipa, H BI H-BKOXOPBIXI.
noxo^axx HC yqacxBOBajio ^aaie HH Oflnoro Kopoja: 3x0 6ujio Kan-B
.
Boo6in,e
99

nepsyio po-ib BT> npe,nnpaxax'b nrpajH nan,H, BI> Koxopbix'b ULJJIO


paaBHxo (J)eo;i,a.ibHoe ptmapcxBO. OCO^GHHO 6o.ibinyio 9Hepriio
H no HXI HMCHH na BocxoKt CTMH B0o6me
,

BC'EX'b
sanaAHiixt eBponeHo.eB'B (fipaumMU. HxajibflHH.bi, y
BT> 9x0 BpeMa
yjKe pasBHBajrca ropOAOBofi 611x1, cMoxpijJiH na
BOjray npeHMym,ecTBeHHO C'B TO^KH spinia tuopioebixi uumepecoet H
BH^IH Bt CBponeficKHXi saBoeBaniaxt Ha BOCTOK-B .inrnb onopy ^a
CBOHXT, KOMMepqecKHXt npe^npiailH. Ho B-B KpeciOBtix'B noxo^ax-L,
caMOcmomm.i'buoe SHcweme npUHadMMaAO u peauiios-
odyMeeAeum, npjraHMaBineMy HHor^a j^aate dojiiaHeHHtia
<|)OpMLi.Hep-E^KO BO BpeMH noxo.noB'B coBepinajiHCb eepeucKie no-
^poMbl, a B^ HaiajrB XIII B. BO $paei;iH H Bt FepManiH ycxpan-
#aa&e upecmoeue noxodu drbmea. HaKOHen;'L, nonaTHO, ITO
a saBoeBaHia na BOCTOK'B conpOBO^ajHCb H
pacnpocmpaHenieMt KamojiuvbusMa,'.
142. IlepBLlH KpeCTOBblH nOXO^l. Ha^aJICfl BCKOp-B nOCJli K.;iep- HepBHt no-
MoncKaro co6opa. Ha nocjiaHia Ypdana II KI KopojiflMi, H nan-
Co .lie SHaTHbiMi) (Jjeo.fliajraM'L H na SOBI, nponoBi^HHEOBi, nocjan-
HBIX'B nanOK) BO BCi CTOpOHU, C'bpaflOCTbK) OTKJHKHyJIHCb BO BC^Xl
CJioaxi o6m,ecTBa. HpaBHJibHO opraHHSOBanHbiMi. onOviqeniflM-b PBI-
jjapeii npe,nmecTBOBajn> uucmo napodnuu noxo^^
no.n'b npeABO^H-
Hei'pa HycibiHEHKa H 6-BAHaro pbin,apfl Bajibiepa Fo-
9xoro noxo,a,a (dojibineio lacibio
H c-b PeHHa) nycxHJiHCB BI nyxb, He Hark
H xpy,n;HOCXH nyxH, HJIOXO o^Tbie H iyxb He deso-
Hacxoam,aro o6osa H 6esT> .neHeatHbix-b cpe,a;cxBx. Ha
nyxn HX-B Bcxpijqajra He,npyate.iH)6HO, HO OHH Bce-xaKH npoimm ,a;o-
JIHHOH Aynaa ^epes-B Benrpiio H Bojirapiro, rpa6a Hacejienie H
npoSHBaa ce^i Aopory CHJIOH), H
KoHCxaHXHHonojia, r^t
flonuiH ^;o
xoase npHHajiHCb rpa6nxB. ^xoSbi ox^jaxBca ox^ xaKHX-B onacHbixt

rocxefi,BHsaHxiiicKoe npaBHxejbcxBO nepenpaBH^o HX-B B-L Majyro


Asiio, HO npn Hunerb HX-B Bcxp'fexH.io xypen;Koe BOHCKO, H HO^XH BC'fe
OHH 6miH nepe6HXBi. Bi> 1096 r. eucmynuAo ez noxodt u pm^apcmeo.
B^ 9XOM-B noxoA'B ne yqacxBosajio HH o^noro Kopojia, ^a H B0o6m;e
y axoro npe^npiaxia ne 6mro o6m;aro BoatA. Bo rjiaB^ ptmapeft
c^BepHOH $paHi^iH H FepMamH cxoaji-B repn,on> HnatHefi .loxapHH-
riH Tom(j)pudt> EyjiwucKm CT& (5paxoMi, CBOHMI, EaAdyunoMo, H
HXT> noni.iH
oxpaAH cyxHM-b nyxeMi B^OJB ,3,yHaa. ^pyrnMH BO-
at^aMH 6HJIH repnori. HOpMaH^CKifl Po6epmt (6pax-b aHrjiiicKaro KO-
POJIH), rpa({)'b BepMan^yacKia Fyiom (opax-b (|>paHi;y3CKaro K0po.ua),
rpat|)T> xyjiyscmn PaiiMyndt, Bci xpoe HSI ^panqiH, H xapeHXCKm
EodMyndo C'b n.ieMaHHHKOMT> CBOHMX TauKpedoMt HS
7*
100

HXaJIBBHCKHXT) HOpMaHflH.CB'B. OxpaflBI SXHX'B


nprfexajiH Ha EajrcaHCBift nojiyocxpOB'B iiopen-B (HS-B MxajiiH). KOH-
cxanxHHonojiB npOH3BejTB Ha KpecxoHOcn.eB'B OHCHB CHJIBHOC Biieqa-
xjiinie CBOHM'B BejmKOi'EnieM'B H tforaxcxBOMTb, HO caMH OHH OICHB
ne noHpaBHJiHCB rpeKaiw, CBOCIO rpyfiocxBio H
Meatfly BHsaHxianaMH H npHmejiBH,aMH naiajmcB
CXBIIKH, BCJi'EflCXBie iero HMnepaxop^ dHJt'B paflx Hs6aBHXBca H oxi.
9XHXT. rocxen, HO OH'B HOSBOJHJI'B nepesesxH HXX B'B Majryio Asiio
HOCJTB xoro, KaKi npe^BOAHxejiH sana^Haro onojiiema dcuiu

npucmy e* moM7>, umo fiydyrm emy en>puu u eosepamamb ujune-


piu aeMAu, Koxopna 0x601010x1 y xypOK-B. B'B Majiofi Asin Kpecxo-
HOCII;BI noMOOH rpeKaMi. BSBXB Hunew, a sax^M-B na^ajiHCB H caMO-
cxoaxejBHBia cpamenia KpecxoHOcn;eB & MycyjiBManaMH. Ha caMBix-B
p
C-B

ate nepBBixi. nopax'B, oflnaKo, OKasajiocB, qxo H^KOxopBie eootcdu


6uj?u ne npow> omcmami> omz onomenifi H yxBep^HXBca B-B KaKOH-
jrn6o H3i ox6HXBix & y xypOKi M^cxHOCxen. TaKi> nocxynn.i'B paHBme
r

flpyrnx'B Eajidyum, saBJiafl'feBiniH ddeccou. GayiajiHCB Me.5Kfly


H ccopn, a ns'B-sa o6jiaflaHia Anmioxieu TOXOBO CBIJIO
BCHBiXHyxB Meatfloyco6ie Meatfly PafiMyHflOMi, H
KaKi. 6n xaM'B HH 6wjio, ycn-Enmo cpaataacB C'B

KpecxoHOCHBi BI, 1099 r. floinjiH flo lepycajiHMa. Iloxofl'B npodo.i-


oicaMfi xaKHMi odpasoMi mpu loda. Hsx 400 XBicaq^, BBicxynnB-
fflnxi. B'B noxofl'B, OBMO y^Hxo B'B cpaatefliaxx, yMep.io oxi o'oji'fcs-

HCH H JTHmemH xpyflnaro ryxn H ocxajiocB B'B saBoeBaHHBixx no


floporfc ropoflaxi xaKi MHOFO, ixo y CX'BHI lepycajiHMa codpajiocB
eflBa JIHHIB nax& xBicai'B KpecxoHOdjeBi). BflxysiasMi. OHOJI-
flBafli^axB

qenia, Korfla
yBHfl'EJio OHO
CBam,eHHBiH ropofl^, dBuri, 6e3rpaHH ii-
HBIH. KpecxoHOcn;Bi He HOHIJIH HH Ha Kama MHpHBia ycjiosia.
Popodt GUM essimz npucmynoMb, H B'B HCMI npOHSonuiH pisna

143. SaBoeBaB'B lepycajiBMi,, KpecxoHOcn,Bi us6paAu Fomfipuda


lepycaJiBM- ByjiWHCmiO
'
OK HC HOatCJiaJIl HOCHXB KOpOHBI B'B
KOVOAU, HO OH'B
CK06 KOpOJieB- v v -rr v
CTBO. ropoflii, rfl-BHa Xpncxa xepHOBBifi Binen;!,, H orpaHH-
HaflTBBajiH
iHjica CKpOMBBiMi) xaxyjiOMi saiyumuuKa ipo6a Tocnodnn. (Ilocji'fe
Hero n.apcxBOBaji'B BajiflyHH'B ya;e C'B xflxyjiOM-B Kopojia). HoBOMy
L
KOpojteBCXBy ) Hyatno ^BIJIO em,e oxcxansaxB CBOC cymecxBOBanie.
npoxHEi, KpecxoHoci^eB-B aBHJiocB BOHCKO H3-B ErHnxa, a
MHOrie K3T> npHHieflmHX'B C'B FoX^pHflOM'B ByJIBOHCKHM'B
Ha pOflHHV. FoX^pHfl'B By.IBOHCKiH CT.yM'kl'B,
cnpaBHXBca co BC^MH saxpyflHeniaMH. Bi DajiecxHHy nocxoaHHO

J
) CM. Kapxy XVII.
101

flB,ia.ocb HOBiieH HOBLie OTpflAM KpecTOHOcneBi,, npii noMoin,n KOTO-


ptixx lepycajiHMCKoe KOpo.ieBCTBO IIOTOM'& TO.ILKO H
3aBoeBaHHtia KpecTOHOcn,aMH
noMjnu.m cpeodaMuoe ycmpoucmeo. Kopojb
ciHiajica ciosepeHOM.i) ivkiaro pAa .npyrHx-b BJia^'fejibiiieB'L, xoxa
saBHCHMOCTb 6tuia TOJIBKO HOMHHajibHafl. (Fpa(|)Li TpnnojibCKiH H
CKift H KHflSb aHTioxiHCKifi 6LI.1H COBGpnieHHO CaMOCTOflTCJIbHLIMH
rocyji,apflMH). MejiKie Baccajra, cociaBJiflBmie <J)eo,najibHoe ABOPHH-
CTBO, ToaKe nojibsoBajiHCb 6ojibfflHMH npasaMH. M'fcciHoe nacejieHie,

roBopHBmee no-rpeqecKH H npHHaAJejaaBmee KI BOCTOHHOH


wpuduHecuyw u dKouoMunecKyw
6H.io nocmaejieno oz
OTT> BTHXI. UOBBIX'b TOCnOA'B.OABBMT, CJIOBOMt, KpeCTOHOCI^bl
HecjH BX CHpiro H DajiecTHHy secb ^eo^ajibHLiH ^HT-L CBOGH po-
,a,HHbi. (BnocJi'BACTBiH, HMenno EX XIII B. EX xpHCTiaHCKHx-L rocy^ap-

CTBaxi> BociOKa B03HHKJIH n&m.e -BaatHLie naMaiHHKH ^eo^ajibnaro


npasa, HSB-fccTHHe no^t HasBameMi. iepycajHMCKHXi. H aHTioxifi-
CKHX-L accHsi.). ^TO Kacaeics ,a;o ropo,ncKoro Hacejrema, TO OHO
nojibsoeajiocb sdrbCb wuponuMv caMoynpaejienieMz, H BI HGM'B BH,H-

Hyio pojib ciajiH Hrpaib HTajbjmnLi, BeAinie ofimupnyw mopioe.m


ci COC'BAHHMH CTpanaMH. ^yxoBCHCTBO, KaKi H Ha Sanaa's, xaKace
HM-BJIO 3A"feCb H 36MJIH, H HpHBHJieriH.
144. BecbMa dojibmyro no^epaiKy Haxo^HJio xpHCiiaHCKoe
BT, Cnpin H IlajiecTHH'E BX xaKx HasuBaeMbix-L dy- op^eHa.

o6pa30BaBmHXca s^Cb EJ> 9noxy nep-


opdenaoct,
saro KpeciOBaro noxo^a. 3xo SBIJIH CpaxciBa pbmapeft, COCTOHBHJHXI
Bi) TO ^e BpeMfl MonaxaMH, HacToamee nopowdeuie
KamoMmecmio o6iu ecmea TOr^afflHeii sana^HOH EBponti.
/

TaMH MonauiecTBa (desdpaiie, necTFataHie H nocjiymame) OHH co-


,a,HHflJIH o6^T b 6opB6l>I Cli HeB'BpHUMH H SamHTBI nBJIOMHHKOB'L.
r

^TH oonjecTBa pBmapeii-MOHaxoBi HM'BJH npaBH.ibHyio opraHHsa^io


c-b ocoCiiMH ycTaBaMH, BJOA^JIH seMJiiiMH n saMKaMH H na BOCTOK-B,
H BT> Esponii, coAepatajiH Ha CBOH cqex'b BoflcKa H ycTpaHBa.iH
H 6o.IbHH^H. Paete flpymxi. o6pa30Bajica
nxajibaHi^eBi, H oxqacTH
opdem lOcnumcMbepoez (x.-e. 6ojibHHqHHKOBi,) HJH
HasBaHHiiH TaKi> no HMeuH CBoero naxpona, CB. loaHHa lepyca-
JIHMCKarO. OTJIHqHTeJIbHHM'L HXI. SHaKOM'B SblJI'L HepHHH Mam,!. Ct
6'kiLiMi, KpecTOMi,, Ha^BaBuiiiica na pimapcKie AOCH^XH. BTO-
PHMI, 6mrL qncTO (|)paHii,y3CKiH op^eni. maMHMepoez, T.-e. xpaMOB-
HHKOB-b,nojyqHBuiiii CBOC nasBanie OTI. CojiOMOHOsa xpaMa, M^CTO
KOTOparo 6ujio HMI, no^apeno BajiAyHHOMi. Hxi n^amx SHJII. 6^-
CT. KpacHHM'L KpeciOM-B. Yffie ropas^o nosAHte (B-B anoxy
102

xpexBflro noxo.ua) BOSHHKI, H'EMen.KiH opdew, meemonoeo,


KOTOparo HOCH.IH ft-EJiBiH njami> ct iepHHMT> KpecxoMt. Bel*
nepeotcuAu lepycamMCKoe KOpOAeecmeo. Ilocjij noxepn xpn-
CB. SeMJin ioaHHHxu nojiyyHjH ocxpOB-B Podocv, a no sa-
ero B-L XVI B. ocMancKHMH xypKaMH nepeciMHJiHCB Ha.
ocxpoBTb MaMmy (MajiBxiiicKie pBiuapii), KOTOPLIMI, B^aA^JiH ^o KOH^a
XVIII B. TaMimepH nepecejJHJHCt BO $pann,iK) H npocymeciBO-
xaM-L AO saqaja XIV B. Bi XIII cTOJiiiiH qaciL TCBTOH-
pBin,apeH yxBepAHjacB ea HHatHeM'B xe^eHin BHCJILI H
noKopenieM-B H oCpamenieMi, B-B xpncxiaHCXBO
npyccoev. SA^CB OHH ocnoBajiH BecBMa Baatnoe opdeucxoe
sjtadrbnie
l
). Y MaronexaHi. xoaie oSpasosajicfl CBoero po^a op^en-B
2
accacHHOB-B, oxjiKqaBmificfl pejiHriosHBiMx HsyB'spcxBOM'B ).

145. MycyjiBMane, KOHeqno, He MOOH noMHpnxBca ci cyin,e-


no- cxBOBanieMi) lepycajiHMCKaro KopojiescxBa H XOX^JIH BepeyxB ceSt
'

36MJTH, saBoeBaHHBifl KpecxoHoci^aMH. Kor^a xypKH oxBoeBajia y


xpncxiaHi> 9^;eccy (1146), nana nopygHwi-B sHaiaeHHxoMy BI xo
CBOHM-B acKexHSMOMTb H KpacHOpi^ieMi, a66axy Eepnapdy
nponoB^OBaxB HOBBIH IIOXOA'B. riponoBi^B Monaxa,
Ha Koxoparo CMOXP^JIH, KaK-B Ha CBaxoro, HM-feja rpOMa^HBiu ycnix's
H BO $paHn,in, H BI FepMaHiH. Ha 9x0x1, pas-B BO rjas-B Kpecxo-
Hocnaro npe^npiaxia no HacxoflHiro CB. Bepnap^a cxajin (fipaHyya-
cuiu KOPOM JhodoeuKb VII, acejiaBniiH saMOJHXB CBOH rp-fexH, H
Hrbmemdu UMnepamop* JKonpadt III, no6oflBmiHca oxs'Bxa na
r

cxpamHOMi cy^t sa rn6eJiB lepycaJiHua. IIepBBiM & BBicxynnjio Hij-


Mei^Koe onojHenie, 4)paHn:y3Bi ROUIJIH nocjii. 06a BoficKa ci BejiH-
KHMl, Xpy.H.OM'B H Cl 60jl&fflHMH UOXepflMH AOHMH /tO CnplH, T^-B BM'BCX'fe
ci xaMomHHMH xpncxiaHaMH ocaAHJin flajuacK?,. Hpe^npiflxie KOH-
vuAOCb, odnaKo, noAnow Heydcwew, H o6a rocy^apa CT> atajiKHMH
ocxaxKaMH CBOHX'B onojiqeniH BOSBpaxHJiHCB AOMOH (1147 1149).
MejKfly X^M-B BCKOpi HOCJ-B axoro npOHSoimio coedunenie asiam-
cmio u eiunemcnaio xciAu^amoez OOATB BjacxBK) npe^npiHMqHBaro
CaAaduHO, (npocjraBHBinaroca Meat^y npo^HMi. H CBOHMt
B-B 1187r. OH'B pasdHJi BOHCKO iepycajiHMCKaro
Teudona JFmuHWHa (He,n;ajieKO oxi, TueepiadcKaio osepa),
a 3axiM"B 63HM u lepycaAUMz. CBoefi noS'B.n'fc Cajia^
xapaKxepi>. BsaxBie HJ^H-B ^yxoBHbie puqapH
BT>

HsSieniio; B-B lepyca.iHM'B 6BiJiH BOscxaHOBJieHBi sci Meiexn,

') CM. Kapxy XIII.


2
) HMH iipOHSoniJio OTT> naaBaida cuypaioiuaro raiirama (ramnrnHMi.) H

4>paHity30B'b HapHuaTejtbHHMi, (assassin y6iiin,a).


103 -
CT> pbin,apaMH H
nociynajTb, o^naKO, MHJIOCTHBO.
146. SaBoeBame BBisBajio mpemiu Tpe-rffi no-
lepycajiHMa CajiaAHHOMi,
Kpecmoeuu noxodz (1189 1192). B-B HCMT, yqaciBOBaJiH ipn ro-
cyAapa: MtMtfUffiti UMnepamopz 0pudpuxz fcap6apocca u Kopojiu
3>panu,iu u Anuiu, 0u^unnz 11 Aeiycmz u Pwiapdz JLwunoe
Cepdu/e. ^pn^pHxi II AOCTHFB Asm cyxHMi. nyxeMi nepes-B KOH-
ciaHTHHonojiB, HO no flopork BT> CHpiro yTOHyjn> BI. OAHOH p'BK'B,
KOTOpyio BSflyMajTB nepenjiBiiB, H xor^a snaiHTejibHaa qacxb ero
BOSBpaiHJiacb BI FepMaHiio. /Jpyraa qacxb H^MenKHXi) Kpe-
noni.ia Ha noMom,B KI TQudony, ocaaJAa-BnieMy Anpy

(AKKOH'B), KOiopaa roate 6HJia saxfiaiena CajraAHHOMi>. CiOAa aie


aBHJiHCb CT CBOHMH pBin;apaMH H o6a sanaAHbie Kopojia
H aHOHMaHe He ^a^HJiH
H PH^apA^. 3>paHn,y3bi
eni,e ^opori. (Meat^y npoiBMi BT CHn,HJiiH OHH
co6oio BI>

pa3rpa6miH MeccnHy, a aHranqane saeoeeojiu fiunpz, idn> ycmpou-


nomoMz oco6oe Kopo.ieecmeo HOA'B BJiacTbio diiBmaro iepyca-
J
Kopojra ). Oca^a Anpn saxaHyjacb na flBa ro^a, HO
HaKOHen.-B ropOA'B GBIJTB B3aii>. Bo BpeMa STOH BOHHBI
npocJiasHJica CBoero Heo6y3AaHHOCTbio H atecTOKOCTbio. IIocJi'B
AKPBI OHi copBaJi'B C'B ea CT^HI. snaMa H'BMei;Karo cxpa^a H sa-
Toniajix ero BT> rpasB; BTE* Apyrofi pasi OH'B BCJiiji'B nepednib 60-

jiieAByxt ibicaq^ n.iiHHbix'b capan,HHOB-B JIHHIB sa TO, qxo BO-BpeMa


He dbiJTB AOCxaBjieHi) odimaHRHH sa HHXI. BbiKymb.
CBOHMl. COI03HHKOM1,, $HJIHnn B-ABryCT^
r

BOSBpaTHJICa B-B

Ky^a BCKOpi sa HMMI ykxajTB H PnqapA'B, ysnaBmiH, HTO npoxHBX


Hero BI AnrjiiH CTajn> AMcTBOBaTb POAHOH ero Cpaxi. (loaHH-B
H'EMn.Bi, Mcxa eMy sa GCKOp6jieHie HX^
ero, Kor^a OH'Bqepes-B FepMaHiio ixajii AOMOH, H
BpeMa ocxaBajica y HHX-B BI. nji^Hy. OinycmiH ero na
CBo6oAy JIHHIB sa 6ojiBfflOH BBiKyni,. TaKi) nenajiBHO OKonmica

HOXOA^, xoTa, HecMOipa na OTO, sa xpHCiianaMH no


Tpeiifi
PnqapAa ci> CaJiaji.HHOM'B ocxajiacb ysnan 6epeiooan no^oca
Jlcficfiou u TupOM6 H 6biJio yTBepatAGHO npaso CBo6oAHaro noci-
n^enia CBaxbixi. M^CTX.
147. TaKHM-b HCXOAOM-B Tpeibaro noxo^a, KOHCHHO, Ha Sanaa's
* t ^ <- noxoii.
H6 AIOIMH OBITI, AOBO.IBHH, H 11'BCKOJbKO Jl'BT'B CnyCTB, OblJI-B yCTpOBH-B
nemeepmuu noxodz, HeoiKHAanHO OKOH^HBUiiiica saeoe&anieM* npecmo-
Busaumiu u npedpautemejuz en oz JlamunCKyw UMnepiw.
noxoA'B dmiT. BOSoyaJAen'b nanoro HnnoKenmieMz III, BOSBLICHB-

J
) CM. napry XVII.
104

mHM-b nanciBO Ha He6tiBajiyio Biicoxy H MeiTaBinHMt 061.


mn xypOK-b H3i> lepycajHMa. KaKi, H B-B nepBOMT> noxo.o.'E, HH
Kopojib B^ qexBepxoM'L noxofl'E He yqacTBOBa.ii.. FjiaBHiiMH ero
BOJKflflMH 6ujin ipacpv MOHcfieppamcmu Bonucfiait/iu u ipa$'> cfi.mndp-
cmu Ea.%dyum, HOHJJIH e no^i Hxt sHaMenaMH npeHMymecxBCHHO
pimapn. B'L 1203 r. KpecxoHOcn,Li co6pajiHCb Bt Be-
iu, ci> Koxopoio HMH CHJI saKJiioqeH'B npe^BapHTejLHO oco6uii
doioeopz. BeHen;iaHn;Li oftestiBaJiHCb nepesesTH onoJi^eHie na CBOHXI
Kopa6jiflxx, KpecTOHOC^tI o5 Bm,ajiH
r

aa BTO noMoraiB HMI, B'L HXI.

pacnpflxi, c'B coc^aMH. B'B 310 BpeMa BeHen,ia Haxo^HJiacb BI ne-


OTHomeHiax'B ci .naJtMaTHHCKHMt ropOAOMi, 3apow,
ci Hero BX MOpCKofi ToproBjiij. KpecTonocr^Li oca-
3apy, HO Kt HHMI, HBHJica croAa sa noMombio em;e H eusanmiucKiu
i^apeeuuz AjieKCrbu, CHHI HMnepaiopa Hcaam Amenta,
ci> npeciojia, H noca^eHnaro BT, TiopbMy
ocj-fenjieHHaro

6paTOMi.. B-b sa noMomb KpecTOHOcn;aM b 6bMH


i

narpa^y
6oJibniia flenbrii, co^HCTBie BI BOHH'B sa lepyca-MM-b u
ie nanciBy BocToqHOH uepKBH. CT. CBOCH ciopOHbi, H Bene-
epiKajiH npocb6y n.apeBHia, H coe,ztHHeHH
npe^BO^HTe.ibCTBOM'b npeciap'BJiaro dowa,
iio.n'b

KoHcxanTHHonojieMi, HOCJI'B iero BOSBpaiHJiH BJiacib npea-


HMiiepaTopy. Kor.ua, OAHaKO, rpeKH BOcnpOTHBHJiicb HCHOJI-
^anHbixi KpecTOHOCi^aM-b H BeHen.iaHn.aM'L oCtmaniH H BOS-
npOTHB-b CBoero npaBHTejbCTBa, KpecxoHOcqBi BxopnqHO eanau
KoHcmaHmuHono<ib u nodeepuiu eio nacmomyeuy pasipOMii (1204).
148. OB.iajrBB'b xaKHM'b odpasoM^ cxojmu,eio BHsanxiacKOH HM-
ne pj H coiosHHKH rpasdrbJiujiu Me.wdu co6ow en emdnnifi. o6paso-
. i\
L
eaez UST> JlamuuCKyw UMnepiw ) CT> nepeHeceHieMi. H
HUXT>
sanaduaio (fieodasmsma. HMnepaxopOMi> HOBOH HMnepw
rpa^-b (JjiaHji;pCKiH, HO H flpyrie yqacxHHKH nojyqHJH CBOH
rpatj)!. Moii^eppaxcKifi OB.ia^'BJi'L Manedonieu
: H Fpeu/ieu, co-
CXaBHBHIHMH KOpOJieBCXBO OeCCCMOHUKCKOe, HCXOpHKl. 3XOFO HOXO^a
BuMiapdydm npespaxajicfl BI> iepu,oia Axaucmio H x. n. ^xo Ka-
caexca AO BeHen,iaHii;eBi., xo OHH BSJLIH cedi npuMOpCKin, ofijiacmu
EajtmuCKaio no.iyocmpoea u dame uacmi caMOio KoucmaHmiiHO-
no.w, Bnocj^cxBin OHH safiwiaA'BJiH H IipumoMZ. CT> axoro
H HaiHHaexca MopcKoe Morymecxso BeHen;iH, HO cana .

HMnepin oKasaJiacb cos^anieMi., BecbMa HenpoiHBiM-b. FpeqecKoe Ha-


cejieme oxHocnjocb K^ CBOHMI HOBHM-b rocno^aM-b ci> KpaHHeio
,
X^MI. o'oji'fce, qxo KpecxoHOcn;Bi noA^HnHJiH naxpiapxa

CM. Kapxy XVII.


105

nairfc H BBGJIH jiaxHHCKoe HpHxoM'B He BCTE


ftorocjiyateme.
xiiiCKia o6,iacTH CBIJIH saxBaieHH
KpecxonocijaMH. Eo-ibmaa qacxb
xor.nainHHX'B Ma.no-asiaxcKHX'B B^a^'BEm BnsaHxiH npeBpaxHJiacb BI>
HumucKyw uMnepiw; KpOM-B TOFO, HE KX/KHOM-B <5epery ^epnaro
Mopa o6pa30Bajiacb uMnepin TpanesyudcKaa, H, HaKOnen.'B, 9nupz
cociaBiLi'b ox.u'E.ziBHoe rpeiecKoe BJia^-BHie. Bt 1261 r. HHKeftcKifi

HMnepaxopi. MUXCLUM HaMOAou OTHHJT> KoHciaHTHHonojib y .iaTH-


H eoscmanoeuM ipenecKyw UMnepiw. Ho ^Jifl nocj'BAueH 3a-
ea KpecTOHOcn,aMH ne npomjo ^POMT.: OHO JIHIDHJO ea
ix'B BJia^HiH H euympenne ocjia6ujio.
149*. 06pa30BaHie JlaTHHCKofi HMnepin OWIOMKAO CUAU sanadnaio ^
^,
puu,apcmea omz Co. oejiwu, H XJIOHOTLI nanti MHHOKeHTifl Hi no^-
.405 ^R
HHTL IIOBLIH uoxoAt He npHBejiH Ki atejaHHOMy pesyjibTaiy. Ki
3TOMy BpeMeuH OTHOCHTCH, Meai^y npoiHMi>, H 3HaMennTHH noxodz
dnmeu. IIpaB^a, BX 1217 r. npHnajri, Kpeci'b wpOM eemepcidu
Andpeu ET> ci> H^KOTOPHMH KHflSbHMH FepMaHin, HO aiOTi
COIOS'B

noxo^x He HHKaKoro snaiema; HOBHM'B B-b HCMT, SBIJIO Jinnib TO,


HM'BJi'L

qio KpecTOHOcn,Bi HC orpaHHiHJiHCb OAHOH RajiecTHHOH, HO nanpaBH-


JIHCB H BX ErnneTi. (BojiBmero qaciBio H He CTaBaii, 9TOxi> HOXOAI B-B

o6m,iH cqeii> rjiasHBix-B KpecTOHOCHBixi, npeAnpiaTifi). KpOMt xoro,


nana HnHOKeHTifl III ycnijii, Bsaxb nepeA^ CBOCIO CMepxbio y HMnepa-
xopa 3>pudpuxa II Fownwrnayfyeua, o^tmaHie HATH fit CB. SCMJIIO,
HO nocJii^uiH HC xopormjica ci HcnojiHCHieM^ BTOFO o6 Bin aHia, r

djaronpiaTHbiXT) oCcxoaxejBCTB'B.
150. $PHAPHXT,II ToreHniTay^eH-L (12181250) ^BM-B po-
HSI*
^HHacTin, HaxoAHBUienca B-B nocToaHHOH 6opB6i ci> nan-

CTBOM-B. Ero OTCH.'B (FeHpHxi. VI) SBIJ-B azenaTi na Hacj'EAHHn.'fc


Heanoja H CHEiHJiiH, H ^pn^pHxi) II BjaA^i'B H STHMI rocy^ap-
CXBOMI,. BocHHxanHBiH Bi loajHOH HxajiiH cpe^H rpeKOB-B H capa-
n.HHOB'B, OHI, HC XOJIBKO He HM-Bj-B pejiHriosHaro <|)aHaxH3Ma, HO CKO-
r
P'fee oxjiaqajica ^aate npaMBiM b HH,a;H(j)4>epeHXH3MOMi) BI. A'feJiax'B B^PBI.

OH-B, OAHaKO, noHHMaji'B, KaKyro cnjiy ,a,ajio 6u eMy o6.ia^aHie lepy-


cajiHMOMi. H, Kor,a;a Hameji-B 9x0 y^oSHbiM-B, OTnpaBHJica BT, HOXOA^.
Ha nyi'H B-B HajiecTHny vb ero BOHCK-B HaqajHCB, Enpoieirb, sapasnBia
dojiisHH, HHMnepaTop^ nocniinHJix BepnyxBca nasaA'b. Hana (FpHro-
pifi IX) npe^ai-B ero xor,a;a npoKjaxiio, HO oxJiyqenHBiH HMnepaxopx
CHOBd OTiipaBHJica B-B IlajrecxiiHy H na BTOX-B pas-B ^OCXHFI CBOCH
H^JIH. ^pHApHX'B II 6u.HT> HCKyCHUH HOJIHXHK'B H C'ByM'EJI'B HCperO-

BopaMH CKJOHHXB erHnexcKaro cyjuaaa KI ycmymrb ejuy Iepyca.iuMa


UQXL yc.ioBieM'L CBo6oAiiaro AOCTyna fljia MaroMeTani) KI>
nieMyca HMH COJOMOHOBV xpaMy. liana o6iflBHJ'B BTOTX
H HaJIO/KH.!!. Ha Cfi. 36MJIK) HHTep^HKTI), TaKl. 1X0
106

II na ce6a iepycajinMCKyio Kopony


caaii. BOSJioatHjit

n,epKOBHOH n,epeMomH. 9x0 6mio B-L 1229 r., HO lepes-B


naxeafluaxB jr-Exx TypKH CHOsa OBjiafl'kiH Iepyca.iHMOMi> (1244).
Ycn'Bxy xpncxiaH'L MHOFO M^majio TO, *no ET> 9x0 Bpena BI> sanafl-
HOH EBponi} BejiacB owcecmoHtHHOH 6opb6a MeoKdy nancmeoMz u
UMnepieu. BcKopfc nocjii CAtepxn $pn^pHxa II nanii, atejiaa OTHHTB
y ero Hacji B a;HHKOBi CimH.nio H Heanojib,
r

(
npH3Ba.m Ty,a,a
n;y30Bi, EOTOpne H OMaA^JH BTHMI. ocipOBOMi, (1268).
151*. IIocjii^Hie ,pa noxo.ua 6ujiH. npeAnpHHflTH ^pan^
KOp OJi em JIwdoeuKOMZ
.
IX CenmuMz.
.
IlepBEiH
r HSI. HHXX 6ujn> E&-
no HacTOflmio nanu (MHHOKeHTiH IV) BCKOpi nocji'B HOBaro sa-
lepycajiHMa MycyjLMauaMH. JIOAOBHK'B IX piuinjica nanacmt
nptiMO ua camoio eiunemcmio cyjimana H, BEica^HBrnHCt H6Aa.ieKO
fffiMiemmu (y HHJILCKOH ^BJIBTH), OBJia^-BJii) axHMTb ropo^ojo, (1248).
Bt ErHnTi KpecTonocn,Li no,a,BeprJiHCL pasniiM^ Soj-BsnaMt H cxajn
TepniiB nopaatenia. Can-b K0po.it nonajit flame BX n^Hi, HSX KO-
Toparo 6mi &
r

ocBo6oat,a;eHT> JIHID& sa doJitmOH BiiKyn'B


nocjii 9Toro BX CB. Seaurs.
Bce-xaKH nodHBaj-B
no BOSBpamemH ex BocxoKa J!IOAOBHKI IX npe,n-
jiixx
HOBHH HOXOflt (1270), HO yate H6 BCXp4xHJII OOJIBmOH
BI. CBoeMx pimapcxBi. He 3a,a;o.!iro nepe^x X-BMI, ero

6paxi> JKapM AnotcyucKm OBjrafl'BJii. CH^HJIieH H HeanojieM'B, H


HOBHH BjracxHxejiB K>atHOH Hxajiin npocHJit y Hero noMom,H npo-
XHBl C-BBepO-a^pHKaHCKHX-B Capan.HHOB'B. HpeCXap^JBIH BOpOJB BBI-
caflHjrca BX Tyuucrb, HO SA^CB m> ero BOHCK'B HaiajracB HyMa, KO-

xopaa CBejra BI MorHJiy H caaioro JlroflOBHKa IX. Y xpncxiaH-B H


BX XIII B. BCC enje ocxasajHCB Koe-Kama Bjaflinia Ha BOCXOKA,
H ,pa cnacenia HX'B OX-B rn6ejiH oxnpaBjiajica xy^a eme aHMiHCKift
npHHn,!, BflyapA^, HO AHH 3XHX1, BjafliHiH SLLIH co^xeHti. HOCJI'BA-
HHM-B nyHKXOMl, Bt KOHII^B KOHIJ,OBi BHHyatfleHflHM'B CflaXBCa My-

cyjiBManaMt, 6tiJia Anpa, icoxopaa nona.ia BT, nxx pyKH B-B 1291 r.
9xo cotftixie H cinxaexca KOUI^OMI npecmoeuxz noxodoez.
152*. KpecxoBiie noxoflti HM^JIH Baatnoe HcxopnqecKoe sna-
^eHie. 9x0 6Bi.io caMUMZ npynuuMb cmojiKHoeenieMZ Meotcdy xpu-
e upecTo-
cmiancKUMz u MycyMMauCKUMK Mipajuu, MCTK^y KOXOPLIMH B0o6m,e
mjra 6opB6a. OHO Ha^ajroct B-B xy anoxy, Kor^a xajH^axi, yate
pacnajrca Ha rocy^apcxBa, HO H Meatfly xpncxiaHaMH
oxfl-ljBHtia
HC 6HJO corjiacia. BtponcnoB'BflHaa POSHB cxaBHja KpecxoHocn;eB'B
H rpeKOB'B BO BpaatfledHLia oxHonieHia, fla H caMH sanaflHBia
BtiCHjaBfflia KpecxoHOCHua onojiqeHia, flMcxBOBajH
EBponefinaM'B ne oxnaxB y MycyjibsiaH-B ]3ajiecxHHy,'H
yflajiocB noxoflti,
HMH ex 9x010 n, kiBK) BI, Asiro, jrainB
r
107

Buaanmiw. B'B ncxopin BanaflHOH EsponBi 3xn HOXOABI 611.111 ne-

nocpedcmeennuMz npodoaoiceweMi dpyiuxo saeoeeame^Huxz nped-


npinmiu ^eojajitnaro ptnjapcxBa; C'B noxoflaMH BI> CB. SeMJiio, MOHCHO
CKasaxB, OKOHqHjracB BOHHCXBeHHBia nepeflBHiKenia cpe.n.HHX'B B-EKOB-B.
Ha KpecxoBBix-B noxo^axx CKasajiacB xorae H cum KamojimecKOu
u,epKQU, xoxa, ci flpyrofi ciopOHH, Heyflaia Bcero npe^npiaiifl ne
Morjia He noBjie% sa co6oro pasonapoeauifi ez
udeaxz mmuAuuusMa. HaKOHeqi), STH BOHHH He TOJILKO
HHJIH, HO H ctijUUK&Ml Mewdy coOow omdn>MHwe napodu. PEI^apH
pa3HMXT> cipaHi, ynaciByfl vs> o6m,eMT) .nijit, HOCTOHHHO
saJiHCL MeiKAy co6oio, anoc-Ememe HMH BHsaHiin H
HXI B'B conpuKOCHoeenie cz nywdow
CKHXT. cipanx npHBOji,H.io

MamepiaAmow u dyxoenow nyMmypow. 3a BOHHaMH Ha BociOKi)


HUH Kyni;H, H KpecTOBtie DOXOAH ^aate COSA^IH ecw eeuewancKyw
u ieuy33CKyw mopioejiw Biopofi HOJIOBHHLI cpe^nnxi) B^KOBT). Kpe-
CTOHOCn,BI 3HaKOMHJIHC& CT> HOBHMH CTpanaMH H HapOAaMH, C"B HXTb
6HTOMI> H HOHflliflMH H npHHOCHJIH Cl> C060K) B'B EspOHy MHOffiC-
CTBO HOBBIX-B sHaHift H o^tiqaeB'B, qio, KOHe<rao, nodpuea^o npeotc-
wow KyMmypHyw ucKAwnume.iwocmb Sanada.

II.

153*. B-B XII H XIII BB., T.-e. 6Z dnoxy Kpecmoebixz noxo-


doei namojiuuecmx, u<epK06b docmuua nauOoMwaio
IlancKaa BJiacxB, nocxaBJieHHaa na He6BiBa.iyio Bticoiy B'B
XI B. FpHropieATB VII, ^epatajiacb Ha BTOH BBICOT^ .no naiajia
XIV CTOJi-Biia. CaMocToaiejiBHOCTB Hai^ioHajiBHHX'B n;epKBeH Sana^a
CBiJia ciOMJieHa. ^yxoBHaa B.iaciB nam& pacnpocipaHHjacB Ha HOBHH
cipaHLi BarBcrfe ci> saBoesaHiflMH KpecxoHOCi^eB'B B'B Asm H Ha
Ba.iKaHCKOM-B nojyocTpOB'B. Mnorie rocy,a;apH B'B 310 speMa oco-
6uMH anxaMH npHSHaBajH CBOIO saBHCHMOcxb oxi, nancxBa, Koxopoe

cepBesao cxa.10 pacnopflataxbca KOPOJCBCKHMH KopOHaMH, a B'B dopBfi-B


C-B HMnepieii B'B cepe^HH-B XIII B. OAepatMO nOjiH-BfimyK) uo-
(yEfly. TopatecxBO ^.yxoBHOfl BJiacxn na.n'B CBixcKoro
JIOCB pacwupeuieMi npa&z dyxoeeucmea no omuomeuiw Kb

o6w,ecmea. KaxojiHqecKoe AyxoBencxBO pasuBixi. cxpaH'B,


no.n.'B B.iacxBio nariBi, O^HO odJia^aBme
H CHJIBHOe CBOHMH Maxepia.lLHHMH CpCJI,CXBaMH, npHBBIK.10
ce6a H3I. CB^xcKaro o6m,ecxBa H omoyicecme.wmb i^epKoeb i,?aenbiM<>

ofipasoMK cv caMU.m codow. Mipane CBIJIH noaxoMy .lameHBi BcaKOH


CaMOCXOflXeJIBHOCXH B'B IjepKOBHOH aiH3HH. HapO^HBie flSBIKH 6BIJH
108

H3X 6orocJiy^eHifl, H He-mmpHKaMx sanpemeno


CBameHHoe nncame. PaBHLiMx o(5pa30Mx y HHXX 6mio OTHHTO
npaeo npHiamaibca noflx odoHMH BHJUIMH (i.-e. xjrfcda H
ociaBJieHHoe sa OJJHHMX flyxoBCHCTBOMx, H npngacxie ciajio
HMX .iHinb HO.HX BH,HOMX o6jaTx (r.-e. ocsameHHaro xjrfc6a). U,epKOBt

ciajia BI> 9TO BpeMa eeodumi e?> oGuuau pasdcmy tmdy.meuu,iu, T.-e.

npomema rp-BXOBi RUB. JRHBLIX'B H yMepmnx-B sa ^ene^HHfl no-


HJIH KaKia-JiH6o ycjiyrn. Em,e FpHropiH VII ofrtnBH-rB

rpixoBi, Bciaii), KTO dy^exi noMoraib eiiy ET> 6opt6 B ex


i

IV, a Ypdani II, npOBOsraainafl KpeciOBtifi noxo^x, roate


nponoBi^OBaiL, qio yqaciie BX Henx 6yAeT-L BOsnarpaaxAaTtca
rpixoBx. CocTaBHJiact oco6aa Teopia, no KOiopOH
KOBB 6tiJia pacnopa^HTejiBEHnett BGJIHKOH coKpoBHmHHn,Bi
XpHCia H CBHTBIX'B, cnacaioiDiHxx Jito^eH sonpeKH HX-B rptxaarB. He
flOBO.uBCTByacB, KaKi, .nyxoBBBiMTb HaKasameiTB, OTJiyqemeMi OT^JIB-
HBIXX JIHI^X, KamoiecKaa n,epKOBB ciajia npHdiraiB eme KX uumep-
m.-e. uajiomeuiw ua nn>AUH cmpauu npeKpau^enin ecnxt
r

, Kpemenia. Bx 6opb6i> ex HenoKOp-


sa HCKJuoqenieMi.
HBIMH rocy^apflMH 9TO 6ujio cHJBHoe opy^ie BX pyicaxx nanx paa-
CMaipHBaeMaro nepio,a;a. ^pynmi. opy^ieMx ^yxoBHOfi BJiaciH c,a,i-
jrajiacB umeusuwfi, sanHMaBinaaca POSBICKOMI, H pascji^OBaHieMx

epeceii H cydoMt nadz epemummu, KOiopBie BX cJiyqa'B BHHOBHOCTH


no^BeprajiHCB KasHH nocpe^ciBOMx coat^eHia na Kocip'k HaKOHen.'B,
nanH upecmoeue noxodu ue moMKO npomum MycyM-
o6i)aBjrajiH

MdH?,, HO H npOTHEX epeTHKOBl., H AaJKG npOTHEX CBOHXX HO.IHTHqe-


CKHXX BparoBx.
154. RiaBHOH) onopoio nancKofi BJiacTH dw.io MonainecTBO.
B iHHKiniH BX VI op^eHX B. BeHe^HKia CB. MHOFO Mona- HM^JII)
opiena.
XOBX, KOiopHe BX nepByio nojiOBHHy cpe^nnxx BTBKOBX HeMajio no-
na^x ocyniKOK) ^OJTOTX, pacqncTKOK) JTECOBX H
aflcTBeHHBiMH yjryqmeHiaMH Ha sejoaxx,
MonaciLipaMX 6.iaroqeciHBBiMH MipanaMH. Ho Mipi xoro, KaKx BOS-
pacxajio 6oraiCTBO MOHacTBipeii, Mouaiuecme npaeu npuxoduau &b

ynadotcb. KjrKJHiflcKaa pe<J>opMa BHBejia, o^HaKO, MOHaniecTBO


HSX aioro
neqa.iBHaro noJioaieHia, H MHOateciBO MOHacTBipefi BepnyjiocB KX npeat-
Hefi ciporocTH acKeinqecKOH ^HSHH. Bx XII oco6enHO npocjia- B.

BHJica cypOBBiMx HcnojraemeMx MOHaniecKHxx o6iTOBx H


HLIMX BJiiaeieMX na yjiyqinenie MOHainecKHxx HpaBosx a66axx
-
CG. Eepuapdz, KOTOPBIH HSE'ECTGHX em,e, KaKx KpacHopx
1

nponoB^HHKx BTOporo KpeciOBaro noxo^a. Bx XIII CTOJ^xiH


B03HHKJH ein,e dea noeue Monaiaecnie opdena (^pani^ucKan'u/ee^
u
nojiyqHBfflie HasBame nuiyeHcmeywuiuxb opdeuoeo.
109 \

,
HSTB KOTOPHXI> BUUMH H KJnomHiibi, H CB. EepHap,m>,
HeciaataHifl jiHinb B-B CMHO/TB oiKasa OTI. JIHIHOH co6-

CTB6HHOCTH, HO caMH Hxi. MOHacibipH 6biJiH oiCHb 6oraiLi. Hmn.eH-


CTByroinje MonaxH OTKasiiBajHCb OTT> BCHKOH codciBeHHOCTH
H
. OcHOBaiejeM-b o^Horo HS-B BTHX-B opaeHOB-B SHJTL
CB. <DpaHu,ucKt ACCUSCKIU, OTI HM6HH KOioparo H caMHH
<|)paHii;HCKaHCKHMi>. $paHn,HCKx, OTJinqaBmiiicfl Bt
IOHOCTH BGCeJItlM-B XapaKiepOM't H pOCKOfflHOK) atHSHLK), 6HJI-B HaCTOfl-
BonjiomeHieMi. acKeiHiecKaro H,a;eaJia cpe^naxt BiKOBi, HO
HOABHroBi djiaroiecxiH, OHt npocjiaBHJicfl H no^BHraMH MHJO-
KOiopoe
,
6ujn> HSJiHBaiB ua BCflKyio asHByro TBaps.
rOTOBi>
OHT> OKasuBaji'B pasnyio, KaKaa TOJIBKO 6H.ia ET> ero cnjiaxt H cpe,n-
CTBaXI>, nOMOffl,I> BCflKHMI. HeCqaCTHHM'B, OC06eHHO dOJIBHblM'L H C'B.H-

HHMI,. Kor.ua OKOJIO $pan^cKa codpajiocb MHOFO CTOPOHHHKOB'L xaKoro


Bory H SJHSIHHMI,, nana HHHOKewniu III (1198 1216)
eny BI> 1209 r. ocnoBaiB HOBUH MOHamecKiH
Munopumo&z, m.-e. Mentweu 6pamiu (fratres minores), KaK'B

H HCKaHE LI ^ - rjaBHOK) o6fl3aHHOCTBH) MHHOpHTOBt


yqHTB HapOA'B, nponoB'BAyfl eMy sipy H
H o6jrerqaiB CTpa^aHm CXBAHLIX'L, SOJIBHHXI H T. n.
6miH HacTOflm,HMH npe^ciaBHTejiflMH H^eH onipeueniH omz Mipa H
r

npe3Hpa.iH ceiTCKyio nayKy. HaoSopoix, jiipyroH opA6H t HHmeH-


MOHaXOBi, ^OMHHHKaHI^H, npOC.iaBHJIHCb yieHOCTBK) H
co6oio cKOpie Apyryio H^K) cpe^HeB-BKOBoro Kaio,iH-
H/jeto ejiacmu Hack Mipotn. 9TOTi> op^eHt 6u.ii>
paHn,HCKa, HcnaHn,eMi. ce. ^OMUHUKOMZ. 9io
Monaxx, KOTOpun SREJLT> O^HO speMa na IOF-B $pani;iH,
B-BXII H HaqaJi-B XIII B. 6biJia pacnpocipaHeHa xaK-B
aMCuwucKdH epecb. J(jm 6opB6H c^ Hero H C-B epecflMH B0o6m;e ,U,OMH-
HHKI, H 3a^yMajn> ocaOBaib ocoCbiii op^eni. (JpambeeK-nponoerbdHU-
K06T> (fratres praedicatores), na HTO CKOpo nojiyinji-b nancKoe co-
rjiacie (1220). HpHHaBi, MHHOpHTCKiH ycxaBi>, AOMHHHKani^bi nocia-
BHJIH CBoero sa^aiero no^epavHEaxB qHCioiy KaTOJinnecKaro Bl>poyie-

Hifl, A'B-iaHCb AJifl 9xoro npeno^aBaTeJiflMH BI Hnsranxi H BbicniHX'B

niKO-iaxi, H 3a6paB-B wi> CBoe B-EA^nie HHKBH3Hi;iro. CBOCIO


BOJIBHOK) 6i^HOCTbK), 6.1H3KHM'b yyaCTiCM-b BC'BM'B CBOHM'B KO
atAarom,HMCfl H o6peMeHeHHbiM'L, a Taitate csoero yqenocibro
MOHaxH npiodp'BJH 6oMwoe eMHHie na napod^ a OCBO-
HXI, HSL-HO^T BJiaciH M'BCTHHX'B enHCKonoBi, juBJiajio HXI,

HenocpedcmeeHHUMU opydinMU nancnou ejacmu, KOiopoft 663^ BCH-


KHX-b npOMeatyioqHbix'B HHCTanuiH 6njiH noA^HHeHbi HX'b
HHKH (reeepajibi), atHBinie BX PHM-B.
110

155*. FocnoflCTByiomeMy nojioaeHiro AyxoBencxBa B-B


coflMcTBOBajio H TO, ixo OHO odno QAddvbAo yMcmeeuHUMu opy-
difvuu ofipasoeauinu yuenocmu. H-BKOxopoe Bospoatfleme o6paso-
npoiisonuro na Sanaa's npn Kapjii Be-iHKOM-B, HO HJKOJIBI TOH
cym,ecxBOBa./TH jiHm& npn enncKoncKuxi, nepKBax-B (Kaee;npajn>-
HBIXI co6opax B) H B'B Monacxbipax'B. Bv enoxy Kpectnoebix* noxo-
r

doev eosHUKJiu eucutin WKOMI, no.iyqHBmifl HasBame ynueepcume-


moffb. B-B HxajiiH npocjraBHJiHC& yHHBepCHieTij cajrepncKin H GOJIOH-

CKift, El OAHOMI HS-B KOTOPHXI nsyiajiacb Me^Hn;HHa, a B'L ^pyroM-L


K)pHcnpy^eHn;ifl, HO caMBiMTb snaMeHHTBiMt CA^Jiajca yuueepcumem*
napuoicCKiu, idn> npou,en>ma.4o npenodaeauie (fiujiocofiiu u fioiocjioein.
OH-B 6ujn> ocHOBan-B HJH, B-BpH^e roBOpa, npeo6pa30BaH'B HS-B
paHHea mm B-B Haqa.i'B XIII B. Cro^a cieKa^HCB ciy-
HS'B BCBXTb
sanaAHO-eBponeHCKHX'B CT.pan'&j H no o6pa3n,y
napnatcKaro ynHBepCHTeia, KaKi, o6m;eH Maiepn (alma mater) BBIC-
mnx-B mKOjrB, ciajiH ycxpaHBaTBCH yHHBepCHTeiH H B'B .npyrnxx Miciax-B.
KopoJiB 0uAunnz II Aeiycm% OCBO^O^HJII BCK> napnascKyio o6m,HHy
oil noAcy^HOCTH MtciHOMy npe-
(universitas) yiani.HX'B H yiam,Hxca
BOiy (a^MHHHCipaTHBHOMy H cy^;e6noMy npHKas^HKy), a nana HHHO-
Kenmiu IIIomz nodnunenifi co6opuoMy nanumyjiy (KOJiJieriH
KanoHHKOB'B npn Kaee^pajiBHOH n,epKBn).
yHHBepCHieTBi yiBepat^ajTHCB nanaMH, H npo^eccopCKia
HOCTH 3aHHMaJIHCB B'B HEXl KJHpHKaMH. BOFOCJIOBie CIHTaJIOCB
HBIM'B npe^MeiOM'B, a na (|)Hjroco({)iK) CMOTP-BJIH, "^KaKi, na
6oiocAoein (philosophia est ancilla theologiae). Sa^aieio
mKOJIBHOH (JHJIOCO(J)iH HJIH CXOMCmUKU, KaifB 66 HaS&IBaJIH, 6BIJIO

on pasyMa nepKOBHBia yqenifl. Bi cepe^HH-B XIII B.

H3i. npe^CTaBHTejreft BTOH (J)HJioco(|)iH, .noMHHHKaHen,!. ce. OOMO,


BI, csoeM'B co^HHeniH Summa
theologiae" paspa6o-
n
Tajn> BI noApo^HOCTaxi, H HSJIOJKHJI'B BT> CHCTeMaxHiecKOMi) no-
pa^K-B Tor^amnee y^enie KaiojinqecKOH n,epKBH no sonpocaMi* B^PH
H HpaBCTBCHHOCTH, npasa H rocyAapCTBeHHOH ^H^HH. 6oMy npo-
3BajiH yqHTejieMi, aHrejioB-B (doctor angelicus), H ero n Summa" #0

nopi nojiBsyeica rpOMa^nHMi, aBTOpHiexoM'B y

156. nopy HaHBBicniaro npon.B'BxaHia Kaxo.iHnH3Ma


B'B 9xy
Bopb6a CT,
npHxo^HJiocB, OflHaKO, 6opom'bCH ci epecaMU, BOSHHKaBHiHMH B'B
paxx n,epKBH. Cpe^a caMnxi, cxojracxHKOB'B noaB.ia.nncB .IIO^H, KOXO-
XO^HJIH AO 6orocjiOBCKHXi H <|)HJioco$CKHX b noJioateHin, C-B KO-
r

nepKOBb HC Morjia cor.iacnxbca n Koxopna noxony no^Bepraja


"Ho oco6eHHO MHOFO XJIOHOX-B cos^aBajn nairfc H
pe.imiosHUH cenmu, uaxoduewifi nocArbdoeame.mi et
Ill

napodnuocz Maccaxi. Ha pydeadi XII H XIII BB. BBCB ion, <I>paH-


IUH 6ujrB oxBaqeH'B ^ByMa epecaMH wbfimouCKOu u oaMdeucuou.
Depsaa epecB 6ujia npOHCxoamema Bocxoinaro. 3xo 6mio MCIHU-
xeiicmeo, BOspoflHBineeca BX Eojirapin BTE>
(j^opMi 6oiyMUMcmea H
oxxy,na nepemeAinee qepesx H-MHpiio H Mxajiiio
BI> roatnyio <J>paH-

r^iio. Epect nojyHHJa HasBanie ajiLCtaroHCKOH OTX ropo^a AJIB^H,


HO casiH ceKiaHTH HasHBajiH ce6a naeapaMU, T.-e. ^HCTHMH HJH
coBepmeHHtiMH. OHH B-BPHJIH B-B cymeciBOBaHie ^Byxi MipOBBixi,
Haiajr& Ao6paro H SJIOFO, BH^JIH BI> BexxoM-L sas'BT'B oiKposeHie
H npoiiOB'BAOBaJiH acKeiHSMi., npnsHaBaa SKHSHL OJIOTBIO H
HHTepecaMH paBHOCHJiBHoro cjiyateHiro ^BHBOJiy. PH^OM-B
CT> STOW ceKTOio Ha tor's $pann,iH pasBHJiacB H Apyraa, IHCTO xpn-
CTiaHCKafl, HanoMUHawuian npomecmaumuaMz uoeaio epemenu. Ba.iB-

,a;eHCH naxo^HJiH, qio Kaio.iHqecKaa ijepKOBB oxciynHJia OTTB qHCioiH


xpHCTiaHCKOfi odmnHii, H XOT-BJIH pe^opMnpoBaiB
H i^epKOBHVio atHSHB, pyKOBOflflCB OflHHM'B CB. HHcameM'B. Epe-
THKH iipOHSBOfliMH 6oJiBffloe Bne^aTJi'BHie na Hapo^ CBoeio CTpororo
atH3HBK) H o6jimeRieMi> atajjHOCTH H nopOKOBi> AyxoBencTBa. Cz

WMHO-cj^pawji/ysCKUMU epemumMU ecmynuM &z fioptfy nana HHHO-


Kenmiu III. HPOTHB-L HHX-B H no^Aep^HBaBinaro HX-B rpa^a
HMI, 6us ofomMw> npecmoeuu noxodt> CT>

sa y^acxie BT. no^aBJieHiH epecn. PBin,apCTBO


,iH 6pocH.iocb Ha roatHyio $paHaiio H ciajio ee pasopaiB. Ilan-
ipe6oBaji B y HHX^ npn BsaiiH oji,Horo ropo.ua, iTo6Bi
r
CKift jieraTb
OHH y6HBa.iH BC^XT, 6esi pa36opa, noiOMy ^TO n Bori HOTOM'B CBO-
Hxt ysHaeii.". Bi 9x0 ace Bpeiia A.IH 6opB6iJ C-B epecaMH H SBIJTB
OCHOBaH-B ^OMHHHKaHCKiH OpA6HT> H BBG^eHa HHKBHSHE^ifl,
B-B saB^^OBaHie axoro op^ena. Ha^ajiHCB HBIXKH no^os
B-B epecH, coatHreHia ocyasAenHBixi. na Kocxpax-b, KOH$HCKan,in HX-B
Co6cxB6HHO ^epKOBHBIe cyji,H XOJIBKO npnroBapHBajiH K-B
.

n 6e3i> npojiHxifl KPOBH", HcnojiHeme ate KasHH cosepniaaocB

MacxBio. CxojiacxHKH cxapajHCB H meopemunecKU onpae-


K03HU epemmom, ccBiJiaacB ^,aa;e na O^HHI, nenpaBHJBHO
XCKCXI. Efiaurejiia (BT, npnxq'B o rjapfc npnrjiacHB-
UICMI, rocxen Ha nnp-B H, Kor^a OHH He npHm,iH nocjaBmeM-B ssaxB ?

HHID,HX^; B'B jaxHHCKOMi nepeBO^'fe dBMO CKasano: n sacxaBB BOHXH").


HecMOxpa na roHema H Kasnn, epecu, o^HaKO, ne npeKpam.ajiHCB.
B'B XIII B., Hanp., 6BiJia BI> xo^,y nponoendb Brbnnaio E
BI KOxopOH roBOpH.iocB, qxo Bexxifi saB^xi. 6ujn>
Bora Oxi;a, HOBBIH Bora Cuna, H HXO nacxynaexi Bpeiia oxKpo-
BeHia Csaxoro, Kor^a sea SHSHB naiOB-BiecxBa Sy^ex-B OCHO-
JI,yxa
Bana na HOBBIX-B na^aJiaxi). SaMijqaxejiBHO, ^xo 3x0 yqenie yB.ieKJio
112

secBMa ^paHn.HCKaHn.eB'B, Koxoptie TOTOBH 6iuiK


MHOrnxi.
B-B CBoero op^ena npe^xeiy 6y^yin aro ijapcxBa CB. Jljxa.
ocHOBaxe-zdi l

157. Haqaxaa em,e AO KpecxoBBix'B HOXOAOB-B 6opi6a Mecncdy


Bo3o6HOBJie- nancmeoM* u umnepieu npodojiwcajiacb u eo epeMH npecmoeuxz no-
H
nancxBa H %d08Z. BopMCIUH KOHKOpflaXTB 1122 T. HpeKpaXH.!!. CHOp-B 3a HHBC-
cxHxypy, BBixeKaBmiii HS-B coeflHHeHifl n;epKOBBK[xi, AOJimHOCTeii ci) <|>eo-

,a;aji&HHMT) seMJieBJiaA'BHieM'L, HO RJLH 6opL6H nan^ C-B HMnepaxopaMH


cyin,ecTBOBajH u Apyria npHqHHBi. FjiaBHEiMH HST. EHX-B 6tMH cmpe-
MAeme UMnepamopo&b locnod'cmeoeamb en> HmaMU H HXI. npuma-
3auiH HO, caMOcmofimeMHoe noMsoeame emcmwo. Hiwer^Kie Kopojn
eme C'B OxTona BejHKaro Bcer.ua XOX^JIH BJia^ixB Mxa^ien, 6e3-B
Koxopon ne MorjiH npeflCxaBHXB 066^ HMnepin, a ptmapcxBO FepManm
HCKaBinee no^BnroBi, H ,a,o6BiqH, OXOTHO OKasuBajio HM-B noMom,b. Ho
nanaMt 6uao ueeuiodno, mno6u HmaMH npunadjiecHcajia umnepa-
mopaMZ. C'B ^pyroft cxopOHBi, HMnepaxopBi ne XOX^JIH noA^HHHXBCfl
nancKOH xeopin o rjiaBeHcxB^ ^yxoBHOH B.iacxn na^-B CB^XCKOIO H
caMH cxajiH saflBJiaxB xama meopemuuecKin npumasaHix, Komopux
npomueoprbHUAu nancKOu meoupamiu. Bi> XII B. BT> Hxajiin BOS-
o6noBHJiocB usyuenie PUMCKCMO npaea (6ojiOHCKiH ynHBepcnxexi));, H
yieHLie K>PHCTBI cxajiH samHiijaxB pUMcnyw meopiw depwaenou
edacmu (imperium), Eoxopyro napOA'B nepe^ajri rocy^apio, H KOXO-
pyio HH%fl BOJia H CHJia ne Moryxi, orpana^nxB: n ixo 6jiaroyro^HO
rocy^apro, xo HM^exi CHjy saKona" (quod principi placuit, legis
habet vigorem).. Ho axony BSMa^y HMnepaxopi. o6^aBjiffjica
r

JI;BIKOH) Mipa% cxoamnM^ n BBinie saKOHa", Boiuioin;eHHBiM B


HOMI Ha seMJit" H HOKpOBHxejeM B i^epKBH". HoHflXHO, qxo nanBi
w
(

ne MOOH npHMHpaxBCfl ci. xauoto xeopiero, me^meio B-B paspis'B


C'B HXfc C06CXB6HHBIMH OpHXHSaHiflMH. OflH HafflJIH COJOSHHKOB-B KaKl

Bl H'feMeiliKHX'B (|)eOAaj[BHBIX B KHflSBflX^, XaKl H ET> HXaJTBflHCKHX'B


r

rOpO^CKHX-B O^mHHaX'B, O^HHaKOBO HC COqyBCXBOBaBIDHX'B HOJIHXHK'fe


HMnepaxopOB'B.
158. Bo Bxopoii nojiOBHH'fe XII H nepBOH nojiOBHH'fe XIII B.
H
UMnepamopCKiu npecmoM sauttMaAa cfiajuuMfi
(1 1 38 1 254). roreHinxay<j)eHBi 6mrn paHBme repn,oraMH mBa6cKHMH

H npn CBOCMI. BOSBHineHin BCXP^THJIH conpoxHBJieHie co cxopOHBi


^pyroro H-feMei^Karo KHflatecKaro po^a BeM$odz, BJiaA^Bmaro Basa-
piefi H CaKCOHieft H MHorHMH senjiflMH BTE* Hxajiin. Hsi HMCHH
BI> Hxajrin
(JJOBI. HxajiBflHn,Li c^ijiajiH nasBanie HXI. napxin

a HMfl po^OBoro saMKa ForeHmxay^eHOB'B Bau6jiumz 6nuio nepenHa-


ICHO BTb iu6ejiJiunu, KaKi. H cxajiH o6o3HaiaxB BT> Hxa-iin HXI napxito.
aiajiBHoe pasjinqie ne^y rH6ejuiHHaMH H rBe.TB(f)aMH co-
B'B XOMI., Hxo OAHH (rnCejiJHHBi) 3am,Hin,ajiH H^CH ynueep-
113

Mouapxiu u caMocmoamedwou cmmcKOu ojiacmu, xor,a;a


Kairb .npyrie (reejib^u) 6bMH CTOPOHHHKH HautionaMnou UAU
uou nesaeucuMOcmu u uumepecofft nancmea. Y oC^HXi. napxifi
CTOPOHHHKH H Bi> FepMaHiH, H BI> HxajiH, xaira ^xo 6opb(5a nan-
cxBa H HMnepin npn roreHmxay<|)eHax'b ocJioatHflJiacb enje
xpeHHHMH Meat,a;oyco6iaMH BI BTHX-L ofi'EHX'b cxpanaxTb.
159. JI,HHaCxia roreHfflTay(|)eHOB'B BHCTaBHJia HljCKOJIbKO
iHinocxeH. BTOPHMT> npeACTaBHiejieM'B
<&pudpU3Cb I, npOSBaHHHHI HiaJIBflHqaMH PblMefiopodUMZ (Bap-
fiapocca) H saHHBiniH CBOHMT> n.apciBOBaHieM'B noqiH BCIO Biopyio
nojiOBiray XII B. (1152 1190). BoscTaHOBHEt BI FepMamH MHp-B,
HapymeHHHft 6opB6oio C-B Bejb4)aMH J
OHFL oinpaBBJcn B-b Hiajiiio sa

HMnepaxopCKOH KOpOHoii. B-b 9TO BpeMa BI> PHM-B npOHSonuio cpe^n


npocToro napo^a pecny6jiHEaHCKoe.^BHateHie, nanpaBJieHHoe npoTHB-b
nanbi H snaiH, a pyKOBOAHiejieMT. ero dbwb yneHbifi dpemiaHen.!*
ApuoMdt, cxojracTHqecKift 6orocjiOB b, no^osp-BBaBinifica
i
BI> epecn. HH-
cypreHTbi OBja^jiH ropOAOMi>, HO OXOTHO noAiHHHJiHCb 611 $pHApxy
Bap6apocc-B, KaK-b HMnepaiopy, ecjiH 6bi nocj'B.aiHiH cani ne Hcnyrajica
xaKoft peBOJiroi^iH. OHI nocn-Branjii BOScxaHOBHTb nany (A^piaHa IV)
BT> ero npasaxi H BHAaji^ eMy ApHO.ib^a, KOioptiH H 6mi

H6Hi). Ho c-BBepao-HTajibflHCKifl (.aoMo'apACKifl H TOCKancKifl)


CKm o6m,HHLi, npeBpaTHBmiacfl Hacioamifl pecny6jiHKH, He saxo-
B-B

iiOAHHHHTbCfl ipedoBaHiio Bap6apoccu BOsciaHOBHTb ero n;ap-


npasa (pewMu). Ha
nepsbixi nopax-b HMnepaxop-b CJIOMBJEI,
conpoTHBjeHie JIOM6apA^eB b, BO rjias-B KOTOPBIXT, CTOHJH, Mutant,
r

H, paspyraHBi. BTOT-L ropOA'b, nocTaEHjn. B-L ^pyrnxi. ropo^axi. CBonx-b


cy^eft(noAecia) H o6jioaiHJi'b HXI, nacejieHie ^eneatHUMH BsnocaMH.
Meaj^y 14111 no CMepxa A^piana IV, B03Bpam,eHHaro Bap6apoccoio
KT> BJiaciH,OAHH Kap^HHajiH BBi6paJiH oflHoro nany, Apyrie ^pyroro.
HMnepaiopi. ^.JIH pimenifl cnopa co3Bajn> co6opTb BT> HaBin, na KO-
Topbra npiixajH enncKonbi FepManiH H HxajiiH, HO o^HH-b H3i>
nani> ne saxorBjrb npiixaxb, cinxaa ce6n Heno^cy^HbiM'b codopy.
9xo SbiJi-b Ajiencaudpi III, sautumuuKb meoKpamunecmio udeajia
nancmea. Co6op b pimBJn. xkjio BI> nojibay ero conepHHKa, HO BI>
r

.npyraxij cxpanax-b ne saxox'BJiH npHSHasaxb H-BAmeBT, noBe;iHxejiflMH


Bcero Mipa H cxa^n Ha cxopony HMCHHO AjieKcanupa III. Bo $pan-
i;iH nocjiiAHiH ^ame Hainan y6 BjKHm,e, H3i> Koxoparo H noc.ia.i-b
r

HMnepaxopy omjiynenie omz i^epneu. Tor^a jroM6ap^i;bi CHOBa BOS-


cxajiH npoxHB'b Bapdapoccu H B03cxanoBHJiH paspyniennbiH H5rb MH-

HMnepaxopT> nomejix na HHXX BOHHOIO 6e3i. ^ocxaxoiHiixi


axoro npeAnpiaxia BoeHHiixi, CHJII. Eaiy oxEasajt BI HOMOHIH
caMHft SHaqnxejibHbiH ero Baccaji-b, repi^ori 6aBapCKi8
114

leupuxt Jleffb (mi> $aMH.iiH Be-iB^OBi). npe^anie


oyflxo ^PHAPHXI npocHJi-B y Hero noMom,H HE mirBHax'L, HO
9xoro H ne 6w.io Ha caMOMi. fliwrB, yate caMO npe^anie xopoino
xapaicxepHsyext cjiatfocxB HMnepm. Ilpn JleHbaHo (1176) ji

nanecjiH HMnepaxopy nopaateme, Koxopoe sacxaBH-io ero


omz noduuueniH ce&n> nanu u umajiwHCKUXi lopodoe*. Mnpi, Meatfly
H CB^TCKHMH MasaMH sana^Haro xpHCiiancTBa 6w.it
o6oHxi> BI BeHei^in, BO BpeMa Koxoparo
CBH.a.aHieM'L

HMnepaiopi nepeAt nanofi Ha KOJi-BHa. Bo3CTaHOBHBi> HOCJ'B


ciajit
9ioro CBOH aBTOpHiexi. Bt FepMaHin, ^PH^PHXI. Bap6apocca OKOH-
qHJ-B JKH3HB Vh TpeTLCMI. KpCCTOBOMt HOXO^.
160*. CBoero cwHa Tenpuxa VI JSap6apocca ycn BJn> otceuumb r

6opb6&na Hacjirbdnuwrb Heanoaa u CUII/MMM, HO 3x0x1. rocy^apB, coe^H-

HOBI Be-" HHBm ^ nQ ^ J> CBOeK) BJiacxtK) ct npeatHHMH BJia^iHiflMH HMnepin H


4oB*. loatHyro Hxajiiro, ijapcxBOBaji, HCAO^ro. Kor^a ont yMepx (1196),
BX roatHOH Hxajzia npasHaHt 6wjii. Kopojiewt ero MajroJi-BXHiii cwnt
FepMaHiH ate cuoea npomowm 6opb6a Toiemamay-
u
BeMcfioet. HsSpaHHiiH Bt 9x0 BpeMH na nancEift npe-
HnHOKeHxii III piniHJit cnopt cna^ajia B-B nojibsy Be-iB(|)-
CKaro npexeH^enxa (Oxxona IV), HO Kor^a 9xox-L HOBHH
npoaBHJii. H^KOxopyio caMOCxoflxejiBHOCxt, xo nana
roHaro HeanojiHxaHCKaro Kopojia, KOxopuH BCKOpi
roreHmxay^eHOBi. H B-L FepMaHiH.
161. HHHOKeHxifi III sanHMajii, nancKifi npecxojrB Bt caatoMi
XII H Haiaji-fi XIII B. (1198-1216). HOCJI* rpnropia
* VII
KCHT1H III.
^
9xo 6ujn> caMUu saMrbuameAWuu cpeoneetbKoeou nana. MHHOKeHxiH III
upOHCxo.u.HJ'B H3I. o^HOH rpa<|)CKOH ceMBH, yiHjica lopHcnpyAeHii.iH
BJ> BojiOHBi H 6orocjroBiio Bt IlapHafB H nanoro c^jiajiCH, ne HM'Bfl
em,e copOKa JL&FB OX-B po^y. Ero npasjieHie 6w^o cnjromHHMt pa-
^OMI, ycnixOBi) nancKofi BJiacxn, Koxopyro HHHOKCHXIH III BT> xeopin
nocmaeuM na nedocmaeMyio euc&my. Ilpesapaa nipt, o Heait ont
coiHHemH n O npesp^HiH KT. Mipy H o ,110,3;-
OHI. ci> 9XHMt caMWMt MipOMt H (JopoJica, qxo6ti
,

ero cedi noAqHHHXL. Ero H^eajroMi, 6mra eceMipuaa meoKpamin nanu,


H OHt Rame npano BBejit Bt KanoHHqecKoe npaso yienie o XOMI>,
jxo nancKaa BjiacxL BHine CBixcKOH, H ixo nani npuHa^eatHxt

npaBO pacnopaaiaxBCfl KOpOHaMH rocy^apefi H BM'BniHBaxLca BO BC'B


nojiHxaqecKia A^a. OHI> HC ^OBOJiBCXBOBaJica xnxy.iOM-B BHKapia an.
Ilexpa H cxajii. naMn>cniHUKOM6 Xpticma. Do ero
HaswBaxh ce6a
xeopin, nepeHecenie npasi, HMnepin ex rpeitOBi, na (|)paHKOBi. 6mio
A'kioM'B nancKaro HSBOJieHia, ne ^apOMt ate HMnepaxopt H Kopo-
Hyexca nanoio. DpHsnaBTi cnaqajia HMnepaxopOM-B Be.iB(|)a, HHHO-
115

ifi III oTjyHH.ii) ero noTOMi> oxi. n;epKBH H


KOponoBajTB ForeHmxay-
KOTOpony caMi, ate CHaiajia oxKa3biBa.n> B-B npaB-fe
<f)eHa (<I>pH,npHxa II),
Ha KOpOHy. Bi Apyim-b cxpanax-B OHX xoate flocxaBHjrb nancnoH
B.mciH nojiHoe TOpaiecxBO. ^pam^yscKaro Kopojw <3>uAunna 11 Ae-
lycma, atenHBinaroca npn JKHBOH azeHi, OH-B sacxaBHJTB oxitasaxBca
OX-B Bxopoft iEeHbi H Bcpnyxb nepsyio: nana HCUIOOKUM uumepduKmz
na (Dpanutiw, H Kopo^b CMHpHJica. AerjiiHCKifi Kopojit loannz Ees-
aeMeMHuu ne xoiiji'B npHSHaib HasHaieHHaro nanoro apxienncEona
KeHTep66pincKaro, H Tor.ua HHHOKeHTift III ourygHjcL ero oxx n,epKBH,
jiHrnHJn npecTOJia, OTAaBi> uocjikfrRin <J>paHn,y3CKOMy Kopojiio, H
BH.I-LnpOTHBt CaMOH AHFJim KpeCTOBBlfi nOXOA"B. IloCJI'fc 9TOFO
BeaseMCjibHLiH npuaua-M cefin eacca.iOMz nanu, nojroa;HBi> CBOIO KO-

pony KX HoraMX ero Jieraia. BTOpocxenenHHe Kopojin 3ana^a xoa:e


O^HHI sa ^pyrHMi, .
BJiacib uann
IlpnHa^Tb codoio.
IIIo6pa30Bajiacb JlamuncKan UMnepix, H npeflnpHHarb
Kpecmoeuu noxodt npomuez ctMfiuwuu/eez u eaAbdeucoez. K*B
ero ate npaBJremio OTHOCHTCH naqajio HHmencTByiomHXi, MOHaxoBt,
BBCAenie HHKBHSHqin, ocHOBanie napnaiCKaro yHHBepCHTeia. HaKO-
STOTI aie naaa OTHflJii. y MipaHi> npaso npHqamaibca no^t
Hen;i>,
060HMH BH^aMH H IHiaib BH^JliK). IIpeeMHHKH PlBHOKCHTifl III nOfl-
ero no^HTHKy H npOAOjratajiH BCCTH 6opb6y CT> HMnepiefi
$pH^pnxa II ForeHiiiTay^eHa.
162. SaHflB-b
HMnepaiopcKiH npecxoji'b, $PHAPHXT> II (1216 $PHAPHX% IL
1250) uaMfbHUAz no.iumuKy ceouxz npedmecmeennuKoei. Ti 6biJiH
H^Mei^KHMH KOpOJIflMH, OHl 6BIJ1> H HO MaiepH, H HO JfBCTy BOCOHTaHifl
(BI> CHijHJiiH), H no CHMnaiiflMi, HT&ibflHi^eM'B. FepManieH OHI> HHTC-

pecoBajica Ma.io H ^aa:e npHSHaji-b sa HiMen,KHMH KHHSbHMH mn-


poKia BJia^'BTejibBbifl npasa, JHinb 6u OHH OKasbiBajrn eMy iioMom,b
Ha BOHH-B. HaoSopOT-L, B'B JOJEHOH HiaJliH OH"B CTpeMHJICfl C^-BJiaTB
CBOFO BJiaCTB CaMO^CpataBHOK). ^eJIOB-BK-B Heo6bIKHOBeHHO yMHBlH H
9HeprHqHbiH, $PH^PHXI II Bbipoci. B'B nocxoaHHOMi, odmema ct
H capai^HHaMH, Koxopbixx 6BiJio MHOFO BT> ero Heano.ia-
rocyflapcxBi}, HHxepecoBajrca CBixcKoft <j)HJioco({)ieH, OXOXHO
6ec E,a;OBajrB
i

ct apa6cKHMH yqeHBiMH o xaKuxi* npe^Mexaxi,


flymn, OKaabiBajcB noKpOBnxejiBCXBO BBicmHM'B
CXOJIHU'B H B'B CajiepHO, a B'B Bonpocaxi, B'fepBi o6Hapy-
CBoett
BOJBHOMBic.iie H.IH, no KpaHHCH M^p-B, paBHO^yinie. ECJIH
OHI> H npeflnpHHfljrB naxbiH KpecxoBBin noxo,!!.!*, xo ci ero cxopOHBi
9x0 6njia jmmB qncxo nojiaxngecKaa M-fepa. IIpOBO^a BX Mxajiin vur
noAumuny, ^pHflpuxi. II Bcxpixnjica S^^CB ct CHJbHofi
onnosuu/ieu B^ jrHn,i> nanx H ropo.noB'b cifiepHOH H
Hxaain. IIpeeMHHKH HnnoKeHxia III, HSX
8*
116

J? npOflBH.TB B-B 6opb6'fe C'L HHM-B H BC^MI,


HBIMI, oxpOflBCMi" roreHmxay^eHOBTb caMyio HeyKpoxHMyio 3Jio6y r
B6JIH HHM-B OajeCXOICHHyiO BOHHy. ^pHflpHXl, II <)6l.flB.MJICfl OT-
CT>

jiyieHHBiM'B oxi> ijepKBH H jrameHHBiM'B npecxo.ua, H aa ero Bjia-


flinifl HajiaraJicfl CMepxn HMnepaxopa ero
HHxepflHKx-B. HOC-ITE

Eonpadz IV napcxBOBaji'B FepMafliH jramt qexupe ro^a, HO


B'B

B-B 9ToS CTpani Hacxynnjio eejiunoe MeoKdy^apcmeie (1254), K)3tHyio


^6 Hxajriio nana (YpSaH'L IV) OT^JII. ^paHHY 3 npHHijy ^^
AuotcyucKOMy (6paiy Kopojra JIioAOBHKa IX). HacJi'B.iiiOBaBniiH
$pn,a;pHxy II ero CHHI (MaH^pe.ai'L) noiepn-BJH) nopaatenie; pae-
HHM^ o6pa30M'B H nonHTKa MOJiOAoro Eonpaduud, CHHa Konpa^a IV,
OTHHTB CHn,HJiiK) H Heanojii> y <|>paHijy30Bfc KOH^HJiacL EOJIHOK) HC-
H KasHtio npeieH^eHTa.
163*. Hadeuie Foieuwmay (pence* B-B cepeAHHi XIII B. BI
nancxBOMT, 6BMO H nadeniejuz umnepamopCKOu e.mcmu
Br CBflmeHHOH PnMCKofi HMnepm H^MeniKOH Han,iH. Caaia HMnepifl
jajiacB Tenept npocToro $HKn,ieH. Hxajiifl H FepMaHia
H 06$ coBepmeHHO pas^poSHJiHCB. Ho H nancKaa BJiaciB,
maa no6^AHTejiBHHn;eio HS^ 6opB6u, cnopo npuwjia &b ynadom.
Hani! HaxoAHJH no^epJKKy B-B HxajiBflHCKHX'B ropoji;axi, Kor^a T^
00SJIHCB EOflliaCTB nOA'B BJaCTB H'BMe^HX'B KOpOJiefi, HMCHOBaB-
mHxcfl PHMCKHMH HMnepaiopaMH, HO ci Hs^esHOBeHieMi BTOH onac-
HOCTH BX HxajiiH nanajiHCB cipainHBifl Mea:Aoyco6ia ropo.noB'B, a BI no-
oijii'BJiBHBix'L napxift. IlanaMi cpfajiajiocb flame ne coecrbM*

ocmaeam'bCH yicumb e% Pumrb, H BI naqaji XIV B. OHH


CBOIO BO (j)paHn,y3CKift ropo^-B Aeunwm.
pe3HfleHD,iio
C"B flpyrofi cxopOHH, ejiacmb ^a^wucuibnux^ nopojieu en 9ino epemtt
cmajia Kprbnnymb, H 6opOTBca ci> HHMH
xpy^sie. HaKO-
cflijajiocb

Hen,!), BX ^opB^i ci ForeHnixay(})eHaMH nann see Sojite H 6o.iie


cxajia 3a6omum bCH o uucmo nojiummecKuxb uumepecaxb u juame-
i

piaMuuxn cpedcmeaxt, He ocxanaBJiHBaflCB nepe^-B B'BPO.IOMCXBOM'B


H flpyrHMH no,a;o6HBiMH ate cnoco6aMH 6opBdBi, qin-B, KOHCHHO, OHH
XOJIBKO nodpbieam ceou npaecmeeuHuu aemopumemz. XIV H XV

yaie SBIJIH BpeMeHeMx cxpamnaro yna^Ka nanciBa.


164*. H BI 9noxy KpecxoBBix-B noxoflOBi. nanu He
HaMrbpemn nodnunumb ceoeu ejiacmu eocmoHHyw itepKoe
K eCTOBHfi nOXOfll npOHSOfflCJIl JIHfflB lepCST, HOJIB-BKa nOCJ-B ^epKOB-
"o"cTBy HaAt P
BocToiHOK) naro
pasptisa Meatfly SanaflOMi, H BOCXOKOMX. OB ocHOBanifl lepy-
bK>
'

ca.iHMCKaro KOpOJiescxBa ua Bocmomb noneuAUC'


yupeofcdemfi, H flyxOBHO-pBmapCKie opflena
opyflieMT* BI> pynax'B nani,. IIpeBpamenie Kpecxo-
HOcn,aMH qexBepxaro noxofla BHsanxiScKofi HMnepin B-B JaiHHCKyio
117

6ujiQ uabmofiuii/UMb mopwecmeoMz nancmea nadi>


cmoAut^ew npa-
eocAaeifi. Bx 9noxy JlaxHHCKon HMnepin naxpiapxx KOHcxaHXHHO-
no./ibCKiH pascMaxpHsajica BX PHM-E, Kant nancKift ,a;e.ieraxx, a Jia-
THHCK06 .HyXOBCHCXBO CTp6MH.IOCb SaBJiajEXb HATEHiaMH H
rpeiecKOH uepKBH H MOHacxbipeft. CaMH nann odpainajncb
EX rocy,a,apaMx npaBoc.iaBHBixx cjiaBaHCKHxx HapoflOBx C-L

iiieHieMi npHsnaxb HX-B Bjracib, H BM^cii ex T'EMI. paspatf


oonpocz ofo yuiu Mewcdy u/epmaMU. Meat^y npo^HMx, OHH o6pa-
TH.IH BHHMame H na TorAamnioH) Pycb. Bi cepe^HH^ XIII B.
PoMctHoeuHv, KHH3b rajiHn,KiH, nojiyiHJii oil nanti Kopo-
KOpOHy sa o6 Ein aHie BCTynnib ct PHMOM-L B-B
i

yeiio sa KpecTOBHH noxofli. npoiBB-L xaTapx, Koiopbift,


He cocTOHJCfl. Em,e paHbme, npn nani HunoKeumiu III
o6pam,eHifl BX xpHcxiaHCTBO asbiqHHKOBi, Ha BOCTOKi BajrxiHCKaro
Mopji JHBOHIH) o6pa30Bajcfl H-EMenjRiH dyxoeno-punapCKiu opdem
(B-B

MeneHOCiteffb (1202), ycxpOHBiniH a^cb oco6oe, saBHCHMoe OTI


x
nanbi BJia^'BHie ). OHX naqajiit HaciynaxejibHoe ^.BHaieme Ha co-

Pycb (na ncKOBCKoe KHfl^ecTBo), BI O/JHO speMa ex mBe-


xojKe Hana^aBfflHMH Ha pyccKyro aeMJiio (na HoBropo.a.'L).
Bopb6a HoBropo.ua H IIcKOBa co mseAaMH H H^Mn;aMH B-B cepe-
^HHi XIII B. nojyqHJia BCJi-BACTBie 9ioro xapaKxep-b aawumbi npa-
eoc.wein omz Kamo4uu,u3Ma, xaKi. KairB nana o6 baBHJi'b npoTHBi. r

pyccKHxi KpecTOBUH noxo^. 06a HaniecTBia 6bMH OTpajEeHti HOB-


KHaaeMi. A.ieKcaudpoMi HeeCKUMb (BX 1240 H 1242r.).
KOHI^-B KOHn,OBi> nanasiT, ne y^ajiocb ^ocTHrHyib CBoefi sa-
Ha BocTOKij, HO, HecMOxpa Ha set Hey^aqH, OHH Bce-
He xepajiH E&nesRuu na noAHHHeme ce6-B rpeqecKOH i;epKBH.

III.

165. Bi> anoxy KpecTOBtix'L HOXO^OBX BX maBHbixx KOHTH-


cipaHaxx aana^Hoft EBPOHH nponcxoAHJio saM^qa-
deutwenie 02 lopodaxb, cocmnmwee
ez ocGoOo.wdeuiu wpo-
doez omz ejiacmu(peodcuiwou apucmoKpamiu u &b npeepameuiu
UXT> o* nojiummecKu-caMOcmofimcA'bH'bifi oCwunu. PaH-fee scero 910

npOH3om,io B-B c-BBepaOH Hia^in. S^-BCb B-B X H XI BB. H-BKOTOPBIC


nptiMOpCKie ropo^a, BI oco6eHHOCTH BeHeu,in u Tenyn^ cia.iH 060-
jramaibca, ex rpenecKHMx H MaronexaHCKHMx
djiaro^apa xoproBJi'B
BOCXOKOMX, a BX 3noxy KpecxoBbixx HOXO^OBX OHH XOJIBKO em,e

') CM. Kapiy XIII.


118

CBOH TOproBBia CHomema C-B saMopCKHMH cipaHaMH.


Tore, BI> Hiajrin Ha^ajiocB pasBHxie npOMBinuieHHOCTH, Koiopoe 060-
raiHJio HijKOTOpBie jioM6apdcme u mocKancKie lopoda.

MaiepiajBHBia cpe,ncTBa, cuonHBiniHca BI pyKax-B ropoataH'B, H


mee yMCTBeHHoe pasBHiie 3ioro KJiacca Hacejiema, He nosBOJiajH yaie
ceHbepaM'B nxaji&aHCKHXx ropo^OBt (66jiBmeK) qaciBio, enncKonaM-B)
rocnoflCTBOBaib ropoatanaMH TaK'B, KaKx OHH rocno^CTBOBa.iH
na.a.'B

ropo^CKHxt cxis-b, H Majio-no-Majiy ropo^a c^BepeoH HxajiiH,


OTI, ^eo^ajrBHHx-B ceHBepOBi, paseBia ycrynKH, npeopa-
&b nacmoHWtisi pecny^unu, B-B cocxaB^ Hacejienia KOTO-
Ha npasaxx BHcmaro KJiacca BOHIJIO H caaio (f>eoAajiBHoe #BO-

pancTBO. BTH ropo^OBBia pecny6.iHKH HM^JIH CBOH uapodnun cofipauix


BC'BX'B coBepmenHOJiiTHHxi, rpam.ziiaH'B, CBOH BBi6opHBia dyMu H sa

no nicKOJiBKy Koucyjioez JUJIH. Haqa.iBCTBOBaHia na^i) MHjmHieH,


no^epaKHBania BHyipeHnaro nopa^Ka H ,pa oinpaBJieHia npa-
ifl. HS-B jroMdap^CKHxi ropo^OB-B B'B XII B. ocodenno BH.HBH-

Hyjica Mu.iam, CToaBmiH ^a,me BO oaBt HXX o6m,aro coioaa.


TaKoe ate aBJienie npOHSonuro H BO $paHn;iH Y^k ropo^CKoe Ha- ?

cejrenie BCiynajio .naate npasio e*6


eoopywceuHyw 6opb6y cz CGOUMU
cemepctMu H aaciaBjajio HXI ^JiaTB HMI pasnBia yciynKH. B-B

no6'B^Bi ropo^ npeBparo,ajrca xoate B-B


MajreHBKyio pecny-
HOCHBrayro na c^Bepi ^pani^iH nasBanie KOMMynbi, H B-B
HCH yciaHaBJHBajiHCB Toate H napo^noe co6paHie, H ^yMa, H BBI-
6opHBie HanajiBHHKH, KOiopBie nasBiBajiHCB MdpaMu, i.-e. cTapinnHaiiH
(OTI. jiai. major) HJH dweoenaMU. HaKOHen.'B, caMOCToaiejiBHBia ro-

o6ni;HHH BOSHHKJH H BT> FepMaHiH. Toate 6jiaro^;apa 060-


on npOMBinureHHOCTH H xoproBJiH. Oco6enHO ^HJIO MHOFO
ropo^OB'B Ha PeHHi, Ha BepxHCM-B /IjHa'E H BO ^jraHApin.
llpupeuucKie lopoda npio6piiaTB paaHBia BOJIBHOCTH enje
ciajiH
BI XI B., npn FenpHxi IV, Haxo^HBraeMi ^m ce6a B0o6me
HBIM-B noMoraiB ropo.naM'B ,pa oc,ia6jieHia enncKon

topoda, cpeflH KOTOPHXI, 6o-ite Bcero BBi^BHHyjHCB JTewws H Epmie,


B03BBICHJIHC& B'B XII CTOJTETiH. FopaS^O yatC HOS^Hte Haia.lH HFpaiB
6ojiBmyio POJIB lopida lo.uaudcKie H lanseucnie BT.

166*. PasBHiie ropOAOBi BO Biopyio nojOBHHy cpeAHHX-B B^-


HM ^^ BecBMa BaatHoe HCTOpnqecKoe sHaienie. Topodcnou
ro- * _* a
.
owmz OUM no.mow npomueonojiomnocm^to oumy g)eooa.iwoMy H
noTOMy BHeci) BT> ajHSHB TorAaniHaro o^meciBa HOBtia naqaja*
^eoiajiBHoe pBiqapciBO ^BIJIO npeat^e Bcero coc^oeieMt ooeHuuMt, ro-
poataHe, naofiopOTB, KJiaccom .mdeii npOMuwjienmixt u mopioebtxt.
Maxepia^BHaa cn.ia ^eo^ajroBi saiuHoiaiacb B'B HXI, 3eM.tnxx, H
119

HUMI> samiTiejrB OTA'LIBHIIX'B ceHbepift CHJO ceMcnoe


RacejeHifl

xosnucmeo, KairB ocnoBy MaTepia.iBHaro sHaiema ropOAOBt


Tor.ua
cocTaB.uj./TH moeapu H denwu, a HX-B JEHTCJIH 6miH sanam pas
HHMH peMec.mMu, nepeeosKow moeapoez H mnpinoAew. HaceJieme
<|>eo^;ajiBHEJx L KpinociHOH saBHCHMOCTH
r

ceHBepifi Haxo,a;HJiocB B-B

OTX CBOHXT> rocno^'B, HO B-B


ycTanaBJiHBajiacB ^pa^^c^aH-
ropo.a.ax'B
ceofioda. OcHOBy rocy^apCTBeHHofi BJiacin B-B ^eo^ajBHuxi,
H dapomaxi. 6&MO seM.ieejiadnnie, B-B ropo^axi. eio
ciajo 0611466 coiJiacie ipaoKdam. HaKonei;i), pasBHiie ropo.noB'B ona-
do.iBmoe BJiiaHie H Ha yMCTBeHHyro KyjiBiypy. 3,n^CB BnepBBie
CKJia^BiBaiBca KAaccz cerbmcKKXz ofipasoeaHmixz
T^M-B KaK-B panbrae oCpasoBaaHBiMH JIIO^BMH 6ujin
TOJBKO flyXOBHBIG.
167. BeyTpeHHee ycipoficTBO cpeAHeB'BKOBBixi ropo,noB:& 6HJio
secbMa pasHOoOpasHO, HO riOBcenicTHO Ha6jno^,aioTCfl H^KOTOpBifl P OIOBT,.
o6m,ifl lepiu. Bes^i HMGHHO Hacejrenie ^-BJIHJIOCB na lopodcwu
u npocmou napodz. IlepBBiH o6pa30BBiBajrca H3i>
H pBin;apeH, GCJIH OHH BXO^HJH B-B cocxaBi, o6in,HHBi (B-B
HJIH ESI Kynn;oBi, o6oraiHBraHxcfl ociajiBHyK)
TqproBJieK),
Maccy cociaBJifljiH penecjieHHHKH H Boo6m,e padoqitt JHOA'B. Cea-

npaBOMi, yqacTBOBaiB BI ropOACKOMi, ynpaBJienin, T.-e. .nijiaTB 06-


m,ifl nocxaHOBwiemfl, BBi6npaTB ropo^CKott COB-BTB H
jinn,!, H T. n., HO ci TeqenieMi BpeMGHH H Menie
xejH dobueajiucb mnxz wee npaei, XOTH RJIR aioro HMI npnxoiH-
JOCB BcxynaiB BI 6op&6y ex naipHHJaTOM'B. BojiBraero ^tacTBio 3x0
6ujiH peMec.ieHHUKU, Koiopne coe^nnfljiHCB BT> ocodwa TOBapume-

CTBa, HSB^CTHBifl no^x HasBaHieM^ itexoez; "CjiaroAapfl 9TOii CBoen


opraHH3an,iH, OBH TOJIBKO H OAepajHBajiH nod'BAy.
168. Hexn exH H HXTt
B0o6m,e HM^JIH BecBMa eamnoe snauenie ei> MUSHU LI-
.

3HaieHie.
cpeone&rbKoeux* lopoooo*. Bt 3iy anoxy OT^TBJiBHBifl JiHB;a OXOTHO
B-& TOBapHiu;ecTBa ^.ifl o6m,aro ]$&& HJH .HJIH o6iD;eH
Coe^HHflJiHCB BI> lUMdiu Kynn,Bi OTJU'BJIBHBIX'B odmnH-B,
H ropo^a B-B i^-fejiue COTOSBI pa^n odmnx-B TOproBBixi>
HHiepecoBi. 6miH moeapuiyecKUMu
HGXH Toate
ecjieuuuKo&b oduou u moii otce cneu/ia.ibHOcmu BX
ropoAaxx. Bca o6pa6aTBiBaK)m,aH npOMLinuieHHOCTB Ha-
Tor^a BT> pyKaxx peaiecJieHHHKOBT), H npoasBOACTBO co-
BepmajocB BT. MajienBKHX'B saBe^eHiflx-B, B-L
KOTOPBIX-B
caM-B xosaHHT,, HJIH Macmepz ct oqeaB HC^OJIBUJHM'B qnc-iOMi.
pa6oqHXi (nodMacmepbee*), c^HiaBinHxca ero MJia^inHMH TO-
(compagnons, Gesellen), H
120

MaciepOMt, nyamo 6tuio CHaiaJia BbiyqHXbca Macxepcxsy


H ycoBepmeHCXBOBaxbca B-B HCM-B B'B KanecTB'B noAMacxepba, x.-e.
yMfe caMOMy xopomo pa6oxaxb. PeMec-aeHHHKH O.HHOH H xoft ate
cnenjajibHocxH BbidnpajiH noKpOBHxejra ce6'B KaKoro-.7H<5o csaxoro
BI>

(nanp., IIJIOTHHKH CB. IocH(f)a) ; cxaBHJin BT> n,epKBH ero cxaxyio,


ero naMaxn H noworajiH CkKibHBJM'B HJIH Bnas-
MSI. cpe^n. Majo- no-Majiy TaKia TOBapn-
CBoefi
cxajiH BHpa6aTHBaTi> ceS'fe ycmaeu, KacaBmieca H caMoro sa-
Haiia peMecjiOM-L. OcHOBHHa qepxti rjexoBHX'B yciaBOBi 6HJIH
flja. TOFO, qioSti saHHMaiEca KaKHM-L-jiH6o penecjiOM'B

^HCJIO penecjieHHHXi) saBeAeH o^eoro po.ua, co-

o6pa3yaci> ci sapaSoTKOMi. tfucjio


nodMacmepwez y'teHUKoet u
mowe oipauuHueaAOCb, Hio6H y BC^XI. MaciepOB-L 6a.:n> npH6jH3H-
sapaSoTOKi. U,exoBEie ycxaBLi saKJuo^ajiH B-B

H pasnun npaoujia OTHOCHTCJIBHO npo^oJUEHTejiBHOCTH


, y^enHKaMH H no^MacxepBaMH H x. n., a xaitaie
o6pam;eHia ci.

H oxHOCHxejBHO xexHHKH npOH3BO^,cxBa, noxoMy HXO i^exi 6pajii. Ha


ce6a pyqaxejiBCXBO sa ,a;o6pOKaiecxBeHHOCXB pa6oxBi. Jlojinonpae-
HUMU UMHCLMU O^HH MaCXCpa, KOXOpBie HSI. COOCXBeH-
E[6Xa 6BIJIH

H
HOH ate cpe^Bi BBi6HpajiH CBOHXX cxapocx^. I],exi pa6oxajnb
BCHHO JIHfflB Ha CBOH TOpOA'B H Ha CFO OKpyri., X.-6. Ha
PUHOKZ. TaKHMi) oSpasoMx ropoflCKaa npOMLinuieHHOcxB B'B

B-BKa 6mia JIHHIB


Me^Kaa, pacqnxaHHaa na HedojiBmoft

TIo3xoMy H o6M'BH'B xoBapaMH neatly OT^jTbRHMH ropOAaMH 6ujn>


He6ojiBfflOH. BOX-B no^CMy nepBbiMH ^eneaiHBiMH Ka-
B'B cpe^nic B^Ka 6biJiH XO.IBKO nynwbi, eedwie npyn-

uyto saipanwmyw mopioejiw. KpOM'fe BKOHOMHiecKaro sna^eHia, n,exH


HM^JIH suaueuie u nojiumuuecnoe, noxoMy qxo, rjiaBHBiM-B o6pa30MX
6jraro^apa xaKoft opraHHsauin, peMecjeHHHKH XDJIBKO H ^,o6HBa.iHCB
npasa yqacxBOBaxB BI> ropOACKHx-B ^Jiax-B.
169- B'B 9noxy pa3Apo6jieHia oaBHHX-B cxpan-B sanaji,HOH
-
EBpOHbi Ha (^eo^ajibHbia B.ia.n.'feHis iopoda, oceo6oduemiecH ovm> ceo-
ropo-
atani BT, uxz Ceui>ep08o, fl6UJlUCb H060M nOJIUmmeCKOW CUJIOW. Fa^OMI. C-B
.
cenbepiaMH cxoajiH xenepb pecnydJiHKaHCKia
(J)eo^ajibHBiMH
Koxopbia H BCxynnjiH BI 6opb6y ex ^eoAajiBHbiM'B MipoiwB. C-B
TOH CXOpOHBI, paiOM-B CT> ^yXOBeHCXBOM'B H pbmapCXBOM-B B03HHK1.
B'B Kaat^oft cxpaai mpemiu num, no.iyqHBmiH BO ^paHijin na3BaHie
fiypotcyasiu, B'B TepMaHiH 6wpiepcmoa (OXT> cjiosa fypiz, x.-e. ro-
POAI.).Fopo^CKia o6m,HHBi OKpyacajiH ce6a cx'tnaMH, saBOAHJH co6cxBen-
HyH) MHJIHI^iK), Ha CBOH CXpaXI) B6JIH BOHHBI. B'B HOJIHXHqeCKOH 6opb6'B
OHH MOOH npe^CTaBjaxb H ^HCXEHxejibHO npe^cxaBJifljiH 6o.ibHiyio
121

CH.TV, a noTOMy 6vuio Baatno H ^.ia nani> ci HMnepaxopaMH, H


Kopojien ct (|)eo,najJBHBiMH ceHBepaMH, Ha ILK) cxopony 6yAyxi> cxa-
HOBHXBCa rOpOAa. Cl BOSHHKHOBCHieM'B rOpO.HOB'B, KaKT) CaMOCXOa-
HOJtHXHqecKOH CHJIBI, H locydapcmeeHHoa otcusub cma.ia
GB XII XIII BB. B-B OT^JIBHLIX'B cxpanaxi
Boofime cymecxBOBajra uemupe nojiumuHecKW, CUAU: 1) KO-
eAacmb, 2) dyxoeeucmoo, 3) cenmCKaa apucmoKpamiH u
4) lopoda. Bi pasHBix-B CTpaeax-B 910 CH.IBI coe^HHajiHCB
co6oio HeoAHHaKOBUM-B odpasoMTb, HO BesAt ci pasBHTiearB
nojiHTHqecKoe ycipoftcTBO ciajio npHHHMaiB meuu eudz.
170. Ilpn no.raoM'B pasBHTin (^eo^ajiHSMa KOpojB dBiJii JIHHIB
BeplUHHOK) (JjeOAaJIBHOH CeHBepOBT> H BaCCaJIOB'B, BCt
.TBCTHHI^BI
CBH3H Meat^y KOTOpBIMH SaEJIO^aJIHCB B'B pflJVE BSaHMHBIXl .HOFOBO- CGCJiOBHy.
post. Kaicx HH pa3^po6jiajii ^eoAajzHSM-B xy HJIH
^pyryro cxpany
Ha o6ocodjieHHBifl O^HO OT^ .npyroro BJia^Hifl, Bce-xaKH y Kawdou
cmpanu GUAU u ceou o6min drbJia, vnpe6oeaemiH o6w,aio couia/we-
uin. IIoKa KOpojiflMi HyaiHO 6Bi.so BXO^HXB BI, cooameme XOJIBKO
C!> CBOHMH ^yXOBHHMH H CB'BXCKHMH BaCCaJiaMH, g'&nUnO 9X0 Bl
^HCTO (fieodaMHOii cpopMn, x.-e. BaccajiBi Kopojia c-B-BsasajiHCB KI
ero ABOpy (KOpojieBCKaH Kypia) H ^oroBapaBajiHCB Meat^y co6oro
mHx-B M^p-B (nanpHM., o HOBBix'B saKonaxi. HJIH o .ne-

cOopaxi Ha
o6u;ia nyaiABi). Kor^a ropo^a xaKate saiiajiH caMO-
cxoflxejBHoe nojioateHie BT> ^eo^ajiBHOM'B oSm.ecxB'B, xo H OHH
6BUH qepesi. CBOHXX ^ojiwtHOCXHBix'B >

J^H^ B
npHHHMaxB yiacxie
ofimnx-B AoroBOpaxi. B-B 9x0 BpeMH H cxajH B03HHKaxB codpania, KO-
xopaa yate He HM-BJIH qncxo ({)eoAajiBHaro cocxasa, noxoMy ixo na
HHXI, noaBHJHCB npe^cxaEHxejiH H He-^eo^ajBHaro KJiacca o6m,ecxBa.
TaKHM-B o6pa30Mi>, 6jiaroAapa ropo^aMx, npeaiHia (fieodaMnun nypiu
3a,M'n>HUJiuc'b co6paniHMU uoeaio muna, Koxopna npHHaxo HasBisaxB

cocjioeHo-npedcmaoumeMHUMU, noxoMy qxo B^ 9XHXi> codpaHiax'B yia-


npe^cxaEHxejiH oxji.'BJiBHBixTb cocjiOBin. PascMaxpHBaeMBia
xoaie cxajin BOSHHKaxB BX 9noxy KpecxoBHXi. HOXOAOB-B. Ha-
3Banie HX-B vs pa-SHBixi,cxpanax-B 6BL/io pasnoe: BI> rocyAapcxBaxi
nojiyocxpOBa 9x0 SBIJIH nopmecu, BT> AnrjiiH nap-
BO <paHn,iH lenepajimue wmamu (o6^ie IHHBI Kopo-
B-B FepMaHiH ^pyrnxi. cxpanax'B ceuMu H x. n. Toaie H
H
ycxpoiicxBO cocJiOBHO-npe.oiCxaBHTejiBHBix'B yipeatAeHiH 6ujio
HO o6n;ee HX-B snaqenie, Hao6opox B, r

H xoate:Ha CBOHXX co6paniaxi npeflcxaBHxejiH cocjOBin yua-


cmeoeaAu ei mdauiu sanonoe* u ycmauoeMnm
Ha^oioez. Bjaro^apa
HMI, ox.n'BJiBHBia cxpaHBi BHyxpeHHe o6*edunxjiucb, HO BJiacxB KO-
pojett npn 9x0111 ocmaaa.iacb oipanwienHOw. T^M-B HC MCH-BC
_ 122 _
orpaHHieHHHH KOPO.TB ofoeAHHCHHOH HanJH yate ne 6ujT> 60-
JIHIE& otfmHM-B centepOM-L KpynHBix-B BaccajrOBi., a SH-TB na^io-
locydapem, xomn u drbJiuewuMCH eAacm^to cz cajuocmoa-
me.imujuu cocjoewMU. TaKyro $opMy KOpojieBCKOH BjracTH nasBi-
COCAOGHOW MOHapxieu. Ona BOSHnoa BT, XII XIII BB.,
nantfojiBniaro pasBHiia BT> XIV XV BB., HO B-L XVI
XVII cioji-Biiflxi. npHin.ia ET> ynaAOK'B.
171. Bo $paHn,in B-B
9noxy Bioporo KpecxoBaro noxo^a
VI JIOCB nocmenenuoe eoaeuweuie KOpoAeecnou ejiacmu. ITeDBBiMH KO-
H YII BO T(
HSX ^HHacTiH JianeTHHroB'B, BBinie^mie HST. naccHBnaro
COCTOflHiff, BJ> KaKOM'B OHH BaXO^HJIHCB ET> XI B., 6BIJIH
eutcz VI ToMmou H JLwdoeuKt VII, n;apCTBOBaHie KOTOPBIX-B sa-
HHMaeii, SojiBmyio iaciB XII B. OHH BCTynnjn BT>

6opt>6y c% CBOHMH BaccajiaMH npe^e scero B^ caMOMi


^paHC-B, a noTOMx H ^pyraxx qaciax-B ciBepHoft H n;eHTpaj[bHoft
BI>

$pann;iH. B-B STOMX OHH nanuiH noddepmny co cmoponu


^-BJ-B

dyxoeencmea,, KOiopoe Boo6m;e xpannjio TpaAHHin MOHapxnqecKOH BJia-


CTH H atejrajio ycianoBJieHifl Mnpa H nopaAKa. Oco6eHHO dojEinia
ycjiyrn OO'OHM'B .Tro^OBHKaM'B OKasajx a66amz Cyiepiu HS'B MonacTtipa
CB. JI,ioHHcia (Cem,-fleHu) OKOJO IlapHata. 3io 6uin> ynHBin H anep-
rHqecKift qejiOB'BK'B, COB^TBI KOioparo npHHecjin 6ojrBmyio nojiBsy
HaSBaHHBIM'B KOpOJIHM'B. Bl BaatHOMl flfcu'b JIlO.HOBHK'B VII
0^,HOMT>
He nocjrymajca, o^HaKO / Cyrepia. YMHaH a66ax B we coenmoeaAZ
r

dmoMy Kopojiw udmu e* npecmoeuu noxodz, KOTOPHH nponoB'B^;o-


sajrca BepnapAOM-B HO .Iro^OBHK-B VII sce-xaKH
KjrepBa.iBCKHM'B,
OTnpaBHJica. BosspaTHBHiHCB AOMOH, OH-B passejica ci CBoero atenoio
d.ieoHOpow, Hacji'BAHHii.eH AKBHTaniH, a ona He saMe^JiHJia BBIHTH
saMyati, sa Bjra^'EJiBn.a HopMan^in H Anaty, CA^JiaBraaroca BCKop'B
H KopojreMi) AnrjiiH. TaKHMi, oopasoMi JIO^OBHK^ VII caMi. OTKa-
OT^ B03M031HOCTH HpHCOCAHKHTB AKBHiaHilO KT> CBOHM'B BJia-
H cnoco6cTBOBa;i & o6pa30BaHiio BO $pann,iH MorymecTBennaro
r

oqyTHBmaroca B-B pyKaxi> Anoin ).


1

172. KpOMi ^yxoBencTBa, KaneTHHraMi, BHOXH KpeciOBBix'B no-


TopOACKoe XO.HOBI MHOIO nOMOldAU U lOVOdtt. Bl 9TO HM6HHO EDGMa r BO 4>paH-
.

I^IH npOHCxo^Hjro KOMMyncLimoe oeuwceme, T.-e. ocBOooat^eHie MHO-


raxi ropoflOB-B OTI, BJiaciH ^eo^ajTOB-B H npeBpam,eme HX-B BT. caMo-
KOMMynu (o6m;HHBi). OHCHB nacio 910 ^BIJIO

BosciaHia ropomaHTb HPOTHB-B cenBepoB'B, xaKi. qxo


BCJIHCB Hacioamia Bofinn Meat^y TEMH H .npyrHMH. FopoataHe

npH 9TOMi> Hept^KO uCKajiu noddepwcnu &z Kopo.mxz u cajuu omsuea.iu

') CM. Kapiy VIIT.


123

urn HXX 6opb6ii ex (jjeoflajaMH. Bx no,no6HBixx BOHHaxx


noMOu<,b BX
Kopo.m CTanoBHJHCB CHamia TO Ha xy, TO na jpyryio eropony, HO
HOTOMX CT3JIH cosHaTCJiBHO noMepatHBaTB ropoatanx, ^asaa HMX
oco6tifl xapmiu, no,HTBepjK,naBmia HXX npasa. Ha CBOHXX seMJiaxx

Kopojra ne nosBO.MJiH sasoflHTB KOMMyHx, HO sa TO ^asajiH 10-


poManaMz MHOIIH UHUH Miomu. Bo $paHi;iH odpasoBajica ^aaie
OC06LIH o6meCTB6HHHK KJiaCCX KOpOMeCKOU fypOKyCtsiu, BX BOTOpOMTb
KaneTHHFH HaXO^HJIH A'SflTeJILHUXl, CTOpOHHHKOB'L CB06H aHTH^eO^aJB-
HOH nojHTHKH. BnpoieMx, Kor^a KopojieBCKaa BJiacTL ycnjiHJiacb, ona
OTHHMaTs npasa H y KOMMynx, dtiBrnHX-L

$Hjrann b
'

173. .IroflOEHKy VII nacji'B.noBaji'B ero CLIHX 3>uAunm II Ae-


(1180 1223), yiacTHHKi, TpeTBflro KpecTOBaro noxo^a. Hpn
H ne^ojiro i^apCTBOBaBraeMx- ero CBIH-B (Jro^OBHRt VIII) Ka-
npncoe^HHHJiH Kt CBOHMI. Henocpe^CTBeHHBiM-B BjiaA'BHiflMx
o6.iacTH. ^H^Hnn-L II OTHHJH, y aHoincKaro Kopojra (loaHHa

BessenejiBHaro) ITO TOTX, KaifB Baccajit (J)paH-


HopMandiw sa TO,
nyscKaro KOpoJia, ne saxoT^TB HBHTBCH Ha cy^x napOBx no o6BHHe-
niro B-B yMepmBjemn csoero njieMHHHHKa. HopMaH^iro npninjiocB,

OAHaKO, aaBoeBBiBaTB, HO ^HJinnnx II ycn-Enmo ^OBepmHJi'& STO


Ilpn He.MT> SRQ npOH3ome;i'B Kpecmoeuu noxod?> npomuez a.

^,687, u ea^dencoez roaiHOH <I>paHn;iH, OKonqHEmificfl ea

H no^HBemen-B c-BBepHBiM-B (|)paHn,y3aMTE,. BojiBmaa gam


ipatfiamy.iyscKdio 6mia EOTOMX nepe^ana psmapaMH, HX-B
BT> HHXX
HO H6 CXyM-BBHIKMH
TIIHMH, y^epataTBCfl CO^CTBeHHBIMH CHJiaMH,
cnny <]>HJiHnna ABrycTa. Tanx Ha^a-iocB nocmenennoe co6upame Ma-
nemumaMU (fieodaMUbtxv SCMCM t&panuiu. HaKonen,!,, ^HJinnnx II
AsrycT-B SBIJTB H nemum ycmpoumeMMt KopoaeecKOu adMunucmpaK/iu
BX JIHH.'B CBOHXX ficiMueofftH npeeomo&z, KOTOpBiMi nopyqeno ^BIJIO
ynpaBJieHie OT^JIBHBIMH o6jracTHMH, HO KOTOpne caara 6wjm noji;-
iHHeHBi KOpOM'ecKOMy coenmy H cnemuou na.iamrb BX HapHarB.
(Ha ior^ KOpojieBCKHMH HaM-BCTHHKaMH CAXMajiHCB HOTOMX ceuewaAu}.
174. Em,e 6oJTEe BOBBBICHJiaCB KOpOJeBCKafl BjaCTB BO

npn JLwdoeunrb IX CenmoM* (1226


H ero
1270), npeflnpHHHMaBmeMX
HieCTOH H Ce^BMOH KpeCTOBBIC HOXGflBI. JIlOAOBHKX IX 6LMX HaCTOfl-
njHitx eon.iowemeMz punapcmw udea.ia cpe^nnxx B'BKOBX,
KaKx OTJiH^ajca, KPOM^ CTporaro OjiaronecTia H MHJiocep^ia, xpa6-
POCTBK), 3a60TJIHBOCTBK) CJiadBIXX H CnpaBe&THBOCTBK). OHX 6BIJIX
oqenB ,o,ocTyneHX napo^y H casix BHCJiymHBajix npocB6ii H pas6H-
pajx ata;ro6Bi no^x SHaneHHTBiMX Ay^Oiix BencencKaro saMKa. Ero
npHroBopu cjaBHJiHCB CBOHMX npaBOcy^ieMx, H OHX BX caMOMx ^feji'fe
cy^Ba He.iHD,enpiaTHHH. Bo BpeMa CBOHXX KpecTOBBixx noxo-
124

OHT. CHHCKaxB ce6i> r.iyooKoe yBaateme .najKe cpe^H caMHxi>


Hapo^t cinxa.^ ero npasio CBHTEIMT,, 6,iaro,a;apa leaiy,
OWL B0o6m,e cumno noduuM upaecmeennuu aemopumerm Kopojieecnou
ejiacmu. Jlro^OBHKy IX
xoate y^a-iocB yBejiHinxB CBOH BJia^-BHrn npn-
coe^HHeHieArB Anotcy H Hyamy, Koxopue OHI OTHHJII. y anrjificKaro
Kopojfl. Ho oco6eHHO BaatHO 6turo ero BHyxpeHHee npaB.ienie. B-L 910
BpeMH BO $paHD,iH pacnpocipaEHJiocB EST> HxajriH mywnie JOcmuuia-
noea ceoda, H Haqajiac& peu,enwH (npunamie) pUMcmio npaoa. IIo-
flBHJCfl oco6HH KJiacci. saKOHHHKOB'B, HJiH Miucmnet, KOTOptie, nocxynafl

Ha KOpojreBCKyio cjyjK^y, ciapajincb npOBO^HTB B-L atH3HB pnMCKia npa-


BOBHfl BOSSp'BHifl. Cl. HOMOmBK) JierHCTOB'B JIlOAOBHK'B IX HSflaJTB
H^CKOJIBKO pacnopajKeHift, HSI, KOTOPLJX-B OAHO aaM-BHajio cydefiuwii
noedunoKv npaBHJiBHBiM'B cjii^ciBieMi,, .npyi'oe ycTaHOBjiHJO anneAm-
K* KopojieecKUM* cydwMv na npnroBopBi <|)eoAajiBHBixi ceHBe-
H T. n. Bo HOBBIX-B cyflOBi. 6ujn> nocTaB.ieHi>
rjiaB-B B-B Ila-

enmt, cyAe6Haa najiaTa ; o6pa30BaBmaaca


Kypin Kopojia
(|)eo^;ajrBHOH C'L npHCoe^HHeHieM'B KI, neft

Oojiio6HHe ate napjiaMenTBi 6tiJiH ycxpoeHH BnocjrEACTBiH (XV B.) H


BI .npyrax-B npOBHHuiax-B.
175*. E^Ba Anrjiia ofi-BefliraHjacB BI, Haqa.TB IX B. BI> O,O;HO Kopo-
jieBCTBO, KaKi. Ha nee ciajiH uanddamb nopManuu (^aiqaHe). OHH
B<

BpejieHHO OojiBHieio qacTBH) AnrjriH, 6jaro,a;apa TOMy,


H sjnte KOpojieBCKaa BJiaciB B-B cnjry TEX-B JKC npngnH-B, KO-
cTBOBajH B-L ^pyrHxi repMancKuxi rocy^apciBaxi, npu-
m.m en,
Dpae^a, S^CB HC 6Bi.io HacToam,aro ^eo^ajHSMa,
ynadoKt,.
HO ycTanaBJiHBajrocB Hi^xo eMy no^odHoe ycu.ieuie seMemnou suamu
u saKprbnoutenie uapodnou Maccu. 9io 6Bi.io pesy.iBiaTOM-B o6pa-
BOBaHia cocjroBiamaHO&z, no.ztyiaBfflHX'B OT'B Kopojiefi sa cjiyat6y
6ojiBniia noM^ciBa. CaMLiM-B saM'BqaxejiBHBiMi) KOpoJieM-B BpeMen-B
HOpiiaHHCKHx-B HamecxBiii faun> AjtHfipedi BBAUKIU (871 901), KO-
xopBiii CHaiajra 6u.TB jiHmeHi, BJiacxn ^axqaHaiiH, 3axBax.HBinHMH
Bcro cxpany, H BBiHyat^eH-B 6mn> CKHxaxBca;Cpeji;H .I-BCOB-B H 60^10x1, HO
HOXOM-B oxBoeBaj^ sana^Hyio qacxB AHrjrin H sanajica HcnpaBjrenieM'B
npHIHHeHHBIX'B 3aB06BaxeJiaMH. BM'BCX'B Cl> 3XHMTI OHT> 603-
cmapwu amjio-caKCOHCKiu nopndoKi &z ynpaeAeniu u
j
cydrb C'L
yqacxien-B B'B KHXTJ
CBo6oAHBixi> jno^eft ). 9xoxi> nopa-
jtOKi, oKasajca HacxojiBKO avHByqHM'B, qxo ero He yHHixojEHJio H HO-
Boe saBoeBanie sana^HOH AHr.iiH ^axqanaMH npn Kanymn
KOMO (1017 1035), noji.'B BjacxBio Koxoparo Haxo^HjHCB

1
) AjiB^pe^t nOAoCno Kap.iy BeJiHKOMy MHOFO aaCoTHJica H 061 o6pa30BaaiH CBoero
Hapoja.
- 125 -

Meimo ^ania, HopBerifl H Anrjiifl. 9xort Kopo.ib, npHHflBinift CEM-L


H pacnpocTpaHHBniift ero cpejjH AaiqaHi, H Hopeeat-
npHMO cnoco6c rBOBaji'L BOSCTaHOBjemio BI AnoiH en
t

.naaie
HCKOHHBiX'B o6biqaeBi>. BT> yKasaHHOMt coxpaneniu dpeene-iepMancKUXz
OCHOOZ 6btma saiuioqaeTCfl o^Ha HSI oqenb BaatHHxi oco6eHHOCieft
aHoincKOH HCTOpia. Mnoroe HST. 9ioro 6Hia coxpaHH-iocB BI

Tor,a,a, Kor^a B^ nee 6wjn> nepeeeceH^ ^pasi;y3CKi


176. Bt cepe^HHi XI B. B-L AnrjiiH n,apcTBOBajii> ddyapto
noiOMOK-L Ajite.na BejHKaro. Ero MaxB
6mia po^CTBeHHHi^eH repijora nopMaH^CKaro BuMieMjua, ^a H
OHT> nojyqHjn> BOcnHTanie BT> HopMaH^in, r^i npHCTpacTHJca KI (J)pan-

KyjiLiyp'B. He HM^H ^ixeft, OHI. saemyaM ceow nopouy


HO BHTeHareMOTTb nocjii ero CMepTH Hadpajn BI KO-
anoo-caKca FapoMda. Tor^,a BnjibrejiBMi., HCJIOB-BE'L, OTJH-
CHJIbHOK) BO.I6K) H OpraHHSaTOpCKHMl TaJiaHTOMl, B-B TO
ate Bpeiia xHiptiH, ata^HLiH H BjiacTOJiodHBLift, cocTaBH.ii. 6oji&moe
H3i> pLmapeft HopnaH^iH H ^pyraxt qacien $paHn;iH H
saBoeBanie Afirjin. Meat^y FapojiL^OM-B H
MOM-L npOH3om,ia dHisa npn racmumcn, BI Koiopoii
y6aTi>,a ero soilcKO noTepirkio cxpamHoe nopaateHie (1066).
iep'U,oii> cdvbAajicn menept KOpo.ieMt AHIMU H 6biJix
SaooeeameAeMi (1066 1087). Tan-B KaKx, o^eaKO, OHI
noKOpn.ii> Anrjiiio npn noMOin,H pbinapeft, HS-B Koiopbixi MHorie
6bi.TH #aaie TOJIBKO Ao6pOBOJbn;aMH, TO OHI ^OJiaieH'B 6ujn> eosna-
ipadumb uxz sa 9mo, pasda&i u.m (fieodw HSX KOH
anrjio-caKCOHCKOH snaTH. B-B KOHI^-B CBoero
3aBoeBaTe.ib BeJiijii) nepenucamt ecw noseMCMnyw co6-
cmeeuHocmb B-B Kopo.ieBCTB'B ci> odosBaiemeM'B ea BJiaA'BJi&i^eBi, H HXI
(KHHra CTpainnaro cy^a"). IIo 9Toii nepenncH OKa-
BO Bcefi Anrjin dojiie 60 TLicaqi. r

<{>eo,a;oB B. MHOFO SCMJIH


H AyxoBBbie HS-B HopMaHAin. TaKHM'b o6pa30M'B <?s An-
i.riw usz {frpautyiu 6uM nepeuecem <foeodcuimMt>. BAfBCT-B CT> STHMI
o$(|)HE;iajibHbiM'B asBiKOMi AHoiH CA^aJiCfl <f>paHn,y3CKiH HSBIKI., H
anrjio-caKCOHCKafl i^epnoBb npjmfljia MHorie (f>paHuy3CKie odbiian.
177. BiMBrejiBM'B 3aBoeBaTe.ib 6ujn> rocy^apeM'B secbMa npe-
AycMOTpnTejibHbiMTb, xopomo noHHMaBmHM'B nojoateme A'fe-it H yM^B-
DIHMT HsdiraTb orae^OKi,. IIo3TOMy, BBO^H BI AHrjiro <|>eoAajiBHoe OTI 4paH-

ycTpoftcTBO rocy,a;apcTBa, OH'B nosaGomuMH o moMi, nmofiu ue yny-


oAdcmu U3V ceouxi pym>. OH-B xopomo noHHMajii, HTO Hop-
BOscTaniH aHr.io-caKCOB'B, a STH B-B
pbiqapn Sy^yT-B 6oaTbc
CBOFO oqepe^B 6y^yTi> nyatAaTbCH BI samHT-fe orB HacHJiin, H noTOMy
BC-BMH cnoco6aMH, qTo6bi npn noMom,H
126

ApyrHMH. BfiOfla (Jjeo.a.a.iHSM'b, OHI coxpanuM mnjuz ne


3d ceo6odnbiMU aniM-caKcaMU no.iMoeanie uxb cmapuMU nopnd-
KCLMU. OB
Apyroft CTOpOHbi, OBI odasajii. npucfiiow no
Kl> Cedi H6 TOJIBKO OflHHX'B BaCCaJIOBl, (tfapOHOB'B), KaKl, TO
BO $paHn,m, HO H nodoacccMoez (pbinapen).
^aji-se, odxaBHBi, ce6a
BepXOBHBIM'b C06CTB6HHHKOM'B BCCH 36MJIH, OH-B OCTaBHJTB SHaiHTCJIBHyK)
ea iacTb sa cotforo H ne pasdaea. 6apouaMz npynmix* e.iadtbniu
OK odnoMb Mncmib. CaMBie ni.e.npo HaA^jeHHtie HM-BJIH SCMJH, pas-
6pocaHHBia B^ pasHHxi qacxax-B KOpojieBCTBa, laK-B HTO HH y
HS'B 6apOHOB B ne 6ujio mauou cnjiomnou meppumopiu, EOTOpaa
r

6n npespaTHTbca B-B cHJiBHyro ceHBepiro. Bi STO spena JHHIB


oqeHb HCMHorie anrjio-caKCH coxpaHHJiH SCMJIH H CBo6ofly, noTOMy
HTO H paHbme Macca 6biJia yae saKp-fenjieHa. Tenepb ona HSX aa-
BHCHMOCTH OTi, manoez nonajia B-B sasHCHMOCTb OT'B 6aponoez u pu-
uapeu, HO BnjibrejibM^ I npaHajiT, Mipn H KI TOMy, iTo6bi noMi-
III,HKH ne MOMH cfltjaTBca HacToam,HMH ea rocy^apasiH.

178*. BnjiBrejiBM'B SaBoesaTejiB QTxbjiEjn>-6ujio Anoiro OT'B


$paHn,y3CKoe a
"D
HT1Hill
fl
BJI1.HH1G Dt
Bt
HopMaH,n,iH, OT.aiaB'B KOpojieBCTBO
* BTOpOMy
* * CBiHy (BnjibrejrBMy
"P
II),

repn,orcTBO CTapmewy (PodepTy, yqacTHHKy nepsaro KpecTOBaro


noxo,o;a), HO o6a STH cnoBa COCAHHHJII noA"B CBoeio
BJia^Hia
BJiacTbio
r

TpeTiii 6paT &, FeHpaxi I, H OHH ocTasajiHCB coe#HHeHHtiMH


nocji'B 9TOro OKOJIO CTa JI'BT'B, BCJi^CTBie nero nopManditu ez An-
IMU doAio ewe ne cjiueajiucb cz amjio-caKcaMU BI o^Hy
Mnorie 6apOHBi BJia^'BJiH seMJiaMH H BT> AnrjiiH, H BI Hoj
a noTOMy CTpeMHJiacb saBO^HTb H B-B AnrjiiH nopa^KH c[)paH^y3-
CKaro <J)eo,najiH3Ma. HMI. HOMOFJIO TO o6cToaT6JiBCTBO, ITO no CMepTH
FeHpnxa I (1134) nanaAOCb MewdoycoOie sa nopony Meayiy w-
qepbio FenpHxa I MamuMdou H CLIHOM-B ^oqepn BnjibrejbMa 3a-
BoeBaTejia CmecfianoMz OT-B ea 6paita ci O^HHMI, <|)paHn,y3CKHM B rpa- i

4>OMi> (Ejiya). MaTH.ib^,a, cana CbiBniaa saMyjKearB sa (|>paHi];y30Mi, rpa-


(j)OM'B aHatyHCKHiTB HSI (|>aMHJiiH JIjianMaienemoffz, BI KOHH/E KOH-
II,OBI> o^epatajia Bepxi, H ci ea CLIHOM'B FenpuxoMz II BCTynnjia
WL AHMin na npecmirB dunacmin II^aHmaienemoez (1154). Ho-
Baa ^HHaciia Toate 6njia cfipanuyscKcifi. FeHpnx'B II BJUL^JTL BO
HopMaH^ieii H AHmy, a no 6paKy C-B 9jreonopoio AKBH-
x
pasBe^eHHoft ateHOH .Iro^oBHKa VII, H AKBHTaHieft ). Ta-
TS.EWL oSpasoM-B IIjiaHTareHeTBi SLUM BaccajiaMH 4>paHn,y3CKHX'B Kopo-
JieHH caMH HM^JIH BO $paHn,iH MHOrOIHCJeHHBIX'B BaCCaJOB'B, a BCe 9TO
TOJIBKO ycu.meajio 6Mxme &z Auuiu (fipauitiyacKUXo eswxdoez, npa-
u nopadnoez. 3aTO, ci Apyron CTOponti, BCTynjienie Ha an-

I CM. Kapxy VIII.


127

npecxoju. xaKOfi MorymecxBeHHOii AHHacxiH OCX<IHOBH.IO

ycnixH, Kame fliuajit Bt AHr.iiH HHCTO (j)paHn,y3CKiH (jjeojja./THSM'B


BO BpeMfl cnopa sa Kopony, Kor.ua <5apOHti HacxpOHJH B-B Anr-im
TpH Cl> nOJIOBHHOH COTHH BaMKOBt, CT8JIH AaJKC B6CTH MCJEAy C060H)
BOHHH, cxpainHO yrnexajH KpecTLflHCKoe Hacaieme H x. n. ILianxare-
HexH n,apcxBOBa;iH BI> Anr.TiH .pa ci HOJIOBHHOH) B-BKa, ci> cepe,a;HHti
XII ^,0 cawaro KOHn;a XIV (1 1 54 1399), T.-e. B-B anoxy KpecTOBtrx-B
noxo.noB'B H em,e n.'EJioe cioji-Biie nocji-B HX-B OKOHqania, H npn KO-
9TOH flHHaciiH BX Aeoin coBepuiH.iHCB BecBMa BaatHBia co-

179. FeupuxK II U.ianmaieHemz (1154 1189) ycMHpnjii Pe<j)op na


l
(J)eo,ii;ajiBHyK) auapxiio H opiauusoeaM npaeu.imuu cydt, BOcnojiB-
30BaBnmcB cxapmiH cy,ne6HHMH o6uqaflMH anoo-caKCOHCKOH anoxn.
OH'B OTHHJi'B cy^e^uyio BJiacxB y (jjeoAajiOB-B H nepe^aji^ ee CBOHMI
qHHOBHHKaM'L, KOTOpUC DpOHSBO^HJIH, BflpO^eMI), TOJIBKO O^HO pa3-
pimajiHCB ate fliwia HBB-BCTHHM!) MHCJIOM-B M^CTHBIX-B
npHHOCHBmHX'B npncary B-B TOM'B, ITO 6y,nyTi roBOpaiB
TaKOBO 6tLio naqajio cyda, npucHMHUXK, coxpauHBrnarocfl
CHXT> nop-B H nepeine,n,niaro OTiy^a BI> Hame BpeMH H

CTpaHti. KopojieBCKOMy cy,a;y FCHPHX-B II XOT-BJI^nodnuuumb


u dyxoeencmeo, Koiopoe cy.HH.iocB jinmB BI CBOHX-B cy^axi> ^aae
B'B ciyia-E xaKHX-B npeciynJieHiH, iKejiaa npOBecin
KaK-B ydificiBO.

9xy Mtpy, Koiopaa Monia BCTP^THTB oinop-B co cxopOHH n,epKBH,


FeHpHxi) II AodaJica HasHaiema na ^OJISHOCTB npHMaca
apxien. KeHTep6epiHCKaro, O^HOFO H3i> CBOHX-B
QOMU Eeuema, KOTOPHH MHOFO co^'BHCXBOBaj'B emy BI.
^eo^ajOB-B. OoMa BeKexi., Be^niiH paHBme Bece^yro JKHSHB,
nepeM'BHHJica, HacxoamnM-B acKexoM-B, H B'B HeM-B KOPOJIB
cxajii
Haine.it xenepB yate ue noMomHHKa, a cuMuaio npomueuuKa.
Kor^a FeHpax-B H nacxoajit Ha co6paniH npejiaxost H
BI, KjiapeH^OH-B, qxodti no yrojiOBHHM-B npecxynjiefliaM-B

viHi],a cy.pi.iHCB Bt KOpojieBCKHXt cy^axt BI> BH^y KpaHHefl CHHCXO-

^HxejiBHOCXH ^yxoBHHX'B cy^efi Kt HJieHaMt CBoero cocjiOBia, OOMO,


Benem* omnasaACfi npusuamb wapendoHCKin nocmaHoejieuia.
KopoJieMi, H npHMacoMt naiajiacB dopb6a, duBniaa JIHHIB
c.iyiaeM'B Boodnte cpeAHeBiKOBOH 6opb6H Meat^y flyxoBHOio H
CKOK) B,iacxaMH. OoMa
cxajit oxp'BinaxB oxt AOJiatHOCxeft
no^innaBLUHxca KopoJiro, a Kor^a xoxt Haqa.ii. eMy rpoaHXB
xo noKHHyji-B AHoiio H npe^awit FeHpnxa II aHaeeM^. liana
III) o^HaKO, 9x0x1. cnopi., H npHMaci. BOB-
yjia^Hwit,
BpaxH-ica B-B Anr-iiio. Hauia Bcxpixnjia ero ci 6o.iBmoio pa^ocxBro,
B.iaCXH H 9X0 n03B0.1H.10
128

OOM-B npo,no.maxB 6op&6y, oxpljmaa nonpeatneMy HenoKOpHBixi, KJIH-


PHKOB-B. Pasrn'EBaHHBiH Fenpiix'B II OAHaatABi neocxoposKHO CKa-
B-B npBcyxcxBm p&mapeH, neyatejiH OHI KOPMHXI. XOJIBKO ne-

XpyCOBTb H HHKTO H6 OCBOO'O.UHX'B CFO OTL 3JOKa3HeHHarO


nona; Tor^a qexBipe pBinapa xaimo KeHxep6epH H
inykxajiH BT>
xaM-B y6u.m Oojuy codopHOMt xpaM^ (1170). B'B HapOA^ na
B-B

9oMy ciajiH CMOipixB, KaK'B Ha MyqenHKa, nana npHqHCJrHjnb ero


Kl JIHEV CBflTHX-L, H FeHpHXl II ^OJIffieHt 6uJI1> Hy6jIHqHO BHMa.lH-
cedi npomenie naA'B ero rpo6HHn,eft H Aaate corjiacHThca na
KAapendonCKuxz nocmanoejieuiu. (Ilpn TeHpHxi II Haqa-
JIOCB BaBoesaHie HpJiaH^in).
180. CypoBOCTB, ci KaKoro FeHpHx-B II npaBHj'B AHmeH, no-
cejiHJia He^OBOJiBCTBO npOTHB-B Hero B'B cipaHt. Bootfoje e.mcmb
l '

auiMucmiocb KOpoMu (turn doeoMuo ancwumeMHOw, H npoiHBi) Fen-


pHxa II BI, KOHn.'B ero ijapCTBOBama yate naiHHajiacB onno3Hn;ifl.
Ciapmifi FenpHxa II, Puuapd* Jlwunoe Cepdw, n,apciBO-
CBIH-B

Baji-B OH6HB He^ojiro. BcxynHBi) Ha npecTOJix, OH'B oinpaBHjica B'B

xpeiiH KpecTOBBifi noxoA'B, na BOSBpaiHOM'B nyTH HS-B Koioparo nonajTB


BX n.i'BH'B WL HMnepaiopy FeHpnxy VI. 9xoMy pBiqapro H noaxy na
KopojieBCKOM-B xpOH-fe HacjitAOBajix ero 6paxx loanm
(1199 1216), ijapcxBOBanie Koxoparo 6mio ocodenno
coBepineHHO Sespascy^HHH H EpaftHe
y6ificxBa OHI> ycxpaHHJii> oxx npecxojia CBoero
(Apxypa), HM'SBinaro ropas^o dojiie npaBx Ha sanaxie
npecxojia, HO BctMi) CBOHMX noBe^eHieM-B OHI, ooopywcuM npomuet
cetifi cpasy nrbCKOMKO epaio&b H ^panuyscKaro Kopojia (frujiunna, II
Aeiycma, BaccajOM-B Koxoparo 6uju> no seMJiaMTb Ha MaxepHK-B, H
nany HunoKenmifi III, no^Hflsraaro na He^ocaraeMyio Bncoxy snaienie
CBoero cana, H lAaenue KMCCU uaceMHia ez caMOu Auuiiu. Ko-
POJIB ^paHityscKiH npHSBajri) ero KX cy,o;y napOB-B aa
pOflHoro njeMHHHHKa H, Kor^a loanH^ He aBHjrca Ha cy.n'B,
y Hero Hopmaudiw (ci> BpexaHBio) H dojiBiuyro qacxB
(6nxBa npn Eyeuwfb BX 1214 r.). FH-BB-B nanti HHHOKenxia III
HaBJieK^ Ha ce6a caMOBOJiBBBiMi) HaanaieHieM^ apxienncKona KeHxep-
6^pificKaro, Kor^a nana GXflajn> 9x0 M^CXO ^pyroaiy H^KoeMy Cme-
(pany Jlammouy. loanH-B BesseMCJiBHBiH saxBaxnjii noM^cxBa apxie-
nacKOna, HO nana nodeepn> AUIMW tmmepduKmy, x.-e. 061.880.11. B'B

HCH npeKpamenie 6orocjiyjKeHia, I^MI, B036yAH-ii. B'B expand cxpamnoe


HeyAOBO.iBCXBie npoxHBi. Kopojia, ^OBe^njaro ee AO xaKofl M^pti CBO-
HMI. conpoxHEjieHieM-B nant. BM^CX-B ci. x-EiTB Jinqno IoaHHi> CBIJII.
o6'LaBjreH B oxjiyqenHBiM-B OXT. n;epKBH H ompn>weHUbiM?>
r
omz npecmoAa,
ero KOpojieBcxBO nana noAapHJi-B Kopojiro (|>paHi],y3CKOMy.
129

Tor.ua loaiiH'B CMHpnjca H TopazeciBeHHO npusuctM Anuiw


<J)eodoj\iz, a ce6n oaccaAOMz nanu, BI snaKi. qero nojioajEMTB Kopony
KI HoraMi nancKaro Jieraia H otfasajica njiaiHTb PHMCKOMY nepeo-
CBameHHHKy ejKeroAHyio ,naHB. BapOHH loaHna 6mra BciiM'B BTHM-B
cipamno pas^paaieHH. MHorie HSI HHXI, HMiuw SCMJIH BO $pan-
IUH H 6ujw saHHTepecoBaHH BI> coxpanemH sa AHrjiieii HopjaaH^iH
H .npyrnxi) npOBHHain. OHH jiaBajra loaHHy amoro ^ener^ na sememe
BOHHLI ct ^HJinnnoMi.-ABrycTOM'B, HO JierKOMHCjreHHiiH Kopojib BBJIX

Bofiey OH6HB Aypno, a ^eHsrH


pacionajii. dea'B BCHKOH HOJILSH.
Kponi Toro, 6apOHH xarOTHJiHCB npouaeoAOMtj. CT> KaKHMT> IoaHHi>
B-L KaqecTB'B ^eoAajBHaro ciosepena dpajii nomjHHH npn nepexo^

c|)eo,noBi, no nacJi'B^CTBy, oneRajn CBOHX-B iiajoji'BTHHX'L saccajOBi,,


aacxaBJiflji'B HacJi'B.nHHi^'B (|>eoAOB^ BBIXO^HTB saMyaji,, sa KOFO eiiy
6mio yro^HO H T. n. Ha ^pyrofi ro^t nocj'B nopaffienia loanna
^HJinnnOMX-ABryciOMi auiMucKie Gaponu eoscma.m npoiHB'B Hero
ci opyatieM-B B-B pyKaxx, H K-B HHMI npHCoe^HHHJCfl Jloudom, CTO-
jHn,a KOpojieBCTBa. Tor.ua loaHHi BesseMejiBHBiH noniejrB na ycxynKH
n BX 1215 r. Ha Jiyry SJHSI. Bnn^sopa nodnucaM ipciMomy, KOTO-
poro yTBepayjajiHCB BC^ 9TH yciynKH.
181. 9ia rpaMoia HSB^cTHa no^ HasBaHieM'B BCJIUKOU xap-
mm Y
eoamocmeu H HMiex-B BI BBicmefi cieneHH BaiKHoe SHaieaie
.

BI HCiopiH AnrjiiH, xaKi KaK-B eio SBIJIO no.ioateHO n(ma.io paseti-


miw amMiiCKOu noMimuuecKOu ceofiodu. T-iaBHoe co^epatanie xap-
T!H uucmo (fieodctMHoe. EFO onpe^jflJiHCB 6ojBme scero BsaHMHBia
OTHoraeHifl Meat^y Kopojeiii H ero BaccajiaMH BT> BH^y npeatHHxi

3.ioynoTpe6jemH Kopojra ero ciosepeHHBiMH npaBaMH. Ho BI xapiin


cmambu, UMrbewin smuenie ne dAH odnuxz KOpojieecKuyx
aKi Kaui. 6aponoBi, no^epatajiH H AyxoBenciBo, H ro-
.
Xapxia noATBepatAaja noaiOMy ciapua npaea ii/epK6u u
lopodcnuxo o6w<um (civitates). Samniuaa CBOH npasa,
KopojieBCKie Baccajbi pacnpocTpaHHJH nojiyqenHBia
T.-e.
.IBFOTLI Ha co6cTBeHHHX'B BaccajiOB^, T.-e. Ha pbt'U/apeu H BiiroBO-
H

PHJIH HSB-BCTHBia o6e3neqeHia HC TOJIBKO ceofioduuM* A-wdaMz, HO


AajKe H Kj.mnocmHbiMt KpecmbfinaMz (BH.oaHaM'B). PasnBia BOJB-
HOCTir, nepeqncJieHHHa Bt xapxiH, KacajiHCB, KpoM^ 4>e A ajBHLIX L
'

OTHOinemH, qHHOBHnqBaro ynpaB.ienia, cy^a, Hajoatenia niTpai|)OB'B,


H BH'BSAa sa-rpaHHi;y H T. n., HO ocodeHHoe snanie nojry-
ciaxBH, oSesneqHBaBmia AUHnyw uenpUKOCHoeenHocmb u yua-
cmie uawu 01 ycmanoeMnm ua.wioez. HH OAHH-B CBO^OAHBIH ^e.io-
B'EKi) ne MorB iiOABeprnyTBca saK.noqeHiio BI> TiopBiiy, KOH<|)HCKa-
H,in HMymeciBa, HsmaHiio H T. n. HHaqe, KaK-B no p'ineniio ero
(paBHtix'B) H no saKoay cxpaHBi. ^.ia HasHa^enia najiorOBi.
CPE^Hflfl HCTOPIfl 9
130

(eovnupoeania cy6cudiu), Kpojd> CJiyiaeBi, ymraxH <J)eo,a;ajibHLix'B BSHO-


COB'B, Kopojib o6a3HBa.aca, naKOHeu.'B, cosbiBaxb na o6m,iH c-B'Es.n'b npe-
jraxoBi, H 6apOHOBi>. 3flaa B^POJIOMCTBO loaHHa, 6apOHH
B'B xapxiio em;e o^Hy cxaxbio, BI, Koxopoft
BeJiHEyio cajiy
HS-L 25 CapOHOBi, .nojuKeHi. O'LI.I'B Ha6jno,n;aTL sa HcnojraemeM'B

roBOpa, a BI, cjiyqai napymema ero KOpojieM^ naq


nero Boaciame. Be.iHKaa xapxia BOJiLHOCTefi 1215 r. B'B HCTOpin
cpe,o;HHxi He 6uji& e^HHCTBeHHOH rpaMOTOH, KOTOpoio yiBep-
B'EKOB'L
x
.noroBOpi, Kopojra ci ero no^aHHiiMH ), HO HH o^na He
xaKoro HCTOpniecKaro sna^eHia, KaKi, axa. AHoiftcKHMx
'L as^-sa nea npninjiocB, OAHaKO, owdepMam-b eute 6opb6y.
loaHH-B BesseMejifcHHH nojryiHJn> OT-B nann paap-BraeHie napyniHTb
flaHHoe oSimanie H Haqajra> BoiiHy C'B daponaMH, HO KaE'E-pasi. BI>
BIO Bpena yMep^, a oneKyH'B ero MajrojiixHaro CHna, FenpHxa III,

AOJHsera dHJit no.nTBep.nHTL xapiiio. Bi XIII B. ona


jiac&, KpOATE Toro, em;e H-BCKOJILKO pas'L.
182. B'B uapCTBOBame Fenpaxa III (1216 1272) Bt
e03HUKt miMGWwew3, KOTOpiiH cflfajiajn, KOpojeBCKyio BJiacit orpanH-
H6HHOH). FeHpHxtHI 6ujn> rocy^apt, jiio6HBHiiH jiecTB H meApo Harpa-
sa nee .nojiffiHociaMH H sesLiaMH. CaMBiMH 6JIH3KBMH K-L
6miH HHOCTpaHii,Bi, nocTynaBHiie na KOpojieBCKyio cjyat6y,
tiniapH H3t ^paHn,iH H AOBOJIBHO 6ojibHioe IHCJIO
HSI, HiajiiH, KOTOpux'B nocHjrajiH BI, AHoiro nanti. Bee
Kopojia H ero HHOcxpaHHiixi, (JmBOpiixoB'B oqenb HC npa-
BHJIOC& amMuCKOii Httn/iu, o6pa306aeweucH KV cepeduHTb XIII e.
mi CMHnin HopMandueet CT> anuio-cancaMU. Bi, onnosai^iH npo-
XHBI> Kopo.iaCOCAHHHJIHC& H npejiaxLi, H 6apOHu, H pLin,apH, H ropo-
ataHe. FeHpHxi, III H^CKOJIEKO pasi, cosiiBajii cmsdu npe^amoez u

6apoHOG% (,,6ojibniie COB^XH"), Koxopue dojiBnieio lacx&io pfeKo no-


pnu,ajrH ero nojraxuKy. FjiaBHyio pojis BI, BXOH onnosHnJH Hrpa.TB
Cujuom MoucfiopmcKtu, po^OMt $paHijy3i> (ero oxeui, 611.11 BO-
at^eanb B-L specxoBOM^ noxo^ npoxHBt ajrbdHroHH.eB!,), nepece.iHB-
miiica B'B Anmiio, r^
nojiyiHJi'B rpa^a JeiicxepcKaro H
xExyjii,
ajeHHJica Ha cecxpi Kopojia. HOCCOPHBHIHCL ci reHpHXOMi, III,
9x0x1, xajiaHx.iHBHH H 9HeprH^HHH Be.iLMoata nepeme.ii, Ha cxo-
pOHy aHMificKHX'B dapOHOBi, H CA'BJiajica ^aate HXI,

qajra 6ojii>e KpynHtie 6apoaiJ Ha ^6ojLniOMi, coB-Bxi" BI

(1258) 3acxaBH.ra Kopoja npasnaxB na^ co6oro oneny oco6aio KO-


Mumema U3* 24 Gaponoeo, HO MejiKie 6apOHH H piin,apH 6H.1H ne-

) Bi 1222 r. no^o6Hy a;e rpaMOxy ( n 3ojioTVK> 6yjrjy") zaun, Bearpin


II (iipeAnpHHHMaBniifi KpecroBHH
131

TaKOK) GJiHrapxH^ecKOK) (J)OpMOio npaBJieiiifl H CTRJIH


Ha
efl ycTaHOBJieme. FenpHxi) III omasajica OTt Hcnojmema
Aannaro odimaHia, uoCHMOH'B MoH<|)OpTCKiH noffle.i i> Ha Hero BOHHOIO,
r

B3ajn> ero BT> uji'kuTo H c^JiBJico. BjaABiKoio AHrdH.


rocyAapCTBeHHBiMx ynoMi., OKI yBH.n'BjrL, OAHa"KO,
o'ojiBfflHM'b

OAHH KpynHtie 6apOHbi ne B'B cocioamH SyAyrb ycipOHTb ynpa-


cxpaHOio, a noxoMy, cosbiean BT, 1265 r. omt UMBHU
n 6o.tMuou
cootbmz" OH^ npuiJiacuw ua new ne odnux?>
,

npe.iamoei u fiapouoez, HO u npedcmaeumejieu wdupoov (ipafficmet)


u lopodoer, (no ABa npe.ncTaBHTe.ifl OT-L Kaat^aro rpa<|)CTBa H nan-
<5o;i'Be saatHBix-B ropo^OBTj). 9xo H 6ujn> nepeuu amMucKiu napjia-
npHiMamemeMi, pL^apCTBa H ropOffiaHi> K^ yqacriio BX
CHMOHI HaB^eKi. Ha ce6a neyAOBO-iBCTBie KpynHuxi.
OHH nepenuiH Ha CTopony Kopojia, a CTapmift CHHI.
(3^yapAi>) 6 BaKajr B H3t nji-Bna H CTajii BO rjraB^ HC-
i p

FenpHxa 111
CHMOHTb MOH(J)OpTCKiH 6UJH> HOS^JK^eHl H yftHTL Bt
C-L KOpOJlCBCKHMI) BOHCKOATb, HO DpHAyMaHHaa HMI> M^pa, T.-C.
COSHBI, na
n 6oj&mie COB^TH", KPOM-E npe.iaTOBi, H 6aponoBi, pii-

uapCTBa H ropo^ani,, Bonuia i>


cnjy, H napAaMenmb &z AHIMU
cyu^ecmeyemz nenpepwuo ywe ftojine uiecmu erbKom.
183. AnrjiiHCKiH napjaMeHTi. pas^-B-iBJica na flBi najiaTLi:
nap 12
"

najiamy mpoer> (.lopAOBi H HUWCHWW,


IAAU
BTO pas^JieHie, cym;ecTByK)ni,ee H B^ HacToam.ee Bpena,
oKOHiaTe.iLHo JiHHiL B'B cepe^HH-B XIV B., J'BT^ lepesi,
HOCJI-B cosBania nepsaro napjaneHTa. ^.leHaMH sepx-
HCH najiaTLi c.u'E.ia.iHCb enucnonu, a66amw u upynnue oacca.tu
H3i> KOTOpuxi Kaat^biH sacfc^ajn, BI> HCH 67,
cu.iy ceoeio

npaoa, npnieMi, sBanie CBirreKaro jrop^a cxajio nepexo-


no nawndcmoy KZ cmapweMy cutty. HHJKHJUI na,iaxa o6pa-
30Bajiacb H3i euCopuuxi npedcmaoumeAeu KCIKO omz MBAKUXZ KO-

pOMocmxt eacccuioei u omi pwtapeu, m.-e. nodeaccajioez, u mam


omz C6o6odnaio nacejieuin ipacficmez u lopodoez. Bi> rpa^CTBaxi,
) na coSpaniax-B, cym;ecTBO-
npe^CTaBHTejiH BLidnpaJiHCb
em,e pasHbix'B MicTHBixT> .H-EII H ^JH cyjia,
panbuie ^JIH
H sA^Cb npOHSouiJio CMHttie Me.wux* (peodaJioei, cs ocma.imuMo ceo-
fodnMJHZ uacejiemeMz.
DajiaTa o6mnHi. CAi.ia.iacb najamo-u oce-
COC.WOHOU, H 9THM'b aHCJiSc^ifi napjiaMeHT-b ci> cajiaro Haqa.ia ciaji
OTJiHqaTbca OTL ApyrHx-b noAodnuxi co6paniH, BOSHHRniBxi, OKO.IO
Toro ate BpeMCHH B'B pasHbix-b rocyAapCTBax-b SanaAa, TA^ Kaa-
Aoe cocjiofiie sac^Aajio OTAi.ibHO. (H B-L Bepxnefi najiaTi 3acI>Aa.TH
BMiCT-B BBICHiee AyXOB6HCTBO H BBICUiee ABOpaHCTBO).
184*. B?> FepjiaBiH B^ anoxy KpecTOBbixT. HOXOAOBI, 11
npo-
9*
132

HCxo^HBineH Tor^a ate 6opBdu nancina H HMnepin uapcTBOBa.in


dunacmiu fipamoncKaa (10241125) H weaGcKax (1138 1254),
Taitate no^i. HMenaMH ca.nmecKoii dunacmiu H Toien-
Hpn HHXI> npo^oJiJKa.ia pasBHBaiBca uesaeucuMOcmi)
Haseu, ieaiy HMCHHO H noMorajiH, CT& O^HOH CTOpOHH r

nocTOHHHoe cipeMJienie H^Men.KHXi, rocy^apeft OBJia^ib Hiajiiefi,


ex Apyrofi HX^ 6op&6a C'B nanaaiH. CxpeMact na icri,,
(|>paHKOHCKOH H B'B OC066HHOCTH HS'B mBa6CKOH ^HHaC
ceda Ha ciBepi, B-B TO Bpeua, KaKi, nanti B-B 6opL6'B
HHMH Haxo^HJiH ce6t corosHHKOB'B B'B canon FepMaHin BTB

KHflsen. J(JIK H'BMn.eB'B HXI.Kopojin oKasajHCB


PHMCKHMH HMnepaiopaMH, qTO^Bi nojyiHTB Han,ioflajiBHoe 3Ha-

qeeie, a RJIO. HTajiBaHr^eBTb OHH 6ujm lepesqyp-B H'EneijKHMH Kopo-


JflMH, qiO^H HM^ ^oSpOBOJIBHO nO^HHHTBCfl. T^MS
HTaJIBaHIJ,bI MOIMTH
ne Men-fee o6n> dunacmiu ewe cz ycnnxoMt noddepwueajiu ceou
aemopumemz && FepManiu.
185. Kx <|)paHKOHCKOH flHHaciiH npHHa^JieatajiH: FeHpHx-B III r
iiH ce64 nancxBO, P&npuxiI'V (1056
_.
1 106) H TexpuxiV,
TT r
cnop'B sa HHBecTHiypy. 1 effpnxT> 111 nojiBSOBajica
T6JIBHOR) BJiaCTBK), HO CPO CHH-B, FeHpHX'B IV, yBH^l-L, ^TO
66jiBmaro ynpoienia CBoero aBTOpHiexa HljMen,Kie rocy^apn
HM^TB onopy 6% mKOMZ-Hufiydb lepuoicmotb, KO-ropoe Haxo^HJiocB 6Bi
B'B EOJIHOH OT-B BBXl SaBHCHMOCTH. TaKHMTB repI^OrCTBOM-B OH'B XO-

rki'B CA^JiaiB CctKConiw, C'B KaKOBoro n.'Libio H ciajzi) CTPOHTB B-B.


Hen yKpinjienHHe saMKH, HO BCTp^THjn, CHJiBHoe conpOTHBjieHie co
ciopOHBi Bcero M^CTiiaro nacejieHia 6e3i. pasjinqia sBaHin. BopB6a
C-B caKCOHuaMH coBnajra no BpeireHH co cnopOMi, C'B FpHropieM'B VII.

liana Hamejn COWSHUKOQZ ez PepMamu 6% (peod&MUtt u ez cau-

coHu<ax~o. KnasBa BOSMyiHJincB npoiHB-B FenpHxa IV H ^ame nsdpajra

^pyroro Kopoja repi^ora mBa6cKaro. Ho H y Fenpaxa IV


6BIJIH COI03HHKH BT. JIHU.'B MCJIKHX'B pBIH,apeH, Ha KOTOpBIX'B OHH-
pajica eni,e ero ^A^ (Konpa^ II), H ropoaiaH'B, HaiaBmnx-B B-L
9TO BpeMa nrpaiB H-BKOiopyio pojB. Uo6^Si, o^naKO, ocxajiacB
Bce-TaKH na ciopon-B nann H <|)eo,a;a.ziOBi.
186. Co CMepiBio CBina FeHpnxa IV, FenpHxa V, npeKpain-
iacL (^paHKOHCKan ^HHaciia, H nocjrB KpaiKOBpeMeHHaro n,apCTBO-
. / TT \
sama OAHOFO caKCOHCKaro repnora (JiOTapa), npecioj'B sanajiii
mea6cKle lepit/oiu usz cfautUMU FoieHmmay^eHOoz. HsSpaHiio npn-
Ha^-ieaiaBuiaro KI 9TOMy po^y Eonpada III (yiacinnKa Btoporo
KpeciOBaro noxo^a) lie XOT-BJIH C'B caMaro ate naia.ia
Bejfofibi, BaeapieH H CaKCOHiefi, u 910 BBi3Ba.io
B-iaA-BBmie

ycodnyio BOHHV. BTOPBIMT> KOpojeMT. H3i> AHaaciiH ForeniiiTay(})enoB'B


133

<)BLTI>njesiaHHHKi. Konpa^a III, $pudpuxz I EapGapocca (1152


1190). Ero napcxBOBame npoimio BT> noxodaxz ez Hma.iiw u ez
6opb6n> cz nancmeoMz H OKOHIHJIOCB yqacxieMi> BI xpexBeMi> Kpecxo-
BOMI> noxo.n'B. CxpeMHCB noAgHHHXB cefiij Hiajiro H ocymecxBHXB H^ero

yHHBepcajiBiiOH HMnepin, ^PH^PHX-B Bap6apocca ynycnaM nouey


nodz cofiow GZ lepManiu, r^i (f)eo,najiBi npo^ojuKajiH ycn.iHBaTbCfl,
OH-L H ociaBBJn, no ce6-B .lereHAapsyFo
ue yiaepx, a CHHT'L rjiySoKHM'B CHOMI,,
co BpeMeneMi. npocnyiBCfl H BepHyxb FepMaHiH ea Cmiyio
CLIHI $pH^pHxa Bap6apoccH, FenpHxi VI, Koxoparo eni,e
jKeHHJTL Ha KoHcmamwu, EB.CJI^EKU^ Heanojia H CnijHJiiH,
Bcero xjionoxa.!!!) 061, yTBepJEfleniH CBoeMt B-& roatHOH Hiajiin, ni-
Men,Kie ate KHHSLH BocnojitsoBajHCt BTHM-L RJI& Boscxauia npoiHBi,
ero BJiaciH. Doc.i'B ero npeat^eBpeMeHHOii CMepxn (1196) BI Fep-
onfiTB npOHSoniJia (|)eoAajiBHafl yco6an;a, H TOJIBKO qepesi
BaAn,aTB jriT-L na HMnepaiopcKoan, npecTOJi-B FepManiH yieep-
cfciH-L Feiipaxa VI, <I>pudpuxz II (1215 1250), KOpo.iB
Heanojm H CHn,HJiiH, mBiorimfi CBOCIO 6opB(5oio CT> nanciBOM-B H
nflTHMi> KpecTOBHM'L noxo^OMij. 9io 6ujn> yaie H COBC'BM'B He Hi-
Men,!), a loatHHH KOTOPBIH eooce u ne safiomuACH
HxajiBflHei;i), o
dniicmoumeMHOu cuwb uopoMecnou ejiacmu ez FepMauiu.
HM-ETB Bl> CB06H HiaJIBflHCKOH H aHTHnanCKOH nO.IHTHK'B
na CBoen CTOpOHi, CHI. npU3Ha,AT> 3d HUMU meppumo-
e.iacmb, npasa rocyAapCTBCHHoii B.iacxH KB HX-B iep-
T.-e.

B'B 1250 r. no CMepra $pHApnxa II, BCTynmn, Ha


7

npecioji'B ero ctint (RoBpaxi IV), HO OHI n.apCTBOBaJi'B JTHHIB ^e-


Ttipe roAa.
187. Ct ForeHHiTaytbeHaMH
J ^
na.ta oz Tepjuauiu KOpoM'ecKan

)
KaKOK) ona 6iua BX anoxy caKconcKOH, (ppaHKOHCKOH H
(T.-C. OTI> na^ajia X #0 cepe^HHti XIII B.). HOC^FE
ForeHniTay(|)eHOB'L KnasBfl ciajiH BLi6HpaTB BTB Kopojia JHO^CH, Koiopwe
He MOHIH 6biTB onacHBiMH RJIH HXT> B.iaciH (rojuraH^CKaro rpat})a, aiiraiM-
CKaro npHHija, KaciH.iBCKaro Kopojia), H 910 Bpena HOCHTI BT.

HasBapiie ee.'iUKaio Memdywpcmein (1254 He 1273). Ho


ET>
FepMaHin H njieMeHHBia repnorciBa, KOTOPHH B'B

HflXH B03HHKJIH Bl> X B., HOXOMV ?XO H Kaat^Oe H3T>


u
pacna.iocb eu^e na 6o.me Me.min 3eMJiu (xeppHxopin), KaKi> xo
yrae CBIJO BO ^pannin B-B X B. B-B 9x0 BpeMH cxa.m BBi^'B.THXBCfl H3i>
FepManin xaiwKe Hudepjiandu H flfye&itapi*, o6pa30BaBmin
rocy^apcxBa. OcxajiBnaa FepMania pa3;vBJiHJiacB na
oco^Bifl
cmoo KHfMcecmez (dyxooHuxz u C6n>mcKUXt>), ipacficmoz u dpyiuxz
i&j a mawice OOMHUXZ lopodoez. Hacxynn.io
134

HasHBaeMaro Ky^ianuaio npaea, r.-e. HOJHOH BHyxpen-


xaKi>
r

aeapxiH. CaMH KHHBLH JEE^JIK naKoneivB Heo6xoAHMOcx& npe-


KpaxnxB TaKoe nojioaieme RJUTB H cnoBa Bti6paxB Bt KopojiH Koro-
H31> H-EMemtHX-B KHflSeH.
188. IIocjrE BejiHKaro Me/K,nyH,apcxBia H'EMen.Kie KHasba npedno-

60o6iu,e obifiupaniblocydapeu HSI. KHasefi nocjiad'se. IIepBLiMi>


*, n / -n f f
-> - /ir>rro i r, r \ -i

ra6c6yproBi,.
TaKHMi, KOpoJieMi) OHjii, Pyoo.<iMj)5 1 aocoypiCKiu (12/3 1291 j,
y KOTOparo 6mio jramt ITECKOJIBKO saMKOBt BTB BjiBsaci H HlBefi-

i^apin. Cx
aioro BpenenH H caMH rocyAapH CTajin ^epataxBca uo-
eou nojiumuKU. OHH ^OJituieio ^aciLio y^e ne reajiHCB sa npn-
spaKOM'B BcecBiiHOH HMnepm, ne flyMajm 061 oneifB Ha,a,i> nan-
"
CTBOMT> H ne coBepinaJiH jjpHMCKHX'L noxo.noB'B fti

CBoeft BJiacTH BX HTajiiH. Py^ojiB(J)i. ra6c6yprcKiH nepBHH


npHM'Bp'B 9TOH HOBOH HOJIHTHKH, Sa^aBHlHCB I^'BJBH) COSdamb
et>
TepManiu (Jo.ibiuoe Hac^rbdcmoennoe mHwcecmeo. CBOH
OH-B HanpaBHJix na IOTO-BOCTOK'B, r^i sa cio.i'BTie nepe^i.
nepBonaqajiLHO dojiBnieio laexBio cjiaBSHCKaro nacejieHia odpa-
1
E'EMen.Koe repn,orcTBO ). 3epnoMi axoro
npeiKHaa B&cm&wOA Mapm,
Aecmpia, no.iy- HJIH

OTI roreHnixay^eHOB'B THTyjii repn,orcTBa H npHCoe,a,HHHB-


maa EI ce6t UlTHpiro, KapHHTiro H Kpatmy. Bi anoxy Me^^y-
ijapciBia 91010 o6jracTBK> OBjraA'BJi'B qeincKifi KOPOJIB OmmoKapz 11\
KOxopBiH HOTOM-B oxKasaJica BT>
B^PHOCTH Py^oJiB^y 1.
npHcarnyTB
OnapaacB onacTH na aBCTpiiiCKHX'B H^Mi^eBi,, HeAOBOJiBHLix'B OTTO-
),
H Ha BeerpOBi,, Bcer^a conepHnqaBinHxi) ci> qexaMH, Py-
)i.
ra6c6yprcKift OWHHM y Ommompa ecrb aecmpiiiCKin GJICI-
H npeBpaxHJu. HX'B B^ uacjirbdcmeenHoe KHnwcecmeo Ia6c6yp-
ioe?>. ^ociaToqHO OTI> 9Toro ycHJiHBfflHCb, OHTb npeflnpHHajTB yciaHOBje-
Hie BI> FepMamH seMCKaro MHpa, paapyniHBx EH> HCH naccy
Ba> KOiopux'B mum pasdoHHHqaBinie pLiii,apH. Bee 910.
xaK-B odeanoKOHJio KHasen, qio Bt npeeMHHKH Py^ojib(|)y I OHH
tt

H36pa.iH ,6i^Haro pLI^apa AdoMcpa HaccaycKaio, HO Kor^a H


OH-B cxajii) ycxpaHBaiB cedi oco6oe KoaaiecTBO, Knasta ero
CHjioio
HH3.ioatHJiH H BLidpajiH Bi KopojiH Ajii>6pexma AecmpiucKaio, ctina,

Py^ojiB(|)a Fa6c6yprcKaro. IIonBiTKa


nocJiiAHaro ycioHTB Kopo.ieB-
CKyio BjiaciB Tojse BCTpixH^a conpoiHBJieHie co cxopoeH
H noc.i'B 9xoro OHH yate .nojiro H36-BrajH HsSnpaxb

') CM. napxy XIV.


- 135 -

IV.

189*. CjaBflHCKift Mip'BB'B anoxy KpeciOBHXt HOXO^OB-B Ha-

B'B cji'E.nyiomeM'B noJoatemH. Pycb B'B cepe^HH-B XI B.


na OT.a.'E.i&HLm KHaatecxBa, a B-B cepeflHHE XIII B. CTOBUXT. no-
n VTT s XOlOBt.
MonrojiBCKoe HFO. boMapw, #0 KOHn,a All B. OBMa npo-
CTOH BHBaHXifiCKOH npOBHHHJeH, paBHO KaKI, H COC-B^Hflfl CT> H6H)
Cep6in. HoMwa pacna.iacB na Y^-BJIBI B'B cepeAHHi XII B. H
B'B xaKOMi. BHA'fe AO HaiaJia XIV. Xopeamin 6uji& saBoeBaHa

eme BCKOpi HOCJI-B nepfiaro KpecxoBaro noxoAa. Vexix ^o


XIII B. xoate dsua rocy^apCTBOM-B OIGHB cjiadbiMi,. TaKHMi

BI 3noxy KpeciOBBix'B noxo^OBi, CJiaeHncmn cmpauu 6buiu


uacmiw UAU pa,3dpo6.<iemi na meanix KHawecmea, UAU
nodz uyjicuMt e^iaduHecmeoMz. BOTTB noqeny CJiasflH-
CKie napo^Bi He HrpaiH p<MH B'B KpeciOBBix'B noxo^axi,, KOiopBie
xaEHM'B o6pa30M-B 6BMH jiBHiB npe^npiflxieM'B ponaHO-repMaHCKaro
Mipa. Apyrofi CXOPOHBI, oc-zraftjieme -CJiaBaHCKaro M\pa B'B XII
OB
XIII BB. noMorjro H'BMen.KOMy njieMCHH no^iHHHXB ce6k BecBMa 3Ha-
qnxejiBHyK) xeppaxopiio C'B cjiaBHECKHMi, HacejiemeMTb.
r
190. BopB6a H'BMiieB'B ci. sana^HBiMH cJiaBSHaMH naiajracB em,e npn
BejiHKOMi., HO Hacxoflmie saeoeeameMuue MOrro^wnpoxHB'B cjia- HHXL cjia-

npeflnpHHflXBi 6u.iH JTHHIB H^ivmaMH npu CCIKCOHCKOU dunacmiu.


nojiBCKifi KODOJTB BojiecjaBs Xpa6pBifi. noJiBsyflCB BpeneH-
HB1M-B SaXHHIBeM'B BTB repMaHCKOM'B HaCXynaXCJIBHOM-B ^BHJKeHiH Ha BOC-
XOK-B, paCnpOCXpaHITJT'B CBOK) BJiaCXB HajliTj HOJiaCCKKMH CJiaBflHaMH, HO HO-
XOM-B nojflKH oicasajiHCB He B'B cocxoflHm ynpOHHXBCfl B-B expand
M-B H 9jB6oio. TaK-B HMO
^o BpeMeH^ roreHmxay^
A^JIO
repMaHCKift nuanop^ Ha BOCXOK-B" (Drang na^h Osten) onaxB
B'B cepe^HH-B XII B. QAHHI HS'B repMancKaxi KHflaett,

6pexim> Medondb, nojioatH.i'B a^acxoamee ocHOBanie H^


ipaficmey !paHden6ypiCKOMy r CflijiaBmHCB Henocpe^cxBeHHBiM'B Bac-
HMnepaxopa, sasoeBaB'B cxpany cjiaBflHCKHXT.
B-B nee KOJIOHHCXOB-B H ocHOBaBi) BI> neii
ero eme 60.1^6 pacmapHJiH CBOH BjiaflliHia Ha
HHX-B cjiaBflH-B. ConepHHKi) $pa^pHxa Bap6apoccBi, Fenpuxz
BT, TO caMoe BpeMa noiqHHHJi'B CBOCH BJiacxn cjiaBan-B nojuop-
ate

CKUXZ, KOXOpUC JIHHIB XOFfla H npHHHJIH XpHCXiaHCXBO. ^BHraflCB Ha


BOCXOK^, H^MH,!! O^BIKHOBeHHO UCmpe6jlHAU HdCCAenie SaHHMaBHIHXCa
oo.iacxefi HJIH ero 0wwM&CM/uw, CCJH XOJIBKO OHO Ao6pOBOJiBHO HMI, HC

noji,qHHfljiocB H He ycBOHBaJio repMancKoft KyjBxypBi (KaKi* 9x0 fll^a-TH


CJiaBaecKie KnasBfl). Majio-no-Majiy BCH cxpana Meai^y 3jB6oro
136

H O^epOM-B miOHHSHpoBa-iacB HiMijaMH *), KOXOPBIX-B


ycjiOBia JKHSHH Ha HOBBIX'B M'ECxax &. Boo6m,e
r

cio^a Jiyimifl
KCIH KOJiOHmaifiH ycu.mAacb ei snoxy MeoKdyyapcmeifi, Kor^a Ky-
jraiHoe npaso sacxaBjajio MHOTHX'B HCKaxB dojie SesonacHofi H
JKH3HH Bsi FepMamH. Ei> 3ioMy axe BpeMenn OTHO-
H SMUipauiiH nrbMiweb &b uewcnie u no.ncnie lopoda. Bo-
y cjraBflH'L B^ cpe^nie B^Ka ropo^CKOfi 6BiTi> SBM'B Majio pasBHTi, H
cpedu HUHZ npedcmaeume^^MU lopodcnou nyMmypu.
191*. SaBoeBanie no.iadcKHX'L H noAiopCEnxi CJiaBanx H-BM-
oieHB o6jerqajioci) paeuuHHOcmiiW HXI> cipaHLi. HesaeucuMOcmi
vexoez, HaoftoporB, oxpaHfljin lopu, OKpyjKaiomia HX-B cipany. Ho ^e-
xia Bce-iaKH npo^ojraiajra ocTaBaT&ca B-B BaccaJiBBBixi, OTnomeHiflXT> K^
H'BMeqKOH HMnepin H npHHHMai& B-B ce6a nepecejieHU.eB'B HSI. FepMaHin.
CnopBi sa HMnepaiopCKyio Kopony BI> KOHH.'B XII H Haqajii XIII B. no-
3BOJIHJIH ^eincKOMy KHH3K) ^
OmmoiwjQu^I nociaBHTB CBoe rocy^ap-
CTBO Bi) Jiyqines nojio^eHie no OTHoniemio K-L FepManiH, H OHTB
JK6 OKOHyaTejiBHO npHHflJii KOpojieeCKW mumyjit (OKOJIO 1 200 r.^
npn^eMTb no/aBBji-B Boscxanie yA'BJiBHHX'B KHaseii. Ero BHyK^,
Ommonapt II (1253 BejHKaro
r

1278), dBiJUB coBpeMeHHHKOM &


B^ FepMamH, EoiopiiMi H BOcnojiBsoBajrca ,a;jra

CBOHXI BJia^HiH ABCipieii, KapiiHTien H


IllTHpiefl,
KpafiHOH. EMy ,n,a^e npe,a;jiarajiH HMnepaiopCKyio Koposy, oi'B KO-
Topofi OHI, o^HaKO, oTKasajica. Py^ojiB^ Fadc6yprcKiH oiHaji'B y
Hero HasBanHBia seioH, HO saio CHH-B OxTOKapa II, Bau/aaei II,
Hia CBoero flOMa Ha BOCTOK^, cA^JaBmHCB can-B
nOMCKUMZ (1300), a CB06My CBIHy AOCiaBBB-B H KOpOHl/
eemepcmjw (1301), xaKi qxo ero CBIH-B BaniJiaBT, III yate HOCHJI-B

o^HOBpeMeimo xpH KOpOHBi: qemcKyio, nojiBCKyro H BeHrepCKyio. Ho


3X0X1. rocy^apBg CKOpo ynepi (l.S06) JL ci> HHM^ npeKpaxnjiacB AH-
?

nacxia IIpmeMUCAoeuueu. C.i'E.uoBaxe.jiBHO, ^exia BTE> XIII CTOJitiiH


OOJIBHIHMI Morym,ecxBOMi. cpe^H SjiHataHmnxi, co-
TaKoe Meat^yHapo^Hoe noJioaieHie ^exin 6BMO cjit^cxBieM-B co-
-

BepniaBmaroca BI> HGH BHyxpeHHaro pasBHxia. Ycn^xaMi. qexoBi.


MHoro coA'ificxBOBajiH KOJIOHHCXBI H3i3 FepMamH, ^;a H caMH Kopojn peB-
HOCXHO noMora^iH pacnpocxpaneHiio B-B expand H^MeqKoM
192- FepMancKaa KyjiBxypa B'B anoxy KpecxoBBixi.
jtfjHia
pacnpocxpanHJiacB H no romHOMy nofiepejKBio BajxiflcKaro Mopa.
cpe^n ^HHCKaro n.ieMeHH dcmooz H JIHXOBCKHXX njreMen'B .tamuiueu
u npyccoet) 6BiBiHHx B em;e asBiqHHKaMH, B'B HaqaJii XIII B. yxsep-
r

H'EMen.KHX'B ,a;yxoBHO-pBin,apCKHx B op rT,ena


r

y .mmuweu

l
) CM. Kapxy XIII.
137

u dcmoez Mvienocuu OKO.IOnpyccOBt 1200meomoubi


r., ay
OKOJIO 1225 r. *). Bi OOOHXI, OPABHCKHX-L
BJiajvEHiflx-B repnanHsaiuH
irfccTHaro nacejieam 6mia CJiaCie, HeraejiH aieatAy OAepOMx H BHC-
.1010. Oco6eHHO Majio 611.10 H'EMijeB'b BO BJia^HiH op^ena Meienoc-

TP$ TyseMHoe Hacejieme H #0 CHXI> nopt coxpanH.io CBOIO


H,eBT>,

HCKonHyio Hapo^HOCTB. IIoflBJieHie TGBTOHOBI Ha HHJK.eeM'B xeqeHm


BHCJH HM^JIO 6o.iBiiioe snauenie ez ucmopiu UOMWU. ITpyccti
JKHJIH BI> HeilOCpeACTBeHHOMl COCtACTB^ Cl DOJIflKaMH, H yiKG Bo-
jiecJiaB'L Xpa6pHM nponHKajn. BI HXT> beiUno. Tenept.
9TOH o6jiacTH saHflJiHCb H^MeuKie pwi^apH, Koioptie noiOM-B
onacHHMH H ji;jifl caMOfi

TJIABA VII.

OTt cpeflHHXB B^KOKS Kt HOBOMY

I. MeatAynapOAHHa OTHomemfl ( 192 197).


II. Kaxo.iHiecKaH u,epKOBB ( 198 213).
III. Sanajuio-eBponeHCKia rocyAapcxBa. 06maa xapaKxepHCTHKa ( 214 216 H
239). $pann,iH ( 217226), Amvria ( 227230) H TepMaHia ( 231238).
IV. BnsaHTia ( 240) H cJiaBflHCKig mipt ( 241252).

I.

193*. IIocji'B KpecTOBuxi> 00X0^06^ 6opt>6a sanadnux'b xpu- Ho6tAa


cmiam c% MycyMManaMU npOAOJiwajia BeciHCt jiamB iaMi>

Mea;,a;y HHMH cymeciBOBaJio nenocpedcmeennoe cocndcmoo. TaKi 'j>

^HJO, npeat.^e Bcero, Ha IlHpeHeHCKOM'B nojiyocipOB'B. Bi Haqajiii


l
VIII B. apadbi saBJia^-BJiH ne Bceii HcnaHieft ), a B-L KOHIVB TOFO ate
2
CTOXBTifl Kapjii> BejHKiH ocHOBajit sa HnpeHeflMH HcnaHCKyio Mapity ).
B% X H XI BB. HcnaHCide xpiiciiane o6pa30BajiH ET> c'EBepHofi nacxn
no.iyocTpOBa KOpojieBCTBa Apaioncnoe, KacmuMcnoe H
CK06, KOTOpHfl BGJIH HOTOMI. HOCTOflHHyK) 60pb6y CT>
UIHMH roaiHOK) nojOBHHOK) KopdoocKiu
nojiyocTpOBa. MesAy T-BMI

xa.iu(f)am?> caMz pasdrb.mAcn Ha ntbCKOMKO Me.iKHXTb KHaaiecTB'i), H


B-L nepBofi nojiOBHH'E XIII B. xpHCiiaHCKia KOpojescTBa OTHHJIH H
eaLAy co6oio BC'B BJia^Hia iiaBpOBi,, Kpoiii caMoii IO/KHOH
) CM. xapxy XIII.
!
) CM. Kapxy XV.
2
) CM. i;apxy IV.
138

HUCTH nojiyocipOBa, rjvfc ocia.TOCB BX pyicaxx MycyjiLMaHx OAHO TOJIBKO


rocy^apCTBO rpena^a. Bo BTOpon nojiOEHH-E XV B. ^Ba
KOpojieBCTBa nojiyocxpOBa, Apaiom u Kacmujiin, coeduuu-
jiuct> ez
odny Monapxiw BCjrE,a;cTBie 6paita neaKAy ^epAHHaHAOMt
AparoHCKHMi) H HsaoejLTOH KacmiBCKOH (1469). Bx 1492 r. Hcna-
w oemdrb.ia, u Ppenadou. (TaKHM-L o6pa30M-B 6opb6a aiea^y xpa-
CTiaHaMH H MycyjibManaMH TflHyjiact BT, Hcnamn dojiie CGMH
B'BKOBI,).
194*. Mnxanjiy VIII Ilajieojiory ne ydaaocb eoscmanoeumb
BmanmiucKyw umnepiw BX npe^Bjraxi., KaKie ona HM^jra ^o ie-
1
- TBepiaro KpeciOBaro noxo^a ). BeHeaiaHn,H y^epata.in B-B CBOHX-L
no-
pyKaxx sa^BaqeHHEie HMH nynKTH na deperaxi, H ocipoBax-L MO-
B1> '
pea, oMHBaiora,Hxx BajiKancKifi no-iyocTpOBi., a BI> loaznoH ero

Aep/KaTbca HiKOTOpiiH (|>paHii;y3CKia

Tony HOBHH Kopojit Heano.ifl H


ffie

saxBaTHJix Koe-Kame npn6peatHLie nynKTH Bt Tene-


CT, ^pyron cxopOHH, na c^Bepi em,e
KpecTOBBiMi> noxoflOMi, o6pa306a.wcb uoooe
ciaBinee BI> oqeHB BpaatAe6Hoe OTHomenie K
2
Bx XIII B. (KMrapcide n;apH Hana^a.iH H Ha JlaTHHCKyio HMnepiio ),

H Ha BOscTaHOBJieHHyio HMnepiro BHsaHxiftcKyio. O^HOBpeMeHHO ci.


9THMX n,apCTBOM'& o6pa30BajrocB na sana^-L OTT> Hero H CepOcxoe
uapcmeo, KOiopoe BI> cepe^HHi XIV B. .npH Cmefiauib flyvtawb
(1331 1355) paciHHpjLio CBOIO TeppHTOpiro BKJuoneHieM'B BX nee
BOCH!H, Ajidamn H oqeHB 6o,iBuioH qacin MaKeAOHin H Oeccajiin,
HTO eusanmiucKiH OAadnmn BT> Eeponn 6buu pasprbsanu na
y
qepesnojiocHBia odJiacTH ). TaKHM-B o6pa30Mi> B-B nocJiiAHie
CBoero cymeciBOBania Bocio^naa HMnepia BJfa^Jia H na
nojyocipOB'B JIHIHB HesHaqHTeiBHOio TeppnTopieio.
194. B-B cepeAHH^ XIV B., Kor^a BajiKaHCKift no.iyocipOB'L
o^pasoMi, pas^JreHi, Meat^y BHsaHTinaaMH, oojrapaMH
H cep6aMH, noneuAucb na HBMZ uoeue saeoeeame.iu B-L
OCMdHCKUXZ mypOKb, KOTOptie BX XIII B., TaKX CKasaTB,
J
BX Asin, na CMiny TypKaM'B cejiBAatyKCKHMx ). OcHOBaBX B-B ce-
peAHHi XIII B. oco6oe KnaateciBO B-B qenTpi Ma-ioft Asin (OKOJO
AnropBi), OHH ciaJiH nana^axB na coc^uin BHsaHTiiiCKia Bjra.n'BHia.
Bx nepBOH noJiOBHH'B XIV B. uxi. cyjixanx Ypxanz o6pa30Bajn.

Cp. Kapra XYII H XIX.


x
)
2
) U,apb Kojoani, no64ji,H. ii>
1

npn A^piaHonojt, H
$P aHH.y 30B1I> nepBiifi

HMnepaxopt nonajii ji;aace BI Mint KI 6ojirapaMi.


3
) CM. Kapxy XIX.
4
) CM. Kapiy XX.
139

BOHCKO xubmapi HS-L jno^ea, EJ> ^TCTB^ OTHHTLIXI, y xpH-


poflHiejieH H BOcnHiaHHiixi. sai^Mi. WL MaroMeiaHCKOH
IIpH H6Mi> 6HJH saHflTH xypKaMH caMwe BaatHHe nyHKiu Majio-
asiaiCKHXi, Bjnaflimft BHsaHiiH, a BT> 1353 ^. onu saxoamujiu odno
Mncmo u ua eeponeucnoMz 6epeiy
3a QTEWL noozTBAOBajio saeoeeawe cyAmauoMz
Adpiawmo.m u {fiuAunnono.vn. 9iH ycnixn iypOKT> o6i,flCHflK)TCfl
r.iaBHHM-L oSpasoMi, secorjiaciflMH neatly OTA'B.IBHLIMH
CEHMH HapOAaMH r atHBfflHMH (H.1H HM'BBmHMH KOJIOHiH) Ha
nojyocipOB'B. TypKH npe^npHHajn HaKonei^'B saBoeBanie H scero
BajKancKaro nojiyocipOBa. Bx 1389 r. na Eocooo.m noMb My-
patfi> no6?bduM cepficmio n KpaM" Jlasapx, KT> KOiopOMy
Ha UOMOIHB oipfl^u dojirapi) H seHrpOB'B. 06a rocy^apa
BI> 3TOH 6HTBi>, H HOBHH cyjuaH^ Ean3em'& cjt'BJiaji'L CEina Jasapa

BaccajibHUM-L KHHseMi,. BcKOp-E saTiMi. nogi* y^apaMH TypOKt ncwa


u EoMapiH. nocjit 9ioro BenrepcKiH KOPOJI& CmusMyudt, na no-
KOiopOMy npHHMH em,Q (jjpaHHjscKie H n^MeniKie pLmapn,
6opB6y ct xypKaMH, HOBi>1396r. xpncTianCKoe
pas^nio BaflBeTOMT, npa Huuonojitb. ^ajiBBMinie
6tuio

ycn-BXH TypOKi. 6miH sa^epaKaHH jmnib na Bpeaia noaBJieHieMi BI> Asin


MorymecTBGHHaro saBoeBaiejra BT, jHn;i MonrojibCKaro ^apa TaMepjraHa.

195. BcxynjieHie MOHrojiOB'B BO BceMipHyio HCTOpiio OTHOCHica Mouro.ia.

FL naiajry XIII B., Kor^a cpe^n HHXI BOSBiicHJica Temyuum,


Vunmcz-xaH^ o6i>eAHHHBiiiiH Me.ima MOHrojibCKia op^H H
ipa6umb, pasopnmb u saeoeobieamb cocrbdnin cmpanu (KHiafi, By-
xapy, ApMeeiro H .up.)- ^^6 npH H6M-B MOHIOJILI npOHHK.m BI>
nepBHii pasi. BT> roatHyio Pocciro (finisa npn Ea^Kn>), a npn npeeM-
HHK-B ero, Yiedetb, njieMaHHHKx nocJTEflHaro Sambiu B-L
XIII cio-alma noAqHHHJi'B MonrojibCKOMy B.ia^EiqecTBy 66jBmyio
PycH. nocjii 9ioro MOHFOJILI BioprajiHCB em,e B-L Ilojbiuy H BeH-
rpiro, HO BHHym^eHH SHJH orpanaqHibca Jinnib O.UHHM'L Ha6'feroM b
r

na 9TH CTpaHii, xaifB KaK-B conpOTHBJieHie, OKasaHHoe HMI sana^-


HHMH pun,apaMH, noBH,a;HMOMy, He paciiojiarajo HX-L pacnpocipa-
3iy ciopony. BosBpaiHEniHCb sai^Mi B-L Asiro,

Bar^aACKOiiy xa-iH^axy (1258). Mon-


l
locydapcmeo docmuuo ipOMadubioct, pa.wnpOQz ), npHqeMi>
caMHXi> MOHroJOBX npunx.40 MaiOMemau-
cmea. MoHro.ibCKaa .nepataBa, BnpoqeM-B, He ,3,0-iro nojiL30Ba.iaci>

e^HHCTBOMi, H CKOpo pacnajacb Ha OT^-ibHija rocy^apciBa, HO


OKOJIO 1400 r. npOHsoniJio BiopHquoe ea

CM. napxy XVIII.


140

HOBaro MonrojibCKaro aiorymecxBa 6ujii, TaMepjtam, H.IH

KOTOpuii noKOpH.Tt, KpoiyrE cpe^HeH Asin, Ho^iK), IlepciK) H wamyio


Pocciio. Kor^a OHI, jKejiaa enje o'oji'Be pacnrapnxb npeA'feJH CBO-
ero ijapcxBa, eana.ii. Ha Majiyio Astro, TO 6ujn> Bcxp'tieH'b 3;vECb
Baasexoirb, H Meamy O^OHMH asiaxcKHMH saBoeBaxejiaMH nponso-
injia 6nTBa npn Amoptb (1402). UoftBflHTejtaMH HS-L STOH OHTBLI
BKniJIH MOHrOJH, HO OHH H6 HOfflJIH A&Ibnie, a KOr^a B-B CKOpOM-L

BpeMeHH nocjii axoro TaMepJiaHi> yMepi>, xo ero i;apcxBO CXOJIB ate


6ucxpo pacna,iocL, Kaiti. H cos^aiocb.
196. Bi> nepBOH HO.IOBHH'B XV B., Kor^a MOHFOJIH yate He
SHJIH onacHH xypEaiii, nocji^me nocxenenno santuiu noumu
ejiadnnin Ha Ba,iKaHCKOMi> nojiyocxpOB't. KoHCxan-
C-L He6ojLnioii xeppaxopiefi,
ynpaBHxe.ieH BOCXOIHOH HMnepin sea Ha^eatAa 6H.ia na
sanaAHOH EBponu, H pa,n,H 9x011 HOMOIHH OHH TOXOBH CHJIH
H.HXH Ha yum c% PUMOMZ, x.-e. noA^HHHXb rpeqecKyro n,epKOBb
nancxBy. Bt 1439 r. no 9xoMy HOBOAY nanoio (EBreHieMi, IV)
6uM coseam eo @jopemtiu co6op*> na Koxopuft npiixajiH nime-
paxopx (loanHi. VIII) H unorie iepapxn rpeiecKott n,epKBH (iie-
HHMH MOCKOBCKIH MHxponoJiHxi., rpeKi. HcH^opi.). Bbjitmafl
3XHXT. .nyxoBHEixi, JiHn,T> npusuttAtt vmeeHcmoo nanu, pacno
KaKi> corjracHJiacb na Boroqeme
BT> CHMBOJi'b B-Bpti npn6aBKH w Fi-

lioque" H x. BnsaHxiHCKoe npaBHxejiLCXBO xanate nodmeepduAO


n.

(fi.wpeHmitiCKtjw yniw, HO secb HapOAt H ^yxoBencxBO H C.IH-


niaxb HG xorfejiH o HOAinHeHin PnMy. THia BCJi^cxBie axoro He

ocyrn,ecxBHJiacb, HO He cocxoajiaci> H noMom,b, oSimanHaa nanofi KOH-


Bojiie oxAajeHHtiH OXT. BajKaHCKaro nojiyocxposa
Han,iH HM^JH MHOFO co^cxBenHbixi.
p$jn>, qxo6bi oxnpa-
BHXbCfl Bl, HOBblH KpeCXOBBIH nOXOJVb, a HOXOMy npOXHBT) XypOKT>
Cb .<iuwb no.iHKU u oempu'cj> CBOHMH KOpojiaMH B.iadu-
H RnoMb PyuiadoM^. 3xo npe^npiaxie KOnqH^iocb, o^HaKO,
HOJIHOH HeyAaieio: Mypa^^ II Hanec'b nojibCKO-BenrepCKOMy onoj-

cxpauisoe nopawcenie npu Bapurb (1444). Bi 1451 r.

xypeinmi cyjixani., Ma/iOMemt 11, saBJia^'EJi^ OAHHMI> saM-


HOHXH y caMaro KoHCxaHxanonojifl H cxajn> M^maxb oxxy^a
npHnacoBi BJ> ropo^. ^epesi, roA'b oui> IIOA-
CXynHJH> El KOHCXaHXHHOnO.TK) CX dOJIbniKMI. BOHCKOM'b H (|)JOXOMT),
BI, CBoeMt pacnopflatenin H 3HaiHxe.ibHoe KOJHICCXBO nymeKi..

H^ro BHsaHxificKaro HMnepaxopa Koncmaumuua XIII Ilajieo-


6biJio e^Ba ABiHaAn,axb xbicaqi BoficKa ex BeneijiaHCKHMH H
LiMH oxpfl^aMH. HecMOxpa na xpa6poe
conpoxHB.ieHie, EoHcmanmunonoM 6uM esnmz mypnaMU (1453),
141

npe;w q-EMB noAOcniwii) na HOMOUJB BeHeujaHCKift (JuoTi.


KoHCxaHXHHonojfl Hasejia yatac'L Ha BCCB xpHcxiaHCKiS Jiip-L, T^MI. Go-
alie, ixo MaroMex-B II o6HapyjKHJTB caMBiMi, HEHLIM-B oftpasoM-B HaarJkpe-
Die pacuiHpHXB enje 60.1^6 CBOH saBoeBania B'B EBPOHE. Bt

xypKH 6biJiH nocxosHHofl yrposoft ^ia eBponeftcKHXt

II.

198*. XIV H XV cxo.Tfcxia er, ucmopiu namo/iunusMa 6uAu K H*


, T-r XIV
ynaoKa u pasjiowewn. llancxBO nepeatHBajio xor^a xv BB.

H3I> CaMLIX-B CHJIBHHX'L KpHSHCOB-B, Kame XOJIbKO 6HJIH Bl>


ero Hcxopin. HpaBu jiyxoBencxBa xoate oieHb ncnopxnjiHCb H cxajH
BbisuBaxb coBepmeHHO cnpaBe^HEbia HapeKania. Bi> o6m,ecxB'fe
rpoMKO saroBopnjiH xor^a o nopvn, u/epneu do i.movb u H.ienaxb, H Ha-
cos^aBaxbca njaHH uepKoeuou pe$opMu, BH^Bmie BI> nan-
Becb Kopenb sjra. Ci Apyrofi cxopOHLi, xi CHJIH, KOxopBia
6biJiH, xaK-b CKasaxt, npn^aBJieHbi Moryin.ecxBOM'b
xenepb nojiyiH^H seaqHxejbnoe pasBnxie H
n,epKBH,
py/KH.iH cmpeMjienie KZ oceoGoyicdeniw omz nanCKOu u MOuawecKOii
onem. TaKHMH CHJiaMH ^HJIH uoeoe locydapcmeo, BHpocxaBniee sa
pasBa.iHHax'L (J>eo,n;aJiH3Ma, H cenmcKoe ofipasoeanie, Koxopoe BI.
XIV H XV BB. cflfejisuio yme oqeeb SHa^nxeJibHLie ycn-BXH.
199. Bt caMLie nocj^Hie TOAH XIII H nepstie ro^bi XIV BB. nana BOHH-

aa nancKOM-B npecxo.i'B CH^'b Eouuficwiu VUI (1294 1303),


H A^HCXBOBaBmiii no npnaiipy caMBix-B SHaMennxBixi.
npeAiilecxBeHHHKOB'B rpnropifl VII H HnHOKenxia III. ^e-
.lOB'BK'B BBICOKOM-EpHBlH H BJiaCX0.1K)6HBbIH, OHT> OXJIHiaJICfl CXpafflHOK)
H COBC'BM'B H6 BHA'BJl'B, HXO ET> erOBp6Mfl o6ni,ifl DO-
oxHomenia H Hacxpoenie o6m,ecxBa 6buiH yaie ^aJieKO He
xi, sa B^K^ nepe^T. HHM-B. BniraHaro 6jiecKa y
KaKHMH OHH 6wjiH
nancxBa ocxasajiocB em,e MHOFO, H BoHH^auift VIII .name ero yse-
npHBJieKraH B-B PHMT, BT> 1300 r. COXHH xbicai'B 6oro-
ofD'BflBJieHieM'B K)6HjeftHaro ro^a Kaxo.iHqecKOH i^epKBH ci>

oxnymenieMi) rp-fexoBi sa nocimieHie CBflxtmb Pn^ia, HO COSCXBCHHO


BHyxpeHHflH cmia nancxsa Hcie3.ia. BoHH^an.iio VIII y^ajrocb CMH-
PHXB xojibKO H'BMen.Karo uopojifl Ajtbtipexma AGcmpiiicmio, KOXOPBIR
sa CBoe npHsname nanoro nocxynH.ica %&& BCEMH npeatHHMn
HMnepin. 3a xo rocy^apH ^pyrnxi. cxpan-B ne o6Hapy-
Co.ibuioro iuejianiH noBHHOBaxbca nani. Canoe ynopnoe

l
) Cp. Kapiy XXI.
142

conpomue.ieuie onasaM EoHucpau/iw VIII ^pani^yscKiu nopoM <Pu-


mnm IV JKpacueuu (1285 1314).
200. EnHCKOira Aerjiin H ^pannm noata.iOBajocB EoHH$aii,iK) VIII
EOHH- na CBOHX'B o6jiaraBniHx B r
nojjaxaMH.
Eopojefl, jnyxoBHtix'B JIUU,T>
<j>an;ia VIII rp -
^ $HJIHII- lor#a nana KSR&JIT* oy^y, BI> KOTOPOH npHrp03H,ii>
IT. omb u,epK6U so, of'Jiootceuie dyxoeeucmea dem nancnaio na mo co-
viacin. AHrjiificKiH K0po.it (9^;yap^ I), BI> ^pyrHx^ cjiyiaflxi.
CTBOBaBiniH caMOCTOHiejiLHO^ ne ciejTB nyatHLiMi cnopnit,
KpacHBHH Ha nancKyio 6yjuiy aanpeuteuieMt obteosa was
OTB'feTHJt

(fipamt/iu dpaiowrbumixb MemcMM&z H, cji^OBaiejiLHO, Bcixt ,a;e-


Hert, KOTOpna IHJIH H3t 3TOH cipaHEi Bt nancKyio KasHy. Ho 910
6njio jTHmt HaiajtOMt cnopa. Bo BpeMa 6opb6H nana H
BI KOTOpuxi HaroBopHJiH ^pyrt
nocjiaHiaMH,
oHH^auin VIII cosBajrt B-B PHM^ npoTHBi WjiHnna IV

ii,epKOBHBiH co6op%, HO H (J)paHH,y3CKiH KOpo.iB co6pa.iz locydapcmeen-


uue HUHU <fipam<,iu, m.-e. ceuMz HS-B npeJiaxoBi,, cenBepOBt H ropo^;-
CKHX'B BJiacieH (lenepcuibHue wmamu
1302 r.), Koropue saaBHJiH, HTO
RT>CB'BTCKHX'B ^JjaXl. OHH HO^qEHeHBI .IHHIB KOpOJIK), a Can't OHt
TOJIBKO o^HOMy Bory. PasrHfeanHLiH xaKHMi ofiopOTOM-B A^Jia, BoHH(f>a-
n,iS VIII OT.iyqHJi'B Tor,a;a ^HJinnna IV OT^ n,epKBH H o6i>flBH.ii) ero JIH-
meHHtiM'B npeciojia. Uocjii 3ioro H KOPO.I& npH6'Br B KT, KpaHHeH M-ipi. r

OH-B nocjiBjn, ET> Hxajiiio cBoero Kanqjiepa (Horape) ci> nopy^e-


meMi> saxsaTHTB nany H npHBesin ero BO $paHn,iro. EopojieBCKifi no-
CJIaHe^ B CT> noMoni,Bro OAHOH BpaasAe^HOH nani PHMCKOH apHCio-
^

KpaTHqecKOH ^aMHjrin (KojiOHHa) uanaM na EoHU$aw.H Till ei


eio saMKib (AnaHBH) H mnjn> ero BX njiini,. Ilpe^anie npH6aBjiaeT B. r

6y^TO npn BTOM-B nana npexepn^Jii. H ocKOp^jenie ji;McTBieM B (yAapx


r

no jimy atejiisHott nepqaTKon). IIpaB^a, CTOPOHHHKH nanu CKOpo


ero OCB060AHJIH H OTBesJin B-B PHMI, HO rop^tifi CTapnKi> 6tJ.ii> ne
Bt CHJiaxt nepeatHTB xaKoro yHH^Kenia H CKOpo yMepx.
201. Dod^a $HJiHnna I\" KpacaBaro najii. nancTBOMi> Btipa-
3HjraCB rjiaBHtiMt oopasoM-B B-B TOMI,, qio OAHHT, H3t npeeMHHKOBi>
BoHHff)an,iH VIII, K.iUMeHmv I no ofceAanm emoio nopoAfi nepece-
,IUMH GO 0pam(/iw u oufipa.u dsia onutneMcmea mwHo-fipaH-
^opo^s AeuHwm, nepeme^niift KI> nancKOMy npecxojiy (1305).
saaBjaxB npe/KHia nancKia npHxaaania no oxHomemro
rocyAapani), K.iHMeHx & V 'uadomo nodHunu.i7> nancnwo
r

.npyrnMi,
qxo KOHCIHO sacxaBH.io MHoraxt H3i>
, ,

rocyAapen cxaxB BX HenpiaseeHHBia oxnomeHia KX nancxBy.


ABHHBOH B r
nanu npoaiHin OKOJO ceMH/jecaxn .TEXT., H 9xo
nojiyjHJio HasBanie eaeuAOHCKaio n.irbueuifi KamommecKOU
ABHHLOHI> CA'^ia.ica j^na. n;epKBH ,,BaBHJOHOM'B" H B-B XOMX oxnome-
143

urn, ixo nancmH ^Bopi. (r,ypia) oepmenz


npeBpaxnjica B-B

nopOHuou oicusHU. AfiKHBOHCide naiibi XIV B. dojiie Bcero xjono-


xajm ofo yMHOJKetriH CBOHXI. ^OXOAOBI>, pa^H iero npHAyMLiBajm
UOBBIC noCopH H .na/Ke OXKPBIXO 3aHHMajiHCB xoproB-ieio u,epKOBHHMH
MliCXaMH. 9lO pOHfl.10 nanCTBO H BI, HpaBCTBeHHOMt OTHOmCHiH
H, KOHCIHO, ycHjuuio onnosimiw, eu3ueaemytocn npumnsanifiMU nam:
UX7> nedocmouuoe noeedeuie BOSMymajro BC^XI. nopfl^oiHMX'B jnofleii.

202*. 9xa onno3Hi;ia BBipa3HJiacb BO Mnornxi) 4 aKTax L. Bi. )


r

Anoin 6ujio nocTaaoBJieHO He o^Hapo^OBaTL nancKHx-L Oyjui-L, npo- npoxHBt


THBHtixi> npaBaMi, Kopojia H uaijiH, a Bcji^i) sa T-BM^ prbweno 6buio nanciBa.

u ue nmmumt, nann danu, najioaieHHOH na AHMiro IoaHHOMi> Bea-


36MejibHtiM'L. E% FepMaHin ci/fcs.n'B KHaseM BI, Pense (1338) o6i>HBHjrL
HMnepiro HesaBHCHMOio OTI nanu H usSpaimaro KHastaMH rocy^apa we
nyoKdaww^uMCH G-& nancKOMZ ymeepwcdeuiu. Y CB^TCKOH BJiacui Bt
3iy anoxy BBHJIHCB H xeopeTHqecme 3ain,HXHHKH HS-B KOXOPHXT> ca- ?

MLIMI> saM^qaxejiBHLiMi, dmn, MapcuMu HadyaucKiu. IlancKaa xeopia

HMnepaxopCKyro B.iacxb HSI* nancKOH, MapcHJiift ate yKa-


ixo HcxoiHHK'B CBixcKOH B,iacxH BOJia Hapo^a (yieme PHM-
CKHXX K)PHCXOBI>). Ci, flpyroft cxopOHBi, CB^xcKaa jiHxepaxypa,
npaHaBuiaa BI XIV
camupmecidu xapaKmepi, cdrbJiam wae-
B.

HUMZ npedMemoMi ceouxz nacMnweKz ucnopueunue npaeu npe^a-


moGb u Monaxoez. HaKOHen.^, ne^OBOJibcxBO xor^ainHHMi, cocxoa-
HieM-B KaxojinqecKOH n,epKBH BiipasHJiocB H B-B yciMeuiu pasHbtxi
cenrnz u nofie,teniu itepKoenux*
pefiopMamopoei.
203. IlepBBIiTB KpynHBIMl, aepKOBHHM-B pe^OpMaXOpOMl, 9XOH BiiK.iH(j)t

anoxH 6ujn> aHrjiiHCKiii CorocjiOB'B H npo^eccopi, OKC({)OpACKaro yHH-


BepCHxexa Buiuufa (1320 1384). Bi> AnrjiiH BT> cepeAHHi XIV B.
()BIJIO oco6eHHO CHJIBIIO HB^OBOJIBCXEO nancxBOMi, H ^yxoBencxBOiTL,
H noxoMyMHorie MorymecxBennBie JHO.HH no^AepJKHBa.iH CKpOMHaronpn-
xo^,CKaro CBameHHHKa, KaKHM'B 6ujn> BHOHIJJI, necMoxpa Ha xo,
ixo OH-B oS^HqajTb nancxBO H .nyxoBeacxBo: XOJIBKO 9x0 H cnacjio
cM-Bjaro peqiopMaxopa ox^ i^epKOBHaro naKasania. pe(J)OpM-B i;epKBH
BHKJH(J) b nponoB'E.noBaji'B C'B Kaee^pu H HHcajn, conraema, H y
r

nero aBHJocB MHOFO nowB^OBaxeJieii, ndiAHBixi CBameHHHKOB-B", KO-


Topne pacnpocxpaHa.iH ero yqenie BT, napo,n'E. MaJO-no-Ma,iy BHKJIH^'B
KI XOH MBICJIH, ixo eduHcmoeHHbiM'b ucmouHUKOMi on>pbi
6urm, Eu6Aw, Koxopyro OH-B Aaate nepeBeji> na aHr.iiiicKiH
IIoaxoMy OHI> cxa.TB oxBepraxB 3Haieme i^epKOBHaro npe-
.

H nancKHx-L nocxanoBJieniH, a ex HHMH H araoroe B-B Aoriia-


xaxi, BipBi, KaKi>-xo yienie o npecym.ecxBjreHiH B-B xanHCXB'B eBxa-
pncxiH, enHCKoncKifi caHi> H x. n. Cajuo nancmeo tdfauuocb KO,KT> 6u
npedM&moMz Henaoucinu BHKJiH(})a: BI nan'fe OHTJ TOXOBI>
144

(DBLTB npflMO cjiyry aiixHxpncxa. OH-B Boopymajica xaioKe npo-


BH^TL
THBI, MOHamecxBa, KaK^ yipejE^ema, Koiopoe He ocHOBBiBaexca Ha
EBanrejiiH. JlyiniHM'B cpe^CTBOMt ncnpaBHXB ^yxoBencTBO, no ero MH'B-

Hiio, 6ujio omo6panie e* msuy ocrbxt Goiamcmez, HaxoflHBuraxca B-B

pacnopaatemH n,epKBH H MonacxBipeii. Xoxa anrjiiicKoe ^yxoB6HCTBO H


ocyAHJio aa cofiop'E 9xy nponoB'BflB, HO BnKJiH<|)a JIHIHO ne
H npHTOM'L He TOJIBKO 6jraro,napfl no^^epmK'B, KaKyro OHI.
3HaiH, HO H 6 ro
nonyjiapHOCTH Bi) Hapo.n'B. (B-L
BCJTEflCTBie
ciajio pasBHBaTLca ceKiaHTCTBO, nocJi^OBaxejiH Koioparo
JIHCB JioJUiapAaMn). Mem^y T-BM-B Bt nocjrEflHie FOAM atHSHH BHK-
jiH(|)a nancTBO npHnuro BI> em,e 66jibniiH ynaflOK-B, iaKi> KaK^ B-L
BIO BpeMfl npOH3omeji & r
B'L KaTOJin^ecKOH n,epKBH BejinmH pacKOJii..
204. Kor^a nann B^ ABHHBOH-B, HM-B nocxoaHHO npn-
JKHJIH

XOIHJIOCB ^VMaTB CB06MI) Ii;epKOBHOM B rOCVflapCTB-B Bl r

paCKO.TL. Y
na KOiopoe TO-H-^'BJio nana^ajH COC-B^H H BHyxpn KOioparo HOCTOHHHO
nponcxo^HJiH CMyiBi. CaMoe npe^HBaHie nani) B-B ABHHBOH'B B^ xe-
leme ceMH^ecaiH JI'BT'B o6xacHaeTca OTiacTH HX'B aie.ia-
HOITH
HieM-B 6LITB SesonacHOCTH B^ajiH OTi> Pana. Hacejieme Biiaaro
B'B

ropo^a 6mio, o^eaKO, He,o;oBOJiBHO T'EMi, ^TO nanBi ocxaBHJH CBOK>


CTOJiHn;y, H B'B cepe^HH-B XIV B. pHMJiane ycmpou.iu-Gujio y ce6a
pecnyfijiuKy, BO MaBi Koxopoft cxajii. ropaqin H
HO COBepIHGHHO JTHHieHHLIH npaBHTeJI&CTBeHHHXl. CnOC06HOCT6H
6yHi)" EOM du-PieHu,u. IIocJi'B neyAaiH, nocTHrmeH 9iy nonBiTKy,
HacTofiiHBO xpedoBanH BOSBpamenia nanBi, H BI> 1377 r.
X^ iicnojHHJiocB, Kor^a FpHropiH XI nepecejHJica naKOHeivB
BI CBoro cxojiHn;y. Kor^a, OflnaKO, OHI, ynep^, H npi-BxaBinie CT
KHM-B HxajibaHCKie Kap^HHajiLi BLi6pajH eMy npeeMHHKa, xo
(JjpanayscKie, 6wBniie npoxHBi, BOSBpamenia B'B PHMI>,
Apyroro nany. TaKHMi, oSpasoM-B BI. mmoMmecKOii uepw
eeAUKw pactco.'iz (CXUSMO), npodojMicaeiuiucH OKOJIO copona
(1377 1417). O^H^
cxpanBi npnsHaJiH pnMCKaro nany, ,a,pyria
aBHHBOHCKaro. B-Bpyromie 6ujiu BI dojiBmoM-B CMymenin, He snaa,
KOxopLift nana HCXHHHBIH. Meat^y X-BMI. o6a nann, BCxynHB'B BI
6op&6y Meaj^y co6oro, ^jrajiH see, qxo XOIBKO MOFJIH, ,pa xoro,
qxo6bi onopoqnxB O^HH-B jtpyroro B'B oasaxTb Bcero KaxojrnqecKaro

Mipa. OnnosmwH npomuez nancmsa, 6MBniaa yjKe BecBMa snagnxejiB-


HOK) BO BpeMa aBHHBOHCKaro nji-BHeHia, ein,e doj^e ycujiu.iacb er>
lodu eejiumio pacnojia. OB HaH(5ojbHieio CHJIOIO npoaBH.iacb ona
B-B xo BpeMa B-B tJexiH, r^t C-B nponoB-B^bio npoxHB'b nancxsa BH-
HOBLIH peifjopMaxop-B, flm Fyc^.
205. B-B XIV B. Bi ^exin napcxBosaja jioKceM^yprcKaa ,nn-

HOG H B H Hi 6
HacT | ff npeicxaBHxe.iH KOXODOH sanHJiajiH H npecxo.TB
me BI, ^iexin. PHMCKOH HvnepiH repMancKOH naqiH. B'B 1348 r. oz Upaub
145

ocnooauz yHUGepcumemz, nepetiH B'B npeA'Liax'B Tor^amHeii HMHG-


piH, H B'B HCM-B CTaJIO YIHTbCH MH02R6CXBO MOJO^eatH H3T. ^6x10,
H HO.IBIHH. *IeincKaa n,epKOBL Oujra ocBo6oat^6Ha OX-B
apxienncKony MaftHijCKOMy, npHMacy FepManiH, H B-B

IIparB Hasnaqen'B 6ivn> oco6biii apxienncKoni., aanaBiniHca ncnpa-


npaBOBi) jjyxoBeHCXBa H pasBnxieM'B nponoB'E.UHHqecxBa WR
. l\3i> qemcKaro AyxOBeHCTBa BH^BHHyjroci> Tor^a .aie H^CKOJIBKO
KOiopue naqajiH noyvam\> napodz na eio poduoMz
,

ci TiMi, nopiy u;epKBH. 9ia nponoB-B^b


BM'BCT'B
6cm>iiiOH ycntxi. BT> Hapo^-B, HO B-B Heaw. csepxi xoro
H 6pomenie micmo noAumu^ecKa^o xapanmepa BT> pasHiixx KJiaccaxi
odmecTBa, He^OBO.i&HHXi> CBOHM-B iiojroateHieM &. npoaBHJiac& H CUM-
r

HO.H HaibioHCMbHaH epaoicdo, KI H'BMii;aM'L, npOHHKmaa H B'B

Be^CHT6TT>.
yciaBx p&wbjisJi i> npaazcKiu ynHBepCHTexi Ha
r

u
n Han,iH (qeracKyro, caKCOHCKyro, dasapCKyio H nojrfcCKyio), HO Bt
naqaji^ XV B. qexaMt yjiajiocb Ao6nTBCfl xoro, qxo B-B ^Jiax'b yHHBep-
tt

CHTexa HXI> n nai^ia coxpaHHJia o^na CBOH TOJIOCI., Tor,a,a KaKTb ipn
ocxajiBHEia Han,iH ^ojraiHLi 6miH coodma nojibsoBaitcfl TaKate .innib
O.HHHMTJ rojiocosi'L. (He^OBOJibHbie 9THMT> H-BAmu noKHHyjin Tor,n;a

llpary H ocnoBajiH HOBHH yHHBepcuTeT-L B-B JlefitmHTB).


206. CaMbiM^ BHAHBIMI npeflCTaBHTejieM'b 9Toro pejiHriosnaro
H Han,ioHajibHaro Bospoat^eHia ^exiH 6uai> ttm Fycz (1369 1415).
OH-B npOHCxo^HJii HSI. KpecibaHCKoft ceMbH H npOBejrb paHHioio MO-
BT& roro-sana^HOM^ yrjy lexin, r^i atHJin PH^OM-B H qexn, H
H Meatfly odinMH Hapo^HOCTaMH nponcxoflHJiH nocToaHHbia
pacnpH. OKOHqHBi Kypc-B B'B npajKCKOM^ yHHBepCHTeii, Fyci
Jia.icaCBam.eHHHKOM'B H nponoerbdnuKOMZ ez Biw.ieeMCKOu nacoentb
Flpari, Hapoqno ocHOBanHofi flja ^eincKott nponoBiflH. BM'BCT'B
TilM-B OHl SaHaJI'B H M^CTO HpO^CCCOpa BTb yHHBepCHT6T'B,
CKOpo BbiflBHHyjrca H 6um> peKTOpOMi,, cmaez eo waon> uewcxou
napmiu, KaK'B pasi. BTE, TO BpeMa, Korjta eme TaM'B nwa 6opb6a
"
Haii,iaMH .
IIoyqeHia H
jeKnJH Fyca nojibsoBajHCb 6ojb-
ycirBxoM-B y cjymaTejieH. IIponoB'B.nyfl ws> BnejieeeMCKOH qa-
COBH'B fljia npocToro Hapo^a, OH'B KpOMi TOFO BbiCTynajn.
KOMT> H npH KOpojieBCKOMi) flBopi, H Ha c^'Bs^ax'B qeuiCKaro
BeHCTBa. B'B CBOHXI> SorocJiOBCKHX-B sanariax'B OH'B cxoHJ'B cnaqajia Ha
CTporc-KaxojiHqecKOH ToqK-B spinia, HO Majo-no-Majiy cxaJTB yceoueamb
esi.tfidbi BuKJiwJJa, coqHHema Koxoparo OKOJIO 1400 r.

pacnpocTpanHJHCB cpe,a,H MarHcxpoBi, npaatCKaro yHHBepcn-


Texa. Fyc-B ne pas^-BJiaji'B BosspiHifi BHKJH(|)a, KacaBranxca, Hanp.,
eBxapHcxin, HO BM'BCT'B c'B anoiHCKHM-B petjiopMaxppOM'B OH-B ^yMaji-B,
qxo cexiyenHoe nuccwie ecmb editHcmoeuHbiu ucmonuuKZ en>pbt.
HCTOI'IH. 10
146

Kor^a qacTB npaaiCKaro .nyxoBencTBa naqajia odBHnaTB yqenie BHK-


jiH(J)a
BI> epecn, 6ujn> ycTpoeni, .uncnyrB, Ha KOTOPOM-B Fyc^ #o-
ITO MHoria no-aoazema anrjiificKaro 6oroc.iOBa npaMO ne-
HCB-EPHO ero npoTHBHHKaMH. 9io npOH3Be.no nenpiaTHoe
na apxienncKona, a Guy ata.iOBajHC& na Fyca enje H
MHorie CBameHHHKH, KOTOPBIXTE. FycrB nopmjajTB sa TO, ^TO OHH ci. 6^-
HBIX-L 6pajiH ACHBrH npH coBepmeHiH ^JIH HHX-L Tpe6t. ApxienncKOirL
jiHmHjii) ero SBaflia nponoB^HHEa na c'L'fes.nax'B ^yxoBencTBa; a noTOMi

eny 6mio 3anpem,eHO H CBamencTBOBaiB. Mea^y T-BM^ coHHHeHia BHK-


jiH^a 6miH ocyat^eHBi uepKOBHOio BJiacTBio, HO npaatcmn ynHBepcn-
npoiecTOBaji-B npOTHBi> 3ioro, ^,OKa3BiBaa HenpaBHjiBHOCTB MHO-
MOTHBOB-L xaKOH M^pBi. 3a TaKyio samHiy BnKJiH(|)a Fyc-B ^BIJI-B
OTB n;epKBH H BBiSBani, B-B PHM-B KT. OTB-Biy, H TOJIBKO sa-
Kopoja (Ban,jiaBa), jno6nBmaro Fyca, noKa cnacjio ero
OTI, npec-TEflOBama. 9xo cjryqnjrocB yate ior,a;a, Kor,a;a eeAuniu pacKOM

ocAOotCHUMR noa8MHieMi> mpemiiHio nanu. O^HH-B HS^ cnopHBmHX'B


sa BJiaciB nan'B (loaHH-B XXIII) o6'BaBHJi'B npOTHBi, T-BCHHBmaro
ero Kopojia HeanojrHTancKaro KpeciOBBiH noxo^-B C-B oinymeHieMTb
KTO 6v^,eTi co^ficTBOBaiB nancTBy. Fyci eucmynuM
rp'ftxOB!, BC^MI.,

npomu&t nancKOu 6y.uu o6z uudyMiem<,iHXz na ^Hcnyi'B, rfl'B ocna-


pHBaJI'B HX"B SaKOHHOCTB H flOKaSBIBaJTB Bpe^l) OTTb HHX'B RJIfL HpaBCTB6H-
HOCTH. To me caMoe roBopnjix OH^ H BI, CBOHX-B nponoB-BAax'B B-B

qacoBH-B. FjraBHBia CBOH ^OKasaxejiBCTBa OHI> sanMCTBo-

npn 3TOMi> npaaio HS'B co^HHeHift B0KJiH(|)a. Ha ciopOHy Fyca


H ciy^eHTBi, H MHorie ropo/Kane. 13% Jlpairb uanajiucb eoA-
neuiH\ nancKaa 6yjr.ia 6Bijra coaiaieHa; ipn
mie B'B n,epKBH, qxo nancKaa 6yjJia OAHHT,
HaA'B Ilparoio 6ujn> o6'BaBjieH'B HHiepAHKT^. Majio-no-MaJiy
6pomeHie cxajro pacnpocipaHaiBca H BH^ lemcKofi CTOJinaBi. IIo ate-

Kopojia Fyci. .nojiaieH'B SBIJII. ociaBHTB Ilpary, HO 310 TOJIBKO


eny BOSMOSKHOCTB nponoB^OBaTB H B-B ^pyraxi. M'BCTaxi,
Tor^a ate OffB HanHcaj-B coqHHenie n O n,epKBH
ocHOBHBie ero BsrjraflBi onaTB-TaKH y BnKJiH^a. IIIyMi, KOiopBiii
npaaccma co^BiTia, pacnpocTpaHHJica ji,ajreKO sa npe-
'lexiH, H 6paT-B qemcKaro Kopojra CuimMyudt, 6BiBmiH Tor^a
HMnepaTOpOMi. ET> FepMamn H EM^CTE ci> T^M-B Hacji'EAHHKOM'B
lemcKaro npecmia, nainejii. nyatHBiMi, BM^raaTBca BI> 9TO pfejio, co-
3BaBT> C06op B, Ha KOTOpBIH 3BHJTCa 6u H FyC'B.
r

207. MHCJIB o HCOSXCAHMOCTH cosBania co6opa 6uja


pacnpocTpaneHa H nony.iapHa H BTJ BH^y npoHCineAmaro BX
(})opMii.
qecKOH nepKBH pacKOJia. IlapnatCKiH yHHBepCHTeTi, (Cop6oHHa,
ero SBMH), nojiBSOBaBHiiHca SOJIBEDHMI, aBTOpirreTOM'B BO BC'BX-B
147

CTpasaxi), BBicTynH.i'B ct
IVE.IBIM-B yqemeATB o

nopiH n,epKBH H cpeACTBax'B ycTpaHema 3Jia. Do aiojiy yqe-


Hiio, see 3.10 npoucxodu.io omi upeiMrbpnaio ydeAWieuix nancnou
e.iacmu na cnenu o6iyuxs u Mtbcmnuxt cofiopoot (BcejieHCKHX-B H
IlapmKCKie 6orocJiOBBi, HS-L KOTOPHXI, oco6enHO
MepcoHt, yTBepJE^ajiH, ^TO eceMHCKiu co6opi ebime
nanu, H ^TO OT^JBHUfl HaujoEiajbHUfl i^epKBH (nanp., rajuiHKaH-
CKaa, x.-e. ^paHnyscKaa) ^oJiaJHH no^LSOBaTtca HSBiciHOio caMO-
H UMnmi) C6ou oco6ue co6opbi. Bi coSopi STH
iH H Jiyqmee cpe^ciBO %m npeKpamenia pacKOJia.
IIo HXI HacTOflHiro B-L 1408 r. BI> limn 6uM coseaH* cofiopb djtn
pacKO.ta, HO OH-L TOJILKO yxyAnrHJH) nojoatenie Bemeft.
co6op B npHrjiacHJii, H pHMCKaro, H aBHHLOHCKaro nany
i

OTpeiBca OTL CBoero cana, HO HH TOTB, HH ^.pyroii ne XOTEJIH no-


a Meat^y T-BM-L na co6opn eu6pa^u mpemwio nany.
,
9TOT-L nana CKopo ynep-L, HO y Hero neuejweHHO
Tpexifi
npeeMHHKt, KOTOPHH npHnflj!!, HMH loanna XXIII. 3io
.iOB'EK'B secBMa nopoqHHH H B-L MOJIO^OCTH ^aate

MOpCKHM-B pa36oeMl>. TiCKHMBIH KO^OJICM-B HeanOJIHTaHCKHMTb,


ncKa.ii 3ain,HTBi y HMnepaiopa CuiusMynda, KOTOPBIH H
ero HaKonen,! cosBaiB coSopi B'B KonciaHii.'B.
208. K
KoHCTaHn,CKift codop'B npoflOJUKaBmiiicfl OKOJO HeiBipex'B
f\A\A *A*0\ *>
CK1H
.TBTB (H14 l4-lo), npHSHaJITb CeOfl BCeJieHCKHM'B H HOCiaBHJI'B
mpu aadauu: npeKpaut/enie pacnoAa, pecfiopMy nepmu u pas-
epecu," Tyca. Ha co6op B c^-BxajiHCB H-BCKOJIBKO TBI-
r
ie

^yxoBEBixi, JIH^ & H MHorie rocyAapn. OAHMMTB HS-B


r

BHAHMBIX-B ji.'BflTejreH co6opa 6ujii> ^Kepconi, KOTOPBIH H


nocTaHOBjenie o TOMT., qio cofiopz euiue nanu u UMrbemz npaeo
cydumi u nu3Aaiami> nam. KoHCTaHii,CKiH coSop'B O^'BHEHJI-B Bctx-B
xpexi, conepHHKOBi no nancisy HHSJiojKeHHBiMH, a loanea XXIII
no^Beprx $opMajiBHOMy cy^y sa ero nopoiHyro KHSHB. ITap-
^,aaie
iia n,epKOBHoii
pe<|)opMKi o^eHB, o^HaKO, 6ooacB, HTO ecjrn ro.ioca
Ha coSopi 6yAyrB no^aBaiBca HOFOJIOBHO, TO no6'BAaT'B HTajBancKie
(yMmpaMOHtnaubi, T.-e. saropnue), KOTOPBIX-B B'B KOH-
6BMO oco6eHno MHOFO, H HacTOH.ia Ha TOMX, qTo6Bi IOAOCCI
nodaea.mcb no navfifiMi, KaKOBBixi. ^BIJIO npnsHaHO HHTB: HTa.i&flH-
, (J)paH^y3CKafl, HcnancKaji, anoiHCKaa H repMancKaa (K-B no-
H 6BMH npnqHCJieHBi CKaHAHHaBCKie, 3anaji,HO-cjiaBflHCKie H
BenrepcKie npejaiBi). IIo sonpocy o TOMI,, nponsBecTH JH
pe<f)opMy, a HOTOM-B BBiSpaiB nany HJIH nocTynHTB n
rojoca nar^in pasA^HJiHCB, H TpH rojioca npOTHBi, ^Byx-B
JIOCB sa BLioopi) nanBi. Tor^a H36pa.ia HOBaro
nany BI JIHI;^ Map-
10*
148

muna F, KOTOPHH nocniuiHJi'L saKJio^nib KOUKOpdamu cs om-


drbAbHblMU HOUfiOMU
paS'BCAHHHTB H HHTepeCBI. EtH,e CE- HX1, B'B

MOMI. Ha^a-ni co6opa 6ujio nocTaHOBjeno na oiepe^t H dn>.to Pyca.


ripejKfle Bcero cofiop'B ocy^HJi'L epecB BniuiH(|)a, HO Fyca
OCiaBHTB B'B BOKO'S, 6C.1H OH$ MOJIia COFJiaCHTCfl

OAHaico, sparn pe^opMaiopa XOT^JIH BO qio 6ti TO HB


qemcitie
ciajio ero nory6HTL H Ha^ajiH npHnHCHBaxt eMy Bosap-Bnia, KOTO-
OH-L BOBce He pasjdbHJTL. Eiviy npe^ioatHJH xor^a OTpe%ca oxt

^eHiH, HO OHX oiB'E Tia.3T>, ^TO oit MHtniH, eMy JIOJKHO


r

npHnHCHBaeMLix &, esiy nejiBsa OTpei&Cfl, T^MI, caMBiM'L ne npn-


SHaBt HX'B HKO 6tl CBOHMH, a 01"B A'BHCTBHTeJIBHLIX'L CBOHXI, Mflt-
HiH OH'B TOTOBl, 6BIJH, OLI OTKaSaTBCfl .IHfflB BT> TOM1) CJiy^ia^, 6CJIH

6ti ero y6 B^,HJH BI


i

HXt HCB'BPHOCTH TCKCiaMH HSI Bn6jiiH. TaKi,

Fyci, He XOT'BJI'B desycJiOBHO nofliHHHTBca co6opy, He


n cojiraTB BonpeKH rojrocy COB-BCTH", TO OHT, H

ocywcdem ua cooKiiceme, nans epemmz, HecMOTpa na TO, HTO HM'JII>


OT-B CarHSMyHAa oxpaHHyro rpaMOTy. KasHB 6Bua coBepineHa B-B
1415 r. Fyc& Bsonrejii, Ha KOCTepi ci> MyatecTBOMi, ApeEHnxx xpn-
CTlaHCKHX'B MyqeHHKOB-B, XOT* H MOFB 6u HpHTBOpHBIMT>
HieM-B cnacTH CBOK) JKHSHB.
209. HsB'BCTie o coauuemH Fyca BHSBaJio BT> ^exin
Heiodoeame npomuez cofiopa. MemcKoe J^BOPSHCTBO na
jBHateme.
BI> llpara cocTaBHJio npOTecT-B HPOTHB-L BTOFO nocTynna H HPHHHJO
na ce6a o6a3aTejBCTBO ^.OSBOJIHTB B'B CBOHXI,

nponoB'BAfc CjiOBa Bo^ia. OAHHM'B HSI, TpeSoBaniil


Fyca AonymeHie Mipani, #0 npHqamema HS-B qaniH, T.-e.
c.a.'BJia.iocB

npunay^eniH nodt> ofiouMU eudaMU, OTKy^a H-ECKOJBKO doji'fee no3,a;-


nee HasBanie O.HHOH iacTH rycHTOBi Ka.tUKcm^tH^aM^^ (T.-C. qaui-
HHKaMn) HJIH ympaKeucmaMU (OTI> sub n utraque" specie; no-qem-
CKH OHH Ha3LiBa.iHCB nodofioHMu). Co6op-B C'B CBoefi CTOpOHii ocy-
AHJI npHHamenie MipsH'B no^i, O^OHMH BHAEMH, KaKi> epecb, H no-
TpeSoBajnb KI> CBoeiiy cy^y ^BOpaH'B, HOAHHcaBniJfX'B npOTecT-B. BTB
1416 r. 6HJIX cy^HM-B sa epecB H npe^ati-B coatateniio na KOCTpi H
Fyca, lepouum JIpawcKiii. BcKOpt B'B ^exin Ha-
H Hapo^Hoe B03CTaHie, BO spena KOTOparo KOpo^B BaH-
yuep-B (1419). ^exn ne saxoT'BJiH npH3HaTB CBOHM-B rocyjia-
pejwi> ero 6paTa CnrHSMyHAa H onojiqajiHCB na BCC H'BMei^Koe. Ha-
iajiHC& TaKi-HasMBaeMBia lyciimcmfi eotmu (1420 1431), B'B KO-
TOpBIXI> ^eXH npOaBHJH 60JIBHiyK) XpadpOCTB H HaCTOHIHBOCTB. Ho
C'B caMaro naiajia rycHTCKaro ABHatenia B-B HCMI, oGuapy.mu-
r
dea HanpaeMnm. OAHO 6BUO 6oj Be KOHcepBaTHBHBiMi,, ^pyroe
,.
CTOPOHHHKH nepsaro, npancane (yrpaBBHCTa)r
149

^acxbro Bbicniee ^BOpancxBO H ropo/Kane, cxoajH ua TOH


fl,
gxo He CJiiAyeit yHHixoaiaxb xoro, qxo npaMO CBH-
nHcamio ne npoxHBOpljqHX'b. Apyraa napxia xpe6oBa,m,
Hao6opox-B, ycxpanenia H3i> IJCPKOBHOH JKHSHH ecero, ixo CJIOBOM-B
Bo/KiKM-B ne npe,a,nHCBiBajiocb npano. Ona cocxoa.ua npeHMymecxBCHHO
H3t Me.iKaro ABOpaHCXBa H KpecibaHT) M noJiy^Hja HasBanie mafio-
pumoet OTX M-fecia CBOHXI nepBOHaqajrbHHX'B coSpamft Ha XO-OTE,
nasBaHHOM-b ropOH GaBopoMt (Ta6opi)), r^i CKOpo, BOSHHK'b yKp'fen.ieH-
HBIH Jiarepb BTOH napxiH. Ta6opnxBi oxBeprain ^orMaxi. o npecyme-

cxBjreHin, noKJiOHeHie HKOHaii'L H Mom,aMi), u;epKOBHyK) odpa^HOCXb


H x. H oxjHqajHCb cypOBHMi, oSpasoMi, SIHSHH H 6o:ii>uittm> pe-
n.
jiHriosHbiM'b o^ymeB.ieHieMx, npHSHasaa, o^naKO^ sa oxA^bHbiMH JIH-

u,aMH C6o6ody coencmu, x.-e. CBo6oAy Ra^aro sipaxb no CBoeMy.


Cpe^H xadopHxoB'L cma.io paseueambcn ceKmaumcmoo C'B ostHAaHieMt
xbicanejiixHaro n,apcxBa XpHcxosa na sejo-B (xEJiiacxtr) HJH BOS-
I paflcKOMy 6jaaieHcxBy (aAaMHxti). Y xaGopHxoB-L
H 9HeprnqHbie BO/K^H B-B Jiuufe ffua MUWCKU H ^Byxi JlpOKO-
noez EOMWOIO H MCMCIIO. liana od'BflBHJi'B npoxHB'b rycnxoB'B
cmoeuu noxodz, HO ICXH ne XOJIBKO ox6nj[H Hana^eHie
H H'BJvmeB'b, HO H caMH .naaje nepenj.iH ET> Hacxynjienie.
210. KoHcxaHn,CKm co6opi), npeKpaxasi. pacKOJii BBidopOATB
MapxHna V, ne XOJTBKO ne npOH3Be.ii. pe^opMBi
HO BBI- ii;epKBH,
HCH em,e rycnxcKyio onno3Hn,H), npHHaBmyro onacHBie
B-B

H AJia KaroJiHHecKOH n,epKBH, H ,pa FepManiH. Xoxa B-B


KoHCxann.'B n 6BMO nocxaHOBjeno cossaxB ET, HenpOAOJiatHxe.ibnoM'b
HOBBIH co6op^, CHrnsMyH^y y^,a.iocb nacxoaxb na npHBe-
HcnojHeme axoro p-Bmenia jrnnib B'B 1431 r., Kor^a ry-
<!HxcKoe jJiBHaseme npHHfljio oqeHb rposHBie pasMipu. Ease^GKiu co-

fiopz, cosBaHHBiH nanoio EeienieAfb /FB-BBXOM^ rojiy, saaBH.i'B ci ca-


Maro Hana-ia, HXO ero saAanen 6y^,exi. pecfiopjua uepneu o% i.m&n> u UM-
uaxz. Ilani 9x0 HC noupaEHJOCB, n OET> pirnHJca-oBiJio pacnycxnxB co-
FpOMa^Hoe 6o,ibmHncxBO ero qjienoBi, HC saxox^Jio, OAHano, no,n-
.

ipe^OBaHiio nanij, H XOX-B ,o,ojiaEeH b OBIJI^ oxM-BHnxb CBOC


r

o pocnycK-B. BT, BHAV, o^HaKO, onacnocxH,


Oasejibcmfi co6opi> nomeji-B Ha ycxynKH H
rycHxcxBa,
IH.TB C'B
yxpaKBHCxaMH floroBopi. (KOMnaKxaxBi), AonycKaBfflifi npn-
Hamenie no^ o6oHMH BH^MH H yAOBJiexBOpHBraift flpyri
6ojTBe yM-BpeHHOH H3i. HHXI., HO xadopHXBi ne saxoxijin
axoro .norOBOpa. Meat^y X^M-B posuB Meaj^y odinMH rycnxcKHMH
napxiaMH jjaBHO rposHJia SOJBUIHMH 6"BAaMH, xaKi KaKi> xa6o-
PHXII cxpeMH.iHCb K-B ^eMOKpaxjmecKHM'B* nopa^KaMi. H BI rocy-
AOUI.IO y HHX-B AO nacxoan^aro MeatAoyco6ia, B'B
150

KOTOpoM-B Ta6op0TBi noiepirkiH nopajReme. H^CKOJLKO


HXI yqeme 6tiJio sanpenjeHO, HO OT'B HHX'B Bce-iaKH ociajiHCb 06-
in,HHBi Taiei. HasHBaeMHxi uewcKuxz H MopaecKuxb 6patnbeez, OT-
KasaBiiiiaca OT-B npemeeH BOHHCTBeimocTH Ta6opaxoBT> RJIK MHPHOH
H Tpy,noJiio6HBOH JKH3HH. IloKOHiHB-B C'B rycHTCKHM^ flfcioMi, 6a-
sejiBCKiH codopt npiiCTynujTB KI> Bonpocy o pe^opM-fe i;epKBH, KO-

xopyio H naiaji'L ci yMeHtmeHia nancKHXi. AOXOAOBX. EBreniH IY


OHHTB odflapyatHJi'B SesnoKOHCTBO H nepenecT) sacndamx co6opa eo
efl.ioaKHJi'L sasaTbca eonpocoMz o6& yuiu o,% eo-
(1439). ^aciL qjenoBi co6opa nocji'B.noBajia
sa nanoio BO ^jiopeni^iio, onacaacb Hosaro pacKOJia Meat^y na-
noio H co6opOMi>, HO Apyraa npowjiffiajia CBOH sac^aHia BI, Ba-
seji'B H flaate BH6pajia ^pyroro nany. TOJIBKO qepesi. H-BCKOJBKO ji-BTt
"
(1449) 6a3e.n>n;Li pas^ixajiHCB, nnqero He CA'kiaB'L, a HXT> nana
(yiOJKHjra C'B ce6a cani,. ^w>^o cofiopnou pecfiopMu OKOumuiocb
o6pa30M% nomow neydaneio.
211*. XV B. nanciBO, noBH^HMOMy,
B'B cepe^HH B r

Hann BTopofi caM yjQ Haai BciiMH onnosHijioHHLiMH


nOJIOBHHH J coBepnieimyio
J no6^iy
J
.
v v
XV B. HO na caMOMi ^JTB OHO uaxooujiocb &z nojiuoMt HpaecmeennoMi
ynadnrb. IlanEi STOH BHOXH (H Haiaja XYI B.) 6miH npeaiAe Bcero
limaMflHCKUMU lOCydapHMH, HOJIHTHKaMH H BOHHaMH, 3a60THBHJHMHCa
,THHib o6i> HHTepecaxi> II,epKOBHOH o6jiacTH HJIH CBoefi PO.HUH, pe-
.inria aie 6biJia HHX'B TOJIBKO opyjueM?) Bjacin H HCTO^HHROM^
RJIR

AOXOAOB'L. To, 1TO Ha^aJIOCb B'B ABHHbOH'B, BTE> PHM^ HaHIJIO TOJIbKO
CBoe npoflOJUKeme H ^ajibflMmee pasBHTie. IlanLi BGJIH

CKift oSpas'L at3HH H ycipanBajiH npn CBoeait ,a,Bopi

y^acxBOBajiH B'B nojiHTHqecKHXi. 3aroBOpaxi> H caMH HXI>


o6oranj,ajiH CBOHX-B po.a.HBix'B na cqei-B n,epKBH H
XOBHBIMH ,a;ojimHOCTaMH, HHAyjibreHujaMH, ^HcneHcau,iaMH (ocBo6o-
OT'B H.epKOBHBIX'B HpaBHJI^) H T. H. MHOrie H31> HHXT> 110-

HOBOMy CB^TCKOMy o6pa30BaHiK), OCHOBaHHOMy


Ha HsyieHin .upeBHnxi. KJiaccHKOBx, cano /fie 910 HanpaB.ieflie OT-
jiHiajiocB BI yKasaHHyio anoxy nojinHMi, paBHOAymieM'B K-B n.epKBH.
Oco6eHHO nopo^HOCTBio CBOCIO npocJiaBHJica nana AMKcandpz VI
(1492 1503)({>aMHJiiH Eopdotcia, oien.'B HSB-BCTHBIX-B KpaHHero
HBTb

pa3Bpani;eHHOCTBK) H JKCCTOKOCTBIO JIyKpen,iH H Il^esapa Bop^atia.


OHT. bTA^Jiajica nocpe^CTBOMX a^a H KHHTKaja OT'B MHornxx MCJI-
KHX-B BJia^TejeH cliBepHOH qaciH II,epKOBHOH oGjiacTH, H ,na;Ke co-
3,u,ajracB Jieren^a, dy^TO H caarB OH-L yMep'b, npHHaB-B no OUIHO'K'E
a.n'B, npHroTOBJieHHUH ^JIH rocTeii, KOiopbixi) OH-B co6apa,ica oxpaBHib.
212*. B'B caiiojrB Ko*nn,t XV B. ne^OBOjiBCTBO ncnopieHHOCTLio
n anciBa C'B oco6oio CHJIOIO BHpasHJiocB B-B nponoB-BAH (|)jropeHTiH-
151

CKaro jionaxa HST,


op^eHa .noMHHHKaHn.eB'B fimupojiaMO CaeonapoAU.
3xo OHJI-L ydiat^eHUHH acKext B-B coBepmeHHO
ayxij, yM^Bmifi AMcxBOBaxB
sa Hapo/p. BfloxnoBeHHBiMH H
IILIMH p-siaMH. ^jropeHuja, 6BiBmaa cna^ajia pecnytfjiHKOH, HO no-
TOMI> nonaBmaano^t BJiacxB ^aMBJiia Meduuu, HOCJTB CMepiH
OAHoro H3t EHX-B BepHyjiacB onaxB M. pecnydjiHKaHCKOMy peaiHMy.
OKOJIO Toro ate BpeaieHH na Hxajiiio C^JIB.JIT, Hana^enie
KOPOJIB (Kapjii VIII), HO CaBonapOJi'fc, cxaBmeMy
BH.nHLix'L .n.'BflxejieH BOSCxaHOBJieHHOH pecny6jiHKH,
XOJIBKO-HXO
samnxnxB iiepeA'B HHM'B HHxepecLi ropo^a CBOHMH
Bc^ 3XH co6Lixifl OKasajiH BjiaHie Ha
$jiopeHi],iH, oxjinqaBmenca xor^a pocKomHUMi. H BecejriiM'B o6pa30MX
;KH3HH, H BI> Hefi BonapHJiocB 6oji4e cepBGSHoe HacxpoeHie. nponoB-B^H
CaBOHapOJIBI, Bl KOXOpBIX-B OH6HB MHOFO TOBOpHJOCB H606xodUMOCmU
ucnpaeMuin ipawcdaucKOu u i^epno'enou OKUSHU, npnBJieKaxB cxajin

naccy CJiymaxe.ieH H nponsBOAH^H Bneqaxji-BHie. /^JIG ,a;oinjio AO


Hia na Kocxp'fe MacKapa^HBix'B KOCXIOMOBI,,

HHCxpyMenxoBi^ KapxHu-B H KHHri. jierKaro


ycnix-B HM^JIH H win nponoendu CaeouapOMi, nomopun
nopOKu dyxoeencmea, H BI. nacxHOCxn p^qn, nanpaBJieHHBifl npo-
XHBX nanH AjieKcan^pa VI, KaK-B-pas-B BI> BXO speMa npocJia-
BHsmaroca CBOHMH cxparaHBiMH sjio.a.'BaHiaMH. IIpe^cxaBHxejiH ncnop-
qeHHaro KaxojiHi^HSMa BOSHeHaBH^.'BJiH sa 9x0 CaBonapojiy, Koxoparo
He jno^HJiH xaKate H CXOPOHHHKH <f>aMHJiiH Meji,HqH,
BO $jiopeHn,iH, pasno KaK^ H BC-B rpaatflane,
B-B aiHSHB qyxB He MOHacxBipCKaro pejKHMa. B-B KOHU,-B

KOH^OB'B HM-B y^ajocB saxsaxHXB CM^jraro odjiHiHxejia nopOKOB-B


nanu H ^yxoBCHCXBa H noca^nxB ero B^ xropBMy, T%k OHI> ^BM-B
ji,aiKe no^BeprHyx^ nBixKaM-B. AjieKcaH,np^ VI (TB CBOCH cxopOHBi
.a.Jia cy^a Ha^
noc.iajn> BO $jropeHH,iio H^CKOJBKHX'B ynojiHOMo^enHBix^

CaBOHapojiOH. By^yin o6BHHeHi> 6e3i> BcaKaro ocHOBanin Bt epecw,


OHT> 6uM ecKOprb samrbMb msnem nocpedcmeoMZ comMceniH na
Kocmprb (1498).
213. B-B 9xy anoxy BHyxpenHaro pasJiosKenia sanaXHOH n,epKBH
^
-, fK;ui vna.
uepnoeb nooeepiaActCb OOMWOU eurbwneu onacuocmu OX-B
xypKaMH BajiKaHCKaro nojryocxpOBa. BHsanxiHCKoe npa-
HCKajio cnacenia Ha Sana^ H TOXOBO 6Bi.io HOAIHHHXB
i^epKOBB PHMy. IlanLi nonuiH Ha Bcxptiy 9xoMy a;e-

H EBremH IV ua cofiopn, nepeeedeuuoMb usz Easejin eo

npHHajnb B-B oSmeHie C"B PHMCKOK) n,epKOBbK) BHsaHxifi-


CKaro HMnepaxopa loanna VII Ilajieojiora H MHornxTb BBicmnxi.

rpeiecKott u,epKBH (1439), npe.ncxaB.iHBinHX'B co-


152

6oio Bee Hacejieme npaBocjraBHBixi rocy,a,apCTBi. YcjiOBia


miiiCKou (>HJIH Taida: BOCTO<maa n,epKOBB ^ojiataa fitiJia
yum npn-
3HaxB BJiaciB nanii, .norMaii n yieme o HECTHJIRUI$ H
Filioque",
T. n., HO npn 3TOMi MOivia coxpanaib gamy JUJIH. MipaHi, ateHaxoe
flyxoBencTBO, napo^Hue asEiKH Bi SorocjiyateHia H B0o6in,e Bci npejK-
nie o6pa,pi. ^JiopeHTiiiCKaa ynia BT& XV
B. 6&iJia oiBeprHyia npa-

BOCJiaBHHMH Hapo^aMH, HO si KOHD, ! XVI CTOJitiia nanaMi> y^a-


1

JIOCB Bce-TaKH no^iHHHTb ce6fc na Hanajiaxi. (JjJopeHTiHCKOH yuin


pyccKyio i^epKOBb BI no.iLCKO-jrHTOBCKOM'B rocy^apCTE'E (6pecTCKaa
yma 1596 r.)

III.

214*. Bo BHyipeHHeH HCiopm sana^HO-eBponeHCKnxi, rocyflapciB-B


'

XIV H XV BE. noumu eesdtb npoucxodujio ycuMuie locydap-


grj,
CO.IKTHOH KO-
cmeennou emcmu na cieT^ (eoAajiHSMa. lle^CTaBHiejiflMH STOH
BT,
BJiacTH BO BC'Ext 6oj&uiHxi> rocyAapCTBaxi) 6HJH Kopojiu, BI> Fep-
6oAn>e upynnue KHHS^H. Focno^CTByiomeio (JjopMOK) npaBJie-
Ha Bi) .naHHoe speMa Bes^ ociaBaJiaci) cocjioenan Monapxa, Koxopaa
B-B XII XIII BB. CMtHHJia co6oK> Mouapxiw cfieodaMuyw, HO yaie BI
XV CTOJi-BiiH odnapyrnHJiHCE) nepBLie npHsnaKH TOFO, ^TO cocJiOBHaa MO-

Hapxia ciajia nepexo,a;HTB BI Monapxiw a6co^wmHyjo. Bi, cpe,a;eie B-BKa


Ha Sanafl-E ne cym,ecTBOBajio H ne MOFJIO cymecTBOBait HeorpaHH^eH-
HOH KOpojreBCKOH BJiacTH, HO saio meopemuuecKU oua MHOIUMU npu-
3uaeajiac'b. r.naBHHMH npOBO^HHRaMH H^en a6cojriOTH3Ma BB cosna-
nie o6m,ecTBa 6iajiH saKOHOB'B^Ei, HsynaBinie puMCKce npaeo
H Haxo^HBmieca na cjiya^'B y HMnepaxopOBi) (ci XII B.) H
EiyscKHxi. Kopojiefl (C-B XIII Ho
yiemro, Koiopoe
B.). HXI,

ycBoeno, nanp., ForeHinTay^eHaMH, rocy^apB ne MOII, 6HTB csa-


3aHi> HHKaKHMH saKonaMH (legibus solutus), BO $pann,iH ate

6opoBniieca ci (^eo^ajiHSMOMi,, oco6eHHO onnpajiHCfc Ha


S ^TO 6jaroyro^,HO rocy^apro, HM^eTTb cnjiy saKOiia"
HOCTB He cooxB'ETCTBOBajiaj o^HaKo, TaKoft xeopin. CfiameHHaa PHM-
CKaa HMnepia cocxoajia USX KHaatecTB^ H ropo^OB'B, CTpeMHBnmxca
KI caMocToaxejbHOCTH, a BO $paHn;iH KOPOJIB BI .o.iji'B Hs^ania
HOBLix'B saKOHOBi, HyjK^ajica Bi corjiacin ,a;yxoBHLixi> H CB'BTCKHX'B
cenbepoB-B H KOMaiyHi. Bi AfloiH jtaate H coBciMi He 6mio ieo-
HanpOTHBi, TaMoniHie BHajieHHTLie lopncxu
a6cojiH)TH3Ma;
XIII Epanmom
B. H Bi XV <PopmeCKbw) npflMO y^HJia, ITO
ycxanoBjaeTca Kopojieni ci corjiacia BejiBMoati H Hapo^a.
BnepBtie na^ajii ycmaHaejiueambCH aficojiiomusMi JIUIM, ez llma-
4iu XIV H XV BB.
153

215. BT> cpeAuie B^KE na sana^ Eoponu nepBHMH rocv,nap-


_,

CXBaMH, KOTOpHX'L eepXOOHdH 6MlCmb H6 UMTb.10, HUHCIO OOW,aiO C2


B-B

(peodaMHWMz seMAee^adrbuieMz, SHJH HxaJiBaHCKia pecnyd^HKH BHOXH


KpecxoBBix-B noxoAOB'B. Ho pecnytaKaHCKaa (fropMa BT, HHXI. 6o.ab-
nieio qacxBK) He y,a,epJKa./iacB. BT> OTA'S JBHBI XT. ropo^axi)
H cpe^Hefi HxajiiH nponcxoAHJia 6opi>6a Meotcdy tioiamuMU K
ct OAHOH CTOpOHH H peMecjienuunaMU ci Apyrofi. 9xa 6op&6a ro-
po.3,CKOHSHaiH ct npocTHMi. HapOAOMt BOoCme HanoMHiiaeTi 6opi>6y
apucTOKpaxiH H ^GMOKpaiiH B-L ^peBHe-rpeqecKHxi. pecny&iHKaxt, HO
OCOOGHHO ea^jao TO, qio H HCXOA* 9xon 6opb6Bi 6ujn xaKate o^HHaKO-
BLIMI BI o6oHxi, cjiy^aaxt. Bi. KOHH^ cpe^nnxt B-BKOBI. BO Mnornxi.
HTaJH.HHCKHX'B ropo^axi, onnpaacL Ha n M6JBiii jro^i" (popolo mi-
nuto), zaxeamuecMU ejiacmb npednpiuMuueue Heomojuofafbi BI,
aHTHqHHXl, THpaHHOBl. H ^JiaJIHCb Bl 9THXI.
T.-6. KHHSLflMH H ^ase OCHOBaTGJIflMH D.'BJIIJXi .HHHaCTifi. H-BKOTOpIie
H3i. HHXI> 6HJIH paHtnie KoudomiepaMU, i.-e.

BOHCKI,, nocTynaBmHMH na cjiyat6y sa ^enbrn KI.


TaKie KHHSBH He HM&IH yaie HHqero
..

HM6HH, CI. KHflSBflMH ^eO^aJBHOH 3HOXH. 3lO 6BTJIH


mieca HC Ha 36MJieB.iia,irEHie, a na coiyBCTBie HacejieHifl H Ha

CH.iy. II09TOMV OHH H6 6UJIU lOCI/dapXMU-nOMtbUlUmMlt, H y HHX1. 6BIJIH


noddaHHbie, a ue eacca^u. TaKHMH KHHSBflMH (iepu,oinMu) E% Mujianrb
CBIJIH CHaiaJia npaBHiejiH HSI. ^asinjiH BucKonmu, saBoeBaBmie BCIO

iK), a nocjii HHXI> BjiaciB nepenuia K-B ^aMHJiiii Ccfiopita, ocuo-

KOTOpoft (^paaqecKo)SBIJIT. paHBHie KOH^OTBepOMx. H BHC-

KOHTH, H C(|)0pl^a OTJIHqaJIHCB XHTpOCTBK), BtpOJIOMCTBOM'B H ateCTO-


KOCTBK), HOA06HO H flpyrHMI,, OOJ'te MCJIKHM-B HTaJIBflHCKHMl, flH-
TOH 9HOXH. Bo &iopcm4iu, noAiHHHBHieH ceSt BCH) Toc-

paHHifl.nocxajacB 6aHKHpcKofi ({>aMHJiiH Medmu, KOiopBie


(npn Ro3UMo) xjionoxajH JiwrnB o TOMX, qxo6u BC-B Baat-
pecny6jiHKH 6Bi,iH sanaxBi HXI. npnBepateHi^aMH, a
HOXOM-B CA^iajiHCB Hacxoam,HMH rocy^apflMH. ITepEBiH, KXO, He HOCH
eni,e repn;orcKaro xaxy.ia, Bnoju-B HPOHSBOJIBHO ynpaBJiajn $.iopeH-

njeft, CBIJU. Jlaepeumiu BejiUKOMi>nmiu, oco6eHHBifi


HCKyccxBi, H JiHxepaxypBi. (Men,eHaxcxBo Boo6m,e ^BIJIO OAHOIO
qepx-L HxajiBaHCKOH xapaHHin.) ,3,aate nanu XOSKC cxpeaiH- XV B.

JHCB CA'B.iaXBCa KHaSBaMH BO BKyci COBpeiieHHBIXl. HMI. XHpaHHOB'B.


Hsi 6oji Be BazKHBixi, HxajiBaHCKHXi. rocyAapcxBT. pecnyd.iHKaHCKyio
r

t|>opMy y^ep^ajin JHHIB Fenyn H 'Ben&ufa


l
). Ci. KOHija XV B.

') Beiieuia cjcbji&ji&ci, D,apnneii AjipiaxaKH H iiailyia CBOH KO.iOHin no 6eperaMt


r>;ui;ann;;u<> iio.iyocrpOBa H ua ocipOBaxi, Apxmie.iara, o ieMT> CM. Kapty XVII.
eSJ II05KH:5HeiIHUH doMCb Ct OOMIUUMI
154

KyjiBxypa naiajra OKasuBaxB B0o6me CHJIBHOC BJiiame na


jjpyria sana/uiBia cxpaHBi, H umaMHHCKUMV KHHS^HM^ eo MHOIOMZ
cmaau nodpaofcamb dpyiie nopOAU, cxpeMHBmiecH KB ycH-aemK)
BjacxH.OAHH-B HxajiBflHCKifi ygeHBin naqaia XVI B., Ma-
"
nanacajii coiiraeHie UOJCL saoaBieM'B: FocyAapB (II

Principe), BI> KOxopOMTs HSJIOJKHJI'L xeopexnqecKH TO, HTO na npaK-


coBpeMeHHiie eny HiajiBflHCKie KHflstg. 9xa KHHra
XVI B. HSfEJia CojfcmoH ycn-Bx^ y Kopojen, atejaBmnx's yiBep-
aScojnoTHSMi. BI CBOHxt rocyAapCTBaxi). MO^HO B0o6in,e CKa-
qxo HxajiBflHCKiii npHHi^nnax-B XIV XV BB. SBIJII, nepeuMi,
a6co.mmmMa na sanadrb Eeponu npa nepexo^ oxi,
BtKOBl, K'b HOBOMy
BpeMeHH.^^
216. yxBepat^Hiio a6cojiioxH3Ma npenaxcxBOBajiH cocjiOBHO-npeA-
ycraHOB.ienie cxaBHxejr&HBifl v q
peffiAeHm, HO BO MHornxTb M^cxaxi) H OHH cxajin oc-ia-
aOCOJIK)TH3Ma -v TT ^ v
BX HcnaHm. TOBaxB. MSI. dojiBHiKXi. rocy^apcxBT, pante ^pyrnx-B npOHsonuio 9xo
BI Hcnaniu. B'B Aparoni H KacxHJiiH, HS^ EOxopBix^ cocxaBHjiocB
9X0 EOpOJIBBCXBO, BO BXOpOH HOJIOBHH'B Cpe^HEXl. B^KOBl) Cym,6CXBO-
BajiH ecrb uepmu (fieodaAUSMa u cocjioeuou Mouapxiu. MorymecxBeH-
noe H BJiiaxejiBHoe ^yxoBencxBO, cnjiBHoe H xpa6poe pBiii,apcxBO H
xoxa H He OHCHB 6oraxLie ropo^a riojiBsoBaJiHCB

60MWUMU eOMHOCmHMU, Ha KOXOpBia CMOXp^JIH, KaifB Ha


o6Biqan (fueros), o6eperaa HXI, OXTB KaKHX'B dti xo HH
6BMO nocaraxejiBCTBi,. Ilpn xaKHXi. nopa.nKax'B KOpojin SBIJIH .IHUIB
nepBBiMH neatly paBHHMH. BjiacxB Kopojia orpaHHiHBajac& nopme-
CCLMU, cocxoflBfflHMH H3i. npeACxaBHxejieH cocjiOBiH, a ,a,M p^nieHm
cnopOBx Meat^y KopojieM'B H cocJiOBiaMH (HJIH neatly ox^tjiBBBiMH
oco6Bift BepxoBHBiii cy^Ba, oxBixcxBeHHBifl ne-

O^HHMH KOpxecaMH. BXOTI, caHOBHHKi> MOFB A


K'B Boscxaniio npoxHB'B Kopojfl BI cJiyiaax-B HapymeHia HMI.
HOBi> H odBiqaeB'b cxpaHBi. Ho Meotcdy ucnaucnuMU cocaoeisiMU ne
6uAO eduuodywifi, H Ha BXOMI, KOpo.3H yxBepAH^H BCIO CBOK) cioy.
KopojiB aparoHCKifl QcpduHaHd* Kamojiuw, Myara KOpojeBBi KacxHJB-
CKOH Hsafie^uu, dBuii. Hacxoflm.HM'B ocHOBaxejieMTi HcnaHCKaro a6co-
JIK>XH3Ma, KOXOpBlH B'B CJI'B^yiOni.eM'B CXOJI'BxiH OKasaJTB
BJiiflnie H Ha Apyris sana^HBia cxpaHH. OxjiHiaacB 6o.iBmoio
riosHOio peBHOcx&K), $ep/i,HEiaH^ no.iB30Bajicfl nojnJBiM-
dyxoeencmea, Koxopoe noaxoMy nepi^Ko dfojicuio un uuKeustiuiu opy-
die npomuoz uucmo-nojiumuuecmocK npaio&z Kopo.in, a HcnaHCKaa e-

KBH3HH,ia dBijra ocodenHO HCKycno ycxpoena H npHxoMi> oieeB %kn-


xejiBna. fieopnHcmeo BXO^HJIO BT> cocxaB-B ^.Byx-B OOJIBCUHX-B puu,ap-
CKUXV opdcmei (KajiaxpaBCKaro H ajiBKanxapCKaro), BO rjias-B KOiopLixi)
CXOHJIH BejHKie juarncTpu, HO 4>epAHHaH,n,T> VUMV sann.iz uxt Mn>cmo,
155

TEMI. HOAiHHHJi'B ce6i> H STH ABOpaHCKia opraHH3an,iH.


OHT> npHHajii) M^PH A-^fl 3am,HXBi lopowcano H Kpecmbfincmea oxi> OO'HA'B
H npHTBCHemH co cxopOHBi suaiH H ^ia 3xoro ycxpOHJTB im
HHXT, oco6yio MHJHIUK), iisB-EcxHyio HOAX HasBaHieiTB c<?. FepMttH-
dadu. <I>epAHHaHAy H H3a6e.i.i fc nac;iiw>Baji B BHyKx HXX
r r

KapAK I.

(6oji'Ee HSB'BCXHBiH, KaKTb ^pHMCidft HMnepaiopi." Kapji. Y). Hpn


HeMT> BI 1520 ro^y npOH3onuio eoscmanie lopowcawj, HO ocia-
B,ieHHHe ^pyrnMH cocjiOBiaMH, OHH 6ujiH cjioioeHH. 9ia
p03m, Komopaa noMOuia ez Hcnaniu ymeepdumwH
eMicmu, 6ujia HeMHJKM* Go.me oOtyuMij. H ET> jpyrnxi, cxpanaxi)
cocJOBHO-npe^CTaBHTeJiBHLifl yqpeayjeeifl npaxo^HJia BI>
ynaAOKt
BCJii^cTBie Toro, ^TO Meat^y omdn>MmiMU coc.weiHMU npoucxoduau
pacnpu, E HTO uapoduuH MCLCCU, He HM-BBmia B-B co6paHiaxi> ro-
HHOB^ CBOHXX npe^ciaBHTejieH, ne WIOMKO paeuo-
CMomprbAU na ux* nadenie, no dame caMU noMoiasiu KO-
Bi 6opt6'E CX BHCHIHMH COCJIOBiaMH.
217. IIocJi'E Jlto^OBHKa IX oco6eHHO BaaiHtie VCH'BXH CA'fejaHBi
H ^ TT KpaCHBHH BO
OLMH KopojreBCKOio BjiacTLio BO <PpaHn,iH npa BHVK'E ero (Pujiunnn 1 \
Kpacueow (1285 1314), cqacxjiHBOMi, conepHHK'B nanti BOHH-
(|>aii,ia OTHomeHin $HJHHHI> IV 6ujn> nojraoio
VIII. Bi> HpaBCTBenHOjrB

npOTHBOHOJIOaKHOCTBK) CB06My A^Ay, TaKI. KaK?> OTJHqaJICa XHTpOCTLK) H


BtpOJIOMCTBOM-B, JKaAHOCTLK) H HaCHJIBCTBeHHOCTBK), HO OHI. T0.1BKO npo-
CBOHX-B npeflinecTBeHHHKOBx, coOnpaa HOA"B CBoeio
OT.u'EJiBHBie 6ojiBmie ^eo^H H pacmapaa 9iy caMyro BJiacxB.
eio safioma Gum nanpae.iena na dofiueauie deueti, KOxopBia
eiiy nyiKHBi 6BMH Mear^y npo^HM-B ^jia BOHHBI ci AHmiefi sa
H tPjandpiw, WL KOXOPBIXI. OHX saB.iaA'fc.i'B MHOFHMH
CxapLIXTj KOpOJieBCKHX'B ^OXO^OBl. CTb flOMeHOB'B (KOpOJieBCKHXl> HO-
Micxifl) H eny He xsaxajio KaKi> ^Jia se-
(J)eo^.ajiBHBix'B njiaxeatefl

AeHia BOHHH, xaifB H ,n;jia coAepmaHia qHiioBHHKOB^ H cy^eH BT>


npOBHHH,iaxx, H OHT> BcaKHMH npaB^aMH H HenpaB^aMH yBejiHHHBajrB
CBOH ^oxo AH, nanp., nepeuemuueaH xopowyw Monemy <?s HUSKO-
npo6nyw. CT xoro ate I^^JIBK) OHI saxiaji-B nponeccz npomuez dy-

xoGHO-puitapCKaio opdena xpaMoenuKOot (xannjiiepOBi.), BJiaA'fcBinaro


BO $paHu,in MHoaiecxBOM'B HM-BHiii. IIpeA.ioroMT& KI> Hanaxiio jifajia,
6Bi.ro xo, pBiuapa axoro opAena snajiH BI epecn,
qxo H-BKOxopBie
H naiia, cyAHBHiifi xasinjiiepOBi,, Hameji-B HXT, BHHOBHBIMH.
Marncxpi. a MHorie psmapn KOHHHJIH JRHSHB na Kocxp-B, a
CKia UMimiH OUAU omo6pauu ez nasny. HsTb-sa AeneaiHaro ase sonpoca
^HJIHIIITBIV noccopH.ica ex nanoio BoHntyanjeM'B VIII. Bo
9xoro cnopa B-B nepouu pa.3o 6w.m co6panu loc
156

218. Bi> Haia.dk XIV B. ^paniiyscKlH KOPOJIB Bce-xaitH ein,e


TOJiBKO rjiaBOK) #pyrnxi> (JjeoflajiBHBix'B rocyAapefi H
pecnytfjiHK'B (KOMMyni). Kaat^HH pas-B, qxodBi H3,a,axB
jrn6o o6in,ee ^JIH seen <I>paHniH nocxanoBjeme, OH^ jnoxxteE'L 6ujn>

ucnpocumb dyxoeuuxi u cenmcKUXz cemepoet) u KOMMym,


coiJiacie
a fljw 9ioro nyaiHO GBLIO HX-L co^npaTL BM'BCT'B. ^HJinnn-L IV npn-
WL TaKHMi. wrbsdciMz iocydapctneeHHuocz HUHO&Z
ycxanoBJieHifl o6mnxi) najioroB'L. 3xn C-B^S^BI HJIH
BaeMLie lenepaMnue mm.amu (etats generaux), 6y;i;yqH co6paHu BO
cnopa(1302) ci> BoaH(|aii ieMTj VIII, noddepovcMu @munna 7V,
l

caMOcmonmeMHaio locydapn @pa,Hu,iu. TaKHM-B odpasojii., GCJIH


BJ> AnrjiiH napjaMeni-B 611^1 BnepBiie cosBan-B p,jm orpaHHieHia
BJiacxH, TO BO $paHi^iH aHajiornHHoe yipeiKfleHie, na-
eosHUKJio npHMO &b '^tfbAHXb pacwupemH u ymeepMcdeuisi

KOpOMGCKOU 6MCmU. XOTfl BnOCJl-B^CTBiH fflTaTBI H ^'BJiaJIH nOIILITKH


orpaHH^HTB npasa KOpo-M BI> CBOK) nojiBsy, HO 9TH HOHBITKH ne HM^JIH
ycnixa, TaKi> KaKii dyxoeencmeo, deopnucmeo u lopoxcam) sacn-
daomie omdn>Muo, nocmonuno ccopujiucb Mewcdy co6ow.
HHe miaTLi npocymecxBOBajiH BO $paHn;iH OKOJO xpex'B
(13021614).
219*. HOCJI-B $HJiHnna IV n,apcxBOBajiH He,a;ojiro xpn ero
co cMepxLK) KOxopBixx npeKpamujiacb cmapwanEanemuu-
jiunin
we* (1328). Yate B-BKOHU.'E uapcxBOBaHia ^Hjumna IV
cemepu cmam ecmynam^ Mewdy coOow ez comu, Hxo6ti
CopoxBca ci> saxBaxaMH KopojeBCKoii Bjracxn, H 3x0 XOJIBKO
npn CHHOBBUXI. ^HJianna IV. CHaqaia (^eo^a. HanuiH-
6HJio noAAepatKy BI Hapo^i, neAOBOJiBHOM^ KOpoJieBCKHMH IHHOB-
H HOBBIMH HajioraMH, HO Kor^a Hapo,p> yBHAij.i^, HXO
xjionoqyxi) JIHUIB o 066^ H o CBoeMt npaB^ soeBaxB Apyr'B CT>
npejKHift coiost KOpojieBCKon BJiacxn ci> ropo^aMH Boso6-

HOBHjrca A-^a o6y3AaHia CBoesojim ^eo^ajiOBi,. Bs Ani.iiu


Co lopoowanaMU npomuev nopojieu, GO ffpauuiu
u lopowcaue dnucmeoeajiu saodno npomuet (fieodajioe*.
CBIHOB6H $HJIHnna IV (JlOAOBHK'B X) OC6()6o-
ceouxv doMeuaxz. Bi> 1328 r. (|>paHuy3CKaa
nepenuia KI. (|)aMHJiiH ipatfio&b BaJiya, MJiaAmen JTHEUH Ka-
.
IlepBLie KOpojH HOBOH
AWHacxin noKasajin ce6a
9xoii

(peodaMHUMU ceniepaMU, He HM'BBHIHMH HHKaKoro


o HOBBixi) saAaqaxi, KopoJieBCKOH BJiacxH BO $paHD,in. Ilpn
cfieodaMHax peaKWR, AOBeji,maa BI cepe^HH B XIV B.
r

do cmpaiwnaio eoscmaniH, BO Bpeina Koxoparo noradjio


oqeH& MHoro ABOpani. H coatateno 6uxo xaKate ne Ma.io saMKOBx. (3xo
157

B03Mymeme HSB^CTHO noxoMy ixo


noAi> HMeHeirB ofcanepiu,

KpecTBHHHHa HKOBOM'B-IIpocxaKOM'B, Jacques-Bonhomme,


H HasBame B03CxaBmnx b r
^ann". CJIOBO otcanepiH cxajio
odosnaiaxB y ^pann.ysoB'B Bootfme KpecxBaHCKie tfynxbi).
aHa
220. ^eo^ajiLHafl peaitnja, npOHCXo^HBraaa Bnyxpn cxpaHBi, ^ f
c
.

BOHHOIO C-B atir/inqanaMH, Koxopaa saxaHyjacB Ha n, BJiBia r

CTO UPHIHHBI BOHHLI saKJiioqajiHCB BI TOMI., ITO y aniMUCKaio


.TExi).

Kopojin eiye ocmaea^ucb QAadrbmH GO <Ppanu,iu u y amjiUHam GUJIU


uumepecu eo ^audpiu, Ky^a OHH BBOSHJIH niepcxs H r^i ne xo-
BHA'BTL yTBepJKflemfl ([)panqy3CKOH BJiaciH. TIo CMepin CBIHO-
IV aHoiHCKi* Kopojb Bdyapdt III, KaKi. CHH-B ero
BHCTaBH.!!. 9TO CB06 pO^CTBO CT> HHMT, BT> Ka^eCTB'B CB06rO
npasa Ha (J)paHii;y3CKiH npecioji'B, HO (JjpaHijysiJ npOTHBonocxa-
BHJIH eaiy TaKi> HastiBaeMBin caAmecniii aanom, HcoioqaBiniH ateH-
mHHi, MSI. HacJi^OBaHifl 36MJIH. HanpecTOJH) $paH^n 6ujii> npn-
3BaHi> ^H-UHnni, VI Ba^ya, HO Bflyap'L III naqajit ci. HHM^ BOHny.
Bi, 6HTB-B ripn Epeiu (1346) <fipaHn,y3H noxepn^jiH nojinoe no-
pajKeme, sa KOTOPHMI, nepesi. H^CKOJILKO jrErB (1356), yaie npn
Kopo.i'fe H3i> AHHHCTiH JBa^iya, loaumb flofipOMo, noc.TB-
H BTOpoe nopaKeHie npn /Iyamt>e. CaM'L loaHHi. ^O^PHH
6ujn> BSHTI. Bt lUTEHi), a pereHTOMi KOpojieBCTBa cxbji&Jicn. ero
CHH-L KapM, BCTynHBEniH no CMepin OTn,a Ha npeciojii noA'B HMB-
Kap.m V.
220 a . IIoc.irE npn IlyaiBe perenix (HJH do$un~o KaKi>
nopaJKeHifl
II
l?
aTH li
^
6

HasHBaiLca (^pani^yscKie nacji'BAHHe npHHuu no rpa(J)CTBy ^o-


(j)HH9), HT06&I nojiyqHTt ^eHeri, wo. BtiKyna nji^HHaro Kopojm H
wn npOAOJUKCHia BOHHLI, co6pa^ flapuwn* leuepaMnue wmamu,
ex

KOTOptie ne saMe^iHJiH nanacib Ha neyMrb.ioe eedenie drbM COB-BTHH-


KaMH Kopoja H .naqaMH, ero OKpyacaBinaMH, BHfls HMCHHO B'B HHXI>
HCTHHHHX'B BHHOBHHKOBt 6^CTfiifl. FjiaBHyK) pOJIL Bl 9TOH OnnOSH^H
Hrpa.iH npe^CTaBHTejH ropo^OB'b, pyKOBOAHMLie KyneqecKHM'B ro.iOBOio
IlapHffia dmbenoMZ
Mapce.ieM?,. lUiaTLi xpedoBajiH, HTOOLI Bnpe^b HXI>
co6HpajiH eaKeroAHO no ABa pasa H qxo6Bi c6opOM-B ^enerb BI> Kasny
saB'BAOBa.iH caMH mxaxH qpes-B HsopanHuj-B HMH ate caMHMH KOMMHC-
capOB-B. 3xo dwjia n-BJiaa pe^opjua, nepe^aBaBmaa BX pynn mxaxoBi>
Bee Be^eme A-BJI-B, HO BX cynjHOCXH MapcejB He namejiT. no^epatKH
B'B cipaH'B. 06a BBicmia cocjiOBia ne
^OBipajiH ropOTKanaMi,, ^a H
cpejjH caMHxii ropojKan'B HC 6BMO e^HHOAymia, xaK-B KaKi. KaacABiH
H A^HCXBOBajr-B oco6HaKOM b. Tor^a 9HeprnqHHH Ky- r

ro.ioBa
npHu'Br'B s peeo.mwoHHOMy cnocooy dnucmeiu,

o6paaoB&n HSX xoproBaro H penecJieHHaro juo^a BoenHyio CHjy H


^a/Ke 3aAyMaji> npHB.ie<jb na CBOIO cxopony BoscxaBuiKxi. B-B 9x0 ate
158

canoe BpeMH KpecTBaH-B. Bi IlapnjK'E npOHsom.io napojuoe B03Mym,e-


nie, B^ KOTOpOM-B BHflHyio pojB HrpajrB Pofiepmz JlenoKi, enncKom, jae-
CKift, H flBoe KopojieBCKHXT. COB'ETHHKOB'& 6BMO y^Hio Ha TJiasaxi, ca-
Moro AO^HHa, KOTOpBifi HOTOMT, cnacca C'LTCTBOM-B HS^ MaTeatHOH CTO-
:iHn,Bi. renepajBHBie miaTH, co6paHHBie HMI> BI flpyroM-B ropo^, cxajiH

ua ciopOHY npeatnaro nopaAKa. Bi. TO ate speMH wcaKepia 6bua no-


daeMHa, a MapceM y6umn> et> odnou yjiunnou cxeamnrb. Ero npe,a,-

npiflTie, HM^Bmee n.'E.ibK) nepe,n;aTb npasjieHie BT> pyKH

dypatyasin, noTepnijo TaKHMi> o6pasoMi no-iHyio


221*. KnpM ? Mydpuu ciapajrca y.iyqniHTB BHyTpennie
Ilopaacema H BOHHVJ CX aHIMIHiaHaMH Cl, 60JII>nieiO OCMOTpHTCJlBHOCTBK),
paamH npH
^
UUOJHQJi3KSLJn>

Kap.i* YI. HO npn ero CBIHTB Kapjin> VI, le.iOB-BiMB coBepnieHHO necnocooHOMi, a
BI> KOHD.'B CBoeft aiHSHH noTepflBraeMi, pascyflOK'L, jt-BJia OHHTB nom.iH

njioxo, H CHOBa npomowjiu eHympenniH CMymu, BO BpeMH KOTOPHX'L


aiirjiiHCKiH KOPOJIB Teupuxb V era,e pas^ Hanec^ (JipaHnjsaM'L CTpam-
Hoe nopaateine npn AsHHKyp'E (1415). AHOH^aHe saBoeBajin Hop-
MaHfliro H ^.a^e sanajiH ITapHatTj. JI,^Jio ^OIEJIO HaKOHen,^. ^o xoro, ITO
aniMucniu nopOM 6uM o6iH6Mm nacjirbdHUKOMZ EapAa VI. BcKOpi
B-B oflHOM'B H TOM!) ro^y (1422) o6a Kopojia CKonqajiHCB, noc-ii
aze
3d (fipauuyscKiu npecmoM nana^acb 6opb6a Meat^y anrjiHCKHM-L

TeupuxoMZ VI H ^O^HHOM-L, npHHaBinHMT. HMS Kapjia VII.


Ecu c-EBepnaa $paHii,ia 6mia BT> 9TO BpeMa BI> pyKaxt aHranqaHx,
Koioptie ne saMe^JiHJia oca^HTB Op.ieauz, 6uBwin oaBHHM'B cxpa-
TerH^ecKHH'L nynKTOMX pyKaxi, Kapja VII.
BI>

222. B^ACTBia $pan^H 6HJIH pesyjiBTaTOATB apucmoKpamime-


Mewcdoyco6iu H pasiefliraeHia BBicmHxi> KJiaccoBi. ct Hapo^OM-Bj
BO MHornx'B MTBciax'B jf,&7Re nepexoouM na cmopony am.m-
HaA fcac&, ITO npn HHX'L dyAeiT, Jiyqnie. MaJio-no-Majiy sa an-
r

ynpoiHJiacB cjasa Heno6-BAHMocTH Koiopaa Tome HC Majio


7

HXI> ycn'fexaM'B. Ho Bi) HaqaxE n,apCTBOBama Kapm VII

(1422 1461) BO $pann,iH npo6yjj;HJica nait/ioHa.wHuu nampiomusMi,


Kor,a,a BI O^HOH JoiapHHrcKOH .nepeBymK-B (,3,OMpeMH) noaBHJiacb MO-
^ByiEKa-nacTyniKa, Manna d'Apm, Koiopaa CTajia roBOpHTB,
Bor-L nocBLiaeii, ee <;nacTH 3>paHn,iio OTL aHMH^aHi.. C"B J^T-
CTBa HacJinmajacB ona MHOVO o cipaAaniaxi) napo^a OT-B rpy6Bixx
nodiAHTe-ieH H npOHHKJiac& arajocTBio KT, po^HH^ H KT, 6-BAHOMy Jiio^y,
CTpa,a,aBffleMy or& BOHHBI. Y nea CLIJIH qy^ecHLia BH^-Enia, H eft
cjLimajiHCB HeseMHBie rojroca, noBe.TBBaBraie eft OCBOSOAHTB 4>paH-
uiK> on, sparoBi H KOpOHOBaiB Kapjia VII. Ona Hacioaja Ha
TOM'S, HT06BI ee B38JIH Bl BQHCKO H ^aJIH 6H KOH9 H BOHHCEle ^0-
cnixn. noaB-ieme jSL&ERu VL ni-ieMi H naHn.tip'B H co mnTOMt, na
KpacoBa.iocB H3o6paateHie CB. ,3,'BBBi, npoHSBe.io CHJI&-
159

HOG Bne^axji'EHie cpe^n cowra H Bt napo^HOii iiacdj.


Op-ieaHOM-B npoHsouiJio cpaateme ci
anrjinqaHaMH, B-B KoxopOM-B
npHiiipoMt xpa6pocxH BOOflymeBjiajia BOHCKO.
6tuiH oix'ECHeHBi, H Eap.i* T// C>UM npoeedem ez
PeuMCt, IVVB na^i. HHJVTB 6mix coBepnieHi>
oSpa.n'B KOponoBaeia.
"
3io ein,e fto.n'Be opjeaHCKOfi ,a,^Bti B-L oasaxi, na-
no#Ha.io npecxnarB
poAa, HO B-L npHABOpHtixi> Kpyraxi., r%k en yaie cnaqajra ne
Tenept ciajiH efi npaMO saBH^OBaib, H Kopojit nnqero He
Kor^a JKaHna nonajia BI EJI^ET, KT> npOTHBHOii eiiy ^paHayscKOH nap-
Tin, a ia upo^ajia ee anrjiHqaHaM'h. Bi. nji-Bny CT> jKaHHOK) o6pain,ajincb
oqent ^ypno, H Ha^ Hero flaace
CBIJII. HapajKeHi. ^yxoBHMH
cyji.^ no
o6BHHeHiro BT&
KOJIAOBCTB-B H epecn. IIpon;ecci> npOHCxo ],HJi & B-B Pyani /
r

npe^c^aTejiBCTBOMi o^noro (j>paHn;y3CKaro ate enncKona (Ko-


),
H JKanHa 6BMa cnaqajia npHroBopena KI B-fciHOMy saioie-
Hiio, HO HCAOBOJi&HHe xaKHM's npHFOBOpOMi, aHrjiHganc COOKMU ee
ua Kocmpn* (1431). MyateciBO, CT> KaKHM-L ona ce6a ^;epta.ia
BO BpeMfl coBepmeHifl KasHH, nponssejio BneqaiJi'BHie na caMHxi>
aHrjiH^aHi). 3xa Kasnb MHOFO, OAHaKO, noepediua UMI otce CCIMUMZ,

noiOMy qio $paHn,y3Li cxajin KT> HHMT> OTHOCHTBCH ci enj,e do.ib-


niHM-B BoRHa npOAOJiaKajracB nocjTE 9ioro H^-
o^ecToqeHieM-B.
CKOJIBKO JI^TI, HO Majo-no-Majiy KapJi'B VII OBJiaA'BJii BCCH $pan-
n,ien (Meat^y npo^HM-B H napHJKeMTb), a sa anrjinHanaMH ociajicfl
TOJIBKO O^HH-B TOpOA^ K(M9 (1453).
223. ^eo^ajiBHaa peaKnifl BX nepBoii nojiOBHH'B XIV B. H B 3CTB BO 1

aarjo-^pasniyacaafl Bonna BO Biopon HOJOBBH-B XIV H^pamoHnjm


XV ua no.imopa ne P BHXl Ba ~
nepBoii HOJIOBHH'B B. cmojirbmin, sadepwaAU pas-
eumie nopojieecKOii emcmu BO 4>paHn,iH. XOTH BT> STO BpeMH MHorie
KpynHBie (f>eojiBi H Haxo^H.iHCB BX pynaxx qjienoB-B KopoJieBCKaro po^a,
HO cyn^HOCTH 9TO CKOp-fee ocjia^JiflJio Monapxiro. B-B
B-B qjicjrB sparoB-B

Kapja VI H Kapjra VII SBMH lepuoiu Gypiyndcme,


H3T) TOH ate AHHacxin, no cocioflBinie B-B corosi ex
Bi> ^aHHyro 3noxy BOHHa BejiacB yate HC O^HHMH
HO H naeMHUMU cojidamaMU, KOiopue najio
OTL pasftoHHHHBHX'B uiaeKi). Kor^a CT>

saKjnoqen-B Mnpi,, Kap^y VII CTOHJIO HCMa.iaro xpy^a


OHHCTHTB cipany OT-B ainxx niaeKi>. KpOMi cosHaHia HanjonajiB-
iiaro e^HiicxBa, BnepBBie npoaBHBmaroca XOJIBKO npn
A'ApKi), 0paHn/iw cnacajiu orm> noeaio pa3dpo6.ienifi
wmamu, jiygmnMTb BpeMCHeMi. Koxopuxi) 6BiJiH*XIV H nepsafl no-
jioBHHa XV B. Ho nonBixKa mxaxoB^ npeepamumt cefin &T> waenyw

u nocmoHunyw cujiy expand He y^ajacB. IHxaxBi Bce-xaKH


BI
coGow cpeod<uwoe oGiyecmeo cz eio cocAoenbiMz amia-
160

iOMi3MOM% u ofiMcmHOW pasposHeuHocmbw. Kor^a BHtmHaa


OKOHqiuiacB H ycTanoBHJica BHyTpeHHift nopaAOK-B, KOpojreBCKaa
BJiaciB CHOBa cxajra BO oas's HanjoHajiBHaro oiyBefltraema H rocy-
ynopafloienia 4>paHi;iH.
224. KapJi'L VII aBHJica npOAOjracaTeJieM'B jvEja
Ko-KaneTHHroB-B. ^HJEHHOTb II ABrycrB HOJIOJKHJI'B naiajro
ctdMUHUcmpay/iu, IX CBHTOH - - ycmpoiicmey cyde6uou
JFro.noBHK'B

itacmu, $HJiHnn B IV r

KpacHBHH locydapcmeenuuMz naAOiaMZ, KapJi'L


ate VII saBeJiTb nepeoe nocmoHunoe eoucno,
RJIR co^epatania KOioparo
6HJTB BBe^eni) H HOCTOHHEHH
9xo HOBOBBeAeme ycnjHJio KO-
Hajior'B.

pojreBCKyio BJiacTb ne TOJIBKO BI TOMI, OTHomemH, HTO nocTaBHJO


ee Bi) coBepnieHHyro nesaBHCHMOCTB OTI> BaccajroB-L H ropo^OBt CT>
HXI) ^pyaRHHaMH H MHJIHI^iaMH, HO H H03BOJIH.IO BSLIMaTB
HaJOFH, H6
npn6 Braa
r

KI cosiiBy reHepajTBHEixt nriaTOBi). Kapjy VII nocTOHHHoe


BOHCKO Hy^HO 6BIJIO OaBEBlMTb OdpaSOM'B RJIfl 6opB6LI Cl pa360HHH1BHMH
maHKaMH, KOTOptm rpa6njiH cxpany H ^aJRe nana^ajra na ropo^a, H ET>
1439 r. renepajiBHBie miaTBi, co6paBmieca VL Opjean-B, cowacu-
AUCb ua nocmofiHHbiu HCMOIV djin codepwcanifi KOpo.ieecKaio eoucna.
.9THMI,, o^naKO, OHH, TaKi CKasaiB, no^nHca.iH 065^ cMepTHBiit npnro-

Bopi., noTony ^TO c^ cepe^HHBi XV B. KOPOJIH yate onenB P-E^KO HX-B


BsanaiBBia OTHomenia Kopojren H coc.iOBHaro npe^ciaBH-
CJIO/KHJIHCB BO $paiiD;iH
coBepmeHHO HHaie, TEM-B BI
r/i,i napjaMeHTa B-B TOMI. H
Bca CEJISL

ero corjiacia Kopojn He MOMH nojiyqaiB HajroroB-B.


ycn'BXOMi, KOpojeBCKOH BJiacxH npH Kapjii VII SLIJIO npunnmie
uepKoeuuM* cofiopoMz &t> Eypwn, (1438) nocmaHoeMuiu
cofiopa, djiaronpiaTHBixi, ^a KOpojreBCKOH BJiaciH H
B'B 9iOMTs Kapjix VII E3fl,8uiJ> npaiMamu-
CMBicJi'B

orpaHH^HBaBinyio nancKoe BM^maTejiBCTBO BI>

225. Y Kapja VII ^BIJI^ C&IH-B .IIO.HOBHK'B, KOTOPLIH,


HHOMT.,
yqaCTBOBaJH> (JjeO^aJIBHOMI. BOSCTanin npOTHB'B B06H-
B'B

HBIXI> npeodpasoBaHifi Kopojra H B00()ine c6jr0a:ajica C-B ero BparaMH.

3io 6ujn> He.iOB'BK'B yMHBiH, HO aiecTKm, OTHOCHBiniftca

ci npe3p EHieM-B H MCTHTCJI&HOCTBK), noAOspHiejiBHBiH H B


r

ata^HBIH H BJaCTOJIK)6HBHH. CA'BJaBfflHCB CaJTB KOpO.ieM'B HO^T. HM6-


HCMI> Jlwdoeum X/(1461 1483), OHTB ocmynuM oz pn>wume.iwyK)

6opb6y a> ocmamnaMu cmapunbi. Eny y,i,ajioc& HO^TH OKOH^IHTB co-


OHpanie Kna^ecTBi, no^i, C^HHOFO BjacT&K) Kopojia
^paHii.yscKHX'B
BpexaHH H HasappBi) H SesnoBOpOTHO coKpyniHTB ROJIHTH-
({>eoji,ajiH3M'B. He,noBOJiBHLie HMI> ceHBepu saKJionnjin DPOTHB-B
nero Amy o6mecmeeHnaw 6jiaia, KOiopyro
161 -
repu,on> dypryn^CKift, MorymecxBeHHBin BjraA-Bxe.iB 6o.iB-
moro H 6oraxaro RHa?KecxBa na BOCXOITE ^paimin (na PoHi> H PGHH'B).
Bx 6opb6i> CT jiHroto .IroflOBHK'b XI noxepn'BJii CHaqaja nopaateme, HO
noTOMT> onpaBHjca H cxajit Hana^aTi. Ha CBOHXI, sparest HOOAH-
HOiKij. Oco6enHO 6tua BaatHa ero nofmda uadf, JKap.io.rn
.IUM?>. BX
cociaBii BJiafl'EBiH 9xoro repi^ora, KpoMi Bypryrw
J
^paHin-L-KoHie H Hn^epjiaHAH ), H OKT> Meqia.i'B eme o HOBMX^ sa-
BoeBaniaxi H o npeBpameniH CBOHXI -sewejib BI caMOCTOflxe.ibHoe KO-
pO.lOBCXBO. ^lOAOBHK'B XI paSCXpOHJI) 6FO DJiaHH, nOAAepaiaB'B B03-
cxanifl ero co6cxBeHHHxi> no^aHnHXi H coe^HHHBiiiHCL npoxnBi
Hero ct niBeHn,apn,aMH. KapJi'B CM^JTHH noxepn-fejn, nopa/KCHie BT>
xpexi> 6HXBaxi> H BI nocJi1>AHeH HS-B HHXI (npn HancH) caM-L 6ujn>
JIOAOBHKI XI OBJia.n.'fc.i'L HOCJI'B axoro Uypiyndieu (a
Kapjra Cja-Bjaro AocxajiHCL ero floiepn,
BumeAine
sa HMiiepaxopa MaKCHMH^iana). Bnyxpn cxpanti OH^ npo,nojnKajrB
npeatHnxi Kopojieft, noddepwuean wpodcuoe cocjioeie u
deopxHcmeo. 06xo,a;fl npasa reaepaJbEbix-L nixaxoBT,, JTro^o-
BHKI XI ycHjHBajii) cxapBie Hajrorn H ^aate BBOAHJH, HOBHC. Bo BHOBb
npio6p'ExeHHLix b npOBHHniaxx OH^ no^epasHBajii Mncmuue mmamu,
r

qxo6H npHMHpnxb BXK o6jiacxH ex noxepero caMocxoaxejibHOCXH, HO


VL xo ate speMfl yqpeatA^^ BI> HHXI> H oc,o6ue napjiaMenmu .pa
ocjia6jieHia cyAe^Hott Bjiacxw ceHbeposi,. B-b KOHI^'B CBoero i^ap-
cxBOBaida H
Mpa^Hbift JIioAOBHK'b
noAO.spnxejibHbiH XI jRujr-b BX
yeAHneHHOM-b aaMK^ n.iecH, sana-THBaa cxapbie rpixn, HO coBepmaa
BX xo ate Bpena HOBHH atecxoKOcxn.
226*. 06a upeeMHHKa JIiOAOBHEa II (Kapjr-b VIII H Jlro^o-
XII) 6buiH aieHaxbi na Hacji'B.UHHni'B Epemanu, BCJitexBie
H 9xo repi;orcxBO npncoeAHEH.iocb KX KOPOHHHMX 3eM,iaM'BXVHH.x\'lB.
06a OHH
npeinpHHHMajiH saBoeBame Hxa.iiH,
ate
ucxodt putyapCKUM?* cmpeMAeniuMi (fip
deopmcmea H oSxeAHHHBi, ero ET> AOCXHatenin odmen ufkjiu. Meatfly
npoqHMi) BO BpeMa ginxx noxo^OBi, (|>paHi;y3bi djinate noanaKOMH-
.IHCb CX HO.IHXHKOH HXaJbaHCKHXT) KHaSeH. H 9X0 HC OCXaJOCb 6631
Ha sapowdewe (fipan^scmio abco.mmusMa. Bx HOBOC BpeMa
BJiiania

BCxynHja yate noAiimmeCKU ofiieduneHHOw, HO coi^iajib-


<
I ) paHi;ia

HWH 6bix L napin CH-TB en;e uucmo (fieodaMmm. IIpaBAa, B-B XIV
i

H XV B. 66jibinaa qacxb Kpecxban-B nocxeneHHO npiodp-BJia .inq-

Hyio CBo6o^y, HO sa cenbepaMH ocxajncb eui,e Mnoria (|)eoflajibHbia


npasa (6apHi,HHa o6pOKH, BOxiHRHaa no.iHuia H K>cxHuia H x. n.).
7

227. Bx XIV H nepBOH HOJIOBHH'B XV B. aHTJtifCRifi nap.ia-

') CM. uapxy X.

11
162
\

e an- M6HTI, npioSp'BJi'L nau6ojm>e cymecmeennuH coou npaea, TO


3 y flCB do6pQ60MHUMU yCmyUKdMU KOpOJieH, TO, HaOO'OpOT'L, BL 6opb6tb
XIY B. ci KOpo-ieBCKOK) BJiacTbio. XITI H HaiajTB XIV B. B'L
B'L KOHIVE
Anoin n,apCTBOBa/TL FeHpiixalll, ddyapd* 1 (1272
CLIHI, 1307),
KOTOptra Bee CBoe n,apCTBOBaeie npOBe.n'L BL BOiraaxL. OH-L
(nocjii iero HacJi^EHKH anrjiificKaro npecTOJia

pHHi^aMH yajibCKHMn), HIomMMdiw, KOTO-


saBoeBajn,

paa, OAsaKO, HOTOMI, ocBo6o,aiHjacL, H Bejn> 6opi>6y BO ^pani^iH sa


ocTaBaBraiacfl em;e TaMi BJiaA^Hifl aHoiftcKHxi. Kopojren. Bee 3TO

Tpe6oBaJio flener^, sa KOTOPLIMH B^yapjii^ I nocmoHuno u ofipaw/aacH


Kb coiJiacito cocAoeiu. HaoSopOT'B, B^yap^i II (1307 1327) na-
B'L CBOHMH 6apOHaMH H .HOJiaieH'L 6iIJI'L OT-
6opL6'B Cl
nepe^ napJiaMeHTOML OT^ npecTO.ia. B.nyapA'L III (1327
1377) HaiaJTL CTO^THIOIO BOHHy ci> $paHn,ieH H wo. Be^ema ea Toate
Hyat,a;ajica
BI, dojiminx-L cpe^CTsaxx, ?TO sacTaBjiajio H ero memo
C03ueami> napJiaMenrm (B-L XIY B. OH-L B0o6m,e cosusajca
.
Ilpn BTOML KOpojii sa napJiaMeHTOML yTBep^HJiH
npasa: 1) KOPOJIL MOPI, o6L3BjiaTL BOHHy, HO denbiu ua
nee MOW nojiyvam-b amm
nepest napjiaMeumz; 2) BaKonti
HS^aBaTLca KopojianH TOJIBKO c coimcin, o6rbuxb namm?>, a
H ecjirbdcmeie npaMOu uxr> npoctfiu; 3) sa flypnoe Be^enie xbjii> H
Hapymenie saKOHOBL KOpojreBCKie COB^THHKH ^o-iatHLi 6BMH omen-
nepedz napJiaMeumoMo, KOTOPHH HM^JIL npaeo ux* cydumb
naiaTa o6BHnajia, sepXHaa npHroBapHBajra KI>
B.nyap.nia III, Pmapdb II (1377 1399) ne xorkirt
Tpe6oBaHiaMT> napjraMeHTa H cmpemujiCH Kb a6cojiwmHOMy npa-
u noTOMy MeaR,a;y KopojieM-L H napjraMeHTOMi> npOHSOinjia
6opb6a, KOTOpaa KonqmiacL T^ML, HTO najraTLi UUSAOMUAU Pu-
vapda II H nepe^ajH npecTOjnb pOACTBeHHHKy KOpojreBCKaro ^OMa
JlaumcmepCKOMy (1399).
228. BL TO BpeMa, KaKx ycHJiHBajrca napJiaiieeTL, B'L KOTO-
npe^CTaBJieHH Bce-iaKH
JIHIIIL O,T;HH BLicinie H cpe^aie
e.
KJiaccu, cpedu napodnou .waccu coeepwaAOCb cuMnoe 6pojfcenie. BL
AnrjiiH ,a,ajieKO ne BC^ KpecTbane Haxo^HJiHCb BL KP'BCOCTHOH aaBH-
CHMOCTH, H IHCJIO CBo6oAHbix L
r

.najKe ysejiHqHBajiocb, SjiaroAapa rony,


nocTenenHO BHKyna^iHCb Ha H 9Ta qacTL Kpe-
BOIIO. Ho
Bce-TaKH 6fii.ia HCflOBOJibHa npejiaiaMH, 6apoHaMH H pti-
n,apaMH, HH^ero He A^aBiuHMH H JKHBIHHMH B'L CBoe y^OBOJLCTBie.
C^ Apyroii CTOpOHH, Kp'BnocTHbie KpecTbane, BH^B OKO.IO ce6a
MHOro CBodo^Htix^ seMJie.n'BJibLi.eBi, TOJKG aKejajiH cdpocHTb ci> ce6a
HeBOJiK). B'L cepeAHHi XIY B. B'L AETJIIU. BHMepja qyTL He no.iOBHHa
nacejienia OT-L TaKT> HastiBaeMOH uepuou cjuepmu,
163

BO Bcefi Eeponij. Tans. KRKT. BCjrBflCTBie 9Toro HHCJIO pa6o-


IBX-B pyK-b coKpamiocb, TO napJiaMeHTi Hs^a-ii. saKOHBi, sanpemaB-
niie pa6oqHMT> no^-B cipaxoM'B HaKasamfl fipaiB sa CBOH TpyAi fio
HUM* npewde. njiamy, nepeceJifliBca HSI OAHOFO npHxo^a B-B
TOH H T. n. (1349 1350), a HOTOM-B ciajiH eme aanpemaiLCfl
coo6iuecTBa H cdopama KpecibflHt. Meat^y T^M-L BT> Hapo^HOH macci*
noflBHJiHCB nponoerbdnunu ecmecmoeHuaio paGencmea Ajodeu, cpeAH

KOTOptlX-B 6BIJH H ^-BAHLie CBflffl,eHHHKH" , nOCJI-BAOBaTeJlH BHKJIH(f)a,

KaK^-pasi. Bi> 9TO BpeMa Ha^aBraaro CBOH oCjiHieHifl npoxHBi. i;a-


TO.inqecKOH n,epKBH. HaKOHei;^ B'B 1381 r. npOHsonuo cmpam-
noe KpecmbfiHCKoe eoscmauie nodz nanaMcmeoMz Bama Tdu.iepa.
Cflaiaja OHO HM-BJIO ycntxi., H Paqap^i) II, BT> ^apCTBOBaHie KOTO-
paro 310 c.iyqH.iocB, AasKe no^nnca.!!. xapmiw, ofofietnewyio uprbnocm-
fnoe npaeo eo Auuiu yuumnojiceHHUMZ, HO HOTOMX Kopo.ib CT> 6a-
H pHi^apaMH HaHfljH coxpfrrb, o6i.flBHJiH BC-B yciyoKH, c^i-
KpeCTLflHaMl, He^HCTBHTeJbHEIMH H CT> 60JIbmOH) JK6CTO-
nodaeuMi eosmy \uenie. (Bcsopi HOCJI-B 3ioro H npOHSOimia
Paqap^a IIrepu,oroMi> JlaHKacxepcKHM'b).
*TaHKacT
229. HoBLiH Kopojb, HM-BBmin coMHHTejbHBia npasa na npe-
emu., npHHHJi'L HMI> Fenpuxa IH (1399 1413) H Haiajrb coooro cria.

na aHrjiMCKOMi) npeCTOJi ! JlauKacmepCKyw duuacmm. OSflsaHHaa


1

nojiyqeflieM-L KOpOHti napJiaMeHiy, 9ia .nHHacxia atHJia C-L HHMI,


BTB Jia^,y H nocTOflHiio pacwupnjia eio npaea. KpOM-fe xoro, Jian-
KopojinHy^a-iHCb B-b do.ibninx'b .nenbrax-b ^Jia BOHHBI
Fenpuxz F(1413
.
1422) pasdoi. <|)paHn,y30B'B np
H saHflJi-B IlapnafL, a ero ctiH'b, Teupuxz F/(1422
1461) 611.11, ^ame upOBOsrjrameH'b KOpojieM-b ^paHi^in. H BOSBe^eHie
Ha npecTo.'ii) JlaHKaciepCKOH AHnacTiq jrop^anH H o6m,HHaMH. H Bofma
ci 4>paHn,ieH CHJIH BecbMa fijiaionpiamHU djin paseumw npaoz
Bi nepBOH nojOBHH-B XV BI> noJiHTHqecKott atHSHH

ycxanoBBJiHCb cji-BAyiomifl 1) na-iaxa o6ui HH'b


HSM-BHeHia: 1

!
eomupoeaniu cy6cudiu ); 2) o6 fe na-
r

npio6pi>Jia i.mGnoe snaHenie ez


jiaTbi nojiy^HJin npaso npe^Jiaraib COBC'BMI lomoeue npoetcmu sa-
KOHO&Z, KOiopLie ciajiH HSBicTHbi noA'b HMeHeMT> 6ujuiew, 3) npaso
HsdpaHia qjieHOB-L HHatHefi najaTLi OBIJIO yTBepJE^eno B-B rpa^CTBax-b
f
act ectbMU c6o6o )odHUMU jiwdbMU ofijiadaewuMU metbcniHbiMz doxo-

B ""
230. BO BTOpOH HOJIOBHH'B XV B. npOHSOHLIO H^EOTOpOe
l ' :l '

)
|

oc.m6. ieuie nap.iaMeuma, npHiHHOK) KOioparo 6BiJio apucmoKpamu-


/

Mewcdoyco6ie, HSBiciHoe no.a.'B HassaHieMi. eouuu AAOU u

BI> Aur.iiH Ha.iorH;

11*
164

u Posu. Ho OKOHqanin cxo-u'EXHeft anrjo-(|)paHn;y3CKOH BOHHH


yqacxBOBaBime BX Hen 6apOHH H ptmapH, y Koxopuxi, Ha cjya;6'B
CLMH CBOH BOOpyatenHLie OXPHALT, cxajrn ccopHxtca Meatfly coftoio,
a 3TOMy npiicoe,piHH.iocB ein,e TO o(5cxoflxe.iBcxBO, ITO repijort
KI>

lopKCKiii PH^apAt, BeAinin CBOH poflx no JKCHCKOH JiHniH OX-B HjiaHxa-


renexOB'B H HM^BiiiiH EX repfrk C-kiyio posy, cma.rt ocnapueamb npe-
cmoM y Feuimxa VI H Boo6in,e y Been JJaHKac-repcKOH .nHHaciin (a.ia
posa). Aarjifl pas^HJiacB xor^a na .JIB-B napxiH, Koiopua H BciynnjiH

B'L KpOBonpojiHTHoe MeatAoyco6ie, npo^ojiataBiiieecfl OKOJIO TpH a;^aTH 1

1485). npeTeH^eHTi najix B-B O^HOH 6nTB B, HO ero


r
.TBTI, (1455
CHHI) nod'BjiHJi^ KOpojreBCKoe BOHCKO, noca^HJi'L FenpHxa VI B-B
Tiop&My H cam, cs'kiajiCH Kopo^eaii, AnrjiiH no^t HMeHeMi, ddyap-
da JF(1461 1483). 3am,HTHHKH AJOH POSH ^jra.in HOHHTKH csepr-
ero ci> npecioia, H noaiOMy HJI'BHHEIH FeepHX^ VI CHJ-B
yMepm,-
no npHKasaeiEO HOBaro Eopojia. Ho cnepiH B^yap^a IV ero-
repii;ori) FjiocTepCKiH, oneKyHi> Majioji^TKHxi, CBiHOBen 9ji;yap-
u
^a IV H perenrB npo'reKTOpi> ) KOpojieBCTBa, Beji'BJi'B
(n

CBOHXl. nJieMflHHHKOB'L H CaMX SaXBaTHJTB npeCTOJ!T> ttQJ(T>

feupuxa III (1483 Ho


H y nero CKOpo npeciojii, 6u.n>
1485).
npeflCiaBHTe.ieM'B JTaHKaciepCKOH ^HHacxin YeupuxoM* Twdo-
OxopHfi 6ujiT> B03Be^eHi> napjiaMenxoMi, na npecxo-zit
Feupuxa \II (1483 1509) H ateHHJicfl ^jr
pacnpn a ^oiepH 9,a;yapAa IV, coeflHHHB'L B-B
rep6i odi POSH. (^Heacxia TIOAOPOBI> n,apcxBOBa.ia OKO.IO
120 JTEX!,). BOHHa ^ByXT p03T> 6lIJia nOC.l^^HHM'B (^eOAa.lBHHM'L
Mea:Aoyco6ieMi, BX AnrjiiH. Ona cxparano oc.iafiuAa apucmoKpamiw
o6n>ux% napmiu, BsanMHO HCxpeSjiflBniHX'B ce6fl BT. 6nxBaxi> H nocji'B
nQ6 kfl,j>. Meat/i;y X^MI, HMenHO na apHCXOKpaxin H depMa.<ioci> do moio
i

epeMCuu ece snanenie napAaMenma. KpOM-fe xoro, BO BpeMa BOHHEI


nepexo^HJia nonepeM-EHHO oxi, OAHOH napxin KX Apyrofi, H
cxapajracB ysaKOHHXB CBoe xopmecxso p-EmenieMi, nap.ia-
6HBmaro noaxoMy .IHUIB npocmuMz opy-lieMt locnodcmeyw-
weu napmiu. Hocji BOHHH AJIOH H E-BJOH POSH npeoSjaAanie
oxx Kpynniixx 6apOHOBi> nepenuio KZ cpedneMy u MBAKomy deopRH-
cmey (doKemnpu), npe^cxaBJieHHOMy BI, najiaxt oSm.HH'B, HO nanm,
yxoMJiennaa xpHA^axHJI BXHHM'B Me^AoycoSieMi,, 6mia dojiie CKJioHHa
l

o^H^axB ycxaHOBjeHia MHpa, cnoKoftcxBia H nopa^Ka oxx CHJILHOH KO-


pojieBCKOH B.iacxn, neatejiH oxx napjiaMenxa, CA'BJaBmaroca HrpyniKoio
napxin. TaKHMx odpasonx, co BCTynjienieMx na npecxojrB TIOAO-
H BX Afirjin nponsonuio ycujienie KOpojieecKOu eAacmu. Ho
He p-BmajiHCB OOXOAHXLCS desi, napJianeHxa, xoxa H
165

cxa. cofinpaib ero ropasAO piate, 4'feM'B panbine (icaKi 9TO


xbji&jiT* yate H B^yapAt IV).
231. Bi> 9noxyJ asHHbOHCKaro HJiEHema nans, Bejmitaro p;i-
CKOJia H co5opOBi> nepeoH HOJIOBHHH XV B. lepMaucma nopona na-
xodu.mcb w> ofi.tadauiu JltoKceufiypiCKOu dunacmiu (CL HetfojibinHM'L

nepepwBOM'B, 3aHaxBiMT> ijapcxBOBameATB JlroAOBHKa EaBapcKaro). Po-


AOHaqa.ibHHKOMt 9TOH AHHacxiH oLLi'B rpa<|)i, .noKceMdyprcKifi, Ha6paH-
HLIH BT> 1308 r. no^TB nneHeM-L Fenpuxa 1/IL XOTH Bt csoe KO-

poiKoe ^apcTBOBaHie (1308 1313) OHt H ycn'fcji'L coBepuiHib


BI HiajiiK) A-ia npHHaiia jOM6apACKOH H HMnepaiopCKoil
HO r.iaBHHM'B ero A^IOMI 6HJIO npio6prbmeHie djin ceoew
tfexiu, iero ont AOCTHri, atenHB'B CBoero cbiea Joanna ea
qeracKaro npecxoja H noJiyinBt Ha TO cooacie lemcoro
:
). IIocj-B CMepiH Fenpuxa VII KnasBfl o6omjiH ero cima
i KOPOJIH repu,ora '6aBapCKaro JLwdoema, KOTOptifi
Bt cnop'B ci> nanoft H xoate coBepmnji'L pHMCKifi noxoA'B, BX
TOJLKO yee^unueaM QAadn>uin ceoeio doma. Ilowfe Hero
ate
onaxb n,apCTBOBajiH B-L FepMaHin jiwK,ceM6ypicme ujunepamopu, 6ue-
wie &b mo me epeMH u uemcnuMU KOPOJIHMU (Kap.ii. IV, BaipaB-B H
CHrH3MyH.ni> KOpoiKHM-B HpOMeaiyTKOM-L MestAy 1400
I ci> 1410 IT.).
)TH dojibme 3a6oiHJiHCb o CBOCH ^exiH, neajejiH 061. HM-
rocy^apH
nepin, H, Hanp., EapM I]f (1347 1378) y H'fcMn.eB'L npaMO npo-
c.ibM'L n OTn,OM-B BoreaiiH H oiqHMOMi, FepMamH", a Baiwaw (H.IH

Benn.ecjraB'L, 1378 1400) 611.11 ^aaie HH3jioaseHi> KHasbaMH sa


Hepa^iHie K'B noAAepatafliio nopa^Ra BI FepMaHin. (Ho B-L
noc.i l> noiepH repMancKOH Koponbi OH-B Bce-iaKH ociajica
r

232. B-B XIV B. npaeo usfipauifi uMnepamopa cocpeAOioqn-


jiocb B'B pyKaxt ceMH KHasen, Koiopue noJiyiHJiH nasBanie nypcpwp-

vmoez, T.-e. HsSHpaTejibEHxi) KHaseii. 3io ^LIJH xpn AyxoBHbie


KHasa H qextipe CB^xcKie, a HMCHHO apxiemiCKonu Maumtcmu,
mpupCKiu u KeMticmu, nopOM uemcKiu (HJIH doreMCKin), iepu,ovi> catccoH-
CKIU (caKceH^-BBXTeHdeprcKiH), n^aawipaffn (urn najamuHt) peun-
u MapKipafa 6pandeu6ypiCKiu. B^ 1 338 r. BO Bpena 6opb6H Jlro-
BasapCKaro C-L nanoro Kyp^iopcxbi H flpyiie EHHSBH C'LixajiHCb
BI Pense nocxaHOBH.iH, qxo U36pannu(i UMU UMnepamopt ne
uyotcdaemctt et nancnoMi ymeepofcdeuiu. HMnepaxopi Kapjii IV
aoAomow Gy.uow 1356 r. OKOH^axejibHO yxBep^HJi'B npasa K
CXOBI> H nopaflOK-L Hsdpania HMnepaxopOBt. BT> CBOHXI
OHH nojiyqHJiH BepxoBHBia npaBa, x.-e. C$J&mCb HacxoamHMH ro-
. ^acxaua BOHHBI SXHM-B saKOHOM-b xaK?Ke paap'tuia^iHCb, HO

') CM. Kapxy XIV.


166

ne RJIR BaccajroBi,
npoxHB-B ciosepeHOB'B. 4>eo,ii;ajiBHoe pas-
npHSHasajiocb SOJIOXOK) 6y.uoio sa BHOJIH'E saKOHHoe, B
eduuaio locydapn ympauueaAa suaueme.
233*.TaKHM'B ofipasoM-B FepMania BT> XIV H XY BB. pacna-
Ha MHOJKeCTBO OXA'BJIbHBIX'b BJiafllmiH, KHHS'bH KOWlOpblXb
B^ 3*1
HHHH. ece 6oArbe u 6ombe nesaoucuMUMU omz UMnepamopa.
9THX-B n 36Mejib" BJiaciL KHaseft He 6uji&
3eMCKie uuuu, T.-e. M^CTnoe AyxoBeucTBO, pimapCTBo H
cocjiOBie cxajin coSHpaibca HJIH BBicbiJiaTbnpe^ciaBHTejreH na SGM-
CKie cefiMLi, HJIH jiaudmaiu, KOiopBie sanHMajiHCb yciaHOB.ieHieM'L
H HasHaqemeMi usuiorowb. Ho Knasba CTpeMM.iHCb ycn-
H na HX^ cieTi,. MHorie ptin;apH H ropo^a HsSiata-iH
BJiacxb
Kefl3baMi>: nepsne cocxaBBJiH xaKi) nasiiBaeMoe UMnep-
CKoe puu/apcmeo, Biopbie HasbiBajracb UMnepcniiMU lopodajuu (BT>
OT.inqie OT^ pbiuapciBa H ropOAOB^ n 3eMCKHx b"). EHHSLH XOT^JH
r

Ha HHXI, pacnpocipaHHib CBOIO BJiacTb.


234. HMnepcme ropo^a 6buiH lopodcuuMu pecny6.iumMU. Em,e
B-B XIII B. OHH HaqajiH BCTynai'b Me^y codoio Bt COIOSH. Bi> ce-
COBD3H.
9ioro CTOJi^iia (1256) JlwfieKz, FaMdypit, Epemem H H-B-
Apyrie co^meropo^a saKjrroiHJiH coros-b
x
o6opOHH, H3i>
Koioparo H B03HHK.na crbeeputtH Tausa ), HJIH
ropOAOBi>, OBJia^BmiH HOTOM-L Bcero TOproBJieio Ha H^Mei^KOMi. H Baj-
Mopaxi. H HMfeniiH CBOH KOHTOpn Bi, ^pyrHXi> cxpaHaxt
BT> Poccin, J!OH,II;OH'B EJ> AnrjiiH H x. ^.). Tama opraHnsa-

H,IH6BMH oco<5eHHO Heo6xo^HMH BO BpeMena Meat^yniapcxBia H Kyjia !- 1

Haro npasa, HO so^omaa GyjiJia, Kapjra IV sanpenjajia ropo^aMi, saKJiio-


iai& COIOSH. T^MT, He MCH-Be B^ BH,ny ocjia^jrema sencKaro MHpa BO
Bxopoii nojiOBHH'B XIY B. BOSHHEi, 6ojibfflOH weaGcKm lopodcKOu
COWSK, BT> Koxopoiii. yqacxBOBajio H-ECKOJibKO .necaxKOB-B ropo^OBi, a
HOTOMI> odpasoBajica H peuncKiu com*. Pbmapn xoate cxajH coe^H-
naxbca BI> coiosbi H BCCXH ci ropo^aMH MejiKyro BOHHy, KHasba ate
O^HKHOBCHHO cxaHOBHJiHCB xo Ha xy, xo Ha Apyryro cxopony, HC atejiaa
^axb HH O^HOH Hs-b HHXI. nepeBica. Bi KOHH.^ XIV B. o6a 10-
podcKie coma coeduuuAuci H HaqajiH ^aate BCCXH BOHHy ct 6oji4e-
r

KPVHHBJMH KnasbaMH, oxi) Koxopux b, o^HaKo, HOxepn-BJiH nopajKeme.


235. H-BMeqKoe KpecxbaHcxso B^ cpe,uHie B-BEa Haxo^HJiocb B'B
06pasoBaHie jivumeM'b nojioateHlH, H-BM-B (f)paHH,Y3CKoe H.IH anrjiiHCKoe, H BB H-B-
iiiBeHqapcKa- _ . . ,

ro co3a. KoxopBixB MTBcxaxi FepManiH ^ajK6 coxpaHajiHCb ceoOoouufi


CK'IH ofiiyuHU, nojiBSOBaBmiaca XOJIBKO noKpOBHxejrbcxBOM'B

rocnoji.!, HJIH pBujapefi. TaKHx^ o6iu,HHi 6mio MHOFO na rort IIlBa-

CM. sapxy XIII.


167

6m B-L Meat^y npoiBM-B, MHOFHMH se-


AjibniHCKHxi, ropaxi. 3A'fccb,
M.iflMH B.aaA'BJiH FaCcdyprn, KOXOPBIMH M^dHBie Kpecxb/me He scer^a
OH.IH AOBOJibHbi. Em,e BI XIII B. 9XH Kpecxbjrae ^-BJIEJIH HOHHXKH
ocBo6oAHXbca OTT> rpa(|)CKOH oneKH, a ET> uaiajrE XIV B., KorAa
HXT, rpa$H PyAO.ib<{)a Fa6c6yprcKaro 6miH yate repijoraMH
nocji'B

aBcxpifiCKHMH, xpn .TECHbie KaHiona (HIoui^, Ypu H YHmepeaM-


dem] 3aK.iK>qHjiH MeatAy co6oio COIOS'L npOTHBi. aBCTpiHCKHXi> rep-
H noAHflJiH Boscianie. Hapo^Hoe npeji;aHie OKpyjRHJio UOSTH-
6jiecKOMi) naiajio BTOH 6opb6bi sa 8060^7. Bosciame
no 3TOMy cKasaHiro, KpecibflHHH'b BUMWMMZ TCJIM, KO-
He saxoT'feji'bnoooHHTbca noB^meHHOH na mecT-L nuian'B
aBcipificKaro HaMicTHHRa ((^oxxa Teccjiepa) H B-B HaKasanie sa 910
AO.i;KeHi> 6ti.ii cniH6nTb cxp'BJiOK) adjiOKO ci IUIOBH CBoero Cbina,
a noiOMi 6buii> cBflsaHi, HiodLi duib oiBeseHHHMi, BT> saMOKi <j)oxxa.
Kor^a BO BpeMa 6ypn Ha osep-B eMy pasBssajH pyKH, qxo6bi OHI
BsjLicfl sa pyjib, OHi> BOcnojibsoBa.icfl BXHMT. H xyxx ate ySHJii (J>oxxa
HOXOMX OHX ci> xoBapHm,aMH BT> AOJIHH'B PioxjiH ft,SiJitt

samnmaib CBo6o,a;y. Hpn Mopiapmenrb (1315)


aBCxpiHCKHxi ptmapefi, H 9XHM b
r
jiH

nauajio weewtapcnoii ceof/odib, xoxa H nocjii axoro HMI eme

npHHMOCb oxcxansaxb CBOCIO rpy^bio 9xy CBo6o,a,y. CKOpo KI> HOBOMy


coiosy cxajin npHAibiKaib ropo^a (JfwyepN&j Eepm H #P-)- HoBaa
no6 r

A,a mBeflqapaeBi, Ha^t aBCxpificKHMH repnoraMH BJ> KOHH.'B


XIV* (npH 3eMnaw>) 3acxaBH.ua iipHCoeflHHHXbCfl K-L coiosy eiu,e
B.

Hi>cKOJbKO KanxoHOB-L, a B-b cepeAHHi B. BJ> ero cocxasi Bome-iiXV


C i, HEMT. cna^ajia Ijwpuxo. HlBeHn,apn,bi CKOpo npi-

cjiaey nenofinduMOu nnxomu, H HXI cxa.iH OXOXHO HaHH-


waxb Bi CBOH BoiicKa cocfefrme rocyAapH. (HanpHMtpi), HiBeHi^apii,bi
XI cjiOMHXb Kap.ia CATEJiaro). Bi KOim'fe XV B.
JlioAOBHKy
IIIBeH^apiH ct HMnepien 6tuia yaie IHCXO 4>op MajI1E HOK) > -

236*. IIpH nocjTEAHeM'b jnoKceM6yprcKOMi> HMnepaxopi Cu-


imMyudrb (1419 1437) HiiMeHKie KHflSba H ropo^a noMorajn CBoeny
rocyAapio BT> ero KpecmoooM* noxodn npomuez lycumoeo. IIocji'BAHie
H'BMn.eB'B 6ujiH He xojrbKO epexHKaMH, HO H sparaMH HXT. naiiio-
He Meflie Mewcdy CCLMUMU wbMi^aMU locnodcmeoea.ia
mamxpo3m, yxo OHH BHKaK'b He MOFJIH cnpaBHXbCH ci qexaMH. Ho
CMepxH CarHSMyHAa HMnepaxopCKaa Kopona nepenua KI Ta6c6yp-
raaii, (BU> JIHU^ Ajibopexxa AscxpiHCKaro). KTB 9xofi AHHacxin npn-

HaAJieataj'b BO Bxopofi HOJIOBHH'B XV B. <&pudpuxt III (1439

1493), KOxoptiH, npaBAa, coBepmHjrb HOXOAI B-L Hxajiiio ?yiR


.iOM6apACKoft v HMnepaxopCKOft KopOHt, HO B-b Fep-
6ujii coBepuienHO 6e3cu.ibnbiMz locydapeMt. OHI
168

pacxepajrB noixH BC^ CBOH BJia^nin. CarHSMyHA'B I no 6paicy


ci. HacjrEflHHijeH BeHrpin c^k/iajica KopoJieMi) BeHrepcKHM-B, a ero
flOiB, HacjrfcAHHua KOPOHI> qemcKOH H BCHrepCKOH, Btiimia sa-

Myati sa
repn,ora aBcxpificKaro, djiaro^apfl ieMy npOHsouuio coe/i,H-
Henie ra6c6yprcKHX'B H jiK)KceM6yprcKOH AHHacxifi. Ho nocjii cuepxn
CHrH3MyH.ua H BI> BenrpiH, H BI, ^exiH (JBLIH BBi6paHBi HauioHajiBHBie
KOpo-iH (Mamenu Kopeuuz H lOpiu IIodrb6padcniu) H O^HH-B HSI. HHXI>, :

nrepCKiH, OTHflj L-6ujro i

y $pH,aipHxa III fl&aae ABCipiio CT>


ieit H KapHHTien. Ilpn EGMI, ate
xypKH OBwiaA'Li
a HMnepaxopi> naqero He Mori npoxHBi> BBX-L
. He CMoxpa na Bee axo, OHt o^eHB rop^HJicfl CBOHM'B xnxyjiOM-B H
CBOHMI, ^.eBHSOMi. sasBjieHie, HXO n ABCxpia WJIKEB, no-

237. OB
Hsdpanifl Ajib6pexxa ABCxpiftcKaro HMnepaxopcKaa KO-
pona Ha xpH ci> no.iOBHHOio B^Ka ymeepduAacb sa Pa6c6ypiaMU.
%
'Bi KOHi^i XV H Haiajtfi XVI B. 9xa ^HHacxin snanumeMno pac-
ceou ejiadnnin. CBIH'B $pn^pHxa III, MancuMUMam, ^ap-
nocji nero (1493 1519), eme npn JKHSHH oxi^a aje-
Ha jjoiepH Kapjra CMijiaro, Mapiu EypiyudcKou, H nojiyqH^i)
B-B npn^aHoe sa Hero Hudepjiandu. Cfioero CBiHa ($HjiHnna Kpacn-
Baro) OHI aieHH.ii) Ha flonepH 0epduuauda Apaioncnaio H Hsa-
KacmuMCKOu, nacji'BAHHrii Hcnauiu (loaHHi BesyMHofi), a
xoro, ycxpOHJii* 6paKi. cseHxi BnyKOBi. ($epAHHaHAa H Ma-
pia) C-B ^o^epBio H CBIHOMTB Kopojia BenrepCKaro H qemcKaro, B.ia-

AHCJiaBa, qiMi no^roxoBHjii npiodpixenie Fao'co'y praam H odiaxi,


3XHXI, KOpOH-B v CocxaBHJiacB ^,azGe noroBOpKa: HycxB Apyrie BC-
a XBI, ciacxjiHBaa Ascxpia, saKnoqaii 6paKH, noxony
Ayxi) BOHHBI,
2
ixo xe6i Benepa .naex^ xo, ixo ^pyrie nojiyqaioxi. oxi Mapca" ).

238. IIpH MaKCHMHJiiaH'B I B-B FepMaHiH 6mio c^iaHO ni-


HM-CKOJIBKO nonumoKK pecfiopMUpoeami u.unepm. J(JIA axoro Ha UM-
wpCKOMt ceuMn>
(H.IH peuxcmairb), C^'BSA'B Kyp^ropcxoB-B, x.-e.
PH
KHaseii H yno.iHOMOieHHBix'B ofL BOJIBHBIX^ ropo^OBi), co6paBffleMca BE
1495 r. BT> BopMdb, 6mn> ycxaHOBjieni oib'tuuu seMCKiu Mupz, a
A-ia pasSopa cnopOB-B Meat^y HMHCPCKHMH yHHaMH, x.-e. Kypi|)rop-
CXaMH, KHHSBaMH H BOJIBHBIMH TOpO^aMH yqpeaiA6H1> BepXOBHLIH HM-
nepCKiH cyA'B (peuxcnaMMepiepuxmt). Ha xbji'k MHpi. BOABOpeHi HC
6ujii>, a cy^a HMnepCKie IHHBI HC SOBJIHCB ,a,a H cjymajiHCB ero HJOXO.

KpOM-B xoro, f(jia ynpaBJiema FepMania daja pas^^ieHa Ha decnmb


ci oco6BiMH 6jiocxHxejaMH Mupa H nopa^Ka HS-B KHasefi, HO

^ A. E. I. 0. U., x.-e. Austriae est imperare orbi universe.


2
) Bella gerant alii, tu, fedix Austria, nube
Nam quod Mars aliis, dat tibi Venus.
169

H 3x0 noMora^o f&Jiy oieiiB MSJO, noxojiy qxo ne 6buo HUKamio u,eu-

mpa.u.uaio npaeumejbcmea. HaKOHerj-B, Ha o6m,ia HyaiABi HMnepCKie


IHHBI cooaiiiajiHCb ^asaxB AeiiBi'H, Ha caMOMi> ate flfeji'k uMnepcnaa
Kasna 6bt.ia nycma. TaKHMi> ofipasoM-B FepMama nepenuia VL HOByio
Hciopiio noJiHTHHecKH pa3,npo6.ieHHOK) H HyagjaBineioca BI>

239*. Bo BTOpOH IKMOBHH-B Cpe^HHXX B^KOBl* BHyipeHHfffl HC- Oomifi B.-U-JHIT,

Topia xpext rjiaBHtix-L sanaflHO-eBponeficKHx-L cipan-L, T.-e. $paHnin,


AHi\aiH H FepMaHin, nouuia no pasnuMt nymnMt, H'BM'L onpedn>Mi-
i B

fpanuiH, AH-
HCTopk)

r e
enympennee uxt> paseumie H B-L HOBoe Bpeiia. Bx BTHX-B cipa- '"^, a HJ H

,
COdCTBeHHO TOBOpa, paSJHHHHM'L o6pa30Ml> CJIOaKHJIHCb BSaHMHHH
OTHonienia KopojreBCKOH BJiaciH, ^eo^ajifcHOH apHCTOKpaiiH H ro-
po,ncKoro cocjJOBia. Bo $paHiUH nepBOHa^ajibno cjiadaa KOpojieecKan
ecmynuAa m com* a> lopojicauaMU npomm* (fieodadoe?, H
Ha pas^opax-B Meat^y odoHMH cocjiOBiaMH. B'B AHrjiin,
Hao6opOTi,, oieHB BX HaqajTE CHJiBHaa KopoAeecKan ejiacmb ecmprbmu-
mcb c* comoMz 6apouoff6 u lopowam, HTO HM^JIO cji-BACTBieMi, ea
orpaHHqeme. Bo <I>paH^H noaxoAiy BTB HOBOG Bpeaia ycxaHOBHJica afico-
jiwmu3M%, B'B AHmiH o%paHUueHHan Monapxin. 06-E cxpaHBi Bcxy-
HHJIH B'B HOByK) HCXOpilO, O^HaKO, KaKI ItlbJlbHUH Hai^ioHCUbHblH KO-

po.ieecmea. FepMama, HanpoxHBi,, B'B 3xy 9noxy pa3dpo6u<iacb na ox-


,3,'BJiBHLia KHaaiecxBa H ropoACKia pecny(5.iHKH. B'B noroHi sa npn-

spaKOM-B PHMCKOH HMnepiH H^MeaKie nopom camu nojuouu ymeep-


dumbCH (fieodamiSMy, npunecwu emy &b otcepmey u Muoiie lopoda. 9xo
pasjHqie BO BHyxpeHHefi ainsHH xpex'B cxpaH'B BHOJH'B npoaBHJiocB
yate B'B cepeAHHi XIII B., Kor.ua BO $paHi^iH JIwdoeuK* Ce. u jie-
lucmu npH^ajH KOpoJieBCKOH Bjacxn HpaBCXBeHHBiH asxcpHxexi. H
lopHflHqecKoe no^xBepaiAeHie, B-B AnrjiH npH lenpuxn* III BOS-
HHK'B napjaMeHim, a B-B FepMaHin HOCJI-B (Dpudpuxa, II nacxy-

MeMcdyu,apcmeie.

IV.

240*. 3aBoeBame KoHCxaHXHHonoja KpecxoHOCn,aMH B'B 1204 r.


H yqpeat^eHie JIaxHHCKOH HMnepin conpOBoat^ajHCB eoedeniem oz smo
locydapcmso sanadno-eeponeucuaio (peodaAusMa. HOBBIB rocno^a BH-
saHxm pas^aBajiH seMJin B-B JIGH-B npHmeAniHM'B C-B HHMH pun.apaM'i.
HJIH coxpanajiH HXX sa cxapBiMH Bja^jiBrtaMH XOJIBKO BI KaqecxB-B .ie-
HOB-B. BM^CX-B ci I-BMT, HMH 6HJio KOH^HCKOBano oieeB MHOFO 36M6JIB,

npaBocJiaEHbiM-B MOHacxBipaarB. 9xo XOJIBKO yxy^-


no-aoateme HapOAHoii MaccBi. KpOMi xoro, HOtfftftfeTOU BBejiH P/B
170

HMnepiio HOBoe saKOHOflaxejiBCXBO (ACCHSBI PouaEiiH, dbiBiiiie nepe-

A^JIKOK) iepycajHMCKHX'B accnsTb). BoscxanoBjreflie BnsaHxiHCKOH HM-


nepin llajieo.ioiaMU (1261) yate He MOOO B03BpaxHXb eft npeatnaro
seaiema. HMnepin u enympenue pacnada.iacb, TaKi> Kaifb, uanp., npn
HMnepaxopij, KoHCxaHXHHij XIII, 6paxBa rocyAapa (^H-
H OOMa) HM^JIH CBOH H63aBHCHMHfl KHaateCXBa B'B IleJIOnO-
Bcji^At 3a naAenieM-B KoHcxaHTHHonoJifl xypKH oBjaA^JiH H
9THMH KHH^ecTBaMH.) llojioweuie ipeKoez nodi mypet^KUMZ e.iadbi-
6ujio Bec&Ma neqa^bHoe. Y saBoeBaiejieH BOSHHKajia ^aate
o norojiOBHOM^ hxi) HCTpedjeniH. Bee xpncTiancKoe Hace-
jjeaie BajiKaHCKaro npespaTHJiocL B-B pauw (cxa^o).
nojryocTpOBa
TypKH cxajiH pascMaxpaBaxb BCK> SCMJIH), Kant co^cineennocmb cyji-
mana, E sa nojibsoBame ero nocejiflHe AOJiatHti OLIJIH njiaxHXb 6ojib-
myio no^axb. KpOM'fc flpyrax'b HajroroBi, OHH ycxanoBHJiH dam MOLM-
RJIK nonoJiHenia BofiCKa flHimap'B, xoxa B'b xo ate caatoe
see sspocjioe MyatCKoe xpacxiaHCKoe Hacejienie
n.iaxHXb cneu/iaMHuu ucuioii sa oceo6ootcdeme omz OOUHCKOU

flypHan opiaHU3au,iH ynpae^enin ein,e 6oji4e yBejrHqnBajia xarocxb


sxoro nojioatenifl H jiHraa.ia rpeKOB'b BOSMoatnocxH CUOKOHHO
Baxbca X^MH jibroxaMH, Koxopiia 6miH sa HHMH ocxaB.ienBi BI>
caMOcmofimeMuocmu ip&iecKoii i^epneu u Mntcmnaio caMoynpaejiemn.
TojbKO 3XH npHBH-ierin, BnpoqeMi., H cnacjiH rpeiecKyio HaijioHajib-
Hocxb noA'B xypen,KHM^ HFOMI, OTI raSeJiH.
241*. B'b XIV H XV BB. Bl C.iaBflHCKOM'L Mipi IlpOH30niJIH
c.iaBHHCKifl
Bt A.A V
cpaBHHiejibHO ci 9iioxo!o KpecxoBbixi)
lp'l> Y t7"TT/ /~t *
T7"TT /*
XT BB. Ha IOFE B'b XIV B.Uepow, HO BT, XOMI. ate XIV B.
BOSBbicH.mcb
OH a, BMicxt ct Eomapieu 6ujis, saBoesana xypKann. Ha BOCXOK^
pyccKin KWKHcecmoa oSTeAHHaioxcfl BI ^Ba Sojibmnxi, rocyAapcxBa
MocKoecKoe a JLumoecKoe. Ilepsoe HS-B HHXI B'b KOHit'B XV B.
ocBo6oAHJiocb 0X1 MOHrojiLCKaro Hra, sxopoe BI KOHai XIV B.
Hojibmeio no^i BJiacxBio O^,HOH ^HHacxin ). Ha sa-
]
coe,n,HHHJiocb ci.

IIojiBma H ^exia ^ocxHrarox'B B'B 9x0 BpeMa SHaqnxejiBHOH CHJIBI.


I Ha^ajii XIV B., a BI> KOHU.'B ycnjiHJia ce(5a

C'B JlnxBOK) H BX HOBoe


Bpena nepenuia yate
H Morym.ecxBeHHBiM'B rocy.napcxBOM'B. Bt xo ate BpeMa ^exiu,
AO^ro HpHHa^eatajo nepBCHCXByromee M^CXO B'B CBameHHOii PHMCKOH
HMnepin, H qemcKie Kopojin saHHMajiH B'B FepMaHm HMnepaiopcEiji
npecxo.Tb. TasHMi oSpaaoMi, B'B xo BpeMa, Kait-B roatHBie oiasflHe yxpa-
qHBaioxi> uesaBHCHMOcxB, sanaAHBie, Haouopoxi,, ^ocTHraiox'B

') CM. Kapty XXL


171

tfojibinaro rocyAapcxBemiaro pasBHxia. IIocj'EAHeMy MHOFO cnoco6-


iCjieflie FepManiii HOCJI-B Be;iHKaro Meaj,nyn,apcxBia.
242*. Bi KOHEVE XII B. (1186) HOXOMKH fiojirapCKHXt rjapen
6pax&a llempz n loanm Acrbuu noAHaJiH npoxHBi>
snaMfl Boscxama H ocHOBaja emopoe OosiiapCKoe i^apcmeo
Haearb H BajiKauaMH C-B cxojiHn,efi BT> Tupuoen. OHO HOXOM-B
Bejio BOHHBIH ex KpecxoHOCijaMH JIaxHHCKOH HMHepin (ii,apb Kajroaai,
pa36HJTb HXI, npH AApianono.ri, H nepBMH jiaxHHCKin HMnepaxopx
nonajt B-B HJTEH'B), H ex Ila.ieojioraMH. Bi> caaiOMi. qapcxsi npo-
HCXOAHJIH BHyxpeHHie pas^opBi, itoxopbie ocjia6jiajiH Bojirapiro H
.naate HOSBO.IHJIH cepSaM-B pacnpocxpanaxB Ha HHXTI CBOIO BJiacxB.
Bi> 1393 r. Tupuoeo 6ujio saaoeeauo mypmjuu, a n,apB (IIlHni-
MaHi> III) H dojirapCKifi naxpiapxx yBe,a,eHH BX HJI-BH-B. BojirapcKie
i^apH Bcerji,a CXPGMHJIHCB ict n/epKoenou uesaeucuMocmu omz Bu-
aanmiu, HO xypKH o6i>aBHJiH KOHCxaHXHHonojiBCKaro naxpiapxa r.ia-
BOIO Bctxi) xpacxiaH-B Bi> HXI> B.ia.o.'BHiax'B, H Bo^rapifl yxpaxHJia
CBOK) aBXOK6l{)aJIBHyK) I^epKOBB.
243. Cep6u 7 ex caMaro Hanajia CBoero nocejienifl na Baji-
KaHCKOMi> nojiyocxpoB'B uaxo^HBHiieca no.n.'B BHsaHxin, OCBO- BJiacxBio

O'O.HH.IHCB oxi Hea npn Cmecfianrb BtbMcntnt BO Bxopoii


XII B., HO ^ocxHrjia CepCia dojiBinoro snaqeHia JIHIHB BI>
XIY B. npn napii Cmtfiaurb fywanrb (1331 1355). Ero n,ap-
CXBO ooHHMajio, KpOMfc xenepemHHX'B Cep6iH, ^epnoropiH H /l,aji-
MaqiH, Bocmro, MaKe^OHiro, Bojirapiro H Oeccajriio, xaKi> qxo no-
x
umu eecb cneepb EajimucKaw nojiyocmpoea 6bijn> BI ero pyKaxi> ).

Bt j^ijiax-B BHyxpeHH^ro ynpaBJienia CxeijjaH'B npocjiaBHJica


cepGciaro SaKOHHum. Ho npn CHH-fc Cxe^ana (Ypown>}
a co CMepxbio ero npeitpaxHJiacb
HLia npOBHHii,iH cxajin oxna^axB,
H AHHacxia H-BMaHnqeM. IIpeeMHHKH ea cxa.iH xepn-BXB nopameHia OX-B
xypOK-B: ocodeHHO rnSejiBHO GBIJIO jpa CepCiH nopawcenie npa^n Jlasapx
na KocoeoMi, noMb B-B 1389 r. Hoc-ni* axoro cyjixani, Baasexx pasjvB-
Cep6iio Ha ^Ba ^aHHaqecKHX'B KHHJEecxBa, HO BI> HHX-L nponc-
CMyxbi, H sa na.neHieM'B KoHCxanxHHonoJia MaroMex-B II
ECJikfl,T>

coBepmenHO no^qHHHJi'B ced^ Cep6iio, npeBpaxHBi> ee BT> npocxyro


npOBHHn,iio Typn,iH. TOJIBKO BT. HCAOCxynHOH Vepuoiopiu He6o.iBmaa
qacxB cep6cKaro njieMenn coxpaHHJia CBOIO HesasHCHMOcxB.
244*. DOCJTE na,o,eHia cep6cKaro H 6ojrapCKaro ijapcxB-B rpa- BeHr P lfl
. KOHIJ-B cpex-
HHHbi Typn,iH flpmjoi AO BenrpiH, Koxopaa H c^ajiacB fjKMNWjra HHXI, BiKOBi.
on.iomoMb sanaduou Eeponu npomuez mypOKb. <9xo rocy^apcxBO
B-B KOHI^'B Cpe^HHXl. B^KOB'B BC6 flO-TEC H dOJlie HO^qHHaJOCB 3a-

1
) CM. Kapry XIX.
172

Ky.ibxyp E.
r
Bt Haqa.TE XIII B. BCJ^ACTnie sojiomou 6y.).n>i

Andpesi II (1222) Benrpia npeBpaxHJiacb B-L nacxoamyio coc.toe-

nyto Monapxiw CT> CCHMOMI,, BI, KOiopOMi, ymcxBOBajH npe^cxa-


BHX6JIH COCJIOBiH. FjiaBHyK) pO.lb B!> rOCyAapCXBCHHOH 31H3HH BeH-

rpin cxa.io nrpaxb ttpynme u Me.moe deopHncmeo. Bi> Haqa.ii


XIY B. sA^Cb npeicpaxHJiacb ^Huaciifl Apna^a, H nocjii spaiKO-
llexieii
coe^HHeHm CT. Benrpifl nojyinjia HOBVIO ,HH-
B'B jiHn.'B npHHi^a Kapjia-PoSepxa HSI
HeanojiHiaHCKaro
cfiaMUMU. Ilpn ero CHH'B JTwdoeuMb Be^uKOMt (1342
1382) Benrpia o6iedumuia sncmumejibHyw nacmb sanaduaio CJIQ,-
GHHcmea u npeepamudacb &z fioAbwyw CJiaeHHCKyw depwaey, noxoMy
ixo Jlro^OBHKy y^ajiocb pacnpocxpaHHXb CBOIO Bjacxs, npoMrb Xop-
eamiu u flaAMaii,iu, na Eocnm H qacxB EoMapiu, a xaKme no-
B L KaqecxBi njieMHHHHKa des^xHaro nojBCKaro Kopojia, H
r

CT> Ta.mueMz. He
HM-BH cuHOBefi, .Iro^OBHKt saB^ma-TL npe-
cxojii. CBoefi ji,oqepH Mapin, Koxopaa c^JiajiacL HeBicxoio, a HOXOM-B
H ateHoro cbtna uewcmio uopojin (H H-BMei^Karo HMnepaxopa), BHO-
o'B.iiiCXBiH Toate diiBinaro qeiiiCKHM'L KOpojieM-B H HMiiepaxopOMi.,
I. Bjiaro^apa 3xoMy, Benrpia BpeMGHHO coeduHumcb ct
3MyH,a;a
HO saxo oil nea omnajia IIoMwa, npnsBaBmaa na npeciojit
JLEOflOBHKa (flABHry). Bnpo^eni, BI, nepBOH nojiOBHETB XV B.
caMH eu6upajiu na ceou npecmoM noMcmio Kopojin (Bja-
Bo Bxopoii UOJIOBHH'B XV B. Benrpien npaBHJH Fyniadu
.

(pyMHHCKaro npOHCXoat^enia), HS^ Koxoptixi, oco6etmo npocjiaBHJica


CBOHMH BOHiiaMH ct xypnaMH H saBoeBaniaMH Mamemi Kopeum,
OBjra^BiniH aBCxpificKHMH seMjiaMH H qacxbro ^exin. Ha
XV H XVI B.
BeerpiH BI,n,apcxBOBajiH onaxb qenicme
HS^ nojibCKott AHnacxin HrejJiOHOBi,, no npeKpameniH Koxopon npe-
CTOJTL ^ocxajica Fa6c6ypiaMb (1526), d-iaro^apa ynoMaHyxHM'b Btime

245*. Hocji'E npeKpamema BI,


oxk B-f, xiYBH q e jg 9TO
rocy^apcxBO flocxa-aocb JIwKceM6ypicnoMy domy B-L
loauua, dtiBinaro no naxepn njieMaHHHKOMt nocjii^naro
MHCJiOBH^a. EMy H nacji'EAOBaji^ SHaMennxtiH Kap^z IV (1346
1378), H3<5paHHLifi BI, n-BMeniKO-pHMCKie HMnepaxopu, ocHOBaxejb
l
npaatCKaro yHHBepcnxexa (1348), n oxeni> lexia H oxqnMi, FepMaHiH".
Hpn cxapmeM'L ero CLIH-B Bcmjtaen (1378 1419) BT, ^exin na-
npoxuBOH'feMen.Koe H npoxHBOKaxojiHqecKoe .nBHjKeme, np-
KI lycumcmey, a npn Mja^meMi, CLIH'B, CuiU3Myndn>,
(1419 1437) npOHCxoflHJiH lycumcnin eouuu, HMismia xapanxepi,
BnyxpenneH peBOjnonJH. H Baipasi (,o;o 1400 r.), H CH-
(C'B 1410 r.) 6miH xoate HMiiepaxopaMH, a
173

CBepxi> TOFO H BenrepcKHirL Kopo.ieMi>, xaK'b ITO MewcdyHapodnoe no-


.'nHcenie Vexiu 6biAO eecbjua OUCOKOB. Bi> rycHTCKyro anoxy Alexis

npeBpamiacb BI> U36upame,ibnyio Monapxiw, H no npeKpameniH JIOK-


ceMoyprcKaro AOMa Hen u,apciBOBajH CHaqaja CTOPOHHHK-B yM'B-
B-B

peanaro rycuiCTBa next lOpiu JIodnOpadcKiu, HOTOMI, no.tbcuiu KO-


po.ieeimi> B.wducAciui, KOTOpun 611.1% Bbio'pau'b B^ Kopojin H eempaMU,
xaKL qio B'L KOH^ B
1

XV H Haqaj-B XVI B. ^exifi u Bempin na-


XOAH.IHCB B'L coe^HHeniH.
npeKpameflieMi, C'L /I,H- BI> ^exia BTOH
naciiH ea KOpOHa nepenuia, OKI. H BenrepcKafl, EI Fa6c6ypraM-L
(1526).
246. MejKfly ^exien, Benrpieft H Ilo.iLinefi BI> KOHii,'t cpe^HHXi,
ycTaHaBJiHBa,iHC&, c-i'BuoBaTe.ibHO, dunacmuHecKiH cemu. Bee- AB-"
l
rpi>i coeAHHfljiacb ci lexiefl Ha KOpoxKoe BpeMfl B-L Haiaji-fe XIV B., cipieft.

sai^Mt cepe^HH^ XIV B. nocji AOBaTejiLHO CT> nojitmeio H onaib ex


r
BI,
l
lexiefi, noioiit B^ nepsoii no.iOBHH'B XV B. ex IIo.iBiiieK), a BX
Koi^ii XV H HaiajTE XVI CHOBa C-B ^exien. Bi> 1526 r. H BeHrpia
H Alexis BM'fecT'E ^ocTajiHCb ra6c6ypraMi>, no^i. BjacTbio
naxoAHTCfl H AO
nopi. CHX-L BTO
cyAbuy HX-b c-b CBflsa.io
6oK> ABCipin, Koiopaa cxaaa npoBO^HTb BI, JKHSHB cjiasaHCKHXT. na-
!
pOAHOCTeft KOpouz C6. Bfwec.meo, u ce. Cmecfiaua ) naiaja repMa-
HH3an,iH H cxporaro KaiOjiHi],H3Ma,
ci>cepeAHHH XV B. CA^ia.iac
HOH PHMCKOH Hunepia repnaHCKOH Han,iH.
247. BT> nayawii XIV B. BT> IIo.ibra'B KOWIUJICR ydrb.iwuu ne- 06-teAHHeHie
piodt. 06-LeAHHHTejeMi> IIojibniH 611.1^ OAHH-L HSI, v^kibBbix-b KHS-
seft BMtdu&tctw JIoKomoKt (1306 1333), KOTOP&IH H KopoaoBajica
KopOHoro. Csoe rocyflapcxBO eMy npHxoAHJiocb OTCTan-
H OTT> leXOB-b, CTpeMHBmHKCfl OTt SaBOGBaib IlOJIblUy, H
TeBTOHCKaro opAena, saBjia^'EBmaro qacibro npeatnefi no.ibCKofi iep-
pHTOpin. Ho BTopofi Kopo.ib oSxeAHHeHHOH IIojbmH, KaauMipt Be-
MIKIU (1333 1370), cxapa.ica ataib BT> MHp-fe H CT. ^exieii, H
TeBionaMH, a npeAnpHHajii) pacwupenie HOMWU na cwrm Ptjcu.
KnaaiecKia yco6Hi;Li H xaiapCKie norpOMbi oqeHb ocJia^HJH Pycb,
H Ka3HMipi> Be.iHKift oBjaA'B.n> ^epBOinioto (TajHu,KOio) Pycbio
(1340), pasdHB-b npH BTOM-B xaiap-b. Y KaaHMipa He OHJIO
a noTOMy nepe^t CMepibio CB cor.iacia BejibMox'B OH-L
CBOHMI, npeeMHHKOMT, BeHrepCKaro Kopoja JIiOAOBHKa. Xoxa EJ>

H ITacTOBHqH (nanp., BaccajbHtift Knasb Maso-


6bi.iH em,e

), HO KasHMip'b, jKHBiuin BT> MO.IOAOCTH npn ^Bop-fe BeHrepCKHxi> KO-


AnatyHCKOH AHHaciin, ocooeHno 6jaroBOJiHJi B
r

H3T> KT>

THKT. Ha3HBaTca neiiiCKaH H BeiirepcKaa KopoHU. (Baiec.iaB'L


174

odoHx-B rocyflapcxBi. 6ujio KpaxKOBpeMeHHBiM'B, H no CMepxH


(1370) HOJIBCKOH KOpojieBOH gj-EJiaJiacb AOI& ero
Koxopaa no atejianiio IIOJIBCKHX'B nanoBt Bt.im.ia aaMyat-B sa

JiHTOBCKaro flwAAa (1386). B-B 9x0 BpeMa KnaajecxBO jmiOBCKoe


sHagHxejrbHBiM-B rocyflapcxBOM-B, no^i. BJiacxbio Koxoparo naxo^H-
jracboieHb dojitmaa iacxb loro-sanaAHOH PycH, HO caMH JHTOBI^BI 6miH
em;e flBBiiHHKH. ^rejuro npHHajii. KamoMMecKyw ewpy H PGBHOCTHO
cxaji'E pacnpocTpanaiB ee cpe^a jurroBn.eBi,. TaKi nponsomjia HOM-
CKO-.mmoecmn ymH, H B-B HoJiBmt naqajiacB dunacmiH ttieji.iOHOot.

248. ^HHaciifl ^rejuiOHOB-B ijapcxBOBajia B-B UojiBni'B OKOJIO


B-BKOB-B (1386 1572). IIpH H6H HOJIBCKOG KOpOJeBCTBO do-
Ka"
cmmjio naufioMiuaio MOiyu^ecmea. flrejuo (npHEflBiniii VL Kpeui,e-
H!H HMS BjiaflHCJiaBa) H ^BOPOPO^HMH ero dpaxi, BHTOBTB,
miHCfl BaccajLHtiMTb EnaseM'B JHTOBCKHMX, npe^npHHHJH BOHHy

xaiapaMH H ci TeBTOHCKHMi op^enoM-B. TaxapLi HaeecJiH


nopa^Keflie (npn BopcK-TE BI> 1399 r.), HO sa xo
JI'BX'B coe^HHeHHBia noJibCKQ-JiumoecKifi GUJIU npu
TaHHe6epr B) coeepwenuo pasipoMum urbMe^uxb pu-
r

(HJIH

mipeu (1410). Op.neH'B AOJiro He Mor'B nonpaBHXBca nocjii 3xoro,


a UojiBnia H JlnxBa eme xicnie coe^HHHjracB no doiooopy ei To-
podjirb (1413), ycxanoBHBnieMy o6m,ie CI'BS^BI HOJIBCKHX'B H JHTOB-
CKHX-B BejiBMoati. HoS'Bfla nojiaKOB'B Ha^ nijMen.KHiiH ptmapaMH BI.

xo caMoe BpeMa, Kor^a ^exia nuia CBOJI 6op&6a ci HiimaMH,


B-B

sacxaBHJia qexoBi. B^ Haiaj'B rycnxcKHX-B BOHH!) HCKaxB noddepwcuu

y IIoMwu, H vflrejLio nojiyqHJii, .naaie npe^ioateme cxaxB leniCKHMi.

KOpojieMij, HO Kaxo.iaqecKoe ^yxoBeacxBO y^epasajo ero oxi. no-


Mom,H rycHxan-B. Coe^HHeHie IIo.ibniH C'B Mexieii ne cocxoajiocB,
HO sa xo CBIHI, Jlrejuia, Bjiaducjiaei III ^HJI-B Hsdpaai, 02 wpojiu
eempaMU. BXHIVIX COIOSOM'B HM^JIOCB BT> BH^y cos^axB CHJIBHBIH
OHJIOXI. npoxHBi> xypoK-B, H B^a.nHC.iaB'B III, codpaBi, CoJiBmoe BOHCKO,
cocxoaBinee H3i> nojiaKOBi, H BearpOBx, npomeji^ C'B HHM-B AO ca-
naro ^epnaro mopa, HO npn Bapnrb noxepnij.!!, nopaacenie eii.
xypOK'B H caMi, uaun, B-B dHXEi (1444). Pesy.ibxaxoM'B 6biJio pac-
na^eme ymn ci> BeHrpiefi. CiacxjiHB-Be 6wn> B'B CBOCH 6opb6-B C-B H't-

MenKHMi. op^eHOM^ Apyroft CBIH-B Srejuia, EasuMipz 77, Kopojib no.ib-

CKiii H Be^HKifi Knasb JtHXOBCKin. Boftna MeaAy HHMH Be.iacb

i;axb Jiixi H KOHHHJiacb ^.oroBOpOMi., no KoxopOMy Ilojibma


oxi, opji,eHa IloMOpbe H sanaduyw Ilpycciw, sa op^eaoMi. ^e ocxa.iaci>
XOJIBKO o,o;Ha Bocxognaa Hpyccia ^a H xo JHHIB &z eaccaMuou sa-

eucuMOcmu omn> HOMWU. 3xo onaxB no^Ha.io Ilo.ibiny B-B jmimiH ie-
XOB-B, H HX-B Han,ioHajiBHbiH Kopojb lOpin IIoA'fe^paACKiH yd'BAH.i'b ceihii>
ero npeeMHHKOMi. na npecxoJTE CLma KasHMipa IV, BA>-
175

BcKOpi aarfeMt 31011 HOBBIH HeiiiCKifi KOpo.iB H3t


6BLTB HsopaH-B HHa BeHrepCKifi npecmirB, HO ^HHacria flreji-

JTOHOB-B B-L ^exm H BeHrpm


n,apCTBOBaja neflOJiro. HS-B OAHH'B
npeeMHHKOB-B KasHMipa IV (CHrHSMyH.m. I) cooacHLicfl Ha TO, 110611
BI o6oHX-B rocy/japCTBaxi, flre-MonaM-B Hac.a'B'.noBa.iH FadcoyprH.
249* B'B Mexin. BenrpiH H HojiLmi, faaroAapa CXOAUBIM-L Oomia
^ 6uia .

yCJOBlflM'B HX-B9KOHOMHieCKarO OHTa, DJieMeHHOrO pO^CTBa HX!> Ha- Benrpia H


ce.ienifl H o^HHaKOBOCTH HcxopHiecKHXi, BJiiaHift BiapadoxaJiHCB ^o
HSB^CTHOH cieneHH oftWiin, cpopMu r^mecmeeunaio u locydapcmeen-
naio 6uma. Be3,a,i HM6HHO o6pa30Bajioci> MorymeciBeHHoe cocjiofiie

(MarnaTM, naHn) H pflflOM-B ci> HHMI>


coc.ioeie He OCO^CHHO doraioe, HO secbMa
Hoe H SHeprHqHoe (ptmapCTBO, nuflxia). Xoifl Me^^y HHMH cyme-
ciBOBajii. aHTaroHH3Mi>, HO BI. cymnocTH STO 6tiJiH JIHHIB ^,Ba pasHLie
KJiacca ^BOpHHCTBa, Koiopoe Hcma.to moida locnodcmeoeanib na ceu-
Maxb. Bcij TPH CTpaiiH 6Bi.in rjiaBHtiM-B o6pa30Mi> seMJie^JBiecKifl, H
ropo^a ne HM^JIH B'B BBX^ xaKoro pasBHiia, uaira Ha Sanafffc; npa-
TOMT> JKC B'B ropo^axi ^BIJH OHCHB CHjeni>
eepeucKiu WMtewdu u
SMMenm*. ^TO Kacaexca ,a;o KpeciBflH-B, TO H BX ^exin, H BI, Ben-
rpiH, H BI, nojiBnit OHH BT> 3Ty anoxy cmcuiu saKprbnomamwfi.
yxy^nieHie nojioatenia vewcKUxz npecmbfim H sacTaBHjio HXX
HflTBCfl B'B 9HOXV TyCHTCKHXI, BOHH'B 00^1 SHaMeiieiTB HOBHX1,
jTHriosHBixTb yqeHifi, a
BenrpiH aHajrornqHtia npniHiiH
B'B

6o.4bwoe 603cmame 1514 r., KOTOpoe 6two ycMHpeao ci>

jKecTOKOCTBto, HOCJii qero BeHrepCKifi ceHM-B B'B

250. IIojiBnia BI, XIV XV B^Kax-B nojiyqajia CBoeo6pa3HOe


TT ^ TT * 6nrb Ilo.n.mu
ycTpoiiCTBO. He rosopa JHTBOIO, npHqeMTb BT, oojia^anni B1) XI y H nep .
yate ooi, yma C-B
x
BOH nojoBHut
rocy^apCTBi, 6miH H pyccma SCMJIH ), caMa IIojiBma 6HJia CKO-
(pedepcmieu omdn>.imux?> 3CM6M, mws edunuMz lOcydapcmooMv.
^tjBHHXi, Kaaa^TB^ npn Ka-
BI, o6m.ee KOPOJCBCTBO
H HpHTOMl, TaKl, ^TO BI,
JIOKOTK'B npOHSOfflJIO O^eilB 6BICTpO

eoeeodcmen, BI KaKOBBia ripeBpamoiCB npeiKHia KnaaiecTBa,


coxpaHHJiHCB CTapLia yypeat^eHia H y,a,epaiaJiacB HSB^CTnaa aBTOHOiii)i.
RiaBHoe B.iianie B'B OTA^.IBHBIX'B BoeBO^CTBaxi, npjma.pejKa.io MOMHO-
emdcmey, T.-e. 6oraTBiMi, H snaTHBiM-B wawajws, saiiHMaBniHM'B H
Hillmifl AOJ2KHOCTH, a Cl HHMH BM^CT-B H BLICrnHMI, ^yXOBHBIM'B
Kponi Toro, B'B cTpani cym,ecTBOBa.ia CyHuaa H CBoeBOJBHaa
iip-B Be.iHKiH 6opojca npoiEBi CBoesojiifl naHOB-B H

l
)
llo.ii,nrli iiimuaA-iexaJO ra.iHii.Koe KHflffieci'BO, .iHTB'fe ociajbHua K)ro-uana^uu;i
H ctBepo-saiiaAHUfl pyccnia SCMJH.
176

H ,p:fl 9xoro 663,3,$ nocxaBHjnb CBOHX'B cmapocmz, He


npaBHxejeH,
saxporHBaa, oflHaKO, M'ECXHBIXI. BOJiLHOcxen, HanpHM., UMfixemcmixz
erbuz B-Loxfl'kiBHBiX'B npoBHHH.iax'B. OKI, 3a6oxtfJica XOJIBKO o npa-

eocydiu H flaaKe npe^npHHaJTB cocxaBJieHie saKOHOB-B B'B (fwpM'E sa-


nncH cy,a;e6HBix'L oSHiaeBx (BHC.on,KiH cxaxyxi>) H ^a-i^ oco6oe
pasBHxie HsyqemK) npasa BT> ocHOBaHHOMTb HM^ KpaKoecnoMi ynn-
eepcumemrb. Ero OCO^BIH 3a6oTBi o samHT^ KpecxBHH^ OTI. npHrfcc-

euy ^aate npaso HasBiBaiBca KOPOMMZ x.wnoez. Ilpa


BeHrepCKOMi. H nepBHxi. >HrejiJiOHaxi> MowHoe.tadcmeo ycu-
B'B IIoJiBuii, H BajKHMmifl jt^jra cxajiH pimaTBca Ha

ji,axi. nanoBi> npn .popi KOpojra Illjinxmu, odHCiKO, 6


nedoeoMua, noxoMy qxo nann H ee npHxtcHflJiH, HO nocjii^Hie na-
no^epJKKy BI> ^yxoBHOH apncxoKpaxiH. Efpn 3xOMi> H npe-
,
H nanBi oji,HHaKOBO ne XOX^JIH njiaxaxB HajroroBi, B-B KopoJieBCKyro
KasHMipi, IV, HyaiAaBminca B^ ^enBrax-B ^jra BOHHBI CT> H^-
opA6HOMi>, cxaji^ Hapywami) apucmoKpamuuecKm npu-
,
UMtbfi noddepwmy ez w.iaxmrb, xoxa H 3x0 cocJiOBie xaroxMOCB
EOpOJieBCKHX^ qHHOBHHKOBl, H 60JIBHIHMH paCXO^aMH,
IIpOHSBOJIOMl.
Koxopne oxx Hero xpe6oBajiHC&.
251. Kor^a B^ 1454 r. EasHMipx IV oxnpaBHjica B'B no-
Ha .Qp^eHi, xo mjaxxa, co6paBniHCB BM^CX'B j(Jia. 9xoro noxo^a
i

HemaBOK), pimnjiacBnompe6ooam b y Kopo.w. ymMmovtceuix


oynompefijieHiu. KasHMip-L IV BBiHyat^eHi. CBIJI-B HOHXH Ha ycxynKH
da,M omdrbJibuuMz SC,MAHMJ> ipaMomu, oSimaBinia nuaxxi, ixo
He ^y^exT. HSM^HaxB saKOHOBi) HJIH npeAnpHHHMaxB HOXO^OBI,
corjiacia HUDIXXBI. C-L 9xoro BpeneHH H HaiHHaexca pasBHiie

po.iH axoro cocjiOBia / Koxopoe Ha CBOHXTE. ceuMUKaxz' B-B

BoeBOACXBaxT> cxajio pmaamb eamurbuutifi locydapcmeen-


UWH dvbJia. 9xn HJjiaxexcKifl B-feqa SBIJIH codpaHi^MH, BTE.
KOXOPBIX-B
nicxHoe ^pBiuapcxBo" MOFJIO y^acxBOBaiB HOFOJIOBHO, HO Majo-no-
Majy ycxaHOBHJOCB, qxo cefiMHEH cxajH BBi6HpaxB noc.'ioeo, KOxopBie
r
ci, B3a:ajiHCB BM^CT-B ,3;^^ odwtux* coerbwamu cz nopOMMt u eio
padow (coB-BxoMi)). ofiwiu ceiiMt rocy^apcxBa, cocxoaB-
TaKt BOSHHK'B
miil H3i) Kopojia, ero coB^xa H co6pania SCMCKHX'B HOCJIOBI,. COB-BXT.
KOpojieBCKifi o6pa30BajiCff H3i> npeanHXi. MoatHOBJiaAqecKHx
H cxajn. nasBiBaxBca cenaniOM^, a seMCKie HOCJIBI, x.-e.

OXT) CeHMHROB-L ET> OX^'BJTBH&IX'A SCMJiaX-B (BOeBO^CXBaXI.) COCXaBHJIH

noco.'tbCKyw us6y. Ho OKonqaxejiBHoe pimeHie BonpocoBi, ocxaea.iocB


sa cefiMHKaMH. B'B Ha^ajii XVI B. yase npasio 6mio npHSHano saKO-
HOMTb, qXO ^635 CBUMO, H6M3fl 6bUO UsdaeaMb HOOUXl SttKOHOet. BO
BxopOH noJiOBHH'B XV B. ffljiaxxa npoaB.iaJia xaKVK) CHJiy H COJIH-
qxo H KOpOJB H nanBi sancKHBaJiH nepeA'B nero,
177

ee Ha CBoeft ciopOHi, H mjiflxxa no.iB30Ba.iacB BTHM-B

paciHHpemfl CBOHX-B npasi. ,3,0 cepe^HHH XVI B. caMHMH


ropOflOB'B 6ujiw H^MUH, KOTOpue, odiaflafl npHBH.ie-
MarflefiyprcKaro npaea, Majio HHxepecoBajiHCb o(5m,HMH jifb-

rocy^apciBa. IIo9TOMy w.wxma odna, 6u.ia npedcmae.iena na


,
a M-EiijaHe *) B'B ceftMax'B He yqacTBOBajiH. HojBayflCB
npaBOMi, nuraxxa cxajia cnm>CHfimi> npaea
TO.lbKO O^HH niJflXTHqH MOMH BJia^TB 36MCKHMH HM^HiflMH (x.-6.
BH-B ropo.noB'B), saHHMaiB BHcmifl u,epKOBHLifl H rocy^ap-
OCTH H T. n.; caMoynpaBjieme ropo.noB'B nOABepraocb
orpaHnqeniflM-B H T. n. Ho ocoOeHHO 6BiJia neqa,iBHa
KpecTBHHCTBa. npejK,a;e XAonu 6ujiE JIOABMH BOJIBHBIMH, CBO-

nepexoflHJiH OTI, OAHOFO noMimnKa KI> ^pyrony H sa CHH-


MaeMyio seMJiio njaiHJiH ne6ojiBinie o6pOKH. B-B XV XVI BB.
nuiflXTa H3T. cocjiOBia uucmo eoeHnaio npeepamuAacb &t> coc.ioeie

npeuMyu(ecmeeHuo seMMe^adrbMuecKoe. .JKeJiafl yMHOJKHTB CBOH ^;o-


C-B 36MJIH H HM^fl BOSMOatHOCTB H3AaBaTB BBirOflHBIG. RJLK Ce6fl
i, OHa B'B KOHn.'B XV B. npuKptbnujia npecmbftm Kb aeMJin u jiu-
WUJIO, UXK 6CHKOU 30,U(UmU CO CTOpOHH TOCy.HapCTBeHHBIX'B BJaCT6H
H Cy^OB-B. Bl XVI B'BK'B IIOJBffla BCTynHJia TaKHM-B 06pa30MX B'B BHA'B
(fiedepcmiu eoeeodcm&t, B^ KOTOPHX'B sa^i. BC'BM'B locnodcmeoeaw
uijiaxma. XOTH-H cym,ecTBOBajii> o6m,in cefiM-B, HO OH-B ne ycn-BJii.
B03BBICHTBCH Ha^l. M-fiCTHBIMH C6HMHKaMH H HOAIHHHTB HXI> CeSt, BT>
X\'I ate B'BK'B H KopojieBCKaa BJiaciB CA^ajiacB B'B nojBm'B Hs
B'B TO speMfl, KaKi Ha Sanaa's cocJiOBHaa Monapxia

yciynajia M^CTO KOpojieecnoMy aficojiwmmMy, UojiBma, Ha-


mjra no ^opori npeBpam,eHia BI> wjinxemcKyw pecnyfijiuKy.
,

252*. lIemcKaa H BenrepCKaa nuraxTa BI> cymnocTH cipeMH-


K-B TOMy JKG, qero xox^jia ^ocTHrHyiB nuaxia B^ EIojiBni'B. Ho

nepexo^'B H ^exm, H Benrpia no,!!;!* BJiaciB Fa6c6yproB'B noBJieKi, sa


co6oro BI, oS'BHX'B cipanaxi. ycujieuie Kopo.ieecKou e.mcmu. TOJIBKO
B-B OTHomeHiH K'B napoj^HOH Macc^ senjieBJia.n'BJiBqecKoe

HasBanHBixi. CTpanx, T.-e. u veiucKafi, u eenwpcKasi


ci> noMcuow. EC.IH BTB AnoiH H ^>paHii;iH K'B KOHOJ cpe,a;-
HHX'B B'BKOB'B KprbnocmuuHecmeo ucnea.io (B'B AHrjiin) HJIH noqxH
Hcqesjro (BO $paH^ia), TO, Hao6opOT B
r

>
Ha oSinHpnoft Tep-
saHHMaBnieHCfl FepMaHien, ^exien, BeHrpiefi H no.!BineH,
OHO TOJBKO-qTO ycuAuea.wcb u dame ycmaHoe.ifi.wch euoeti. Em,e
(B'B KOHU;B XVI B.) OHO yTBep,a;H.iocB H B-B Poccia.

OTI. CJIOBO miasto (r^

CPE^Hflfl HCTOPIfl. 12
178

TJIABA YIII.

KyjiBTypa.

I. MaxepiajibHaa Kyjitxypa cpeAHHxi E^ROBI ( 253 260).


II. BasaHxiHCKaH jiyxoBHaa Kyjttxypa ( 262269).
III.MycyjitMaHCKaa AyxoBHaa Kyjitxypa ( 270 275).
IT. SanaflHO-eBponeficKaa syxoBHaa nyjitxypa ( 276 296).

253*. Bt MaiepiajibHOH KyjiBTyp-fc cpe^nie B-EKa JKHJIH IIOHTH


HCKJUOIHTeJIBHO T^MH OMKpumiflMU U U3o6pn>memHMU, KOmOpUH 6blAU
corbJiciHu ewfi 02 opeeuocmu. Bo MHorHXi> cjiy^aflX'L saMtqaexca
st-
He nporpecc-L, a perpecci.. ECJIH BT, cpe^Hie sina H
JIHCB Kama-jiH^o nepeM^HH Bt TexRHKi, TO BX O^GHL 6ojibinie npojie-
atyiKH BpeMGHH, ,a;a H pacnpocxpaHajiHCB OH-B Kpaftne Me^eHHO. JIioAH
6BMH ^OBaiBHLi 6BiBmHMH B'B xo^y opyAiflMH H npieMaMH ipy^a H He
Jiyqniaro. TOJIBKO BT, canoMi. KOHn,-B cpe^HHxi B^EOB!) SHJIO
H^CKOJIBKO OTKpBIliH H HSOO'p'ETeHiH, KOTOpBIfl OKO,3a.<lU

6oMwoe eMHnie na pasnun cmopouu o6ut,ecmeeHuou OKUSHU.


254. Eii],e y BHsaHTiHD.eB'B dmo BI xo^y KaKoe-TO BspBiBya-
Toe MB sa^KHraxejiBHoe BemeciBO,' c-HBiBiiiee noA% HasBanieM'B *9e-
H necmio own. O^HHi HS'B o^GHB pTB^KHXi. sana^HBixi. yieHBixi), sa-
omecxp'BJih-
Haro offiia.
HHM aBfflHXCfl OnBITHOH HaVKOH.
J
Powem SdKOHZ BTb XIII B. yjK6
opoxb H coBTBTOBajii) nojiBSOBaTBca HMI> ci> n; BJiBio BBiopa-
r

KaMenHBixi) H^ep^; HO ero H^efl CBoeBpeneHHO ne


ma. Bi. cJi'BAyiomeM'B CTOJ-BTIH
O^HH-L HiMen,KiH
EapmoMdi IHeapw, ajrxHMHqecKie onBrra, cJiynafiHO
A's-Taa

BSpBIBqaiyK) OVTECB, KOTOpOH) BCKOp^ HOCJI-B TOFO CTaJIH HOJIB-


u. HMGHHO, noaBHJioc& omecmprbMHoe opy-
XIV B.) BI BH^ Mopmupt, T.-e. nyineK'B C'B KO-

pOTKHM-B H UIHpOKHMI, fltepJOM-B, HOTOMI, (fi-B XV B.) Bl,

pyqHBix & nymeK-B, pywceu, H


r

306%, T.-e. T. n. BBe^eHi


B'B Boennoe fli-io HanecJio yflapi> H pui^apCKoii Kounuwb, H cfieo-

255. BE cpe^me B-BKa rjiaBHBiMi, MaTepia-ioirB


cnaiajia dopoio cmowutiu nepiaMem, HO KT> KOHOJ STOH
9HOXH Bomjia BO Bceo6in,ee ynoTpe^JieHie 6ymaia. BnepBBie OHa
noaBHJiacB Ha BOCTOK-B, noBHAHMOMy, y KHTaftu.eB'B, OTI, KOTOPHXI,

*) Bi. nepfiufi pay-b orHecxp'BJbHoe opyarie 6a.no ynoxpe^JieHO BO spena cxo.itxHefi

1! lidllllU.
179

xaxapaMH 6mia saneceHa KI>apadant. y nocjTEAHHXi. yase CHJIH CBOH


3aBe,neHifl, npHroxoB.iflBiiiifl 6ynary, H BI. CnpiH ct IlajzeciHHOH, H
BI> ci>BepHOH Ac|)pHid>, H BI CHijH.iin, HHcnamH. Bt 9noxy Kpecxo-
B'B

noxoflOBx 6yMary cxajm BHA^HBaib H wi> FepMaHm (BI


XII B.), H BO 4>paHn,in, H BT> HxaJiiH (fit XIII B.). y apa-
<)OBt 6yMara nsroxoBJiajiacb H3i> x.ionqaTHHKa, HO Ha
ee un mpmw, xaKaa 6yjiara OKasajiacb
256. 06paiueHie KI> dynar-B. B-BKaqecTBi HHCbMeHnaro Maiepiajia,
.
-TO
ocoooe sHaieme ci> HsoopiTemeMi. KHHroneqaTaHia. IxHHrH
. KHHronena-
TaH i fl
.

BI cpe^nie Bfea du.iH ptbdnu u dopom, noxoMy HTO uepenncbiBa-


a 9TO o6xo^HJiocb oieHb He,nenjeBO. Bo Biopoft no.iOBHH^ cpefl-
B^KOBI oopasoBBJiCH oco6bifi Kiacci. nepenHcinKOBt, pa6oxaB-
niHxi> HJIH no sauasy, H.IH Ha npo^aaiy; HO H 310 He

ys&e X B. xeKCT-b BtinyoHMH sHaitaMH na ^,e-

HaiepeBi) Hxi) KpacKoio, CHHMa.in CT> HHXI> Konm


H,
Ha SyMar-fe HJIH Ha TKaHH. Brox'b ate cnoco6i> ynoTpe6JiflJica H BT>
EBpont dan, eocnpouseedeuin cem^enHuxz U3o6pa^ceuiu ci
TeKCiaMH, a H OAHHXI xeKCTOBi), npn IBMI, HOJIB-
30Ba.IHCb H MexaJJIHieCKHMH H flepeBflHHblMH AOCKaMH. JlHfflb Bl>
HaiaJi B r

XV B. npHiiuiH KT> MHC^H neuamamb nodeuotcubiMU


cnaqajia HOXOMI> MexajUHiecKHMH. M^ecxb no-

aHHn,KOMy ypoateHi],y loauuy


rymmen6epiy KOxopuH BT> 1450 r. npn noMOm,H
j

u npecca oxnenaxa-ii. Ba6jiiK). Ci axoro BpeMenn KHHra


ropas^o deweejie, H 9x0 cocjiyjKH.io 6oJibinyK) cjiyatoy
pasBHxiro noc.TE.nyiom.HX'b B^KOB^.
257. BaazHoe snaqeuie nojyqHjio H HSoOpixeflie KOMnaca. x.-e.
v ^ KOMnaca.
CHapH.ua MarHHXHoro cxp^JiKOH), noKasHBaromeio Ha ctBep-b. Bi>
C-L

Espony KOMnaci 6bun> saneceH-b oxt apaooBi, H 6HJH> yate HSB'BCxeH'b


Bi) XIII B., HO BnepBLie on-b no.iyHH.i'b 6oJi Be yflodHoe ycipoftcxBO
r

B-b XIV cxoJi'BxiH, djiaro^apa reHy93ii,y <Djiaeio flwioua. HsoSpixe-


nie KOMnaca c^Jiajio BOSMoatHtiMi) njiaBanie no nopto B^ajiH oxi.

5eperoBi> H cnoco6cxBOBajio eeMiKUM* leoipafiwec


XV XT1 ee. (AnepHKa, MopCKofi nyxb B-L HHAUO H x. n.).

258 =:
\ Em,e BI nocjrBAHifl BpeMena PHMCKOH HMnepia BOO seioe-
BI> HCH oou^tu dKonoMU'tecntu ynaooKi, x.-e. H xop-

H npOMtuiiJieHHOCXb ocJia^iBaxh, H 36M.ie-


yxy^maTbCfl. HoHaxHO, qxo npuxodz eapeapoei xojbKO co-
em,e fib.ibweMy nadeniw eceio napodnaio xoanucmea.
OCHOBOK) BKOHOMHqeCKOH JKH3HH CpeAHHXl> BijKOBfc Ha
6bMO seM^edrbMe, 6o.nmew uacnwH) naxodueweecn ez py-
12*
180

naxz Kprbnocmubixz UAU eoo6iu,e SOGUCUMUXK Kpecmbxm, KOTOpwe,


CBOe X03HHCTBO, flOJHKHBI 6BIJIH padOTRTL H Ha SCMJiaX'B TOC-
(6apm,HHa). Kaat,naa ceHBepia npe^CTaBjajia HST. ce6a SCLMK-
nymoe ofiiyecmeo, y^OBJieTBOpflBniee BC'fc CBOH noipeSHOCTH co6-
CTB6HHHMH HpOflyKTaMH: H KpeCTBflHHHI. H01TH HHierO H6 HOKy-
najii>, H rocno^HH'B HMiwrB see CBoe HJIH HS-B co6ciBeHHaro HM i- r

nia, HJIH HS^ HaTypajiLHLixi noBHeHOCTeii Kp-BnocTHtixi


KpecTLaai,.
cjiOBaMH, BTO 6mio TaKt nasiiBaeMoe uamypa.i'bHoe xo-
sectMa Ma.no Hyat^aBmeeca Bt ^entraxi, H Kpatme He-
6jiaronpiflTHoe RJIO. pasBHTia TOproBjra. Hpiemu o6pa6omKu noneu
6uAu caMue nepeofiummie, oco6enHO BX HOBHXX CTpaHaxi,,
^pyrnxi> npiodm,HBniHxca K-L Biicmefi KyjiBTypt. KpeciBaHe
C.IHIQKOMI HGB'kKecTBeHHBi H 64^HBi ^jra xoro, ^To6
yjiyHmenia, a ceHBepn ^OBOJBCTBOBajiHC& 6apmHHHHM B xpy-
r

H Haxypa-i&H&iMH noBHHHOCTaMH; Kor^a ate y HHXI HEJUIJIQCI>


yBe.iHiHTB CBOH ^OXO^BI, TO Bonpoc'B p-Bmajca npocio

259*. IIpH saMKHyxaro naiypajiBHaro xoaaiiCTBa


rocno.ncTB'B
o-
nepepafiomKa cupuxz Mamepia^oez coeepwa.tacb doMawnuMU cno-
in.ieHHocxL. cofiaMU. H KpecTBane HM^JIH Bee Heo6xo^Hjioe CBoe, ^,a H
BI CBOHXI, saMKax'B ^epatajiH cji-yit, ofiyueunuxt
HJIH pa3,a;aBa.iH peMecjieHHHKaM & ^jia HX^ co^epataHia yqaciKH SCMJIH
r

ycjroBieM'B ncnojiHeHia pasHBixx pa6oT^, B^ po^i,


canoaiHOH H T. n. TOJIBKO BO Biopon nojiOBHHi
B^KOBT, aauamie peMecjidMU cmaw omdrb,<iHmi>cn orm> seMJiedrbMn u
cocpedomoHueamwH ei lopodaxz, r^i OHO H no.iyiH.io u,exo8y>o op-
mHUsa/nm. Bx ropo^ax^ BnepBBie naia.ao pasBHBaiBca H denewcHoe
xosaucmeo. flfijio BI TOM?>, ITO ropo^CKie peMecjreHHHKH pa6oTa.in

yaie HG Ha ceda HJIH na rocno^, a RJIH npo^aasH, xoia 6u H Ha


OICHB orpaHHieHHOiTB PBIHR* caaioro ropo^a H ero
OKpyra. B^
peMecjieHHOMi* .n'fcjrE Biopoft HOJIOBHHH
KOB-B saM-sqaexca yaie SHaiHiejiBHBiH mexHuuecniu npoipeccz. H,exo-
BBia BjacTH Ha6jno^,ajiH sa ^o6pOKaiecTBeHHocxBio aiaiepiajia H pa-

6oTBi, T^MI. 6ojffee, ITO Kaai^BiH ijexi BecBMa peBHHBO odeperajii.


o cedi cjiasy H ^aate npano rop^HJica, Kor^,a HSI. ero
BLIXOAHJIH OCO^CHHO TOHKla H H3am,HBia H3^Jlia. O^HaKO,
i^exosaa perjiaMeHTan,ia npOM&inuieHHOCTH HM-BJia H Aypnyio CTO-
pofiy, raKi. KaKi. neptwm Mrbwa.ia npOHeJieniw JIUHHOU unu-u/ia-
mueu u mexumecKUMt yjiyvwenifim.
260*. Bi 9noxy saMKHyTtixx (feo^ajiBHBixi. xosancTBi) H n,e-
XOBO g npOMBinweHHOCTH, ' pa^OTaBHiefi
r Ha M-BCTHBIH PBIHOKI,, mop-
Baa xoproBJia.
co CKOMKO-Hufiydb omacueuHUMU cmpauaMu ue MOIM
181

GOMWOIO paseumix. Jlumb npecmoeue noscodu, BO speiia KO-


sana^Hue Hapo^Bi npHxo^HJH conpHKOCHOBeme BT> qacxoe
CT> BHsanxieft H a3iaTCKHMi> BOCTOKOMX, OMUQUJIU Me^cdynapodnyw
mopioo.m, npHqewB nocji'E.HHaa cxaia BecxncB ,a,aaje ct HnjueH. Eme
BI>r,iy6oKOH .upeBnocxH ycxanoBHJiocB H^CKOJibKO mopioeuxz nymeu
Meauy cxpanaMH, Jie^aBinHMH y CpeflHseMHaro Mopa, H OT,najieHHOH
findieu. ABHatenie TOBapOBi cofiepniajiocb HSI IlepCH^CKaro
Mopewi
sajiHBa KI sana^HiiMi, 6eperaMi> caMOft HH^iH, cyxHMTb nyieMi. oi"&

Mepnaro H KacniftcKaro Mopefi no pasHUM-B M'BCia^'B BI CacceHHu


OKca H HKcapia (Aaiy-^apBH H CHpi>-^apbH) H Bepxnaro HH,a,a,
OTKy.ua injiH KapaBaHHHH ^opora AO caMaro KnTaa. Bi cpe^flie B^Ka
9TH nyTH coxpaHHJiHCb, H BI MycyjiLMaHCKyio anoxy oco6eHHO Baainoe
BX TOproBOM-B OTHomemH npiodp^JiH Tanie nyHKTti *),
Bar^a^i, Baccopa H HcnaraH^ (OTI, KOioparo nura cyxonyx-
naa ji,opora KI OpMyscKony npOJiHBy), ci O^HOH ciopOHH, H Fe-
paT%, Byxapa, CaMapKaH.a.'B, Ra6yjirb H Fasna, ct .npyroft. He Bete,

o^naEO, 3TH nyiH 6ujut OflHOBpeMerrao ^ocxynHH BCJi^ACTBie BOHHX


H nepeBOpOTOBi,, KOTOPLIMH nojisa ncxopia Hepe^Heft Asm ET, cpe^-
Hie B-BKa, H TOJIbKO B1 XIII B., KOF^a DOHTH BCH 9ia T6ppHTOpifl
Bouijia BX cocxaB'B ^epsKaBH MOHFOJIOBX 2 ), mopioebin cnowemfi ci
Hudieu cdrb.iaaucb Menne sampydnumeMHUMU. Ho saBoeBaieJibHHe
r

TaiaepJiaHa, conpOBoatAaBinieca paspymeHieMi, B ropo-


i;'BJiEix

cHOBa HanecjiH y^apt ToproBJii ci> HH^ieft H EHxaeMi), H


xor,a,a-xo BI> EBponi 06^ oxKpBixiH MOpCKoro co-
BOSHHKJia MHCJIB
3
ct HHAieft
). O^HOBpeMenHO ct ojEHB^eHieMt xoproBJin
Asiefi H BHyxpn caMOH EsponH cmaau ycujiueam'bCH mop-
CHOwemti Mewdy omdnjiwuMU cmpanaMU. FjiaBHLiMH no-
SLIJIH npUMOpcnie w-
Meayjy 3anaji,OM^ H BOCXOKOM-B
poda HmaMu
(AMajib(|)H, Hnsa, ocoSenHOCXH ate Beneu,ia H
B-B

Fenya), Ropa6jn KOxopBixi cxajiH noc-kmaxB laeanu Emnma u Cu-


piu eme sa ^sa B^Ka AO KpecxoBtixi. noxo^OB-B. B'B AieKcaHApin
Kynn,Bi sadapajiH xoBapu, npaBOSHBiiiieca Mopeaii. BX
(na BOCxoqHOMi 6epery A^PHKH) H oxxy^a qacxBio cyxHMi>
no HHJiy ^ocxaBJiaBinieca B'B Ernnexi).
,
qacxbio

nopxu Capin ra.iH xoBapn, KOxopBie


BI.

ex Bocxona qepesi Bacpy, jie/KaBmyio HCAa.ieKO OX-B


KpOM-fe xoro, BeHen,ianqu H reHyasi^Bi BC.IH oCmnpHyio xop-
1
) CM. Kapm X^' 11 XA'I.
2
)Cp. uapiy XA'III.
3
) TaKofi nyxi, H CH.IX OTKpHT'i BI, 1498 r. SasoeBaHie ErHnia ocMancKHMH Typ-
m, ita'ia.ii XVI B. xose He6.iaronpiaTHO OTpasHJiocL na eBponeficKOH TOproB.Tfe
<!, BOCTOKOMI.
182

l
na IepuoM?> u ASOOCKOMZ Mopnxz,
TOBapti H3i> TorjjamHeit PocciH. nocj-E OKOHiama Kpe-
noxoflOB'b BeHen,iaHH,bi pacmupUAU o6Aacm,^ ceouxz mop-
cnomeniu BoroqemeM^ BI nee (B-L XIV* B.) Bcero sana^no-
eBponeftcKaro naiepHKa H Anrjiin, taroflapa ieMy BI
HOH Espon-B, Ha nyiH Mem^y CBBepatiMH cipanaMH H
B03HHKIO MHOateCTBO BaJEHHX'B TOprOBHX^ nyHKTOBl,. Oco66HHO
MHoro 6ujio HX-B HM6HHO Bi FepMamH, rA^ B-L KOHI^-B cpe^HHXt
B'EKOB'B B03HHKJIH xame lopodcKie cowsu, KaKi peunCKiu u lanseu-
CKIU. IIocJi'B^HiH saxsaTHJii ET, CBOH pyKH mopwQAto no, Ecuimiu-
CKOMZ u HrbMeiwoMi) Mopnxz l ) H sejit ee CTB Poccieft, CKaH^H-
rocy^apCTBaMH, Anrjiiett, IlIouiaHAieH, HH^epjraHAaMH H
CTpaeaMH. BajKHoe BHaienie -BI, MeaiAysapOAHott ToproB.i'B
KOH^a cpeAHHX-L B^KOB-B nojryqnjiH H Hudepmndu.

II.

261*. Bfea BOSHHKJIH H pasBHJiHCB mpu Ky.nmypu:


BT> cpeAHie

BHsaHTificKaa, apa6cKaa H samiAHO-eBponeHCKaa, KOTOpma pteo 060-


co6njiHCB OAna OTL Apyrofi. B'B 9noxy naAema HMnepin na
BnsaHTia ociaBajiacb rjiaBHoro xpaHHTejibHHn;eH) ApeBHef
HOCTH, HO Majro-no-Majy caMa 9Ta KyjibTypa CHJIBHO HSM'BHHjiacb, H ea
npedauia npuwm ez 3a6eenie. Bi KOHq B CBoero cyme-
r
in
ia BHsaHTincKaa o6pa30BanHOCTb sacTtura B'B pass npHHHTBix'b
H cTaja OTJiHgaTbca 6ojifflHM B KoncepeamusMOMi. Apa6-
r

AOCTHrmaa yate 6oJiBnioro 6jrecKa B-B TO spesia,


KyjibTypa,
sana^Haa Espona 6bMa enj;e norpyateHa BX BapBapCTBO (IX
X BB.), Toaie BtipocJia na noqEi dpeemil ipenecKou o6pa3oeaunocm.u^
ci ocTaTKaMH KOTOpon apa6u nosnaKOMRjiHCB Bt CnpiH, ErHnrE H
MajroH AsiH. Ho anoxa npOHB^TaHia apa6cKOH KyjibTypu 6BiJia nenpo-
>.
SanaAHO-eBponeiicEaa, pOMaHO-repiaaHCKaa odpaso-
pasBHjracB nos^H'se, q^Mi. BHsaHTiflcKaa H apa6cKaa, H
Bcero BLipasHJiHCb ea Hando-irse xapaKTepHLia cpe^HeB-BKOBLia
JIHIIib B'B
9HOXy KpeCTOBLIX'b HOXOAOB'B. ,3,yXOBHaa (|)H3iOHOMia
cpeAHHX'B B'BKOB'b Ha Sanaa's 6u.ia HOMOW npomueonojioMcmcm'bio
K.iaccimecKOu KiiMmimu,
\J \sJ.
HO saTO si'BCb 6mro 6o.ibwe deuvcenin
7

enepedv, q^Mi B'B BnsaHTin, H casio ABHatenie 9TO OKasajocb 6o.me


npouHUMv, HeatejiH y apadoBi. Tpena oaBHLiMH asHKaMH cpeAHCBi-
KOBOH KyjibTypn 6bMH rpeqecKitt B'B BHsaeTW, apaocKift BI

l
) CM. Kapry XIII.
183

MaHCKOMT> Aiipi, jzaTHHcidH Ha SanaA'fe. BTO GBLIH HSUKU, xaKx cita-


3aTi>, MeotcdyuapodHue, H C-B HHMH no CBoeMy SHaiemio He MOFL
CpaBHflTLCfl HH O^HHT. H3T> HOBBIX'B HapO^HBIX'B aSBIKOBl. ,11,0
KaKOH
cxenenH STB xpn KyjiLTYpH Hiior^a 6BMH pasoOiyeHU Meat^y coGoio
u KaKHMH oKO.tiHbiMU nymxMU HMH BJiiflHifl O,HHOH na flpyryio, Jiynne
scero Moatno BH^'BTL HS-L xoro, qxo Ha Sana^-B coHHHCHia rpeie-
CKaro (j)HJioco(|)a APHCTOTCJIJI 6miH HSB-ECTHH He BI HO^HHHHK'B H
ne BI> nepeBOAax'B npaMO ci rpeqecnaro, a BI> jiaTHHCKHx-L nepe-

BOAaxi,, c^iaHBLix-L C-L nepeBOAOB-B apa6cKHxi. ^o Haqa.ia 6m-


cmea euaaumiucKUXz ipenoez e^ Hmajim BO BpeMfl saBoeBRHia Baj-
KancKarp nojiyocTpOBa xypKaMH, B-B Hia,iiH HO^TH HesosMoajHO CHJIO
uaftTH yqHTejfl rpenecKaro HSBiKa. BaaHMHOMy oxqyatjiieHiH) Tpexi>
KyjiBiypt He Majio co^MciBOBajia, KOHCHHO, pejiariosHaa spaTSAa.
6nBinaa ocoSenno CHJIBHOIO BT, anoxy KpecTOBtixi. HOXOAOB-B.
262*. YMCTBeHHaa KknvQJibuocn B-B BHsaHTmcKOH HMnepin co-

cpe^OTO^HJiacb raaEHBiMi. o6pa30Mi> Ha ptbweniu pPMiiosnuxz oo-


Ci
npocofft. noaBJienia apianciBa ^o na^enia HKOHoCopciBa, T.-e. CT.
IV AO cepeAHHH IX B. 3fl'Bei> nodoaHHO BOSHHKajiH pasHHfl epecu,

KOiop&ia BiiSLiBajiH 6orocjOBCKie cnopn H BI> oo'meciB'B, H BI> JTHTC-


paxypi. E^Ba OKon^HJiacfc 6opb6a ci HKOHo6opciBOMi>, OKI.
JOCB pasdibAenie uepKeeii, nopo^HBinee u^Jiyio o6.iHqHTejiBHyK) .i
xypy npOTHBi, jraiHEflHt. Bo Bcixt CBOHX-L 6oro(MOBCKHXi> 3anaTiaxi,
ojiBSOBajiHCb rpeqecKOH (pHjioco^ieft, cxpeMHCb npncno-
ee K-B noHHManiio xpHCiiaHCKHx-b HCTHH^. (To, 1x6 Ha 3a-

nojyqHJio HasBame cxomcmuKU, aapodu.toci, codcxBenno ro-


Bopa, 60 Busaumiu). TaKi KaKi>, o^naKo, BI XI cxcji-BiiH ooflapy-
JKH.IOCL necorjiacie H-BKOXOPHX-B npe^ciaBBxejieH ^wroco^ii CB ycxa-
HOBHBfflHMHCa yHCHmMH UCpKBH, TO npOTHKB CB060^HarO (|)HJO-
co(J)CKaro MBinureHia npn KoMKHHax-B 6HJiH npHHaTBi OHBHI cmpoiifi
t. TOJIBKO npn Dajieo.iorax'L nponsoHuro EJ> BHsanxiH H-BKOiopoe
^HjiocotJjCKHX'L sanaTiif, H BTB XIV H XV BB. SA^CB aBH-
JHCB nocjwbdoeame.iu IIjiamoHa u Apucmomejin, BeAmie Meat^y co-
60K) CnOpBI. Ho HenOCpe^CXBeHHBIMH npeeMHHKaMH BH3aHXiHCKHXT>
n.iaiOHHKOB'L H apHCTOTe.iHKOBi, 6ujiH yate umnAbHuyu XVI BB. XV
263*. B-B ApyrHX'b oxpacjiax-B snania BHsaHTinuBi CBIJIH 6o,TBe J|

c,o6upame.wMu, KOMnuAamopajuu u moAKoeame.mMU cxaparo Maxe-


pla.ia, H'BM1> CaMOCOCXOHXeJIBHBIMH HSCJT-BAOBaTeJflMH H TBOpaaMH HO-
BBIXI,HACH. Mflorie BHsaHiiHUBi oi.iHqa.iHCB 6o.n>uiow yneuocmbto npn
coBepiueHHOMi., o^naKO, omcymcmeiu opuiunaMnocmu. TaKOBT>
fit cepe^HHt IX B. naxpiapxT> ffiomiii, KOXOPBIH cocxaBH.ii)
^H^HK.TO^e, ^H ^ecKiH
T l
c6opHHKi, saKJHoqaBiuift B-B ceS'B doraxBift Ma-

Tepia.il HS-L coiHHeHiii ^peBHHxt aBiopOBB. Bx X B. na TOMI> ate no-


184

codnpaHia pasHOpo^Hux'B CBi^Hin npoc.aaBH.rL ce6a


paxopx KoHcmaumum EaipHnopodubiu, a BI> XI B. oieHb
no 6es^ Bcaitaro H^eHHaro xBopiecxsa faun MUXO.UM
Cpe.a.HeB'EKOBaa BHsaHxincKaa HayKa 6mia Bootfnje uucmo
KHUOKHOW, H BT> U3yWHlU npupodbl BHSaaxiHUH H6 XO-IbKO H6 HO-
,u,BHHyjrH Bnepe^x SHamfi ApeBHaro nipa, HO ^aate npaMO OTI> nero
OTCT8JIH.
264*. FopasAO 6ojbmee SHaqenie HM-feeii. BHsaHTiftcKaa jiHiepa-
T yp
_ J r
a ucmopuuecKaio, dmuoipacfimecKaio u nojiumuHecmio
HCTOpiorpa- ^ '.

<J)ia. COBpeMeHHBIfl COOHTlfl, OOpa3T> IH3HH H HpaB


cocToame HMiiepin H ea ynpaBieeia, Bee BTO
noApodHtixi. noB-BCTBOBamH H o6cToaTejn>Hiixi> onHcamft. U,apcTBO- -

Banie lOcTHHiaHa BejiHKaro Hanwo csoero nciopHKa B-L


HHK'B ero IIpoKoniu, ceKpeiapi H ropHCKOHcyjiBT'E Bejincapia.
onncajii. Hciopiro Tor,naniHHXT> BO^H'B, H ociaBHJi & ein,e cogHnenie r

saoaBieMi n TanHOfi Hciopin* (Avs%OTa HJH Historia arcana),


H3o6pa3HJT6 BI> caMOMTt Mpa^HOMt BH^ flecnoTHSMt lOcTHHiana H
pa3Bpam,eHHOCTL 9eo,a;opti. Bx ero coqHHeHiaxi, ecis TaKaKe u3on>cmiH
o dpeeHrbumeMz 6umn> CAaenm. Toivja KG cxajiH nncaTbca ecejuip-
Hblfl XpOHUKU, KOTOpBia CJlfejl&JlHCb o6pa3n,OMI> H RJIK
pyCCKHX'L Jl'ktO-
TaK-B KaKi nepeeoduMCb no cjiaeancKu (xpOHHKH loanua
BI VI B. H Feopiin AMapmojia BI IX B.). BTOTX
6HTonncaHia pasBHBajrca cpeHMymecTBeHHO BX Momcmupaxz,
npoijE-ETaja TaKate aiioipacfiix, x.-e. jiHTepaxypa JKHTIH csa-
TLIXX. Bi. X
B. HMnepaxopi) KoHcmanmum EaipHHOpodnuu oxqa-
CTH Hanncaj-B canx, omaciH BiisBajri H-BCKOJIBKO coHHHefliH HCTO-
paqecKaro H orracaxe-iLHaro xapaKxepa. OH-L cociaBHJii Tpy^H o
rocy^apcTBeHHoiTL ynpaBJieniH, o BHsaHiiftcKHxi eenaxi. (odjiaciaxi.)
H npHABOpHtix-L ^epeMOHiax^, H B-B ero coHHneHiaxx xoate HM-BioTca
cevbdfbnin o cmefwaxz. Bi anoxy KOMHHHOB'B BHsaHxiftcKaa HCiopio-
rpa(|)ia BticiaBHJia xajiaHMHBLix'L nncaxe.ieH BI. JIHI^'B Annu KOM-
HUHU, Aoqepa HMnepaxopa AjieKcia I, Bpena Koxoparo ona H OIIH-
caja, H B-L JiBqi Huuumu AKOMunama, AOBe^niaro ncxopiio BH-
npa KoMHHHaxTb ^o aaBoefiania KoncxaHXHHonojra Kpecxo-
.
Ilpn IIajieojioraxi> BHsaHxiftcKaa ncxopiorpa(|)ia
yate BI yna^idj.
265*. /I,o BospoatAeHia yienaro iipaBOBi

yHHBepcHxexaxx,
J
Hxo npOHSOfflJio jHinb Bi) anoxv Kpe-
'
.

me. CTOBHxi) noxoAOBii, Bnsanxia owjia eouncmeeHHOii xpanumeMnu^eu


mpaduuiu puMcnaio npaea. 3aKOHOAaxejii.Haa ^taxe-ibHOCXL Bpe-
MCHI. IGcxHRiana (Corpus juris), HM^epaxopoBI,-HKO^o6op^eB'B (sa-
KOHBI JbBa Hcaspa H ero Cbraa KoncxaHXHHa) H MaKeAOHCKOH RH-
- 185

(BaCH.lHKH) Tpe60Ba.ia He^IOJKHHHLIX'B yMCXBeHHtlXT. CUJIT> H


yqenociH. Ho H B-L 9xofi o6.iacxH ^aroTTb ce6a snaxb 06-
u\ui qepxbi BHsanxHHHSMa. yjKe JOcxnniaH'b BejrHKift xox^Jit saRjrio-
MHTB HayKy npasa BI CTporo onpe^'BJieHHHff rpaHHH,bi H HOXOMV
no,p cxpaxoMt naKasania sanpexHJTB cocxaBJiaxb KaKia-jra6o XO.T-
KOBania K-B ero CBOfly. BTO sanpemetrie ciajio, o^naKO, HapymaiLCH
eme BT> u,apCTBOBaHie caMoro IDcTHniana; HO BCH BHsaHiittcKaa
lopH^HiecKaff jrHiepaiypa H COCTOHTT, r.iaBHBiMi> o6pa30Mi HSI. npo-
cmoio KOMMenmamopcmea u KOMnujiamopcmea. Ilo o6pasijy K)CTH-
HianoBa CBO^a BI VI ate B. CTRJIH cociaBJiflTBCfl cfiopuuKu uepnoe-
Ha^o (KctnoHUHecKaio) npnea, T.-e. r.iaBHiiH'B o6pa30M'B nociaHO-
B.ieHitt (KaHOHOB-i.) H HMnepaiopCKHx-B
Bce^eHCKHXTb codopOBi, sa-
KOHOB-L (v6[JLOC) HO n,epKOBHHMTb ^JiaMT,. Hs^ CJliaHlfl T^X-B H flpy-
THX1,COCiaBHJICH OAHHt HoMOKdHOHt, KOTOp&lft OKa3a.TB CB06 BJlia-

nie H Ha npaeo CsiaeHucKuxz Hapo^oe^.


266*. Eme fit nepBLie s^Ka Hainefi apu xpacTiaHCKie nHca- IIo3THliecKajI
jiHTepaivpa
nonHTKH noMsoeamiCH aumuuHbiMU nosmuuecKUMU
dan nepedauu 6u6;teucKuxt
cwwemoffij. Hanp., FpHropiK)

npHnncMBaiOTi .upany CTpa3KAyffl,iR XpHCioct", BI


KOTOpofi ^a^e Haxo^axi) MHOFO CTHXOBI,, BBHTBIXI) H'BJIHKOM'L y rpe-
gecKaro iparHKa 9BpnnHji;a. .Ininb H^KOTOptie po^w
TBOpiecTBa nojiyiHJiH BI BHsaHiiH caMocioaxejiLHoe pasBHiie.
HLIMI. oSpasoM'L 9TO 6mia o6jiacTL itepnoeHbtxi lumnoer,^ B-L KOTO-

poft npoc.iaBHJiHCb npeHMymecTBGHHO PoMam GAddKonrbeeufi (VI B.)


H JoaHHZ fictMaCKUHt (VIII B.). B-b CB-BTCKOH n033JH BHBaHlifl H6
C03,a,avia Hnqero BejiHKaro.

267*. B-L TO Bpena, KaKi. BapBapcKoe nanieCTBie Ha Sana^t co-


HCKyCCTBO.
yna^KOM-L KyjibiypLi H BI, xy^oatecTBeHHOM-L OTnouiemH,
onaib-TaKH ocxaBaJiacb xpauumeAbrnmew u
. BnsaHxiHCKoe HCKyccxBO cjiyatnjro npeHMymecxBenno pe-
wHMb, apxHxeKxypa xpaMOSAaxe^ibCXBy, a ^HBonncb
yKpaineniio n;epKBeH CB^meHHtiMH HsoSpasaeHiflMH. fit apxumeK-
mypn BLipa6oxajica oco6bift ousaumiiicmu cmuM (Kpecxoo6pa3HHft
H Kynoj'b, yB'BHiHBaioiii.iH 3Aanie). PasBnxie BHsaHxiHCKaro
OTKpHBaexca xpaMOMz ce. Cofiiu,nocTpoeHHHM'B K)CXH-
Be.iMKHM'b. CxH.ib 9x0x1) pacnpocxpaHH.ica He xojbKO B'b
FpysiH H PocciH, HO oxnacxn H na Sanaa's.
,

iii HC Morjia pasBHXbca BI B3aHxiH, noxoMy qxo


i/pa

uepKOBb Bcerji,a oxnocHiacb He6jiaronpmxHO KT> cxaxyaMi, nano-


MHHaiOUl,HM'b C060K) flSBiqeCKHXT, H^OJIOB-b, a B'b 9HOXy B03CXaHO-
B.iema HKOHOno^HxaHia cn/ann/n u coocnMz 6u.m sanpew/enu. 3a-
xo otcueonuct nanua B-L pe.inriosHOH atHSHH BnsaHxiH
186

BI yKpaHiemn xpaMOBi> cxinmbiMH H3o6pa,iKeHi}iMH,


HCnOJIHeHHblMH KHCXbK) H.1H MOSdUKOW, Bl HSrOXOBJiemH HepeHOC-
HblXTj HKOH1, H Bl HJUHOCXpHpOBamH pyKOUHCCH MHHiaTIOpaMH. H
Bt iKHBonHCH Biipa6oTajiCfl CBOH ocodbift, eusanmiucmii cntu.tb, HO
ci cepeAHHH IX B., Kor^a o^epataHa 6mia OKOHqaxejibHaa no6 EAa r

HKOHofiopcxBOATb, xydootcecmeeHHoe meopnecmeo cnm.to cmibc-


Heo6xo,a,HMOCTBK) HeHSMtHHO cjii^oBarb cxapHM'B oCpasuani,,
a qepesi AB^CTH yciaHOEHJca ,a;aa:e o6fl3aieJibHLiH KanoHi>,
JiiTii

KaKi HyatHO nncaTt T-B HJIH spyria HKOHH (nodAunnuKu). Majio-


no-MaJiy HKOHOHHCBK) ciajiH sanHMaTtca HCKjnoqaiejiBHO
KOTOptie ciapajiHCb npH^aTb H3o6pajKeHiHMi> CBHTLIX'L
HLia qepTBi acKerasMa, T.-e. nncajiH HXI HenpeM-EHHO

H HSMOJK^eHHHMH.
268*. BHsaHTmcKaff Ry^biypa Bbipocja na ipenecKOu ocnoen,
H0 BT> He j| anmuuHuu BJieMeHT^ see do-ite H dojiie yciynaji'b J J
BHSRHTIHCKOH
MBCTO u,epK06Hujw> Hcwojiam, OK^ 9TO OLMO, BnpoqeMi,, H Ha
/I,pyraH qepxa BH3aHTHHH3Ma
BX cpe^nie B BKa. f
.Sanafl'E omcym-
cmeie JIUHHOU opuiunaMHOcmu, KOiopaa H B'L odJiacTH OTEJeneH-
naro MbimjieHifl, H BT> o6jiacTH xy^oatecTBeHHaro TBOpieciBa ciic-
ycmanoejiennuMU (fiopwaMU, noAAepatHBaBinHMHca H Bja-
aKi> rocy,napCTBeHHOK), xaKi. H n,epKOBHOio), H o6in,ecTBeH-
r
HbiMT> MErBHieMT), H BC'BM'b cKja^OMt 5KH3HH ci> npeo6jra^;aHieM b
BI nefi ipa,nHii;iH H o6biqaeB b! r

269*. r.uaBHOH c^epofi pacnpocTpanema BHsaHTincKOH


Cfftepa pac- 5 HJIH CTDaHTJ, BI> KOTODHXl. TOCnOACTBOBaja 60CmOHHaX
npocipane- ,
-n \
ma H cy^6a (bajiKaHCKifi noJiyocTpOBT), jtpeBnaa Pycb, Ipysia), HJIH cxpaHbi
(Hraaia B-B EBDOII-B, ApMenia B-B Asin). BocToqnaa ^ep-
ne HaBa3biBa.ua npima/uieiKaBiHHMx wi> HGH Hapoflaivrb rpeqe-
CKaro asbiKa, KaKi 3 ro Aijiajia sana^naa n,epKOBb no OTHomeniR,
r

K-basbiKy jaTHHCKOMy. Y.JK6 B-B IX B. BCKOpi HOCJ-B npHHaiia


xpncTiaHCTBa Eo.napieu BI, BTOH expand pasBH.iacb innpoKaa JIH-

xepaxypnaa A'Baxe.iBHOcxB, npeHiiymecxBeHHO B-B


saKJiioqaBiiiaaca

nepeeodaxv ipeuecnuxb KHUIJ, na cjiaemcKiu HSUKO. Bojirapbi 6biJH


H rjiaBHbiMH nocpeduumMU npu nepedcwn, eusanmiucnou
ez mo'idawHWw Pycb. Bca ^peBHaa pyccKaa o6pa30BanHOCXB
CBOH HCXOqHHKI) Bl BHSaHXlfiCKOH KyJIbXypt BXOpOH HOJIOBHHbl
HHXT. B^KOBI., Kor^a 3xa KyJiBxypa y/Ke noJiy^H.ia BHO.IH'B
16HHBIH BHfl'b. Bjiiaflie eiiaanmiucKOu oCpasoeaunocmu a 3a-
nadib cxajio oniiyxHxejrbHbiM'B jiamB BT> 9noxy na,neHia KoHCxanxHHO-
noja, HO OHO Kacajrocb doji'fce (JjopMi), a He yMCXBCHHaro co^epata-
nia. Bx KOHH.'B cpe^Hnx-b B^KOB-b BHsaHxifiCKaa Ky.ibxypa He odna-
CHOCOOHOCXH KT. Aa-iBH^HmeMy pa3BHxiio. OAHOIO HS-B
187 -

9ioroneHa.ibnax cydbda CCIMOU Busaumiu H napo-


6bi.ia

pasBHBaBniHxca no^i> en BJiiflmeMt. JI,Ba C*B OOJIOBHHOK)


(XIII XV) Pycb Haxo,a,HJiacb noAi> TaiapCKHM'B HFOM-L, BT>

XIV B. saBoeBaHbi SHJIH TypKaMH K)atHO-c;iaBaHCKifl ijapCTBa, B-L

XV najia H caaia BHsaimiiCKaa HMnepia. SaBoeBaiejH rocy-


BOCTORHOH EBpODH ()L1.1H HaCTOflIH,HMH BapBapaMH, CTOflB-
BT> Kyju/ry PROMT. OTHomeHiH HeHSM'fepHMO HH/EG no6'B/K,];eH-
Bt TO ate BpeMH caMH OHH OKa3a.iHCb MajocnocoonuMH Kt
ycBoemio Biicinefi

III.

270 :i
'\ Bi> HCTOpia Mycy.ibMaHCKofi oopasoBanHOCTH epeMeua toe-
nodcmea apaooet u locnodcmea mypowb ptsKO pas.iHyaioTCfl Meai^y
).
Apa6u o6HapytHJiH snaiHTeJibHyio eocnpiuMuueocm^Koeucmeu
rtxi. napOAOBi,, Koxoptie no^najiH no^-b HXI. Bjacxb.

Hao6opOT"b, TypKH OTJinqajiHCb 6oMwoio ipyOocmtw H aia-ioro CK.IOH-


HOCTbK) KTb yMCTBeHHBIMl. SaHflTiflM-b H XVAOateCTBeHHOMy TBOpHe-

CTBy. Bi. anoxy, npe^mecxBOBaBmyK) KpeciOBHMt noxo^aMi,, apad-


CKHflo6pa30BaHHOCTb B-b H^KOTOpblXl. OTHOineHiflXt CTOfl.Jia MUOIO
(?wmeeBponeHCKOH, Kairb BHsamiHCKOH, TaKi oco6eHHO sana^HOfl. CaMH
sanaflHbie Hapo^bi(npeHMymeciBeHHO pOMancKie) 6bi.iH BT> CBoeM-b yM-
CTB6HHOMI. paSBHliH H&MOU0 o6H3(LHU (lpa6CKOMy QMRHI10. COBC'BM'b
/jpyroe sHaneHie HM^JIH BI HCiopin TypKH, no^ B.iacTbK> KOTO-
PBIXT, TOMHJiHCb xpHCTiancKie Hapojibi BocioKa ci. KOHija cpe.nHHX'b

B-BKOBT. AO XIX CTOJilmH. OHH 3a^y6uJ^u npeMuww ny^mypy H


M-BUiaJH paSBHTbCfl HOBOH.
271". ApaO&i BO BpeMfl CBOHXI, ^aBoeBanifl upninjiH conpH- HPOHCXOW
BT>
Hie apaocKOi
KOCHOBCHie cx KyjbTypaMH ipevecKOii, eepeiiCKOii, nepcuocKOii u un- K y.ii,iypH.
dycctcott. Hs'b llepcie H HH^IH apa6n saHMCTBOBajH onenb MHOFOC
BI> o6jracTflxi> jiumepamypu u ucKyccmea, y rpeKOBi,
znanin u (fiujiocoficmH udeu, a noA'b BJiiflHieMi. HJIH npn
CT!H eBpeeo-b OHH paaBHBajiH BCK> codcTBenHVK) CBOIO (Jmoc
B'b HCTOpin KyjibTypbi apadbi, HO.HOO'HO (|>HiiHKiHHaji'b B-b

pOM norpednuKO&b Meat^y BOCTOKOMI. H BanaAOMi.. Bjiaro-


HMT,, BT>EBpony npOHHKiH MHoria noaTHqecKifl CKasaaifl ,a;a.ieKHxa.
Depcin H IlHAin, H OTTy.ua ate, BnpoieMi., npnuwH pasHbia cye-
B'tpifl, KOTOpwMH Tani. o6HJibHbi 6bi.iH cpe^me B'BKa. /^ajie, apadcKaa
(f)HJioco(|)ia, HM'BBinaa VL CBOCH OCHOB'B <|)H.ioco(i)iEO rpeiecKyio, noA^H-
na sanaAHO-eBponencKyio cxo-
B036ya;AaK)iD,HM'b odpasoMi.
. CBOH TeopeTHqecKia SHania B-b pasHbix-b ooaacTHX'b nayKH
188

apa()Bi TOJKe rjaBHBm-B o6pa303TB sanMcxBOBajn y rpeKOBT,, a B-L

IHCTO ripaKXHiecKHX-B HCKyccxsax-B (5BLIH yqenHKaMH H

272*. HepBBie npasHaKH 6y,nymaro nponja-BxaHia apadCKOH


9iio-TypH 3HOxi HepBBIX'B XaJIH^OBI, H3i flHHaCxill A66d-
OTHOCflTCfl K'L

cudoev, nepeHecniHX'B CBOK> pesH^eH^ro B-B Eaidadb, x.-e. KO BTO-


KyjbTypH. poft nOJIOBHH'B VIII B., KOF^a HOBeJIHTeJIH npaBOBipHEIXt
cop'L H FapyH'B-ajiL-PainHA'B) ciajiH noKpOBHTej&ciBOBaTB
H HCKycciBaM'L. B-L pasHtiXTb ropo^axt Bar^a^cKaro xajiH(J)aTa BI
IX B. yate cym,ecTBOBajiH MHoroHHCjreHHHH WKOJIU H
6u6MomeKU. C-B A66acH,naMH BI, ^'Bji noKpOBHTeJiBCTBa
H jmTepaTypHBiarB sanaTiaM-B conepnHiajiH Omaufidbi, u,apCTBOBaB-
rnie HcnaHin. OHH c^jajiH Kopdoey Tanate BaatHBiMi, n,eHTpoMi>
EJ>

o6pa30BaHm H ocnoBa^H B-B CBOHXX Bjra^eiaxi paBHHM'B o6pa-


SOMI neMajio niKO.i'B H 6H6jiioTeK'B. B-B X B., Kor^a aana^naa
Efipona nepeatHBajia xy^niia speMena (fjeo^ajiBHOH anapxia H Bap-
sapCTBa, B-B MycyjiBMancKOft ITcnaniH npoijB'ETajiH nayKa, .iHTepaiypa,
HCKyCCTBO. FjiaBHBIMH TOpO^aMH, B-B KOTOpBIXl, COCpe^OTOHHBaJIHCB yM-
CTBGHHBia saeaTia MycyjiBMancKaro Mipa, 6HJiH Bar.WB, Hcnaran-B,
Byxapa H ^p. BX AsiH, AjieKcae^pia H Kanpi. BI, A(J)pHK'B, Kop^OBa,
H Fpena^a B-B Hcnanin. Bi> 910 BpeMa apaGcmu asum no-

mnpOKoe pacnpocTpaneme MycyjiBMaHCKHxi na-


y BC'BX'B
KaifB asBiK^ He TOJBKO Kopana, HO H BBicmaro

o6pa30Bania. CHpificKie xpncTiane Toate nojrBSOBajiHCB


asMKOMi, j(jin jiHTepaTypHBixx n.-BJieft, H Ha BTOM-B ate
CBOH cogHHCHia MHorie ncnaHcme espeH. B-B 9noxy
noxo^OB-B apa6cKaa otfpasoBaHHOCTB CToajia em;e O^CHB BBICOKO, HO
K-B 9TOMy aie BpeaieHH OTHOcnxca H Ha^ajro ea na^eHia.

273*. Hs^ ji.Byx'B


BejinqaHrnHXi (^HJIOCO^OBI) KJiaccnqecKOft
HOCTH, HjaioHa H ApHCTOiejia, OTD;BI n,epKBH OT^a
Hoe npe^noqienie nepBOMy. Hao6opoix, apatfti, HCKaBHiie
co(|)CKaro noATBep/K^eHia ,pa CBOCH pejinrin, o6pamu.4iicb KZ my-
ApucmomejiH. OKOJIO 1000 r. Meat^y HHMH npocjaBH.ica ws>
KOMMCHxaxopa 4>HJOCO(|)iH Apncxoxejia Aeimeua (\\6wb-
SX Byxapw. Ero xo.iKOBaHia Ha Apncxoxejia 6Bi.in
nepeeedeuu na jiamuucKiu Haunt H c-iyatHJiH .nojroe Bpena aana^-
HBIMI yqeHLisi'B rjraBHBin'B HCxoqHHKOM-B
^.Jia Hayqenia (|)HJioco(f)iH

rpeqecKaro MBicjnxejia. (Me^H^HHCKie H eciecxBeHHO-Hcxo-


xpy,a,Bi ABHUCHBI, xoate onHpaiomiecfl na Apncxoxeja,
paBHLiM-B o6pa30M-B aBxopHxexoMi) H na 3ana^). Bi
no.ib30Ba.iHCB
BOCXOHHOH qacxn MycyjrBMaHCKaro Mipa (|)HJoco4)ia oxjnqa.iacB Ma-
roMexancKHM-B npaBOBipieMi, HO BT, IIciianiH ona nojiyqH.ia
189

ceofiodnuu xapanmepz. Bi XII B. atH.i-B (B-B Kop^OB-fe, CeBH.ibi H


MapOKKo) caMBift 3HaMeHHXBifi apaficuift (J)HJioco(|)i>, Aeepposcz (Hon'B-
PomjrB, 1126 1198), coiKHema Koxoparo nepeBO,HH.iHCB no-.ia-
XBIHH H no-eBpeftcKH. Ero CHCxeMa tfmia 6jiH3Ka KT> nanmeusMy, x.-e.
oxoiK,necTBJieHiio BoateciBa H iiiposAama, npH HCMI caMHiTB dpaio-
WbHHUM* docmonmem vejioenKa, Aeeppodct CHuma.ii suanie, qpesx
KOTOpOe JHHHOCTB yqaCTByeTT, Bl e^HHOMl> H B-BqEOMl 6oaeCTB6H-
HOMI. PasyMi. Bi XIII H XIV BB. BI sana^HOH EBPOII-B (BI Ilia-
jin) BCxptqajiocL ne MUJIO aeeppoucmoev. Bi. STOH (|>HJIOCO(|)CKOH
LHOCTH HcnaHCKHxi apaCoB'B npHHHMajiH yqaciie H eepeu,
qacTO 6&iBmie nepeeoduumMU HXI co^HHeHifi Ha
Ct (|)HJioco(|)ieH ApHCTOiejifl Ha Sanaa's ciajiH
He MSI apaocKHxi HcxoqHHKOBi> TOJi&KO B-B cepe^HHi XV B.
274*. Apa6cme yqeHLie OKasajin BecBMa doMwia ycjiyiu pas- AP a
eumiw MameMammu u ecmecmeosHauin. Bi> apHeM6THK B MBI H r

AO CHXI nop-B nojTbsyeMCfl apaficnuMU mifipaMU (nH^yccKaro npo-


HCXOatA6Hifl), KOTOpBlfl BBIT'ECHHJIH HSl H6fl Hey^o6HBIfl JjaJKe ^Jlfl
caMHXij npocTLixi AMcTBifi UH^PLI pnMCKifl, o6pam,eHie CT> KOTO-
PBIMH ipedoBajo ocodaro npndopa Ha no,a,o6ie nauiMxi. cqexi>
(a6aK*}. Canoe HasBame ameOpu HMiexi. apaScKoe
xoxa HaiaxKH caMofi nayKH, Hocameft 9x0 HMH, apadBi
BajiH y rpeKOB^, paBHO KaKi, H HaiaxKH mpmonoMempiu, B-B Koxopofl
HMH 6BiJiH npOHSBe^eHBi Koe-KaKia npeodpasoBaHia. FeoMexpia 9BOH,a;a
cymecxBOBaja BX apa6cKOMi> nepeso^'B. 3aHHMa.iHCb MHOFO apa6cKie
yieHBie xaKaie H acmpoHOMieu', wo. cnen,iajiBHaro ea Hsyqema OHJIH
ycxpoenti oco6bifl UIKOJIBI H oScepBaxopm BI BarAaA'fe H Kop.a.OB'E.
OHH npHAepaiHBajiHCB CHCXCMBI IIxQJieMefl, coinHeHia KOxoparo xoase
nepeBeAeHH CBIJIH Ha HX-B HSBIK-B eme B-B naqa.i'B IX B. BT& acxpo-
HOM!H H AO CHXI, nopi. ynoxpedjraioxcfl apa6cKia cjiosa: asHMyxi, se-
HHTI H HajjHpi,. ApaCcKoe npOHCxoat^enie HM^exi H HasBanie
ESI Koxopoft BnocjrE,ncxBiH pasBHJiacB XUMIH. IlepBBia
o CJKMKHOM'B cocxaBi i^j[j> apa6bi sanMCXBOBajH H3I) ErHnxa

HOCpCACXB-B rpeKOB'B, HO KX 9XHM1)


MHoro cyeB-Bpifi; BO BcaKOMi>, o^naKO, cjiyqa-B s
Mia, 663^ KoxopoK He SBI.IO CBI XHAHH, npeACxaBjraex'B co6oio
H3i. saHMCxBOBaHifi y apa6oBi>. (HasBanie cnnpxa
He najro noxpy,a,HJiHCB apatfcme
apaticKaro npOHCxoatAeflia).
H ^ja Meduu/uuu. IIpaB^a, Kopani sanpemaj-B
X-BJO, H 3x0 A'feja.io neBosiioaraLiMH saflaxia anaxo-
HO saxo apa6ti ycep^no paSoxajin u&jcb yqemaMH o
HHXI H ji-EKapcxBaxi,. BjaroAapa JiK)6o3Haxe.iBHOCXH
CKHX-B nyxemecxBeHHHKOBx, OHCHB oCoraxH.iacB y apaSosi, H
190

KOiopyio HXI. yieHBie CT&BHJLH B-B saBHCHMOCTB OT-B Maie-


MaiHKH H aCTpOHOMiH. OflH SHaqHTCJIBHO paSflBHHyJIH rpaHHnjJ HSCJI'B-
AOBaHHLix'B cipaffB H B'B Asm. H BX A^PHK'B, onncuBaa CBOH nyieme-
ciBia, cociaBjiaa
KapiH, CBO^a reorpa(|)HqecKia CB'BA'BHia B-B yqedHHKH.
y HHX'B MBI HaxoAHMi, cB^^Hia H o TenepeuiHefi PocciH (ocodeHHo
y Jf6m-0odMHa BX IX B.). y apadoBi, pasBHBa-iacB paBBBiM-B o6pa-
SOMX H ucmopioipacfiia. OAHH'B HS-BHX'B HCTOPHKOBX, Macydu (B'B X B.).
B'B CBOHXl) COqWHCHlaX-B COdpaj'B MHOJKCCTBO CB'EA'EHiH 06^ HCTOpiH,
H T. H. paSHBIX-B ^pCBHHX'B H Cpe^HCB'BKOBBIX'B

TO, ^TO ea npe^CTaBHTe.iH He orpaHHqHBa.iHCB qacio KHH/KHBIM'B

HsyqemeMx, HO oqeHB OXOTHO npH64ra.iH KT> onumy u na6.itode-

sojroxa H.IH npnroTOBJieHie JiiKapCTBa oxx BC'BXT^ Ooji'BSHeH

aJXHMHKOBl,):
275*. ApadcKaa JiHTepaiypa, nHiaBmaaca CKasaHiaMH
llogsia H HC-
Ha po^oBX BocTOKa, OTJinqaexca nBiJiKoii AaHTasiefi H micmo-CKasou-
KyccTBO apa-
xapanmepOM'b. B'B coopHHKt ,,TBicaqH H OAHOH HoqH BOIUJIO
co^epaiaHie JiHTepaTypti apadoB-B, rpeKOB^, HH^ycoB-B, nep-
COB-B H ji;p. Hapo^OB-B. Mnorie BOCiogHBie pascKasn nonajiH BT> na-
pOAHyro cjroBecHocTB 3ana^HO-eBponeHCKHxi> cipan-B npn nocpeACTB-B
apa6oBT>. (Hs'B MycyjiBMaHCKHX'B HOBTOB'B ocodenHO npocjiaBH.iHCB y
nepcoBi> <&updycu m> XI B., aBiopt annqecKOH LUaxz-HaMe, T.-e.
KHHFH i^apefi, a B^ XIV B. JTHPHKI. Fac/mst). OqeeB MHoroe CA^-
apaSti H B-B apxumenmyprb, nj)Hcnoco6HB'B K-B CBOHMT. no-
BHaaHTiftcKin Kyno.ii. H .aeritia KOJIOHHH nepcoB^. Bi
HcnaniH ^aaie BBipadoiajca oco,6HH MaBpHTaHCKiii CTHJIB.
mypa u ofcueonucb BX MycyjiLMancKOM-B Mipi pasBHTBca ne
noiOMy qio Kopani. sanpemajii. ^ijiaTB Hsodpaatenia aiHBBii'B cy-
meciBi., oiracaacL H^ojionoKJiOHCTBa, HO sa TO apadw SBIJIH oco6eH-
HLIMH MacxepaMH BX opnaMeHTHK'B, nepe^aB-B CBOHM-B yaopanx na-
3Banie

IV.

276*. BHsaHiiiicKaa H apaOcnaa Ky.iBTypBi BI, nepBoii HOJOBKH-B


06inifi
cpeflHHXi, B^KOBX CToaJiH ueu3MtbpUMO 6bnue sanadHo-eeponeucKOu,
H0 K1> KOHi^y 3TOft 9iioxn OTHOffleflia H3M-BHH.IHCB, H sanadno-eepo-
neuCKdH onepeduaa KyjBTypti, KoxopHa xoia H OLMH
KyMmypcL
CTapine ea, HO no^seprjiHCb sacioio HJH ^TRQ nojiHOMy ynaAKy. B'B
VI B. o6pa30BanHOCTB na 3anaA'fe naxo^HJiacB B'B caMOMx neqa.it-
IIOJTI nojojKemH, H nonHTKH no^HHTb ee, CA^aHHua npH Kap.iii Be-
.IHKOMT. H OfTOHaX'B, H6 HM^IH OCOSeHHO BaatUHXI, peaV-IBTaTOB!,, XOTfl
H HG npom.iH Bno-iH-E tfescjTEAHO. Ilepe^ KapJOMi> BCJIHKHM'L o6pa-
30Qauie ua sanadn Eeponu noumu coecn>Mz noiu6dO, H npocB'BTH-
Mipbi BejiHKaro Monapxa HM'EJIH jramB TO seaqeHie, ITO sa-
^aji&HMinee norpyjKenie poMano-repMaHCKaro Mipa VL sap-
Bapci'BO H neBteecTBO. ^-BJIO mjio xor^a ne o pasBHiiH HayKi> a 06^ 7

3jeMeHTapHOMi> oftpasoBamH, ^aate o npocmou ipaMomnocmu H *ITO


oco6eHHO xapaKTepno cpedu CCIMOIO dyxoeencmea, oi^ijibHEie q.ienu
Koioparo 6HJIH eep^KO coBepnienHtiMH HeB'fejK.naMH. Bo Bpena o^noro
H8i noxojjOBi, CBOHXI, BI> PlTajiiio Kapjii, BejiKKift nadpajii) Taiii) yqH-
Te.ieH rpaMMaiHKH H apHeMeTHKH wo. 6o^e OTCTajuixTi qacieii CBOGH
BM-BCT-B ct T^M^ OH-L noompajn. ycTpoficTBO niKOJit, KOTO-
ciajiH B03HHKa ri>r
9TO BpeMH npH enHCKoncKHXTb Kaoe^paxi) H
Bi>

y^peaj^eHa dwja iiraojia H BO ABOpitt canaro Kapjia


1
Be.iHKaro, BOo6Tii,e ,uo6HBraaro OKpyataiL ce6a yienHMH ). Bci BTH
OAnaKO, sarjioxjin, H TOJIBKO BO BTOpofi IIOJIOBHH'B X B., npH
CHOBa HMnepaiopcKiH AROpi, cxkji&Jica cpe^OToqieMi, ni-
Koxoparo o6pa30BaHia, H ormTb oatHBoacs A'BflTejbHOCTb no ycipofi-
CTBy mKOJii>. Boo6me H npH Kapji Be.iHKOM'b, H npH OiiOHaxi 06-
ne 6u.ro eu^e Mueow oOu^ecmoeHHOw nompednocmbw. OHO
CKOpie npe^MeTOMi) HcoiogHiejibHO npaBHTejibCTBeHHEixi. sa-
60T-L npocio npH^BOpuaro o6Hxo.ua. Haqajio Oojiie
HJIH
u wupOKaio KyMtnypnaio doumenin ua 3anadn> omnocumcn
Kb XII 6.

277*. KaKt B'L BasaHTiH, xaifb H na Sana^i, BI cpe^nie B^Ka Cy^b6a Kjac-

npeHMymecTBCHHO xapanmep^ u/epKooubiu, H


B6CbMa BpeMfl eAHHCTBeHHtiM-B OdpaSOBaHHLIMl, COCJIOBleMl cpeAHie Btna.
.HOJirOe
6LLio ^yxoBencTBO. EcJiw yiKe BT> BusaHiiH, npOAOJiacaa saHHMaibCfl

rpeqecKHMH KJiaccHKaMH, see Meuie H MeH'fee nosHMajiH ^yxi> HXI>


npOHSBeflemii, TO Ha Sana^ npuuuio GT> ynadoKt u camoe
mapuoe smKOMcmeo dpeoneu PUMCKOU .lumepamypoii,
c~t>

Mooa TaMi. CBITB HCTOHBHROMI. csiTCKaro odpasoBaniH.


l SHaKOMCTB'B Ci 9TOH) JIHTepaTypOFO npflMYH) OnaCHOCTb
cnacenia flynm, noi'OMy qTO ona 6uja coaAaua astiiHHKaMH; ,npy-
THXT> oea He Morja HHTepecoBaTt noTOMy, HTO, roBOpa o seMHOMi*, ona
OTBJieKaja on, noMHCJiOBii o He6ecnoMx; TpeTbH B-B sanaTiax'i. ero BHA'B.IH
.iHiiib cpeflCTBO HayqHTbca aatiKy HJIH ycBOHTb JiHTepaTypHLia (|>opMLi,
a ,i..ia 3TOro AOCTaTOiHO gmio oqenb neMHoraro. ECJIH ate, CT>

) Ilpa Afiopt Ka].ia ;I;H.IO nt,ci;<i.ii,i;o VHeHHXi,, iipii -lori, OIIH o6o:maMiuii ceoa Hiie-
])a:!iiHx-b iiHcaTe.ieft APGBHOCTH, a Kap.m ua :;una.ui Jt
192

ciopOHH, saHHxepecoBHBajiHCB H coflep/KaHieM-B jpeBHux-B nHcaxe-


J6H, TO IIJ10XO HJIH COBC'BM'B flaffie HeB-fepHO 6FO HOHHMaJLH. Ha
pHM-
citaro noaxa BnprHJiia CMOxpijiH, HanpHM'fcp'B, KaKt Ha KaKoro-TO
qapOA^H, a BT> jryimeMt cjiyia-B KaKT>Ha CBoero po^a asijqecKaro
npopoica, npeflCKasaBinaro npnniecxBie CnacHxeja H .naBmaro BI>
tt

CBoeii 9neHA'B n ajLueropiro cxpaHcxBOBaHiii le-iOB-BiecKofi .nyum,


BpeMeHHO saRjnoieHHOH B'B xijrE H o6peqeHHOii TOMHTtca Bt sen-
HOH IO^OJIH 3a6jryat,a,eHiH H co6jia3HOB'L, HcntixamH H onacHOCxeH.
66jiBfflee snaKOMCmeo c% KJiaccmecKOio dpeenocm'bw cma.40
bcn moMKo 6% XIII cmo^tbrniu, H JTHHIL BI. nepe-
9noxy OX-B cpe^HHXTb BiKOBi
HOBOMY BpeMGHH, x.-e. GO K-B

u ee. XT eosuunz uacmoH^iu


unmepecv Kb
Mipy, u Hanajioci) cep^esnoe mynenie eio ymcmeeuHaio
278*. Meayjy BpeMenaMH no.iHaro yna^Ka ofipasoBama OX-L
VI ,u;o XI B. H 9HOXOH xaKi> HastiBaeMaro BoapomAeHia K.iaccn-
xii xmBB. qecKO g ^peBHOCXH B'B XIV H XY B. ci> HaHfiojmmeio CHJIOIO H
Bl HCTOplH ^

npoflBHJiHCL ecn ocuooHUH HBpmu ceoeoopasHou cpeoneerbKoeou


3anada. 9xo 6mia 3noxa KpecxoBuxi
Hapo^ti ne XO.IBKO BoeBajiH ci MycyjiBManaMH, HO H
na ce6n> ejiinuie mycyMMancKOu (fiujiocofiiu u
KOHCIHO, pasBHBaa CBOK) Kyjibxypy Ha naqajiaxi>,
HHXI> BST. npeatHHX'B BpeiaeH'B. XII H XIII BB. 6H,iH BpeMeHeMi. pas-
BHxifl ynu6epcumemo66 H npon,B'BxaHifl cxoMicmuKu, o6HOB.ieHia
Monawecmea H ycHjrema Mucmuuecnou H acKemunecKOu .mmepa-
mypu, ynopaAoqeHifl pun/apcmea H 6-iecKa puyapCKOu nodsiu, BOS-
ia lomuuecKdio emu AH B'B apXHxeKxyp-B H B0o6m,e xydo-
pasiterbma B'B IHCXO cpe^neB'BKOBOM'B ^yxi. MHOFOG
Bcero 9xoro sapo^HJiocB eme paHBme H npOAO.iHtajio cymecxso-
H nosiH-se, HO HHKorjia cpe^HeBiiKOBaa Ky.iBxypa Sana^a,
Bsaxaa B'B i^ijiOMi., ne UMnjia CMOM nojiuaio u npmio ewpawe-
nifi, KO,KZ OK XII u XIII ee. B'B XIV B. axa Ky.iBxypa yiKe Ha-
qajta no^Bepraxsca KJiaccHqecKHM'B B-dasiaMi).
279*. B03HHKHOB6Hia VHHBepCHXexOB'B, B'B KOXOpBIXl. H3y-
,HO
06m.ee o6pa- qajIHCB rjiaBHBiM'B oftpasoM'B, OorocJOBie, npaso H MeAH^HHa, B-L
7

cpeAHeB'BKOBBix'B uiKOJiax'B npenojiaBajiHCb JHIHB xaK^ nasHBaeMLia ceo-


6odnufi ucKyccmea (artes liberales), HasBanHHa xaira em;e BT> /TpeB-
HOCXH, noxoMy qxo Hsyqeuie BXHX-B npeAMexoB-B cinxajocB sana-
xiejifB, ^OCXOHHHM'B CBo6o^Haro qeJiOB'EKa. 9xn artes liberales A^-
JIMHCB Ha ji;Ba ox^'BJia, HHsmifi H.BBicniifi. IlepBufi Ha3BiBa.ica

mpueiu (trivium) H saoroqajn. BT, ce6-B rpaMMaxHKy, pnxopHKy H


AiajieKXHKy; Bxopofi HOCHJI-L Haseame Keadpuein (quadrivium) H
cocxoa.it HSI. apneMexHKH, reonexpin, acxpOHOMin H
1 QQ
I
I/O

9x0 flijJieHie npe.piexoB'B o6m,aro otfpasoBama Ha xpHBifi H


pHBifi, HXI. coflepatanie H cnoco6i nxt nperiOAaBama ocxasajiHCB
HeHSM-EHHHMH Bt xeieme n.'Ejitix'B B'EKOB'B. TaKi. KaKi> o6m.ee o6pa-
soBame noatHO 6mro nojiyqHXB jraniB B'B MOHacxtipcKHxi, H enn-
CKoncKHX'B mKO.iax'B, TO H caMOMy usyneniw ceofioduuxz uCKyccmez
nvudaeojica wpKOdHuu xapattmept. Hanp., acipoHOMia .noJiatHa
6HJia cjryatHTL npH onpe^jeHiH ,a;jia npas^HOBaeia nacxn (cocia-
BJienie nacxajim) H Boodme .pa jyqmaro noHHMaHia
H T. n. Cfi-BA'Bflia, coo6ni;aBniiflCfl BI niKO-iaxi,
HOCTLK) H yciap'kiocTBK), TaK-L qio BT> jcbjrk otfmaro
locnodcmeoeajia odna pymuna. Kor^a BOSHHKJIH yHHBepCHTeTH, asy-
ieHie ipHBia H KBa^pHBia noJiyiHjro SHaqeme noflroxoBKH K'B cjy-
maHiio JieKi^iH no BucniHMi HayKaMx, HO H caMH artes liberales
xoate BoniJiH Bt cociaBt yHHBepCHTeicKaro npenoAaBama.
280*. yHHBepCHTGTH CT8JIH BOSHHKaTB Bt XII CTOJI'BTiH Bi Hia-
jiin (EoMmx H CcMepuo), a BI> XIII B. SIIJIH npeodpasosaHH Bt
yHHBepCHieTH paH-fee cymeciBOBaBinia mKOJH BX IlapuMn>, OKC-
(fiopdn H KeMfipudwtb. HapHaiCKiH yHHBepCHTeix BOSHHK-L BX caMOMi,
Hdiaj'E XIII B., a xoro ate CTOJiiTia ^yxoBHHK'B Jlro-
B'B cepeflHH-E
,a;oBHKa IX CopGonm npa newL o6meatHxie ^Jia 6orocjio-
ocnoBaji'&

BOBI, OTI. HM6HH KOTOparo EOJiyvEjn* CB06 HasBanie CopfioHHbt H caMi


6orocjiOBCKiH (jjaKyjitTexx napnatcKaro yEHBepCHTeia. Bncinee y^e6-
Hoe saBe^enie <J>paHn;y3CKOH CTOJIHEIH c^jrajrocB odpasniOMx ^jia 6ojib-
ineii naciH HOBLIX-L yHHBepCHT6TOBi> BO Been
Esponi, HXX Maiepbio-
KopMHjiHiiieH (alma mater), H noxoMy npiodpijio ipomadnuu aemopu-
memt ez CCIMOU y/epmu; oicio^a, HanpHM-BpT), BI anoxy BC^HKaro pac-
BHm.ia H^ea coSopnofi pe^opMH n,epKBH. Bi. FepMamH nepBuli
BOSHnK^ Bt llpain BI, cepeflHH'B XIV B., HO BX
XY B. ccopH neayjy HiMn;aMH H nexaMH
BCJii^CTBie
npo^eccopOBi H cxyAeHTOBT> nepecejinjiact B'B
OKO.IO 9ioro BpeMeHH (ct cepe^HHH XIV no na^ajio XVI B.) B'B
CHJIO ocHOBano em,e H^CKOJIBKO yHHBepCHTexoB'B. Bx KOHirlj XIV H na-
Hajii XV B. OKCcfiopdcKiu u npawcKiu yuueepcumemu cdrbmjiuc'b u,eu-

mpctMU onnosuuiu npomuez iwpKoeuou nopnu (BHK3H(j) B H FycTb). TaKi


r

asHKOM^ npenoAaBania 6trjra HOBCGM'SCXHO JiaxuHL, H xaKi>


H npo^eccopa, H cxy^enxn nepiJAKO nepeisaiaJiH HSX OAHOFO
ropo^a B'B flpyroii, xo Mewdy cpedueetbKoeuMU ynueepcumemaMU
pa3Huocn> cmpam cyw/ecmeoeaAa nnuomopaH censb. Ox^^ibHLie yHH-
BepCHxexH cjiaBHJiHCB pasHHMH (f>aKyjiBxexaMH. BorocJiOBie nponB-fe-
xajio BX napnai'B, OKC^OPA^ H Ilpari. HaoGopoxt, Bojionba H Op-
B'B oco6enHOCXH cjiaBHJHCB
npenoAaBaHieM'B npasa H x. #. Kor^a
usyneuie tMaccimecKoit dpeenocmu, xo OHO xoa;e
CTOPIfl. 13
194

BTB H'EKOxopBix'B yHHEepCHxexax-B (BT> FepMaHiH, nanp., B-B


npitorB
dpcpypmn B-B KOHirlj XV H Haqajrij XVI B.). BnocjrfcflcxBiH (B-B
XVI cxo-zTExm) yHHBepCHxexBi nrpajiH 6ojLinyio pojiB H e% petpopmrb
upptwu.
281*. FjiaBHOio HayKoro cpeAnnxt E^ROBI, 6HJO 6orocjTOBie, a
na (fiuAOCOcpito CMOxp'kiH,
KaifB Ha cjiywcanKy 6oiocA06in (philosophia)
est ancilla theologiae). Kaira ET> BnsaHxin HJIH y apadoB-L, coBep-
meHHO TaKi> sue H Ha Sana^i cymeciBOBajio CTpeMJienie nodKprbnwm'b
UAU o6zfiCHfimi) doiMamu erbpu cooSpameniflMH OTL pasyMa, fl,Jis.

iero H o6pam,ajiHCb K^ yqeHiaM^ ApeBHHxi, (J)Hjroco$OB &. r


Bi <|)HJIO-

co$in npn BTOMI oco6eHHO HHiepecoBajiHCb diaMnmuKOu, T.-e.


r
H3i> ji,aHHBix b nojioateHift,
HCKyccxBOMt ^jiaiB ynosaKJiioqeHia cpaBHH-
co6oio nojiyiaeMtie xaKHMi o6pa30Mi, BBIBO^BI H BT>

oSHapyatenia Meat,u;y HHMH npoiHBOp'BqiH yM-BTB


co6oio. Hsi. HIKOJIBHOH ,a;iajieKTHKH H pa3BH.iacB
cxoaacmum, BT> Koxopoft Ha nepBOM-B n.iaH'B CXOHJIO
ue codepwcauie, a (fiopMdJimafi cmopona Mum-ienin, x.-e. cxporaa
jiLHOCXB pascyffiAenia H XOHKOCXB BI, onpeA^eHin H
noHaxift (oxKy^a HSB^CXHEIH cnocod'B OXHOCHXBCH K'B BO-

npocaMi. snaHia B0o6m,e no-nymn. nasBaHie cxcjiacxaqecKaro). Cxojia-


cxHKa, co6cxBeHHO roBOpa, cymecxBOBajia H B-B BHsaexin, H y apa6oB'B,
HO nuidn> ona ue docmma.m mauoio 6Mcmnw aio paseumin, nam> ua i

Sanadrb B-B XII H XIII BB. (xoxa S^CB H sapo^HJiacB ona em,e paHBme
B-B xpy^ax-B loauHa dpmeuu Cuomo, K-B IX B.). FpeiecKaro asBma cxo-

JiaCXHKH H6 3HaJIH H ^OBOJIBCXBOBaJTHCB JIHUIB JiaXHHCKHMH HSJIOSKemaMH


HJIHnepeBOAaMH O^HHX^ OXPBIBKOB-B HS-B Iljiaxona H Apncxoxc^ra, HO
B-BXII B. Ha jraxHHCKin asHK'B cmajiu nepeeodumb cz apa6cmio
caMUH coHUHema Apucmomejin u eio KOMMemnamopo&b. C^b axoro Bpe-
M6HH BI> cxojiacxHK'B npOHaofflJO 6ojiBnioe oatHBJieHie, H Apucmo-
cdrbMMH iJiaenum aemopumemoMZ (fiujiococfioez, HXI, ^yqnxe-
"
(,,magisterdixit"). O^HaKO, axo 6Bijri>He Hacxoamifi ApncxoxejiB,
a ApncxoxejiB, ne scer^a B^PHO nepeBefleHHBifi H B,3,o6aBOKi) no-csoeMy
em,e ncxo-iKOBaHHtiH apaSaMH H nepeBO^qHKaMH ci apaScuaro Ha
jiaxHHCKifi. Bo BcaKOM^ cjiyqa'B, BiipoieM^, cxojiacxHKa cocjiyatH.ia CBOIO

c.ayjK6y B-B KyjiBxypnoH ncxopin EBPOHBI: ona noMepatHBajia yM-


CXB6HHHe HHXepeCBI, HSOmpaJia MBICJIHXejIBHHa CHOC06HOCXH, BBIpa-
npieMBi npaBHJiBHaro pascyat^eHia. KamoJiuuecmH it/ep-

cxo.nacmuKy nod% wow oneny, cxporo


Kpyri. BonpocoBTb, no.ipejKaBiHHX'B ea nscji'B.noBaHiio, H
Kame oxB'BXBi ona nojiXRa, 6BiJia .nafiaxBHa 9xn Bonpocn. T'feiii. ne
e% cxojiacmuKrb ofipasoeaducb pasnuH nanpaeMuifi, H
195 -

cxo;iacTHqecKie (fmjioco(f)bi sa CBOH am-knia nodeepiaaucb


HOMy ocywdeniw.
282*. Sana^HO-eBponeHCKie cxojiacTHKH jvEJiHJiHCb Ha ABa Jia-
repa HOMUHdJiucmoffz u pecuiucmoo^. IlepBbie coBepmeHHO npa-
BObHO AyMaJiH, ITO o6iu,ifl noHHiifl, KOTOpuMH o6o3HaqaiOTca po^ti
H BHAH Bemeft (nanp., nejiOB'EK'b, .nepeso H T. n.) cyn> TOJIBKO
npocibie 3ByKH, cjioaa, UMena (nomina), oSosnaqaiomia BTH Bein,H
H ne HM'Bfoni.ia caMOCxoflTe.ibHaro cymecTBOBania BH^ Hainero
KaKi. Apyrie, Hao6op'OTi), yTBepmAajH, 6yAio
cyT& HiKOTOptifl drbucmeumeMHOcmu
(realia\ cymecTByiomia
H BH^ namero yMa H npniOMt panbrne o6o3HaqaeMBix b HMH se- r

men (ante rem). HoMHHajiHCTbi cjrEflOBajiH ApncTOieJiK), a cxojia-


CTHqecKifi peajiH3Mx 6biJix OTpaateHieMi. (|)HJioco4)iH HjaiOHa, nojiaraB-

uiaro, qio TOJbKO HACH HM'EioT'b HCTHHHOC 6biTie, H ^TO Bci Bein,H
cyib Jinnib Konin H^efi. C'b od'BHX'b TO^CK^ spiHia cxo.iacTHKH
ciapajHCb corjiacoBaib MeatAy co6oio 6n6jieHCKie TeKCTbi, Metnia
omoBi, n;epKBH, nocTaHOBjema co6opOBi H nancme yKasw. HEKO-
TOpblC H3I> HHXl) npH 9TOMT. C03HaT6JIbHO nodnUHHdU drbHmeAb-
Hocmb pasynta npunnmuMz nanamu sa ucwiuunufi, a
yHenifuwb,
dpi/lie, Hao6opomK, nodeepiajiu 9mu ynewn ceo6odnoMy moAKoeamw
. oiHomeHie Kb BonpocaM-b 4>H-ioco(})iH
Iloc.i'BAHee

pawoua.msMa, H n,epKOBb BcaqeciiH 6opojacb c^


3THM b aBJieHieMi,. (Cpe^H par^ioHajiHCTOBTb 6miH nocjrfcAOBaiejiH
r

Afieppoaca). Oco6biMH CTOpOHHHKaMH KaioJiHqecKaro npaBOBijpia


I XII B. AnceMMt JKenmepfiepiucKiii, ciporo
B-Ep-E, a BTB XIII B. n aHrejibCKiH ygniejib"
OOMO,
(1224 1274), BejiHqaHiiiiH aBTOpnTeT-b cpe^HeB-BKOBoro
CKaro 6oroc.iOBia. OHH SHJIH peajiHCiaMH, H HXI. HanpaBjeme nojb-
SOBa.lOCb npHSHaHieM'L H nOKpOBHTCJIbCTBOM'b I^epKBH.
283*. CpCAH HOMHHaJHCTOB-b OCOfiCHHO HpOCJiaBHJICa B-b XII B.

<j)pann,y3CKiH cxojraciHK'b A6eJiHp* (1079 1142). OHI. nponcxoAHJii


MSI pbin,apCKOH ceMbH, HO H36paji'b yMCTBeHHyro A'feaTeJibHOCTb. A6e-
jrapi> y^HJica, a noxoMi, H caMi> yqajn, BI> HapHafB, TA'B
ero JieKiiiH noc^-
Maccoro cjiyraaxejieH. 9io 6ujn> icjiOB'BK'b 6o.ibmoH yienocTH,
CHJibHbiM'b yMOMt H yBJieKaBmin CBOHXI> yqeHHKOB'b KpacHO-
ajiOKeHieMi). Jlnqoaa ^Hseb ero c-iojKHJiacb necqaciJiHBO.
BJiiodHJica B-b o,HHy o6pa30BaHHyro A'B-
KpacHByio, yMHyro H
BymKy, daousy, Koiopaa caMa nojio6Hjra TajranTJiHBaro cxojiacTHKa,
HO ET> HX-B OTHomeflia BM-Braajica oneKyH-b BJOHSBI, H o6a OHH no-
MonacTtipb. A6ejiap b nponoB'BAOBaji'b, ITO K-b HCTHH'B Be^ei-b
r

IIIJIH BI>

KOiopoe cano BBistiBaeTca coMH^HieMi,, a noioMy mpe-


GoMwaio npocmopa djin dtbxmeMHOcmu pasyMa. Bi CBOCH
13*
196

KHHFE Wr3,a H H-EX'B" (Sic et non) OH-B npHBejrB MHOFO npnMijpOB'B xoro,.
KaKi. pasHLie aBxopHxexti,
npHseaBaBmieca Kaxo-zmqecKOK) ijepKOBBio,
OAHHI, apyroMy npOTHBOp'BqHJH, T.-e. ryj'E OAHH roBOpmiH da, jjpyrie
Htbrrn. Hxo6&i
roBopiuiH IIo9xoMy cnopnBie BO-
A6ejrap'B jKejiajr-B,

npocH uQRJiesR&iin CBoSoflHOMy HSCJTEAOBamK). HPOTHBI 9xoro Boopy-


3HaMeHHTHH KiepBajiBCKiH atfdax'B, ce. Sepnapdz, npono-
Bioporo noxo^a. OHI Haxo^HJi-L Tpe6oBanie
KpecxoBaro
onacHHM'L, noxoMy qio pas^ KaatAHH cia-ii 6u AyMais
no-CBoeMy, e^HHCTBa n;epKBH ne MOMO 6n cymeciBOBaib. Ho era
BecL Bonpoci, 6ujn> jinniL BI> npaBHJiLHOM'b noHHMaHin,
aKjnoqaexca HacTOflm;ee MHinie n,epKBH. Adejiap-L 6&ui L
i

co6paBmHMCH BI 1141 r. B'B Caucn, HO nepe-


co6opOMi,,
na cy^i caaioro nann. CMepit, o^HaKO, noM-Bmajia eMy
nepecMOipa 9ioro npon;ecca. IIpHM'Bp'B A6ejrapa noKasLi-
CBo6oAHoe oxHomeHie KI (|)HJioco(|)iH SBIJIO He6esonac-
H-BKOxop&ie cxo.iacxHKH ^aaie npaMO o6euHAucb ez epecu. (Bi>
HBIM-B.

cynjnocxH H xaKie SOFOCJIOBLI, KaKi> po.noHaiajiLHHE'B H,a,eH co6op-


HOH pe<f>opMBi JKepcom HJIH o6jiHqaBinie nopqy n,epKBH
H IyCZ, 6HJH CXOJiaCXHKaMH).
284*. CxojacxHKa ^asajia .nyxoBHyio nHmy JHO^HMX,

RCK6TH3MR.
pasBHXHMH yucxBeHHUMH HHxepecaMH, JIIOAH ate,
Ki> HpaBCXBCHHOMy caMocoBepmeHCXBOBaHiH),

B8JIH aCKeXHSMl), H C^ HXI. X01KH Spfla 6CH XpUCmdUCKdH Hpa6-


cmeeuHOcmb ceodujiac'b KZ ydpyneniw njiomu u ommsy omz Mipa,
KaKt 6y^xo BC'fe 6&L3H ^OJ^HH c^JaxBca MonaxaMH. TaKHMi> 06-
pasoMi acKexHSM-L cxaji^ BosBO^nxBca ez eduHcmeeumiii npuu-
tyunznpaecmeeHnou OKUSHU. B'B xaKOMi> HMCHHO CMLICJI-B B^ cpe^-
nie B^Ka nncajiocB Hena-io MOpaJi&HBix & xpaKxaxoBi). Bi XII B.
r

Ha 9XOMI, nonpHm'B OCO^CHHO BBiflBHHyjca ce. Eepnapdz, a Bt


XII H HaiaJii XIII nana HuHOKeumiu III ( r O npe-
K-B Mlpy"). HSI CpCAH HHin,eHCXByK)mHXT, MOHaXOB-B BBI-

nponoB'BflHHKH, oxpHD;aBniie .naaie xpy^i, noxony nxo OHI>


XO.HHJIH

npe^npHHHMaexca paflH MaxepiajiBnaro djiarococxoania. 3a6oxLi o


SAOPOBB'B H y^oScxBaxi 3KH3HH, jno6oBB H ceM&a, CB^xcKaa HayKa
H jinxepaxypa H x. # CT& 9xon XO^KH sp'tnia xaoie o6xaBJia-
JIHCB iprbXoenuMu.
285*. CxoJiacxiiKa C'B CBOHMH cyxnMH onpe^ijieHiaMH H cxpo-
rHMH paajH^eHiaMH, ci CBOHMI, ^opnajiHSMOM'B H pascy^OHHOcxBio ne
K&H MHCTHKil .
v
MOMa xaose BHOJIHTB y^OBJiexBOpaxb Jiio^eH, CKJIOHHBIXI. KT,
HOCXH, KT, no9XHiecKOMy Hacxpoemro, KI cep.neqnLiM'B
JIIO^BH, 6.iaroroB'BHia H Bocxopra. Cpe^n xaKHx^ jno^eii nanajiH pas-
COBC^MX HHiia cxpeMjreHia, Heatejrn y cxojiacxHKOB'B, see
197

Bt .lorniecKia <f>opMyjibi, CTpeMJiema, POACTBGH-


Hbia acKGTHSMy, HO E&meRmiR caMOCToaiejibHoe BbiparaeHie BI> MU-
cmuKtb, KOTOpaa TOJKe OTpasnjiacb BX KOHI^-B cpeAHHX'L. B-BKOB'L
Ha ij'EJiOM'B pa^ii JiHTepaTypHbix'B npOH3BeAemH. Mucmmu cmpe-
KZ uenocpedcmeenuoMy oGiyemio cn> JSoiOMb, pasBHBaa B-L
pejmriosHOCTL AO BucinHxi. ciyneHen ea npoaBjema ET> 9K-
EKT> EaK-B BHCTynaeTt HS-L caMoro ce6a H
i

Kor^a ie.iOB 6ti

H MucjibK) BOSBBimaeTca AO eAHHema ci> BoateciBOM-L.


MHCTHn;H3M'L npouB'BTaji'B npeHMymecTECHHO &b FepMauiu XIV H
XV BB., IVVE H pasBHJiacb BI 9TO BpeMa n.-BJiaa MHCinqecKaa JIH-

Tepaiypa. Hnor^a MHCTHKH naBJieKajiH na ce6a HeyflOBOJi&CTBie i^ep-


KOBHHX'B BJiacien sa TO, TTO oiciynajiH on KaTOJiH^ecKaro npaBO-
Bi>pia. SKKapma, BHSHsajica Ha cy^t nanH, HO yuepx no
BX ABHHBOH'B (1329), a co^HHema ero 6miH ^opiiajibH
3a CBoro naHTeHCTHiecKyro onpacKy. CaMEiMi saM'feqaTejiBHHM'B MH-
OoMd KeMniu-
cinqecKHM-L nHcaiejieM-L KOHH,a cpeAHHxx B'BKOB'B 6ujn>
CMU (HSX ropo^a KeMnena, 1380 1471), asiopi. snaMeHHTOH KHHFH
n O noApaatamH Xpaciy", nojiBsyiomefica H xenepi. yBajKemeMi
xpHCiiaHi, pasHLixt HcnoB'B.naHiH. Bx XIV cio-i-Erin repMancKie
MHCTHKH ycTpOHJiH flame 6jiaroqecTHBLia o6ni,eaiHTia 6e3T) Moname-
CKHX'B 06'TOBX, HSB'BCTHHa nORL HMGHeMt 6pamCmfft Ofiiyeu WCU3HU.
(OcHOsaTejieM'b HX-L dmrx repiapd* de-Fpomz HS-L HHAepjaHACKaro
ropo^a JI,eBeHTepa).
286* YMCTBeHHiia CHJIBI cpe.nHeB'EKOBoro o6n;ecTBa rjiaBHHMt
npoasjajiHCb BX cxojiacTHqecKOH, acKeTHiecKOH H MHCTH-
JTHTepaTypi, T^CHO CBasaHHOii ex n,epKOBHOK) atHSHbio.
nayHuan .mmepamypa' Gum paseuma ouem MCLAO. ECTB-
CTB03Hame Haxo^HJOCb B-b npeneopeiKeHiH, H BI 9TOft o6jiacTH

apa6bi CToajiH ropas^o Bbime eBponeiin.eB'b, KOTOpwe y HHXT. TOJibKO


H MOFJIH Koe-qeny HayiHTbca. (Ha^ajio caMOCToaTejibnaro pasBHria
nayirb na Sana^ OTHOCHTca jiHfflb KiXVI XVII BB.)
ejiOB'BK'b MCLAO unmepecoeajicfi npupodow, ^OBOJib-

CTByHCb CaMblMH BJieMeHTapHHMH H CKyAHHMH H6H SHaaiaMH, Kl


KOTOpbiM-L npHMiuTHBajiocb B^o^aBOKi. MHOMcecmeo eectMa neerbp-
nbtxi npedcmaeAeniu u CCIMMXZ ipyfiuxi cyeerbpiu. JI,Jia ecTecTBO-
3Hauia cpe.nHeB'BKOBbix'b ynHBepCHTeTaxi) ne cym,ecTBOBaJio H co-
B-L

OTBijTCTBeHHaro (J)aKyjibTeTa, ecjrn He ciHiaTb nsyqenia MeAHitHHbi.


287*. H3^ CB'BTCKHX'b HaVKl.
*
OC06bIM-B HO^eTOMI, HOJIb30Ba.lOCb
BT>yHHBepCHTeTaxT, paBHO oSmecTBi H BI rocy.napCTB'B npaeo,
KaK-b BX
no^t KOTOPHMI pasyM-BJiocb npeHMymecTBeHHO npaeo pUMCKoe. FjiaB-
HHMI, npeAMeTOMi) HsyieHia 611,1^ HMeHHO Corpus juris lOcmuuiaHa.
BTO Hsqenie BT> Bojionb^, r^ B'b KOHH;'B XI H
198

iipenoflaBajn. lopncnpyaeHijiK) nepeuu nacmoHU^iu snamoKt pUM-


XII B.
cmio npaea Hpnepiu. BnpoqeMt, nepBtia K>pH,a;HqecKia jieKHJH H coqn-
6UJIH TOJIbKO TOJIKOBamaMH OTA'fcjIbHHX'B CJIOBI> HJIH (^paS'B B'B

lOcTHHiana, H jmmb nosjjH'Ee BTH OTpbiBoqHbie KOMMenxapiH CTann


BT. tfojiiie n.'EJJbHbia
HSJiojEeHJa, nojiyqHBinia
HasBame MOCC.
6oJiOHCKie npo(f>eccopa pHMCKaro npasa B'B XII XIII BB.
HOCHJIH nposBanie lAOCcamopoet. KT> CBOGMy HCioinHKy, T.-e. KI> CBO,ny
lOcTHniaHa K>PHCTLI OTHOCHJiHCb c^ xaKHMi, ate noqiemeM'b, ci, KaKHMt
6orocJiOBBi OTHOCHJiHCb Ei nancKHMi, ^eKpeiaM'b, a 4)HJioco(|)bi K-b Apn-
CTOiejiK), i.-e. 9TO 6ujio omuowenie nucmo doiMammecnoe. ^Jin HHXT>
PHMCKOC npaso 6mio caMHMi. ^nHcanHHMi, pasyMOM-B" (ratio scripta),
H HsyqajiH OHH ero uucmo cxo^acmmecKU, 6e3-b MawTBHrnHXTE. no-
EI $HJiojiorHqecKOMy HJIH HC'ropniecKOMy TOJiKOBaHiio. FJIOC-
OKasajiH cnjibnoe BJiiflHie Ha peu/eni^iw puMcnaio npaea, T.-e.
Ha npHHflTie H^KOTOpbixt ero nojioateHifi BI caMyro atusHb nyieMi
npaKTHKH H saKOHO^aTejJbCTBa. 9xa pen,eni^ifl nponcxo-
B-L pasHtixi CTpanaxt Heo^HOBpeMeHHO (BO
$paHD,iH BI XIII B.,
B'B FepMamH BI XIV XV BB.), HO BesA'fc ,ona omsamct epaotc-
de6uow cfieodaMHOMy nopndKy. Hanp., (fjpanqyscKie Jieiucmu na
yqenia PHMCKHXTB ropncTOB-B o TOM'B, qTO no ecmecmoeu-
npaey Bci JIW^H poatAaroTCfl CBOSOAHHMH, BcaqecKH cnoco6-
oaKAemio KpecTbaHi. OTT> KP^HOCTHOH saBHCHMOCTH.
288*. B-B CBfl3H ci, sanflTiflMH cxoJiacTHqecKaro H ropH^Hqe-
cKaro co^epmanifl Haxo^HJiacb H cpeflHeB-BKOBaa no.mmuuecKOH AU-
mepamypa, cocmomwaH 6o.iuaew nacmm us* nyfijiuujUCmuHecKuxK
couuHeuiuj KOTOpbia HHcajiHCb CTOpOHHHKaMH flyxoBHoft HJH CB-BTCKOH
B.iacTH B'B pasHLia BpeMena nponcxoAHBineH Meat^y HHMH 6opb6bi.
3affl,HTHHKH npHTasaHin AyxoBHOfl BjiaciH, B'B cymnocTH, CTapajrncb
TOJIBKO pa3BHTb H flOKasaTb nancnyw meopiw o TO MI, qTO u/epKoeb
euwe locydapcmea, H qio nanbi MoryTi. pacnopaacaTbca HMnepa-
TOpCKOK) H KOpOJieBCKHMH KOpOHaMH. Ho y EHXl 8BHJIHCB HpOTHB-
HHKH, OTCTaHBaBfflie uesaoucuMOcm^ locydapcmeennou ejiacmu H qep-
naBiiiie nnor^a CBOH ^oKasaTejibCTBa HSI. yueuifi PUMCKUXZ wpu-
cmo6if> o TOMI, qTO BJiacTB rocyjjapa HM'feeT'B CBOH HCTO^HHK'B BT>

nepenecemH na nero HapOAOM-B BC'BX'L CBOHX-B npaBT> H csoero Mipo-


.nepJKaBCTBa (imperium). OcoSeHHO yMHO^HJiocb qHCJio sam.HTHHKOB'B
CB^TCKOH BJiacTH B'b XIV B., T.-e. B'B 9iioxy yna^Ka nancTBa. Cnopi
$HJiHnna IV KpacHBaro ci BoHH^an.ieii'B VIII H 6opb6a HMnepa-
Topa JlroAOBHKa BasapcKaro C-L loaHHOM-b XXII BbisBaji
JiHTepaTypy npOTHBi, npiiTasainH nancTBa.
9THX-B nOJICMHCTOB-B SfclJH,
yqeflBIH lOpHCTl
IladyancKm (1280 1343), aBTOpi ,3aoi HT3HKa Miipa".
r I
H ciopon-
199

HHKH, H npoiHBHHKH nancKOH xeopiH OAHimKOBO cioflJiH Ha cxoAacmu-


mown sprbuin. OHH npHHHMaJiH na B^py
HOA-IHHHOCTB w Kou-
Aapa" HPOTHBHHKH
5
HnancKHXB npHTasamH TOJIBKO
ITO KoHCiaHTHH'B ne nwbjn> npasa A&PHTB nans CB^T-
CKYK) B.iaCTL HaA'B PHMOJTB, HO OTHIOAB H6 COMH'EBaJIHCB EJ> HCTHHHOCTH
AapCTBeHHOH rpaMOTBI, dtIBine*H Ha CaMOATB A'kllj HO^JIOaiHOH). Hc-
mopunecKifi suanin w> cpeduie enm 6bMU eeCMia otcajimH.
289*. Boo6m,e HOHTH BCH HCiopHHecKaa JiHiepaiypa Ha Sana^i
BI. cpe^Hie B^Ka cocioajia H3i) jinmonuceu H wcumiu
aBiopaMH KOiopHx-L 6ujiK npeHMymecTBGHHO ayxoBHLifl jiHita. JHHIL
BjfljiHCb HHcaxeja, 3acjiyatHBaioin,ie nasBanie HCTOPH-
TaKOBti 6HJH Bi, 9HOxy ocHOBaflifl BapBapCKHxi) rocy^apCTB'B
Kacciodopv H lopdam (IopHaH,a,i)) y OCT^-FOTOBI., Fpuiopiu Typcniu y
(|>paHKOBi,, Eeda flocmonoumeuHuu y anr.io-caKCOB'B, a
HCTOpHK &
r

Kapjia BejHKaro, ero Apyri. H MHHHCTPI. dumapdz,


ron ero CHO.HBH.JKHHK'L AjiKyum H HaeeM ffiaKom, HCTOPHK-L JiaHro-
6apAOB-B. Ci 9noxH Kapjia BejiHKaro Boo6ui,e naiKHaeTca pasBHiie
JTETOHHCHOH JiHTepaxypLi Ha Sana^. 3noxa KpeciOBLixi HOXO^OB-B
H.'BJII.lH pflA1> HCTOpHKOfi-L HpeHMyffl,eCTBeHHO HS'B ({>paH-
KaKOBti BuMieMM* Tupcniu, BuMiapdydm, 6BiBniiH yia-
CTHHKOM^ neTBepiaro EpecTOBaro noxo^a, MyaneuM,
miii JIioAOBHRa IX st ero noxoA^, H T. #. Y HiKOTopuxt

nnci;eBi KOHn,a cpe^Hnxi BiKOBi saM'Biaeicfl nepexo^ KI> na-


CTOflni,eMy HCxopHqecKOMy HsioaieHiH). 3xoro eme He.it3fl CKasaib
o xpOHHK'B (Ppyaccapa, HO yaje 0ujiunw> de-KoMum (1446
1509), HCTOpHK-L JIlOAOBHKa XI, OAHH-L H31 o6pa30BaHflMHIHXl.
jnoAefi CBoero BpeneHH, MO^CT'L ^LITB HasBaH-B HC npociBiMi .TBTO-
HHCH.eM'B.
290*. Bi cpe^Hie B-BKa Ha SanaA^ coMKHema nay^naro xa-
paKiepa nacajiHCB HCoioiHTejiBHO Ha AamuncKOMZ HSUKM, KOTOPBIH
oiqacTH 6Bijnb HSLIKOMI, H oSmefi jrHTepaiypBi. Ho Hanoojie saat-
HBIH nosTHiecKifl npOHSBe^eHifl cpeAHax-B B-BKOBI 6miH uanHcaHBi
na nai^ioHaMHbixz asumxb repnaHCKaro H poMancicaro Kopna. Pa-
nne eceio HapOAHHH HSBIKI. ciajn. -A'BJiaTBCfl opranoirB jrHTepaiypLi
y aHiAOcaucoet, (em;e BI VII VIII BB.), HOTOM'B y HtbMiteez (wt
IX B.), sai'BM'B y (fipa,Hi4y30ffb (ET, X B.), nos^e Bcero y uma,M>-
fiHiieoT,, KOiopBie AO-iBme .npyrHxi, MOMH O^XOAHTBCH desi. uHCBMeH-
HOCTH na POAHOM'B flSBiK'B, TaKt KaK^ .laiuHB ociaBajiacB HM^ no-
HHTHOK) AO-iBHie, niMi KaKOMy-JiH^o ^pyroMy napOAy. ^peBH-BHHiiw
npOHSBeAenia jiHTepaiypti Ha Hai;ioHajiBHLix B asHKaxi SBIJH HJIH
f

6u6.<ieucKaio, HJH iepouuecKaio coAepataflia. CaMLie ciapBie aHr.io-


caKCOHCKie HOSTH, EedMonz (VII B.) H EuneeijJiufo (VIII B.), BI
200

CBOHX'B nosMax'B HSJiarajiH BDHBOAH Bexxaro H Hoearo saB-fcxa,


9x0 ^BJiaJH) HensB'BCTHHH aBiopt jjpeBHeH'EMeijKOH no9HBi IX B. n Cna-

CHxejiB" (re-iiaHfl-B), npHqeirB B-B xpncxiaHCKie croatexLi OHH nep^KO


BHOCHJIH qepxBi cxapo-repMaHCKHxi Bossp'SHin H 6Bixa. B'B paHHHXi
repOHiecKHx-B no9Max B ocoSeHHO saM'EXHBi H CJTEABI repnaHCKOH MH-
r

eojiorin. TaKOBBi anrjio-caKCOHCKia H^CHH o repoi> BeoeyjtMpn (Ha-

noMHiiaioiD;ifl Hainn SBIJHHLI 061 HJIB^ MypOMii.'B), npenMym,ecTBeHHO


ate CKaHflHHaBCKia ITBCHH 9ddu (x.-e. 6a6ymKH) o dorax'B, repo-
axi H xpaGpBix-B BHKHHrax'B, sanncaHHHfl 6ojiBmeio qacx&io B-B
XII B. FepOHqecKift 9noc & panHeft 9noxa HM'BJI'B HHCXO napoduuu
r

xapaKmepz, xoxa na ero o6pa6oxK-B H CKasHBajiocB BJiianie KHHat-


HOH jinxepaxypBi. .

291*. nocjii Kapjia BejiHKaro, Kor^a npoasonuo pa3,a;po6jie-


$eoaJi>HO- H je HE MHOffieCXBO MeJIKHX^ AeOAaJI&HBIX'B BJia-
OX.H'BJIBHBIX'B CXpaHl.
x
. .

H caMa no^3^H ua HawoHajimux* fisbiKaxt npuuHJia (peo-


xapanmepz. B-B 9noxy KpecxoBBixi, noxo^OBTb na
flBHJIHCB H09XKI H BM'BCX'B Ci X^Mi H'BBn.BI, KOXOptie
no9xnqecEie pascKasH o xpaSpBix'B BOHHax'L H HX-B no^BHrax^ H
^eKJiaMHpOBajH nx^ BI saMKax-B cenBepOBi, nepeisataa ci> Micxa
na M^CXO. Ha ciBepi $pani^iH OHH nojryqnjiH HasBanie mpy-
eepoffb H BOcniBaJiH npeHMym,ecxBeHHO nodemu (gesta)
Beaumio H ero cno^BHaiHHKOB'B (najiaduHoev) B-B xaK-B
MUX-B chansons de geste. JIro6HMBiM'B HX-B repoeaii 6ujn> Po^audz,
naBmin BX 6nxB'B B'B PonceBajBCKoft ^OJIHH'B (canaa cxapaa no9Ma
o HCM-B oxHOCHXca Ki KOHDiy XI B.). IIo.n'B BJUflmeM'b (|)paHniy3CKaro
<|)eo^ajrBHaro 9noca cjioatHJca H H-BMei^Kifi, nponiB-BxaBinift B'B XII
XIII BB., HO saHMCXBOBaBfflifi CBoe co^epatanie HS-B cxapBixi>, qncxo
npe^amH. CaMBiMi. saM-EiaTe.iBHBiM'B nponsBe^eHieM-B H-B-
9noca aB.iaexca nodjua o Hu6ejiymaxT>, noB-BCXByromaa o
BejiHKaro nepece^enia napo^oB-B. EojrEe nos^nia npo-
9xofi no93in <|>eo^aj[BHBixi BpeMeHi yaie oxpaaiaJiH Ha
ce61> pbmapCKiu fiumz H, BX CBOK> onepe^B, oKasBiBajrn BjiaHie Ha
oCpasoBame puiitapCKuxv udeajioev. BT> nocJi^AHeMi. oxHomeHin sa-
puu/apcme POMCLHU o npuKAwueHifixz (romans d'aven-
M-BqaxejiBHti

tures), cpe^n KOXOPBIX^ HanSojiie xapaKxepnii no9MBi o 6pnxaH-


CKOMI Kopojtrb Apmypvb u puuapaxt Kpyuimo Cmojia. IIo9XHqe-
*CKia npe^aHifl 061. 9xoM^ repoi BOCXOABX-B KT, O^CHB
BpeMCHH, H c^ HHMH coe^HEHJiHCB em.e MHoria CKasania,
H&ia HSTB KHHaiHBixi. HcxoqHHKOBi. JIaxHHCKaa Jinxepaxypa
oqeHB 6oraxa pasHUMH MiendaMU, Koxopna
6BiJia

xasaie no9xnqecKOH odpaSoxK^ na Haii.ioHaJiBHHX'B


Ci npeAaHieM-B o6x Apxypi, codHpaBmeMi. aa CBOHMX KpyoHMT. cxo-
201

.IOM-B pBinapen, coeflHHHJiocB cKasanie o ce. Fpaajirb, x.-e.

B'B KOiopyio IOCH^-B ApHMaeeiicKiH codnpajn. ocxaxKH .u.paron.'EHHOH


KPOBH Xpncxa: pBinapn Kpyoaro CxoJia CA'kia.iHCb cjiyatHxejraMH
CB. Fpaajia. 9xoMi D.HKJI'B dtasamH npoaBH.iHCB amoria qepxbi
B'B

pbiu/apcmio u acKemmecnaio 6uma, <|)aHxacxHqecKie no^BHrn H


MHCXHqecKifi H.neajrasn'B H CHMBOJIHSM-L.
no3MH cxajiH nepe^ijiBiBaTbca BT> nposanqecKie
Ha IOFE $paHii,iH pasBHJiacb xy B-B ate anoxy KpecxoBBixi. noxo-
jiupuuecKan nodaia mpy6adypoeT>, no o6pa3u,y KOTOpuxi, BI
SBBJIHCB Munnesumepu (H-BBZ^H JiodBH). Tpy6a^ypBi BOC-
npeHMymecxBeHHO puu/apCKyw jiwfioot Kt ^aM^ cep^;n;a H
CBOH CXHXH Ha OCOSOM-L, IIpOBaHCaJIbCKOMl flSLIK'B. Bcfl 9Xa

noasia, pasBHBmaflca npeHMymecxBeHHO 9noxy dopbdn CT. se-


B'B

BljpHHMH H pasu.B'Bxa pHaapCKOH atH3HH, nojiy^HJia HasBanie po.Man-


muuecKOu. PoMaHXHKa CHHOHHMT> (J>aHxacxHqHOCxH, cxpeM.ieHia BI>
xyMaHHyio ^a;ib, iiey^OBJieTBOpeHHOCXH lyBCxsa H nojraaro npene-
dpeatenia K'b A'feficxBHxejibHOCTH. B'b 9xy ate gnoxy pasBHJiacb H
cpedneenKoeasi dpama HSI r^epKOBHbix-L Mucmepiu, x.-e. npe^cxa-
BJieHin BI, jranax-b xaKHX-b co6bixift CBameBHOft ncxopiH, KaKOBH
cxpacxH FocnoAHH, H as'b MUpaKAeu, x.-e. npeicxaBJiemn B-B JIH-

nax-B ate qyAecHbix'B gnnso^OB-B HS-B atHxift csaxLix-B.


JlH
292*. Bi HCXO^ B-B
9noxy pasBHxia ropoji;-
cpeflHHxi, B^KOB'B,
CEoro 6bixa, BOSHHima H oco6aa, xani cKasaxb, lopodcKan jiumepa-
mypa. Bi XIII B. BnepBbie noaBHJiHCb BO ^paeuin xaK-B
BaeMbie fabliaux, KOpoxenBKia cxnxoxBOpHBia noB'BCxn,
CBOHM'B npeAMexoMi noxoamema H lyBCxsa .no^en BC'BX'B
o6in,ecxBa B'B HXI o6bi^eHHOH atHSHH. FjaBHHMi HCXOIHHKOM'B
(J)a6.d6 nocjiyatHJiH jiaxuHCKie H <j>paHi;y3CKie
eocmoHuaio npoucxoofcdeuiH (nH^yccKHX-B, apa6cKHX-B H
x. n.), a noxoMi cocxaBHxejiH cxajrn H3o6paaiaxB H oupy-
fy&6jiib

wcaeiuyw uxt> oicusHb, BHOca B-B CBOH npOHSBe^enia camupuuecKyw


uacMrbWKy HaA'B pBmapaMH, ^yxoBHHMH, MonaxaMH, KpecxbaHaMH
H np., H np. OaxHpHiecKiH gjieMeHT'b xapaKxepnsyex'B H upaeo-
yuumejiwue pomanu, KaKHMi> 6ujn> BT> KOHH.'E cpe.aiHHX'B B-BKOBI,
HaiipHM^pi,, BecbMa nonyjiapHbiH PoMauz o Jlucrb,
B'B Macci nepe^'B.iOK'b na pasntixt asbraax-B. HS-B

nepenuiH BTB Apyria cxpaHBi H cxajin nepe^JbiBaxbca BI nposa-


mecnie pascuasu, Koxopbie nojyyHJH BI> Hxa-iin HasBanie noeejiM.

san'feqaxejibHBiM'B HOBCJIJIHCXOM'B B-B Hxajrin 6ujn> B'B XIV B.

aBxop'B 3HaM6HHxaro flemMepoua, x.-e. ,Il,ecaxHji,HeBHHKa,


c6opHHKa BecejiMX'B HOBe.iJii., Koxopbia BI xenenie .necaxH

^pyrt Apyry MOJOABIC JIIOAH H


202

sa ropOAt OTL HyiiBi.* Bx Anrjiin no^,o6HiiH ate cftopHHK'B Bt


XIV B. Hannca.i'B llocepz. (Ero KeumepCiepiiiCKie pascnasu
pasHBixt KJiaccoB-B o6m,ecxBa). $a6jio H
$OPMOH .iHxepaxypBi BI xy canyio 9noxy,
OHCHB MHoro roBOpHJH o nopTE n,epKBH, H noxoMy uiaeuuMb nped-
MemoM* camupmecmio mo6pameHin cma^u noponmie npaeu u
ueerbwecmeo moidamnmo dyxoeencmea.
293*. BejiH^aHiuHMi) noaiOM'B cpe^HHXTb B-BKOB^ 6ujn> flaume
A.mibepu, atHBinittB^ KOHqi XIII H Ha^a-ii XIV B. (1265 -
1321). OHX pOAHJca BO $JiopeHain H H^KOTOpoe BpeMa saHHMajH. o,a;Hy
H3i. BBicniHxt rocy.n.apCTBeHHBix'L ^ojuKHOCTeft BI> 9TOH
pecny6.iHK'B.
Bt ero BpeMH B-L pasHHXi, ropo^axi, PIxajiiH nponcxoAHJia ome-
cmoueHuaH 6opb6a Meofcdy iu6ejimu(iMU u leeMcfiaMU, H B-S 1302 r.
4)jiopeHTiHCKie uswajiu flamne HSI poAHoro ropo^a sa co-
rBejii>(|)Ei

qyBCTBie KI ^ame B0o6m,e atAa^t cnaceHia H fljm Hxa-


radejiJiHHaM'L.

jiin, pasAHpaeMofl MeiK^;oyco6iflMH, H .pa Bcero KaxojiHqecKaro Mipa


BJiacxH HMnepaxopa. Kor^a Tenpuxb F/7, H'BMen.KiH KO-
H3T. JItOKceMdyprcKaro ^ona, npeAnpHHfljn, noxodz <?
PUMZ,
BOSJioatHxt Ha CBOK> miOBy HMnepaxopCKyio Kopony H BOC-
KpecHXb Bi) Hxajiin
Bpenena ForeHnixay^eeoBi,, ,3,aHxe Bocxop-
npHB-BxciBOBajH) ero CBOHMI, co^HHenieMi. Mouapxiu, B-B
npOBOAH.it MbicjL o HesaBHCHMOMt oxi> nancxBa HMne-
paxopcxB'B. OKOJIO ABa^ijaxH ^^x^ npo^H,ii> ont atHSHbio HsrnaH-
HHKa-CKHxa.itii,a H AO caMOH CBoeii caiepxH (1321) xaK-B H ne
BHA.a-M> CojiBine
pOAHoii $jiopeHij;iH. ^anxe qejiOB'BK'B, 6ujii> eecbMa
MHOiocmupoHue u fioiamo odapeuuuu. OBjraA'BB'B HOHXH ocvbMU' sna-
UIHMU ceoeii dnoxu, OHI. BI xo ate BpeMa oxjinqajicfl ueoCunau-
HUMK nosmimecKUMK dapOM* H 6oJiBmoio naqHxaHHOCXBio, KaKi> ez
dpeenepUMCKOu, man* u ei> coepeMenuou emy pOMawnwiecnou CAO-
eecuocmu. Ont npeKpacno BJiaA^'B jraxMHCKHMt HSBIKOMI,, HO, no-
HHMaa, ^xo no^Hie H ap^e, Aa H BpasyMMxejiBH-Be RJI& BC^X-B MoaiHO
BBipaataxB CBOH MBICJIH JIHIHB Ha pOAHOMt asiJK^, OHt nHcajn> CBOH no-
9xnqecKia XBOpenia no-nxaji&aHCKH H BI HHXI> HBHJica HacmomyuMZ
meopu/OMZ umaMHHCKaio .lumepamypuaio nsum. BM'ECX'E ct x^Mt
9xo 6ujn> qe.KOB'EK'B, Heo6HKHOBeHHO oxsHBqHBBiH Ha cooBixia co-
opemeHHOii eMy MCUSHU, KJ> KOTOPLIATB OH-B yM-fejit oxHOCHXBca BHO.IH'B
canocxoaxejiBHO, npoaBjaa Jiwinyw ceow MUCM u .mnnoe uyecmeo.
PaBBBiM-B oSpasoMt H Bt nogsiH OHt npeatAe Bcero ox.iHqajrca HHCXO
AUUHUMT> xapanmepOMb ceoeio meopnecmea.
294*. FjiaBHoe npOHSBCAeHie ,3,aHxe HasBiBaexca Eowcecmeennou
KOMedieu. 3xo onncame nvxemecxBia,
J coBepinennaro nogxoMt no
'
.

sarpooHOMy Mipy, cooxBtxcxBenHO ct wbwi> H Bca no9iia


203

jiaexca na xpn iacxn: ^HCxH-oime"* H n Pafi


n
r
A,n B",

npOBO.UHHKOM'B ,3,aHXe 9TOMI HeotfBIKHOBeHHOM'


B'B

dBM-B pIIMCKiH n09T'B LuplUMU, a B'B KOHH.'B Ha nOMOIHB K-B HCMy


asjaexca Eeampme, Koxopyro OH-B JIIOO'HJII, Bt MOJIOAOCXH H na-
KOTOpofi ocxajica B-EpeHi, H nocjii efl cuepxH. BnprHJiiH CHM-
y Hero le-iOBijqecKoe snaflie H Hayny, BeaipHqe
KO BceMy BHCOKOMy H 6oroc.iOBie. Bt HOBM^ Boodme MHOFO
^ 9x0 6mio BO BKyci cpeAHeBiKOBOH nossin, HO B^
TO ate speMH ^anxe c* iieodtiKHOBeHHOio B^PHOCXLIO A^HCTBHxejib-
HOCXH, peJIbe(})HOCXBK) H306paaK6Hifl H flpKOCXBK) KpaCOK^ BBIBOflUX-B
Ha crteny pasHBix-B nkniejieii, KaK-B BceMipnoH, xaKi> H oxeqecxBGH-
HOH HCiopiH, ^yfflH KOxopBixi OBI BH.a.'EjrB BI> sarpoSHOMi. wip^.
Kponi xoro, JI,aHxe ciyM'fe.ii BKJUO^HXB ^BoatecxBeHHyio KO-
B'B

eecb npyiz ocnoenuxz udeu, KOXOPBIMH SRHJIO o6m,ecxBO


naBBicmaro pasBHxia pOMaHXHKH, MHCXHKH H cxojiacxHKH,
xaKi. qxo ero BejiHRyio no3My cnpaBe^JiHBO HasBiBaioxi, nodmuue-
CKOU suujUKJionedieu cpedueerbKoeoio Mipocosepuanifi. Ilpn BXOM-B
JI,aHxe Bceuijio em,e CXOHX^ Ha Kaxo-aniecKOH XOHK^ apiflia H
XOJIBKO oieHB CKOp6nxi, BH^a, ^xo 064 CHJBI, KOxopBiifB Bori>
BBicmee noneienie o aiipi, He HcnojHaioxx xoro, KI>
x.-e. ixo HMnepaxopn HC noJiBsyroxca CBoero BJiacxBio ji;jra npeKpa-
m,eHia pasflOpOBx, a nann .nyMaroxi. JTHHIB o CB'EXCKOM'B Moryin,e-
CXB^ H 6oraxcxB^. Bejinidii no9x^ He nocxicnHJica; HOM-BCXHXB Ht-
KOxopBix-B nan-B B'B a^y H B'B ycxa canoro an. Ilexpa
od.iHqenia, HanpaBJieRHBia npoxHB'B nopia n,epKBH.
295*. KpOMi ,3,aHxe, B-B cosdaniu umaMXHcmio
TT" /
uaio nswKa yqacxBOBajiH ABa nncaxejia XI v B. JlempapKa (1304
1374) H EoKKanio (1313 1375). JlepBBiH HS-B BBX-B npocJiaBHJica
CBOHMH conemaMU, BI KOxopBix-B OH-B BOcn-BBajii Jlaypy, jipyroH--
CBOHMH HOeeJlMMU, COCXaBHBHIHMH SHaMCHRXBIH ffeKCtMepOm. Ho
oco6enHO BaatHO 6BIJO xo, ixo o6a OHH Haiajin ycepj[HO usyuamb K.iac-
dpeeuocmi), npRXOMi ci HHCXO cenmcKOii mounu sprbuix H C'B
HepacnoAOwemeMZ K% cxodacmmecKOMy u acKemmeCKOMy
HanpaeAeniw cpe,a;HHxi B-BKOB'B. CBOCIO jiHxepaxypHOio ^axejiBHOCXBio
ElexpapKa H BoKKaiio OXKPBIJIH HOByio 9noxy B'B KyjiBxypHOH ncxopin
Sana^a, 9noxy KAaccmecKaio eospootcdenin (peHeccanca) HJH lyjua-
HU3Ma. Ho 9x0 aBJieme yate BBIXOAHXT& sa rpaHHn,Bi ncxopin

296*. Ha 3ana,a,'B, KaK-B H B-BBnsaHxiH, ucnyccmeo CAywujio


HUM* o6pa,30M7> pe.4mi03HblM7> ItrbJlAMb. B'B OpXUmeKmyprb, KOXOpaa CTBO 3anaAa.

npenMyn^ecxBeHHO nocxpOHKOK) xpaMOBi, 6BMO ,n,Ba

cxH.ia cnaiaJia pCMaucKiu, HOXOMI. (HMCHHO B'B 9noxy


204

EpecTOBBix-B noxoflOB'b') lomuuecniu. HepBBift, ET> EOxopOM-B CBO^EI


H apKH 6BLIH nojiyBpyiMBie, ouiHiajiCfl tkwrbmeio npocTOioro cpaBHH-
T6JLHO CO BTOpHM'B, B'B EOTOpOM'B CBOflBI H apKH flij.iaJIHCB CTptjIB-
laxHMH H amoroe BBO^HJIOCB Bi nocxpOHKy pa^H o,a,Horo yKpaine-
nia. FoTHqecme co6opH (DHJIH npeKpacntiMi apxumeKmypuuMt do-
nomeuwMb KZ Mucmmn upOManmuurb SHOXH KpecTOBHXi. noxo^OB'L.
B^ uocjpoftK^ cpe^HeBiKOBtixi, xpaMOBt conepHHiajiH neatly co6oio
ropo^a H uexu KaMem^uKoez^ sanHMaBmieca BTHMH rpan^iosHLiMH co-
opyateniflMH. Cny^nmypa xaKate nojiyinja na Sanaa's o?ens 6ojLinoe
pasBHiie, 6.aaro,napH xony, ITO KaTOJH^ecKafl n,epKOBt 6jraronpiai-
ciBOBajia vKpaineHiio xpaMOBi ciaiyaMH MajjOHHH H CBUTBIXI., HO
BI TexHHHecKOMi. OTHomeHiH CKyjibniypa, KaKi. H otcu6onuci>, cioajia
em,e oqeHt neBBicoKO. (Oco6oe pasBHTie nojryqnjH pasHoqB'BTHBifl
CTGEJia B'B OEHaX^ TOTHqeCEHXt COSopOBi C-B paSHHMH CBflIU;eH-
HBIMH H306paateHiflMH). B'B EOHD.'B Cpe^EHXI. B-BEOBl HCEVCCTBO
cia.io noflBepraTBca B-B HiajiiH eMHum anmuunuxz o6pa3u,offt H
CJiy^,HTB CojiBine ydoficmey u yKpameum OKUSHU, q^Mi, pejinrin.
Bi> HCTOpin sana^HO-eBponencEaro HCEyccxBa 9ia dnoxa xoaie HO-
CHTI HasBanie peneccauca (B
IIPHJIOJKEHIfl.

I. CxeMainqecKaa TaSjiima coAepJKama EHnni (ctp 206).


II. 06m,ift oiepKt HCiopin iiejE.nyHapo.UHBix'B OTHomeaig B-B cpe^Hie Biica

(cip. 207).
III. 06mi8 onepKi Hciopin cpejtHeB'feKOBofi ^epKBH (cip. 209).

IV. 06mia qepiH HCTOpia a) poMaHO-repMancKiixx H b) cjtaBancKHX'B napo-


JOBT, (CTp. 211 II 213).

V. 06mi8 o^epKB HCTOpiir MycyjBMancKaro Mipa (cip. 214).

VI. KpaTKie oiepKH HCTOpia oi^'fejibHHX'L CTpanx BI ajKJ)aBHTHOMT>


(cip. 215).
VII. UepeiHH rjaBHHX'B xpoHOJiorHHecKiixt aarB nojiHTHiecKofi H
HCTOpia (cip. 228).
VIII. KapTBI CT> odlflCHHTeJIBHBIMT. TeKCTOMX (CTp. 231).
o
"B

1H
CD
09
t*

e-
o
E

P K
*>
8 o
207

II Odw,iM oHepKt MewAyHapoAHbix-b OTHOiiieHiH BT, cpeAHie etna.

CM. KapTH I IV, VII VIII, X XXI.


PiiiacKaa HMnepiH o6>.e^iiHHJia BT. OJIHO o6mnpHoe rocyjiapciBo BCB c-rpaau, 114
jeacamia BOKpyrr. CpejuiseMHaro M<>pa, BCJ BAT> sa TEJIT, upoHsouuo n pejmriosHoe
<

oCte^HHeaie JKIIBIHHXT. Sfllscb HapoAOBT. BT> xpucTiaHcxB'B. Ho BT. KyjibxypnoMT.


oxHOiueiiiii H HMnepia, H uepnoBb CT. cajiaro Hanajia pacnajuuncb Ha auiiiHH3Hpo-
BaHHHii BOCIOKT. H pOMaHiisiipOBaHHbiB 3aaaAT>. BT. KOHut IV B. HMnepia npaiio pas-
ATuuuiacb Ha Asi; IIOJIOBHHLI, cy#b6a KOxopuxT. 6buia pasnaa. Ha 3anajt iiMnepm
najia B-I, KOHut V B., H BT. en CBIBUJHXI. npoBUHuiflxt o6pa30Bajncb BX STOMI
CTOJiiiTiii repjiaHCKifl rocy^apcTBa, Torjia Kaira socTO^eafl HMnepifl(Bn3aiiTi3cKafl)
npocymecTBOBaja nocjit. TOFO eme OKOJIO Tucaiu JI-BT^, XOTH H na ea eBponeii-
CKofi Teppmopiii Toate oSpasosajiHCb HOBbifl rocy,a,apcTBa cjasaHCKia. BT. xeie-
Hie V B. BT> sanajiHofl HOJIOBHH'E Hunepin BOSIIHKIH rocyjapcTBa BeciroTCKoe,
6ypryHACKoe, BaH^ajbCKoe, aHrjio-caKcoHCKia, ^paHKCKoe H ocTrorcKoe, naxojiH-
Biiiiaca (ji;a H TO He Bcis) juiiib BI, HOMHHa:ibHo8 saBHcuiiocTH OT^ iiBinepin. Bb

,cepejHH-B VI B., npn lOcTHHiaH-feBe.iiiKOM'b, BHsaHiia cAt^aia nonMTKy BosciaHO-


HMnepaTOpcKofi BJiacTii Ha Sanaxii H OTBoeBaia of>jiacTH, saHaxbia BaH^a-
H ociTOTaMii ('ia(TbH) H BecTroxaMii), HO BTH ea saBoeBaHia ne 61011
H Hanp., nepesT. ipn roji,a no CMepxn lOcTiiHiana y BusaHTin 6biJia OT-
Haxa jiaHro6apjiaMii UOHTH BCH Hiajiia. BT> TO se canoe speMa BnsanTiii npuxo-
BOUHy CT> ctBepHbiMii H BOCxoqHHMH ooc-Bji;flMH: CT. dbsepa Bt ea
BBCTH
npoHHKaiH cjiasaHe, CT> BOCTOKa Hanaaajiii Ha nee nepcw.
i

BiVIlB. BI Asiii cpejin apafioBi aBHjacb HOBaa pejiiria (iicjaM-b), H aaxfeMt 5559
o6pa30BaJocb o6uiHpnoe rocyji.apcTBoCxajiictaTtXB'b cociaBi KOioparo BOIUJIU,
Apasin, Muoria SCMJIH, npiiHaji;jieacaBiiiia npeKji,e BiisaHTiii (Ciipia, ErimeTL,
Bepaaa A(|>pHKa), a xaitate H see uepcn^cKoe n;apcTBO, a BT> Haia
maro CTo.if.Tia apa6n OBiaatjiii H HcaaHieB, OTKy^a npejinpflHajiu-Obijo
sauie FaiJiiu. PacKHHyBiuncb BT. Tpex-b yaciax-b cstTa, xajm<|)arb cocTasnjiT. co6oio
oco6bifi iicTopaqecKiB Mipi, Koiopbiii BCiyniaT. BI 6opb6y C'b xpHCTiancKHMT,
6opb6y, HMiromyK) nepBocTeneneoe 3Ha^eaie B^ HCTOpiii cpejHHXt B"B-
.,

Ha 'BanaAt apafibi 6bijii oxpaateHbi tftpaHKaMii, H sea TaatecTb 6opb6bi CT> HHMII
Ha nepBbixT. nopaxi, Bbinaia Ha IOJIK) RiisaHiin, Koxopaa Jinoib CT. BCJIIIKHM b xpy-
AOM-b OTCToajia sa co6oK Majiym Asito H ApxiinejarT.. noioaceHie BnaaHTin 6ujio
T-BMT> aa'rpyAniiTeJibH'fee, HTO BT> Efipont CT. TOFO KG VII B., Kor.ua BOSHHKT. xajm-
<j)aiT>, ctiBepHbia qacxn HMnepin cxajin Hajio-no-Majiy nepexo^nxb HOAI Bjacxb na-
pOflOBT, cjiaBancKaro npOHCxoaiAeflia (cepfoBT> H 6ojirapT.).

Tocy^apcxBa, ocHOBaHeua repnaHuasiH BI. aanaiHOii nojOBiiHii iiimepiw, 6biJiu 67 72


6ojbineio Hacxi>K HenpoqHbi, HO o^Hoiiy H3T) mix'b, HMeHHo KOpojescxBy 4>paHKOBT.,
VIII B. coeAHHiiib HOAT, cBoero BJiacxbK) HOHIH BC-B poMancma H repjiaH-
cxpaHbi sanajiHO-eBpoiieficKaro MaxepiiKa. 3>paHKCKiB Kopojb KapJiBe-initia,
CToaBiiiifi BO oaBlj 3ToB oOmiipiioft Monapxiii, BT. 800 r. upimajn. xnxyji^ piiMCKaro
imuepaxopa H xaKiiM'b odpasoMT. KaK b-6bi
r
BOscxaiioBHJiT. 3ana;myK) PiiMCKyio iiMne-
piro.Xo ra axa Moeapxia nocji nero u pacua-iacb, HO 6jiaroa,apa efi, 3aaaAi>. Kant
OJHO n,-BJioe, eme 6ojrf;e o6oco6n.ica OXT. BocxoKa. HST. paciia^eHia umnepiii Kapja
KejHKaro B03HiiK.m cpeAueBiKOBbia <paHuia, MxaJiia n TepMaHia.
BT, axy snoxy 3anaji,HyK) Espony ciubno xpeBoatiuiii Ha^-Brn HOpManHOBi, ;J
102 110
capauimoBT. H Maj,bapOBT>, a BHsaHxiw cjiasaHe, cpe^n KOxoptixT. BT,
208

IX B. B03HHKIH CMBHBia rOCyflap*CTBa II CTaJO pECnpOCTpaHflTBCfl XpHCTiaHCTBO.


TaKi KaKt cjiasaHe atium BI coc'fcflCTB'E HIM ci BHsaHTieft, HJIH ct FepManieS,
TO OflHH list HHXI npiiMKHyjiH B'B cBoef! EyjiBTypi Ki>
rpeiecKOMy Mipy, flpyrie
KT> pOMano-repMancKOMy. nepKBH na BOCTOiHyro H sanaflHyro H noce-
PasflijJieHie
jeme MaflBapoBi B'B CTpani, jeataBineg Meatfly o6i0MH qaciaMH onaBaHCTBa, em,e
Cojiie cofliScTBOBaiH EyiBTypHOMy H nojiHTHnecKOMy pasieflKHemro cpean cjiaBaH-
CKaro iiipa. B-B axy me gnoxy nayaiocB pacnafleme xajH^aia Ha n,4jiLi8 pxxb MBHB-
IUHX-B D;apcTBi), H BnepBBie noaBMHCB TypKH, Ki> KoiopuMX Bnocji'BjcTBiu nepenijo
OTX apaSoBi nepseHCTBO BI MaroMeiaHCKOM'B Mipi.
SaBoesaHie lypEauH lepycajiHMa nocjiyjaiuio nosoflOM-B KT> jByxBiKOBoS 6opB6'fe
137 152 Meatfly xpncTiaHCTBOMt H wciaMOM-B, HSBtcinofl noji HMeeeMX KpecTOBBix-B no-
(CT> Koen,a XI ,no KOHi^a XIII B.)- BTHSTB noxo^aMi npeAnieciBOBajH
HOpManji;cKHMH psmapaMH Heanoaa, CHn,Hjin H Aerjiin n saffie no-
HXT. saBoeBaiB BusaHTiio. Ci spyroB cioponH, BusaHTiro T^CEHJIH
H ona npociijia noMOin,H y 3anaji;a. MeatflyrsMi B-B KaTOJiH^ecKOMT) nipt
BectMa nonyjiapnoK) MHCJIB 061.
jiacB oTBoeBamn EajiecTHHBi y TypOKi, H
9TO B3HTO HOfl'B nOKpOBHT6JIBCTBO D,epKBH. BOJBmHX'B KpCCTOBBIXl)
6BIJIO

ciHTaeica CCMB. HepBBiS noxoji'B saBepranicH o6pa30BaHieMi, lepycajHMCEaro Kopo-


H apyrnxt xpnciiaHCKHX'B BjaaiHiS na BOCTOK!;, HO TypKH CTam nana-
na 9TH Bjiajtinia, ITO BBiswaaio HOBHe H HOBBie KpecioBBie noxoflH. ^e-
A'B ^pIIBeJI^ KI saBoeBamio KpecTOHOcn;aMH BnsaBTiScKOH Hiinepin
H npeBpamemio ea Bt JlaTHHCKyro HMnepiro, npocymecTBOBaBrayio, BnpoieMi,
TOJBKO nojiciojiijTia (1204 1261). SanafleuH'B xpHCTianaM-B ne yjajiocB
ataTBca BI Cupia H ITaiecTHH'B, H B'B KOHit-B XIII B. nocjrfe.HHee HX-B
BI CB. SeMJii 6Buo saxBaieHO MycyjiBMaHaMH. 9io co6BiTie H cqmaeTca KOHD.OMI,
noxoflOBT.. n.'fcjiH cBoefi OHH ne flocTHOH, HO sa TO pacmaTaM Bn3aH-
HMnepiro H BBissajiH TypoKi na 6opB6y C-B xpHCTiancKHMi MipOMi.
Ocjra6ieHie BnsaHiiH acHo BBipasnjiocB yme B'B XIV B., Korjta 66jiBmaa qacTB
193197 BajiKancKaro nojyocTpoBa Boinia B'B cocTaB-B Cep6cKaro rocyjapCTsa; HO H Mory-
nocjit^naro CHJO Henpo^ojiasHTeiBHo, TaKx KaK-B BT. 910 speMa na cu,eHy
BBicrynHia HOBaa cma BB znn$ n ocMaHCKiix'B" TypOK-B,
HCjraMT>. BT, cepeflKHi XIV B. OHH snepBBie noaBMHCB BI EBponi, a B'B

Toro ate CTOjrfcTia npeBpaTiuu cepSosi BI CBOHXI saHHiiKOB-B. .HajiBHtfiraie HXI


ycn-BXH 6BMH sasepataHH, HO IHIOB HaspeMa, MonrojaMu, KOTopne eme
BX XIII B.
cos^aiH Ko.ioccajiBHyK) jepataBy BI Asm H Bocio^Hofi Esponi, npaBja, CKOPO
pacnaBinyroca, HO B-B KOHAt XIV B. CHOBa ofi'BesHHHBinyioca.
B-B Hawaii B. XT
jiio floinio fto CTOJiKHOseHia Meatjty o6oHMH saBoeBaieiBHEiMH n,apcTBaMH, KOHHHB-
meeca ne B'B nojiBsy lypOK-B. Kor^a, o^naKO, rocyjapCTBO MOHFOJIOBT.
OHBTB pac-
najocB, TypKH CBOH saBoeBania Ha BajKaHCKOMx nojiyocTpOBi
ciajiH npoji;ojiataT&
H BI cepe^HH-B XV B. nojioaauiH KOHe^'B cymecTBOBaHiro BocioiHofi HMnepiw, C^-B-
jaBiniicB nocji 9Toro rposoro Aia scefl iienipajiBHOH EBPOIIBI. TOJLKO BI HcnaniH

6opB6a xpiicTiaHX CT> MycyJBMaHCTBOM'B iiuia ycntmHie, H BT. KOHU'B XV B.


iia.no

3^-BCB nocaiAHee MaroMexancKoe BJiaA^Hie (FpeHa^a). OKOJO TOFO ate BpeMenn n


BOCToqnaa PycB ocBo6o^HJacB OTT> MOHroiBCKaro lira.
MeHBrae snaieHia ci TOIKH spinia o6me8 HCTOpin HOJIHTHKH ira-kiii Meatny-
220222 HapoAHBia oTHomema 6oa-fee Micraaro xapaKiepa. Bo-nepBBix'B, 910
Cmia CTO-
ji-BTHaa Bofina Meatjy $panniefl H Anrjiieii, BO speMa KOTOpoS anoiScKie KOPOJIH
6BiJio He aaBoesajiH Bcefi $paHuiii, HO Koiopaa KOHqHiacB fl^a nocjiiflHeg

aHrjraqaH'B H3'B ea leppHTopin (ex cepeflHHBi XIV flo cepefliiHBi XV B.).


T
246 Bo-BTOpBixTi, 9TO 6BUH BsaHMHBia OTHouieHia riojiBiiiii, Iexin H Benrpin (CM. nnate,
190 OTfl. IV) H oTHomenie ciasaH-B K-B
209

cofiumiu. Haqafb sejiHKaro nepecejienia HapojOBi,


(37f>). PasfliuieHie PHMCKOB HMnepiii (395). HameciBie ryHHOB'b (451). najeaieSa-
na.nuoit PiiMCKofi HMnepin (476). IJapcTBOBauie E)cTHuiaiia Bejniuaro (527 565).
BosHUKnoBeme xajn<j>aTa Kapia Map'reaa Ha^ apaCaMH (732).
(632). IIofrfeAa
BoscTaHOBJieHie 3anaji,Hoii PiiMCKofi HMnepiH (800). PacnaAeme MOHapxin Kapja
BejniKaro (843). Haiajo paenpocTpaHema xpHCiiaucTBa y ciaBan'B (864). Ha^a-io
PuMCKofi HMnepin (962). BoaBUuieuie cejBJUKyKCKnx'B TypOKi (1058).
AHrain HOpMaHAnaMii (1066). KpecioBiie noxoju: I (1096), II (1147),
III (1189), IV (1204), V (1228), VI (1250), VII (1270). OcHOBaaie JlaTHHCKoS HM-

nepiH (1204). noflBJieHie JioerojiOB'j. Bb Espoiri (1224). BoaciaHOBjeuie BiisaH-


HMnepiii (1261). CTOJi^THfla aHrjio-4)paHij,y3CKaa sonna (13381437). Ha-
yiBepiKji,euia ocMaHCKiixt TypoK^ Ha BaJKaHCKOMt no^yocTpOBt (1357).
Ha KOCOBOMI. nojif> (1389). BHisa npii AHropi (1402). Ha^eme KoHCTan-
(1453). KoHeut MOHiunscKaro nra Bt Pocciii (1480). Ua^eHie TpeHaji;ti
(1492).

III. Oduj,m onepirb MCTOpin cpeAHeetKOBOii u,epKBM.

CM. KaptH V H VI.


Bt IV B. no P. X. B'i PaMCKoB HMiiepin BOCTopffiecTBOBaao
xpwcTiaHCTBO, 1527.
KOTOpoe KI Kcmnj 9-roro CTOjiiia rocyaapCTseHHoS pejurieS. Bt 3iy
CA"BJiajiocr>

anoxy, o^HaKO, caMa xpnciiancKafl uepKOBt nepeatusaJia BHyipeHnioH) 6opt6y,


KOiopaa BHSMBajracB B-B ne8 uoaBjeHieMi> epecefl. fljui ycTaHOBjenia npaBHJtbnaro
noHUMaeifl ^orMaTOBt B^pti H RAX ycTpoenia sceii BHyipeHHefi SKHSHH uepKBir BT> IV
VIII BB. co3tiBajrncb HMnepaiopaMH BcejeHCKie co6opw. 9ia anoxa 6ujia, KPOM-B
Toro, 6oraia aaM'feiaTejrE.HMMH nepKOBHBiMH niicaiejiraMii, paapaGaTHBaBiuiiMH Teo-
peiniecKie H npaKTiiqecKie Bonpocti xpHCtiancTBa. O^UHMI ast npaKTuiecKHX'b
BonpocoBi>, B03HHKaBmHxi> H3i> npHSHaHiH nepssH rocy^apCTBOMt. 6HJO ycxaHo-
Bjenie Meatfly HHMH onpejijteHOHxi, oiHoraeHiB. Bi BiiaaHTiit Majio-no-Majy ycia-
flyxoBencTBa rocyAapcTBy, Tor^a KaK-L na Sanaa's nyxoseHCTBO
pano odHapyatujio cipeMjeme Kt HeaaBHCHMocTH H ^aaie E
PasnaH-HCTOpniecKaa cy^fc6a oCrinx-f, rrojiosHHi, PIIMCKOB HMnepiH HMijia
ca'BACiBieM'B n TO, HTO BX HIIXX BsaHMHtra OTHOineflia
Mexjy rocy^apciBOMt u
u,epKOBp.K) cioacHjinct pasjHiHtiMt o6pa30Mi>. B-L 3Ty ate anoxy BOSHHKIO na Bo-
H ycn-fe^o nepefmi Ha 3anaji>MOHaniecTBO, Hanaji^4' PMyjiHpOBaTi.cfl acKein-
o6pa30BajiHCB, MonaciMpii. HaKOHeut, Tor.ua sue noiyqiua npa-
^eaji,
opraHusaniio H BCH uepKoseaa iepapxia. Bt e^HHoB BceiencKofi
yate BI 3iy anoxy cymecTBOBaio, oj,HaKo, H^KOTOpoe pasjin^ie Meat
BOCTOKOMI. H jaTHHCKHMT> 3ana^oMT>, a Taitate, no^roTOBJiajiHCb ycjiosia 6yjtymaro
B03BumeHia pimcKaro enncKonaTa Ha cieiieHb cBoero po^a n,epKOBHoft Jionapxiii,
H yiBepji,HJiacB Ha Sana^i. IIo6'Bji,a xpucTiancTBa Hajj-B aHTH^Hoff
BtipasujiacB H B-B TOMT., ?TO Bt IV VI BB. CB-fcTCKaa oCtpasoBaH-
HOCTB iipiiuiia BT. ynajtoKi), H sea uocit^yromaa KyiBiypa npOHHKJiacB peju-

B-B VII B. apa6cKia aaBoeBania HaHecjm yyBCTBHTCJiBHHB y^api xpucTiaH' 6065.


CTBy BI Asiit H BI A(j)pnK fe, a BI cji'feayioni.eM'B B-BK'B BI BnsaHTiH nponcxoAiMa
f

cipauiHaa pejnirioaHaa 6opB6a, BBissaHHaa noaBJieHiesi-B HKonodopCTBa, Ha CTO-


pOHi; Koioparo cioajia HMuepaTOpcKaa BjiaciB.
HKOuodop^ecKia CMyTBi npeKpa-
TII.IIICB JIHIKB B'B cepe^Huij IX B. Bi> 3iy
auoxy CAHHCTBO Bce.ieecKofi uepKBit,
, EC 6Buo ein,e HapyraeHo, H Bt KOHU.* VIII B. tiLm, co6paH nocjfvi,HiB
r

i,

MCTOPU. 14
210

BcejeecKifi co6opi>, HE Koxoposn. OHJIH npejjcxaBiixejin H BociOKa, n 3ana#a. TEMT,


He Mea-feeHEOHo6opqecKoe jBnateHie BT. BHsaHxin ne MOIMO ne oxpasiixBca ne-
6-jaronpiaxHBiMT, o6pa30in> Ha ejumeniH BocroKa H 3ana.ua. fTanciBo, ocxaBnieeca
B-EPHBIMT, npaBocjasiK), BocnojbsoBajocB HEOHofiopcxBOMT,, qxo6Bi nocxaBHXB ce6a
B'b Goalie nesaBHCHMoe oxHomeme KT. BnsaHxiH. OHO flocxiiraex-B 3xoro BT. VIII B.,

ce6a QO^-B noKpoBHiejiBCiBO 4>paHKCKHxi. Kopoaefi, JJH KoropiixT, jase


HMnepaxopCKyro BjracxB Ha Sanaa's. CT. csoeS cxopoHBi, (})paHKCKie
rocyjiapH KJiaxyTi naqa.io CB-BTCKOI! BjacTH nani HCO^'feScTByioTi.paciiiHpeHiK) HXI,
7577. jtyxoBHaro oaBencTBa Bt sanaAHofi n,epKBH. flpas^a, npn Kapji BejuKOMt nansr
^ojiatHH 6miH nofliKHHTBCfl BjaciH sana^Haro mjneparopa, HO c%
ero MOHapxin OHH npioSpimi HesaBiicHMOCTB H ji;aiKe ctajH iipaiio
KI rJiaBencTBy ne TOJBKO naji;i jpyrHMH enHCKonama 3ana^a, HO H Ha^i caMoro
cB-BTCKoro BJiacTBH). (0 (j>eoji;ajiH3auiH KaTOJiiiecKoS uepKBH 89 H 97).
111 112. yiBepAHB-B ceoe rjaBeHCTBO na Sanaa's, nanu BT> cepe^HH'B IX B. CA-kiajiH
nonBiTKy pacnpocipaHHTB ero H na BiisaHTiio, HO BCtptTirjiH si-fecB oxnopi.
Pacnpa nam. c'B KaHCiaHTHHonojiBCKHMH naxpiapxaMH Hs^-sa sonpoca o6i> HXI
BaaHMHBix'B OTHOineHiflX'B ocJOHHHJiacB conepHaqecTBOMi nsx-aa ofipameniH B'B
xpiic'riaHCTBo cjiaBHHii, KOiopBie KaK-B-pasi. B'B 9TO speMfl ciajiH npHHHMaxB xpa-

stpy, a xaKme cnopaMu uo nosojiy B'fepoucnoB'BAULix'B paainiifl, o6pa-


K'B cepejumi IX MesK^y o6iHHH itepKBaMH. OKOHiaiejiBHoe paaji.'B-

uepKBefi npOHSOiuio B-B cepejiimt XI B. Cauo nanciBO, o^HaKo, Bt H X


nepsoS UOJOBIIHB XI B. nepejKHBajio uepioj-B cxpamHaro JiopajiBHaro na^eHia, HSI
KOTOparo 6BMO BBisejieBO TOJIBKO pe^opnaMH rpuropia VII, cospeMeHHHKa paa-
fltjieHiH n;epKBeB. BTOTI. nana nociaBHai CBOCKI sa^ageio HO^IHRHTB rocyjapcxBO

ii,epKBH, CBiTCKyro BJacTB jyxoBHoS, HMnepiro nancrsy H OTHJJTB y rocy^apeS


HasHa^eflie Ha BBICIIUH n,epKOBHLifl flOjateocTH, KOxopBifl BI xo ate speMH finin
n <J>eo,n,ajibHBiMii xaKi KaKi enHCKonn H a66axBi B'B Ka'tecxB-B Kpyn-
BJia^-feHiflMH,
BBIXI 6Bun BMtcxi c'B x-feMi. H BaccajaMH CBixcKiixi, rocyAapeS.
seM.ieBiaA'fe.iBii.eB'B
Haqajiac& 3HajieHHxaa 6opB6a nancxsa H HMiiepin, BO spena Koxopoi! naim Hirs-
jiarajH rocy4,apeft H paspimain HXI nojuaHLixi oxi HpacarH.
153164. BI> 3xy ate caMyro anoxy npoHCxo^HJia 6opB6a sanaAHHxi, xpHCxiaHt ci nycyjiB-
waHaMH. HSB'EcxHaa nogb HaaBaHieMTj KpecxosBixi) noxo^osii. KpecxoHOcitu OCHO-
saiu ua BOCXOK-B CBOII rocyjtapcxBa, HXO coxiBcxBOBajio pacnpocxpaHefliio nan-
CKo8 BJiacxH H na BOCXOK-E. Boo6ui,e XII XIII B-BKa OBIJIH anoxoft Han6ojBmaro
Morymecxsa KaxojHqecKoil itepKBH (3noxa HHiyjiBreHitifi H HHxepji.HKXOB'B, Humen-
cxByromaro Moaamecxsa H cxoiacxHKH, 0HKBH3Hn;iH M KpecxoBBixi. noxoaoBi, npo-
XHBI epexHKOB'B H x. A.). Bop&6a nanciBa H HMnepiii, Ha^aBniaaca BX XI B. npo-
H BT. 9uoxy KpecxoBBixx HOXO^OBI, npa qeMi. nojyiHJia oco6eHHo
xapanxepi. BT> uapcxBOBaflie jiHHacxiH roreHmray^enoBi,.
uiaro MorymecxBa JOCTUOO nancxso BT. Haqajiti XIII B. npn HnoKeHxin III, H
iipeeMHUKaMT. ero yji,ajiocB cosepraeBHo coKpyiniiiB MorymecxBO ForeHinxayilieHOBT.
H BMicili CT. liMT. HaHeciH yA^pt HMirepin. HaKOHeiii., sa see 3x0 speMa nann
He nepecxaBajin A'feJiaiB HOHBIXKH UOJMHHHIB ce6ti BOCxoqHyio uepKOBB, CT. KaKo-
BOBO ui^BK) Aaate npeflupHHHMajHCB csoero po^a KpecxoeBie noxo^u.
198213. XIV H XV
cxojrtiia CBMH yaee BpeMeneMT, ynaa,Ka H xaKT. HasuBaeMoft fl nopqn"
KaxojiHqecKoi! uepKBH. Cnop-B nanBi BoHii^aAia VIII ci <})paH^y3CK^M'B EO])OJeMT.
$HJJHHIIOMT> IV OKOHqHJica nopaateHieMT. nancxsa, H Haqajrca ceMH^ecaxiui'BXHiS

nepio^i. aBHHBOHCKaro -njiiHeHia nani,. BMTJCXT. CT. SXHMT. nancxso H KJHPT. npnxo-
jaxT. BT. HpaBCXBeHHBifl yna^OKT.,qxo BBiSBiBaexi. npoxiiBT. HHXX B'B Bl;pyK)iD,nxT.
HeyAOBOJiBcxsie. BT. .noBepiueme scero B'B KOHn,"B XIV B. BT. D,epEBii npo-
211

mom eji'b pacKOjn>, ;unBmiBcfl OKOJO copoKa rfeTi. Bee 310 HaBoiiuo ea MUCJI> o

Heo6xOAHMOCTH p6(j)OpMU, Cl KaKOBOH) U-BJILK) B'b HCpBOB HOJIOBHH'B XV B. C03H-


6ojbiuie co6opti, ne HniBinie, oflHaKO, ycniixa BI .nocTHHtemii csoeB U-BJIH.
BT> XIV H XV BB. cxajn noaBMTbCH OTjtJibHbie pe<J)OpMaTopbi,
o6an'iaBinie uopqy itepaBH 11 Tpe6oBUBinie ea ncnpaB-ieHifl. BT> ^exiu BT> XV B

npon3ouua aaate iifyma. peiiiriosHaa peBOjnouja, cBflsaHHaa ex HMeeeiTb HE& Fyca.


QTOTT. peifropMaTOpt duji'b coHtaeHi, Ha KOCTp-fe no npiirosopy KOHCTaHUCKaro co6opa,
HO ero nocj'BAOBa'rejiH BT. Hexia sciynujiH BT OHtecToieHHyK) 6opb6y CT>
^H3MOM^, BO Bpenfl Koiopofl B'I. cTpaR-fe ciajio paaBHBaTbCfl ceKTantCTBO.
BTOpofl nojioBUHbi XV H Haiajia XVI B. 6min CKOp-fee cstTCKHMH
UOJIITHKaMH II BOHHaMU, ^-fiMI. npe,T.CTaBHTeJiaMH flyXOBBBIX-b HHTGpeCOB'b, H
Bbi3biBain upoxHB-b ce6,H HeyAOBOJbCTBie j^aate BX npaBOB'BpHHX'L KaiojHKaxi. E
B'b 3TOMT. nepiouli nanu He OCTUBJIJIJIH MUCJIH o noAiHHemH cefii BOCToqeoS
: BT. cepe^HH'h XV B. Ha cofiopf. BO <I>jiopeHn,iH cociofljiacb jaate ynia siesjy
uepKBaMH, HO npasocjiaBHoe nacejieHie BocxoKa ee OTBepoo.
XpOHOAOiin ea3KHrbiiwuax> coSumiu. MnjiaHCKiB a^HKTb (312). BceJiencKie co-
6opu: I (325), II (381), III (431), IV (451), V (533) VI (680), VII (787). Hpn-
(
Hfliie xpnciiaHCTBa (JtpaHKauH (4 J6). aHrjocaKcauii (596), repMaHuamn (OKOJO
750), MOpaBaMH H 6oJirapaMii (865), noJiflKaMH (966), pyccKHMH (988), BCHrpauH
(10UO), jarqaHaMH (OK. 1025), aHTOBnaMH (1386). HKOHo6opciBO (726842). Haqa.no
CBticKofi BJiacTii nani (754). PasjvBJieHie o,epKBefi (867 1054). Haqajo pe(j>opMi
riuibjte6paHji;a (Fpiiropifl VII) (1059). CnopT> sa HHBecTmypy (1077 1122).
KpecTOBtie HOXOAH (10961291). OcHosaHie niimeHCTByroiii.HX'b opAenoBi (1209 H
1220). ABHHbOHCKoe nji-EHCHie nam> (130513771 BejiHKifi pacKOJi, KaxojiHqecKog
uepKBti (1378 1417V Codopw BT> Hns-fe (140^), KoHCiaHA-B (1414 1418) H Baaejii
(14311449). rycuTCKifl BOHHH (1419 1431). $JiopeHTi8cKaa ynia (1439).
CpedneerbKoeuH epecu u cexmu (CM. 16, 17, 19, 61, 128, 156, 203, 206 H

209): apiancTBO (BT> IV B.), nejariaHCTBO, HeciopiancTBO (BI V B.), MOHO^HSHTCTBO


(BT> V B.), MOiioeejuTCTBO (BT. VII B), HKOHo6opCTBO (BT. VIII B.),

(BT, IX aJb6nro8cTBO
B.), (B'b XII B.), Bajb^eHCTBO (BI. XII B.), nponost-jib
Haro EsaHrejiifl (BI. XIII B.), BeKJiH<t)H3Mi. (BI XIV B), rycuicTBO (BI XV B.).
Hau6o.in>e saMWtameMnue cpedueen>Koeue nanu. CHJibBecipi. I (314 335),
KoHCTaHTHHa BejHKaro. Jlesb I BejiiiKiS (440461). Fpuropifi Be-
^590-604). Tpuropia II (715731). 3axapifl (741752). Cre^aHX II (752
757). JleBi, III (795816). HiiKOJau I (858867). loanHT, XII (955964). Ciuib-
BecTpt II (repCepTi, 999-1003). JleB* IX (10491054). HHKOiaS II (1059
1061), Tpiiropia VII (I'lUbjieripaHAT,, 10731085). Yp6aH-b II (1088-1099). Kaj-
JHKCTI, II (1119-1124). A^piaHi, IV (11541159). AjieKcaHflpi III (1159-1181).
HuoKeHTiS (1198-1216). rpiiropifi IX (12271241). YpSaH'b IV (1261-
III

1264). BoHH(j)aaifi VIII (1294-1303). KjiMMCHT-b V (13051314). Tpuropifl XI


(1370 1378). loanHi XXIII (14101415). Map-rum, V (1417-1431). Eurema IV
114311447). HHKOJiaB V (14471455). HiB II (1458-1464). CHECX* IV (1471
1484). A-ieKcan-Ap-b VI BopaaiU (14921503). IDjiB II (15031513).

IV. Otim,ia nepibi ncTopm poMaHO-repMaHCKMXi> H c^aeflHCKMXi>

a) PoMano-repMaHCKie

rocyjiapCTBa o6pa30BaaHCb nepsoHaqajibHO BI nposHH- 2831.


3aiiaAHoB PiiMCKofi iismepiii, BI. KOTODUXI. iiocejHUHCb repMaHCKie npn-
14*
212 -
IlepBBia speMena BX HCXopiH w BapBapCKiixT>"KOpojeBCXBx xapaiixepusyroxca
.

csrEuiemeMx H BsaHMOji.'EficTBieMX PHMCKHXX H repnaHCKHxx B033pf>Hifi H nopaji;-


KOBi>, pesyjitxaxoMX qero 6tun CBoeofipaaaBia (JtopMH 6Bixa, fiojite HJH iieHie
o6mia BCX-MX BTHMX rocyiapcxsaMX. CxapBie PHMCKJC nopaflKH yji;epjKaxBca npn
HOBHXX ycjOBiaxx He MOMH, HO H repsiaHCKie nopaflren SOJJKHM 6H1H paBHBrax
o6pasoMT> noflBeprnyiBca aHainxejiBHBiMx H8Bte6Hini%. 06maa qepxa HOBBIXX OT-
HomeHiS nocxeueHHoe naaeaie rocy^apciBeHHofi Biacxn H ycmreme noaeuejiLHoft
apHCTOKpa riH, npH<ieirb Hapo^Haa Macca see Gojiie IT do-ite saKpinomajract Kpyn-
r

IIHIIII 36MJieBJiaji'BJii>AaMH, a ropoicKofi 6uTi> aHTH^Haro Mipa yciynajn M^CTO cejit-

CKOMy 6HTy CpeiHHXl B^KOB't. OAHOBpeMeHHO CT> 9THMT.


H KyjiBTypi TyseMuesi,, H mi> CMimeHia H jipyrnxt ciaJiH
Tf>xi>

napoiHOcra, nojiyquBiuia HaasaHie pOMaHCKiix-B.


73 74. BT> KOHU'fe VIII H naqaji IX BB. 66jiBraafl TiacTt 3ana^Ho8 EsponLi 6wjra

o6xe.HHHeHa no^x Bjacibro ojtHoro rocyjapa (MOHapxia Kapaa BejHKaro), HO BO


Biopnfi nojroBHH-fe IX B. 9ia HMnepia ciaia jpo6nTBCH na MejKia qacin, BX KO-
TOPHXX ycTaHOBiuca cosepmeHHo ocofiug nojHTH^ecKifl H couiaahHtifi cxpog.
06xeji,HHHTejr}iiin saiiajHoS EBponn BX oflny Moaapxiio asajHCB (j)paHKii, Kopoj&
KOTOptixx Kapix BejiHKift nuiajrca opraHHSOBaiB csoe rocyaapciBO na PIIMCKHXX
naqajaxx, HO nonHTKa OKOHqnjracB ney^aieio. Bca iicTopia (j>paHKCKaro KopoiescTBa
eciB HCTOpia pasioacema rocyjapcTBeeHofi Biacrn BX nojiBsy noseiwejiBHoS snaTH,
7894. Maao-no-Majio Hapo,a;x. Co BTOpoS
saKpinociaBineS ROJIOBHHBI IX B. na 3a-
9xo 6&uio pasji^eHie Kaajaro rocyjapcTBa na
1

naax ycxaHOBMca (tteo^arasMx.


MHoaiecTBO M6.3KHXX Bjajt'BHiS, BO oaBi KOTopBixx cTOHJiii rocy.napH-iioMX'miiKii H
Koiopua HaxoAujmcb BX iepapxiiiecEot saBHCHMOCTH OAHO OTX spyroro. Ciapua
(j)opMLi 6HTa pHMCKaro H repmaHCKaro nponcxoatji;eHifl saMtHHJHCB HOBHMH, (j>eo-
H 3THMX <J)OpMaMX nOa^HHIWOCB ( w (j)e0^aJIH3HpOBaJIOCB") BC6 II TO-
H o6m,ecTBO, H n;epKOBf.. XapaKTepHBia qepxw 4)eoji;aj[H3Ma: nepexo^x
BJiacTH KX KpynHBiMX seMjeB^aj'BJBii.aMx, npespamenie Kaa^aro
BX KaKx 6H oTflXMBHoe BaaaiHie, pfoKoe pacna^enie o6meciBa Ha roc-
no^x H no^quHeHHyro HMX Maccy, saKp-fenomenie KpecibaHCTsa, ycxaHOBJieHie BJiacin
rpa<J>a IIJIH enncKona BX ropo.a,axx, sanina no^aHCTBa BaccajniTeioMx, npespa-
menie BBICUIHXX ^yxoBHLixx jiHn;x BX BJia^'BTejiBHiJXB KHasefi, a Kopojieg BX ,,nep-
BHXX Heathy paBHHMH u H T. n.
5
165170. Cx nopa^Kanir ne MOFJIH npHMHpHTBca atHTejH ropoj.oBx, BX
<j)eoji,ajBHHMH
KOTOPBIXX cx XI
Ha^aiocx pasBHiie npOMBinueHHocTH n Toprosin. Bx anoxy
B.

KpeciOBBixx noxo^oBx BX rjiaBHLixx cipaeaxx 3anaji,HOH EspoiiH nponcxo^Hjio


ciaBHBUiee ce6i n/kibio ocBo6oatji,eHie ropoji,OBx OTX fyeo-
BJiaciH H jtaaie npespameHie HXX BX caMOCToaxejixHHa o6m,HHH cx pec-

CTpoemx. Bx paaHUxx cxpanaxx 910 jtBiiatenie npnBoji,HJio KX


pesyjibxaiaMx, HO Best's Ha6jiKji,aK)Tca H o6in,ia aBJienia. Cx OCBO-
6o3v,a;eHieMXropoioBx ycKOpuiocb pasBmie npoMBimjeHHOCTn H TOproBJii, o6pa-
sosajca Eiaccx saatHTO^HBixx Kynfl,OBx, BOSHHKIH Kopnopau,iu peMecieHHiiKosx
(n,exH) H B0o6ui,e yciaHOBMHCB HOBLIH o6mecTB6HHBia OTHomeaia, He
yme OTX (Jteo^ajBHOH OCHOBH. KpOMi xoro, ropo,na cjj,ijiajincB
CHJIOH), CX KOTOpOK) ^OJIJKHBI 6LUH C^IITaTBCa H ipyiie o6meCTBeHHbie
Hoax BJiiameMX BHCTynjienia ropo^osx nponsonuio npespameHie <Jeo,najibHoB
Monapxin BX cocioBHyro, xapaKxepasyromee anoxy KpecxoBtixx noxoji,OBx.
ropo^cKiixx upeji;cTaBiixejie8 KX npeaiHHMx <Jeoji,ajibHLiMx
H cfiixcKHxx Bacca-iOBX npeBpaxioo 3Tii cxis^u BX cociosHO
rjiaBHBiMx npaBOMx KOTOPBIXX cflXMiajioct yqaciie BX ns-
213

.uiiiin HOBBix'b 3aKonoBT>. Bnoxoio upoo.B'ETaHia cocjoBHofi .iiOHapxiii CLUB XIV H


XV BB., HO BI 3TO Bpewa oCHapyjaiiBaiOTca iiepsue npHsnaKH CTpejuenia
yace 214216
Kopojieft CA'kiaxb CBOK> BJiacTb a6cojiK>THOK), BI> neari. HMI CHJLHO nosiorajiH H 239.
i, PMMCKOC npaso. IlepBbiMif HacToain,HMn
iisyqaBiiiie
Ha saua^i EBPOIIBI npii uepexoAt BT> HOBOC speiia CBIJIH

KOHna cpeaeax-B B'BKOB'B, BjaciB KOTOPBIXT, oniipajiacb He


a Ha BoeHHyio cujiy. Hxi, DPHM^P-B CT, Konua XV
B. ciajn, OKasBisaTb CUJBHOG

Ha flpynixt Kopojieit,H BT, XVI H XVII BB. cocJiOBHafl MOHapxia yciyniLia


Mouapxiii af5cojE)THoS. 3a MrajiieS noc^oBaJia HcnaHia, r^t yate BI. KOHui
XV B. a6coJK>TH3MT, oKOHiaxejiBHo BOCiopjKecTBOBaji'fc. HaAeHijo cociosHoff Monap-
xiH neiiajio cos-BflcTBOBajn. paa^opi cocjoBiS, nojibsosaBiuHxca nojHTHqecKHMH
;
HTO a;e KacaeTca HapojHoB MaccH,-To oua ocTasajiaci. paBHOjjyiimoK)
cocjioBHO-npejcTaBHiejiBHHX'B yqpeameHifi, TaKi> KaKi caMa He HM^jia
Bl HUXT) CBOHXI, npejCTaBHTCJieS.
Xponojimia eawHn>muuxT> coGumiu. OcHOBanie HOBBIXTE, rocyjapCTBt Beciro-
TaMii (412), BaHjaiaMH (430), anrjo-caKcaMH (449), ^paHKasui (486),
(493), jaHro6ap,naMH DaaeHie KOpojreBCTBi> BeciroicKaro (711),
(568).
CKaro (534), ociroTCKaro (555), janro6apxcKaro (774). 3noxa o6i>e,HHHeHifl sa-
na^uoS EBPODH iipH Kapai BejHKOMX H .IIOIOBHK-B BjiaroqecTHBOMi, (763843).
06pa30Bame $paH^0, TepMaHin H HTajtia (843). Haiaio napjasieHTa BT. Anrjin
(1265) H reHepajii>HBix'& miaTOBi BO $paHn,in (1302).
06iu,afl HCiopia cpe,n,HeBtKOBOH KyjibTypti na Sanaa's asioateHa BI 276296.

B) C.iaBHUCKie

CM. KapiHXI-XIII H XIX XX, a xaKme V.


C.naBae BCTynn.in BT> o6myro Hcxopif) ct BecbMa paHHUMH <J)opMaMH o6me-ss 1261
ciBeiiHaro 6Hia H no CBOHMI. cysb6aMi, pacuajiicb Ha 4 rpynnw: 1) nepecejw- ir 130.
Branxca Bi. BHsaHTiflcKyjo HMne iro, r^t OHH 3WHHH3npoBajiHCb, 2) ocHOBaBiniixi
t

rocyjtapcTBa, 3) BoniejtniHX'b BI. cocxaBi Benrpiu, HO ne yipa-


CBoeS HauioHajibHOCTH H 4) saBoeBauH&ixt FepMaHieii H OH-BMe^eHHbixi..
rocy^apciBa ciajin nrpaib poib BT> cepe^HH-E IX B., H Toria ate Hi-
KOTopue cjraBHHcaie HapoaH npHnajH xpHCTianciBo; apyrie JEC HPHHHJIH ero mmr.
BX X B. Bi nojiHTiiMecKOM'& H B^ KyjitTypHOMi. OTHomeniH OJHH cjasane npa-
MKHyjH KI. BHsaHtiii ii K-b BocioiHoS uepKBH, jipyrie Kii repMamu H Kt sanaj-
Hofl nepKBH. ETepsHa cjaBHHCKia rocyAapcxBa 6Hjm pa3o6in,eHM jpyn. OTI, Apyra
6oiBuiHMii npocTpancxBauH H BpaKAc6HBiMn lueMeHaMH H He OTJiimajiHCb npoi-
HOCTtK). BT> X
B. aauaAHBie cjiasaHe OBIJIH OTAiuieHBi OTT. BOIKHBIXT. senrpaMH, KO-

TOpBie KJHHOM-b BpfeajiHCb BX cjaBaHCKifi nip-b. 9noxa KpecTOBbixi noxoAOB-b, T. e. ^ 1891


XII XIII B-BKa BI iiCTOpin 3Toro MJpa osHaMeeoBana
roeyjapcTB'!. H CHJBHHM'B repMaHCKUMi.Ha^opOM^ Ha BOCTOKT>", npa HCMI
cjaBaHi noABeprjiacb npaHoii repMaunsauiii, a cpejui Apyroii nocejH-
aaiiaAHBixi.
jocb oqeHb MHOFO niMneBi. H ciajio CHJBHO cKasbiBaibca Boo6m,e Hi>MeuKoe
Kyjibiypnoe BJiianie.
Bx XIV H BB. XV at cjiasflHCKOMT. jiipi npOHsoinjiH 6ojibinia nepearfeHBi: o
^j
fiwcipoe BOSBbimenie Cep6in, a HOTOMI saBoesaHie ea (H Bojirapin) rypKauu,
o6i.eAiiHeHie pyccKiix-b senejiB MOCKBOIO H JHTBOK) CT> ocBoOoHmeuieM?. HXI
oriiMOHrojibCKaro Hra, ycHjieaie TIexi H UOJBIIIH, coeAHHaromefica ci JIuiBOio.
OcoCeiiHyro saatHOCTb npeACTaBJiaeii. TO oCcToaxeaBCTBO, ^TO BT> 3ty aiioxy npo- 246.
T
BpeMCHHbia coeAiinenifl BeHrpiii, IexiH n Ilojibiuit, BT> Biiay oOmeii
214

249 H 252. onacHocxa ex. oj;Ho8 CTOPOHH ort H-feMaeBX, ci jpyroS OTX xypoEi,. Saarfeqa-
xejBHo eme, qxo BX> 9x11x1 xpext rocy^apcxBaxx BBipa6oxajiBCB H H-fcKoxopBia o6iu,ia
qepxBi aojEBxniecKaro H conjajbHaro 6bixa: BOSBBimeme nauoBt H nuaxxti, KOXO-
pBie HaiBnaiox'B rocnojcxBOsaxb Ha ceaMaxx, saKpinomeHie KpeciBaacxBa, npe-
flocxaB-aeme ropoioBi> ntimaM'B H espeajTb H x. n.
XpOHOjioiin eawHnuwuxi co6umiu.
OcHOBanie rocy^apcxBt 6ojrapcKaro
(679), BeJiBKO-MOpascKaro (871), nojbCKaro (OK. 870), Bearep-
pyccKaro (862),
CKaro (895), ^emcKaro (912), H npBnaxie xpacxiancxsa 6ojirapaMH (864) n Mopa-
BaMH H oxiacm qexaMH (865),noiaKaMH (966), pyccKHMH (988) H senrpaMH (1000). Ila-
jeeienepBaro BojrapCKaro itapcxsa (1018). IIo^HeeHie Xopsaxiii seHrpaMi. (HOJ).
OcHOBaHie Bxoporo BoirapCKaro ijapcxsa (1186). Passpo6jieHie Ha y^tJiH PycH
(1054) H IloibniH (1139). MoHrojbCKoe nro BX Poccia (12361480). SaBoeBame
l
Cep6ia (1389) n BojrapiH (1393) xypKaMH. BpeMeHHMJi coe^HHeHia ) Bearpin,
H nojbraH (1301 1526). CoeflimeHie IIOJBIIIH ex J!HXBOK> (1386).

V. 06uj,iM onepK-b MCTOpiM Mycy^ibMaHCKaro Mipa.

CM. KapxH III, XV, XVI, XVIII, XX a XXL


4557. Bi> nepsofi nojioBna-B VII B. B-B Apasia aBHJiacB Hosaa
pejraria, asBicxnaa
noji.'BHasBaHiaMa HCjaMa, MycyjiBuaHcxBa H naroiiexaHCXBa. Eme caMt ocaoBa-
xejB ea, Maroueix., aa^ajix ee pacapocxpaaaiB nyxearB CBameeaoft BOHHBI ex
aeBipaBiMa, a sea Apasia yate apa ero KBBHB npasaasajra aa^x. co6oio ero
BJiaciB. Bi aepBHfi siKi csoero cymecxBoeania BCJUM-B osjiaa'Bjr'B Capiefi, llep-

ciefi, Cpe^aeS Asiefi, EranxoMTb, sceS cisepaoa A4paKo8 a ^aate Hcaaaiefi.


(Bnocjii^ciBia MycyjBMaaciBOM'B c^jaaBi SBIIB a jtpyria saBoesaHia). Bci ysa-
saaHBia aeMJia o6pa30sajiH rpoMa^Hyro jepmaBy xaJH^axt, BO raaB'fc Koxoparo
cioajB ^HaMicxHaKa" npopOKa (xajia^Bi), o6ieqeHHBie ayxoBaoio a CB:ETCKOK)
BjracxBK). llpa aepBBix'B xpexx xajia^ax-B cxojiaueS 3xoro rocy^apciBa 6Bna

MeKKa, HO ^anacxia OMafiaaoB'B aepeaecjia cxoiauy BX .HanacKx. Bi axy ae


anoxy BI. MycyibMaHCKOM'B Mip-fe apoasonieji'B pejiariosHBia pacKOJix Meatay cya-
HBxauB a miaxaMH. Bx cepe^BHi VIII B. sHHaciiro OMafia^oBi cseprjia ^aaacxia
A66acajOBx, aepeHecniaa cxoaauy xajra^axa BI Bar^a^'B, HO OMafia^H y^epaiajiH
sa co6oK> Hcaaniro, Koxopaa apespaxajracB BT> oco6bi8 xajiB<J)axx ct cxojiaiief! BI>
109 - 1 10. KopjtOB'E. 3xo aocjii^Hee co6Hxie SBLIO naiajiOM'B pacaa^ema xajH(j)aia Ha
paj'B MycyjiBMancKaxT) rocy^apciB-B,odpasosaBuraxca BI Asia H A^pnid;
<})axBi eranexcKifi, HO caMi acjam npojiojiffiaji'b pacnpo-
ra3HeBB^,cKi8 a ap.);
cxpaHaxbca a BI> 9noxy paciiaienia rocyjjapcxBeHHaro ejnacxBa. Oco6euHO saat-
noe SHaieme nojiyiBja BX MaroMexaHCKOMi nipt BO BxopoS aojoBaai

l
) Bi 1301 r. BI BearpiH npeKpaTHjact AHHacxia Apnaia, a BI 1306 B-B 'lexin
aeacTia HpsceMHCJia,npeAcxaBHTCJH Koxopofi BpeMCHno BJia-
nocJitAaie
H Iloatmefi. BeerepCKie MarHaxa Bt 1301 r. BH6pajn na npecTOjn. HeracKO-noat-
CKaro Kopoaa Bandana II, KOTOPHH aocaa-it BT> BeHrpiro csoero ctina Ban;jaBa III,
6nBinaro nocj-hAHHM-b npateMucJiOBHHeMt. HOCJ* axoro BI Benrpia yxBep^HJiacb AH-
ayflcKaa ^HHacxia, BI HexiH JlK)KceM6yprcKaa, no npeKpameniH e BI
nacxia IlacTOBi (1870) H AeayftcKofi B-L BenrpiH (1382) CHOBa BpeneHHO
ci. Bearpiefi CHa^aaa Hojibuia, HOXOMI Hexia. B% Hojuni BT> 1386 r.

3rejwoHOB'i,, HJieau Koxopofi n;apcxBOBaaH BI XV B. H BI ^exiH, H BT, BCH-


rpin.
- 215

E'EKOBT. HOBBI6 Hat OflBI XVpKII H MOHFOJlbl. B'b XI B. CeJIBJUKyKCKie TypKH


jiicb rocnoACTByromiiM-B HapoflOMi BB iiepeAHefi Aaiii, n iiMeiiHO ci HHMH BCTV-
UIIJIH sanajHO-eBiioneficKie Hapo,a,Bi BT>6opt6y, HSBtcTuyio no,p> HasBanieM'b npe-
cxoBbix'i, noxoj.oB'B '). 'dia. 6opi>6a npOAO-iatajiacb mmBtKa, n BT> KO HU,-B KOHUOBI.
ocxa.iacb B-B auoxy KpecTOBBixi no-^ 194197.
Ha cxopout MycyjibMaH'b. Ka^-pasx
Ha cueny ncxopiH BMCTynirjiii MOHPOIBI, saBoesaBiiiie dojitmyio qacib Aain
H HiiKOTOpyio Hacxb EsponbT H Toate Bnocji-fejcxRiM npHHflBmie MarosieTaHCTBO,
T-feM-B KaKi, 3% nepeABefl Asia Ha CM-feuy xypKaM-B ceJIBAacyKCIftIM^ Towa
TypKii ocMaHCKie. MoerojiBr H ociaaHCKie xypKii o6pa30Bajn BI Asin
rocyjapciBa, Meat^y KoiopuMH B-B XV
B. npOH3om.no rpanaioaeoe

ie. Ho CJUIHCTBO MOHrojibCKaro uapcisa ne yAepatajiocb, Torja KaKii, Ha-


oCopo'fB, TypKH B'b XIV n XV BB. oSpasoBaJiii rpOMa^Hyio Aepacasy, cjiijaBrnyiocfl BI>

HOBoe BpeMfl oaBHoft npe^ciaBHiejibHimeft MycyjbMaHCTBa BO sceM'i. CTapOM^


n jrojiro SbiBrayro rpo3HOio BpajKji;e6HOH) CHJOIO jia Esponbi. HS-B
eBponeficKiix'b cipaHi, Haxo^HBiuHxca uoxb Mycy^bMaHCKHMi HFOMI, yjajocb
ocBo6oAHTbca iHrab Hcuama H Pocciu. BaiKaHCKiS no;iyocTpOB'b Haji;ojiro npespa-
THlCfl B'b ^OCTOflHie TypOKt.
eaofcmbuwux* cofiwmiu. BircTBO MaroMeia BT> Meuray (622). Bos-
Hcnamii (711). Haqaao anHacxiii OiaaSfl-
xajm<l)aTa (632). SaBoeBanie
H BLUvkieHie Kop^oscKaro xajtH^aia (750). BBi^tieHie xaJin^aTOBTi ErnneT-
CKaro H TasHeBH^cKaro (OK. 1000). BoaBbimenie cejib^atyKCKHXT) TypOKi. (1058).
MourojbCKia saBoesaoifl (1206 1271). HajeHie Bawa^CKaro xaaH(j)a'ra (1258).
IIoaBJieHie ocMaHCKuxi TypOKi> (1299). BiiTBa npn Anropt (1402). SaBoesaHie

Cep6in (1389), Bojrapin (1393) H KoHCTaHTiinoiiojia (1453).


xcuiucpw. A6y-BeKpi (632634), Osiap'b (10 644) H OcManx (656);
Moasia (RO 697), ocHoeaTeJib junacTiH OMaSfl^OBi, H A6yjb-A66ac-b (750754),
ocHOBaiejib jjHHacTiii A66acnjtoB'b, HS'B KoiopoS uponcxojtHJi'b FapyH^-ajib-PauiH^'b
(786809), coBpeueHHHK'b Kapja BejiHKaro.
06maa HCTopia MycyjibMancKoS (apa6cKo8) KyjbTypbi imoaceHa BT> 270 275.

VI. KpaTKie onepKn MCTopiM OTAt^bHUXi crpatrb.

CM. Kapiy XXI, na Koiopofl npe^CTasjeno nojiHTiinecKoe pasA^JieHie EBPODBI


B'B KOHn,ij Cp. BB.

ABCTpia.
CM. Kapibi IV H XIV.
Ascipia (repuorcTBo) o6pa30BajiocB HSI* Bocio^HoS MapKH Mosapxin Kapja 70.
Be-iHKaro. Bo BiopoS nojioBimli XIII B. oea EM'SCTE ci COC-BAHUMH CT> Hero 188.
IllTiipieft ii Kpaimofl ^ociajiacB pHMCKO-repwaHCKOMy HMnepaiopy PyjjojiB^y
OMy, KoiopBiS yxBep^iu-B am SCMJIH sa CBOHMH noxoMKaMH. Cx cepe- 236 237.
XV B. TaScdypni nocxoanuo BbifiHparoxca BT. HMnepaxopw, H CT> 3xoro se
ocpeACTBOMi, Cpaiflbix'b coK>30Bi> Ascxpia ^pIIcoeAHHaeT^ KT> cefii eme
u HOBbia seMJiH, HO Hacxoflmee ea se^nqie naiunaexca JIIIHB BX XVI B.
BcMcwbuiutH xpoHOJioiiwecKin damu: IIpioSptxeHie Fa6c6ypraMU AscxpiH i
llhiipin H KpailHbi (1279). Ha^ajo iiocxoauHaro iisSpaeia pHMCKO-repMancKHX'B
f

HMnepaxopOB'b HSI. ra6c6ypros B (14157). [JpioCptxeHie Fa6c6ypraMH BenrepcKofi


H HeiiiCKoii KopOH-b (1526).

Cp. 142, 145, 146, 149, 150 e 151.


216

Anr.iia.

CM. EapiBi I, II, V, VIII H XXI.


Bx cepe^HH'fe V B. BX Bpuianiio CTRJIH nepecejiaiBca ex jiaxepHKa anrjiBi H
KOiopue qacTBH) HCTpe6iuiii, laciBio BMTicHHiH TyseMHoe uaceieHie H
MajeubKHxx rocyflapcTBx. Bx 9Ty snoxy aHrjo-caKCBi 6bLjii enie
H-ECKOjibKO

yjKe ycn'feBraee pantine npOHHKHyiB BI crpany,


H xpiici'iaHCTBo,
coBepmeeHO iicqesjio. TOJBKO BX KOHitx-VI B. aHuo-caKCH HPHHSJIH xpHCTiaHcrso,
H 3Ta Hosaa uepKOBB fimia HenocpeACTBeimo noAiiiuena Puny. Bt anrjio-caK-
coHCKiixt rocyaapCTBaxt, BI 827 r. cjiHBiniixca BT> ejHeyH) AHrairo, 6oj'fce, TBMI
KaKOJivjinSo ^pyroM'b BapBapcKOMi rocyjiapciBi Bt npeAijaxi 6HBiueS PIIM-