Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 414

Е. А.

Макарова

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ ПСИХОЛОГОВ
УЧЕБНИК И ПРАКТИКУМ
ДЛЯ АКАДЕМИЧЕСКОГО БАКАЛАВРИАТА

3-е издание, переработанное и дополненное

Рекомендовано УМО
по специальностям педагогического образования
в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов высших учебных заведений

Êíèãà äîñòóïíà â ýëåêòðîííîé áèáëèîòå÷íîé ñèñòåìå


biblio-online.ru

Москва  Юрайт  2014


УДК 80
ББК 81.2Англ
М15
Автор:
Макарова Елена Александровна — доктор психологических
наук, профессор кафедры теоретической и прикладной психологии
факультета управления Таганрогского института управления и эко-
номики, магистр английского языка (Юго-Восточный университет
штата Миссури, США).
Рецензенты:
Полякова Е. В. — кандидат филологических наук, доцент;
Афанасьев П. А. — кандидат филологических наук, профессор.
Макарова, Е. А.
М15 Английский язык для психологов : учебник и практикум для
академического бакалавриата / Е. А. Макарова. — 3-е изд., перераб.
и доп. — М. : Издательство Юрайт, 2014. — 412 с. — Серия : Бакалавр.
Академический курс.
ISBN 978-5-9916-4001-5 (Издательство Юрайт)
ISBN 975-5-9692-1542-9 (ИД Юрайт)
«Английский язык для психологов» — дважды лауреат Всерос-
сийского конкурса на лучшую научную книгу и удостоен дипломов
Фонда развития отечественного образования.
Учебник охватывает широкий диапазон психологических проб­
лем, состоит из семи тематических глав и рассчитан на 380 часов ауди-
торной работы и 300 часов самостоятельной работы. Тексты предна-
значены для чтения со словарем и без словаря. Различная сложность
текстового материала позволяет использовать их для чтения с пони-
манием, для перевода, a также для обсуждения и аннотирования
на I—II курсах неязыковых вузов. Разнообразные предтекстовые
задания помогут студентам лучше усвоить профессиональную лек-
сику, послетекстовые упражнения подготовят их к беседе на профес-
сиональные темы. Задания в каждой главе направлены на развитие
речевых и коммуникативных умений и навыков. Групповая и парная
работа, предусмотренная в учебнике, поможет преподавателю лучше
использовать творческий потенциал студентов. Психологические
тесты и логические задачи, анкеты и шутливые задания помогут сде-
лать аудиторные занятия интересными и положительно повлияют
на формирование мотивации студентов к изучению иностранного
языка. Издание может быть полезно для подготовки к сдаче канди-
датских экзаменов и к научно-практическим конференциям.
Русско-английский и англо-русский словарь может быть исполь-
зован не только при чтении текстов данного издания, но и при пере-
воде научных статей и подготовке докладов при самостоятельном
изучении английского языка для профессионального использования.
Соответствует Федеральному государственному образователь-
ному стандарту высшего образования четвертого поколения.
Рекомендовано студентам факультетов психологии высших
учебных заведений, а также специалистам в этой области.
УДК 80
ББК 81.2Англ
ISBN 978-5-9916-4001-5 © Макарова Е. А., 2005
(Издательство Юрайт) © Макарова Е. А., 2014,
ISBN 975-5-9692-1542-9 с изменениями
(ИД Юрайт) © ООО «ИД Юрайт», 2014
Context

Предисловие .................................................................... 5

Introduction to psychology ................................................. 8

CHAPTER 1. The sense organs


(A review of basic grammatical structures: Present Tenses,
Passive Voice) ........................................................................................ 16
Reading 1. The sense of hearing ............................................................. 16
Reading 2. The senses of smell and taste ............................................. 22
Reading 3. The sense of sight .................................................................. 26
Reading 4. The sense of touch. The meaning of touch ..................... 31
Reading 5. Scientists say aromas have major effect
on emotions ........................................................................... 37

CHAPTER 2. The human brain and its functions


(A review of basic grammatical structures: Past Tenses, question
types) ...................................................................................................... 44
Reading 1. The human brain — new discoveries ............................... 44
Reading 2. The mental edge .................................................................... 52
Reading 3. Personality — nature or nurture? .................................... 55
Reading 4. The bilingual brain ............................................................... 62
Reading 5. Do you know your right brain from your left? ............. 67
Reading 6. Left�handedness .................................................................... 69
Reading 7. What is intelligence? Psychometric approach ............. 75
Reading 8. Gardner’s eight intelligences. Learning styles .............. 81
Reading 9. The brain gain ........................................................................ 85

CHAPTER 3. Memory
(A review of basic grammatical structures: Passive Voice,
Perfect Tenses, question types, prepositions) .................................. 89
Reading 1. How good is your memory? ............................................... 89
Reading 2. A memory for all seasonings .............................................. 97
Reading 3. May’s boy ................................................................................ 108
Reading 4. Mistaken identity ................................................................. 113
4 Context

CHAPTER 4. Stress
(Modal verbs and related structures) ............................................... 120
Reading 1. Introduction to stress .......................................................... 120
Reading 2. History of stress research ................................................... 125
Reading 3. Stress and illness ................................................................... 128
Reading 4. Chocolate: a world favorite ................................................ 135

CHAPTER 5. Perception
(Infinitives, Gerunds and other verb forms) .................................. 143
Reading 1. Perception .............................................................................. 143
Reading 2. Perception and perceiver�distortion illusions ............... 147
Reading 3. Illusions ................................................................................... 153
Reading 4. Illusions of psychiatric significance ................................. 158
Reading 5. What’s your favorite color? Color in my life ................ 164

CHAPTER 6. Abnormal psychology


(Infinitives, Gerunds, Modals and other verb forms) .................. 173
Reading 1. Introduction to mental disorders ..................................... 173
Reading 2. Mental disorders ................................................................... 179
Reading 3. Phobic disorder or neurosis ............................................... 184
Reading 4. Afraid to fly? .......................................................................... 190
Reading 5. Children’s fears ...................................................................... 195

CHAPTER 7. Miscellaneous readings


(Conditionals. Comparative and superlative adjectives) ............. 203
Reading 1. Shyness and blushing .......................................................... 203
Reading 2. Handwriting analysis ........................................................... 208
Reading 3. Headaches ............................................................................... 213
Reading 4. Sleep and dream .................................................................... 218
Reading 5. The secrets of your dream .................................................. 223
Reading 6. Talk to yourself ...................................................................... 227
Reading 7. Learn to lighten up and live longer. Translating blushes
and other body language. How to control hostility.................... 234
Reading 8. Bad body image. Phisyognomy ......................................... 246

Аnswer keys to chapters .................................................... 255


Extension activities and brainteasers ................................... 258
Аnswer keys to extension activities and brainteasers ............. 369
Grammar reference ............................................................ 374
Glossary ........................................................................... 390
List of abbreviations .......................................................... 396
Russian�English vocabulary ................................................ 397
English�Russian vocabulary................................................. 404
Bibliography ..................................................................... 411
Предисловие

Учебник «Английский язык для психологов» может быть


использован для аудиторной работы со студентами, изучаю-
щими общую психологию, педагогическую психологию, пси-
хологию личности, историю психологии, социологию и пе-
дагогику. Он рассчитан приблизительно на 300 аудиторных
часов. Тексты в учебнике направлены в первую очередь на
развитие всех видов чтения и расширение словарного запа-
са профессиональной лексики, что особенно важно для
дальнейшей профессиональной деятельности студентов
и способствует обучению в аспирантуре, а также формиро-
ванию коммуникативных навыков.
Раздел “Introduction to Psychology” в начале учебника крат-
ко знакомит студентов с основными вехами развития дисцип-
лины, с фактами из жизни знаменитых психологов, там же
приведены разделы и направления современной психоло-
гии. Здесь же даны термины и выражения, широко исполь-
зуемые в психологии и в сопутствующих науках, которые
сопровождаются дефинициями, для того чтобы студенты
могли самостоятельно работать над их расшифровкой и пе-
реводом. Также даны задания по использованию психоло-
гических терминов в речи.
В каждую главу включено несколько текстов различного
уровня сложности с заданиями. Тематика текстов охватывает
широкий диапазон психологических проблем: от строения
и функционирования органов зрения, слуха, обоняния и ося-
зания до работы мозга и психических расстройств. Тексты
могут быть использованы для чтения, перевода, обсуждения
и аннотирования на разных курсах и со студентами разного
уровня языковой и коммуникативной компетентности,
а также для работы с аспирантами. Однако необходимо по-
мнить, что данный учебник не является учебником по пси-
хологии; он направлен на развитие навыков чтения и раз-
говорной речи на английском языке по профессиональной
6 Предисловие

тематике и на профессиональном уровне. Многие тексты


в учебнике подобраны из научно�популярных журналов.
Тематика их может показаться спорной, но именно поэтому
они будут вызывать полемику в аудитории и способство-
вать развитию коммуникативных навыков.
Обсуждение проблем, связанных с тематикой текстов, по-
может подготовить студентов к выступлениям на научных
студенческих конференциях, участию в научных спорах и вы-
ступлениям и презентациям по специальности.
Структура учебника позволяет начинать работу с любой
главы, в зависимости от интереса и потребностей студентов
в информации. Можно возвращаться назад и читать преды-
дущие тексты, которые помогут при чтении текстов после-
дующих. Например, при чтении главы «Восприятие» необ-
ходимо вернуться к первой главе и повторить информацию
о строении и функционировании органов зрения или слуха.
А при чтении текстов «Иллюзии» и «Галлюцинации» необ-
ходимо обратиться к информации из текстов «Восприятие»
и «Строение органов чувств», чтобы лучше понять природу
и причины расстройств восприятия.
Кроме серьезной профессиональной информации, в При-
ложении можно найти шутливые психологические тексты
и анкеты, социологические опросы, психологические и ло-
гические задачи и шутки, которые делают работу в аудито-
рии интересной и способствуют формированию мотивации
студентов к изучению иностранного языка. Материал, изло-
женный в разделе “Extension Activities and Brainteasers”, может
быть использован студентами как самостоятельно для разви-
тия навыков говорения и письменного перевода, так и в ка-
честве дополнительного материала к текстам разных разде-
лов. Ссылки на данный раздел сделаны в каждой главе.
Кроме того, в учебнике содержится глоссарий, в котором
наиболее употребляемые в психологии термины сопровож-
даются дефиницией по�английски, расшифрованы исполь-
зованные в текстах аббревиатуры, а также приведен анг-
ло�русский и русско�английский словарь психологических
понятий.
Данный учебник может быть рекомендован тем, кто про-
фессионально интересуется психофизиологическими осно-
вами поведения человека и его управлением: студентам
и аспирантам, изучающим психологию, психологам, менед-
жерам — организаторам любой профессиональной деятель-
ности, переводчикам профессиональной литературы, а так-
Предисловие 7

же специалистам, самостоятельно изучающим английский


язык. Учебник может быть использован в научно�исследо-
вательской работе студентов и при подготовке к сдаче кан-
дидатских экзаменов.
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
What is psychology? How is it connected to biology?
What’s the origin of the word? Read the definitions and try to
explain in your own words.
Psycho� is a learned borrowing from Greek meaning breath,
soul, spirit, and mind. In Greek mythology Psyche (soul or but-
terfly) was the human bride of Eros, the god of love. Before she
is allowed to marry Eros she is forced to undergo many difficult
ordeals. Apuleius tells the story of Eros and Psyche in his Meta-
morphoses. Psychology was considered a study of the soul.
Psychology is 1) the science of the mind or of mental states
and processes: the science of human nature; 2) the science of
human and animal behaviour; 3) the sum of the mental states and
processes of the person or of a number of persons, especially as
determining action (e.g. the psychology of a soldier at the battle).
Literally, the word psychology means the science of the mind.
Most contemporary psychologists would define psychology as
the science of the behaviour of organisms. By behaviour they
mean activities and processes that can be observed objectively —
both the isolated reactions of muscles, glands and other parts of
the organisms and the organized, goal�directed patterns of reac-
tion that characterize the organism as a whole. Psychologists
also interpret behaviour to include internal processes — think-
ing, emotional reactions and the like — which one person can-
not observe directly in another but which can be inferred from
observation of external behaviour.
Behaviour is determined by a complex of factors that are part-
ly biological, partly anthropological, partly sociological, and
partly psychological. Therefore, psychology is closely connected
to both the biological and the social sciences. Psychologists stu-
dy basic functions such as learning, memory, language, thinking,
emotions, and motives. They investigate development through-
out mental and physical health care. They also treat people who
are emotionally distressed. So, it is very important for them to
know all about social influences on individuals, the role of the
Introduction to psychology 9

brain and the nervous system in such functions as memory, lan-


guage, sleep, attention, movement, perception, hunger, anger
and joy.
Although psychology has been concerned primarily with the
behaviour of human individuals and groups, it has also dealt with
the study of animal behavior. Although great care is always nec-
essary in interpreting human behavior in the light of findings
from animal experiments, animal psychology has greatly con-
tributed to study of human beings.
1. What is physiology? How is it connected to psychology?
Physiology is the study of the parts and systems of the human
body and how they work. You can’t learn about the inner world
of a person without having an idea about the human physiology.
Physiological psychology is concerned with the way the body
functions and the effect of its activity on behavior.
2. What is psychoanalysis? What do you know about it?
Read the definitions.
Psychoanalysis is 1) a systematic structure of theories con-
cerning the relations of conscious and unconscious psychologi-
cal processes; 2) a technical procedure of investigating uncon-
scious mental processes and for treating psychoneuroses.
3. What four types of temperament do you know? In medi-
eval physiology, temperament is any of the four conditions of
body and mind: the sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric (or bilious),
and melancholic, each of them attributed to an excess of one of
the four corresponding humours (body liquids). It is one’s custo-
mary frame of mind or natural disposition, nature that is excitable,
moody, capricious, volatile, etc.
Sanguine (from sangui� — blood), having the warm passion-
ate, cheerful temperament and the healthy, ruddy complexion
of one in whom the blood is the predominant humor of the four.
The person is usually heavy, cheerful, confident, red�faced, jolly,
generous, self�indulgent optimistic and hopeful sort of person.
Melancholy — black bile in medieval physiology considered
to be one of the four humours to come from the spleen or kidney,
and to cause gloominess, irritability or depression. Melancholy
is a gloomy, pessimistic, quiet and brooding person.
Choleric is having choler as the predominant humour, hence
of bilious temperament. In medieval times choler (bile) was
considered one of the four humours of the body and the source
of anger and irritability. Choleric is a quick�tempered, excitable,
aggressive and energetic person, usually thin and wiry.
10 Introduction to psychology

Phlegmatic — a slow, lethargic, apathetic, hard to rouse to


action, sluggish, dull kind of person. Phlegm is a fluid, clammy
humour of the body which was believed to cause sluggishness or
dullness.
What is Gestalt psychology? The German word Gestalt
means configuration or pattern. Gestalt psychologists argue that
an organism will see an object as a whole. This is because the
brain imposes patterns on the raw material of perception. The
patterns tend to make complete forms, and incomplete forms
are completed by the organizing activity of the brain. When
problem solving it is argued that individuals receive “insights”
into the total situation: the total pattern suddenly becomes
obvious. Gestalt school of psychology that interprets phenome-
na as organized wholes rather than as aggregates of distinct
parts, maintaining that the whole is greater than the sum of its
parts. The term Gestalt was coined by the philosopher Christian
von Ehrenfels in 1890, to denote experiences that require more
than the basic sensory capacities to comprehend.
Gestalt psychologists suggest that the events in the brain bear
a structural correspondence to psychological events; indeed, it
has been shown that steady electric currents in the brain corre-
spond to structured perceptual events. The Gestalt school has
made substantial contributions to the study of learning, recall,
and the nature of associations, as well as important contribu-
tions to personality and social psychology. In therapy, the ana-
lyst encourages clients to release their emotions, and to recog-
nize these emotions for what they are.
Intelligence, in psychology, the general mental ability invol-
ved in calculating, reasoning, perceiving relationships and
analogies, learning quickly, storing and retrieving information,
using language fluently, classifying, generalizing, and adjusting
to new situations. Alfred Binet, the French psychologist, defi-
ned intelligence as the totality of mental processes involved in
adapting to the environment. Although there remains a strong
tendency to view intelligence as a purely intellectual or cognitive
function, considerable evidence suggests that intelligence has
many facets.
Experimental psychology describes an approach to psycho-
logy that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore
assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method.
Many experimental psychologists have gone further, and have
assumed that all methods of investigation other than experi-
mentation are suspect. In particular, experimental psycholo-
Introduction to psychology 11

gists have been inclined to discount the case study and inter-
view methods as they have been used in clinical and develop-
mental psychology. Wilhelm Wundt was one of the first experi-
mental psychologists and is credited with starting the first
psychology laboratory. Introspection, a process used by Wundt
in his laboratory, is a way of examining one’s own conscious
experience through self�observation of one’s thoughts, feelings
and sensations. Structuralism, the name of Wundt’s approach
to experimental psychology is a system of thought that tried to
analyze sensations and subjective experience into its basic
building blocks.
Functionalism, another psychological system of thought,
focuses on how mental activity enables people to function and
survive. William James and other supporters of the functional-
ist movement were opposed to structuralism because they left
consciousness could not be broken down into components as if
it were a physical structure.
A key area of debate in psychology has been the extent to
which our capacities are learnt versus the extent to which they
are innate (this issue is closely related to the more general na-
ture�nurture debate in biology). Behaviourism is a system of
thought which holds that only strictly observable phenomena
are worthy of psychological study. John B. Watson is considered
to be the “father” of behaviourism. The behaviorism of B. F. Skinner
viewed behaviour as being learnt through a process of conditio-
ning — the association of stimuli with responses. The influence of
behaviourism took a blow with the work of the psycho�linguist
Noam Chomsky on language acquisition. Chomsky argued that
the stimulus available to an infant was simply not rich enough
to allow language�learning through Skinnerian conditioning,
and that the human brain must have an innate capacity for, or
predisposition towards language learning. This idea that the
brain has a specialized Language Acquisition Device in many
ways laid the foundation for the field now known as cognitive
psychology, which tends to view the mind in terms of
more�or�less specialized functions or processes.
Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s in reaction to
both behaviourism and psychoanalysis. It stresses a phenome-
nological view of human experience and seeks to understand
human beings and their behaviour by conducting qualitative
research. Among sciences humanistic psychology focuses on
basic and applied science. Humanistic psychology is concerned
with the subjective experience of human beings and views using
12 Introduction to psychology

quantitative methods in the study of the human mind and


behavior as misguided and instead stresses qualitative research.
It emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and
psychoanalysis. It stresses a phenomenological view of human
experience and seeks to understand human beings, rather than
conventional statistical one. There is a branch of psychology
which uses methods to investigate the subjective experience of
human beings; clinical psychology.
Clinical psychology is concerned with helping people who
have mental disorders. It is the practice of outpatient mental
health treatment. Examples of clinical psychology include psy-
chotherapy, art therapy, and cognitive therapy.
Prior to the 20th century, there was little, if any, help available
for sufferers of mental health problems. In the early 20th century,
Sigmund Freud developed a mental health treatment known as
psychoanalysis. In order to practise psychoanalysis, a great deal
of training was required of the practitioner. Consequently, the
cost of psychoanalysis was also high.
Unlike clinical psychology, counselling psychology is gene-
rally a joint�venture of both psychology departments and de-
partments of education. Counselling psychologists focus primari-
ly on helping people overcome or better manage pathologies as
well as transcend perceived limitations.
Developmental psychology is the study of human growth
and changes in behaviour from conception to death. Jean Piaget
was one of the most famous and influential researchers in develop-
mental psychology. The nature�nurture issue deals with whether
human growth results from interaction with others and with
the physical world (nurture) or if the key to development is
heredity (nature). Jean Piaget, as well as most developmental
psychologists today, believed that changes in behaviour result
from a combination of nurture and nature.
Psychometric psychology is the psychological specialty
involved with developing, administering, and analyzing tests.
James McKeen Cattell, an assistant to Wundt, was the first
psychologist to suggest the term “mental test.” He began using
tests to assess how humans used mental ability to solve prob-
lems and survive.
Psychiatry is the medical field specializing in mental health
issues, thereby overlapping with clinical psychology. Clinical
and counselling psychologists often work in co�operation with
psychiatrists, social workers, psychiatric nurses and “lay” coun-
Introduction to psychology 13

selors. Psychiatrists are often involved in providing psycho-


pharmacological care including antidepressant, anti�anxiety,
antipsychotic and mood�stabilizing medication. Services aimed
at mental or behavioural problems are also often provided by
traditional healers and religious counsellors.
Applied psychology is a more general term, referring to
solving problems and answering questions that could help solve
problems faced by people and society. For example, researching
how animals won’t eat novel foods after getting ill, even if the
food didn’t cause the illness, has helped explain why cancer
patients have difficulty eating after chemotherapy.
To deal with the problems in psychology you first have to
know a certain professional vocabulary that would help you in
reading comprehension and expressions of you thoughts. The
main purpose of this book is to help you in this mission
Psychology today. Human consciousness is in a place of
self�awareness and creating balance as it moves out of the dark
ages back to higher frequency of light and thought. To under-
stand how the psyche works, one must understand its nature
based on duality, as it seeks to create balance in a world of chal-
lenges. We live in a time of recognition that we have issues that
we are trying to heal and overcome which has held us back. We
combine physical and metaphysical healing to create a union of
body, mind and soul. As a bi�polar experiment in time and emo-
tions, the souls have met challenges at every turn, presently fac-
ing their issues and seeking help from professionals, books, heal-
ers, other.

Activity 1
Read the questions and check if you know the answers. If
not, go back to the Introduction and scan it to find the infor-
mation necessary.
1) What is psychology? How is it connected to biology?
2) What’s the origin of the word?
3) What is physiology? How is it connected to psychology?
4) Read the definition of psychology as a science and try to
explain it in your own words.
5) Who are the scientists connected with psychology in their
research?
14 Introduction to psychology

Activity 2
Read the definitions in the text and answer the questions.
1) What is psychoanalysis? What do you know about it?
a) It is a systematic structure of theories concerning the
relations of conscious and unconscious psychological
processes.
b) It is a technical procedure of investigating unconscious
mental processes and for treating psychoneuroses.
2) What four types of temperament do you know? Describe
each type. Explain on what basis they are differentiated.
3) What is Gestalt psychology? What does the German word
Gestalt mean?

Activity 3
Choose one of the psychologists and get ready to tell the
rest of the class about him or her. Make a 5�minute presen-
tation. What do you know about women psychologists? How
many names can you list? Make a 5�minute presentation
about one of the ladies in psychology.

Activity 4
Study the questions.
1) The person given credit for starting psychology as a separate
discipline is ... .
a) Wilhelm Wundt c) John Watson
b) Sigmund Freud d) William McDougall
2) The system which focuses on how mental activity enables
people to function and survive is called ... .
a) structuralism c) behaviourism
b) functionalism d) gestaltism
3) The area of psychology which would concern itself with
studying the effects of aging on various psychological
processes is ... .
a) clinical psychology c) developmental psychology
b) social psychology d) psychometric psychology
Introduction to psychology 15

4) John B. Watson is associated with which psychological sys-


tem?
a) structuralism c) behaviourism
b) functionalism d) gestaltism
5) The psychologist credited with developing one of the first
useful tests to assess human intelligence is ... .
a) Jean Piaget c) Floyd Allport
b) Alfred Binet d) James McKeen Cattell
6) A way of examining one’s own conscious experience through
self�observation of one’s thoughts, feelings and sensations
is ... .
a) introspection c) functionalism
b) structuralism d) behaviourism
7) A system of thought that tried to analyze sensations and
subjective experience into its basic building blocks is ... .
a) introspection c) functionalism
b) structuralism d) behaviourism
Chapter 1

THE SENSE ORGANS


(A review of basic grammatical structures:
Present Tenses, Passive Voice)

In the Introduction you have learned that physiology is the


study of the different systems of the human body and what they
do. You cannot learn about psychology without knowing how
human body works and how its work affects a person’s inner
world. In this chapter, you will read more about human physio-
logy, about the sense organs in the human body. The sense
organs are more commonly called the five senses — they are the
ears, nose, eyes, tongue, and skin. The five senses are hearing,
smelling, seeing, tasting, and touching. Your senses give infor-
mation to your brain to help you move, control, and protect
your body. You will learn more about the five senses and how
they work in your body.

Reading 1
We see with our eyes. We hear with our ears. We taste with
our tongue. We feel with our skin. We smell with our nose.
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
causes sound?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) Name the three parts of the ear.
2) What happens to the eardrum when sound waves hit it?
3) What are the three small bones in the ear called?
4) How did they get their names?
5) What presses on the hearing nerve cells?
6) What do nerves inside the ear do?
Reading 1. The sense of hearing 17

The sense of hearing


A bell rings, a baby cries, and a dog barks. Every day we hear
thousands of sounds. Our world is full of sound. What causes
sound? How do our ears let us hear sounds?
Sound is caused by vibrations, the quick back�and�forth move-
ments of an object. The vibrations move through air, water, the
ground, or some other substance. The vibrations move in waves.
They are called sound waves. In order to understand how people
hear sound waves, you must understand how the ear works.
There are three important parts of the ear: the ear canal, the
eardrum, and the small bones. Each part is important for hear-
ing. Sound waves enter the ear through the ear canal and hit
the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin skin that is stretched tight-
ly across the inside of the ear. It is like the material that is stret-
ched across the top of a drum.
The eardrum begins to vibrate, or move back and forth
quickly. This vibration causes three very small bones in the ear
to vibrate. These little bones are called the hammer, anvil, and
stirrup. They get their names because they look like these objects.
Sound waves
Anvil
Hammer

Eardrum
Ear canal Stirrup

Hammer Anvil Stirrup


The small bones in the ear
18 Chapter 1. The sense organs

How do you hear? These vibrations of the eardrum cause


more vibrations in a liquid that fills the deepest part of the ear.
The moving liquid presses on the hearing nerves. These nerves
pass the sound message on to the brain. When the message
reaches the brain, the person can hear the sounds.
It is important for humans to be able to hear sound. Sounds
can warn of danger and emergencies. If you see a person cross
the street into the path of an oncoming car, you would call to
the person to watch out. The driver of the oncoming car would
honk the horn to warn the person. Fire alarms warn people of
fire. Sirens on ambulances and police cars tell you to move to
the side. Some people cannot hear. They are deaf and cannot be
warned of danger in the same way.
In this Reading you learned about the sense of hearing,
about the ear and how humans hear. Next you will learn about
two more senses. These are the senses of taste and smell.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Read the passage and complete it using the correct verb
forms (Present Simple, Аctive and Passive Voice).
A hearing impairment or hearing loss is a full or partial
decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. Caused
by a wide range of biological and environmental factors, loss of
hearing can happen to any organism that (to perceive) sound.
Sound waves (to vary) in amplitude and in frequency. Amp-
litude (to be) the sound wave’s peak pressure variation. Frequen-
cy (to be) the number of cycles per second of a sinusoidal
component of a sound wave. Loss of the ability to detect some
frequencies, or to detect low�amplitude sounds, that an organ-
ism naturally (to detect), (to be) a hearing impairment.
Hearing sensitivity (to indicate) by the quietest sound that
an individual can (to detect), called the hearing threshold. In
the case of people and some animals, this threshold can ... accurate-
ly (to measure) by a behavioural audiogram. A record (to make)
of the quietest sound that consistently (to prompt) a response
from the listener. The test (to carry out) for sounds of different
frequencies. There are also electro�physiological tests that can
(to perform) without requiring a behavioural response.
A hearing impairment (to exist) when an individual is not
sensitive to the sounds normally heard by its kind. In human
beings, the term hearing impairment ... usually (to reserve) for
people who (to have) relative insensitivity to sound in the speech
Reading 1. The sense of hearing 19

frequencies. The severity of a hearing impairment (to catego-


rize) according to how much louder a sound must (to make)
over the usual levels before the listener can (to detect) it. In pro-
found deafness, even the loudest sounds that can (to produce)
by the instrument used to measure hearing — audiometer —
may not (to detect).

2. Read the passage and complete 5 questions about it.


Many different assistive technologies, such as hearing aids,
are available to people who are hearing impaired. People with
cochlear implants, hearing aids, or neither of these two devices
also use additional communication devices to reduce the inter-
ference of background sounds. Three types of wireless exist
along with hard�wired devices. A wireless device used by peo-
ple who use their residual hearing has two main components.
One component sends the sound out to the listener, but is not
directly connected to the listener with the hearing loss. The
second component of the wireless system, the receiver, detects
the sound and sends the sound to the ear of the person with the
hearing loss. Hearing dogs, a category of assistance dogs, are
trained to help those with hearing impairments. The advent of
the Internet’s World Wide Web and closed captioning has given
the hearing impaired unprecedented access to information.
Electronic mail and online chat have reduced the need for deaf
and hard of hearing people to use a third�party Telecommunica-
tions Service in order to communicate with the hearing people.
1) What assistive technologies are …?
2) What are additional communication devices …?
3) How is the ... different from ...?
4) What other …?
5) Why is ...?

3. Read the sentences and use passive forms of the verbs in


parenthesis.
1) Hearing loss (to categorize — Present Simple) by its severity
and by the age of onset.
2) The severity of hearing loss (to measure — Present Simple)
by the degree of loudness.
3) Hearing loss (to rank — Present Simple) as mild, moderate,
severe or profound.
4) Measuring hearing loss in terms of a percentage (to com-
pare — Present Simple) to measuring weight in inches.
20 Chapter 1. The sense organs

5) The quietest sounds you could hear at different frequencies


(to plot — Past Simple) on an audiogram to reflect your
ability to hear at different frequencies.
6) A special technology (to develop — Present Perfect) by the
Ear Institute, and (to intend — Future Simple) to measure
an ability to understand speech in quiet and noisy environ-
ments.
7) Unlike pure�tone tests, where only one ear (to test — Pre-
sent Simple) at a time, this technology evaluates hearing
using both ears simultaneously.
8) The eyes (to regard — Present Simple) as the most impor-
tant nonverbal message system.
9) Decibels of loss (to convert — Future Simple) via a recog-
nized legal formula.
10) It (to find — Present Perfect) that listeners gaze at speak-
ers more than speakers gaze at listeners.
11) Hearing loss (to tie — Present Simple) to their inability to
pick up auditory social cues.
12) The words “suggest” and “suggestion” (to use — Past Simple)
in senses very close to those which they have in common
speech.
13) Hearing dogs, a category of assistance dogs, (to train —
Present Simple) to help those with hearing impairments.
14) Experiments on suggestion, in the absence of hypnosis, (to
conduct — Past Simple) by early researchers.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
4. The following words define the parts of the ear responsi-
ble for hearing except two. Find and cross them out.
Hammer, sound waves, eardrum, anvil, message,
ear canal, hearing nerves, stirrup

a) Match the verbs and the nouns from the chart below, write
the phrases in your notebook. You can get more than six
of them. Don’t forget to translate the phrases:
honk | | names
reach | | person
pass | the | ear
enter | | horn
get | | brain
warn | | message
Reading 1. The sense of hearing 21

b) Make phrases using the prepositions.


Through | some substances
In | hearing
To | the path
For | the side
On | air
Into | ground
| ear canal
| hearing nerves
| water
| hearing

USE CONTEXT CLUES


5. Do not look up every unfamiliar word in the dictionary.
Get into the habit of guessing meaning from context.
Read this passage from the text and use the context to
guess what the words in bold probably mean. Copy the
words in italics, identify the adjectives they are derived
from and translate them.
In children, hearing loss can lead to social isolation for sev-
eral reasons. First, the child experiences delayed social devel-
opment that is in large part tied to delayed language acquisi-
tion. It is also directly tied to their inability to pick up auditory
social cues. This can result in a deaf person becoming generally
irritable. A child who uses sign language, or identifies with the
deaf sub�culture does not generally experience this isolation,
particularly if he/she attends a school for the deaf, but may con-
versely experience isolation from his parents if they do not know
sign language. A child who is exclusively or predominantly oral
(using speech for communication) can experience social isola-
tion from his or her hearing peers, particularly if no one takes
the time to explicitly teach her social skills that other children
acquire independently by virtue of having normal hearing.
Finally, a child who has a severe impairment and uses some sign
language may be rejected by his or her deaf peers, because of an
understandable hesitation in abandoning the use of existent
verbal and speech�reading skills. Some in the deaf community
can view this as a rejection of their own culture and its mores,
and therefore will reject the individual preemptively.
22 Chapter 1. The sense organs

VOCABULARY CHECK
6. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the mean-
ing of these words with your partner. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.
Anvil, brain, deaf, ear canal, eardrum, hammer,
sound, waves, stirrup, vibrate, vibration

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 2.

Reading 2
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
sense organs do people use for taste and smell?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) What are the bumps on the tongue called?
2) What is located inside the bumps on your tongue?
3) Where are sweet things tasted?
4) What is an odor?
5) Why do people sniff?
6) What is the psychological mechanism of smelling and tast-
ing?
7) How is it connected to brain?
8) What is the name of smell and taste system?
9) Why is it important to be able to smell things?
10) What is aromatherapy based on?

The senses of smell and taste


Why does a potato chip taste salty? Why does sugar taste
sweet? There are two sense organs you use to taste. One of these
sense organs is the tongue. If you look in the mirror and stick out
your tongue, you will see little bumps on it. These bumps are
called papillae. Inside each of these bumps are tiny taste buds.
Taste buds are cells that are connected to nerves. The nerves carry
messages about the food you eat to the brain. The nerves tell your
brain how something tastes. You can taste if something is bitter,
sour, sweet, or salty. Look at the picture below to see where the
taste buds are located and the different tastes you experience
Reading 2. The senses of smell and taste 23

Back Sour, salty


Bitter

No taste

Front
Tip Salty
Sweet

The taste areas of the tongue

You taste bitter things at the back of your tongue, sour and
salty things on the sides, and sweet things on the tip. The
tongue is only one part of the sense of tasting.
The other sense organ you use to taste is your nose. The nose
is also the sense organ you use to smell. The smell of food plays
a big part in how food tastes. If food smells good, it usually tastes
good! Sometimes when you have a cold and your nose is
stopped up, you cannot smell anything. When this happens,
nothing you eat will taste very good either. Everything that has
a smell gives off a small amount of gas. This gas is called an odor.
When you breathe in, the odor enters your nose. Some things
have a weak odor. When things have
a weak odor, you have to sniff to bring
the odor into your nose. There are
special nerves in the nose that send Brain
the “smell message” to the brain. The
picture below shows how the sense of
smell works.
Odor enters through the nose and
passes to the nerves. The nerves send
a “smell message” to the brain.
Is it important to be able to smell things? Your sense of smell
protects you from danger. You smell smoke when there is a fire.
Food begins to smell bad when it is no longer good to eat.
Animals such as skunks spray a liquid that has a bad odor to
protect them from danger.
In this reading you learned about the senses of taste and
smell and their two sense organs, the tongue and the nose. You
also learned why these two senses are important.
24 Chapter 1. The sense organs

How do smell and taste work? Smell and taste belong to our
chemical sensing system, or chemo sensation. The complicated
processes of smelling and tasting begin when molecules released
by the substances around us stimulate special nerve cells in the
nose, mouth or throat. These cells transmit messages to the
brain, where specific smells or tastes are identified.
Olfactory (smell nerve) cells are stimulated by the odours
around us — the fragrance from a rose, the smell of bread bak-
ing. These nerve cells are found in a tiny patch of tissue high up
in the nose, and they connect directly to the brain.
Taste cells react to food or drink mixed with saliva and are
clustered in the taste buds of the mouth and throat. Many of the
small bumps that can be seen on the tongue contain taste buds.
These surface cells send taste information to nearby nerve
fibers, which send messages to the brain.
Taste and smell cells are the only cells in the nervous system
that are replaced when they become old or damaged. Scientists
are examining this phenomenon while studying ways to replace
other damaged nerve cells.
A third chemosensory mechanism, called the common chemi-
cal sense, contributes to our senses of smell and taste. In this
system, thousands of free nerve endings — especially on the
moist surfaces of the eyes, nose, mouth and throat — identify
sensations like the sting of ammonia, the coolness of menthol
and the “heat” of chili peppers.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Complete this passage using the correct past forms of the
verbs in parentheses.
One test group (to consist) of thirty�one subjects who (to give)
46 different aromas to assess, such as peppermint, pizza, parsley,
buttered popcorn, orange, and chocolate and a variety of combi-
nations. Blood pressure of each subject (to measure) after inhala-
tion of the various scents. According to the study the following
foods significantly (to increase) blood flow and blood pressure
in the participants: Lavender and Pumpkin Pie, Doughnuts and
Licorice, Pumpkin Pie and Licorice. While none of the aromas
(to decrease) blood flow, all aromas (to have) some health
enhancing effect, some more than others. Some participants (to
respond) most to strawberry, older people (to experience) the
greatest health and mood enhancement with vanilla, lavender,
and oriental spice.
Reading 2. The senses of smell and taste 25

2. Read the passage and complete it with the correct verb


form (Present Simple, Present Progressive, Аctive and
Passive Voice).
We can commonly (to identify) four basic taste sensations:
sweet, sour, bitter and salty. Certain combinations of these tastes
along with texture, temperature, odour and the sensations from
the common chemical sense (to produce) a flavor. It is flavour
that (to let) us know whether we (to eat) peanuts or caviar.
Many flavours (to recognize) mainly through the sense of
smell. If you hold your nose while eating chocolate, for example,
you will have trouble identifying the chocolate flavour, even
though you can (to distinguish) the food’s sweetness or bitter-
ness. This is because the familiar flavour of chocolate (to sense)
largely by odour. So is the well�known flavour of coffee. This is
why a person who (to wish) to fully savour a delicious flavour,
for example, an expert chef who (to test) his own creation, will
exhale through his nose after each swallow.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. a) Group the following words according to whether they
describe the sense of taste or smell, or both.

Brain, papillae, tongue, throat, smell, odour, nerves,


organs, salty, sweet gas, sniff, bitter, buds, smoke,
olfactory, sour, nose, bumps, fragrance

Taste Smell Both

b) Translate the following word combinations from the text:

The sting of ammonia, the coolness of menthol


and the “heat” of chili peppers

c) Find all thе word combinations with the word nerve and
translate them.
26 Chapter 1. The sense organs

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the meaning
of these words with your classmates. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.
Bitter, nose, odour, salty, sense, sniff, organs, sour, sweet,
taste, buds, tongue, papillae, olfactory, swallow, fragrance

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 3.

Reading 3
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: Could
you name the main parts of the eye?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) What is the function of the iris?
2) When does the pupil change size?
3) Name two important functions of the eyelid.
4) On which part of the eye does a picture form?
5) How does the brain help you to see?
6) Name a common eye problem.
7) How can eye problems be corrected?
8) Why are human eyes better than a camera? Find the proof in
the text.

The sense of sight


Which part of your body lets you read the book, check out a
rainbow, and see a ball heading your way? Which part lets you
cry when you are sad and makes tears to protect itself? Which
part has muscles that adjust to let you focus on things that are
close up or far away? If your guess is the eye, you are right!
The eye is the sense organ of sight. You see with your eyes.
Your eyes work like a very good camera. They can take pictures
that are still or moving, in color or in black and white, and from
a distance or close up. Of course, your eyes are better than a
camera! In this reading you will learn how your eyes work and
how you see.
The eye is made up of different parts: the iris, pupil, eyelid,
and retina. The picture below shows the different parts of an eye.
Reading 3. The sense of sight 27

Eye
Pupil

Retina

Iris

Light ray from object


Nerve to brain
The iris is a muscle. It is the part of the eye that lets in the
right amount of light. The big, coloured circle in the centre of
the eye is the iris. Pigment gives the iris its color. The color of
the iris is different in different people. Look at your classmates’
eyes. What color irises do you see?
In the centre of the iris there is a hole that lets in the light.
This hole is the pupil. The iris muscle can change or adjust the
size of the pupil. The pupil will enlarge if the light is dim and get
smaller when the light is bright.
The eyelid is another important part of the eye. It has two
important functions. The eyelid controls the amount of light
that enters the eye. When you want to keep out light, you can
lower your eyelid. Also, raising and lowering the eyelids helps
keep the eyes moist.
Another important part of the eye is the retina. The retina is
the part of the eye that receives the image and focuses the light.
A picture forms on the retina in the back of the eye. The image
on the retina is upside down. How does the image get right side
up, so you see normally?
Eyelid Eyelid

Pupil Iris Enlarged pupil Iris


The pupil in bright light The pupil in dim light
Light enters through the pupil in the eye and is received by
the nerves in the retina. When the nerves in the retina receive
the light, they send a “picture message” to the brain. This pic-
28 Chapter 1. The sense organs

ture message is upside down. The brain changes the message


into a right�side�up picture. The brain performs a very impor-
tant function in the sense of sight.
Sometimes people need glasses because they cannot focus
the light properly. The picture is not clear. Three of the most
common eye problems are being nearsighted, farsighted, or hav-
ing an astigmatism. If you are nearsighted, you can see things
clearly only if they are very near. If you are farsighted, you can
see things clearly only if they are far away. If you have an astigma-
tism, things look blurry whether they are near or far. All three
problems can be corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses.
Visual impairments can mean a number of things. If you are
visually impaired it doesn’t necessarily mean you are blind, it
could mean you are blind or have impaired vision. A person who
is totally blind can not see light or anything else. Some people
use different things to help with their visual impairments by
using adaptations such as glasses, Braille, seeing eye dogs, canes, and
adaptive computer technology. Eyeglasses or contact lenses help
focus the light properly so that you can see clearly all the time.
There are many devices such as screen readers, computers
and many other inventions that were made and still being made
to help people that are visually impaired. There are many inven-
tions for computers that make other technological devices then
usable to the Visually Impaired — and can change their lives
forever.
Seeing Eye dogs and canes are used more for helping people
get around from place to place. A Seeing Eye dog is specially
trained to help a visually impaired or blind person get back and
forth from work, school, or even to the neighbor’s house. The dogs
go to a special school where they learn to obey traffic lights,
veer the person out of the way of poles, and help him/her down
steps. They wear a harness and the owner holds on to it and tells
the dog where to go. Many people like Seeing Eye dogs for their
ability to get the person where they’re going pretty fast. Then
again, some people dislike them because if the person wants to
go somewhere new, the dog might not know how to get there.
Seeing Eye dogs help people get where they’re going though
they are not for everyone.
Canes are like Seeing Eye dogs, in that they are mobility ori-
ented but the person uses it by swinging it back and forth to tell
if objects are close by. The cane is one of the earliest forms of
getting around for a blind person and still is widely used today.
Over the years we will have new technologies for blind people
Reading 3. The sense of sight 29

but I still feel that the cane will remain one of the leading forms
of transportation for Visually Impaired people.
Braille is a system of raised dots that a blind person can read
with their fingertips. There are two grades of Braille; grade one
and two. Grade one is a little bit harder but will teach the per-
son the basic letters and short words. Grade two is a combina-
tion of letters that forms a word. For example, the word him is
HM. This allows the person to read the Braille faster.
There are many machines that coordinate with the use of
Braille, such as the Braille typewriter, a machine that reads the
text and prints it out in Braille, and there are many libraries
that now carry Braille books. There is also Braille printers that
allow computer files to be transformed into Braille, even graphics.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Read the passage and complete it with the correct verb
forms (Past Simple, Аctive and Passive Voice).
Louis Braille of Coupvray, France, (to invent) Braille. While
he (to be) at school Braille (to want) to read but (can) not
always have someone to read to him. So he (to invent) a reading
technique for blind people, which (to be) a modification of
“Ecriture Nocturne,” a code made for the military by Charles
Barbier for soldiers to read at night when there (to be) no light.
Since Braille (to invent), it has come a long way and is now
helping visually impaired people have greater access to the
non�visually impaired world around them.

CONFUSING WORDS
2. For each of the six questions choose the one correct
answer.
1) I’m tired — I think I’m going to put my feet up and … some TV.
a) look at c) look
b) watch at d) watch
2) Why do all young people love … loud music?
a) listening c) hearing
b) listening to d) hearing to
3) Can you … to go to the dentist tomorrow? I forgot my
appointment last week and don’t want to forget again!
a) remember c) remind
b) remember me d) remind me
30 Chapter 1. The sense organs

4) The company was … in 1930 by my great grandfather.


a) find c) found
b) finded d) founded
5) She’s so …, she cries at anything!
a) sensitive c) senseless
b) sensible d) sensational
6) I’m going on a business … to Istanbul next week.
a) journey c) travel
b) trip d) voyage

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. a) The following are the words from the text with oppo-
site meanings. Match them.
Lower, still, colour, moving, from a distance, back, forth,
close up, back, enlarge, raise, black and white, dim,
front, far away, nearsighted, bright, upside down,
get smaller, farsighted, near, right�side�up

b) The following words are parts of the eye. Cross the odd
ones out.
Iris, harness, pupil, muscle, sight, pigment, retina,
eyelid, cane, image
How do two eyes give you more depth perception, which is
the ability to judge how near or far objects are? Do you want
to make an experiment? Go to EXTENSION АCTIVITIES
AND BRAINTEASERS and see Аctivities for Chapter 1.

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Find the words in the
Reading. Talk about the meaning of these words with
your classmates. See if you can use them in the sentences
of your own.
Astigmatism, enlarge, eye, eyelid, pupil, farsighted, iris,
nearsighted, pigment, retina

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 4.


Reading 4. The sense of touch. The meaning of touch. 31

Reading 4
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What is
the job of the sensory nerves in the skin?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) Name five different messages the brain can receive from the
nerves in the skin.
2) Name one place that sensory nerves can be found.
3) What makes some parts of your body more sensitive to
touch than other parts?
4) Why is the sense of touch important?

What is the body’s biggest organ? You might be surprised to


find out it is the skin, which you might not think of as an
organ. No matter how you think of it, your skin is very impor-
tant. It covers and protects everything inside your body.
Skin holds everything together. It also allows us to have the
sense of touch.
There are many nerves in the hand and fingers that are sensi-
tive to different kinds of touch. Where is your hand the most
sensitive? Do you want to make an experiment? Go to
EXTENSION АCTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS and see
Аctivities for Chapter 1.

The sense of touch


Your skin can help if you are
feeling too hot or too cold. Your
blood vessels, hair, and sweat
glands cooperate to keep your
body at just the right tempera-
ture. If you were to run around
in the heat, you could get over-
heated. If you play outside when
it is cold, your inner temperatu-
re could drop. Either way, your
skin can help.
Your body is pretty smart. It knows how to keep your tem-
perature right around 37°C to keep you healthy. Your skin can
respond to messages sent out by your hypothalamus, the
brain’s inner thermometer.
32 Chapter 1. The sense organs

The skin is the sense organ of touch. It has millions of nerves


that make it sensitive to touch. When something touches the
skin, the sensory nerves in the skin send messages to the brain.
The brain receives the messages as unpleasant or pleasant feelings.
There are five kinds of messages the brain can receive from the
sensory nerves in the skin. These messages are pain, heat, cold,
pressure, and light touch.
The sense of touch is very important. You can learn about
your body through the sense of touch. Babies learn much of
what they know about the world through their sense of touch.
If a baby touches a hot stove, the nerves in the skin send a mes-
sage of pain and heat to the brain. Almost immediately, the baby
will remove his or her hand. If babies did not have this warning
signal, they could seriously injure themselves.
When you are injured, you often wish you could not feel
pain; yet, it is important that you feel pain. Pain protects you
and lets you know if there is something wrong in your body.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Read the passage about importance of the sense of touch
and complete it with the correct verb forms (Past Simple,
Past Progressive, Аctive and Passive Voice).
No pessimist ever discovered the secret
of the stars or sailed an uncharted land, or
opened a new doorway for the human spirit.
Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 — June 1, 1968) (to be)
an American author, activist and lecturer. She (to be) the first
deaf blind person to graduate from college. The story of how
a remarkable teacher (to break) through the isolation the lack of
language had imposed on the child, who (to blossom) as she
(to learn) to communicate, are staples of American folklore. What
is less well known is how Keller’s life (to develop) after she
(to complete) her education: she (to become) a radical cam-
paigner for workers’ rights and an advocate for many other pro-
gressive causes. Helen Keller (to be born) in Alabama, on June 27,
1880. She was not born blind and deaf; it (to be) not until nine-
teen months of age that she (to come) down with an illness
described by doctors as “an acute congestion of the stomach and
the brain,” which could have possibly been scarlet fever or
meningitis. The illness (not to last) for a particularly long time,
but it (to leave) her deaf and blind.
Reading 4. The sense of touch. The meaning of touch. 33

The school teacher Anne Sullivan,


herself visually impaired and then only
20 years old, (to become) Keller’s
instructor. It (to be) the beginning of a
49�year�long relationship, eventually
evolving into governess and compa-
nion.
Sullivan (to get) permission from
Keller’s father to isolate the girl
from the rest of the family in a little
house in their garden. Her first task
(to be) to instill discipline in the
spoiled girl. Keller’s big break-
through in communication (to come) one day when she (to
realize) that the motions her teacher (to make) on her palm,
while running cool water over her hand, (to symbolize) the idea
of “water”; she then nearly (to exhaust) Sullivan demanding
the names of all the other familiar objects in her world. Keller
(to go) on to become a world�famous speaker and author. She
is remembered as an advocate for people with disabilities amid
numerous other causes.

Now read the text about the meaning of touch.

The meaning of touch


Touch communication, also referred to as haptics, is perhaps
the most primitive form of communication. Developmentally,
touch is probably the first sense to be used; even in the womb
the child is stimulated by behaviour touch. Soon after birth the
child is caressed, patted, and stroked. In turn, the child explores
its world through touch. In a very short time, the child learns to
communicate a wide variety of meanings through touch.
Five of the major meanings of touch are considered here.
Positive effect. Touch may communicate positive emotions.
This touching occurs mainly between intimates or others who
have a relatively close relationship. Touch is such a powerful
signaling system, and it’s so closely related to emotional feelings
we have for one another that in casual encounters it’s kept to a
minimum. When the relationship develops, the touching fol-
lows along with it. Among the most important of these positive
emotions are support, which indicates nurturing, reassurance,
or protection; appreciation, which expresses gratitude; inclu-
34 Chapter 1. The sense organs

sion, which suggests psychological closeness; sexual interest or


intent; and affection, which expresses a generalized positive
regard for the other person.
Playfulness. Touch often communicates our intention to play,
either affectionately or aggressively. When affection or aggres-
sion is communicated in a playful manner, the playfulness
de�emphasizes the emotion and tells the other person that it is
not to be taken seriously. Playful touches serve to lighten an
interaction.
Control. Touch may also serve to direct the behaviors, atti-
tudes, or feelings of the other person. Such control may communi-
cate a number of messages. In compliance, for example, we touch
the other person to communicate “move over,” “hurry,” “stay here,”
and “do it.” In attention�getting, we touch the person to gain his
or her attention, as if to say “look at me” or “look over here.”
Touching to control may also communicate dominance. Con-
sider who would touch whom — say, by putting an arm on the
other person’s shoulder or by putting a hand on the other per-
son’s back — in the following dyads: teacher and student, doc-
tor and patient, master and servant, manager and worker, min-
ister and parishioner, police officer and accused, business person
and secretary. Most people brought up in our culture would say
the first�named person in each dyad would be more likely to
touch the second�named person than the other way around. In
other words, it is the higher status person who is permitted to
touch the lower status person.
Ritual. Ritualistic touching centers on greetings and depar-
tures. Shaking hands to say “hello” or “goodbye” is perhaps the
clearest example of ritualistic touching, but we might also hug,
kiss, or put our arm around another’s shoulder in meeting some-
one or in anticipating the person’s departure.
Task�relatedness. Task�related touching is associated with
the performance of some function; this ranges from removing a
speck of dust from another person’s face to helping someone out
of a car or checking someone’s forehead for a fever.

1) What is a technical term for touch communication?


2) In “positive affect” touching, what is the usual relationship
between those who are touching?
3) Can “playful” touching sometimes be aggressive?
4) What can a “control” touch direct?
5) Ritual touching most typically occurs in which situations?
6) What is an example of a “task�related” touch?
Reading 4. The sense of touch. The meaning of touch. 35

1. Read the definition and render it in Russian.


Proxemics is the study of how people manage space, par-
ticularly the distances between themselves and others in
interpersonal relationships.

AFTER YOU READ


2. Match each category of touch to one of the five situations
described.
a) Positive effect
b) Playfulness
c) Control
d) Ritual
e) Task�relatedness
1) __ A teacher holds a student’s arm and leads her down the
hall to see the principal.
2) __ A husband and wife walk arm in arm down the street.
3) __ Two college students give each other a “high five” when
they meet on campus.
4) __ One child tickles his friend during recess on the play-
ground.
5) __ As a sales assistant gives you your change, your two
hands touch for a split second.
Think of your own example for each of the five categories of
touch.
3. Passive sentences are found frequently in academic dis-
course, so it is important to be able to recognize the pas-
sive and use it correctly.
There is, of course, a big difference in meaning between
an active and a passive sentence. Compare for example: X
touches Y. — X is touched by Y.
In the first sentence, the verb is active. X, the subject, is the
one who touches Y, and Y receives X’s touch. In the second
sentence, X is still the grammatical subject, but the verb is
passive. It is Y who touches X and X who receives Y’s touch.
Аccording to the information in the text, decide if the
active form of the verb or the passive form of the verb cor-
rectly completes the following sentences.
1) According to research, mothers … their children more than
fathers.
a) touch b) are touched by
36 Chapter 1. The sense organs

2) Fathers … their children as much as mothers.


a) do not touch b) are not touched by
3) Women … their fathers more than men.
a) touch b) are touched by
4) Female babies … more than male babies.
a) touch b) are touched
5) Women prefer to … .
a) hold b) be held
6) According to the stereotype of women, they like to … .
a) protect b) be protected
7) Researchers … male and female touching behaviour in the
United States and Japan.
a) studied b) were studied by
8) Middle Easterners may … people from “noncontact” cultures
as being too intimate.
a) perceive b) be perceived by

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. A stranger might tap (touch lightly with his or her fingers)
another stranger on the shoulder in order to get the
other’s attention. The following verbs that describe dif-
ferent ways of touching may help you. Translate the verbs
using a dictionary.
caress poke slap
nudge hug kiss
smack tickle prod
pat punch tap

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Find the words in the
Reading. Talk about the meaning of these words with
your classmates.
Pain, pressure, sensory, nerves, skin, message,
injure, touch, hypothalamus, haptics

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 5.


Reading 5. Scientists say aromas have major effect on emotions 37

TALKING POINT
5. Work with a partner and brainstorm a list of as
many different situations as you can in which it is
permissible or acceptable for one person to touch
another person in your culture. Note which part of
the body is used to make the touch, on which part
of the body the touch may occur, and who the
toucher and touched might be.
Describe the age, social status and job position of both pe-
ople.

Reading 5
READING IN THE REAL WORLD
Оn some multiple�choice tests, there are five answers to
choose from. Sometimes one of these is “none of the above.”
If you choose this, it means that there is no correct answer
offered. Sometimes a possible choice is “all of the above.”
This means that a, b, c, and d are all correct answers. Оne of
the five might be a and b or b and c. Such an answer means
that there are two correct answers.
The following passage is a part of an article from the Los
Angeles Times. It is about recent research that is the basis for
the new interest in aromatherapy. First, read the questions
that follow the article. Then read the article, marking the
answers to the questions as you find them. Don’t worry if you
don’t understand every word. Work as quickly as you can, as
you would on a real test.
After you finish, write a brief summary of the article (5—10
sentences). Use main idea sentences to help you.

Scientists say aromas have major effect


on emotions
Perhaps it has always been apparent, as plain as the nose on
your face. But nobody was paying much attention.
“From an evolutionary point of view, we typically don’t
think of the nose as very important,” said Dr. Gary Schwartz,
professor of psychiatry and psychology at the University of
Arizona. “But it is stuck square in the middle of the face. Why
would something that was less relevant to normal activities be
so prominent? It implies there is something more important
there than we may have realized.”
38 Chapter 1. The sense organs

Indeed, scientists are learning that fragrance affects us more


than previously thought. New research indicates that smells
influence our minds, our moods and our bodies.
But smell remains one of the least�understood senses. Although
we know a great deal about the eyes and ears, we only partly under-
stand smell. According to olfactory scientists at the Chemical
Senses Centre, we do know that an odor is first detected by the
olfactory epithelium, a sort of receptor sheet located in the
nose. This starts a chain of events that leads to an information
flow to the olfactory bulb and limbic system of the brain, which
plays a key role in regulating body functions and the emotions.
Smell, is the only sensory system to directly project into the
limbic system, making it perhaps our most basic, primitive
sense. (Other senses reach the limbic system, but travel first to
other brain regions.)
Some of the most significant new findings about smell and
scent come from scientists at the University of Cincinnati. They
concluded that scents can keep people more alert and improve
performance of a routine task. Subjects tackled a 40�minute
vigilance test, which required them to watch a video screen and
press a button whenever a certain line pattern appeared. While
performing the task, some were intermittently given a whiff of
peppermint or lily of the valley through oxygen masks. Those
workers receiving the fragrances performed 25% better than
those given only whiffs of pure air.
Although it isn’t clear exactly how fragrance works, this
study may soon have practical applications. Truck drivers, even
passenger car drivers, who need to keep alert while traveling
long distances, could find it helpful.
In Japan, fragrance is already used in the workplace. Japan’s
largest architectural, engineering and construction firm has
developed an environmental fragrancing system that uses com-
puterized techniques to deliver scents through air�conditioning
ducts. The Japanese have found that scents enhance efficiency
and reduce stress among office workers.
In one experiment in Japan, 13 key�punch operators were
monitored eight hours a day for a month. When the office air
was scented with lavender, errors per hour dropped 21%. They
dropped by 33% with a jasmine fragrance and a stimulating
lemon aroma reduced errors by 54%. The key�punchers enjoyed
the fragrances. They reported feeling better than they did without
it. Fragrances were selected based upon the principles of aroma-
therapy, an ancient form of herbal medicine. Aroma therapists
Reading 5. Scientists say aromas have major effect on emotions 39

believe that “essential oils,” the distilled “essences” of flowers,


herbs and plants, can be used to make people feel better. Oils
such as lavender and chamomile are considered relaxing; lemon
and jasmine — stimulating; pine and eucalyptus — invigorating.
Aromatherapy is widely practised in England, France, Belgium,
Germany and Switzerland and now they’re applying it in Japan.
Other research is still in the laboratory phase. Scientists at
Green State University are finding that even when you are
sleeping; your nose is wide awake. They’ve worked with about
100 college subjects in the university sleep lab. Electrodes on
test participants monitored brainwave activity, heart rate, res-
piration and muscle tension. What they’ve determined is that
people respond to odours in sleep. Tests clearly showed subjects
are able to detect the odours; typically their heart rate would
increase slightly and their brain waves quicken slightly.
In a separate study, respiration, muscle tension, heart rate and
blood pressure were measured as a group of healthy volunteers
were asked a series of stressful questions such as: The kind of per-
son I find sexually attractive is ________? They received whiffs
of spiced apple aroma, while a control group was given bursts of
plain air. The spiced apple produced a drop in blood pressure, on
average of 5 millimetres per person. It’s not a big decrease, but
could be the difference between taking medication and not tak-
ing medication; or reducing the dosage in medication.
Chemists at the University of Arizona continue their work
on scent. In one of the current studies, they are looking at “sub-
liminal scent,” scent below the level of awareness.
They believe one of the reasons taking trips to pine forests
makes people feel so good is the presence of the mixture of mol-
ecules in pine. Equally important — if not more important —
may be the absence of smog molecules, gasoline, carpet, paint
putting a great strain on our nervous system.
They point to so�called “sick” buildings as an example. They
inhibit the circulation of fresh air, so people instead breathe a
veritable soup of man�made chemicals. The idea is that the nose
can detect those molecules and that that information is fed to
the brain and does activate brain centers to make people feel
uneasy or uncomfortable.
It is clear that the study of scent is positively blossoming.
It’s definitely on the increase. Scientists have learned a lot, but
they’re a long way from fully understanding smell.
(Los Angeles Times, May 13, 1991)
40 Chapter 1. The sense organs

1. Do the comprehension test.


1) Another word that means smell is … .
a) odour d) aroma
b) scent e) all of the above
c) fragrance
2) People who deal with scent as an important part of their pro-
fession are … .
a) olfactory scientists d) a and b
b) subjects e) a and с
c) aroma therapists
3) Smell might be the most basic, primitive sense because it … .
a) plays a key role in body functions
b) influences our moods
c) reaches the limbic system after traveling first to other
brain regions
d) reaches the limbic system directly, without traveling first
to other brain regions
e) none of the above
4) If people are doing a difficult job in which it’s important not
to make any errors, it would be best for them to smell … .
a) spiced apple d) jasmine
b) lemon aroma e) none of the above
c) lavender
5) If people are tense and want to relax, it would be best for
them to smell … .
a) spiced apple d) jasmine
b) lemon aroma e) all of the above
c) lily of the valley
6) Taking a trip to a pine forest might make us feel good because
of … .
a) the presence of the mixture of molecules in pine
b) the absence of other molecules from smog, gasoline, car-
pet, and paint
c) the strain on our nervous system
d) a and b
e) none of the above
Reading 5. Scientists say aromas have major effect on emotions 41

2. Read the passage and answer the questions.


The sensory neurons keep the brain informed of what is hap-
pening outside and inside the body through a variety of senso-
ry pick�up units called receptors. Some of these, lying at or near
the skin surface, may be specifically sensitive to tissue damage
(causing pain), or light contact (producing a touch sensation),
or pressure, or temperature, either hot or cold. Other receptors
on the tongue and in the nose respond to chemicals that pro-
duce tastes and odours. In the retina of the eye, rodlike receptors
respond to light of various intensities, while cone like receptors
respond to colour. Receptors in the ear respond to minute vibra-
tions caused by sound waves striking the eardrum. Other recep-
tors are embedded deep in the walls of the intestines; when the
intestines contract vigorously because of the presence of indi-
gestible good, these receptors transmit waxing and waning sig-
nals of pain, which are interpreted as cramps. Still other recep-
tors lodged in the muscles, ligaments and tendons fire off signals
to the brain any time a muscle contracts or a joint moves or is
subjected to added pressure or tension.

1) Which of the following would be the best title for the pas-
sage?
a) Sensory Neurons in the Brain
b) Exchange of Information Between the Sensory Neurons
and the Brain
c) Chemical Response of the Brain
d) Diversity of Reaction of the Reception Units
2) Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as
a reaction related to the reception units?
a) taste c) colour
b) odour d) fear
3) Why are some of these units prone to tissue damage?
a) Because they are very sensitive.
b) Different chemicals damage them.
c) They lie at or near the skin surface.
d) They cannot stand vibration.
4) According to the text the intestine interprets the receptors’
warning signals as … .
a) pain c) tension
b) cramps d) gas
42 Chapter 1. The sense organs

5) Each time a muscle contracts, … .


a) receptors become dislodged
b) a joint moves
c) pressure or tension occurs
d) signals go to the brain
6) This passage would most likely be found in a textbook on … .
a) Chemistry c) Agriculture
b) Botany d) Biology

3. Read characteristics of common oils used in aromatherapy


and complete the chart below.
Vegetable Oils. The more saturated an oil, the thicker its
consistency and the longer it can be stored without refrigera-
tion. Also, the lower the iodine value, the better the oil will
keep. Some oils also contain other ingredients that improve
their preservation, such as sesame.
Castor. Castor oil is more viscous than sunflower oil and not
normally used in aromatherapy, although it may be added in
small amounts to formulas for dry�skin conditions. Herbalists
use castor oil to make compresses that break down fibrous tis-
sue, enhance immunity and detoxify the liver. Sulfated castor
oil is water�soluble and often used for aromatherapy bath oils.
Olive. This oil is a favourite for dry skin, but the odour is a
little strong for some people. It may be blended with other oils and
has a nice texture for massage. This is one of the best mediums for
herb�infused oils intended for medicinal applications. Greek olive
oil is greener and more acidic than oil from Italy or California.
Sesame Seed. Sesame has long been used in medicinal
preparations and is said to be rejuvenating. The unrefined vari-
ety has a stronger scent, which is the biggest drawback to using
this oil alone. Good as a base for herb preparations.
Kukui. The thinnest, lightest oil for the face, kukui provides
just the right amount of lubrication without leaving a greasy
feeling. The kukui nut, native to Hawaii, is high in linoleic and
linolenic acids, and is rapidly absorbed into the skin. Kukui�nut
oil has a low toxicity level. It has a distinct odour and is very
expensive, so you may want to combine it with other oils.
Macadamia. Slightly more viscous than kukui and also from
Hawaii, macadamia oil is similar to mink oil. Its lightness makes
it ideal as a base for facial or hair�care products, and it combines
well with kukui.
Reading 5. Scientists say aromas have major effect on emotions 43

Adjective Comparative Superlative


viscous the most viscous
dry drier
strong
greener
more acidic
the biggest
thicker
the longest
lower
the thinnest
the lightest
higher
expensive

REVIEW QUESTIONS
4. Now that you have completed your reading about the five
senses, go back. Look at your first ideas about the five
senses. Have your ideas changed? What have you
learned? Talk about your ideas.

SUMMARIZING
5. Being able to write a summary is an important skill. It
shows that you have understood what is most important
in the Chapter. A summary is different from a paraphrase.
When you paraphrase, you look at a small part of the text
(or texts) and rewrite it in your own words. When you
summarize, you look at the whole text and reduce it to a few
sentences (still using your own words, not the author’s).
The first sentence of a summary should express the over-
all message of the Chapter. The remaining sentences
should present the most important ideas. A good summa-
ry need not include details or supporting evidence for the
main ideas. Share your summary with your group. Make
a 3�minute presentation.

Go to EXTENSION АCTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS


(Аctivities for Chapter 1) to learn more.
Chapter 2

THE HUMAN BRAIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS


(A review of basic grammatical structures:
Past Tenses, question types)

Reading 1
Skim the text and answer the question: What parts of human
brain do you know?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
1. Look at the diagram and answer the questions.
Parietal lobe
__________ Cerebrum and cortex
__________________
(touch) responsible for all active
Occipital
__________lobe thought and planning
(vision)
Frontal lobe
________________
(concentration,
Neocortex personality, planning)

Corpus callosum
__________________
“bridge” of nerves
Subcortex that allows the left
and right sides of the
brain to communicate
Thalamus
Cerebellum
________________ Temporal lobe _______________
___________ the “post office” of the
helps in coordination (sound) brain; receives messages
of motor functions Hypothalamus and passes them to the
______________
and balance appropriate areas
regulates body
temperature,
emotional behavior,
Spinal cord food and water
levels

1) Which areas of the brain might a person use to compose


music? To throw a ball? To paint a picture?
2) If you feel cold and want to put on a sweater, which area of
the brain is probably active?
Reading 1. The human brain — new discoveries 45

3) It has been observed that little boys and little girls play, speak,
and act differently from each other. Do you think these dif-
ferences might be caused by differences in the brain?
4) What part of the brain is called “the post office” and why?
5) How do we call the part of the brain that is responsible for
thought and planning?

2. Asking yourself questions before and during reading often


helps you understand and remember the material. Look
again at the diagram and at the subheads of the text below.
Then check the questions on the following list that you
think, from your surveying, the reading selection might
answer.
1) __ What is the function of different parts of the brain?
2) __ How are human brains different from animal brains?
3) __ Why do some people seem to be more creative than
others?
4) __ What is the difference between the left and right side of
the brain?
5) __ Are the happiest memories of most people’s lives from
their childhood?
6) __ Is it possible to have a memory of something that never
happened?
7) __ How can we improve our memories?
8) __ Are teenagers’ brains different from adults’ brains?
9) __ How do men and women communicate with each other?
10) __ How does the brain influence a person’s ability with
music?
11) __ Can the brain cause people to get sick or become well?

As you read the following text, think about the answers to


the questions that you have just checked. Read quickly, do
not use a dictionary.

The human brain — new discoveries


А. Parts of the brain. Most of us learn basic facts about the
human brain in our middle or high school biology classes. We
study the subcortex, the “old brain,” which is found in the brains
of most animals and is responsible for basic functions such as
breathing, eating, drinking, and sleeping. We learn about
the neocortex, the “new brain,” which is unique to humans and
46 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

is where complex brain activity


takes place. We find that the cere-
Parietal brum, which is responsible for all
lobe Frontal lobe active thought, is divided into two
parts, or hemispheres. The left
Occipital

hemisphere, generally, manages the


lobe

Temporal
lobe
right side of the body; it is respon-
Cerebellum sible for logical thinking. The right
hemisphere manages the left side
Cerebral cortex of the body; this hemisphere con-
trols emotional, creative, and
artistic functions. And we learn that the corpus callosum is the
“bridge” that connects the two hemispheres. Memorizing the
names for parts of the brain might not seem thrilling to many
students, but new discoveries in brain function are exciting.
Recent research is shedding light on creativity, memory, matu-
rity, gender, and the relationship between mind and body.
B. Left brain/Right brain: creativity. Psychologists agree
that most of us have creative ability that is greater than what
we use in daily life. In other words, we can be more creative than
we realize! The problem is that we use mainly one hemisphere
of our brain — the left. From childhood, in school, we’re taught
reading, writing, and mathematics; we are exposed to very little
music or art. Therefore, many of us might not “exercise” our right
hemisphere much, except through dreams, symbols, and those
wonderful insights in which we suddenly find the answer to
a problem that has been bothering us — and do so without the need
for logic. Can we be taught to use our right hemisphere more?
Many experts believe so. Classes at some schools and books claim
to help people to “silence” the left hemisphere and give the right
one a chance to work.
C. Memory — true or false? In the 1980s in the United
States, there were many cases of adults who suddenly remem-
bered, with the help of a psychologist, things that had happened
to them in childhood. These memories had been repressed —
held back — for many years. Some of these newly discovered me-
mories have sent people to prison. As people remember crimes
(such as murder or rape) that they saw or experienced as child-
ren, the police have re�opened and investigated old criminal
cases. In fact, over 700 cases have been filed that are based on
these repressed memories.
D. However, studies in the 1990s suggested that many of
these might be false memories. At a 1994 conference at Harvard
Reading 1. The human brain — new discoveries 47

Medical School, neuroscientists discussed how memory is be-


lieved to work. It is known that small pieces of memory (sound,
sight, feeling, and so on) are kept in different parts of the brain;
in the limbic system, in the middle of the brain, pulls these
pieces together into one complete memory. But it’s certain that
people can “remember” things that have never happened. Even
a small suggestion can leave a piece of memory in the brain. Most
frightening is that there may be no structural difference in the
brain between a false memory and a true one.
E. The teen brain. Parents of teenagers have always known
that there is something, well, different about the teen years.
Some parents claim that their teenage children belong to a dif-
ferent species. Until recently, neuroscience did not support this
belief. The traditional belief was that by the age of 8 to 12 the
brain was completely mature. However, very recent studies pro-
vide evidence that the brain of a teenager differs from that of
both children and adults. According to the National Institute of
Mental Health, maturation does not stop at age 10, but contin-
ues into the teen years and beyond. In fact, scientists found that
the corpus callosum continues growing into your 20s. Because,
it is believed, the corpus callosum is involved in self�awareness
and intelligence, the new studies imply that teens may not be as
fully self�aware or as intelligent as they will be later. Other resear-
chers have found that teenagers are not able (as adults are) to read
emotions on people’s faces.
F. Differences in male and female brains. Watch a group of
children as they play. You’ll probably notice that the boys and
girls play differently, speak differently, and are interested in dif-
ferent things. When they grow into men and women, the differ-
ences do not disappear. Many scientists are now studying the
origins of these gender differences. Some are searching for an
explanation in the human brain. Some of their findings are inter-
esting. For example, they’ve found that more men than women
are left�handed; this reflects the dominance of the brain’s right
hemisphere. By contrast, more women listen equally with both
ears while men listen mainly with the right ear. Men are better
at reading a map without having to rotate it. Women are better
at reading the emotions of people in photographs.
G. One place to look for an explanation of gender differences
is in the hypothalamus, just above the brain stem. This controls
anger, thirst, hunger, and sexual desire. One recent study shows
that there is a region in the hypothalamus that is larger in hete-
rosexual men than it is in women and homosexual men. Another
48 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

area of study is the corpus callosum, the thick group of nerves


that allows the right and left hemispheres of the brain to com-
municate with each other. The corpus callosum is larger in
women than in men. This might explain the mystery of “female
intuition,” which is supposed to give women greater ability to
“read” and understand emotional clues.
H. Wired for music? It might seem logical to believe that
our appreciation of music is learned — that nurture, not nature,
determines this. However, it is now clear that nature also plays
a role; recent studies indicate that the human brain is “wired”
for music. At the University of Toronto, Canada, psychologists
have been studying infants age 6—9 months. Surprisingly, these
babies smile when researchers play consonant (pleasant) music,
but they appear to hate dissonant music. As adults, most people
can remember only a few poems or pieces of prose but have the
capacity to remember at least dozens of musical tunes and to
recognize hundreds more. Even more interesting, perhaps, is the
possibility that music might actually improve some forms of
intelligence. A 1999 study proves that music can help children
do better at math — not, oddly, other subjects, just math. It is
probably not surprising that much of the brain activity that
involves music takes place in the temporal lobes. It may be more
surprising to learn that the corpus callosum might also be
involved. Researchers at Medical Center in Boston have dis-
covered that the front part of the corpus callosum is actually
larger in musicians than in non�musicians.
I. The mystery of the mind�body relationship. There is
more and more evidence every day to prove that our minds and
bodies are closely connected. Negative emotions, such as loneli-
ness, depression, and helplessness, are believed to cause a high-
er rate of sickness and death. Similarly, it’s possible that positive
thinking can help people remain in good physical health or
become well faster after an illness. Although some doctors are
doubtful about this, most accept the success of new therapies
(e. g., relaxation and meditation) that help people with problems
such as ulcers, high blood pressure, insomnia (sleeplessness),
and migraine headaches.

VOCABULARY CHECK
1. Look over this list of words and expressions from the
reading that follows. Which words do you already know?
For the ones that you don’t know, don’t use a dictionary,
but try to understand them from the Reading.
Reading 1. The human brain — new discoveries 49

Nouns Verbs Adjectives


hemisphere expose consonant
neuroscientist rotate dissonant
insight repress mature
maturation wire emotional
intuition relax unique
insomnia disappear dominant

COMPREHENSION CHECK
2. Write Т on the lines before the statements that are true,
according to the Reading. Write F on the lines before the
statements that are false. Write I on the lines before the
statements that are impossible to know from the Reading.
1) __ Different parts of the brain control different activities or
parts of the body.
2) __ Most people probably don’t use all their creative ability.
3) __ Newly discovered memories from childhood are false
memories.
4) __ The human brain is mature by the age of twelve.
5) __ There is no real difference between the brains of males
and those of females.
6) __ Music appears to be the result of education alone.
7) __ Emotions may affect people’s physical health.

VOCABULARY QUIZ
3. Оn the reading section of standardized exams, there is, of
course, no opportunity to use a dictionary. Such exams
are testing your ability to guess meaning from the context.
Often, you need more than the information in one sentence
in order to figure out what a word means. You need to
consider the entire paragraph. Take this practice test.
Guess the meaning of the underlined words. You may look
back at the reading selection “The Human Brain — New
Discoveries,” but don’t use a dictionary.
1) In Paragraph B, “We are exposed to very little music or art”
probably means … .
a) “We are not often in concert halls or museums”
b) “We are taught a little music and art”
c) “Music and art are uncovered”
d) “Music and art are not taught much”
50 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

2) In Paragraph B, insights are … .


a) dreams that we have while we’re sleeping
b) moments when we suddenly understand something
c) logical moments
d) vision
3) In Paragraph C, the two meanings of the word cases are … .
a) examples and situations
b) memories and crimes
c) examples and events that need police attention
d) situations and people who murder or rape
4) In Paragraph F, rotate probably means … .
a) “read” c) “understand”
b) “look at” d) “turn”
5) In Paragraph G, intuition is … .
a) mystery
b) the ability to read
c) the power of understanding without logic
d) female emotion
6) The word read as it is used in Paragraphs E and G, probably
means … .
a) “understand the meaning of ”
b) “understand written language”
c) “show”
d) “see”
7) In Paragraph H, wired probably means … .
a) “with electrical wires”
b) “musical”
c) “tense with excitement”
d) “programmed or equipped”
8) In Paragraph H, prose is probably … .
a) poetry c) language that is not poetic
b) songs d) music without words

4. Read the passage and complete it using the words from


the box. Pay attention to the abbreviations (CNS, PNS,
ANS) and what they stand for.
Reflex, involuntarily, components, unconscious,
conscious, brain, areas, receptors
Reading 1. The human brain — new discoveries 51

Basic nervous system organization. The nervous system


consists of central and peripheral __________. The central
nervous system — CNS includes the __________ and spinal
cord. The peripheral nervous system — PNS includes all the
other nerves found in the body.
Functions of the CNS. The CNS in its __________ areas
of the medulla and cerebellum in control of many __________
actions and __________ functions of the body including
heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, and the endocrine system.
In the conscious areas, i.e. the cerebrum, the CNS is where
thought and reasoning occur, as well the perception of sensory
input and the actions needed to control the ________ muscles.
Pleasure and pain centers of the brain. It has been known
for decades that there are ________ of the brain which appear
to cause pleasure, and other areas which appear to cause pain.
This has been studied during surgery where the patient was
awake as there are no pain __________ within the brain, and
also in experiments on animals where stimulation to certain
__________ was found to be desirable and stimulation to
other areas was found to be undesirable.
Functions of the PNS. The PNS connects to the muscles
and organs in the body, driving their actions by stimulating
them either to do — an agonistic stimulus, or not do — an antag-
onistic stimulus.
Somatic and autonomic branches of the PNS. The somat-
ic nervous system innervates the skeletal muscles as well as the
sense organs including the skin. The skeletal muscles are also
called voluntary muscles.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) innervates the
organs of the body, including the heart. Autonomic means
“working on its own” and another term for the muscles inner-
vated by autonomic nerves are involuntary muscles.

5. Match a word in the text to the following definitions:


1) science of the physical life of animals and plants;
2) study of the mind and its processes;
3) science of the structure of animal bodies;
4) science of the normal functions of living things.

The study of the brain is known as neuroscience, a field of


biology that is aimed at understanding the functions of the
brain at every level, from the molecular up to the psychological.
52 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

There is also a branch of psychology that deals with the anatomy


and physiology of the brain, known as biological psychology.
This field of study focuses on each individual part of the brain
and how it affects behavior. The brain innervates the head
through cranial nerves, and it communicates with the spinal
cord, which innervates the body through spinal nerves. Many
functions are controlled by coordinated activity of the brain and
spinal cord. Moreover, some behaviors such as simple reflexes
and basic locomotion can be executed under spinal cord control
alone.

GRAMMAR CHECK
6. Preparing for a quiz. One of the best ways to prepare for
a quiz is to write down questions you think your teacher
will ask. Remember that you will probably be asked dif-
ferent types of questions, not just questions that ask you
to recall information:
Type 1: Questions about data. These are what, when, how,
where, and who questions. They ask you to define, list, locate,
identify, recall, describe, and so on.
Type 2: Questions that develop concepts from the data.
These questions ask you to discuss the data, point to relation-
ships between different parts of the data, compare and contrast,
analyze, predict, and so on.
Type 3: Questions that call for critical judgment. These ques-
tions ask you to evaluate, rank, rate, or assess aspects of the
data, and to justify your answer.
Write four questions about this text. Try to use all three ques-
tion types. Exchange questions with a partner. Аnswer each
other’s questions orally and then discuss with your partner
whether the answers were satisfactory or not.

Reading 2
Look at the title and subtitle of this Reading: What do you
know about body�mind connection?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) What does the phrase once considered signal here? What
was the old view? What is the new view?
Reading 2. The mental edge 53

2) In paragraph 3, can you guess the meaning of the work


marksmen based on the context?
3) In paragraph 4, how can parallel construction help you under-
stand the word adept?
4) The names of what sportsmen are used in the text?
5) In paragraph 5, what training is mentioned?
6) What is self�talk and how can it help?
7) Are there any words that you don’t understand? Where can
you look for information to help you guess their meaning?
8) What do you think the Reading is going to be about?

The mental edge


The brain is the key to peak performance, in sports and
life. There is a new emphasis in the sports world on training
athletes’ minds as well as their muscles. Once considered a form
of psychic voodoo, sports psychology is rapidly becoming an
important part of nearly every serious athlete’s normal routine,
right along with weight lifting and nutrition. The new focus on
the “mental game” is increasingly finding an enthusiastic audience
in business, medicine and the military as well. The implications go
far beyond sports, whether it’s an airline pilot, musician, or sur-
geon, everyone’s goal is achieving a peak performance.
The importance of controlling the
power of the mind has long been part of
folk wisdom. Today, scientists are re-
vealing that such age�old wisdom has bio-
logical basis. Over the years people have
found that certain psychological tech-
niques seem to work. Now we’re begin-
ning to find out that there is a basic
“brain reason why.”
Scientists are showing, for instance,
that one crucial aspect of peak per-
formance — going into a state of intense concentration — is asso-
ciated with profound changes in the brain. In the University of
Maryland they gave skilled marksmen tiny electrodes that
measure the brain’s electrical activity and monitored their
minds as they shot at a target. They found that just before an
expert shooter pulls the trigger, the left side of the brain gives
off a burst of so�called alpha waves, which are characteristic of
a relaxed, dream�like state. Similar results have been found in
golfers as they putt, archers releasing an arrow and basketball
54 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

players shooting a free throw. This sudden change in brain


waves seems to reflect a dramatic change in the athlete’s mental
state at the moment of peak performance.
Neuroscientists have long known that each hemisphere, or
side, of the human brain specializes in certain activities. The left
brain is better at language and analytical skills and the right
brain is more adept at spatial relations and pattern recognition.
Research suggests that during peak performance, the mind
relaxes its analytical side and allows its right side to control the
body. The result is the dreamlike “flow” state that many ath-
letes, musicians and other people report experiencing when
they are intensely engaged in an activity.
The ability to enter a state of deep concentration at the right
moment is a key part of acquiring an athlete skill, even though
people typically are not aware that they are doing it. So impor-
tant is this flow state to peak performance that athletes can
actually improve their performances by learning to control
their brain waves. The archers who learned to control the brain
waves in their left hemisphere shot significantly better, while
those who trained their right hemisphere did far worse.
At the moment of peak performance, athletes, musicians and
other performers speak of being “in the zone,” a state of total
attention to the task at hand. One way to help reach this zone of
deep concentration is to select several “focus” words to repeat
to oneself. “Self�talk” — the running commentary that athletes
carry on in their minds can have a profound effect on the body.
Negative thoughts can lead to anxiety or depression, changing
one’s breathing pattern and heart rate. Psychologists train ath-
lete to think positively by reminding themselves of their past
successes.

VOCABULARY TRAINING
1. Look at the word implications in paragraph 1. Does the
sentence give you enough information to guess the mean-
ing? Read the sentence right before and right after this
sentence. Can you make a guess about the general mean-
ing of the word?
Find the phrase peak performance. Where does it first
appear? Do you think that it is important to understand this
phrase? Why or why not? Scan the text for the phrase oc-
currence. Read each sentence until you have enough infor-
mation to guess the meaning.
Reading 3. Personality — nature or nurture? 55

WRITING
2. Write about the peak performance you have had. Use
Past Progressive, Past Simple and Past Perfect Tenses.
What were you doing? How did you feel? What helped
you focus on the activity? What had you accomplished?
Use the technical terms from the Reading to describe your
experience.

Reading 3
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
plays a role in determining a person’s identity: nature or nur-
ture?

SKIMMING FOR MAIN IDEAS


Read each paragraph quickly, without using a dictionary. To
figure out the main idea, circle the letters of all the correct
answers to the questions that follow. Then combine the
answers to complete a sentence or two that express the main
idea. Combine the sentences to write a brief summary of the
text. Аnswers for paragraph A are given as examples.

Personality — nature or nurture?


А. The nature/nurture question is not a new one. Its roots
go back at least several hundred years. In the 1600s, the British
philosopher John Locke wrote that a newborn infant was a “blank
slate” on which his or her education and experience would be
“written.” In other words, Locke believed that environment
alone determined each person’s identity. In the 1700s, the
French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau claimed that “natural”
characteristics were more important. Today, we realize that both
play a role. The question now is, to what degree? To answer this
question, researchers are studying identical twins, especially
those who grew up in different environments.
1) What is the one main topic of the paragraph?
a) John Locke
b) Jean Jacques Rousseau
c) Newborn infants
d) The nature/nurture question
e) Identical twins
56 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

2) What details about the topic does the paragraph provide?


a) People have just recently begun to discuss the
nature/nurture question.
b) John Locke believed in “nurture.”
c) Jean Jacques Rousseau believed in “nature.”
d) Today, we know that both nature and nurture deter-
mine a person’s identity.
e) Researchers are studying identical twins to learn the
degree to which nature and nurture determine personal
characteristics.
3) The main idea of the paragraph is that both nature and nur-
ture play a role in determining a person’s identity.

B. Jim Lewis and Jim Springer are identical twins who were
separated five weeks after birth. They grew up in different fam-
ilies and didn’t know about each other’s existence. They were
reunited at the age of thirty�nine. It is not surprising that they
were physically alike — the same dark hair, the same height and
weight. They both had high blood pressure and very bad
headaches. But they also moved in the same way and made the
same gestures. They both hated baseball. They both drank the
same brand of beer, drove the same make of car, and spent their
vacations on the same small beach in Florida. They had both
married women named Linda, gotten divorced, and then mar-
ried women named Betty. Studies of these and other separated
twins indicate that genetics (biology) plays a significant role in
determining personal characteristics and behavior.
1) What is the one main topic of the paragraph?
a) Reunion
b) Twins
c) Similarities in twins who grew up in different environ-
ments
d) Genetics
e) Personal characteristics and behavior
2) What details about the topic does the paragraph provide?
a) Jim Lewis and Jim Springer were identical twins who grew
up together.
b) Jim Lewis and Jim Springer were identical twins who grew
up separately.
c) They have similar physical characteristics, interests, and
choice of specific products.
Reading 3. Personality — nature or nurture? 57

d) They married the same woman.


e) Their example indicates the significance of genetics in
determination of identity.
3) The main idea of the paragraph is that ________________
____________________________________________

C. Various research centres are studying identical twins in


order to discover the “heritability” of behavioral characteristics —
that is, the degree to which a trait is due to genes (“nature”)
instead of environment. They have reached some startling con-
clusions. One study found, for example, that optimism and pes-
simism are both very much influenced by genes, but only opti-
mism is affected by environment, too. According to another
study, genes influence our coffee consumption, but not con-
sumption of tea. Anxiety (nervousness and worry) seems to be 40
to 50 per cent heritable. Another study tells us that happiness
does not depend much on money or love or professional success;
instead, it is 80 per cent heritable. Among the traits that appear
to be largely heritable are shyness, attraction to danger (thrill
seeking), choice of career, and religious belief.
1) What is the one main topic of the paragraph?
a) Research centers
b) Optimism and pessimism
c) Behavioural characteristics
d) Happiness
e) Heritability of behavioural characteristics
2) What details about the topic does the paragraph provide?
a) Researchers want to understand “heritability.”
b) Researchers are studying identical twins.
c) Most behavioural characteristics are the result of genes,
not environment.
d) A person who has money, love, and success will probably
be happy.
e) Examples of characteristics that are heritable to some
degree are optimism, pessimism, happiness, thrill seeking,
and choice of career.
3) The main idea of the paragraph is that ________________
____________________________________________

D. It is not easy to discover the genes that influence person-


ality. The acid that carries genetic information in every human
cell, DNA, contains just four chemicals: adenine, cytosine, gua-
58 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

nine, and thymine. But a single gene is “spelled out” by perhaps


a million combinations. As the Human Genome Project (which
provided a “map” of human genes) was nearing completion in
the spring of 2000, there were a number of newspaper headlines
about specific discoveries: “Gene Linked to Anxiety,” “Gay Gene!”
and “Thrill Seeking Due to Genetics.” The newspaper articles
led people to believe that a single gene is responsible for a certain
personality trait, in the same way a single gene can be responsi-
ble for a physical characteristic or disease. However, one gene
alone cannot cause people to become anxious or homosexual or
thrill seeking. Instead, many genes work together, and they do
direct the combination of chemicals in the body. These chemicals,
such as dopamine and serotonin (which affect a person’s mood)
have a significant influence on personality.
1) What is the one main topic of the paragraph?
a) The Human Genome Project
b) The effect of genes on personality
c) Chemicals
d) DNA
e) Thrill seeking
2) What details about the topic does the paragraph provide?
a) It’s difficult to find which genes influence personality.
b) A single gene is responsible for each personality trait
such as thrill seeking.
c) Many genes work together.
d) Genes direct the combination of chemicals in the body.
e) Chemicals have a significant influence on personality.
3) The main idea of the paragraph is that ________________
____________________________________________

E. If indeed, personality traits are, on average, about 50 per


cent heritable, then environment still plays an important role.
Unlike other animals, human beings have choice. If our genes
“program” us to be anxious, we can choose a low�stress lifestyle or
choose to meditate or do relaxation exercises. But because of the
powerful influence of genes, most psychologists believe that there
is a limit to what we can choose to do. Thomas Bouchard, a psy-
chologist and the director of one twin study, says that parents
should not push children in directions that go against their nature.
“The job of a parent,” he says, “is to look for a kid’s natural tal-
ents and then provide the best possible environment for them.”
Reading 3. Personality — nature or nurture? 59

1) What is the one main topic of the paragraph?


a) The role of environment
b) Personality traits
c) Anxiety
d) Psychologists
e) What parents should do
2) What details about the topic does the paragraph provide?
a) Environment still plays an important role.
b) Human beings have choice.
c) Human beings can choose to do anything they want.
d) Psychologists say that parents should not push children
against their nature.
e) Parents should provide their child with the best environ-
ment for the child’s natural talents.
3) The main idea of the paragraph is that ________________
____________________________________________

BUILDING VOCABUILARY
1. Guessing meaning from context. Do not look up every
unfamiliar word in the dictionary. Get into the habit of
guessing meaning from context. Read these passages from
the text and use the context to guess what the words in
bold probably mean.
We could take individuals with exactly the same genetic
constitution (that is, identical twins) and raise them in differ-
ent environments. Or we could take people of clearly different
genetic constitutions and raise them in identical environments.
No matter how important we feel our scientific question is,
we cannot simply pluck children out of their homes and then
systematically assign them to different environmental condi-
tions just for the sake of an experiment.

TALKING POINTS
2. Genes for crime?
It is highly possible that there is a genetic link or
contribution to violence or criminality. In other
words, genes may contribute to the possibility that
a person will become a thief, murderer, or other
type of criminal.
Psychologists believe that people who want to
become parents should be tested and given a license.
60 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

If both the man and the woman have genes for violence or crimi-
nality, they should not be allowed to have a baby. They hope
that this will reduce crime in society.
What do you think? Share your opinion with your partner.

3. Read about twin relationship and discuss the text with


your partner.

Born together, grown up together


but meant to be separated. Why?
The relationship between twins is usually very different
from the one between brothers and sisters. Twins even though
they are two different people like any two people if they are
friends they usually can understand each other in a special way
that no other person can do. This happens because twins have
something special in common that is hard to define. It has in
fact happened that two twins living in different parts of the
world and not knowing of each other end up anyways having a
similar life.
However not all twins have this special bond, but for this spe-
cial relationship to develop it is necessary for the children to
have grown up together and for them to have shared many
moments of their lives and through them acquired a good
knowledge of each other necessary to then be able to understand
each other in that special way that no other person ever will.
Therefore being twins is more related to a relationship created
over a long period of time passed together from childhood on,
and not only to the fact of being born in this special way. The
proof of this is that even two babies of the same age adopted at
the same time, although they are not genetically twins, they can
experience the same special relationship.

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Words with similar meanings. The words in each of the
following groups have similar meanings, but they are not
exactly the same. Match the words with their definitions.
If necessary, check your answers in a dictionary.
1) brain a) a way of thinking or feeling
2) mind b) the ability to remember
3) memory c) an organ of the body that controls
thought and feeling
Reading 3. Personality — nature or nurture? 61

4) equipment a) an instrument
5) machine b) the things that are needed for an
activity
6) device c) a manufactured instrument that
needs power (e. g., electricity)
——————————————————————————————————————
7) insight a) a way of thinking with formal methods
8) knowledge b) understanding that comes from expe-
rience and learning
9) logic c) the power of using one’s mind (espe-
cially the right brain) to understand
something suddenly
——————————————————————————————————————
10) colleague a) person of equal status or age
11) peer b) a person who works in the same place
as another
12) co�worker c) person who works in the same profes-
sion as another

GRAMMAR CHECK
5. Read the passage. Complete the sentences using the verbs
in parenthesis in the correct form.
(To be) the differences we observe in intelligence due to
heredity or to environmental influences? This (to be) one of
the oldest and most enduring questions in all of psychology. As
reasonable as it may sound, the question (to do) not have a rea-
sonable answer. At least it (to do) not have simple, straightfor-
ward answer. As we see, there (to be) some evidence that intel-
ligence (to tend) to run in families and may (to be) due in part
to innate, inherited factors. There (to be) also data and com-
mon sense that (to tell) us that a person’s environment can
affect intellectual, cognitive functioning. After all these years
of scientific investigation, why can’t we provide an answer to
this question?
It (to do) not take very long to figure out why such manipu-
lations (to be) not possible — at least with human subjects. How
could we ever guarantee that any two persons (to be) raised in
identical environments? How can we ever get many more than
two subjects at a time who (to have) exactly the same genetic
constitution? Even with pairs of subjects, who can decide what
kinds of environments each (to be) assigned?
62 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

6. Read about Siamese twins and underline all the verbs in


Passive Voice, define the tenses of these verbs.
Siamese twins are identical monozygotic twins that during
development, due to a genetic anomaly have been conjoined.
The egg cell after being fertilized instead of split tong comple-
tely, as occurs normally in a case of monozygotic twins, remains
partially connected. Conjoined twins take the name “Siamese”
in memory of a famous pair of twins: Chang and Eng who orig-
inated from Siam (present�day Thailand). Chang and Eng lived
in the 19th century and at the time very little was known about
conjoined twins. Chang and Eng repeatedly inquired about the
possibility of separation and consulted many doctors however
they always received the same reply. The doctors refused to per-
form surgery because they were not sure if the two brothers
shared the same venal system. After their death an autopsy was
performed and it was then discovered that the twins could have
been easily separated because they only shared the same liver.
A case of Siamese twins occurs very rarely, at a rate of 1 birth
for 100,000 children or 5% of monozygotic twins. Approxima-
tely 75% of conjoined twins are stillborn or die within 24 hours
of birth. More males than females are conjoined in the uterus,
however females are 3 times more likely to survive, resulting in
a 70%�rate of conjoined twins being.

Reading 4
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
does it take to learn a second language?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) Who is Karl Kim? Who is Joy Hirsch?
2) Where do they do research?
3) What instrument did they use?
4) Why did they use this instrument?
5) Who was in each group that they studied?
6) Which areas of the brain did they look at?
7) What was their conclusion about learning a second lan-
guage?
Reading 4. The bilingual brain 63

The bilingual brain


When Karl Kim immigrated Broca’s Area ?
to the United States from Korea
as a teenager ten years ago, he
had a hard time learning Eng-
lish. Now he speaks it fluently,
and recently he had a unique op-
portunity to see how our brains
adapt to a second language. Kim
is a graduate student in the lab Wernicke’s Area
of Joy Hirsch, a neuroscientist at
Memorial Center in New York. Diagram shows the lobes
He and Hirsch have recently found of the human cerebral cortex
and the cerebellum.
evidence that children and adults
don’t use the same parts of the brain when learning a second
language.
The researchers used an instrument called a functional mag-
netic resonance imager to study the brains of two groups of
bilingual people. One group consisted of those who had learned
a second language as children. The other consisted of people
who, like Kim, learned their second language later in life. When
placed inside the MRI scanner, which allowed Kim and Hirsch
to see which parts of the brain were getting more blood and
were thus more active, people from both groups were asked to
think about what they had done the day before, first in one langu-
age and then the other. (They couldn’t speak out loud, because
any movement would disrupt the scanning.)
Kim and Hirsch looked specifically at two language centers
in the brain — Broca’s area in the left frontal part, which is
believed to manage speech production, and Wernicke’s area, in
the rear of the brain, thought to process the meaning of lan-
guage. Both groups of people, Kim and Hirsch found, used the
same part of Wernicke’s area no matter what language they
were speaking. But their use of Broca’s area differed.
People who learned a second language as children used the
same region in Broca’s area for both languages. But those who
learned a second language later in life made use of a distinct
region in Broca’s area for their second language — near the one
activated for their native tongue.
How does Hirsch explain this difference? “When language is
being hardwired during development,” says Hirsch, “the brain
may intertwine sounds and structures from all languages into
64 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

the same area.” But once that wiring is complete, the manage-
ment of a new language, with new sounds and structures, must
be taken over by a different part of the brain.
A second possibility is simply that we may acquire languages
differently as children than we do as adults. “If you watch mothers
or family members teaching an infant to speak,” says Hirsch,
“it’s very tactile, it’s very auditory, it’s very visual. There are a lot
of different inputs. And that’s very different from sitting in a high
school class.”

TALKING POINTS
1. What have you learned from the text above?
Try to explain in your own words. Comment on
the quotation: “The brain is in a class by itself.
Compared with other organs in the body, it has
complexity and beauty.” (Herbert Lourie, M. D.)
2. The human mind is very powerful. As you work
through this reading, you will learn about your
own mind and the amazing ways the human mind works.
The following are some of Einstein’s famous quotes. In small
groups, discuss their meanings. Some of the words are diffi-
cult. Before you use your dictionary, see if someone in your
group can explain unfamiliar words to you.
1) Imagination is more important than knowledge.
2) It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative
expression and knowledge.
3) Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics. I can
assure you that mine are still greater.
4) Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition
from mediocre minds.
5) The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of
everyday thinking.

SMALL GROUP TALK


3. Аnswer each of the following questions about yourself. Then
discuss your answers with your classmates in small groups.
1) What types of things are you good at? Make a list.
2) What types of things do you find difficult or challenging?
Make a list.
3) Do you have a good memory? Are you good at memorizing
certain things? What types of things are you best at memo-
Reading 4. The bilingual brain 65

rizing or remembering? Do you use any “tricks” to help you


remember things? What are they?
4) Is your mind most active during the morning, during the
afternoon, during the evening, or at night? Are you more
creative when you are asleep or awake?
5) We all use both sides of our brains, but some of us favor one
side over the other. The side we favour is called the dominant
side. Knowing which side you favour can help you under-
stand a lot about yourself.

GRAMMAR CHECK
4. Make the following sentences negative.
1) Neuroscientists still (to understand) why some bilingual
adults who have strokes can speak in one language after-
wards, but they (to speak) the other.
2) And they (to be) sure how important it is to learn a second
language as a toddler.
3) Scientists still (to sort out) under what circumstances a sec-
ond language is stored in a different part of the brain from
the first.
4) Bilingual children become exceptionally good at learning to
ignore misleading information, it means they (to pay) atten-
tion to insignificant details.
5) It is known that children who grow up in bilingual homes (to
acquire) either language as fast as monolingual kids, but
once they’ve learned both, they appear to have a number of
intellectual advantages.

COMPREHENSION CHECK
5. Read the text and answer the questions below.
Before the early 1960’s, people interested in the differing roles
of the left and right hemispheres of the brain depended almost
entirely on evidence drawn from animal research, from studies
of neurological patients with one�sided brain damage, or from
patients who had had their corpus callosum, the conduit con-
necting the two hemispheres, surgically severed. But it was pos-
sible to detect which brain hemisphere was most involved in
speech and other functions in normal people by having them lis-
ten to two different words coming to the two ears at the same
time. This became known as the “dichotic listening” procedure.
When several word pairs are given in a row, people are unable to
report them all, and most right�handers prefer to report, and
66 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

report more accurately, words given to their right ear. This seems
to be related to the fact that signals from the right ear, although
sent to both hemispheres, are preferentially sent to the left hemi-
sphere which controls speech. People who have speech represen-
ted in the right hemisphere, a very unusual occurrence even in
left�handed people, more accurately report what their left ears
hear.
In contrast to the right�ear advantage for speech, there is
generally a left�ear advantage for another type of auditory signal:
music. When right�handed people listen to melodic patterns
they report them better from the left ear.
1) Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for
the passage?
a) An introduction to speech damage in neurological pati-
ents
b) An investigation into the role of the brain’s hemispheres
c) An analysis of left and right�handed people
d) An examination of “dichotic listening”
2) Early research into the right and left hemispheres of the
brain was done on … .
a) neurological mental patients
b) experimental animals
c) brain damages people
d) surgically injured patients
3) The “dichotic listening” procedure could best be described
as hearing … .
a) two different words in the same ear twice
b) the same word twice in different ears
c) two different words in different ears
d) two different words twice in two ears
4) According to the passage, right�handed people normally … .
a) have better hearing in their right ears
b) have little difficulty in reporting words given to their
right ears
c) are unable to report word pairs given to their word pairs
d) accurately report word pairs given in a row
5) Where do most left�handed people send speech signals?
a) From the right ear to both hemispheres.
b) To the left hemisphere from the right ear.
Reading 5. Do you know your right brain from your left? 67

c) From the right ear to the right hemisphere.


d) To the left hemisphere from the left ear.
6. According to the passage, music is best appreciated when
heard by … .
a) to the left ear of right�handers
b) people with a left�ear advantage
c) left�handers in their right ear
d) right�handed people who understand patterns

“Are you right�brained or left�brained?” will explore the two


sides of the brain — the right and the left. To see if you have
a dominant side, read sections A and В of the quiz in EXTEN-
SION АCTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS, Аctivities for
Chapter 2. Then put a check mark next to the statements
that are true for you. Be honest!

Reading 5
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: How
are functions of the brain divided?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text. Which of the following
topics are discussed in the article? Put a check mark next to
those topics.
1) __ The side of the brain that is more logical.
2) __ The size and weight of the human brain.
3) __ The side of the brain that is more creative.
4) __ The types of people that are usually right�brained or
left�brained.
5) __ The part of the brain that controls muscular activity.
6) __ Diseases of the brain.

Do you know your right brain from your left?


1. The human brain is divided into two sides, or hemi-
spheres, called the right brain and the left brain. The two hemi-
spheres work together, but each one specializes in certain ways
of thinking. Back side has its own way of using information to
help us think, understand, and process information.
2. The left side of the brain controls language. It is more ver-
bal and logical. It names things and puts them into groups. It
68 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

uses rules and likes ideas to be clear, logical, and orderly. It is


best at speech, reading, writing, and math. You use this side of
the brain when you memorize spelling and grammar rules or
when you do a math problem.
3. The right side of the brain is more visual and creative. It
specializes in using information it receives from the senses of
sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste. This side of the brain likes
to dream and experiment. It controls your appreciation of music,
color, and art. You use this side when you draw a picture or listen
to music.
4. Although we all use both sides of our brains, one side is usu-
ally stronger or dominant. Some people are more “left�brained,”
and others are more “right�brained.” Our dominant side influences
the kinds of jobs and hobbies we have. Politicians, artists, archi-
tects, and musicians depend on their right brains. Accountants,
engineers, doctors, and lawyers usually rely on their left brains.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Briefly look over this list of words from the Reading that
follows. Which words do you already know? For the ones
that you don’t know, use a dictionary. Complete each sen-
tence with a word from the list.
Hemispheres, specializes, information, verbal, rule,
memorize, logical, creative, dominant

1) Artists are … people.


2) Our brains have two … .
3) The left side of an accountant’s brain is probably … .
4) English spelling … are very complicated.
5) … people have good language skills.
6) Each side of the brain uses … in a different way.
7) The right side of the brain … in using knowledge it gets from
the senses.
8) The lawyer gave a … argument. It made sense.
9) It is difficult to … all the English grammar rules.

COMPREHENSION CHECK
2. Аnswer the following questions by writing the number of
the paragraph on the lines provided.
1) __ Which paragraph describes the left brain?
2) __ Which paragraph explains that the human brain is
divided into two sides?
Reading 6. Left-handedness 69

3) __ Which paragraph discusses the kind of people who are


usually left�brained or right�brained?
4) __ Which paragraph describes the right brain?

3. Read the following statements. If a statement is true,


write Т on the line provided. If it is false, write F.
1) __ The human brain has two sides.
2) __ Everyone is more right�brained than left�brained.
3) __ The right side of the brain is more creative.
4) __ When you solve a math problem, you use your left brain.
5) __ Both sides of the brain specialize in the same things.
6) __ Artists use their right brain more than engineers do.
7) __ When you paint a picture, you use your left brain.

GRAMMAR CHECK
4. Read the passage and put verbs in parenthesis in the cor-
rect form (Аctive vs. Passive Voice).
For 99 per cent of right�handed people, the brain (to process)
language mostly in the left hemisphere. In left�handers, it ...
often (to reverse). Among other things, this (to mean) that if for
a left�handed person brain surgery (to need), it’s crucial to map
where language areas (to be) to avoid damaging them. Specifi-
cally, speech production (to govern) by Broca’s area, a small region
in the left inferior frontal cortex of the brain — beneath the
temple. Language comprehension, on the other hand, (to occur)
in Wernicke’s area, which (to locate) farther back. Sign lan-
guage, by the way, (to use) the same areas, as well as visual pro-
cessing areas. If a person who (to communicate) by sign langu-
age has a stroke in Broca’s area, he (to become) aphasic (unable
to speak) just like a person who (to use) oral speech.

Reading 6
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: Does
different handedness cause differences in people?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
1. Read and find the details in the text.
1) What does the right hemisphere of the brain control?
2) Which hemisphere is stronger in left�handed people?
3) Why do lefties prefer to kick with the left foot?
70 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

4) What problems do lefties have using machines?


5) When do some left�handers start to stutter?
6) Why do anthropologists think the earliest people were
equally divided between left� and right�handedness?
7) Why did the Greeks start writing from left to right?
8) What does “you are in good company” mean?
9) How can you tell if a two�year�old child is left�handed?
10) Are you left�handed?

2. Look at these statements before you read. Do you think


they are true (T ) or false (F )?
1) __ Most Chinese people are right�handed.
2) __ Most Siamese twins are left�handed.
3) __ On average, left�handed children are slightly more intel-
ligent than right�handed children.
4) __ The word for “left” in most languages has a negative
meaning.
5) __ Japanese macaque monkeys are more likely to be
right�pawed than left�pawed.
6) __ The US army is more likely to accept you if you’re
right�handed.
7) __ Most right�handed people are also right�footed.
Now check your answers in the text.

3. Check some facts and figures and answer the questions


after the text.
Language. Most languages are biased against left�handers.
English: right (correct), left (left out); French: droit (adroit),
gauche; Latin: dexter (dextrous), sinister; Greek is an excep-
tion, aristeros (left�handed) also means better.
International. The Eskimos, Maoris, African and Chinese
are all predominantly right�handed. So were the ancient Egyp-
tians, Greeks and Romans.
Elephants. African elephants are left� or right�tusked. One
tusk is used for digging and is slightly larger than the other.
Monkeys. A recent study of Japanese macaque monkeys
revealed 40% left�pawed, 20% right�pawed, 40% ambidextrous.
Siamese twins. Siamese twins are mirror images of each
other. One will be left�handed and the other right�handed, the
fingerprints of one twin’s right hand will be almost identical to
the other twin’s left hand.
Reading 6. Left-handedness 71

The US army rejects a higher percentage of left�handers


than right�handers.
Left�handed US schoolchildren have on average slightly
higher IQs.
In mental institutions, more people than average are
left�handed.
Sport. In mane sports, such as cricket, tennis and fencing, it
is an advantage to be left�handed. Left�handed players get used
to right�handed opponents, but right�handed players are often
confused by a left�handed opponent.
Feet. Most right�handed footballers prefer to use their left
foot.
There are two theories why man developed a right�hand
bias:
Theory 1. When one�hand�sided tools, such as scythes and
sickles, first appeared, they were precious objects owned by the
community — not by individuals. It was obviously desirable
that everybody should be able to use the same tools — so a
one�hand�sided bias developed.
Theory 2. It may be instinctive for women to cradle babies
on their left side — next to the heartbeat. This leaves only the
right hand free to do things.
How to find if you are left�eyed. Focus eyes on distant object,
raise finger so you see it “out of focus,” in front of the object.
Wink one eye then the other, finger will appear to jump when
you wink dominant eye but not the other. Most right�handers
are right�eyed. There is some evidence that they also chew more
with the right side of the jaw.

Questions:
1) How can you tell whether an elephant is right�tusked or
left�tusked?
2) Why do left�handed players have an advantage in tennis?
3) Here are some possible reasons why most people are
right�handed. Which two agree with the text?
a) Left�handed people aren’t very good at using tools.
b) Early tools had to be shared.
c) Right arms are stronger than left arms.
d) Left arms are stronger than right arms.
e) Babies copy their mothers.
f) Babies like to feel their mother’s heartbeat.
4) Are you right�eyed or left�eyed?
72 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

Left�handedness
Are you a leftie? If you are, you are one of millions in the world
who prefer to use their left hand. There would be millions more
left�handed people if societies didn’t force them to use their right
hands. To understand left�handedness, it is necessary to look at
the brain. The brain is divided into two hemispheres. In most
right�handers, the left hemisphere is the center of language and
logical thinking, where they do their math problems and memorize
vocabulary. The right hemisphere controls how they understand
broad, general ideas, and how they respond to the five senses —
sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.
The left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of
the body, and the right hemisphere controls the left side. Both
sides of the body receive the same information from the brain
because both hemispheres are connected.
However, in right�handed people, the left hemisphere is stron-
ger. In left�handed people, it is the right hemisphere that is stronger.
Different handedness causes differences in people. Although
the left hemisphere controls language in most right�handers,
40 per cent of left�handers have the language center in the right
hemisphere. The other 60 per cent use the left side of the brain
or both sides for language.
Lefties not only prefer using the left hand. They prefer using
the left foot for kicking a ball, because the whole body is
“left�handed.”
There is an increasing amount of research on handedness.
For example, one psychologist says that left�handers are more
likely to have a good imagination. They also enjoy swimming
underwater more than right�handers.
Left�handedness can cause problems for people. Some
left�handed children see letters and words backwards. They
read “d” for 6 and “was” for “saw”. Another problem is stuttering.
Some left�handed children start to stutter when they are forced
to write with their right hand. Queen Elizabeth II’s father, King
George VI, had to change from left� to right�handed writing
when he was a child, and he stuttered all his life.
Anthropologists think that the earliest people were about
50% right�handed and 50% left�handed because ancient tools
from before 8000 BC could be used with either hand. But by
3500 BC, the tools, which were better designed, were for use
with only one hand. More than half of them were for
right�handed people.
Reading 6. Left-handedness 73

The first writing system, invented by the Phoenicians


(3000—2000 BC) in the Middle East, went from right to left.
The Greeks began to write from left to right around the fifth
century BC because they increasingly believed that “right” was
good and “left” was bad. As time passed, there were more and
more customs connecting “left” with “bad.” This belief is still
common in many countries today, and left�handed people suffer
from it.
As the centuries passed and education spread to more levels
of society, more and more people became literate. As more chil-
dren learned to write, more of them were forced to write with
their right hands. In the United States, some teachers finally
started permitting schoolchildren to write with their left hands
in the 1930s.
In parts of Europe, left�handed children were still forced to
write with their right hands in the 1950s. Today in many coun-
tries, all children must write with their right hand even though
they prefer using their left hand.
Some famous people were left�handed. Julius Caesar,
Napoleon, Michelangelo and da Vinci (famous Italian artists),
and Albert Einstein were left�handed. Alexander the Great
(356—323 BC) and Queen Victoria of England were also. So is
Prince Charles.
Paul McCartney of the Beatles plays the guitar the opposite
way from other guitarists because he is left�handed. Marilyn
Monroe, the famous American movie star, was also left�handed.
Are you left�handed even though you write with your right
hand? Take this test to find out. Draw a circle with one hand
and then with the other. If you draw them clockwise (the direc-
tion the hands of a clock go in) you are probably left�handed. If
you draw them counterclockwise (in the other direction), you
are right�handed. The test does not always work, and some peo-
ple may draw one circle in one direction and the other circle in
the other direction. But don’t worry if you are left�handed. You
are in good company.

1. False/True/Not enough information. Write F, T, or N on


the lines provided.
1) __ Most right�handers do calculus with the left hemisphere
of the brain.
2) __ When people look at a beautiful sunset, most of them use
the right hemisphere of the brain.
74 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

3) __ The right hemisphere controls the right side of the body.


4) __ Most people in the world use the left hemisphere for lan-
guage.
5) __ Left�handedness can cause children to see letters backward.
6) __ It is easier to write from left to right.
7) __ Left�handed people are more intelligent than right�hand-
ers.
8) __ Some Eskimos are left�handed.

FINDING THE REASON


2. Write the reason for each statement.
1) Many left�handers have to use their right hand.
2) For some people, the center of language is in the right hemi-
sphere.
3) Both sides of the body receive the same information.
4) Lefties prefer kicking with the left foot.
5) King George VI stuttered.
6) Anthropologists think more than 50% of people were
right�handed by 3500 BC.
7) Paul McCartney plays the guitar differently.

TALKING POINTS
3. Read the following descriptions of four dif-
ferent people. Decide who you think is
left�brained and who is right�brained. Write L
(left ) next to the descriptions of left�brained
people and R (right) next to the descriptions of
right�brained people. Talk about these people.
1) __ Daniel’s hobby is drawing cartoons. He loves surprises
and hates following a strict schedule. He is very sensitive
and likes to find new ways of doing things.
2) __ Dr. Curley is very careful about keeping his appoint-
ments. He is always on time and does things in an order-
ly way. Every day, as soon as he gets home from work, he
takes his dog for a walk and goes jogging for a half hour.
3) __ Debbie is a lawyer at a big law firm in New York. Her
language skills are very good. She is a very logical person.
She gets up, eats, and goes to sleep at the same time every
day.
4) __ Ian Baker is the mayor of a small city. He is always looking
for creative ways to solve the city’s problems. In his spare
time, he enjoys going to concerts and playing the piano.
Reading 7. What is intelligence? Psychometric approach 75

4. A recent study suggests that people who are left�handed


are more likely to succeed in business that are right�handed
people. Researchers studied photographs of 1,000 promi-
nent business executives and found that 21% of these
executives wrote with their left hand. So the percentage
of prominent business people who are left�handed (21%)
is almost twice the percentage of people in the general
population who are left�handed (11%). Thus, people who
are left�handed would be well advised to pursue a career
in business, whereas people who are right�handed would
be advised to imitate the business practices exhibited by
left�handers. What do you think about it? Provide your
comments.

5. Have you ever known someone whom you think is a geni-


us? In what area? How would you describe this person?
What qualities does he or she have that are special?

6. What is intelligence? How do we know the person is


intelligent? Can we measure it? If you don’t know how to
answer the above questions, you can find all the answers
in the next Reading.

7. Read the passage; use the words in parenthesis to form


new words that would fit in the text.
The brain is the site of reason and intelligence, which include
such components as cognition, (to perceive), attention, memory
and emotion. The brain is also responsible for control of posture
and (to move). It makes possible (cognition), motor and other
forms of learning. The brain can perform a variety of functions
automatically, without the need for conscious (aware), such as
coordination of sensory systems, for example, sensory gating
and multisensory (to integrate), walking, and homeostatic body
functions such as blood pressure, fluid balance, and body tem-
perature.

Reading 7
Teachers, like the rest of us, are continually making judg-
ments about a person’s intelligence, although it is difficult to
define. Intelligence has been defined in many different ways.
Some have defined it as the sum total of everything you know,
76 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

others have defined it as the ability to learn and profit from


experience, still others define it as the ability to solve prob-
lems. Of course, there is nothing wrong with any of these def-
initions of intelligence. The problem is that not one of them
alone seems to say it all. We use the term “intelligence” so often
as a general label for so many abilities, that it is now almost
impossible to give it a specific definition.
There are two texts in this Reading. Skim both of them and
answer the questions: What do you think intelligence is? What
qualities of a person make him or her intelligent? What is IQ?
How to calculate it?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) Do people generally agree about what intelligence is?
2) What is the first issue in understanding intelligence?
3) What is a norm? Does the context help you understand its
meaning?
4) Do you think that the writer is in favour of IQ testing? Why
or why not?
5) Does the writer believe that people with high IQs are more
successful than people with lower IQs?
6) Does the writer believe that intelligence is more than just
the abilities a person is born with?

What is intelligence?
Intelligence is what you use
when you don’t know what to do.
Jean Piaget
The definition of intelligence has long
been a matter of controversy. Individu-
als differ from one another in their abili-
ty to understand complex ideas, to adapt
effectively to the environment, to learn
from experience, to engage in various forms
of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by
taking thought. Although these individ-
ual differences can be substantial, they
are never entirely consistent: a given per-
son’s intellectual performance will vary on
different occasions, in different domains,
Reading 7. What is intelligence? Psychometric approach 77

as judged by different criteria. Concepts of “intelligence” are


attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena.
Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas,
no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important
questions and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two
dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelli-
gence, they gave two dozen somewhat different definitions.
Intelligence is a property of mind that encompasses many
related abilities, such as the capacities to reason, to plan, to
solve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use
language, and to learn. There are several ways to define intelli-
gence. In some cases, intelligence may include traits such as:
creativity, personality, character, knowledge, or wisdom.
However, some psychologists prefer not to include these traits
in the definition of intelligence.
Intelligence comes from the Latin verb intellegere, which
means to understand. By this rationale, intelligence (as under-
standing) is arguably different from being smart (able to adapt
to one’s environment), or being clever (able to creatively
adapt). By the Latin definition, intelligence arguably has to do
with a deeper understanding of the relationships of all things
around us; and with a capability for metaphysical manipulation
of such objects once such understanding is mastered.
Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget would have described intel-
ligence as the thinking ability that helps a person solve prob-
lems and adapt to his or her environment. But this definition
does not include many other abilities and qualities that most of
us would use to describe intelligence. Intelligence could also
mean the ability to do abstract thinking, to carry out our plans,
or to think logically; it also might mean everything that a per-
son has learned in his or her lifetime.
Before 1960, some people believed that, for the most part,
intelligence was innate or inborn. In other words, either you were
born smart or you weren’t and nothing could change that.
More recently, scientists have begun to look at how a person’s
environment might influence the development of intelligence.
The other main issue in understanding intelligence is how to
measure it. Two of the main abilities that have been measured in
IQ (intelligence quotient) tests are verbal comprehension
(understanding words) and the ability to think with and about
numbers. IQ tests also measure other parts of intelligence such
as general thinking ability, vocabulary, memory, and spatial
78 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

ability. “Spatial ability” refers to the ability to figure out things


in space. For example, someone who is good with maps and
directions probably has a lot of spatial ability. However, other
abilities often connected with intelligence, such as creativity,
artistic and musical talent, social skills, and regular common
sense, are often not included on standard IQ tests.

Psychometric approach
Intelligence is everything, and
at the same time, nothing at all.
Alfred Binet
Alfred Binet (1857—1911) was the
leading psychologist in France at the turn
of the century. He worked at the psycho-
logy laboratory at the Sorbonne, studied
hypnosis, abnormal behaviors, optical
illusions, and thinking processes, but by
far his major concern was with individual
differences. In particular, Binet was curious
about how people differed in their ability
to solve problems.
Despite the variety of concepts of
intelligence, the most influential approach to understanding
intelligence (i.e., with the most supporters and the most pub-
lished research over the longest period of time) is based on psy-
chometric testing. The IQ test was designed to measure success
in school. Alfred Binet was asked to develop the first IQ test in
order to identify “dull” children — the children who needed
additional or remedial help in school. This is important because
many people might not think that school success is the only
kind of intelligence, yet this is all that IQ tests measure.
Binet designed the test with increasing levels of difficulty so
that children of different ages could pass different parts of the
test. He tested many, many children, and then decided on age
norms for the questions he wrote. For example, a question that
most six�year�olds could answer but most five�year�olds could
not answer was thought to show the average mental perform-
ance of a six�year�old.
The product of Binet’s test was a number showing a child’s
mental age (MA). Mental age is changed to an IQ score by
dividing the MA by the child’s actual age and multiplying the
Reading 7. What is intelligence? Psychometric approach 79

result by 100. Therefore, a 6�year�old who scored at a mental


age of 6 would have an IQ of 100 (6/6  100 = 100). This sys-
tem allows us to compare the IQs of children of different ages.
A 6�year�old with an MA of 3 has an IQ of 50, and a 10�year�old
with an MA of 5 also has an IQ of 50. An average IQ is consid-
ered to be 100, with a standard deviation of 15 points (thus, the
range of average IQs is from 85 to 115). Binet’s original test was
later modified by a researcher from Stanford University in
California. The result is the IQ test used today, called the
Stanford�Binet.
Because they were developed to predict future school suc-
cess, IQ tests compare fairly well with actual school perform-
ance. What else do they predict? If we think of them as mea-
sures of intelligence, we might expect them to predict other
things, such as job performance, or life satisfaction. Each of
these factors has been studied in relation to IQ scores.
Researchers have found that the average IQ of people who
have more prestigious jobs (such as doctor or lawyer) is higher
than the average IQ of people in jobs with less prestige (such as
farmhand or factory worker). In addition, researchers found
that although there are high�IQ people in lower�prestige jobs,
there are no people with low IQs in high�prestige jobs.
In many cases, IQ is not a good predictor of job performance.
In professions with intermediate status (such as electrician), IQ
made a difference in job performance. However, at the upper
and lower ends, a person’s IQ score did not show any relation-
ship to success on the job.
Another question is whether high�IQ people are happier,
healthier, or more satisfied with their lives than people with
lower IQs. Terman did a study of children with very high IQs
(140 or higher). He found that they generally develop a little
faster. In addition, they were seen as more competent and bet-
ter adjusted than children with lower IQs.
However, there was a problem with his study. Terman did
not choose his subjects carefully enough. His group of high�IQ
students contained too many children of educated, wealthy and
powerful parents. Therefore, these children had more educa-
tional opportunities, higher social standing, and more money
than many of the lower�IQ children. All of these factors have
been shown to correlate with high IQ. Therefore, the success of
these children may have been more influenced by their social
status than by their measured IQ.
80 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

1. Look back at the explanation of IQ scores. Then calculate


the IQs for these people and circle if they are high, low or
average.
1) age 12 — mental age 8 IQ = _____ high/low/average
2) age 14 — mental age 16 IQ = _____ high/low/average
3) age 10 — mental age 16 IQ = _____ high/low/average

2. Read the passage and underline verb forms in Passive Voice


(Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Perfect, Past
Progressive and Passive Infinitive).
IQ tests were originally devised specifically to predict edu-
cational achievement. The inventors of the IQ did not believe
they were measuring fixed intelligence. Despite this, critics argue
that intelligence tests have been used to support nativistic the-
ories in which intelligence is viewed as a qualitatively unique
faculty with a relatively fixed quantity.
Intelligence, as measured by IQ and other aptitude tests, is
widely used in educational, business, and military settings be-
cause it is an effective predictor of behavior. Intelligence is signi-
ficantly correlated with successful training and performance out-
comes. In recent empirical research, it was found that IQ is highly
correlated with many important social outcomes. Individuals
with low IQs are more likely to be divorced, more likely to have
a child out of marriage, more likely to be incarcerated, and more
likely to need long term welfare support. Furthermore, high IQs
are associated with more years of education, higher status jobs,
and higher income.
Howard Gardner’s Theory of multiple intelligences is based
on studies not only on normal children and adults but also by
studies of gifted individuals, of persons who have suffered
brain damage, of experts and virtuosos, and of individuals from
diverse cultures. Intelligence is broken down into at least eight
different components: logical, linguistic, spatial, musical,
kinesthetic, naturalist, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelli-
gences.

VOCABULARY CHECK
3. Briefly look over this list of words from the Reading
above. Which words do you already know? For the ones
that you don’t know, don’t use a dictionary. Try to under-
stand them from the Reading.
Reading 8. Gardner’s eight intelligences. Learning styles 81

Mental age, standard, standard deviation,


factors, prestige, nature/nurture issue

1) Which of the new words in this Reading are you likely to


find only in texts about psychology or education?
2) Which ones might you find in more general types of
texts?
3) Can you think of any words that you have learned from
this book after seeing them over and over?

4. TALKING POINTS
1) Have you ever taken an IQ test? If so, what was
it like?
2) What are some benefits of IQ testing? What
are some weaknesses?
3) If you had a child, would you have his or her IQ
tested? Why or why not?
4) Do you know anyone with a high IQ? In what ways has their
intelligence helped them? In what ways has it hurt them?
5) Are there other tests that are used in your country to meas-
ure intelligence?
6) The IQ test has been eclipsed. Most people studying intelli-
gence and creativity in the new millennium now prefer
a broader definition, using a multifaceted approach where
talents in many areas are recognized rather than purely con-
centrating on academic achievement. If we are therefore
assuming that talented, creative or gifted individuals may
need to be assessed across a range of abilities, does this mean
intelligence can run in families as a genetic or inherit tenden-
cy? Mental dysfunction — such as schizophrenia — can, so is
an efficient mental capacity passed on from parent to child?

Reading 8
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: How is
this Reading organized?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
1. Read and find the details in the text.
1) Can you get a general idea of the meaning of sensations?
2) What may help you to understand what type of thing a maze is?
82 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

3) Can you guess what Drs. means?


4) Is it difficult for visual learners to think logically, and se-
quentially?

2. Study the text on Gardner’s eight intelligences and Carbo,


Dunn and Dunn’s learning styles. Be prepared to discuss
the validity of both theories and how they relate to each
other.

Gardner’s eight intelligences


Dr. Howard Gardner from Harvard University has identi-
fied the following intelligences:
1. Linguistic intelligence
People with this kind of intelligence understand and use lan-
guage easily. They think logically and analytically. They enjoy
reading and writing, memorizing information, talking and
building their vocabularies (they are great spellers). They may
also be excellent storytellers.
2. Logical�mathematical intelligence
People with lots of logical intelligence are interested in pat-
terns, categories and relationships. They are interested in arith-
metic problems, strategy games, experiments and how things
work. They often find unusual ways to solve problems, but they
may not be able to explain how they did it.
3. Bodily�kinesthetic intelligence
These people process knowledge through bodily sensations.
They are often athletic; they may be dancers or good at crafts
such as sewing or woodworking. They enjoy training their bo-
dies to do their physical best. Having to sit for a long time is very
uncomfortable for them.
4. Visual�spatial intelligence
People with this type of intelligence think in images and pic-
tures. They have a very good sense of direction and enjoy maps.
They may be fascinated with mazes or jigsaw puzzles, or spend
free time drawing, building things or daydreaming. People with
strengths in this area have the most potential to be successful in
new technological fields such as computers.
5. Musical�rhythmic intelligence
Those with this kind of intelligence often sing or drum to
themselves. They are usually quite aware of sounds that other
people may miss. These people are often careful listeners.
Reading 8. Gardner’s eight intelligences. Learning styles 83

6. Interpersonal intelligence
People who have a lot of interpersonal intelligence are often
leaders. They are good at communicating and seem to under-
stand others’ feelings and motives.
7. Intrapersonal intelligence
These people may be shy. They understand themselves much
better than others may understand them. They are highly moti-
vated to be true to their goals and do not care very much about
what other people think of them.
8. Naturalist intelligence
People with a strong naturalist intelligence have an outstand-
ing knowledge of things in the natural world, such as plants
and animals. They also have the ability to see how things fit into
different natural categories. They like to fish, garden, cook and
carefully observe things.

Learning styles
1. Drs. Marie Carbo, Rita Dunn and Kenneth Dunn have
described the following three styles of learning: auditory, visu-
al, tactile�kinesthetic.
2. Аuditory learners are logical, analytical thinkers. They
are comfortable with typical school tasks including analyzing
sounds and numbers, following directions in order, and just
“doing the right thing.” They are usually successful in school.
Much of what they learn is from listening to information that is
presented to them in class.
3. Visual learners learn best by seeing a visual representa-
tion of the material. They are global thinkers. They like to see
“the big picture” rather than the details. They can learn to think
logically, analytically and sequentially, but they must do this by
working backwards from the whole to the parts.
4. Tactile�kinesthetic learners learn best when they can
touch things or move while they are learning. Like visual learn-
ers, they are also global thinkers.

1. VOCABULARY CHECK
1) The adjective intelligent has lots of synonyms, but which
word means the opposite of intelligent?
a) smart c) thick
b) bright d) clever
84 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

2) If someone is clever, we can say “she is as bright as a …”


a) bottom c) light
b) button d) star
3) The adjective stupid has lots of synonyms (words with a simi-
lar meaning), but which word means the opposite of stupid?
a) thick c) dull
b) dim d) brainy

2. Go to EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS


and do the test “Are you an analytical or global thinker?”
After you finish the test, answer the following questions.
1) Which combination of intelligence type and learning style
type do people who are successful in school often have?
2) Will analytical or global thinkers probably adapt better to a
traditional school environment? Which characteristics will
help them the most?
3) What do yon think is Gardner’s opinion of IQ tests? Why?
4) Why do you think auditory learners do well in school?
5) Can people choose which kind of intelligence or which
learning style they want to have?
6) Which intelligences do you think are necessary for each of these
jobs? Complete the chart. An example has been done for you.
Job Intelligence type(s)
—————————————————————————————————————————
1) bank teller logical�mathematical
—————————————————————————————————————————
2) lawyer
—————————————————————————————————————————
3) mechanic
—————————————————————————————————————————
4) teacher
—————————————————————————————————————————
5) doctor
—————————————————————————————————————————
6) gardener
—————————————————————————————————————————
7) architect
—————————————————————————————————————————
8) ice skater

3. TALKING POINTS
1) How might knowing about Gardner’s theory
affect how a person feels about himself or herself?
2) Is it important for teachers to know about the
theories of multiple intelligences and learning
styles? Why or why not?
3) Do schools try to help visual and tactile�kinesthetic learners
enough? Should they try to help them more? How?
Reading 9. The brain gain 85

Reading 9
Skim the Reading to find the answers to the questions
below. When you read a textbook, it is helpful to use all of
the different kinds of formatting and organization. They will
help you to read better and more efficiently. Even when you
read an ordinary text, you often have to figure out the orga-
nization. However, in a textbook the titles and subtitles often
help to make the organization of the information very clear.
Are there subtitles in Reading 9? This Reading has three dif-
ferent styles of print. What is each style used for? How does
the formatting help the reader understand the organization
of the text?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) Quickly read the introduction to find out what this Reading
is about. Can you restate it here in one sentence?
2) Who is asking the questions?
3) Who is answering them?
4) Do you know the meaning of inspiring?
5) What part of speech is brainy? What does it probably mean?
6) Define intelligence as Gardner uses it here. Explain it in
your own words.
7) What three pieces of advice does Dr. Gardner give?

The brain gain


Some educators are challenging the traditional measures of
intelligence such as IQ tests. Оne leader of this rebellion is
Howard Gardner, Ph. D., a Harvard University psychologist,
who says that there are actually eight kinds of intelligence —
linguistic, logical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, intra�per-
sonal, interpersonal and naturalistic. He says that those who
take advantage of their natural strengths can go far. Those
who rely on their weaknesses probably won’t have much suc-
cess. Here Gardner gives the interviewer a few tips on using
our inner genius.
INT: Your theory says we’re all just as smart as the brain surgeon
that we met at a party. Can that possibly be true?
HG: Well, because he works with knives, I hope he has greater
kinesthetic intelligence than you do. But the fact that a
person has a high IQ doesn’t mean he’s “smart.” We need
86 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

to ask “smart in what”? You could be intelligent in school,


in business or in the arts. Intelligence is really about using
all of your abilities to do something well. What you are
trying to do determines which intelligence is most impor-
tant. For example, logical intelligence is highly valued in
today’s society, but naturalistic intelligence — the ability
to read changes and indications in the environment — was
the most important intelligence for thousands of years.
INT: Doesn’t IQ consider all those different abilities?
HG: No. For instance, Ronald Reagan probably had 50 fewer
IQ points than Jimmy Carter or Herbert Hoover, but he
was a much more effective president than either. Why?
Because he had greater linguistic and interpersonal intel-
ligence. He could motivate people. A leader’s success
depends on his ability to tell inspiring stories and to make
others believe them. I like to listen to Bill Clinton because
he’s a terrific storyteller.
INT: So you’re saying all of us are extremely brainy in some way?
HG: Yes. All human beings are capable of high performance in
something — if they use their strongest intelligences.
Unfortunately, many people focus on their weaknesses.
For instance, the lawyer who writes excellent legal analy-
ses may be terrible in court. He may see himself as a fail-
ure. The problem is that he is relying on his interpersonal
intelligence which is probably only average. Meanwhile
he is ignoring his high logical or even spatial intelligence.
If he’d take advantage of his natural strengths, he’d suc-
ceed and be less frustrated.
INT: What’s the best way to find “hidden” intelligences?
HG: Take a hard look at yourself and your history. Think of tasks
that were easy and hard for you. Think about what they
have in common. If you’re doing extremely well in a parti-
cular facet of your career, look at it carefully. What skills do
you use? Most important, listen to what others say about
you. If someone says, “You draw well,” or “You resolved that
conflict easily,” don’t ignore it. Take it seriously. They’re
giving you the most reliable clues about your natural
intelligences.

COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. What inferences can you make about the Reading? Put
a check mark next to all of the statements about the Rea-
ding that are correct.
Reading 9. The brain gain 87

Dr. Gardner probably believes that ...


1) __ each of us has only one of the eight intelligences.
2) __ some intelligences are more useful than others in today’s
society.
3) __ these intelligences are innate (inborn).
4) __ many people do not know which of these intelligences
they have.
5) __ your IQ determines how successful you will be.

GRAMMAR CHECK
2. Read the passage and complete it with the correct verb
forms.
In animals, the brain or encephalon, the Greek word for “in
the skull,” (to be) the control center of the central nervous sys-
tem, responsible for behavior. The brain (to locate) in the head,
protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory appara-
tus, balance, sense of taste, and olfaction. While all vertebrates
(to have) a brain, most invertebrates (to have) either a central-
ized brain or collections of individual ganglia. Primitive animals
such as sponges do not have a brain at all. Brains can be extre-
mely complex. For example, the human brain (to contain) more
than 100 billion neurons, each linked to as many as 10,000 other
neurons.
The brain (to compose) of two broad classes of cells, neurons
and glia, both of which contain several different cell types which
perform different functions. Interconnected neurons (to form)
neural networks or neural ensembles. These networks are simi-
lar to man�made electrical circuits in that they contain circuit
elements or neurons connected by biological wires which (to call)
nerve fibers. These (not to form) simple one�to�one electrical
circuits like many man�made circuits, however. Typically neu-
rons (to connect) to at least a thousand other neurons. These
highly specialized circuits (to make up) systems which are the
basis of perception, different types of action, and higher cogni-
tive function.
In mammals, the brain (to surround) by connective tissues
called the meninges, a system of membranes that (to separate)
the skull from the brain. This three�layered covering (to com-
pose) of (from the outside in) the dura mater, arachnoid mater,
and pia mater. The arachnoid and pia (to connect) and thus
often considered as a single layer, the pia�arachnoid. Below the
arachnoid is the subarachnoid space which (to contain) cere-
88 Chapter 2. The human brain and its functions

brospinal fluid, a substance that (to protect) the nervous system.


Blood vessels (to enter) the central nervous system through the
perivascular space. The cells in the blood vessel walls (to join)
tightly, forming the blood�brain barrier which (to protect) the
brain from toxins that might enter through the blood.
The brain (to bathe) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which
(to circulate) between layers of the meninges and through cavi-
ties in the brain called ventricles. It is important both chemi-
cally for metabolism and mechanically for shock�prevention.
For example, the human brain (to weigh) about 1—1.5 kg. The
mass and density of the brain are such that it will begin to col-
lapse under its own weight if unsupported by the CSF. The CSF
(to allow) the brain to float, easing the physical stress caused by
the brain’s mass.

TALKING POINTS
3. Discuss the following questions:
1) Do you believe Dr. Gardner’s theory of multiple
intelligences? Why or why not?
2) Can you think of any other intelligence types
that you think Dr. Gardner should include in his
list? What are they?
3) Are the “intelligences” that Dr. Gardner talks about here the
same as a person’s “skills” or “abilities”? Explain.

SUMMARIZING
4. Being able to write a summary is an important skill. It
shows that you have understood what is most important
in the Chapter. A summary is different from a paraphrase.
When you paraphrase, you look at a small part of the text
and rewrite it in your own words. When you summarize,
you look at the whole text (or even texts) and reduce it to
a few sentences (still using your own words, not the
author’s).
Summarize what you have learned in this Chapter in 8—10
sentences.

If you are interested in extra tasks to train your brain, go to


EXTENSIОN АCTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS (Аctivities
for Chapter 2).
Chapter 3

MEMORY
(A review of basic grammatical structures: Passive
Voice, Perfect Tenses, question types, prepositions)

Reading 1
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
kinds of memory do you know?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text.
1) What role does memory play in learning and thinking?
2) How many different kinds of memory can you name?
3) How do people memorize things?
4) What does memory depend on?

How good is your memory? There is an interview with


a teacher and psychotherapist, Diane Englund. Through her
work, Ms. Englund has learned that different people gather
and remember information in different ways. This observa-
tion has led her to an interest in how the brain processes and
remembers information.
Before you read the following interview about memory,
think about the types of things that are easy or difficult for
you to remember. Put E next to the items below that are easy
for you to remember. Put D next to the ones that are difficult
for you to remember: names, speeches, words to songs,
sports, statistics, math formulas, directions, faces, birth-
days, phone numbers, historical facts, addresses.
90 Chapter 3. Memory

How good is your memory?


Q.: What aspects of brain biology interest you?
I have become very interested in the importance of memory
in our lives. Most people know that the brain controls how
the body works. The brain also controls what the mind
thinks, how we feel, how we process information, and how
we perceive things. I am interested in how people remem-
ber, what they remember, and how they use and improve
their memories.
Q.: What can you tell us about memory?
Memory plays an important role in learning and thinking.
People have different abilities to remember. Stress, fatigue,
emotional problems, and illness can decrease the ability to
remember. General good health contributes to good memo-
ry. Practice also improves memory. For example, the more
math facts you learn, the easier math facts are to learn. The
same is true with music. The more songs you listen to and
learn, the easier it becomes. People gather and remember
information in different ways. Some people remember col-
ors or smells, or sounds. Other people find it easier to
remember spoken words while still others remember print-
ed words easily.
Q.: Are there different kinds of memory?
Yes. The two basic categories are long�term memory and
short�term memory. Long�term memory is the ability to
remember events from the distant past. Long�term memory
is often the strongest and lasts throughout a person’s life.
One kind of long�term memory is called “screen memory.”
This means that many experiences get put together in the
mind as one memory. For example, in your memory you
might have only one “picture” of a childhood trip to the
doctor’s office. This one memory, however, is probably a
combination of many trips to the doctor.
Short�term memory is the ability to remember events in the
recent past, for example the name of someone you met at a
party last night. Short�term memory is often challenged by
stress, illness, and aging. Many of us have, or have had,
grandparents who remember events from their childhood
with great accuracy, but are unable to remember what happe-
ned yesterday. Most people can only remember seven items
in sequence. This is why telephone numbers, for example,
are typically seven digits long.
Reading 1. How good is your memory? 91

Q.: Are all memories accurate?


No, not all memories are correct, but they all tell us some-
thing about the person who is doing the remembering. The
memory may tell us what the rememberer likes or dislikes,
what he or she wishes, and it may also tell us about his or
her fears. The study of memory may also provide informa-
tion about the health or illness of a person. This is a very
exciting frontier in biological science. There is still a lot for
us to learn.
Q.: Why is it easier for people to remember some things and
more difficult for them to remember other things?
That’s a good question. It’s easier to remember things that
have emotional meaning to you. It’s also easier to remember
information that you practise and use a lot. Repetition rein-
forces memory; the more you repeat something, the better
you remember it. Some people have very visual memories.
That is, they remember things they see. In fact, it is often
easier to remember information that comes to us through
more one of our five senses.
COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. Read the following statements. If a statement is true,
write Т on the line, if it is false, write F.
1) The state of your health can affect your ability to remember
things accurately.
2) All people gather and remember information in the same
way.
3) The two basic kinds of memory are long�term memory and
screen memory.
4) Short�term memory is the ability to remember things in the
recent past.
5) Scientists have already discovered almost everything there
is to know about memory.
6) The brain controls not only the way the body works but also
the way the mind thinks.
7) We can learn many things by examining what a person
remembers.
2. Authors often use examples to support their ideas. In her
interview, Ms. Englund used several examples to support
her ideas and make them easier to understand. Look back
through the interview and find the examples she used to
support the following points.
92 Chapter 3. Memory

1) Screen memory is a combination of many experiences that


get put together in the mind as one memory.
2) Most people can only remember seven items in sequence.
3) Practice improves memory.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. Find definitions to the following:
a) Long�term memory
b) Episodic memory
c) Sensory memory
d) Human information processing
e) Short�term memory
f) Learning
1) What our minds do in response to information we get from
the world around us. This information includes data from
the five senses, including language that we hear or read.
2) The conscious repetition of information for retention pur-
poses.
3) … comprises more�detailed knowledge of particular events
that we have experienced.
4) Also known as working memory, it stores and processes
information selected from sensory memory.
5) A type of memory that keeps a relatively permanent record
of information.
6) Lasting only for a second or less, this memory holds infor-
mation from the world in its original form.

4. How many collocations can you make with the verb to


remember or the noun memory? What can people remem-
ber? Skim the text for answers.

GRAMMAR CHECK
5. Read the following questions, define the tenses, make more
questions using the Past Simple Tense.
Medical history questions documenting memory loss in
detail may include the following:
Type
• Can the person remember recent events (is there impaired
short�term memory)?
• Can the person remember events from further in the past
(is there impaired long�term memory)?
Reading 1. How good is your memory? 93

• Is there a loss of memory about events that occurred prior


to a specific experience (anterograde amnesia)?
• Is there a loss of memory about events that occurred soon
after a specific experience (retrograde amnesia)?
• Is there only a minimal loss of memory?
• Does the person make up stories to cover gaps in memory
(confabulation)?
• Is the person suffering from low moods that impair con-
centration?
Time pattern
• Has the memory loss been getting worse over years?
• Has the memory loss been developing over weeks or
months?
• Is the memory loss present all the time or are there dis-
tinct episodes of amnesia?
• If there are amnesia episodes, how long do they last?
Аggravating or triggering factors
• Has there been a head injury in the recent past?
• Has the person experienced an event that was emotionally
traumatic?
• Has there been a surgery or procedure requiring a general
anesthetic?
• Does the person use alcohol? How much?
• Does the person use illegal/illicit drugs? How much?
What type?
Other symptoms
• What other symptoms are present?
• Is the person confused or disoriented?
• Can they independently eat, dress, and perform similar
self�care activities?
• Have they had seizures?

6. Read the passage and choose the best answer.

Retrospective and prospective memories


Consider the everyday tasks of looking up a telephone num-
ber and remembering it before dialing or trying to recall the
name of someone to whom you have just been introduced at a
party. These are tests of retrospective memory, which is tradi-
tionally investigated in the laboratory by presenting informa-
tion that subjects are subsequently required to recognize or
recall when prompted by the experimenter. In general, the el-
94 Chapter 3. Memory

derly are significantly impaired on such tasks in comparison


with the young.
Subjects in prospective memory tasks are required to exe-
cute a planned action at some point in the future. This corre-
sponds to everyday activities such as remembering to remove
a cake from the oven or to take medicine every 4 hours. To per-
form such tasks successfully, subjects must, when the time
arrives, a) remember that something has to be done, b) remem-
ber what has to be done, c) perform the task, and d) remember
later that it has been performed, so that it is not repeated.
Recent evidence suggests that the elderly are considerable
less impaired on prospective memory tasks than on retrospec-
tive memory tasks in comparison with the young. A differential
effect of aging is regarded as important in providing support for
the recent suggestion that retrospective and prospective me-
mories are qualitatively distinct aspects of memory.
1) The elderly are … impaired on such tasks in the comparison
with the young.
a) essentially c) sufficiently
b) deeply d) significantly
2) Subjects in prospective memory tasks are required to … a
planned action at some point in the future.
a) perform c) fulfill
b) execute d) implement
3) This … to everyday activities such as remembering to remo-
ve a cake from the oven or to take medicine every 4 hours.
a) relates c) conforms
b) corresponds d) correlates
4) Recent evidence suggests that the elderly are considerably
less … on prospective memory tasks.
a) damaged c) spoiled
b) impaired d) weakened
5) A differential effect of aging is … as important in providing
support for the recent suggestion that retrospective and
prospective memories are qualitatively distinct aspects of
memory.
a) considered c) believed
b) regarded d) esteemed
Reading 1. How good is your memory? 95

7. Translate this passage into English.


Память — процессы запоминания, организации, сохране-
ния, восстановления и забывания обретенного опыта, поз-
воляющие повторно использовать его в деятельности или
возвратить в сферу сознания. Память связывает прошлое
субъекта с его настоящим и будущим и является важнейшей
познавательной функцией, лежащей в основе развития и обу-
чения. Память лежит в основе любого психического явления.
Без ее включения в акт познания ощущения и восприятия
будут переживаться как впервые появившиеся, ориенти-
ровка в мире и его познание станут невозможными. Лич-
ность, ее отношения, навыки, привычки, надежды, желания
и притязания — существуют благодаря памяти. Распад сле-
дов памяти равноценен распаду личности: человек превра-
щается в живой автомат, способный лишь реагировать на
стимулы, действующие в данный момент. Ныне память рас-
сматриваются в контексте других процессов когнитивных.
Задача психологии — рассмотреть сущность памяти как
проявление личности.
По характеру запоминаемого материала можно выде-
лить память зрительную, слуховую и осязательную.

8. Translate the following into Russian.


Memory principles:
1) Short�term memory is limited to seven plus or minus two
chunks of information.
2) Short�term memory is volatile, and users will often forget in
the presence of distractions.
3) A schema is a mental model that makes it easier for users to
recall an item. Schemas can serve as the basis for "chunks"
because they provide a meaningful method for grouping
information.
4) Well�developed schemata make it easier to remember items
that fit within a schema. Thus, experts with well�developed
schemata outperform novices.

USE CONTEXT CLUES


9. Do not look up every unfamiliar word in the dictionary.
Get into the habit of guessing meaning from context.
Read this passage from the text and use the context to
guess what the words in bold probably mean. What kind
of memory is described here?
96 Chapter 3. Memory

For instance, as I write this, I still remember today’s event


of leaving home to come to the office, including numerous
details of the sequencing of events, such as putting on my sun-
glasses, releasing the hand brake, pressing the remote control
for the garage door, etc. I cannot currently activate this specif-
ic memory from yesterday or last week; I can only infer how the
event went forward from my generic “leaving home to drive to
work” schema.

TALKING POINTS
10. Swiss philosopher Henri�Frederic Amiel
once said, “To do easily what is difficult for
others is the mark of talent. To do what is
impossible for talented people is the mark of
genius.” What do you think he meant? Do
you agree with him?

11. Most people think it’s wonderful to have a good memo-


ry but there may be some things you wish you could for-
get. Alexander Durivage, author and historian, stated
this idea very well when he said, “They teach us to
remember; why don’t they teach us to forget? Memory
can be a curse as well as a blessing.” Discuss this quote
with your classmates. Do you have some memories you
wish you could forget?

12. Thomas Edison is famous for inventing the electric light


bulb and the phonograph. He believed, “Genius is one
per cent inspiration and 99% perspiration.” What do you
think?

SUMMARY
13. You have learned about different kinds of memory in this
Reading. Summarize what you know about sensory,
short�term, episodic, long�term and screen memory in
one paragraph.

VOCABULARY CHECK
14. Cross out the word in each group that does not belong.
1) stress fatigue illness practice
2) think jump feel perceive
3) kinds categories trips groups
Reading 2. A memory for all seasonings 97

4) sequence order memory series


5) typically usually generally rarely
6) correct wrong accurate true

15. Briefly look over this list of words from the Reading
above.
Screen memory, to challenge, retrospective,
prospective, to recall, to reinforce, sequence, accuracy

Which words do you already know? For the ones that you
don’t know, use a dictionary. If you know all of them, contin-
ue to Reading 2.

Reading 2
Аnticipating the reading. Before beginning to read an article,
it’s helpful to try to anticipate what it will be about and
determine what associations you have with the topic.
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
is the meaning of the word mnemonist?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text. Аnswer the following
questions, and then share your answers with a partner.
1) Look at the title. It’s rather unusual. What do you think it
means?
2) The article you are about to read is about different kinds and
aspects of human memory. When you think of a person with
an extraordinary memory, what is the first question that
comes to your mind?
3) Is there something practical you might learn from this
Reading?
4) What is the earliest event in your life that you can remem-
ber and approximately how old were you when it occurred?
5) Why do you suppose you can remember the event?

A memory for all seasonings


Memory is one of the most important functions of the mind.
Without our memories, we would have no identity. The follow-
98 Chapter 3. Memory

ing article is about a mnemonist, a person with an extraordi-


nary power to remember. The title includes a pun, a form of
humor based on a play on words. The usual phrase to describe
something constant and dependable is for all seasons. Here
the phrase is changed to for all seasonings. Seasonings is
another word for spices, such as salt, pepper, and curry. What
hint does this give you about the mnemonist? Early in the arti-
cle you will find out.
One evening two years ago, Peter Poison, a member of the
psychology department at the University of Colorado, took his
son and daughter to dinner at Bananas,
a fashionable restaurant in Boulder.
When the waiter took their orders,
Poison noticed that the young man
didn’t write anything down. He just
listened, made small talk, told them
that his name was John Conrad, and
left. Poison didn’t think this was exceptional: there were, after all,
only three of them at the table. Yet he found himself watching
Conrad closely when he returned to take the orders at a nearby
table of eight. Again the waiter listened, chatted, and wrote
nothing down. When he brought Poison and his children their
dinners, the professor couldn’t resist introducing himself and
telling Conrad that he’d been observing him.
The young man was pleased. He wanted customers to notice
that, unlike other waiters, he didn’t use a pen and paper.
Sometimes, when they did notice, they left him quite a large tip.
He had once handled a table of nineteen complete dinner orders
without a single error. At Bananas, a party of nineteen (a bill of
roughly $200) would normally leave the waiter a $35 tip. They
had left Conrad $85.
Poison was impressed enough to ask the waiter whether he
would like to come to the university’s psychology lab and let
them run some tests on him. Anders Ericsson, a young
Swedish psychologist recently involved in memory research,
would be joining the university faculty soon, and Poison
thought that he would be interested in exploring memory
methods with the waiter. Conrad said he would be glad to
cooperate. He was always on the lookout for ways to increase
his income, and Poison told him he would receive $5 an hour
to be a guinea pig.
Conrad, of course, was not the first person with an extraor-
dinary memory to attract attention from researchers. Alexander
Reading 2. A memory for all seasonings 99

R. Luria, the distinguished Soviet psychologist, studied a Rus-


sian newspaper reporter named Shereshevskii for many years
and wrote about him in the Mind of a Mnemonist (1968). Luria
says that Shereshevskii was able to hear a series of fifty words
spoken once and recite them back in perfect order fifteen years
later. Another famous example of extraordinary memory, the
conductor Arturo Toscanini, was known to have memorized
every note for every instrument in 250 symphonies and
100 operas.
For decades the common belief among psychologists was
that memory was a fixed quantity; an exceptional memory, or a
poor one, was something with which a person was born.
This point of view has come under attack in recent years;
expert memory is no longer universally considered the exclu-
sive gift of the genius, or the abnormal. “People with astonish-
ing memory for pictures, musical scores, chess positions, busi-
ness transactions, dramatic scripts, or faces are by no means
unique,” wrote Cornell psychologist Ulric Neisser in Memory
Observed (1981). “They may not even be very rare.” Some uni-
versity researchers, including Poison and Ericsson, go a step
further than Neisser. They believe that there are no physiologi-
cal differences at all between the memory of a Shereshevskii or
a Toscanini and that of the average person. The only real differ-
ence, they believe, is that Toscanini trained his memory, exer-
cised it regularly, and wanted to improve it.
Like many people with his capacity to remember, Toscanini
may also have used memory tricks called mnemonics. Shere-
shevskii, for example, employed a technique known as loci. As
soon as he heard a series of words, he mentally “distributed”
them along Gorky Street in Moscow. If one of the words was
“orange,” he might visualize a man stepping on an orange at a
precise location on the familiar street. Later, in order to
retrieve “orange,” he would take an imaginary walk down
Gorky Street and see the image from which it could easily be
recalled. Did the waiter at Bananas have such a system? What
was his secret?
John Conrad would be the subject of Anders Ericsson’s sec-
ond in�depth study of the machinations of memory. As a re-
search associate at Carnegie University in Pittsburgh, Ericsson
had spent the previous three years working with William Chase
on an extensive study of Steve Faloon, an undergraduate whose
memory and intellectual skills were considered average. When
Ericsson and Chase began testing Faloon, he could remember
100 Chapter 3. Memory

no more than seven random digits after hearing them spoken


once. According to generally accepted research, almost every-
one is capable of storing five to nine random digits in short-
term memory. After twenty months of working with Chase and
Ericsson, Faloon could memorize and retrieve eighty digits.
“The important thing about our testing Faloon is that rese-
archers usually study experts,” Chase says. “We studied a novice
and watched him grow into an expert. Initially, we were just
running tests to see whether his digit span could be expanded.
For four days he could not go beyond seven digits. On the fifth
day he discovered his mnemonic system and then began to
improve rapidly.”
Faloon’s intellectual abilities didn’t change, the researchers
say, nor did the storage capacity of his short�term memory.
Chase and Ericsson believe that short�term memory is a more
or less fixed quantity. It reaches saturation quickly, and to over-
come its limitations one must learn to link new data with mate-
rial that is permanently stored in long�term memory. Once the
associations have been made, the short�term memory is free to
absorb new information. Shereshevskii transferred material
from short�term to long�term memory by placing words along
Gorky Street in Moscow. Faloon’s hobby was long distance run-
ning, and he discovered that he could break down a spoken list
of eighty digits into units of three or four and associate most of
these with running times.
To Faloon, a series like 4, 0, 1, 2 would translate as four min-
utes, one and two�tenths seconds, or “near a four�minute mile”;
2, 1, 4, 7 would be encoded as two hours fourteen minutes seven
seconds, or “an excellent marathon time.” When running didn’t
provide the link to his long�term memory, ages and dates did;
1, 9, 4, 4 is not relevant to running, but it is “near the end of
World War II”.
Chase and Ericsson see individual differences in memory
performance as resulting from previous experience and mental
training. “In sum,” they write, “adult memory performance can
be adequately described by a single model of memory.”
Not every student of psychology agrees with Chase and
Ericsson, of course. “I’m very suspicious of saying that everyone
has the same kind of memory,” says Matthew Erdely, a psycho-
logist at Brooklyn College. “In my research,” he says, “I find that
people have very different memory levels. They can all improve,
but some levels remain high and some remain low. There are dra-
matic individual differences.”
Reading 2. A memory for all seasonings 101

It is unlikely that there will be any agreement among psy-


chologists on the conclusions that they have thus far drawn
from their research. The debate about exceptional memory will
continue. But in the meantime it is interesting to look deeper
into the mind of a contemporary mnemonist.
Ericsson and Poison, both of whom have tested Conrad over
the past two years, believe that there is nothing intellectually
outstanding about him. When they began testing Conrad’s me-
mory, his digit scan was normal: about seven numbers. His gra-
des in college were average.
Conrad himself says that he is unexceptional mentally, but
he has compared his earliest memories with others’ and has
found that he can recall things that many people can’t. His first
distinct memory is of lying on his back and raising his legs so
that his mother could change his diapers. As a high school stu-
dent he didn’t take notes in class — he says he preferred watch-
ing the girls take notes — and he has never made a list in his life.
“By never writing down a list of things to do, and letting it
think for me,” he says, “I’ve forced my memory to improve.”
Conrad does believe that his powers of observation, includ-
ing his ability to listen, are keener than most people’s. Memory,
he says, is just one part of the whole process of observation. “I’m
not extraordinary, but sometimes people make me feel that way.
I watch them and realize how many of them have disorganized
minds and memories and that makes me feel unusual. A good
memory is nothing more than an organized one.”
One of the first things Conrad observed at Bananas was that
the head waiter, his boss, was “a very unpleasant woman.” He dis-
liked being her subordinate, and he wanted her job. The only way
he could get it was by being a superior waiter. He stayed up nights
trying to figure out how to do this; the idea of memorizing orders
eventually came to him. Within a year he was the head waiter.
“One of the most interesting things we’ve found,” says
Ericsson, “is that just trying to memorize things does not insure
that your memory will improve. It’s the active decision to get
better and the number of hours you push yourself to improve
that make the difference. Motivation is much more important
than innate ability.”
Conrad began his memory training by trying to memorize
the orders for a table of two, and then progressed to memorizing
larger orders. He starts by associating the entree with the cus-
tomer’s face. He might see a large, heavy�set man and hear “I’d
like a big Boulder Steak.” Sometimes, Peter Poison says, “John
102 Chapter 3. Memory

thinks a person looks like a turkey and that customer orders a


turkey sandwich. Then it’s easy.”
In memorizing how long meat should be cooked, the differ-
ent salad dressings, and starches, Conrad relies on patterns of
repetition and variation. “John breaks things up into chunks of
four,” Ericsson says. “If he hears ’rare, rare, medium, well�done,’
he instantly sees a pattern in their relationship. Sometimes he
makes a mental graph. An easy progression — rare, medium-
rare, medium, well�done — would take the shape of a steadily
ascending line on his graph. A more difficult order — medium,
well�done, rare, medium — would resemble a mountain range.”
The simplest part of Conrad’s system is his encoding of salad
dressings. He uses letters: В for blue cheese; H for the house
dressing; О for oil and vinegar; F for French; Т for Thousand
Island. A series of orders, always arranged according to entree,
might spell a word, like B�O�O�T, or a near�word, like B�O�O�F,
or make a phonetic pattern: F�O�F�O. As Ericsson says, Conrad
remembers orders, regardless of their size, in chunks of four.
This is similar to the way Faloon stores digits, and it seems to
support Chase and Ericsson’s contention that short�term mem-
ory is limited and that people are most comfortable working
with small units of information.
One of the most intriguing things about Conrad is the num-
ber of ways he can associate material. Another is the speed with
which he is able to call it up from memory. Ericsson and Poison
have also tested him with animals, units of time, flowers, and
metals. At first, his recall was slow and uncertain. But with re-
latively little practice, he could retrieve these “orders” almost as
quickly as he could food.
“The difference between someone like John, who has a
trained memory, and the average person,” says Ericsson, “is that
he can encode material in his memory fast and effortlessly. It’s
similar to the way you can understand English when you hear it
spoken. In our tests the same way you can learn to play tennis
in the lab, he just gets better and faster.” “What John Conrad
has,” says Poison, “is not unlike an athletic skill. With two or
three hundred hours of practice, you can develop these skills in
the same way you can learn to play tennis.”

1. The article is intended to disprove the common belief that


memory is a fixed quality. Find the proof in the text to
support the idea of human exceptional ability to expand
memory.
Reading 2. A memory for all seasonings 103

2. Mnemonics are memory tricks. Find as many memory


tricks in the text as you can.
Give definition to the word mnemonist. Choose one of the
mnemonists described in the text and read details about
his/her mnemonic technique.
3. Read the definition, explain the humorous effect of the
pun that begins the article and give examples of pun in
your own language.
Pun (also called a “play on words”) is humorous use of words
which sound the same or of two meanings of the same word.
Where is the pun in the examples? Can you explain it?
Examples: 1. I did a theatrical performance about puns. It was a
play on words.
2. Broken pencils are pointless.
COMPREHENSION CHECK
4. Based on what you have just read, choose the best way of
finishing each statement.
1) The psychology professor discovered John Conrad’s incred-
ible ability to memorize … .
a) in school c) in a restaurant
b) on a test
2) Conrad agreed to let professor study his memory because … .
a) Conrad was interested in psychology
b) Conrad wanted to increase his income
c) Conrad needed to improve his memory
3) The famous Russian mnemonist Shereshevskii used a memo-
ry trick called loci to remember objects by … .
a) associating them with events in Russian history
b) imaging them placed along the street in Moscow
c) picturing each one in his mind in a different color
4) The memory trick used by Steve Faloon was the association
of certain numbers with … .
a) running times c) both of the above
b) important dates d) none of the above
5) Conrad has been … .
a) a gifted student c) an average student
b) a below�average student
104 Chapter 3. Memory

6) Part of Conrad’s motivation for developing memory tricks to


aid him as a waiter was … .
a) his desire to get his boss’s job
b) his great admiration for the head waiter
c) his fear of not finding any work
7) Imagine that four customers have requested that their steaks
be cooked in the following way: well�done, medium, medi-
um�rare, rare. According to John Conrad’s “mental graph”
technique, this order would be remembered as … .
a) a steadily ascending line
b) a steadily descending line
c) a mountain range
8) From the article a careful reader should infer that … .
a) everyone has about the same memory capacity and can
develop a superior memory through practice and motivation
b) a good or bad memory is an ability that a person is born
with and cannot change to any great degree
c) this is still no conclusive evidence as to whether out-
standing memories are inborn or developed

BUILDING VOCABULARY
5. There are more collocations with the word memory.
Memory research, extraordinary memory,
memory methods, exceptional memory, expert memory,
astonishing memory, machinations of memory, average
memory, model of memory, memory tricks, memory levels
Translate all of them and use in sentences of your own.
6. Complete the chart below using the words from the text.
Adjective Adverb
fashionable
exceptionally
effortlessly
eventual
regular
universally
closely
normal
recently
steadily
Reading 2. A memory for all seasonings 105

Adjective Adverb
permanent
adequately
unlike
intellectually
mentally

7. Odd one out. The following words refer to laboratory ex-


periment except three. Find and cross them out.
Subject, athletic skill, guinea pig, to run tests on somebody,
vinegar, psychology lab, to research, to explore, waiter

8. a) Match antonyms. b) Match synonyms.


1) organized a) eventually 1) rapidly a) exceptional
2) remember b) novice 2) unexceptional b) talent
3) expert c) slowly 3) practice c) quickly
4) unexceptional d) long�term 4) pattern d) average
5) rapidly e) low level 5) ability e) training
6) saturated f) exceptional 6) athletics f) method
7) high level g) forget 7) trick g) sport
8) short�term h) disorganized 8) unusual h) graph
9) average i) extraordinary 9) astonishing i) explore
10) regularly j) free 10) research j) amazing

VOCABULARY CHECK
9. How many adjectives that go with the word memory have
you learned in this Chapter? Write all of them. The first
one is done for you.
Long�term memory, ______________, ______________,
______________.

10. Applying concepts from the Reading. There are many


names in this Reading. See if you can figure out who is
who in the article. Several different mnemonic systems
(memory tricks) are described in the Reading. Working
in small groups, show that you have understood these
tricks by applying them to the following situations. A list
of the systems is given in case you want to review them.
a) loci (imagining objects in a familiar place), used by Shere-
shevskii
106 Chapter 3. Memory

b) number association, used by Steve Faloon


c) physical appearance association, used by John Conrad
d) mental graph or picture, used by Conrad
e) word or sound pattern association, used by Conrad
1) You want to remember the names of all the psychologists
mentioned in this article: Poison, Ericsson, Luria, Neisser,
Chase. How would you do this using word or sound pattern
association?
2) You want to remember to buy the following items at the gro-
cery store: apples, milk, rice, pepper, salad dressing, and
olives. How would you do this, using lосi? How would you
do it using word or sound pattern association? Which sys-
tem would be better for you?
3) You have just a minute or two to look at the alphabetical list
of exam grades and want to remember the grades of seven of
your friends. What kind of mental graph would you picture
in your mind to remember them in the following order: A, D,
A, D, В, С, В?
4) You want to remember the combinations for the locks you
use for your bicycle, your school locker, and your gym lock-
er: 0915, 1220, 1492. How could you do this, using number
association? Can you think of any other way of doing it?
5) You are at a dinner party and want to remember the names of
the four other guests: a very tall lady named Mrs. Stemski; a
large, heavy�set man named Mr. Barnes; a cheerful young
woman with a big smile named Miss Rich; and a sad�looking
young man named Mr. Winter. How could you use physical
appearance association to remember their names?

GRAMMAR CHECK
11. Read the passage and complete it with the correct verb
forms. Use Passive Voice where necessary.
Neurons are electrically active brain cells that (to process)
information, whereas Glial cells (to perform) supporting func-
tion. In addition to being electrically active, neurons constant-
ly (to synthesize) neurotransmitters. Neurons (to modify) their
properties (guided by gene expression) under the influence of
their input signals. This plasticity (to underlie) learning and
adaptation. It is notable that some unused neuron pathways
(constructions which have become physically isolated from other
cells) may (to continue) to exist long after the memory is absent
from consciousness, possibly developing the subconscious.
Reading 2. A memory for all seasonings 107

12. Read the passage and answer the questions.

Decline in memory
Decline in memory performance appears to be one of the
characteristic sequels of aging. Early research on memory and
aging concentrated on describing how memory changes with
age. The consensus of decades of research is that although there
may be age differences in short�term memory capacity, there are
reliable age differences in sensory memory and in long�term
memory. Documentation on these differences has resulted in a
shift in emphasis from determining how memory changes with
age to determine why memory changes. One approach to iden-
tify the basis for age differences in memory performance is to
determine why memory performance differs within age groups.
The behavior genetic paradigm has proven to be a powerful
method for exploring individual differences. Behavior genetic
methods can determine the relative influence on memory of
genetic factors, shared environment factors (i.e., factors shared
by individuals reared in the same household), and non�shared
environmental factors (i.e., factors specific to an individual).
Memory aging is a characteristic of all mammalian species
implying a biological basis to decline in memory with age.
Applying methods of behavior genetics to the investigation of
individual differences in memory will further our understand-
ing of age differences in memory.
1) Decline in memory performance … to be one of the charac-
teristic sequels of aging.
a) occurs c) appears
b) happens d) seems
2) Memory aging is a … of all mammalian species.
a) property c) peculiarity
b) sample d) characteristic
3) The … of decades of research is that there are reliable age dif-
ferences in sensory memory.
a) conclusion c) consequence
b) consensus d) result
4) The behavior genetics paradigm has proven to be a … for
exploring individual differences.
a) strong tool c) powerful method
b) basis d) argument
108 Chapter 3. Memory

5) Early research on memory and aging … on describing how


memory changes with age.
a) focused c) worked
b) concentrated d) spotted

TALKING POINTS
13. In small groups, discuss the following ques-
tions.
1) In what other professions, besides that of a wai-
ter, is it useful to have a good memory? Why?
2) Do you know or have you heard of any people
(besides those mentioned in the article) who
have extraordinary memories?
3) What techniques, other than those mentioned in the preced-
ing exercise, are sometimes used to aid memory?
4) Are there some situations in life when it is important to
develop the ability to forget rather than to remember? If so,
how can this be done? Explain.
5) Below you will find a mnemonic which helps you remember
the names of the Great Lakes of the North American continent:
H = Huron
O = Ontario
M = Michigan
E = Erie
S = Superior
Think of any mnemonic that will help you remember some-
thing and share it with your partner.

Reading 3
Most tests have a time limit, so good reading speed can be a
great asset. As you already know, two ways to read for
speedy comprehension are skimming the text or scanning it.
For example, if all you want to find out is a general idea of
what the reading is about, skim the text by letting your eyes
quickly roam across the page or even down the middle of it,
looking for clues.
If you need specific information, like a description of a par-
ticular character, you can scan for the name of that character —
that is, run your eyes quickly through the passage until you
find the character’s name. For both types of speed reading,
Reading 3. May’s boy 109

remember not to read every word and sometimes, not even


every phrase or sentence.
Try reading the following selection by scanning the article to
find out the answer to these questions:
1) Who is May?
2) Who is Leslie Lemke?
3) Why is he famous?
May’s boy
It was only fitting that this concert be held in a church.
After all, it had to do with miracles. Leslie Lemke, whose name
has become synonymous with the savant syndrome, meaning an
“island of genius,” has come to be even more associated with the
term “miracle of love.”
Blind, retarded, palsied, Leslie, who has to be led to the
piano by his sister, Mary Parker, can play any piece of music he’s
ever heard.
Last Sunday, his genius came through more strongly than
ever. This day he was playing for a special lady — his mother,
May — who was celebrating her 93rd birthday and her last
scheduled public appearance with him.
It was she who had taken him in and told her own children,
“God has something special in mind for Leslie.” But even she
could not know what “May’s boy,” as Leslie has come to be
known, could accomplish.
Walter Cronkite used May and
Leslie as his “Christmas miracle” years
ago. Since then, Leslie has appeared on
That’s Incredible, Donahue, 60 Minu-
tes talk shows and finally, served as
a prototype for the film Rain Man.
He’s played the piano for the King of
Norway and appeared in Japan. Japa-
nese television sent a crew to film
Leslie for its Discovery program at
the concert held both at the Seventh�Day Adventist Church
and St. John Lutheran Church. There Was a Lady May Who
Prayed for a Miracle, a song written especially for May, was
sung by Leslie as his mother, now suffering from Alzheimer’s
disease, was wheeled next to the piano.
“Day by day and year by year, she stuck by his side. Others
thought it hopeless, but he never even cried,” he sang in the
110 Chapter 3. Memory

presence of May’s children, grandchildren, great�grandchil-


dren, and even a few great�great�grandchildren.
A spark of recognition lit May’s eyes as the song continued,
and her family came up to embrace her, though the years when
she actually outtalked Donahue on the program are gone. All
that is left is the loving glance she casts toward Leslie, as he
plays the piece that has become his theme song, Tchaikovsky’s
Piano Concerto No. 1.
It was that piece May and Joe Lemke heard in the night a
decade and a half ago when they were awakened by beautiful music
and discovered their profoundly handicapped boy at the piano.
It was the miracle May had told her family would come. From
that night on, Leslie has been researched, lauded, and filmed.
His ability to hear any piece of music just once, imprint it in
his brain, and repeat it on the piano on command and in its
entirety has brought him fame. No one knows how many pieces
are forever locked in his memory. He can play and sing hund-
reds of songs at will — spirituals, ballads, arias, marches, rag-
time, folksongs, and the classics. And yet, seconds before he
appears before the crowd, he sits in a chair, head bowed, eyes
shut, hand gnarled, unaware of his surroundings, waiting for his
sister, Mary, to come and take him to the piano. As soon as he
sits down at the piano bench and lifts his head heavenward, his
palsied fingers spread across the keys. In the front pew, May’s
own hands lift in adoration.

COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. Choose the best answer to fit the blank.
1) May is Leslie Lemke’s … .
a) teacher b) mother c) doctor
2) Leslie Lemke is … .
a) a retarded man with the ability to sing, dance, and play
classical music on television and in the movies
b) a piano player of very low intelligence who can play from
memory any song he has ever heard
c) a genius who has learned to play many different musical
instruments with near perfection
3) Leslie served as a prototype for the film … .
a) Robinson Crusoe
b) Rain Man
c) 60 Minutes
Reading 3. May’s boy 111

4) His ability to … brought him fame.


a) calculate 700�digit numbers
b) compose folksongs, arias, ballads, ragtime and the classics
c) hear any piece of music just once and repeat it on the
piano on command
GRAMMAR CHECK
2. a) In the text above find and write down seven verbs in
the Present Perfect Tense and two verbs in the Past
Perfect Tense. Explain the use of both in the text.
b) Write five of your own sentences about the text using
perfect tenses. Put them together to make a summary.
3. When a person visits the doctor’s office, the following
tests may be performed.
APPEARANCE
The doctor will check the person’s physical appearance,
including:
• Age
• Dress
• General level of comfort
• Height/weight
ORIENTATION
The doctor will ask questions that may include:
• The person’s name, age, and job
• The place where the person lives, type of building, city,
and state
• The time, date, and season
ATTENTION SPAN
The doctor will test the person’s ability to finish a thought,
either through conversation, or by asking the person to follow a
series of directions.
RECENT MEMORY
The doctor will ask questions related to recent people,
places, and events in the person’s life or in the world.
REMOTE MEMORY
The doctor will ask about the person’s childhood, school, or
historical events that occurred earlier in life.
WORD COMPREHENSION
The doctor will point to everyday items in the room and ask
the person to name them.
112 Chapter 3. Memory

Imagine you have just left the doctor’s office. What tests
have been performed? Use the sentences above to make
more sentences in the Present Perfect Tense. The first one
has been done for you.
1) The doctor has checked my physical appearance, including:
age, dress, general level of comfort, height/weight.
2) ...
4. Complete these sentences using the Future Simple Аctive
or Passive tenses.
1) Physical examination (to include) a detailed neurological
examination.
2) Recent, intermediate, and long�term memory (to test).
3) Diagnostic tests that (to perform) include the following: the
health care provider (to check) the person’s physical appear-
ance, the provider (to ask) questions, the provider (to test)
the person’s ability to finish a thought, either through conver-
sation, or by asking the person to follow a series of directions.
4) Mental status tests (to use) to determine whether a disease or
condition is affecting a person’s thinking abilities, and whether
a person’s mental condition is improving or getting worse.
5) The doctor (to ask) about the person’s childhood, school, or
historical events that occurred earlier in life.
6) The questions related to recent people, places, and events in
the person’s life or in the world (to ask).

TALKING POINTS
5. In small groups, discuss the following ques-
tions.
1) In your opinion, how important was May in
Leslie’s success?
2) What lesson can most people learn from the
case of Leslie Lemke?
3) How many minutes did it take you to read this
article?
4) When do you like to read fast? When and why do you like
to read slowly?
5) Was it difficult to memorize the details of the reading?

APPLYING CONCEPTS FROM THE READING


6. Choose a favourite e�mail address that you haven’t memo-
rized yet. Try memorizing it by using one of the mnemonic
Reading 4. Mistaken identity 113

tricks you practised in this chapter. Next choose a favourite


Internet Website URL (address) beginning with www.
Use another mnemonic trick to memorize it. Share your
experiences with a partner and with the class.
Now try looking up this URL on the Internet: http://
www.frii.com/~geomanda/mnemonics.html. It’s a website
devoted to mnemonics. Not only can you read all about
mnemonics at this site, including hundreds of mnemonic
tricks, you can also send in your own favourite mnemo-
nic trick to the e�mail address attached to the website:
geomanda@frii.com.

Reading 4
Mistaken identity
Mistaken identity is a defense in criminal law which claims
the actual innocence of the criminal defendant, and attempts to
undermine evidence of guilt by asserting that any eyewitness to
the crime incorrectly thought that they saw the defendant, when
in fact the person seen by the witness was someone else. The de-
fendant may question both the memory of the witness (suggest-
ing, for example, that the identification is the result of a false
memory), and the perception of the witness (suggesting, for
example, that the witness had poor eyesight, or that the crime
occurred in a poorly lit place).
Because the prosecution in a criminal case must prove the
guilt of the accused beyond a reasonable doubt, the defendant
must convince the jury that there is reasonable doubt about
whether the witness actually saw what the witness claims to have
seen, or recalls having seen. Although scientific studies have
shown that mistaken identity is a common phenomenon, jurors
give very strong credence to eyewitness testimony, particularly
where the eyewitness is resolute in believing that their identifi-
cation of the defendant was correct.
Skim the Reading to find the answers to the questions: Who
is an eyewitness? What does this person deal with?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details in the text. Then share your ans-
wers with a partner.
1) Are you a good eyewitness?
2) Who has to deal with eyewitnesses and why?
114 Chapter 3. Memory

3) Why is it so important to be a good eyewitness?


4) What is a lineup situation?
5) What does the accuracy of eyewitness statement depend on?
“It’s Him — Or Is It Not?,” “Mistaken Identity Can Land
Innocent People in Jail,” “Innocent People Often End Up in
Prison Because of Mistaken Eyewitness Identification.” The
headlines look familiar: another inmate is freed after being
cleared by DNA testing. Ever wonder why so many innocent
people were behind bars in the first place? Experts say it’s often
mistaken eyewitness testimony that puts innocent people in
prison — and lets the real criminal roam free.
Of the first 40 cases overturned by DNA evidence, 36 of them
were defendants convicted on eyewitness testimony, explains
Boston defense attorney James Doyle, who has written several
articles and co�authored a book on eyewitness testimony.
Experts say the problem is that, unlike in the movies, wit-
nesses who point at a defendant and say “that’s him” are often
mistaken. “Eyewitness testimony is the worst evidence you
could possibly have, but at trial it’s the strongest evidence you
could possibly present,” the attorney, representing a man who
spent 15 years behind bars because of mistaken eyewitness tes-
timony. “It’s extremely powerful testimony.” And it’s a problem
that has defense attorneys and prosecutors concerned, “Every-
one in both law enforcement and, of course on the defense side,
is becoming much more interested in first of all, how you can
avoid using eyewitness testimony in the first place, and secondly,
how you can avoid using mistaken identity.”
Procedural problems
The issues surrounding eyewitness testimony generally fall
into two areas: police procedures and the way memory works.
“A major problem,” say critics, “is when police don’t tell wit-
nesses that it’s possible the actual perpetrator is not even in the
lineup.” “People have a natural tendency to approach a lineup
situation in such a way that they make what I’ve called relative
judgment,” says Gary Wells, an expert in eyewitness testimony
and a psychology professor at Iowa State University. “What
they’ll do is they’ll hone in fairly quickly on the person who
looks most like the perpetrator relative to the other.” But if the
perpetrator isn’t there, the person in the group who looks most
like him or her is likely to be deemed the culprit. And if the others
selected to be in the lineup don’t look anything like the witness
description of the perpetrator; researchers say the lineup is biased.
Reading 4. Mistaken identity 115

Wells also argues that by human nature, police may unknowingly


influence the witness’ selection by trying to assist the witness
or by showing the relief or excitement that comes when the
witness chooses their suspect. Complicating police procedures
are other effects on memory.
“The passage of time, I think, is one of the most important
factors in determining the accuracy of an eyewitness,” says a psy-
chology professor at the Graduate School in California, referring
to the amount of time that elapses between when the event occurs
and when the witness makes an identification. Other factors
include the extreme level of stress in the situation, the presence
of a weapon, the length of time that the person sees the perpe-
trator, whether it was dark out, the way witnesses might talk to
one another after the event, possible influence by media reports
and the race of the witness and perpetrator. More than a dozen
studies have now found that there’s an average of about 15 per
cent difference between the accuracy rates of identifying people
of your own race vs. identifying people of a different race.
But even with all the potential margins for error, eyewitness
testimony can still make or break a case. Confidence in the
police station can translate on the stand, and a witness who
honestly believes he or she has identified the right person and
says something like “I know that’s him — I’ll never forget that
face” can lead to conviction because juries tend to believe con-
fidence equals accuracy. “A confident witness — particularly one
who’s got details and expresses that detail in a confident man-
ner — can be very persuasive,” says Elizabeth Loftus, a psycho-
logy professor at the University of Washington who has spent
20 years studying eyewitness testimony and memory.
Double�blind
To avoid the potential problem of police influence,
researchers recommend using “double�blind” lineups — where
the person administering the lineup does not know who the
police believe the suspect is. Many police officers, however, don’t
think having a neutral party administer the lineup is necessary,
and dispute that the officer’s actions would be a problem.
As a general rule, most police officers would absolutely nix
that. They’d feel uncomfortable with that because it’s their
case. Police officers probably feel that their integrity is being
undermined with that. Most police officers as a rule, at least
investigators who have been police officers for a while, would be
unbiased. Everybody’s human, and they’re going to have some
level of bias no matter where you go.
116 Chapter 3. Memory

Coming to a compromise
What 35 police officials, researchers, prosecutors and
defense lawyers brought together by the Justice Department
have agreed on is a set of guidelines for how to administer photo
arrays and physical lineups. Wells expects defense attorneys to
begin invoking the guidelines in court, comparing the proce-
dures used by police with the recommended procedures. Police
and prosecutors say they’re willing to comply because they want
to ensure they have the right person. “The whole point of doing
an investigation is to determine what the truth is and to find
out what the facts are,” says the special investigator for the pro-
secuting attorney’s office in West Virginia. “Anything that can
help us do that better is, of course, important to the justice system.”

In this last paragraph the prepositions are missing, fill them in.

Of, after, by, to, at, on, in, for

Wrongfully imprisoned
... the age of 39, James Newsome walked out of a maximum-
security prison ... Illinois after 15 years ... wrongful incarcera-
tion (imprisonment). Newsome was convicted and sentenced ...
life in prison ... three witnesses identified him as the man who
shot and killed a 72�year�old grocery store owner ... the South
Side of Chicago, even though his fingerprints didn’t match those
at the scene. But in 1994, fingerprint technology proved the
real perpetrator was a man on death row. Newsome was given a
settlement of $140,000 ... the state, but he didn’t think that was
enough of an apology. Now he’s suing the police officers and the
Chicago Police Department ... millions for gross misconduct.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. The following words from the text above refer more to
Law and Law Enforcement topic than to psychology.
Make sure you understand all of them.
Defence (defense), criminal law, innocent (innocence),
defendant, evidence, guilt, eyewitness (witness), crime,
prosecution, case, the accused, jury (juror), testimony,
inmate, prison, convict, death row, fingerprints, incarcera-
tion, lineup, perpetrator, trial, judgment, to sentence,
attorney, investigator, justice system, court, lawyers
Reading 4. Mistaken identity 117

2. Complete the chart using antonyms. Mind the prefixes


used. Make sure you know how to translate the words.
necessary
uninterested
comfortable
unbiased
irresolute
likely
possibly
unknowingly
incorrectly
naturally

3. Translate the following passage into English.


По параметрам длительности хранения информации вы-
деляются:
1) память сенсорная, где хранение длится не более 1,5 с;
2) память кратковременная со временем хранения не бо-
лее 30 с;
3) память долговременная, позволяющая хранить мате-
риал постоянно.
Tри вида памяти долговременной:
1) память процедурная, в которой хранятся связи между
стимулами и реакциями (рефлексы, навыки и пр.);
2) память семантическая, хранящая систематизирован-
ное знание о символах и их значениях, о взаимоотношениях
между ними, о правилах манипулирования ими;
3) память эпизодическую, в которой хранится информа-
ция о целостных событиях автобиографического характера
и о связях между ними.

DEAL WITH A PROBLEM


4. The noun problem is often used in the text above. Skim
the text and write out all the words describing this noun.
Look at these collocations for the noun problem. Draw
a line from each collocation in column A to its near syno-
nym in column B.
A B
to attack a problem to confront a problem
to face a problem to tackle a problem
to solve a problem to be posed with a problem
to have a problem to overcome a problem
118 Chapter 3. Memory

Complete the following short text with verbs that collocate


with problem.
Imagine you … a problem. It is no good running away from
that problem. You must … the problem and really … it. Hopeful-
ly, in the end you will then … your problem.

5. Match A and B first, then complete the sentences using


your own ideas.
А. Use transitional expressions (similarly, even if, in fact,
furthermore, such as, like, thus, that is, etc.) as cues and
choose one answer from B. Number 1 is done for you.
1) A wink of the eye to an attractive person on a bus means ... .
Similarly, if __________.
A wink of the eye to an attractive person on a bus means
that you like him or her. Similarly, if you smile at a person,
you show interest or sympathy.
2) ... even if we know the context in detail, we still ________.
3) We do not express fear with our eyes, rather the entire
body __________.
4) ... These movements do not occur in isolation. In fact,
__________.
5) We learn that touch is permissible under certain circum-
stances; in short, __________.
6) We learn that women may touch each other in public.
Furthermore, we learn __________.
7) Like the non�verbal behaviors themselves, these rules
__________.
8) ... only in formal discussions of non�verbal communication,
such as __________.
9) Only one third of the impact is vocal, that is __________.
10) It may be that we feel verbal messages are easier to fake.
Thus, __________.

B. The blank should contain:


a) an example;
b) an expanded explanation or clarification;
c) a summary of what has just been stated;
d) a contrasting fact or idea;
e) a fact that is different from what one might expect;
f) fact or idea similar to the one just stated;
g) a consequence or effect of what has just been stated;
h) an idea that provides additional support.
Reading 4. Mistaken identity 119

TALKING POINTS
6. Talk about the importance of accurate eyewit-
ness statements with your partner. Do you
think that a person can be convicted based
only on the eyewitness testimony?
What is an innovative eyewitness testimony
procedure intended to avoid mistaken identi-
ty? Can you describe it?

SUMMARIZING
7. Summarize what you have learned in this Chapter. Write
8—10 sentences including the main ideas only.

If you want to check whether you are a good witness or not,


go to EXTENSIОN ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS
and do a test (Аctivities for Chapter 3).
Chapter 4

STRESS
(Modal verbs and related structures)

Reading 1
We all have stress sometimes. For some
people, it happens before having to speak in
public. For other people, it might be before
a first date. What causes stress for you may
not be stressful for someone else. Sometimes
stress is helpful — it can encourage you to
meet a deadline or get things done. But
long�term stress can increase the risk of dis-
eases like depression, heart disease and a vari-
ety of other problems. A stress�related illness called post�trau-
matic stress disorder (PTSD) develops after an event like war,
physical or sexual assault, or a natural disaster. If you have
chronic stress, the best way to deal with it is to take care of the
underlying problem.

Skim the text to find the answer to the question: Is there any
relation between stress and illness? Can you find the proof in
the text?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text. Аnswer the following questions.
1) What is stress caused by?
2) How can you cope with stress?
3) What are stressors? Find a definition in the text.
4) How is the name of Sigmund Freud connected with stress?
5) What life events can be considered stressful?
Reading 1. Introduction to stress 121

Introduction to stress
The belief that stress increases the risk of illness has become
a part of the commonsense knowledge of today’s culture.
Although there is some basis for this assumption, a little reflec-
tion reveals that there are many ambiguities and inconsisten-
cies in the relationship between stress and illness. All of us
know some friends or family members who became ill after
experiencing some psychologically distressing event, yet we
also know others who seem to tolerate high levels of stress with-
out becoming ill. Why is it that some persons seem resistant to
illness in the face of stress, whereas others become ill with rela-
tively low levels of stress? Indeed, the more thought we give to
questions about stress and illness, the less clear the relationship
between the two is likely to be. Do all persons experience simi-
lar levels of stress when faced with the same events, or are there
differences in how various persons react to presumably stressful
events?
Although stress is typically thought of as a reaction to nega-
tive events, pleasant or positive events may also lead to stress.
A promotion and raise in pay at work may be quite desirable.
However, the adjustments to the new job and changes in
lifestyle the increased salary allows may be stressful. Is stress an
environmental event, such as marriage or job pressures, or may
stress be better defined by how an individual reacts to events?
Some psychological reactions to life events, such as anxiety and
depression, often include physical symptoms such as tension
headache and sleep disorders. If a person is anxious about the
security of his or her job and develops tension headaches, should
this be considered as evidence for an association between stress
and illness or is it merely a reflection of the fact that increased
arousal is a common feature of anxiety and this arousal may
include increased muscle tension?
A great deal of psychological research has been devoted to
studying the stress�illness relationship, and the results of the
investigations have varied depending upon the answers given
to questions such as the ones just noted. This chapter examines
the evidence accumulated to date regarding the relationship
between stress and physical illness, with emphasis on the per-
sonality factors suggested to be important in determining
whether or not a person is likely to experience illness in reac-
tion to stress. Particular attention is given to the personality
dimension of hardiness. Persons high in hardiness believe that
122 Chapter 4. Stress

life has purpose, feel a sense of control over events, and view
change as an opportunity for personal growth. Hardiness has
been proposed as one of the major personality resources that
may reduce the probability of illness in response to stress.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Read the passage and underline all modal verbs. Explain
what each of them expresses.
According to psychologists, different life events can be rated
according to the amount of stress they are likely to cause. Any
event — negative or positive — that causes a significant change
in your everyday life may be stressful. An important influence
on people’s ability to cope with stressful situations is the degree
of control they feel they can exercise over the situation. Both
animals and humans have been found to cope better with pain-
ful or threatening stimuli when they feel that they can exercise
some degree of control rather than being passive and helpless
victims. Such a sense of control can help minimize the negative
consequences of stress, both psychological and physical. In one
well�known experiment, a researcher administered electric
shocks to pairs of rats. In each pair, one of the two animals was
given a degree of control over the situation; it could reach
through a hole in the cage and press a panel that would turn off
the shock both for itself and for its partner. Thus, the two rats
received exactly the same number of shocks, but one was pas-
sive and helpless, and the other was in control. After a continu-
ous 21�hour session, the animals were examined for ulcers.
Those rats who could exert control had much less ulceration
than their helpless partners.
The ability to control painful stimuli often benefits humans,
too. For example, the loud music coming from your stereo is
probably not stressful; in fact, it’s quite enjoyable. But the
same music coming from the place next door can be terribly
irritating and stressful. Merely knowing that one can control
a noise makes it less bothersome. That’s one reason why your
blaring stereo does not bother you — you know you can always
turn it off.

2. Paraphrase the following sentences avoiding might where


possible.
1) Monolingual children perhaps might be introduced to a new
language gradually.
Reading 1. Introduction to stress 123

2) Some families perhaps might start with the second language


when the first one is firmly established.
3) To learn a new language you might label objects in your home,
such as door, table, and shelf.
4) Special English learning support programs for non�English
speaking children at school age might be attended.
5) The more opportunities your child has to practise a language
the faster this language might be learnt.
6) For instance, when you go to the shops or on a walk, when tra-
velling in the car or brushing teeth, you might use the family
language to tell certain stories or speak about certain topics.
7) The child might learn how adults communicate while listen-
ing to communication between same language speakers.
8) The voice is generally louder than normal at this level, but
shouting or raising the voice might have the effect of reduc-
ing the social distance to a personal distance.
9) In rats, certain stressors, such as painful tail�pulling, might
consistently lead to the same sorts of stress reactions.

3. Translate the following into English.

Как справиться со стрессом


(Начало)
Нет непреложных правил и методов лечения стресса, и,
кроме того, некоторых моментов вы просто не в состоянии
избежать. Например, у вас может не быть возможности уво-
литься, даже если начальник круто обращается с вами. Но
есть определенные меры и действия, которые можно проти-
вопоставить хотя бы отдельным стрессовым ситуациям.
1. Никогда не пытайтесь делать более одного дела сразу.
2. Не перегружайте свой рабочий график. Планируйте на
день только то, что можете сделать, не ощущая дискомфор-
та и стесненности во времени.
3. Водите машину на средней скорости. Даже если доро-
га забита транспортом, относитесь к этому спокойнее.
4. Выезжайте чуть�чуть пораньше.
5. Каждый день выделяйте немного времени для рас-
слабления и физических упражнений. Обычная пешая про-
гулка ранним утром или вечером — превосходный способ
расслабиться.
6. Проводите какое�то время с семьей и друзьями, даже
если придется пожертвовать временем для работы и хобби.
124 Chapter 4. Stress

BUILDING VOCABULARY
4. The following words can be classified into cause and effect
chart.
Adjustment to a new job, negative events, pleasant event,
changes of lifestyle, tension, anxiety, depression, headache,
sleep disorder, illness, marriage, raise in pay, job pressure,
promotion, upset stomach, heartburn, anger, irritability,
stomach ache, muscular problems, breakdown

Cause of stress Effect of stress

TALKING POINTS
5. Arrange your ideas about causes and effects of
stress using the spider web and explain your
ideas. Discuss your spider web with your part-
ner.

Stress

VOCABULARY CHECK
6. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the mean-
ing of these words with your partner. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.
Anxiety, ambiguity, presumably, distressing,
commonsense, resistant, desirable, tension, arousal,
accumulation, hardiness, probability

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 2.


Reading 2. History of stress research 125

Reading 2
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: Is that
true that a person might become blind after witnessing a trau-
matic event?

History of stress research


The suggestion that personality may be an important deter-
miner of physical symptoms that develop as a person attempts
to cope with life events has exerted a significant force on psy-
chological and psychiatric thinking during the twentieth cen-
tury. Sigmund Freud was trained as a physician, and his experi-
ence treating patients suffering from physical disorders with
little or no apparent physical cause played a major role in the
development of psychoanalytic theory. Freud’s experiences
with these patients led him to the conclusion that persons who
tended to deal with threatening psychological material by
repressing emotional reactions or denying the presence of emo-
tional disturbance were at risk for the development of physical
symptoms. Repressed psychological distress, particularly distress
related to sexuality, appeared in the form of physical symptoms
through the defense mechanism of conversion.
According to Freud, conversion operates by converting psy-
chological distress into a physical symptom, and the symptom
provides a clue to the nature of the psychological conflict. For
example, a person might become blind after witnessing a trau-
matic event such as a serious accident in which his or her loved
ones died. By becoming blind, the person indirectly expresses
the distress the accident caused, as if he or she were saying,
“I cannot bear to see if I must see people die.” At the same time,
the blindness allows the person to avoid psychological distress
about death, as the focus of attention shifts away from feelings
about the accident and the loss of loved ones to feelings about
levels of gastric acid secretion in reaction to psychological con-
flicts regarding dependence upon others. Diabetes was also sug-
gested to be related to frustrated wishes for dependence, but it is
now recognized that psychological difficulties may be a consequ-
ence rather than a cause of diabetes. The relationship between
hypertension and anger is probably the best supported of the
psychosomatic hypotheses. High blood pressure is a risk factor
for heart disease, and hostility and anger can be related to the
development of heart disease. On balance, it appears that the
126 Chapter 4. Stress

relationship between personality and illness is not as specific or


direct as early psychosomatic theory suggested.
As the search for specific personality factors related to spe-
cific diseases declined, attention turned toward a more generali-
zed conception of stress as a precursor of illness. Current concep-
tualizations of conversion disorders do not emphasize the con�
verting of psychological conflict into physical symptoms, but
instead stress the fact that the physical symptoms allow a per-
son to escape a stressful situation without having to acknow-
ledge responsibility for doing so. Research into the stress�illness
relationship has been complicated by several factors, including
such basic issues as how stress should be defined and how illness
should be measured.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Read the text again and mark sentences with modal
verbs may, can, might, should, would, could. Translate
them and explain the meaning of each modal verb.

2. Translate these sentences paying attention to modal


verbs.
1) Hearing loss may be ranked as mild, moderate, severe or
profound.
2) The quietest sound you can hear at different frequencies
reflects your ability to hear at different frequencies.
3) The range of normal human hearing is so great that the
audiogram must be plotted using a logarithmic scale.
4) One can infer a standardized “percentage of hearing loss”
which is suitable for legal purposes only.
5) In children, hearing loss can lead to social isolation for seve-
ral reasons.
6) A deaf child should learn how to use sign language and to
read lips.
7) A child who has a severe impairment may be rejected by his
or her hearing peers.
8) This can result in a deaf person becoming generally irritable.
9) Remember that any graphic material carries important
information and must be studied carefully, just like the text
itself.
10) The FM system can easily operate in many environments
with battery power.
Reading 2. History of stress research 127

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. Guessing meaning from context.
Although there may be many words in a text that you do not
know, you do not want to continually stop and look up words in
the dictionary. It is often possible to get a general idea of the
meaning of a word or phrase (and that is all you really need in
order to continue reading) by looking at its full context. This
means that your eyes may have to travel back to the sentences
that come before the word/phrase or forward to the sentence or
sentences that follow it.

Read the following passages and use the context to work out
what the words in bold probably mean.
Many sorts of events can be stressors, including disasters
such as hurricanes or tornadoes, major life events such as
divorce or the loss of a job, and daily hassles such as having to
wait in line at the supermarket when you need to be somewhere
else in ten minutes. What all these events have in common is
that they interfere with or threaten our accustomed way of life.
A researcher has proposed that both human and other ani-
mals react to any stressor in three stages, collectively known as
the general adaptation syndrome. The first stage, when the per-
son or animal first becomes aware of the stressor, is the alarm
reaction. In this stage, the organism becomes highly alert and
aroused, energized by a burst of epinephrine.
Whether a particular stimulus will be stressful depends on
the person’s subjective appraisal of that stimulus. How threa-
tening is it? How well have I handled this sort of thing in the
past? How well will I be able to handle it this time? For one
person, being called upon to give a talk in front of a class is a
highly stressful stimulus that will immediately produce such
elements of an alarm reaction as a pounding heart and a dry
mouth.

SYNОNYMS АND ANTОNYMS


4. Learning a large number of words relating to a specific
topic makes reading on that topic much easier. Knowing
synonyms and antonyms is one way to build a topic�based
vocabulary.
The following health�related words occur in the text above.
Find five pairs of near synonyms and two pairs of near
antonyms.
128 Chapter 4. Stress

A disease, an ache, to be anxious, to suffer from,


pressure, an illness, a pain, harmful, to be depressed,
stress, to be sick, helpful, to feel well, to be afflicted with

Synonyms
1) … is similar in meaning to … .
2) … is similar in meaning to … .
3) … is similar in meaning to … .
4) … is similar in meaning to … .
5) … is similar in meaning to … .
Аntonyms
6) … is nearly opposite in meaning to … .
7) … is nearly opposite in meaning to … .

If you want to know more about stress, go to EXTENSION


ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS, read the texts and do
the tests (Аctivities for Chapter 4).

VOCABULARY CHECK
5. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the mean-
ing of these words with your partner. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.
Distressing, resistant, adjustment, anxiety, response,
threatening stimuli, victim, irritating, bothersome,
conversion, conceptualization, disorder, responsibility,
illness, disease

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 3.

Reading 3
Skim the Reading to find the answers to the questions below.
1) Is there a relation between stress and illness? Can you find
proof in the text?
2) Does stress cause diseases or is caused by them?
3) What does GAS stand for? What are three stages of the
adjusting to stress process?
4) What is a stressor? Can you find any examples in the text?
Reading 3. Stress and illness 129

Stress and illness


In many stressful situations, the body’s responses can
improve our performance — we become more energetic, more
alert, better able to take effective action. But when stress is
encountered continually, the body’s reactions are more likely to
be harmful than helpful to us. As will be seen later in this unit,
the continual speeding up of bodily reactions and the produc-
tion of stress�related hormones seem to make people more sus-
ceptible to heart disease. And stress reactions can reduce the
disease�fighting effectiveness of the body’s immune system,
thereby increasing susceptibility to illnesses ranging from colds
to cancer. Other diseases that can result at least in part from
stress include arthritis, asthma, migraine headaches, and ulcers.
Workers who experience the greatest degree of job pressures
have been found to be especially likely to suffer from a large
number of illnesses. Moreover, many studies have shown that
people who have experienced major changes in their lives are at
unusually high risk for a variety of illnesses.
Many sorts of events can be stressors, including disasters
such as hurricanes or tornadoes, major life events such as
divorce or the loss of a job, and daily hassles such as having to
wait in line at the supermarket when you need to be somewhere
else in ten minutes. What all these events have in common is
that they interfere with or threaten our accustomed way of life.
The Canadian physiologist Hans Seyle has been the most
influential researcher and writer on stress. Seyle has proposed
that both humans and other animals react to any stressor in
three stages. These physical changes were identified by Seyle as
the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), a three�stage process
representing the attempts of the body to cope with the
demands of adjusting to change. In the alarm stage of the GAS
the body mobilizes its resources to combat the stressor. The
outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal glands enlarge and become
hyperactive, the thymus and lymph nodes shrink, and bleeding
ulcers may appear in the stomach and upper intestines. If the
stressor continues to assault the body and the organism sur-
vives, the body enters the second, or resistance, stage of the
GAS. During resistance physiological reactions stabilize as the
body attempts to adapt to the stressor. The resistance stage is in
many ways the opposite of the alarm stage. The adrenal cortex
shrinks and lymph nodes return to normal size. However, the
organism is also more sensitive to stressors as physiological
130 Chapter 4. Stress

arousal remains high. If this high level of arousal continues,


bodily resources are eventually depleted and the exhaustion
stage of the GAS is entered. The organism becomes fatigued and
less able to deal with stressors. All of us cycle through the alarm
and resistance stages repeatedly throughout life as we attempt
to deal with commonly encountered stressors. However, the
exhaustion phase is entered only when stressors are unremit-
ting, uncontrollable, and/or extremely intense.
As an example of stress�induced illness, take the case of
stomach ulcers, small lesions in the stomach wall that afflict one
out of twenty people at some point in their lives. Ulcers are a
common disorder among people who work in occupations that
make heavy psychological demands, from assembly�line work-
ers to air�traffic controllers. In many cases, stress is the culprit.
Stress leads to increased secretion of hydrochloric acid in the
stomach. Hydrochloric acid normally helps to break down
foods during digestion, but in excess amounts it can eat away at
the stomach lining, producing ulcers.
Stress may also contribute to disease in less direct ways, by
influencing moods and behavior. People under stress may become
anxious or depressed and as a result may eat too much or too little,
have sleep difficulties, smoke or drink more, or fail to exercise.
These behavioral changes may, in turn, be harmful to their health.
In addition, people are more likely to pay attention to certain
bodily sensations, such as aches and pains, when they are under
stress and to decide that they are “sick.” If the person were not
under stress, the same bodily sensations might not be perceived
as symptoms and the person might continue to feel “well.” Some
researchers have suggested that assuming the role of a “sick per-
son” is one way in which certain people try to cope with stress.
Instead of dealing with the stressful situation directly, these
people fall sick. After all, it is often more acceptable in our soci-
ety to be sick and to seek medical help than it is to admit that
one cannot cope with the stresses of life.

1. Translate the following into English.

Как справиться со стрессом


(Продолжение)
7. Не взваливайте на себя добровольно дополнительную от-
ветственность или работу ради карьеры. Тщательно обдумай-
те, сможете ли вы сделать это, не сокращая времени отдыха.
Reading 3. Stress and illness 131

8. Куда бы вы ни направлялись, поставьте перед собой


задачу увидеть там или по пути что�нибудь красивое — цве-
ты, закат или рассвет, интересное здание, необычные авто-
мобили и т.п.
9. В следующий раз, когда будете беседовать с кем�ни-
будь на вечеринке или на собрании, не говорите слишком
много. Спокойно посидите и послушайте собеседника, зада-
вая вопросы или комментируя рассказ только для поддер-
жания разговора.
10. Если человек делает что�то медленнее, чем смогли бы
вы, не вмешивайтесь.
11. Перед тем как ставить перед собой новую задачу, по-
думайте, действительно ли это вам нужно, и если да, то сле-
дует ли сделать это немедленно и не может ли кто�нибудь
заменить вас.
12. Каждый день уделяйте немного времени хобби — чте-
нию, работе в саду, коллекционированию. И не старайтесь
стать лучшим садовником или «запойным» читателем,
а также не превращайте хобби в источник заработка — про-
сто получайте от него удовольствие.

SUMMARIZING
When you summarize, you look at the whole text and reduce
it to a few sentences.
The first sentence of a summary should express the overall
message of the text — the main idea. The remaining senten-
ces should present the most important ideas in the text. A good
summary need not include details or supporting evidence for
the main ideas.

2. The sentences that follow provide a detailed summary of


Stress and illness in jumbled order. Number them in the
correct order.
1) Those who are going through a divorce, or people with
stressful jobs, such as air�traffic controllers, are in particular
danger.
2) Stress may also indirectly affect your health, since people who
are under stress often engage in activities that are harmful.
3) Researchers have found that people who experience a great
deal of stress in their daily lives or in their jobs are more like-
ly to get sick.
132 Chapter 4. Stress

4) They may overeat or not eat enough, smoke too much, drink
too much alcohol, and not sleep well.
5) Such bodily reactions to stress can lead to illnesses ranging
from the common cold, to headaches, arthritis, ulcers, and
even cancer.
6) Stress, it seems, can cause the immune system not to func-
tion well and can cause harmful reactions such as an increase
in acidic secretions in the stomach.

3. The summary you have created by reordering the six sen-


tences contains too much detail. Find the three least
important sentences and delete them. Write out the
remaining three to produce a well�written, clear, and con-
cise summary.

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Knowing synonyms and antonyms is one way to build a
topic�based vocabulary. The following are health�related
words. Find five pairs of near synonyms and two pairs of
near antonyms.

A disease, to be anxious, pressure, a pain, an ache,


be depressed, stress, to suffer from, to be sick, helpful,
an illness, to feel well, harmful, to be afflicted with

5. Are you easily stressed out? Аnswer the questions of the


questionnaire below to find it out.

Questionnaire
1. You always carry an expensive, brown briefcase. You are on
the bus, and the man who is sitting next to you keeps look-
ing at your briefcase. Finally, he says that your briefcase is
the one that he lost on the bus last week. You:
a) get nervous.
b) get angry and tell him the briefcase is yours.
c) don’t listen to him and continue reading.
d) tell him that maybe his briefcase is in the lost and found.
2. You are alone in an elevator that has stopped between floors.
You:
a) begin to shout for help.
Reading 3. Stress and illness 133

b) feel very nervous and frightened.


c) ring the alarm and calmly wait for help.
d) read the newspaper you have in your briefcase.
3. You are going on vacation with your family on Saturday. On
Friday morning, an executive who is very important asks
you to start work on a new project right away. She says that
you can go on vacation next month. You:
a) laugh nervously.
b) feel anxious, but finally agree.
c) politely refuse and tell why.
d) suggest that you can start the project after your trip.
4. You have a friend who wants to borrow some money. He
always pays it back, but it takes a long time. Today he needs
thirty dollars, but you want to use this money to buy a birth-
day present for another friend. You:
a) get really upset and tell him to find the money some place
else.
b) lend him the money and disappoint your other friend.
c) explain why you can’t lend him the money.
d) offer to help him learn to use his money more carefully.
5. You are returning from a trip abroad. You have brought eight
Swiss watches with you. The customs officer who is check-
ing your baggage has just told you that the limit is two
watches. You:
a) begin to get upset.
b) say that you are very, very sorry,
c) calmly admit that you have brought in too many watches.
d) smile and tell him that you didn’t know that the limit was
two watches.
Count 1 point for every a or b answer you did not circle and
1 point for every с or d answer you did circle. Then find your
score in the chart.
16—20 — You handle stress better than most people. You stay
calm in situations that make other people very nerv-
ous.
11—15 — You are a person who sometimes feels stress, but not
very often.
6—10 — Situations that cause stress are frequent in your life.
You should try to relax a little!
134 Chapter 4. Stress

0—5 — You feel stressed out too often! You should learn how
to calm down from people who know how to handle
stress.

VOCABULARY CHECK
6. Match the words and their meanings.
1) to handle a) afraid
2) frightened b) to control
3) anxious c) to make someone feel sad
4) to suggest d) nervous
5) to disappoint e) the most you can have
6) limit f) to say an idea
7) to calm down g) to stop being nervous

GRAMMAR CHECK
7. a) Read the following and make sentences using the
modal verb might. The first one is done for you.
Signs you’re stressed out:
• Feeling depressed, edgy, guilty, tired
• Having headaches, stomachaches, trouble sleeping
• Laughing or crying for no reason
• Blaming other people for bad things that happen to you
• Only seeing the down side of a situation
• Feeling like things that you used to enjoy aren’t fun or are
a burden
• Resenting other people or your responsibilities
1) If you are stressed out you might feel depressed, edgy,
guilty and tired.
b) Give advice using the modal verb should. The first one is
done for you.
Things that help fight stress:
• Eating well�balanced meals on a regular basis
• Drinking less caffeine
• Getting enough sleep
• Exercising on a regular basis
1) To fight stress you should eat well�balanced meals on a
regular basis.
Reading 4. Chocolate: a world favorite 135

TALKING POINTS
8. Discuss the following with your partner.

How can I deal with stress?


Although you can’t always control the things that
are stressing you out, you can control how you
react to them. The way you feel about things results from the
way you think about things. If you change how you think, you
can change the way you feel. Try some of these tips to cope
with your stress:
Make a list of the things that are causing your stress. Think
about your friends, family, school and other activities. Accept
that you can’t control everything on your list.
Take control of what you can. For example, if you’re work-
ing too many hours and you don’t have time to study enough,
you may need to cut back your work hours.
Give yourself a break. Remember that you can’t make
everyone in your life happy all the time. And it’s okay to make
mistakes now and then.
Don’t commit yourself to things you can’t do or don’t want
to dо. If you’re already too busy, don’t promise to decorate for
the school dance. If you’re tired and don’t want to go out, tell
your friends you’ll go another night.
Find someone to talk tо. Talking to your friends or family
can help because it gives you a chance to express your feelings.
However, problems in your social life or family can be the
hardest to talk about. If you feel like you can’t talk to your
family or a friend, talk to someone outside the situation. This
could be your school counsellor or your family doctor.
Describe something that you do to reduce stress. Explain
why it is helpful. Include details and examples to support
your answer. You might want to follow the example of an
essay in EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS
(Аctivities for Chapter 4).

Reading 4
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the texts. Аnswer the following questions.
1) What do you know about chocolate?
2) Where does it come from?
136 Chapter 4. Stress

3) What is it made of?


4) The following article about chocolate appears in this unit on
stress. What do you think chocolate and stress have to do
with each other?

Chocolate: a world favorite


Chocolate, one of the most popular foods in the world, has a
history as rich as its flavor. Chocolate comes from the beans of
the cacao tree, a plant that has grown in the Americas for at
least 4,000 years. As long ago as the twelfth century, Indian
families drank chocolate at marriages and other ceremonies.
However, chocolate was not known in Europe until 1528, when
the Spanish explorer Herna´n Corte´s brought it to Spain.
Drinking chocolate soon became popular in Spain and
quickly spread to the rest of Europe. Three hundred years
later, a scientist in Holland learned how to make chocolate into
candy. As the years passed, people in countries such as
Belgium, Switzerland, and England began to make many kinds
of chocolate candy. Today the making of chocolate is a multi-
billion dollar industry.
There are many reasons why chocolate is so popular. People
like its rich, delicious flavor. Some people think that chocolate
is even better when combined with other ingredients, such as
fruit and nuts. Also, candy makers can make chocolate into de-
corative shapes, from flowers and hearts to animals, and even to
huge statues that weigh as much as 220 pounds (100 kilos).
In addition, eating chocolate has helpful physical effects.
The sugar and fat in chocolate give people quick energy. This is
why mountain climbers often carry chocolate with them. For
this same reason, people like to have a candy bar when they’re
feeling tired.
Eating chocolate has mental effects, too. Many people crave
chocolate in times of stress or emotional upset. Some psycholo-
gists explain that people associate chocolate with the happy
times of their childhoods. The taste of chocolate reminds them
of the food and comfort they received from their mothers. How-
ever, physical scientists have developed another explanation.
They say that one ingredient of chocolate, phenyl ethylamine,
seems to lower stress.
There is no doubt that chocolate, with its unique physical
and psychological effects and its unmatched flavor, is one of the
world’s favorite foods.
Reading 4. Chocolate: a world favorite 137

1. COMPREHENSION CHECK
1) Where did chocolate come from?
2) Who brought chocolate to Europe?
3) What effect does chocolate have on the human body?
VOCABULARY CHECK
2. Use the context to determine the meanings of the words.
Work without a dictionary.
Ceremony, physical, industry, energy, flavour, mental,
combined, crave, ingredients, remind

GRAMMAR CHECK
3. The sense relations in many of the sentences involve cau-
sality, or cause and effect. Causality may be expressed in
many different ways in English, as you can see from the
examples in the following table.
Cause Effect
X causes. X leads to Y.
When X happens, Y happens.
X happens, thereby causing Y.
X happens. This results in Y. As a result, Y happens. Conse-
quently, Y happens. For this reason, Y happens.
Note the language that is often used when expressing the effect of X, for
example: X may lead to Y; When X happens, Y is likely to (may) happen.
Turn the following notes into full sentences using some of the
different ways of expressing causality listed in the table.
A sample answer has been provided for the first example.
1) too much stress  breakdown of the immune system  sus-
ceptible to disease
Too much stress may lead to a breakdown in the immune
system. As a result, people may become more susceptible to
disease.
2) stress  too much secretion of hydrochloric acid  ulcers
3) stress  mood changes  depression  too much smoking
and drinking  illnesses
4) stress  attention to bodily reactions  people may decide
they are sick
4. Paraphrase using the modal verbs.
You must first understand the sense relations in a sen-
tence. Then you can restructure the sentence and express
138 Chapter 4. Stress

the sense relations in another way. First write each sen-


tence in note form, using arrows to show the direction of
the causal relations. Then write a paraphrase of your no-
tes, using one of the different ways of expressing causali-
ty listed in the table. A sample answer has been provided
for the first example.
1) When stress is encountered continually the body’s reactions
are more likely to be harmful than helpful to us.
continual stress  harmful bodily reactions
Continual stress may lead to harmful bodily reactions.
2) Workers who experience the greatest degree of job pressures
have been found to be especially likely to suffer from a large
number of diseases.
3) Ulcers are a common disorder among people who work in
occupations that make heavy psychological demands.
4) Stress is also likely to contribute to disease in less direct
ways, by influencing moods and behavior.
5. Applying concepts from the Reading.
1) Do you ever eat when you feel stressed out? What do you
eat? Does eating that food make you feel better? Why?
2) The article talks about the good effects of eating chocolate.
What are some bad effects of chocolate?
3) One kind of supporting detail is examples. Examples illus-
trate your ideas and make your writing easier to understand.
Examples can be signaled by expressions like for example,
for instance, like, and such as.
6. Read the passage and answer the question: How to handle
stress?
When you feel stressed out, there are certain techniques you
can use to help you calm down. One good technique is to change
scenery. For example, if the stress is coming from work, leave
your office and take a short walk. Changing your surroundings
can help you forget about the problems at work. Another good
way to reduce stress is to face your problems directly. For
instance, if you are having problems with your school work,
don’t ignore them. Talk to a classmate or, even better, to the
teacher. Solving the problems will reduce your stress. The easiest
way to lower stress is physical exercise. Experts say that exer-
cise produces certain stress�reducing chemicals in the brain.
Whenever you start to feel tense, do your favorite exercise.
Swimming, running, and dancing are especially good for reduc-
Reading 4. Chocolate: a world favorite 139

ing stress. Since our world can sometimes be stressful, it is


important to find ways to handle stress.
a) There are three examples in the paragraph. What are they?
b) How are they signaled? What words are used to signal them?
c) What general statements do they support? Write a para-
graph on how you handle stress or on how you stay
healthy. Describe what you do and tell why these activi-
ties help. Include at least one example in your paragraph.

PREVIEWING THE PASSAGE


7. Do you lead a fast�paced life? Is taking time to relax an im-
portant part of your life? Is it important in your culture?

How important is leisure time?


How important is leisure time? How important is time to
relax and to collect yourself? Many doctors believe that learn-
ing to relax in order to relieve day�to�day tension could one day
save your life. In our fast�paced world, it is almost impossible to
avoid building up tension from stress. All of us confront stress
daily; anything that places an extra demand on us causes stress.
We encounter stress on the job, and we face it at home.
The body responds to stress by “mobilizing its defenses.”
Blood pressure rises and muscles get ready to act. If our tension
is not relieved, it can start numerous reactions, both physical
and psychological. Yet, we can learn to cope with stress effec-
tively and to avoid its consequences. How? By relaxing in the
face of the stress. The effects of stress depend not on what hap-
pens to us, but on the way we react. In times of stress, taking a few
moments to sit quietly and relax can make anyone feel better.
What do you do in your free time? Do you exercise a lot?
Are you typical of people from your culture?

8. Translate the following into English.

Как справиться со стрессом


(Окончание)
13. На работе, если ваш начальник не возражает, ежеднев-
но каждые 2 часа устраивайте себе 5—10�минутный перерыв.
14. Ежедневно ищите повод сделать кому�нибудь ком-
плимент (сотрудникам, членам семьи, друзьям).
15. Если вам не нужны для работы часы, оставляйте их дома.
140 Chapter 4. Stress

16. В следующий раз, когда будете играть с детьми, род-


ственниками или друзьями, сознательно проиграйте им.
Гордитесь тем, как здорово вы сумели скрыть то, что сдела-
ли это намеренно. Помните, что действие стресса гораздо
больше зависит от вашей реакции на происходящее, чем от
самого события. Зачастую нет нужды тратить все силы на
изменение ситуации, но можно изменить свою реакцию.

READING COMPREHENSION
9. Read the text below and choose a, b, c, or d to answer the
questions.
Do you feel stressed?
Do you feel stressed? Chances are you do. Levels of stress in
our life are increasing more and more these days, and this is true
for both workers and students. There are a number of ways you
can relieve stress, but there are also several ways in which you
can avoid stress in the first place, and this article will focus on
these. Here are four things you should avoid like the plague if
you want to develop a more peaceful lifestyle.
What’s the first thing you do when you get home after a
stressful day at work or college? Many of us collapse on the
couch and reach for the TV remote. Don’t do it! Not only does
the TV fill your living room with the stressful lives of on�screen
characters, think about commercials. The aim of advertising is
to make people feel that their lives are inadequate and unful-
filled. They often bring out negative emotions in viewers.
And while we are on the subject of television, have you
noticed how much of the news we watch is bad news? Research
states that over 90% of the news we watch, read or hear on the
radio is bad news. In order to sell stories, the media bombard us
with negative story after negative story. What is more, the sto-
ries which are reported are often ones which you have no con-
trol over, and this leads to a sense of powerlessness. Why not
buy a local paper instead? The news is often far more optimistic,
and you may be inspired to take action in a way that can have a
positive effect on your own neighbourhood.
Avoiding television may also help you avoid another sort of
stress — arguments. How often do you and your family row about
what to watch on the television? Arguments will never help you
feel better, and no�one ever wins an argument. When you feel
that an argument is brewing, go for a walk or find a quiet place
where you calm down, or you will only prolong the tension.
Reading 4. Chocolate: a world favorite 141

The last thing to avoid is caffeine. Anything which contains


caffeine, and that includes coffee, tea, chocolate and even a nice
soothing cup of cocoa, is a stimulant, and is more likely to keep
you tense than relax you. Sugary drinks are also going to keep
you buzzing. Have a cup of herbal tea and eat foods which are
natural rather than processed.
1) What is the text about?
a) Ways to relieve stress.
b) How to prevent stress.
c) Reasons why stress levels are increasing.
d) The consequences of a stressful lifestyle.
2) Why does the writer consider commercials stressful?
a) They often depict characters in stressful situations.
b) They make people worry about money.
c) They make you feel your life is not good enough.
d) They contain flashing and fat�moving images.
3) Why, according to the writer, do news stories often depress us?
a) The stories highlight problems in the local neighbourhood.
b) The stories address problems that the reader cannot control.
c) The stories describe people who are powerless.
d) The stories force readers to take action.
4) What does the writer suggest you do if you feel angry with
someone?
a) Have a big argument.
b) Have some quiet time alone.
c) Turn the television on.
d) Brew a cup of tea.
5) Which drink does the writer recommend when you feel
stressed?
a) Herbal tea.
b) Cocoa.
c) A sugary drink.
d) Coffee.

TALKING POINT
10. A reporter for a health magazine is talking to an
expert on stress. With a partner, take turns
asking and answering questions.
Example: change jobs a lot/never change job.
А: Who has more stress — people who change jobs a lot or peo-
ple who never change jobs? Give a comparison.
142 Chapter 4. Stress

B: People who change jobs have more stress than people who
don’t. Ask for an explanation.
А: Why do you think that? Give an explanation.
B: Because people who change jobs a lot have to make many
adjustments in their lives, and that’s stressful.

These are hints for the conversations.


a) have money problems/have problems with their children
b) lose their jobs/change work hours every week
c) travel a lot on business/work weekends
d) work for a male boss/work for a female boss
e) give up smoking/go on a diet

VOCABULARY CHECK
11. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the mean-
ing of these words with your partner. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.
Adjustment, anxious, pressure, anxiety, ulcer, to handle,
harmful, resistance, to be stressed out, exhaustion,
hyperactive

If you know all the words, continue to Chapter 5.

SUMMARIZING
12. Summarize what you have learned in this Chapter in
8—10 sentences. Share your summary with your partner.
Do other activities for Chapter 4.
Chapter 5

PERCEPTION
(Infinitives, Gerunds and other verb forms)

Reading 1
What is perception? What is the difference between percep-
tion and sensation?
Read the text, use key words to find the answers to the ques-
tions above.
Perception, interpret, sensation, meaningful experience,
sensory receptors, sensory input, receptor cell,
raw sensory stimuli, depth perception, binocular disparity,
perception of motion, unconscious inference

Perception
Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and
organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the
world. Sensation refers to the immediate result of stimulation of
sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin. Per-
ception involves further processing of sensory input. In prac-
tice, sensation and perception are almost impossible to separate,
because they are part of one process.
Our sense organs translate physical energy
from the environment into electrical impulses
processed by the brain. For example, light, in the
form of electromagnetic radiation, causes recep-
tor cells in our eyes to activate and send signals to
the brain. But we do not understand these signals
as pure energy. The process of perception allows
us to interpret them as objects, events, people,
and situations.
144 Chapter 5. Perception

Without the ability to organize and interpret sensations, life


would seem like a meaningless jumble of colors, shapes, and
sounds. A person without any perceptual ability would not be
able to recognize faces, understand language, or avoid threats.
Such a person would not survive for long.
Organizing raw sensory stimuli into meaningful experiences
involves cognition, a set of mental activities that includes thin-
king, knowing, and remembering. Knowledge and experience
are extremely important for perception, because they help us
make sense of the input to our sensory systems.
Depth perception is the ability to see the world in three dimen-
sions and to perceive distance. Although this ability may seem
simple, depth perception is remarkable when you consider that
the images projected on each retina are two�dimensional. From
these flat images, we construct a vivid three�dimensional world.
To perceive depth, we depend on two main sources of informa-
tion: binocular disparity and monocular cues.
The perception of motion is a complex phenomenon. We are
almost always in motion. How does our brain know which
movement on the retina is due to our own motion and which is
due to motion in the world? One explanation of motion percep-
tion involves a form of unconscious inference. That is, when we
walk around or move our head in a particular way, we uncon-
sciously expect that images of stationary objects will move on
our retina. We discount such movement on the retina as due to
our own bodily motion and perceive the objects as stationary.
In contrast, when we are moving and the image of an object
does not move on our retina, we perceive that object as mov-
ing. Consider what happens as a person moves in front of you
and you track that person’s motion with your eyes. You move
your head and your eyes to follow the person’s movement,
with the result that the image of the person does not move on
your retina. The fact that the person’s image stays in roughly
the same part of the retina leads you to perceive the person as
moving.

1. Read the definition of the word sensation and translate it


into Russian.
Sensation — the whole process of perceiving a particular
stimulus and interpreting the stimulus by means of the nervous
system, e.g. the sensation of color involves the sense of sight and
its interpretation by the central nervous system.
Reading 1. Perception 145

2. COMPREHENSION CHECK
1) What is perception?
2) How is it different from sensation?
3) How do our sense organs transform physical energy from the
environment?
4) Would a person without any perceptual ability be able to
recognize faces, understand language, and avoid threats?
5) What does cognition include?
6) What is depth perception?
7) Are the images projected on each retina three�dimensional?
8) How does our brain perceive motion?

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. Match the words with their definitions.
1) perception a) something that causes a reaction in a liv-
ing thing
2) sensation b) the representation of what is perceived
3) experience c) energy, power or information going in
4) environment d) the gaining of knowledge or skill from
seeing and doing
5) stimulus e) the act of moving
6) input f) the ability to feel through five senses of
touch, sight, hearing, taste and smell
7) dimension g) a measurement in one direction only
8) motion h) surrounding conditions

4. Match the antonyms.


1) input a) three�dimensional
2) organize b) moving
3) meaningful c) disorganize
4) flat d) monocular
5) complex e) meaningless
6) unconscious f) receive
7) stationary g) simple
8) send h) conscious
9) binocular i) output

5. Read and translate the following sentences from the text.


1) Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and
organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of
the world.
146 Chapter 5. Perception

2) Our sense organs translate physical energy from the envi-


ronment into electrical impulses processed by the brain.
3) Organizing raw sensory stimuli into meaningful experiences
involves cognition, a set of mental activities that includes
thinking, knowing, and remembering.
4) Depth perception is the ability to see the world in three
dimensions and to perceive distance.

GRAMMAR CHECK
6. Which of these sentences should be translated starting
with «Для того чтобы…»?
1) To monitor feedback in talking with someone, we look at
the person intently, as if to say, “Well, what do you think?”
2) To measure an ability to understand speech in quiet and
noisy environments a special technology was developed.
3) To have more than one degree of hearing loss (i.e. mild slop-
ing to severe) is quite common for someone.
4) To teach her social skills that other children acquire inde-
pendently by virtue of having normal hearing is her par-
ents’ and teachers’ duty.
5) To attend a school for hearing children she should learn
how to read lips.
6) To interact with members of different cultures you need to
know more about non�verbal language.
7) To perceive Americans as pushy, aggressive and inappropri-
ate is easy for Japanese as they touch each other a lot.
8) People with hearing aids also use additional communica-
tion devices to reduce the interference of background
sounds.
9) The device is mobile and does not usually require an expert
for it to work properly.
10) A wireless system is the audio induction loop which per-
mits the listener with hearing loss to be free of wearing a
receiver.
11) This device also requires a receiver to be worn by the lis-
tener.
12) A stranger might tap (touch lightly with his or her fingers)
another stranger on the shoulder in order to get the other’s
attention.
13) Any number, color, object, etc. may be induced to be igno-
red by the patient after full consciousness.
Reading 2. Perception and perceiver-distortion illusions 147

VOCABULARY CHECK
7. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the mean-
ing of these words with your partner. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.

Receptor cells, recognize, survive, stimuli,


cognition, dimension, remarkable, disparity

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 2.

Reading 2
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
is the connection between perception and interpretation?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and answer the following questions.
1) Why do we say that each act of perception is a hypothesis
based on prior experience?
2) What is Gestalt? (If you can’t answer, check the Introduc-
tion to the book)
3) How does the perception occur? What’s the procedure?
4) What are perceiver�distortion illusions? What are they
related to?
5) Look at the picture. Can you explain ground�figure illusions?
6) Give other examples of perceiver�distortion illusions consid-
ered in the text.

Perception and perceiver�distortion illusions


To the biologist, the life of animals (including that of humans)
consists of seeking stimulation and responding appropriately.
A reflex occurs before an individual knows what struck him,
what made him lift a foot or drop an object. It is biologically
correct to be alarmed before one knows the reason. It is only after
the immediate and automatic response that the cerebral cortex
is involved and conscious perception begins. Perception comes
between simple sensation and complex cognitional behavior. By
the time people are able to talk about it, perception has become
so automatic that they hardly realize that seeing what they see,
hearing what they hear, is an interpretation. Each act of per-
148 Chapter 5. Perception

ception is a hypothesis based on prior experience: the world is


made up of things people expect to see, hear, or smell, and any
new sensory event is perceived in relation to what they already
know. People perceive trees, not brown, upright masses and
blotches of green against a background of blue, gray, and white.
Once one has learned to understand speech, it is all but impossi-
ble to hear words as sibilants and diphthongs, sounds of lower
and higher frequencies. In other words, recognizing a thing
entails knowing its total shape or pattern. This is usually called
by its German name, Gestalt. As well as perception of the exter-
nal environment, there is perception of oneself. Information
about one’s position in space, for example, comes from vision,
from vestibular receptors, and from somatic receptors in the
skin and deep tissues. This information is collected in the
vestibular nuclei and passed on to the thalamus. From there it
is relayed to the central gyri and the parietal region of the cor-
tex, where it becomes conscious perception.
Some illusions are related to perceiver characteristics such
as brain function. When an observer is confronted with a visual
assortment of dots, for example, the brain may appear to group
the dots that “belong together.” These groupings are made on
the basis of such things as observed similarity (e.g., red versus
black dots), proximity, common direction of movement, percep-
tual set (the way one is expecting to see things grouped), and
extrapolation (one’s estimate of what will happen based on an
extension of what is now happening). Time�induced error is an
example of a Gestalt illusion that occurs over brief time inter-
vals. Two images of the same line, for example, will appear to
differ in length if they are flashed quickly one after the other.
Closure (another Gestalt term) is the illusion of seeing an
incomplete stimulus as though it were whole. Thus, one uncon-
sciously tends to complete (close) a triangle or a square with a
gap in one of its sides. In watching movies, closure occurs to fill
the intervals between what are really
rapidly projected still pictures, giv-
ing the illusion of uninterrupted
motion. The “figure and ground” illu-
sion is commonly experienced when
one gazes at the illustration of a vase
the outline of which is created by
two profiles (see ambiguous figure
seen as either vase or two profiles).
At any moment one will be able to
Reading 2. Perception and perceiver-distortion illusions 149

see either the vase (in the centre area) as “figure” or the profiles
on each side (in which case the faces are seen as “ground”). The
fluctuations of figure and ground may occur even when one fails
deliberately to shift attention, appearing without conscious
effort. Seeing one aspect apparently excludes seeing the other.
In a related experience, linear perspective creates the illu-
sion that parallel lines, or contours (such as railroad tracks),
converge as they recede from the viewer. If it were not for these
converging lines, a figure in the distant background might appear
smaller than would an identical figure in the foreground. Visual
illusions include a variety of contrast color phenomena. A suc-
cessive contrast occurs when, after one has stared at a red sur-
face, a green surface looks much brighter. As one enters a dark
room from bright sunshine, the room at first seems quite dark by
contrast. A simultaneous contrast occurs when an area of bright-
ness is seen against a less intense or a more intense background.
If a gray patch of paper is placed on a black background, it looks
whiter than it did before; if placed on a white background, it
looks darker.
In studies of visual verticality, experimenters investigated
the conditions that determine perception of the “upright.”
A tilted chair that could be mechanically controlled by the sub-
ject was placed in a slanted room con-
taining visual indicators of verticals
and horizontals. When various per-
sons were asked to sit in the chair and
align themselves in a vertical position,
some of the subjects aligned them-
selves with the “true vertical” deter-
mined by gravity, while others expe-
rienced the illusion of verticality by
aligning themselves with the visual
directions they saw in the slanted room. Closing the eyes made
“true” alignment easier.
Staring at a single bright spot in an otherwise darkened
room creates the illusion that the stationary light is moving
(autokinetic effect). One theory to account for this is that the
impression is caused by minute eye movements of the observer.
The so�called phi phenomenon is an illusion of movement that
arises when stationary objects, light bulbs for example, are
placed side by side and illuminated rapidly one after another.
The effect is frequently used on theatre marquees to give the
impression of moving lights.
150 Chapter 5. Perception

There is a well�known apparent difference in the size of the


moon when it is at the horizon and when it is fully risen. The
horizon moon, though it is actually farther away from the
observer, looks much larger than it does when it is high in the
sky and closer. The explanations have attributed the moon illu-
sion to the fact that the fully risen moon cannot be readily com-
pared to the terrain, as it can at the horizon; to atmospheric haze,
which alters the impression of distance and size; to the change
in the angle of elevation of the observer’s eyes; and to the idea
that the moon’s increase in altitude (above the horizon) creates
an expectation of decrease in size. The moon illusion remains a
paradox since, although the retinal images (in the eye) of the
high moon and the horizon moon are about the same, the per-
ceived size differs grossly.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Read the passage and find all �ing verb forms (12 gerunds
and 4 participles). Write them down and make your own
sentences using these forms.
In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the
process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sen-
sory information. It is a task far more complex than was imagi-
ned in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was proclaimed that building
perceiving machines would take about a decade, but, needless
to say, that is still very far from reality. The word perception
comes from the Latin perception�, percepio� meaning receiving,
collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind
or senses. Methods of studying perception range from essentially
biological or physiological approaches, through psychological
approaches through the philosophy of mind and in empiricist
epistemology, such as that of David Hume, John Locke, George
Berkeley’s affirmation of perception as the basis of all science
and knowledge.
There are two basic theories of perception: Passive Perception
(PP) and Active Perception (PA). The passive perception is
addressed in this article and could be surmised as the following
sequence of events: surrounding — input (senses) — processing
(brain) — output (re�action). Although still supported by main-
stream philosophers, psychologists and neurologists, this theo-
ry is nowadays losing momentum. The theory of active percep-
tion has emerged from extensive research of sensory illusions.
This theory is increasingly gaining experimental support and
Reading 2. Perception and perceiver-distortion illusions 151

could be surmised as dynamic relationship between “descrip-


tion” (in the brain) — senses — surrounding.

2. Participle I or Participle II?


In the following pairs of sentences either Participle I or
Participle II is possible. Choose the words from the chart
to complete the sentences.

Participle I Participle II
overwhelming overwhelmed
worrying worried
resolving resolved
marking marked
tempting tempted

1) The child seems … and troubled by his or her feelings,


unable to cope with them.
2) The … effect of her sudden appearance was great.
3) The child seems constantly preoccupied, …, anxious, and
intense.
4) These are nothing more than … financial problems.
5) Sleep difficulties don’t appear to be … .
6) Health problems have to be … immediately.
7) The following symptoms should be evaluated by a psychia-
trist: … personality change, … changes in eating or sleeping
patterns.
8) This … ink is good for all surfaces.
9) Drugs and alcohol can be very …, and your friends may
offer them to you.
10) Don’t get … by the simplicity of this assignment.

3. Read the following passage and complete the chart using


words from it. Translate the words.

The different kinds of stress


Stress management can be complicated and confusing
because there are different types of stress — acute stress, episod-
ic acute stress, and chronic stress — each with its own charac-
teristics, symptoms, duration, and treatment approaches. Let’s
look at each one.
Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes
from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated
152 Chapter 5. Perception

demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is


thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting.
A fast run down a challenging ski slope, for example, is exhila-
rating early in the day. That same ski run late in the day is tax-
ing and wearing. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and
broken bones. By the same token, overdoing on short�term stress
can lead to psychological distress, tension headaches, upset stomach,
and other symptoms. Fortunately, acute stress symptoms are
recognized by most people. It’s a laundry list of what has gone
awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car
fender, the loss of an important contract, a deadline they’re
rushing to meet, their child’s occasional problems at school, and
so on. Because it is short�term, acute stress doesn’t have enough
time to do the extensive damage associated with long�term
stress. The most common symptoms are:
• emotional distress — some combination of anger or irri-
tability, anxiety, and depression, the three stress emotions;
• muscular problems including tension headache, back pain,
jaw pain, and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles
and tendon and ligament problems;
• stomach, gut and bowel problems such as heartburn, acid
stomach, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and irritable bowel
syndrome;
• transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure,
rapid heartbeat, sweaty palms, heart palpitations, dizziness,
migraine headaches, cold hands or feet, shortness of breath, and
chest pain. Acute stress can crop up in anyone’s life, and it is
highly treatable and manageable.

Gerund Participle I Participle II Infinitive

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Look over the list of words and expressions from the
Reading. Which words do you already know? How many
of them can you guess from the context? For the ones you
don’t know or can’t guess use a dictionary. Don’t forget
to check their meanings in the context.
Reading 3. Illusions 153

Sensation, distortion, epistemology, alignment,


interpretation, upright, pattern, background, observe,
perceptual, vestibular receptors, linear perspective,
uninterrupted

Complete the chart using the words from the text. Check
the meaning of these words in the dictionary.

Adjective Translation Adverb Translation


appropriate
deliberate
unconsciously
immediate
biologically
simultaneous
vertically
horizontally
grossly
impossible
rapidly
commonly
similar

Reading 3
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
is the nature of illusions?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details.
1) What distinguishes illusions from hallucinations?
2) Give a definition of illusion from the text.
3) When do illusions occur?
4) What kinds of illusions are described in the text?
5) What are tactual illusions?
6) What are visual illusions?
7) Can you give any examples of optical illusions? If you can’t,
find some in the texts.
154 Chapter 5. Perception

Illusions
Illusion is a misrepresentation of a “real” sensory stimulus —
that is, an interpretation that contradicts objective “reality” as
defined by general agreement. For example, a child who percei-
ves tree branches at night as if they are
hobgoblins may be said to be having
an illusion. An illusion is distingui-
shed from a hallucination, an experience
that seems to originate without an
external source of stimulation. Neither
experience is necessarily a sign of
psychiatric disturbance; and both are
regularly and consistently reported
by virtually everyone.
The nature of illusions. Illusions, then, are special percep-
tual experiences in which information arising from “real” exter-
nal stimuli leads to an incorrect perception, or false impression,
of the object or event from which the stimulation comes. Some
of these false impressions may arise from factors beyond an indi-
vidual’s control (such as the characteristic behavior of light
waves that makes a pencil in a glass of water seem bent), from
inadequate information (as under conditions of poor illumina-
tion), or from the functional and structural characteristics of
the sensory apparatus (e.g., distortions in the shape of the lens
in the eye). Such visual illusions are experienced by every sight-
ed person. Another group of illusions results from misinterpre-
tations one makes of seemingly adequate sensory cues. In such
illusions, sensory impressions seem to contradict the “facts of
reality” or fail to report their “true” character.
In these instances the perceiver seems to be making an error
in processing sensory information. The error appears to arise
within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord); this
may result from competing sensory information, psychological-
ly meaningful distorting influences,
or previous expectations (mental
set). The driver who sees his own
headlights reflected in the window
of a store, for example, may experi-
ence the illusion that another vehi-
cle is coming toward him even
though he knows there is no road
there.
Reading 3. Illusions 155

Visual illusions. An optical illusion. Square A is exactly the


same shade of grey as Square B. Numerous optical illusions are
produced by the refraction (bending) of light as it passes
through one substance to another in which the speed of light is
significantly different. A ray of light passing from one transpar-
ent medium (air) to another (water) is bent as it emerges. Thus,
the pencil standing in water seems broken at the surface where
the air and water meet; in the same way, a partially submerged
log in the water of a swamp gives the illusion of being bent.
Rainbows also result from refraction. As the sun’s rays pass
through rain, the droplets separate (refract) the white light into
its component colors. As rays of white light from any source
pass through a prism, they are refracted to give the appearance
of a spectrum of color as in the rainbow of a summer morning.
Another illusion that depends on atmospheric conditions is the
mirage, in which, for example, the
vision of a pool of water is created by
light passing the layers of hot air above
the heated surface of a highway. In
effect, cooler layers of air refract the
sun’s rays at different angles than do
less dense strata of heated air, giving
the appearance of water where there is
none; nearby objects may even appear
to be reflected in it. Under unusual
conditions, more elaborate mirages may appear as cities, forests,
“unidentified flying objects,” oases, and even as the images of
ships in a nearby body of water plying the sky of a desert.
Tactual illusions. The skin contains numerous “spots” that
respond selectively to either cold or warmth, but generally not
to both. It can happen, however, that a very warm stimulus will
produce a sensation of cold when placed on a spot that responds
to cold. Thus, when a warm stimulus is perceived as cold, the
illusion is called that of “paradoxical cold.” “Paradoxical heat,”
a less frequent experience, results from stimulating warm and
cold spots simultaneously. It appears to be a fusion of warm and
paradoxical cold effects, producing a strange, somewhat unplea-
sant sensation of heat that seems to be attended by uneasiness
resembling that of pain." The sensation is sometimes called
“psychological heat.” Sudden temperature contrasts can play
tricks on the senses. If hot water is run over one hand, and cold
water over the other long enough for both to adjust to the tem-
peratures and both are then plunged into lukewarm water, the
156 Chapter 5. Perception

resulting sensation will be that the cold hand will feel warm and
the hot, cold. It would seem that in plunging the cold�adapted
hand, nerve cells for perceiving cold were suddenly inhibited
and those for perceiving hot were suddenly stimulated, while in
the hot�adapted hand the reverse took place. A single pencil
may be felt as if it were two when it is held between crossed fin-
gers in such a way that the skin is simultaneously stimulated at
two points that would usually require two separate objects to
produce such a sensation.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Find the following infinitive constructions in the text, fig-
ure out their forms and functions. Pay attention to the
translation of the sentences with these constructions.
May be said to be having, seem to originate, seem to con-
tradict, fail to report, seems to be making, appears to arise,
are refracted to give, appear to be reflected, appears to be,
seems to be attended

2. Find the �ing forms in these sentences and complete the


chart below.
1) A great deal more touching is reported among opposite�sex
friends than among same�sex friends.
2) Research reports that touching and being touched differ lit-
tle between men and women.
3) Different type of behavior patterns may be induced such as
forcing the patient to recite a certain sentence whenever
anyone says out loud the special keyword.
4) In intimate distance, ranging from the close phase of actual
touching to the far phase of 6 to 18 inches, the presence of
the other individual is unmistakable.
5) The close phase of actual touching is used for wrestling,
comforting and protecting.
6) Each of us carries a protecting bubble defining our personal
distance, which allows us to stay protected and untouched
by others.
7) In the close phase of personal distance (1 to 2 feet) we can
still hold or grasp each other, but only by extending our arms.
8) For example, urban legends have been circulated through-
out history; in doing so, a mindset is incorporated into the
psyche, creating a deceitful illusion that cannot distinguish
fact from fiction.
Reading 3. Illusions 157

9) As mentioned earlier, urban legends can distract the human


psyche into believing something that is absolutely bogus.

Gerund Participle I

3. Translate the passage into English. Try this trick with


your friends.

Осязательный обман
Скрестите пальцы, например, указательный и средний,
на одной руке. Другой рукой положите на стол шарик. При-
жмите скрещенные пальцы к шарику и покатайте его по
ровной поверхности, например, стола. Закройте глаза. У вас
появится ощущение, как будто вы касаетесь двух шариков.

4. Read the passage and complete the sentences using the


phrases from the box.

Therefore, at least, in short, one of examples,


examples of, interestingly, evidence of

An optical illusion is always characterized by visually per-


ceived images that, … in common sense terms, are deceptive or
misleading. …, the information gathered by the eye is processed
by the brain to give, on the face of it, a percept that does not tally
with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. A conven-
tional assumption is that there are physiological illusions that
occur naturally and cognitive illusions that can be demonstrated
by specific visual tricks that say something more basic about how
human perceptual systems work.
An auditory illusion is an illusion of hearing, the sound
equivalent of an optical illusion: the listener hears either sounds
which are not present in the stimulus, or “impossible” sounds.
…, audio illusions highlight areas where the human ear and
brain, as organic, makeshift tools, differ from perfect audio
receptors (for better or for worse). … of auditory illusions is a
Shepard tone.
158 Chapter 5. Perception

… touch illusions include phantom limb, the thermal grill


illusion, and the tactile illusion which occurs when the middle
finger is crossed over the pointer finger and the fingers are ran
along the bridge of the nose to the tip with one finger on each
side of the nose. In this illusion two “noses” are felt at the tip. …,
with touch illusions similar brain sights are activated during
illusory stimulation as actual stimulation. Touch illusions can
also be elicited through haptic technology. These “illusory” tac-
tile objects can be used to create “virtual objects.”
Illusions can occur with the other senses including that of
taste and smell. It was discovered that even if some portion of
the taste receptor on the tongue became damaged that illusory
taste could be produced by tactile stimulation. … olfactory (smell)
illusions occurred when positive or negative verbal labels were
given prior to olfactory stimulation.

Reading 4
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
is defined as “perceptions without corresponding stimuli from
without” in psychiatry?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and find the answers to the following ques-
tions.
1) What kinds of hallucinations are known in psychiatry?
2) Is illusion the same as hallucination or are they different?
3) How is hallucination distinguished from illusion?
4) What example from the literature is a good illustration of
hallucinations?
5) Can you come up with your own examples?
6) How can you explain the de´ja` vu phenomenon? Give an
example.
7) Choose one of the de´ja` vu definitions and translate it: de´ja` vu
is “any subjectively inappropriate impression of familiarity of
a present experience with an undefined past”; “illusory feeling
of having experienced a present situation; a form of paramnesia”;
“sense of pre�existence or participation in the event”.

Illusions of psychiatric significance


Illusions called pseudo hallucinations occur at times when
feelings of anxiety or fear are projected on external objects, as
Reading 4. Illusions of psychiatric significance 159

when a child perceives threatening faces or monsters in shad-


ows at night or sees hobgoblins in trees. A soldier tense with
apprehension may, in his fear, perceive inanimate objects as an
attacking enemy or one of his own comrades as the foe. In liter-
ature, the character Don Quixote perceived windmills as enemy
knights. Psychiatric patients have perceived other people as
machines, or as teddy bears, or as devils. The deja vu phenome-
non is a feeling that a past episode is repeating itself in the pre-
sent; there is a fusion of past and present to create an illusion
that one is reliving an experience and that he therefore knows
its outcome. It might be called a “hallucination” of familiarity;
some theorists interpret the experience as being based on reac-
tivation of old memory traces by stimuli resembling those expe-
rienced in the past in the way that a pressed rose discovered in
a long�forgotten dance program, for example, may trigger a
flood of old memories. Emotions, compelling associations, or
strong expectations frequently cause illusional misperceptions
in everyday life. The hostile listener hears someone say “wire”
and thinks he is being called a “liar”; the self�consciously obese
girl misinterprets the word “fate” as “weight.” There is also the
mistaken identification of strangers as friends in the street.
Hallucination. Hypnosis and trance states. Hallucination
is the experience of perceiving objects or events that do not have
an external source. For example, a person may hear his name
called by a voice that no one else seems to hear. A hallucination
is distinguished from an illusion, which is a misinterpretation of
an actual stimulus. Traditional psychiatric sources define hallu-
cinations as “perceptions without corresponding stimuli from
without,” or as the “apparent perception of an external object
when no such object is present.” A historical survey of the sub-
ject of hallucinations clearly reflects the development of scien-
tific thought in psychiatry, psychology, and neurobiology. By
1838 the significant relationship between the content of dreams
and of hallucinations had been pointed out. In the 1840s the
occurrence of hallucinations under a wide variety of conditions
(including psychological and physical stress) as well as their
genesis through the effects of drugs had been described.
The mystic achieves hallucinations by gaining control of his
own dissociative mechanisms; perhaps this is a form of self�hyp-
nosis. Such individuals can accomplish an astonishing with-
drawal from the environment by prolonged intense concentra-
tion (e.g., by gazing at some object). The hallucinations may be
of the type in which the person perceives his “inner self” to
160 Chapter 5. Perception

leave his body to view himself (autoscopic hallucination) or to


be transported to new surroundings. Alternatively, the halluci-
nations may take the form of unique visual imagery; for exam-
ple, the yantra is a visual hallucination of a colored, geometrical
image that appears at a level of trance of the sort experienced by
practitioners of Yoga. The recurrence of certain designs and pat-
terns in human hallucinatory experience is probably related to
structural aspects of the visual system. Ordinary experimental
hypnotic and posthypnotic suggestions of hallucinations are
well known. The hypnotic subject (who can be described as a
person in a controlled dissociative state) may on occasion also
experience spontaneous hallucinations in the absence of specif-
ic suggestions. Prolonged monotony or fixation of attention
may lead to diminished responsiveness to the environment with
a general effect similar to that of absolute reduction of stimula-
tion or of hypnotic trance. Under these conditions such disso-
ciative phenomena as “highway hypnosis” among drivers of motor
vehicles may occur. Similar phenomena that occur among avia-
tors have been called fascination or fixation. During prolonged,
monotonous flight, pilots may experience visual, auditory, and
bodily (kinesthetic) hallucinations; for example, one may sud-
denly feel that his plane is in a spin or a dive or that it is upside
down, even though it is flying level. A kinesthetic hallucination
such as this can be so vivid that the pilot will attempt “corrective”
maneuvering of the aircraft, with potentially tragic results.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Complete this chart.
Verb Noun I Noun II Participle II
receive receiver
suggest suggestion suggested
stimulate stimulation stimulated
protect protection protector
photography
researcher
viewer
stressor
trig trigger
mark
GRAMMAR CHECK
2. Arrange the following non�verbal forms from the text into
the chart below.
Reading 4. Illusions of psychiatric significance 161

Called, threatening, attacking, being based, repeating,


projected, reliving, resembling, long�forgotten,
experienced, compelling, being called, mistaken,
of perceiving, corresponding, by gaining, astonishing,
prolonged, controlled, by gazing, diminished

Find them in the text above and translate the sentences with
these non�verbal forms.

Present Participle Past Participle Gerund

3. Read the passage and complete it with Past Participles of


the verbs given in parenthesis.
Can theories of mental imagery, conscious mental contents,
(to develop) within cognitive science throw light on the obscure
concept of imagination? Three extant views of mental imagery
are (to consider): quasi�pictorial, description, and perceptual acti-
vity theories. The first two face serious theoretical and empirical
difficulties. The third is little (to know), theoretically (to under-
develop), and empirically (to untry), but has real explanatory
potential. It rejects the “traditional” symbolic computational
view of mental contents, but is compatible with recent (to situate)
cognition and active vision approaches in robotics. This theory
is (to develop) and (to elucidate). Three (to relate) key aspects
of imagination: non�discursiveness, creativity, and seeing as,
raise difficulties for the other theories. Perceptual activity the-
ory presents imagery as non�discursive and relates it closely to
seeing as. It is thus well (to place) to be the basis for a general
theory of imagination and its role in creative thought.
Translate the passage into Russian when finished.

4. Find and translate Past Participles in these sentences.


What are their functions?
1) A wireless device used by people who use their residual hear-
ing has two main components.
2) The child experiences delayed social development that is in
large part tied to delayed language acquisition.
162 Chapter 5. Perception

3) The advent of the Internet’s World Wide Web and closed


captioning has given the hearing impaired unprecedented
access to information.
4) The state of mind induced by “trance” is said to come about
via the process of a hypnotic induction.
5) An altered sense of perception or behavioral pattern may be
“programmed” into the person under hypnosis.
6) At this distance, business transactions have a more formal
tone than when conducted in the close phase of intimate dis-
tance.
7) Because the human brain is so very complex, it is sometimes
unable to relinquish imbedded legends and trauma — some-
what like a computer, imbedded with a virus.
8) Because the human psyche has barred all intervention, the
emotional side of the psyche will not transmit these
deep�seeded feelings and emotions until a “trigger” allows it
to escape.

5. Read the passage about suggestion and state the differ-


ence between hypnosis and suggestion. Complete the
chart using the words from the text.
Suggestion is the name given to the psychological process
by which one person may guide the thoughts, feelings or behav-
ior of another. For nineteenth century writers on psychology
such as William James the words suggest and suggestion were
used in senses very close to those which they have in common
speech; one idea was said to suggest another when it brought
that other idea to mind. Early scientific studies of hypnosis by
scientists such as Clark Hull led to the extension of the mean-
ing of these words in a special and technical sense. Modern sci-
entific study of hypnosis, which has followed the pattern of
Hull’s work, separates two essential factors: “trance” and sug-
gestion. The state of mind induced by “trance” is said to come
about via the process of a hypnotic induction; essentially
instructions and suggestions that an individual will enter
a hypnotic state. Once a subject has entered hypnosis, sugges-
tions are given which can produce the effects sought by the
hypnotist. Commonly used suggestions on measures of “sug-
gestibility” or “susceptibility” (or, for those with a different the-
oretical orientation, “hypnotic talent”) include suggestions that
one’s arm is getting lighter and floating up in the air, or the sug-
gestion that a fly is buzzing around your head. The “classic”
Reading 4. Illusions of psychiatric significance 163

response to an accepted suggestion that one’s arm is beginning


to float in the air is that the subject perceives the intended
effect as happening involuntarily.
Suggestions, however, can also have an effect in the absence
of hypnosis. These so�called “waking suggestions” are given in
precisely the same way as “hypnotic suggestions” (i.e., sugges-
tions given within hypnosis) and can produce strong changes in
perceptual experience. Experiments on suggestion, in the ab-
sence of hypnosis, were conducted by early researchers such as
Hull. More recently, researchers have conducted experiments
investigating such non�hypnotic�suggestibility and found a strong
correlation between people’s responses to suggestion both in� and
outside hypnosis. In addition to the kinds of suggestion typically
delivered by researchers interested in hypnosis there are other
forms of suggestibility, though not all are considered interrelat-
ed. These include: primary and secondary suggestibility (older
terms for non�hypnotic and hypnotic suggestibility respectively),
hypnotic suggestibility (i.e., the response to suggestion meas-
ured within hypnosis), and interrogative suggestibility (yielding
to interrogative questions, and shifting responses when interro-
gative pressure is applied.

Verb Participle II Noun


induce induced induction
intend intension
accept acceptance
perceive
conducted conduct
deliver delivery
investigated
correlate
measure
applied

6. Read the example of the power of suggestion and think of


a story of your own.
A group of soldiers is being given a lecture of chemical war-
fare. The instructor says: “I want to demonstrate how fast a gas
can dissipate in the air. I have a few drops of peppermint which
I will pour into this dish. As soon as you smell it, please raise
your hand.”
164 Chapter 5. Perception

One by one, hands go up toward the back of the room until


most everyone is sure that he has smelled the peppermint. The
only problem: there is no peppermint. It is only water. It is a
demonstration of the power of suggestion.

VOCABULARY CHECK
7. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the mean-
ing of these words with your partner. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.
Perceiving, hallucination, threatening, psychiatric, fusion,
illusion, hypnotic, post�hypnotic, hypnosis, misinterpret,
misperception, obese, obesity, visual imagery

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 5.

Reading 5
There are two texts and an interview in this Reading. Skim
all of them to find the answer to the question: What is the
connection between colours and psychology?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and answer the following questions, and then
share your answers with a partner.
1) How do we perceive colours?
2) What does the green mean?
3) What does the red mean?
4) Do you know any superstitions associated with colours?
5) Why is yellow a joyful colour?
6) What do black and white symbolize to most people?
7) What’s your favorite colour?
8) If your favorite colour is blue, what kind of person are you?

What’s your favorite color?


Color is all in your mind. It doesn’t exist. When your eye
receives light, it sends messages to your mind. And your mind
translates these messages into colors, which vary according to
the wavelengths of light.
You are all aware of the strange tricks your mind can play on
you. It’s not surprising that, when it translates your eyes’ mes-
Reading 5. What's your favorite color? Color in my life 165

sage into colors, it often adds other messages. Colors become


linked with memories, associations, emotions and natural body
reactions. Green begins to mean trees and leaves, red subcon-
sciously reminds you fire. Perhaps this is why over the centuries
and throughout the world, colors have been given special signi-
ficance and magical properties. Every color in the visible spect-
rum has a superstition associated with it. The great abstract
artists of the past century studied the symbolism and psycho-
logical effect of colors. And recently scientists have begun to
discover that colors can deeply influence our lives. Here are
some of the meanings that old wives and contemporary science
have attributed to basic colors.
RED is the color of fire. Red is usually associated with pas-
sion. If red is your favorite color, your heart rules your life. In
China, red is a lucky color for brides. Scientists believe that red
stimulates the nervous system. Don’t paint your walls red — it
could drive you crazy. It has also been found that red light can
help you solve mathematical problems.
YELLOW is the color of the sun. Yellow is a joyful color, and
in some parts of the world it is associated with fertility because
of yellow harvests. Yellow is also a musical color. It is like a high
note or a sharp pain in the eye, just as a high pitched musical
note can hurt your ear.
GREEN is the color of trees and leaves. Green is always
thought of as a harmonious color, because it symbolizes growth
in nature. It is a peaceful color, blackboards have been replaced
by green boards because green light wave lengths do not cause
strain to the eyes. And as an experiment, a black “suicide bridge”
was repainted in bright green. As a result, the number of sui-
cides decreased by a third.
BLUE is the color of the sky. Blue is a spiritual color, and is
normally associated with the mind. If this is your favorite color,
you are either very spiritual or very intellectual — or both. Blue
light is cold. It can make you shiver and may dull your emo-
tions. Perhaps it is no coincidence that scientists believe that
blue light time seems to pass quicker for you — because you’re
daydreaming?
BLАCK and WHITE, these are not really colors, but to
most people black symbolizes death and evil, while white means
innocence and good. But in many oriental cultures, black is
good both for widows and for the devil. It’s all in your mind!
Barbara Bernard. From “Current”
166 Chapter 5. Perception

Do you have any information on the effect the colour of the


clothes has on other people? Do you know about the effects
of particular colours? If not, read the text and be ready to
answer the questions.

Color in my life
Colors are one of the most exciting experiences in life. I love
them and resonate with them just as I do with the emotions. Is
it any wonder that the two are so intimate? Color directly
affects the emotions. Color both reflects the current state of
your emotions, as well as being something that you can use to
improve or change your emotions. The color that you choose to
wear either reflects your current state of being or it reflects the
color that you need.
People who wear black frequently are reflecting the somber
feeling of no color. No color, no emotions. Imagine dramatically
feeling the effect of the countryside full of women dressed in
black as I did recently in Greece. Heavy... This is depression, not
real sadness. Read on depression for more information about the
difference. Colors have certain wavelengths, which can be felt
and experienced. They affect you even if you don’t know it!
The colors that you wear affect you much more than they
affect the people around you. Of course they also affect anyone
who comes in contact with you, but you are the one saturated
with the color all day! I pick and refuse items from my environ-
ment totally based on its color. I sometimes chose the clothes I
wear based on the color I need for the day. So you can con-
sciously use color to give yourself a certain vibration, which
will help you feel better.
Color, sound and emotions are all vibrations. Emotions are
literally energy in motion, which means that they are meant to
move and flow. This is the reason feeling your real feelings are
the fastest way to get your energy in motion. And as most of you
know, flowing energy is exactly what creates health in the cells
of your body. So the fastest way to create good health is to feel
your real feelings. The fastest way to create disease is to inhibit
your emotions.
If you could see your emotions, you would see colors. Your
emotions are what give color to your life. You need all the co-
lors to be healthy and balanced. Any colors that are missing
reflect a problem in your system. Any color that you reject indi-
cates emotions that you are rejecting. The emotions that you
Reading 5. What's your favorite color? Color in my life 167

are rejecting indicate the parts of yourself that you cannot


accept and love. It will also help you know the difference
between “defensive feelings,” (obsessive thoughts) vs. real feel-
ings, which are energy in motion.
Notice the colors that you do not like and you will be aware
of the emotions that you are avoiding. For example, if red makes
you uncomfortable or if you don’t like it, you are avoiding the
emotions that red elicits. Red is the color of action. It is an “I am”
feeling. “I exist, I am present, I am physical, I am strong.” It is
no accident that red is used in the military and in the “Red
Light” district in town! Red stirs us. People are quite judgmen-
tal about red because it scares them. “People who wear red just
want to be noticed” is a judgment I frequently hear. Red is
a strong vibration, which takes self�confidence to hold in your
cells. Red is extremely important for good physical health. We
all need a healthy dose of red to be vibrant. Please know that it
is not wrong if you do not like a certain color, it simply provides
information for you to explore.
Neither is there any color that is bad nor good. Each of us
needs different colors at different times to balance ourselves.
Each day and each moment is a different color. This is the rea-
son it is so important to flow. There IS NO ONE ANSWER.
Each moment is a different reality and if we want to be healthy
and happy, we must learn to flow with each moment anew!
Feeling your real feelings is also the fastest way to open
yourself up to a transcendental state. I prefer to think of it as
the natural, free�flowing state. In this state colors are always
brighter and clearer than in a mundane, emotionless state.
Color is everywhere. It is in your skin around you and in all
sound. Scriabin, a wonderful Russian composer, saw the color
that is in sound. I first heard of this phenomenon in a graduate
psychology class taught by a musician. If you let yourself feel
the sound, you will begin to feel the colors that are in each and
every sound. This is the reason Isadora Duncan, Mother of
Modern Dance, could dance the music exactly the way the com-
poser felt it when he wrote it. She felt the emotions in the colors
in the music through her solar plexus and let her body freely
express what she experienced. Awesome! These kinds of experi-
ences are what you have to look forward to as you increase your
feeling states.
There are different systems of colors, just as there are differ-
ent systems of practically everything else. I know three differ-
ent systems and there are others. I suggest you see which per-
168 Chapter 5. Perception

son or system attracts you. You can study with someone who
uses color or read about different systems. I use sound and color
in my personal and professional work. But the most important
thing is developing your own sensitivity to color. Your experi-
ence of color is what is important not someone else’s.
My most recent color trip was at the Philadelphia Flower
Show courtesy of the white tulips from Holland. I had always
known white had all of the colors in it, but I had never seen or
felt them. White was white. When I turned and saw a field of
beautiful, white tulips standing up straight against bright green
grass, I suddenly experienced brilliant colors radiating off the
perfectly pristine white tulips. Awesome! Now I experience the
colors in white.
Let yourself sense color more and notice how it affects you.
Use your intuition to experiment with different colors with dif-
ferent people on different days — notice how you feel. Notice
how others react to you. Notice when you feel equal and close
to others. The more consciously you tune in to color, the more
your awareness will expand.

1. COMPREHENSION CHECK
1) How are the two texts different?
2) Reread both to see what is the same in the opinions of the
authors and what’s different.
3) How do colors affect out lives?
4) How do they affect other people who contact you?
5) What is the connection between colours and music?
6) Do you see colour dreams?
7) Compare descriptions of the red colour in both texts.
8) How do the authors of the texts feel about black and white?
9) Write down the names of the famous people from the last
text. Do you know who these people were?
10) How can we “feel” colours?
11) Imagine you couldn’t tell one colour from another — in other
words, you could only see in black and white. What prob-
lems might you have with any of these jobs?

Photographer, beautician, football referee, gardener,


fashion designer, police officer, train driver

Example: photographer: You might not be able to take good


pictures in colour.
Reading 5. What's your favorite color? Color in my life 169

2. What do you know about colour blindness? If you don’t


know much, read the dialogue and then answer the ques-
tions.

Color blind
Interviewer: Dr. Smith, what exactly is color blindness and
how many people does it affect?
Dr. Smith: Well, essentially it’s the inability to distinguish one
color from another, although the most common form of the
condition usually involves difficulty with the colors red and
green. And it’s an interesting fact that the condition affects
men far more than women.
Int.: Really?
Dr. S.: About one in 12 boys is affected, but only one in 100 girls.
And also it’s much more common amongst white people than
black or Asian people.
Int.: Right. But what exactly is color blindness?
Dr. S.: Color blindness means that the light�sensitive structures
at the back of the eye don’t work well. As I said, most people
have difficulty with red and green. For some of them, reds
look dull, almost grey. Others have problems with green,
which looks grey, and they also find it hard to distinguish
oranges and browns.
Int.: So it’s just those colors.
Dr. S.: Well, there is a more unusual condition which may deve-
lop as a result of poisoning from chemicals or drugs, and that
affects blue. Complete color blindness where the victim sees
the world in black and white is fortunately extremely rare.
Int.: OK. Is color blindness something you can inherit from
your parents, and is there a cure?
Dr. S.: It is hereditary, yes, apart from the cases of poisoning I
mentioned. A lot of people with color blindness in fact don’t
even realize there’s anything wrong with them, though
nowadays children are tested for the condition using color
dots and plates. And I’m afraid there’s no cure. The only
thing people can do is to recognize they have the defect, and
then use this knowledge in their choice of career — for example,
you can’t become a sailor, or a pilot or an engine driver if you
suffer from color blindness. And when you’re doing certain
tasks, however simple they may seem, you need that ability
to distinguish color, for example, changing an electric plug.
Int.: OK, well, thank you very much, Dr. Smith.
170 Chapter 5. Perception

1) Now what do you know about colour blindness?


2) If you’re colour blind, does it mean you can’t see any colours?
3) Which colours cause most problems?
4) What type of people suffers most from colour blindness?
5) Are people born colour blind, or do they develop the condition?
6) Is there a cure for people who are colour blind?

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. Word forms: adjectives.
These are some common adjective suffixes: �able, �al, �ful,
�ive, �less, �like, �ous, �t, �y.
Put the right word forms in the blanks.

Noun Adjective Adverb Verb


society social socially
industry industrial
earnings earn
control (un)controllable (un)controllably control
limit limitless, unlimited limit
logic (il)logical (il)logically
fame famous
distance distant
industrialize
tribe tribal
storm stormy storm

4. Use these words to complete the sentences.


1) Industrialization causes serious … problems in a country.
2) Many Third World countries are trying hard to … .
3) Mr. and Mrs. Novak have to spend all of their … to support
their family.
4) There have been many … wars in Africa.
5) A tire blew out and the car was … and hit a tree.
6) Some people think there is a(n) … amount of oil in the
world.
7) Pat figured out the problem by using … .
8) Pele was a … soccer player.
9) There is … petroleum in the world, but some day we will
run out.
10) … weather caused serious problems for Vitus Bering.
Reading 5. What's your favorite color? Color in my life 171

5. Put a preposition in the blanks where necessary.


1) Almost every society is based … the family.
2) … some societies there are tribes.
3) … North America, the members … an Indian tribe speak the
same language.
4) Sometimes the power … the family or the tribe is based …
the land that they own.
5) Children learn how to act … watching the adults … their
family.
6) It is hard to research … our minds instead … our feelings.
7) One … the major reasons … the fast change … the family is
industrialization.
8) … decades young people have been leaving farms to go …
cities and work … factories.
9) They start their own family … their old home.
10) The Industrial Revolution was when people changed …
making things … hand … making them … factories.

GRAMMAR CHECK
6. Complete the passage using the correct forms of the
verbs in parenthesis (Passive Voice).
In many studies, the Stroop test (to use) by researchers. The
child (to present) with a list of colors such as red, blue, green,
but the names of the colors (to write) in ink of a different colour.
For instance, the word “red” would (to write) in green ink.
Sometimes, the rule is that the child must say the name of the
colour and sometimes the colour of the ink must (to say) instead.
Try it, and you’ll feel very dumb. For kids who can’t yet read,
pictures of circles can (to use).

7. Gerund or Participle? One in the following pairs of sentence


has Gerund, another has Participle. Which is which?
1) You can learn coping mechanisms to help you manage your
time better.
2) Coping with stress is important at all ages.
3) If you continue having sleeping disorder and it affects your
daily routine, talk to your doctor.
4) Do not disturb a sleeping dog!
5) Regular, vigorous exercise defuses stress by boosting the
brain’s output of chemicals.
6) A person can experience the boosting effect of physical exer-
cises on stamina.
172 Chapter 5. Perception

7) A combination of aerobic exercise — such as walking, jog-


ging or swimming — and strengthening exercises — such as
weight training — provide the most health benefits.
8) Yoga can cause physical fitness by muscles strengthening.
9) For many people, worries and concerns can seem over-
whelming in the middle of the night.
10) Stop overwhelming your mother with new school problems!
11) This can be caused by either overeating or undereating.
12) An overeating patient was gaining weight tremendously.

TALKING POINTS
8. In the Reading about perception and its dis-
tortion it would be good to go back to the very
first chapters of the book and reread the text
about the sense organs and human senses. After
you finish reading talk about them from the
point of view of what you already know about
perception, illusions and hallucinations. Talk
about the colours and how they affect your emotions. Share
your ideas about the use of colours in psychology. Can they
be used to treat certain emotional conditions?

If you want to know more about perception and its connec-


tions to human personality, go to EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
АND BRAINTEASERS (Chapter 5).

VOCABULARY CHECK
9. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Talk about the mean-
ing of these words with your partner. See if you can use
them in the sentences of your own.
Colour blind, message, wavelength, subconsciously,
visible spectrum, suicide, symbolize, ink, distinguish,
cure, awareness, awesome

If you know all of the words, continue to Chapter 6.

SUMMARIZING
10. Summarize what you have learned in this Chapter in
8—10 sentences. Share your summary with your partner.
Chapter 6

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
(Infinitives, Gerunds, Modals and other verb forms)

Reading 1
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
is the difference between phobias and manias?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the test and answer the questions.
1) What is the subject of abnormal psychology study?
2) What does the suffix �phobia mean?
3) What is its origin?
4) What phobias are mentioned in the text?
5) Do you know the meaning of the word mania?
6) How can you remember the symptoms of mania?

If you want to know more about phobias and manias, go to Exten-


sion activities and brainteasers and check the Phobias List.

Introduction to mental disorders


Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal
behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change
abnormal patterns of functioning. Abnormal psychology in cli-
nical psychology studies the nature of psychopathology, its caus-
es, and its treatments. Of course, the definition of what consti-
tutes abnormal has varied across time and across cultures.
Individuals also vary in what they regard as normal or abnormal
behavior. In general, abnormal psychology can be described as
an area of psychology that studies people who are consistently
unable to adapt and function effectively in a variety of condi-
tions. The four main contributing factors to how well an indi-
174 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

vidual is able to adapt include


their genetic makeup, physical
condition, learning and reason-
ing, and socialization.
The English suffixes �phobia,
�phobic, �phobe (of Greek origin)
occur in technical usage in psy-
chiatry to construct words that
describe irrational, disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g., ago-
raphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions
(e.g., hydrophobic), and in biology to describe organisms that
dislike certain conditions (e.g., acidophobia). In common usage
they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a partic-
ular thing or subject.
Many people apply the suffix �phobia inappropriately to
mild or irrational fears with no serious substance; however, ear-
lier senses relate to psychiatry which studies serious phobias
which disable a person’s life. For more information on the psy-
chiatric side of this, including how psychiatry groups phobias as
agoraphobia, social phobia, or simple phobia, sea phobia. Treat-
ment for phobias may include desensitization (graduated expo-
sure therapy) or flooding.
The following lists include words ending in �phobia, and
include fears that have acquired names. In many cases people
have coined these words as neologisms, and only a few of them
occur in the medical literature. In many cases, the naming of
phobias has become a word game. Note too that no things, sub-
stances, or even concepts exist which someone, somewhere may
not fear, sometimes irrationally so. A list of all possible phobias
would run into many thousands and it would require a whole
book to include them all, certainly more than an encyclopedia
would be able to contain. So this article just gives an idea of the
kind of phobias which one may encounter, certainly not all.
Most of these terms tack the suffix �phobia onto a Greek word
for the object of the fear (some use a combination of a Latin
root with the Greek suffix, which many classicists consider lin-
guistically impure). In some cases (particularly the less med-
ically�oriented usages), a word ending in �phobia may have an
antonym ending in �philia — thus: coprophobia/coprophilia,
Germanophobia/Germanophilia.
Mania is a medical condition characterized by severely ele-
vated mood. Mania is most usually associated with bipolar dis-
order, where episodes of mania may cyclically alternate with
Reading 1. Introduction to mental disorders 175

episodes of depression. (Note: not all mania can be classified as


bipolar disorder, as mania may result from other diseases or
causes. However, bipolar disorder is the “classic” manic dis-
ease.) Hypomania is a less severe variant of mania, where there
is less loss of control.
Symptoms. Although “severely elevated mood” may sound
pleasant, the experience of mania is often quite unpleasant and
sometimes disturbing if not frightening for the person involved
and may lead to impulsive behavior that may later be regretted.
It can also often be complicated by the sufferer’s lack of judgment
and insight regarding periods of exacerbation of symptoms.
Manic patients are frequently grandiose, irritable, belligerent,
and frequently deny anything is wrong with them. Because
mania frequently encourages high energy and decreased per-
ception of need or ability to sleep, within a few days of a manic
cycle, sleep�deprived psychosis may appear, further complicat-
ing the ability to think clearly. Racing thoughts and mispercep-
tions lead to frustration and decreased ability to communicate
with others.
In addition to decreased need for sleep, other manic symp-
toms include irritability, hyper sexuality, hyper�religiosity,
hyperactivity, talkativeness, and grandiose ideas and plans. In
manic and less severe, hypo manic cases, the afflicted person
may engage in out of character behavior such as questionable
business transactions, wasteful expenditures of money, risky
liaisons or highly vocal arguments uncharacteristic of previous
behaviors. These behaviors increase stress in personal relation-
ships, problems at work and increases the risk of altercations
with law enforcement as well as being at high risk of impul-
sively taking part in activities potentially harmful to self and
others.
A mnemonic used to remember the symptoms of mania is
DIG FAST:
D = Distractibility
I = Indiscretion (excessive pleasure activities)
G = Grandiosity
F = Flight of ideas
A = Activity increased
S = Sleep deficit
T = Talkativeness (pressure speech)
Mixed states. Mania can be experienced at the same time as
depression, in a mixed state. Dysphonic mania is primarily
manic and a depressive mixed state is primarily depressed. This
176 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

has caused speculation amongst doctors that mania and depres-


sion are two independent axes in a bipolar spectrum, rather
than opposites.

GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Read the text and complete it using the infinitives from
the box below.

What are phobias?


Have you ever been afraid? Everyone gets scared sometimes.
Maybe thunder and lightning make your heart beat faster. Or
maybe your mouth goes dry when your teacher announces a
quiz, or your palms sweat when it’s your turn to give a presen-
tation in front of the class. Perhaps you get butterflies in your
stomach when you see someone who is scary.
We all have fears from time to time. That’s true no matter
how big or brave we can be. Fear can even be good for you
sometimes and even help you stay healthy or alive. Fear of get-
ting too close to a campfire may save you from a bad burn. And
fear of getting killed will keep you aloof from an armed criminal.
Being a bit on edge also can sharpen your senses and help
you perform no matter on stage or in class. Some people even
enjoy being a little scared. That’s why they like to watch scary
movies or go on roller�coaster rides.
But phobias are different.
Phobias often begin in childhood and are irrational and dis-
abling fears that produce a compelling desire … the dreaded object
or situation. A phobic person understands that the fear is exces-
sive or groundless. But the effort … it only brings more anxiety.
Specific phobias are the most common — involving things
such as school, dentists, driving, water, balloons, snakes, high
places and enclosed spaces (claustrophobia). The fear is usually
not of the object itself but of some dire outcome, such as falling
from an airplane.
Someone with agoraphobia suffers multiple fears that have
three main themes: fear of leaving home, of being alone and of
being in a situation where one cannot suddenly … or obtain
help. When fear is at its peak, the agoraphobic may … to almost
any lengths … leaving home.
In social phobia, a person’s central fear is of being humiliat-
ed in public. People with this kind of phobia may even … at eat-
ing in a restaurant. They avoid public speaking, parties and
Reading 1. Introduction to mental disorders 177

public restrooms. Such situations and places may … blushing,


palpitations, sweating, tremors, stuttering, or faintness. As
many as 25% of professional performers struggle with severe,
lifelong performance anxiety — a form of social phobia. A person
whose phobia is left untreated may … withdrawn, depressed,
and socially incapacitated.

To become, to bring, to leave, to go, to avoid,


to balk, to resist

2. Translate this paragraph into English.


Вот список 10 человеческих страхов (по результатам опро-
са 1000 человек, проведенного во Франции в 1990 г.): змеи,
головокружения, науки, крысы, осы, подземелья (подзем-
ные парковки), огонь, кровь, темнота, толпа.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
3. Read the passage and complete the charts using the
words from the text. Don’t forget to translate the words.

Episodic acute stress


There are those, however, who suffer acute stress frequently,
whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and
crisis. They’re always in a rush, but always late. If something
can go wrong, it does. They take on too much, have too many
irons in the fire, and can’t organize the slew of self�inflicted
demands and pressures clamoring for their attention. They
seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress. It is common
for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused,
short�tempered, irritable, anxious, and tense. Often, they
describe themselves as having “a lot of nervous energy.” Always
in a hurry, they tend to be abrupt, and sometimes their irritabil-
ity comes across as hostility. Interpersonal relationships deteri-
orate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. The work
becomes a very stressful place for them.
Another form of episodic acute stress comes from ceaseless
worry. “Worry warts” see disaster around every corner and pes-
simistically forecast catastrophe in every situation. The world is
a dangerous, unrewarding, punitive place where something awful
is always about to happen. These “awfulizers” also tend to be over
aroused and tense, but are more anxious and depressed than
178 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

angry and hostile. The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the
symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension head-
aches, migraines, hypertension, chest pain, and heart disease.
Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention on a num-
ber of levels, generally requiring professional help, which may
take many months.
Often, lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and
habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong
with the way they conduct their lives. They blame their woes
on other people and external events. Frequently, they see their
lifestyle, their patterns of interacting with others, and their
ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and
what they are. Sufferers can be fiercely resistant to change.
Only the promise of relief from pain and discomfort of their
symptoms can keep them in treatment and on track in their
recovery program.
Adjective — Adverb Adjective — Noun
frequent irritable
perpetually hostility
rapidly personality
pessimistic awful
fiercely anxious
endless stress
finally episodic

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. “Fears and phobias.” For each of the questions choose
the correct answer.
1) I’m frightened of snakes, I mean they’re dangerous and they
look so … too.
a) scaring c) scary
b) scared d) scare
2) Which of the following is an insulting word for someone
who is easily frightened?
a) scaredy�dog c) scaredy�fish
b) scaredy�mouse d) scaredy�cat
3) She is absolutely … of spiders, she can’t even look at them.
a) terrifying c) up
b) terrify d) terrified
Reading 2. Mental disorders 179

4) She can’t travel on the metro, she has to take the bus — she
suffers from … .
a) claustrophobia c) arachnophobia
b) agoraphobia d) acrophobia
5) He said he had seen a ghost, and it’s true, his face was as
white as … .
a) snow c) flour
b) a sheet d) chalk
6) I am absolutely … of roller coasters, I just don’t get why peo-
ple like them.
a) frightened c) afraid
b) scared d) terrified

Reading 2
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
mental disorders do you know?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and answer the questions.
1) What are mental disorders?
2) What are two kinds of treatment of mental disorders?
3) What is the difference between the narrow and broad defini-
tions of mental disorders?
4) What is psychopathology? What does it deal with?

Mental disorders
Mental disorder is any illness
with significant psychological or
behavioral manifestations and
that is associated with either a
painful or distressing symptom
or impairment in one or more
important areas of functioning.
Mental disorders, in particular
their consequences and their treatment, are of more concern
and receive more attention now than in the past.
Mental disorders have become a more prominent subject of at-
tention for several reasons. They have always been common, but,
with the eradication or successful treatment of many of the seri-
180 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

ous physical illnesses that formerly afflicted humans, mental ill-


ness has become a more noticeable cause of suffering and
accounts for a higher proportion of those disabled by disease.
Moreover, the public has come to expect the medical profes-
sion to help it obtain an improved quality of life in its mental as
well as physical functioning. And indeed, there has been a pro-
liferation of both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treat-
ments in psychiatry in this regard, many of which have proved
effective. The transfer of many psychiatric patients, some still
showing conspicuous symptoms, from mental hospitals into the
community has also increased the public’s awareness of the
importance and prevalence of mental illness.
There is no simple definition of mental disorder that is uni-
versally satisfactory. This is partly because mental states or beha-
vior that are viewed as abnormal or pathological in one culture
may be regarded as normal or acceptable in another, and in any case
it is difficult to draw a line clearly demarcating healthy from patho-
logical mental functioning. A narrow definition of mental illness
would insist upon the presence of organic disease of the brain,
either structural or biochemical; however, this condition does not
pertain, as far as is known, to the majority of mental disorders.
An overly broad definition would define mental illness as
simply being the lack or absence of mental health — that is to
say, a condition of mental well�being, balance, and resilience in
which the individual can successfully work and function and in
which he can both withstand and learn to cope with the con-
flicts and stresses encountered in life. A more generally useful
definition than either of the above is that a mental disorder is
an illness with significant psychological or behavioral manifes-
tations that occurs in an individual and that is associated
either with a painful or distressing symptom, with impairment
in one or more important areas of functioning, or with both.
The mental disorder may be due to either a psychological,
social, biochemical, or genetic dysfunction or disturbance in
the individual. A mental illness can have an effect on every
aspect of a person’s life, including thinking, feeling, mood, and
outlook and such areas of external activity as family and mari-
tal life, sexual activity, work, recreation, and management of
material affairs.
Most mental disorders negatively affect how an individual
feels about himself and impair his capacity for participating in
mutually rewarding relationships. Psychopathology is the sys-
tematic study of the significant causes, processes, and sympto-
Reading 2. Mental disorders 181

matic manifestations of mental disorders. The meticulous study,


observation, and enquiry that characterize the discipline of psycho-
pathology are in turn the basis for the practice of psychiatry —
i.e., the science and practice of treating mental disorders, as well
as dealing with their diagnosis and prevention.
Psychiatry and its related disciplines in turn embrace a
wide spectrum of techniques and approaches for treating men-
tal illnesses. These include the use of psychoactive drugs to
correct biochemical imbalances in the brain or otherwise to
relieve depression, anxiety, and other painful emotional states.
Another important group of treatments are the psychothera-
pies, which seek to treat mental disorders by psychological
means and which involve verbal communication between the
patient and a trained person in the context of a therapeutic
interpersonal relationship between them. An important variant
of this latter mode of treatment is behavioral therapy, which
concentrates on changing or modifying observable pathologi-
cal behaviors by the use of conditioning and other experimen-
tally derived principles of learning.

1. After you read, translate the paragraph, then answer the


questions.
Mental illness in many ways remains a mystery to us. Some
scientists think that it is hereditary, passed down from parents
to children in the genes. Others think it is caused by the envi-
ronment, perhaps by some trauma in a person’s experience or by
brain damage at the time of birth. Today, most experts feel that
mental illness is caused by a combination of these factors, but
they do not agree on how to treat it. One method of treatment
is to lock up mentally ill people in hospitals and even prisons to
separate them from society. Another method is to place these
people in halfway houses under the care of guardians who super-
vise them and allow them to mix with other people for some
hours of the day. In some places mentally ill patients are given
drugs, and in other places they receive many hours of counsel-
ing and talk therapy of the type pioneered by Sigmund Freud
(1856—1939), the inventor of psychoanalysis.
1) What do you think is the cause of mental illness?
2) How should it be treated?
3) How is mental illness treated in other cultures?
4) How are mental patients treated in your country? What do
you know about it?
182 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

BUILDING VOCABULARY
2. a) Read the article, pay attention to the �ing words (four
of them are participles and two are nouns — find them).
Find all the words with the stem psycho and translate
them.
While in Europe the mentally ill were shackled, some primi-
tive societies treated them using methods much resembling
psychoanalysis, explains Levi�Strauss in the July—August 1956
Courier article, where he draws parallels between shamanistic
rituals and modern psychotherapies.
Most of us regard psychoanalysis as a revolutionary discov-
ery of 20th century civilization and place it on the same footing
as genetics or the theory of relativity. Others, probably more
conscious of the abuses of psychoanalysis than of the real lesson
it has to teach us, still look upon it as one of the absurdities of
modern man. In both cases, we overlook the fact that, psycho-
analysis has simply rediscovered and expressed in new terms an
approach to mental illness which probably dates back to the
earliest days of mankind and which the so�called primitive peo-
ples have always used, often with a skill that amazes our fore-
most practitioners.
This cure (we have no reason to suppose it is not successful at
least in certain cases) is interesting for a number of reasons.
Firstly, it is purely psychological; no drugs are used nor is the
body of the patient touched. The witch doctor simply recites or
chants, relying on speech alone to effect his cure. Secondly, two
people must participate in the treatment — doctor and patient —
although, as we shall see in a moment, this does not mean that
other members of the community may not be present.
Of the two persons, the witch�doctor, whose powers are recog-
nized by the whole tribe, embodies social authority and order,
while the other — the patient — suffers from what we should
call a psycho�physiological disorder, but which the Indians
attribute to an advantage gained by the spirit world over the
human world. Since these two worlds should normally be allied,
and since the spirit world is of the same nature as the souls pos-
sessed by the individual, the problem as the Indians see it, really
stems from a sociological disturbance caused by the ambition,
ill�will or resentment of the spirits that is by both psychological
and social factors.
Several of the characteristics described are strangely remi-
niscent of psychoanalytical treatment. Here too, illness is con-
Reading 2. Mental disorders 183

sidered of psychological origin and the treatment applied is


exclusively psychological. Because of symptoms which he is
unable to control, or more simply because he is suffering from
mental stress, the patient feels cut off from the community and
calls in the doctor whose authority is recognized by the group,
to help him regain his place in society. The treatment seeks to
induce the patient to describe events buried in his subconscious
mind but which, despite the passage of time, still govern his
feelings and attitude to life.

b) Find the words that go together with the following adjec-


tives.
Shamanistic, primitive, modern, mental, foremost,
social, psychological, physiological, sociological,
psychoanalytical, subconscious

GRAMMAR CHECK
3. Read the passage and complete it using the modal verbs
can or may.
What causes phobias?
Some specific phobias … be explained by early traumatic
events, such as the bite of a dog, but the majority … have no
obvious cause. Most develop when an underlying fear or con-
flict is transferred to something completely unrelated.
Agoraphobia … develop in response to repeated panic attacks.
Symptoms of social phobia … develop early in childhood, but
the true cause is unknown.
Medical professionals indicate that aquaphobia … manifest
itself in a person through their specific experiences or due to
biological factors. Some people … develop the phobia as a reac-
tion to a traumatic water experience — a near drowning or
other such event. Others … have simply failed to have acquired
experience in the water through casual events like swimming or
boating events due to cultural factors. Other individuals … suf-
fer from an “instinctive reaction” to the water which arises sep-
arate from any observable factors. They have a gut reaction that
limits their fundamental comfort level in any sort of casual
water activities, such as swimming. Other sufferers … experi-
ence discomfort around the water without falling into any of
the three categories: traumatic water experience, cultural limi-
tations, instinctive fear.
184 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

Many people … mistakenly refer to aquaphobia as hydropho-


bia; hydrophobia is in fact a symptom of later�stage rabies, and
… manifests itself in humans as difficulty in swallowing, fear
when presented with liquids to drink and an inability to quench
one’s thirst. Hydro� is Greek and aqua� is Latin, both meaning
“water.” Most phobias have a Greek prefix, but because the word
hydrophobia was first used to describe late�stage rabies, the term
aquaphobia using a Latin prefix was used to prevent confusion.
VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Find the words in the
Reading. Talk about the meaning of these words with your
classmates.
Manifestation, impairment, eradication,
meticulous, embrace, prevalence, imbalance, prevention,
pathological, diagnosis

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 3.


SUMMARIZING
5. Write a summary of the Reading. Remember to include only
the main ideas and to omit highly specific details or suppor-
ting evidence. Look back at SUMMARIZING in Chapter 4
to help you think about what to include in your summary.

Reading 3
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
phobias do you know?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and find the details.
1) What is a definition of a phobia?
2) What are phobias based on?
3) How is it different from anxiety?
4) What therapy can help in overcoming
phobias?
5) How did Zigmund Freud view anxiety?
6) Make a list of phobias from the text and
write their definitions.
7) Do you know any other phobias? What are they?
Reading 3. Phobic disorder or neurosis 185

Phobic disorder or neurosis


Phobias are neurotic states accompanied by intense dread of
certain objects or situations that would not normally have such
an effect. This type of anxiety is associated with a strong desire
to avoid the dreaded object or situation. About six per 1,000 of
the population suffer from a phobic disorder. There is a tenden-
cy for phobic symptoms, whatever their nature, to persist for
many years unless treated, and the avoidance behavior they
produce can seriously limit the affected individual’s movements
and his social or occupational functioning. People can have
phobias about many different kinds of objects or situations, but
three main divisions of phobic syndromes are simple phobia,
agoraphobia, and social phobia. Individuals with simple phobias
may intensely fear a specific object or situation, for example,
cats or thunderstorms; they have anxious thoughts upon antic-
ipating contact with an object or event, for instance, upon hear-
ing the weather forecast, and they try to avoid the object, as in
staying indoors in order not to encounter a cat.
Typically, agoraphobic patients have an intense fear of being
alone in or being unable to escape from a public place or some
other setting outside the home, such as a crowded bus or a
supermarket. A social phobia is present when the individual has
extreme anxiety in a social situation where he is under the
scrutiny of others, such as eating in a restaurant or speaking at
a meeting. The treatment of phobic disorders is best appro-
ached by the use of behavioral therapy; dynamic psychotherapy
and anti�anxiety drugs may be effective in some cases.
Phobia is an extreme, irrational fear of a specific object or
situation. A phobia is classified as a type of anxiety disorder,
since anxiety is the chief symptom experienced by the sufferer.
Phobias are thought to be learned emotional responses. It is
generally held that phobias occur when fear produced by an
original threatening situation is transferred to other similar si-
tuations, with the original fear often repressed or forgotten. An
excessive, unreasoning fear of water, for example, may be based
on a forgotten childhood experience of almost drowning. The
person accordingly tries to avoid that situation in the future, a
response that, while reducing anxiety in the short term, rein-
forces the person’s association of the situation with the onset of
anxiety. Behavior therapy is often successful in overcoming
phobias. In such therapy, the phobic person is gradually
exposed to the anxiety�provoking object or situation in a con-
186 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

trolled manner until he eventually ceases to feel anxiety, having


realized that his fearful expectations of the situation remain
unfulfilled. In this way, the strong associative links between the
feared situation, the person’s experience of anxiety, and his sub-
sequent avoidance of that situation are broken and are replaced
by a less�maladaptive set of responses.
Psychotherapy may also be useful in the treatment of pho-
bias. Although psychiatrists classify phobias as a single type of
anxiety disorder, hundreds of words have been coined to speci-
fy the nature of the fear by prefixing phobia with the Greek
word for the object feared. Among the more common examples
are acrophobia, fear of high places; claustrophobia, fear of closed
places; nyctophobia, fear of the dark; ochlophobia, fear of
crowds; xenophobia, fear of strangers; and zoophobia, fear of
animals. Agoraphobia, the fear of being in open or public places,
is a particularly crippling illness that may prevent its victims
from even leaving home. School phobia may afflict schoolchild-
ren who are overly attached to a parent.
Anxiety is a feeling of dread, fear, or apprehension, often
with no clear justification. Anxiety is distinguished from true
fear because the latter arises in response to a clear and actual
danger, such as one affecting a person’s physical safety. Anxiety,
by contrast, arises in response to apparently innocuous situa-
tions or is the product of subjective, internal emotional con-
flicts the causes of which may not be apparent to the person
himself. Some anxiety inevitably arises in the course of daily life
and is normal. But persistent, intense, chronic, or recurring anx-
iety not justified in response to real�life stresses is usually
regarded as a sign of an emotional disorder. When such an anx-
iety is unreasonably evoked by a specific situation or object, it
is known as a phobia. A diffuse or persistent anxiety associated
with no particular cause or mental concern is called general, or
free�floating, anxiety. There are many causes (and psychiatric
explanations) for anxiety. Sigmund Freud viewed anxiety as the
symptomatic expression of the inner emotional conflict caused
when a person suppresses from conscious awareness experi-
ences, feelings, or impulses that are too threatening or disturb-
ing to live with. Anxiety is also viewed as arising from threats to
an individual’s ego or self�esteem, as in the case of inadequate
sexual or job performance. Behavioral psychologists view anxi-
ety as an unfortunate learned response to frightening events in
real life; the anxiety produced becomes attached to the sur-
rounding circumstances associated with that event, so that
Reading 3. Phobic disorder or neurosis 187

those circumstances come to trigger anxiety in the person inde-


pendently of any frightening event.
An anxiety disorder may develop where anxiety is insuffi-
ciently managed, characterized by a continuing or periodic
state of anxiety or diffuse fear that is not restricted to definite
situations or objects, and is generally classed as one of the psy-
choneuroses (neuroses). The tension is frequently expressed in
the form of insomnia, outbursts of irritability, agitation, palpita-
tions of the heart, and fears of death or insanity. Fatigue is often
experienced as a result of excessive effort expended in managing
the distressing fear. Occasionally the anxiety is expressed in
a more acute form and results in physiological concomitants
such as nausea, diarrhea, urinary frequency, suffocating sensa-
tions, dilated pupils, perspiration, and rapid breathing. Similar
symptoms occur in several physiological disorders and in nor-
mal situations of stress or fear, but they may be considered neu-
rotic when they occur in the absence of any organic defect or
pathology and in situations that most people handle with ease.
Other types of anxiety�related disorders include hypochondri-
asis, hysteria, obsessive�compulsive disorders, phobias, and
schizophrenia.

1. COMPREHENSION CHECK
1) A phobia is … .
a) a need b) a fear c) an idea
2) What kinds of phobias do you know?
3) What kinds of phobias do people suffer from?
4) What is social phobia?
5) Circle the things that people with this disorder believe.
a) People are judging them all of the time.
b) People want to physically hurt them.
c) People are unfair to them.
6) Which kinds of treatments help these people?
a) education about their illness
b) antidepressant drugs and behavioural therapy

BUILDING VOCABULARY
2. Read the article, complete the chart using the words
from the text, answer the questions.
1) What do shamanistic methods of pygmy witch�doctor and
psychoanalysis have in common?
188 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

2) Why does Dr. Stewart consider these methods even ahead of


modern psychotherapy?
3) What elements of group therapy are used by the witch�doc-
tor?
4) What, in Dr. Stewart’s opinion, makes up human personality?

Witch�doctors and psychoanalysis


This was the experience of Dr. Stewart, an American psy-
chologist who has given us an account of it in his book, Pygmies
and Dream Giants. He has set off for the interior of the Philip-
pines to study the mental make�up of the extremely primitive
pygmy tribes called Negritos. His methods closely resembled
those of psychoanalysts. The witch�doctors not only allowed
him to do as he wished, but immediately accepted him as one of
them; in fact, regarding themselves as
specialists with a thorough knowledge of
the techniques employed, they insisted on
helping him in his studies. Dr. Stewart
considers that in certain respects their
psychotherapy is even ahead of ours.
As Dr. Stewart observes in this con-
nection, this takes us beyond psycho-
analysis to one of its most recent devel-
opments, namely, group psychotherapy.
One of its most familiar forms is the psychodrama in which sev-
eral members of the group impersonate the characters in the
patient’s myth in order to assist him to see more clearly and
thus bring the tragedy to an end. This is possible only if the
patient’s myth itself is social in character. Other individuals can
play a part in it because it is their own myth too, or to put it
another way, because the critical situation in which individuals
are liable to find themselves in our society are broadly speaking,
the same for all.
We thus see how deceptive to think that the forgotten events
which psychoanalysts helps the patient to bring back to mind, are
something private and personal. Even that difference between
psychoanalysis and shamanistic treatments, thus disappears.
“As in Paris and in Vienna,” writes Dr. Stewart, “the Negrito
therapists were helping the patient to contact patterns and inci-
dents from a long�forgotten past, painful incidents buried deep
in the early time�layers of the accumulated experience which
made up the personality.”
Reading 3. Phobic disorder or neurosis 189

Adjective Adverb
extreme
closely
immediately
clear
broad
painfully
deeply
private
personal
possibly
deceptive

GRAMMAR CHECK
3. Read the passage and complete it using the prepositions
and adverbs from the box below.
Phobias (in the clinical meaning of the term) are the most
common form … anxiety disorders. An American study … the
National Institute of Mental Health found that … 8.7% and
18.1% of Americans suffer … phobias. Broken down by age and
gender, the study found that phobias were the most common
mental illness … women … all age groups and the second most
common illness among men older than 25.
Of the simple phobias, aquaphobia is among the more com-
mon subtypes. In an article … anxiety disorders, it is suggested
that aquaphobia may affect as many as 1.8% of the general po-
pulation, or roughly one in fifty people.
Aquaphobia is the kind of specific phobia, an abnormal and
persistent fear of water. It involves a level of fear that is … con-
trol or that may interfere … daily life. Specifically, people suffer-
ing from aquaphobia may experience anxiety even though they
realize the water in an ocean, a river, a lake, a creek or even a
bathtub may pose no imminent threat. They may avoid such
activities as boating and swimming, or they may avoid swim-
ming in the deep ocean … having mastered basic swimming
skills. This anxiety may also commonly extend … getting wet or
splashed with water when it is unexpected, or being pushed or
thrown … a body of water.
Of, by, from, among, on, beyond, with, despite,
to, into, between, in
190 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

VOCABULARY CHECK
4. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do you
understand all of these words? Circle the words you do
not understand. Then find the words in the Reading. Talk
about the meaning of these words with your classmates.
Avoidance, reinforce, nausea, irritability, fatigue,
insomnia, innocuous, trigger, insanity,
obsessive�compulsive, evoke, extreme

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 4.

Reading 4
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: Why
are some people afraid to fly?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and pay attention to the words in bold type. Find the
details in the text and answer the following questions. Then
share your answers with a partner.
1) What phobias are mentioned in the text?
2) What other phobias do you know?
3) How is fear to fly called?
4) Is there any way to help people with phobias?
5) How successful are the classes?

Аfraid to fly?
Have you ever flown? Did you fly to another country to
study English? How do you feel about flying?
People who have to fly all the time for business usually find it
boring. People who fly only once in a while are excited. However,
some people feel only terror when they board an airplane. They
suffer from a phobia, an illogical fear.
If you are afraid of poisonous spiders, it is logical. If you are
afraid of all spiders, even harmless ones, this is a phobia because
it is illogical. Some people have phobias about heights, being
shut up in a small area, or being in a large open area. It is not
logical to be afraid of these things when there is no danger, but
a phobia is not logical.
Fear of flying is another phobia. “We always hear about a
plane crash, but we don’t hear about the millions of flights every
Reading 4. Afraid to fly? 191

year that are safe. Riding in a car is thirty times more dangerous
than flying, but most of us are not afraid every time we get into
a car. It is not logical to be afraid of flying, but research shows
that about 12 per cent of people have this fear.”
People with a phobia about flying are afraid for one or more
reasons. They are afraid of heights. They avoid high places, and
if they are in a high�rise building, they don’t look out the win-
dows. They might be afraid of being in an enclosed place like an
elevator or a tunnel on a highway. When they get on an airplane,
they can’t get out until the end of the flight, and the flight might
last several hours.
Maybe they are afraid of the crowds and all the noise and
people rushing around at an airport. This especially bothers
older people.
Some people are afraid of the unknown. They don’t under-
stand the technology of flying and can’t believe that a huge air-
plane can stay up in the air.
Others are afraid of loss of control. They need to control every
situation they are in. When they drive a car, they have some
chance of avoiding an accident. In a plane, they have no control
over anything. It terrifies them to give up control to the pilot
and the rest of the crew.
For some people, a fear of flying is not important because
they don’t really need to fly. But what about someone who
works for an international company? What about an entertain-
er who has to sing in twenty different places in a month? These
people have to fly if they want to continue in their profession.
There is help for these people. There are special classes in
which people learn how to control their fear. They probably
can’t lose it, but they can learn to control it. Then they can fly
when they need to, even though they probably won’t enjoy it.
The class visits an airport and learns how airplane traffic is
controlled and how planes are kept in safe condition. A pilot
talks about flying through storms, the different noises an air-
plane makes, and air safety in general.
The class learns to do relaxation exercises, and the people
talk about their fear, the class listens to tape recordings of a
takeoff and landing, and later the people ride in a plane on the
ground around the airport. Finally they are ready to take a
short flight.
The instructors of these classes say that between 80 and
90 per cent of the people who take them are successful. They
still have their phobia, but they learn to control their fear.
192 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Complete the sentences using the words from the boxes.

a) Terror, situation, harm, height, crew, board, fear,


takeoff, phobia, rush, tunnel, enclosed

1) The people who work on airplanes and ships are called the
….
2) Tom found himself in a difficult … and he didn’t know what
to do.
3) A … is an illogical fear of something.
4) … is a very strong word for fear.
5) … is the feeling you have when you are afraid.
6) When you are in a hurry, you … .
7) Some dogs bite, but most of them won’t … anyone.
8) Passengers check in at the airport. Then they … plane.
9) After …, the airplane crew usually brings around drinks and
food.
10) Some people become terrified when they are in an … space.
11) What is the … of the tallest building in your city?

b) Terrified, last, avoid, suffer, profession, instructor,


losses, bother, board, crash, tunnel

1) Many people in Africa … from hunger.


2) Anne was … when she saw the car coming straight at her.
3) What is your ...? Are you a doctor?
4) Ali’s company suffered so many … that he went out of business.
5) An … is a teacher.
6) A plane … usually kills a lot of people.
7) David’s composition had very few mistakes, but it was … to
read.
8) When you have a cold, try to … giving it to your friends.
9) There are several … under the rivers. They connect Man-
hattan Island to the other parts of New York.
10) Please don’t … me now. I’m busy.
11) How long does this class …? An hour or less?

2. Cross out one word that does not belong with the other
twо.
1) stick out, diet, cut down
2) once, couple, pair
Reading 4. Afraid to fly? 193

3) feather, knock, wing


4) plateau, cloud, mountain
5) even, even though, although
6) often, sometimes, once in awhile
7) pollution, surroundings, environment
8) three quarters, two thirds, 40 per cent
9) ant, butterfly, bee
10) relatives, females, ancestors

3. COMPREHENSION CHECK
1) … usually think flying is boring.
a) People who fly once in a while
b) People who fly often
c) People who have a phobia about flying
2) A phobia is … .
a) harmful b) illogical c) chemical
3) About … per cent of people are afraid to fly.
a) 6 b) 12 c) 15
4) A person with a fear of enclosed places doesn’t like … .
a) walking on a path c) being in a tunnel
b) high places
5) … especially bother old people.
a) Crowds at airports c) Spiders
b) High�rise buildings
6) A fear of flying is not important to some people because … .
a) they are entertainers
b) they don’t need to fly
c) they can take a class about flying
7) The instructor of a class for people who are afraid of flying … .
a) explains about airplane crashes
b) learns to relax
c) takes them to an airport
8) More than … per cent of people who take these classes are
successful.
a) 12 b) 80 c) 90

GRAMMAR CHECK
4. Read the text, translate the words in bold type and cate-
gorize them in the chart.
194 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

Chronic stress
While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting, chronic
stress is not. This is the grinding stress that wears people away
day after day, year after year. Chronic stress destroys bodies,
minds and lives. It wreaks havoc through long�term attrition.
It’s the stress of poverty, of dysfunctional families, of being
trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career.
It’s the stress that the never�ending “troubles” have brought
to the people of Northern Ireland, the tensions of the Middle
East have brought to the Arab and Jew, and the endless ethnic
rivalries that have been brought to the people of Eastern
Europe. Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way
out of a miserable situation. It’s the stress of unrelenting
demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of
time. With no hope, the individual gives up searching for solu-
tions.
Some chronic stresses stem from traumatic, early childhood
experiences that become internalized and remain forever pain-
ful and present. Some experiences profoundly affect personality.
A view of the world, or a belief system, is created that causes
unending stress for the individual (e.g., the world is a threaten-
ing place, people will find out you are a pretender, you must be
perfect at all times). When personality or deep�seated convic-
tions and beliefs must be reformulated, recovery requires active
self�examination, often with professional help. The worst aspect
of chronic stress is that people get used to it. They forget it’s there.
People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new;
they ignore chronic stress because it is old, familiar, and some-
times, almost comfortable. Chronic stress kills through suicide,
violence, heart attack, stroke, and, perhaps, even cancer. People
wear down to a final, fatal breakdown. Because physical and
mental resources are depleted through long�term attrition, the
symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require
extended medical as well as behavioral treatment and stress
management.

Gerund Participle I
Reading 5. Children's fears 195

TALKING POINTS
5. Аnswer the questions and discuss the prob-
lems with a partner.
1) Have you ever flown? If you have, when was the
last time you flew?
2) What are some phobias? Name some. Do you
have any phobias?
3) Why are we not afraid when we get into a car?
4) Give four reasons people are afraid of flying.
5) Give four examples of people who need to fly.
6) What do people learn in a class for people who are afraid of
flying things?
7) The class in the text learns how airplane traffic is con-
trolled. How does this help people who are afraid of flying?
8) Why does the class learn about the different noises a plane
makes?
9) How do relaxation exercises help the people in the class?
10) Do you think they will help you?

Reading 5
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: How
can parents help in overcoming and preventing development of
children’s fears?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and pay attention to the words in bold type.
Find the details in the text and choose the best answer to
the questions below.

Children’s fears
1. Children’s fears come and go, but most children experi-
ence similar types of fears at approximately the same age. For
toddlers, the worst fears are often associated with separation
and change. Toddlers want their own mommy, daddy, spoon,
chair, and bed. They are profoundly conservative little people.
The most daring toddlers feel content if they can hold onto
what they already know. Yet, children’s fears are a useful index
of their development. Fear of strangers appears to be a conse-
quence of their first specific attachment, and its ending is a sign
that they have acquired a more inclusive schema of faces and
people in general. A child who is afraid of cats but not of rabbits
196 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

evidently can differentiate one small animal from another. Fear


of a particular person implies recognition of that person.
2. Just as children learn to fear things, they can learn what
not to fear. As long as fears do not become too intense, a child’s
natural impulse to explore and discover things will be of help.
Parents can be of assistance, both in overcoming fears and in
preventing their development. They can prepare a child through
play, stories, and happy prognostications for dealing with new
situations that might be overwhelming; give prompt and unstin-
ted comfort after a frightening experience or a bad dream; pro-
vide a night�light if the child is afraid of the dark; and devise
ways in which a child can be gently and gradually — not abrupt-
ly — encouraged to take another look at feared objects and sit-
uations. Аvoidance of the feared object reinforces the fear, and
the fear becomes increasingly intense. Children’s fears should
be taken seriously, never ridiculed or dismissed as silly or baby-
ish. Often, if the caregiver can get the child to explain exactly
what it is that is so frightening, the child can be reassured. The
one thing not to do is force children into confronting a feared
situation before they are ready to do so.
3. Almost all children are afraid of something and, as with
adults, these fears are often well�grounded. If we are in an open
field during a thunderstorm, we probably have good reason to
be afraid of lightning.
4. But occasionally fear of something gets out of control and
becomes a phobia. A phobia is an irrational fear of something.
A child may be afraid of the dark and hesitate to go up the stairs
alone at night. But when the child refuses to remain in a place
where there is no light, such as the movies or his or her bedroom,
the fear is taking too great a toll on the child’s development.
5. There are many different ways that phobias are treated in
children. One of these techniques, commonly referred to as con-
tact desensitization, is a behavioral technique designed to elimi-
nate unnatural fears. The basic premise of the technique is that
any fear is learned, and that anything that is learned can be
unlearned. If a child is overly sensitive to something like water,
for example, the gradual introduction of the feared object cou-
pled with a pleasant experience can help reduce the strength of
the fear, making it more manageable.
6. This exact technique was used in one study with fifty
snake�avoidant children ranging in age from three to nine years.
To see which technique was most effective, the fifty children
were divided into five groups:
Reading 5. Children's fears 197

А. Members of the “contact desensitization group” were


told about snakes and how to approach them, were encouraged
by an adult to approach a snake, were given praise when they
tried, and watched one adult hold the snake.
B. The “contact desensitization without touch group” recei-
ved all that group A did, but no one touched the snake.
C. The “verbal input plus modelling group” received verbal
input and modeling (when the adult touched the snake).
D. The “verbal input only” received only verbal assurances
from the adult.
E. Finally, one group of children received no treatment and,
hence, was called the “no treatment group.”
7. The researchers used something called the Behavior Avoid-
ance Test to see if there was a reduction in avoidance of the
snake. Here, an adult reads a series of instructions to each child,
asking him or her to do things such as approach the snake, pet
it, pick it up, and hold it. The instructions go from little contact
with the snake to increasing contact. This way the researchers
can see which group of children has the most contact.
8. The results showed that 82 per cent of the children in the
contact desensitization group reduced their fear of snakes.
Children in the other groups also reduced their fear, but not as
dramatically.
9. Fears are something we all have to live with. When they
get out of hand, a technique like the one we described here can
be very useful in assisting a child through a difficult experience.
1) Which of the following details best supports the authors’
point that children can be helped to overcome fears?
a) Fear of strangers usually ends when a child develops a
more inclusive schema of faces and people.
b) Children should never be forced to confront a feared sit-
uation before they are ready to do so.
c) A child can sometimes be reassured after a caregiver has
encouraged the child to explain the fear.
d) Many of children’s fears are well�grounded and reasonable.
2) In paragraph 1, the sentence “The most daring toddlers feel
content if they can hold onto what they already know” can
best be described as having which of the following effects on
the reader?
a) It focuses the reader’s attention on the wide variety of
children’s fears.
198 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

b) It informs the reader of a specific type of fear.


c) It helps the reader understand children’s fears from an
adult perspective.
d) It allows the reader to decide how best to handle chil-
dren’s fears.
3) Based on the information presented in this selection, a child
can best be helped to overcome a fear of riding an escalator by:
a) talking with an adult about why riding an escalator is
frightening.
b) watching an adult ride an escalator, being encouraged to
try it, and being praised if he or she does.
c) being allowed to avoid escalators until the fear has
diminished naturally.
d) watching an adult ride an escalator and receiving verbal
assurances from the adult that it is safe.
4) Which of the following details from the passage is least rele-
vant to the authors’ main topic?
a) Parents can help prevent the development of fears in
their child.
b) Just as children learn to fear things, they can learn what
not to fear.
c) A child’s fears should be taken seriously; they should not
be ridiculed.
d) In one study of children’s fears, fifty children were divid-
ed into five groups.
5) Which three main topics would best help outline the infor-
mation in this selection?
А. a) Universality of children’s fears
b) Helping children overcome fears
c) Children’s phobias and their treatment
B. a) Types of fears in children
b) Treatment of fears in children
c) Comparison of fears in children and adults
C. a) Normal fears experienced by toddlers
b) Normal fears experienced by older children
c) Phobias experienced by children
D. a) Children’s fears of people
b) Children’s fears of situations
c) Contact desensitization as a treatment for phobias
Reading 5. Children's fears 199

6) What is the meaning of the word index as it is used in para-


graph 1 of this selection?
a) an indicator or measurement of something
b) a list or catalog of information
c) an object used to point or indicate
d) a relation or ratio of one quantity to another
GRAMMAR CHECK
1. Find these �ing forms in the text and categorize them into
the chart below.
Overcoming, preventing, daring, dealing, confronting,
overwhelming, taking, frightening, ranging, modelling,
feeling, ending, lightning, increasing, assisting
Translate the sentences with these forms. Pay attention to
the use of prepositions with gerunds and nouns.
Present Participle Gerund Noun

2. Find the gerunds in each of the following sentences. Define


their functions and translate the sentences.
1) Minimizing the memory requirements and cognitive load for
a user are essential for creating usable systems.
2) Psychological theory forms the base for studying the limits
of memory. We describe several of those theories here.
3) By grouping similar items into a collection, called a chunk,
short�term memory is expanded. One can store seven plus or
minus two meaningful chunks instead of individual items.
4) Bartlett approaches the issue of memory in a similar fashion
by proposing the concept of schemata.
5) He arrived at the concept from studies of memory he con-
ducted in which subjects recalled details of stories that were
not actually there. From this he concluded that people must
create a mental model or structure that they use as an aide
for remembering.
6) One interesting extension on the schemata research into
learning addresses novice versus expert performance.
7) This work suggests that the nature of expertise is primarily
due to an expert having a set of schemas that guide percep-
tion and problem�solving which novices do not have.
200 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

8) He argues that the increased performance of experts


demonstrates that people develop new schemata in their
long term memory through learning.
9) Psychological studies demonstrate this principle by track-
ing the improvement from inefficient, slow, and frustrating
to fast, quick, and efficient.
10) Essentially, schemata become chunks for expanding memory
the phenomenon of chunking has been verified at all levels
of cognitive processing.

TALKING POINTS
3. Think about your childhood. Can you remem-
ber any children’s fears that you experienced?
What was the reason for these fears? Do you
think they were well�grounded or irrational?
What did your parents do to help you overcome
these fears?
Share your memories with your partner.

4. Read the quote and discuss it in class.


In truth, impulses and emotions explain nothing; they are
always the result of either the power of the body or the impo-
tence of the mind. Consequently, in both cases, they are never
causes. These can never be located in the organism, as only biolo-
gy can do, or in the intellect, which represents the only way open
to psychology as well as ethnology. (Claude Le´vi�Strauss, Le
Tote´misme aujourd’hui, 1962)

5. Turn mental disorder into creative talent. This connection


between an abnormal psychological balance and creative
art is not of course unknown in our psychological theories.
We have treated many geniuses, such as Gerard de Nerval,
van Gogh and others, as psychotics. At best, we are some-
times prepared to pardon certain follies because they are
committed by great artist. But creativity is one of power-
ful means of remedying a mental disorder, harmful both to
the individual suffering from it and to the community which
needs the healthy co�operation of all, is to transform it into
a work of art. This is a method seldom used among psy-
chiatrists. Do you think this method might be used? Why
or why not?
Reading 5. Children's fears 201

6. Read the text about anxiety and discuss the reasons for it
with your partner.
What is anxiety?
Usually, our bodies go into fight or flight only when there is
something to fear. However, sometimes this occurs when there
doesn’t seem to be anything to be frightened about. When you
feel scared but there doesn’t seem to be a clear reason, that’s
called anxiety.
Other feelings might come along with anxiety — like a feel-
ing of tightness in your chest, a bellyache, dizziness, or a sense
that something horrible is going to happen. These feelings can
be very frightening. Sometimes anxiety can interfere with
things you need to do, like learning and sleeping.
For some children feelings of anxiety or worry can happen
anytime.
For others, they might occur only at certain times, like when
they’re leaving their home or family to go somewhere. In some
people, this feeling of anxiety occurs almost all the time and
gets in the way of doing what they want to do.
Some kids may have a phobia, which is an intense fear of
something specific, such as being up high, getting dirty, the
number 13, or spiders.
Anxiety can run in families. Or a person might develop anxiety
after something terrible happens, like a car crash. Sometimes
certain medical illnesses can cause feelings of anxiety.
Another part of the explanation has to do with the different
chemicals in the nerve cells of the brain. How the chemicals in
our brain’s nerve cells are balanced can affect how we feel and
act. One of these chemicals is serotonin. Serotonin is one of the
brain chemicals that helps send information from one brain
nerve cell to another. But for some people with anxiety, this
brain chemical system doesn’t always seem to work the way it
should.
Also, some scientists think that a special area in the brain
controls the fight or flight response. With anxiety, it’s like hav-
ing the fight or flight response stuck in the ON position — even
when there is no real danger. That makes it hard to focus on
everyday things.

SUMMARIZING
7. Summarize what you have learned in this Chapter in 8—10
sentences. Share your summary with your partner.
202 Chapter 6. Abnormal psychology

VOCABULARY CHECK
8. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Circle the words you
do not understand. Then find the words in the Reading.
Talk about the meaning of these words with your partner.
Index, strangers, to prevent, to overcome,
to overwhelm, to avoid, irrational, sensitive,
desensitization, treatment

If you know all the words, continue to Chapter 7. Go to


EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS (Аctivi-
ties for Chapter 6).
Chapter 7

MISCELLANEOUS READINGS
(Conditionals. Comparative and superlative adjectives)

Reading 1
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: Why
do people blush?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and pay attention to the words in bold type.
Аnswer the following questions.
1) What happens when a person blushes?
2) Do you think black people blush?
3) What types of people blush more?
4) What is blushing related to?
5) How can you define shy people? What are three theories
about shy people?

Shyness and blushing


Blushing is related to general anxiety, when people feel wor-
ried and nervous about what is going to happen. Shy people
blush because they are always worried about what others think
of them. They don’t have any confidence in themselves.
Shy people are anxious about themselves all the time. They
can’t think about other people’s feelings very much because they
are too worried about themselves and what others are thinking
about them. They think other people are more intelligent and
can do everything better. They think other people are more
attractive and more popular. They believe others have more
knowledge. How do you feel when you realize you just gave
a stupid answer in class? Or how would you feel if you were in
204 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

the cafeteria, you dropped your dishes, and everyone stared at


you when they heard the loud crash? You would feel embar-
rassed. When you are embarrassed, you want to sink through
the floor so no one can see you. If you are really unlucky, you
also blush. Your face gets red as a beet, and you can’t do any-
thing about it. It seems to stay red forever. People stare at you
even more, and you feel even more embarrassed. Why do people
blush? Not much research has been done on it. Psychologists
say that people of all skin colors blush. Women blush more than
men, and young people blush more than older people. Some
people blush only a few seconds, but the blush can appear and
disappear for five or ten minutes in other people. Usually only
the face or upper part of the body blushes come very shy if they
have to deal with people from a different social class, or if they
have to work with more intelligent or more skilled people. Shy
people get very anxious when they don’t know how to act in sit-
uations that other people think are just ordinary. They feel infe-
rior and want to get out of the situation.
Everything that shy people do with other people is difficult
for them. Two researchers asked hundreds of men and women
what made them most anxious. They said going to a party with
strangers was the worst. That was even worse than having to
give a speech or have an interview for a new job. They also felt
unhappy when people asked them personal questions in public
or when they talked to someone in a superior position. Young
people were anxious when they met the parents of a date. The
first day on a new job was also hard for shy people.
Shy people behave differently from more confident people.
They don’t want to complain about bad service in a store or
restaurant. They don’t make suggestions or volunteer to do
things. They avoid social gatherings. They usually speak in a low
voice.
Some shy people have physical reactions when they have to
face one of these situations. Their hands get cold and moist or
shaky, their mouth gets dry, they break out in a cold sweat, and
their heart beats faster. They might have butterflies in their
stomach, or feel nauseated.
There are three theories about why people are shy. One the-
ory says that a person inherits shyness from the parents, that is,
the person is born with this personality characteristic because
the parents were shy. Another theory is that shy people never
learned how to act with other people because no one ever
taught them social skills.
Reading 1. Shyness and blushing 205

The third theory says that shy people learned to be shy when
they were children because their parents didn’t encourage them
to be more confident. The parents probably comforted them
and gave them extra attention when they acted shy, so the chil-
dren learned that being shy was a good way to get extra love
and attention. Now researchers say that apparently all three
theories are true.
A study at Harvard University showed that even some infants
acted shy when they were faced with something new and strange.
They became silent and their heartbeat changed. Other infants
were not afraid when faced with something unfamiliar, and
their heartbeat didn’t change. They appeared to have more confi-
dence. This seems to prove that some of these infants inherited
shyness; they didn’t learn it.
These children were observed again when they were in kinder-
garten. None of the non�shy children had become shy. A few of
the shy ones were less shy; apparently their parents had helped
them learn to be more confident. Most of these children who
had become more confident were boys.
Shy people have exaggerated feelings about themselves. They
are very concerned about their outward behavior, their feelings
of self�consciousness, and their physical symptoms of shyness.
They are so anxious about themselves that the feelings of others
don’t touch them. They think everyone else is very self�confi-
dent. Obviously, no one is completely self�confident about their
babies.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Complete the sentences using the words from the box.

Courage, suggestion, deal, complains, attractive, service,


get out of, exaggerated, anxiety, concerned, praised

1) Most television stars are … .


2) Shy people suffer from … in their relations with other people.
3) Leila is … about her brother. He hasn’t called her for three
weeks.
4) A brave person has a lot of … .
5) One of the students made a good … for the International
Day program.
6) It is difficult to … with a child who doesn’t behave well.
7) Mr. and Mrs. Miki … their son who had just won a prize for
his research paper.
206 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

8) Tom said he earns $1,000 every two weeks, but he is really


paid only $800. He … .
9) David always tries to … giving a speech in class because he
is shy.
10) All always … that he has too much homework.
11) This restaurant has good food, but the … is slow.

2. Match the words with their definitions.

1) nervous a) length of time


2) period b) at the same time
3) habit c) stage
4) meanwhile d) act in response to something
5) fever e) grind
6) pregnant f) hit
7) location g) watch
8) strike h) die in water
9) react i) anxious
10) drown j) usual action
11) solar k) high body temperature
12) observe l) of the sun
m) place
n) going to become a mother

COMPREHENSION CHECK
3. True or false?
1) __ Blush means about the same as embarrassed.
2) __ Young people blush more than old people.
3) __ Shy people don’t have confidence in themselves.
4) __ Shy people worry about others because they think
maybe they are shy too.
5) __ Non�shy people are usually more physically attractive
than shy people.
6) __ For a shy person, giving a speech is sometimes worse
than going to a party with strangers.
7) __ Nausea is a physical reaction.
8) __ It appears that some individuals learn to be shy as chil-
dren.
9) __ Shy people can learn to have more confidence in them-
selves.
10) __ Shyness is inherited.
11) __ Most people never suffer from shyness.
Reading 1. Shyness and blushing 207

GRAMMAR CHECK
4. How do we make the comparative of one�syllable adjec-
tives? How do we make the comparative of longer adjec-
tives? Which adjectives are irregular? How do we make
their comparatives? How do we make the superlative
forms?
Look through the text, find comparative adjectives, and
write them down. Make the superlative forms of these
adjectives. Make sentences comparing shy people with
confident people. The first one is done for you.
Example: Shy people are more anxious when they have a job
interview than confident people.

5. TALKING POINTS
1) What happens when a person blushes?
2) Why does blushing make someone feel even more
embarrassed?
3) Why don’t shy people think about the feelings of
others?
4) What do they think about others in comparison
with themselves?
5) What did shy people say was the most difficult thing to do?
6) Which situation in paragraph 6 would make you the most
anxious?
7) What are some physical conditions caused by shyness?
8) Why does the study of shy infants seem to prove that they
inherited shyness?
9) Name two situations shy people would probably like to get
out of.
10) Is it easy for a shy person to talk in class? Why?

VOCABULARY CHECK
6. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Circle the words you
do not understand. Then find the words in the Reading.
Talk about the meaning of these words with your class-
mates.

Stared, attractive, get out of, personal, nauseated, infants,


unfamiliar, exaggerated, apparently, volunteer, inherited

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 2.


208 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

Reading 2
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
can you tell about a person by analyzing his/her handwriting?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the interview and find the answers to the questions
below.
1) What can the analysis of someone’s handwriting show?
2) How is the analysis done?
3) What’s a stroke?
4) What does your body language show about you?
5) When was the system invented?
6) People of what nationalities contributed to the development
of the system?
7) Who uses handwriting analysis? What can it be applied for?

Handwriting analysis
Ellen Shepherd is a handwriting analyst. The author asked her
questions about this interesting subject in an interview. In this
report of the interview, P.А. stands for the author’s name and
E.S. are Ms. Shepherd’s initials.
P.А.: I’ve heard about handwriting analysis, but I don’t know
much about it. Could you explain what it is?
E.S.: It’s a scientific system which analyzes someone’s hand-
writing. The analysis shows the person’s personality and
character — what kind of person this individual is. The
handwriting shows if the person is honest or dishonest, gets
angry easily or stays calm, has a good memory or forgets easi-
ly. We can tell when people’s feelings have a strong effect on
their thinking, or if they usually think logically. We can tell
if the person has a lot of friends and likes to spend time with
them, or if he likes to be alone most of the time. We can even
tell when people are shy. They’re so afraid of other people
that they spend most of their time alone when they’d really
like to be with others.
P.А.: That’s amazing! But you’ve given a list of the opposites.
Most people are somewhere in the middle, or they act differ-
ently in different situations. For example, someone might
get very angry about something important but just a little
angry about something else. Can you tell about degrees of
anger or laziness or other characteristics?
Reading 2. Handwriting analysis 209

E.S.: Yes, we can. We can score this person from one to ten on
how angry she gets. We can also tell if she often feels angry
inside even though she appears to be calm. We can do the
same thing for other feelings and characteristics. For exam-
ple, we can tell to what degree people work carefully, or if
they’re sometimes lazy and careless.
P.А.: How do you do this analysis?
E.S.: First I have them write about two pages on unlined paper.
Then I look at how they make each stroke of the letters.
P.А.: What’s a stroke?
E.S.: In general, a stroke is the part of a letter that leaves or
returns to the base line. The cross on a t and the dot on an i
are also strokes.
P.А.: Do you mean you can look at the way I cross my t’s and
dot my i’s and tell what kind of person I am?
E.S. (laughing): Of course not. I have to analyze the whole two
pages of writing. I divide the parts of the letters into zones.
Letters like f, h, and i go into the upper zone. This zone
shows people’s imagination, ideas, and how they think about
the future. All letters have parts in the middle zone. This
zone shows how people think and feel about the present and
reality, and their feelings about other people.
Letters like f, g, and p go into the lower zone. This zone
shows how people feel about the past, if they’re quick to take
action, and what their biological needs are. For example,
food is very important to some people. Others are not inter-
ested in food at all, as long as they have enough to eat.
P.А.: It’s hard for me to believe that you can get all that infor-
mation about a person just from handwriting.
E.S.: People talk about body language. The way you hold and
move your body shows a lot about what kind of person you
are. For example, if you hold your head down a lot, you’re
probably shy. The way you write is much more complicated
than the way you hold your body, so it gives a lot more infor-
mation. Research shows this.
P.А.: Is handwriting analysis something new?
E.S.: An American teacher, M. Bunker, invented this system in
1913, but even the ancient Chinese, Greeks, and Romans
noticed that personality showed in handwriting. In the 1600s
an Italian started to develop a system, and 200 years later
the French were working on one. Today in Europe, anyone
who is studying to be a teacher or a psychologist has to
study handwriting analysis.
210 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

P.А.: Who uses handwriting analysis?


E.S.: Some companies use it when they hire people to work for
them. They want to know if they’ll be good, honest workers.
Police use it to try to understand criminals better. Some-
times an individual wants an analysis to help decide what kind
of job is best for him or her. These are just a few examples.
P.А.: There’s something else I’m wondering about. When we go
to school, we all learn to write the same way.
E.S.: I know what you’re thinking, but everyone writes differ-
ently. There is about one chance in 68 trillion that two peo-
ple will write exactly the same.
P.А.: And there aren’t even that many people in the world! So
far we’ve talked about European languages and our alpha-
bet. What about analyzing Arabic or Japanese?
E.S.: I don’t think anyone has developed a system for any other
alphabets, but since everybody writes differently, handwrit-
ing analysis should work for any alphabet.
P.А.: This has been very interesting, and I’ve learned a lot.
Thanks for explaining it all to me.
E.S.: Thank you for interviewing me. If anything is unclear, just
call me.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Complete the sentences using the words from the boxes.
a) Honest, score, exactly, system, interviews,
initials, psychologist, character, stroke, biological,
shy, analyze

1) What … do you need on the TOEFL test in order to enter


Harvard University?
2) No two individuals are … alike, not even twins.
3) Companies try to hire … people. They try to hire people with
a good … .
4) England has one … of government. America has another.
5) Dr. Barnes is a child … . He helps children who have prob-
lems in their lives.
6) Susan is five years old and very … . She hides behind her
mother when people talk to her.
7) Television news programs often have … with famous people.
8) It is nice to have a lot of money, but it isn’t a … need.
9) Dr. Gomez will use her computer to … her research.
Reading 2. Handwriting analysis 211

b) Stand for, personality, strokes, calm, honest, invented,


initials, zones, as long as, hire, imagination, system

1) The … of the author of this book are P. A.


2) Mike has a very nice … . He is friendly to everyone.
3) Some people will travel anywhere … they don’t have to fly.
4) Japanese write with a lot of short … .
5) Ms. Davis tried to stay … even though she was very worried
about her daughter.
6) Cities in many countries have … for the postal system. Each
one has a number.
7) What does U.S. …? The United States.
8) The Bakers are going to … someone to do their domestic
work.
9) The person who … the typewriter had a wonderful idea.
10) A handwriting analyst can tell if a person has a good … .

COMPREHENSION CHECK
2. True or false?
1) __ The analysis of handwriting shows a person’s character.
2) __ An analyst can tell if a person is afraid to try new
things.
3) __ An analyst can score a person on how logically he thinks.
4) __ The analyst looks at about two lines of writing.
5) __ The letter у goes into the upper zone.
6) __ The upper zone shows if a person can draw or write
well.
7) __ The lower zone shows how people feel about the present.
8) __ A teacher invented a system to analyze handwriting.
9) __ Handwriting analysis can help you choose a profession.
10) __ It is probably possible to analyze Chinese handwriting.

GRAMMAR CHECK
3. Categorize the following sentences as Conditional I, Con-
ditional II or Conditional III.
1) If something can go wrong, it will do.
2) If you found a driver’s licence on the ground, what would
you do?
3) If a police officer approached you from behind in a car with
lights flashing, what would you do?
212 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

4) If a subject had entered hypnosis, suggestions would have


been given which could produce the effects sought by the
hypnotist.
5) He/she will state that the sea is coloured red, if he/she is
suggested to ignore the color blue.
6) A count of eleven will be achieved if asked to count ones
fingers if a number — say 5 — is suggested to be ignored.
7) If the mug is put on top of a page with writing, the patient
will only read the parts not covered by the mug.
8) If a thought was planted into the human mind, the psyche
would responsively trigger a lingering product of that
thought.
9) If a person is stressed out it will cause fatigue, insomnia,
phobias and various other health problems.
10) Your child would have spoken a new language well, if
he/she had communicated as much as could.
11) If you speak in a language other than English at home, your
children will speak it too.
12) But if no concepts are learnt in the minority language, the
vocabulary and literacy of the child will be very limited.
13) If you know the words that cluster around a particular
topic, you will find it much easier to read about that topic.

4. TALKING POINTS
1) Tell three things that a handwriting analyst can
find out from a person’s handwriting.
2) What does shy mean?
3) How does the analyst analyze the writing?
4) What zones is the letter b in?
5) What does the middle zone show?
6) What is body language?
7) How could handwriting analysis help you choose a profes-
sion?
8) What area of the world takes handwriting analysis the
most seriously?
9) Do you think an analyst can tell a people’s character from
their handwriting? Give your reasons.
10) Do you think handwriting analysis is a science? Give your
reasons.
If you want to know about graphology, you will find addi-
tional material in EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAIN-
TEASERS (Аctivities for Chapter 7).
Reading 3. Headaches 213

Reading 3
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: How
can a doctor help with your headaches?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read and pay attention to the words in bold type. Find the
answers to the questions below.
1) What are different kinds of headaches?
2) What is meant by “change in vision”?
3) What headaches are called migraine?
4) What are cluster headaches?
5) What is a muscle headache caused by?
6) When does the muscle headache start and get worse?
7) How do doctors treat headaches?
8) What might stop the headache?
9) How can a change in diet help?
10) What can a headache signal?

Headaches
Some little man is inside your head, pounding your brain
with a hammer. Beside him, a rock musician is playing a drum.
Your head feels as if it is going to explode. You have a headache
and you think it will never go away.
Although it may feel like it, a headache is not a pain in your
brain. Your brain tells you when other parts of your body hurt,
but it can’t actually feel pain. Most headaches happen outside
your skull, in the nerves, blood vessels, and muscles that cover
your head and neck. Sometimes the muscles or blood vessels
swell, which means they get larger.
They also can tighten or go through other changes that stim-
ulate or put pressure on the surrounding nerves. The nerves
send a rush of pain messages to your brain, and you end up with
a headache.
Doctors say there are several kinds of headaches. Each kind
begins in a different place and needs a different treatment. One
kind starts in the arteries in the head. The arteries swell and
send pain signals to the brain. Some of these headaches start
with a change in vision. The person sees wavy lines, black dots, or
bright spots in front of the eyes. This is a warning that a headache
is coming. The headache occurs on only one side of the head.
The vision is blurred and the person may vomit from the pain.
214 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

These headaches, which are called migraine headaches, are more


frequent in women than in men. Sleep is the best cure for them.
Cluster headaches, which also start in the arteries, are called
cluster headaches because they come in clusters or groups for
two or three months. Then there are no more for several months
or even years. A cluster headache lasts up to two hours and then
goes away. At the beginning of the headache, the eyes are red
and watery. There is a steady pain in the head.
When the pain finally goes away, the head is sore. Men have
more cluster headaches than women do. The muscle headache,
which starts in the muscles in the neck or forehead, is caused
by tension. A person works too hard, is nervous something, or
has problems at work, at school, or at home. The neck and head
muscles become tense, and the headache starts. A muscle
headache usually starts in the morning and gets worse as the
hours pass. There is a steady pain, pressure, and a bursting feel-
ing. Usually aspirin doesn’t help a muscle headache very much.
About 40 per cent of all headaches start in the head and neck
muscles. Another 40 per cent start in the arteries.
How do doctors treat headaches? If a person has frequent
headaches, the doctor first has to decide what kind they are.
Medicine can help, but there are other ways to treat them. The
doctor asks the patient to analyze his or her daily living pat-
terns. Headache triggers such as eating certain foods, being
stressed out, or not getting enough sleep are much more likely
causes of headaches. Or sometimes, there’s no obvious reason
at all.
A change in diet or an increase in exercise might stop the
headaches. If the patient realizes that difficulties at home, at
work, or at school are causing the tension, it might be possible
to make changes and decrease these problems. Psychological
problems and even medicine for another physical problem can
cause headaches. The doctor has to discuss and analyze all these
patterns of the patient’s life. A headache can also be a signal of
a more serious problem. Everyone has headaches from time to
time. If they continue over several days, or keep recurring, it is
time to talk to a doctor. There is no magic cure for headaches,
but a doctor can help control most of them because of recent
research.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Complete the sentences using the words from the box
below.
Reading 3. Headaches 215

Ache, warned, blurred, arteries, vision, hammer,


drum, forehead, vomit, cures, physical, tense, swell,
steady, patients, muscles
1) When you are sick and in pain, your stomach may protest
and make you … .
2) The teacher … the children that they had to behave or there
would be no party.
3) People in the hospital are called … .
4) While Pat was swimming she got water in her eyes.
Everything looked … .
5) Students feel … before an important exam.
6) Tension in the … of the neck can cause a headache.
7) The farmers were happy when a … rain continued all night.
8) … carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
9) Today there are … for many diseases that used to kill people.
10) People with poor … wear glasses or contact lenses.
11) You may get a stomach … if you eat too much.
12) A complete … examination is necessary for anyone entering
the army.
2. Match the opposites.
1) fiction a) point
2) scatter b) import
3) active c) nonfiction
4) fact d) unclear
5) obvious e) microscope
6) last f) run out
7) export g) gather
8) loose h) increase
9) fast i) inactive
10) lessen j) theory
k) feast
l) tight
3. COMPREHENSION CHECK
1) When someone sees black dots or wavy lines, this is a change
in … .
a) blurring b) clusters c) vision
2) A migraine headache causes … .
a) blurred vision c) a bursting feeling
b) red and watery eyes
216 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

3) … is the best cure for migraines.


a) Sleep b) Aspirin c) Arteries
4) … have more of the kind of headache that leaves the head
sore.
a) Women b) Men c) Older people
5) A … headache usually starts in the morning and gets worse.
a) migraine b) cluster c) muscle
6) Tension causes a … headache.
a) migraine b) cluster c) muscle
7) The muscle and the … headache are the most common.
a) migraine b) cluster c) warning
8) Medicine is … headaches.
a) the best treatment for c) one way to treat
b) not usually helpful for
9) A change in a patient’s life patterns can … .
a) help cure headaches c) both a and b
b) cause headaches

4. TALKING POINTS
1) Describe a migraine headache.
2) Describe a cluster headache.
3) Describe a muscle headache.
4) Which kind of headache affects more women
than men?
5) What are some things that can cause a muscle
headache?
6) If you have a headache, will aspirin help?
7) Why does a doctor analyze the life patterns of a headache
patient?

SCANNING
5. Scan the text to put these sentences in the right column.
Write the number of the sentence below.
Migraine Cluster Muscle
Reading 3. Headaches 217

1) They come in groups.


2) It starts in the neck or forehead.
3) It is caused by tension.
4) There is a change in vision.
5) There may not be any for several years.
6) Aspirin doesn’t help.
7) Sleep helps.
8) It occurs on only one side of the head,
9) It lasts for two hours or less.
10) Problems at work can cause it.

GRAMMAR CHECK
6. Match the two halves to form conditional sentences.
Translate the sentences.
1) If you hold your head a) the doctor will prescribe
down a lot, medicine.
2) If a person has a change b) if you work so much.
in vision, c) people will think you are
3) A shy person will blush shy.
4) If a patient has frequent d) if they had to face embar-
headaches, rassing situations.
5) You will definitely get a e) if she didn’t know ho to
headache behave properly.
6) Confident people would f) he will have a migraine
feel comfortable headache soon.
7) All people would have g) if you stare at him.
physical reaction
8) Children will become h) if someone asked them
shy personal questions.
9) She would also feel inferior i) I will feel very happy.
10) If I don’t have to give a j) if they don’t have social
speech, skills.

VOCABULARY CHECK
7. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do you
understand all of these words? Circle the words you do
not understand. Then find the words in the Reading. Talk
about the meaning of these words with your classmates.
Drum, hammer, swell, vision, steady, sore,
forehead, physical, recurring

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 4.


218 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

Reading 4
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
body characteristics change during sleep?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and find the answers to the following ques-
tions:
1) What does REM stand for?
2) What does NREM stand for?
3) How long does an average person spend sleeping?
4) How many periods of REM does an average person have a
night?
5) What are nightmares?
6) What do you know about sleepwalking?

Sleep and dream


Your vision will become clear only
when you can look into your own heart.
Who looks outside, dreams; who
looks inside, awakes.
C. G. Jung
“Oh sleep! It is a gentle thing, Beloved from pole to pole.”
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, a famous British poet, wrote these words
over a hundred years ago. Most people would agree with him.
Sleep is very important to humans; the average person spends
220,000 hours of a lifetime sleeping. Until about thirty years
ago, no one knew much about sleep. Then doctors and scientists
began doing research in sleep laboratories. They have learned a
great deal by studying people as they sleep, but there is still
much that they don’t understand.
Scientists study the body characteristics that change during
sleep, such as body temperature, brain waves, blood pressure,
breathing, and heartbeat. They also study rapid eye movement
(REM). These scientists have learned that stretched out. Then,
within another half�hour, you reach REM sleep. This stage
might last an hour and a half and is the time when you dream.
For the rest of the night, REM and NREM alternate.
Body movement during sleep occurs just before the REM
stage. The average person moves about 30 times during sleep
each night. Sleep is a biological need, but your brain never real-
ly sleeps. It is never actually blank. The things that were on
your mind during the day are still there at night. They appear as
Reading 4. Sleep and dream 219

dreams, which people have been


discussing for centuries. At times
people believed that dreams had
magical powers or that they could
tell the future.
Sometimes dreams are terrifying,
but they are usually a collection of
scattered, confused thoughts. If you
dream about something that is wor-
rying you, you may wake up exhaus-
ted, sweating, and with a rapid
heartbeat. It is possible that dreams
have a positive effect on our lives. It
may be that during a dream the
brain can concentrate on a problem
and look for different solutions.
Researchers say that normal people may have four or five
REM periods of dreaming a night. The first one may begin only
a half�hour after falling asleep. Each period of dreaming is a lit-
tle longer, the last one lasting up to an hour. Dreams also
become more intense as the night continues. Nightmares usual-
ly occur toward dawn.
People dream in color, but many don’t remember the colors.
Certain people control some of their dreams. They make sure
they have a happy ending. Many people talk in their sleep, but it
is usually just confused half sentences. They might feel embar-
rassed when someone tells them they were talking in their sleep,
but they probably didn’t give away any secrets. Sleepwalking is
most common among children. They usually grow out of it
when they are adolescents. Children don’t remember that they
were walking in their sleep, and they don’t usually wake up if
the parent leads them back to bed.
Some people have the habit of grinding their teeth while
they sleep. They may wake up with a sore jaw or a headache,
and they can also damage their teeth. Researchers don’t know
why people talk, walk, or grind their teeth while they are asleep.
There are lots of jokes about snoring, but it isn’t really funny.
People snore because they have trouble breathing while they are
asleep. Some snorers have a condition called sleep apnea. They
stop breathing up to 30 or 40 times an hour because the throat
muscles relax too much and block the airway. Then they breathe
in some air and start snoring. This is a dangerous condition
because if the brain is without oxygen for 4 minutes, there will
220 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

be permanent brain damage. Sleep apnea can also cause irregular


heartbeats, a general lack of energy, and high blood pressure.
Most people need from 7.5 to 8.5 hours of sleep a night, but
this varies with individuals. Babies sleep 18 hours, and old peo-
ple need less sleep than younger people. If someone continually
sleeps longer than normal for no apparent reason, there may be
something physically or psychologically wrong.
You cannot save hours of sleep the way you save money in
the bank. If you have only 5 hours of sleep for three nights, you
don’t need to sleep extra 9 hours on the weekend. And it doesn’t
do any good to sleep extra hours ahead of time when you know
you will have to stay up late.
What should you do if you have trouble sleeping? Lots of
people take sleeping pills, but these are dangerous because they
are habit�forming. If you take them for several weeks, it is hard
to stop taking them.
Doctors say the best thing is to try to relax and to avoid bad
habits. If you always go to bed and get up at about the same time,
this sets a rhythm in your life. Caffeine keeps people awake, so don’t
drink caffeine drinks in the evening. Smoking and alcohol can also
keep you awake. You may have trouble sleeping if you have a
heavy meal just before you go to bed. Eat earlier in the evening.
You may also have trouble sleeping if you have a problem or
something else on your mind. This is when you need to relax. As
you lie in bed, tense the muscles in your feet and then relax
them. Continue up the body, tensing and relaxing the muscles
until you reach the head. Start with the feet again if you are still
tense. Then remember some pleasant experience you had and
relive it. If you are thinking about a problem or about some-
thing exciting that is going to happen the next day, get up and
write about it. That will help take it off your mind. You can also
get up and read or watch television. Be sure to choose a book or
show that is not too exciting, or you may get so interested that
you won’t want to go to sleep even when you feel sleepy.
Sleep is important to humans. We spend a third of our lives
sleeping, so we need to understand everything we can about
sleep. Sleep well! Sweet dreams!
VOCABULARY CHECK
1. Complete the sentences using the words from the box.
Stage, periods, normal, habit, oxygen, embarrassed,
confused, positive, a great deal, at times, sweat,
concentrate, nightmare, grinds, snore, block
Reading 4. Sleep and dream 221

1) It is hard to … on your homework if your roommate is play-


ing loud music.
2) It is not … to have a headache for a week. You should go to
a doctor.
3) In … one of a volcanic eruption, the volcano sends out smoke.
4) A … is a bad dream.
5) …, a headache begins without warning.
6) The school day is divided into several …, one for each class.
7) Marcel … coffee with a coffee grinder.
8) Sylvia has a … of having a cup of coffee as soon as she gets
home from work.
9) Hard exercise makes you … .
10) A Mercedes�Benz car costs … of money.
11) Do you … when you sleep?
12) There is no reason to feel … when you make a mistake in
class.

2. COMPREHENSION CHECK
a) Аnswer the following questions.
1) How have researchers learned about sleep?
2) What does REM mean?
3) At what stage of sleep do people move around?
4) How do dreams change as the sleep period continues?
5) Why do people feel embarrassed if they talk in their sleep?
6) Can sleepwalking be dangerous? Give a reason for your
answer.
7) Why do some people grind their teeth while they sleep?
8) How can sleep apnea cause brain damage?
9) Name three things that can keep you awake.
10) How does a problem keep you from sleeping?
b) True or false?
1) __ We spend about a third of our lives sleeping.
2) __ Researchers now understand nearly everything about
sleep.
3) __ NREM sleep comes before the REM stage.
4) __ After the three stages of NREM, REM lasts the rest of
the night.
5) __ Dreams occur during the REM stage, but the brain is
normally blank the rest of the time.
6) __ A dream about an unhappy event can change your
heartbeat.
222 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

7) __
Nightmares occur early when dreams are short.
8) __
People dream in colour.
9) __
Sleep apnea is the cause of some snoring.
10) __
It is a good idea to sleep a few extra hours on the week-
end if you know you have a lot of work to do the next
week.
11) __ Five or six hours of sleep are enough for some people.
12) __ The best thing to do when you have trouble sleeping is
to take sleeping pills.
Play a Dream Game that you can find in EXTENSION
ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS.

GRAMMAR REVIEW
3. There are several �ing forms in the text: by studying, dis-
cussing, of dreaming, doing, terrifying, of grinding, about
snoring, worrying, talking, walking, sleeping. Find the
sentences with these forms, define whether they are par-
ticiples or gerunds, and translate the sentences.

4. Read the passage and complete it with the correct verb


forms.

Insomnia complaints
There (to be) a dual problem in addressing the insomnia
complaints of older adults. First, geriatric insomnia (to be) par-
ticularly troublesome. Compared with insomnia in middle�aged
persons, it (to be) more common, more neglected by clinicians,
and more refractory. Second, seniors (to consume) dispropor-
tionately large amounts of hypnotic medication and (to be)
more vulnerable to their side effects than younger persons.
Insomnia prevalence in older people often (to exceed) 25%,
and these same surveys (to find) 30—50% higher rate than in
younger samples. Despite its common occurrence, efficient
psychological treatments for geriatric insomnia (to be) slow to
materialize. Our comprehensive review of psychological inter-
ventions for insomnia (to complete) a few years strongly (to
confirm) this conclusion. At that time, the salient literature (to
contain) 57 studies, only 3 of which (to focus) on insomnia in
seniors.
Аnswer the question: What would you do if you had trou-
ble sleeping?
Reading 5. The secrets of your dream 223

VOCABULARY CHECK
5. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Circle the words you
do not understand. Then find the words in the Reading.
Talk about the meaning of these words with your class-
mates.
Apnea, adolescents, snoring, blank, nightmares,
caffeine, heartbeat, exhausted, scatter, REM, NREM,
insomnia, refractory

If you know all the words, continue to Reading 5.

Reading 5
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the questions: What
kind of dream is a nightmare? Is it good to have these kinds of
dreams? Why or why not?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and find the answers to these questions:
1) What is daydreaming?
2) What is a recurring dream?
3) Do you believe that dream symbols have a meaning?
4) Can you guess the meaning of the word chasing?

The secrets of your dream


Why do we “waste” one third of our life, sleeping? Why do
we scare ourselves dreaming? These are just a few among the
myriad of questions.
Many psychologists believe that dreams are a window into
the subconscious. They believe that dreams reveal people’s anx-
ieties and obsessions.
We all dream every night, although some people say they do
not. This means that they do not remember their dreams, not
they haven’t dreamed. The dream we have at night when we
are sleeping tell us about our lives when we are awake. One of
the commonest dreams is the dream of flying. Flying symbol-
izes breathing, or being alive, so if you enjoy the flight, it means
that you are well and happy. However, if there’s a problem with
flight — for example, a plane crashes — that means you are wor-
224 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

ried about the future. Another kind of dream which maybe


symbolizes anxiety is the dream of being chased. Sometimes
people dream that someone is chasing them down a long corri-
dor. This normally means that they are in a difficult situation
in their lives. However, if in their dream there is light at the
end of the corridor, it means they are basically hopeful about
the future.
Other common dream symbols are fire, climbing, and water.
Fire is a strong force in a dream, and so it symbolizes your phys-
ical and emotional strength. If you can put out the fire, it means
you have control of your emotions. Climbing is associated with
ambition. You want to be the best at something, pass a test, be
the most popular person. If the climb is an easy one, it means
you have to work hard to get what you want. If it is a hard
climb, it means you have to work hard to get what you want. All
water is associated with the emotions, and the sea symbolizes
your relationship with your mother. If you are calmly swim-
ming it means you have a good relationship with your mother.
We don’t remember most of our dreams, but sometimes a
particular dream stays in our minds for days, or maybe even
weeks. Have you ever had a nightmare you can’t forget? Have
you ever dreamt about the same thing night after night?
We don’t only dream at night — we also dream during the
day. We daydream when we are sitting on the bus, at our desks,
or waiting fro someone to arrive. When we daydream, we make
up stories about ourselves, or imagine ourselves in a different
place or situation. We think about where we’d really like to be,
and what we’d like to be doing.
Do you dream about the future? Do you think about what
you would like to be or do when you’re older? Most people do. But
most people’s dreams for the future change as they get older.
Have your dreams always been the same, or have they changed?
The following are the actions and objects typical dream
images. Have you ever had dreams like these: climbing, crash-
ing, driving, drowning, falling, flying, running away, walking,
corridor, darkness, flood, mountain, plane, room, and vehicle?
Describe your dreams using the following adjectives: frighten-
ing, strange, pleasant, unpleasant, and anxious.
Many people believe that dream symbols have a meaning. A
mountain means a problem or difficulty. Falling is associated
with fear, worry, and anxiety. It means that you are afraid that
you will fall. So falling off a mountain symbolizes a problem you
do not think you can solve.
Reading 5. The secrets of your dream 225

Go to EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS


(Аctivity 66).
Read about different stages of sleep. During which of the
stages do people dream?
The stages of sleep
As you’re drifting off to sleep, it doesn’t seem like much is
happening: the room is getting fuzzy and your eyelids feel heav-
ier and heavier. But what happens next? A lot!
Your brain swings into action, telling your body how to
sleep. As you slowly fall asleep, you begin to enter the five dif-
ferent stages of sleep.
Stage 1. In this stage, your brain gives the signal to your
muscles to relax. It also tells your heart to beat a little slower,
and your body temperature drops a bit.
Stage 2. After a little while, you enter stage 2, which is a
light sleep. You can still be woken up easily during this stage.
For example, if you hear a car horn outside, you’ll probably
wake up.
Stage 3. When you’re in this stage, you’re in a deeper sleep,
also called slow�wave sleep. Your brain sends a message to your
blood pressure to get lower. Your body isn’t sensitive to the
temperature of the air around you. It’s much harder to be awak-
ened when you’re in this stage, but some people may sleepwalk
or talk in their sleep at this point.
Stage 4. This is the deepest sleep yet and is also considered
slow�wave sleep. It’s very hard to wake up from this stage of
sleep, and if you do wake up, you’re sure to be out of it and con-
fused for at least a few minutes. Like they do in stage 3, some
people may sleepwalk or talk in their sleep when going from
stage 4 to a lighter stage of sleep.
R.E.M. stands for rapid eye movement. Even though the
muscles in the rest of your body are totally relaxed, your eyes
move back and forth very quickly beneath your eyelids. The
R.E.M. stage is when your heart beats faster and your breathing
is less regular. This is also the stage when people dream!
While you’re asleep, you repeat stages 2, 3, 4, and R.E.M.
about every 90 minutes until you wake up in the morning. For
most people, that’s about four or five times a night. Who said
sleep was boring?
N.R.E.M. (non�rapid eye movement) sleep is dreamless
sleep. During NREM, the brain waves on the electroencephalo-
226 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

graphic (EEG) recording are typically slow, the breathing and


heart rate are slow and regular, the blood pressure is low, and
the sleeper is relatively still. NREM sleep is divided into 4 stages
of increasing depth leading to REM sleep. About 80% of sleep is
NREM sleep. If you sleep 7—8 hours a night, all but maybe an
hour and a half is spent in dreamless NREM sleep.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Read the passage and complete the chart below, translate
the passage.
The brain undergoes transitions from wakefulness to sleep
(and subtypes of these states). These state transitions are cru-
cially important for proper brain functioning. Every brain state
is associated with characteristic brain waves.
It is believed that sleep is important for knowledge consoli-
dation, as the neurons appear to organize the day’s stimuli dur-
ing deep sleep by randomly firing off the most recently used
neuron pathways; additionally, without sleep, normal subjects
are observed to develop symptoms resembling mental illness,
even auditory hallucinations.
Adjective Adverb
crucially
proper
randomly
recently
additionally
mental
VOCABULARY CHECK
2. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Find them in the
Reading.
Corridor, crash, daydream, dream, drown, fall off,
flood, frightening, nightmare, run away, strange,
symbolize, anxiety, anxious
If you know all the words, continue to Reading 6.

TALKING POINTS
3. Here are two dreams, read about them and answer the
questions.
Reading 6. Talk to yourself 227

Mandy: I’ve often dreamt that someone is chas-


ing me. It’s recurring dream. Last time I had it,
I was going to school because we had a test that day.
As I went inside the school, something followed me
in. I knew it was something horrible, so I started
running down the corridor. I ran and ran, but it was
still there. Suddenly I saw a light at the end of the
corridor. Then I woke up. The dream was really frightening.
Kevin: Last week, I dreamt I was flying to Ankara to see my
cousin. Then, suddenly the plane began to fall from the sky. I saw
the earth getting nearer and nearer. I closed my eyes and screamed.
Then I woke up. What a nightmare!
1) Whose dream symbolizes anxiety and a difficult situation?
2) Whose dream symbolizes breathing and being alive, but also
anxiety about the future?
With your partner find out about typical types of dreams you
and your partner both have. Try to explain the meaning of
each other’s dreams.

Reading 6
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: Why
do people talk to themselves?
DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and find the answers to the following questions.
1) Do you think people who talk to themselves crazy?
2) What are the most typical places where people talk to them-
selves?
3) Among normals people who easily talk aloud are: ________,
________, ________, ________.
4) How does talking aloud help in different situations?
5) The article Talk to yourself also touches upon the topic of
stress. What are some situations in which you might talk to
yourself to reduce stress?

Talk to yourself
Look who’s talking to them-
selves: just about everyone.
So you talk to yourself. Does that make you crazy? Not at
all. In fact, it may help you stay sane. Talking to oneself is such
228 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

a natural human activity that almost everyone does it, accord-


ing to this article.
There are many reasons why people talk to themselves: to
clarify a thought, release angry feelings, rehearse future con-
versations, and even scold themselves for past mistakes.
Alone in a room, some people say a prayer. Alone in a shower,
some people sing. Seated at an uncooperative computer, many
have been known to swear, threaten, or otherwise psycholog-
ically abuse their disobedient machine. But even if you do all
of the above, don’t panic. You are not only sane; you are actu-
ally typical.
To support her claim that the average person is a “mumble
mouth,” the author of this article cites evidence from many
sources. For members of the silent minority — those who don’t
talk to themselves and doubt that most other people do — the
author offers testimony from psychologists (the experts) and
from ordinary people (whom the skeptical reader might be
more willing to believe).
Do you talk to yourself? Never? I’ll bet you denied it aloud.
Why not just admit it? Almost everybody does it at one time or
another. Psychologist Thomas Brinthaupt admits he does, and
is quite OK with it. That’s one reason he is studying the topic.
“Talking to one’s self is an experience we all share,” he says. “It
is tied to our everyday functioning as adults.” All but one of the
102 college students he surveyed at Tennessee State University
confess to having muttered aloud to themselves under some cir-
cumstances. Frequent places cited: in a car, alone in one’s room,
at work, in the shower. Brinthaupt does it in his office — with
the door closed, stuck behind a slow driver or working on his
computer.
Stress makes him babble. “I find I’m talking to myself more
in the last two weeks, maybe from sleep deprivation. We have
a 2�week�old baby,” he says. The computer age is breeding
a whole new generation of mumblers: “All of these thoughts run
through my head at the computer. And if things are not going
right, I’ll swear at it.” In the car, his musings are about “things
I have to remember to do. And I might pray a little bit aloud.
I’m not really religious, but there is solitude, a time to talk to
God a bit.”
Psychologist Shirley Sanders talks to Aristotle instead via
her computer. “Sometimes I get blocked in my writing, and
I think it through aloud.” She even has Aristotle programmed
to respond — with helpful comments and reminders to take
Reading 6. Talk to yourself 229

deep breaths to alleviate frustration. And she is quite sure she is


not bonkers. “We all talk to ourselves. Some do it in their heads,
some talk out loud. It’s a matter of style and preference, and
both are appropriate,” says Sanders.
Brinthaupt considers talking behavior part of a continuum,
from talking internally to talking aloud. So does psychologist
Alan Entin, “Talking to yourself is just thinking aloud. It’s a
way of problem�solving, of answering your own questions, argu-
ing with yourself, seeing different points of view. So don’t worry
about being crazy.”
“We readily use private speech as kids,” Brinthaupt says. “As
we mature, the habit doesn’t disappear but goes underground,
and resurfaces from time to time.” Among the “normals” he cites,
who talk easily aloud:
• thinkers. People who like to think about things, contem-
plate mysteries, solve problems and puzzles. And people who are
concentrating intensely, as a way to keep themselves on task.
• athletes. Many athletes psyche themselves up out loud
before and during the fray of competition.
• perfectionists. People who lecture themselves when they
miss the mark, “I could have got an A if I had studied harder.”
• those with low self�esteem. They berate themselves: “You
dummy! How could you have forgotten the keys!”
A common reason for us all to self�talk is to rehearse some-
thing, asking a boss for a raise, for example. Others review
aloud something that has just happened to do better next time.
It’s something like a replay, “Why did I say that? In the future,
I’ll put it this way.” We also “self�regulate” by talking aloud,
give ourselves commands, directives, tell ourselves what to do
next.
Contrary to what most think, talking aloud is a way of pre-
serving our mental health. We burst forth spontaneously; if we
didn’t have that outlet, we’d be in trouble.
So feel free, mumble mouth.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE
1. After reading the article and looking up the meanings of
words that are new to you, circle the best word to com-
plete each of the following statements.
1) People may (commit, contemplate, admit, deny) that they
talk to themselves because they think it is embarrassing to
(admit, deny, experience, review) it.
230 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

2) When people talk to themselves, they often speak quietly.


Therefore, the author of this article describes the habit as
(musing, mumbling, lecturing, functioning).
3) Some people like to think about mysteries and puzzles and
try to solve them. They like to (contemplate, concentrate, cite,
survey) difficult matters.
4) People sometimes talk to themselves while driving alone in
a car because (competition, behaviour, solitude, embarrass-
ment) encourages talking to oneself.
5) Where are people most likely to talk to themselves? Some
of the common places (psyched, sited, cited, slighted) in this
article were the privacy of a car, one’s own room, or one’s
private office.
6) Some people self�regulate their behavior by giving them-
selves orders, also called (solitude, directives, frustration,
and replays).
7) People who don’t have much confidence in themselves
have low (self�esteem, self�regulation, self�awareness,
self�reliance).
8) People sometimes talk to themselves to decrease or (deprive,
survey, alleviate, contemplate) frustration.
9) Before asking the boss for a raise, some people (replay, re-
hearse, admit, block) the request they are going to make.
10) Athletes sometimes talk aloud during the (solitude, replay,
babble, fray) of competition.

2. Discuss the meanings of the homonyms sight, cite, and


site. Identify the part of speech of each word — noun,
verb, or both. Then use one of these three words to
complete each of the following sentences. Add
third�person singular endings or plural endings where
they are needed.
1) The author of this article … many examples of times when
people mumble to themselves.
2) That man is alone in his car, and he is talking to himself.
What a funny …!
3) Why do you think Thomas Brinthaupt chose a college cam-
pus as the … of his study?
4) When you did your research paper, did you … a lot of sources
for the information?
5) Did you … the North Star in the sky last night?
Reading 6. Talk to yourself 231

GRAMMAR CHECK
3. There are three conditional sentences in the text:
1) If things are not going right, I’ll swear at it.
2) I could have got an A if I studied harder.
3) If we didn’t have that outlet, we’d be in trouble.
Define each type of Conditionals and write nine sentences of
your own (three of each type).

4. Read the passage and complete it using the prepositions


from the box.

Of, in, for, to, through, with, on, from, by, under

Thinking aloud
Think�aloud protocols are self�reported verbal records …
thoughts that pass … subjects’ minds while performing cognitive
tasks. Self�report methodologies using think�aloud protocols have
been an important means … researchers to investigate the cogni-
tive processing strategies … adults during problem�solving, deci-
sion�making, and judgment tasks. For example, young and old
chess players think aloud while choosing the best move. It is repor-
ted that older chess players are engaged … more systematic, less
redundant searches than their younger, similarly skilled counter-
parts. Although age and experience were confounded … their
study, psychologists relied … results … thinking�aloud protocols
and process tracing analysis to infer that experts, compared …
novices, made a financial decision … a hypothetical young couple
more quickly, … fewer steps, and … a more goal�directed problems.
While using a think�aloud technique … older adults to examine
their thought processes while solving ill�structured problems
three age�related styles were identified: a “youthful” style involv-
ing intense data gathering, learning, and bottom�up processing;
a “mature” style incorporating data gathering and organization …
bottom�up and top�down processing; and an “old” style charac-
terized … little attention … data and top�down processing.
Although early studies … decision�making performance …
younger adults supported the validity and reliability …
think�aloud protocols, more recent studies document the spe-
cific impact … thinking aloud … decision�making performance.
Thinking aloud also affects accuracy and response time … sim-
ple addition and gambling choice tasks. Thinking aloud may
232 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

alter choices … creating memory differenced that influence sub-


sequent decision�making outcomes. Because the completeness
of subjects’ verbalizations depends … conscious processing …
information … local attention, it was suggested that college�age
subjects … heavy cognitive loads may limit their verbalizations.
TALKING POINTS
5. See how many compound words beginning
with self� you can list in four minutes. Work with
a partner and compete against other teams in
your class. When the four minutes is up, each
team should list its words on the board. After
determining the winner of the game, discuss the
meanings of the more difficult words.

6. Discuss the meanings of the following phrases with a part-


ner. Try to get the meanings from context. If necessary,
use a dictionary for help.
1) What does sleep deprivation mean? Do you ever suffer from
this problem? When?
2) What does run through mean? Is it used literally or idioma-
tically?
3) What does private speech mean? Can speech ever be private?
4) What does psyche themselves up mean? Do you ever psyche
yourself up? When? Why?
5) What does burst forth spontaneously mean? Do you ever do
this when you are watching a baseball or basketball game on
TV, when you stub your toe, or when you receive very good
or very bad news in the mail? Give some examples of spon-
taneous outbursts you have uttered.
7. The author begins and ends this article by talking to you,
a reader. In the first four paragraphs, what is said to you?
What is the last line telling you? Do you find the opening
and closing of this article funny? Insulting?

8. Write an outline of the major headings of this article and


a few subheadings under each. Work with a partner to
find three major headings and some specifics to go under
each heading. Number the major headings with Roman
numerals and the subheadings with capital letters. Write
a topic outline, which uses phrases and clauses, not whole
sentences.
Reading 6. Talk to yourself 233

9. Pretend you were the psychologist who surveyed 102 col-


lege students and found that 101 of them talked to them-
selves. What conclusions would you draw from this data?
Can you assume the results would be the same for all age
groups and nationalities? Discuss these questions with
a partner.
10. Reread the article to determine its tone. Is the author tre-
ating this subject with a great seriousness or with a light,
humorous touch? Make a list of three examples of the
writing style to support your answer. Then compare your
list with those of two classmates.
COMPREHENSION CHECK
11. After reading the article, mark these answers true (T ) or
false (F ).
1) __ People should try not to talk to themselves.
2) __ Many people who talk to themselves deny it to them-
selves and others.
3) __ Stress is related to talking to oneself.
4) __ Psychologist Thomas Brinthaupt studied people from all
walks of life.
5) __ Psychologist Shirley Sanders equates talking to a com-
puter with talking to oneself.
LEARNING TOGETHER (TEAM WORK)
12. In small groups, discuss whether you think that factors
such as age, ethnicity, sex, level of education, or occu-
pation affect talking to oneself. Is a middle�aged Italian
opera singer more likely to talk to herself than a young
Japanese wrestler? Why do you think babies babble to
themselves so much?
13. Work with a small group to plan a survey to conduct in
your class. (You might ask about behavior, attitudes, va-
lues, leisure�time activities, and so on.) Prepare a form
with questions for your classmates to answer or dupli-
cate this survey form and distribute it. What do you think
the results of your survey will be? Write up your hypo-
thesis. Then, from the information you get back, write up
the results of the survey. Create a graph to present your
data visually. Finally, evaluate your project, indicating
its strengths and, perhaps, ways in which it could be
improved. Present the results to the entire class.
234 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

14. VOCABULARY CHECK


Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Circle the words you
do not understand. Then find the words in the Reading.
Talk about the meaning of these words with your class-
mates.
Insane, bonkers, confess, mutter, mumble, babble,
musings, rehearse, swear, abuse, deprivation, alleviate,
berate, scold, psyche up, release, clarify, contemplate
If you know all the words, continue to Reading 7.

Reading 7
Skim the Reading to find the answer to the question: What
can your mind do to your body?

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read three articles on the topic. Find the answers to the
questions.
1) Article 1 mentions four general causes of stress. One of them
is fear. Try to guess what the others might be.
2) Discuss the sources of stress in your life. What makes you
feel angry, hostile, depressed, or nervous? What do you do to
make yourself feel better?
3) Look for the major causes of stress mentioned in the articles.
Did you guess some of them before you read the article?
4) In articles 1 and 2, note the bodily responses that are related
to stress.
5) What are NICE factors?
6) What does FUD stand for?

Article preview
The article that follows — Learn to lighten up and live longer —
deals with the mind�body phenomenon of stress. After you read
that article, ask yourself why Dr. Eliot doesn’t recommend, as
one of his techniques for dealing with stress that people talk to
themselves. From “Look who’s talking to themselves: Just
about everyone,” do you conclude that people decide to talk to
themselves in order to get the psychological benefits? Or do
they simply respond aloud without thinking and, as a result,
Reading 7. Learn to lighten up and live longer... 235

derive psychological benefits? After reading all the articles,


make a list of six ways to reduce stress in your life. This chapter
is also connected to the previous material on stress in Chapter 4.
Look if you need to review any of the paragraphs of the text on
stress to answer the questions.
1. Take a survey in your class. Students should provide
anonymous written answers indicating whether or not
they ever talk to themselves and, if so, how often (about
how many times a day, week, month, or year). Tabulate
the results on a graph.
2. Discuss the kinds of situations that might make you or
someone in your family talk to himself or herself. Do you
think computer users do this often? Why? Do you think
stress causes this behaviour?
3. Notice the various uses of talking to oneself that are
explained in the article and try to think of some others not
mentioned.

Article 1
Learn to lighten up and live longer
Who is more stressed out — the Asian teenager or the Ame-
rican teenager? Surprise! The American teen wins this contest,
hands down. According to a recent study, almost three quarters
of American high school juniors said they felt stress at least
once a week, some almost daily. Fewer than half of Japanese and
Taiwanese eleventh graders reported feeling stress that often.
The phenomenon of stress is just one example of the con-
stant interaction between mind and body. And the influence of
one upon the other can be either positive or negative. What can
the mind do to the body? Studies have proved that watching
funny movies can reduce pain and promote healing. Conversely,
worry can give a person an ulcer, high blood pressure, even a
heart attack.
The mind and body work together to produce stress, which
is a bodily response to a stimulus, a response that disturbs the
body’s normal physiological balance. Stress is not always bad.
For example, a stress reaction can sometimes save a person’s life
by releasing hormones that enable a person to react quickly and
with greater energy in a dangerous situation. In everyday situ-
ations, too, stress can provide that extra push needed to do
236 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

something difficult. But too much stress often injures both the
mind and the body. How can stress be kept under control?
“Learn to lighten up and live longer” has several good sugges-
tions. “Translating blushes, belches and other body language”
also deals with ways to control the physical responses to stress.
If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in
your life is spinning out of control, then you may be hurting
your heart.
And if you don’t want to break your own heart, you need to
learn to take charge of the areas of your life you can — and rec-
ognize that there are many things beyond your control.
So says Dr. Robert S. Eliot, author of a new book From Stress
to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life. He’s
a director of the Institute of Stress Medicine and clinical pro-
fessor of medicine at the University of Nebraska.
Eliot says there are people in this world whom he calls “hot
reactors.” For these people, stress may cause dramatic and rapid
increases in their blood pressure. “Your brain writes prescrip-
tions for your body,” says Eliot. “There are people who write
prescriptions like they are fighting saber�toothed tigers 20 to
30 times a day. They are hot reactors. Those people are walking
time bombs because they can look cool as a cucumber on the
surface and are as hot as chili peppers underneath.”
Hostile people activate their fight�or�flight response more
intensely and more frequently during the course of everyday
life than other people do. They respond to petty annoyances
like supermarket lines, traffic jams and children who don’t clean
up their rooms as though it were a threat to life and limb.
Studies show that hostility is bad for health. In patients who
have heart disease the emotion of anger can cause the heart
function to deteriorate.
Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have
higher cholesterol levels, among other things. “We’ve done years
of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals like
adrenaline can literally rupture heart muscle fibers. When that
happens it happens very quickly, within five minutes. It creates
many short circuits, and that causes crazy heart rhythm. It
beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump. And when that hap-
pens, we can’t live.”
Eliot, 64, suffered a heart attack at age 44. He attributes
some of the cause to stress. For years he was a “hot reactor.” On
the outside, he was cool, calm and collected but on the inside
stress was killing him. He’s now doing very well.
Reading 7. Learn to lighten up and live longer... 237

The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the


FUD factors — fear, uncertainty and doubt — together with
perceived lack of control, he says. People who are unassertive or
people pleasers also often get angry. They say yes all the time
when they really want to say no. All of the sudden they get mad
and they resent the system. For many people, the root of their
stress is anger, and the trick is to find out where the anger is
coming from. “Does the anger come from a feeling that every-
thing must be perfect?” Eliot asks. “That’s very common in pro-
fessional women. They feel they have to be all things to all peo-
ple and do it all perfectly. They think, I should, I must, I have
to.” Good enough is never good enough. Perfectionists cannot
delegate. They get angry that they have to carry it all, and they
blow their tops. Then they feel guilty and they reset the whole
cycle. Others are angry because they have no compass in life.
“And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give
a family argument,” he says. “If you own anger for more than
five minutes — if you stew in your own juice with no safety
valve — you have to find out where it’s coming from. What hap-
pens is that the hotter people get physiologically with mental
stress, the more likely they are to blow apart with some cardio-
vascular problem.”
One step to calming down is recognizing you have this ten-
dency. Learn to be less hostile by changing some of your atti-
tudes and negative thinking.
Eliot recommends taking charge of your life. “If there is one
word that should be substituted for stress, it’s control. Instead
of the FUD factors, what you want is the NICE factors — new,
interesting, challenging experiences.” “You have to decide what
parts of your life you can control,” he says. “Stop where you are
on your trail and say, ‘I’m going to get my compass out and find
out what I need to do.’ ”
He suggests that people write down the six things in their
lives that they feel are the most important things they’d like to
achieve. Ben Franklin did it at age 32. He wrote down things
like being a better father, being a better husband, being finan-
cially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remain-
ing temperate — he wasn’t good at that.
Eliot says you can first make a list of 12 things, then cut it
down to six and set your priorities. Don’t give yourself impossi-
ble things, but things that will affect your identity, control and
self�esteem. Put them on a note card and take it with you and
look at it when you need to. Since we can’t create a 26�hour day
238 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

we have to decide what things we are going to do. Keep in mind


that over time these priorities are going to change. The kids
grow up, the dog dies and you change your priorities.
If you’re having a hard time setting priorities, imagine your-
self as 65 or 70 years old, and looking back and say to yourself,
what would I really feel good about? Eliot says the other key to
controlling stress is to realize that there are other parts of your
life over which you can have little or no control — like the econo-
my and politicians. You have to realize that sometimes with
things like traffic jams, deadlines and unpleasant bosses, you
can’t fight. You can’t flee. You have to learn how to flow.

Quiz
What’s your quality of life?
Dr. Robert S. Eliot developed this quiz to help people evaluate
stresses, and make adjustments. For each category, choose
a number that accurately reflects your feelings, from 1 (most
stressful) to 9 (least stressful).

Relationship with spouse, companion or significant others:


1. Not going very well 9. Going very well
Relationships with children:
1. Unrewarding 9. Very rewarding
Social relationships with friends, neighbors and others:
1. No real friends, feel distant 9. Have friends, feel close
Relationships at work with co�workers, boss and others:
1. Frequent discord 9. Usually harmonious
Major life crisis in past six months, such as loss of job, divorce,
moving:
1. One or more 9. None
Finances:
1. Getting out of control 9. Manageable
Perfectionism:
1. Things should be done 9. I do the best I can
right and that’s OK
Assertiveness:
1. I have difficulty saying 9. I can’t usually say what
what I think I think
Reading 7. Learn to lighten up and live longer... 239

Self�esteem:
1. I often don’t feel sure 9. I rarely think about myself
about myself
Personal aspirations:
1. I’m not fulfilling my 9. I’m fulfilling my potential
potential
Career/work:
1. Often does not meet my 9. Usually meets my
expectations expectations
Time management/circuit overload:
1. I can’t get everything done 9. I can’t pace myself

Your score

Evaluating your score: Review the list and figure out which
areas you’d like to get better control over. Then for an overview,
add up your numbers and divide by 12. Anything below 5 indica-
tes low energy and a heavy stress burden. Scores of 8 or 9 indi-
cate low stress loads and high energy and optimism.
(Source: Stress to Strength by Dr. Robert S. Eliot)

GRAMMAR REVIEW
1. Read the passage and complete it with the correct verb
forms (use Present Perfect, Past Simple and Present
Simple Tenses).

Natural disasters
It (to suggest) that natural disasters (to be) among the most
universally threatening life stressors. Not only disasters (to in-
duce) life�threatening fears and physical injuries, but they also
(to leave) long�standing residual effects, such as damage to pro-
perty and community disruption, that can be as psychologically
disrupting as the actual event. Yet, not everyone who (to expe-
rience) a natural disaster (to develop) psychological symptoms,
suggesting that there are individual differences in responsive-
ness to such stressors. People (to bring) to the disaster experience
their own life histories, social and coping resources, and their
own responsibilities and burdens. These factors (to play) a role
in understanding who (to be) most vulnerable or resilient to
post disaster stress. As is true of any life stressor, the effects of
240 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

a disaster also need to be understood in the context of the life


course of the affected individual. Several researches (to address)
the influence of age on disaster recovery. The researchers who
specifically (to examine) the consequences of disaster for older
individuals generally (to conclude) that this population (to suffer)
adverse physical and psychological effects.

Article 2
Translating blushes and other body language
How does your body do that? And for heaven’s sake — why?
Take blushes, for example. They’re genetic, a legacy from mom
or dad. During stress, the mouth gets warm and dry, triggering
a “blush” message to the brain. To prevent an embarrassing glow —
when you’re about to tell a whopper, for example — suck an ice
cube. The drop in temperature stops the action. Blushes are just
one of 400 “feelings” or quirky ways your body uses to talk to you,
says Dr. Alan P. He reviews about 60 in his new Why Doesn’t My
Funny Bone Make Me Laugh?
Most of the quirks — from “butterflies” in the stomach to
yawns — are normal. Dr. P. explores some scary, serious ones but
dwells on the funny. His goal: to get people relaxed about their
bodies and receptive to health care information.
From his panoply of peculiarities:
• Goose bumps. They’re a legacy from a Neanderthal ances-
tor whose body hair rose to trap heat and to look like the tough-
est kid on the prehistoric block.
• Yawns. They fill the body’s need for fresh oxygen and can
often seem contagious. Our evolutionary ancestors used them
to warn each other of danger.
• Burping. The biggest cause is swallowing air. An hour of
stress will cause the swallowing of five balloons’ worth of air;
10 minutes of chewing gum brings in enough air for one glori-
ous belch.
Additional facts, tidbits, anecdotes, cures and trivia about
the body:
• Cravings. When a pregnant woman craves pickles, it’s
probably because she needs salt to retain water — and she needs
that increased water when she is carrying a child.
• Heartburn. When you next have heartburn — a backing
up of fatty acids from the stomach — flap your arms like a bird.
When it comes to putting out heartburn, the flying exercise
often takes off when most antacids leave us grounded.
Reading 7. Learn to lighten up and live longer... 241

• Hiccups. Wonder where these funny noises are coming


from? The part to blame is your diaphragm. The diaphragm
almost always works perfectly, but sometimes it becomes irri-
tated. When this happens, it pulls down in a jerky way. Some
things that irritate the diaphragm are eating too quickly or too
much, or feeling nervous or excited. Almost all cases of the hic-
cups last only a few minutes. However, the Guinness Book of
World Records records one case that lasted 60 years.
• Tickles. Tickling is caused by stimulating fine nerve end-
ings beneath the surface of the skin. Psychology is a big part of
the tickle game. If you like and trust the tickler, you open your-
self up to enjoying the tickles. But if you try too hard to over-
come the urge to laugh, you can actually make the experience
unpleasant. You block the tickling sensation and confuse the
same nerve fibers that respond to pain.
• Thirst. One of the greatest examples of the body regulat-
ing itself. The body is 70% water. When it feels deprived, the
brain sends a message to your salivary glands to stop doing their
thing. The resulting thirst sends you to the designer water bot-
tle. Did you also know that laughter releases natural chemical
painkillers; chicken soup can cure a hangover?

Article 3
How to control hostility
A recognition of the multifaceted nature of hostility sug-
gests that the use of multiple measures of the construct will
lead to experimental results that are more complete and, con-
sequently more theoretically useful. Therefore, the present
study examines age differences among middle�aged and older
adults in response to a battery of instruments designed to
measure several aspects of hostility. Measures of the cognitive
(cynicism and suspiciousness), affective (anger and irritabili-
ty), and behavioral (aggressiveness and expressiveness)
components were included. The comprehensiveness of the
measurement strategy was extended beyond the standard
self�report measures of hostility by including a measure of
hostility that was based on observations of the respondent’s
actual behavior during an interview.
The psychological construct of hostility has become a focus
of interest in health psychology because of mounting evidence
that high levels of hostility have adverse implications for
health, including coronary heart disease and mortality in both
242 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

middle�aged and older adults. Although there are numerous


definitions of hostility, for present purposes we will define it as
a negative orientation toward others that has cognitive, affective
and behavioral manifestations. The cognitive aspect of hostility
is composed of negative beliefs about others, often described as
cynicism and mistrust. The affective component includes emo-
tions such as anger and disgust. The behavioral manifestations
of hostility include various forms of antagonistic behavior, some
of which can be expressed quite subtly. Operationally, hostility
has been measured with a wide variety of instruments that are
often poorly intercorrelated, probably because they are assess-
ing different aspects of the construct. Therefore, a complete
understanding of hostility and the reasons for its impact on
health requires multiple measures chosen to assess a broad spec-
trum of the phenomena.
Stress expert Dr. Redford Williams offers these suggestions
for trying to control your hostility:
• Damage control. When you start to get angry, distract
yourself. When you are getting irritated while you wait in line
in grocery store, read a magazine. Tell yourself to stop having
negative thoughts. Meditate.
Try and change those negative attitudes. Change your cyni-
cal thoughts into positive ones. Use humor. Go through a day
pretending it’s your last day on Earth. How would you spend
the last 24 hours if you had to go through a normal day — you
couldn’t take off for a beach? “We’ve yet to find anyone who
says they would get even with all their enemies.”
• Reduce the situation that will make you angry. In gener-
al, improve your relationships with other people. If you have
better relationships, you’ll be less angry.

COMPREHENSION CHECK
1. After reading all of the articles, mark these answers true
(T ) or false (F ).
1) __ Destructive stress is a problem for everyone.
2) __ “Hot reactors” can change.
3) __ A person can and should control every aspect of his or
her life.
4) __ Ben Franklin’s list of priorities probably helped him to
live a long life.
5) __ There is an alternative to the fight�or�flight response.
Reading 7. Learn to lighten up and live longer... 243

2. After reading, decide which of the following activities


would be likely to increase stress and which would not, in
Dr. Eliot’s opinion.
1) Trying to please everyone.
2) Allowing others to make important decisions for you.
3) Putting annoying experiences out of your mind.
4) Delegating responsibility.
5) Yelling at others when you are angry at them.
6) Pretending it is your last day on Earth.
7) Always behaving in a calm, controlled manner.
8) Deciding what is most important to you.
9) Striving to be perfect.
10) Accepting what you cannot change.

3. Put a check in the appropriate column to show which of


the following statements applies to Article 1 and 2.

Article 1 Article 2
1) The information in the article comes from a
recently published book.
2) The book’s goal is to help people understand
their bodies better.
3) Another major goal is to amuse the reader.
4) The article gives advice.
5) The article is mostly about how to handle
stress.
6) The article is trying to help people live lon-
ger.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
4. Check how you can use context clues. Use context clues
and a dictionary if necessary to determine the meaning of
each word in the left as it is used in the articles. Circle the
best definition.

1) deteriorate a) get better


b) get worse
2) perceived a) the way a person views something
b) complete
3) physiologically a) elated to the body
b) related to the mind
244 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

4) temperate a) moderate
b) extreme
5) priorities a) an ordering of things in terms
of importance
b) an ordering of things in terms
of what happened first
6) genetic a) inherited
b) embarrassing
7) legacy a) inherited money or possessions
b) traits a person has received
genetically
8) whopper a) a huge sandwich
b) a big lie
9) quirks a) common occurrences
b) peculiar habits
10) receptive a) related to TV reception
b) willing to accept
11) panopy a) a complete array
b) a few examples

GRAMMAR CHECK
5. Make sentences describing usual non�verbal behaviour.
What would you dо... Add gestures
1) a) to show someone that you are very angry a) frown, clench
with him? fists
b) to show someone that you think what
she just said was absolutely amazing?
2) a) to show someone that you are listening
very carefully to what he is saying to you?
b) to show someone that you have finished
speaking and now you want him to
respond in some way?
3) a) to show someone that what he just did
was perfect, just great?
b) to show someone that you think another
person, perhaps across the room, is
absolutely crazy?
4) a) if you were sitting alone and you had an
itch on your chin?
b) if your lips were dry and you wanted to
moisten them (make them wet)?
Reading 7. Learn to lighten up and live longer... 245

What would you do... Add gestures


5) a) if you were telling someone that you
caught a big fish?
b) if you were explaining to someone how
you caught a ball?

Example: 1) a) To show someone that I am very angry with him


I would frown and clench my fists.

TALKING POINTS
6. In the articles, what do the following phrases
mean? Discuss them with a partner.
1) break your own heart
2) “hot reactors”
3) Your brain writes prescriptions for your body.
4) fight�or�flight response
5) Perfectionists cannot delegate.
6) no compass in life
7) a 26�hour day
8) setting priorities
9) learn how to flow

7. Compare and contrast the words anger and hostility. Is


anger always hostile? Does hostility always involve anger?
Consult a dictionary. Then discuss the words with a partner.
Share some examples of each emotion.

LEARNING TOGETHER (TEAM WORK)


8. In small groups, tell about a time when you got very
angry. Tell what you did about your anger. Discuss your
behaviour in light of the advice in the article. Group
members should comment and make suggestions about
each situation.

9. Would Dr. Eliot (the author of the book discussed in one


of the articles) agree with the following quotations?
Discuss your answers with a partner.
1) “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” (from President
Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address, 1933)
2) “If you would be well served, you must serve yourself.” (from
The Courtship of Miles Standish by Henry Wadsworth Long-
fellow)
246 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

10. Choose one of the following writing projects:


1) Emotion has been defined as a particular psychological state
of feeling, such as fear, anger, joy, and sorrow. The feeling
often includes action tendencies and tends to trigger certain
perceptual and cognitive processes. Keep a record of your
emotions for one week — especially of the negative feelings
discussed in the articles. At the end of the week, read over
your notes and decide if you are a “hot reactor.” Decide if
you need to do something to reduce your stress responses
and indicate what you might do to accomplish this.
Go to EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS
(Аctivity 67).
2) Write about someone you know who is a “hot reactor.”
3) Write a short composition about various cures for hiccups.
You can research the topic in the library, ask a doctor or nurse,
or interview some people who have found remedies that
work for them. Look in books about folk remedies for interes-
ting ideas from other cultures in past centuries. You can also
incorporate your own experiences.
MAKING CONNECTIONS
11. The preceding article also touches upon the topic of
stress. What are some situations in which you might talk
to yourself to reduce stress?
VOCABULARY CHECK
12. Here are some important words from this Reading. Do
you understand all of these words? Circle the words you
do not understand. Then find the words in the Reading.
Talk about the meaning of these words with your class-
mates.
Stimulus, saber�toothed, underneath, fight�or�flight,
deteriorate, rupture, unassertive, guilty, cardiovascular,
priorities, ancestor, contagious, remedies, panopy, legacy
If you know all the words, continue to Reading 8.

Reading 8
There are two texts in this Reading. Skim both of them to
find the answer to the question: What do you need to know
about your body?
Reading 8. Bad body image. Physiognomy 247

DETAIL QUESTIONS
Read the text and find the answers to the following ques-
tions:
1) What is body image?
2) How does the society influence the way we see ourselves?
3) What are health problems an adolescent may have because
of bad body image?
4) What is Edge City?
5) What is the connection between your physical body and
your mental image of it?

Bad body image


What do you need to know about your body?
The word body image in and of itself reflects the problem.
Your body needs to be loved and accepted for what it is. It is not
an image; it is real flesh and blood. More importantly, it is you.
It is the place where the real you lives and breathes. Do not be
disheartened at the thought of this; this is your ticket to free-
dom and joy. Your relationship to your body is the most impor-
tant relationship you will ever have on Planet Earth.
Our society has conditioned us into thinking that certain
types of bodies are sexy and desirable, while other types are not.
If we don’t have those large breasts, small waists and that beau-
tiful face, then we are out of luck. This is plain nonsense. If
you’ve ever really noticed, we all have marvelously individual-
istic bodies just as we each have unique fingerprints.
As most of you know, in different cultures, different bodies
are considered desirable. Women frequently reject their body
because it does not fit into the ideal as defined by their particu-
lar society. When you do this, you are accepting society’s defi-
nition of an ideal that does not even exist in reality.
If we accept these judgments as standards for ourselves, we
end up thinking that our body is bad and we are bad. Then we
have a bad body image. When we think this way, we inhibit our-
selves and end up depressed and anxious.
An anorexic or bulimic adolescent goes to the extreme to fit
into a certain image. There is a frightening film called Edge City.
It is based on a real event, which occurred on the edge of Phila-
delphia. It is realistically portrayed, showing a bulimic adoles-
cent and how she got caught up in her peer group image and
ends up being intimately involved in a group murder. A chilling
248 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

reality. Trying to fit into any image frequently lead us into


self�destructive acts and behaviors. Any way you look at it, it is
not healthy to let others define us. We need to accept and love
ourselves — just as goddess, god, and nature made us. Your body
is your instrument for living. Your body is what houses your
energy. When you reject any aspect of your body, you are reject-
ing yourself at the most basic level.
We reject ourselves because we accept outside definitions of
what we should be. When we do this, we spend all of our life and
all of our energy seeking outside approval. If you live an image,
your life is a shell and you cannot ever really like yourself or feel
good about yourself. Seeking approval is never going to satisfy
your deep need to be loved. You can succeed at getting all the
approval the world has to offer, just like Marilyn Monroe did,
and you will end up feeling as empty as she did.
It is also common for both men and women to see themselves
unrealistically. Once a person has been fat, she sees herself that way,
even after she loses weight. Once a person sees himself as ugly,
he sees himself as ugly no matter how attractive he may become.
This distortion of current reality is curious because it simply
doesn’t change no matter how much or how many people try to
get the person to see what is actually in the mirror; she still
thinks she looks fat. This is because her beliefs are frozen into
this fat body image and nothing is ever going to change her
mind. She sees fat in the mirror.
Your “bad body image” sounds like you are carrying around
the belief that you look bad and nothing is ever going to change
your mind.
In this fat example, the physical body has changed but the
issues that created the fat in the first place have not changed.
This is the reason most fat people gain their weight loss back.
The solution does not lie in the right diet or in self�control.
In my experience the only thing that can ever change this
frozen fat image or any other bad body image is to directly expe-
rience the real feelings that have not been experienced.
Within this fat image, frozen in time and in your mind, your
real feelings are waiting to be acknowledged. Even though you
have changed, by force, physical reality, the fat image is your
emotional issues. The fat itself was a result of deeply embedded,
unexpressed emotions. These inexperienced emotions must be
experienced.
When you do this, you move beyond your bad body image
into reality. This is powerful living. Look in the mirror and keep
Reading 8. Bad body image. Physiognomy 249

looking until you are confronted with your own critical eye and
your own self�hatred. Let this come up to your awareness. Keep
looking until the self�hatred and judgments drop away. Keep
looking until the shame and embarrassment vibrate through
your body making you blush and feel uncomfortable. Keep
looking until you can actually see what your body looks like in
the mirror without society’s conditioning defining what you see
in the mirror. Now you are looking at the real you in the mirror.
When you can do this, you will see a body, innocent and
pure. This natural creature can become vibrant and healthy,
even if it is still fat. Loving your body as it really is will provide
the fertilizer you need to grow into your potential. Each body
can be full of vibrant and alive energy. And each body is unique
and beautiful in its own way. It is our job to accept our body and
take good care of our physical instrument so that our body can
be its own best self. A body that is open and flowing will natu-
rally be attractive.
Have you ever noticed how a face can go from being tight
and critical and ugly into being open and bright and inviting?
If you put your energy into being your best self rather than
wasting your energy on an image, you will reap rewards.
Each body can be a free and healthy instrument for natural-
ly occurring feelings. Then joy and love and desire will vibrant
through you several times a week! A magnetic personality is the
result of energy, not an ideal body. A charismatic leader may or
may not be that perfect ideal, but she is always full of life.
So put your awareness, time and energy into becoming your
authentic self, letting all body images drop away. Keep breath-
ing and looking in the mirror until you can see and accept what
is really there. Your body will respond by becoming the most
wonderful physical manifestation of you. It will also bring you
much pleasure and satisfaction.
I hope this helps you live in your real body and enjoy it.

Have you ever heard of the word physiognomy? Do you have any
idea what it may be? Read the text and answer the questions.

Physiognomy
Physiognomy is the study of the systematic correspondence
of psychological characteristics to facial features or body struc-
ture. Because most efforts to specify such relationships have
been discredited, physiognomy sometimes connotes pseudo-
250 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

science or charlatanry. Physiognomy was regarded by those


who cultivated it both as a mode of discriminating character by
the outward appearance and as a method of divination from
form and feature.
Physiognomy is of great antiquity, and in ancient and medi-
eval times it had an extensive literature. In as much as genetic flaws
are sometimes revealed by physical characteristics (e.g., the cha-
racteristic appearance of Down syndrome, with up�slanted eyes
and broad, flat face), some elements of physiognomy evolved in
physiology and biochemistry. In its second aspect — i.e., divina-
tion from form and feature — it was related to astrology and
other forms of divination, and this aspect of the subject bulked
large in the fanciful literature of the Middle Ages.
There is evidence in the earliest classical literature, includ-
ing Homer and Hippocrates, that physiognomy formed part of
the most ancient practical philosophy. The earliest�known sys-
tematic treatise on physiognomy is attributed to Aristotle. In it
he devoted six chapters to the consideration of the method of
study, the general signs of character, the particular appearances
characteristic of the dispositions, of strength and weakness, of
genius and stupidity, and so on. Then he examined the charac-
ters derived from the different features, and from color, hair,
body, limbs, gait, and voice. While discussing noses, for exam-
ple, he says that those with thick, bulbous ends belong to per-
sons who are insensitive, swinish; sharp�tipped noses belong to
the irascible, those easily provoked, like dogs; rounded, large,
obtuse noses to the magnanimous, the lion�like; slender, hooked
noses to the eagle�like; and so on. Among the Latin classical
authors Juvenal and Pliny the Elder refer to the practice of
physiognomy, and numerous allusions occur in the works of the
Christian scholars, especially Clement of Alexandria.
While the earlier classical physiognomy was chiefly descrip-
tive, the later medieval studies particularly developed the pre-
dictive and astrological side, their treatises often digressing into
prophetic folklore and magic. Along with the medical science of
the period, Arabian writers such as the alchemist ar�Razi and
Averroes also contributed to the literature of physiognomy. The
medicine of systematic correspondence that evolved in China
after the period of the Warring States is still associated with
traditional Chinese science and has some bearing on the doc-
trine of yin�yang. Physiognomy also is treated (in some cases
extensively) by such scholars as Avicenna, Albertus Magnus,
John Duns Scotus, and Thomas Aquinas.
Reading 8. Bad body image. Physiognomy 251

The development of a more accurate anatomy in the 17th


century seems to have dampened the scientific interest in phy-
siognomy. In the 18th and 19th centuries physiognomy was pro-
posed as a means of detecting criminal tendencies, but each sys-
tem was examined and discarded as fallacious, and by the 20th
century physiognomy — as it was known in earlier times — was
largely regarded as a historical subject.
Fortune�telling is the forecasting of future events or the
delineation of character by methods not ordinarily considered
to have a rational basis. Evidence indicates that forms of for-
tune�telling were practised in ancient China, Egypt, and
Babylonia as long ago as 4000 BC. Prophetic dreams and orac-
ular utterances played an important part in ancient religion and
medicine. Predictive methods of fortune�telling include astro-
logy (interpretation of the movements of heavenly bodies as
influences on earthly events), numerology, and the utilization
of objects such as playing cards, tea leaves, crystal balls, dice,
fire, water, and scattered salt. Fortune�telling as a process of
character analysis can take such forms as graphology (study of
handwriting), physiognomy (study of facial characteristics),
phrenology (study of contours on the skull), and palmistry
(study of lines on the palm of the hand).
1) What kind of science is physiognomy?
2) How old is it?
3) What are the names mentioned in connection with physiog-
nomy?
4) How is physiognomy different across centuries and countries?
5) Do you believe in fortune�telling?

Would you like to know more about your body and how it
describes your character and tell your future? If the answer
is “Yes!”, go to EXTENSIОN ACTIVITIES AND BRAIN-
TEASERS.

BUILDING VOCABULARY
1. Make collocations using the chart and translate them.
make |
hold |
maintain | eye contact
avoid |
break |
return |
252 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

Put these verbs (in their correct grammatical forms) into the
following story. Use each verb once.
I walked into the party and saw the most attractive man I have
ever seen in my whole life. I desperately wanted to meet him, so
I tried to … eye contact. I could see that he noticed me looking at
him, but he just refused having any eye contact with me. Then
I noticed that he … my eye contact. He just kept … my eye contact
for a second or two before … it. I went up to the bar where he
was standing and stood next to him, and we both looked at each
other and … eye contact for a full three seconds. “Do I know
you?” he asked. My heart almost stopped beating. He contin-
ued, “I’m afraid I’ve lost my glasses and I can’t see a thing.”
COMPREHENSION CHECK
2. Read the passage and answer the questions.
Even since humans have inhabited the earth, they have
made use of various forms of communication. Generally, this
expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the form of oral
speech. When there is a language barrier, communication is
accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for
letters, words and ideas. Tourists, the deaf and the mute have
had to resort to this form of expression. Many of these symbols
of whole words are very picturesque and exact and can be used
internationally; spelling, however, cannot.
Body language transmits ideas or thoughts by certain actions,
either intentionally or unintentionally. A wink can be a way of
flirting or indicating that the party is only joking. A nod signifies
approval, while shaking the head indicates a negative reaction.
Other forms of nonlinguistic language can be found in Braille
(a system of raised dots read with the fingertips), signal flags,
Morse code, and smoke signals. Road maps and picture signs
also guide, warn, and instruct people.
While verbalization is the most common form of language,
other systems and techniques also express human thoughts and
feelings.
1) Which of the following best summarizes this passage?
a) When language is a barrier, people will find other forms
of communication.
b) Everybody uses only one form of communication.
c) Non�linguistic language is invaluable to foreigners.
d) Although other forms of communication exist, verbaliza-
tion is the fastest.
Reading 8. Bad body image. Physiognomy 253

2) Which of the following statements is not true?


a) There are many forms of communication in existence today.
b) Verbalization is the most common form of communication.
c) The deaf and mute use an oral form of communication.
3) Which form other than oral speech would be most commonly
used among blind people?
a) picture signs c) body language
b) Braille d) signal flags
4) How many different forms of communication are mentioned
here?
a) 5 b) 7 c) 9 d) 11
5) Sign language is said to be very picturesque and exact and
can be used intentionally except for … .
a) spelling c) whole words
b) ideas d) expressions

TEST YOURSELF
3. The following verbal expressions listed in the left column
below describe “ways of looking.” Match each expression
on the left with an equivalent expression on the right.
1) lock eyes with someone a) avoid looking at someone
2) gaze b) look someone over from
head to toe
3) look very intently c) get someone’s attention
4) sweep one’s eyes over d) watch (for example,
someone a television show)
5) catch someone’s eye e) look casually, without great
intensity
6) avert one’s glance f) stare
7) view g) make eye contact with
someone and hold it

TALKING POINTS
4. Read the passage and discuss it with your
partner. Do you know any other curious facts
from the history?
Early views on the function of the brain
regarded it as little more than cranial stuffing. In
Ancient Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom on-
wards, in preparation for mummification, the brain
254 Chapter 7. Miscellaneous readings

was regularly removed, for it was the heart that was assumed to
be the seat of intelligence. According to Herodotus, during the
first step of mummification, “the most perfect practice is to
extract as much of the brain as possible with an iron hook, and
what the hook cannot reach is mixed with drugs.” Over the
next five thousand years, this view came to be reversed; the
brain is now known to be seat of intelligence, although idiomat-
ic variations of the former remain, as in memorizing something
“by heart.”

5. To monitor feedback in talking with someone, we look at


the person intently, as if to say, “Well, what do you think?”
or “React to what I’ve just said.” Also, we look at speak-
ers to let them know that we are listening. In studies con-
ducted on gazing behavior it has been found that listeners
gaze at speakers more than speakers gaze at listeners. The
percentage of interaction time spent gazing while listen-
ing, for example, has been observed in two studies to be
62 per cent and 75 per cent, while the percentage of time
spent gazing while talking has been observed to be 38 per
cent and 41 per cent. When these percentages are rever-
sed — when a speaker gazes at the listener for longer than
“normal” periods or when a listener gazes at the speaker
for shorter than “normal” periods — the conversational
interaction becomes awkward and uncomfortable. You may
wish to try this with a friend; even with mutual awareness,
you will note the discomfort caused by this seemingly minor
communication change. Discuss it!

SUMMARIZING
6. Summarize what you have learned in this Chapter writing
8—10 sentences. Share your summary with your partner.

In EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS you


will find more information about human body and mind�body
relationship.
ANSWER KEYS TO CHAPTERS
CHAPTER 1
Reading 1
1. Perceives, vary, is, is, detects, is, is indicated, detect, be …
measured, is made, prompts, is carried out, be performed,
exists, is … reserved, have, is categorized, be made, detect, be
produced, be detected.

Reading 2
2. Identify, produce, lets, are eating, are recognized, distin-
guish, is sensed, wishes, is testing.

Reading 3
1. Invented, was, wanted, could, invented, was, was, invented.

Reading 4
1. Was, was, broke, blossomed, was learning, was developing,
completed, became, was born, was, came, didn't last, left,
became, was, got, was, came, realized, was making, symbol-
ized, exhausted, went.

Reading 5
1. 1) a), 2) e), 3) d), 4) b), 5) a), 6) d).

CHAPTER 2
Reading 3
4. 1) — c) 4) — b) 7) — c) 10) — c)
2) — a) 5) — c) 8) — b) 11) — a)
3) — b) 6) — a) 9) — a) 12) — b)
5. Are, has been, does, does, is, tends, be, are, tell, does, are,
have been, have, will be.
256 Answer keys to chapters

Reading 5
1. 1) creative, 2) hemispheres, 3) dominant, 4) rules, 5) logical,
6) information, 7) specializes, 8) verbal, 9) memorize.
4. Processes, is (often) reversed, means, is needed, are, is gover-
ned, occurs, is located, uses, communicates, becomes, uses.
Reading 8
2. 1) thick, 2) button, 3) brainy.
Reading 9
2. Is, is located, have, have, contains, is composed, form, are
called, do not form, are connected, make up, is surrounded,
separate, is composed, are connected, contains, protects,
enter, are joined, protects, is bathed, circulates, weighs,
allows.
CHAPTER 3
Reading 1
6. 1) d), 2) a), 3) b), 4) b), 5) b).
15. 1) practice, 2) jump, 3) trips, 4) memory, 5) rarely, 6) wrong.

Reading 3
1. 1) b), 2) b), 3) b), 4) c).

Reading 4
Prepositions: at, in, of, to, after, on, by, for.

CHAPTER 4
Reading 4
6. 1) b), 2) a), 3) d), 4) f), 5) c), 6) e), 7) g).
9. 1) a), 2) c), 3) b), 4) b), 5) a).

CHAPTER 5
Reading 1
1. 1) d), 2) f), 3) b), 4) h), 5) a), 6) c), 7) g), 8) e).

Reading 5
6. Is used, is presented, are written, be written, be said, be used.
Answer keys to chapters 257

CHAPTER 6
Reading 1
1. To avoid, to resist, leave, go, to avoid, balk, bring, become.
4. 1) c), 2) d), 3) d), 4) a), 5) b), 6) c).

Reading 3
3. Among, by, between, from, in, of, on, beyond, with, despite,
to, into.

CHAPTER 7
Reading 1
1. 1) attractive, 2) anxiety, 3) concerned, 4) courage, 5) sug-
gestion, 6) deal, 7) praised, 8) exaggerated, 9) get out of,
10) complains, 11)) service.
2. 1) i), 2) a), 3) j), 4) b), 5) k), 6) n), 7) m), 8) f), 9) d), 10) h),
11) l), 12) g).

Reading 4
1. 1) concentrate, 2) normal, 3) stage, 4) nightmare, 5) at times,
6) periods, 7) grinds, 8) habit, 9) sweat, 10) a great deal,
11) snore, 12) embarrassed.

Reading 6
1. 1) deny, admit, 2) mumbling, 3) contemplate, 4) solitude,
5) cited, 6) directives, 7) self�esteem, 8) alleviate, 9) rehearse,
10) fray.
2. 1) cites, 2) sight, 3) site, 4) cite, 5) sight.
(cite — цитировать; sight — зрелище, различать, разгля-
деть; site — место, местоположение)

Reading 8
3. 1) g), 2) f), 3) d), 4) b), 5) a), 6) e).
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND BRAINTEASERS

In this part of the book you will find puzzles, quizzes, psycho-
logical tests, all of them half�serious, half�funny, but undoubt-
edly very useful. Do not take them too serious! You will also
find texts to translate both from English into Russian and
Russian into English. They will help you better understand
and apply information you have read about in the text part of
the book. Good luck in your efforts!

ACTIVITIES FOR CHAPTER 1


Activity 1
Everyday experience teaches us that light travels in a straight
line. Our eyes adjust so we can touch the things we see. For
example, if you close one eye and try to pick up a pin, it will be
more difficult than if you use both your eyes. The balance is easily
upset — the example is an optical illusion. Your eyes see things
that are not true.
If you need more information about human sight and optical
illusions, go back to Chapter 1 and Chapter 5.

Experiment

For this experiment you need two pencils with erasers.


What to do:
1. Hold a pencil lengthwise (on its side) in each hand.
2. Now, with one eye closed, try to touch the erasers togeth-
er. Did you miss?
3. Now, try it with both eyes open. Voila! Two eyes give you
better depth perception.
This experiment shows how two eyes give you more depth
perception, which is the ability to judge how near or far objects
are.
Activities for Chapter 1 259

Reversed handwriting
Produce reversed writing by placing a piece of carbon paper,
carbon side up, under a sheet of plain paper. Write something on
the paper and you will have reversed writing on the other side.
Read the reversed writing by holding it in front of a mirror. Look
in the mirror while you write something. Watch the pencil.

Vibrating ruler
Place a ruler on a table so that about two�thirds to three-
quarters of it stick out from the table edge. Hold down one end on
the table. Bend the other end and let go quickly. The ruler should
vibrate up and down. Listen to the sound you hear. Repeat the
experiment several times, each time with less of the ruler sticking
out. What differences do you hear in the sound the ruler makes?

Instrument of touch
Materials: two straight pins, a pencil, masking tape.
Make a simple instrument of touch. Place two straight pins
about one inch apart on a short piece of masking tape as in the
picture below. Cover with a second piece of tape, sticky side down.
Place a pencil along the tape. Cover with a second piece of
masking tape. When you have the finished instrument, get a
partner to help you test it. Your partner’s eyes should be closed
and both hands should be behind his or her back. Touch your
partner’s hand and ask if he or she feels one pin or two.
Continue testing by gradually moving up the arm. Where is the
skin most sensitive?

Hold your nose!


In Chapter 1, you learned that the senses of taste and smell
are closely related. Try an experiment to see if this is true. This
experiment shows how your sense of smell helps you taste foods.
Without your nose, you may not be able to tell the difference
between foods — especially if the foods are slices of different
fruits and vegetables.
What you need: a blindfold, foods to taste, such as different
fruit and vegetable slices.
What to do: pinch your nose and try one flavor of the food
at a time. Close your eyes so you cannot see what you are eat-
ing. Try to guess what the food is. Can you identify it? Unpinch
your nose. Now do you know what it is?
260 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 2
Smell sells

Read and translate the text.


For years, scientists have been studying the special powers
of smell. It seems that our noses and our brains are very closely
connected. When you smell something, the odor goes up your
nose to smelling zones. From here, sense cells send nerve mes-
sages to your brain telling it what you smelled.
More than our other four senses, our sense of smell changes our
mood and helps us remember things. If you were told to think
about popcorn, you’d probably recall its smell. And then you
might remember the movie you saw while eating it. Our sense of
smell also helps us sniff out danger — like the smell of smoke.
And it can make our mouth water from just one sniff of food.
If smell is so powerful, then maybe it can also sell products.
So businesses have begun spending thousands of dollars to
scent entire stores. Fake scents are being used to lead customers
by their nose. These odors help to get people inside and put
them in the mood to buy. They even make customers remember
the store later, so they’ll come back for more.
Using smells to sell products isn’t new. In 1966, a company
added lemon fragrance to its dish detergent. They wanted peo-
ple to think the soap contained “natural” cleaners. It worked!
Today, businesses spend over a billion dollars a year just on
product odor.
Some companies already discovered ways to make micro-
waveable foods smell good before they’re cooked. They scent
the packages. Smell for yourself. Next time you pop a bag of
microwave popcorn, smell the bag before you put it in the
microwave. Chances are, it already smells like popped corn.
New uses for smells are being created every day. One bank,
for example, gives customers coupons advertising car loans. To
get people to take out a loan, bank officials hope to coat these
coupons with the fresh leather smell of a new car.
In Australia, companies are putting sweat odors on unpaid
bills. Since some people sweat when they’re scared, this smell
might remind them of when they are frightened. And they’ll pay
the bills right away.
What lies ahead for our noses? Smell scientists are working
on some outrageous ideas. Would you believe TV sets that pro-
Activities for Chapter 1 261

duce smells? Or how about odor diets? Certain food smells will
fool your stomach into thinking it’s full.
Alarm clocks will scent your bedroom with an aroma
designed to wake you up. Scientists are even working on ways to
keep garbage from stinking. And researchers expect scents to one
day help students make more sense of what they’re learning.

Activity 3
Read the text and talk to your partner about the usefulness
of aromatherapy.
Aromatherapy — a science about treatment and prophylax-
is of diseases by natural aromatic substances. Aromas of natural
essential oils are capable to render potent emotional — mental
influence on the person and to influence a course of physiologi-
cal processes in an organism. Essential oils are chemical com-
pounds that can be antibacterial, anti�inflammatory, analgesic,
and even antiviral.
The scientific reasons behind why and how aromatherapy
works involve the human body and our response to scent. Experts
suggest the olfactory nerve takes the smells of essential oils and
carries them to the parts of the brain involving our emotions
and hormones. Indeed, scientists are learning that fragrance
affects us more than previously thought. The smells influence
our minds, our moods and our bodies. But smell remains one of
the least�understood senses. Although we know a great deal about
the eyes and ears, we only partly understand smell. In Japan,
fragrance is already used in the workplace. Shimizu, Japan’s
largest architectural engineering and construction company has
developed an environmental fragrancing system that uses com-
puterized techniques to deliver scents through air�conditioning
ducts. The Japanese have found that scents enhance efficiency
and reduce stress among office workers.
In one experiment in Japan, 13 key�punch operators were
monitored eight hours a day for a month. When the office air
was scented with lavender, errors per hour dropped 21%. They
dropped by 33% with a jasmine fragrance and a stimulating
lemon aroma reduced errors by 54%.
It is known about 300 essential oils which smell can control
mood and serviceability, to take out weariness, a stress, an
overexcitement, sleepiness, to improve state of health, to pro-
262 Extension activities and brainteasers

mote mental concentration. With the help of essential oils it is


possible to carry out prophylaxis of depressions and infringe-
ments of dream, stressful signs. Essential oils slow down
processes of ageing of an organism. Aroma prophylaxis is one of
the ways of strengthening of health and rising of fastness of an
organism to influence of adverse factors of an environment.
Special value is represented with essential oils for an aro-
matherapy during flashes of the virus flu.
In domestic conditions (at home) it is possible to use simply
and effectively enough aromatic oils both in cosmetic, and for
the medical purposes. They can be used as spirits, for filling aro-
matic sachets, to add in baths and to apply to preparation of
individual cosmetic agents. Aromatic oils will help also at some
malaises and there can be a preventive agent against a headache,
colds, and muscle pains.
Massage. Oils are frequently used by professional aro-
matherapies in general massage of a body. Oils are selected
depending on the patient state of health and admixed with the
basic oil. Concentration of essential oil in an admixture usually
changes from 1 up to 3%. Massage in itself is both a strengthen-
ing, and relaxing procedure during which salutary essential oils
through a skin get in blood. For maintenance of good state of
health it is recommended to do a self�massage, paying special
attention to soles of feet and palms.
Tonics and oils for skin. Aromatic oils are prepared the same
way as for massage, only the basic oil should have active softening
properties. Jojoba, avocado or apricot oils are those, for example.
An overall objective of these oils use is a general skin care and
treatment of dermal diseases. For high�grade oil absorption it is
enough to rub it with soft finger circular movements, not scrat-
ching or damaging skin, it is special in the neck zone and around
the eyes.
Hot and cold compresses. It is a rather effective way to use
aromatic oils for pain decrease and putting off inflammatory
processes. The admixture for a compress can be made by adding
4—5 drops of aromatic oil in a bowl of very hot water. Hot com-
presses perfectly help with rheumatic disease, arthritis, inflam-
matory processes, and ear pain.
Cold compresses are made in the same way. Such compress-
es help with headaches (put a compress on a forehead or on a
nape of the neck), stretching, edemas, and bruises.
Baths. The most simple and pleasant way to use aromatic
oils are baths. For this purpose add 5—10 drops of oil in the
Activities for Chapter 2 263

filled bath. Aromatic baths traditionally are considered as one


of the most refined and sensual entertainments that were popu-
lar in Ancient Rome.
Aromatization of air. To flavor air in a room, to get rid of
smell of smoke and dust, use an aroma lamp. An alternative to it
may be even simpler — drip a few drops of oil on the electric
lamps in your room or put a bowl with the water mixed with oil,
on or near the radiator of central heating.

ACTIVITIES FOR CHAPTER 2


Activity 4
Read the text and label the parts of 1
the brain.
Your brain has many different parts
that work together:
1. cerebrum
2. cerebellum 2
3. brain stem 3 4
4. pituitary gland
5. hypothalamus
The biggest part of the brain is the
Brain stem,
cerebrum. The cerebrum makes up 85%
cerebellum,
of the brain’s weight, and it’s easy to see
thalamus, cerebrum
why. The cerebrum is the thinking part
of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles. So you can’t
dance — or kick a soccer ball — without your cerebrum.
When you’re thinking hard, you’re using your cerebrum.
You need it to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and
draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum — both short-
term memory and long-term memory. The cerebrum also helps
you reason. It has two halves, with one on either side of the
head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about
abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said
to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech.
We also know that the right half of the cerebrum controls the
left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.
The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cere-
brum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very impor-
tant part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coor-
dination (how your muscles work together). Because of your
264 Extension activities and brainteasers

cerebellum, you can stand upright, keep your balance, and move
around. Think about a surfer riding the waves on his board.
What does he need most to stay balanced? The best surfboard?
The coolest wetsuit? Nope — he needs his cerebellum!
Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem.
The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the
cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord,
which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in
charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like
breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.
Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary
muscles — the ones that work automatically, without you even
thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart
and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to
pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start
digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the mil-
lions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send
back and forth.
The pituitary gland is very small — only about the size of a
pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body.
This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones,
like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your
body. And it helps keep your metabolism going.
The hypothalamus is like your brain’s inner thermostat. The
hypothalamus knows what temperature your body should. If
your body is too hot, the hypothalamus tells it to sweat. If
you’re too cold, the hypothalamus gets you shivering. Both
shivering and sweating are attempts to get your body’s temper-
ature back where it needs to be.

Activity 5
Are you right�brained or left�brained?
Activities for Chapter 2 265

А B
1. I’m good at math. 1. When I talk, I use my hands a
lot.
2. I keep a to�do list. 2. I like to draw.
3. If I have to assemble some- 3. When I’m confused, I usually
thing, I read instructions use my instincts.
first.
4. I feel comfortable expressing 4. I lose track of time easily.
myself with words.
5. Before I make a decision on 5. I think it is boring to follow a
an issue, I like to get all the schedule.
facts first.
6. I always wear a watch. 6. I am a musical person.
7. If I forget someone’s name, I 7. I can tell if people are guilty
go through the alphabet until just by looking at them.
I remember it.
8. I have thought about being a 8. I’ve thought about being
lawyer, a journalist, or a doc- a poet, a politician, an archi-
tor. tect, or a dancer.
9. I’d make a good detective. 9. I believe there are two sides
to every story.
10. I believe there is a right and 10. I’d rather draw a map than
a wrong way to do every- tell someone how to get
thing. somewhere.
11. I like to set goals for myself. 11. If I have a problem, I try to
solve it by relating it to a
similar problem I’ve had in
the past.
12. If I have a difficult decision 12. When someone asks me a
to make, I write down the question, I turn my head to
pros and cons. the left.
13. I keep a journal. 13. If I don’t know what to do, I
follow my emotions.
14. If someone asks me a ques- 14. Some people think I’m psy-
tion, I usually turn my head chic1.
to the right.
15. If I lose something, I try to 15. I’m often late getting places.
remember where I saw it last.
16. The expression “Life is just a 16. I hate following directions.
bowl of cherries”2 makes no
sense to me.
Total ____________________ Total ____________________
——————————
1
psychic — someone who has special mental powers such as the ability to pre-
dict the future.
2
Life is just a bowl of cherries = Life is wonderful.
266 Extension activities and brainteasers

Scoring: Add up the number of check marks in columns A and


B. If your total for column A is higher, you rely more on your
left brain. If your total in column В is higher, you rely more on
your right brain. If your totals are the same, or are very close,
you probably use both sides of your brain equally.

Activity 6
Handedness public interest survey

Help direct future handedness research by responding to the


survey questions below (~3 minutes to complete). Your feedback
will help identify topics most relevant to public concerns, such
as issues related to education, the workplace, public health and
safety, product design, etc.

Public safety
What public safety issues related to handedness would you
like to know more about? (check all that apply)
___ left�handed surgeons operating right�handed
___ left�handed dentists operating right�handed
___ left�handed police using right�biased weapons
___ left�handed military personnel using right�biased weapons/
equipment
___ left�handed children/adults at greater risk of injury using
right�biased tools/equipment
___ other (please specify) __________________________
__________________________________________
Have you ever been injured by using right�biased tools or
equipment? (reply regardless of your hand preference)
___ no
___ slightly injured
___ moderately injured
___ seriously injured
If so, list all right�biased tool/s or equipment involved in any
injury (minor or serious):__________________________
______________________________________________
If so, briefly state your most serious injury & name the right-
biased tool/s or equipment involved: __________________
______________________________________________
Activities for Chapter 2 267

Product design
What types of left�handed products would you most like to
see available? (check all that apply)
___ school/office equipment (scissors, ruler, checkbook, com-
puter, etc.)
___ kitchen equipment (corkscrew, knives, peeler, ladle, ice
cream scoop, etc.)
___ carpentry/garden tools (circular saw, weed whacker, etc.)
___ sports equipment (golf clubs, mitts, etc.)
___ musical instruments (guitar, violin, etc.)
___ specialized professional equipment (surgical implements,
photography, firearms, etc.)
___ other (please specify) __________________________
__________________________________________

Your workplace experience


Have you experienced any difficulty at work because of your
hand preference?
If so, check the types of problems at work you have experi-
enced. (check all that apply)
___ problems with right�biased tools or equipment
___ problems with right�biased layout of work environment
___ injury due to right�biased equipment or layout of work en-
vironment
___ performance (speed or skill) lessened by right�biased tools
and/or layout
___ not promoted due to slow speed or less skill due to
right�bias of equipment or layout
___ teasing from co�worker/s
___ teasing from supervisor/s
___ fired due to issues related to your hand preference
___ quit due to issues related to your hand preference
___ other (please specify) __________________________
__________________________________________
Reference topics
What topics related to handedness would you like to know
more about? Choose as many as you like: school/education,
workplace, public safety, product design, infrastructure, public
policy, the law, global research, neurological/biological mecha-
nisms (basic research), social/religious/cultural influences.
268 Extension activities and brainteasers

Future research topics


What areas of handedness research do you think are the
most important? Choose no more than 5: school/education,
workplace, public safety, product design, infrastructure, public
policy, the law, global research, neurological/biological mecha-
nisms (basic research), social/religious/cultural influences.
The following questions provide the necessary context for
assessing response:
I consider myself: right�handed, left�handed, ambidextrous.
Which hand do you use to write a letter?
___ right always
___ right preferred (but sometimes use my left)
___ no preference (can use either)
___ left preferred (but sometimes use my right)
___ left always
Have you switched/changed your hand preference? ______
______________________________________________
If so, how old were you when you switched? ____________
______________________________________________
If so, why did you switch?
___ social influence
___ parental influence
___ peer influence
___ injury or disability
___ other reason (please specify) _____________________
___ __________________________________________
Do you have any physical abnormalities or injuries affecting
your hand or arm use?
If so, please describe:_____________________________
______________________________________________
How old are you? ________________________________
Thank you for participating in this public interest survey!
Activities for Chapter 2 269

Activity 7
Lefty and righty

Lavinia and Rosalinda are identical twin sisters who share


an old house down the road. Even their best friends know only
one sure way to tell them apart: Lavinia is left�handed, while
Rosalinda is right�handed. There are six objects that were just
used by the sisters. Study them carefully. Can you tell which
ones were more likely to have been used by Lavinia and which
by Rosalinda? If you can’t answer check the Answer Keys.

Activity 8
Are you left�brained or right�brained?

Look at these two pictures and say which face seems friend-
lier to you. Аsk your partner. Ask other members of your
group. Write down the results. After you finish, read the expla-
nation.
270 Extension activities and brainteasers

Explanation
The images are the same, just reversed left to right. This is
a right�brain/left�brain test. In most of the population, the right
side of the brain handles the complicated task of determining
the meaning of a facial expression. The right�brain is connected
to your left eye. There is general crossover for all of your body
except for your nose. Thus the left side of the picture has more
influence over your opinion of the facial expression in the drawing.
If this experiment is accurate, there should be more people
who think face 2 looks friendlier. If you picked face 1, it doesn’t
mean you’re a psycho, but it may mean that you are left�hand-
ed. Many left�handed people have brains that are the opposite
of right�handed people (left handed people make�up about 5%
of the population).

Activity 9
Мыслитель или художник?
Render the following into English. Be ready to discuss it
with your partner.
С помощью этого теста вы сможете определить, какое из
полушарий у вас доминирует, что позволит вам лучше узнать
себя, свои возможности. Многочисленные исследования
показали, что левое полушарие обеспечивает возможность
работы со словесно�знаковой информацией, в частности чте-
ние и счет. Функции правого полушария — это оперирова-
ние образами, ориентация в пространстве, распознавание
сложных объектов (в частности и человеческих лиц), проду-
цирование сновидений. Отличаются полушария и по харак-
теру переработки поступающей в мозг информации. С по-
мощью левого полушария осуществляется логический
анализ явлений, формирующий внутреннюю непротиворе-
чивую модель мира. А вот мышление правого полушария
является синтетическим, мгновенно схватывающим много-
численные свойства объектов, что приводит, прежде всего,
к целостности, многозначности восприятия окружающей
действительности.
Итак, проведите над собой четыре небольших опыта:
1. Переплетите пальцы рук. Сверху оказался большой
палец левой руки (Л) или правой (П)? Запишите результат.
Activities for Chapter 2 271

2. Сделайте в листе бумаги небольшое отверстие и по-


смотрите сквозь него двумя глазами на какой�либо предмет.
Поочередно закрывайте то один, то другой глаз. Предмет
перемещается, если вы закрываете правый глаз или левый?
3. Встаньте в «позу Наполеона», скрестив руки на груди.
Какая рука оказалась сверху?
4. Попробуйте изобразить «бурные аплодисменты». Ка-
кая ладонь сверху?
Если во всех опытах был получен ответ П, то вы ярко вы-
раженный мыслительный тип. Если только Л, то вас с уверен-
ностью стоит причислить к разряду художественных натур.
Однако следует отметить, что чистые типы практически не
встречаются, обычно это различные комбинации, что подчер-
кивает важность индивидуального начала в каждом из нас.

Activity 10
Test yourself

Do the quiz. Which kind of thinker are you? Does this quiz
seem accurate to you? Why or why not? Are you an analyti-
cal or global thinker?
Read the list and decide what kind of thinker you are.
When it comes analytical thinkers global thinkers usu-
tо... usually prefer… ally prefer…
1) sound silence for studying some sound while
studying
2) light bright light for read- very low light for
ing/studying reading
3) tempera- warmer temperatures, cooler temperatures,
ture heavy clothes lighter clothes
4) furniture studying at a desk or studying on a bed or
in a chair the floor
5) time of day learning in the morn- learning later in the
ing; going to bed day; staying up late
early
6) mobility sitting still for long moving around all
periods of time the time
7) tasks working on one job at doing several jobs at
a time until done the same time
272 Extension activities and brainteasers

8) deciding taking a long time to being spontaneous


make decisions about decisions;
doing what seems
“right”
9) time being on time not worrying about
being late
10) perceiving seeing things as they seeing things as they
are at the moment; might be, perceiving
noticing details the whole; ignoring
details
11) planning making lists for doing things when
everything; planning they feel like it;
far in advance experimenting
12) eating eating breakfast and skipping breakfast;
regular meals snacking while learning
13) remembe- remembering what remembering what
ring has been spoken has been experienced
14) learning working alone; being working in a group;
self�directed, inde- discovering answers
pendent for themselves rather
than being told the
answers
15) thinking common test types opportunities to
(multiple�choice, express themselves
true/false essay) in other ways than
writing

Activity 11
What is your ghost story IQ?

Do you like ghost stories? Everybody does. Some ghost sto-


ries have been told so often that you know the endings with-
out having to hear them. Below are some variations of some
very familiar stories. Can you guess the endings?

Story one
John was driving home late one night when he saw a young
lady waiting by a bus stop. He stopped his car and told her that
Activities for Chapter 2 273

he didn’t think the buses were running that late at night and
offered to give her a ride. The fall night air was getting chilly, so
he took off his jacket and gave it to her. John found out that the
girl’s name was Mary and she was going to her home. After an
hour’s drive, they arrived at her home and he let her off by the
front door. John said good night and then went home himself.
The next day John remembered that Mary still had his jacket.
He drove to her house and knocked on the door. An old woman
answered. John told her about the ride he had given her daugh-
ter, Mary, and told her that he had come to get back the jacket
he had lent her. The old woman looked very confused. John
then noticed a picture of Mary on the fireplace mantel. He
pointed to it and told the old woman that it was a picture of the
girl to which he had given a ride. With her voice shaking, what
did the old woman tell John?

Story two
Long ago, a young man met and fell in love with a beautiful
young woman. She was always dressed exquisitely and she
always wore a black ribbon around her neck. Soon the man and
the woman were married and moved into a little cottage by the
sea. They started out very happily, but soon the young man
became more and more curious as to why his wife wore a ribbon
around her neck all the time. One day he decided to ask her. The
only answer he received was that he would be sorry if she took
it off, so she would not take it off. The young man was not
happy with his wife’s answer. Time passed and eventually all he
could think about was that black ribbon. One day, he awoke
before his wife, went into her sewing box and got a pair of scis-
sors, and cut off the ribbon that was around her neck. What
happened next?

Story three
Suzy and her mother were on summer vacation. They had
enjoyed a wonderful day at the beach and had stayed longer
than they had expected. They were driving home, very late at
night, when a fierce thunderstorm broke out. Suzy’s mother
could hardly see to drive. Then suddenly, in the glare of some
lightening, they saw a house with a sign in front that said
Welcome Inn. Suzy mother thought it would be a good idea to
stop for the night and go home in the morning. They parked in
front of the door, hurried up the stairs which lead to the front
274 Extension activities and brainteasers

door, and knocked. An elderly woman in rather outdated clothes


answered the door with a smile. She welcomed them into the
house as if she had been expecting them. After enjoying a warm
meal, the woman took them to a cozy room to stay the night. Suzy
and her mother slept soundly. When they awoke in the morning,
the elderly woman could not be found. They decided to leave
some money and a thank�you note on the front hall table and be
on their way. A few miles down the road, they stopped for gas.
While paying for the gas, Suzy’s mother told the station atten-
dant about the wonderful night they had spent at the Welcome
Inn. What did the station attendant tell Suzy’s mother?

Story four
Herman was spending the night with some friends who lived
in the country. He went to bed late and did not sleep well. Off
in the distance he thought he heard the sound of a horse drawn
carriage. He got up, went to the window, and looked out. There,
in the full moon, he saw the carriage he had heard right outside
of the house. The carriage looked like it was carrying a coffin.
The driver of the carriage looked up at the window where Herman
stood. The driver’s face was ghostly pale and very thin. “All aboard,”
the driver said to Herman. Herman stepped back from the win-
dow and lay back down on the bed. He eventually fell back into
a fitful sleep. The next morning, he told his friends about the
carriage and driver and they all decided that he just must have
had a very bad dream. Later that day, Herman went back home
to his apartment in the city. Just as he started to board the eleva-
tor, he looked at the elevator operator. What did Herman see?
Are you stumped? If you are, here are the endings to the sto-
ries. Compare them with what you have suggested.
Story one
The old woman told John that her daughter had been dead
for many years and was buried in a cemetery that was a about
an hour’s drive away near a bus stop. John went to the cemetery.
He saw his jacket folded neatly on top of a grave. The name on
the tombstone was Mary.
Story two
His wife woke up with a start. Her head fell off and rolled onto
the floor while the woman screamed, “I told you you’d be sorry!”
Activities for Chapter 2 275

Story three
With a look of surprise, the station attendant told Suzy’s
mother that the Welcome Inn had burned down twenty years
before and the old woman who ran the place had lost her life in
the fire. Suzy and her mother went back to the Inn in disbelief.
But, when they arrived at the place where they had spent the
night, all that they saw was a singed sign and the shell of the
house. Where the front hall had been, there was a dilapidated
table and on the table was the envelope containing their
thank�you note and money.
Story four
He saw the same pale, thin face that had belonged to the car-
riage driver. The elevator operator looked at Herman and said
“All aboard.” Herman stepped back from the elevator and stood as
if in a trance until a few moments later he was startled by a loud
crash. The elevator cable had broken and the elevator had plum-
meted down, killing everyone on board. Later investigation dis-
covered that the elevator operator had been a temporary
employee and hired only for that one day.

Activity 12
Sonata for two can change your IQ
In most lines of the following text, there is one unnecessary
word. It is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit in
with the sense of the text. Underline every unnecessary word
and then write it in the space on the right. If a line is correct
put a tick or C. There are two examples at the beginning, and
11 more unnecessary words to find.
Listening to Mozart can significantly increase your 0 C
_______
intelligence according to the researchers in America. 00 the
_______
Unfortunately, the effect is temporary and only lasts 1 _______
about 15 minutes long. Dr. Frances Rauscher and two 2 _______
colleagues from the University of California were 3 _______
reported the findings in the journal Nature. They 4 _______
asked 36 college students to undergo standard of 5 _______
psychological tests after listening to a tape of Mozart's 6 _______
sonata for the two pianos in D major. They found 7 _______
that the students did better after listening to this 8 _______
music than they did so after hearing a ten�minute 9 _______
tape of instructions designed to make them to relax, 10 _______
276 Extension activities and brainteasers

or ten minutes of silence. Although the researchers 11 _______


could offer no explanation for the finding, but they 12 _______
said that there had long been a belief that people 13 _______
who are interested in music are tend to perform better 14 _______
at intellectually demanding tasks. They believe that 15 _______
the beneficial effect which depends on the complexity 16 _______
of the music played and they intend to try the other 17 _______
compositions and musical styles to prove the point. 18 _______
They also plan further tests to see if a listening for 19 _______
longer periods produces even greater effects. 20 _______

Activity 13
Brainteasers
1) Two US coins equal thirty cents. One is not a quarter. What
are the two coins?
2) A man walked into a pet shop and
bought a parrot. The parrot was guar-
anteed to repeat everything it heard.
However, the parrot never said a
word. Why not?
3) A plane crashed on the border of
Canada and the United States. Where
should they bury the survivors?
4) Suppose you are driving from Philadelphia to Boston at
a speed of 90 miles per hour (mph). At the same time your
friend is driving from Boston to Philadelphia at a speed of
60 mph. When the two cars meet? Who is closer to Boston?
5) Two brothers were born on the same day, at the same time, in
the same year and at the same hospital. They have the same
mother and father, but they are not twins. What are they?
6) A ship has a ladder on one side. There are 25 cm between
each step. Ten steps of the ladder are under water at high
tide and twenty steps are above water. If the water level goes
down 75 cm at low tide, how many
steps will be outside the water?
7) A spider is at the bottom of a thirty-
meter hole. The spider is trying to
climb out. It climbs up four meters
in daylight, but at night it becomes
confused and climbs down three
meters. At this rate, how long will
it take the spider to crawl out?
Activities for Chapter 2 277

8) John, Carol, Steve, Tom, Mary, and David all like music. Two
of the people are teachers and the other four are students.
The teachers give lessons in two of the following instru-
ments: tuba, saxophone, guitar, or drums. The students each
take lessons in one of those instruments.
Use the clues below to answer the following questions:
a) Who are the teachers?
b) Which two instruments do they teach?
c) Who are the students?
d) Which instrument is each one learning?
CLUES: • The drum student is not a woman.
• Carol has never played a brass instrument.
• Mary has never met Tom.
• Steve often helps the saxophone teacher give lessons.
• The tuba teacher told her student to practise more.
• John is the saxophone student.
• Steve is a teacher.
Three men in a hotel

Three men decided to split the


cost of a hotel room. The hotel ma-
nager gave them a price of $30. The
men split the bill evenly, each pay-
ing $10, and retired to their room.
However, the manager realized
that it was a Wednesday night,
which meant the hotel had a spe-
cial: rooms were only $25. He had
overcharged them $5! He promptly called the bellboy, gave him
five one�dollar bills and told him to return it to the men. When
the bellboy explained the situation to the men, they were so
pleased at the honesty of the establishment that they promptly
tipped the bellboy $2 of the $5 he had returned and each kept
$1 for himself.
The problem: Each of the three men ended up paying $9
(their original $10, minus $1 back) totaling $27, plus $2 for the
bellboy makes $29. Where did the extra dollar go?
Think about it for a while, and when your reality begins to
shudder at the edges, read the solution. I recommend you give
some time to trying to figure this one out on your own, though,
since then it will be easier for you to gloat when you stump your
friends with this one.
278 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 14
Read more about the IQ tests.
So what is this test like? The 1986 edition of the Stanford-
Binet is quite different from its predecessors. Subjects are test-
ed on three different types of abilities. Crystallized abilities1 are
defined as those needed to acquire and use verbal and quantita-
tive concepts to solve problems. They are influenced by school-
ing and could be called “an academic ability” factor. Fluid�ana-
lytic abilities2 are skills needed to solve problems that involve
figural or nonverbal types of information. These skills are thought
to be not so influenced by formal schooling. Essentially, they in-
volve the ability to see things in new and different ways. The
third factor is short�term memory.
There are 15 subtests that test the three abilities. Within each
of these subtests, the items are arranged by difficulty, which is de-
termined by appropriate age level. Age levels vary from 2 years
old to adult (18+). This means that if you were giving the test
to an eight�year�old, you would probably start by giving items
for a six�year�old and then continue to more difficult test items,
until the child consistently fails to answer questions.
In interpreting an individual’s scores, one compares the scores
to those earned by children of the same age. The resulting score
is called a standard age score or SAS3. Standard age scores are
always computed so that an average SAS always comes out to
be 100. People who do better than average have standard age
scores above 100 and those who perform less well than others
their age have standard age scores below 100.

The fifteen subtests of the 1986 edition


of the Stanford�Binet Intelligence Scale
1. Vocabulary. For ages 2—6, provide name and definition of
picture of object; for older, subjects, define words increas-
ing in difficulty.
2. Bead memory. String a series of multicolored beads after
seeing a picture of the required string.
——————————
1
crystallized abilities — abilities needed to acquire and use information;
thought to be fostered by formal education.
2
fluid�analytic abilities — abilities that enable an individual to gain insight
into complex problems, especially figural and non�verbal problems; thought to
develop independently of formal schooling.
3
standard age score (SAS) — a score on an intelligence test, by which one's
performance is compared to others of the same age; a score of 100 is average.
Activities for Chapter 3 279

3. Quantitative. Complete a series of arithmetic problems,


from simple counting to complex word problems.
4. Memory for sentences. Repeat a series of sentences of in-
creasing complexity.
5. Pattern analysis. At young ages, match shapes to holes; at
older levels, use blocks of different designs to copy patterns
of increasing complexity.
6. Comprehension. Answer questions like, “Why does the go-
vernment regulate radio and television broadcasts?”
7. Absurdities. Identify what is wrong with the picture: for
example, a wagon with triangular wheels.
8. Memory for digits. Repeat a list of digits of increasing length;
forwards or backwards.
9. Copying. Draw (duplicate) a series of geometric line draw-
ings of increasing complexity.
10. Memory for objects. Recognize a series of pictures of simple
objects presented one at a time from a larger picture dis-
playing many objects.
11. Matrices. Shown a series of pictures, determine which of a
number of alternatives comes next in the series.
12. Number series. Presented with a series of numbers, deter-
mine what number comes next.
13. Paper folding and cutting. Fold and/or cut a sheet of paper
according to a prescribed pattern.
14. Verbal relations. Given three words that are alike and a
fourth that is different, explain why the three are alike and
the fourth is different.
15. Equation building. Given a series of digits and algebraic
signs (+, , –), create a balanced equation.

ACTIVITIES FOR CHAPTER 3


Activity 15
280 Extension activities and brainteasers

Are you a reliable witness?

Study the picture for only 10 seconds. You are going to answer
the questions about the picture. Do not look back at the
photo.
1) How many men are in the room?
2) How many people are sitting down?
3) What color shirt is the man on the right wearing?
4) What is the woman near the window wearing?
5) Which of the people is wearing glasses?
6) How many women are there?
7) What is the man on the far left doing?
8) How many pictures are on the walls?
9) Which of the people is wearing a necktie?
10) Is there a window in the room?
Compare your answers with your partners’. Then look back
at the photo to check your answers.

Activity 16
Mistaken identity

Following the daring theft of thousands of dollars from the


coffers of The Keen�Eyed Club, the detective in charge of the
case was taking statements from four club members who were
witness to this heinous crime. “I saw him, all right,” said one,
“a guy with a pencil mustache, and dark hair, and a thick scarf
around his throat.”
“I saw him, too,” said another. “He had an ugly�looking scar,
and big, bushy eyebrows, behind thick glasses.”
A third man spoke up, “He pushed me aside as he made for
the door, so I saw him quite clearly. I’ll agree he had a mustache,
but he had thin eyebrows, and wasn’t wearing a scarf.” A fourth
man stepped forward, “Take no notice of them. The guy had
blond hair, no glasses, and a scar on his left cheek.” As the detec-
tive had feared, none of the descriptions was altogether accu-
rate. In fact, each witness had made one mistake in his descrip-
tion. Bearing this in mind, can you pick out the thief from the
faces below?
Activities for Chapter 3 281

A B C D E

F G H I J

K L M N O

If you can’t figure it out, check the Аnswer Keys.

Activity 17

Memory

Match the definitions with the words.


a) Long�term 1) Lasting only for a second or less, …
memory memory holds information from the
world in its original form.
b) Interference 2) The capacity to store and recover infor-
mation over time.
c) Sensory 3) The theory that the recall of some parti-
cular memory is prevented by new infor-
mation that interferes with it.
d) Memory 4) Also known as working memory, it sto-
res and processes information selected
from sensory memory.
e) Short�term 5) The conscious repetition of information
memory for retention purposes.
f) Learning 6) A type of memory that keeps a relative-
ly permanent record of information.
282 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 18
Here are three memory games. Read them, render into English
and then play. Good luck!

Мнемоника
Предлагаем поиграть в такую игру — просмотрите учеб-
ный текст. Постарайтесь мысленно выделить в нем ключе-
вые слова, затем выпишите эти слова на листочке в столбик.
Пусть их будет 10 или 20, столько, сколько вам нужно. По-
сле того как столбики из ключевых слов закончены, предлага-
ем такой конкурс: каждый попробует придумать забавную
историю, в которой все эти слова связаны последовательно.
История может быть забавной, но обязательно осмыслен-
ной. История может не иметь никакого отношения к прочи-
танному тексту. Конкурс на самую невероятную историю
начинается!
Когда все истории будут рассказаны, попытайтесь, не
глядя в учебный текст, а пользуясь только ключевыми сло-
вами, воспроизвести этот текст. Победителем игры будет
тот, кто воспроизведет первоначальный учебный текст как
можно ближе к оригиналу.

Зрительная память
Ведущий разобьет класс на две команды. Пусть один из
вас будет изображать картину, портрет, можно свой собст-
венный. Команды в течение одной минуты будут любоваться
картиной, запоминая детали. Перед вами — шедевр! Любуй-
тесь! Потом ведущий просит членов обеих команд отвер-
нуться и старается изменить в картине как можно больше
деталей. Теперь поочередно члены каждой команды подхо-
дят к «картине» и пытаются молча привести все изменения
в исходное состояние. Старайтесь ничего не упустить. Сле-
дующий этап — произнести фразы или предложения, кото-
рые опишут эти детали. Победителем игры станет команда,
заметившая больше деталей.

Жестикуляция
Всем известно, что докладчик, выступающий эмоцио-
нально, помогающий себе жестикуляцией рук, воспринима-
ется лучше, и его доклад запоминается легче.
Activities for Chapter 3 283

Давайте устроим соревнование докладчиков! Разделим-


ся на две команды. Каждая команда выберет себе учебный
текст и подготовит докладчика. Докладчик от каждой ко-
манды будет читать текст, помогая себе при этом жестами,
пантомимой, то есть будет «оживлять» этот текст. После
этого члены команды должны пересказать, что они запом-
нили. Команда, чей докладчик «проиллюстрировал» текст
лучше, а его команда запомнила и пересказала его лучше,
считается победителем!

Activity 19
Revision techniques

It’s one thing to study, but another to actually remember the


information. Have you tried these techniques?
1) A mnemonic is a way of remembering a list of items by finding
a word which contains the first letter of each. For example,
to remember the names of the five Great Lakes of America —
Huron, Ontario, Erie, Michigan and Superior — take the
first letter of each and re�order them to make the word
HOMES. Now every time you need to remember the names
of the lakes, just think of homes by a lake!
2) Why not make up tapes of things you have to remember and
listen to them on the way home from school, when you’re
cleaning your teeth, or even when you’re sleeping?
3) Little rhymes and chants help you to remember all sorts of
information. For instance, if you want to remember the spel-
ling of the word beautiful, you can learn this chant: Mr. B,
Mr. E, Mr. A�U�T, Mr. I, Mr. F�U�L!
4) Make up some question and answer cards, and play a quiz
game with your friends. Add new questions every time you
play it.
5) Try putting your different version notes on different colored
paper.
6) Bombardment is a way of constantly reminding yourself of
facts. Draw huge multicolored fact charts and posters for
different subjects where there are a lot of facts to learn. Stick
them everywhere — inside your bedroom door, on your
wardrobe, in the kitchen.
284 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 20
Improve your memory
How to learn a foreign language

Foreign languages are the ideal subject area for the use of
memory techniques. Learning vocabulary is often a matter of
associating a meaningless collection of syllables with a word in
your own language.
Traditionally people have associated these words by repeti-
tion — by saying the word in their own language and the foreign
language time and time and time and time again. You can
improve on this tedious way of learning by using three good
techniques.
1. Using mnemonics to link words. This is a simple extension
of the link method described above. Here you are using images
to link a word in your own language with a word in a foreign
language. For example, in learning English/French vocabulary:
• English: rug/carpet — French: tapis — imagine an ornate
oriental carpet with a tap as the central design woven in chrome
thread;
• English: grumpy — French: grognon — a grumpy man
groaning with irritation;
• English: to tease — French: taquiner — a woman teasing
her husband as she takes in the washing.
This technique was formalized by Dr. Michael Gruneberg,
and is known as the “LinkWord” technique. He has produced
language books in many language pairs to help students acquire
the basic vocabulary needed to get by in the language (usually
about 1000 words). It is claimed that using this technique this
basic vocabulary can be learned in just 10 hours.
2. The town language mnemonic. This is a very elegant, effec-
tive mnemonic that fuses a sophisticated variant of the Roman
Room system with the system described above. This depends
on the fact that the basic vocabulary of a language relates to
everyday things: things that you can usually find in a city, town
or village. To use the technique, choose a town that you are very
familiar with. Use objects within that place as the cues to recall
the images that link to foreign words.
Nouns in the town. Nouns should be associated to the most
relevant locations: for example, the image coding the foreign
word for book could be associated with a book on a shelf in the
Activities for Chapter 3 285

library. You could associate the word for bread with an image of
a loaf in a baker’s shop. Words for vegetables could be associated
with parts of a display outside a greengrocer’s. Perhaps there is
a farm just outside the town that allows all the animal name
associations to be made.
Adjectives in the park. Adjectives can be associated with a gar-
den or park within the town; words such as green, smelly, bright,
small, cold, etc. can be easily related to objects in a park. Perhaps
there is a pond there, or a small wood, or perhaps people with
different characteristics are walking around.
Verbs in the sports center. Verbs can most easily be associ-
ated with a sports center or playing field. This allows us all the
associations of lifting, running, walking, hitting, eating, swim-
ming, driving, etc.
Remembering genders. In a language where gender is impor-
tant, a very good method of remembering this is to divide your
town into two main zones. In one zone you code information on
masculine gender nouns, while in the other zone you code infor-
mation on feminine nouns. Where the language has a neutral
gender, then use three zones. You can separate these areas with
busy roads, rivers, etc. To fix the gender of a noun, simply asso-
ciate its image with a place in the correct part of town. This
makes remembering genders easy!
Many languages, many towns. Another elegant spin�off of the
technique comes when learning several languages: normally this
can cause confusion. With the town mnemonic, all you need do
is choose a different city, town or village for each language to be
learned. Ideally this might be in the relevant country. Practically,
however, you might just decide to use a local town with the
appropriate foreign flavor.
3. The hundred most common words. Tony Buzan, in his book
Using Your Memory, points out that just 100 words comprise
50% of all words used in conversation in a language. Learning
these core 100 words gets you a long way towards being able to
speak in that language, albeit at a basic level.
Summary. The three approaches to learning foreign lan-
guages shown here can be very effective. They help to point out:
• the most important words to learn;
• show how to link words in your own language to words in
a foreign language, and
• show how to structure recall of the language through use
of the town mnemonic.
286 Extension activities and brainteasers

Here’s a dialogue describing a technique for learning new


vocabulary in a foreign language. Read the dialogue and prac-
tise this technique. Choose one or two of the words from the list
and show how you could use this new technique to help to learn
them: windsurf, juggle, touch�type, waltz, shear, and bicycle.
А: OK, I gather you’ve got an interesting way of learning
words in a foreign language.
B: Yes, it’s actually a very easy way of learning foreign words.
What you do is to, you think of a word in your own lan-
guage, which sounds something like a word you’re trying to
learn and then you just imagine a picture in your mind
which links the two ideas — the idea of the foreign word
and the idea of the English word.
А: Can you give me an example?
B: Yeah, an easy example is the Greek word skylos which means
dog. And this immediately reminds me of the English words
ski and loss, so I just imagine a picture of a skier on a moun-
tain, one of his skies has come off and he’s lost it and there’s
a dog carrying it back to him in his mouth. An example from
a different language might be the Japanese word for thank
you which is arigato. Now that sounds to me a little bit like
alligator, so I could imagine a rather unpleasant picture of
somebody whose leg has been just eaten by an alligator and
the alligator’s smiling and saying “thank you very much.”
А: OK, I’m going to try you out with some words in Russian.
You don’t know Russian, do you?
B: No, of course not.
А: OK. Well, here’s the Russian word for teacher, which is
uchitelj.
B: Could you say it again?
А: Uchitelj.
B: U�chit�elj. Oh that’s easy. The middle of this word is the
English word cheat, which is something we often associate
with teachers and students. So, I can imagine a student sit-
ting in an examination and he’s cheating — he’s copying
from the student sitting next to him. And the teacher is
standing over him saying “You cheat!”
А: OK, here’s another word. It’s a Russian word for fire which
is ogonj.
B: Ogonj. Mm. Oh, yes, again, let’s take the middle of the word,
gone. We think of a fire perhaps that’s gone out. So I just
imagine a picture of a fire in a fireplace and it’s gone out. Easy.
А: Thank you. I’ll try it as a technique.
Activities for Chapter 3 287

Activity 21
Remembering things in the right order

Read about two memory techniques. Then use the tech-


niques you have learned to test yourself. Suppose you want
to remember a sequence of ten unrelated items in a particu-
lar order. Here are two techniques that you can use.

Technique 1. Pegwords1
First, you have to learn a set of pegwords, one for each of the
numbers one to ten. Since each of these rhymes with its number,
this is a fairly easy task. Try it for yourself: one = bun, two = shoe,
three = tree, four = door, five = hive, six = sticks, seven = heaven,
eight = gate, nine = wine, ten = hen.
Having mastered this, you are ready to go, suppose the ten
words you are trying to remember are: battleship, octopus,
chair, sheep, castle, rug, grass, beach, milkmaid, binoculars.
Take the first pegword, which is bun (rhyming with one),
and imagine a picture of a bun interacting in some way with a
battleship: you might for example imagine a battleship sailing
into an enormous floating bun. Now take the second pegword,
shoe, and imagine it interacting with octopus, perhaps a large
shoe with an octopus sitting in it. Pegword nine is wine, and the
ninth item is milkmaid, so you might imagine a milkmaid milk-
ing a cow and getting wine rather than milk. And so on. Having
created these pictures, you should be able to come up with an
accurate list of the ten words in the right order.

Technique 2. Places
First of all, think of ten locations in your home, choosing
them so that the sequence of moving from one to the other is an
obvious one — for example, front door to entrance hall, to
kitchen, to bedroom, and so on.
Check that you can imagine moving through your ten loca-
tions in the same order without difficulty.
Now think of ten items and imagine them in those locations.
If the first item is grass, you might imagine opening your front
door and wiping your feet on a doormat made of grass. If the
second is a cabbage, you might imagine your hall blocked by an
——————————
1
pegwords — ориентиры, тематические слова.
288 Extension activities and brainteasers

enormous cabbage. If your number three is sheep, you could


imagine someone in the kitchen trying to put a whole sheep
into the oven. And so on.
The locations need not, of course, be in your own home.
They could be a typical trip along your high street or around
your place of work or school.

Test yourself
Now try to create similarly memorable images for the ten
items in either of these lists.
Then cover up the page, and see if you can write down the
ten items in order. If you haven’t yet had time to learn the ten
pegwords or locations by heart, write them down and use them
to help you.
1) shirt, 2) eagle, 3) paper clip, 4) rose, 5) camera, 6) mushroom,
7) crocodile, 8) sausage, 9) king, 10) handkerchief.
1) horse, 2) bullet, 3) table, 4) cigar, 5) watch, 6) window,
7) ostrich, 8) typewriter, 9) jacket, 10) cloud.
(adapted from Your Memory. A User’s Guide by Alan Baddeley)

Activity 22
How many days?

In some cultures, people have no problem remembering which


months have 31 days and which have 30. In Iran, for example,
the first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30, and the
last has 28 or 29. And in Thailand, you can tell from the names
of the months: those with 31 days end in �om (e.g. January is
Magarakom), those with 30 days end in �on (e.g. September is
Kanyaynon) and February ends in �an (Kumpapan). Most count-
ries, however, use some kind of mnemonics, or memory aid. In
Britain, a rhyme is used:
30 days have September, April, June and November.
And the rest have 31 excepting February alone.
Which has but 28 days clear and 29 in each leap year.
What about your country? Do you have any mnemonics to
remember such simple things? How do you remember which
months have 31 days and which have 30? How do you remem-
ber the colours of the rainbow?
Activities for Chapter 4 289

ACTIVITIES FOR CHAPTER 4


Activity 23
Coping with stress
Read the text and explain different ways of handling stress
described in it.
It is Friday evening and two young lawyers get phone calls
at home. The trial date for an important case has been moved
up. Both of the lawyers will now have to prepare a report for the
case by Monday morning. It is a threatening situation for both.
Each must do extensive research and write a complex document
of some forty pages all in a single weekend. Furthermore, each
knows that her work will be evaluated by the firm’s partners,
and how well she does may greatly influence her future in the firm.
One of the lawyers finds the situation extremely stressful; she
feels tremendous anxiety, experiences headaches and stomach
upsets, and has difficulty working. She somehow manages to
produce a report, but she is not at all happy with it. The other
lawyer, although she too feels the pressure of the situation, sees
it not so much as a threat but as a challenge — an opportunity
to show how good she is. She moves into the firm’s offices for
the weekend and, sleeping only three hours a night, completes a
brilliant report with a clear mind and a surge of energy.
As this example helps illustrate, stress is caused not so much
by events themselves as by the ways in which people perceive
and react to events. As the Greek philosopher Epicetus declared
almost 2,000 years ago, “We are not disturbed by things, but our
opinions about things.” To cope with stress effectively, we often
need to redefine the situation from one of 20 threats to one of
challenge or opportunity.
Even when you cannot control them, unpleasant events tend
to be less stressful if they are predictable — if you at least know
when they will occur. This was demonstrated in the study with
rats. One group of rats heard a buzzer about ten seconds before they
would receive a shock; although the animals could not escape
the shock, at least they had a chance to prepare themselves for
the expected pain. A second group of rats received no such
warnings; the shocks came unpredictably. Weiss found that the
rats who were forewarned of the shocks developed fewer ulcers
than the rats who were not forewarned. This finding, too, has
parallels in human life. The death of a loved one, for example, is
290 Extension activities and brainteasers

usually less traumatic when it is anticipated than when it is


unexpected. Many students find surprise quizzes to be more
upsetting than scheduled quizzes that they can prepare for.
On the other hand, too little stress and too few challenges in
one’s life can also be unhealthy.
Are some people generally better than others at coping with
stress? Recent research suggests that the answer is yes — that
there is a certain kind of person who has a relatively
stress�resistant personality1. People who cope well with stress
tend to be “committed” to what they are doing (rather than
alienated), to feel in control (rather than powerless), and to wel-
come moderate amounts of change and challenge. In studies of
people facing stressful situations, psychologists have found that
those with stress�resistant personalities — that is, those who are
high in commitment, control, and challenge — experience fewer
physical illnesses than those whose personalities are less hardy.
Until recently it was generally believed that to maintain
good health people should strive to avoid stressors in their lives.
Such a strategy can be quite limiting, however. The desire to
avoid stress may also lead people to avoid potentially beneficial
changes in their lives, such as job changes or promotions.
Moreover, the attempt to avoid stress is often unrealistic. How,
for example, can a person avoid such shocks as a parent’s death?
In fact, if people do not confront a certain amount of stress in
their lives, they will end up being bored and unstimulated,
which can also be physically harmful. In the last analysis, each
person needs to come to terms with stress in his or her own way,
sometimes trying to avoid it, but sometimes accepting it or even
seeking it out as a challenge to be mastered.

Write an essay describing something you do to relieve


stress, your personal way to handle stressful situations. Here
is an example you may follow. You might want to add more
details to this one:
Introduction paragraph
Reading books helps me to relieve stress like nothing else can.
Body paragraphs
This is true for several reasons. First, when I read a book I
mentally enter the world of ideas. I can forget my day-to-day
worries.
——————————
1
stress�resistant personality — type of person who feels in control, who wel-
comes change and challenge, and who copes well when facing stressful situations.
Activities for Chapter 4 291

Second, from an emotional angle, reading is a solitary act. It


enables me to spend time alone, away from others. This helps
me feel more peaceful.
Third, from a physical perspective, reading allows me to stop
working and relax my body. At home, I like to read while lying
in bed or on the sofa.
Conclusion
The act of reading transports me to another world. That’s
why books are good friends and why reading is such an effective
way of reducing my level of stress.

Activity 24
Stress interview
Stress and pressure questions come in all sorts of shapes and
sizes. Three commonly used types of pressure questions are those
dealing with weakness and failure; blame, and evidence of ability
or experience lack.
Do you have a stressful life? Interview your partner. These
questions invite a yes or no answer. If you give a yes, be prepa-
red to deal with the question: “Can you give me an example?”
1) Do you find it hard to make decision?
2) Do you have difficulty relaxing?
3) Do you feel guilty when you’re relaxing?
4) Do you find it difficult to concentrate?
5) Do you often get annoyed or lose your temper?
6) Do you have difficulty falling asleep?
7) Do you often wake up during the night?
8) Do you spend too much time working or studying?
9) Do you eat too quickly?
10) Do you worry about grades?
Compare your answers. Who in the class is under the most
stress? The least stress?
What do you think causes the highest degree of stress for
the average person? Rank the answers from 1 (most stress-
ful) to 8 (least stressful). Then turn to the Аnswer Keys to
check the answers.
1 ___________________ 5 ___________________
2 ___________________ 6 ___________________
3 ___________________ 7 ___________________
4 ___________________ 8 ___________________
292 Extension activities and brainteasers

Having trouble with your boss, having an illness or injury,


being fired from work, getting married, starting or finishing
school (college), going on vacation, having trouble with the
family, retiring from work

Activity 25
Stress
Stress — collective term for the insults a body
must endure when thrust into a less�than�congenial
environment; e.g., overwork, unemployment, a shop-
ping mall in December or a vacation with one’s in�laws.
The Cynic’s Dictionary by Rick Bayan
Look at the picture and work with another student to discuss
the following questions.
1) Which of the following activities causes the most stress?
When and why?
2) Number the activities 1—6 according to their level of stress.
(1 = most stressful)

Activity 26
Coping with stress
Аnswer the questionnaire.
1) Do you get anxious before exams? How does the anxiety
show? Do you bite your nails? Bite your lips? Chew your
pencil? Play with your hair?
Activities for Chapter 4 293

2) During the revision period do you sometimes cry? Feel tense?


Feel very tired? Find you can’t sleep? Lack energy?
If all the above is what you regularly do, the following advise
is for you.
There are steps to relieving exam stress:
1. Make a revision timetable. A clear timetable will help you to
be more organized.
2. Eat a balanced diet. Lack of vitamins increases stress and
makes the body weak.
3. Don’t revise too late at night. Too much mental work will
keep you awake, and make you sleepy the next day. Avoid
tea, coffee, or fizzy drinks in the evening too.
4. Get plenty of exercise. It will help you to relax.
5. Find a quiet place to study.
6. Don’t leave it to the last minute.
7. Talk to people about your worries. Bottling up your emo-
tions can cause a lot of stress.
Do you agree with everything in this advice? Have you got
any ideas of your own? Discuss them in pairs.

Activity 27
Render this text into English.

История шоколадки
Жил когда�то в Мексике искуснейший садовод по имени
Кветцалькоатль. Среди великолепных фруктовых деревьев
в его саду росло одно неприметное деревце, чьи плоды похо-
дили на огурцы, но с горьким вкусом. Садовод назвал его
какао.
В плодах деревца содержались семена, из которых Квет-
цалькоатль готовил «чоколатль» — напиток, придающий
силы и веселящий душу. «Чоколатль» так нравился тем, кто
пил его, что семена для его изготовления стали цениться до-
роже золота. Слава и богатство испортили садовника: он во-
зомнил себя всемогущим. В наказание за гордыню боги ли-
шили его рассудка, и объятый безумием Кветцалькоатль
уничтожил свой сад. По чудесной случайности одно расте-
ние уцелело — это было дерево какао. Оно и стало симво-
лом земли ацтеков.
294 Extension activities and brainteasers

Так рассказывает о происхождении шоколада мекси-


канская легенда. Но реальная, существующая во времени
и пространстве история шоколада не менее драматична и ска-
зочна.
В Европе о напитке из бобов какао узнали в 1520 г. Го-
дом раньше, в ноябре 1519 г., испанские конкистадоры во
главе с Эрнандо Кортесом захватили Теночтитлан — древ-
нюю столицу Мексики. Разграбив дворец императора ацте-
ков Монтесумы II, они обнаружили в дворцовых кладовых
несметные запасы сушеных бобов. Ацтеки готовили из
них бодрящий, острый на вкус напиток: растертые в поро-
шок бобы, приправленные изрядной порцией кайенского
перца, разводили горячей водой и давали немного насто-
яться. Кортесу жгучий напиток не понравился, и он в гневе
чуть не уничтожил все запасы бобов. Тогда подданные
Монтесумы предложили испанцам отведать иного питья.
Жареные бобы какао растерли с зернами маиса молочной
спелости, добавили мед и сладкий сок агавы, все сварили
и сдобрили ванилью. Напиток, приготовленный таким об-
разом, назывался «чоколатль». Он считался у ацтеков свя-
щенным и предназначался исключительно для царствен-
ных особ.
Происхождение напитка — божественное ли, земное
ли — испанцев не интересовало, а вот вкус пришелся по ду-
ше. Вернувшись из похода, Кортес преподнес своему коро-
лю несколько мешков экзотических бобов, а также рецепт
приготовления «чоколатля», «чашка которого бодрит, но не
пьянит». Чоколатль, он же шоколад, стал весьма популярен
при дворе. Первое время он был чрезвычайно дорог и досту-
пен немногим, самым знатным вельможам. Однако благода-
ря колонизаторам, сколачивающим состояния на «коричне-
вом золоте» и занявшимся выращиванием какао�бобов
в промышленных масштабах, к середине XVII в. шоколад
превратился в самый модный из европейских напитков.
Стремительный рост его популярности зафиксировала
и статистика: в 1764 г. во Франции существовало всего
23 заведения, в которых подавали шоколад, через двадцать
лет этих «сладких точек» было уже вдесятеро больше,
а в 1798 г. только в Париже насчитывалось более 500 шоко-
ладных кондитерских.
Следующий виток шоколадной истории начался в 1819 г.,
когда юный швейцарский изобретатель Франсуа Луи Кайе
разработал принципиально новый рецепт шоколада — гус-
Activities for Chapter 4 295

тая масса, которую прессовали каменные ролики, превра-


щалась в аккуратные плитки. Через год в Швейцарии была
построена первая фабрика по выпуску твердого шоколада.
С каждым годом его производство совершенствовалось,
появлялись новые виды и сорта. В 1830 г. шоколадную
массу стали смешивать с толчеными лесными орехами, за-
тем изобрели способ получения нежнейшего молочного
шоколада, а в конце XIX в. в битву шоколадных гиган-
тов — Франции и Швейцарии — неожиданно включилась
Россия. Русские умельцы начали сдабривать шоколад са-
мыми невероятными вещами: ликерами, коньяками, вина-
ми, кофе, миндалем, изюмом, цукатами. Словом, фантазия
русских кондитеров не знала границ, и вскоре их творения
начали завоевывать награды на самых престижных миро-
вых выставках.

Create a timeline of the chocolate history. Write a brief sum-


mary of the text based on the timeline.

Activity 28
More about stress
1. The following sentences contain idioms describing stress-
ful conditions. Choose parts of the body from the list to
complete them: neck, teeth, blood, feet, hands, eyes.
1) When my boss takes the credit for work I’ve done, it
makes my … boil!
2) Pete’s really got his … full with all the wedding prepara-
tions.
3) I’m fed up to the back … with all your criticism.
4) I’d like to help but I’m afraid I’m up to my … in work at
the moment.
5) I nearly broke my … to get there and then they told me
the meeting had been cancelled!
6) She tried to work from home but the children kept get-
ting under her … .
2. Use some of the idioms above to tell a partner about stress-
ful situations that you have experienced. Your partner
should give you appropriate advice on what to do in each
situation.
296 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 29
1. Discuss this question: What kinds of things can make car
driving stressful?
2. a) Read the following advertisement quickly to find out
how the idea of stress has been used to sell a car.
b) Now read the text more carefully and choose the answer
(А, B, C or D) which you think best fits each space.
The first answer has been given as an example.
Think of it as less of A TEST DRIVE and more of A REST
DRIVE.
Imagine a traffic jam (0) C over 122,000 km from nose to
(1) _____. If motoring experts have got their (2) _____ right,
that’s how much of Britain’s roads will be (3) _____ by the
year 2005. And let’s (4) _____ it, the situation is bleak enough
already. According to a recent (5) _____, 49% of business exec-
utives find traveling by car the most stressful way of getting
from A to B. At the (6) _____ of sounding alarmist, we’d like to
(7) _____ out that too much worry isn’t good for you. (8) _____
stress has been (9) _____ to heart attacks, strokes and high
blood pressure. Ironically, what every motorist needs to do is
slow down.
Maybe you should start by choosing a car that helps you to
stay calm, and relaxed, a car where you can (10) _____ from
the hubbub of traffic, yet still feel comfortable and in control, a
car like the Vauxhall Omega.
Being in a cramped, confined space is the last thing that (11)
_____ to a feeling of well�being. That’s why we’ve made the
Omega even more roomy than its predecessor. It isn’t just your
engine that can overheat when you’re stuck in a jam. When
temperatures (12) _____, so do tempers. Your concentration
lapses and you become more accident�prone. That’s when
air�conditioning becomes less of a luxury and more of a (13)
_____. Fortunately we’ve included it as a standard (14) _____
on every Omega.
Call our helpline: If you’d rather drive a car that reduces
stress instead of one that (15) _____ to it, give us a call.

0. A. passing B. lasting C. stretching D. going


1. A. tail B. foot C. end D. toe
2. A. additions B. accounts C. measurements D. calculations
Activities for Chapter 5 297

3. A. congested B. massed C. dense D. stuck


4. A. accept B. face C. imagine D. agree
5. A. discovery B. experiment C. survey D. inspection
6. A. danger B. risk C. chance D. worry
7. A. speak B. set C. make D. point
8. A. Excess B. Extensive C. Extra D. Exclusive
9. A. united B. linked C. joined D. attached
10. A. avoid B. remove C. depart D. escape
11. A. causes B. develops C. contributes D. assists
12. A. ascend B. advance C. grow D. rise
13. A. necessity B. demand C. need D. minimum
14. A. equipment B. feature C. section D. piece
15. A. increases B. builds C. adds D. expands

ACTIVITIES FOR CHAPTER 5


Activity 30
This strange Mr. Escher

What do you know anything


about optical illusions? Have
you ever seen one? Have you ever
heard about M. C. Escher?
How is his name connected to
illusions? What do you know
about him? M. C. Escher said
regarding his work, “I try in my
prints to testify that we live in
a beautiful and orderly world,
not in a chaos without norms,
even though that is how it
sometimes appears. My subjects are also often playful: I cannot
refrain from demonstrating the nonsensicalness of some of what
we take to be irrefutable certainties. It is, for example, a pleasure
to deliberately mix together objects of two and three dimensions,
surface and spatial relationships, and to make fun of gravity.”

Optical illusions

Do you know that Mr. Escher was a great master of optical


illusions? Look at the pictures and judge for yourself. What
do you see? Share the results of observation with your partner.
298 Extension activities and brainteasers

Look at picture 2. What is


your first impression of this
picture? What is each per-
son doing?
Turn the picture. What is
each person doing now? How
would you explain the odd
building? Make notes on
what seems to be happe-
ning in it.
Read the three paragraphs
describing the picture. Which
one do you prefer? What fe-
atures make each one more or less effective?
1. We look at this enigmatic picture from three sides but not
from above. The artist is playing with our sense of direction and
creating illusions: as we turn the page different people come
into view with the staircases apparently connecting each scene.
In all, there are sixteen people, with featureless heads like tailors’
dummies, going about their business in or near the same house.
2. The picture is an enigma, playing with our sense of direc-
tion and creating illusions. We can see sixteen people in the pic-
ture, but as we look at it from the left, from the right or from
below (but nor from above), different ones come into view on or
near each interconnected staircase. The heads of the people
going about their business are like tailors’ dummies: their heads
and clothes have no features.
3. The artist is focusing us to question what is true, creating
the illusion that the staircases are interconnected. We can look
at the pictures from three sides but not from above. As we turn
it round sixteen different people come into view, going about
their business in or near the house. But they aren’t really peo-
ple: they are just tailors’ dummies with featureless heads.
Choose one of the paragraphs you like best and complete it
describing the picture. Pay attention to the way in which
your ideas in each paragraph are sequenced.
• Looking at the picture from below we can see … .
• Looking at the picture from the right�hand side we can see … .
• Looking at the picture from the left�hand side we can see … .
When you have finished, show your paragraphs to your part-
ner.
Activities for Chapter 5 299

Activity 31
Colors
Using the active vocabulary from Chapter 5, translate the
following into English.
Хотите узнать нового партнера —
посмотрите на цвет его автомобиля!
Один мой знакомый ездил на машине темно�бордового
цвета. Он был очень доволен своим приобретением и посто-
янно расхваливал «подружку». Но однажды пришлось эту
машину ставить в ремонт, и он сел за руль другого авто —
желтого. Хотя модели были одинаковые, мой знакомый по-
чему�то стал нервничать за рулем и часто ностальгически
вспоминать прежнюю машину: Когда мы с ним начали об-
суждать причину внутреннего дискомфорта, я поняла, что
она, скорее всего, — в другом цвете машины.
Сидя за рулем, мы постоянно видим цвет машины и цвет
салона, ощущаем на себе его магическую силу. Каждый от-
тенок имеет свои энергию и характер, поэтому и воздейству-
ет на наши настроение и самочувствие определенным образом.
В истории с моим знакомым выяснилось, что его характе-
ру и стилю жизни соответствует именно бордо, а желтый —
прямая противоположность. Как супруги с полярными ха-
рактерами и привычками трудно уживаются вместе, так
и человек со своим автомобилем может быть постоянно не
в ладу по тем же причинам.
Раскроем тайны некоторых популярных среди автомо-
билистов цветов.
Черный символизирует уверенность в себе и основа-
тельность. Он призывает к стабильности, принципиальнос-
ти, требовательности и честолюбию.
Белый обладает самым высоким уровнем энергии. Отра-
жает от себя все цвета, а потому щедр и неподкупен. Если
вы честны и справедливы — это ваш цвет.
Синий — цвет мира и высшей гармонии. Символизирует
внутреннюю уверенность, интерес к мировоззренческим во-
просам, верность традициям, а также говорит об элегантно-
сти и высоком положении в обществе.
Зеленый — символ спокойствия и равновесия: рассуди-
тельность, неторопливость в принятии решений, природная
мудрость.
300 Extension activities and brainteasers

Бордо — довольно эротичен и пробуждает инстинкты.


Впрочем, это возбуждение скорее эмоционального характера,
чем физического. Для любителей этого цвета характерны
мощь, сдерживаемая страсть, требовательность, эмоциональ-
ная насыщенность, склонность к угрозам и подавлению.
Оранжевый — символ физической пассивности и активной
мысли. Стремление к обновлению и склонность к фантазии
на общем фоне беззаботности вносят романтическую нотку.
Ярко�красный — самоутверждающий и будоражащий
цвет. Для его приверженцев характерны динамичность,
большая сила воли, мужество и грубость.
Лимонный — неуверенность и осторожность. Предметы, окра-
шенные в этот цвет, кажутся нежными и утонченными. Люби-
тели лимонного склонны держать на уме какую�то хитрость.
Фиолетовый — цвет магический. Он символизирует
многозначность, сумрачность и неразрешимость внутрен-
них противоречий.
Желтый — солнце. Он полон оптимизма и жизненной энер-
гии. А кроме того, таит незаурядные умственные способно-
сти, открытость, общительность и стремление вырваться из
закрытого пространства.
Бирюзовый — восток: мечтательный, скрытный, облада-
ет интуицией и внутренне эмоционален. Холодный, он в то
же время податлив и переменчив, стремится к изолирован-
ности.
Салатный — чисто женский цвет, раскрепощенный,
очень мягкий и спокойный, так как он представляет собой
смесь зеленого и желтого, символизирует надежду и стрем-
ление к вечной жизни.
Теперь выберите среди этих цветов «свой» и сравните
с цветом вашего автомобиля. Если же вы только собираетесь
купить себе «дом на колесах», примите сказанное к сведе-
нию, чтобы сделать правильный выбор.
Цвет будет постоянно воздействовать на вас своей неви-
димой силой, поэтому лучше заранее знать, что это за сила.
А еще лучше — дружить с ней. Если вы хотите узнать некото-
рые черты характера вашего нового или делового партнера,
имеющего автомобиль, просто спросите, нравится ли ему
цвет его машины. И уж если он очарован «подружкой» —
смело делайте выводы.
Мне, например, нравится пучеглазая Porsche желтого
цвета, а вам?
(Марина Эйрус. Журнал «Натали», сентябрь 1996 г.)
Activities for Chapter 5 301

Activity 32
Your true colors

Read the statements below and try to decide if they are true
or false. Discuss your ideas with another student.
1) Green dyes in sweets make people feel ill.
2) Food manufacturers think that color dyes make their prod-
ucts more appealing.
3) The British like tinned vegetables to be a bright color.
4) Both Americans and Britons like apples which are bright red.
5) There is no scientific evidence that colors can have an effect
on the nervous system.
6) The color blue can make us feel calm.
7) The color red is used by fast food chains to encourage cus-
tomers to stay in their restaurants.
8) People also judge a cleaning product like soap powder by its
color.
Now read the text and say whether the statements are true
or false according to the writer. If you think a statement is
false, be prepared to say why.
Seeing red can quite literally make you “see red.” It can also
make you eat faster. Color influences the mind in mysterious
ways, and those who wish to influence you — to make you buy
their products, or work harder — often do so with color. But
you can make this process work to your advantage. Go through
the spectrum; then use our color test to show you the finer
shades of your personality and your temperament.
The marketing world is full of folklore about consumer reac-
tions to color: how, for example, too much green on a confec-
tionery wrapper is a recipe for disaster. For years the food
industry insisted that without its handy “azo�” dyes the public
would find processed produce unappetizing. Yet color prefer-
ence can often sound like a mix of fad and cultural custom, espe-
cially when the French will eat grey tinned peas and beans,
while the British will not, and we prefer green apples to the
Americans’ glossy red. However, there is more to color than
meets the eye.
This, at least, is the view of light researcher John Ott, who
has discovered that color may directly affect our nervous sys-
tems.
302 Extension activities and brainteasers

The idea that color can affect the nervous system in some
way seems strengthened by the fact that experiments have
recorded raised blood pressure in red surroundings and lowered
blood pressure in blue surroundings. Red evokes subjective
reactions of increased energy and hunger; blue evokes tranquil-
ity and relaxation. Whether knowingly or otherwise, the effects
of seeing red have been cleverly exploited by fast food chains.
As well as making people hungry, red and its close relation,
orange, cause time to seem to pass more quickly and influence
people to feel in a hurry. By using these colors, an atmosphere
which increases the appetite but subtly dissuades the customer
from hanging around for very long.
Color has also been used to striking effect in the marketing
of consumer products. A group of housewives was once asked to
test samples of identical soap powder in three different boxes,
one yellow, one blue and one a mix of blue and yellow.
Extraordinary results ensued: the powder in the yellow packet
was judged to be so powerful that some said it had damaged
their clothes, while the blue was said to be so weak that it left
stains behind: the powder in the mix of blue and yellow was
assessed as just right. Yet the only difference was in the color of
the packet.

Activity 33
Test your personality with Color Test

1. Read the instructions for the Color Test below and then
fill in the boxes with the names of your favorite colors.
This is a shorter version of the full Luscher Color Test, develo-
ped over twenty years by Max Luscher. Prof. Dr. Max Luscher,
the head of the Institute of Psycho�Medical Diagnostics in
Lucern (Switzerland), studied clinical psychiatry, philosophy
and psychology in Basel. He has held a professorship in Amster-
dam, teaching positions at the Universities of Paris and Rome,
at Yale University in the USA, in South America and Australia.
The Luscher�Color�Diagnostic has been in clinical use since
1947, and has been translated into 27 languages.
Dr. Max Luscher has devoted his life to the study of how
color affects behavior and has been hired by some of the world’s
largest companies as a consultant. The test is based upon fun-
Activities for Chapter 5 303

damentals in color psychology. With years of research by color


psychologists the characteristics of certain colors has been
identified to cause an emotional response in people. This was
done by studying the response from hundreds of thousands of
test subjects around the world in order to isolate how certain
colors make us feel. By using the colors people prefer to deter-
mine how they we can get some interesting indicators about
a person’s current emotional state.
It is important to understand that the results from tests like
this can be both short�term and long�term in their meaning. For
example, if you are feeling depressed about something when you
take the test you may see this reflected in your results. You may
also notice deeper conflicts showing themselves consistently if
you take the test time and time again. This test can be taken
quite often and still yield results that are accurate. The results
will not be the same each time you take the test, for the most
part, unless you are taking them without some time interval
between them.
Is the test reliable? We leave that to your opinion. However,
there are a number of corporations and colleges that use the
Luscher test as part of their hiring/admissions processes. It can
be a useful tool for doctors and psychologists as well and is used
to get a quick overview of potential issues patients may have in
their lives.
Give the test a try and you will be surprised!
The colors used were selected for their associations with
physical and mental states. To find out what color says about
your personality, briefly study the colors above and then choose
the color which appeals to you most immediately. (Don’t
choose on the grounds of fashion or whether it does wonders for
your hair.) Write this in the first box and then repeat the
process with your second favorite color in the second box, and
so on until your least favorite color is in the eighth box.
Work with another student. Exchange your lists of colors
and then turn to the main text. Read out the interpretation for
your partner’s two top colors and listen while your partner
explains what your two favorite colors mean. Discuss how accu-
rate (or not) these interpretations are.
Now answer questions 1—18 by choosing from the colors in
sections A�H of the text. Some choices may be required more
than once. When more than one answer is required, these may
be given in any order.
304 Extension activities and brainteasers

Which color ...


• represents health? 1
• is often popular with teenagers? 2
• indicates someone who wants to lead a quiet, 3
untroubled life?
• represents two contrasting characteristics? 4 5
Which color are you likely to have towards the beginning of
your list ...
• if you are very energetic and ambitious? 6 7
• if you are happy with your life as it is? 8 9
• if you need other people’s approval and recogni- 10
tion for what you do?
• if you don’t like joining in with other people? 11
• if you need to feel safe in your surroundings? 12
Which color are you likely to have towards the end of your
list ...
• if you have a realistic view of life? 13 14
• if you are seriously discontented at the moment? 15
• if you have been disappointed in your hopes and 16 17
ambitions?
• if you are extremely keen and ambitious? 18

A — red, B — yellow, C — green, D — violet,


E — brown, F — grey, G — blue, H — black

Interpretations

A Red
Red represents passion and energy. Red in the first position
means you are impulsive, sexy and have a will to win. You are
a good leader. You want to expand your horizons and live life to
the full. Red in the seventh or eighth position means your desire
for life and thirst for adventure has become less.
B Yellow
Yellow represents happiness and relaxation. Anyone who
chooses yellow in second, third or fourth place is a positive,
optimistic person who always looks to the future — never back-
wards. You find life easy, and problems simply do not exist for
you. Free from worry, you lead a carefree life; but this does not
mean that you are lazy. You can be extremely hardworking,
Activities for Chapter 5 305

although not consistently. Yellow in first place means that you


are ambitious and eager to please. When yellow is in the latter
part of the spectrum you have had your hopes and dreams dashed
and you feel isolated and disappointed, often becoming defen-
sive and withdrawn.
C Green
Green represents firmness and resistance to change. In first
place, you are persistent, possessive and quite selfish. You are
a high�achiever and an accumulator of “things” — like a pent-
house, a BMW, a Rolex, a holiday flat, a compact�disc player.
You want to be recognized and need to impress but worry about
the prospect of failure. If green is a later choice, your ego has
been bruised and you have been humbled by the resistance to
your progress. Consequently you can be highly critical, sarcas-
tic and stubborn.
D Violet
A mixture of red and blue, violet represents a conflict
between impulsiveness and calm sensitivity, dominance and
submissiveness. The person who prefers violet wants to find
a mystical, magical relationship. Both mentally and physically
immature, you are stuck in a dream world of wishful thinking
and fantasy. Often violet is chosen by adolescents who still see
the world through fairy�tale eyes. When violet appears in the
latter part of the sequence, it indicates that the person choosing
it is more mature and has outgrown the “fantasy” vision of life,
confronting harsh reality head�on.
E Brown
Brown is the color of physical well�being and is an indicator
of how healthy you think you are. If you put brown in fourth or
fifth place you are not very concerned about your health and
body. This means that you are probably in good shape. Those wor-
ried about illness tend to put brown earlier in their sequence. If
you choose brown as your favorite color, you are restless and
insecure. If brown is in eighth place, you don’t care enough for
your body: you may not be as healthy as you think. Placing
brown early also indicates the importance of a secure environ-
ment: refugees often pick brown first.
F Grey
Grey is a neutral and represents a point between two con-
trasting and conflicting motivations. Grey in the first position
306 Extension activities and brainteasers

means that you want to shut yourself off from everything and
remain uncommitted, so that you can swing with opinion and
emotions. You hate joining anything with “group” connotations
and are an observer rather than a doer. Those who choose grey
in the eighth position seek to join in with everything, eager and
enthusiastic. Such people will try absolutely everything in their
efforts to achieve their goals.
G Blue
Blue represents calmness and loyalty. A person who favors
blue is sensitive and easily hurt. You never panic and are in total
control of your life and content with the way it is going. You
desire to lead an uncomplicated and worry�free life and are pre-
pared to sacrifice certain goals in order to achieve this. You need
a stable relationship without conflict. Perhaps, as a side�effect
of contentment, you tend to put on weight. The later blue appears
in the sequence, the more unsatisfied you are and the more you
feel the need to break from the ties that restrict you. But you
probably aren’t unfeeling enough to walk out on a family or job;
instead, you will suffer in silence.
H Black
Black is the negation of color and means No. Anyone who
chooses it in the first position (which is rare) is in revolt against
their fate. Chosen second, it means you are prepared to give up
everything else to achieve what you want. It is normally put in
seventh or eighth place, representing control of one’s destiny
and a balanced outlook. If yellow precedes black in the first two
positions, then a change is on the way.
(From The Telegraph Sunday Magazine)

Activity 34
Colorful idioms

Choose the correct colors to complete each sentence. Choose


from the box below.

Red, blue, yellow, black, white, green, pink

1) When I see people dropping litter in the street, it really


makes me see … .
Activities for Chapter 5 307

2) If you keep your bank account in the … you won’t have to


pay any bank charges.
3) His sister’s financial success and luxurious lifestyle makes
him … with envy.
4) We used to be good friends but now I only see him once in
a … moon.
5) Things are going very well for Brenda at the moment.
When I saw her, she really looked in the … .
6) I’m afraid my account is in the … at the moment, so I can’t
afford a holiday.
7) That office block they built has turned out to be a real …
elephant. They spent the earth on it and it’s still unoccupied.
8) I was completely … when I first started my own business,
and I had to learn some important lessons the hard way.
9) The sales figures are down again and the boss is screaming
… murder.
10) They have a festival there. They painted the town … .

Activity 35
Color quiz

Аnswer the questions and compare your answers with your


partner’s.
1) What color is a pedestrian crossing?
2) What color is an elephant?
3) What are the colors of your national flag?
4) What are the colors of a rainbow?
5) What colors do you associate with “nothing to declare” at
customs?
6) What color do you associate with embarrassment?
7) What color do traffic lights go for “stop”?
8) What colors do leaves go in the fall?
9) What color represents the political party most concerned
with protecting the environment?
10) What color card represents a “caution” in soccer?
11) What color is formed by mixing red and blue?
12) What color id formed by mixing yellow and blue?
308 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 36
Color sense

Read the article below and circle the letter next to the word
which best fits each space. The first answer has been given as
an example.
A color consultant painted one police interview room light
green, and another (0) B red. Subsequently, the police found
that suspects (1) _____ statements more quickly when they
were in the red room, again enforcing the idea that too much
red (2) _____ a feeling of being pressurized. The soft green
room was for (3) _____ victims and their families, and there are
many (4) _____ of light colors being used to (5) _____ feelings
and encourage relaxation.
Some institutions in the USA have special pink areas to cool
the (6) _____ of angry prisoners, service recruits and patients.
Soft blues, greens and beiges seem to be (7) _____ and hospitals,
schools and dentists are beginning to take this into (8) _____
when choosing color schemes. An airline which (9) _____ from
a yellow and brown interior scheme to one (10) _____ green
and blue reported a forty�five per cent decrease (11) _____ air-
sickness. But the workplace is the biggest challenge: (12) _____
too much nor too (13) _____ energy will do. The (14) _____
fashion for grey with a few details in brighter colors may be
a good (15) _____.
0. A. heavy B. strong C. lively D. sharp
1. A. gave B. said C. admitted D. spoke
2. A. makes B. leads C. has D. creates
3. A. discussing B. interviewing C. requesting D. explaining
4. A. ways B. occasions C. examples D. demonstrations
5. A. play up B. play down C. run up D. run down
6. A. tempers B. moods C. personalities D. senses
7. A. sleepy B. leisurely C. tiring D. restful
8. A. view B. mind C. account D. opinion
9. A. changed B. turned C. adapted D. altered
10. A. by B. for C. from D. of
11. A. of B. in C. with D. about
12. A. never B. nor C. no D. neither
13. A. few B. small C. little D. low
14. A. current B. nowadays C. actual D. instant
15. A. result B. system C. solution D. way
Activities for Chapter 6 309

ACTIVITIES FOR CHAPTER 6


Activity 37
Here is a list of phobias, read the definitions and get ready to
do a quiz.
Phobias list
Acarophobia — fear of itching Arachnophobia — fear of spiders
Acerophobia — fear of sourness Arithmophobia — fear of numbers
Achluophobia — fear of darkness Asthenophobia — fear of fainting
Acousticophobia — fear of noise Astrophobia — fear of celestial
Acrophobia — fear of heights space
Aerophobia — fear of drafts, air Ataxiophobia — fear of muscular
Agliophobia — fear of pain incoordination
Agoraphobia — fear of open spaces Ataxophobia — fear of untidiness
Agrizoophobia — fear of wild Atelophobia — fear of imperfection
animals Athazagoraphobia — fear of
Agyrophobia — fear of crossing being forgotten or ignored
the street Atychiphobia — fear of failure
Aichmophobia — fear of needles Aulophobia — fear of flutes
and other pointed objects Aurophobia — fear of gold
Ailurophobia — fear of cats Auroraphobia — fear of northern
Albuminurophobia — fear of kid- lights
ney disease Automatonophobia — fear of
Alektorophobia — fear of chickens ventriloquist dummies, wax
Alliumphobia — fear of garlic statues
Allodoxaphobia — fear of opinions Automysophobia — fear of being
Amathophobia — fear of dust dirty
Amaxophobia — fear of riding in Aviophobia — fear of flying
a car Bacillophobia — fear of microbes
Ambulophobia — fear of walking Ballistophobia — fear of missiles
Amychophobia — fear of being or bullets
scratched Barophobia — fear of gravity
Anablephobia — fear of looking up Basophobia — fear of inability to
Androphobia — fear of men stand
Аnemophobia — fear of wind Bathophobia — fear of depth
Аnglophobia — fear of Britain Batrachophobia — fear of amphi-
Аnthophobia — fear of flowers bians
Аntlophobia — fear of floods Bibliophobia — fear of books
Аnuptaphobia — fear of staying Bogyphobia — fear of bogeymen
single Bolshephobia — fear of Bolshe-
Apeirophobia — fear of infinity viks
Apiphobia — fear of bees Bromidrosiphobia — fear of
Arachibutyrophobia — fear of body smells
peanut butter sticking to roof Bufonophobia — fear of toads
of mouth Cacophobia — fear of ugliness
310 Extension activities and brainteasers

Cainophobia — fear of newness, Decidophobia — fear of making


novelty decisions
Caligynephobia — fear of beauti- Defecaloesiophobia — fear of
ful women painful bowel movements
Carcinophobia — fear of cancer Deipnophobia — fear of dining
Cardiophobia — fear of the heart Dementophobia — fear of insanity
Carnophobia — fear of meat Demonophobia — fear of demons
Catagelophobia — fear of being Dendrophobia — fear of trees
ridiculed Dentophobia — fear of dentists
Catapedaphobia — fear of jum- Dermatophobia — fear of skin
ping lesions
Ceraunophobia — fear of thunder Didaskaleinophobia — fear of
Chaetophobia — fear of hair school
Chemophobia — fear of chemicals Dikephobia — fear of justice
Cherophobia — fear of gaiety Dinophobia — fear of dizziness
Chionophobia — fear of snow Diplophobia — fear of double
Chiraptophobia — fear of being vision
touched Dipsophobia — fear of drinking
Cholerophobia — fear of anger Dishabiliophobia — fear of un-
Chorophobia — fear of dancing dressing in front of someone
Chrometophobia — fear of money Domatophobia — fear of houses
Chromophobia — fear of colors Doraphobia — fear of animal fur
Chronomentrophobia — fear of or skins
clocks Dromophobia — fear of crossing
Cibophobia — fear of food streets
Claustrophobia — fear of con- Dysmorphophobia — fear of
fined spaces deformity
Cleisiophobia — fear of being Dystychiphobia — fear of acci-
locked in dents
Climacophobia — fear of stairs Ecclesiophobia — fear of church
Clinophobia — fear of going to Eisoptrophobia — fear of mirrors,
bed or seeing oneself in a mirror
Coimetrophobia — fear of ceme- Electrophobia — fear of electricity
teries Eleutherophobia — fear of freedom
Contreltophobia — fear of sexual Emetophobia — fear of vomiting
abuse Enetophobia — fear of pins
Coprastasophobia — fear of con- Enochlophobia — fear of crowds
stipation Enosiophobia — fear of commit-
Coprophobia — fear of feces ting an unpardonable sin
Coulrophobia — fear of clowns Entomophobia — fear of insects
Cremnophobia — fear of preci- Eosophobia — fear of dawn or
pices daylight
Cryophobia — fear of extreme Epistaxiophobia — fear of nose-
cold bleeds
Crystallophobia — fear of crys- Epistemophobia — fear of
tals, glass knowledge
Cyclophobia — fear of bicycles Equinophobia — fear of horses
Activities for Chapter 6 311

Eremophobia — fear of being Isolophobia — fear of solitude


oneself Ithyphallophobia — fear of erec-
Ereuthrophobia — fear of blushing tion
Ergophobia — fear of work Japanophobia — fear of Japanese
Erotophobia — fear of sexual love Judeophobia — fear of Jews
Euphobia — fear of hearing good Kainolophobia — fear of novelty
news Katagelophobia — fear of ridicule
Eurotophobia — fear of female Kathisophobia — fear of sitting
genitalia down
Febriphobia — fear of fever Kenophobia — fear of empty
Francophobia — fear of France spaces
Frigophobia — fear of cold Kinetophobia — fear of motion
Gamophobia — fear of marriage Kleptophobia — fear of stealing
Geliophobia — fear of laughter Koniophobia — fear of dust
Geniophobia — fear of chins Kopophobia — fear of fatigue
Genuphobia — fear of knees Kyphophobia — fear of stooping
Gerascophobia — fear of growing Lachanophobia — fear of vegeta-
old bles
Glossophobia — fear of speaking Leprophobia — fear of leprosy
in public Leukophobia — fear of the color
Gymnophobia — fear of nudity white
Hadephobia — fear of hell Ligyrophobia — fear of loud noises
Hagiophobia — fear of aints or Limnophobia — fear of lakes
holy things Linonophobia — fear of string
Harpaxophobia — fear of being Liticaphobia — fear of lawsuits
robbed Lockiophobia — fear of childbirth
Hedonophobia — fear of feeling Logophobia — fear of words
pleasure Luiphobia — fear of syphilis
Heliophobia — fear of the sun Lutraphobia — fear of otters
Hemophobia — fear of blood Lygophobia — fear of darkness
Herpetophobia — fear of reptiles Mageirocophobia — fear of
Heterophobia — fear of opposite cooking
sex Malaxophobia — fear of love play
Hodophobia — fear of road travel Mastigophobia — fear of punish-
Homichlophobia — fear of fog ment
Homilophobia — fear of sermons Mechanophobia — fear of
Homophobia — fear of homosex- machines
uality Melophobia — fear of music
Hoplophobia — fear of firearms Menophobia — fear of menstrua-
Hydrophobia — fear of water tion
Hypegiaphobia — fear of respon- Merinthophobia — fear of being
sibility tied up
Iatrophobia — fear of doctors Metathesiophobia — fear of
Ichthyophobia — fear of fish changes
Illyngophobia — fear of vertigo Methyphobia — fear of alcohol
Insectophobia — fear of insects Microphobia — fear of small
Iophobia — fear of poison things
312 Extension activities and brainteasers

Misophobia — fear of dirt or germs Pharmacophobia — fear of med-


Mnemophobia — fear of memo- icines
ries Phasmophobia — fear of ghosts
Motorphobia — fear of automo- Philemaphobia — fear of kissing
biles Philophobia — fear of falling in
Musophobia — fear of mice love
Mycophobia — fear of mushrooms Phobophobia — fear of phobias
Myxophobia — fear of slime Phonophobia — fear of noises
Necrophobia — fear of death Phthisiophobia — fear of tuber-
Neopharmaphobia — fear of new culosis
drugs Placophobia — fear of tomb-
Neophobia — fear of anything new stones
Nephophobia — fear of clouds Plutophobia — fear of wealth
Noctiphobia — fear of night Pogonophobia — fear of beards
Nomatophobia — fear of names Poinephobia — fear of punish-
Nosocomephobia — fear of hos- ment
pitals Proctophobia — fear of rectums
Novercaphobia — fear of step- Pteromerhanophobia — fear of
mothers flying
Numerophobia — fear of numbers Pupaphobia — fear of puppets
Ochophobia — fear of vehicles Pyrophobia — fear of fire
Odontophobia — fear of dental Radiophobia — fear of radiation,
surgery X rays
Odynophobia — fear of pain Ranidaphobia — fear of frogs
Oenophobia — fear of wines Rhabdophobia — fear of punish-
Oikophobia — fear of home ment
Olfactophobia — fear of smell Rhypophobia — fear of defeca-
Ombrophobia — fear of rain tion
Ommetaphobia — fear of eyes Rhytiphobia — fear of getting
Ophidiophobia — fear of snakes wrinkles
Ophthalmophobia — fear of Rupophobia — fear of dirt
being stared at Russophobia — fear of Russians
Ornithophobia — fear of birds Samhainophobia — fear of
Osphresiophobia — fear of smells Halloween
Ostraconophobia — fear of shell- Sarmassophobia — fear of love
fish play
Ouranophobia — fear of heaven Satanophobia — fear of Satan
Pagophobia — fear of ice or frost Scabiophobia — fear of scabies
Panthophobia — fear of disease Scelerophobia — fear of bad
Papaphobia — fear of the Pope men, burglars
Papyrophobia — fear of paper Sciophobia — fear of shadows
Parasitophobia — fear of parasites Scoleciphobia — fear of worms
Peccatophobia — fear of sinning Scotomaphobia — fear of blind-
Pediophobia — fear of dolls ness
Pedophobia — fear of children Scriptophobia — fear of writing
Phalacrophobia — fear of becom- in public
ing bald Selenophobia — fear of the moon
Activities for Chapter 6 313

Seplophobia — fear of decaying Tonitrophobia — fear of thunder


matter Toxiphobia — fear of poison
Siderodromophobia — fear of trains Traumatophobia — fear of injury
Siderophobia — fear of stars Tremophobia — fear of trem-
Sinistrophobia — fear of bling
left�handedness Triskaidekaphobia — fear of the
Sphexsophobia — fear of wasps number 13
Staurophobia — fear of the cru- Trypanophobia — fear of injec-
cifix tions
Stenophobia — fear of narrow Uranophobia — fear of heaven
places Urophobia — fear of urine
Symbolophobia — fear of sym- Vaccinophobia — fear of vacci-
bolism nations
Symmetrophobia — fear of sym- Venustraphobia — fear of beauti-
metry ful women
Syngenesophobia — fear of rela- Verbophobia — fear of words
tives Verminophobia — fear of germs
Syphilophobia — fear of syphilis Vestiphobia — fear of clothing
Tachophobia — fear of speed Virginitiphobia — fear of rape
Taphephobia — fear of being Vitricophobia — fear of stepfa-
buried alive thers
Tapinophobia — fear of being Walloonophobia — fear of the
contagious walloons
Taurophobia — fear of bulls Wiccaphobia — fear of witches
Technophobia — fear of techno- Xanthophobia — fear of the
logy color yellow
Teleophobia — fear of definite Xenophobia — fear of strangers
plans Xerophobia — fear of dryness
Testophobia — fear of taking tests Xylophobia — fear of forests
Thalassophobia — fear of the sea Zelophobia — fear of jealousy
Thanatophobia — fear of death Zemmiphobia — fear of the great
or dying mole rat
Theatrophobia — fear of theaters Zeusophobia — fear of God or
Thermophobia — fear of heat gods
Tocophobia — fear of childbirth Zoophobia — fear of animals

Activity 38
Phobias quiz: How much do you know about fear?
A phobia is an exaggerated, persistent, and overpowering
fear of ... well, just about anything. From knees to vegetables to
otters, the subjects of these intense fears are irrational by defi-
nition. Their names, however, are quite rational; most are
derived from Greek or Latin. So dust off that classics dictionary
and find out just how much you know about fear.
314 Extension activities and brainteasers

1) A person who suffers from dendrophobia has a persistent,


abnormal, and irrational fear of what?
a) Trees
b) Dentists or dental work
c) Nerve damage or nerve pain
2) Aviophobia is also known as which of the following?
a) Fear of birds
b) Fear of flying
c) Fear of lizards or other reptiles
3) Brontophobia, one of the more common phobias, describes
an obsessive fear of what?
a) Dinosaurs or dinosaur bones
b) Suffocation or lung malfunction
c) Thunder and lightning
4) A xenophobe possesses an overpowering fear of what?
a) Foreigners
b) Things that glow in the dark
c) Things that are yellow
5) An arachibutyrophobic is obsessively terrified of what?
a) Spiders, scorpions, or mites
b) Peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth
c) Animal fats
6) Which of the following describes a persistent, abnormal, and
irrational fear of snakes?
a) Serpentophobia
b) Ophidiophobia
c) Squamatophobia
7) One of the most common phobias is agoraphobia, an irra-
tional fear of what?
a) Money or coins
b) Public or open spaces
c) Heights
8) People with triskaidekaphobia are terrified of anything to
do with which of the following?
a) The number 13
b) Crackers or unleavened bread
c) Triplets
9) A person who is terrified of crossing a bridge is afflicted with
which of the following?
Activities for Chapter 6 315

a) Gephyrophobia
b) Botanophobia
c) Ichthyophobia
10) Sesquipedalophobics are horrified of which of the follow-
ing?
a) Food dishes containing cod fish
b) 150th anniversaries
c) Long words
If you don’t know the answers, Phobias List will help you. If
you still can’t do the quiz, check the answers in the Аnswer
Keys.

Activity 39
Fears/Phobias test of 100 common fears that people face

This is a self�discovery test to help you discover the level of


your unhealthy fears.
Please understand that there is a difference between an
awareness of real danger and an unhealthy fear. I do not fear rattle-
snakes and have killed a number of them in my youth, but I don’t
stick my hand in a dark hole under a rock where there may be
a rattlesnake. Please check the appropriate answer with 0 being
the weakest or none and 5 being the strongest fear.
1. Fear of the dark. 18. Fear of crawling bugs.
2. Fear of heights. 19. Fear of birds.
3. Fear of falling. 20. Fear of storms.
4. Fear of sickness and disease. 21. Fear of loud sounds.
5. Fear of failure. 22. Fear of evil spirits.
6. Fear of evil. 23. Fear of Hell.
7. Fear of dying. 24. Fear of losing your salvation.
8. Fear of large animals. 25. Fear of public speaking.
9. Fear of dogs. 26. Fear of end time events.
10. Fear of cats. 27. Fear of open spaces.
11. Fear of being poisoned. 28. Fear of being alone.
12. Fear of closed spaces. 29. Fear of germs.
13. Fear of success. 30. Fear of anyone in authority.
14. Fear of the future. 31. Fear of men (male gender).
15. Fear of divorce. 32. Fear of women (female gender).
16. Fear of snakes or other rep- 33. Fear of haunted houses.
tiles. 34. Fear of being around dead
17. Fear of spiders. people.
316 Extension activities and brainteasers

35. Fear of flying (travel). 70. Fear of aliens.


36. Fear of driving (travel). 71. Fear of crying.
37. Fear of getting old. 72. Fear of being angry.
38. Fear of getting married. 73. Fear of being happy.
39. Fear of being “found out.” 74. Fear of committing suicide.
40. Fear of being poor. 75. Fear of having relations.
41. Fear of what others may 76. Fear of being labeled by others.
think about you. 77. Fear of being emotionally
42. Fear of guns, knives or other intimate with others.
weapons. 78. Fear of fire or being burned.
43. Fear of insects. 79. Fear of being tortured.
44. Fear of the unknown. 80. Fear of being without medi-
45. Fear that God doesn’t love or cation.
accept you. 81. Fear of committing the unpar-
46. Fear of being in a crowded donable sin.
place. 82. Fear of being in a hospital.
47. Fear of personal mental illness. 83. Fear of having surgery.
48. Fear of seeing blood. 84. Fear of someone looking over
49. Fear of dirt. your shoulder.
50. Fear of going to sleep. 85. Fear of water or drowning.
51. Fear of being overweight. 86. Fear of mirrors.
52. Fear of being underweight. 87. Fear of certain foods.
53. Fear of going to church. 88. Fear of being starved.
54. Fear of not being prepared. 89. Fear of moving.
55. Fear of being punished. 90. Fear of changes in your rou-
56. Fear of evil people. tine.
57. Fear of losing control of your 91. Fear of angels.
emotions. 92. Fear of electronic gadgets.
58. Fear of not awaking from sleep. 93. Fear of sudden disaster.
59. Fear of being ugly. 94. Fear of what someone said
60. Fear of being naked. about you may come true.
62. Fear of facing life. 95. Fear of not being able to do
63. Fear of making decisions. what was told you.
64. Fear of losing your family. 96. Fear that you will never be a
65. Fear of disorder/not having success.
your life planned. 97. Fear of open spaces.
66. Fear of being emotionally 98. Fear of losing a family mem-
wounded. ber through death.
67. Fear of giving birth (child 99. Fear that God may or may
bearing). not speak to you.
68. Fear of recalling a past event. 100. Fear that is not otherwise
69. Fear of remaining single. listed.
Activities for Chapter 6 317

Activity 40
Phobias

Look at the pictures and tell the story.

Felinophobia — an abnormal fear or dread of cats; often


with some justification.

The scenes shown here rep-


resent an actual attack by a cat
on a postal-delivery woman in
Germany; whenever she tried
to deliver the mail. According
to a German TV presentation,
the cat’s owner was sitting in
his home with his phobic cat on
his lap and as a visiting postal-
woman tried to pet the cat, it responded by violently striking
out at her. Did the cat resent an invasion of its territory or did
it simply have an abnormal
hatred for uniforms? Whatever
the reason for the cat’s behavior,
its owner had to pick up his mail
at a neighborhood bar because he
refused to restrict the freedom of
his cat to come and go whenever
it desired.

Activity 41
Mania — phobia psychosis

A mania is a psychosis oppo-


site to phobia. Read about the
two and try to explain in your
own words. Humorous illus-
trations will help you under-
stand them better.

Ophidiomania — an exces-
sive interest in snakes or other
318 Extension activities and brainteasers

reptiles including observing them, studying them, and having


them as pets.
Ophidiophobia, ophiciophobia, ophiophobia — an exces-
sive terror of snakes and other reptiles.
Pyromania — insanity character-
ized by an impulse to set things on
fire; a mania for incendiarism.
Pyrophobia — 1) an intense fear
of fire, watching fires, or that one
will start fires; 2) in biology, intoler-
ant of the soil conditions produced
by fire; a reference to a plant that is
unable to re-establish itself following
a fire.
Kleptomania — an irresistible tendency to steal in which a
person steals not because of necessity but as a result of some
compulsion (also spelled as cleptomania).
The individual experiences a rising subjective sense of ten-
sion before the theft and feels pleasure, gratification, or relief
when committing the theft. The objects are stolen despite the
fact that they are typically of little value to the individual, who
could have afforded to pay for them and often gives them away
or discards them.

Occasionally the person may hoard the stolen objects or


even secretly return them. Although individuals with this dis-
order will generally avoid stealing when immediate arrest is
probable (e.g., in full view of a police officer), they usually don’t
preplan the thefts or fully take into account the chances of
apprehension.
The stealing is done without assistance from, or collabora-
tion with, others. Kleptomania is a rare condition that appears
Activities for Chapter 6 319

to occur in fewer than 5% of identified shoplifters. It also


appears to be much more common in females.
Kleptophobia — 1) an excessive fear of thieves or of a loss of
property as a result of thievery; 2) an intense fear of becoming
a kleptomaniac.

Activity 42
Phobia or mania?

Match the name of a disorder with its definition. If you have


trouble, check the Phobias List.

1. An abnormal fear of the sight of blood or of transfusions.


Phobics of blood may recoil, close their eyes, or even faint when
faced with the sight of their own or another’s blood. Victims of
this phobia may experience more nausea and faintness than fear
or anxiety. There is often a sharp drop in heart rate and blood
pressure. When the natural mild fear of blood or injury is mag-
nified to phobic severity, it can lead to substantial handicaps.
Sufferers may avoid essential medical procedures, preferring to
endure a remediable disease even if it threatens their lives. They
may also avoid otherwise attractive careers as doctors or nurses.
2. An excessive fear of pain. Mankind has suffered and feared
pain since the beginning of time. Although a wide variety of
drugs are now available to ease pain, it is still a fearful topic, and
the prospect of having pain makes many people extremely anx-
ious; especially, when they can not explain its cause to their
doctor or to others around them.
3. 1) An obsessional pre-occupation with cleanliness, washing,
or bathing, often accompanied by compulsive rituals. 2) A mor-
bid impulse to wash or to bathe, or an incessant preoccupation
with thoughts of frequent hand-washing, or bathing; often seen
as an obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Compulsive rituals are enormously time-consuming. One
woman had a compulsion to wash her hands in a certain way
after touching “unclean” objects — namely, from fingers to wrist,
from wrist to elbow, and from elbow to upper arm — and then to
repeat the performance until her anxiety was over, which could
be several times. As a result, her hands often became painfully
raw.
320 Extension activities and brainteasers

A young man had the compulsion to wash in a certain order


whenever he had a bath. He said, “When I wash clothes or clean
anything — floor, carpet, windows and so on — I have to clean
them in a certain manner to make sure I do not miss anything. I
can never hurry because I would not feel that it has been done
properly.”
4. An abnormal fear of chickens which may be a result of the
fear of feathers, of winged creatures, or of flying animals or
birds. Such fears may also include eggs and live or dead chick-
ens. A few reasons include fears of being pecked, swooped upon,
and because they roost above eye level or that they eat food
from the ground or manure piles which apparently may con-
taminate the bird. Such fears usually involve relative closeness
to live chickens, but usually don’t include cooked chickens.

Algophobia, alektorophobia, ablutomania, hemaphobia

Activity 43
Read and translate the passage.

Oedipus complex, Freudian term, drawn from the myth of


Oedipus1, designating attraction on the part of the child toward
the parent of the opposite sex and rivalry and hostility toward
the parent of its own. It occurs during the phallic stage of the
psycho-sexual development of the personality, approximately
years three to five. Resolution of the Oedipus complex is believed
to occur by identification with the parent of the same sex and
by the renunciation of sexual interest in the parent of the oppo-
site sex. Freud considered this complex the cornerstone of the
superego and the nucleus of all human relationships. Many psy-
chiatrists, while acknowledging the significance of the Oedipal
relationships to personality development in our culture, ascribe
love and attraction toward one parent and hatred and antago-
nism toward the other not necessarily to sexual rivalry but to
resentment of parental authoritarian power.

——————————
1
Oedipus — (Greek meaning swollen�footed) was a mythical Greek king of
Thebes. He fulfilled a prophecy that said he would kill his father and marry his
mother, and thus brought disaster on his city and family. This legend has been retold
in many versions, and was used by Sigmund Freud to name the Oedipus complex.
Activities for Chapter 7 321

ACTIVITIES FOR CHAPTER 7


Activity 44
Mind and body

Brain: a two-room cottage occupied


by an artist and an accountant engaged
in a perpetual tug-of-war.
The Cynic’s Dictionary by Rick Bayan

What kind of thinker are you? Work with another student.


Discuss each of the statements below and fill in the answers
for your partner. Tick yes or no according to whether your
partner thinks the statement sounds like him or her or not.

Yes No
1. You like putting things in a sequence or order
2. You are spontaneous and sometimes jump to conclu-
sions
3. You like puzzles and word games
4. You love to daydream, and your dreams at night are
very real and alive
5. You have patience and stick to a problem, trying var-
ious approaches, until you get a solution
6. You like art, music, dance and creative expression
7. You can speak a few words in several languages
8. You cry easily and your feelings are easily hurt
9. You categorize things easily, and your files are in per-
fect order
10. You are visual; you get impressions of places in color
and form

Scoring: Count the number of yes answers you gave to odd-


numbered statements (1, 3, etc.). These indicate the use of the
left brain, which is associated with logic and verbal ability.
Count the number of yes answers you gave to even-num-
bered statements (2, 4, etc.). These indicate the use of the right
brain, which is associated with visual and emotional matters.
Аnalysis: If one of your scores is much higher than the other,
this indicates that you have a left- or right-brain preference. If,
322 Extension activities and brainteasers

however your scores are balanced, then you probably don’t have
a clear-cut preference for one mode of thinking or the other.

Activity 45
Physiognomy
The text below explains that there may be a connection between
our facial features and our particular talents. Read the article
quickly to find out about the theory of “facedness.” Then
answer thе questions.

Famous four: Beethoven and Prince Harry are left-faced,


while Einstein and Burton fall in the right camp. Our features
may reveal hidden talents, says Rebecca Fowler.
At first glance, you would be hard put to find any common
ground between the angry features of Beethoven and the shy
boyishness of Prince Harry. Of course, if you were Karl Smith,
emeritus professor of psychology at America’s Wisconsin-Madison
University, and had spent 15 years in research, you would know
that both are left-faced.
“Facedness” is the new theory that proposes, just as most of
us are either left-handed or right-handed, we have a more domi-
nant facial side. It also claims to reveal the physiognomy of
musical genius. Left-facers, according to Smith’s studies, are
better able to tune into the right side of the brain, which is asso-
ciated with musical performance, while right-facers tap into the
left hemisphere, which is specialized for cognitive process — to
the layman, thinking. His surveys show that 85—90% of people
are right-faced. “With rare exceptions, all musically talented
people are left-faced,” he says.
Wagner has one of the most marked left-facers that Smith has
looked at, “dominant to the point of deformity.” He is joined by
Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert, Tchaikovsky and Liszt.
“I have yet to come across a great musical talent who is not left-
faced,” says Smith. His work at New York’s Metropolitan Opera
shows that over 98% of opera singers of a 50-year period have
Activities for Chapter 7 323

been left-faced. Most contemporary musicians looked at also


had a dominant left side, from jazz musicians to pop stars.
“The Beatles were all left-faced,” says Smith, whose work
suggests that facedness ratios are the same in Europe as in the
United States. Prince Harry is the only member of the royal
family who may have a career in music as a left-facer. “Parents
should not be wasting their money on right-faced children,”
says Smith. It is not, contrary to popular belief, hands or ears
that will suggest a Mozart in the making, but facial features.
The test for dominance is simple. Researchers measured sig-
nals from changes in jaw and lip movements. But simply look-
ing in a mirror will reveal a larger, more muscular side that is
more flexible in speech and has a deeper dimple when you
smile. The eyebrow will be higher and the skin smoother. But
right-facers should not despair. Dexterity in cognitive process-
es means that most great mathematicians and scientists have
been dominant on the right. “The marked right-facedness of
Einstein is remarkable,” says Smith. Right-facers also have the
edge in speech. Most great orators and all British prime minis-
ters have been right-side dominant, from Walpole to Thatcher.
And we have yet to see a pope or monarch cloaking musical
genius.
While left-facers have a better control of vowels, right-facers
have the hold on consonants. Smith can recall no American news-
reader who has been left-faced. Actors should also be looking for
a higher right brow, since most of the Smith’s theory also main-
tains that right-facers make better dancers and athletes. They
depend on a highly articulate understanding of movement and
cognition, born out in the elation between a dominant right face
and left brain. All athletes in the last Olympics were right-faced,
he found, and a study of the Chicago and New York ballets showed
99% of dancers were right-faced. The one group of people who
did not fall clearly into right or left were painters.
“The evidence has been astoundingly consistent right across
the board,” says Smith. As a music lover, he is reconciling him-
self to his own right-facedness. Unlike handedness, which deve-
lops at the age of three or four, facedness is determined before
birth. For would-be composers and politicians there is no defy-
ing facedness, and parents should take note before signing up
hopeful youngsters for music lessons — a glance in the mirror
will tell if the expense will be worth it.
(From The Sunday Times)
324 Extension activities and brainteasers

1) What does the writer suggest about a first comparison bet-


ween the faces of Beethoven and Prince Harry?
a) They seem to have a lot of similar features.
b) They look completely different.
c) They’re both left-faced.
d) They’re both right-faced.
2) Among left-facers, Wagner is said to be …
a) an extremely attractive example.
b) a faulty example.
c) an unusually clear example.
d) a typical example.
3) What is different about the side of the face that is dominant?
a) There are more wrinkles.
b) It moves more easily.
c) It is flatter.
d) The eyebrow is thicker.
4) What advantage do right-faced people often have?
a) They are optimistic.
b) They are successful athletes.
c) They pronounce different words more correctly.
d) They are able to reason clearly.
5) What does Karl Smith’s claim about the facedness theory?
a) It is extremely convincing.
b) It has been confirmed by the whole academic community.
c) It is generally accepted by music lovers.
d) It contains a number of interesting exceptions.
6) How is facedness different from handedness?
a) It’s of interest to politicians.
b) It’s easy to detect.
c) You are born with it.
d) You develop it as you grow up.
Many idioms in English are formed with words describing parts
of the body. Read the following ones carefully and match them
with their definitions.
1) to see eye to eye a) absent-minded, forgetful
2) to set one’s heart on some- b) to be mean
thing
3) to face up to the fact that c) to agree
4) scatter brained d) to accept
Activities for Chapter 7 325

5) to have a head for (e.g. busi- e) to want desperately


ness)
6) to put one’s foot down f) to be firm
7) to be tight�fisted g) to be good at something
8) to twist somebody round h) to have impertinence
one’s finger
9) to keep one’s nose to the i) working very hard
grindstone
10) to have the cheek to say j) persuade somebody to
something do something
Are there similar expressions in your language? Can you recall
some of them?
Expressions with face
Slap in the face, pretty face, face up to, make/pull faces
at, show one’s face; Let’s face it

Discuss the ideas in the article about facedness with other


students. See if you can tell what kind of face you each have.
Choose idioms from the box to complete the sentences:
1) … you’re never going to be Einstein!
2) I saw her … him behind his back, so I guess things aren’t
quite as rosy between them as they were.
3) He’d been loyal to the company for years and when they
promoted a younger man, it was a real … for him.
4) I don’t know how you have the nerve to … round here after
what you’ve done!
5) John’s thought of a brilliant solution — he’s not just a …, you
know!
6) You’re a married man now and you’ve just got to … your
responsibilities.

Activity 46
Эти случайные рисунки — просто предатели

After you read about handwriting analysis, use your active


vocabulary from the chapter and try and translate this text.
It might be of some interest to you. After you finish with the
translation, ask your partner to draw a doodle on a piece of
paper. Try and analyze the drawing.
326 Extension activities and brainteasers

DOODLES are drawn as abstracts but they may be inter-


preted as having special meanings. Character studies can be
based on your analysis, and a character sketch can be the
result of such an analysis. Read the text and render it into
English. Be ready to talk about it with your partner.
Надеюсь, вам понравятся материалы Гиты Сташевской,
психолога, опубликованные в сентябрьском журнале «Ната-
ли» (1996). Предлагаю познакомиться с ними и вам.
Они выставляют напоказ наши истинные чувства: тай-
ную печаль и грезы, ярость и безмятежность. Подобно ли-
ниям на ладонях, каракули отражают мысли, чувства и да-
же жизненные позиции.
Две трети людей в то время, когда заняты только их уши,
хватаются за карандаш, и без цели и плана на листочке бу-
маги возникают домики и немыслимые узоры, вырисовыва-
ются буквы, украшенные замысловатыми кружевами. Рису-
нок помогает переработать мысли в слова, снизить
внутреннюю напряженность. Карандашом водит наше под-
сознательное — мы ведь не задумываемся над тем, что рису-
ем. Поэтому каракули, возникающие на бумаге, можно счи-
тать зеркалом нашей души.
Однако имеет значение не только то, что нарисовано,
но и как нарисовано. (Прерывисты ли линии, тщательно ли
они выведены и т.д.) Можно выделить простейшие детали,
типичные, часто повторяющиеся фрагменты каракулей, —
они рассматриваются как дырки, символы, которые способ-
ны многое сказать об общей структуре личности. Вторич-
ные мотивы в рисунках скорее случайны, встречаются ред-
ко и отражают наше сиюминутное состояние.
Итак, несколько наиболее типичных рисунков и их зна-
чения.
Масти и пасти
Только веселый и жизнерадостный
тип будет заполнять лист мордочка-
ми, хвостами, лапами всевозможных
мастей. Такой человек открыт и дру-
желюбен по отношению к царю зве-
рей тоже. Конфликтовать не любит, хороший климат в кол-
лективе для него важен необыкновенно.
Грубые линии
Характерны для человека, который находится как раз в са-
мом эпицентре сложного конфликта или проблемы. Чем
Activities for Chapter 7 327

сильнее нажим, чем жирнее линии,


тем выше накал внутреннего возбуж-
дения, но вместе с тем и упорнее же-
лание поскорее разобраться со всем
этим. Человек энергичный, решитель-
ный. Каждая сильная, энергичная линия — это атака, на ко-
торую в прямом разговоре может не хватить мужества.
Головы и лица
Так может рисовать только полный
юмора и общительный тип, который
с удовольствием смеется и над собой
тоже. Оптимизм — его жизненное
кредо. Он не устает заводить новые
знакомства и не забывает поддержи-
вать старые. Обладает от природы острым умом, но будьте
осторожны: такие люди довольно саркастичны, их ирония
может больно ранить.
Кренделя
Кренделя часто соотносятся с эгоцен-
тричностью и тщеславием. Все кру-
жится около собственной персоны.
Кренделя могут сигнализировать: мои
мысли вертятся вокруг одной серьезной проблемы, реше-
ния которой я не нахожу.
Ручки, ножки, огуречик
Этому человеку ненавистны любая
ограниченность и мелочность. Он жи-
вет в коллективе и для коллектива. Он
любит представлять себя натурой ши-
рокой и способной понять все и всех.
Иногда, однако, такая широта и само-
забвенность могут повредить его собственным планам.
Губы
Лист, усыпанный губами и губками,
может свидетельствовать об особо чув-
ственной натуре. И смеющиеся рты,
и рты с плотно сжатыми губами, — все
они говорят о человеке одаренном, творческом. Поэтому ча-
ще всего этих людей можно встретить там, где речь идет об
искусстве, музыке, кино. Бывает, между губами проблески-
вают зубы — такой человек не лишен некоторой агрессии.
328 Extension activities and brainteasers

Бутылки, фляги и прочая посуда


Совершенно очевидно: эти символы
не имеют ничего общего с пристрас-
тием к вину, а вполне откровенно го-
ворят о женственной сексуальности и
эротических фантазиях их создателя. Особенно на фоне же-
стких и серых трудовых будней.
Стилизованные буквы
Они вырисовываются с графической
точностью. За вычурным рисунком
кроется любовь к мелочам и деталям.
Однако склонность доводить все до
совершенства может привести к не-
терпимости в отношении людей.
Ландшафты
Человек на крыльях фантазии улета-
ет далеко-далеко, прочь из опосты-
левших стен офиса или собственной
кухни. Он мысленно упивается идил-
лией, замешанной на море, пляже, го-
лубом небе или лесных полянах, усыпанных цветами. Это
своеобразный клапан: сны наяву помогают человеку избе-
жать многих зол. Такие люди предпочитают разрешать воз-
никающие конфликты мягко, а лучше — вовсе в них не по-
падать, так как им совсем не свойственна агрессивность.
Лес и деревья
Под сильными стволами деревьев
могут прятаться неуверенность в себе
и тщетные поиски заботы и опеки. Это
человек, который не умеет и не любит
отстаивать свои взгляды.
Спирали
Типично женский рисунок, — утверж-
дают психологи. Человек находится в
поисках гармонии и надежности. Воз-
можно, ему недостает времени для
раздумий, и он хотел бы остановить-
ся, чтобы заглянуть в свою душу.
Камень на камне
Эта скрупулезно вырисованная стена
говорит о человеке, который плано-
Activities for Chapter 7 329

мерно, шаг за шагом идет к своей цели. Раз уж он рисует так


аккуратно и точно, то наверняка знает, чего хочет.
Знаки препинания
Знаки вопроса, восклицательный зна-
ки и т.п. говорят о холодном мыслите-
ле, который не прочь подсмотреть за
кем-нибудь в замочную скважину.
Жизнь представляется ему любопытным ребусом, который
сможет разгадать только изощренный ум. Таковым он и яв-
ляется.
Глаза
Рисунки не скрывают склонности
своего создателя к самонаблюдению.
Если человек снова и снова изображает
глаз в различных ракурсах, он, скорее
всего, достаточно самокритичен. Иногда
это знак внутреннего беспокойства.
Парад цветов
Эти люди застрахованы от жизненных
неудач. Главное в их жизни — гармо-
ния во всем: в быту, в одежде, в отноше-
ниях с людьми. Только подобные по-
иски гармоничности могут привести к
простому игнорированию конфликтов.
Луна, звезды
Некто мечтает отправиться к звездам.
Или стать звездой. Сильная воля и
хорошая порция честолюбия. Звез-
дочки обожают рисовать начальники,
а также люди, не лишенные некоторо-
го эгоизма. Такой человек мечтает
взобраться на самые звездные вершины успеха.
Круги и кольца
Окружности, связанные друг с другом
или вписанные одна в другую, позво-
ляют распознать стремление к присо-
единению и соучастию. Они говорят
о том, что человек чувствует свою от-
чужденность от других, выключенность и страстно тоскует
по дружбе.
330 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 47
A walk through the forest

In this activity imagine you’re walking through the forest.


Read the following text and be prepared to describe your
forest to your partner.
You’re in a forest. Walking along a path through the forest.
Imagine what you can see and how you feel. Is it a thick, dark
forest with trees close together, for example? Or is it a light for-
est with trees spread widely apart?
Now what about the trees? Are the trees clearly separate
from one another or are they growing in groups? Are they short
or tall? Have they got lots of leaves or fruit or are they bare? Are
you attracted to any one tree in particular? If so, describe it.
You continue down the path through the forest and suddenly
you come across a bear. Think about the bear. What’s it like? What
color is it? Is it large or small? Is it dangerous or is it friendly?
Do you feel afraid? Do you face the bear or do you stay away?
Carrying on along the path, the next thing you see is a piece
of pottery on the ground. What is it? A jug or a vase, maybe, or
a bowl? Think carefully about the shape and the design. Is it
plain or has it got a pattern on it? Is it whole or is it cracked or
broken? Do you pick it up and take it with you or do you leave
it where it is?
You continue on your way again and the last thing you see is
a key on the ground. What’s the key like? Is it new and shiny or
is it old and rusty? How big is it? Again, do you pick it up or
leave it lying there?
Describe your forest and the things you see there to each
other. Listen to what your partner says.

Activity 48
Translate the test into English. Complete it with your partner.

Гений или все же больной?

Человеческое мышление на редкость многогранно, но,


пожалуй, наиболее яркая его особенность — это умение под-
мечать разнообразие связей между широким кругом объектов
Activities for Chapter 7 331

и явлений. Правда, у некоторых такая особенность может


достигать столь внушительных размеров, что превращает
человека не в гения, а в психически больного. В качестве
подтверждения обычно приводят любопытный пример из
патопсихологии. Пациенту задали вопрос: «Что общего меж-
ду рекой и часами?» И он ответил: «И в реке, и в часах есть
камни». Оригинальное суждение, но то, что оно не каждому
придет в голову, — это точно. Только вот как жить с таким
умом, восприятием мира среди обыкновенных людей? А те-
перь — опыт. Инструкция: перед вами 20 пар слов и табли-
ца с названием «Шифр». Определив отношения между сло-
вами в каждой паре, найдите аналогичную пару слов
в таблице «Шифр», обведя кружком соответствующую ци-
фру. Время выполнения — 3 минуты. Оценка производится
по количеству правильных ответов.
Шифр
1 Овца — стадо 4 Свет — темнота
2 Малина — ягода 5 Отравление — смерть
3 Море — океан 6 Враг — неприятель

1) Испуг — бегство 123456


2) Физика — наука 123456
3) Правильно — верно 123456
4) Грядка — огород 123456
5) Пара — два 123456
6) Слово — фраза 123456
7) Бодрый — вялый 123456
8) Свобода — воля 123456
9) Страна — город 123456
10) Похвала — брань 123456
11) Месть — поджог 123456
12) Десять — число 123456
13) Плакать — реветь 123456
14) Глава — роман 123456
15) Покой — дыхание 123456
16) Смелость — геройство 123456
17) Прохлада — мороз 123456
18) Обман — недоверие 123456
19) Пение — искусство 123456
20) Тумбочка — шкаф 123456
332 Extension activities and brainteasers

Activity 49
You are what you eat
You are what you eat? If this is true we can say a lot about
people we know. Translate the following and see if it is true for
you. If you do not agree with what you are reading, explain why.
Мороженое — зеркало характера. Оказывается, по тому,
какое мороженое предпочитает женщина, можно опреде-
лить ее характер.
Мороженое в вафлях, напоминающее сэндвич. Если вы
заметили за женщиной пристрастие к этому виду мороже-
ного, то знайте, что она практична, великолепная хозяйка.
Но при этом без крайностей. Серенадами при луне у нее ни-
чего не добьешься.
Пломбир с кусочками шоколада. Его предпочитают жен-
щины с неустойчивым характером. В жизни они с жадностью
поглощают всевозможные удовольствия и всегда готовы
к легкому флирту. При их переменчивом, нервном характе-
ре они очень приятны в мимолетном общении.
Мороженое в стаканчиках. Его любители в первую оче-
редь стремятся к покою. Им нравится романтическая сторона
жизни: ужин при свечах, букеты цветов, идеальный партнер,
внимательно и с пониманием относящийся к проблемам
других.
Эскимо. Предпочитают целеустремленные, холодные
женщины, которые крутят мужчинами как хотят. К сорока
годам они остепеняются и начинают всерьез подумывать
о ребенке. При этом человек, которому отводится роль отца,
должен быть безупречен во всех отношениях, в том числе
и материальном.
Те, кому все равно, какое мороженое есть, имеют веселый
характер. Они немного инфантильны, относятся ко всему
с легкостью, в том числе и к мужчинам.

Activity 50
Умеете ли вы читать по лицам?
Use your active vocabulary to talk about the following.
С помощью данного несложного теста вы можете по-
упражняться в своем умении читать по лицам. Определите,
какое чувство выражает лицо на каждом из 12 рисунков.
Activities for Chapter 7 333

Правильные ответы (таковыми считаются исходные по


смыслу с приводимыми ниже определениями):
1) безразличие
2) враждебность
3) веселье
4) сильная злость
5) грусть
6) застенчивая радость
7) плохое самочувствие
8) злость
9) бурная радость
10) глубокая печаль
11) скепсис
12) скорбь

Activity 51
Visual prompts

1. a) Get a set of pictures of businesspeople from magazines


and newspapers. Choose one of the pictures of businessmen
and, without telling your partner which one, describe the man’s
expression and stance (posture) in as much detail as possible.
(Don’t use your hands to demonstrate!) Your partner should
listen carefully and decide which picture is being described.
b) Discuss which details helped identify the right picture.
2. With a partner, discuss these questions about the busi-
nessmen: Whose advice would you be most likely to take?
Who would you enjoy working with? Who would you least like
to meet?
334 Extension activities and brainteasers

3. Match the pictures to these type descriptions.


А. The sergeant major — Despite the strong message of
physical self-assurance, there may be deeply-concealed anxiety.
B. The gunslinger — This stance may seem essentially mas-
culine but women adopt it too, projecting a message of physical
self-confidence.
C. The village idiot — Desperate to please an office audience,
this unfortunate merely succeeds in looking rather insincere.
D. The professor — Although the body language reflects in-
tellectual confidence, it sometimes hides emotional insecurity.

Explanations

Business of body language

What kind of signals do you send at work?

For questions 1—6 below, you must choose which of para-


graphs A—G fit into the numbered gaps in the following news-
paper article. There is one extra paragraph which does not fit
in any of the gaps.
Are you a gunslinger or a sergeant major? A professor or an
undertaker? Whatever job you do, you could be any of these,
for this is just how you may look to other people. And that’s
what matters in business, according to Michael Howard, which
offers training in personal communication and performance
skills.
1. ____ Michael offers his presentation skills to everyone
from business consultants, lawyers and personnel managers to
insurance salesmen and counter clerks. “In fact anyone involved
in face-to-face communication with the public could benefit,”
he says. “You cannot overstate how damaging bad presentation
can be for business. A poor performer is embarrassing to watch
and just makes people uncomfortable and bored.”
2. ____ He believes most people have a “natural expressive-
ness” which can be unlocked by just a little training. His cours-
es aim to turn you into “an effective communicator, presenting
yourself confidently in all situations.”
Michael, 40, set up Talkshop a year ago. He first trained as a
quantity surveyor, then gave it up for drama school and an act-
ing career that has taken in stage roles from Shakespeare to
Activities for Chapter 7 335

children’s theatre. Talkshop was an ideal way to marry up my


skills as a businessman and an actor.
3. ____ Business “performers” fall into several categories —
examples are shown in the box below. If you can spot your
“type” it often helps to awareness of the way you present your-
self and how you might improve this.
4. ____ In fact, her sweeter tones should be seen as a posi-
tive asset rather than a problem. A warm, controlled voice con-
veys much more authority than a macho rant.
5. ____ For a woman in a top position there’s no point in
being a bully. Men will just be dismissive and resentful. Good
use of eye contact is the best way of establishing high status.
People from different cultures and professions also show
marked differences in the way they talk and act, but it’s impor-
tant not to look at people as stereotypes.
6. ____ “But there is no one way to present,” says Michael.
“It’s horses for courses. While a salesperson may need to show
that they are relaxed and chatty, a senior partner in a law firm
may have to show more distance to create authority.” The
important thing is to get the right message across. “It’s all about
releasing natural abilities,” says Michael. “People coming away
from my courses should not only be able to give a good public
presentation, but should also positively enjoy it.”
The gunslinger — legs apart, this type leans back and thrusts
the pelvis forward showing physical confidence. But the head —
intellectual confidence — is placed well back. This may sound
like a masculine pose but women do the same. It shows you
are sure of your physical attractions. But have you got anything
to say?
The professor — legs together, the groin and chest are
pulled right back while the head is pushed forward on the end
of a long neck. This shows “supreme confidence” in the intellect
but also hides emotional insecurity.
The sergeant major — stands proudly with the chest out,
appearing totally invulnerable. The stance says, “I’m afraid of
no one.” But is he or she hiding some deep anxieties?
The village idiot — this type is “open and full frontal.” With
body swaying in the wind, he or she stands with a silly grin des-
perately “eager to please” the audience. Unfortunately, they end
up looking insincere.
The invisible man — rather than stand four-square in front
of his or her audience, this type prefers to hide behind a desk or
336 Extension activities and brainteasers

lectern, looking down at sheaves of notes to avoid eye contact.


He or she hopes to appear authoritative and learned, but
instead appears shifty and insecure.
The undertaker — stiff as a board, these somber characters
just don’t know how to relax. They speak in slow, serious tones,
but the audience knows how racked they are with nerves and so
feels edgy and uncomfortable
А. There are also important differences between the way
men and women in business behave when dealing with people.
“A woman’s higher, softer voice means she can be shouted down
by more aggressive and domineering men,” says Michael. “This
often leads her to clam up in meetings.”
B. How can you convey to an audience that you are a confi-
dent, relaxed and authoritative speaker? Talkshop offers the fol-
lowing tips to get you started: always look straight at your audi-
ence, make eye contact and keep it; project your personality by
speaking loudly and clearly; don’t fidget because too much
movement will simply unsettle your audience.
C. The “bluff businessman,” for example, can turn to jelly
when asked to speak to a small group for five minutes. In con-
trast, his “shrinking violet” secretary may blossom when she is
given the ear of an attentive audience.
D. You may be offering the best financial advice around or
selling the smartest computers, but if your body language is
wrong your customers just won’t want to know. And that could
mean your business losing thousands of pounds. You may be
trying to hide your nerves, your boredom or your aggression,
but your body language will give you away.
E. “Drama training gives you a great knowledge of how body
language works. You learn not only how your character works,
but how the other characters react to that character. But if I
hadn’t been in the commercial world, I wouldn’t have seen how
that works in practice.”
F. Women can learn to display confidence without being
aggressive. Unfortunately, many women feel they should ape
the male approach. This is a mistake. If anything, it should be
the other way round.
G. “They will lose all trust in the person — and business. No
one can afford that in today’s competitive world.” Through his
workshops Michael teaches relaxation and breathing tech-
niques, how the voice works and — most importantly — body
language.
Activities for Chapter 7 337

Activity 52
Can you think under pressure?

There are many jobs in the world that would need quick
thinking. Sometimes people of different professions desperately
need to think in a very stressful situation.
This test measures your ability to follow directions and
think clearly under pressure. Test pilots, gun-fighters, and
short-order cooks may have a slight advantage. You have exactly
14 minutes to read and answer the following questions. Have a
pencil ready, and a clock or a stopwatch handy to yourself.
When the 14 minutes is up, stop working, whether or not you
have come to an end. Оn your mark, get, set, go!

The letter that occurs most in this sentence is ______. Now


write out the second month of the year backwards here: _____.
Pay no attention to the next question, unless the first sentence
of this quiz begins and ends with the same letter. From January
to December, which two consecutive months have 31 days?
______, ______. Assume that all boys like toys, and that all
girls have curls. Roy is a boy, and Pearl has curls. Yes or no:
Must Roy like toys? ______ Must Pearl be a girl? ______ Do
you know exactly which two letters of the alphabet are missing
from this sentence of the quiz? ______ Sitting down to eat, Jon
has three more won tons than Ron. Ron has twice as many won
tons as Don, and Jon has one more won ton than Don and Ron
together. How many won tons has Jon? _____ Name two coun-
tries whose names begin with the letter J. ______ ______.
Start at the 2 on your push-button cell phone. Move one
button at a time horizontally or vertically, travelling to six
other numbers, but not 1 or 2, and not using any number twice.
Write the resulting seven-digit phone number here ______,
unless there are two Ps in “the pod,” in which case write
NOTHING. Think of four words, each starting with the letter
E and containing two more Es, unless you think you can’t, in
which case be sure not to omit the answers: ______, ______,
______, ______. Circle the one that does not belong: acehp,
enpru, aegpr, ilptu. Make sure that you avoid not reading the
next sentence, unless the previous sentence does not have an
odd number of words. Leave this space blank ______, unless a
ton of feathers weighs more than a ton of coal, in which case
write BLANK in the preceding space.
338 Extension activities and brainteasers

Ignore the next sentence. Try not to think how little time
you have left. Take three and ten, add one, divide it by the num-
ber of Snow White’s dwarfs, and add the number of wings on a
dove. Now subtract the number that is the same as the answer
to this subtraction, and write that number here: ___. If there is
a nationality that sounds like the point that you’ve reached in
this quiz, write it in this blank: ______. If not, write the word
FINISH.

Activity 53
Your face seems familiar

Here are four socionic types from the classification drawn up


by the Lithuanian researcher Аushra Аugustinavitchute.
Read about them and express your opinion.

Sensory-logical introvert (Maxim Gorky)


Someone of this type is very conservative in his evaluation
of the world around him, and a hierarchy is very important to
him. He worries constantly about his health and he can be quite
a hypochondriac. At the same time, though, he will use his own
body as an experimental ground, and will often try out various
exotic diets. These type people do not know how to limit them-
selves according to physical ability, and have a low threshold for
tiredness and boredom. Consequently they need someone to set
these boundaries for them, someone to say when it is time to call
it a day.

Sensory-ethical extrovert (Napoleon)


A dynamic, vital person with a need for physical action. His
motto ought to be “Jump in feet first and then look around.” If
something cannot be accomplished quickly, a Napoleon type
will not bother to get involved with it. He will get to grips with
a problem quickly, but comes unstuck if the process takes an
illogical turn. He is unable to leave the constraints of logic, and
will make changes only according to what logic tells him. To
understand a concept he must first repeat it out loud, and is
only able to explain himself and his plans through discussion.
Formal hierarchies do not make much impression on him — he
will try to ignore them and establish his own.
Activities for Chapter 7 339

Intuitive-ethical introvert (Esenin)


He may appear to be a bit of a half-wit living in a dream
world, but a Esenin type will consider himself at his best in sit-
uations where there is some risk involved. He needs only a split-
second to decide and act effectively. Consequently, a Esenin
type will often subconsciously play the protagonist. Wherever
someone of this type is to be found, some kind of intrigue is sure
to follow. What this person needs above all else is to create a sit-
uation whereby he can show himself to his best advantage; he is
an anarchist, and will not respect authority.

Sensory-logical extrovert (Marshal Zhukov)


A good organizer and commander. In complex situations a
Zhukov type will react like a machine, with efficiency and clar-
ity, taking the responsibility upon himself. He will never
involve himself in something he cannot see through to the end.
He won’t allow anything to get in his way.

Intuitive-logical introvert (Balzac)


A strategist, and a person who will always investigate every
possibility. A Balzac type will love to asses and experiment with
situations, considering all the possible pit-falls in advance, to
the extent that he might seem pernickety and over-careful. He
is slow to consider things, and will avoid fuss at all costs. He
creates an image of being a “mystery man,” and, indeed, even his
openness is a front. Someone of this type will have difficulty in
speaking spontaneously, and will avoid impromptu situations,
where there is no time to give a considered answer. His intuition,
however, gives him advanced warning when it would be inop-
portune to undertake something.

Intuitive-logical introvert (Robespierre)


A skeptic, verging even on the cynical. Robespierre types
have an excellent understanding of themselves, almost self-love,
so they are able to re-educate themselves. They look for the
same characteristics in others. Above all, people of this type
seek precision, and have no time for ambiguity. They