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SUMMARY

The present Russian version of The Sutra of a Hundred Parables (Pai yii ching) is translated and commented on by
I .S.Gurevich. The Sutra is a 5th century work of Chinese
Buddhist narrative literature. Its full translation into a European language has never been done before. Stanislas Julien in Lee Avadanas (Paris, 1859) and Edouard
Chavannes in Cinq cents oontes et apologues extraits du Tripit
ka chinois et traduits en Francois ((Paris, 1910-34) translated only the plots of the parables leaving out didactic
additions. The Sutra has never been studied as a literary monument. In Japan, where in the 2 0th century its
full translation and analysis was published by Akanuma
Chizen and Nishio Miyakoo (in the series "All the Sutras Translated into the Native Language", Kokuyaku isseikyC), the Sutra was viewed as one of the many works
written in Buddhist religious tradition, rather than a
literary monument. For the first time, a literary criticism of The Sutra of a Hundred Parables was made by L.N.Menshikov.
The Sutra of a Hundred Parables belongs to Avadana, a peculiar branch of Buddhist literature in China. The story of the text is traced in two main sources: A Collection of Data on Tripitaka Translations (Ch'u San-tsang tsi tei)
The Lives of Virtuous Monks (Kao seng chuan) and is as follow
Its compiler is said to be Sanghasena of India who told
the Sutra to his pupil Gunavrddhi. The latter came to
China in 479 and recited the' Sutra orally for a long time untill he recorded his translation in 492. In 502 (or
possibly, in 503) he died in Chien-ye,the then capital
of China. The comparison of The Sutra of a Hundred Parables
with the same plot parables from the collections translated directly from Sanskrit shows that the Gunavrddhi
version differs considerably from the original'acquiring the forms typical of the Chinese narrative of the
hsiao-shuo genre, rather than the forms of Jataka or
Avadana characteristic of Indian literature. The didactic conclusions of the parables were simplified and became more like Chinese traditional conceptions. Certain
purely Indian notions gave place to corresponding Chinese ones. The narrative acquires a more strict form,
general discourse reduced and secondary plots omitted.
All these changes could take place during the 13 years
Gunavrddhi stayed in China or, more exactly, between
his arrival and preaching and the time he put the text
126

Summary

down. At the same time, certain parts of the Sutra (mainly its poetic section) undoubtedly survived unchanged
and very accurately render the Sanskrit original.
The Sutra was a new word in the development of Chinese narrative in two respects. First, the parables of the
monument are short humour stories, while hsiao-shuo stories are rather serious. Second, the collection is marked by thematic integrity: it includes stories about
fools, stupid actions, foolish or absurd situations whereas the hsiao-shuo collections, as a rule, follow a more
broad thematic pattern telling about miracles or anything
out of the ordinary line. The overall character of the
parables provides grounds to believe that initially the

Sutra was called The Garland of the Flowers of Foolishnessthese words are mentioned in Sutra's final phrase.
The collection lays no claim on being the word of Buddha. The name of its compiler Sanghasena is referred to
at the end of the Sutra. Nevertheless, the text starts
with an introduction typical of any sutras included in
the Buddhist canon. The introduction always tells where
and when and on what occasion Buddha told a related sutra. However, a more close study shows that this introduction resembles in form certain places of the famous
early Taoist work Chuang tzu. This undoubtedly later added introduction makes it possible to list the Sutra
among the apocrypha of early Chinese Buddhism being the
extractions from plots of genuine Buddhist writings.
Such compilations usually have similar introductions the
Chinese origin of which can be easily traced. The most
popular compilation of this kind is The Sutra on the Requi-

tal for Favour (Ta-fang-bien-fo pdo en ohing).


The writing of Sanghasena-Gunavrddhi had by virtue
of all the above changes become a piece of Chinese literature both in form and, to some extent, in content.
This explains its durability in Chinese literature to
say nothing of its rather entertaining content. For many centuries, it has been a pleasure reading, and already in the 20th century was retold several times to be
adapted to contemporary notions. The retellings were of
different nature, either leaving the parables unchanged
omitting the Buddhist maxims, or adding other didactic
endings marked by a modern Chinese flavour, or selecting plots more appropriate for the China of today, etc.
The result often being new stories on an old foundation.
In addition to revised versions, the Sutra has been
published more than once in its full and original form.
The great Lu Hsiin, in 1914, payed his own money for the
Sutra to be published and favoured its 1926 Wang P'in127

Summary

ch'ing variant. The monument in the original has also


been published in the People's Republic of China.
The present translation is based on the Lu Hsun text,
The translator tried to produce an accurate yet smoothly readable text in Russian. Special terms are clarified in the Notes.


( )



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