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22 ȺɥɟɤɫɟɣȽɪɨɦɵɤɨȼɚɥɟɧɬɢɧɎɺɞɨɪɨɜ

ɋɎȿɊȺɗɄɈɇɈɆɂɄɂ
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ɍȾɄ 327: 339.5


ȺɥɟɤɫɟɣȽɊɈɆɕɄɈ,
ȼɚɥɟɧɬɢɧɎȬȾɈɊɈȼ

ȺɇɌɂɊɈɋɋɂɃɋɄɂȿ ɋȺɇɄɐɂɂ 1

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ. Ⱥɜɬɨɪɵɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɜȿɜɪɨɩɟɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɭɸɫɹɜ
ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɦɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ ɚɧɬɢɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɫɚɧɤ
ɰɢɣɉɨɞɭɞɚɪɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɵɟɡɚɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ Ɍɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬ
ɧɵɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣɫɰɟɥɶɸ ɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɨɫɩɪɚɜɢɬɶɫɹɫɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɟɣɧɟɧɚɪɚɳɢɜɚɬɶɤɨɧɮɪɨɧɬɚɰɢɸɢɧɟ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶ ɲɚɧɫɵ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟɫɥɨɜɚ: ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɊɨɫɫɢɹɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹɟɜɪɨɫɚɧɤɰɢɢɡɚɞɨɥɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ

ȼɝɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɨɨɛɨɫɬɪɟɧɢɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɦɟɠɞɭɊɨɫɫɢɟɣɢȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɨɦɈɧɨ
ɜɵɪɚɡɢɥɨɫɶ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ ɫɚɧɤɰɢɣ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɊɎ ɩɪɢɱɺɦ ɫɞɟɥɚɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɛɵɥɨ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ
ɩɨɞɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɋɒȺ; ɜ ɨɬɜɟɬɊɨɫɫɢɹɜɜɟɥɚɫɜɨɢɫɚɧɤɰɢɢɉɨɞɭɞɚɪɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɞɨ
ɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɵɟ ɡɚ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɭɱɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɟ
ɫɜɹɡɢ ɉɨɜɨɞɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡɭ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɟ
ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɋɥɨɠɢɥɚɫɶ
ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɫɥɨɠɧɚɹ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɪɚɡɜɺɪɧɭɬɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɪ
ɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ

ɇɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣɷɬɚɩɫɚɦɨɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɢɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨɋɨɸɡɚɩɪɨɲɺɥɛɟɡɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨɤɪɨ
ɜɨɩɪɨɥɢɬɢɹɈɞɧɚɤɨɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɩɪɢɜɟɥɨɤɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɠɟɪɬ

1
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɡɚɩɢɫɤɚʋ ʋ .
___________________________________________________________________________
© ȽɪɨɦɵɤɨȺɥɟɤɫɟɣȺɧɚɬɨɥɶɟɜɢɱ– ɞɩɨɥɢɬɧ.ɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚȿɜɪɨɩɵɊȺɇɩɪɟɞɫɟ
ɞɚɬɟɥɶ ɄɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɫɨɜɟɬɚɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɨɜɊȺɇ. ȺɞɪɟɫɊɨɫ
ɫɢɹɆɨɫɤɜɚɭɥɆɨɯɨɜɚɹ-3. E-mail: alexey@gromyko.ru
Ɏɺɞɨɪɨɜ ȼɚɥɟɧɬɢɧɉɟɬɪɨɜɢɱ – ɱɥɟɧ-ɤɨɪɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɊȺɇɡɚɦɟɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɞɢɪɟɤɬɨɪɚɂɧɫɬɢɬɭ
ɬɚ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ ɊȺɇ Ⱥɞɪɟɫ  Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ ɭɥ Ɇɨɯɨɜɚɹ, 11-3. E-
mail: vpfyodorov@mail.ru
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15211/soveurope220162227
Ⱥɧɬɢɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟɫɚɧɤɰɢɢ 23

ɜɚɦ Ɂɞɟɫɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɜɫɩɨɦɧɢɬɶ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ Ƚɪɭɡɢɢ ɜ  ɝ Ɍɨɝɞɚɲɧɟɟ ɝɪɭ
ɡɢɧɫɤɨɟ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɥɨ ɪɚɡɜɚɥ ɋɋɋɊ ɜ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟ ɜɟɳɟɣ ɧɨ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɢɥɢ ɧɟ
ɯɨɬɟɥɨ ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɱɬɨ Ƚɪɭɡɢɹ ɬɨɠɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɚɫɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɷɬɨ ɧɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɟɫɬɟ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨȼɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟɫɜɨɟɝɨɩɨɞɯɨɞɚɨɧɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɥɨɛɥɢɰɤɪɢɝ ɧɚɐɯɢɧɜɚɥɧɨ
ɨɧ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɥɫɹ ȼɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɬɟɦ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɥɚ ɘɠɧɚɹ Ɉɫɟɬɢɹ ɉɨɝɢɛɥɨ ɢ
ɦɧɨɝɨɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯɦɢɪɨɬɜɨɪɰɟɜ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ ɤɪɨɜɨɩɪɨɥɢɬɧɵɣ ɷɬɚɩ ɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɟɬ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ ɋɨɫɬɨɹɥɫɹ ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶ
ɧɵɣ ɜɵɯɨɞ Ʉɪɵɦɚ ɢɡ ɟɺɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɢɫɬɨɥɶɠɟɟɝɨɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɜ Ɋɨɫ
ɫɢɸ ɇɚɱɚɥɚɫɶ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɚɹ ɜɨɣɧɚ ɜ ɸɝɨ-ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ Ɇɟɧɬɚɥɢɬɟɬ
ɦɧɨɝɢɯɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɧɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɣɋɨɸɡɢɫɱɟɡɧɨɤɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɍɤɪɚɢɧɵɷɬɨɧɟɢɦɟ
ɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɇɨ ɱɟɦ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɢɥɢ ɯɭɠɟ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɪɨɞɧɨ
ɫɬɢ ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨɋɨɸɡɚ"Ɍɚɤɠɟɤɚɤɛɵɥɨɜɧɺɦɧɚɍɤɪɚɢɧɟɫɬɹɧɭɬɵɜɨɟɞɢɧɨɠɢ
ɜɭɳɢɟ ɬɚɦ ɧɚɪɨɞɵ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ ɥɢ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨ ɞɭɯɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɨɫɜɨɺɦɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ
ɍɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɧɟɤɨɣ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɰɢɢ ɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬ ɫɬɪɚɧɧɵɦ.
ȼɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɣɷɬɨɬɧɚɪɨɞɨɬɫɬɚɢɜɚɥɫɜɨɸɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɥɢɨɛɟɪɟɝɚɥ
ɫɜɨɸ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ ɹɡɵɤ ɞɭɯɨɜɧɨɟ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɰɚɪɫɤɨɣ ɚɞɦɢɧɢ
ɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɰɟɜ ɜ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɯ Ɍɚɤ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɗɦɫɤɢɣ ɭɤɚɡ Ⱥɥɟɤ
ɫɚɧɞɪɚII ɜɝɜɜɨɞɢɥɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɢɡɚɩɪɟɬɵɧɚɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚɢɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
ȼ ɩɨɫɬɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɣ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɟ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɟɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɟ ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ:
ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɬɶɪɭɫɫɤɢɯɜɭɤɪɚɢɧɰɟɜȼɨɛɨɢɯɫɥɭɱɚɹɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɛɵɥɚɨɲɢ
ɛɨɱɧɨɣ ɱɬɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɨ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɬɹɠɺɥɨɝɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚ ɜ
ɝɨɞɭ.
Ɉɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯɪɭɫɫɤɢɯɢɭɤɪɚɢɧɰɟɜɜɫɜɨɺɜɪɟɦɹɩɢɫɚɥɩɪɟɡɢ
ɞɟɧɬɍɤɪɚɢɧɵɅɟɨɧɢɞɄɭɱɦɚɜɤɧɢɝɟ“ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ– ɧɟɊɨɫɫɢɹ”. “«əɩɨɩɵɬɚɸɫɶɨɛɴ
ɹɫɧɢɬɶ«– ɨɛɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹɨɧɤɱɢɬɚɬɟɥɹɦ– ɱɬɨɪɭɫɫɤɢɟɢɭɤɪɚɢɧɰɵ– ɞɜɟɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟɢ
ɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦɧɟɫɯɨɠɢɟɧɚɰɢɢɤɚɠɞɚɹɫɨɫɜɨɟɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɣɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɢɟɯɨɬɶɢɧɚɪɨɞ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɧɨɨɬɱɺɬɥɢɜɨɪɚɡɧɵɯɹɡɵɤɚɯɱɬɨɭ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵɫɜɨɺɫɟɪɶɺɡɧɨɟɩɪɨɲɥɨɟɢ
ɭɜɟɪɟɧɛɭɞɭɳɟɟɋɜɨɺɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɛɭɞɭɳɟɟ” >Ʉɭɱɦɚ@Ʉɧɢɝɚɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɚɜ
ɞɨɛɪɨɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɞɭɯɟɢɦɨɠɟɬɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɧɵɦɩɨɫɨɛɢɟɦɞɥɹɜɫɟɯɤɬɨɢɧɬɟ
ɪɟɫɭɟɬɫɹɞɚɧɧɨɣɬɟɦɨɣ
ɋɥɨɜɚ“ɢɦɩɟɪɢɹ” ɥɚɬimperiumɜɥɚɫɬɶ ɢɥɢ “ɢɦɩɟɪɫɤɢɣ” ɢɦɦɚɧɟɧɬɧɨɧɟɧɨɫɹɬ
ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɨɬɬɟɧɤɚɀɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɢɦɩɟɪɢɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɧɟ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɚɦɢɢɥɢ
ɦɨɪɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɚ ɫɚɦɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɶɸ Ɍɚɤ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ ɠɢɜɭɱɢ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɟ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɟɞɢɧɢɰɵɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɟɢɡɪɚɡɧɵɯɡɚɜɨɺɜɚɧɧɵɯɤɭɫɤɨɜɡɟɦɥɢɫɥɚɛɨ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ. ɉɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɧɚ ɤɚɤɨɟ-ɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ ɦɧɨɝɨɧɚɰɢɨ
ɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɫɭɩɟɪɞɟɪɠɚɜɭɧɨɫɭɞɶɛɭɟɺɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɧɚɫɟɥɹɸɳɢɟɟɺɧɚɪɨɞɵ
ȼɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ Ʉɪɵɦɚ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɬɢɜɲɟɟ ɟɝɨ
ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɫɮɟɪɭɇȺɌɈɫɬɚɥɨɲɨɤɨɦɞɥɹɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɝɨɦɢɪɚ ȼɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɤɪɚɬɱɚɣɲɟ
ɝɨɫɪɨɤɚɫɱɺɬɲɺɥɧɚɞɧɢɛɵɥɢɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɵɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɞɥɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɜɟɪɯɫɥɨɠɧɨɣ
ɬɪɢɟɞɢɧɨɣɡɚɞɚɱɢ– ɩɪɨɜɨɡɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɟɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɩɨɥɭɨɫɬɪɨɜɚɜɵɯɨɞɢɡɍɤɪɚɢ
ɧɵɢɜɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɜɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɭɸɎɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɸɇɭɠɧɨɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶɬɚɤɠɟɬɚɤɭɸ ɦɟɪɭɤɚɤ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɦɢ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɚɦɢ ɫɤɪɵɬɨɝɨ ɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ Ʉɪɵɦɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɞɢɥɢɯɧɟɡɵɛɥɟɦɨɟɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɫɹɜɊɨɫɫɢɸɇɟɛɵɥɨɧɢɜɨɟɧɧɵɯɞɟɣ
24 ȺɥɟɤɫɟɣȽɪɨɦɵɤɨȼɚɥɟɧɬɢɧɎɺɞɨɪɨɜ

ɫɬɜɢɣɧɢ ɩɪɨɬɟɫɬɨɜɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ; ɡɚɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɜɊɨɫɫɢɸɩɪɨɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɥɢɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ


Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɞɚɥ ɋɟɜɚɫɬɨɩɨɥɶ Ⱦɥɹ Ʉɨɫɨɜɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɱɚɫɬɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɜɷɬɨɣɫɜɹɡɢɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɨɫɶɛɨɥɟɟɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɫɢɥɨɜɵɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɠɟɪɬɜɢɥɢɲɟɧɢɣ ɱɬɨɛɵɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɥɢɲɶɨɬɞɚɥɺɧɧɨ
ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɟɝɨɤɪɵɦɫɤɢɣɄɪɵɦɫɤɢɣɩɪɟɰɟɞɟɧɬɜɨɣɞɺɬɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɤɚɤɩɪɢɦɟɪɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ
ɉɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɜɲɢɟɡɚɪɚɫɩɚɞɨɦɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨɋɨɸɡɚɝɨɞɵɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɱɬɨɷɬɨɬɪɚɫɩɚɞ
ɛɵɥɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɵɦɬɟɪɚɫɩɚɥɨɫɶɛɨɥɶɲɟɱɟɦɦɨɝɥɨɛɵɪɚɫɩɚɫɬɶɫɹɉɪɢɜɟɞɺɦ ɞɨɜɨ
ɞɵȾɨɜɨɞɩɟɪɜɵɣɀɢɬɟɥɢɪɹɞɚɛɵɜɲɢɯɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɯɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɫɬɚɜɲɢɯɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɨɫɬɚɥɶɝɢɸ ɩɨ ɧɟɤɨɝɞɚ ɨɛɳɟɦɭ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɭ
Ɍɚɤɢɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɧɟɜɫɟɠɢɬɟɥɢɧɨɤɚɤɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɨɩɪɨɫɵɢɯ
ɞɨɥɹɜɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯɜɟɫɶɦɚɜɵɫɨɤɚȾɨɜɨɞɜɬɨɪɨɣȾɟɥɨɧɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɬɨɫɤɨɣ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɲɥɨɦɭ Ɇɹɬɟɠɧɵɟ ɘɝ ɢ ȼɨɫɬɨɤ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɠɟɪɬɜɨɣ ɤɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ
ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨɋɨɸɡɚȼɵɫɬɭɩɚɹɫɨɪɭɠɢɟɦɜɪɭɤɚɯɢɫɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɦɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɫɹɞɨɦɨɣɜ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɸɨɧɢɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɢɫɩɪɚɜɢɬɶɟɳɺɨɞɧɭɫɨɜɟɪɲɺɧɧɭɸɝɟɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɨɲɢɛ
ɤɭ ɬɟ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɣ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ Ⱥ ɟɫɥɢ ɬɚɤ ɬɨ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ
ɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶɧɵɧɟɲɧɟɣɊɨɫɫɢɢɧɟɤɢɟɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɟɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɹɢɥɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɇɟɨɧɚ
ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɨɪɨɦɪɟɝɟɧɟɪɚɰɢɢɚɨɬɫɟɱɺɧɧɵɟɱɚɫɬɢɤɨɝɞɚ-ɬɨɟɞɢɧɨɝɨɰɟɥɨɝɨ
ɇɟɨɧɚɥɨɦɚɟɬɫɬɚɬɭɫ-ɤɜɨɜȿɜɪɨɩɟɚɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɵɦɧɟɧɢɟɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɧɟɩɨɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚ
ɥɢɫɶɩɪɢɪɚɡɜɚɥɟɋɋɋɊ
Ɉɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɦɧɟɧɢɹ ɇɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ
ɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶɱɬɨɍɤɪɚɢɧɚɧɟɨɬɤɚɠɟɬɫɹɨɬɩɪɢɬɹɡɚɧɢɣɧɚɄɪɵɦɢɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟ
ɫɬɚɧɟɬɞɪɭɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɊɨɫɫɢɢɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨɦ.
ɇɢɤɬɨɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɩɨɪɭɱɢɬɶɫɹɱɬɨɧɟɛɭɞɟɬɧɨɜɵɯ ɷɬɚɩɨɜɥɨɦɤɢɩɨɫɬɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ
ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ. ɋɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɟ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ. Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ – ɬɨɠɟ ɦɧɨɝɨ
ɷɬɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨɫɨɜɫɟɦɢɪɢɫɤɚɦɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢɬɚɤɨɝɨ
ɬɢɩɚɇɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɝɪɚɧɢɰɧɟɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹɤɱɢɫɥɭɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɵɯɱɟɪɬɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɤɚɪɬɵ ɦɢɪɚ ɉɟɪɟɮɪɚɡɢɪɭɹ Ɍɚɥɟɣɪɚɧɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ ɱɬɨ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɟɫɬɶ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ.
Ɋɚɫɩɚɞɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨɋɨɸɡɚɫɨɡɞɚɥɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɞɥɹɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɟɞɟɥɚɢɝɨɫ
ɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɜɲɢɯ ɜ ɧɺɦ ɧɚɰɢɣ Ɇɨɫɤɜɚ ɨɬɩɭɫɬɢɥɚ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɟ
ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɌɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦɤɚɠɞɚɹ ɧɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɝɢɛɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɫɟɛɹ. Ʉɚɡɚɥɨɫɶ ɛɵ ȿɋ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ
ɩɪɢɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɹ “ɨɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɺɧɧɵɯ” ɧɚɪɨɞɨɜ ɢɯ ɜɨɥɶɧɵɣ
ɜɵɛɨɪ, ɫɤɟɦɢɤɚɤ ɠɢɬɶɞɚɥɶɲɟɈɞɧɚɤɨɢɜȽɪɭɡɢɢ, ɢɧɚɍɤɪɚɢɧɟɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɟɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɤɢɫɞɟɥɚɥɢɫɬɚɜɤɭɧɚɫɬɚɬɭɫ-ɤɜɨɧɚɡɚɦɨɪɚɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɟɣɞɚɜɧɨ ɝɨɫɭ
ɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɢɥɸɞɟɣ
ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ ɫɜɨɸ ɧɟɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɉɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɢ
ɬɭɰɢɢɄɪɵɦɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɢɟɣɧɨɷɬɨɧɢɤɚɤɧɟɫɛɥɢɡɢɥɨɟɝɨɫɄɢɟɜɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɤɨɧɰɨɜ ɩɨɬɟɪɹɥ ɫɜɨɸ “ɠɟɦɱɭɠɢɧɭ”. ɍɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɍɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ ɡɚ
ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨɣɛɨɦɛɨɣ
ɍɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɦɧɨɝɨɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɨɣ ɫɥɨɠɧɟɟ ɱɟɦ ɦɨɧɨɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɫɩɚɞɚ ɬɚɦ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ ɜɵɲɟ ɱɬɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɨɸɡɚ.
ɗɬɨɩɪɨɲɥɨɦɢɦɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɧɨɝɢɯɛɟɡɢɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹɞɨɥɠɧɵɯɭɪɨɤɨɜɇɵɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɫ
Ⱥɧɬɢɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟɫɚɧɤɰɢɢ 25

ɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɭɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜ: ɩɪɚɜɨ ɧɚɰɢɣ ɧɚ ɫɚɦɨ


ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɜɩɥɨɬɶɞɨɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɢɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ

II

ɈɩɵɬɭɱɢɬɱɬɨɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɫɚɧɤɰɢɣɧɟɜɫɟɝɞɚɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɵɄɨɧɟɱɧɨɟɫɥɢɨɛɴ
ɟɤɬɨɦ ɫɬɚɧɟɬ ɤɚɤɚɹ-ɧɢɛɭɞɶ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɺ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɥɚɱɟɜ
ɧɵɦ Ⱦɥɹɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɚ ɫɥɨɠɧɟɟ Ʉɨɧɬɢɧɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɛɥɨɤɚɞɚ Ⱥɧɝɥɢɢ ɇɚɩɨ
ɥɟɨɧɨɦ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɧɟɫɥɚ ɟɦɭ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɚ ɜ ɱɺɦ-ɬɨ ɞɚɠɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɚ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸɜɧɟɣɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ
ȼɨɡɶɦɺɦ ɬɟɤɭɳɭɸ ɞɟɥɨɜɭɸ ɠɢɡɧɶ Ʉɚɤ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨ
ɧɚɦɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɵɜɨɡɢɬ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɱɟɦ ɜɜɨɡɢɬ ɢ ɬɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ “ɨɬɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɯɥɟɛ” ɭ
ɫɜɨɢɯ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɯ ɩɚɪɬɧɺɪɨɜ ɗɬɨ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɭ ɧɢɯ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɧɟɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɩɨɞɱɚɫ
ɪɟɡɤɭɸ ɤɪɢɬɢɤɭ ɟɺ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɬɨɪɝɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ ȿɺ ɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɨɛɴɺɦ
ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɬɶ ɨɛɴɺɦ ɢɦɩɨɪɬɚ ɢ ɧɟ ɩɟɪɟɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ -ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɧɵɣ ɛɚɪɶɟɪ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɢɫɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɤɚɤɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɟɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚɧɚɞɢɦɩɨɪɬɨɦɜɜɚɥɨɜɨɦɜɧɭɬɪɟɧ
ɧɟɦɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɟȾɥɹɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɜɧɟɲɧɟɣɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɷɤɫɩɚɧɫɢɢɟɣɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢɬɶ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɵ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ ɢ ɧɚ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɬɟ ɜɜɟɫɬɢ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ
ɪɨɞɚ ɫɚɧɤɰɢɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɋɬɪɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɚɪɬɧɺɪɵ ɎɊȽ
ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɬɨ ɱɬɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɟɦɟɰɤɢɯ
ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɚ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɫɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɡɚɪɚɛɨɬɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɵ ɢ
ɪɟɮɨɪɦ ɤɚɧɰɥɟɪɚ Ƚɟɪɯɚɪɞɚ ɒɪɺɞɟɪɚ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ Agenda- ɎɊȽ ɜ ɲɬɵɤɢ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɬɚɤɢɟɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɨɸɡɧɢɤɨɜɢɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɭɟɬɫɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚ
ɦɢɉɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɧɚɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɫɨɜɟɬɵɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɵɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɬɢɄɢɬɚɸ
ɑɬɨɢɡɷɬɨɝɨɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ"ɇɟɛɭɞɟɦɫɟɣɱɚɫɨɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɷɮɮɟɤɬɟɛɭɦɟɪɚɧɝɚ
ɋɚɧɤɰɢɢɩɪɨɬɢɜɊɨɫɫɢɢɞɚɸɬɟɣɩɨɜɨɞɨɬɱɚɫɬɢɩɟɪɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɬɶɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɩɨɥɢ
ɬɢɤɭ ɚɢɦɟɧɧɨɭɞɟɥɹɬɶɛɨɥɶɲɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɦɭɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ
ɊɟɱɶɢɞɺɬɨɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɟɧɢɢɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɦɭɤɭɪɫɭȼɝɊɨɫɫɢɹɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɚɥɚȽɪɭ
ɡɢɸɤɦɢɪɭɚɫɟɣɱɚɫɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɤɩɟɪɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɊɎɜ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɋɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɢɪɚɞɢɧɭɠɧɨɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶɱɬɨɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɚɹɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɧɚɭɤɚɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɥɚɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɬɶɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɫɩɪɨɫɟɳɺ
ɡɚɞɨɥɝɨ ɞɨ ɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ ȼ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɧɟɞɨɢɧɜɟɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɤɚɤ ɰɟɥɵɟ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɵ
ɬɚɤɢɫɮɟɪɵɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɢɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɢɧɮɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɢɬɞ
ɇɢ ɨɞɧɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɫɺ ɫɚɦɚ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɹɯ.
ȼɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɨɟɭɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɝɥɨɛɚɥɢɡɦɨɦɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɟɝɨɩɨɨɳɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɦɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦɦɨɠɟɬɢɦɟɬɶɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɞɥɹ
ɫɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨɜɡɹɬɵɯɫɬɪɚɧɗɬɨɬɚɫɩɟɤɬɩɟɪɟɨɰɟɧɤɢɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɟɧ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɇɟɥɶɡɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɧɟ
ɧɭɠɧɭɸɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶɢɡɜɧɟɜɭɳɟɪɛɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɊɨɫɫɢɹɜɫɟɝɞɚɞɨɥɠɧɚ
ɛɵɬɶ ɝɨɬɨɜɚ ɤ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɮɟɪɚɯ ɛɭɞɶ ɬɨ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɚɤɟɬɧɚɹ
ɨɛɨɪɨɧɚɜȿɜɪɨɩɟȺɪɤɬɢɤɚɢɥɢɭɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɄɚɤɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɨɩɵɬɩɪɨɬɢ
ɜɨɪɟɱɢɹɫɊɨɫɫɢɟɣɱɚɫɬɨɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɁɚɩɚɞɧɨɷɬɨɧɟɞɨɥɠɧɨɞɟɡɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɇɟ
ɜɫɺɱɬɨɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɬɪɭɞɚ
ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɊɟɲɚɸɳɢɣɜɵɛɨɪɞɢɤɬɭɟɬɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚ
26 ȺɥɟɤɫɟɣȽɪɨɦɵɤɨȼɚɥɟɧɬɢɧɎɺɞɨɪɨɜ

ȼ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ ɜɜɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɚɧɤɰɢɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ


ɭɳɟɪɛɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɟɬɛɢɡɧɟɫ, ɤɚɤɤɪɭɩɧɵɣɬɚɤɢɦɚɥɵɣɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣɱɚɫɬɨɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɜ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɚɛɨɥɶɲɢɯɮɢɪɦȼɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɹɫɜɨɺɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɦɧɟɧɢɟɨɬɧɨ
ɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɚɧɤɰɢɣ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɧɵ ɞɟɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɜ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵ ɭɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ
ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɢɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɩɪɢɡɧɚɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɩɟɪɟɞɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɨɣ.
ȼ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ ɫɩɨɪɢɬɶ ɫ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦ ɪɢɫɤɨɜɚɧɨ ɇɟɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɨɦ
ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɚɧɤɰɢɣɱɪɟɜɚɬɨɞɥɹɧɟɝɨɤɪɭɩɧɵɦɢ ɧɟɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɜɩɥɨɬɶɞɨ
ɭɝɨɥɨɜɧɨɣɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɈɞɧɚɤɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɛɢɡɧɟɫɨɦɢɜɥɚɫɬɶɸɧɟɭɥɢ
ɰɚɫɨɞɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɦɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦȻɢɡɧɟɫɡɚɞɚɺɬɫɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɦɱɬɨɷɬɨɡɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɢɡ-
ɡɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɠɟɪɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɩɥɨɞɚɦɢɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɯɬɪɭɞɨɜɩɨɜɵɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɧɢɸ
ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨɦɟɠɫɬɪɚɧɨɜɨɝɨɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ?
ȼɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɟɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɚɧɤɰɢɢɜɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɊɨɫɫɢɢɩɨɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɊɎ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɨɦɭ ɬɟ ɫɭɠɚɸɬ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɮɨɪɦ. ɉɪɢ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬ ɥɢɛɨ ɩɪɢɭɦɧɨɠɚɟɬ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝ ɛɵ
ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɶɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ
ɉɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɣ ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɪɚɡɜɨɪɨɬ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɧɚ ȼɨɫɬɨɤ ɱɪɟɜɚɬ ɝɟɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɟɦ ȿɜɪɨɩɵ ɜɰɟɥɨɦ ɇɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɩɟɪɟɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɟɞ
ɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɢɩɨɫɬɚɜɨɤɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜɊɎɜɩɨɥɶɡɭɞɚɥɺɤɢɯɨɬɁɚɩɚɞɧɨɣɢɐɟɧ
ɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣȿɜɪɨɩɵɫɬɪɚɧɊɨɫɫɢɹɤɚɤɫɚɦɨɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɚɹɞɟɪɠɚɜɚɢɟɺɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɦɨ
ɝɭɬ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɶ ɫɟɛɟ ɨɫɥɚɛɢɬɶ ɛɵɥɭɸ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɩɪɢɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ȿɜɪɨɩɟ ɚ ɨɧɚ ɜ
ɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɞɨɥɠɧɚɛɭɞɟɬɜɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɱɟɦɪɚɧɶɲɟɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɡɚɪɨɫ
ɫɢɣɫɤɢɟ ɡɚɤɚɡɵ ɫ ɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ Ⱦɜɭɯɤɨɧɬɢɧɟɧɬɚɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɶ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɫ ɭɱɺɬɨɦ ɟɺ ɚɪɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɪɨɜ – ɷɬɨ ɜɟɥɢɤɢɣ ɢ ɟɳɺ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ
ɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɲɚɧɫ ɞɥɹ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɩɪɢɱɺɦ ɨɧɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɧɟ ɤɚɤ “ɦɨɫɬ
ɦɟɠɞɭȿɜɪɨɩɨɣɢȺɡɢɟɣ”ɧɟɤɚɤɫɜɹɡɤɚɦɟɠɞɭɧɢɦɢɚɤɚɤɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɜɟɥɢ
ɱɢɧɚ
ɋɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɣɬɢɧɝɚ ɜ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɚɥɢɹɯ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɜɨɥɧɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɟ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɸ ɚ ȿɋ ȼ ɪɟɬɪɨɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɨɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶ ɱɬɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɫɹ ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦɊɨɫɫɢɢ. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶȿɜɪɨɩɵ ɜɫɟɝɞɚɨɩɚɫɚɥɚɫɶɊɨɫɫɢɢ
ɧɨɱɚɫɬɨɫɚɦɚɧɚɩɚɞɚɥɚɧɚɧɟɺ(ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɩɨɥɶɫɤɨ-ɲɜɟɞɫɤɚɹɢɧɬɟɪɜɟɧɰɢɹɜɋɦɭɬ
ɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɉɨɥɬɚɜɚ ɇɚɩɨɥɟɨɧ Ƚɢɬɥɟɪ  ɂɡ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ-ɝɟɪɨɟɜ ɢ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ
ɜɨɢɧɫɤɨɣɫɥɚɜɵɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɜɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɊɨɫɫɢɢ
Ɋɨɫɫɢɹɬɚɤɠɟɧɟɪɚɡɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɥɚɫɜɨɢɝɪɚɧɢɰɵɧɚɡɚɩɚɞɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɫɢɥɨɜɵɦɢɦɟɬɨ
ɞɚɦɢɈɞɧɚɤɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɟɬɟɧɡɢɢɤɧɟɣɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɜɝɢɩɟɪɬɪɨɮɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɦɢɱɚɫɬɨ
ɜɢɫɬɟɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɜɢɞɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɞɥɹɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɢɸɦɢɧɭɬɧɵɯɡɚɞɚɱ
ɢɥɢɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɡɚɞɚɱ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯɞɚɥɟɤɨɨɬɊɨɫɫɢɢ 
ȼɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɣɜɟɯɨɣɜɪɚɡɜɨɪɨɬɟɊɨɫɫɢɢɧɚȼɨɫɬɨɤɫɬɚɥ ɜɢɡɢɬɩɪɟɡɢɞɟɧɬɚȼȼ ɉɭɬɢ
ɧɚɜ Ʉɢɬɚɣɜɦɚɟ ɝɤɨɝɞɚɛɵɥɨɩɨɞɩɢɫɚɧɨɫɨɝɥɚɲɟɧɢɟɨɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɜ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɮɟɪɚɯ ɋɪɟɞɢ ɧɢɯ ɨɫɨɛɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɤɬ ɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɤɚɯ ɝɚɡɚ ɜɄɇɊ ɩɨ
ɫɜɨɢɦ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɚ ɜ ɞɨɛɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɊɎ ɢ
ɋɋɋɊɢɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɣɧɚɥɟɬȿɝɨɨɛɳɚɹɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬɦɥɪɞɞɨɥɥɫ
ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɵɦɨɛɴɺɦɨɦɦɥɪɞɦ3 ɜɝɨɞɈɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɥɢɫɶɨɩɪɨ
ɤɥɚɞɤɟɜɛɭɞɭɳɟɦɟɳɺɨɞɧɨɝɨɝɚɡɨɜɨɝɨɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚɬɚɤɠɟɫɜɟɫɶɦɚɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɹɸɳɢɦɢ
ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɢɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɦɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɢ
Ⱥɧɬɢɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟɫɚɧɤɰɢɢ 27

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ɋ ɪɚɫɩɚɞɨɦ ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɨɸɡɚ “ɤɨɧɰɚ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ” ɧɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɨɫɶ Ɋɹɞ ɫɬɪɚɧ ɧɟ
ɩɪɨɲɺɥɬɟɫɬɧɚɦɢɪɨɥɸɛɢɟɢɞɨɛɪɨɫɨɫɟɞɫɬɜɨɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɜɫɹɤɨɝɨɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɟ
ɫɬɚɥɨɍɤɪɚɢɧɫɤɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢɦɢɪɧɚɝɪɚɧɶ ɫɢɥɨɜɨɝɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɜɟɥɢ
ɤɢɯ ɞɟɪɠɚɜ Ɍɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɞɢɩɥɨɦɚɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɨ ɫɩɪɚɜɢɬɶɫɹ ɫɨ ɜɡɪɵɜɨɨɩɚɫɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɟɣ ɧɟ ɧɚɪɚ
ɳɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɧɮɪɨɧɬɚɰɢɸ ɢ ɧɟ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɹɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɫɭɳɟ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ȿɜɪɨɫɨɸɡ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɦ ɜ
ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɢɢɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜɢɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɜȿɜɪɨɩɟɈɞɧɚɤɨɤɤɨɧ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɦɭ ɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɨɛɳɢɥɢɫɶ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɧɟ ɜɫɟɯɨɬɹ ɧɚ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ
ɨɧɨɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɲɢɪɨɤɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɨɜɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɯɫɬɪɚɧɚɯɋɭɬɶɟɝɨ– ɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɛɟɡ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢɦɨɠɧɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɹɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɗɬɚɢɫɬɢɧɚɠɞɺɬɫɜɨɟɝɨɩɪɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ
ɜɠɢɡɧɶ

ɋɩɢɫɨɤɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
ɄɭɱɦɚɅ  ɍɤɪɚɢɧɚ– ɧɟɊɨɫɫɢɹɄɢɟɜȼɪɟɦɹɆɢɫɬɟɰɫɬɜɨ

References
Kuchma L. (2003) Ukraina – ne Rossija. Kiev: Vremja, Mistecstvo.

Anti-Russia sanctions

Authors. Gromyko Al.A., Doctor of Political Science, Director of the Institute of Europe (Russian
Academy of Sciences). Address: 11-3, Mokhovaya Str., Moscow, Russia, 125009. E-mail: alex-
ey@gromyko.ru

Fyodorov V.P. Professor, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences, deputy Director of
the Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences. Address: 11-3, Mokhovaya Str., Moscow, Russia,
125009. E-mail: vpfyodorov@mail.ru.

Abstract. The authors analyze the current situation in Europe in the context of the events in Ukraine and
the anti-Russian sanctions imposed by the Western countries. The built over decades economic, scientific,
technology, and other mutual ties are seen to be at risk nowadays. The maximum of political effort is required
to cope with the situation, and prevent further confrontation and erosion of the negotiation process.

Key words: European Union, Russia, integration, euro, sanctions, debt.

Ⱦɚɬɚɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɹɧɜɚɪɶɝɨɞɚ

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