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Global Switches

Materials section
Reflection/refraction - / V-Ray maps
.
Max depth - reflection/refraction. ,
.
Maps - / .
Filter maps - / .
. ,
.
Max. transp levels - .
Transp. cutoff - .
- .
Override mtl - () .
, , .
Glossy effects - ();
.

Indirect illumination section


Don't render final image - , V-Ray GI (photon maps,
light maps, irradiance maps). fly-through .

Raytracing section
Secondary rays bias -
; (face)
.

.
3dsmax Render-to-texture.

Lighting section
Lights - / .
Default lights - / default lights
.
Hidden lights - / hidden .
Shadows - / shadows .
Show GI only - , .
,
.

System

Raycaster Params
V-Ray Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) .
V-Ray raycasting -
, .
( )
. .
, V-Ray ,
binary space partitioning (BSP).
BSP , ,

. . -
; -
.
Max tree depth - BSP.
- .
( ) .
, .
Min leaf size - BSP. 0.0, V-Ray

.
, V-Ray
.
Face/level coef - .
, BSP .
. ( )
.
Default geometry -V-Ray raycasting .
BSP tree, .
non-motion blurred motion blurred,
. 3dsmax .
(displacement-mapped objects, VRayProxy
VrayFur, ).
Static ()
.
.
Dynamic ()
().
.
Dynamic memory limit - .
. 400 MB, ,
, ,
200 MB . ,
, ,
.

Region division
V-Ray (buckets). Bucket
V-Ray. Bucket
. Buckets

. bucket ,
buckets
( CPUs ).
buckets
.
X - ( Region W/H ) buckets (
Region Count)
Y - buckets ( Region W/H ) buckets
( Region Count).
Region sequence - buckets . Triangulation
sequence (displacementmapped objects, VRayProxy VRayFur ), .. ,
bucket.
,
.

Reverse sequence - reverses Region sequence .


: Image Sampler Adaptive Sampler buckets
.

Distributed rendering
Distributed rendering .
(). V-Ray
multithreading, distributed rendering.
distributed rendering,
. 3dsmax V-Ray ,
(). , V-Ray spawner
( , -:) Installation Distributed
rendering.
Distributed rendering - .
Settings... - Distributed rendering.

Camera

Camera type

V-Ray : Standard, Spherical, Cylindrical(point), Cylindrical (ortho),


Box Fish eye. Orthographic .
Override FOV - 3dsmax FOV .
, V-Ray FOV
0 360 , 3dsmax 180 .
FOV - FOV ( Override FOV
FOV ).
Height - Cylindrical (ortho) .
Auto-fit - auto-fit Fish-eye . V-Ray
Dist value ,
.
Dist - Fish-eye . Fish-eye
( 1.0)
"" .
Dist (
).
: Auto-fit.
Curve - Fish-eye.
. 1.0
Fish-eye. 0.0 .
2.0 .
: .
Type - . Standard, Spherical,
Cylindrical (point), Cylindrical (ortho), Box, Fish eye.
Examples.
Standard - (pinhole camera).
Spherical - , .
Cylindrical (point) - - .
(pinhole camera)
.
Cylindrical (ortho) -
.
Box - .
environment maps cube mapping.
GI - irradiance map Box ,

.
Fish eye -
.
Dist/FOV .
FOV.
, 1.0.

Depth of field
On - (depth-of-field).
Aperture - ( ) ,
. DOF,
.
Center bias - DOF . 0.0 ,
. ,
, , .
Focal distance - ,
(). .
Get from camera -
(target), .
Sides - ,
.
Rotation - .
Anisotropy - bokeh
. .
.
Subdivs - DOF. ,
. , .
QMC sampler Image sampler.

Motion blur
On - motion blur.Duration - ,
.
Interval center - motion blur 3dsmax. 0.5
, motion blur . 0.0
, ( ).
Bias - motion blur . 0.0 ,
motion blur. ,
. ,
.
Prepass samples - irradiance
map.
Blur particles as mesh - . ,
. ,
motion blur
.
Geometry samples - .
, .
, .

.
Subdivs - motion blur. ,
. , .
QMC sampler Image sampler.

Depth of field .
.
DOF motion blur ,
Subdivs.

Output

Output Size
Override Viewport - V-Ray VFB 3dsmax
common .
Image Aspect - Override Viewport
Pixel Aspect - pixel- (
)

Render Output
Save file

V-Ray Raw Image File

Render to VRImage *.vrimg

Animation
Frame Rate (FPS)

Environment

GI Environment (skylight)
environment
. skylight.
Color - (skylight).
Multiplier - . environment (
). Output map environment map,
.
Texture - background environment.

Reflection/refraction environment
environment
reflections/refractions.
reflection/refraction environment ( VRayMtl)
( VRayMap).
Color - background (skylight).
Multiplier - . environment (
). Output map environment map,
.
Texture - background environment
reflection/refraction.

Background - , background

Image Sampler

Fixed rate sampler


, .
Subdivs - . 1,
. 1, quasi-Monte Carlo
.
RGB ,
, /
(blurry effect). ,
Real RGB .

Adaptive QMC sampler


,
. V-Ray QMC sampler.
Adaptive QMC ;
Noise threshold QMC sampler- .
(,
VRayFur) : DOF, motion blur, glossy reflections.
, Adaptive subdivision sampler.
RGB ,
, /
(blurry effect). ,
Real RGB .
Min subdivs - ()
. 1, ,
, .
Max subdivs - .

Adaptive subdivision sampler


.
(direct GI, DOF, glossy reflection/reftaction ..)

V-Ray. .
/
,
, .
Min. rate - . 0 - ; -1
( ) - ; -2 .
Max. rate - ; - ; 1 ; 2 - .
Threshold - .
, ,
.
Normals -
. DOF motion blur.

Antialiasing filter
antialiasing filter. 3dsmax
Plate Match . Examples
antialiasing .

? :
blurry effects , Adaptive
subdivision sampler 1, .
blurry
, Two-level sampler .
, Adaptive subdivision sampler
Two-level sampler.
blurry , Fixed rate
sampler .
:

bucket-. bucket .
Adaptive subdivision sampler, sub
bucket-.
Adaptive QMC sampler Fixed rate sampler
, .

QMS Sampler
rQMC (randomized Quasi Monte Carlo) sampling V-Ray ("blurry")
- antialiasing, DOF, indirect illumination, area lights, glossy reflection/refraction, translucency, motion blur.
rQMC sampling ,
.
, V-Ray
, ,

. rQMC
sampler.
, V-Ray, QMC sampling ,
, QMC ( :) random Monte Carlo ).
:

subdivs .
Global subdivs ( ).
(, ,
, .. ; area lights
..).
(importance
sampling).
() -
,
; ,
.
early termination.

Amount - .
. 1.0 ,
0.0 .
Min samples -
. ,
.
Noise threshold - V-Ray-
. . .
0.0 .
Global subdivs multiplier - ;
/
lightmap, photon map, caustics .
(dof, moblur, irradiance map, qmc GI, area lights, area shadows, glossy
reflections/refractions) .

Color Mapping

Color mapping ( tone mapping)


.
/, . Color mapping
/ .
Type - . :
Linear multiply -
. ( 1.0 255) .
()
.
Exponential - .

(, ). ,
.
HSV exponential - Exponential,
, .
Intensity exponential - Exponential,
RGB .
Gamma correction - .
Dark ,
-. Bright gamma
(, gamma 2.2, Bright 0.4545).
Intensity gamma - ,
(r/g/b) .
Reinhard - .
Burn 1.0, , Burn 0.0
.
Dark multiplier - .
Bright multiplier - .
Gamma -
color mapping. ,
Gamma correction color mapping. ,
2.2-gamma,
Gamma 2.2.
Sub-pixel mapping - color mapping
, sub-pixel
. ,
,

, .
Affect background - , color mapping
background .
Clamp output - ,
color mapping .
(, hdr
, ) - , Clamp output.

Displacement

Edge length - .
(subtriangles).
, ,
.
Edge length View-dependent,
.
View-dependent - , Edge length
. 1.0 ,

. , Edge length
.
Max. subdivs -
.
. , 256
, 65536 .
.
tesselate
. V-Ray 1.45.20,
(
() - ).
Tight bounds - , V-Ray
displaced .
,
, (,
). ,
, .
Vray
.

displacement- bounding box


. , displacement
. ,

VRayDisplacementMod ,
.

Indirect Illumination

Approaches to indirect illumination


V-Ray
:

Direct computation - (Quasi-Monte Carlo GI) - ;


GI
.
:
o ( ) ;
o

, (flicker) ;

(motion-blurred)
.

:
o
o

(, );
,
, .

Irradiance map - ;
,
.
:
o

irradiance map ,
;


irradiance map;

irradiance map ,
( ) fly-through
;

irradiance map
area light .

:
o
o

GI,
;
low , (flicker)
;

irradiance map ;

(motion-blurred)
(
).

Photon map -
.

"". Photon map
;
.
:
o

photon map ;

photon map
fly-through ;

photon map .

o
o

photon map ;
;

V-Ray's , (motion-blurred)
( );

photon map ,
environment lights (skylight).

Light map - .
photon mapping, . light map
.
3d , photon map.
Light map GI
() ,
irradiance map direct GI .
Advantages:

lightmap . ,
photon map,
,
.

light-mapping -
skylight, self-illuminated , non-physical, photometric ... ,
photon map , -
photon map skylight omni
.

Light map .
Photon map, ,
, .

light map
.

Disadvantages:
o

irradiance map, light map . ,


,
, GI ; *
V-Ray ;
V-Ray ;

photon map, light map .


, .

light map bump maps;

irradiance map direct GI


bump maps.

(motion-blurred)
, , lightmap GI
( irradiance map,
).

? .
.

Primary () secondary ()
V-Ray :

. ,
() , /.
, ()
GI ( ).
On - .

GI caustics
GI caustics represent GI caustics -
/. skylight, self-illuminated . ,
direct lights .

Caustics direct light. , GI caustics


.
Refractive GI caustics -
() . GI caustics Caustics,
, .
Refractive GI caustics skylight .
Reflective GI caustics - .
, Caustics,
. .. ,
..

Post-processing
indirect illumination,
.
; .
Saturation - : 0.0 - ,
. 1.0 - , GI
. 1.0 - .
Contrast - Contrast base GI .
Contrast 0.0, GI solution , Contrast
base. 1.0 Contrast . 1.0
.
Contrast base - Contrast. GI,
.
Save maps per frame - , , V-Ray GI maps (irradiance, photon, caustic,
light maps) auto-save, .
.
, V-Ray .

First (primary) diffuse bounces


Multiplier - primary diffuse bounces .
1.0 .
, .
Primary GI engine diffuse - primary bounces:

Irradiance map
Global photon map

Quasi-Monte Carlo

Light mapmore information.

Secondary diffuse bounces


Multiplier - secondary diffuse bounces .
1.0 , 0.0
.

. ,
.
Secondary diffuse bounces method - secondary diffuse bounces.
None - .
indirect color bleeding.

Global photon map


Quasi-Monte Carlo

Light mapmore information.

V-Ray skylight. Skylight background


color environment map MAX's environment , V-Ray'
Environment.

GI 1.0. ,
.

Light Cache

Light caching ( light mapping)


. Chaos Group V-Ray .
photon mapping, photon mapping .
Light caching .
3D , photon map. ,
, .. photon map ,
photon map.
, light-caching photon map:

. ,
photon map,
.
Light-caching - skylight, selfilluminated , non-physical lights, photometric lights ... Photon map
, skylight standard omni
.
Light cache .
Photon map, , ,

,
.

, light caching photon map


. light cache
.
, light cache :

irradiance map,
.
photon map, light cache .
.

Light cache bump maps.


Subdivs - .
(1000 , 1000000
).
Sample size - . ,
, ,
. , .
,
light cache Scale.
Scale - Sample size Filter size
Screen - (1.0
). ,
. .
, light cache .
World - . -
, .
. fly-through ,
.
Store direct light - , . ,
irradiance map direct GI
, .. light cache,
.
. light cache ,
, .
Show calc. phase - .
, .
- .
Pre-filter - , light cache .
normal light cache filtering ( ) .
, ,
.
.

light cache light cache.


Filter - . ,
light cache.
None - . .
, , light cache
. ( ).
, light cache
.
Nearest - .
light cache, , light cache
. , .
Interpolation samples , light cache .
Fixed -
.
, light cache .
Filter size. .
2-6 Sample size. Filter size
Sample size Scale
Use light cache for glossy rays - , light cache
GI .
.
Number of passes - light cache , .
light cache .
, , ;
.
, 1
.
Mode - light cache:
Progressive path tracing - , light cache
.
.
Single frame - light cache .
Fly-through - light cache ,
.

World Scale . Light cache
,
.
From file - , light cache .
light cache; , light cache
, light cache.

Adaptation by importance amount QMC sampler 0.0


light cache, .

, . ,
, light cache
.

255 .

light cache ,
Filter size (flickering) GI.

light caches ,
light caches .

photon map, light cache


.
, .

Quasi-Monte Carlo GI

Quasi-Monte Carlo GI
GI.
Quasi-Monte Carlo GI -. GI
. , ,
.
Quasi-Monte Carlo GI, (photon map light map)
( ).

Parameters
Subdivs - GI. VRay ().
, QMC sampler .
Depth - Quasi-Monte Carlo GI
. .

Irradiance Map

irradiance map.
, irradiance map GI
.
, irradiance map
.
Irradiance 3D ,
. , irradiance
3D . ,
irradiance map. -
, .

.. ,
.
, -
, .
, diffuse surface irradiance -
, , .
V-Ray, irradiance map
.
GI, (,
, ),
. Irradiance map .
( )
. , , ,
.
Irradiance map 3d ( )
.
GI , V-Ray , irradiance map
. , V-Ray (
, ..). ,
V-Ray ,
. ,
irradiance map..

Basic parameters
Min rate - GI . 0 ,
(
" ", ). -1
, ( ..).
, GI
. Min rate Adaptive
subdivision image sampler.
Max rate - GI . Max rate Adaptive
subdivision image sampler.
Color threshold (Clr thresh) - irradiance map
.
; irradiance map
( ).
Normal threshold (Nrm thresh) - irradiance map
.
; irradiance map
(
).
Distance threshold (Dist thresh) - irradiance
map . 0.0
irradiance map ,
, .

Hemispheric subdivs (HSph. subdivs) - GI .


, .
(direct computation).
,
rQMC sampler.
Interpolation samples (Interp. samples) - GI .
, , ,
HSph. Subdivs .

Options
Show samples - .
Show calc phase - , V-Ray irradiance map
.
. , , .
- , .
Show direct light - Show calc phase .
(direct lighting) (indirect
lighting) irradiance map. V-Ray direct lighting,
. , direct lighting
, , (secondary
diffuse bounces, GI).

Detail enhancement
Detail enhancement irradiance map
. - , the irradiance
map GI flickering . Detail enhancement ,
QMC sampling .
, ambient occlusion , ,
.
On - detail enhancement irradiance map. Irradiance map
. (detail
enhancement), irradiance map
. , irradiance map
,
direct sampling.
Scale - Radius:
Screen - .
World - .
Radius - direct sampling.
,
- , . ,
.
ambient occlusion .
Subdivs mult. - ,
irradiance map Hemispheric subdivs. 1.0 ,

, irradiance map.
, ..

Advanced options
Interpolation type - .
irradiance map.
Weighted average - . GI
.
, , .
Least squares fit - ; GI
irradiance map. , weighted
average , . ,
, , irradiance map
.
Delone triangulation -
(indirect illumination).
. , Delone triangulation
. .
.
hemispheric subdivs, Noise threshold
QMC sampler.
Least squares with Voronoi weights - least_squares_fit,
irradiance map.
.
, ,
Least_squares_fit Delone triangulation. , Least_squares_fit
. . Delone
triangulation , hemispheric subdivs high
Max
irradiance map ( ),
. .
Sample lookup - . irradiance map
.
Nearest - ( ,
Interpolation samples )
V-Ray. , ,
.
, ,
( ).
Nearest quad-balanced - nearest lookup,
.
( quad-balanced). ,
Nearest , . , ,
.
Precalculated overlapping -
. irradiance map ,

. ,
. ,
, , . ,
.
, , ,
. ,
, ( ) . ,
.
Density-based - ; Nearest Precalculated overlapping

. ,
, .
:
Nearest lookup, , . Nearest quad-balanced
. Precalculated overlapping
, GI solution.
Density-based .
,
. Delone triangulation ,
.
Calc. pass interpolation samples - irradiance map.
,
. 10 25. calculation
pass, .
. ,
15.
Use current pass samples - irradiance map. ,
V-Ray irradiance map .
V-Ray ,
. V-Ray
, . ,
, irradiance map .
, ,
irradiance map.
.
Randomize samples - irradiance map. ,
. ,
, .
.
Check sample visibility - . V-Ray
irradiance map, .

. , V-Ray
.

Mode
Mode - irradiance map
.

Bucket mode - , separate irradiance map


("bucket"). ,
irradiance map , .
Single frame,
("bucket"),
( ).
irradiance map (High preset, hemispheric subdivs
Noise threshold QMC sampler).
Single frame - ; irradiance map ,
irradiance map .
, irradiance map.
. ,
, .
Multiframe incremental - (
) ( fly-through ). VRay irradiance map ; V-Ray
. irradiance map
,
-
irradiance map.
From file - V-Ray irradiance map
. irradiance map
. fly-through
.
Add to current map - V-Ray irradiance map
. ,
irradiance map ( )
.
Incremental add to current map - V-Ray irradiance map
.
, irradiance map
( ) fly-through .
irradiance map - ,
, fly-through
.
irradiance map
,
irradiance map:
Browse - irradiance map
From file. ,
.
Save to file - irradiance map .
"Don't delete" "On render end". V-Ray
irradiance map .

Reset irradiance map - () irradiance map ..

On render end
, V-Ray irradiance map .
Don't delete - , , V-Ray irradiance map
. , V-Ray irradiance map,
. ,
.
Auto save - , V-Ray irradiance map
. , irradiance map
, .
Switch to saved map - Auto save . Switch to
saved map , V-Ray irradiance map From file
, ..

Caustic

V-Ray .
/ ( , /
Object settings Lights settings Render parameters > System > Object/Light
settings). photon map.
On - .

Multiplier - .
, .
, .
: .
Search dist - (search
area).
Search dist.
Max photons - V-Ray
Search dist,
. Max photons V-Ray
Max photons .
Max density - (,
) photon map. V-Ray caustics photon map,
, Max density.
, V-Ray
photon map. , V-Ray photon map.
(
, )
.
Mode - irradiance map:
New map - photon map .
( ), .
Save to file - , photon map .
From file - V-Ray photon map, ,
.
Don't delete - , V-Ray photon map .
, . ,
photon map
.
Auto save - , V-Ray caustics photon map
.
Switch to saved map - Auto save . V-Ray
From file Auto save.

( Light settings dialog).