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General notion Functions of the articles Classification of nouns Use of articles with common nouns Articles with countable nouns Meanings of articles with countable nouns Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes The generic use of the definite article Articles with uncountable nouns Articles with names of substances Articles with abstract nouns Articles with nouns referring to unique objects . . . Articles with nouns in some syntactic positions Articles with predicative nouns Articles with nouns in apposition Absence of articles in parallel structures Absence of articles with vocatives Articles with nouns introduced by as . . Articles after the exclamatory what Absence of articles in absolute constructions Special difficulties in the use of articles Articles with names of seasons Articles with names of times of the day and night , , . * Articles with names of meals . . . . . . . . . . . ^Articles with names of diseases -*- Articles with the noun sea Articles with the nouns school, college, hospital, etc * ** Articles with the noun society ^Articles with the noun town -Articles with the nouns radio and television Articles with nouns in some common expressions . . . Place of articles Use of articles with proper nouns Articles with personal names * Articles with geographic names Articles with other semantic groups of proper names EXERCISES KEY TO THE EXERCISES

6 7 8 9 9 9 11 22 24 24 27 33 34 34 36 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 41 43 44 45 45 47 47 47 48 49 51 51 54 56 58 172

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1. The articles belong to a syntactic class of words called determiners which modify a noun. The determiners include: 1. the definite and indefinite articles a, an, the; 2. the demonstrative pronouns this/these, , that/ those; 3. the conjoint form of possessive pronouns (i. e. the form that is used with nouns but not separately) my, your, his, her, its, our, their; 4. the pronouns which, whose, each, every, some, any, no, (n)either, enough, much, more, most. There are two features that distinguish determiners from other words in a noun phrase, i. e. in a word group consisting of a noun and its modifiers. Firstly, only one determiner can be used in a noun phrase, which means that determiners are reciprocally exclusive; secondly, a determiner with very few exceptions comes first in a noun phrase: a beautiful red rose, some English books, his new black suit A noun in the genitive case can function as a determiner: George's old friend, the manager's office It should be explained that in the phrase the manager's office the definite article refers to the noun manager's which together with the article is a determiner to the noun office. This can be proved with the help of substitution6

the manager's this ; 2. The indefinite article a, an has developed from the numeral one (O.E. an) and retains some of its earlier meaning: it occurs only before singular nouns: Peter started life as a schoolmaster. Sitting at a round table, sipping a glass of orange juice was a handsome gray-haired man who was an old friend. The definite article has developed from the O.E. de monstrative pronoun se and the demonstrative meaning is clearly felt: The screenplay (= this screenplay) is based on a novel. The lady (== this lady) is waiting to see you. The articles are unstressed as a rule. The indefinite article is [a] before nouns beginning with a consonant sound (a girl, a cat, a house, a letter) and an [an] before nouns beginning with a vowel sound (an eagle, an idea, an arm). Care should be taken not to use an before words begin ning with vowel letters which are pronounced as conso nant sounds (a European country, a unit, a one-syllable word). An is used before the so-called "silent h" (an hour, an heir). Some British speakers prefer an to a before a pro nounced h if the first syllable is unstressed (a historianan historian). The definite article the is pronounced [3a] before con sonant sounds (the storm, the horse, the woman) and [3i] before vowel sounds (the apple, the uncle, the oak). There are also stressed forms a [ei], an [sen], the [3i:], which appear if the following word is emphasized or before a pause: You don't mean to say that funny little man is the Charles Matthews'? This is a, er, poem I've written for the occasion.

3. The articles have morphologic, syntactic and communicating functions.


The morphologic function of the articles consists inl serving as a formal indicator of the noun: the presence of the article signals that what follows is a noun. The articles have two syntactic functions: 1. The article separates the noun phraseirom other parts of the sentence: ( a magazine. John has brought < an interesting magazine. { an interesting English magazine. 2. The article may connect sentences within a text by correlating a noun it modifies with some word or a group of words in the previous context: John has brought a book. The book is interesting. Thus, the article in such a case has the connecting function. The articles also have the communicating function. A noun with the indefinite article may introduce new information in the sentence: it is then the focus of communication ("the Theme" of the sentence): A pretty girl of about eight ran into the room. A noun with the definite article in the initial position usually indicates given information and is not the focus of communication ("the theme" of the sentence): The girl ran into the room.

4. The use of the articles is influenced by the kind of noun they modify. The division of nouns into countable and uncountable and also into common and proper is relevant to the use of the articles. Countable nouns, as the term suggests, refer to objects (things, persons, phenomena, abstract notions) which can be counted; these nouns, therefore, have the singular and the plural form: a book two books a man men a storm storms an idea some ideas a mistake many mistakes Uncountable nouns denote substances or abstract no8

tions which cannot be counted; therefore, uncountable nouns have no plural form: water, food, gold; progress, courage, hospitality As we see, abstract nouns can be both countable and uncountable. There are also nouns which are neither countable nor uncountable. These are so-called collective nouns denoting groups of objects or living beings as undivided bodies (furniture, equipment, the bourgeoisie, the proletariat^ etc.). Proper nouns are names of specific people, places, months, days, newspapers, etc.: Lord Byron, France, July, Sunday, The Times

Meanings of articles with countable nouns 5. The indefinite article and the absence of article (the zero article). The indefinite article has the nominating, classifying, numeric and generalizing meaning. As the indefinite article is used only with singular nouns, the absence of article before plural nouns has similar meanings (the only exception being the numeric'meaning). Thus, the absence of article is meaningful and is often called the zero article. The. principal meaning of the indefinite article is to denote what kind of object (thing, person, etc.) the speaker has to do with: A man and a woman sat opposite us, but they did not talk. Gloria pushed a button in the wall. We saw a house with a lawn in front of it. A voice called out "Come in!" This is the nominating meaning as we give a name to an object we have in mind. The indefinite article may assign an object to a certain class or kind of similar objects. This may be called the classifying meaning of the indefinite article: Her brother was a student at Balliol College. "Sir Wilmer has always been a good neighbour to us," said Davina.

His aunt, a woman of uncertain age, was also present al the ceremony. j Nouns with the indefinite articlejn^h^lassifying mean] ing are usually predicatives or appositions in a sentence] The difference between the nominating and the clasj sifying meaning becomes apparent if we turn the examples given above into the plural. In the case of the nominating meaning plural nouns may be preceded by words like some, several, a few or by a nuJ ! meral: Two men and two girls sat opposite us. a few men, a few girls some men, some girls In the case of the classifying meaning plural nouns cannot be preceded by those words or by numerals: Her brothers were students at Balliol College. Sometimes the meaning of oneness becomes predominant. In such cases we can speak of the numeric meaning of the indefinite article: An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. Quinn couldn't hear a word she spoke. The indefinite article always has the numeric force before the numerals hundred, thousand, million and the nouns dozen and score:A hundred or so men, women and children were sitting round the fire. He bought a dozen ties at Woolworth's. In the generalizing meaning the indefinite article indicates that the following noun denotes a typical member of a class: Ascd is a domestic animal. ( = Every cat is a domestic animal.) A tiger is dangerous. ( = Every tiger is dangerous.) The generalizing meaning remains if we turn the nouns in the above-given examples into the plural. Plural nouns in the generalizing meaning are used without any articles Cats are domestic animals. Tigers are dangerous.

6. The definite article. The definite article is used with both singular and plural nouns. The definite article has the specifying meaning and the generic meaning. In the specifying meaning the definite article denotes that the following noun refers to a particular object (thing, person, etc.) or particular objects as distinct from all others of the same class: Lynn followed the boy, but at a little distance. Conan punched the number the call was answered on the first ring. Nothing was natural in the room except the plants. The definite article is used in the generic meaning when reference is made to a class of objects as a whole (also see 16): The tiger is dangerous. The cat is a domestic animal.
Note. In the previous examples we can replace the tiger by a tiger or tigers, the cat by a cat or cats. However, there is a differ ence in meaning. The cat, the tiger are used in an abstract s e n s e reference is made to the class of cats or tigers as a whole. When we say a cat, a tiger we mean what is normal or typical for any member of the class of cats or tigers. Therefore, replacement of the kind shown above is not always possible. For example, we can only say "The cat was domesticated many centuries ago", but not "A cat was domesticated many centuries ago", since the statement is true of the class of cats and not of any individual specimen of the class.

Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes 7. Both the indefinite and the definite article may be used before nouns without any attributes and before nouns modified by different kinds of attributes. The meaning of attributes and their influence on the use of articles is different. In accordance with their role in the choice of articles attributes may be divided into limiting and descriptive.^' A limiting attribute is used to point out a particular object (a person, a thing, etc.) or a number of objects as distinct from all other objects of the same class or kind. A noun with a limiting attribute is used with the definite article in the specifying meaning: There was a crowd of people in the principal street of the village.


With reafl triumph she led Andrew to view the first daffodil. J She sat d<own and accepted the cigarette he offered hem A descriptive attribute describes an object or a numbei of objects; it may also give additional information aboul them: 1 Edward wore a large straw hat of native make. ] There was a wonderful concert at the Victoria Hall wk could have gone to. I A descriptive attribute does not affect the use of artir cles; therefore not only nouns with the indefinite article (asl in the examples above), but also nouns with the definite article can be modified by descriptive attributes. In the examples below the definite article is used with nouns modified by descriptive attributes because the identification of t h e objects is made with the help of the context: Hercule Poirot looked thoughtfully at the young vital face staring at him so thoughtfully. The big steamer dropped our mail and went on its way. In the following example the definite article is used because the noun thought besides having the descriptive attribute pleasant *s modified by the limiting attribute of no surgery in the evening: After a few morning consultations with the pleasant thought of no surgery in the evening Andrew went on his round. Attributes rnodifying nouns may be expressed by separate words, word groups or clauses. They may be prepositional or postpositional. 8. Modification by adjective?. Attributes expressed by adjectives may be limiting or descriptive depending on the context or the situation. Thus, in the examples below the adjective tall is a descriptive attribute in the first sentence and a limiting attribute in the second sentence: I saw a tall good-looking woman. The tall matt remained sitting and the short one approached us. Adjectives in the superlative degree are always limiting attributes:

You are the most irritating person I have ever met. This is the safest way out, I'm sure.
Note. In sentences like She is a most charming girl we find the indefinite article before most because it is an intensifier here and is synonymous to very.

There are adjectives and adjective pronouns that always have a limiting force because of their lexical meaning. The most common of them are: same, only, very, main, principal, left, right, central, following, present, former, latter, last, next, etc.: Sorry, I've dialled the wrong number. Which is the right way to Exeter? The only thing that spoiled his appearance was the thinness of his mouth. Her articulation was so distinct that you could hear her every word in the last row. They spent the latter part of the year on the farm. You are the very man I want to talk to. As is clear from the examples given above, nouns modified by these adjectives often require postmodification by other attributes. The adjectives alleged, necessary, opposite, previous, lower, upper, usual, so-called and some others may be used both as limiting and descriptive attributes, though they occur more often as limiting attributes: He came in surrounded by the usual crowd. A cup of coffee and a roll is a usual continental breakfast.
Note 1. Nouns denoting time such as day, night, morning, afternoon, week, year, etc. are used without any article when they are modified by the adjectives next, last in present time contexts: They got married last year. Her son is going to college next year. In past time contexts the definite article may be used in similar cases, but its use is not obligatory: The nextriay he looked for her on the beach, but there was no sign of her or the children. Next morning gay-coloured umbrellas were going up in the sun. However, when the adjectives next, last are followed by an ordinal numeral the definite article is obligatory: The next three months I studied the art of hornblowing under the direction of an adept, 13

There is no article in such combinations as on Monday last, in May last, etc. Note 2. The adjective only is used as a descriptive attribute in combination with the nouns daughter, son, child when these nouns mean "somebody's child, an offspring":* 7 ' y W ^ Is he an only child} Isabel was an only daughter of wealthy parents. Note 3. A noun (singular or plural) modified by the adjective pronoun other is used with the definite article when two objects or two groups of objects are contrasted: The difference between the two sisters was remarkable: one was gay, outspoken, a good companion; the other sister was reticent and held herself aloof from all of us. Mrs. Donaldson and I remained on the veranda, and the other guests went to the pool with Patrick and Sonia. In the second of the above given examples the other guests means "all the other guests", "the rest of the guests". However, when the speaker is not sure that all the rest of the objects are meant the definite article is not used: Some boys and girls were bathing in the sea, other holiday* makers were sitting or lying on the yellow sand of the beach. Other may be used as a noun pronoun. The definite article |s used with it in the same way as with nouns modified by the adjective pronoun other: The twins were not jealous of each other's success; one was clever at studies, the other at sports. I gave him several cigarettes; he lighted one with a shaky hand, having put the others into his pocket. Some of his former friends forgot him, others thought he had died or left the country. The indefinite article with other is spelled as one word another, which has the following meanings: a) different I have another plan in my mind. The hat is a size too big. Show me another one. b) one more of the same kind, additional Will you have another cup of tea? ^

-In the second meaning another can be used with plural nouns preceded by few or a cardinal numeral: He gave her another five dollars. We are going to stay here another few weeks. In the above given examples another is used because the speaker thinks of five dollars as an indivisible sum of money and of few weeks as a certain period of time.

Adjectives can sometimes be postpose^, i.e. they can follow the noun they qualify. Postposition is characteris14

tic for such adjectives and adjectivized participles as absent, present, proper, involved, concerned and some others, which function as limiting attributes: The delegates present discussed the agenda of the conference. The people involved were asked to come and testify. The city proper does not occupy a large territory.
Note. Some nouns with postposed adjectives form set phrases: president elect, heir apparent, postmaster general, attorney general, notary public, princess royal.

Other adjectives when postposed often occur as heads of adjective phrases, which are usually used as descriptive attributes: She had dark splendid eyes and a red mouth tremulous with laughter. Edward was dressed in sliabby clothes, none too clean. It was a great land-locked harbour big enough to hold a fleet of battleships. 9. Modification by numerals. Cardinal numerals are used only as descriptive attributes: They received three invitations to Sunday parties. There were two officers of high rank among the guests. In the following example the definite article is required by the situation: The five days seemed an age to him. Ordinal numerals are usually limiting attributes] She was the first celebrity I interviewed. "It's the fourth room down the corridor'' the clerk said. No article is used when an ordinal numeral follows a noun: Have you read Chapter Ten? Open the jpook at page twenty-five, please. An ordinal numeral may mean "another", "one more". A noun modified by an ordinal numeral in this meaning is used with the indefinite article: Encouraged by her smile the boy took a third helping of the apple pie.

"I hope you won't need a second reminder" Mr. Chester said sternly.
Note. The numerals first, second, third in combination with certain nouns form set phrases, which may be used with the definite or the indefinite article according to the context or the situation: I have never won a first prize, but I won a second prize once. There was a fancy-dress dance and Mary won the second prize: a box of chocolate creams. "Stanley won't come: he has been invited to a first night at the theatre, which he can't miss," said Barbara. Other set expressions especially of adverbial character are used without any article: at first hand, at first sight, to do something first thing (col.), on second thought(s).

10. Modification by participles. Attributes expressed by present and past participles may be both prepositional and postpositional. When placed in preposition they function as a) limiting or b) descriptive attributes depending on the context or the situation: a) You are a grown boy: you must help your parents. The alarming news was considered carefully and discussed from various points of view. b) The bat made up his mind to join the winning side. In postposition a participle is usually the head of a phrase which may be a) descriptive or b) limiting: a) Over the bed was a fat little cherub dangling a lamp with a pink shade. She was attired in safari slacks and a smok boldly patterned in black and brown. b) Jack Almond was thought the cleverest of all the young people attached to the Foreign Office. 11. Modification by nouns in the genitive case. When an attribute is expressed by a noun in the genitive case the article or its absence mostly refers to the noun in the genitive case. The meanings of articles used with nouns in the genitive case are the same as with nouns in the common case: a) the specifying meaning: Bateman did not quite like the fellow's manner ( = the manner of the fellow), so he got up and left the room.

The Man'seyes ( = the eyes of the man) were veiled with tears when he pictured this scene to himself. b) t^jn^mnating^meaning She is a neighbour's daughter ( = the daughter of a neigh bour). c) th^femi^izmg-^miaiu^. There must" some poison in a lion's teeth ( = the teeth of any lion) because I sometimes have a pain in my loft leg where that confounded lion got hold of me. d) the generic meaning: I stand in the place of the doctor. The doctor first diag noses the patient's disorder (= the disorder the patient [. fers from), then he recommends a course of treatment. The poet's talent ( = the talent of the poet) is born with him, but I doubt if this carTBe said of the artist. In the examples given above the nouns in the geniti ve case function as determiners to the head noun. (See \j One of the specific features of attributes expressed by deter miners including nouns in the gevitive case is that they take the place of the article before the head noun and there fore come first in the noun phrase. Other"attributes to the head noun, if there are any, are placed after a noun in the genitive case (with the exception of several groups of words about which see 52): the boy's 1 , \ * the / ( ) S l s t e r the ^1

new En

l i s h text-book

Note. No article is used if a noun in the genitive case is a proper name: Margaret's face did not show what she was thinking about. There is no article either before an adverb in the genitive case: We didn't go to yesterday's concert. Today's riews-papers haven't been delivered yet.

Ajnounan the genitive case may be used as a descriptjve attribute to the head noun: the article (or its absence) then refers to the head noun, as in a women's college, a children's hospital, a doctor's degree, widow's weeds, a doll's house (BrE, AmE a doll house), sheep's eyes, cow's milk, ia. dy's stockings, a lady's maid, a world's fair, a three months7 leave, a summer's day, etc.:
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The kites sang dryly like raven's wings in flight. j It was a pity she had never had a chance of playind Rosalind; she would have looked all right in boy's clothes] "She is going to sail for Europe at noon tomorrow for a two-years' stay'' said Richard. In the examples above raven's wings does not mean the wings of one particular raven, but a kind of wings; similarly boy's clothes means a kind of clothes. The absence of the article before raven's wings and-boy's clothes refers to the plural nouns wings and clothes. The indefinite article in a two-years' stay is accounted for by the fact that it refers to the singular noun stay. It is important to note that such combinations cannot be substituted for by of-phrases. A noun in the genitive case used as a descriptive attribute is not a determiner; it may be preceded by other attributes also referring to the head noun: They gave the girl a beautiful doll's house as a birthday present. Go to bed and have a good night's rest. The expensive widow's weeds only emphasized her prettiness. (Compare with nouns in the genitive case used as determiners: attributes placed before them never refer to the head noun: They saw the old woman's house in the clearing before them, but there were no signs of life there.) 12. Modification by nouns in the common case. Nouns in the common case frequently occur as attributes to other nouns. They mostly function as descriptive attributes, the choice of article depending on the context or situation. In this function they do not take plural endings: The leather binding was worn and the pages were yellow with-age. Her father was an enthusiastic stamp collector. Occasionally we find nouns (especially proper names) used as limiting attributes: Costumes of the Regency period were designed for the dancers. I am not guessing I know the Forster family had nothing to do with it.

Note. In modern English we often come across more than two in the common case used as attributes: The winter tennis tournament ended only yesterday. A London Sunday paper published curious data concerning oil production in the North Sea.
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13. Modification by prepositional phrases. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition followed by a noun (at the window, for his children). A prepositional phrase may be used as a) a limiting or b) a descriptive attribute: a) As I took the cup from her I was conscious of the click of a camera. She seated herself so that I could see the man at the screen very well. b) From one of the bookshelves Julia took a bundle of her latest photographs. I made plans to put up two or three hotels and bungalows for occasional residents. A prepositional phrase may contain various prepositions, but the most frequently used is a phrase with the preposition of, or the of-phrase, which is a genitive equivalent in modern English. The meanings of the of-phrase are difficult to define and classify. The main identifiable meanings of structures with descriptive of-phrases are as follows: 1. a container with its contents: a box of matches, a.cup of tea, a pot of coffee, a bowl of soup, a glass of water (Compare with a matchbox, a tea-cup, a coffee-pot, a soup bowl, etc., which are used for empty containers.) 2. a certain quantity: a lumgjof sugar, a slice of lemon,jij)inch of salt 3. measure: a temperature of 20 C, a height of two hundred metres, a weight of two pounds, a distance of three miles, a pound of butter 4. ongixu a native of Wales, a man of Kent, a descendant of a good family 5. characteristics of an objecti
2> ~" 19

a woman of great charm, a man of courage, a question j of importance, a matter of urgency j

6. age:

a man of middle age, a boy of five -. 7. material a thing is made of: a box of cedar wood, a coat of mail, a heart of gold (metaphorical use)
Note. In modern English the of-phrase is rarely used to denote material. As a rule we find an attributive noun in preposition to the head-noun in this meaning: older English, modern English; a ring of golda gold ring; a wall of glassa glass wall.

8. composition: a herd of deer, a crowd of people, a flock of birds, a bunch of flowers, a sheaf of documents, a pile of papers 9. two objects of the same kind or an object consisting of two parts of the same kind: a brace of pheasants, a pair of gloves, a couple of apples, a pair of trousers 10. indication of implied analogy: a beast of a man (i.e. a man behaving like a beast), a peach of a girl (i.e. a girl as beautiful and fresh as a peach), a gem of a housekeeper, a fool of a woman The of-phrase is a descriptive attribute in a construction called "the double genitive" as it contains the of-genitive and the s-genitive: a friend of my brother's, a daughter of Mr. Parker's, an opera of Verdi's, a sonata of Britten's As has been stated above, the of-phrase may have a li miting force as well. Mark the most typical kinds of structures with limiting of-phrases: i the city of Chicago, the sound of the bell, the figure of a man, the position of a teacher, the foot of the hill, the bank r^of the river, the wife of the local doctor, the number (i.e. /the total quantity) of people, the shadow of a tree, the shot / of a gun, the face of a woman, the manager of a hotel, the J. edge of the table, the story of his life If a head-noun refers to a part or a section of a thing denoted by a noun in the of-phrase, the head-noun may be

used either with the definite or the indefinite article: the (a) leg of the table, the (a) wheel of the car, the (a) door of the car
Note. With animate nouns the genitive case is usually used in similar cases: the cat's paw, the man's leg

A prepositional phrase may contain a j^erjund instead of a noun. Prepositional gerundial phrases are "usually limiting attributes: I heard that he had started off for South Africa in the wild hope of making a fortune. Lady Kastellan had the reputation of being a beauty. Sometimes a prepositional gerundial phrase is treated as a descriptive attribute, especially when its head-noun is an object of the verb to have: He had a feeling of missing something important. She always got her own way. People and events had a fashion of shaping themselves to suit her. 14. Modification by attributive clauses. Attributive clauses may be limiting or descriptive. In the following examples attributive clauses are limiting: She was flattered byjhe^cgtnpliments he paid her. "So you are the gentleman wKb'sent me those lovely flowers" she said with a smile. In the examples below attributive clauses are descrip* tive; the choice of the article is determined by the context or the situation: They managed to get fairly good parts in a play that had proved a success. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. The short holiday which he spent in going to the theatre every night was almost at an end.
Note. A descriptive attributive clause may be separated from the noun it qualifies by other parts of the principal clause for stylistic reasons, mainly not to make the beginning of the sentence "heavy": Then an incident happened which to Bateman was the most mortifying experience of the evening.

A limiting attributive clause always follows the headnoun. 15. Modification by infinitives. The infinitive may function as a) a descriptive or b) a limiting* attribute depending on the context or the general situation: a) At a time like that there are things to be glad of. The doctor had a savage desire to tell him tlie whole truth. b) "May be he is the man to ask about work" she thought. The clinic was a world of hope and the will to recover. The generic use of the definite article 16. As has been shown in 6, the definite article has the generic meaning when it is used with singular nouns referring to a class of objects as a whole: The rose is one of the few flowers that look better picked than growing. The steam engine was a powerful instrument of human progress. He repeated that the horn resembled the human voice more than any other instrument. The noun man Jias no article when used with generic reference; the noun woman is used either with the definite article or without any article: "Man is helpless in this case," he said shrugging his shoulders. (The) Weman rarely loses heart in the face of financial or other straits. The generic use of the definite article is typical of only certain semantic groups of nouns, namely, of scientific terminology and names of plants, living beings and occupations: 17. The definite article in the generic meaning is also found with collective singular nouns denoting mainly social classes or groups as undivided bodies (the proletariat, the bourgeoisie, the aristocracy, the nobility, the peasantry, the intelligentsia, the elite, the public, the press). Some of these nouns, though singular in form, take the verb in the plural (the clergy, the gentry, the police):

This is how people lived and fought against tsarism and the bourgeoisie, how they established a new social order. "The British public hasn't been told the whole truth, don't forget that," he said. His first novel was favourably received by the press. The clergy always take sides with the nobility and the bourgeoisie. The police were unable to cope with people's wrath.
Note. The noun public may be used with a plural verb when it has no generic reference: The public are admitted from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Mark that the combination public opinion is used without any article: Public opinion demands that people should be moved from overcrowded areas in accordance with the decision of the town council.

The noun people when used generically (meaning "all the persons forming a state") takes the definite article. The Soviet people are fighting for peace all over the world against nuclear danger. When the noun people means "persons, human beings in general" it has no article. "People who pluck bluebells from the woods are vandals," he said vehemently. The nouns mankind, humanity, though used in a collective sense, take no article: "Mankind lives on a wonderful planet," the speaker said, "which must remain habitable for future generations." 18. Partially substantivized adjectives are used with the definite article in the generic meaning as they denote groups of people: Fortune favours the brave. It is a dirty drab district where the poor live. Partially substantivized adjectives are often names of nationalities (the British, the French, the Irish, the Swiss, etc.):

"The French do not trouble much about things," said George, "that's their advantage." Americans will never understand why the British pronounce certain words in the English language the way they do.
Note. However, we can only say an Irishman, many Frenchmen, etc., when the idea of collectivity is absent: Two middle-aged Frenchmen were having coffee at the next table.

19. The definite article in the generic meaning is used with plural nouns which denote social classes, religious groups, nationalities as undivided bodies ("the whole body of"). These are such nouns as the Communists, the Social Democrats, the Tories, the Republicans, the imperialists, the capitalists', the catholics, the Anglicans, the Protestants; the Russians, the Hungarians, the Americans, the Italians, the Germans, etc.: The Communists did not forget for a moment that victories had to be won not only on the battlefields, but in ideological clashes as well. He accused the Tories of taking away citizens' right to vote freely for metropolitan councils. The fascists were defeated in World War II but fascism still exists.
Note. If there is no generic reference these nouns may be used without any article or with the definite article in the specifying meaning: The Italians I have met all love opera. Italians are musical people as a rule. ARTICLES WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Articles with names of substances 20. Absence of article (the zero article) and the indefinite article. Names of substances are used in the singular, but they do not take the indefinite article as they do not express the idea of oneness. Names of substances are generally used without any article; the absence of the article (the zero article) has the nominating meaning: While packing, George and Harris upset salt over everything.

The lady of the house was filling ceramic pots with soil from a plastic dishpan. We didn't take beer or wine: they are a mistake on a trip. Names of substances may be modified by descriptive attributes, which only narrow the notion denoted by a noun without specifying it. Therefore nouns having descriptive attributes are used with the zero article as well: There was not a single thing made ohieal wooctin the room: all was metal and plastic. A humorist says that the British have successfully transformed tea into colourless and tasteless gargling-water. "Your child needs fresh air and sunshine," said Dr. Gray. 21. Names of substances sometimes become countable when their meaning is changed. In such cases they follow the general rules of the use of articles with countable nouns. These nouns usually denote: 1. a kinder a variety of substance: "My doctor allows me to drink only French white wines", my companion said. "They are so light." They don't sell good_coj[ees in the shop any longer. _She felt lost among'aff those ladies dressed in<^[/fcs)and satins.) 2. a portion of food or drink: We sat down at the table and Simon ordered two beers for us and a coke and an ice for Kit. I remember a friend of mine buying a couple of cheeses at Liverpool. 22. Sometimes countable nouns are treated as names of substances and are used in the singular with the zero article. This kind of use is often found in partitive constructions after the nouns/patch} bit*-;piece; <crajj).y- ' The sky was clear of cloud, the sunlight bright enough to bring sparkle to the factory windows. She went round the corner of the house to the patch of garden behind the kitchen. You see that great belt of trees with a scrap of river beyond?

Such countable nouns as a duck, a lamb, a chicken, a fish, a turkey, a salmon, a lobster, etc. are used as names of substances when they denote flesh used for food: Fried fish is often eaten with chips. Is there duck on the menu? She heaped a plate high with salmon and lobster and went off into a corner. We had cold turkey for supper.
Note. In some cases, however, special words are used to denote flesh used as food: a sheep mutton, a calf veal, a pig pork_

23. The definite article. The definite article is used with names of substances when the speaker has in mind specific (restricted) quantity of substance or substance situated at some particular place: Visitors said they had never noticed before how strong the air at that sea-side town was. As I unfolded my napkin, I knocked over the vase of anemones. The water soaked the cloth and ran down on to my lap. I rose and shaking the feathery dust of last year's leaves, set off towards the house. This meaning of the definite article is called restricting. As is clear from the examples quoted above, restriction by means of quantity or place is shown with the help of a limiting attribute or is understood from the context or the situation. 24. Some collective nouns denoting a group of objects thought of as a whole, behave like names of substances. Among them are furniture, machinery, equipment, crockery, hardware, silverware (silverplate), table silver, chinaware (china), luggage, baggage (AmE), foliage, etc. These nouns follow the rules of the use of articles for names of substances: The office was a businesslike place: metal file cabinets and furniture, dull blue-gray walls. The cat, lured by the clink of china, sauntered in to demand and get a saucer of milk. The travellers planned to buy the necessary equipment in Sweden.

Articles with abstract nouns 25. Absence of article (the zero article). Abstract uncountable nouns (like names of substances) take no article when used in a general sense. The absence of the article (the zero article) before abstract nouns has the nominating meaning: The dog huddled close to Tamar's feet for protection. It was obvious that Mr. Low found marriage a very satisfactory state. Abstract nouns may be modified by descriptive attributes. If a descriptive attribute narrows the notion denoted by the noun making it less general no article is used. Sugh attributes (attributes pf the first type) l are expressed by adjectives) the main identifiable semantic groups of which are" as follows: 1. adjectives denoting nationality (Russian, French, English, efc^l ~ ~ ' " English literature, French poetry, Italian music 2. adjectives denoting social characteristics (feudal^ capitalist, proletarian, racial, religious, bourgeois, etc.): bourgeois prejudice, racial segregation, feudal law 3. adjectives denoting periods of time, often historical periods (contemporary, modern, ancient, Victorian, mediaeval, daily, further, etc.): modern art, ancient history, further discussion 4. adjectives denoting authenticity or reliability (true, authentic, solid, false, dubious, reliable, real, genuine, etc.): real freedom, genuine happiness, true friendship 5. adjectives denoting degree or extent (perfect, great, sufficient, immense, sheer, utter, huge, tremendous, complete, absolute, infinite, considerable, etc.): immense joy, sheer foolishness, infinite power 6. adjectives denoting various genres or trends in art (dramatic, theatrical, classical, romantic, detective, etc,)j

About attributes of the second type see 27.


dramatic criticism, romantic prose, detective literature 7. adjectives referring to man's social and spiritual life (social, public, political, intellectual, spiritual, moral, mental, humane, immoral, personal, reasonable, etc.): humane philosophy, mental arithmetic, public recognition 8. adjectives characterizing man's manner or behaviour (polite, brusque, formal, nervous, serious, etc.): nervous attitude, formal behaviour, brusque gesticulation 9. adjectives denoting position or locality (outside, inside, inner, local, internal, external, etc.): local distribution, inner vision, inside information 10. adjectives characterizing phenomena as recurrent or going on without stopping (continual, i.e. occurring ^gain and again with short breaks, continuous, i.e. going on without stopping, constant, incessant, etc.): incessant talk, constant displeasure, continuous showing of moving pictures Examples: She exercised great ingenuity in altering old costumes so that they looked new. I tried to instill in myself genuine realization that I was at home. I am certain that they achieved perfect happiness. In Italy they studied Renaissance and Baroque architecture. The woman had considerable charm. "I didn't know public approval was on my side," he said. It was sheer stubbornness on his part, and she knew that it was useless to argue with a man when his mind was made up. "Don't come, it was false alarm," Janet said when I called the Bassats up. They discussed modern architecture. "Political scandal will kill your chances to be elected/1 said Mr. Keith.

Mrs. Garnet had infinite faith in her son's talent as a pianist. There are also some other adjectives of different mean ings which serve as descriptive attributes of the abovedescribed (first) type to abstract uncountable nouns. They are: good, bad, free, critical, ordinary, plain, physical, human, consistent and some others: He lacked ordinary honesty as a critic. Her grandfather was said to have been a man of huge physical strength. If you are interested in human psychology you will be amused by this story. If a descriptive attribute is expressed by a noun in the common case, an abstract noun as a rule requires no article either: Family affection was unknown to him. This is how science fiction should be conveyed on tele vision. It was 11 p.m., Greenwich time. 26. A number of abstract nouns may function both as uncountables and countables. In the latter case they fol low the general rules for the use of articles with countable nouns. There is often considerable difference in meaning:


Uncountable work There was hard work to be done on the ranch. nature We must live in peace with nature. decision Mr. Pitt was a man of decision, beauty Beauty is only skin deep. experience

Countable a work He spoke of the picture as a work of art. a nature, The man had a violent nature. a decision We couldn't come to a decision. a beauty She was a beauty twenty years ago. an experience,

We all learn by experience.

It was an unusual cxpe* rience.

Abstract nouns used both as countables and uncountables may have the same lexical meaning. Among them are: difficulty difficulties, chance chances, discussion . discussions, talent talents, war wars and others: Uncountable Countable It will take great effort The efforts were rewarded. to help her. You mustn't leave things You have a good chance to to chance. win the tournament. The question will not We had a discussion before bear discussion. we reached agreement. Sometimes countable abstract nouns are treated as uncountable and take no article in the singular form. This kind of usage may be found in prepositional phrases (esp. after the prepositions of, with, in): We were in the midst of sound, in the streets of Monte Carlo. Jennifer has made the discovery that a vast part of ordinary human conversation is made up of memories. You shouldn't get angry with people without reason. He looked at us with suspicion, James disappeared inside the shop in hope the customer would buy something. 27. The indefinite article. An abstract noun may be used with the indefinite article when a certain aspect of the notion denoted by the noun is meant: an abstract noun expresses a certain kind of quality, emotion, state, etc. This meaning of the indefinite article is called(a$pective\ An abstract noun mostly has a descriptive attribute in such cases (an attribute of the second type). x Besides bringtng out a certain aspect of the notion denoted by the noun the indefinite article also has a stylistic effect making a description more .vivid. Therefore the use of the indefinite article with abstract nouns is characteristic of the belles lettres style: He was filled with a loathing he had never known. He scanned her face: it expressed a dramatic eagerness*

About attributes of the first type see 25,


Looking back upon that luncheon now it is invested for me with a curious glamour. If an abstract noun is modified by the adjectivSLer-J tain or peculiar the indefinite article is Qbligatory: There is a peculiar temion about her and yet her face doesn't show Hr."'~~"~' Of course, you had to admit that he had a certain shrewdness, but he was not nearly so clever as he thought himself. The indefinite article in the aspective meaning may also be found with abstract nouns which have no attributes, but this kind of use occurs more rarely: I was aware now of a sickness ( = a kind of sickness). She knew now why a softness had crept into the air; the sea was near.
Note. The indefinite article is often omitted if an abstract noun modified by a descriptive attribute of the second type is used in the following syntactic functions: 1. a predicative: It was gallant courage, and it had stood her in such stead during her mother's long illness. 2. an attribute expressed by a prepositional phrase (mostly an of-phrase): She was a woman of wonderful generosity and would give away everything she possessed. 3. an adverbial modifier of manner expressed by a prepositional group (mostly with the prepositions with or in): She sang with such tragic beautiful anguish that my heart melted within me. He shouted at them in helpless rage.

The nouns pity, shame, disgrace, pleasure, relief, comfort, disappointment are always used with the indefinite article in the following constructions: 1. in sentences with the formal it as subject when they are used as predicatives of the main clause: It is a pity you don't ride or shoot, you must miss a lot. 2. in exclamatory sentences after what: What a shame you didn't write down her addressl What a disgrace!

What a disappointment! (Compare with: I read disappointment in her eyes.) The following nouns are never used with the indefinite article: advice, assistance, bliss, breeding, xunning, control, evidence, guidance, health, fun, information, luck, j money, nature, news, nonsense, permission, progress, [ trade, weather, work:

A full moon was shining on us: nature as though she knew what was proper for the occasion, had set the right scene. If you want solid information about people in the theater or films the place to go for it in New York is the Players on Gramercy Park. "I am going to tell you a story and ask you for advice and perhaps for assistance," he said. I thought she was going to be generous after all, wish me luck and give me encouragement. What nasty weather we are having today! Some people say that no news is good news. "Oh, but we haven't been as slow as all that," he said. ''Definite progress has been made." 28. The definite article. The definite article is used with abstract nouns when the abstract idea denoted by a noun is applied to a definite situation or object: The unexpectedness of our arrival left everybody speechless. I went up the hotel steps alone with all the despondency of a child whose treat is over. In the darkness we could not see her face. The meaning of the definite article with abstract nouns is restricting. The restriction of the abstract notion denoted by a noun is shown by a limiting attribute or is clear from the context. The definite article is always used with substantivized adjectives denoting abstract notions: "I am not Uncle Wilmer," Ian stated the obvious as he dashed to the front door. Muttering under his breath he surrendered to the inevitable and took the dogs with him. "I don't believe in the supernatural," Sir Henry said.

To this group also belong such nouns always used with the definite article as the present, the past, the future, the singular, the plural: "I am certain nothing will happen in the near future'* Colonel Ross said. He told strange stories of the pdst> stories of hazardous expeditions into the unknown, of love and death, of hatred and revenge. I imagined how he and I would be together in the diningroom planning the future.
Note. Mark the difference in meaning between the expressions in future (), i.e. from this time on, and in the future ( ), i.e. after a certain period of time passes: I hope in future you'll be more careful. Everybody knew an enviable position awaited him in the future.

The noun future may be used with the indefinite article when it is the focus of communication (the rheme of the sentence see 3): It was an uncertain future, but she had nobody else to turn to for help. Articles with nouns referring to unique objects 29. Nouns referring to objects which can be treated as unique for practical human purposes are generally used with the definite article. These are such nouns as th_snn, the moon, the sky, the universe, the atmosphere, the world, the earffi", the ground, the horizon, the cosmos. The definite article is used in foe specifying meaning, since the noun refers to a specific object which is the same for the whole of mankind: "The whole country belongs to me," said Jem, "with tfw sky for a roof and the earth for a bed." ' T h e clouds moved swiftly and the yellow glow of the sun swam into view above a breast of mist. When I came in, Triffin was looking through the window and scanning the horizon. The texture of the ground was crisp, and the short grass crunched beneath the foot like shingle. The noun^sky is_sometimes used in the plural in literary style:
3 393 33

The skies were overcast with low-flying clouds and the moon was blotted out.
Note. However, oulex-space (or space), the synonym of the cosmos, is used without any article: "It's a fantasy," Marsden said. "A woman from somewhere in outer space comes to Earth." (In the example quoted above, also mark the absence of the article before the ncun Earth, which is used as the name of our planet, i.e. as a proper name.)

{ j

There are also nouns which refer to objects (persons or things) treated as unique in their own sphere. Because of that these nouns are used with the definite article. For example, if a country has a president, he is always the president to citizens of the country as reference is always made to the same person. This is also true of such nouns as the <2&&L-{of Britain), the river (the Thames in London), the Prime Minister, etc.: The President was in his country residence. The Prime Minister is expected to visit France at the end of the month. 30. A noun referring to a unique object is sometimes used with the indefinite article if it is the rheme of a sentence^ i. e. If it intrnHi]ffis np.w information or the most f' importanLEart of the information conveyed by a sentence.'":" (See also3TJ Nouns are often (but not necessanly/*modified by descriptive attributes in such cases: If there was a moon Mary turned off the lightsjind then they satjooldng through the window at the~cool blue garden. From that height the white houses seemed to be pricked '|j by a great orange sun.

Articles with predicative nouns


31. Singular nouns in the function of a predicative are> mostly used with the indefinite article and plural nouns with the zero article. The indefinite and the zero article have the classifying meaning (see 5): "I am an orphan. My father was a sea captain he died when I was eight," said Freda,

"They are nice people^ Robert said, "but they have never been intimate friends of ours/' If a predicative noun is modified by a limiting attri bute the definite article is used: "My brother George is the only relation I have'1 said Sir Henry. "Poor lamb," she thought, "I suppose this is the most wonderful moment in his whole life." When a predicative noun denotes a unique post (rank, occupation, state) it is used either with the definite article or without any article: He was the head of a great publishing firm. Lord Kastellan was immersed in politicshe was Under-Secretary at the Home Office. I was told that she was the wife of a Cabinet Minister out of office. "Mrs. Ross is wife of the theatrical producer of the most successful Broadway shows'" the hostess said proudly.
Note. With the nouns son and daughter the definite article is typical: He is the son of a University professor. She was the daughter of a'bunk clerk. However, the indefinite and the zero article are also possible, the former stressing that there are more than one son or daughter in the family and the latterthe social position of the person denoted by the predicative noun: He is son of a University professor: He is son of a University professor.

Predicative nouns after the link-verbs to turn, to go take no article. The verb totuffT indicates a change of occupation of "allegiance: He turned^ sailor. NobodjTexpectea him to turn traitor. The verb to go denotes change of political allegiance: He went Democrat, though his brother remained a Re publican. When predicative nouns are followed by the adverb enough they acquire an adjectival character and are used without any article.3* 35

She was child enough to feel sorry about the loss of the toy. He was fool enough to believe that. In adverbial clauses of concession with inverted word order predicative nouns are used without any article. It should be remembered, however, that the use of the construction with inverted word order is restricted to literary style: Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger and reckless with misery. The rules of the use of articles with predicative nouns are true for nouns used as objective and subjective predicatives after the verbs to appoint, to elect, to choose, to call, to think, to make, to consider, to fancy, to imagine, to name: Objective predicatives Everybody considered her a well-brought up girl. All those present unanimously elected him chairman of the club. They made him (the) captain of the team. Subjective predicatives She was considered a wellbrought up girl. He was unanimously elected chairman of the club. He was made (the) captain ;o/ the team.

Articles with nouns in appoytipri 32. Singular nouns in apposition are usually used with the indefinite article and plural nouns with the zero article. Both the indefinite and the zero article have the classifying meaning (see 5): Jimmy Langton, a fat bald-headed, rubicund man of forty-five, had a passion for the theatre. "The only people you don't know here are Mr. and Mrs. St Clair, new friends of ours;' said Clara. If a noun in apposition has a limiting attribute or if the speaker is certain that the object (person, thing) denoted by the appositive noun is known to the hearer, the definite article is used: Monday, the day of our departure, was cold and rainy. Larry Shields, the director, spent some time talking to the two actors on the stage.

These stories by W. S. Maugham, the famous shortstory writer, are set in and around Malaya. When an appositive noun denotes a unique post (rank, pccupation, state) it is used either with the definite arti cle or without any article: Mr. Turner, head of the firm, spent a few days there waiting for a ship. Sheila, the only child of well-to-do parents, had money of her own. The report was made by David Watson, the chairman of the association.
Note. The rules for the use of articles with the nouns son and daughter in the function of a predicative (see 31) hold good for these nouns in the function of an apposition: John, the son (a son, son) of an eminent politician, was a stu dent at Oxford.

Appositive nouns denoting titles (ranks, posts) are psed without any article when they precede personal names: Dr. Ross President Roosevelt Lord Byron Princess Margaret Sir Charles Prof. Drake Queen Elizabeth Colonel Casey Judge Parker Lady Quern (AmE) Foreign titles, however, require the definite article before personal names: the Emperor Napoleon, the Czar Peter
Note. It is important to remember that when titles are not followed by a personal name articles are used: He is a professor. The professor is going to give a public lecture.


Appositive nouns denoting family relations take no ar ticle before personal names: Aunt Agatha, Cousin George, Uncle Tom Other appositive nouns take the definite article when used before personal names: the painter Hogarth, the critic Hudson, the girl Mar tha, the student Jones, the Republican leader Foster, the pianist Carter

Note. In AmE the definite article is often omitted: critic Hudson, Republican leader Foster

A frequent use of this kind of apposition is found with / names of books, films and with scientific terms: ( the novel "War and Peace", the film "Lady Hamilton", the verb "to be", the term "heavy water" Absence of articles in parallel structures 33. There is no article in so-called parallel structures such as from tree to tree, from street to street, from house to house, etc. These are free combinations as they are freely built up by the speaker with the help of the pattern "from + N + to + N", in which the same noun is repeated: The voice, which had risen in tone, questioningly, from sentence to sentence, dropped suddenly. There was no fireplace, but a long radiator ran almost from end to end of the room under the window. He leaned back in his long chair and rolled from side toside with laughter. There are also set expressions among parallel structures, the most common of which are: arm in arm, hand in hand, man to man, face to face, shoulder to shoulder, from beginning to end, from north to south, from floor to ceiling, from right to left: The daffodils were in bloom, massed like an army, shoulder to shoulder. At the end of the living-room there were bookshelves from floor to ceiling. "These delicate matters are best handled face to face" he said grimly. Absence of articles with vocatives 34. There is no article with vocatives, i.e. nouns used in addressing a person: Conan smiled. "Thanks, Sergeant. I'll do that." "Is he all right, doctor}" she asked anxiously. It is necessary to remember that most vocatives are either familiar or peremptory in character: "Well, man, what are you going to do now?" Gabe asked. Stop that noise, girlsl

Articles with nouns introduced by "as" 35. Nouns introduced by as are mostly used with the definite or the indefinite article: I agreed to say something as a favour to Max. His treatise on economics was chosen as the main text book at the University. It was clear that once installed as the mistress of the house she would institute a wholesale rearrangement, both of furniture and of lives. However, sometimes we come across the omission of article in this position: After their talk Tilda resumed her duties as hostess, gracious and graceful as' ever. Although she was much older she treated me as con temporary. We must teach English as spoken language. It should be stressed that the use of articles (as well as their absence) after as is always correct. Therefore in the above given examples we can also say as the hostess, as a contemporary, as a spoken language. Articles after the exclamatory "what" 36. After the exclamatory what the indefinite article s is used with singular countable nouns: '/ "What a stunning room this is! What a horrible storyl The indefinite article is also found after the exclama tory what in reported speech: They told one another what a grand time they were having. "They all say what a young face you have!" she ex claimed. Care should be taken not to use the indefinite article be fore abstract uncountable nouns: What extraordinary advice! J What useful information he has given you! What good work you have done!
Note. In questions (direct or indirect) singular countable nouns do not take the indefinite article: 39

What hotel are you going to stay in? He asked me what train I would go by.

Absence of articles in absolute constructions 37. Articles (or other determiners, for example, pos sessive pronouns) may be omitted in non-prepositional absolute constructions: She had her plump elbows on the table, coffee cup] encir cled in both hands. She was electrically alive, eyes bright, smite inviting. Lyn Hatch, beard unkemt, rain parka sodden, eyes ringed with dark shadows, stood inside the kitchen door. Such constructions are characteristic of narration in novels and stories and are not used in spoken English.

Articles with names of seasons 38. Names of seasons (winter, spring, summer, autumn and AmE fall) are mostly used without anv articles though the definite article may be found even in general statements: In London there are certain afternoons in (the) winter when the clouds hang heavy and low. In (the) summer I liked to sit on one of those convenient benches on the sea-front. (The) Winter came and with it snowstorms and severe frosts. He stayed with them until (the) spring. "We must get there before (the) winter sets in," he said. "I hate (the) autumn'' Jane said.
Note. The definite article is usually used in the prepositional phrase in the fall (AmE).

However, names of seasons are used without anv article in the function [of a pi*edlcative:~ It was soring and the air was pleasant. It was not summer yet, but the sea was already warm. If names of seasons are modified by limiting | or limitation is clear from the contexr^jsTtiTation, the definite article is used: It was the autumn of 1942, and most men in London were in military uniforms^

The sea looked like slate, cold still from the long winter. The definite article is also obligatory after the preposi tions during, fort through: The family moved to the country for the winter. During the autumn he often came to see me in my office and one day asked me for a job. u He won't last the summer'' Cora repeated. When names of seasons are modified by descriptive attributes they take the indefinite article: It was a warm summer and the lodging houses were full in Elsom. It was a rainy autumn. However, when names of seasons are modified by the adjectives late or early, there is no article: It was late autumn. It is early spring. Articles with names of times of the day and night 39. This semantic group includes the following nouns: day, night evening, morning, noon, afternjHin, dusk, twiliglit, midnight, nightfal], daytime, sunrise, sunset. Names of times of the day and night are used without any article in the following cases: 1. when they denote "light" or "darkness^: Dusk fell without my noticing it. The sun set behind the hills and night came. 2. after the prepositions at, after, before, by, till, untjk towards, past (at night, by evening, pasi midnight, at dawn, at dusk, before noon, till morning, until midnight, etc.): Towards evening they went along to the restaurant car to have dinner. All her life she always got up at dawn. 3. in the function of a predicative: It was evening-, the fishermen's boats were returning one by one. It was dusk, but the men were still at sea. 4. when these nouns are modified by nouns denoting days of the week or the words yesterday or tomorrow:

He was the man who had sat on the Carlton terrace on Thursday afternoon. We'll meet tomorrow morning. 5. in the combinations of adverbial character alt day (long), all night(long), day after day, dayjn day out, trom morning 11 night, night after night, day and night.(night and day), from jday to day: The messenger rode day and night stopping only to change horses. Workers at the first manufactures were made to work from morning till night. Quietly Dr. Walker went to his work day after day. Names of times of the day and night are used with the indefinite^article if they are modified by descriptive attributes: He told me how the sun set there on a spring afternoon. It was a frosti/ night. If these nouns are modified by the adjectives late or early, there is no article: & It was early morning. By latf^ffernooh the guests began to arrive for the official birthday party. Nouns denoting times of the day and night are used with the definite article in the following cases: 1. when a specilic night or day, etc. is meant (the limita tion is mostly clear from the context or situation; some times a limiting attribute is used): The rain had stopped and the night was starry. The day came when he told her that he loved her. The morning of his departure was raw and he was wear ing a greatcoat. 2. when these nouns are used in a generic sense: He spent the morning working at his novel and the afternoon walking in the fields. 3. after the prepositions ijj, during and through (in the morning, in the night, in the evening, in the daytime, in the afternoon, during the night, during the day, through the night} through tlie day, etc.):

It was six o'clock in the afternoon when he finally put the book down. 'The new edition came in the morning," the salesman said. "I'll get you a copy of the book." "Perhaps one of the dogs knocked the parcel to the floor during the night" I spoke placating. It snowed all through the night, and in the morning we saw that we were cut off from the world.
Note. After the prepositionqor)both the definite and indefi nite articles are possible depending on the meaning: I must go to Sheffield for the day (the day is specified). I must go to Sheffield for a day (for one day; it is not specified which day it is).

4. when these nouns are preceded by the pronoun other: \^ I met Jones in Oxford Street the other day. He thought that he had seen the man come into the hotel lobby in company with McKinnon the other morning. Articles with names of meals 40. Names of meals (breakfast, lunch, luncheon, dinner, supper, tea, high/meat tea) are'generally used with

!~2 article:

Dinner that evening was not a success. At. breakfast next morning Christine behaved as though the whole episode were forgotten. He had lunch at his club. The definite or the indefinite article is used when a special meal is meant. We find the definite article when names of meals are modjfied by a limiting attriSute or limitation is clear froirT the context or the situation: During the awkward lunch yesterday Jarvis Fortescue was grave and abstracted. "Do you remember the breakfast in the park?" Susan asked. The indefinite article is used when names of meals are modified by descriptive attributes: I knew few of the guests and my heart sank as I saw

myself laborously making conversation through aJLong duinerjwith two total strangers. "We met at a dinner atJlie Snows'," Mrs. Low said. The articles are also used when names of meals denote the_fpod that is eaten. The rules for the use of articles are the same as given above: The dinner was well-cooked and nourishing. The lunch we ate at the hotel dining-room was quite decent. Sometimes they were asked to parties on Sunday, dinner at midday or a cold, sumptuous supper. He gave me a good breakfast. Hope is a good breakfast, but a bad supper. Names of meals may be used in a specializecLsense, denoting portions of food .served at restaurants, cafes, etc* In this case they are used as countable nouns and follow the rules of the use of articles for countable nouns: "Your companion has already paid for two lunches', sir," said the v/aiter. In this hotel you pay for a room and a breakfast. Articles with names of diseases 41. Names of diseases usually take no article though some of them may be used with the definite article, e.g. (the) flu, (the) measles, (the) mumps, influenza, scarlet fever, bronchitis, diabetes, cholera, diphtheria, cancer, tuberculosis (consumption), appendicitis, the plague, etc.: Flu! How some people always wait for a holiday to come down with flu! "It sounds like acute appendicitis" Mr. Jones said. "I'm certain it isn't scarlet fever: there is no redness of the skin," the doctor said. The definite article is found with names of diseases when the speaker refers to some particular case: "What has happened to your friend?" he asked. I told him about theJironchitis. Also mark the following expressions used in everyday life;

a headache toothache ( a tootjiache) stomachache (AmE a stomachache) backache ( a backache) earache (AmE an earache) a pain in the back, in the knee, etc. to have heart, trouble, liver trouble a high blood pressure a cold a cough a heart attack ^ a sore throat
Note. The noun heartache is used figuratively denoting deep sorrow or grief.

Articles with the noun "sea" 42. The noun sea is generally used with the definite ar ticle: The sea was calm within the reef. At last they were in the open sea. The noun sea is used with the zero article in the adver bial expressionsCEp be aTsfea)andrTp go to seaD He went to sea when he was a boy of thirteen. "You won4 find any men in the village now," the old man said, "they are all at sea" The nounfsea)may be used_with the findefinite^rticle in descriptions if it has a descriptive attribute: " It was notrt? summer sarrtodav. although the breakers were high. The next day everything changed. We saw a blue sparkling sea dotted with white sails. Articles with the nouns "school", "college", "hospital", efc 43. The nouns school, collegejiospital, prison, jail, class, jmrvgr^jty, , table^jimrch and sometimes market take no article (usually after a preposition) when they de note actijyiiesLils^^ The most com mon expressions with these nouns are:

to be in to go to to be at table

hospital bed prison (jail) church class (the) market

[ college u to be at /A ^ 4 < univer " to be in (AmE) suniversity chool to go into ( J \ { ( | | ^ class prison (jail) church bed school university college church hospital prison (jail) bed

to come from to come out to get out of to stay in to leave

college school However, when these nouns denote a building or an objecUhey are used with the definite or %> inHpfrnjfp article irTaccordance with the general rules for countable nouns. Compare: "Institutions" Buildings, objects "You've been to college and The college was a stately you are a decent boy," six-storied building. said old Anthony. *About a month after his "I think of Chicago now and I see a dark, grey release from prison he city, all stoneit * was sitting outside the is like a prison." bar looking vacantly down the street. Mr. Jones was suffering "I want a room with two beds" he said. from an attack of ma laria; he was in bed and unable to move":

Articles with the noun "society" 44. The noun society is used without any article when it means "anorganized community people live in": "He is a forger. He ought to be hounded out of civilized society" Mr. Warton said. There cannot be any justice for the poor in bourgeois society. In other meanings it may be used with the definite and the indefinite article: They decided to organize a cooperative societu. It was but natural that he preferred the society of his friends, but his parents did not understand this. Articles with the noun "town" 45. The noun town takes no article when it is used in contrast with country or when it means the business centre of a town, e.g. to be in town, to go to town, to live in town, to come back (to return) to town, to stay in town, to leave town, to be out of town, etc.: She was sitting on the porch waiting for her husband to come from town. Next day I went back to town. I was surprised that they were going to stay in town all summer. In other cases the noun town is used with the definite or the indefinite article: Tha-tnwn was decorated with flags for the Prime Minister's visit. It was a small town in Shropshire.
Note. The noun country as an antonym to town takes the definite article (to go to the countru. to be ij^jfae-CQimky% to come from the country, etc.): It is pleasant to spend the summer in the country. He intends to go down to the country for the week-end.

Articles with the nouns "radio" and "television" 46. The nouns radio and television generally take no article:

With the help of television we can watch events taking place thousands of miles away from us. Is it a play for television or radio? The noun radiojs used with the definite article in combination with* the verbs to listen, to hear: I've heard an interesting piece of news on the radio. When I came in, Henry was listening to the radio. Note, however, that we must say to watch television (TV), to see on television, to show on television: Did you watch television yesterday? We saw an interesting programme on television the other day. Articles with nouns in some common expressions 47. Names of musical instruments are used with the definite article when we speak about them in a general way: He plays the piano well. I'd like to learn tEe guitar. When these nouns have a concrete meaning they may beusedv/ith the definite and the indefinite article or without any article: He made up his mind to buy a piano. You must have the violin repaired. There were two grand pianos on%the stage. 48. Nouns denoting means of transport take no article when they are used with the preposition by: train : plane tojo_ fcL<me b boat J tgjeaye * bus bicycle to travel coach J
Note. In other expressions articles must be used: to take the (a) train, to cMchJhsJa) train JJDUS),Jojniss the train (bus, plane), to be on the bus (plane), to sit^on themc^cl<e,Jo sleep in the train, etc. "" " ~--

In other -phrasesjexpressing manner or instrument


nouns take no article either: by air^ by land, by post, by m a i [Juijgh^ by chancery 'mistake, etc. Nouns 01 various meanings are used without any article in adverbial prepositional phrases such as in detail, in pprson^aLhand. on deck, on foot, on leave, on holiday, on vacation, etc. 49. The definite article is usually used with the expressions to o to (to hp. at) the clnpma\ the theatre, the pictares, the movies (AmE), to be on at the cinema, the pictures, tfie movies (AmE) : What's on at the pictures? When did you go to the cinema last? Occasionally the indefinite article may be found with these nouns: I persuaded Jim tojgo to a theatre. Let's go to a cinema^
Note. When cinsma and theatre denote ^building)in which films or plays are shown they follow the general rules of the use of articles for countable nouns: There ihrpp '* in the town. The theatre was built in the 19th century.

50. There is usually no article Iri_of:hrase^ after the words gost, office, title, rank, degree: ^ Reid retired in 1972 with the rank of lieutenant colonel. He received the degree of Doctor of Law two years ago. The position of governess did not suit her. 51. Names of games are used with the zero article in combination with the verb Joj)lay (to ^ fpnnis> rn'rketf volley-ball^ hockeu, cards, billiards^ etc.): He learned to play tennis at the age of six. They played billiards from morning till night.

52, As has been shown in 1, the articles being deter miners normally come at the beginning of a noun phrase. Nevertheless, there are several groups of modifiers which are placed before the articles.
4393 49

1. Nouns with the definite article follow all, both and half: There was so much crackling noise in the head-set earphone that all the words sounded alike. "Half the people who want to learn to fly never come back for lesson number two," Charlie said. Both the girls were rosy-cheeked and plump like their mother. The definite article after both is not obligatory and can be dropped: Both men wore conservative business suits. All can precede nouns with the zero article if these nouns do not need an article in accordance with the rules: All children like sweets. (Compare with: All the children in the room looked at Santa Claus.)
Note 1. The definite article is not used if all is followed by a numeral: All three boys were good at tennis. When all is followed by the preposition of the definite article is used before a numeral. This construction is preferred in AmE: All of the three boys were good at tennis. Note 2. The half a day, half mile, etc.): It took her She walked indefinite article is used after half in half an hour, a mile, etc. (or a half-hour, a half-day, a half half an hour to learn the rules. half a mile to the bus stop.

2. Nouns modified by articles are preceded by double, once, twice. The following patterns are possible: a) double + a noun with the definite article: This was double the price he had been offered before. ^b) once + a noun with the indefinite article: The clerk told her that she would have to send the rent check once a month. c) twice + a noun with the definite or th; indefinite article: Twice a month he put on his best suit and went to the club.

He is twice the man he was. 3. The fractions one-third, three-quarters, etc. come before nouns with the definite article: He did only one-third of the work. 4. Nouns with the indefinite article follow such and the exclamatory what (the latter is discussed in 36): His singing received such an encouraging cheer from the crowd in the street! 5. Nouns with the indefinite article are used after quite and rather: It's quite a long story and not a nice one. He was rather a curious man to look at. However, quite and rather can be placed after the indefinite article (esp. in AmE): He is a rather clever man. It's a quite important problem. 6. Nouns with the indefinite article follow many (the verb is used in the singular): Many a true word is spoken in jest. Many an evening he sat staring vacantly at the cheerful living-room fire. 7. So, as, too, how, however followed by an adjective precede nouns with the indefinite article: Youth lasts so short a time. "You have too modest an opinion of yourself," he replied. Tuscon, a city she had never seen before, was as good a place as any for a beginning. "How honest a man is he?" the captain asked. "I can't miss the chance, however big a risk to run," Henry said.

Articles with personal names 53. Personal names are used without any article! "Do you know Turner^ greeting.

said Burton as I nodded a


"I knew quite a lot of writers," she said. "Wilkie Col\ tins, for instance." "Humphrey was in the Foreign Office," said Richards
Note. Some common names (mother, father, aunt, uncle,] nurse, cook, sister, brother, cousin, baby) ape treated as proper nouns and, therefore, take no article when they are used by members of the family or by close friends (i.e. when they mean "our father", "our nurse", etc.): "Father wants us to move into a smaller place," Mike said. "What have you done to Baby?" Mother asked. Note that these nouns are spelled with a capital letter, which shows that they are regarded as proper nouns.

However, under certain conditions personal names are used with the definite or the indefinite article. 54. The definite article with personal names is found in the following cases: 1. The definite article is used when a personal name has the plural form to indicate a whole family: One June evening I went to dine with the Macdmalds. The Granges were the only people I knew in the town. 2. Personal nouns modified by adjectives take the definite article: ""*" "I am the celebrated Mortimer Ellis'1 he said. "The late Mrs. Jones was a very nice person," he said in a low voice. Suddenly, to everybody's surprise, the silent Mr. Fanthorp swung round and addressed Barbara. It is important to stress that a personal noun with the definite article modified by an adjective is never the rheme of the sentence (it is never the focus of communication). Occasionally a noun modified by an adjective is the rheme of the sentence and conveys the most important part of the communication; then it is u^ea with the indefinite article* t h e adjective usually denotes the mood of the "pefson described: The dinner was served by a silent Mrs. Keats. I saw an infuriated Jennifer, who started shouting at me the moment I opened the door. However, there is no article before personal names modified by the adjectives old, young, dear, poor^ little^tiny, honest:

Little Lynette wanted to play with the cat and I left her in the garden. When young Rockwell entered the library, the old man looked at him with a kindly grimness. Old Anthony met us at the station. 3. The definite article is found with personal nouns modified by limiting attributes (mostly postpositional phrases): It was the Jane I had known before, perfectly simple, homely *and unatlected. She was not the Mary of our youth. 55. The indefinite article occurs in the following cases: 1. A personal name is used with the indefinite article to indicate a) a member of a family, b) one resembling somebody: a) "The boy is a Benbowl" he replied hotly. b) His face always reminded Michael of a Lincoln grown old. 2. A personal name has the indefinite article if it is modified by the adjective certain: Last night I found a gentleman waiting to see me when I returned home a certain George Reed (i. e. someone who called himself George Reed).
Note. If a personal name is preceded by a title (Mr., Miss, Colonel, Sir, etc.), the indefinite article before it is equivalent to "certain": He was engaged to be married to a Miss Smith. "A Mr. Drake phoned in the morning, but he didn't leave any message," Lydia said. Sometimes the indefinite article before a personal name without a title may mean "certain": "Did a woman see you some time today? A Nelly Conway?" he asked anxiously.

Personal names turn into common nouns when they denote things associated with ^^n^nes_jj^xiajn^ers pns. Sndrnouns fol!ow"the general rules of the use of articles for common nouns: "Has the museum a Millais?" I asked. Every morning he drove out in a rickety old Ford.

She wore but one garment a Mother Hubbard of pinA cotton, a Articles with geographic names 56. The following geographic nairfes are used with out any article: 1. names of continents: Africa, Antarctica, America, Asia, Australia, Europe
Note. The Arctic and the Antarctic are used with the dejjnitq article as they denote the regions (the land and the sea) round the north and south poles.

2. namesjtf rnnntries, counties, provinces, states? France, Italy, Texas, Wisconsin, Devonshire, Scot land
Note 1. Some names of countries, counties, etc. require the definite article; some other names can be used with or without the definite article: the Argentine (b u t: Argentina), (the) Congo, (the) Lebanon, (the) Senegal, the Ruhr, the Saa'r, the Ukraine, the Crimea Note 2. Names of states consisting of word groups are used with'the definite article: the Soviet Union, the United States of America (the USA), the German Democratic Republic (the (jbKj

3. names of cities, towns or villages: London, New York, Stockport. Stratford-on-Avon

Note. The only exception iy^the Hague^

4. names of ) 111_ and. b)islands {but not names of mountain chains and groups of islands see 57): a) Snowdon, Elbrus, Mount Everest, Etna b) Cyprus, Man, Jersey, Java 5. names of lakes: "Lake Michigan, Lake Baikal, Silver Lake 6. names of waterfalls:. Niagara Falls, Victoria Falls 7. names of bays: t Hudson Bay 8. names of peninsulas and capes:

Hindustan, Labrador, Cape Horn

Note. If the noun peninsula is added, the definite article is used: the Hindustan peninsula, the Balkan peninsula

57. Other geographic names take the definite article. v These are: ~ 1. names of seas, oceans, rivers, straits, canals: the Atlantic (ocean), the Mediterranean (Sea), the North Sea, the Thames, the Mississippi, the Dardanelles, the Bering Strait, the Suez Canal, the English Channel 2. names of mou^tailL-Chains and groups of islands: a) the Pennine Range (the Pennines), the Alps, the Rocky Mountains b) the Canary Islands (the Canaries), the Hawaii, the Bermudas 3. names of deserts: the Sahara, the Gobi 4. names of mountain jasses: the Saint Gotthard Pass 5. geographic names having the plural form: the Midlands, the Netherlands, the Yorkshire Forests 58. Geographic names that are used with the zero article may take the definite or the indefinite article under the following conditions: 1. if a limiting article is used a geographic name takes the definite article: It was not the Franceoi his youth. 2. if a d^Tjptivgjarticle is used a geographic name has the indefimte^arikle: It was a different Paris, unknown to him. 3. the definite article is used in the following patterns containing the preposition of: _ the Bay of Biskay, the City of New York, the Mount of Olives, the Isle of Man, the Gulf of Mexico, the Strait of Dover

Articles with other semantic groups of proper named 59. Proper names of the following semantic groupd take no article: I 1. names of strgets. squares, parks: 4 Broadway, Fleet Street, Wall Street, Piccadilly, Tra-i falgar Square, Central Park, Hyde Park
Note. The exceptions are the Strand (in London), the High Street, the Main Street (in the USA).

2. names of airports and railway_stations: I London Airport, Kennedy Airport, Waterloo Station, Victoria Station 3. names of universities and colleges: Oxford University, Harvard University, Brasenose College, Hertford College 4. names of magazines and journals: National Geographic, Punch, Language 5. names of days of ihe-w.ek ..and names of months: Monday, Tuesday, April, July 6. names of buildings, bridges: Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, Colosseum, St. Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Bridge, Tower Bridge
Note. Some names of buildings, however, are used with the definite article: the White House, the Tower, the Old Bailey

60. Nouns of some semantic groups require the definite article. They are: 1. names of jhoiel^ clubs, museums, picture galleries, concert hallv-flieatres^cinemasrinonuments: " the Hilton, the National Tennis Club, the National Gallery, the British Museum, the Louvre, the Carnegie Hall, the Albert Hall, the Old Vic, the Odeon, the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial 2. names of ships and boats: Jhe Tiianic, the Queen Mary 3. names of parties and institutions:

the Conservative Party, the Democratic Party, the London City Council, the House of Commons
Note. Parliament (in Britain) is used without any article (b u t: the British Parliament). The definite article before congress (in the USA) may be dropped, but it is equally correct to use it.

4. names of newspapers: the Morning Star, the Daily World, the Economist, the Times

EXERCISES 1. Determine the meaning of the indefinite article in the followJ ing sentences. 1

1. But I dare say you don4 remember an old woman like me? 2. After a pause, Lord Henry pulled out his watchj 3. She glanced at Peter and saw that a tear was tricklinl down his nose. 4. A voice replied, telling him to keep oul of the moonlight. 5. Why is it a girl has to be so silly, td catch a husband? 6. Until he had reached the Republican lines he had travelled across the country and through tha fascist lines as fast as a countryman in a good physical condition who knew the country well. 7. I remember now,i I thought I felt a bone, and, I swallowed a large mouthful of bread to send it down. 8. A traveller must be able walk long distances. 9. Bart tossed an empty cigarette packet over the rail, his mouth hard, his eyes shadowed.] 10. Not a word was spoken, not a sound was made. 11. A fighter is supposed to get beaten up, isn't he? 12. He hesH tated a moment at the door and tapped on it. 13. The girl had started through a door to an inner office. 14. Can a bird fly faster than an aeroplane? 15. Bill had just finished an all-afternoon conference with a media representative. 16. Edward left his employment with them nearly a year ago. 17. A week or two passed, but he hadn't got a job. 18; In a sheltered corner was a wattle tree, its foliage sil very against the olivegreen bush, its blossoms a drift ot gold. 19. It is dark here and I cannot see what you have brought; is it a book or a magazine? 20. I meant I was a youthful thing and unimportant, and that there was no need to include me in the conversation. 21. Sally's seed of her future soul was her love for her mother, an aged bed ridden woman. 22. He had met a young woman at a par ty, named May Macy, a moving-picture actress. 23. Here I

am, he thought, talking to Earle Fox, a scientist who won the' Nobel Prize.
2. Explain why the indefinite article is used with one and the same noiin repeated several times in the following extracts.

1 jack: Lady Bracknell, I hate to seem inquisitive, but would you kindly inform me who I am? Lady Bracknell: You are the son of my poor sister, Mrs. Monscriff, and consequently Algernon's elder brother, Jack: Algy's elder brother. Then I have a brother after all! I knew I had a brother! I always said I had a brother. Cecily how could you have ever doubted that I had a brother! Algy, you young scoundrel, you have never behaved to me like a brother in all your life. 2 (Mr. Barthwick throws the window open. The faint sobbing of a child comes in.) What's that? (They listen.) Mrs. Barthwick: I can't stand that crying. I must send Marlow (the butler) to stop it. My nerves are all on edge. (She rings the bell.) Nothing upsets me like a child's crying. (Marlow comes in.) What's that noise of crying, Marlow? It sounds like a child. Mr. Barthwick: It is a child. I can see it against the railings. Mrs. Barthwick: Poor little chap. (Turns her back to the window. Marlow shuts the window. The crying ceases.)
Supplementary task. Comment upon the tenderness of Mrs. Barthwick's heart, on how far the tenderness went and whether it did any good to the crying child. 3. Determine the meaning of the definite article in the following sentences.

1. Then holding the glass and sipping the water very slowly he stood in front of the big map on the wall and studied the offensive possibilities in the country above Navacerrada. 2. On the evening of Labour Day, the empty field near the mills was no longer empty. 3. It was not Blois with its thin turrets and its spires that stared up at nie from the printed page. 4. The moral I draw is that the writer should seek his reward in the pleasure of his work. 5. The path led to a labyrinth, some choked wilderness, 59

and not to the house at all. 6. They remain just as cleatB divided in my mind as before but what has become a litfl confused in me is the distinction between the bad man afl the good one. 7. The three men made their way, s i n e file, with Lewis leading them through the dim, purpM lighted maze of corridors. 8. Thus in life there is eve the intellectual and the emotional nature the mind thB reasons, and the mind that feels. 9. He motioned to t h e j to sit down on a flattened log that served as a bench a i l looking at Joaquin jerked his thumb down the trail in tfl direction they had come from. 10. He sat down on t i l vacant end of the sofa. 11. A day of it to the untried mirfj is like opium to the untried body. 12. Every portrait t h a is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not ql the sitter. 13. He lay there, staring up at the ceiling, all gratitude, and all bitterness. 14. "At what particular poiiJ did you mention the word "marriage", Dorian?" 1
4. Explain why the definite article is used with the italicise! nouns which refer to the preceding (or following) statement o] situation in the following extracts. Describe the situation!

Gwendolen: I am engaged to Mr. Worthing, mamma. Lady Bracknell: Pardon me, you are not engaged to anyone] When you do become engaged to some one, I or youfl father will inform you of the fact. ]

Algernon: Relations are simply a tedious pack of peopleJ who haven't got the remotest knowledge of how to live nor the smallest instinct about when to die. i Jack: Oh, that is nonsense. I Algernon: It isn't. Jack: Well. I won't argue the matter. \ 3 Chasuble: But surely, Mr. Worthing, you have been christened already. Jack: I don't remember anything about it. Chasuble: But have you any grave doubts on the subject? Jack: I certainly intend to have. Of course I don't know if the thing would bother you in any way, or if you think I am a little too old now.

It was as good as a play to see his father with the children, but such a play as brings smiles with tears behind. The complete surrender of that erect old figure to those little figures on either hand was too poignantly tender, and being a man of an habitual reflex action, young Jolion swore softly under his breath. The show affected him in a way unbecoming to a Forsyte, who is nothing if not undemonstrative.
Supplementary task. If you have read the books mentioned above speak on the situations taken. 5. Explain why in the following passages the italicised noun with the definite article is followed by the same noun with the indefinite article.

1. "Good evening to you, sister," said the voice, a musical voice with the broad accent of Lorraine. 2. Quite half of Mrs. Hummond's exasperation and fury was due to the fact that she was being excluded from sharing in a secret. She raged importantly, and when Sir George was ushered in by Wace the butler (demurely grave as only a butler can be when something is "up" above stairs), she had just snubbed the unfortunate Sinclair rather ferociously for the second time in three minutes. 3. Why was the front door opened? (A husband says.) "It is not as though he had to let the lady out." The magistrate interrupted sharply. "The lady? what lady do you mean?" "Why, the lady who came to see him." "Had a lady been to see him that evening?" "But yes, monsieur and many other evenings as well." 4. "I've got to go to Mass, and then I want to see the priest about this petition. Don't you think it might help if a priest signed it?" 5. Bateman brought Isabel the letter he had just received... "It's a very strange letter" she said, "I don't quite understand it."

- Underline the attributes which determine the use of the definite article. Write out the limiting attributes expressed by adjectives or adjective pronouns.

1. After supper that night he discarded the book on European politics which he had shared with Tommy on the 61

previous evening and went hunting along the bookshelf for something about the Islands. 2. He had been absfl and abstracted all day long with the thought of the c o m e event. 3. He had had the usual bundle of French identM papers in his possession, and his people were still liviB at his home address near Marseilles. 4. Here and there weB wide gaps between the buildings on the main street w h a dwellings had been shelled and burned. 5. The only trouM was that the soldiers crowding the streets wore the w r o e kind of uniforms, the money was in the hands of the wroij people. 6. I suspected that he knew pretty well how to gfl on the right side of him. 7. We have discovered that H died as a result of an accident on the very day that should have turned up in Paris. 8. He had arrived, haj crept into the very heart of London, wearing his old browl slippers. 9. Suddenly I reached through the mind of thl technician and moved his hand up to the right dial 10. They had met first at Carlsbad, where they were stajl ing at the same hotel and were treated by the same doctoil 11. They decided to start off the following morningj 12. Just here, in the lower right-hand corner of this ph3 tograph, there is a beautiful thumbprint. 13. He gavi them permission to make the necessary changes in thl text. 14. As for what else the future holds, few Cape vilj lages have much chance of coming through the presenl greedy, tasteless boom with their souls intact. 15. On thd other side of the doorv/as a handle. 16. Bateman insisted that Edward go ahead: "You have got the ideas and the caj pacity. Why shouldn't you become the richest man between Australia and the States?" 17. "I suppose Mr. de Wintefl keeps the most beautiful room to show to the public," 1 said. 18. She brings with her the time of the last warn] spell, an unchartered season. 19. "Thank you. I hope thafl won't be necessary." She was impatient now to make the next call. j
*7.1 Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary.

1 - It was hot; the old people said that it was ... hot^ test spell which the town had ever known. 2.1 made up my mind to see Strickland L following evening. 3. I want you to explain to me why you won't exhibit Dorian Gray'S picture. I want L real reason. 4. "Henry is ... best type of the American businessman," he said, "and I think yoil

The exercises marked with an asterisk have answers (sed Key to the Exercises, pf 172). j


ought to know him." 5. She was talking about thirty Af ricans who, at the request of the State Department were in Ik*, coming semester. be ing admitted to Whitehall 5, Downstairs in if^small imagined kitchen I imagined t<". small image of . man groping for a phone beside him on ... floon 7^He picked a photograph album from one of ... lpwVr^&vfi^l&$to ofme back across ..* room looking for ttfe place in the collection. 8. And clapping in ... friendliest way upon ^ Jshoulder he went away. 9. He sat back comfortably, in silence, allowing Dorlacker to make :.,'necessary moves. 10. In the middle of ...garden stood -, old summer house. 11. ... only difference in their eating habits was ^frat he used his fork with /;. left hand. 12. There was not t*.W-slightest need for anyone to turn out the spare room but Mrs. Tinker obtained ... same pleasure from turning out a room that other people get from writing .:< symphony, or winning ..: cup of Golf or swimming ... Channel. 13. The haze of factory smoke intruded on the sky and lay suspended like . *. grey, flat tarpoulin above . if horizon. 14. But all ; ; . previous criticism of her conduct was as nothing compared with tiie buzz of gossip that now went through ;"'. . town. ^15. On P. . upper side . * . large piece of vegetation sprouted from the crest on ,4.' , band. 16. It seemed . . . loveliest bonnet she had ever seen. 17. I imagine the French aristocrats thought practically ... same thing until ... very moment when they climbed into the tumbrils. 18. It was ... usual noisy crowded place filled with the smell of stale coffee, ... very French smell that haunts its houses with the ghosts of ten million coffee brewings. 19. As he spoke he opened a door and showed the way into a room which appeared to be very richly furnished but again ... only light was afforded by ... single lamp half turned down. 20. He would do ... right thing and allow her to divorce him. 21. Mrs. Packletide was annoyed at the fact that... wrong animal had been hit. 22. He had to stand all the way, and though there were at least five nice-looking girls in ... same compartment and one was very close to him and two of ... others he had noticed several times before not one of them showed ... slightest interest in him. 23. He meant that they were preparing their next speech and were merely waiting for ... n ext appropriate moment to give utterance to it. 24. As Grant was paddling ... last few yards he saw Pat's eye fixed on something along . shore, and turned to see what J t was.

*8. Fill in the blanks with articles before nouns modified by "la$l| and "next" wherever necessary. Explain your choice. a

1. Chila peering round ... last corner whispered hoars! ly: "If old Fishface catches us we'll need a double morti' 2. Then he wrote out a cable to Anne, telling her to get ol ... next plane to Nice. 3 At the bar, Rudolph was clappe on the back by Sid Crosett, who had been Mayor Whitby until .. last election and who was sent every foul years as a delegate to the Republican convention. 4. Usl it ... next time you come through. 5. We don't remember if until we say hullo to the mechanic in charge . . . next morning. 6. The Islands were ... last refuge of civilizatiom in a world gone mad. 7. Find out what happened to m j daughter in her native land in ... last six months. 8. Weill ... next time don't wait until you are on the point of sufl focation, she said matter-of-factly. 9. They came down ..] last half mile to Clune like homing horses, Pat skipping from turf to turf like a young goat and as valuable as ha had been silent on the way out. 10. He decided to re-reaJ the play ... next day after he had thought about it fon twenty-four hours. 11. I've eaten enough fish in ... lasfl month to last me a lifetime. j
*9. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.]

1. , - ? 2. ! , , . 3. -J . 4. , , . 5. , . 6. . 7. . 8. , . 9. . 10. . 11. , , , . 12. , . 13. . 14.

. 15. , (at a stretch).

10. Respond as indicated.

Model: It must be a couple of days since I rang them. I thought you phoned them last night? No, but I'll be phoning them tomorrow night. 1. I haven't discussed it with him for ages. I thought you discussed it at the last meeting? 2. It seems years since I had a skiing holiday. I thought you had one last win ter? 3. It must be quite a time since I ate out. I thought you went out to dinner last week? 4. Our last visit to the theatre seems ages away. I thought you went the week before last? 5. What a time it seems since we went away for a weekend. I thought you went away last weekend? 6. What a time it must be since we had a camping holiday. I thought you had one last year?
*11. Insert articles before nouns modified by the adjective pro noun "other", or before "other" used as a noun wherever necessary.

1. "I have put you in ... other bedroom this time," she said preceding him up the stairs, "because the west one has been done up and it still stinks a bit." 2. Do you know what you are going to do if it turns out badly? I'll try ... AM^other time. 3. But he saw on ... other side, nestling among the trees a white man's house; he made up his mind and rather gingerly, began to walk. 4. "You want something, Mr. Indache?" asked the bartender, who was reading a mag azine at... other end of the bar. 5. What do you plan to do if it fails? Have .. other try. 6. The rumour which had been creeping about underground was now being open ly discussed that Rhett Butler not only ran his own four boats and sold the cargoes at unheard-of prices, but bought U P the cargoes of X other boats and held them for rises m prices. 7. McCain was waiting at the shed with ... other two men who were to make the jump. 8. Then she came fi nd sat down at ;.. other side of the hearth. 9. They are going to take these tablets .'.. other two weeks. 10. On ... other hand, her own feelings were a corrective influence. 11- The extension to the factory will mean taking on ...oth er twenty new employees. 12. Kate! But he was here only other day! 13. Sometimes he had been irritated by her



calls, at X other times moved by husbandly tenderne* at the sound of the low, familiar, musical voice from distant city, ;... other side of a continent. 14. Is he c u t t i i down on smoking? Slightly, but not enough to make a l real difference. It will take him ... other* two years or eve| more. 15. They are probably going to replace the defecti^l part with ... other one, which is new. 16. It's encouraJ ing him to have ... other try. 17. I am thirsty and wail ... other glass of juice. 18. At 7200 feet they jumped oil after ... other. 19. He spoke in a jerky, nervous fashiol and with some giggling laughters in between but somehol he impressed me with fear more than ... other. 20. I'm afraid he hasn't been able to cope while all ... others havl been able to. 21. There was ... other thing I liked in Mra Strickland. 22. That shows you what I mean. I dare saj there are ... other things. J
12. Think of situations for the following sentences. 3

1. The students absent may be taking part in a rehears! al for the party. .j 2. The island proper covers 55 square miles and has | population of about two million. J 3. The problem concerned is of great importance fol the whqje world. i 4. The actors present are ready to give a concert. ] 5. The scientists involved are asked to improve thJ project. j
*13. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary before nound modified by numerals. 1

1. ... three children came running along the deskj 2. Turn to ... page 3 to read our interview. 3. It was, as E have indicated, not a success. But second job was q sensational success. 4. Everything they had done in ..iS three weeks since they had come back from the shack had made him more certain of that. 5. She had only been out of the hospital .\, five weeks, but she had beaten him in ... two straight sets. 6. But on-... fifth day he took the car to ..c third floor, stepped out and never came back. 7. Be cause she was confined to bed she could not leave the room when Mrs. Carlton's specialist arrived with ... second con sultant to discuss the operation they wanted her to undergo. 8. Monte Carlo was suddenly full of kindness and charm, ... one place in the world that held sincerity. 9. And if he takes me on for ... second year, I'm to get three hundred

That means that in \ . two years I'd have the best part of four thousand pounds. 10. The office of Professor Fox was on ... twelfth floor of the Physics Building. 11. She wondered how many others there were like ... three of them, who had gone on blindly and happily living in Ignorance, taking everything life had to give, till the moment when the world was shattered apart by an illness that shut them out of life. 12. He was explaining the work that was going forward how one was discharging, another taking in cargo, and * third making ready for sea. 13. But on this .% point I was soon to be relieved, for Silver giving a little whistle, ... third man strolled up and sat down by the party. 14. In April, they will take part in ... second stage of the Mecsek Rally in Hungary. 15. Jan Wadleigh, not in Madrid, a glass in his hand, was standing talking to Eliot Steinharold and ... third man, portly in a dark suit, the face, bronzed by the sun, under a shock of iron gray hair. 16. A woman, so long and slender that she seemed as fluid as the shadows and he had to look .. second time to be sure that she was not in truth a shadow. 17. What was .1. first thing you hated can you remember? 18. The edi tor, sensing the social drama of the letter, put it on U sec ond page of the paper, in itself a startling innovation as ... first two pages of the paper were always devoted to advertisements of slaves, mules, ploughs, houses for sale or rent, cures for private diseases.
*14. Translate from Russian into English. Pay attention to the use of articles before nouns modified by numerals.

1. , , , . 2. . 3. (clearing), . 4. . 5. . 6. , . 7. () . 8. , , . 9. . 10. , . . . 12. , . 13.

5* 67

, , 1 . 14. , 15. , I . 1
15. Read and retell the text. Write out sentences containinl nouns modified by numerals. Explain the use of articles witl these nouns. 1

Lost in the Post

Jack Ainsley, a post-office sorter, turned the envelope over and over in his hands. The letter was addressed to his wife and had an Australian stamp. Jack knew that the sender was Dicky Soames, his wife's cousin. It was the second letter Mrs. Ainsley had re ceived since Dicky's departure. The first letter had come six months before: Jack burnt that one without reading it. No man ever had less reason for jealousy than Ainsley. His wife Adela was to be trusted: she was a splendid house keeper and a very good mother to their two children. However, he knew that Dickey Soames had been in love with Adela, and the fact that Dickey Soames had gone away to join his and Adela's uncle years back hadn't changed his opinion about their relationship. He was afraid that some day Dicky would return and take Adela from him. Ainsley did not put the second letter in his pocket as somebody might have seen him do it. At night he came to the post office to get it and got in through the window. Unfortunately when he was getting out he was seen by the post-master. Ainsley did not want to tell the truth it was too humiliating and so lost his job. Soon Ains ley discovered that he could not get any other permanent job as people did not trust him now. Life became hard. Qne afternoon Ainsley came home and was surprised to see Dicky Soames who hadn't .changed a bit. Soames said he was delighted to see Ainsley. "I missed both of you so much," he added with a friendly smile. "Uncle Tom died," Adela explained, "and Dicky has inherited his money." Then Adela turned to Dicky. "Tell him the rest," she said quietly. "Wei you see," said Dicky, "Uncle Tom left something over sixty thousand pounds and he wished Adela to have

jjalf. But he was angry because Adela never answered the two letters I v/rote to her for him. So he changed his will and left the thirty thousand pounds which were Adela's 5liare to hospitals. Why didn't you answer them, Adela?" Adela looked at her husband. Then she came up to him and took bis hand. "The letters must have been lost," she said. At the moment Ainsley realised that Adela knew everything.
16. Retell the following joke.

After the first night of her new show, the leading went to her dressing-room. In a moment she opened door and brought all the actors to her side with a scream. "I've been cheated," the star cried, "fourteen quets only fourteen bouquets!" "Fourteen is a wonderful lot," said the producer. "Maybe," cried the lady, "but I paid for fifteen."
*17. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary.

lady the loud bou

1. All had survived the crash Kelly, his wife Mar garet, his ten-year-old twin sons, the pilot and co-pilot and ... ten enlisted men. 2. You are ... extraordinary per son. You never say .fc. moral thing and never do .-;. wrong thing. 3. Then she saw what was in ... main display case, and she forgot where she was or where she had come from. 4. After .-;. third drink he sat back comfortably in his chair, no longer self-conscious in the luxurious room.,. 5. f/,( most remarkable stroke of fortune brought me .. very man that I required. 6. These are just I ev" usual papers. 7. He is . very soul of truth and honour. 8. Mrs. Mair says there is ... whole sackful of mail waiting for you at the post-office. 9. She rocked her head on the pillow and for ... first time, 1saw tears on her cheeks. 10. With ;.. Gale helping on Ik-bther side, they got Reynolds to Craig's car and pushed him into *.. back seat. 11. He didn't ask what ... right way was, in her opinion.. 12. She was . U < only child. 13. Well, I came down to look and v./only other person on the yver was a lady, so I guessed you must be it. 14. He asks all tiv'right questions. ^5. You look exact ly ... same wonderful boy who, day after day, used to come down to my studio to sit for his picture. 16. He toyed with the idea of going to bed as ... quickest way of getting warm, but ... second glance at ... bed dissuaded him. 17. When he drove the car out of the gate of the hotel

grounds, he turned, out of an old memory, in ... wrong direction, towards Antibes, instead of towards Juan-less Pins and Cannes. 18. Gilly had been released from Sanj Quentin at about ... same time Fordyce had and ... twd were inseparable. 19. But it was always ... wrong thing to laugh at Pat. 20. Her fine black eyes were ... most no? ticeable thing about her. 21. All the people Ellen had known in Savannah might have been cast from ... same mould sq similar were their view-points and traditions. 22. While the Thompsons were operating their Bull's Head Saloon ..j most notorious member of the Texas gun-stinging frater-j nity came to town. 23. Mind you, you have to remember that . . is ... most unpredictable disease. 24. Fine indeed, Grant thought, looking down at the map of Pa ris ... next morning. 25. He might have been M. P. had he chosen. Rarinock was of course ... most celebrated man in the Five Towns, and the idol of ... populace. 26. I heard they're all in, and they all took ... same examination Eli did. 27. You are ... most loathsome beast that it's ever been my misfortune to meet. 28. It was maddening having to stay inside when outside ... first snow he had ever seen was falling. 29. I am writing such ... long letter because it is raining like crazy here and we can't finish ... second coat of the deck house. 30. This is ... second Sunday since my return and all day it has been windy.31. ...next day he had shown Craig his play. 32. Colonel Kelly opened and closed his hands nervously, wondering how he could tell ... fifteen human beings behind the door about the interview with Ri Ying and the lunatic ordeal they were going to have to endure. 33. As they had known what he had been doing at his desk for ... last hour or so, they would have every right, he thought, to come storming out of their cubicals and into his office to tear his checkbook to bits.
*18. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

, , , . 2. , , . 3. , . 4. . 5. , , 70

, , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , . 11. . 12. . 13. , (to prance) . 14. , , . 15. . 16. , , . 17. , . 18. , . 19. , ? 20. , , , . 21. , . 22. () , . 23. , . , .
19. Think of situations for the following sentences.

1. I suppose it's the most wonderful moment in his life. 2. Absently he dropped the two lumps of sugar into his coffee and began to stir it. 3. Has it slipped your memory that I've got a first night to-night? 4. It is the only thing that deeply amuses me. 5. "Don't make the same routine suggest ions," she said. 6. You are doing the right thing. 7. "I am going on to the other place," he said after a pause.
20. Analyze the attributes expressed by present and past partici ples and underline those which affect the use of articles.

1. A man and his wife, in the crowd coming out of the


auditorium through the lobby, passed nearby. 2. For ani hour she had lost patience and her body had ruthlessly recorded the fact in a rising temperature and a raisini? pulse. 3. All forward traffic had been stalled at the coifl trol and there were only the descending> trucks passing! 4. To ow the bridge at a stated hour based on the tinfl| set for the attack is how it should be done. 5. He wap smoking a cigarette and he wore a knitted cap and blan*$ ket style cape. 6. He fumbled with the lock, cursing whqi ever had stolen the radio in New York City, and for a wilij moment looked in the car parked next to his to see if bm chance the keys were in the ignition. 7. As the set wall warming up he picked up his newspaper, turned to t h e sports pages and idly ran his eye down the racing cards! 8. Maple Street was a wide tree-shaped avenue which rail north and south from one end of town* to the other. 9. Imagl jne three very naughty little girls who liked all children! hated bedtime but who could run twice as fast as those! who were in charge of them and had the added advantage? of being able to see in the dark. 10. The First Church of] Barnhouse in Los Angeles has a congregation memberingl in the thousands. 11. Now let's remember this is a wedding, not a smoke-filled hotel room. 12. With the contentment of a miser counting his money, Helen fondled the rest of the instruments one by one. 13. What had started as almost a hobby and a mild boost to his ego had become a ruling interest in his life. 14. There was a quick startled wonder in her eyes when she opened the door and saw Jack standing there. 15. A prickling sensation spread over the back of his neck.
*21. Fill in the blanks with articles. Explain your reasons for the use of the articles.

1. Kelly counted '.. figures still surviving on the board. 2. Rose Waterford had .^.blistering tongue. 3. I was like .vt child brought to her first school, or . little untrained maid who has never left home before. 4. The newcomer, unconscious of her interest, cast u. wondering eye over the menu. 5. There was .^ bundle packed across one saddle that I did not understand. 6. In the dark he saw it was Pilar and he looked at the dial of his wrist watch with ... two hands shining in the short angle close to the top. 7. He lurched away like .;. frightened horse barely missing the piano stool. 8. He had had ty.i intended destination. 9. ...

Knot tightening my lungs held for another second and then loosened. 10. The young man, who was tall and thin with ... sun-streaked fair hair, and ..: wind- and sun-burned face, who wore ... sun-faded flannel shirt, a pair of ... peasant's trousers and rope-soled shoes, leaned over and put the heavy pack up onto his shoulders. 11. DownW twisting road we went without a word. 12. The five men were spread out like the points of .;. five-pointed star. 13. What would he do with :'.'. remaining years? 14. He went down ... crowded lobby, smiled without warmth at two people he knew but did not wish to talk to. 15. There was ... crashing crack and a stab of yellow in the dark. 16. What you need is what ... working girl needs, a holiday that is a rest. 17. In the city she was always ... walking advertisement for the products she worked on. 18. He had been on the list for three days, but now the pain had al most disappeared in ... injured leg and all his vital signs were back to normal. 19. He rose his hand in ... mocking salute. 20. They watched him walk stiffly and self-con sciously into ... darkened hotel. 21. He wondered what his old friend would think about him if he had happened to glance down at ... repeated signatures on ... scraps of paper scattered across ... littered dek. 22. It is clustered around ... abandoned lighthouse, & ^lighthouse that was once needed when there was water enough around to let big ships come and go.
*22. Translate from Russian into English using participles as attributes wherever possible.

1. , . 2. , , . 3. , . 4. , , . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. , . 10. , . . . 12. . 13. , , .


14. ! . 15. . 16. . 17. . 18. , . 19. , , , , . 20. , ! , .

23. Determine whether the articles refer to the noun in the geni-| tive case or the head noun. Comment on the meaning of the! articles. Translate the sentences into Russian. 3

1. It is beneath a man's dignity to listen and give im portance to rumours. 2. Head teachers of secondary schools] through their association have called for anjargent recon-' vening of the Burnham pay negotiating committee in an attempt to settle the teachers' dispute. 3. They found on the dressing-table an unpaid dressmaker's bill. 4. Back from sea M, Eden came homing for California with a lover's desire. 5. It was a peasant's face, the cheeks hollow under the high cheekbones, the beard stubbled, the eyes shaded by the heavy brows, big hands holding the rifle. 6. Riley, listening to the wild cat with an itchy hunter's look, snatched at the leaves blowing about us like midnight butter flies. 7. There was a burst of welcoming voices, a woman's laugh, and the sound of it mingled with the banging of doors. The woman's laugh stayed in his mind. 8. The Na tional Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Teachers Education, which is 78,000-strong, is to hold its first national ballot for strike action if the employers do not improve their pay offer, the union's national council decided yesterday. 9. He looked through the trees to where Primitivo, holding the reins of the horse was twist ing the rider's foot out of the stirrup. 10. He justly said no one knew better than he the hardship of the author's trade~and if he could help a struggling journalist to earn a few guineas by having a pleasant chat with him he had not the inhumanity to refuse. 11. The woman wanted to know what Basil thought of the boy's character. 12. But there came a time when the buck's ears lifted and tensed with swift eagerness for sound. 13. He began to experience the almost forgotten feeling which hastens the lover's feet. 14. Jan answered the doctor's questions reluctantly.

15. The coal board's western area punishment squad yes terday carried out its threat to lay off 1,800 miners from the three-pit complex in Geigh-Wigan area.
*24. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary. Translate ) the sentences into Russian. s
i ' < -

1. He lost himself in search of the ultimate answer to the enigma () of ... man's role on this earth. 2. To day, from 1 p.m. till 2 there will be a picket at ... re gime's embassy, South Africa House in ... London's Trafal gar square, to mark the appeal in court in South Africa of 76-year-old trade union leader Oscar Mpetha. 3. She was ... headmaster's daughter. 4. She wondered looking at ... Mrs. Carlton's calm face, how often she had wept silently into her pillow when her husband had failed to come. 5. John wore ... telegraph messenger's coat which was far too big and a^cap wWch was not quite big enough. 6. Len Alurray,^^Qmef^neral secretary of the TUC, is alsp among the4 new life peers created in ... New Year's Honours List. 7. "I have often wondered," he said, "why there is a kind of a Christian awe about ... confectioner's shop." 8. ... newspaper's international Prize tournament attended by the strongest ice-hockey teams was an impor tant event in the preparation for the world and European championship. 9. They can carry on an amusing and ani mated conversation without ... moment's reflection to what they are saying. 10. ... aunt Pitty's apprehensions quieted when she saw that Rhett was on his best behaviour; 11. She saw ... girl's face break into laughter, her hand go up and tousle his hair affectionately. 12. In an interview on ... BBC Radio's Women's Hour, the Prime Minister said the government had been reluctant to put up interest rates. 13. If any of ... Britain's five major plants are closed it will be clear statement by this government that Britain is finished as a manufacturing and industrial nation. 14. The room had the look not of .?. writer's workshop, but of a me morial to a great name. 15. Denwaby Close was not just a substantial farm; it was a monument to ... man's endurance and skill. -16. The popular professor had called the meet ing in the hope that on this one subject at least the rep resentatives of the various parties would be able to get through ... hour's discussion without quarrelling. 17. ... coal board's refusal to negotiate with ... miners' union has provoked ... industry's supervisor's union NACODS to boycott all national discussions with the coal bosses. 18.

The books were so much a part of ... room's decorativj scheme that you wouldn't have dared to have taken one 19. Eve rose, casting down, for Ralph to see, a startled ar indignant look at ... doctor's wife's body as if it were offensive piece of rubbish washed up on the pure sanJ of her mind. 20. He would abandon ... hero's or ... maj tyr's end gladly. 21. Speculators bought up boatloads goods and held them for a rise in prices. The civilian pop! ulation had either to do without or buy at ... specula! tors' prices. 22. He learned ... trader's name but he alsd learned that the trader had sold Phebe to a "private pari ty". 23. He turned his head to review the crescent of landj scape around the beach, as if through his fresh eyes doctor's wife could renew her sense of ... island's beauty! 24. The man came out of the twilight when the greenish! yellow of ... sun's last light still lingered in the west.1
*25. Translate from Russian into English using nouns in the gen- ' sj itive case wherever possible.

1. - . 2. , . 3. . 4. , - , . 5. . 6. , . 7. . 8. , , . , ( ). 9. ( ) . 10. , ^ . 11. -, . ( ) (to peddle). . 12. ,- , , . 13. , . 14. , .


15 . 16. , . 7 . 18. , , , , , , . 19. , 0,37 . 20. , , . , , . 21. (AIDS) , . 22. , - ? 23. , . 24. ?
26. Think of situations for the following sentences.

1. It is a children's theatre. 2. She sat busily patching a boy's torn shirt. 3. He is the people's hero, isn't he? 4. She didn't quite like the fellow's manner, so she got up, not without dignity, and with an apology for troubling him bade him good day. 5. In less than an hour she had packed two bags with a week's worth of clothing for both of them. 6. Yes, the girl's voice was a very low whisper.
*27. Supply articles for the nouns modified by nouns in the comv, nion case if necessary. Explain your reasons for the use of the ^ articles.

1. Once he passed close to ... troop truck and the lights flashed and he saw their faces fixed and sad in the sudden ^ght. 2. Then they heard the noise of ... hand grenades heavy and sudden in the gay rolling of ... rifle fire. 3. He 1 ... observation post and he was not there. 4. This Wa s how they were talking in the sawmill, while Anselmo waited in the snow watching the road and the light in i.. sawmill window. 5. There was ... telephone line running al J|g the road and its wires were carried over the bridge. IXiring the next few months the cub took every opportu nity that came her way to harry elephants and there were such occasions for II/elephant season was beginning.

7. ... mill hands said that Leslie kept them working all summer in order to be able to take their money awayl 8. Then he comes back, crooks his finger, gives you ..^cull tured pearl necklace he's smuggled in, and you fall inti his arms. 9. He came up the street by ... DawsoJ barracks with shivering heart and shaking knees. 10. Now! he drew two large wheels with circles around them ana a short line for ,.:-gun barrel. 11. It was necessary that . J Delaney cards should be filled during the third period! 12. "He might have been given ... Nobel Prize at on! time," the man in the taxi thought. 13. Ansel mo grunted! "I'm going for wine," he told Robert Jordan. Robert go! up and lifted the sacks away from .'.. cave entrance and] leaned them one on each side of ... tree trunk. 14.... schooH bell was Kenny Stearns' secret love. 15. I had arrived early and had been taken upstairs to admire ... Hale] children.
*28, Supply articles for the nouns modified by prepositional phrases. Determine whether the prepositional phrases are limit ing or descriptive.

1. And if it comes to that, what's wrong with ... people in the hotel? 2. ... man at the control would not give the safe-conduct back. 3. How good to be like ... hand within a glove that stretches out and grows wonderfully cold in the hot sand. 4. When he came into the room, Smith went at once to ... woman in the uniform and bowed to her. 5. He saw ... girl with long hair springing back into two pigtails. 6. We ate in ... pavilions on the sand. 7. He was dressed in ... singlet without arms, and ... pair of duck trousers. 8. Then ... sniper behind the boulder a hundred yards down the slope exposed himself and fired. 9. Aunt Carrie and Julia's mother, Mrs. Lambert, lived in the morning-room, ... long narrow room with Empire fur niture. 10. This passenger had come with ...ship from the Baltic state that owned her, but there was something about his appearance, in spite of his clothes, his moustache, that suggested he was really ... native of this island. 11. In order to be on the safe side* Bart rang up Jan from ... tel ephone-booth near the railway station. 12. ... faces on the wharf began to take on individuality.. 13. She leaned back against ... wall of the cupboard and he rubbed his nose against hers. 14. Now the mob was pressed tight against the door and from the square ... big drunkard in ... black smock with ,... red and black handkerchief around his

neck- r a n a n d threw himself against ... press of the mob. j5 The snow was falling through ... hole in the roof on 'coals of the fire. 16. Glancing at ... clock above the door I saw that it was two o'clock. 17. It was dark and he looked at ... light across the road and shook his arms against his chest to warm them.
29. Analyze the use of articles with the nouns modified by ofphrases. Classify the of-phrases according to their meaning.

A. 1. Now, a little chit of fourteen just leaving school expects at least five pounds a week. 2. The Duchess wore a dressing-jacket of the same colour made of velvet and trimmed at the neck and wrists with bands of dark sable. 3. There was always a throng of boys in the closet, though they knew they were not allowed to smoke there. 4. It was a sign of relief that he saw at last the crenellated walls of the lonely Chinese city. 5. Beyond the lighted desks the harbour was a sheet of sparkling silver under the full moon. 6. He had a moment of gloom, as he thought that now Jan was away there was no one in the world to whom he could really talk. 7. Sunday noon Verena came in to look at the table: with its sprawling center-piece of peachcoloured roses and dense fancy stretches of silver ware, it seemed set for a party of twenty; actually there were only two places. 8. But there is in my nature a strain of ascetism. 9. Magda opened a bottle of scotch. 10. A mile of cotton fields smiled up to a warm sun. 11. This solitary passenger was a man of medium height but of a massive build, square and bulky about the shoulders and thickchested. 12. A bishop keeps on saying at the age of eighty what he was told to say when he was a boy of eighteen, and as a natural consequence, he always looks absolutely delightful. 13. But when a squad of bearded men came lumbering down the steps, laden with an assortment of stolen articles and she saw Charles' sword in the hands f one, she did cry out. 14. Here in Castile, May is a month f great heat, but it can have much cold. 15. It was a big key of iron, over a foot long. 16. After nearly an hour of fire watching, no tea had come. 17. Now it happened that he went to call on a friend of his on the very first afternoon f his summer vacation. B. 1. The surface of the lagoon at Dee Why, spunkled with seagulls whose plumage gleamed incredibly white, w as a heaven of peace under its sand-hills. 2. John laughed an d the sound of the laugh was hard. 3. Jan imagined in the

slight pause that she could see the ironical lift of Mr*! Carlton's brows. 4. He felt that the sound of a woman sin ing as she prepared dinner was just the last touch to things perfect. 5. It was a big drop from being the w i l of Delphin Slade to being his widow. 6. He spun round a n gazed at the face of the girl with whom he had drunk tea the refreshment room many months ago. 7. It said so hem in the French newspaper: Rommel was waiting for somJ thing to happen, and while he waited he was avoiding a l battle with the cunning of a fox. 8. He said it in the woii derfully soft voice of the Island men. 9. The story was wefl known at the time, though, of course out of respect to the feelings of the two noble families, every attempt was madl to hush it up. 10. In the ante-Chamber were only an ancienf porter and a page; and I had a sudden and melancholjj feeling that the members were all attending the funeral ol the head waiter. 11. The idea of spending the rest of my life buying and selling, using my days to increase mjj| wealth, which is already more than sufficient, is distasted ful to me. 12. "Look at the girl," he said, "she hasn't yel! learnt the art of doing nothing/' 13. Then the impossibil ity of reasoning with this woman overwhelmed him. 14. Axel Jorache rowed slowly out towards the centre of the river. 15. I left her quite happy after the arrival of the nurse, propped up on pillows with a falling temperature.
*30. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary. Comment on the of-phrases modifying the nouns.

1. Robert Jordan saw ... woman of about fifty almost as big as Pablo, she was as wide as she was tall, in ... black peasant skirt and waist, with heavy wool socks on heavy legs. 2. She was "here with the news and was in such ... v.y/X^^state ofjadjant exultatierf as I'd never seen. 3. He had ... J f ^ ' | f a c e of one who walks in his sleep, and for a wild moment \\o^ the idea came to me that perhaps he was not normal, not altogether sane. 4. El Sordo went into the cave and came out with ... pinch bottle of scotch whiskey and three glasses. 5. Just, however, as he r e a c h e d ^ top of the great oak staircase, a door was flung open, two little white-robed figures appeared, and a large pillow whizzed past his head. 6. In the pocket with the wire he felt his players with the two wooden awls for making holes in ... end of the blocks and then, from the last inside pocket, he took ... big box of the Russian cigarettes. 7. He saw my face and stopped;

then he - a m e o v e r quickly to stand beside me/ giving me .., rttle smjle of reassurance. 8. He slapped :.. handful of otes ort-.vvtqp of the table. 9. Her hair black and curling [ell dowfTHer back, and she wore ... wreath of scented flowers. 10. You have told your car to wait round the cor ner so that it should not stand outside the door and by its magnificence affront his poverty, but at the door he says:'"You'll find a bus at ... bottom/.of the street." -_i..j -r *LJ*ALL- _r g 11. ~, ._ c.zi Their furniture coasted of of g r a s s _ m a t s o n which they slept, **1't>r%bking-gl was a native, ... woman of somewhat commanding pres ence. 13. Lights were flickering on along the wharf, imme diately giving the unlit entrances ... sombre air of mystery. 14. A few wreeks after this, the purchase was completed, and at ... close of the season the Minister and his family went down to Canterville Chase. 15. He was in the act of adding ... picture of bananas, an apple and ... head of Queen Elizabeth to ... long line of others, when Mary Poppins walked up to him, tiptoeing so as to surprise him. 16. A deep harsh note boomed under the palms, spread through ... intricacies of the forest and echoed back from ... pink granite of the mountain. 17. That's why I offered to make her ... present of her wedding dress. 18. From her bed she could see the snow flakes falling like ... swarm of white butterflies. 19. She drew ... tumbler of water and dissolved ... large spoonful of white powder in it. 20. They had a mile to walk to reach ... edge of the plateau where they would be able to see some expanse on the lower and sheltered side. 21. He said, "Thanks", and straightened with ... smile of apology, a difficult effort on the long intense face, more an apologetic grimace than a smile. 22. If only they could reach Malaga before dark! There must be a French or British agent in ... port of such impor tance. 23. Sheltering from ... steady drift of a cold desert wind, they lay on their backs surrounded by hard and jlat exposure. 24. He is ... political figure of great impor tance. 25. He picked his way to ... seaward edge of the platform and stood looking down into the water. 26. Every jorce of his being impelled him to spring up and confront |ne unseen danger, but his soul dominated the panic, and n ^ remained squatting on his heels, in his hands ... chunk or gold. 27. "Hey!" said ... owner of the foot, turning ar ound. 28. She was ... steamship of some 3,500 tons, flying " l l a g of one of the new Baltic states. 29. Jerome Haring, * private soldier of General Sherman's army, then con6



fronting the enemy at and about Kennesaw MountajM Georgia, turns his back upon ... small group of office! with whom he had been talking in low tones. 30. H I .. face of a conspirator. 31. It was ... city of over 500,0(M with ... ambition, ... d ring, ... activity of ... metropcM of a million. 32. ... next stage of the visit began nowfll Mrs. Broadwith brought in ... cup of tea. 33. I did | ... idea of going back to camp but now I've met you anfll wouldn't mind postpon ng it. 34. The girls have ... w H of looking as though they're pretty much satisfied wim everything. 35. Jess and I've been talking about ... pdH sibility of his getting back into production one of theH days, and I'll know where I can get hold of him.
31. Complete the statements.

1. Water boils at a temperature of ... . 2. Water freeze at a temperature of . . . . 3. The plane was flying at a heigffl of . . . . 4. They had to walk a distance of . . . . 5. He was s i strong, he could carry a weight of . . . . 6. Are you going t l the shop? Please, buy a pound of . . . . 7. Her brother-was* boy of . . . . 8. George is a friend of . . . . 9. Is she a daughte of ...? 10. He told us the story of ... . 11. Suddenly vw heard the sound of . . . . 12. He had the reputation of ... . 1
*32. Translate the following sentences from Russian into Englisfl using of-phrases as attributes wherever possible.

1. , ! , 2. . 3. ! 4. 5. , , . 6. ! . 7. ! . 8. ! . 9. () $ " . 10. 11. , , . 12. | . 13. ! , . 14. * , . 15. * 16. . 17. *


^ . 18. , * . 19. \{ , , , , . 20. , , . 21. , , . 22. , . 23. . 24. , . 25. , , . 26. , .

33. Think of situations for the following sentences.

1. It's a matter of entire indifference to me. 2. She gave him a little nod of dismissal. 3. I felt rather like someone peering through the key hole of a locked door. 4. The float nosed over,the top of the wave. 5. She sat down at the foot of a pine tree and looked out across the meadow.
34. Find the Russian equivalent and use the following in a situation. proverb

Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion.


- Find attributive clauses and determine whether they are lim iting or descriptive in the following sentences. Comment on the use of articles.

1- Rosie's eyes travelled to a picture on the wall that some reason had escaped my notice. 2. The servant who opened the door and showed where to go, gave me an unP'^asant look as I passed him and went into a big room ^nere two old gentlemen were sitting, looking at me with e rest. 3. I suppose that is why when Roy lectured in lT]e provincial town not a single copy of the books of


the authors he had spoken of was ever asked for, but -Jj there was always a run of his own. 4. The proof is that herd they have done nothing since the train that Kashkin orl ganized. 5. There was a buzzer by the side of the doon that was designed to open it automatically, but it had] been broken for a week. 6. "It did not," the soldier who was] cooking said. 7. I'm about to have a conference with a young woman whose conscience is probably giving her twinges of remorse. 8. Men have always wanted a personal God to whom they can turn in distress for comfort and encour-] agement. 9. And on this day most of the men in the double! line across the plaza wore the clothes in which they worked! in the fields. 10. "What kind of country is this wherd it snows when it is almost June?" the soldier who was sit-J ting on the bunk said. 11. Look at the miracles that hava happened before this. 12. But Nunez advanced with the! confident steps of a youth who enters upon life. 13. " seems as though there was a dream that you woke from,"i Maria said to Robert Jordan. 14. Then he waved his hand in the direction the woman had called from and started; to walk between the lines.
36. Write out the sentences containing limiting attributes. Tell the dialogue in indirect speech.

Robert: Don't use that brush, it'll be dirty. That's the brush with which Mother painted the stove. Mrs. Parker: No, this is the brush I did the stove with. That one's only been used for the screen paint. Mr. Parker: Which of you is the villain who's hidden my special tin of paint? Robert: Not me. But I think I know where it is. Mrs. Parker: Harry, let Robert do the parts high up under the roof. He is lighter than you are on the ladder. Mr. Parker: No. That's all right. You know, Nora, I've been 'wanting to paint these windows since the day we moved.in. * Mrs. Parker: Me too. Robert: Is this the tin you were looking for? It was in the very place where you put it, in the shed. Mr. Parker: Hand it up to me. That's right. This side Q! the house needs a lot of paint. It's the side which catches all the wind and rainl Mrs. Parker: It's very difficult to do the parts that are close to the glass.

Mr. Parker: Yes, they are the parts that need special care. Mrs. Parker: It's beginning to look nice, isn't it? Mr. Parker: Yes, but it's the beautiful green streak you've put in your hair which I admire most. Look out! I'm falling! Mrs. Parker: Harry! Harry! Are you hurt? /fr. Parker: No, I don't think so. Mrs. Parker: What on earth was it you thought you were doing? Mr. Parker: I just stepped back to admire the piece I'd just painted. I forgot I was up a ladder. Mrs. Parker: Think of my heart, Harry! Mr. Parker: I am the person whose heart needs attention, not you! Mrs. Parker: It's not your heart that's wrong, dear. It's your brain.
*37. Supply articles for nouns modified by attributive clauses wherever necessary; state whether the attributive clause affects the use of articles or not.

1. They were in the cave and the men were standing before ... fire Maria was fanning. 2. There was ... wind that blew through ... battle but that was a hot wind. 3. Below on the slope ... man who had run from the pile of stones to the shelter of the boulder () was speak ing to the sniper. 4. One of the men turned from ... building that he was doing. 5. Since you all decided that it should be done it is ... service that I can do. 6. This is like ... wheel that goes up and round. 7. ... man who was being pushed out by Pablo and Cuatro Dedos was Don Anastasio Rivas who was an undoubted fascist and the fattest man in the town. 8. They turned down ... road that led through the Domain past the Art Gallery. 9. When Don Guillermo stood there ... woman started to scream from the balcony of ... apartment where he lived. 10. There are words for all the vile words in Eng lish and there are ... other words and expressions that are used only in ... countries where blasphemy keeps pace with the austerity of religion. 11. At the left, juist past the top, there was ... loop of road where cars could turn and there were lights winking in front of ... big stone building that bulked long and dark against the night sky. 12. On paper the bridge is blown at ... mo ment the attack starts in order that nothing will come U P the road. 13. It had seemed just and right and nec85

essary that ... men who ran were shot. 14. She told which things not to eat, it wras potatoes and ... t h i n that are fried. 15. Sure, Gaylord's was ... place you needH to complete your education. 16. ...^man who was leadM rode along ... trail to where Pablo had circled stopped. 17. In her hand she brought ... little newspajH parcel, which she gave to Mary who opened it. 18. he saw her coming out from under ... blanket that ered the cave mouth. 19. Then there was ... valley thfl no one held except for a fascist post in a farmhouse w i l its outbuildings and its barn that they had fortifiee 20. It was so quiet in the cave, suddenly, that he hear ... hissing noise the wood made burning on M hearth where Pilar cooked. 21. He was thinking of t H bluest eyes he'd ever seen and ...walk that put all ... model he had been watching to scheme. 22. ... road, which w l broad and oiled and well-constructed, made a turn the left at the far end of the bridge and then swung ouj of sight around a curve to the right. 23. As we were sifl ting together, suddenlyMhere came into her eyes ... lool that I had never seen there before. 24. Larry handed out big marking pins and a small cap of spray paint td each and went through a side door with ... sign thai warned everyone to stay out. 25. "That is what happen^ to everybody," Pablo said, gloomily. "That is ... wajj we'll all finish." 26. Through ... gate ...girl came and collided with me with ... force that nearly knocked off the pavement. 27. Mrs. Lambert wore black too, bul when Monsieur L'Able and the Commandant came td dinner she put over her shoulders ... white lace shawl that Julia had given her. 28. Frank Everly was ... lawf clerk who looked up routine legal matters for Perry Mason and sat with hirn in the trial of cases. 29. ... man whclj had been called George by Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, could hardly be expected to have any connection ~with a native. 30. His hand reached out for ... Turkish cigarette he had been offered.
*38. Translate from Russian into English trying to use attributive clauses.

1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , , ,

' - . 5. , . 5 , ? ? , ? 7. , , . 8. , . 9. , , (to stake out) . 10. . , , , . . , , . 12. , . 13. , , , , , . 14. . 15. , . 16. , . 17. , , . 18. ( , ) . 19. , . 20, , , , (glen). 21. , , : . 22. , . 23. , , . 24. , - . 25. , .

39. Determine whether the attributes expressed by infinitives in the following sentences are limiting or descriptive. Comment on the use or the absence of the article with the nouns modi fied by them.

1. She thought how often he would come to.her like this in the months to come with a need which was not only that of the spirit. 2. There was the constant attempt to approximate the conditions of the successful experi ments. 3. All the other things are forgiven or one had a

chance to atone for them by kindness or in some otherf way. 4. Permission to cancel it will have to come fronfl Madrid. 5. "It would have been the intelligent and corj rect thing to have done under the circumstances," Rol bert Jordan was thinking. 6. Also J know good place! to eat that are illegal but with good food. 7. And we will keep things to eat in the room for when we're hungry! 8. Because the people of this town are as kind as thejl can be cruel and they have a natural sense of justice and a desire to do that which is right. 9. They seemed to bJ controlled by one man in the middle of the rush whj had a reason to be going in that direction. 10. Tom stood] there watching the scene, then made a move to follow! her but thought better of it. j
*40. Supply articles for the nouns modified by attributive infinM tives wherever necessary. ;

l . S h e felt herself yielding to ... blinding impulse to run screaming from the building. 2. I believe that I could walk up to the mill and knock on the door and I would be welcome except that they have ... orde'rs to challenge all travellers and ask to see their papers. 3. However, that is not ... point to discuss. 4. He had not yet had ... opportunity to test his judgement and, anyway, the judgement was his own responsibility. 5. I have ... right to ask him now because I have had to do the same sort of things myself. 6. I tried to breathe, but ... effort to inhale knotted my chest tighter, forcing breath out instead of in. 7. Catching sight of the clock at the Army and Navy Stores, he remembered ... engagement to play golf at his club. 8. Tired with ... desire to escape, she hesitated. 9. He began to read, giving the stranger ... opportunity to recover himself. 10. He felt ... need to talk that, with him, was the sign that there had just been much danger. 11. When she saw him, so slight, with his hectic flush and his blue eyes, so charmingly -boyish, she felt a sudden pang and made ... attempt to get up.
*41 (Revision). Fill in the blanks with articles.

1. He went into ... house by ... back door and sneaked up ... stairs as though he had something to hide. 2. We'll never get him ... second time. 3. ... silent house gave them ... feeling of being there without leave. 4. "Oh," he said, "you'd have to go back through all ... records.

all ... way back to ... end of ... eighteenth century even, to make any kind of ... guess." 5. "What do you mean?" But what he meant was quite obvious. ... quickly beating heart gave him away. 6. It was ... third time that year lie had fallen asleep driving at night. 7. He was glad that he had been born in ... most important city of the United States. 8. The light in ... next room came from ... lamp hanging from ... ceiling. 9. But one way or ... other it's not bothering me. 10. Before ... first year had passed I had saved ... thousand dollars and we had lived in comfort. 11. I couldn't see ... face that had been staring at him from that window. 12. He hurled ... gramophone on ... floor. 13. By ... stair was ... notice: "Office". ... office consisted of ... glass window, firmly closed and ... printed card: "Press Bell". 14. It was ... lovely July evening, and ... air was delicate with ... scent of the pinewoods. 15. ...waiters were reappearing with ... trays and ... napkins and ... flaskes of wines. 16. It took him some time to get used to ... darkness of ... forest again. 17. ... girl I had been shadowing turned ... knob and opened ... door. 18. She was leaning against ... wall of baggage-shed near ...end of ... wharf. 19. He rubbed his hands together in ... pleased manner and called to his wife. 20. Of all ... houses which had received him in ... fall of 1862, Miss Pittypat's was ... only house into which he could enter in 1863. 21. Mr. Hungerton was ... most tactless person upon earth. 22. "Now I'm going to get... cup of tea for both of us," Doreen said. 23. I was manager of ... Crawford Street branch of the Bank. 24. He hoped it was ... main building, burning to ... ground. 25. The woman who ran it was very cheerful and ... only person we knew in Montreux. 26. I thought she was ... most wonderful creature I had ever seen. 27. ... following evening the Mole, who had taken things very easy all day, was sitting on ... bank fishing. 28. At this minute Miss Griffith saw ... acquaintance on ... other side of ... street and uttering ... word of recognition she leaped across ... road. 29. I read the dedication written in ... curious slanting hand. 30. ... strangest thing of all was, that not ... soul in ... house, except me, noticed her habits, or seemed to marvel at them. 31. It just seems to be ... wrong way to go about it. 32. With ... cry of anger Gisburne cut him down. 33. Mrs. Macandrew shared ... common opinion of her sex that ... man is always ... brute to leave ... woman who is attached to him, but

that ... woman is much to blameif hedoes.34.1 sketched! in fancy with ... absent mind ... profile, ... sombre eye, ... high-bridged nose, ... scornful upper lip. 35. thought he detected in her voice ... note of apprehension^ 36. I can't tell you coherently ... events of ... next twenlj ty-four hours, believe me. 37. ... vision of ... com sumptive son faded and in its stead aroused ... pictura of myself. 38. "Oh, that's nonsense/' said Roy good! humouredly, with ... tone of ... doctor who is trying t J persuade ... child to have its throat examined. 39. "Whal about ... previous week? Could she have slipped the let! ter in the box?" 40. And they brought ... pineapples a n J ... huge bunches of ... bananas. 41. They did not evem have to have ... same colour of eyes. 42. "I think i t ' I a success," she said. "... main thing is that it's right.1 43. ... latter letters are as tender and as delightful as . . | first, but... tone was different.. 44. Bart opened ... pack| et of ... cigarettes and offered one to Magda. 45. . . | house faced ... garden. Above ... drawing-room were ..^ two bedrooms and above these ... two rooms that could;! be made into ... day and ... night nursery. 46. In ... house: there was nothing but ... poor worn bed with ... ragged mosquito net, ... rickety chair, and ... washstand. 47. They" were all seized in their homes at ... hour the attack start ed. 48. Not marrying ... young lady, of whom you have probably heard, was merely ... last straw. 49. Of course, it's ... very good thing for ... man to be ... gentleman, but it is better that he should be competent and hard-, working. 50. He had come to ... conclusion that it could be nothing serious that prevented Edward from coming home. 51. I tremble with fear when I think of ... danger I have escaped. 52. The grade school was ... large wooden building, old, ugly and dangerous, but ... high school was ... pride of ... town. 53. I know ... very half-acre where it is grown. 54. I mean, instead of the books being ... usual story affairs they'd as likely as not be about Arabia. 55. He chose ... wrong minute to say that. 56. This was ... opportunity that Mr. Warburton could never resist. 57. She stood by ... fire and stared into it before sitting down in ... chair that Wilfred had just vacated. 58. The girls felt that ... theft had been reported to ... Corona police. 59. ... voice that answered him was not only ... masculine voice but also ... irritated, weary, despairing voice, that of ... man who was rapidly coming to ... conclusion, that he could be spending all Saturday

afternoon answering idiotic inquiries. 60. ... Ryan family had made its way by weight of numbers and noise to a position just below where Chilla was. 61. From behind ... maid who opened ... door darted ... lovely girl of nine who shrieked "Daddy!" and flew up, struggling like ... fish, into his arms. 62. It was ... great landlocked harbour big enough to hold ... fleet of battleships. 63. She liked ... idea of guiding my virgin steps on ... hard road of letters. 64. Do you mean to say you don't want ... money, ... big money, ... money running into millions? 65. It was ... deep, comfortable room, with books lining ,,. walls to ... ceiling. 66. ... actions speak louder than ... words.
Supplementary task. Comment on the ideas expressed in sentences 49, 66. *42. Fill in the blanks with articles. Write out a few sentences containing nouns modified by different kinds of attributes (i.e. by attributes expressed by adjectives, participle phrases or attributive clauses). Explain the use of articles with these nouns.

One Afternoon in 1939 This is ... constant story that I keep telling my daughter who is four years old. She gets something from it and wants to hear it again and again. "Once when I was ... little kid, just your age, my mother and father took me on ... picnic to ...Mount Rainier. We drove up there in ... old car and saw ... deer standing in ... middle of ... road. u We came to ... meadow where there was ... snow in ... shadows of ... trees and ... snow in ... places where ... sun didn't shine. "There were ... flowers growing in ... meadow and they looked beautiful. In ... middle of ... meadow there ^vas ... huge round rock and ... Daddy walked over to ... rock and found ... hole in ... center of it and looked inside. ... rock was hollow like ... small room. "... Daddy crawled inside ... rock and sat there staring out at ... blue sky and ... wild flowers. ... Daddy r eally liked that rock and pretended that it was ... house and we played inside ... rock all ... afternoon. u He got some smaller rocks and took them inside ... big rock. He pretended that ... smaller rocks were ...

stove and ... furniture and he cooked ... meal, using wild flowers for food." J That's ... end of ... story. She has heard it ... thirtjm or forty times and always wants to hear it again. I thinla she uses it as ... kind of ... door to ... discovery of hejl father when he was ... child and her contemporary, '1
*43. Fill in the blanks with the definite article in the genericl meaning if necessary. Comment on the noun it is used withfl

1. For centuries very little was known about ... ican lobster. 2. ... heart understands when it is confront J ed with contrasts. 3. He recalled that ... atom bombl was the fruit of research and development within thel framework of the Manhattan project. 4. On the top ofl this ... average teacher is not working ten hours a week! on top of their stretched working hours of a decade agoj 5. From a social standpoint ... man of science does not? exist. 6. ... soul is distinct from ... body, its senses are from the mind: it is not part of the absolute, for the ab solute can have no parts. 7. That is because ... public isn't really interested in ... theatre. 3. The SDPLiberal Alliance is, vote for vote, a greater threat to ... Con servatives than to Labour. 9. If ... Belgians decide to delay Cruise they would be the second of the five NATO basing countries to do so. 10. This is just one example of the hundreds of crimes perpetrated by ... Israelis in the south of Lebanon today. 11. ... doctor oughtn't to sin against his professional etiquette. 12. Had he forgotten that Arnold Jackson had a tongue of silver, a tongue by which he had charmed vast sums out of ... credulous public? 13. ... man crossed ... space in metallic cylinders that twisted time and space. 14. Who but ... English would fill Covent Garden to listen to an aged prima donna without a voice? Who but ... English would pay to see dancers so decrepit that they can hardly put one foot before the other? 15. In the light of the world's attitude toward ... woman and her duties the nature of Carrie's mental state deserves consideration.', 16. But the'Trime Minister should recognize that he is again face to face with a section of ... working class which, having learned through bitter experience in the past, now knows how to put up a fight. 17. I always think it a pity that fashion having decided that the doings of ... aristocracy are no longer a proper subject for se rious fiction. 18. I reflected that there must be a bowl

goose grease on most farms; it was the all-purpose lubricant and liniment for ... man and beast. 19. These feel as much as ... poet though they have not the same power of expression. 20. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of ... whole people, expressina the will and interests of ... workers, peasants, intenigentsia. 21. He had the feeling that I have noticed in some Americans that America is a difficult and even dangerous place in which ... European cannot safely be left to find his way about by himself. 22. The trouble is, once the weeds are gone biologists don't know what will happen or where ... carp will migrate. 23. So long, also, will the atmosphere of this realm work its desperate results in the soul of ... man. 24. What absurd fellows you are both of you! I wonder who it was defined ... man as a rational animal. 25. ... Italian public supports the peaceful Soviet initiatives, the newspaper points out. 26. Founded by ... French, ruled for a few decades by ... Spanish and finely fought by ... Americans, it's a city of contrasts. 27. Milk is very nice, especially with a drop of brandy in it, but ... domestic cow is only too glad to be rid of it. 28. When ... Tories say ... class struggle no longer exists they hope to persuade ... workers not to fight for their just demands. 29. A United Nations force spokesman in the area said that a man was found dead near the village with a bullet in his head after ... Israelis left. 30. She came out of her sleep, the cough tearing her again and again till it seemed impossible that ... human body could endure so much. 31. ... artist can express everything. 32. There is no firm evidence for either of these explanations for the end of ... dinosaur.
*44. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary.


Mrs. Barthwick: You ... Liberals and ... Conservatives, you're all alike. You ought to join hands. Barthwick: You're talking nonsense. How is it possible for ... Liberals and ... Conservatives to join hands, as you call it? Why, the very essence .of ... Liberal is to trust in ... people. Mrs. Barthwick: Now, John, eat your breakfast. As if there were any real difference between you and ... Conservatives. All ... upper classes have ,.. same interests to protect, and ... same principles. Barthwick: Indeed. (Heavily.) I am ... Liberal! Drop ... subject, please!

Supplementary task. Answer the question why Mrs. Barthwick^ wife of a wealthy man, says that there is no real difference between the Liberals and the Conservatives. Is that really* so? What do you know about the political parties of England?? *45. Translate the following sentences into English. I

1. & 1917 . 2. . 3. , , | , , . 4. , , ! 5. , , . 6. , | . 7. nouiej , . 8. ^ . 9. . 10. , . . . 12. , . 13. . 14. . . 15. , . 16. . 17. , , . 18. , , , . 19. , . 20. , , . 21. .
*46. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary. Explain the use of articles with the noun "horse".

Riding In ... recent years riding has become ... sport for eve rybody. There are many reasons for this modern interest

in ... horse. One of ... strongest is ... coming of ... tele vision, ... medium which has shown ... millions of ... families ... beauty of ... large international horse shows and ... horse trials. Gradually people began to realise, particularly ... younger ones, that here was ... sport which they could enjoy all ... year round. Riding is ... hobby that one can follow both irj ... winter and in ... summer. It is also ... pastime that ... whole family can enjoy, you are never too old to learn to ride. It is ... good healthy outdoor sport and it can be recommended to anyone... housewives, ... tired businessmen, and ... hard-working high school pupils. Learning to ride should be ...slow and carefully planned process, studying first ... horse as ... living person ality, and then training oneself into ... correct attitude towards riding as ... art, which is needed if one wishes to ride well. At ... beginning of ... horse's evolution he was ... small hunted animal. It is because of this natural feeling of being ... hunted that ... horse by ... nature is timid, and sometimes very nervous. ... horse is not ... attacking animal. His only method of ... defence is to run away, and he has ... natural speed. ... horse is not ... intelli gent animal, and his mental powers have ... childlike quality.
*47. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. . 2. , , , . 3. -, . 4. , . , , , , , , . 5. , . 6. , () (the meat). 7. , , , ! , <, ? 8. , , . 9. , () . 10. ! , .( ( ). 11. . 12. - )


. 13. I , , , . 14. , pa- I . 15. - . 16. - , , , . 17. , , . 18. , , , . 19. <$!. , - 6POHXOBV" . . 20. 400 000. 21. . 22. , , , , . 23. - ;; , 24. , I . 25. - $ ? . 26. | . 27. 1 . 28. | ; . 29. ] . 30. , - !| . 31. , '. . ;
48. Retell the text. Write out the sentences in which there are nouns with the definite article in the generic meaning.

November 7 The Great October Socialist Revolution liberated the peoples of Russia from the landowners and the capital ists. According to the first decrees of the Soviet Power, proclaimed by V. I. Lenin at the Second Congress of. Soviets, the peasants became masters of the land and the workers became masters of the plants and factories.

The October Revolution brought equality to all nations. Half a century ago, tsarist Russia was one of Europe's backward countries. Since then that backward most country has had to fight its way through three hard wars, and in spite of this has become one of the strongest powers in the world. The October Revolution was a clarion call to all the peoples of the world, a call for resolute battle for the destruction of all forms of oppression and exploitation of man by man. The ideas of the October Revolution are ideas of socialism and peace on earth. The Soviet people are contributing actively to the victory of the great ideas of the October Revolution everywhere in the world. The anniversary ,of the Great October Socialist Revolution is a national holiday for the working people of our country. Working people in all parts of the world also celebrate the anniversary of the October Revolution with joy. Under the influence of Lenin's ideas many millions of people have risen in struggle for their vital interests against the old world.
49. Supply situations for the following sentences. Find Russian equivalents for the first two sentences.

1. The wish is father to the thought. 2. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 3. The personality of the artist is the most interesting thing. 4. The wicked always think other people as bad as themselves.
50. Read the text. Write out examples illustrating different meanings of articles before names of animals.

The world's fastest four-legged animal is not, as many people think, a gaselle. It is the cheetah. Many authorities say that the cheetah can run along at 80 miles per hour. The cheetah, sometimes called the hunting leopard, lives in Africa and Southern Asia. And which is the most dangerous animal in the world? It is very difficult to say.


What do we mean by dangerous? By dangerous we mean an animal that is very strong and always aggres sive. A bull will attack you only if you make him very: angry. A tiger will not attack you if h e j s not hungry. But there is one animal which is the* strongest ami": most aggressive of all. He is the black buffalo of Southl; Africa. % The black buffalo is always aggressive. He will a t l tack almost anything and the only thing is to get ot the way.quickly. The buffalo has killed more h u n ters than any other animal in the world.
51. Retell the text. Comment on the use of articles with the $ "dog" and "cat". Speak of your own (or your friends') petsM

On Cats and Dogs

The cat and the dog have been man's pets for many ^ centuries. 'i The cat is an extremely self-willed animal doing only "j what it actually wants. In no way can the cat be persuad-. ; ed to do anything against its will. If you have a cat ,'jj you must already know that you cannot, for instance, ^ stroke it just because you wish to do so. You must wait \ until the cat comes to you of its own free will and in- j vites you to stroke it. Cats make their feelings abundantly \ clear. A cat that feels happy and purrs contentedly can jjj be the most enchanting of pets. If, on the other hand, | it lashes its tail in anger or arches its back, you should I watch out for its paws: its claws can, of course, cause I severe scratches. This sometimes happens when a 1 cat accidentally scratches its owner's hand while j playing. ' The dog is different: it is believed to obey its master and his wishes unquestioningly. But in real life it is often the other way round. Here is a story which illus trates how a dog can sometimes make his master do ; whatsit likes. A friend I met the other day walking his dog up the lane laughed about how he had come to be there. The dog, it seemed, had decided it was time they both had some exercise, for it had come to its master and sat with a cloth cap in its mouth. When my friend took the cap from the dog and.placed it on his knee the disappointed animal sat for a moment and then picked up the cap again. There had been nothing else for it but to go.

Dogs always watch everything their masters do and come to associate particular things with particular events. Putting on a hat or picking up a walking stick means an outing and many dogs encourage their masters in this way.
52. Explain the use or absence of articles with names of sub stances.

1. The alarm of fire was admirably done. The smoke and shouting were enough to shake nerves of steel. 2. Arline opened the bedroom door and softly went over be tween the twin beds, the silk of her dress making a slight rustle in the quiet room. 3. It sounded like the clank of metal, and seemed to be coming nearer every moment. 4. He smashed up through eight solid inches of Antarc tic ice like a black missile. 5. It was like ice water pour ing through her veins to realise it. 6. The strong black coffee that she had drunk did not bring wakefulness in its train unless she wished it to do so. 7. I like French wines which are so light. 8. I'll slip across the alley one ham and one cheese on rye bread, lettuce and may onnaise, and may be one bottle of milk and a coke for later. 9. My eyes adjusted slowly and I saw Ahmed with his elbows on the counter, sipping a beer and discussing the weather with the bartender. 10. "What's inside it?" asked Mole. "There is cold chicken," replied Rat brief ly, "cold tongue, cold ham, meat, ginger beer, lemonade, soda water." 11. Out in the cold night air, he wiped the sweat from his forehead and pulled the second hat with which he had provided himself lower over his eyes.
53. Define the meaning of the indefinite article in the following sentences. Comment on the nouns with which it is used.

1. I can't live in fear that each time my wife or my children leave the house there is a stone or a Donatti or an execution team waiting for them. 2. Wouldn't you like to get yourself something too? A beer or some thing? 3. I ordered an ice-cream for her and two coffees. 4. " salad?" "No, thanks, I'm not hungry." But when she bit the chicken leg again, he reached over for two of her French fries. 5. In the taxi with Dick and Collis Clay they were dropping Collis, and Dick was taking Rose mary to a tea from which Nicole and the Norths had resigned in order to do the things Abe had left undone till the lastin the taxi Rosemary reproached him.
7* 99

6. I was drinking a tea, astonished at the number of goodlooking people who apparently did not have to work for a living. 7. He kept a pub called the Saracen's Head and having invited Sally into the private bar had been disappointed when she would not partake of a small port or a glass of sherry. 8. Into the bakery shop, the most famous and costly of its kind in New York, came a customer with an order for a cake to be baked in the shape of the letter US". 9. This is a light French wine. 10. The convicts make their cigarettes out of a coarse, strong tobacco that is sold in square blue packets.
*54. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary before names of substances.

1. "Thanks," he said and she cut him a slice, reaching up to unhook ... big cheese that hung in a net from the ceiling. 2. ... sand was special. Elsewhere around the airport, on roadways and areas which the public used, ... salt was added to ... sand as a means of melting ... ice. 3. Everywhere, mingled with the smell of cooking were odours of ... stale eau-de-cologne, ... strong talcum powder and the sharp smell of ... antiseptics. 4. There had still been ... snow then, ... snow that had ruined them. 5. Bart heard Jan calling him. It was ... water that she wanted. He remembered that he had forgotten to place ... water near her bed in the evening. 6. She lay back. She didn't want to watch ... snow any more. 7. At once a draught of ... cool fresh air suffused the room. 8. I think you are unwise to eat ... meat. 9. This year the additional demand for ... fuel and ... rolled ferrous metal is to be met by saving of 60 per cent, as compared with the planned 50 per cent. 10. We were enjoying a breakfast of ^ cake and rr, chicken when gunfire slapped through the woods. 11. And now the thing that had been Doriswas only ... clay, just the raw material that would soon be fashioned into something else. 1.2. She was chewing ... gum. I couldn't bear the fact that she was chewing ... gum. 13. "It's ... best tea I've had for 18 months," Bart said tipping the last of a bottle of ... beer into the glass. 14. Every drug-store has a food counterwith high stools in front of it and there they serve ... various juices, coffee, ice-cream, sandwiches, omelettes and other egg dishes. 15. She had no words, but she went on packing, wrapping sandals in ... paper 16. He's made of ,,, iron, that man, 17. He dropped silently back into

i( blue-black waters. 18. He broke open the carcase of the first bird and was cutting off thin bits of ... brown meat from the ribs, but he could stand it no longer. 19. It's on the edge of the lake and ... water comes right under it at high tideyou can hear it. 20. Bart filled the black ened kettle and set it beside ... fire while Jan arranged chops on ... grilling iron and placed it on ... stones he had rolled up to make a fireplace. Soon ... fat was drip ping on ... fire and ... meat sizzled tempting.

*55. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary paying particular attention to the words "tea" and "coffee". Retell the dialogue in indirect speech.

Interview Tom met John Begg, ... young sales assistant, when lie was buying ... coffee in ... big London department store. As John wasn't busy, he had ... talk with Tom. Tom: There are such ... lot of ... departments in ... store. Why did you choose to work in ... grocery department? John: My father has ... grocery shop in ... Ireland, so I already knew ... bit about selling ... groceries when I came to England. I thought that blending and sell ing ... teas and ... coffees from all over ... world would be particularly interesting. Tom: You certainly sell many different kinds of ... cof fees and ... teassome with ... strange names, too. What is "mate", for ... instance? John: "Mate" is ... tea made from ... mate plant in ... Argentina. We also sell ... Jasmine-scented tea, amongst ... others, as well as ... dozens of ... different types of ... coffees that you can see. Tom: I suppose ... different customers want ... special blends? John: Oh yes. Some of them are very particular indeed about ... blending, and want ... three or four differ ent teas or coffees mixed together, or "blended" as we say. Tom: Your customers must know quite ... lot about ... tea and ... coffee to ask for these special blends.
*5G. Translate from Russian into English.

1. , , . 2. . 3,

. 4. . 5. ? 6. , . 7. . 8. , . 9. . 10. .' 11. ^ . 12. - . 13. ? . , . 1 , 14. , - , * . 15. , . 16. , , ? 17. , . 18. . 19. , . 20. , . *
57. Read the story and answer the questions given below.

Once a man put up at an English hotel. He was hun gry and went to the dining-room to have dinner. He or dered dinner and the waiter brought him a plate of soup. After he put it on the table before the guest, he went to the window and looked out. The sky was covered with .; heavy clouds. "It looks like rain, sir," the waiter said to the guest. "Yes," agreed the man as he was tasting the soup. "And it tastes like rain, too." l.^Vhat was the guest eating? 2. Was the waiter look ing at the guest or out of the-window? 3. What did the waiter see in the sky? 4. Did the guest understand the waiter correctly? 5. Why did the guest! think that the soup tasted like rain? 6. Do you think the guest enjoyed eating the soup? 7. What else besides soup do you think the guest might have ordered? 8. Do you think the guest liked the other dishes he had ordered? 9. Did the guest come to that dining-room again or did he prefer to have

meals at some other place? 10. How would you react if you found yourself in a similar situation?
58. Read the text and answer the questions given below paying attention to the use of articles before names of substances.

What Happens If You Try to Satisfy Some People There was a blind man in a household to whom the others gave the best of all things: food, clothing, bed, covers and all. Yet he was filled with a strange discontent and wailed all day and all night because of ill treatment. The family drank water and gave the blind man milk: they had one cup of rice and gave him three; they had half a loaf of bread and gave him three loaves: but still he complained. In fury and despair the family killed a lamb, roasted it, placed it on a platter, and put it before the blind man. He smelled the meat, began touching it to find out how large it was and then began to eat, but before he swallowed the first bite he said: "If this much comes to me, how much goes to you?" 1. Why was the old man dissatisfied? 2. Why were the family in despair? 3. What would you have done if you had been the old man's relative? 4. What is the idea of the story?
59. Finish the dialogue using the words and expressions given below.

In the Dining-room A: B: A: B: What shall we take? I think I'll have soup and then a mutton chop and chips. ... ...

to have a steak, salad and pickles, to have tea or coffee, to take fruit or a pudding for dessert, to like a glass of mineral water (pepsi-cola), with lunch, to have an ice, to go home for lunch, to go to a cafe, during (after) lunch, to have cold meat for lunch at home
60. Write a composition or speak on the following topics.

1, A picnic in the country.


2. Milk versus wine.

61. Retell the text paying attention to the use of articles with un names of substances.

Traditional Methods of Food Preservation Though some foods, such as rice, wheat and other cereals, can be ripened and then stored for years before they deteriorate, other foods, such as meat and fish normally deteriorate quickly. But no single method of preservation is suitable for all types of food. The traditional methods of drying, smoking, salting, or .pickling foods were widely used long before it was known why these methods were effective. It is now known that the processes of decay are accelerated by enzymes already present in the food cells and by bacteria or other microorganisms which may be already present or may come from external sources. To preserve food from decay, it is necessary either to destroy the bacteria or to create an environment in which bacteria cannot multiply and enzymes are inactivated. Bacteria* can be destroyed by heat and be inactivated by depriving them of moisture. Enzymes can be inactivated by cold or by reducing their moisture content. The moisture content of food can be reduced by drying it in the sun or by other means. Meat or fish suspended over a smoking fire is partly dried and the smoke also has bactericidal properties. Salt and vinegar can also be used effectively to preserve food products.
62. Read the anecdotes and explain the- use of articles with the italicised words. Retell the anecdotes.

1. The story is told of an ingenious young man who decided to present his sweetheart with a gift. He decided that perfume would be appropriate, but he did not know the name of the brand she used, and was too shy to ask her. He solved the problem by taking his little pet dog for a w7alk. Snatching the animal into a store he proceeded to instruct the astonished clerk to wave the stoppers of a large number of perfumes under the nose of the rather indifferent dog. At last came a perfume which caused the animal to jump up excitedly and wag its tail. On this evidence he bought his gift which turned out to be right. 2. A rich but ignorant Englishman once went to the

famous painter Turner and ordered a painting. When it was finished he refused to pay the price that the paint er demanded. "What," he said, "all that money for a square yard of canvas and a little paint "Oh," replied Turner, "if it's just paint and canvas that you want, here's a half-used tube, and over in the corner you will find canvas. I won't charge you much for them." 3. "Your husband is too fond of strong coffee" said the doctor. "You must not let him have it. He gets too excited." "But, doctor, you should see how excited he gets when I give him weak coffee."
*63. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary paying particular attention to the use of articles before names of materials. Tell the dialogue in indirect speech.

At ... dinner table ... last night Mrs. Shannon said, "I hope you'll all appreciate this steak. It may be ... last steak you'll have in this house until ... prices of ... beef go down." "How much did you pay for it?" her husband asked. "I'm not going to tell you," Mrs. Shannon said. "You'll think I shouldn't have bought it." "Maybe we should try ... horse meat," her son Steve said. "I've heard that it tastes as good as ... beef, and it's much cheaper." Steve's sister Sharon was shocked. "Would you eat ... horse?" she asked. "I wouldn't. I'd rather become ... vegetarian." "So would I," her grandmother agreed. "To me, eating ... horse would be like eating ... friend. But then, I don't suppose you ... young people, have ever known any horses, really." "Did you ever own ... horse, Grandma?" Michael asked. "No, but I remember when our Milkman had ... horse. Every morning ... milk wagon stopped in front of our door. Whenever I was up early enough, I used to go and talk to ... horse. Sometimes I gave him ... sugar." "I would have liked that," her granddaughter said. "But there aren't any milk wagons nowadays." "That's right," Steve said. "... people get their milk at ... store or out of ... milk machines." "Most people do," Mr, Shannon said. "But there are

... trucks that deliver ... milk in some places. They don't come every day, though. They come about once ... week." "Did you read that article in ... last night's newspaper?" Mrs. Shannon asked. "It was about all ... things that ... milk trucks deliver these days."' "I read it," her husband said. "It seems that ... milk trucks now deliver ... bread, ... butter, and ... eggs, as well as ... milk and ... cream." "Why?" Sharon asked. "Because ... milk companies- lose ... money if they deliver nothing but ... milk," Mr. Shannon answered. "People don't want to pay ... high prices to have their milk delivered. ... milk prices are lower in ... stores." "You can even buy ... cakes and ... pies from some of. ... milk trucks now," Mrs. Shannon added. "Some even sell ... powder, ... towels, and ... cosmetics. You can buy all those from ... milkman who comes to your door." "I wish they'd do that around here," Michael said. "It would be like having ... traveling store." "Maybe they will," his father said. "The drivers seem to like it. One driver's sales have gone up thirty-five percent since he started delivering those other things to his milk customers." "It's profitable, I guess," Sharon said. "But I still think it would be nicer to have ... milk wagon with .., horse."
64. Explain the use or absence of articles with abstract nouns in the following sentences and extracts.

I. 1. There was a pain in her eyes, which could hardly be seen without tears. 2. The sorrow and temptation began to wash away in good red anger. 3. And like them, so did Andrew Rose move from horror back to horror. 4. The record lasted over nearly 20 years, the" amount of the separate entries growing larger as time went on. 5. Th lights changed from the dusk-blue of April to the purple-grey of madness and the room was another world that floated in a hush that was not exactly silence. 6. He was an active member of the organisations that have been founded to further the interests of authors or to alleviate their hard lot when sickness or old age has brought them to penury. 7. What made the reality unbearable was that Anna understood the chasm between them now. 8. His frequent calls at Aunt Pitty's house was the great106

est humiliation of all. 9. He had taken the news with an equanimity that was again unnatural. 10. Anger splashed up in Ethan before he knew it and he was surprised. 11. But then trade was as bad at Havre as everywhere else, and in a few months he found himself once more without employment. 12. For some time he was disturbed by wild shrieks of laughter from the twins, who, with the light-hearted gaiety of schoolboys, were evidently amusing themselves before they retired to rest. 13. Victor laughed. "You're a disgrace for military tradition." 14. "Very well," said Fontini-Cristi, confused by the brutality as well as the swift decisiveness of the last thirty seconds. 15. There were moments when he looked on evil simply as a mode through which he could realize his conception of the beautiful. 16. And when at last the inevitable happened it came upon Mr. Warburton with all the shock of the unexpected. 17. She felt that all things were possible, the future was in her power and she wanted to shout, sing and dance. 18. He was told strange stories of the past, stories of hazardous expeditions in the unknown, of love and death, of hatred and revenge. II. 1. Suddenly I realized that the knocking had stopped, someone was speaking in a low voice outside and someone was replying. Whispers are dangerous. I couldn't tell who the speakers were. I got carefully off the bed and with the help of my stick reached the door of the other room. Perhaps I had moved too hurriedly because a silence grew outside. Silence like a plant put out tendrils. It seemed to grow under the door and spread its leaves in the room where I stood. It was a silence I didn't like, and I tore it apart by flinging the door open. 2, The preacher got up and raised both arms. Quiet settled over the little coloured community of Stilleveld, a quiet, that was in tune with the stillness of the night. 3. At the present time he was trombone in the Tournee Gulland, a touring opera company. It was not gay for a sensitive artist like him and the trombone gave one a % thirst which it took half a week's salary to satisfy. Mais enfin, que veux-tu? It was life, a dog's life, but life was like that.
65. Determine the meaning of the indefinite article in the following sentences. Comment on the nouns with which it is used.

1. The flame had a lovely light staining the paper,


curling the edges, making the slanting writing impossible to distinguish. 2. It was anger that had seized Mrs. Strickland and her pallor was the pallor of a cold and sudden rage. 3. There was a cold feeling in the pit of his stomach a creeping horror along his nerves.'4. This fine side was that she could almost at any hour, by a kindled preference or a diverted energy, glow for another interest than her own. 5. After a final wave of the hand, Mr. Golspie, a very massive figure now in his huge ulster, made a slow, steady, and very dignified progress down the gangway. 6. There was a numbness in the streets, a sense of disbelief that resulted in pockets of silence. 7. "I think it's silly not to do the things you want to," she blurted out and then was silent again, for the words sounded like a criticism of Leonard and she had not meant them to be. 8. She lay in the silvery shadows with courage rising and made the plans that a sixteen-year-old makes wh^n life has been so pleasant that defeat is an impossibility and a pretty dress and a clear complexion are weapons to vanquish face. 9. The sound itself had taken on a weariness; repetition had lulled its terror. 10. They have shown it poisoning every pleasure till life is so intolerable that discovery and punishment come as a welcome relief. II. A chilly emptiness in the water reflected the terrible emptiness in his soul. 12. What a time I was going to have when I get out of here. 13. Between the hounds and the horses and the turns there was a kinship deeper than that of their constant companionship. 14. There was a momentary silence. "I don't like this, Fontine." 15. "You are a beauty" he said kissing the tips of her fingers. 16. Please, signore. It is always a pleasure to welcome a member of the Fontini-Cristis. 17. I looked to see if there was a light in the place.
66. Express your surprise (anger, etc.) using exclamatory sentences.

Model: It is a shame you haven't come in time. What a shame you haven't come in time! 1. It's a shame I have been taken for the daughter. 2. It would be a relief to put her head on his shoulder and cry and unburden her guilty heart. 3. It was a pleasure to see a laughing tenderness in his eyes. 4. It was a disappointment to witness a carefully restrained ferocity in his dark face. 5. It is a disgrace she tried to convey a confidence she was far from feeling. 6. It is a shame to fancy she had a fear that I would make the sort of gibe

of it. 7. It will be a relief when you fill your lungs once more with the fresh pure air of your native country. 8. It was a relief that he reached the last tree and finally set his feet on the firm ground of the other side. 9. It was a pity the moon disappeared and there was darkness once more. 10. It's a pleasure to hear how you could discourse on the topic of the day with an ease that pre vented your hearers from experiencing any sense of strain. 11. It was a pity John had not much affection for his moth er and sisters. 12. It's a comfort that a calm swept over the soldier. 13. It is a pleasure and a relief to see you again.
*67. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary. Underline the attributes which determine the use of the indefinite article with one line, the use of the "zero article" with two lines.

1. uHe is an abolitionist, no doubt," observed Gerald to John Wilkes. uBut in an Orangeman, when a principle comes up against ... Scottish tightness, the principle fares ill." 2. This certainty of the morrow gave ... zest and ... enthusiasm to ... life and the County people en joyed ... life with ... heartiness that Ellen could never understand. 3. Her vanity leaped to ... aid of her desire to believe, making ... belief ... certainty. 4. I am telling you ... truth. There is ... fatality about all physical and intellectual distinction, the sort of ... fatality that seemed to dog through ... history the faltering steps of kings. 5. For the first time since she had come here, ... peace no longer frightened her, ... solitude no longer oppressed her. 6. Larry was strong enough to refuse to sacri fice for Isabel's sake ... life that he thought was ... life for him. 7. And there was ... peace, ... peace and ... quiet ing majesty of the scene before him. 8. His son, the most . f capable of them all, had ... hollowness in him. 9. There \{JJJ^\JA ; seemed to be ... sadness in her and he wanted to talk to > > , S her about his wife and ... bitter loneliness in his heart. c\/\j& 10:Tul rage inside him welled; his body trembled i n C T . ^ c 4 j L anger. 11. ... grossest indecency would not have fallen (rii^4 on the ears of those three women with such a shock. 12\ There were ...pain and bewilderment in her face, ... bewil-(^f derment of a pampered child who has always had her duyJfa, own way for the asking and who now, for the first time, \ was in contact with ... unpleasantness of ... life. 13. I L* A / dwelt in ... pleasure as a fish lives in water. To fall r asleep was ... pleasure; to wake, to stretch, to lace one's
109 VO/ A

shoes, to walk down ..: street was ... pleasure. Merely to exist was ... pleasure. To speak was ... pleasure equalled-^ only by ... silence. 14. That must be what ... despair looks like, she said to herself, but it's more than ... despair, it is ... despair and ... exaltation together. 15. He mounted jaid pedalled off into ... darkness towards the stables./16. 'When he stood on the platform and faced his aucfreiice seriously, frankly, but with ftv engaging diffidence you could not but realize that he was giving hijnself up to his task with ... complete earnestness. (jyfA-me Chiron regarded him with ... steady graveness in her deep blue eyes. 18. They heard a voice, Davidson's voice, through the wooden partition. It went on with ... monotonous, earnest insistence. 19. Kitty could not easily meet the eyes which rested.on her with ... ironical kindness. 20. As I lounged in the Park or strolled down Piccadilly, I used to look at everyone who passed me, and wonder, with ... mad curiosity, what sort of lives they led/21. He looked at Mason with '..._ certain impatience, "fahat are you going to do then?" 22. If only she could find what lay behind ... moodiness that settles over him at times. 23. We both know ... fear, and ... loneliness, and ... very great distress. 24. Anything to do with the word "hammer" meant ... sudden, extreme danger. 25. They have ... little confidence in Rome, none in the provinces. 26. But ... beauty, ... real beauty ends where an intellectual expression begins. 27. The Italian knew that the Patriarchate had ... total confidence in the padrone. 28. ... solemn peacefulness seemed to reign in that lobby. An air of ... calmness and ... resignation, of ... gentle sadness pervaded the room. 29. In her face were too sharply blended the delicate features of her mother, a Coast aristocrat of .. French descent, and the heavy ones of her florid Irish father. 30. These thoughts gave him ... enormous pleasure, bringing with them a fine feeling of ... cunning and ... strength. 31. He shook* Jan's hand with ... brisk, businesslike manner. 62; There's Cf serenity over her that I've never met in anyone before. 33. I may be wrong, but there is ... mystery here, ... soft, sure mystery that is understood and only remains ... mystery because I want it so. 34. He went to all ... places where ... fashionable congregate. 35. It seemed incredible but ... incredible was commonplace in these times of ... madness. 36. Three things will never be >lieved<.. true,'.J probable and ,,, logical.

37. "The refreshments are on us," ... plural did not es cape me. 38. He saw ... future for himself sitting on hotelroom beds trying to get his thoughts straight. 39. Of what use to be reminded of ... joys of ... past when your life had shrivelled to a husk? 40. They talked of ... fu ture once more, ... future that now gleamed rosily at the end of the year.
*68. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary. Analyze the use of articles with the abstract nouns in the extract.

His whole expression was stamped with ... suffering and ... kind of ... weary patience. Observing these signs of ... severe and far from recent stroke, Andrew was con scious of ... sudden shock of ... dismay. There was ... odd silence. "I hope you will like it here," Doctor Page remarked at ... length, speaking slowly and with ... difficulty, "I'm not afraid of ... work," Andrew answered awkwardly. ... even deeper immobility settled on Page's face. As Andrew went down to ... supper his thoughts were pain fully confused. It would be months before Doctor Page was fit for ... work, if, indeed, he were ever fit for ... work again. Andrew was young, strong, and had no ob jection to ... extra work in which Page's illness might involve him.
*69. Translate from Russian into English paying special atten tion to the use of articles with abstract nouns.

1. . 2. . . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , - . 7. , - , , . 8. . . 9. , , , , . 10. . 11. ,- . 12. , . 13. . 14. , . 15. , !

16. , ( ). 17. , , . 18. . 19. . . . 20. ! 21. , . , , . 22. , . 23. . , . 24. , . 25. , . 26. .
70. Read the anecdotes and explain the use or the absence of ar ticles before the italicised words. Retell the anecdotes.

1 Two friends met for the first time in several years. "Well, old man," one said, "I hear you finally got mar ried. Congratulations, for I also hear you have an ex cellent and most accomplished wife." "Yes, indeed," was the reply. "My wife is accomplished. She is perfectly at home in literature, at home in art, at home in music, at home in science, in short at home everywhere, except" "Except what?" "Except at home."

When Whistler had finished a portrait of a wellknown celebrity, he asked him whether he liked it. "Mo, I can't say I do, Mr. Whistler, and you must really admit it's a bad work of art." "Yes," replied the artist, looking at his sitter through his monocle, "but then you must admit that you are a bad work of nature"

leacher: The earth has a conquerable attractive power; that power is known as gt'aVily. It is in fact, the law

of gravity which prevents us from being thrown off the earth as it revolves. Scholar: Please, teacher, how did we keep on the earth before the law was passed?
71. Think of situations for the following sentences.

1. Prosperity makes friends; adversity tries them. 2. She needed a person of strong will to watch her diet. 3. That is the love that makes the world a miracle. 4. Throughout last week I couldn't but be touched by the sympathy and kindness of my friends. 5. They will build a new life somewhere else. 6. There must be a certain gratification in that for you. 7. She was panting now and in her face was a terror which was inexplicable. 8. He noticed something beyond the usual in her voice. 9. It was better not to think of the past. Nothing could alter that.
*72. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary and comment on the use (or absence) of articles with names of substances and abstract nouns in the following extract.

"Know this place? Let's go in here, Phyllis. ... cock tails for my friend Mr. Caister and myself, and ... cav iare on ... biscuits. Mr. Caister is playing herel You must go and see him!" ... girl who served ... cocktails and ... caviare looked up at Caister with ... interested blue eyes. "What shall we have now... lobster?" and Caister murmured: "I love ... lobsters." "Very fine and large here. ... waiter, bring us ... big lobster and ... salad; and thener... small fillet of ... beef with ... potatoes fried, crisp, and ... bottle of my special hock. Ah! and ... rum omeletteplenty of ... rum and ... sugar." They had sat down opposite each other at one of two small tables in the little recessed room. "Luck!" said Bryce-Green. "Luck!" replied Caister. "And what do you think of ... state of ... drama?" Oh, ... question after his own heart! What ... feast! And what ... flow of his own tongue suddenly released on ... drama, music, art, mellow and critical, stimulated by ... round eyes and interjections of his little provin cial host.

"I often wish," sighed Bryce-Green, "I had gone on ... stagfe myself. Must be ... topping life, if one has .. talent, like you." Topping? Caister thought. ... topping life?... dog's life! Cadgingcadgingcadging for .:> work. ... life of draughty waiting, of ... concealed beggary, of ... ter rible depressions, of ... want of ... food.
73. Analyze the use of articles with nouns referring to unique ob jects.

1. A few gulls circled beating in the gun metal sky, 2. He could see the earth itself was spinning faster. 3. I can see the rippled sky fluffy with clouds, and the whitewhipped sea. 4. Now the sun came clear of the bank of cloud and flooded the world with light. 5. A miserable world, a wet world, but always and predominantly a white world of softness and beauty and strangely muf fled sound. 6. It would be hours before the air would warm up even under the hot Mediterranean sun. 7. The moon hung low in the sky like a yellow skull. 8. He went to the lock and twirled it open and stepped out on the ground. 9. I put myself in harmony with the universe. 10. The full moon sailing across an unclouded sky made a pathway on the broad sea that led to the boundless realms of Forever. 11. "Welcome to Earth, sir," said the man and "sir" struck a'chord of memory. 12. Instead, there would be rain soon, and a cold wind whipping down from the northern mountains. 13. The sun . 4zed down out of a cloudless noon sky, the spears of the palm leaves shredded the sunlight over him.
*74. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary. Pay at-* tention to nouns referring to unique objects.

1. You can't tell those birds from ik&sky and that's why the hawks don't catchy them, don't see them up there inMJthigh blue sky n e a r ^ s u n . 2. Sattorn stood quietly and stared at thfL wprld before him, at the upthrust of to\ver$ shining in ^ m o r n i n g sun, at the green of park and ineadow, at the dark green of trees. 3. A lamp or caridtas would dose them into a soft illuminated space, but obliterate fkA sky, which now bent towards them thi"Vh the pillars of the verandah, CL full deep sky^ ht?ldir]g a yellow bloom from # invisible moon that abs o r b e a the stars into a, faint far glitter. 4 . ^ sun was so full 0) promise, and -sea was whipped white with G\

merry wind. 5. Far away to the south-east .CLdazzling white sun climbed up above ^ cloudless horizon. 6. We live in such<2t mysterious universe, don't we? 7.7kg. world is a busy place. Communication is difficult. 8. The town lay still in ^-Indian summer sun. 9. Once let her make up her mind, get her heart set on something, and you might as well howl at moon. 10. Jan woke on Saturday to .f world thrilling with expectancy. 11. I kept my eyes on Hd horizon, sharp against the bright blue of & winter sky. 12. The Norfolk Island pines at Manly came up dark and stately against A white-freckled sky. 13. They don't know how lucky they are, Hugo thought bitterly as he peered out ofHjl window, hungry for/^C ground. 14,1 shouted, "What the hell gives you people the right to decide for (iZworld?" 15. There was a softness in wLair which speaks with an infinite delicacy of feeling to the flesh as well as to the soul. 16. He was buffeted away from the huge fuselage, the force of 1r&~wind crashing into his body. 17. As they entered the avenue of Canterville Chase .W^-sky became suddenly overcast with clouds, a curious stillness seemed to hold H& atmosphere. 18. I remember opening wide my window and leaning out, hoping HsJL fresh morning air would blow away the telltale pink under the powder. 19.<tft King exacted huge sums from the barons and they in turn taxed/^JLpeople. p /
*75. Translate from Russian into English.

1. , , , . 2. . 3. , . 4. , . 5. . 6. . 7. . , . 8. . 9. . 10. ; . 11. , . 12. , . 13. .

8* 115

*76 (Revision). Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessa* ry. Define the meaning of the articles you have used.

1. Now in ... shade of this cool green bush he looked about him with ... fancy of ... lover. 2. ... police are still on it, and they won't let up, you know. 3. Beyond ... lighted decks the harbour was ... sheet of ... sparkling silver under ... full moon. 4. She was never at a loss with a new topic and could be trusted immediately to break ... awkward silence with ... suitable observation. 5. She taught her to wear ... flannel all ... year round. 6. I'm sorry for you because you're such ... child, Scarlett, ... child crying for ... moon. 7. "Buryats are ... expert riders and remarkably accurate archers," wrote Rainier of Switzerland who worked as ... teacher in Siberia in ... last century. 8. Probably nine tenth of all ... people of the United States are disposed to doubt when they hear it asserted that ... future can be predicted. 9. James and Andrew listened to his story patiently but they gave him ... little encouragement. 10. With ... H^p hunger of ... Irishman who has been a tenant on ... lands his people once had owned and hunted, he wanted to see his own acres stretching green before his eyes. 11. That such ... scene might stir ... less expensively dressed to emulate ... more expensively dressed could scarcely be laid at ... door of anything save ... false ambition of ... minds of those so affected. 12. ... world of which he was a part had passed away and ... future belonged to a meaner generation. 13. What ... nonsense! 14. There was ... cool recklessness in his face and ... cynical humour in his mouth as he smiled at her and Scarlett caught her breath. 15. The studio was filled with ... rich odour of roses and when ... light summer wind stirred amidst ... trees of ... garden there came through ... open door ... heavy scent of ... lilac or ... more delicate perfume of ... pink-flowering thorn. 16. ... French were really extraordinary creatures of ... habit. 17. Julia took her scene away from her and played it with ... miraculous virtuosity. 18. Something \yas wrong with ... world,... sombre frightening wrongness that pervaded everything like ... dark impenetrable mist, stealthily closing around Scarlett. 19. On ... eastern horizon ... sun was brightening a tumbled bank of cloud, its rays tipping ... petalled edges with ... gold. 20. When ... coffee and cigarettes had been brought and ... man turned to go, he felt ... wild desire to tell him to remain, 21. An expres116

sion of ... pain and inward concentration altered ... pale contours of- his face. 22. Soon the flat countryside, parched under ... midsummer sun, stretched out before her. ... pale summer sky rested on the rim of the valley. 23. Her sufferings were physical as well as mental, for over one eye rose a hideous plum-coloured swelling which her maid, a tall austere woman was bathing with ... vinegar and ... water. 24. In Hackney where the council faces possible bankruptcy from April 1 the situation has been created largely through ... mischief-making of ... So cial Democrats. 25. It is rather fashionable to marry ... Americans just now, Uncle George. 26. He rode out of ... forest onto the yellow road that led into La Granja and ... horses' hooves raised ... dust that hung over them as they rode. 27. I shall have my books and Eva, chil dren, I hope, and above all, ... infinite variety of ... sea and ... sky, ... freshness of ....dawn and ... beauty of ... sunset, and ... rich magnificence of ... night. 28. "I didn't expect to find you selling three and a half yards of ... rotten cotton to ... greasy nigger," he laughed. 29. The shops kept by ... Chinese are there to satisfy ... wants of the warders, the doctors and the numerous officials. 30. The day would lie before us both, long no doubt, and uneventful, but fraught with ... certain stillness, ... dear tranquility we had not known before. 31. Under ... Tories the number of inspectors has been out by at least 20 per cent. 32. With ... sensitivity of a surgeon he pressed his fingers around the area of ... chiselled num bers. 33. ... West Germans are said to" have developed after the war an effect of "negation" of ... past. 34. ... women represent ... triumph of ... matter over ... mind, just as ... men represent ... triumph of ... mind over ... morals.
77. Explain the use of articles with the italicised nouns in some syntactic positions. ^jW ^r^vdL'^

1. She\ was a good hostess, and seeing my embarrass ment came up to me. 2. Davis, tlie owner of the bar, came over and Michael made his introductions. 3. I feel un common nervous about the ceremony, Colonel. I wish you come and see me through it. 4. This is Lord Henry Wotton Dorian, an old Oxford friend of mine.5, Heha^U^ realized to the full that Irene had become mej^ort^io :him. 6. She is a careful and accurate typist, 7. Fear was loose in Ward 21 creeping from mind to mind like a bush

fire. 8. Mr. Baker, First National president, trusted Joej] so completely that he let the teller do most of the world 9. I was still child enough to consider a Christian namd like a plume in the hat though from the very first hd had called me by mine. 10. "What a touching young man\" she said and her tone was more playful than ever] 11. They found a seat hidden behind a slate-grey fir and sat there hand in hand, and the silence closed around them. 12. Professor Beans is the man to whom you'll be responsible for your undergraduate teaching. 13. Haw] kins shall come as cabin boy. You'll make a famous cabj in boy, Hawkins. 14. His works are monuments to. hia great genius. 15. Those are the risks you take. 16.*'hq was considered a burden on her husband and friendsj 17. Turgenev, the great Russian writer7, devoted most of his literary works to Russian nature. 18* If Uncle Ha* rold and Tante Elsa and the two girls fell sick and died in Saratoga, he would stay in this house in Elysium forever. 9. The student Patterson was holding her son Jim.. 20. "1 was just on my way to lunch," said Sutton, irritan tion in his voice trying to make it sound as if he were in
*78. Fill in the blanks with articles before appositive and pre dicative nouns wherever necessary.

L Melanie was ... fool, but there was nothing anybody could do about it. 2. She was ... only woman I had ever met who could behave so gracefully. 3. Charlie wasn't ... fool enough as to put up the back of the Assistant Colonial secretary. 4. Hemingway, ... son of a small town doctor, was born in Illinois in 1898. 5. Kust, ... bartend er, gave Bill and Janice a smile of recognition. 6. had risen to riches on cotton, even as the whole South had risen, and Scarlett was ... Southerner enough to believe that both and the South would rise again out of the red fields. 7. Behind him his cousin, the tall George, ... son of the fifth Forsyte, had a strange look on his fleshy face. 8. "You staying here?""New boy in town. I am ... instructor in the ski school." 9*. My first thought that this should be ... son of Jane Fowler's fiance proved to be correct. 10. My father was ... mayor of the village and ... honorable man. . His laboratory, ... best institution of this kind, made Cambridge world known in the field of experimental physics. 12. Raiford Calvert was made^TT, first lieutepani because everybody

liked Raif, and Able Wynder, son of a small trapper, himself ... small farmer, was elected -m second lieutenant. j3. The door to his office opened and ... Professor Fox sa w a young man, about 21, enter behind the secretary. 14. Every Thursday morning ... Aunt Carrie took the cellar key from the place where she'd hidden it and herself fetched a bottle of claret from the cellar. 15. If he had had more conferences with ... scientist Krall they would have contributed a great deal towards his understanding of the vocational high school. 16. The black-clad servant of ... Bartfn de Belleme prepared to shoot at the impos sible target. 17. James Clerk Maxwell, ... great physi cist and mathematician, was born in Edinburgh, Scot land, on November 13, 1831. 18. When Mike had seen her, she was ... girl of eighteen. 19. I was ... young kid who didn't know which end was up. 20. Madame Surrane Bauvier, ... widow of an officer, has supported her self and her daughter by means of her.talent. 21. And she dressed like well, like what she was, ... wife of the assistant Colonial Secretary at Hong Kong. 22. Perez de Cuellar, ... UN Secretary General, declared his sup port for the Soviet peace initiatives to reach a just set tlement. 23. I'm ... Assistant General Manager. That's why I came personally. 24. Any man who was ... fool enough to fall for a simper, a faint or "Oh, how wonder ful you are!" wasn't worth having. 25. They think it ... lie to keep the patient from worrying. 26. She didn't know whether he had gone ... Republican, or ... Demo crat, or ... maoist. 27. He was made ... executive in his father-in-law's bank in Syracusa. 28. Edmund Halley, ... head of Greenwich Observatory, was among them too. 29. ... surgeon Laide explained the operation to her carefully. 30. ... Aunt Pitty completely forgot that the sight of blood always made her faint. 31. ... prisoner as he was, Rhett Butler was ... dangerous man.
*79. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English paying attention to the use of articles with appositive and predicative nouns.

1. , , , . 2. , . 3. , , , . 4. , -, . 5,

| . 6. . , . 7. ! , . 8. , ! , ( . 9. , , . 10. , , ] 11. ! . 12. , , , . 13. , ^ . 14. , , . 15. . 16. . 17. , ? . 18. ;] . 19. -! , . 20. , 21. . 22. , , -; .
*80. Fill in the blanks with articles before nouns in some syntactic position if necessary.

1. The elder Royce, who served Warren Trent as ... companion and ... privileged friend, had already spoken out with a disregard of consequences. 2. Ed Everhart, ,.*.._ one-armed man, worked with the writer as. ... tele graph messenger. 3. What ... odd, unsatisfactory child you are! I can't make you out. 4. The sky pressed down like a metal dome from ... horizon to ... horizon. 5. Gret*chen didn't wait for the three-day-old cherry because she was due at the army hospital just outside the town where she worked as ... volunteer. 6. And you really live by the river. What ... jolly life! 7. Since her return to Hong Kong Kitty had hesitated from ... day to ... day to go to her house. 8. Look here, ... Doctor! My wife's got a crazy idea in her head. 9. Before the first year had passed I had saved a thousand dollars and we had lived in com fort. But at what ,;, cost! 10. uJeff?" Tony said finally,

-how are you as ... fisherman?? 11, From time to V.. time this morning I tried to concentrate, just on music, then on reading. 12. When they reached Sympathy Seat Leonard offered her a cigarette and they smoked peace fully .., side by ,.. side, 13. "I am convinced that with you as ... teacher, everything will be possible/' Antonie. said. 14. What ... progress you have made in your lan guage learning! 15. "I didn't mean to hurt you, .,. sweet,'* she said. "But we are ... old friends and we used to say what we meant to each other;" 16. He took a room in an inn opposite Wolfgang's so that they could consult with each other from ... window to ... window, 17. After a few moments, ... other soldier found Jok lying on his side under the truck, shaking from ... head to ... foot, his arms clasped about himself. 18. He'll write some thing better than... book "The Match Girl". 19. It's .,. same reason I warned you about. 20, Among them was ... astronomer Christopher Wren, better known as ... architect. 21. What they felt the lack of most bitterly was ... tobacco. 22.... former president Alf Budd warned delegates that affiliation to CND would split the union from ... top to ... bottom. 23. She was ... daughter of a solicitor in Liverpool, 24. "Good morning, miss," Michael said to the girl, who glanced up from her typing, ... hands on the typewriter.
"81. Translate the following sentences from Russian into, Engljslj paying attention to the use of articles with nouns iii some syntactical positions.

1. , . 2. . 3. . . 4. ' . 5. , . 6. ^ ! 7. () 1911 - . & , ,- 0Ii . 9. . 10. , . 11. . 12. , . 13,


, . 14. ! , . 15. . 16. , . 17. . 18. Bad , , , . )

82. Read the following jokes. Retell them paying particular atteni tion to the use of articles with appositive nouns. i

In his old age, Lessing, the German author, became very absent-minded. Coming home one night with his mind on some work, he found the door locked, and dis covered that he had not taken his key with him. In an swer to his knock, a servant looked out of an upstairs window, and mistaking his master for a stranger, called out, "The professor is not at home." "Very well," Lessing answered meekly as he turned away. "Tell him that 141 call another time." 2 Mark Twain once visited the artist Whistler in his study and was looking over his pictures. He started to touch one canvas. "Oh," cried Whistler, "don't touch that! Don't you see it, it isn't dry yet?" "I don't mind," said Mark Twain, "I have gloves on." 3 James Thurber, the "New Yorker" cartoonist, attend ed one of Hollywood's premieres. When they were leav ing the theatre Thurber asked Mr. Field, a writer friend, what he thought of the picture. "I thought it was awful," replied Mr. Field. "What did you think of it?" "I can't say I liked it that'well," said Thurber.
83. Explain the use of articles with nouns in apposition. Retell the text using these nouns. 122

Unknown Raphael Found A previously unknown painting by Raphael, the Renaissance master, has been purchased "for a sum in six figures" by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Mr. Perry Rathbone, the museum's director announced. The painting, a formal portrait of a dark-eyed girl of twelve dressed in lace and velvet and wearing gold and pearl jewelry, was discovered in the private collection of an old European family. Mr. Rathbone refused to identify the family or to disclose the price the museum paid. Dr. John Shearman, a British art historian and authority on Raphael, has said the painting is "unquestionably authentic", and he succeeded in identifying the girl in it. Undiscovered Raphaels are extraordinarily rare. Raphael has been in vogue for centuries and his art was already expensive while he was alive. His paintings were commissioned not by common men, but by popes and dukes and families of great wealth and sophisticated taste. Dr. Shearman believes that it was one such family the della Roveres, the rulers of Urbino, where Raphael was bornwho commissioned the girl's portrait in 1505. Eventually, through marriage, it became the property of the Fieschis, a family of Rome and Genoa. Members of that family always assumed that the portrait was by Raphael, but nothing was known about the girl. It was Dr. Shearman who concluded that she was Eleonora della Rovere, later Duchess of Urbino. She is so identified at the Museum of Fine Arts.
84. Retell the text given below. Explain the use of the indefinite article with the italicised nouns. Speak of some other famous women revolutionaries, scientists, writers, actresses, musicians.

Angela Davis Angela. Davis became famous in the early 1970's ^hen she campaigned to free three black prisoners in California. At that time she was a Professor of PhilosPhy at California University. She was arrested as a "terrorist" in New York in October 1970. Her supporters launched a campaign to free her and in June 1972

she was found to be innocent of the charges made against her. She went on to campaign, for other political prisoners and for racial equality of all peoples.
*85. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary. Explain the use of articles with predicative nouns.

The Education of Benjamin Franklin History has given Benjamin Franklin ... place of ... enduring fame. He was ... writer, ... inventor, and ... statesman, whose life story has enjoyed ... popular success for 200 years. Franklin's education at ... school stopped when he was ten years old. But he never stopped learning. For him, ... books held ... key to living happily and successfully. They were ... precious gifts. In his early youth, he had ... friend who worked for ... bookseller. Sometimes his friend would lend him ... book, which he was careful to return quickly. Often he sat up in his room reading most of ... night in order to return ... book before his friend's employer noticed its absence. But Franklin was not ... lonely scholar. For him, learning was ... social experience. In his "Autobiography," he tells about organizing ... club called the "Junto" which met every Friday night to improve its members' minds: "... rules I made required every member, in ... turn, to produce one or more questions on any point of ... Morals, ... Politics, or ... Natural Philosophy. ... questions would then be discussed by ... whole group. Also, once in three months, each member was required to read ... article he had written on any subject he pleased. "Our discussions were directed by ... president and conducted as ... honest search for ... truth. We were to avoid ... unpleasant arguments or ... desire for ... victory. Any member who did not obey these rules had to pay ... fine." ... Junto which Franklin organized continued for many years. It was ... best group for ... discussion of ... philosophy, ... morality, and ... politics that existed in that part of ... country. ... questions were given to ... members during ... week before they were to be discussed. This encouraged ... members to read carefully about each subject so that they might speak with more under124

standing. They learned to become ... better conversationalists, too, since ... rules prevented ... disagreeable arguments. When the Junto was organized, before ... middle of eighteenth century, there were no public libraries. There was even not ... good bookstore ... south of Boston. In New York and Philadelphia, ... printers sold only a few ordinary school books. ... people who loved to read were obliged to send to England for their books. Franklin decided to improve this situation. Each member of the Junto owned a few books. ... room had been rented in which ... members held their meetings. Franklin suggested that all ... members should bring their books to that room. In this way ... books would be ... help to all during ... weekly discussions. Also, each member would be allowed to take and read at ... home any book he chose. ... arrangement was so satisfactory that Franklin soon decided that something similar should be done for ... other people in his city. His autobiography tells how he put ... idea into ... action. ''Realizing ... benefits of ... Junto's little collection, I suggested starting ... public library. I made ... necessary plan and rules and had ... lawyer put them in ... proper written form. Each man who signed ... agreement promised to pay forty shillings immediately to purchase ... first books and ten shillings each year to buy more books. We began with ... small amount of ... money, and ... books were ordered from England. ... library was open one day ... week for lending. Any one who took ... book signed ... promise to pay double ... value if he didn't return it to ... library. ... library soon showed its usefulness and was copied by ... other towns. Reading became fashionable." Franklin's experiences in trying to get people to join library taught him ... valuable lesson: "I soon learned that it is not wise to present one's self as ... proposer of a ny useful plan. When one needs ... help of one's neighbors for such ... purpose, one must remember this: Do not let them think you are trying to increase your own *i'Jlne in ... community. "Therefore, I kept myself out of it as much as I could. I presented ... library as ... plan of 'several friends'. * said they had asked me to propose it to those whom

they considered to be ... lovers of reading. In this wayi ... organization progressed more smoothly. 1 "I used this method on many later occasions. From my frequent successes, I can strongly recommend it.l Franklin's ability to learn from ... observation anq ... experience contributed greatly to his success in ..] public life. He once explained how his observations con] cerning ... human nature helped him win ... friendship of ... man who could have been ... powerful enemy, j "In 1736, I was chosen to be ... secretary of the As] sembly. No one opposed ... choice that year. ... nex| year I was proposed again. This time ... new membefl made ... speech against me. However, I was chosen again] "I liked being ... secretary to ... Assembly. I did noj like ... opposition of this new member, who was ..] wealthy, educated gentleman. It was probable that, in time, he would have great influence in ... Assembly] and I wanted to gain his favour. j "So after some time had passed, I used this methoq of winning his friendship. I had heard that ... gentlemait had ... certain special and interesting book in his library* It was one of very few existing copies. I wrote him ex pressing my desire to read that book. I asked him to favour.meby lending it to me for ... few days. He sent immediately, and I returned it in ... week with ... notd telling him how very grateful I was for ... favour. i "... next time we met in ... Assembly, ... gentleman^ spoke to me with ... great kindness. (He had never done this before.) After that, he was ready to help me on all ... occasions. We became ... good friends, and our friend ship continued to his death. "This is another instance of ... truth of ... old saying;, 'He who has once done ... kindness will be more ready; to do you another than he for whom you yourself havjj done ... favour.' And it shows how much profit there in removing ... causes for ... hate." Throughout his life, Benjamin Franklin continued his education learning from .... human contacts as welt as from ... books.
Discuss the questions given below.

1. Do you agree with the statement that "books hold the key to living happily and successfully"? 2. Can you illustrate the truth of the saying: "He who has once done you a kindness will be more ready to "do.

YOU another than he for whom you yourself have done a favour"? Find the Russian equivalent for the saying.
*g6. Fill in the blanks with articles before names of seasons if necessary. Comment on your choice of articles.

1. They looked in awe at this proof of returning life, moved too deeply for words that it should have just come this, morning to remind them when ;.. winter lay heaviest on them that ... spring would come again and with ..: spring freedom and reunion.' 2. I should remember the rose-garden in ... summer, and the birds that sang at dawn. 3. The weather was wet and cold for quite a week, as it often can be in the west country in ... early ,summer. 4. "During ... summer I always feel uneasy for...," he swallowed. "For it reminds what happened three years ago." 5. I am transported from this indifferent island to the realities of ,.; English spring. 6. There was a good deal of story-telling and comparing notes on ... past summer and all its doings. 7. The sun had brought the old men out from wherever they spent ... winter. 8. In ... summer of his sophomore year, when he got the job after hours and on Saturdays at Caldewood's Department Store he was quite happy. 9. The west country must be delightful in ... spring. 10. In ... spring of the^ year 1881 he was visiting his old schoolfellow and client G. Liversedge. 11. I'm tired to death of Europe and we c-.n come back in ... early fall. 12. ... winter passed into spring 2nd ... gardens on the Riviera were ablaze with colour. ..-. spring passed into ... summer. 13. He shivered. He always hated ... winter. 14. Christmas of 1862 had been a happy one for Atlanta, for the whole south. Every one knew that when the campaign reopened in sPring> the Yankees would be crushed for good and all. 15. And you frightened me with it, that winter when you and I were here as girls ... winter I was engaged to_ Delphini~ ror'Even the mists of ... autumn and the smell" f the flood tidethese are the memories of Manderley 'hat will not be denied. 17. In the evening the bars on the Croisette were thronged by a restless, chattering crowd as many-coloured as the flowers of ... spring. 18. It )i'as -. early spring when she chanced to meet Walter ^ a ne. 19. New York is beautiful at ground level, but n a fine day in ... early winter from the air, it is one jtf the loveliest sights a man can hope to see. 20. Y^a know our blood gets so thick during . winter. 21. Th \

was ... terrible summer with the sound of milk-cans rattling in the street, rubber shod feet padding on pave* ments. 22. Whether in ... winter or ... summer, ... spring or ...autumn it's always got its fun and its excitements.! 23. I raked up visions of ... Wyoming spring, warm'/ bright. 24. ... winter settled down over the mountains and the long trip from the city to her ceased to be adventure for Bart, and became a hardship. 25. Ther<| was a small lake nearby with two hotels that were operl for ... summer, and holiday cottages owned by people! who came from Cleveland. \
p 7 . /Translate the following sentences from Russian into English] v^paying special attention to the use of articles with names! of seasons. ,

1. . 2. , , . 3. . 4. . . 5. , , . 6. , , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. ! 10. . 11. 10. 12. . 13. , , , , . 14. , , . 15. 1985 .

88. Memorize the dialogue and act it out in pairs. Make up dia^ logues about the climate of the region you were born in (or of yOur native tern, village).

Talking about the Climate and the Weather 7s/ student (a student from Africa): Are there two or four seasons in Moscow? 2nd student (a Moscow student): Theie are four: spring, summer, autumn and winter. 1st student: We have only two seasons in my country: a rainy one and a dry one.

2nd student: Then you certainly prefer that kind of climate. 1st student: Yes, it's but natural, isn't it? But I would like to know something about the climate here. 2nd student: In my opinion spring and autumn are the best seasons of the year. In spring there is a little rain, the grass appears, the leaves come out and the flowers begin to bloom. In autumn the leaves turn yellow, orange and red and fall from the treesthe ground in the parks and forests is covered with them. /5/ student: I suppose winter and summer must be unpleasant seasons. 2nd student: In some ways they are, but in other ways they aren't. It gets very cold in winter and there's lots of snow, but many people like winter sports. In summer it is sometimes hot, but many people like to go on picnics or to go swimming. 1st student: I think I'm going to like this climate.
89. Retell the story of the ant and the grasshopper. What is the moral of the story? Do you know any people who live like the grasshopper?

It was a cold day in the winter and an ant was bringing out some grains of corn that he had gathered in the summer as he wanted to dry them. A grosshopper, who was very hungry, saw him and said, "Give me a few grains of corn; I'm dying of hunger." "But," said the ant, "what did you do in the summer? Didn't you store up some corn?" "No," answered the grasshopper, "I was too busy." "What did you do?" asked the ant. "I sang all day," replied the grasshopper. "If you sang all summer," said the ant, "you can dance all winter."
90. Explain the use or the absence of articles with names of times of the day and night in the following sentences.

1. They were at 3,000 feet, the night clear, the windstream rushing past the open hatch with such force Fontine thought he would be sucked out before the red light above him was extinguished. 2. Just come along here on Monday morning. 3. You are like a May morning. 4. Generals like small boys, must be up at sunrise to see what day has in store for them. 5. It was still only early afternoon, but the grey Arctic twilight was already thick9-393 129

ening over the sea as the Ulysses dropped slowly astern. 6. For the last two years, six times a week, I'd come in an hour before midnight and left at eight in the morning. 7. Once during the day when he sat near the radiator, hunched up and reading, she passed through, and seeing him, wrinkled her brows. 8. On the morning when Mr. Clayton of Pike House rang up we had had a night of continuous snow. 9. The curtains let enough sun through for me to see that it was a nice day. 10. Bateman wondered how he should begin on the conversation which; all the events of the day made him think more urgent; 11. It was a clear warm night and Thomas sat on the; afterdeck, smoking a pipe, admiring the stars, waiting for Mr. Goodhart. 12. It was the moment when afternoon and evening hang balanced in mid-heaven. 13. We were to have gone away together this morning at dawn. 14. Dusk was falling; the river rippled darkly and the fleet of barges across the way was almost shapeless. 15. Well, it's* a red-letter night for us both, you having an oil-million^ aire and me having a baby. 16. they knew no one would follow them until daylight. 17. There were other moments when time was like a shadow on the mountains which seemed to stand still all day long. 18. What am I doing here on the other side of the country, when my mother is sitting alone, all by herself, night after night, crying? 19. You couldn't tell what his expression was behind the dark glasses he wore night and day. 20. He jode through the night and reached the Abbey shortly, after dawn. 21. From the evening of the day when Constance Mackenzie was introduced to Michael, a new tension began to make itself felt in the Mackenzie household. 22. Day and night had no essential meaning. 23. Tomorrow evening I should be in the train, holding her jewel case and her rug. 24. The morning, for all its shadowed moments, had promoted me to a new level of friendship. 25. She had been regretting the wane of a pleasant evening. 26. They were very strong pills that had been given him as a sedative because of very painful symptoms which sometimes came on him in the middle of the night. 27. Her remarks at being dragged out of bed at that hour of Sunday morning were expressed frankly and unprofessionally, but she listened to his story attentively.
01. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary before names of times of the day and night. 130

1. Willie ordered brandy for both of them after the coffee, what with paying for lunch and all the eating an d drinking of ... evening, Gretchen figured that it must have cost Willie at least fifty dollars since ... noon. 2. We spent the time from ... midnight till four in ... morning at the Air Ministry. 3. Indeed ... night itself is only a faint dusting over of ... day, a wash of silver through the still warm fold of ... afternoon. 4. Major Andrew Fontine sat rigidly at his desk, listening to the sounds of ... morning. 5. But meanwhile there isn't either one of them and I'm in the car in the rain at ... night. 6. He heard Antoine say accusingly, "Susan, you said you wouldn't be back until ... dusk." 7. It was ... early morning and the air was grateful and cool. 8. It was ... Saturday morning. He had been too busy to telephone his sister all week and he felt guilty about it. 9. Oh, Eva has told me you play tennis. Perhaps we can have a game or two ... tomorrow evening. 10. Marion went out into ... still smooth night. There was no moon, but already fhe sky was silver dusted with stars. 11. ... All morning this went on and long into ... afternoon. 12. No, no, let us play, for it is yet ... day, and we cannot go to sleep. 13. Accordingly, he determined to have vengeance and remained till ... daylight in an attitude of deep thought. 14. Several times during ... morning the woman came into the bathroom. 15. Every day I was up at ... dawn, clearing, planting, working on my house, and at ... night when I threw myself on my bed I was to sleep like a log all through ... night.', 16. Ever since ... night his mother had made that crazy'speech about thirty thousand dollars, he had felt sorry for his father. 17. She didn't feel as ... evening progressed that she was getting to know Dr. D. any better. 18. She intends to spend ... night at the lake residence. 19. All ... morning, from the first rest period, they went up and down the veranda, walking with their slow tread, calling gaily to those on bed-rest. 20. It was ... cloudy afternoon with an Italian butcher selling a pound of meat to a very old woman. 21. She existed, aged 19, seated in front of the mirror on ... March night in the middle of the century because her mother had failed to live up to her destiny. 22. On ... day of her mother's funeral it had been blowing a gale, with sleet. 23. Adrian smiled, remembering ... morning after that terrible night in San Francisco. 24. It was pleasant to drive back in ... late afternoon. 25. And confidence is


a quailty I prize, although it has come to me a littfe late in ... day. 26. Do you remember ... afternoon whe^ I sprained my ankle and you carried me home in your arms in ... twilight? 27. If you are looking for Mr. de Winter we had a message from Cannes to. say he would not be back before ... midnight. 28. At last ... evening came, and with it hunger and a debate with himself as to how he should spend ... night. 29. It was ... unpromis ing afternoon, already half dark, ... afternoon for early tea and entertainment on television. 30. ... days at \ shack passed in a happy succession. 31. I'll be sitting here all ... night working an adding machine while you'r^ raking in the loot year after year. 32. The cherries had; been plucked at ... midnight and the coldness of the moon! had entered into them. 33. Jan woke on ... Saturday;, morning to a world thrilling with expectancy. 34. Bartsat beside her through ... night, holding her hand in his, as though his strength could hold her back. 35. ... following evening, having refused Elliot's telephoned offer to fetch me, I arrived quite safely at Mrs. Bradley's house. 36. Mrs. Pearce says you're going to give me some to wear in bed at ... night different from what I wore in ... daytime. 37. There is a narrow trail on the other side of the woods; we'll be back before ... dawn. 38. The min istry has assured me the transition can be concluded by ... early afternoon. 39. He was a hired bodyguard,, protecting the women while their men worked by ... day or were absent from home at ... night. 40. Vittorio had reached the RAF airfield at Lakenheath late on ... previous night, ... first day of the new decade. 41. In ... dull twilight of ... winter afternoon she came to the end of the long road which had begun ... night Atlanta fell. 42. They sped south-east on the main track through Varese into Castiglione. They didn't wait for ... night fall, nothing mattered now. 43. The bed has already been made up for ... night.
*92. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. . . . 2. , , . 3. , . . 4. - s . 5.

. 6. . 7. . 8. , . . 9. , . 10. . 11. . 12. , . 13. . 14. . 15. . 16. , . 17. . 18. . . 19. , . 20. , . 21. . . 22. . 23. , , , , . 24. . 25. , , . 26. , . 27. . 28. . 29. ( ) . 30. , . 31. , , .
93. Correct the following wrong statements. Start with "I am sorry to contradict you, but...".

1. The sun sets at dawn. 2. Our classes are over be fore noon. 3. It is pleasant to swim in the river on an autumn afternoon. 4. We play tennis from morning till night. 5. I usually spend the morning in the park. 6. Dur ing the night we played chess. 7. It is usually very light at dusk. 8. Children don4 go to bed until midnight. 9- The moon rises at midday. 10 It is usually warmer at night than during the day.

4. Explain the use or the absence of articles with names of meals.


1. She had flung a letter at me the morning before as I poured out her coffee at breakfast. 2. It was ne\y for us to sit together like this after dinner, for in Italy we had wandered about, walked or driven, gone into little cafes, leant over bridges. 3. I saw to it that he had a good breakfast. 4. The dinner was as good as it looked and smelled. 5. Secretaries would fish out torn love let* ters from waste baskets and piece them together carefully for the price of a dinner. 6. It was after luncheon and the servants slept. 7. And he walked across the and rang the bell for tea. 8. Rising with the sun and snatchy ing a hasty breakfast he was early at work. 9. We sippei the tea so weak that it tasted like metal against thi| teeth. 10. "Eva, come and show yourself to Peddie'$ friend and then shake us a cocktail," called Jackson| 11. I had lately returned to London from China and Mrs|' Tower invited me to a tea. 12. They had felt pretty hun gry before, but when they actually saw at last the sup* per that was spread for them, really it seemed only % question of what they should attack first. 13. What wa$ a holiday family dinner without the eldest son, the p r i | heir? 14. My wife told me you paid her a visit b e | fore lunch. 15. He came several times and he thought it quite an adventure when they asked him to have & luncheon with them which was cooked and served by a scarecrow of a woman whom they called Evie. 16. Th# waiter came with the breakfast and I sat with my hands! in my lap watching. 17. Tom rang for the janitor and sent him for some celebrated sandwiches which were a! complete supper in themselves.
*95. Supply articles for names of meals if necessary.

1. Before ... breakfast Michael entered Julia's room! "The boys have gone off to play golf. They asked if they ; need come back to ... lunch. I told them that was all'; right." 2. Shewasnot out to give the mother ... perfect. SunBay night supper. 3. She picked at ,-.. delicious break fast Doreen had prepared for her, but she had no ap-| petite for it. 4. I don't care for ^ l a t e dinner. 5. "I guess' I'll not try togooutto-day," he said to Carrie at ... break fast. 6. Vtk dinner lasted a long while and was great, fun. 7. We sat in the library after ... dinner, and pres-^ ently the curtains were drawn, and more logs thrown onto the fire. 8. We ordered hospital room service and satj crosslegged one on each end of the bed and shared ;;..

I^ig turkey dinner from the big snack tray between us. 9# No Forsyte has given i/ dinner without providing a saddle of mutton. 10. Eva had been especially silent during ... dinner. 11. You don't think you swallowed a fishbone at .. tea? Do you? 12. As soon as he was dressed, she went into the library and sat down to ..; light French breakfast. 13. I'm afraid I have to cancel';,, din ner tonight. 14. He and the captain sat a long time over ... lunch. 15. I'm going to find a place for ... lunch. jl6. She worked, after dressing, to arrange ... little breakfast for herself, and then advised with Minnie as to which way to look. 17. It was during the first part of ... dinner that he was very quiet. 18. As I sat at ... breakfast I looked out at the autumn mist dissolving in the early sunrise. 19. We were having ... excellent dinner, cooked by Mary Osbaldiston. 20. She stood waiting for the trolleybus to take her down to the city, where she was meeting Bart for ... supper. 21. I sometimes go down to New York and I might find the time to buy the child ... good dinner. 22. "I haven't noticed that ... dinner is any different from usual," he said. 23. He sat up, and having sipped some tea, turned over his letters. They contained the usual collection of cards, invitations to ... dinner, tick ets for private views, programmes of charity concerts, and the like. 24. Carrie had prepared ... good dinner at the flat, but after his ride up, Hurstwood was in a sol emn and reflective mood. 25. It v/as two o'clock in the afternoon and Harold was still home at ... lunch.
*96. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English paying attention to the use of articles with names of meals.

1. . , , . 2. , ( , 1 ). 3. ? ( ) . 4. . 5. . , . 6. , . 7. ? . 8. . , ^ 9. . 135

. 10. . . 11. . , . 12. - J! . ! 13. , : . 14. . 15. . 16. , , . 17. , . 18. . 19. , - . 20. , . 21. . 22. , , , . 23. () , . 24. , . 25. , .
*97. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary and comment on the use of articles with the noun "tea" in the following extracts.

1. That afternoon Pip's mother, Mrs. Hilton, went to ... tea with Lady Candling. "You may all have ... picnic tea in ... garden," she told Pip. ... children watched Pip's mother going -down ... drive at half past three that afternoon, looking very smart. They were glad that they did not have to dress up and go out to ... tea. It was much more ... fun to have ... picnic tea and wear ... old shorts and shirts. They had ... lovely tea, and went in twice to ask Cook for some more bread and butter. There were ... ripe plums and greengages as well to eat, so it was ... good tea. Soon after ... tea Mrs. Hilton came back. 2. (The children sent Fatty, one of the boys, to invite a grown-up man to come and have a chat with them.) "Very nice of you to ask me," said he. "It so happens; I am coming through your village tomorrow. I suppose you couldn't invite me to ... teasay ... picnic tea by the river?" "Oh, yes," said Fatty joyfully. (Fatty returned to the village and said to his friends)

"That's all settled. He is coming to ... tea with us tomorrow... picnic tea down by ... river." "Fatty! Is he really coming? Did you ask him to ... ^a? Oh, Fatty, how marvellous!" (The guest came. The picnic was a success.) "It's been splendid to see you again," he said. "Goodbye and thanks for ... wonderful teathe nicest I've had for weeks."
Supplementary task. Describe a picnic tea or a dinner party you participated in. *98. Fill in the blanks with articles in the following extract if necessary.

It might be useful to you to know what sort of meals English people have and how they behave at ... table, for ... people of one country behave rather differently from those of ... other. ... old proverb says, "When in Rome, do as ... Romans do" and this is ... good advice. In many English homes four meals are served: they are ... breakfast, ... lunch, ... tea and ... dinner. These are ... meals that are served in ... homes of ... well-to-do people. ... breakfast may be served any time from seven to nine. It consists of ... porridge (made of ... oats or ... barley, ... milk, ... sugar or ... salt), ... bacon and eggs, .. buttered toast or ... bread-and-butter with ... marmalade. Instead of ...bacon and eggs, ... fish may be served. Either ... tea or ... coffee is drunk at ... breakfast. ... lunch comes at about one o'clock. It generally consists of ... cold meat, ... potatoes and .,. salad made of ... lettuce, ... cucumber, ... tomatoes, ... carrots, ... beetroot, etc. On ... table are ... pepper, ... salt, .,, mustard and sometimes ... vinegar. After that there is ... bread or ... biscuits and ... cheese. Most people drink ... water at lunch time, some drink ,.. beer or ... wine. ... afternoon teA taken between four and five is ... most informal meal of ... day. If you are ... friend of ... family you may drop in for ... tea without ... invitation. Very often it is not served at ... table; ... members of ... family and ... visitors take ... tea in ... sittingroom. By the way do not help yourself to ... cake first; . bread-and-butter first, then ... cake if there is any. Another piece of ... advice; do hot put more than one Piece of ... bread or ... cake on your plate at ... same time.

... dinner is ... most substantial meal of ... day a n d is ... very formal meal. Many people even wear special clothes for ... dinner, so if you are asked out to ... dinner you must find out whether you are expected to wear dinner suit. ... dinner is generally served about haj past seven. ... head of ... family sits at one end of table, his wife sits at ... other. If there is ... guest he generally sits in ... place of ... honour, which is at right of the lady of ... house. The first course is ... soup/ Then comes ... fish; there is often ... knife and fork of ... special shape by each person for this course. If are in ... unfamiliar surroundings, keep ... eye open for what ... others are doing. Remember ... proverb about ... Romans. ... next course is the most important; it generally consists of a joint of ... meat (... beef or ... lamb) or else ... leg of ... lamb or ... pork, or it may be ... chicken or ... duck. With it are served various vegetables, peas, beans, ... cabbage or ... cauliflower. Some sort of ... pudding is generally ... fourth course. To show that he has finished with ... course, ... person lays his knife and ' fork on his plate with ... handles towards him. After ..... pudding ... table is cleared and ... dessert is brought. This is ... fruit of various kinds and ... nuts. ... Port (... red wine from Portugal) is passed round. At this stage ... ladies may get up and retire to ... drawing-room. When ... ladies rise, ... men get up too, out of ... respect, and resume their seats when ... ladies have left ... room. It must not be imagined that all ... English people eat like this. More than 90% of ... English people have their dinner in ... middle of ... day. In most of ... houses ... meals are ... breakfast, ... dinner, ... tea and ... sup- ^ per, which is ... cold meal for which nothing is cooked. All these meals are much simpler than those served in ... homes of ... rich.
Supplementary task. Describe meals at your home. 99. Think of situations for the following sentences.

1. That's the best dinner I've had for years. 2. He was invariably late for lunch. 3. There's a bus after supper. 4. She, despite her increasing flow of tears, went into the kitchen to prepare a cold lunch.

5. He had some cold meat and salad for supper. 6. They quarrelled at breakfast.
100. Read the following jokes. Explain the use or the absence of articles before the italicised words. Retell the jokes,

1 Will Roger* invited to dinner by a friend* replied: "No thanks, I've already ate." "You should say thave eaten'," his friend corrected. "Well," drawled Roger, "I know a lot of fellows who say 'have eaten' who ain't ate!"

Swift, in travelling, called a hospitable house. The lady of the mansion, rejoiced to have so distinguished a guest, with great eagerness asked him what he would have for dinner. "Will you have an apple-pie, sir? Will you have a gooseberry-pie, sir? Will you have a cherrypie, sir? Will you have a plum-pie, sir?" "Any pie, Madam, but a mag-pie!"

In his early days in New York Floyd Odium and his wife were invited to a dinner. The only pair'of shoes he happened to own at the time were bright yellow. In order to render them appropriate to the occasion he and his wife painted them black on the day of the party. During dinner, their hostess, sniffing perplexedly, said to her son ."Charlie, I smell paint. Did you upset the paint in 1'..- cellar?" A fruitless discussion ensued in which everyone spoke of the smell of paint except the Odiums who protested that they smelled nothing.
101. Read and retell the joke.

A farmer who went to a large city to see the sights engaged a room at a hotel and before retiring asked the clerk at what time the meals were served. "We serve breakfast from 7 to 11, dinner from 12 to 3, and supper from 6 to 8," explained the clerk. "Look here," asked the farmer in surprise, "What time am I going to see the town?" 139

Develop the situation speaking on the following topics.

1. The farmer tells a friend of his about what he saw in the city. 2. The farmer describes the meals he had at the hotel to a friend of his after he returns home.
*102. Fill in the blanks with articles.

English Tea ... trouble with ... tea is that originally it was quite ... good drink. So ... group of ... most eminent British scientists put their heads together, and made ... complicated bio logical experiments to find ... way of spoiling it. To ... eternal glory of ... British science their labour bore ... fruit. They suggested that if you don't drink it clear, or with ... lemon or ... rum and ... sugar, but pour ... few drops of ... cold milk into it, and no sugar at all, . ... desired object is achieved. Once this refreshing, aro matic, oriental beverage was successfully transformed into ... colourless and tasteless gargling-water, it sud- denly became ... national drink of ... Great Britain and j ... Irelandstill retaining ... high-sounding title ... tea. There are ... occasions when you must not refuse ... c cup of ... tea, otherwise you are judged ...exotic and ; barbarous bird without ... hope of ever being able to \ take your place in ... civilised society. 3 If you are invited to ... English home at five o'clock ' in ... morning you get ... cup of ... tea. It is either brought by ... heartily smiling hostess or ... almost ma- \ levolently silent maid. Then you have ... tea for ... breakfast; then you have ... tea at eleven o'clock in ... morning; then after... lunch; then you have ... tea for ... tea; then after ... sup per; and again at eleven o'clock at ... night. Yoti definitely must not follow my example. I sleep at five o'clock in ... morning; I have ... coffee for ... breakfast; I drink ... innumerable cups of ... black cof fee during ... day; I have ... most unorthodox and exotic teas even at ... tea-time. ... other day, for instance I just mention it as ... terrifying example to show you how low some_ people can sinkI wanted ... cup of ... coffee and ... piece of ... cheese for ... tea. It was ... exceptionally hot day and

0y wife made some at0r, where it froze 0ther hand, she left

cold coffee and put it in ... refrigerand became one solid block. On ... ... cheese on ... kitchen table, where It melted. So I had ... piece of ... coffee and ... glass of cheese.
*103. Insert articles before names of diseases if necessary.

1. Manson was in this horrible situation, really feeling the nightmare of every doctor. And all that he had done was to cure Mary of v.. consumption. 2. The cold water sent <L spasm through the base of his spine, the stick fell from his hands. 3. She got kind of quiet, like she had . headache. 4. "What's happened to your friend?" he said. I told him about ^influenza. 5. He is only fifty but the liver has stopped restoring itself, the precipitating factor is .# alcoholism. 6. I got .v. pneu monia making a picture last January and I've been re cuperating. 7. "I was called at my home," Barlett said, u and Dr. Cymbalist told me he suspected a, perforated ulcer." 8. I had heard of a man who had a slight fungus growth on his thumb and had become obsessed with the idea that it was .* cancer. 9. I made sure it was chill, Doctor. 10. She clung to him, face distorted and crim son. 1. cough rocked her. 11. Old and young, talkative and taciturn, rich and poor, they all had two things in common, lice and bs. dysentery. 12. After typhoid she was just skin and bone. 13. Yes, you had found ... diph theria and ... typhoid, and, if I am right, there were some outstanding, like ... scarlet fever and ... smallpox, that you called ultramicroscopia, and which you were still hunting for, and others that you didn't even suspect. 14. She coughed less too, as ^ p l e u r i s y subsided but she grew tired in the divan bed though Bart had put a headrest to it to hold her pillows. 15. It probably ac counts for some of you spoke of, but that is not too serious in itself. lb. Think of patients lying in that racket after a serious abdominal or running a temperature of a hundred and four with ... meningitis! 17. The morn ing after the bridge party Mrs. Van Hopper woke with ... sore throat and a temperature of a hundred and two. 18. Little Nancy has ... backache and they've cabled" her to go home. 19. I developed ... blister on my thumb and had to quit. 20. Lucy knew, of courseand was aware that Vivian knew it toothat the possibility remained that ... osteogenic sarcome which Dr. Pearson had diagnosed

might have metastasiged ahead of the amputation. 21 The trainer took a fussy interest in him when he canie / with ... small bruise on his knee. 22. It looked precise}!! the place to provoke rather than cure ... nervous break down. 23. The last woman who had undressed me had been my mother, when I was five, and I had ... measles 24. She'd hurry to her room and plead ... toothache. But when the carriage came nearer, her flight was checked by her amazement. 25. Case was a forty-year old man admitted for ... appendicitis. 26. Would you agree with me, Dr. Seddons, that the diagnosis of death of ... coro nary thrombosis seems fairly well established? 27. He had attended her when she had ... pleurisy, and it had always been the same. 28. At the beginning of the year Cooper went down with ... fever. 29. He had ... grippe and I figured that I probably won't see him again. 30. The medical history of this man shows that three years ago he suffered ... first coronary attack and then ... second attack earlier this year.
104. Complete the sentences using names of diseases and the ex pressions "to have toothache, a headache, a cough, a cold,' heart trouble", etc.

1. "What is the matter with Anne?" "She is in bed with ..." 2. "You look pale. What has happened?" "I have ..." 3. "I hear John is in hospital." "Yes, he has ..." 4. Jane has a high temperature. I'm sure it is ... 5. George has a bad cough. I'm sure it is ... 6. Mary doesn't feel well after ... 7. I don't feel well. I'm afraid I've caught ... 8. Henry was taken to hospital with acute ...; 9. I'm afraid Anthony has fallen ill. It must be ... 10. Sam was suddenly taken ill last month. It was ... 11. I must' see a dentist, I have terrible ... 12. "Why hasn't Tom come?" "He is down with ..."
*105. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary paying particular attention to names of diseases.

I-remember going to ... British Museum one day to read up ... treatment for some slight ailment of which j I had ... touch: ... hay fever, I fancy it was. I got down \ ... book, and read all I came to read; and then, in ... 5 unthinking moment, I idly turned ... leaves, and began ) to study ... diseases, generally. I forget which was ... i first disease I read about, but before I had glanced half 1 down ... list of ... "premonitory symptoms", I was cer- 1 tain I had got it.

I sat for ... while frozen with ... horror; and then in despair I again turned over ... pages. I came to ... jyphoid feverread ... symptomsdiscovered that I /ad .- typhoid fever, must have had it for ... months Without knowing itwondered what else I had got; turned up ... scarlet feverfound, as I expected, that I dad that toobegan to get interested in my case, and determined to sift it to ... bottom, and so started alpha betically read up ... ague, and learnt that I was sick ening for it, and that ... acute stage would commence in about ... fortnight. ... rheumatism, I was relieved to find, I had only in ... modified form, and so far as that was concerned I might live for ... years. ... cholera I had with ... severe complications; and ... diphtheria I seemed to have been born with. I read conscientiously through ... twenty-six letters, and ... only malady I could conclude I had not got was ... housemaid's knee. I felt rather hurt about it at first; it seemed somehow to be ... sort of ... slight. Why hadn't I got ... house maid's knee? After ... while, however, I reflected that I had every other known disease in ... pharmacology, and I grew less selfish and determined to do without ... housemaid's knee. ... gout, in ... most malignant stage, it would appear, had seized me without my being aware of it; and ... zymosis I had evidently been suffering with from ... boyhood. There were no more diseases after ... zymosis, so I concluded that there was nothing else ... matter with me. I had walked into ... reading-room, ... happy, healthy man. I crawled out ... decrepit wreck.
*106. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English paying attention to the use of articles with names of dis eases.

1. , . 2. , , , . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. , , , . 7. ? , . 8. , , , , . 9. .

, , . 10. , , .* 11. , , , . 12. , . , . 13. . . 14. , : . 15. , . 16. . 17. ( ), , (). 18. . 19. , . : ? : . 20. , , .
107. Answer the questions using names of diseases.

1. Why did you see the doctor yesterday? 2. Why is your sister in hospital? 3. I hear you stayed in bed for a week. What was the matter? 4. What was your friend's absence in class caused by? 5. What are the most common children's diseases? 6. Was there an epidemic of flu in your town last year? Were you taken ill? 7. When did you see a doctor last? What was the matter with you? 8. Why didn't your daughter go to a pioneers' camp last summer? 9. Why do you think the boy has such a high temperature? 10. Why doesn't your brother go in for sports? 11. He isn't his usual self today. What has hap pened?
108. Read the following jokes. Explain the use or the absence of articles before the italicised nouns. Retell the jokes.

"Could there be anything worse," an ailing friend once wrote complainingly to Mark Twain, "than having a toothache and an earache at the same time?" Mark Twain wrote back; "Rheumatism and St. Vitus Dance."

A doctor was aroused in the middle of the night by a phone call from a man to whose family he had not had occasion to render medical services for some time. "Doctor," said the excited man, "please come over right away. My wife is in great pain and I am sure it is appendicitis' The doctor had been sleepily mulling over the medical history of the family and said, "Well now, it probably isn't anything like that. I'll come around first thing in the morning. Don't worry. Probably just indisgestion* "But, doctor, you've got to come. I'm positive it's appendicitis" protested the alarmed husband. "Oh, come, Mr. Johnson," the doctor said, somewhat irritably, "I took out your wife's appendix almost two years ago. You know as well as I do, she hasn't got another one." "That's all right," said the husband, "but I've got another wife."

A certain person coming to a doctor said, "Sir, when I awake from sleep I have a dizziness for half an hour and then I feel all right." "Get up after the half-hour," the physician replied.
*109. Fill in the blanks with articles wherever necessary. Comment on your choice.

)Six months in j bed no longer seemed a long time when Mrs. Carlton beside her had been in ,*. bed for eighteen months.2 I'm in my second year in #. medical school. 3. It's^worse than A prison, because in CI. prison at least you are all criminals, but here only we three have the stigma on us, and in .>? prison you can at least have a cell to yourself 4. If you don't mind getting out of ..r'bed, my Lord.^L Paulette, when this is oyer, I'm going to treat you to the best lunch in x. town.(6,Xorna was glad that she had gone to . secondary school be cause it had been only constructed a year before. She was 17 years of age and had left *>. school 2 years before. 7. On the morning of the day of rain we decided to go down into ... town.(JpWell, amigo, don't you think it's time you were in .(I amfqrtable bed? We have one for you at the San MiguelQh^I've been weak and I have permitted your father to drive me from &A
10 - 3 9 3 145

churcJ^-JO. The ship was floating idly on ... motionless sea. (lUMel Bakersfeld was in .* hospital after he had spent a few terribly hours in the truck snowbound on one of the runways. (\2) Floyd was surprised to hear Pul s daughter was doing wrell at ..V school while his son was only somewhere down at the chart. {/Fan lay back in ii?--narrow hospital bed and tried to a3just herself to her new surroundings. 14. Picked her up cheap at... market last springand thought I'd got a bargain, but I soon foundout. flSTjHe had felt that <u sea had finally relieved him-, of hisimrden of violence; the future he and Swyer hoped| for themselves was harmless and unobjectionable on <?L'| mild sea among mild men. 16. He held himself very ei^ct r | as though he were still in ... Air Cadets' school. (1 she could somehow manage to marry him while he was'l in .V. jail all those millions would be hers and hers alone| should he be executed. 18. So they were all seated at ...$ table, Rudolph self consciously the focus of the occasion^ wearing a collar and tie, and sitting very erect, like ar% cadet at ... table at West Point. 19. He was explaining^ the work that was going forwardhow one was discharg- i ing another taking in cargo, and a third making ready } for ... sea. ( "Jack, what are you going to do with your ] life?""Who knows? Go to yj. sea, maybe, builc^ elec- i tronic equipment, teach, marry a rich wife." (2jy After i I checked into the office and confirmed that there was nothing for me >tha,t weekend I drove into 4 town in my Volk^agen.Q^ I had known Jan slightly in .* high ; school. (23v Still it was better than teaching chemistry in Pi high school. 24. I had seen them walking together, arms linked, to ... sea, coming back rather late and tired and happy to a cold lunch. 25. He was usually caustic in his comments on those who used ... church only for marrying, or burying. 26. I wanted to look in at ... hos pital before it was too late for visitors. 27. ... bed was empty and there was no one in the room. 28. Men who had hud high positions in the White House were being sent to ... jail. 29. He was a youngish man in a buttondown collar to show that he had gone to ...