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.. , .. , ..

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

2006

621.313

31

31

.., .., ..

ELECTRICAL MACHINES: . : -

, 2006. 176 .

ISBN

, ,

.

.

3-

621.313

,

.

,

..

ISBN

, 2006

: , 2006

PREFACE

Electrical Engineering is a dynamic profession, which provides the expertise to

meet technical challenges facing the nation.

Electrical Engineering concerns generation, supply, distribution, application and

their automation. The electrical engineer is often a key figure in different

industries.

Electrical machine is the main type of converter of mechanical energy into

electric, and electric into mechanical, one, as well as one form of electric energy

into another one, different in voltage, current and sometimes in frequency. It has

played, during the entire historic period of electrical engineering development, a

leading role, which has mapped out progress in different fields and, particularly,

in the branch termed heavy-current engineering.

Continuous improvements in the design of electrical machines have made many

new practical applications possible and have become strong impulses for further

progress and more diverse use of electric energy. This account for fact that

electrical machine was given great attention to by scientists and engineers and

that electrical machines attained technical perfection of design so soon.

This textbook is intended for studying the course Electrical Machines for

students, who go through the Bachelor Degree Program in Electrical

Engineering. Students study this course in the fifth semester.

The course is based on the higher mathematics, physics, engineering graphics

knowledge, mechanics and measurement.

The textbook is intended mainly for students, who have already taken courses

TEE 201, 202 Electric Circuit Theory, INCABE 202 Electrical Engineering

Materials. All important concepts of magnetism, electricity and

electromagnetic conversion theory are explained. The mathematical language is

as simple as possible.

The textbook is based on the classical series of the textbooks on Electrical

Machines by A.I. Voldek, M.P. Kostenko and L.M. Piotrovsky, B.F. Tokarev,

M.M. Katsman and it consists of the following topics:

1. Transformers.

2. Induction Machines.

3. Synchronous Machines.

4. Direct Current Machines.

The topic "Transformers" includes the following questions: elements of

construction; basic voltage equations; schemes and group of transformers

winding coupling; distribution of load between transformers and etc.

The topic "Induction Machines" includes the following questions: elements of

construction; rotating magnetic field, voltage equations of induction motor;

energetic diagrams of active and reactive power, induction motor torques,

starting and regulation of rotation frequency three-phase induction motor and

etc.

3

The topic '' Synchronous Machines' includes information about construction and

basic principle of a synchronous machine operation, magnetic field of excitation

winding, reaction of armature, voltage vector diagrams of synchronous

generators, synchronous motors and compensators.

The authors welcome yours suggestions for improvements of future editions of

this textbook.

The topic '' Direct Current Machines' includes information about basic elements

of D.C. Machine construction and principle of their action; the process of

commutation in D.C. Machines; characteristics of direct current generators and

motors.

The authors welcome your suggestions for improvements of future editions of

this textbook.

1. TRANSFORMERS

Transformer is a static electromagnetic device with two (or more)

inductively linked windings intended for transforming one (primary) an

alternating current system to another (secondary) one by means of

electromagnetic

induction.

Power

transformers

are

widely

used

in

change only the values of alternating voltage and current (Fig. 1.1). While

studying the given section attention is focused on general-purpose power

transformers.

handle, 7, 8 - terminals, 9 expander.

Fig. 1.1

5

A single-phase transformer consists of a pole core and two windings. One

winding called primary is cut in to alternating current supply at voltage U 1 .

Load Zload is cut in to another winding called secondary. Primary and secondary

windings of power transformer are not electrically linked and power is

transmitted from one winding to another by electromagnetic way.

Transformer operation is based on electromagnetic induction principle. When

cutting in primary winding to a. c. supply at frequency f alternating current i1

flows in the turns of this winding producing alternating magnetic flux 1 in the

pole core. Being closed in the pole core this flux is linked with both windings

and induces self-induction e.m.f. in primary winding

e1 = w1 d1 dt ,

mutual induction e.m.f. in secondary winding is

e2 = w2 (d1 dt ) ,

When cutting in the load Zload to the terminals of secondary winding current i2

is produced under the effect of e.m.f. e2 in the winding turns and voltage U 2 is

induced across the terminals of secondary winding. Step-up transformer shows

U 2 > U 1 and step-down transformer offers U 2 < U 1 .

across the turns of secondary winding. Direction of this flux depends on the

character of transformer load and may be in opposition or concordant to the flux

of primary winding. Besides, the fact that current appears in secondary winding

causes current change in primary winding but resultant magnetic flux in the

pole core is not changed and depends only on magnitude and the rate of primary

winding voltage. Thus, one may assume that joint flux equals flux 1 .

Modern power transformers are of similar design circuit consisting of 4

main systems, i.e. 1. closed magnetic system - pole core, 2. electrical system 6

two or more windings, 3. cooling system - air, oil, water or combined systems,

4. mechanical system providing mechanical durability of the construction and

possibility of transformer transportation.

The pole core is intended to increase inductive coupling between the

windings. It forms magnetic circuit along which resultant magnetic flux of

transformer is closed. The pole core is made of iron laminations, which are

isolated from one another by a very thin coat of varnish or oxide on one side of

each lamination. Such pole core construction makes it possible to reduce eddy

currents induced by alternating magnetic flux and to minimize energy losses in

the transformer.

Power transformers are produced with pole cores of three types, i.e. coretype, shell-type and shell-core-type constructions.

A single-phase transformer of core-type construction [Fig. 1.2(a)] consists of

four areas, they are two limbs ( L ) and two yokes ( Y ). A limb is considered to

be an area of the pole core which is enclosed by turns per coil, an yoke being an

area of the pole core connecting limbs and closed pole core.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 1.2

of two windings consists of two parts situated on two limbs connected either in

series or in parallel. Such winding arrangement brings to inductive linking

increase.

Cross-sectional area of the limb is step-shaped circle inscribed. An yoke is of

cross-sectional area with less number of steps and four angles which are beyond

7

the circle. Yoke cross-section is larger than that of the limb that allows, in

particular, to improve the parameters of no-load transformer.

In a single-phase transformer of shell-type pole core [Fig. 1.2(b)] there is one

limb and two yokes which partly cover windings like a shell from diametrically

situated sides. Magnetic flux in the limb of such pole core is twice larger than

that in the yokes, therefore each yoke possesses twice less cross-section than

that of the limb. In single-phase transformer pole core of shell-core type

construction [Fig. 1.2(c)] there are two limbs and two yokes as is the case with

core-type transformer and two more lateral yokes as in shell-type transformer.

Such pole core construction requires larger amount of electric steel but makes it

possible to reduce pole core height that is important for transformer

transportation by railway.

Three-phase transformer pole core of core-type construction [Fig. 1.3(a)]

consists of three limbs and two yokes located in one plane if the pole core is flat.

In spatial pole core the limbs are located in different planes. Flat pole core of

core-type construction is not quite symmetrical as pole core length for the mean

phase is somewhat shorter than for the marginal ones. However, it does not

influence.

The pole core of shell-type three-phase transformer [Fig. 1.3(b) may be

schematically represented by three single-phase shell-type pole cores which are

superimposed. The mean phase of such a transformer has reverse switching

relative to marginal phases. In this case fluxes are geometrically added in

contacting areas of the next phases of the pole core instead of being subtracted

that allows to reduce the cross-section of these pole core segments.

In three-phase transformer pole core of shell-core type construction

[Fig. 1.3(c)] there are three limbs and two yokes like in a core-type transformer

and two more lateral yokes like in a shell-type transformer. Advantages and

drawbacks of such pole core design are similar to the like single-phase

transformer design.

8

For three-phase voltage conversion one can use not only a three-phase

transformer with any type of pole core mentioned above but three single-phase

transformers as well. Such device is called three-phase transformer bank.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.1.3

Three-phase transformers with the pole core common for all phases are often

used. They are more compact and cheaper. Transformer bank is used in case of

transportation problems and for decreasing stand-by power in case of emergency

repair.

Transformer windings are important elements owing to two reasons, i.e.

1.

transformer cost.

2.

is called high-voltage ( HV ) winding and the winding with very low voltage is

called low-voltage ( LV ) winding.

According to the pole core arrangement on the limb the windings are

classified as concentric and sandwich winding constructions. Concentric

windings are designed in the form of hollow cylinders placed concentrically on

the limbs. LV winding is placed closer to the limb as less isolation distance is

required and HV winding is placed outside.

Sandwich (disc) windings are made in the form of separate HV and LV

sections (discs), which are sandwiched on the limb. They are used only in

special-purpose transformers.

According to engineering design the windings are classified as

1. Cylindrical single- or multilayer windings made of rectangular or round

wire

2. Spiral simplex and multiple windings of rectangular wire

3. Continuous disc windings made of rectangular wire

4. Windings made of foil.

Single- and two-layer cylindrical windings of rectangular wire are used as

LV windings at nominal current up to 800A. The turns of each layer are wound

closer to each other in a spiral manner. Interlayer isolation is made by two layers

of electroisolating 0.5 mm cardboard or by the channel.

Multilayer cylindrical windings made of rectangular wire are used as HV

windings (up to 35 kW). These windings are used in 110 kW transformers and

above.

Spiral simplex and multiple windings are used as LV windings at the current

over 300 A. Turns are wound in the form of one or several movements spiral.

Channels are made between turns and parallel branches.

Continuous-disc windings consist of disk coils connected in series and

wound in continuous spiral without breaking wire between separate coils. The

coils are separated by the channel. They are used as HV and LV windings.

10

It can be supposed that resultant alternating magnetic flux in the

transformer pole core is sinusoidal time function.

Whereas instantaneous e.m.f. value induced in the primary winding equals

where = 2f .

By analogy for the secondary winding this leads to the following

e2 = w2 max sin (t 2 )

Thus, e.m.f. e1 and e2 lag resulting flux in phase through an angle 2 .

Effective e.m.f. value may be written as

E1 =

E1max

= 4.44 w1 f max , ,

E2 = 4.44 w2 f max

E.m.f. ratio of HV and LV windings is called transformation ratio

k=

E1

E2

w1

w2

U 1

U 2

flux induce magnetic leakage fluxes 1 and 2 (Fig. 1.4). Each flux is

linked with the turns of only inherent winding and induces e.m.f. leakage in it.

Effective e.m.f. leakage values are proportional to the currents in the

corresponding windings

11

where

windings accordingly. The sign minus in this expression points to leakage e.m.f.

reactance.

Fig. 1.4

If the primary transformer winding with ohmic resistance r1 cut into the

voltage U 1 main, voltage equation is

In power transformer inductive and active voltage drop is not significant,

therefore one can assume that U& 1 ( E&1 ) .

For secondary transformer winding the voltage drop at the load equals

terminal voltage of secondary winding and voltage equation results is

where r2 is ohmic resistance of secondary winding.

If a transformer runs at primary winding cut into the voltage U 1 main and

broken secondary winding we deal with no-load duty. Current I 0 in primary

winding under these conditions is called no-load duty.

12

magnetic flux in transformer pole core with the amplitude

max = 2 I 0 w1 R

where Rm is pole core magnetic resistance.

When secondary winding is closed to load Z load current I 2 develops. As

for the primary winding the current increases up to the value I 1 . Now magnetic

flux in pole core develops under the effect of two m.m.f. I&1 w1 and I&2 w2 .

Thus, it may be considered that resultant magnetic flux value at stable

voltage U 1 does not practically depend on transformer load if its value does not

exceed the nominal value. The considered approach leads to the following

transformer m.m.f. equation

I&0 w1 = I&1 w1 + I&2 w2

and transformer currents equation is

I&0 = I&1 + I&2 w2 / w1 = I&1 + I&2 ,

winding turn number.

13

resulting in marked transformation ratio that makes difficult plotting vector

diagrams.

This problem is eliminated by bringing secondary parameters and the load

to the form of primary winding, they are converted per turn number of primary

winding w1 . As a result, instead of a real transformer with transformation ratio

k = w 1 / w 2 we get the equivalent transformer with k = w1 w2 = 1 , where

w2 = w1 . Such transformer is called the idealized transformer.

transformer values, i.e. all voltages and phase shifts in secondary winding

remain the same as in a real transformer. As a result, turns number of secondary

winding changes into w2 / w2 = w1 / w2 = k times and as a consequence

If electromagnetic voltages of real and idealized transformer secondary

winding are equal then the expression for the secondary winding current is

obtained

Referring to the losses equality in the secondary windings effective

resistance of both real and idealized transformers the expression for idealized

effective resistance of a secondary winding is obtained

2

2

I&22 r2 = (I&2 ) r2 = (I&2 / k ) r2 ,

r2 = r2 k 2

from the equality condition of secondary winding reactive power of real and

idealized transformers

2

2

I&22 x 2 = (I&2 ) x 2 = (I&2 / k ) x 2 ,

14

x 2 = x 2 k 2 .

Z 2 = r2 + jx 2 = Z 2 k 2

Voltage equations for idealized transformer may be written as

U& 1 = E&1 + jI&1 x 1 + I&1 r1 ,

Currents equation is

in the range between no-load and nominal duties.

Lets consider transformer equivalent circuit [Fig. 1.5(a)]. This diagram shows

Fig. 1.5

that ohmic and inductive resistances are conventionally taken out by convention

from the corresponding windings and are energized in series.

15

points A and a, X and x in the diagram are of similar potentials, that makes its

possible to connect them electrically and to obtain T-shape electric equivalent

circuit of the idealized transformer [Fig. 1.5(b)]. Magnetic linking between the

windings is substituted for electric linking in this equivalent circuit.

T-shaped electric equivalent circuit of the idealized transformer makes

investigation of electromagnetic processes and transformer calculations easier.

The circuit is a complex of three branches. The first branch contains impedance

Z1 = r1 + jx 1 and current I&1 . The second branch (magnetizing) contains

magnetizing branch. The third branch contains impedances of secondary

= rload

jxload

and current I&2.

winding Z 2 = r2 + jx 2 , load Z load

are constant and may

All the parameters of electric equivalent circuit but Z load

duties ).

1.4. No-Load Duty

winding Z load = , I 2 = 0 .

Voltage and current equations take the form

U& 1 = E&1 + jI&0 x 1 + I&0 r1 ;

U& 20

Magnetic flux 1 in the transformer is alternating one, therefore the pole

core is being steadily remagnetized, there arise magnetic losses from hysteresis

and eddy currents induced by alternating magnetic flux in iron laminations.

Open-circuit current I&0 is of two components, namely, active component I&0 a

owing magnetic losses and reactive one I&0 showing magnetizing current

16

I 0 = I 02a + I 02

Fig. 1.6

Active component of open-circuit current usually is not significant, it does not

exceed 10% of the current I 0 and therefore it does not significantly influence

open-circuit current.

As net power of transformer while running

under no-load conditions equals zero active

power P0 consumed under this conditions is

spent for magnetic losses in the pole core Pm

2

and electric losses in primary winding I 0 r1 .

circuit current I 0 does not usually exceed 210% of primary winding nominal current I 1nom

electrical

losses

can

be

neglected

and

Fig. 1.7

Electric equivalent circuit and transformer vector diagram are shown in Fig. 1.6

and Fig. 1.7.

& 1 lags behind from current I&0

Angle through which vector of magnetic flux

is called magnetic loss angle. This angle increases with the growth of open17

circuit current active component I&0 a i.e. with the growth of magnetic losses in

the transformer core.

Z load = 0 , U 2 = 0 .

circuit is considered to be emergency duty and a serious hazard to the

transformer. Only steady short-circuit current exceeds the nominal current 10-20

times.

Short-circuit duty is not a hazard to the transformer as step-down voltage

is supplied to the primary winding, in so doing currents in both windings being

equal to nominal currents.

This step-down voltage is called nominal short-circuit voltage and is

usually expressed as a percentage of nominal voltage

u sc = (U sc U 1nom ) 100 = 5 10%

As we have found before the resultant magnetic flux in the transformer pole core

is approximately proportional to primary winding voltage. Consequently, at

short-circuit duty resultant magnetic flux in

the pole core is small, magnetizing current

is required to induce it and it may be

neglected, therefore equivalent circuit does

not posses magnetizing branch.

Equations of voltages and currents take the form

I&1sc = I&2 sc ,

18

short circuit conditions,

rsc , xsc are active and reactive components of

resistance Z sc .

Electric equivalent circuit and vector

diagram are shown in Fig. 1.8 and Fig. 1.9.

Rectangular triangle AOB is called shortcircuit triangle, its legs being active U& sca and

reactive U& scr components of short circuit

voltage

BA = jI&1sc x 1 + ( jI&2 sc x 2 ) = jI&1sc xsc = U& scr .

As at short circuit duty the resultant flux is too small compared with its

value at nominal primary winding voltage pole core magnetic losses may be

neglected. It follows that active power Psc , consumed at this duty is spent for

electric losses in transformer windings

19

diagrams

of

electric

idealized transformer and

the basic equations of

voltage and currents are

used.

Vector

diagrams

phase shifts between the

currents,

e.m.f.

and

voltages

of

the

transformer.

For

determination

of

& 2 and

At active-inductive load (Fig. 1.10) vector I&2 lags & 2 in phase through an angle

2 = tan 1 [( x 2 + xn ) / (r2 + rn )]

At active-capacitive load (Fig. 1.11) vector I&2 advances & 2 through an angle

2 = tan 1 [( x 2 xn ) / (r2 + rn )]

At marked capacitive load component the voltage U& 2 may be larger than

e.m.f. at open circuit (no-load) duty & 2 . Besides, reactive component of

secondary winding I&2 r = I&2 sin 2 is in phase with reactive component of the

open circuit current I&0 r , showing magnetizing effect on the pole core. It causes

20

primary winding current I&1 decrease compared with its value at active-inductive

load when the component I&2 r shows

demagnetizing effect.

The above vector diagrams of a loaded

transformer cannot be used for practical

calculations as being complex. By

analogy with short- circuit duty in the

transformers running at the load close to

the nominal one open-circuit current is

neglected and it is considered to be

I&1 = I&2 .

As a result, transformer equivalent

circuit takes a simplified form, it lacks

magnetizing branch. The circuit consists

of connected in series elements

[Fig. 1.12(a)].

21

rsc

.

primary winding U 1nom , nominal current of primary winding I&1nom , power factor

cos 2 nom and short circuit triangle parameters U& sc , U& sca , U& scr .

load [Fig. 1.12(b)]. In an arbitrary way for example, one constructs a current

vector I&1 = I&2 is constructed on Y-axis from its origin. A line is drawn at an

angle 2 , where voltage vector ( U& 2 ) is located on it according to the load

character. One constructs ABC - short-circuit triangle is constructed. The leg

BC being equal to active component of short-circuit voltage is in phase with

vector current. The leg AB being equal to reactive component of short circuit

voltage advances current vector by 90o .

One shifts the triangle ABC without changing the legs of an angle orientation

so that the vertex C could be found on the line directed at an angle 2 to the

current vector until the distance from coordinates origin to the vertex A equals

U& 1 = U& 1nom .

Then phase shift angle 1 between the primary winding current I&1 and its

voltage U& 1 as well as vector value

( U& 2 )are

voltage and efficiency due to the change of voltage drop and active power losses

in the windings.

Secondary voltage change is usually expressed in percent and is

determined as follows

22

U& 2

U& 20 U& 2

U& 20

&

U =

100 =

100

U& 20

U& 20

are ordinary and referred voltages (e.m.f.) of secondary

where U& 20 , U& 20

winding open circuit at nominal voltage of primary winding, U& 2 ,U& 2 are

ordinary and referred voltages across transformer secondary winding terminals

at primary winding rated voltage.

Using simplified transformer vector diagram the expression for calculation of

secondary voltage change is obtained

2

U& = (U& sa cos 2 + U& scr sin 2 ) + 2 (U scr cos 2 U sca sin 2 ) / 200,% ,

U& =

U& 20 U& 2

U& U& 2

100 = 20

100

U& 20

U& 20

depends on amount and character of the load.

Dependences U& = f ( ) at cos 2 = const shown in Fig. 1.13(a) are

23

practically linear as the first addend changes proportionally the load and the

second one being insignificant does not practically influence U value.

The second addend is neglected in most cases due to its rather small value

and a simplified formula for U calculation is used

Dependences U = f ( 2 ) at = const are of more complicated form

[Fig. 1.13(b)]. At 2 = 0

2 = 90 0

U = U sc .

The

largest

equal to U max = U sc .

At 20 = (90 0 sc ),

U = 0 .

on load current I&2 or on load factor at

rated voltage and primary winding frequency

under stable load conditions is called external transformer characteristic.

For plotting external characteristic the following formula may be used

U 2 = U 20 (1 U / 100),

where [U ] = % .

External characteristics (Fig. 1.14) due to linearity dependence U = f ( ) are

also linear.

24

Voltages at different sections of energy transmission line where stepdown transformers can be cut in differ from each other and as a rule, from

transformer rated primary voltage. Besides, these voltages change owing to load

changes. Taking into consideration the fact that terminal secondary winding

voltage of the transformer should correspond to State Standard requirements it is

possible to provide these requirements, in particular, by changing transformation

ratio.

HV windings of step-down transformers have regulating shunts with the

help of which one can obtain transformation ratio that differs from the nominal

one may be obtained.

Regulating shunts are designed in each phase either close to zero point or

in the middle of the phase. In the first case three or five branches are made in

each phase, in so doing medium shunt corresponds to rated transformer ratio and

two ( four ) other shunts correspond to transformation ratio that differs by 5%

( 2.5% and 5% ) from the rated one. In the second case each phase is divided

into two parts and six shunts are formed, that makes its possible to get except for

rated transformation ratio four additional values that differ 2.5% and 5%

from the rated one.

Two kinds of power transformer voltage regulation are provided, i.e.

voltage regulation by switching winding branches without excitation (SWE)

after cutting out all transformer windings and voltage regulation without load

break (LBR), without cutting out transformer windings. Branch switches LBR

compared with SWE are of more complex design because each phase is

provided with special switching devices. LBR equipment is located in the

common tank with active transformer part and its switching is automatized or

done at a distance (from switchboard). Transformers with LBR are usually

intended for voltage regulation within the range of 6-10%.

25

LBR equipment seems to be too

complex. In this case one uses

voltage regulation is used with of an

injector transformer consisting of ST

transformer connected in series and

regulating autotransformer (RA) with

switching device (SD) (Fig. 1.15).

Transformer secondary winding voltage ST U& is summarized with line

voltages U& L1 and changes it up to the value U& L2 = U& L1 U& . The value U&

may be changed by the regulation autotransformer (RA) and U& may be

changed through 180o by a pitch regulation switch (PRS).

transformer in the terms of electric and magnetic losses.

Electric losses cause heating the transformer windings when electric current

flows across them. Power Pe of electrical losses is proportional to current square

and is equal to the sum of electric losses in primary Pe1 and secondary Pe 2

windings

Pe = Pe1 + Pe 2 = m I 12 r1 + m ( I 2 ) 2 r2

where m is phase number in transformer windings.

This expression for transformer electric losses is used only at the stage of

designing. When manufacturing transformer electrical losses are determined by

26

the results of short circuit duty taking the voltage at rated currents in the

windings Pscnom

Pe = 2 Pscnom ,

where is load factor.

As electrical losses depend on transformer losses they are called

alternating.

Magnetic losses Pm occur mainly in the transformer pole core. Magnetic

losses of hysteresis are in direct proportion to pole core frequency of magnetic

reversal, i.e. to a.c. frequency ( p h f ). Magnetic losses from eddy currents are

proportional to the square of this frequency ( pec f 2 ). Total magnetic losses

are considered to be proportional to current frequency by the power 1.3. The

amount of magnetic losses also depends on magnetic induction square in limbs

and yokes of the pole core. If U 1 = const and f = const magnetic losses do not

depend on transformer load, they are called constant. For the manufactured

transformer magnetic losses are determined by the results of open-circuit duty,

measuring open-circuit power P0 nom at rated primary voltage.

Thus, active power P1 released to primary transformer winding is partly

spent for electrical losses in this winding p e1 , for magnetic losses Pm in the pole

core respectively. The remainder is called electromagnetic power and it is

released to secondary winding where it is partly spent for electrical losses in this

winding p e 2 . Active power released to the load of a three-phase transformer P2

(net power) may be determined as follows

P2 = P1 p e1 p m p e 2 = P1 P or

where

S nom is rated transformer power,

27

Transformer efficiency is determined as active power ratio of secondary

winding output P2 to active power of primary winding input P1

= P2 P = (P1 P ) P = 1 P P1 ,

1

S nom cos 2

.

S nom cos 2 + P0 nom + 2 Pscnom

depends both on the value ( ) and the character ( cos 2 ) of the load.

Maximum efficiency value corresponds to the load at which magnetic losses are

equal to electrical losses

P0 nom = 2 Pscnom ,

i.e. at =

P0 nom / Pscnom .

and decreases slightly at load increase.

Marking the initial and final windings is done in the following way. In a

single-phase transformer HV winding is denoted by Latin capital letters (Aorigin, X- end). LV winding is denoted by Latin small letters (a - origin, x

end). When the third winding with medium voltage is available its origin and

end is denoted as Am and Xm accordingly. In three-phase transformer HV

winding is denoted by capital letters (A, B, C origins, X, Y, Z ends). LV

winding is denoted by Latin small letters a, b, c origins, x, y, z ends. It is

common practice to consider phase alternation A, B, C from left to right if the

transformer is examined as viewed from HV tapped winding.

28

seldom zigzag (Z)-connected. The first two diagrams of three-phase winding

connection are denoted by Russian capital letters , accordingly.

Zero terminals of star- and zigzag-connected three-phase winding are

denoted in HV windings by capital letter O and in LV winding by small

letter o. In so doing index N (Yn, Zn) is added to letter designation of winding

connection diagrams.

While connecting a transformer in parallel with other transformers phase

shift between primary and secondary winding e.m.f. is of prime importance. The

notion connection group of winding to characterize this shift is applied.

Consider the fragment of core-type construction pole core of a singlephase two-winding transformer (Fig. 1.16). Both windings are wound along the

left spiral line and are of similar wind direction.

In both windings origins A and a are arranged

above and ends X and x below respectively, i.e.

they are marked in a similar way.

E.m.f. induced in the winding is considered to

be positive if it acts from initial to final

windings. In both windings e.m.f. is induced by

the same main magnetic flux. Similar wind

direction and marking makes its possible to hold

that the above mentioned e.m.f. of these

windings acts in a similar direction at every

instant, i.e. coincidentally positive or negative.

E.m.f.

primary and secondary windings equals zero. Conventional symbol is I/I-0 (zero

group).

29

changed opposite in sign e.m.f. will act in the windings at every instant. The

angle between e.m.f. vectors of primary and secondary windings is 180. When

determining the connection group of the winding this angle should be divided

into 30. Conventional symbol is I/I-6 (the sixth group).

Thus, in single-phase transformers two groups of winding connection

zero and the sixth groups are available.

Lets consider three-phase two-winding transformer with HV and LV

star-connected windings under the following conditions:

1. Windings are of similar wind direction

2. Windings are similarly marked

3. Like winding phases are placed on common limbs.

Firstly, vector diagram for HV winding is

plotted, choosing arbitrarily the direction of the first

phase e.m.f., conforming phase alternation with the

others. When plotting vector diagram for LV winding

it should be remembered that the direction of each

vector depends on vector diagram of HV winding.

Then, all the vectors of phase e.m.f. in pairs

.

.

.

angle between them equals zero (Fig. 1.18).

30

the angle between like linear e.m.f. In the case considered conventional symbol

is Y/Y-0 ( zero group ).

What will be the result if we change LV winding marking per one pitch

around? E.m.f. vector diagram representation for HV winding remains

unchanged. E.m.f. vector diagram of LV winding will be another. The phase a-x

of LV winding is located on a common limb with phase B-Y of HV winding. As

phases possess similar wind direction and are similarly marked core magnetic

.

.

.

As a result e.m.f. vector diagram of LV winding is clockwise displaced 120

compared with the previous vector diagram. The angle between like linear e.m.f.

is determined clockwise from e.m.f. vector of HV winding up to e.m.f. vector of

LV winding. The angle is 120, the fourth group. Conventional symbol is Y/YThus, when changing marking of one winding per one pitch around connection

31

displaced 120.

Fig.1.19

Similar results may be obtained if HV and LV windings have another but

similar winding connection - diagram - delta.

If connection diagrams of HV and LV windings of a three-phase

transformer are similar one can get six even groups are formed: 0, 4, 8, 6, 10, 2

by changing the marking of one winding.

Consider three-phase two-winding transformer with different connection

diagrams (Fig. 1.20) following the conditions mentioned above. LV winding is

delta-connected. E.m.f. vector diagram of HV winding is plotted as shown

above.

E.m.f. vector diagram of LV winding is a triangle, each side being equal

to phase and linear e.m.f. in magnitude and phase. The angle between like linear

e.m.f. is 330, the eleventh group. The symbol is Y/-11.

Marking the change of LV winding per one pitch around marking in

changing connection group of windings to four, it will be the third group. If LV

32

winding will change to four again, it will be the seventh group.

three-phase transformer of different winding connection diagrams makes its

possible to get six odd groups: 11, 3, 7, 5, 9, 1.

According to Russian State Standard there are transformers with the

following connection diagrams and connection groups of windings for using:

1. Y/Yn-0

2. /Yn-11

3. Y/-11

4. Yn/-11

5. Y/Zn-11.

In zigzag-connected circuit each winding phase is divided into two parts

which are placed on different limbs (one part is placed on the main limb, the

second one is arranged on the limb of the neighbouring phase in the order of

alternation). In so doing the second half of each phase is switched on in

opposition to the first half. This makes its possible to get phase e.m.f.

higher than in the matched switching.

33

3 times

1.15 times less than when phase halves are placed on one limb. Therefore wind

wire consumption in zigzag connection increases 15%. This connection is used

only when non-balanced phase load with zero currents is available.

connection of both primary and

secondary windings. In parallel

connection

like

transformer

terminals

windings

of

are

(Fig. 1.21) in the mains.

Parallel

transformers

operation

instead

of

of

one

1. to provide regular power supply of consumers in case of emergency

when one of the transformers is under repair,

2. to provide transformer operation with high performance indices

(efficiency, cos2) changing the number of transformers under

optimum load conditions,

To distribute the load between parallel transformers proportionally to their

nominal voltages three conditions should be fulfilled.

Firstly, primary and secondary voltages of transformers should be equal

accordingly, i.e. transformers should be of equal transformation ratios

( k1 = k 2 = k3 = K ).

Secondly, transformers should be of the same connection group of

windings.

34

( U sc1 = U sc 2 = U sc 3 = K ).

When the first condition is not fulfilled even at no-load duty phasing

current Iph develops in parallel transformers. It is due to secondary

e.m.f. difference of the transformers U& (Fig. 1.22)

I& h =

U&

Z sc1 + Z sc 2

impedances.

When the load is energized phasing current is superimposed

on load current. In transformers with higher secondary e.m.f. ( in step-down

transformers - transformers possessing less transformation ratio) phasing current

is added to load current. The transformer of similar rating but with larger

transformation ratio is underloaded as phasing current is opposed to load

current.

Continuous transformer overload is impermissible as it requires reducing total

load at different transformation ratios. At marked difference of transformation

ratios proper transformer operation is impractible. It makes possible to operate

parallel transformers with unlike transformation ratios if their difference does

not exceed 0.5% geometric mean

k =

k1 k 2

k1 k 2

100 0.5% .

voltage is phase-shifted relative to each other. In transformer the voltage

difference U& in a circuit arises causing marked phasing current.

Let us consider, for example, energizing two parallel transformers with

equal transformation ratios, one being of zero (Y/Y-0) and another being of the

35

the first transformer will be

of these voltages will be phase-shifted relative to each other by

30 (Fig. 1.23)

OA = 3 U 22 / 2 as U 22 = U 21 / 3

then OA = U 21 / 2 and

U = U 22 .

current in secondary transformer circuit, the current exceeding

nominal load current 15-20 times, i.e. emergency conditions

occur. The highest U& value appears when energizing parallel

transformers with zero or the sixth connection group of

windings ( U = 2U 2 ) as in this case the vector of linear

secondary windings is in reverse phase.

parallel transformers [Fig. 1.24(a)] are changed for short-circuit resistances

Z sc1 , Z sc 2 [Fig. 1.24(b)].

resistances relative voltages (loads) of parallel transformers are inversely related

to their short-circuit voltages as well. As a result, it causes transformer overload

with less U sc value and underload with high U sc .

36

short-circuit voltages if their difference does not exceed arithmetic mean 10%

U sc =

U sc1 U sc 2

100 10%

0.5 (U sc1 + U sc 2 )

difference by voltage. State Standard recommends nominal voltage ratio of

parallel transformers to be not more than 3:1.

Besides, it is necessary to control the order of phase alternation before

energizing three-phase parallel transformers. Phase alternation order should be

similar in all transformers.

aintenance

of

these

regulations is checked by

transformer phasing (Fig.

1.25). In so doing each

pair of opposite terminals

of a closing switch is

connected by a conductor

(it is not shown) and

voltage is taken with zero

voltmeter

between

the

remaining

pairs

of

terminals.

If

secondary

equal and connecting

groups of their windings

are similar zero voltmeter reading is zero if there is similar order of phase

sequence. In this case parallel transformers may be energized. If voltmeter

37

condition is not fulfilled and eliminate it.

1.12. Non-Balanced Load of Three-Phase Transformers

of single-phase receivers by load, emergency conditions that occur at singlephase, two-phase short circuit or at one phase of wiring line failure.

Non-balance of transformer secondary voltages has a detrimental effect on

both the consumers and the transformer. For example, in a.c. motors permissible

load voltage decreases, durability of filament lamps is reduced at high voltage

and luminous intensity is decreased at low voltage. Overload of separate

transformer phases, excessive phase voltage increase and pole core saturation

occur.

For investigation of transformer operation at non-balanced load the

method of balanced components studied in the course Theoretical fundamentals

of electrotechnics is widely used. While considering three-phase step-down

transformer non-balanced currents of LV may be represented as the sum of three

balanced systems of positive, negative and zero sequence differing by sequence

of current passing through

I&b = I&b1 + I&b 2 + I&b 0

I&c = I&c1 + I&c 2 + I&c 0

(*)

successively in phases a, b, c. The currents forming negative sequence system

reach maximum successively in phases a, b, c. Zero sequence currents in all

three phases are of one direction (zero shift).

After coefficients a, a2 are entered into the equations (*) they will be

written as follows

38

I&b = a 2 I&a1 + aI&a 2 + I&0

I c = aI&a1 + a 2 I&a 2 + I&0

(**)

Multiplying any vector into coefficient a does not change its absolute

value, but changes 2 / 3 its argument, i.e. rotates vector through 120 towards

vector rotation.

From (**) currents of positive, negative and zero sequence may be

obtained through non-balanced ones

1

I&a1 = (I&a + aI&b + a 2 I&c )

3

1

I&a 2 = (I&a + a 2 I&b + aI&c )

3

1

I&S = (I&a + I&b + I&c )

3

(***)

On the basis of the latter equality in (***) it follows that given the

currents of zero sequence currents sum of three phases is not equal to zero.

The advantage of the method of balanced components includes the fact

that balanced system of each sequence can be transformed regardless of the

systems of other sequences using conventional methods of mathematical and

graphical analysis. However, the method of balanced components suggests

application of superposition method, which is valid only for linear systems.

Therefore, as applied to the transformer one makes assumption taking into

account the lack of pole core iron saturation ( Z m = const ) or neglecting opencircuit current ( Z m = ).

Besides, the transformer at non-balanced load is considered to possess

equal number of secondary and primary winding turns ( w1 = w2 ) that does not

allow to use reference procedure.

39

system one can put down I&a , I&b = a 2 I&a , I c = aI&a . Substituting these values in

(***) we obtain

1

I&a1 = (I&a + a 3 I&a + a 3 I&a ) = I&a ;

3

1

I&a 2 = (I&a + a 4 I&a + a 2 I&a ) = 0;

3

1

I&S = (I&a + a 2 I&a + aI&a ) = 0, as a 3 = 1; 1 + a + a 2 = 0.

3

Thus, at balanced load there are currents of only positive sequence.

Therefore, all facts considered above regarding balanced load match transformer

operation with positive sequence currents.

What will happen if the position of two terminals of HV windings (for

example B and C) and LV winding (b and c) is interchanged in the transformer

under balanced load condition? Vector alternation of transformer phase currents

will change to reverse, i.e. it corresponds to negative sequence current

alternation. The duty of the transformer and consumers will not change.

Thus, negative sequence currents are converted from one winding to

another as well as positive sequence currents. Transformer operation regarding

positive and negative sequence currents is similar. Above equivalent circuits are

valid both for positive and negative sequence currents, transformer resistance

relative

to

resistance Z sc .

Currents of zero sequence in star-connected windings may develop only

with zero wire. In delta-connected windings zero sequence currents make up

current flowing across the closed circuit and linear currents as current

differences of adjacent phases do not contain zero sequence currents. Therefore

zero sequence currents in delta-connected winding may develop only as a result

of inducing them by another transformer winding.

40

Zero sequence fluxes are induced by zero sequence currents and therefore

they are in phase in time domain. Let us see how zero sequence fluxes influence

the transformer with different types of pole cores.

In three-phase transformers of shell-type, core-shell-type design and

transformer bank zero sequence fluxes

& S is slight, therefore even small currents of

Magnetic resistance for the fluxes

& S . If the current

zero sequence I&a 0 = I&b 0 = I&c 0 are able to develop large fluxes

& S equalling

I&a 0 equals short-circuit transformer current magnetic flux

nominal running transformer flux is induced. The similar reasoning refers to

& S .

e.m.f. induced by e.m.f. flux

In a core-type three-phase transformer zero sequence fluxes of all the

phases tend to close from one yoke to another ( for example, in oil transformer

through oil and transformer tank. In this case magnetic resistance for the flux

& S is rather high and eddy currents are induced in tank walls and losses occur.

Therefore, magnetic flux

Case 1. Zero sequence currents are missing. At non-balanced load

phases do not exceed nominal values U is rather small due to small resistance

Z sc of the transformer.

does not distort phase and linear voltage balance at secondary winding

terminals.

As for the case considered primary and secondary currents of positive

sequence in each phase are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. It is valid

for the currents of negative sequence as well and for the current sum of positive

41

neglecting magnetizing current) make it possible to put down, thus

As a result, one may state that magnetizing forces and currents of primary

and secondary windings are balanced in each phase and separately in each pole

core area.

Case 2. There are currents of zero sequence. Variant a: currents of zero

winding connection Yn/Yn, /Yn. Magnetizing current of zero sequence may be

neclected because it contains small total current of sequence and may be written

as:

Thus, magnetizing strength of zero sequence currents of both windings is

mutually balanced in each transformer phase. In such a situation zero sequence

resistance is Z S = Z sc . Zero components of secondary voltage originate due to

small voltage drop Z sc I&a 0 . Therefore, in transformers with winding connection

Yn/Yn, /Yn at non-balanced load phase voltage system is insignificantly

distorted.

Variant b: zero sequence currents develop only in one winding. There are

transformers with winding connection Yn/Yn. Zero sequence currents flow only

in secondary winding, they are considered to be magnetizing as they are not

balanced by the currents in primary winding. Zero sequence e.m.f. equals

E& 0 S = Z m 0 I&a 0 , where Z m0 is resistance of magnetizing circuit for zero

sequence currents. E.m.f. E 0 S may reach high values. For example, in shell-type

transformers, core-shell-type design and transformer banks magnetizing circuit

resistance for zero sequence currents are equal to magnetizing circuit resistance

for

positive

sequence

currents

42

Z m 0 = Z sc .

Therefore,

at

I&a 0 = I&0 (0.02 0.05 )I n zero sequence e.m.f. E 0 S U n and the system of phase

m.m.f. and voltages is markedly distorted that is unacceptable and dangerous for

single-phase loads. Vector direction

E& S

Zero sequence e.m.f. does not influence linear voltage value, as zero

components disappear in phase voltage differences.

Winding connection Y/Yn in transformers of shell-type, shell-core-type

designs and transformer banks is not used as a rule but if necessary the third

winding is arranged in each phase. It is delta-connected winding. This winding

terminals are not derived outside if this winding is meant only for balancing zero

sequence currents.

In a core-type transformer and winding connection Y/Yn distortion of

phase voltage system with zero sequence currents is less as Z MO < Z sc .

Variant c: zero sequence currents develop only in one transformer

winding (Fig. 1.26) at the connection Y/Zn. At non-balanced load zero sequence

currents flow across both areas of secondary interstar winding in opposite

direction. In similar turn number of each area of secondary winding the sum of

e.m.f. magnetizing forces from zero sequence currents in each phase equals

zero. Zero sequence currents form only fringing fields. Magnetic balance occurs

in each limb of the pole core and phase voltage neutral shift is slight.

43

connection circuit Y/Yn.

1.13. Multiwinding Transformers

More than two windings with different turn number are located on each

limb of a multiwinding transformer. They are produced as single-phase and

three-phase transformers.

Multiwinding transformers of small rating are widely used in automatics

and radiotechnics. Three-winding transformers are mainly used as power

transformers.

Resultant magnetic flux of three-winding transformers (Fig.1.27) is

induced by e.m.f. F&0 which is equal to geometrical sum of all e.m.f. windings

I&0 = I&1 + I&2 + I&3 , I 1 = I&0 (I&2 + I&3 ).

Voltage

equations

for

same form as they are for a twowinding transformer.

Simplified

circuit

of

equivalent

three-winding

that load change in one of

secondary windings influences

the voltage of another secondary winding as voltage drop change occurs in

primary winding.

44

resistance. In concentric position of three windings on the limb the mid-winding

is of less resistance. This winding is appropriate to use as primary one.

Three-winding transformers with two primary and one secondary

windings are used at large power stations. Primary windings are of similar rated

voltage and one powerful generator is connected to each primary winding.

Secondary winding has two parallel branches. These transformers are singlephase and they are connected in a three-phase group. Such transformer design

makes manufacturing primary windings with large currents easy and in case of

short circuit at the terminal of only one generator ohmic and inductive

resistances of two primary transformer windings act between two generators that

minimizes short-circuit current.

45

1.14. Autotransformers

between the windings.

The winding with turn number wax is the part of primary winding and

secondary winding at a time. For step-down autotransformer (Fig. 1.29) current

equation assumes the following form

The current which is equal to load

current I&2 and primary current I&1 .

difference flows across the turns wax .

If transformation ratio of autotransformer

k AT = w AX

wax

be made using the wire of small cross

section.

Consumption

of

winding

to small winding space.

Reducing active material masses results in decreasing to electric and

magnetic losses, therefore autotransformer efficiency is always higher than in

transformer at similar rated voltage.

Along with above advantages there are some disadvantages of

autotransformers. Due to electric linking of secondary and primary windings

their isolation should be chosen based on the highest voltage. Autotransformers

possess large short-circuit current, as it is limited by resistance of winding area

Aa. Besides, at short circuit primary voltage is applied only to this winding area

that will cause sharp increase of magnetic flux, pole core saturation,

46

autotransformer.

For providing electric safety of the staff it is impermissible to use

autotransformers for stepping-down the voltage of HV mains up to LV values

supplied to consumers.

external winding turn surface is bare (without isolation) and carbon brush

(Fig. 1.30) is moving along bare conductors.

The brush is designed so that only one

turn

is

movement.

short-circuited

High

during

transient

its

voltage

limit the current of short-circuited turn. In

more powerful transformers double sets of

brushes with additional resistance are

used to limit the current of short-circuited

turn.

Fig. 1.30.

It is a single-phase two-winding step-down transformer converting alternating

voltage 220V or 380V to voltage 6070V. Such voltage is enough for reliable

ignition and stable arcing between metallic electrode and welded parts.

47

current of a welding transformer corresponds to electric arc voltage U a 30V

(stable arcing), and arc break develops open-circuit duty.

For current limitation windings are placed on different limbs of the pole core

increasing inductive scattering resistance and transformer choke ( Ch ) is cut in

to secondary circuit. By shifting the yoke of the choke air gap , inductive

resistance of the choke, current I 2 are changed [Fig. 1.31(b)]. In some designs

of welding transformers the choke is brought in line with the transformer.

Marked inductive resistance of a welding transformer reduces its efficiency

which does not exceed 0.40.5, as a rule.

48

Transient process usually lasts for a short period but heavy currents and voltages

in windings may appear. It is necessary to take into account this fact in

designing and transformer operation. Transients in energizing transformer and

short circuit at the terminals of secondary winding are of great interest.

Energizing a transformer. In energizing a transformer resultant magnetic

& =

& s +

& ac

& rm ,

where

& ac is magnetic flux of a transient ( aperiodic component ),

Energizing transformer when instantaneous value at the terminals of

& rm = 0 is the most favorable. In

primary winding is of maximum value and

this case magnetic flux takes stable value at the first instant.

The most unfavorable case is energizing the transformer when

instantaneous voltage value at the terminals of primary winding equals zero and

& s.

& rm is of opposite sign with

magnetic flux

& reaches the highest value max

As it is seen from Fig. 1.32 flux

Magnetic flux max may reach the value of 0.5 m and taking into

consideration the fact that aperiodic component of magnetic flux slowly

attenuates then max 2.5 m is obtained.

49

is seen from (Fig. 1.33) when energizing the transformer magnetizing current

rush may exceed 100120 times short-circuit current or 25 times nominal

current of primary winding. Transient flows quickly, therefore switching

currents are not dangerous for the transformer. They should be taken into

account while regulating protecting devices to avoid cutting out transformers.

50

considered as the result of two currents, i.e. stable current i sc . s and transient

current stable by direction but decreasing according to exponential law

The most favorable short-circuit condition may occur when instantaneous

value of primary voltage is equal to zero (Fig. 1.34).

The

current

of

instantaneous

short

circuit

i sc . max

reach

double

may

current and may exceed 2040

times nominal current value.

Transient

at

LV transformer lasts not more

than

one

cycle

and

in

(protection devices begin operating not later than in 5 seconds) it is a serious

hazard for transformer windings. Very high short-circuit current markedly

increases winding temperature that may damage insulation. Electromagnetic

strength in transformer winding increases considerably that may cause marked

mechanical damage of the transformer.

51

2. INDUCTION MACHINES

Induction machines are widely used in up-to-date electric installations.

They are the most widely spread type of alternating current electrical machines.

As any electrical machine an induction machine is reversible and may run

both under motive and generating conditions. Induction motors as the basis of a

modern drive are prevailing. The area of induction motors application is

impressive. It comprises the motors starting from automatic device drives,

domestic electric drives up to large mining equipment drives (power shovels,

grinders, mills etc.). Therefore power of induction motors produced by electric

machine-building industry ranges up between watt fractions and thousands of

kilowatts at supply voltage, from dozens of volts to 10 kV.

Three-phase induction motors meant for running at power supply

industrial frequency (50Hz) are more often used. Special-purpose induction

motors showing higher aiternating current frequencies (200, 400Hz and above)

are produced as well. In this section given to the emphasis is on three-phase

induction general-purpose motors in the given section of this book.

Stationary machine part called stator is a hollow burdened cylinder (stator

core) with longitudinal slots on internal surface located inside one of the

elements of a machine case called engine bed. In slots of a stator core stator

winding is packed. Stator core is made of electric steel, which is isotropic

compared with electric steel of power transtormers. As well as in a transformer

steel laminations are insulated.

Rotating part of the machine called rotor is located in the internal cavity

of stator core and consists of rotor core, winding and shaft. Rotor and stator are

51

separated by air gap. On the external surface of a rotor core there are

longitudinal slots in which rotor winding is placed. There are rotors of two

kinds, i.e. phase rotors (Fig. 2.1) and short-circuit ones (Fig. 2.2). Phase rotor

winding is similar to stator winding and terminals of input phases are electrically

linked with collector rings on the shaft insulated from each other and from the

shaft. Short-circuit rotor winding is casted from alluminium alloy. The alloy fills

rotor core slots and electrically links them with front surface closing rings and

simultaneously casted ventilation vanes.

Fig. 2.1

1, 7 - bearings, 2, 6 - end shields, 3 - frame, 4 - stator core with winding, 5

- rotor core with winding, 8 - shaft, 9 - terminal box, 10 - lugs, 11 - collector

rings.

52

Two bearings fixed to end shields are placed on the shaft. End shields are

fixed to the engine bed. If there is a ventilator of external blasting at one of

outlet ends of the shaft it is closed by protective case. There are front surface

holes for cooled air inlet in the case and air flow is directed along the ribbed bed.

Terminal box is on the engine bed.

Terminals of stator winding are fixed in the bed and supply voltage is

applied to them.

Fig. 2.2

1 - shaft, 2,6 - bearings, 3, 7 - end shields, 4 - terminal box, 5 - ventilator,

8 - case, 9 - rotor core with short-circuit winding, 10 - stator core with the

winding, 11 - frame, 12 - lugs.

53

The windings of a.c. motors are divided into single-layer and double-layer

windings. In single-layer windings there is only one active coil side in each slot

of a pole core. In double-layer windings there are two active sides of different

coils of two layers in each slot of a pole core. In these windings each coil is

placed by one active side in the upper layer and by another active side in the

lower layer of different slots.

Double-layer windings are widely used due to their advantages, i.e.

availability of the winding with short pitch and fractional number

of slots per a pole or a phase,

using coils of similar size and shape,

rather simple shape of coils frontal parts.

The advantage of single-layer windings is considered to be less

consumption of insulation materials and convenience of winding placing

(possibility of mechanization and automatization). An element of any a.c.

winding is a coil, consisting of two active sides and frontal parts. Active sides of

coil windings are placed in pole core slots, frontal parts connecting active sides

of coils and they are situated outside the pole core. The distance between active

sides of the coil is known as winding pitch y . Winding pitch may be diametral

or short but it is always equal to the integral number of slot divisons.

For plotting expanded diagram of any winding if pitch number Z and

pole number 2 p are known one should calculate

1. winding pitch y ,

2. slot number per a pole and phase q ,

3. phase shift angle of e.m.f. of the next pitches expressed in el. grades.

54

y = ,

Z

is a diametral pitch expressed in

2p

Value in two layer windings is chosen based on the possibility of

reducing higher field harmonics (the fifth, the seventh). Usually is considered

to be 5 .

6

In single-layer windings = 1 and they are equivalent to diametral pitch

winding.

Calculating slot number per a pole and phase q (coil number in a coil set).

Slot number per a pole and a phase is

q=

Z

,

2pm

For single-layer windings q is always an integral number, as for doublelayer windings it may be fractional one.

Calculation of e.m.f. shift angle. E.m.f. phase shift angle of adjacent slots

expressed in el. grades is

p 360

.

Z

branches of a double-layer winding is a max = 2 p , of a single-layer winding is

55

slot e.m.f. star which is a system Z

other by an angle .

Here is an example of plotting expanded diagram of three-phase doublelayer winding with Z = 24 , 2 p = 4 , a = 1.

1. A winding pitch is

y=

Z

24 5

= = 5,

2p

4 6

where = 5 .

6

2. Slot number per a pole and a phase being

q=

Z

24

=

= 2.

2p m 43

p 360 2 360

=

= 30 el. grades.

24

Z

Pitch e.m.f. star for the studied winding is shown in Fig. 2.3 and an

expanded winding diagram ( phase C1-C4 ) - in Fig. 2.4.

56

Fig. 2.3

Fig. 2.4

57

There are coil sets in concentric windings consisting of coils of different size

and similar shape, which are placed concentrically. Frontal parts of such

windings may be situated in two or three planes depending on q .

In diamond windings there are coils of similar size and shape, the coiles

being trapezium-shaped.

As an example of plotting expanded diagram of three-phase single-layer

winding consider the winding with Z and 2 p being identical to the above

double-layer three-phase winding. When plotting expanded diagram of a singlelayer winging (Fig. 2.5) one may use pitch e.m.f. star of double-layer

winding (Fig. 2.3).

Fig. 2.5

58

(e.m.f.) induced in the winding. Higher e.m.f. harmonics may cause undesirable

effect. Therefore one tends to dampen higher e.m.f. harmonics with the help of

special winding construction. Such construction features are

winding short pitch,

winding distribution along the slots,

winding bevelled slots.

Effective value of the first e.m.f. harmonic of the winding phase is

E = 4.44 f1 w w b m ,

where f1 - is frequency of induced e.m.f, w is turn number of winding phase,

amplitude.

Winding coefficient w assumes the form

w = sp d ,

where

sp

distribution.

Short-pitch winding coefficient. Short-pitch winding coefficient may be thought

of as geometric sum of e.m.f. turn conductors ratio to their arithmetic sum.

59

Value

sp

is sp = sin( 2 )

,

where =

= 1 , sp = 1 .

Winding distribution factor. Winding distribution factor may be thought of as

the ratio of geometric e.m.f. sum of coil set Eq ( coil set consists of q coils in

series ) ratio to their arithmetic sum

d

& q

d =

q E&

d =

sin

q sin

2m

2m q

distribution coefficient is

d = 1.

The winding with q>1 is called a distributed winding and its distribution

coefficient being d < 1 .

Bevelled slot factor. Bevelled slot factor may be thought of as geometric e.m.f.

sum of separate conductor areas ratio to their arithmetic sum

60

sin b

2

b =

,

bb

where bb , are values of bevel and pole pitch expressed in slot pitches.

Winding e.m.f. due to higher field harmonics. Phase e.m.f. of the winding of

upper field harmonic is

E v = 2 f v w wv bv v ,

where

v

is short

2

v

m

being harmonic v distribution factor,

harmonic v coefficient, dv =

v

q sin

2mq

sin

b =

sin

v bc

v bc

v =

is

bevelled

pitch

of

v -harmonic

factor;

2

Bv l is magnetic flux amplitude of harmonic v , Bv being

v

61

the form of three concentric circles. External circle is external stator core

surface, mid-circle being internal surface of stator core, internal surface being

external rotor surface.

In the slots of a stator core three-phase simple (concentrated) winding is

placed. Each phase consists of one turn (two conductors in transverse section).

The first phase contains conductors C1 and C4, the second one contains C2 and

C5, and the third phase contains C3 and C6. Conductors of each turn (phase) are

placed at a distance of a pole pitch , i. e. it is a full-pitch winding. Phase

origins are displaced relative to each other by 120 el. grades. Rotor winding

conductors are not shown.

In Fig. 2.6 current directions in stator winding conductors correspond to

time instant when

i1 = I m ,

i2 = i3 = 0.5I m .

Fig. 2.6

The current in the first phase is of positive direction and its value equals

the amplitude. Phase currents are considered to be positive when they are

62

directed beyond the drawing plane in input phases (conductors C1, C2, C3).

Current distribution around stator circle comprises two areas, each being a pole

pitch in magnitude. Current directions in these areas are opposite.

Conductor currents of stator two-pole winding induce two-pole magnetic

flux 1 , which is closed via stator, rotor and air gap. Magnetic flux axis

coincides with phase axis in which the current has the value equal to the

amplitude.

Fig. 2.6(b) shows current directions for time instant when current phases

change by 30 el. grades and

i1 =

3 / 2 I m , i2 = 0 , i3 = 3 / 2 I m .

From Fig. 2.6 one can see that at current phase change by 30 magnetic

flux rotates in the direction of phase sequence by 30 el. grades as well.

Stator winding of a two-pole motor supplied by three-phase current

produces two-pole rotating magnetic field. In so doing the field rotates by 360

el. grades per a cycle of current change.

Rotation frequency of the field for a two-pole machine is n1 = f1 ,

revolution per second (r.p.s.), where f1 is current frequency of stator winding (

in Hertz - Hz ). In the machine of another polarity magnetic field rotates with the

frequency n1 = f1 / p , revolution per minute (r.p.m.) or n1 = 60 f1 / p , where p

is the number of pole pairs.

At f1 = 50 Hz the following frequencies of magnetic field rotation

depending on number of pole pairs are obtained

n1 , r.p.m.

3000

1500

1000

750

600

500

63

intersects the conductors of stator and rotor winding inducing e.m.f. Stator

winding e.m.f. e1 being self-induction e.m.f. acts in opposition to the voltage

induced in the winding limiting the current.

If phase rotor winding is closed under the effect of e.m.f. e 2 current i2

appears, its frequency at stationary rotor being equal to primary frequency f1

(the frequency of stator winding current). In three-phase rotor winding threephase current which produces rotating rotor magnetic flux 2 appears.

Given stationary (fixed) rotor rotating magnetic flux 2 due to equality

of winding pole number is of the same frequency and the direction of rotation as

of magnetic stator flux

n2 = f 2 / p = f1 / p = n1 , r.p.s.

Fluxes 1 and 2 rotate synchronously forming resultant rotating

magnetic flux .

Unlike phase rotor multiphase current i2 is induced at short-circuit rotor

in the limbs of the winding. These currents develop rotating magnetic flux 2

of the same pole number, frequency and direction of rotation as of the phase

rotor flux.

E.m.f. induced in stator and rotor windings by the rotating magnetic flux

may be considered as resultant magnetic flux effect.

As a result of interaction of conductors with current in rotor slots and

resultant magnetic flux mechanical forces F effecting rotor conductors and

electromagnetic torque develop.

64

2.7. In the upper part of the pattern we can see rotating from left to right

sinusoidal induction wave B of the resultant magnetic flux and directed

e.m.f. e 2 in winding conductors of short-circuit rotor induced by the flux.

Current directions of conductors i2 and effecting forces F when phase shift

angle 2 between e 2 and i2 is equal to zero and 90 el. grades are shown below.

At 2 = 0 all mechanical forces act towards magnetic flux rotation.

Therefore electromagnetic torque acting towards magnetic flux rotation

develops.

At 2 = 90 o mechanical forces effect the conductors of rotor winding in

such a way that resultant magnetic torque does not develop. It allows concluding

that the torque is developed only by active component of rotor current

I 2 a = I 2 cos 2 .

As rotor winding of an induction motor possesses both pure and inductive

resistances at the very moment of starting (at stationary rotor) one obtains

static torque on the shaft the rotor will rotate in the same direction as the flux but

at less rotation frequency n . The reason lies in the fact that rotor is symmetrical

regarding electric and magnetic field. Therefore reactive torque similar to that

in synchronous machines does not develop and there is no synchronism of rotor

and flux rotation. For this reason such machines are called induction machines.

Relative frequency difference of flux and rotor rotation is known as slip

and it may be calculated in relative units or percent

S = (n1 n ) / n1 , ..,

S = ( n1 n ) 100 / n1 , %.

65

Fig. 2.7

At the very instant of starting (at stationary rotor) slip equals 1 and at

rotor rotation in synchronism with the flux it is equal to zero. If rotor rotates

synchronously with the flux n = n1 rotating magnetic field relative to rotor is

stationary, e.m.f. in rotor winding is not induced, there is no current in rotor

winding therefore electromagnetic torque is not produced. As it was considered

above the rotor of an induction motor cannot exhibit such rotation frequency.

Thus, induction machine at motor duty exhibits rotor rotation frequency

and slip ranging up

66

synchronously at the very first instant of starting (at stationary rotor). Consider

the situation under rotating rotor conditions.

At rotor rotation towards flux rotation the frequency of flux intersection

of rotor winding conductors is proportional to the difference of their rotation

frequencies ( n1 n ), that is why the current frequency in rotor winding will

result in

f 2 = p (n1 n ) = S p n1 = S f1 .

The current frequency in rotor winding is proportional to slip in this case.

At current frequency in rotor winding f 2 < f1 rotation frequency of rotor

field relative to the rotor itself n2 p is less than n1 as well

n2 p = f 2 / p = S n1 .

Rotation frequency of rotor winding flux relative to rotor is

n2c = n + n2 p = (1 S ) n1 + S n1 = n1 .

That is to say rotation frequency of rotor winding flux relative to stator at any

rotor rotation frequency n is equal to rotation frequency of stator winding flux

n1 .

It only remains to add that if the rotor of an induction machine is driven

towards flux rotation at frequency, which is higher, then synchronous one

( n > n1 ) with the help of additional device the rotor will leave the flux behind.

Directions of e.m.f. induced in rotor winding and currents will change to the

opposite ones. Force F and electromagnetic torque directions will change to

the opposite ones as well.

67

The torque will be braking and the machine will run at generator effect

duty and will release active power to the mains. Slip for generator effect duty is

S < 0.

If the rotor rotates in the opposite to rotation flux direction e 2 , i2 , F are

the same as they are at motor effect duty. Electromagnetic torque will act

towards flux rotation but will brake rotor rotation. This duty of an induction

motor is called electromagnetic brake duty. This duty results for S > 1 .

induction motor. There is only magnetic linking and stator winding energy is

conveyed to rotor winding by magnetic field. In this respect an induction motor

is analogous to the two-winding transformer, namely, stator winding is primary

and rotor winding is secondary.

Like in a transformer, in an induction motor there is resultant magnetic

flux linked both with stator and rotor windings and there are two leakage

fluxes as well. 1 is leakage flux of stator winding and 2 is leakage flux of

rotor winding.

The amplitude of the resultant magnetic flux m rotating at frequency n1

induces e.m.f. in stationary stator winding, its effective value being

E1 = 4.44 f1 w1 1 m .

Magnetic leakage flux 1 induces leakage e.m.f. in stator winding, the

value is determined by voltage drop in inductive of stator winding

E& 1 = jI&1 x 1 ,

68

Voltage equation of stator winding phase energized at voltage U 1 will be

written as follows

where I1 r1 is voltage drop in pure resistance of stator winding phase r1 .

Final equation does not differ from the voltage equation for primary

transformer winding

Resultant magnetic flux outrunning rotating rotor induces e.m.f. in

rotor winding

where f 2 = f1 S is e.m.f. frequency E2 S in the rotating rotor, E2 is

e.m.f. induced in winding phase of a stationary rotor.

Magnetic leakage flux 2 induces leakage e.m.f. in rotor winding, the

value of which is determined by the voltage drop in inductive reactance of this

winding

E& 2 = jI&2 x 2 S ,

where x 2 is inductive reactance of rotor winding leakage phase of a

stationary rotor.

The voltage equation for rotor winding is

where r2 is pure resistance of rotor winding phase.

Final equation is written

69

action of m.m.f. of stator F1 and rotor F2 windings

m.m.f. which is equal to winding m.m.f. of stator at open-circuit duty

F0 = 0.45 m1 I 0 w1 w1 p ,

M.m.f. of stator and rotor windings per a pole provided motor running

under load conditions are

F1 = 0.45 m1 I 1 w1 w1 p ;

F2 = 0.45 m2 I 2 w2 w2 ,

winding .

When changing the load on motor shaft the currents in stator I1 and rotor

voltage applied to stator winding is invariable ( U1 = const ) and is balanced by

stator winding e.m.f. E1

U& 1 E&1 .

70

invariable at load change

0.45 m1 I&0 w1 w1 = 0.45 m1 I&1 w1 w1 + 0.45 m 2 I&2 w2 w 2 .

equation of an induction motor

m w

where I&2 = I 2 2 2 w 2 is rotor current referred to stator winding.

m1 w1 w1

From this equation it follows that there are two components in stator

current of an induction motor, i.e. I&0 magnetizing ( almost-constant )

component ( I 0 I op ) and I&2 alternating component compensating rotor

winding m.m.f. Thus, the rotor winding current exerts the same demagnetizing

action on engine magnetic system as the secondary winding current of a

transformer does.

2.8. Referred Parameters of Rotor Winding, Vector Diagram

and Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor

that e.m.f. vectors, voltages and current of stator and rotor windings could be

shown in one vector diagram. In so doing rotor winding with phase number m2 ,

with phase turn number w2 and winding coefficient w2 is substituted for the

71

winding with values m1 , w1 , w1 and the powers, and phase shifts of e.m.f.

vectors and rotor currents should be unchanged.

Given stationary rotor referred rotor e.m.f. is E2 = E2 k e , where

voltage under the stationary rotor.

Referred

rotor

current

is

I 2 = I 2 / k i ,

where

motor current.

Unlike transformers transformation coefficients of voltage and current of

induction motors are not equal ( k e k i ). This is because the phase numbers in

windings of stator and short-circuit rotor are not equal ( m1 m2 ). Only in phase

rotor engines with m1 = m2 these coefficients are equal.

Referred resistances of rotor winding phase are

r2 = r2 k e k i ;

x 2 = x 2 k e k i .

72

determination of phase number

Each limb of this winding is

considered to be one phase,

therefore phase turns number is

w2 = 0.5 ,

winding

coefficient

equals limbs number in shortcircuit

rotor

winding,

i.e.

m2 = z 2 .

Voltage equation of rotor

winding in the referred form is

E& 2 jI&2 x 2 I 2 r2 / s = 0

Fig. 2.8

Value r2 / s may be written as follows

r2 / s = r2 / s r2 s / s + r2 = r2 + r2 (1 s ) / s ,

As a result, the voltage equation for rotor winding in the referred form

becomes

Hence it follows that induction motor is electrically much like the

transformer running at resistive load.

For induction motors just as for transformers the vector diagram is plotted

by equations of currents and voltages of stator and rotor windings (Fig. 2.8).

73

Phase

shift

angle

between

e.m.f.

E& 2

and

current

I&2

is

correspond to voltage and current equations and to vector diagram as well.

In Fig. 2.9(a) T-shape equivalent circuit is shown. Magnetic linking of stator and

rotor windings is substituted for electric linking as it takes place in transformer

equivalent circuit. Pure resistance r2 (1 s ) / s may be considered as external

alternating resistance cut in to stationary rotor winding. This resistance value is

defined by the slip, i.e. mechanical load on motor shaft.

L-shaped equivalent circuit in which magnetizing circuit is taken out to

input terminals of equivalent circuit is more convenient for practical application.

To keep invariable the value of open-circuit current I&0 resistances of stator

winding phases r1 and x 1 are turned on in series to this circuit. The obtained

circuit is convenient as it consists of two parallel circuits, namely, magnetizing

one with current I&0 and operating circuit with current ( I&2 c1 ).

Parameter calculation of L-shaped operating equivalent circuit requires

improvement by introducing coefficient c1 into design formulae such as the ratio

of phase voltage supply circuit U 1 and phase e.m.f. of stator winding at ideal

open-circuit duty ( s = 0 ). As open-circuit current is small at this duty U 1 turns

out to be not much larger than e.m.f. E1 and coefficient c1 slightly differs from

unity. For motors of 3 kW and above we obtain c1 = 1.05 1.02 .

74

Fig. 2.9

75

Induction Motor

shown in the following way.

A

motor

consumes

the

active

power

from

the

mains

P1 = m1 U1 I1 cos1 .

Some part of this power is lost as electrical losses in pure resistance of

stator winding pel1 = m1 I12 r1 , another portion is lost in the form of magnetic

stator core losses pm = m1 I 02 rm .

The remaining active power is electromagnetic power Pem released by

magnetic field from stator to rotor

Pem = P1 pel1 pm = m1 (I 2 ) r2 / s = m2 I 22 r2 / s .

2

Fig. 2.10

Some electromagnetic voltage is lost as electrical losses in pure resistance

of rotor winding pel 2 = m1 (I 2 ) r2 = m2 I 22 r2 .

2

76

in the rotor

2

lost inside the machine itself in the form of

mechanical losses p mec (for ventilation,

friction in bearings and on the brushes of

slip-ring induction motor if the brushes do

not raise under operating conditions) and

additional

losses

pad

(due

high

Fig. 2.11

The sum of motor losses is

Motor efficiency is = P2 / P1 = 1 P / P1 .

It is necessary to mention the following important relations pel 2 = s Pem ,

Pmec = (1 s ) Pem . They show that for reducing p el 2 and increasing efficiency it

is required to obtain small slip s of the motor.

Nominal values of efficiency, slip and power factor of modern generalpurpose induction motors are

n = 0.72 0.95 ; s n = 0.02 0.05 ; cos n = 0.70 0.95 .

77

shown in the following way.

The motor consumes the reactive power from the mains

Q1 = m1 U1 I1 sin 1 .

For leakage flux of stator and rotor winding initiation reactive powers

Reactive power spent for motor resultant magnetic flux Q m = m1 I 02 x m

is the main portion of reactive power of the motor, which is significantly higher

than in transformers due to the air gap. Large values Q m and I 0 significantly

influence power factor of the motor and reduce its value.

Electromagnetic torque of an induction motor is produced by current

interaction in rotor winding with rotating magnetic flux and is proportional to

electromagnetic power

M = Pem / 1 = ( p el 2 / s ) / 1 = m1 (I 2 ) r2 / ( 1 s ) ,

2

flux.

The above expression shows that electromagnetic torque is proportional to

electrical losses power in rotor winding. From L-shape equivalent circuit the

current in the closed working circuit is

78

I 2 =

(c

c1 U 1

) (

2

r1 + c r1 / s + c1 x 1 + c x 2

2

1

2

1

U1

(r1 + c1 r2 / s )

+ (x 1 + c1 x 2 )

M=

p m1 U12 r2

2 f1 s (r1 + c1 r2 / s )2 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )2

remain practically invariable as well as the voltage in winding phase U 1 and

frequency f1 .

Therefore one may conclude that electromagnetic torque at any slip value

is proportional to phase voltage squared (phase rotor current squared). The less

is electromagnetic torque, the larger are such parameters of equivalent circuit as

r1 , x 1 , x 2 .

Consider the dependence (relation) of electromagnetic torque on slip

(Fig. 2.12). This dependence is called mechanical characteristic of an induction

motor.

Under the slip value s = 0 and s = the electromagnetic torque M = 0 .

Mechanical characteristic exhibits two extrema and maximum induction motor

torque at generator effect duty is slightly larger than at driving duty

( M mg > M mm ).

Critical slip value s sc corresponding to maximum torque is obtained from

the first derivative of the expression for electromagnetic torque, which is

equated to zero

79

s cr = 1 r1 / r12 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) .

2

Fig. 2.12

Substituting the expression of critical slip to the formula of

electromagnetic torque we obtain the expression for the maximum

electromagnetic torque

Mm =

p m1 U 12

4 f1 c1 r1 + r + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )

2

1

where the sign (+) corresponds to driving and the sign (-) corresponds to

generator effect duty of an induction motor.

Electromagnetic torque reaches maximum value at s = s cr and further in

spite of the increase of I 2 the torque reduces as current I 2 becomes more

inductive ( 2 = arctg[x 2 / (r2 / s )] ). As noted above the active component of

current I 2 determines the value . This active component first increases as I 2

increases and then it reduces in spite of the increase of I 2 . It should be taken

80

into account that with I1 increase the voltage drop in stator winding increases

and, as a result, e.m.f. E1 and flux somewhat reduce.

For general-purpose induction motors it is defined as r1 << ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )

and therefore, neglecting the value r1 we obtain the simplified expressions for

critical slip and maximum electromagnetic torque

scr 1 r2 / ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) ,

p m1 U 12

.

Mm

4 f 1 ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )

s sc = 0.06 0.15 ,

motor duty.

Fig. 2.13

The expression of maximum electromagnetic torque allows to conclude

that maximum electromagnetic torque does not depend on pure resistance of

rotor winding, it is proportional to phase voltage squared (resultant motor

magnetic flux squared) and is inversely proportional to inductive reactance of

stator and rotor winding leakage.

81

characteristic M = f (s ) shown in Fig. 2.13. When cutting the motor in the

magnetic stator flux possessing no inertia begins rotating at synchronous

frequency n1 and engine rotor under the effect of inertia forces remains

stationary ( n = 0 ) and slip s = 1 .

Expression of initial starting electromagnetic torque of the motor is

MS =

p m1 U 12 r2'

.

2 f1 (r1 + c1 + r2' ) 2 + ( x 1 + c1 + x' 2 ) 2

Engine rotor begins rotating under the effect of this torque. In this case the

slip decreases and the torque increases according to characteristic M = f (s ) .

Under the critical slip s cr the torque reaches maximum value m . At further

rotation frequency increase torque reduces until it reaches the value which is

equal to the sum of opposing torques applied to engine rotor, namely, opencircuit torque M 0 and net torque M 2 ( M = M 0 + M 2 = M st - static torque ).

It should be taken into account that at slips close to unity (starting motor

duty) equivalent circuit parameters significantly change their values. The

reasons are considered to be amplification of magnetic saturation of stator and

rotor teeth layers ( inductive reactance of leakage x 1 and x 2 decreases ),

current displacement effect in rotor bars (increase of pure resistance r2 and x 2

decrease). Calculation of starting characteristics is made by the corresponding

parameters of equivalent circuit.

Static torque M st is equal to the sum of opposing torques at uniform rotor

rotation ( n = const ). At rated load of the motor steady duty of motor operation

is determined according to mechanical characteristic by point with coordinates

M = M n and s = s n .

82

performance is possible at slips being less than critical ( s < scr ), i.e. in the area

of mechanical characteristic. It is in this area that the load change on motor

shaft is accompanied by the corresponding change of electromagnetic torque.

When a motor runs at the nominal load there is equality of torques

equality is impaired and rotor rotation frequency begins to reduce (slip

increases). It brings to electromagnetic torque increase up to value

M = M 0 + M 2 (point ) and motor duty becomes stable again. If the motor was

running at nominal load and net load torque decrease up to value M 2 occurred

the torque equality is impaired again but rotor rotation frequency begins

increasing (the slip decreases). It brings to electromagnetic torque decrease

up to value M = M 0 + M 2 (point ). Stable running conditions are restored

again but at another values of and s.

Induction motor operation is unstable at slips s scr . If one obtains

electromagnetic motor torque M = M m and slip s = scr then even a slight

increase of load torque brings to electromagnetic torque M decrease. Futher slip

increase follows until it reaches the value s = 1 , i.e. until the rotor stops running.

83

Induction motor starting requirements are the following:

Induction motor should develop a starting torque large enough to

make the rotor rotate and reach nominal frequency.

Starting current should be limited by the value at which motor

damage and normal running duty impairment do not occur.

Starting diagram should be simple, the number and cost of starting

devices should be small.

Direct starting. It is the simplest mode of starting. Stator winding is cut in

directly to the mains at nominal voltage (Fig. 2.14). Starting current is

I 1s = U 1n

Direct starting is possible in case of

powerful mains and starting current of

induction motor does not cause large

voltage drops in the mains (not more than

1015%).

Three modes of low-voltage starting.

These modes of starting are used if direct

starting is not available under the condition

of permissible voltage drop in the mains.

Starting torque decrease ( M s U 12 ) is

Fig. 2.14

84

motor at light-running or partial load is possible. This often occurs in powerful

high-voltage motors.

Reactor starting (Fig. 2.15). The first switch SW1 is cut in. Voltage is

applied to stator winding via three-phase reactor R; therefore stator winding is

powered by reduced voltage.

Reactor reactance xr is

chosen so that voltage in stator

winding phase is not less than

65% of the nominal one.

Having

reached

stable

SW2 is cut in. It shunts reactor R

and as a result full line voltage,

which is equal to nominal stator

winding, is applied across the

terminals of stator winding.

Starting current

at reactor starting is I 1sr = U 1n

Fig. 2.15

decreases

as

compared

with

the

current

under

rsc2 + ( sc + r )

the

direct

and it

starting

I 1s

r 2 + ( + )

= sc 2 sc 2 r .

I 1sr

rsc + sc

2

starting the same number of times.

Initial stage of reactor starting M sr decreases as compared with the initial

stage of direct starting s

85

M s rsc2 + ( sc + r )

=

times.

sr

rsc2 + sc2

2

In the above relations the changes of the value sc at starting are not taken

into account. It is not difficult to do if necessary.

Autotransformer starting (Fig. 2.16). At first switches SW1 and SW2 are

cut in and reduced up to (0.55 0.73)U 1n voltage is applied to stator winding of

induction motor via autotransformer AT.

After a stable rotation frequency is reached the switch SW2 is cut off and

the voltage is applied to stator winding via some winding portion of

autotransformer, the latter working like a reactor in this case. Then switch SW3

is cut in and full line voltage equal to

nominal voltage of stator winding is

applied across the terminals of stator

winding.

If the starting autotransformer decreases

starting voltage of IM k AT times ( k AT is

transformation ratio of autotransformer),

then the starting current of IM and current

across

low-voltage

side

of

Starting torque s , proportional to

squared voltage across the terminals of

2

IM stator winding will reduce k AT

times.

Fig. 2.16

86

2

Starting current across high-voltage side and supply current decrease k AT

times as well.

Thus, at autotransformer starting IM starting torque and starting supply

current reduce a similar number of times. At reactor starting IM starting current

is also starting supply current and starting torque s decreases more rapidly

than the starting current. Therefore, at similar values of starting current the

starting torque will be higher at autotransformer starting. In spite of this

advantage of the autotransformer starting over the reactor starting, which is

achieved at the expense of more complicated construction and rise in price of

starting devices, this mode of starting is used seldom compared with reactor one

when reactor starting does not provide necessary starting torque.

Starting by star-delta switching (Fig. 2.17). This mode was widely used

at low-voltage IM starting but had

lost its significance at mains

power increase and is used seldom

now.

For its application all the six

terminals of stator winding are

brought out. In so doing line

voltage equals nominal phase

voltage of stator winding. At the

very starting stator winding is

star-connected.

When

stable

winding

connection

diagram

Fig. 2.17

switching SW.

Under this mode of starting

87

with nominal one, starting torque decreases threefold, starting phase current

decreases

commutational overvoltage occurs in stator winding of induction motor at

starting switch.

Starting

rheostat

possessing

winding circuit. It is calculated for

instantaneous current flows (Fig. 2.18).

Initial starting torque may be

increased up to maximum motor torque

rheostat

Rs = Rs ( m )

(Fig.

2.19).

critical slip to unity, i.e.

Fig. 2.18

r12 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) = 1 .

2

2

Rs(m ) = r12 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) c1 r2 / c1 .

Rs( m ) = R (m ) (w2 k w2 / w1 k w1 ) .

2

88

With rotor rotation frequency increase

starting rheostat resistance is reduced

changing one stage for another. Starting

rheostat stages are calculated so that

during switch the torque should be

changed within the chosen range from

M s, max up to M s, min .

Fig. 2.19

2.12. Regulation of Induction Motor Rotation Frequency

Rotor rotation frequency of IM is n = n1 (1 s ) = (60 f1 / p )(1 s ) . It

follows from this expression that rotor rotation frequency may be regulated by

changing any of three values, namely, slip s, current frequency in stator winding

Rotation frequency regulation by slip change occurs only in a loaded

induction motor. Under light running conditions the slip and rotor rotation

frequency remain practically invariable.

Evaluation assessment of any mode of rotation frequency regulation is

made according to the following indices:

possible regulation range,

smooth regulation,

drive efficiency change at regulation.

89

motor torque is proportional to U12 ; therefore mechanical motor characteristics

at voltages less than nominal one (Fig. 2.20) are located under the natural

characteristic.

If static torque M st is

constant, then the slip of

induction motor increases at

voltage drop in stator winding,

rotor

rotation

frequency

this mode is possible within the

range 0 < s < s sc .

Fig. 2.20

running. The range is limited by impermissible significant increase of nominal

voltage and critical slip value. If the nominal voltage is exceeded there arises a

hazard of induction motor excessive heating caused by sharp increases of

electric and magnetic losses. The motor with more significant critical slip has

higher value of electric losses and lower efficiency.

At voltage U 1 decrease the motor loses overload capability and there is an

increase of summary losses and heating of induction motor at the loads close to

nominal.

Narrow regulation range confines the field of application of this rotation

frequency regulation.

Rotation frequency regulation by symmetry breaking of the supplied

voltage. At symmetry breaking of three-phase system of alternating voltage

applied to IM, the rotating magnetic field of stator becomes elliptic. Such field

90

directed opposition to torque op . Therefore, resultant electromagnetic torque

of induction motor decreases: = op r .

Fig. 2.21

Mechanical motor characteristics in this case [Fig. 2.21(a)] are positioned

in th range between symmetrical voltage characteristic (1) and characteristic at

single-phase supply (2), the latter being asymmetrical limit of three-phase

voltage.

Asymmetry regulation of applied voltage is provided by cutting in singlephase regulation autotransformer AT [Fig. 2.21(b)] to one of the phases.

The drawback of this mode of regulation is a narrow regulation range and

efficiency decrease of the motor at asymmetrical voltage increase. As a rule this

rotation frequency regulation is used only in smaller rating motors.

Rotating frequency regulation by changing the pure resistance in rotor

circuit. This regulation of rotation frequency is available only in wound rotor

induction motors. Regulation rheostat similar to starting one but meant for

continuous duty is cut in to rotor circuit. Depending on regulation rheostat

construction this rotation frequency regulation may be smooth or stepwise.

91

circuit pure resistance (Fig. 2.22) show that as the rotor circuit pure resistance

encreases the slip corresponding to specified static torque increases. Rotor

rotation frequency decreases in this case.

Fig. 2.22

This mode provides rotation frequency regulation in a wide range below

the synchronous rotation frequency. Electrical losses in rotor circuit increase

only due to the losses in regulation rheostat. This mode is more favourable as

compared with the previous one in spite of the motor efficiency drop.

Rotation frequency regulation by changing stator winding current

frequency (Fig. 2.23). This regulation is based on synchronous rotation

frequency change n1 = 60 f1 / p . This is possible if the induction motor power

supply is available with regulating frequency ( FCh ). Frequency regulation

allows to change smoothly rotor rotation frequency within a wide range (up to

12:1).

To regulate rotation frequency it will suffice to change current frequency

Therefore, to keep invariable the desired level of overload duty, power factor

92

applied to the winding simultaneously with frequency change f1 .

Character of synchronous f1 and U 1 change depends

on the law of torque change of load and is determined by the

following equation

U 1(2 ) U 1(1) = ( f1( 2) f1(1) ) M ( 2) M (1) ,

frequency f1( 2) .

Fig. 2.23

load ( M (1) = M ( 2) = const ) the voltage applied to stator

winding should be changed proportionally to current

frequency change (Fig. 2.24)

When this regulation law is attained

the main magnetic flux of induction

motor

for

different

values

of

motor power grows proportionally

to rotation frequency increase.

Fig. 2.24

If

regulation

is

made

stator winding should be changed according to the law (Fig. 2.25)

U 1( 2 ) = U 1(1)

93

f1( 2 ) f1(1) .

Fig. 2.25

Rotation frequency regulation by changing pole number of stator

winding. This regulation mode provides stepwise regulation. One can change

pole number of stator winding either by placing two windings with different

pole number in the slots of stator or by placing one winding possessing the

construction that allows to get different pole number by changing over coil

assemblies. The second mode is the most often used.

The principle of transformation of four-pole to two-pole winding by the

example of one phase is shown in Fig. 2.26(a), namely, a) in series accordant

connection of two coils the produced magnetic field has four poles, b) in series

opposition connection two poles are formed, c) in parallel connection two poles

are formed.

94

Fig. 2.26

IM with pole-changing windings may run at two duties, i.e. constant

torque duty (Fig. 2.27) when the torque M 2 on motor shaft is invariable at

changing stator winding polarity and power P2 changes proportionally to rotor

rotation frequency P2 = 0.105 M 2 n , constant power duty (Fig. 2.28), when

switching the number of poles the power P2 remains aboutthe same and torque

on the shaft M 2

change M 2 = 9.55 P2 n .

95

is used only in cage rotor induction motors as in wound rotor induction motors

one should use pole-changing winding that could bring to impermissible

complicated motor construction.

Fig. 2.27

Fig. 2.28

Additional e.m.f. possessing frequency similar to the main rotor e.m.f. and

96

supply.

Taking into consideration that IM slip is rather small it may be assumed

for simplicity that r2 >> x 2 s , 2 = 0 , r2 = const . Consider IM running at

M st = const .

If U& 1 = const we obtain

induced in rotating rotor winding up to additional e.m.f. introduction and current

I 2 S (1) = s (1) E 2 / r2 flows producing necessary electromagnetic torque. Vector

Fig. 2.29

When introducing the additional e.m.f. E& ad directed in opposition to E 2S (1)

into the circuit of rotating rotor the current in rotor winding decreases at the first

moment. As a result the electromagnetic torque becomes less than the static

torque M st and the rotor starts slowing down its rotation frequency.

At rotor rotation frequency decrease the slip e.m.f. and current in stator

winding increase. Current increase in rotor winding and rotor rotation frequency

decrease occur until this current at new slip s ( 2 ) reaches former value I 2S (1) at

which there was equality of torques M = M st . Vector diagram in Fig. 2.29(b)

will correspond to the new value of rotor rotation frequency.

97

accordantly with e.m.f. E 2 S is introduced into rotor circuit rotor rotation

frequency increases.

Thus, when proper power supply (frequency changer) cut in to rotor

circuit is available one can provide smooth and economical regulation of IM

rotor rotation frequency.

98

3. SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

A synchronous electric machine is an alternating current machine in

which rotor rotation frequency n is equal to magnetic flux rotation frequency of

stator n1 and is determined by line current frequency f1 , i.e. n =60 f1 p ,

where p is pole-pair number of stator winding.

A synchronous generator is the main alternating current generator used for

energy generation (Fig. 3.1).

Fig. 3.1

1 - collector rings, 2 - brush holders, 3 - pole rotor coil, 4 - pole tip, 5 stator core, 6 ventilator, 7 - shaft

99

frequency, which does not depend on load. The advantage is considered to be

availability of regulating power factor and electrical system power factor.

Synchronous machines have one important application. They are used as

synchronous compensators providing the improvement of electrical system

power factor.

Machine

According to their structure synchronous machines are divided into salient

pole machines and non-salient pole machines (Fig. 3.2).

Fig. 3.2

1 - Stator (armature), 2 - rotor (inductor), 3 - exciting (field) winding.

100

induction machine and is called armature. Three-phase armature winding of

synchronous machines as well as the rotor are manufactured with the same pole

number. Fig. 3.2 shows only the terminals of phase origins A, B, C of armature

winding.

A rotor of a synchronous machine possesses exciting winding cut in to

direct current supply via two collector rings and brushes. Exciting winding is

meant for developing main magnetic flux in the machine. Rotor with exciting

winding is called an inductor.

If a synchronous machine rotor is set in rotation at rotation frequency n

and is excited then the exciting flux

f1 = p n 60 in armature winding.

While cutting in symmetrical load generator to armature winding it will be

loaded with symmetrical current system. In this case the machine runs under

generator effect conditions.

Being loaded armature winding produces its own rotating magnetic field,

which rotates in the same direction as rotor does at frequency n1 = 60 f1 p = n ,

r.p.m. Armature and rotor fields rotate at similar frequency and are stationary

relative to each other.

A synchronous machine may run as a motor if three-phase current from

the mains is supplied to armature winding. In this case as a result of the armature

and rotor magnetic field interaction the armature field involves the rotor. As a

result the rotor rotates in the same direction as the armature field does.

101

Winding

A salient pole machine. In Fig. 3.3 magnetic field of exciting winding in

air gap of a salient pole synchronous machine over a length of a pole pitch

is

surface of armature is shown in Fig. 3.3(b). Actual distribution (1) of magnetic

induction B f is non-sinusoidal and it may be resolved into fundamental (2) and

higher harmonic components.

Fig. 3.3

Fig. 3.4

and higher e.m.f. harmonics in armature winding. Higher e.m.f. harmonics of

exciting winding are small because the magnetic induction field harmonics of

exciting winding corresponding to them, also are small short and the pitch of

armature winding is shortened and distributed.

Amplitude of the first field harmonic is

102

B fm1 = k f B fm ,

B fm =

where

k k d

B fm1

B fm

length of a pole tip, being coefficient of a pole arc,

0 is magnetic air

of magnetic circuit along direct axis ( direct axis d coincides with direct

symmetry axis of each pole inductor, lateral axis q is in the middle between

them ),

Ff =

wf if

2p

Usually m = 1 2.5 , = 0.65 0.75 that allows to obtain high values

of coefficient of exciting winding field form k f = 0.95 1.15.

A non-salient pole machine. Fig. 3.4(a) shows magnetic field of exciting

pole pitch . Magnetic induction distribution of exciting winding field B f on

internal surface of armature is shown in Fig. 3.4(b). Actual distribution (1) of

magnetic induction B f is of trapezium shape and it may be resolved into

fundamental and higher harmonics components.

Amplitude of fundamental field harmonic of exciting winding is

B fm1 =

0 w f i f 4

k wf ,

2p

103

where

k wf

kf =

k wf

sin( )

2 is winding coefficient of exciting, being ratio of exciting

=

2

winding slot number and total slot pitch number of inductor external surface.

Usually = 0.65 0.80 that allows to obtain k f = 1.065 0.965.

magnetic field called armature reaction field.

An inductor (rotor) of a salient pole machine exhibits magnetic

asymmetry due to high magnetic resistance of interpolar space (lateral axis q).

Besides, a synchronous machine rotor (both salient pole and non-salient pole

machine) exhibits electrical asymmetry as exciting winding axis of each pole is

placed only along direct axis d.

With magnetic asymmetry in salient pole inductor it is necessary to

consider armature reaction effect along direct and lateral axes individually. Such

method is called the method or theory of two reactions. The method is based on

superposition method, which suggests that magnetic fluxes effecting along

lateral axis do not influence the values of fluxes acting along direct axis and vice

versa.

(Fig. 3.5-3.7). Armature winding is shown in the form of a simplified three104

phase winding as it was the case when analyzing rotating magnetic field of an

induction machine.

Each phase is a full-pitch turn (A-X, B-Y, C-Z). Exciting winding field polarity is

denoted by letters N, S and lines of force of this field are not shown.

Synchronous generators usually run at combined load (real inductive and

real capacitive). For analyzing influence of armature reaction on synchronous

generator performance consider its running at the loads of limiting character, i.e.

real, inductive and capacitive loads.

Real load. For the position, which is taken by the rotating rotor, the e.m.f.

other phases i B = iC = 0.5 I m (Fig. 3.5).

E.m.f. and current directions can be

established by the right-hand rule.

In Fig. 3.5 they are denoted by crosses

and points. At this current directions

magnetic field axis of armature reaction is

along direct axis q. The direction of

armature reaction field for the angle

= 0 remains the same for any rotating

rotor position as the rotor and armature

Fig. 3.5

winding e.m.f. E& and I& equals 90 el. grades (Fig. 3.6). It means that current

maximum in phase will set in a quarter of a cycle later as compared with the

previous case when rotor will rotate clockwise through 90. At lagging current

the armature reaction acts along the direct axis and with respect to the exciting

winding field it is demagnetizing (direct demagnetizing armature reaction).

105

Capacitive load. In case of a capacitive load the shift angle between armature

winding e.m.f. E& and current I& equals -90 el. grades (Fig. 3.7). It means that

current maximum in phase will set in a quarter of a cycle earlier as compared

with the case shown in Fig. 3.5. At leading current the armature reaction acts

along direct axis and in relation to exciting winding field it is magnetizing

(direct magnetizing armature reaction).

At combined load when 0 and 90 current I& may be resolved into two

componets (Fig. 3.8) I&d = I& sin , I&q = I& cos , where I d , I q are direct-axis

and lateral-axis components of armature current.

Fig. 3.6

Fig. 3.7

Fig. 3.8

106

Reaction

Direct and lateral components of armature current form direct and lateral

components of armature m.m.f. with the corresponding amplitudes

m 2 w kw

Id,

p

m 2 w kw

Faqm =

Iq ,

p

where m is the number of armature winding phases,

Fadm =

winding,

p is the number of pole pairs of armature winding.

Wave maximum of armature m.m.f. on direct axis coincides with direct

axis (Fig. 3.9) and wave maximum on lateral axis coincides with lateral axis

(Fig. 3.10).

Fig. 3.9

Fig. 3.10

107

In case of uniform air gap between armature and rotor the above m.m.f.

could produce sinusoidal spatial induction waves of magnetic field with

amplitudes B adm and Baqm . Due to air gap nonuniformity of air gap the actual

induction distributions (3) are not sinusoidal. Resolving them into harmonic

components one can separate the basic harmonics

armature reaction are produced by corresponding fluxes of armature reaction

adm =

aqm =

where k ad =

k ad Badm l ,

k ag Baqm l ,

Baqm1

B adm1

are form factors of the field of direct and

, k aq =

B adm

Baqm

& ad and

& aq rotate synchronously with the rotor and induce

Fluxes

e.m.f. in armature winding

E ad = 2 f1 w k o adm ,

E aq = 2 f1 w k o aqm ,

where E ad , E aq are e.m.f. of direct and lateral armature reaction.

Plotting vector diagram of e.m.f. and synchronous generator fluxes at

&

combined load (Fig. 3.11) allows to get resultant e.m.f. E& and flux

respectively

& =

& f +

& ad +

& aq ,

108

& aq.

& ad , E& aq

& f , E& ad

represented as follows

E& ad = jx ad I&d ,

E& aq = jxaq I&q ,

where x ad , x aq are inductive

reactance of direct and lateral

armature reaction.

Fig. 3. 11

A salient pole machine. Voltage equation of a synchronous salient pole

where E& a

= jxa I& = jxa I&d jxa I&q is leakage e.m.f. of armature

phase.

Using e.m.f. vector diagram (Fig. 3.11) plot a generator voltage vector

diagram at real-inductive load summing up vector E& and vectors of voltage

drop at real ( - I& ra ) and inductive ( - jI& xa ) armature winding phase

reactances (Fig. 3.12). The angle between E& and U& is called the load angle.

Under generator effect conditions E& advances U& and the angle is always

positive, the machine giving up active power to the mains.

109

E& d = E& ad + E& ad = jI&d ( xad + xa ) = jI&d xd ,

where x d = x ad + xa , x q = x aq + xa are direct and lateral synchronous

inductive phase reactances of armature winding.

Fig. 3.12

Fig. 3.13

into components I&d and I&q . Voltage equation of a non-salient pole generator

has the form

U& = E& jI& xad jI& xa ra I& = E& jI& x d ra I&.

Vector diagram of a non-salient pole generator is plotted in the following

manner. Sum up vector E& and voltage drop vectors at synchronous inductive

reactance - jI x d = j ( x ad + xa )I& and pure resistance (- I& ra ) of armature

winding phase (Fig. 3.13 ).

3.6. Synchronous Generator Characteristics

110

characteristics, the most important ones of which are as follows: open-circuit

three-phase short circuit characteristics, external, regulating, and induction load.

( )

E = f i f , at I = 0 , f1 = const

characteristic bend. The characteristic (1) coincides with non-saturated area of

open-circuit

characteristic

and

generator magnetic circuit. Saturation

factor of magnetic circuit k s is thought of

as ratio of total m.m.f. (intercept ) and

air gap m.m.f. ( intercept BC ). For

synchronous general-purpose machines

saturation coefficient is k s = 1.1 1.2.

Fig. 3.14

Choosing performance point in saturation A domain brings to sharp

exciting current increase. Exciting winding becomes cumbersome. Choosing

performance point on linear area A brings to under exploitation of magnetic

materials, their expense increases.

111

( )

I = f i f at U = 0, f1 = const

If one neglects pure resistance of armature winding ( ra = 0 ) the equation

of short-circuit voltage has the form

U& = E& jI& xad jI& xa = 0,

where E& = E& jI& x ad = jI& xa .

Due to small voltage drop value at

inductive reactance of armature winding

leakage phase it follows that e.m.f. E& from

resultant magnetic flux is induced by

magnetic flux of small value, Magnetic

circuit is not saturated and the characteristic

is linear (Fig. 3.15).

Fig. 3.15

3.6.3. Short-Circuit Ratio

is

which produces E = U n at open-circuit

duty to the nominal armature current I n

Sh CR = I sc I n = i fo i fsc .

Fig. 3.16

112

Sh-C R value for salient pole generators is 0.8 1.8 , for non- salient pole

generators is 0.5 1.0 .

These characteristics show generator voltage U changes at current change

of load I. External characteristic diagram under different load conditions (Fig.

3.17) is the result of different armature reaction effect. In lagging current (1)

there is direct demagnetizing armature reaction. At real load (2) there is also

direct

demagnetizing

its effect is slight by less. In

leading current (3) there

exists

magnetizing

direct

axis

armature

reaction.

Fig. 3.17

U N is voltage change of generator terminal armature winding depending

U n % = ( E U ) 100 U n = 25 35%.

113

Regulation characteristics show how to regulate synchronous generator

exciting current in order to keep the voltage constant at load change.

Characteristic diagram depends on armature reaction effect (Fig. 3.18) .

Fig. 3.18

( )

Fig. 3.19

114

current i f change provided that the load current I and cos are constant

(Fig. 3.19).

Induction load curve is used to determine demagnetizing armature

reaction effect.

exciting current, which is necessary to provide the given duty ( U n , I , cos )

taking into account magnetic circuit saturation.

The Pottier diagram can be obtained by joint consideration of open-circuit

characteristic and synchronous generator vector diagram (Fig. 3.20).

Fig. 3.20

The order of plotting Pottier diagram

115

Vector of nominal voltage U& n is plotted on Y-axis, vector of

armature current I& being plotted at an angle .

Vectors U& n

& .

e.m.f. E from resultant magnetic flux

Exciting current i fe is determined according to open-circuit

characteristic and E& .

Vectors of exciting current i fe and load current k id I& referred to

exciting winding and directed towards the vertical at an angle + are

summed up. As a result one gets exciting current i f to provide the designed

duty.

are usually installed. In modern energy systems a number of power stations are

energized for parallel operation. It helps to achieve high reliability of energy

supply and its distribution.

e.m.f. of the cut in generator EG should be equal to the mains

voltage U mains ,

generator frequency f G should be equal to the mains frequency

f mains ,

116

The generator and the mains vectors coincide under the mentioned

conditions and rotate at similar frequency (Fig. 3.21). E.m.f. and voltage

difference between like switch contacts when generator is energized (Fig. 3.22)

are equal to zero

E& G U& C = E& G U& C = E& GC U& CC = 0

E.m.f. and voltage equality is achieved by generator exciting current

regulation and is controlled with the help of a voltmeter (not shown). Change of

frequency and generator e.m.f. phase is achieved by changing generator rotor

rotation

frequency.

The

is checked only during the

first generator energizing.

E.m.f. and voltages being in

phase are controlled with the

help

of

voltmeters

lamps,

or

zero

special

synchronoscopes.

Fig. 3.21

Improper synchronizing may cause serious emergency. If, for example,

voltages E& G and U& mains are phase shifted by 180 at the instant of cutting in it is

equivalent to short-circuit at doubled voltage ( E& G U& mains = 2U& mains ).

Synchronizing with the help of a lamp syncroscope may be carried out

according to damping circuit [Fig. 3.22(a)] or light rotation [Fig. 3.22(b)].

Synchronizing circuit for light damping is meant for switching on lamps 1, 2, 3

between like terminals of the generator and the mains. The instant of

synchronizing corresponds to simultaneous damping of all the lamps.

117

between different terminals of the generator and the mains. The instant of

synchronizing corresponds to luminescence of these two lamps with maximum

brightness and lamp 3 damping which is cut in to like terminals of the generator

and the mains.

Fig. 3.22

automatic synchronizers which regulate EG

generator and cut in the generator automatically for parallel operation under

necessary conditions. However, automatic synchronizers are complicated and

require constant routine maintenance. Besides, in case of emergency

118

viewpoint of prompt breaking down emergency situation.

Self-synchronizing method implies that the generator is energized nonexcited ( EG =0) at rotation frequency close to the synchronous frequency, then

exciting current is cut in and generator begins running in a synchronous manner.

At self-synchronizing there occurs marked armature current rush (up to 3.5 I N ).

However, this current is less than at sudden generator short circuit under opencircuit conditions at E& G = U& mains as except for the resistance of generator

armature winding the resistances of the main elements effect as well. Besides,

current rush value is reduced by energizing winding of field damping resistance.

Operation

frequency is considered to be a synchronous duty.

Consider a parallel non-salient pole machine neglecting pure resistance of

armature winding phases ( ra = 0 ).

Armature winding current is

E& U& U&

I& =

=

.

jxd

jxd

119

Reactive power change. Synchronous compensator duty. Provided that all the

zero, the machine runs at open-circuit duty. If generator exciting current after

synchronization is increased then E& > U& and the current I& lagging U& , E& , U&

Fig. 3.23

120

The machine will release inductive current and reactive power. If one reduces

exciting generator current then E& < U& , leading current I& relative to E& and U&

develops [Fig. 3.23(b)].

The machine will release capacitive current and consume reactive power from

the mains.

Synchronous machine without real load but loaded by reactive current is

called a synchronous compenstator.

Active power change. Generator and motor effect duty. Provided that the

machine cut in for parallel operation should generate active power, run under

generator effect conditions it is necessary to increase mechanical torque on the

shaft [Fig. 3.23(c)]. In so doing current I& lagging

P = m U I cos > 0 .

If , on the other hand, machine rotor is being braked developing

mechanical load on the shaft, then e.m.f. E& will lag U& by an angle , current I&

will lag U& by an angle 90 0 < < 270 0 [Fig. 3.23(d)]. In this case the active

power is

P = m U I cos < 0 .

The machine will run under motor effect conditions consuming active

power from the mains.

P = f ( ) at E = const , n = const

Express the generator active power P from vector diagram (Fig. 3.24)

assuming ra = 0 that

121

P = m U I cos = m U I cos( ) =

m U I (cos cos + sin sin ) =

m U (I d cos + I d sin ).

Values of armature current components I& d and I&q are also found from

the same vector diagram

Id =

E U sin

,

xd

Iq =

U sin

,

xq

m E U

m U 2 1

1

P=

sin +

sin 2 .

xd

2 xq xd

The first component of active power is due to electromagnetic excitation,

the second component results from different magnetic resistances (magnetic

asymmetry) along axes d and q.

Static stability. Static stability of a

operating

duty

when

under

slight

after the termination of their action the

former

operation

duty

is

restored.

exhibits static stability if P > 0 and

it does not exhibit static stability if

P < 0 .

Fig. 3.24

A non-salient pole machine. From active power equation taking into

122

P=

m E U

sin .

xd

non-salient pole machine under generator effect conditions. At P increase from

zero angle will grow from = 0 0 . At critical load angle = 90 0

maximum power P = Pm is obtained. At further increase (more than 90 0 )

active generator power reduces. Thus, 0 < < 90 0 is stable running domain,

90 0 < < 180 0 is unstable running domain.

Fig. 3.25

A salient pole machine. Angular characteristic of salient pole machine active

power is shown in Fig. 3.25(b). Stable running domain of a salient pole machine

is somewhat less than that of a non-salient pole machine and cr is about 60 0 .

Overload of Synchronous Machines

123

synchronous machine tends to maintain synchronous operating duty. It is due to

the fact that at angle deflection [Fig. 3.25(a)] to some value power P

develops under the effect of which stable operation conditions are restored.

Power P is called synchronizing power. The electromagnetic torque M ,

which is called synchronizing corresponds to this power. Synchronizing power

factor is

Psm =

1

P m E U

1

=

cos + m U 2

xd

x

xd

q

cos 2

pole machines are shown in dash lines in Figs. 3.25(a) and 3.25(b). Positive sign

of this factors is one of stability criteria of static operation duty.

Static overload of a synchronous machine at

U = U n , i f = i fn

is specified

k

= Pm Pn .

The value of static overload factor k n should be not less than 1.6

1.7.

Alternating Excitation

P = const in case of parallel running duty of a machine switched to the mains

with infinitive power ( U = const ,

f1 = const ).

To determine this dependence we use the simplified vector diagram of nonsalient pole synchronous generator (Fig. 3.26).

124

Fig. 3. 26

Fig.3.27

vector point slides along line in vector diagram. If we suppose that xa 0

then E=U=const and referred component of exciting current i f developing

resultant flux is also constant. Full referred exciting current is

i f = i f I&

As the full referred exciting current i f changes continuously the

armature current I and cos change as well. At some value i f current value I is

minimum, is armature I a and cos = 1 . At the increase of above value i f (over

excitation duty and at its decrease (under excitation duty) the current I rises

since its reactive component increases.

their forms. Lower curve corresponds to P = 0 , in this case i f 0 being the

exciting current value at E = U . Right characteristic areas correspond to the

overexciting machine, left characteristic areas correspond to the underexciting

machine.

Line shows regulation machine characteristic at cos = 1 . Line

shows stable duty limit at which = .

operating duty (load cutting in and off, closing and breaking electric windings,

125

machines running in one energy supply system and cause serious emergency

with heavy losses.

Fig. 3.28

1 - generator armature, 2 - generator exciting (field) winding, 3 - generator

witch, 4 - exciter armature, 5 - exciter field winding, 6 - exciting current 7 regulation rheostat of exciter, 8 - resistance of field damping, and 9

automation contacts of field damping (AFE).

Transients of any character are described by differential equations. Salient

pole synchronous machines possess magnetic and electrical asymmetry and the

differential equations have complicated form. The most intensive transients in

synchronous machines are caused by short circuits, which occur due to different

reasons (damage and puncture of insulation, fall of power transmission supports,

wire break etc.).

Short circuits that occur at electrical machines running being charged are

called sudden.

generator (Fig. 3.28), the exciting current i f continues to develop the main

magnetic flux and to induce an armature winding e.m.f., therefore large currents

flow across it. To avoid generator damage it is necessary to bring the exciting

current and flux to zero. Such action is called magnetic field killing.

Field killing is possible by means of generator exciting winding circuit

break with the help of contacts 8. This is however inadmissible because in this

case too large e.m.f. is induced in the generator exciting winding, which is able

126

closed and contacts 9 are open. At internal short circuits the relay protection

closes contacts 9 and opens contacts 8. The generator exciting winding remains

closed via resistance 7 of field killing. This resistance is 35 times higher than

that exciting winding itself. In this case the greater resistance of field killing the

quicker the current fades.

Circuit of a Synchronous Generator

to short circuit of any alternating circuit of secondary transformer winding. It

means that there arise the forced periodic currents and free aperiodic currents,

which fade with some time constants.

The theorem of flux linkage constancy. Differential equation of electric circuit

= ri ,

t

where is a total flux linkage of this circuit due to both inherent flux and

If r = 0 , we obtain

t

Periodic and aperiodic currents of armature winding. According to the

127

windings (phases), exciting and damper windings correspondingly.

However, constant stator phase linkages may be developed only by

aperiodic currents in phases of this winding. These currents produce aperiodic

armature flux.

Due to rotor rotation in armature winding phases there arise periodic

sinusoidal currents with amplitude I m , which produce periodic armature flux

directed in opposition to exciting winding flux keeping constant flux linkage of

armature phases.

Periodic and aperiodic inductor currents. According to the theorm of flux

inductor currents and damper winding and the periodic armature flux causes

aperiodic inductor currents i fa and damper winding currents i .

Values of sudden three-phase short circuit currents. Total subtransient current

i sh = i n + i a ,

is instantaneous value of aperiodic armature winding current.

Instantaneous value of short-circuit

current during transient may be of three

type:

supertransient,

transient

and

is due to direct supertransient inductive

reactance of armature winding x d (Fig.

3.29), which is determined by the effect

of damper and exciting windings.

Fig. 3.29

128

direct transient inductive armature

winding

x d (Fig.

reactance

3.30),

winding. Stable current of short circuit

is

determined

by

synchronous

xd

Fig. 3.30

Aperiodic component of short-circuit current at

Periodic component of short-circuit current at

t = equals zero.

current.

Supertransient

short-circuit

current is

,

i st = 2 E m / x d

armature phase e.m.f.

1

xd = xa +

,

1

1

1

+

+

xad

xf

xy

where

Fig. 3.31

xf , xy

are inductive

damper windings correspondingly.

winding at short circuit. These stresses tend to turn down the frontal parts of

armature winding. Cyclic deformations of frontal parts, especially the parts close

to the slot exit, may cause damage and puncture of isolation. Therefore, reliable

bracing of frontal armature winding is required for large power machines.

129

3.10.1. Synchronous Motors

significant advantages:

the motors can run at cos = 1 and do not consume reactive power

from the mains,

the synchronous motor torque is proportional to the voltage M U

(for induction motors M U 2 ),

the synchronous motor

the rotation frequency does not depend on the load.

However, synchronous motors are more complicated constructively and

require d.c. supply to energize the exciting winding. There are also difficulties at

their starting.

There are the following starting modes of synchronous motors:

Starting with the help of extraneous (outside) motor. Rotor of the

exciting motor is set into rotation up to the frequency close to the synchronous

one and is cut in to three-phase circuit with the help of a synchronizer. Then the

auxiliary motor is cut off.

Induction starting. This mode assumes that a starting winding rotor

in pole tips is available. Non-excited synchronous motor is cut into three-phase

alternating mains by stator winding. Rotating magnetic field induces e.m.f. in

rotor starting winding, which produces currents in closed limbs of rotor winding.

Interaction of these currents with armature field produces the torque, which

causes the rotor to rotate. After starting (reaching synchronous rotation

130

frequency 95%) exciting winding is energized and the motor starts running in a

synchronous manner.

Synchronous motor running characteristics are the dependences of rotor

rotation frequency n , current in armature winding I1 , consumed active power

P1 , power factor cos 1 , net torque M 2 on the net power P2 (Fig. 3.32).

Rotor rotation frequency n remains constant and does not depend on the

load, therefore diagram n = f (P2 ) is a straight line parallel to X-axis. Net

torque on a synchronous motor shaft M 2 = f (P2 ) is a straight line passing

through the origin. Power P1

and current I1 correspond to

the values at P2 = 0 as there

are losses and no-load current.

Position

of

characteristic

Fig. 3.32

3.10.2. Synchronous Compensators

the mains and maintaining standard power supply in the districts of consumer

loads grouping. Overexcitation duty of a synchronous compensator when it

gives up reactive power to the mains is considered to be normal.

There are no drive motors in a synchronous compensator and they are

synchronous motors in themselves running under no-load conditions. In so

131

doing they consume small active power to compensate the losses. Starting mode

of synchronous compensators is the same as that of synchronous motors.

This does not raise the question as to static stability in synchronous

compensators, they are manufactured with small air gap that allows lightening

exciting winding and reducing the cost of the machine.

132

Direct current machines are widely used as motors of wide-range and smooth

regulation of rotation speed (rolling mills, electric drawbar of transport,

powerful metal lathes). Direct current (d.c.) generators are used in different

transport and other installations (for energizing electric drives with wide-range

regulation of rotation speed, in electrolysis industry etc.). Besides, they are

exciters and pilot exciters of large synchronous generators.

4.1. Simple D.C. Machine Design and Operating Principle

In Fig. 4.1. a simple design of d.c. machine is shown. Fixed part of the machine

known as inductor consists of poles and a steel yoke to which the poles are

attached. An inductor is meant for producing basic magnetic flux in the

machine. An inductor of a simple d.c. machine has two poles (1) and an yoke

(not shown). Rotating part of the machine consists of a cylindrical armature (2)

Fig. 4.1.

and a collector (3) attached to the shaft. The armature consists of a steel

laminated core and winding packed in the slots of armature core. Armature

winding has one turn connected with isolated from the shaft two copper

133

collector and brushes (4).

The main magnetic flux in d.c. machines is usually induced by exciting winding

which is arranged on the pole core and is energized by direct current. Magnetic

flux flows from N-pole through the armature to S-pole and through the yoke,

then it flows to N-pole again by passing twice the air gap. Pole cores are

produced of electric steel.

Operating principle of a generator. When rotating clockwise e.m.f. is induced

in armature winding conductors, its direction may be determined according to

right-hand rule. The value of induced in the conductor e.m.f. is

ec = B *l *

frequency of conductor shifting.

E

Total armature e.m.f. of the machine considered is Ea = 2*ec . E.m.f. a is

variable as armature winding conductors run downwards N-pole and S-pole. As

a result e.m.f. direction in the conductor changes.

If armature winding is closed with the help of brushes through external circuit

alternating current develops in the winding and direct current develops in

external circuit. This is because there is always a segment under the upper brash

connected with the conductor placed under N-pole and there is a segment under

the brush connected with the conductor arranged under S-pole. As a result,

polarity of brushes and current direction in external circuit are invariable. Thus,

generator collector is a mechanical rectifier which converts alternating current of

armature winding to direct current of external circuit. General view of d.c.

machine is shown in Fig. 4.2.

134

Fig. 4.2.

1-shaft, 2-back end shield, 3-collector, 4-brushes, 5-armature core, 6-main pole

core, 7-exiciting winding, 8-engine bed, 9-front end shield, 10-ventilator, 11bracing lugs, 12-bearing

4.2. Armature Windings of D.C. Machines

armature surface. These windings are called drum windings. Armature windings

are divided into lap and spiral windings. There are windings which refer to

combination of these two windings ( combined windings ).

Main element of each winding is a section consisting of one or several series

turns which are attached to two collector segments by two ends.

Resulting pitch of any winding is

y = y1 + y 2 ,

where y1 , y 2 are the first and the second partial pitches of the winding.

135

Ze

,

2p

collector segments , Z being the number of actual armature slots, U s is the

number of elementary slots in one actual armature slot, is the fraction at

which pitch y1 is an integral number, 2 p being the pole number.

The signs ( ) in front of mean lengthened or shortened pitch. As a rule

shortened pitch is taken because of less copper consumption due to smaller

length of frontal windings.

The second partial pitch is defined by the formula

y 2 = y y1 .

Resultant pitch around the collector yC shows the distance in collector division

between the centres of collector laminations to which the ends of the given

segment yC = y are attached. Collector division is the width of a collector

lamination and insulation lining gauge.

4.2.1. Lap Windings

Simplex lap winding. Fig. 4.3(a) and 4.3 (b) show the segments of simplex lap

y = y C = 1 ,

where the signs ( ) imply right-hand [Fig. 4.3(a)] and left-hand [Fig. 4.3(b)]

windings. The number of parallel branches 2a of simplex lap winding is equal

to that of the pole.

Complex lap winding. Complex lap winding is considered to be the combination

complex lap winding is y = y = m .

The first and the second partial winding pitches are calculated in the same

manner as for simplex lap winding. Parallel branch number is 2a = 2 pm .

136

Fig. 4.3.

Fig. 4.4.

137

Simplex spiral winding. Fig. 4.6 (a) and 4.6(b) show the segments of simplex

y = y =

1

,

p

where the signs ( ) imply right-hand [Fig. 4.6(a)] and left-hand [Fig. 4.6(b)]

windings.

Fig. 4.5.

138

The first and the second partial pitches of the winding are determined in the

same manner as for simplex lap winding. Parallel branch number of simplex

spiral windings is 2 = 2. Fig. 4.6 shows expanded diagram of simplex spiral

winding.

Fig. 4.6.

Complex spiral winding. Complex spiral winding is considered to be the

Resultant winding pitch is

y=

m

.

p

2p=4, Z=Z= S=K=17, y1 = 4; y 2 = 4; y = 8.

139

(dependences) between the main magnetic flux and exciting winding

current of poles ie .

Machine magnetic circuit is shown in Fig. 4.7, magnetic line of force of the

torque is shown as a dashed line.

Fig. 4.7.

Magnetic circuit can be calculated based on the law of total current

Hdl = i ,

where H is magnetic field strength, A/m; dl is magnetic line length element, m;

Exact calculation of circular integral is difficult in practice, therefore

magnetic circuit is divided into areas and integral is substituted for the sum

assuming that strength H of each area is constant.

140

teeth ( hz ), armature back ( La ), poles ( hm ), yoke ( L y ).

Exciting winding m.m.f. to the pole expressed through m.m.f. of magnetic

circuit areas is

Fe = F + Fz + Fa + Fm + Fy , A,

winding current, F = H * is air gap m.m.f., Fa = H a * La is armature back

m.m.f.,

Fm = H m * hm

is pole m.m.f.,

Fy = H y * L y

When calculating magnetic circuit based on preset value of armature

e.m.f. Ea and induction proportional to it in air gap B one determines the value

H in separate circuit areas is determined.

When performing Fe calculation for some values of the main flux the

dependence = f (ie ) called magnetization curve or magnetic characteristic of

the machine is plotted. The values of saturation factor of magnetic circuit k s for

general purpose machines vary between 1.25 1.35 .

141

Armature and inductor fields acting simultaneously develop resultant field.

Armature field action on inductor field is called armature reaction. In direct

current machine is defined by brush position relative to geometric neutral line.

Fig. 4.8.

Geometric neutral line is a line running through rotor rotation axis in

radial direction in the centre between two adjacent poles.

Lateral armature reaction. If there is current in exciting winding and there

field, the pattern is shown in Fig. 4.8(a). The geometric neutral line 1-1 in this

142

case is the physical neutral line at the same time as the induction of inductor

field is equal to zero at the same points on armature surface through which lines

of geometric neutral run.

If there is current in armature winding and there is no current in exciting

winding ( ie = 0 ) and the brushes are fixed on geometrical neutral line 1-1 the

armature field axis is directed on lateral inductor axis and is called lateral

armature reaction [Fig. 4.8(b)].

If the currents flow across exciting windings and armature windings then

inductor and armature fields arise at the same time. As seen from Fig. 4.8(c)

lateral armature reaction causes field weakening of one pole part and

strengthening of the other one. Due to this fact resultant field axis is turned

according to the generator rotation and is in the opposite direction in a motor.

Physical neutral line is shifted from position 1-1 to position 2-2 through some

angle under the effect of lateral armature reaction. It is called the line of

physical neutral. In a generator physical neutral is shifted towards armature

rotation and it is shifted in the opposite direction in a motor.

Direct armature reaction. If the brushes are shifted from geometric

neutral line by 90 el. grades [Fig. 4.8(d)] armature field axis is directed on

inductor direct axis and is called direct armature reaction field. This field

depending on armature current direction exerts magnetizing or demagnetizing

effect on induction field.

General case. If the brushes are geometrical by neutral shifted by some

angle < 90 el. grades there are both lateral and direct (magnetizing or

demagnetizing) components of armature reaction.

143

armature in air gap should be considered and the analysis of resultant magnetic

flux is carried out on this basis (Fig. 4.9).

Induction

distribution

of

the

symmetrical relative to the axis of

pole close to trapezium-shaped.

Distribution of armature winding

m.m.f. (2) is of larger value on

geometric neutral line and it

equals zero along poles axis.

However,

magnetic

induction

in

the

gap

coincides

with

Fig.4.9

within the range of pole tips. Interpolar space magnetic induction of armature

field sharply decreases that is due to by large magnetic resistance.

Induction distribution of resultant field in air gap is obtained by summing up

distributions (1) and (3) and it corresponds to nonsaturated magnetic circuit (4).

If the machine magnetic circuit is saturated there occurs both induction

distortion of resultant field (5) and decrease in value.

D.c. machine armature reaction shows negative effect. The voltage between

adjacent commutator segments increases at the expense of magnetic field

distortion that deteriorates commutation conditions. If the resultant field

induction is reduced the operating conditions of the machine deteriorate, i.d.,

generator e.m.f. and motor torque decrease.

144

application of compensating winding. Compensating winding is placed into the

slots of pole tips and is energized in series with armature winding. In such case

its m.m.f. FC is in opposite direction to armature winding Fa . Compensating

winding is uniformly distributed over the entire surface of main pole tips.

Magnetic field with compensating winding remains practically invariable when

there is transition from open-circuit to load duty.

However the machine with compensating winding is more expensive and its

design becomes more complicated. These windings are used in the largest rating

machines operating at sharp load range.

4.5. Commutation

The reasons causing sparking on the commutator are divided into mechanical,

potential and commutating (electromagnetic).

Mechanical reasons are considered to be low brush pressure on the commutator,

salient insulation of commutator segments, commutator pollution, brush

distortion etc.

Potential reasons arise from the voltage between adjacent commutator segments,

when the level of the voltage exceeds acceptable limits (e.g. the voltage is 3035V for larger rating machines). Specified limit excess may cause flashover,

which is dangerous for the machine.

Commutational sparking reasons are caused by physical processes that occur in

the machine at section transition from one parallel branch to another.

Commutation quality according to State Standard is estimated by sparking

degree (commutation grade) under the brush back. There are five grades of

1

4

1

4

1

2

1

are allowable at any

2

operating duties.

So-called sparkless commutation (sparking grade 1) is adjusted in the machine.

145

significant and dangerous for the machine (sparking grade 2, 3). Significant

sparking leads to brush scorch and blackened commutator that is favourable for

futher sparking.

Physical commutation principle. Current ia change in the section when it is

section in which commutation arises is called commutating section and time

period during which commutation process takes place is called commutating

Fig. 4.10

period. Fig. 4.10 (a), 4.10(b), and 4.10(c) show series commutation of section K.

Commutator brush arc is considered to be equal to commutator division.

Assume that e.m.f. is not induced in commutating section during the whole

period of commutation. During commutating period the current in the section

changes from + i a up to i a and is represented as a straight line 1(Fig. 4.11).

This commutation is called straight-line or ideal commutation. Straight-line

commutation is acceptable, as it does not cause sparking.

Under actual conditions commutation process is more complicated. At quick

current change in commutating section self-induction e.m.f. is induced

e L = LS

dia

, where LS is section induction.

dt

146

ones

self-induction

e.m.f.

develops

in

the

commutating section

e = M S

dia

,

dt

commutating sections. Both e.m.f. induce reactive

Fig. 4.11.

er = eL + e .

reactive e.m.f. er is induced in the commutating section.

In the machines with compoles their magnetic flux induces e.m.f. in the

commutating section eC .

Thus, e.m.f. is induced in the commutation section

e = er

eC .

1.

2.

e 0,

3.

e 0,

iad =

e

,

rC

where

rC

current.

Techniques of commutation improvement. On the basis of analysing

improvement are possible, i.e.,

147

2. decrease of reactive e.m.f. er ,

3. selection of brush mark.

Commutating poles are fixed in the centre between the main poles and

commutating pole winding is energized in series to armature winding curcuit.

Commutating pole core is made of steel and is monolithic in construction.

If there are no commutating poles reactive e.m.f. the value er may be decreased

due to inductance section LS decrease by means of section turn number

reduction ( L S w S2 ). Suitable brush mark improves commutation. It is

appropriate to use carbon-graphite, graphite and electrographitized brushes as

they provide the largest value of transient reactance.

4.6.1. Armature E.M.F.

Em = Bm l v ,

where Bm is mean value of air gap induction, l being armature core length,

v=

Dn

60

Armature circumference D is expressed through pole pitch

D = 2 p , then v = 2 p n .

60

Ea = Em

2p n N

N

,

= Bm l

2a

60

2a

148

branch number.

Substituting Bm l = in the expression for we obtain

Ea =

pN

pN

n or E a = C e n where C e =

.

60 a

60 a

4.6.2. Electromagnetic Torque

Fem = m l ia ,

where i a =

Ia

is the current flowing across the conductor.

2a

Electromagnetic torque is

M = Fem

I

D

N = Bm l a N .

2

2a

As D = 2 p , = Bm l we obtain M = C I a , where

C =

pN

.

2 a

149

4.7.1. General Information Concerning D.C. Generators

The classification of d.c. generators. D.c. generators may be classified as

Generators

of

separate

excitation

are

divided

into

generators

with

extraneous d.c. supply and magnetoelectric generators with permanent magnets

excitation. Generators with self-excitation are divided into generators of shunt

excitation [Fig. 4.12(b)], of series excitation [Fig. 4.12(c)] and of compound

excitation [Fig. 4.12(d)] depending on the mode of winding actuation.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 4.12

Generators of compound excitation have two exciting windings arranged on the

main poles: shunt and series one.

150

generator

shaft

P1

without

additional losses are transformed into

electromagnetic power Pem which are

partially spent for electrical losses in

armature circuit pea and the

Fig.4.13

winding losses. Based on the above

information

this

leads

to

the

following

The equation of torques. If one divides both parts of the above equation are

M r = M 0 + M em ,

where M r =

em

1

is rotating torque on generator shaft, em =

is

pmec + pm + pd

is

open-circuit torque.

At unsettled duty when rotation frequency n changes the dynamic torque

develops

M dyn = J

d

,

dt

In general case, when n const we obtain

151

r = 0 + em + dyn = st + dyn ,

where st = 0 + em is static torque.

The equation of generator e.m.f. and voltages. The voltage across the terminals

of armature winding is

U = E a I a R a ,

where E a = ce n is armature winding, e.m.f., Ra = ra + Rb is circuit

resistance of armature, ra is armature winding resistance, Rb is brush contact

resistance.

Self-excitation principle of a shunt d.c. generator. Self-excitation principle is

based on the fact that machine magnetic system being magnetized keeps small

residual flux r (of the order of 2 3 % from nominal exciting flux).

Flux r induces residual e.m.f. Er during rotor rotation. As exciting winding is

cut in to armature circuit current ie begins flowing and e is developed. If

fluxes r and e act accordantly armature winding e.m.f. increases that leads

to increasing the exciting current increase. It occurs until generator voltage is

balanced by voltage drop of exciting circuit, i.e. ie re = U 0 .

Fig. 4.14 combines generator open-circuit characteristic (1) and voltage drop

dependence of exciting winding (2). Angle of a straight line slope (2)

is

resistance.

The

point

corresponds

of

to

intersection

self-excitation

some resistance of exciting circuit

dependence ie re = f (ie ) becomes

tangential to a straight line portion

Fig.4.14

152

not subjected to self-excitation. Exciting circuit resistance at which generator

self-excitation discontinues is known as critical ( recr ).

Generator self-excitation is possible only at rotation frequency exceeding some

value called critical ncr . Open-circuit characteristic (4) corresponds to critical

generator rotation frequency.

Thus, d.c. generator self-excitation is possible under the following conditions: 1)

there is residual magnetic flux r , 2) exciting winding flux e should coincide

with residual magnetic flux r in direction, 3) exciting circuit resistance should

be less than critical, 4) armature rotation frequency should be sufficient, more

than critical.

4.7.2. D.C. Generator Characteristics

D.c. generator operating characteristics are analyzed with the help of opencircuit, short-circuit, external, regulating and load characteristics. These

characteristics are taken almost under the same conditions and are of the same

character as that of a synchronous generator.

Open-circuit characteristic. E = f (ie ) at I a = 0, n = const

in Fig. 4.15(a).

The curve has the form of a non-wide hysterisis loop. The centre dash line

represents design characteristic according to which magnetic circuit saturation

factor is determined.

For a shunt generator open-circuit characteristic is of the same character as that

of a separate excitation generator but the characteristic may be obtained only for

one quadrant of coordinate axes.

External characteristic. U = f (I ) at ie = const ( re = const ), n = const

153

reaction and voltage drop in armature winding circuit.

External characteristic of a shunt generator (2) is closer to that of a separate

excitation generator. This is because apart from above reasons typical of the

generator with separate excitation winding the third reason is added - exciting

current decrease caused by voltage decrease across the terminals of exciting

winding.

External characteristic of a compound generator depends on joint action of

series and shunt exciting windings. At accordant energizing the windings

external characteristic (3) runs above the characteristic (1) (series winding

shows magnetizing effect). At energizing windings in opposition external

characteristic runs below the characteristic (2) (series winding shows

magnetizing effect).

Fig. 4.15

Regulation characteristic. ie = f (I ) at U = const , n = const

154

The exciting should be increased current for compensating voltage drop in

armature winding and demagnetizing effect of armature reaction.

Regulation characteristic for a shunt generator remains the same as that of the

generator of separate excitation (2).

Regulation characteristic for a compound generator depends on the mode

of energizing series and shunt windings. At accordant energizing the

characteristic (3) runs below (1, 2) and at energizing the oncoming circuit (4) it

runs above (1, 2).

Load curve. U = f (ie ) at I = const , n = const

Load curve of a separate excitation generator (2) is shown in Fig. 4.15(d) and it

lies below open-circuit characteristic curve (1). The reason is that exciting

current increase is necessary to compensate demagnetizing effect of armature

reaction and voltage drop in armature winding circuit.

Load curve of a parallel generator (3) is the same as that of a separate

excitation generator. Load curve of a compound generator depends on the mode

of energizing series and shunt windings. In case of accordant energizing the

windings the curve (4) lies above the curves (2, 3) and in the case of energizing

the windings oncoming circuit (5) it lies below.

Short-circuit characteristic. I a = f (ie ) at U = 0 , n = const

U = E a I a Ra .

In the case of short circuit we obtain U = 0, a I a =

Ea

. As Ra is small one

Ra

large. It may be done at the expense of exciting winding current. The

characteristic will be linear, as magnetic circuit is not saturated [Fig. 4.15(d)].

Short-circuit characteristics for other generators may be obtained only at

155

low power of one generator, etc.

Conditions of parallel energizing are the following:

E.m.f. of the energized generator E should be equal to voltage of the mains

U mains ,

polarity of terminals of the mains.

Fig. 4.16(a) shows the diagram of a shunt generator energized for parallel operation. Assume

that generator characteristic runs below the characteristic (2) (series winding

shows magnetizing effect). G1 develops voltage U mains across the terminals of the mains.

To energize generator G2 in parallel one should proceed as follows. Generator G2 armature is

accelerated to nominal rotation speed and closing switch 1 the generator is gradually excited

up to e.m.f. E = U mains . If generator terminal polarity corresponds to terminal polarity of the

mains voltmeter reading V0 is equal to zero at E = U mains . In this case switch 2 is closed

and generator G2 is energized in parallel to generator G1

I2 =

E U mains

,

Ra 2

To load generator G2 its e.m.f. should be increased at the expense of exciting

current increase. In so doing the mains voltage should remain constant and

generator G1 exciting current should be minimized.

At load currents change I1 and I 2 are distributed between the generators

according to their external characteristics [Fig. 4.16(b)].

156

Fig.4.16

157

Electrical machines possess reversibility characteristics, i.e. they may operate

both under generator effect conditions and motor effect conditions.

According to the mode of excitation d.c. motors are divided like generators into

the motors of separate, shunt, series and compound excitation.

Energetic motor diagram of shunt excitation is shown in Fig. 4.17. Primary

power P1 is electric power and is consumed from the mains. At the expense of

Fig.4.17

this power excitation losses p e and electrical losses in armature circuit pea are

compensated and the remainder is electromagnetic power Pem = a I a , which is

transformed into mechanical one. Magnetic pm , additional pad and mechanical

p mec losses are compensated at the expense of mechanical power.

M em = 0 + e+ dyn ,

where em = em is electromagnetic torque, 0 =

m + ad + mec

is

dynamic torque, J being moment of inertia of the rotating part.

158

d

being

dt

At

stable

operating

conditions

this

leads

to

the

following

M dyn = 0, em = st , where st = 0 + e .

Voltage

and

current

equations.

Armature

winding

voltage

is

U Ea

, where

Ra

Rotation speed and mechanical characteristics. Equation for armature rotation

frequency is

n=

U I a Ra

.

ce

Using

n=

Ra M

U

.

ce ce c 2

159

1. Direct-on starting,

2. Reduced-voltage starting,

3. Resistor starting.

At n = 0 e.m.f. E a = 0 that is why armature winding current is I a =

U

.

Ra

Direction-on starting is used only for smaller rating motors possessing very

high Ra and therefore at starting I a (4 6 )I an is obtained. In larger rating

motors starting current limitation is reached by voltage decrease in armature

circuit. However, it is possible when applying separate supply with regulation

voltage. When energizing starting resistor armature the winding armature

current decreases as well and is equal to

Ia =

U Ea

.

Ra + RS

At n = 0, I a =

U

, where RS is resistance of starting rheostat. The value

Ra + RS

Fig. 4.18

160

RS

I a = (1.4 1.7 ) I n .

Consider starting of a shunt excitation motor with the help of starting resistance

in detail (Fig. 4.18).

Before starting reverse contact RC of starting resistor takes up zero position and

the motor circuits are open. At the instant of starting the reverse contact RC

(with the help of a handle) is switched to position 1. The circuit of armature

winding and excitation are energized through fixed arch A along which contact

RC slides. As a result currents I a , ie and torque develop. The armature

begins rotating at increased frequency n [Fig. 4.18(b)]. At n increase e.m.f. E a

begins increasing and current I a and torque begin decreasing.

As soon as current I a reaches the value I a min = (1.1 1.3) I an , contact RC is

switched to position 2. Due to resistance RS decrease current I a increases

instantly because of low inductance of armature circuit, torque increases as

well. n grows and as a result E a increases. As for the values I a and they

decrease again. At reverse contact RC transition to positions 3, 4, 5 the process

occurs as described above and the motor starts running under steady-state

conditions.

Stage number of a starting resistor and value of their resistances are calculated

based on the condition that minimum and maximum armature current values are

similar at all stages.

by excitation flux change,

by parallel cutting in additional resistor Rad ,

by regulating armature winding voltage.

161

The first mode makes it possible to regulate rotation frequency upwards from

the nominal one. As the regulation is done by low-powered excitation circuit

this mode is considered to be economic.

The second mode makes it possible to regulate rotation speed downwards from

the nominal one and is linked with significant losses in resistance Rad . This

regulation mode has low energetic indices.

The third mode makes it possible to regulate rotation frequency downwards

from the nominal one a motor operation at U > U n is not possible. In spite of

perfect regulation characteristics it requires separate power supply.

Conditions of motor operation stability. By stable-state motor conditions is

disturbances as soon as they stop.

Motor operation stability depends on its mechanical characteristic M = f (n ) and

on torque dependence of shaft resistance M st = f (n ) . The occurance of the last

dependence is defined by mechanism properties actuated by the motor.

Fig. 4.19(a) and 4.19(b) show two characteristic cases of motor operation. Point

of two shown characteristics of intersection corresponds to steady-state

operating conditions (M = M st ) with rotation speed n A .

As it

Fig.4.19

162

Motor operating conditions will be unstable [Fig. 4.19(b)] if

dM dM st

<

.

dn

dn

dM dM st

>

.

dn

dn

Dependences of rotation speed n, torque and net voltage on motor shaft, i.e.

n, M = f (P2 ) are of interest.

n=

U I a Ra

.

ce

Fig. 4.20(a) shows dependence n = f (P2 ) for a shunt motor (1). Falling curve n

is determined by voltage drop predominance in armature winding circuit over

demagnetizing armature reaction otherwise dependence n = f (P2 ) is increasing

(2) that is impermissible in terms of stable motor operation. Therefore, to obtain

falling curve n light series winding called stabilizing winding is used. This

winding is energized to compensate demagnetizing armature reaction.

Fig.4.20

163

armature rotation speed is

n=

U I a Ra

,

ce I a

a series motor (3) shows that at light loads (less than 20% from nominal one)

rotation speed n decreases sharply and may reach critical values. Therefore

motor operation at open-circuit duty is not possible.

In compound motor dependence n = f (P2 ) is determined by e.m.f. ratio of

parallel and series windings. In case when parallel exciting winding is powerful

dependence (4) will be closer to the curve (1), when series winding is powerful

it is closer to the curve (3). In general case dependences curve (4) lies between

the curves (1) and (3).

Dependence

M = f ( P2 )

motor (1). At n = const M = f ( P2 ) should be linear. However, at load increase

motor rotation frequency decreases and dependence M = f ( P2 ) is non-linear,

where M 0 is open-circuit torque.

For a series motor electromagnetic torque value may be obtained according to

the formula

M = c I a = c I a2 ,

where = k I a , c = c k .

Fig. 4.20(b) shows dependence M = f ( P2 ) for a series motor (2). At large

motor loads magnetic system saturation occurs, magnetic flux does not

practically change and characteristic M = f ( P2 ) becomes linear.

For a compound motor (3) dependence M = f ( P2 ) lies between (1) and (2).

164

performed. Braking with electrical machine electromagnetic torque application

is called electric braking.

There are three kinds of braking, i.e., regenerative, dynamic and reverse-current.

Regenerative braking is more economic as it is based on motor transition to

If the torque is applied to motor shaft directed towards armature rotation under

open-circuit conditions rotation speed and e.m.f. E a increases.

When e.m.f. E a reaches voltage U the machine does not consume current from

the mains. At futher increase of external torque e.m.f. E a is higher than voltage

U. In armature circuit current is induced with another direction. In so doing the

machine runs under generator effect conditions. Electromagnetic torque also

changes the direction and becomes braking one with reference to external torque

acting on machine shaft. Braking torque value is regulated by excitation current.

Dynamic braking implies that motor armature winding is disconnected and

closed for load resistance. In so doing mechanical energy of the rotating part is

transformed to electrical energy which is spent for heating of load resistance.

Armature current under this conditions changes its direction and developed

electromagnetic torque shows braking effect.

Reverse-current braking is used in the case of intensive braking. Its principle

lies in the fact that motor electromagnetic torque which becomes braking

changes the direction by changing current in exciting winding ( or in armature

winding ).

165

SUPPLEMENT

The questions for self-control of residual knowledge

Transformers:

Variant I.

1.What ways to connect three-phase transformer windings do you know?

2.What is the transformer winding connection group determined by?

3.What is no-load duty?

4.What transformer losses are called constant?

5.What transformer is called a three-windings one?

Variant II.

1.What three-phase transformer is called a group one?

2.At what connection of secondary and primary windings does the transformer

have an odd connection group?

3.What is meant by the short-circuit voltage?

4.What provides adjustment of secondary transformer voltage?

5.At what transformer load do the currents of reverse and zero sequence appear?

Variant III.

1.What transformer is called idealized?

2.Why does the cross section of the core in power transformers have a stepped

form?

3.What parameters of the equivalent circuit can result from the no-load duty?

4.Under what conditions does the transformer have the maximum efficiency

value?

5.When do the currents of zero sequence flow in the transformer winding

connected in the star?

Variant IV.

1.What ways of connecting the transformer core and yoke do you know?

2.What is meant by the transformer transformation ratio?

3.Write the equation for the transformer magnetization forces.

4.What parameters of the equivalent circuit characterize the transformer shortcircuit test?

5.What is the difference between the sudden (operational) short-circuit mode

and test mode?

Variant V.

1.What function does the transformer oil have in power transformers?

2. Why does the transformer power coefficient in the short-circuit mode remain

constant, the supplied voltage changing?

3.Name the conditions for parallel operation of single-phase transformers?

4.In what three-phase transformer are the fluxes of zero sequence closed on the

main magnetic path?

5.What is the difference between an autotransformer and a transformer?

167

Induction machines:

Variant I.

1.By what external features is it possible to determine a phase-rotor induction

motor?

2.What three-phase winding is called short-cut?

3.What is the motor slip at the start equal to?

4.Under what conditions does the single-phase induction motor have a starting

torque?

5.Why is an induction regulator called a rotating autotransformer?

Variant II.

1.Why can the induction motor frame surface be ribbed?

2.What is the three-phase winding distribution coefficient equal to, if the

number of pole and phase slots is equal to unity?

3.In what mode does the induction machine operate, if its slip value is negative?

4.Why is the motor efficiency always less than unity?

5.What losses in an induction motor are called variable?

Variant III.

1.Why is the motor stator core made of electric sheet steel?

2.Is it possible to make a single-layer winding with a fractional number q

(number of slots on poles and phases?

3.Why is additional active resistance fed into the phase-rotor winding circuit?

4.When does the motor efficiency reach its maximum value?

5.At what slip is the motor torque maximum?

Variant IV.

1.How does the induction motor rotor winding with the short-circuited rotor

look like?

2.What magnetic field is created, if one phase is fed by the alternating current?

3.Name the ways of regulating the rotation frequency of the squirrel-cage rotor

induction motor.

4.What induction motor losses are called constant?

5.What is meant by the no-load condition of the motor?

Variant V.

1.How does a rotor winding of the phase-rotor induction motor look like?

2.Under what conditions does the m-phase winding create rotating magnetic

field?

3.Name the ways of starting induction motors.

4.What is meant by the short-circuit mode of the motor?

5.What is the current frequency in the rotor winding equal to, when the rotor is

drugged?

Synchronous machines:

Variant I.

1.What synchronous machine is called salient-pole?

168

2.What does the armature reaction in the synchronous machine depend on?

3.What is the generator external characteristic and under what conditions is it

got?

4.What dependence is considered angular characteristic of the synchronous

generator?

5.Where is the starting winding placed in the salient-pole synchronous

generator?

Variant II.

1.What synchronous machine is called non-salient pole?

2.What is the armature reaction character in the generator at inductive and

capacitive load?

3.What is regulation characteristic and under what conditions is it got?

4.What is the maximum load angle value for steady operation of the

synchronous non-salient pole generator?

5.Why does the motor rotor rotation frequency remain constant at the change of

the load?

Variant III.

1.How is magnetic field distribution close to sinusoidal achieved in the air-gap

of the salient-pole synchronous machine?

2.What character does the generator armature reaction have at active load?

3.Name the conditions of switching in parallel the synchronous generator with

powerful mains.

4.What is the reactive component of the electromagnetic torque in the salientpole generator conditioned by?

5.What is necessary to be done for the synchronous machine switched in parallel

to operate in the generator mode?

Variant IV.

1.How is magnetic field distribution close to sinusoidal achieved in the air-gap

of a non-salient-pole synchronous machine?

2.Why is Pottier diagram used?

3.Name the losses, which appear at the synchronous generator operation.

4.What determines the synchronous motor rotation frequency?

5.What should be done for the synchronous machine switched in parallel to

operate in the compensator mode?

Variant V.

1.How is current supply to the synchronous machine excitation winding

achieved constructively?

2.Why does the no-load characteristic of the synchronous generator have a nonlinear character?

3.Name the components of the resultant EMF of the synchronous salient-pole

generator.

4.Name the ways to start the synchronous motor.

5.What should be done for the synchronous machine switched in parallel to

169

Direct current machines:

Variant I.

1.Name the parts of the d.c.machine magnetic circuit.

2.How is it possible to achieve the armature reaction compensation in the

d.c.machine?

3.What characteristic is called the external characteristic of the generator?

4.Name the conditions of switching the d.c.generator in parallel.

5.How will the d.c.motor rotation frequency change, if the excitation current

decreases?

Variant II.

1.What are the reasons for the main pole to be made of electric sheet steel?

2.When does the armature reaction in the d.c.machine called lateral?

3.When does the straight-line commutation in the d.c.machine exist?

4.Name the conditions of the d.c.generator self-excitation.

5.What is the armature current of the d.c.motor equal to at the start?

Variant III.

1.What is the value of additional pole in the d.c.machine?

2.Determine the MMF of the armature back, the magnetic flux being known and

the machine having geometrical dimensions.

3. What is the armature EMF of the d.c.motor equal to at the start?

4.Under what conditions does a machine have the maximum efficiency?

5.How is it possible to reduce the motor armature rotation frequency?

Variant IV.

1.What is the resultant simple lap winding pitch equal to?

2.What influence does the armature reaction in the generator have, if the brushes

are displaced in the rotation direction?

3.How is it possible to load the motor?

4.Why is the start of the series excitation motor impossible in the no-load mode?

5.What losses in the d.c.machine are called variable?

Variant V.

1.How is compensation winding switched relatively to the armature winding?

2.Name the reasons of arcing in the commutator?

3.What is meant by the generator short-circuit mode?

4.Why is additional resistance switched at the start in the armature circuit of the

parallel-excitation motor?

5.Name the ways to brake the d.c.motor.

Keys for the questions

Transformers:

Variant I.

170

2.The displacement angle of the like linear voltages of secondary and primary

windings.

3.The mode, when rated voltage of the rated frequency is supplied to the

primary winding and the secondary current is equal to zero.

4.Constant losses are magnetic losses in the transformer, which do not depend

on the load.

5.Transformer with one primary and two secondary windings.

Variant II.

1.Three-phase transformer consisting of three single-phase ones with a magnetic

system not connected magnetically.

2.Star/delta or vice versa.

3.The voltage at the terminals of the primary winding, when the currents in both

windings are nominal at the short-circuit on the terminals of the secondary

winding.

4.The change of the number of turns of the high voltage winding with the help

of a special switch.

5.At a non-symmetric transformer load.

Variant III.

1.Its a transformer with the equal number of turns of secondary and primary

windings.

2.It makes it possible to increase the core section, amplitude of the main flux

and to reduce the number of windings turns.

3. The following parameters of the equivalent circuit are received: Zm, Xm, rm.

4.The transformer has the maximum efficiency when the constant and variable

losses are equal.

5.Only when there is a zero wire.

Variant IV.

1.There are butt and laminated ways of connecting the transformer core and

yoke.

2.The ratio of primary and secondary windings EMF.

3. (.168 )

4.Parameters of the equivalent circuit at the short-circuit test are characterized

by Zsc, Xsc, rsc.

5.Sudden (exploitation) short-circuit results from the rated voltage of the

primary winding and from break-down currents in both windings.

Variant V.

1.Transformer oil in power transformers is used for isolation and cooling.

2.Power coefficient remains constant, because transformer magnetic circuit in

the short-circuit mode is unsaturated.

3.Three conditions should be fulfilled, when the transformer is switched in

parallel:

171

b)UK1=UK2; rated short-circuit voltage of transformers should be equal.

c)must belong to one windings connection group.

4.The flows of zero consequence are closed on the main magnetic path in group

and shell-core type transformers.

5.An autotransformer in comparison with a transformer has both electric and

magnetic coupling between the windings.

Induction machines:

Variant I.

1.Three contact rings are on the shaft.

2.The winding is called short-cut if it has a pitch less than the pole division (in

slots).

3.Its equal to unity.

4.When the single-phase motor has a starting a winding and a phase-shifting

element.

5.Because the inductive regulator has magnetic and electric coupling.

Variant II.

1.It can be ribbed to provide necessary cooling surface.

2.Unity.

3.In the generator mode.

4.It is less than unity, because there are mechanical, electrical, magnetic and

additional losses.

5.Variable losses are electric losses in stator and rotor windings.

Variant III.

1.The stator is made of electric sheet steel to decrease steel losses.

2.It is impossible.

3.To reduce initial starting current and to increase initial starting torque.

4.When variable losses become equal to constant.

5. At critical slip.

Variant IV.

1.The rotor winding is made like squirrel-cage.

2.Pulsating.

3.Change of the poles number of the stator winding, slip (change of supply

voltage value), frequency and supply voltage.

4.The sum of steel and mechanical losses.

5.Motor no-load duty is when there is no braking torque on the shaft.

Variant V.

1.Rotor winding of the phase-rotor motor is three-phase (like the stator one).

2.Any m-phase winding creates rotating magnetic filed, if the phase shift in

space and currents are 2/m.

3.Direct; at lowered voltage; supply of additional active resistance into the rotor

circuit; frequency ways.

172

5.Stator winding frequency.

Synchronous machines:

Variant I.

1.Machine with a different reluctance to the armature magnetic field on direct

and lateral axes.

2.The load character (R-active, L-inductive, C-capacitive).

3.External characteristic is the dependence U=f(I), when if=const, cos =const;

n=const.

4.Angular characteristic is the dependence of electromagnetic power on load

(torque) angle.

5.In slots of pole tips.

Variant II.

1.Machine with an equal reluctance on direct and lateralaxes.

2.At inductive load-direct demagnetizing, at capacitive load-direct magnetizing.

3.Its the dependence if=f(I), when U=const, cos =const, n=const.

4.Synchronous non=salient pole generator operates steady up to the load angle

/2.

5.When the motor rotor frequency rotation is determined by the expression

n=f/p, where f-power net frequency, p-the number of windings ports.

Variant III.

1.Its achieved due to the pole tip shape.

2.Transversal.

3.The following conditions should be provided:

a)the equality of EMF values of the switched generator and net voltage;

b)equality of EMF frequencies of the generator and the net;

c)equal order of phase alternations of the generator and the net.

4.Different synchronous resistances on direct and lateral axes.

5.For the synchronous machine to work in the generator mode it is necessary to

apply the rotating torque to the shaft of the synchronous machine.

Variant IV.

1.It is achieved, if a rotor part remains unwound.

2.To determine MMF of the excitation winding, considering magnetic circuit

saturation.

3.There are mechanical, steel, electric and additional losses.

4.It is determined by the power net frequency and poles of the motor windings.

5.It is necessary to change the synchronous machine excitation current value,

after the machine is connected with the mains.

Variant V.

1.Current supply to the excitation winding is done with two contact rings

connected with the excitation winding, and a brush gear.

2.Because the generator magnetic system is saturated.

3.EMF induced by the main magnetic flux, EMF induced by the direct and

173

4.Synchronous motor can be started:

a)with the help of the additional motor and

b)asynchronously.

5.For the machine to operate in the motor mode its necessary to apply the

braking torque to the motor shaft.

Direct current machines:

Variant I.

1.Air-gap, armature teeth, armature back, pole and frame.

2.Its necessary to apply compensation winding.

3.U=f(I), when ib=const, n=const.

4.Two conditions should be provided:

a)Er=Uc;

b)coincidence of polarities of the armature winding and the net.

5.It will increase.

Variant II.

1.Due to technological reasons.

2.When the brushes are on the geometrically neutral line.

3.When the sum EMF in the commutation section is zero.

4.There should be residual magnetic flux, critical resistance, critical rotation

frequency.

5.I=U/Ra, where Ra-the armature winding circuit resistance.

Variant III.

1.To improve commutation.

2.Fa=HaLa , where Ha-the intensity of the magnetic flux in the armature back;

La-is the length of the magnetic line in the armature back.

3.Ea=0, because n=0.

4.When the constant and variable losses are equal.

5.To supply additional resistance to the armature circuit or to reduce the

supplied voltage.

Variant IV.

1.y=1.

2.The main field reduces.

3.To apply braking torque to the motor shaft.

4.Rotation frequency tends to infinity.

5.Electric losses in the armature winding circuit.

Variant V.

1.The compensating winding is connected in series with the armature winding

circuit.

2.Mechanical, potential and electromagnetic.

3.When the terminals of the armature winding is short-circuited, U=0.

4.To reduce the starting current of the armature winding.

5.Regenerative braking, dynamic braking and reverse-switching.

174

References

1. . . M., , 1990.

672.: .

2. M.M. . M., , 1990.

463.: .

3.

..,

..

. : - , 2004. 178.

4. Richardson D.V. Rotating Electric Machines and Transformers

Technology, Prentice-Hall, 1997. - 731p.

5. Sen P.C. Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics, John

Wiley & Sons, 1997. - 814p.

175

Contents

PREFACE

1. Transformers

1.1. Design and Operation Principle of Transformers

1.2. Basic Transformer Equations

1.3. Transformer Equivalent Circuit

1.4. No-Load Duty

1.5. Short-Circuit Duty

1.6. Transformer Vector Diagrams under Load Conditions

1.7. External Transformer Characteristics

1.8. Transformer Voltage Regulation

1.9. Transformer Losses and Efficiency

1.10. Diagrams and Connection Groups of Transformer Windings

1.11. Parallel Transformer Operation

1.12. Non-Balanced Load of Three-Phase Transformers

1.13. Multiwinding Transformers

1.14. Autotransformers

1.15. Autotransformers with Alternating Transformation Ratio

1.16. Transformers for Arc Electric Welding

1.17. Transients in Transformers

3

5

6

11

14

16

18

20

22

25

26

28

34

38

44

46

47

47

49

2. Induction machines

2.1. Induction machine construction

2.2. Three-phase winding of a.c. motors

2.2.1. Three-phase double-layer windings

2.2.2. Three-phase single-layer windings

2.3. Alternating current winding e.m.f.

2.4. Rotating magnetic field

2.5. Basic principle and duties of an induction machine

2.6. Voltage equations of an induction motor

2.7. Equations of m.m.f. and induction motor currents

2.8. Referred parameters of rotor winding, vector diagram and

equivalent circuit of an induction motor

2.9. Energetic diagrams of active and reactive power of an induction

motor

2.10. Induction motor torques

2.11. Starting three-phase induction motors

2.11.1. Starting cage rotor induction motor

2.11.2. Slip-ring induction motor starting

2.12. Regulation of induction motor rotation frequency

52

53

55

57

59

60

62

65

69

71

175

73

77

79

85

85

89

90

3. Synchronous machines

3.1. Construction and basic principle of a synchronous machine

3.2. Magnetic field of a synchronous machine excitation winding

3.3. Magnetic field and armature winding parameters

3.3.1. Direct and lateral armature reaction

3.4. Magnetic field and e.m.f. of direct and lateral armature reaction

3.5. Voltage vector diagrams of synchronous generators

3.6. Synchronous generator characteristics

3.6.1. Open-circuit characteristic

3.6.2. Three-phase short-circuit characteristic

3.6.3. Short-circuit ratio

3.6.4. External characteristics

3.6.5. Regulation characteristics

3.6.6. Induction load curve

3.7. Pottier diagram

3.8. Parallel operation of synchronous generators

3.8.1. Conditions of parallel generator switching

3.8.2. Synchronous duties of parallel synchronous machine operation

3.8.3. Angular characteristic of synchronous machine active power

3.8.4. Synchronizing power ( synchronizing torque ) and static

overload of synchronous machines

3.8.5. Synchronous machine running at constant active power and

alternating excitation

3.9. Elements of transient theory of synchronous machines

3.9.1. Magnetic field damping

3.9.2. Physical essence of phenomena at sudden three-phase

short-circuit of a synchronous generator

3.10. Synchronous motors and compensators

3.10.1. Synchronous motors

3.10.2. Synchronous compensators

100

101

103

105

105

107

110

112

112

113

113

114

115

115

116

117

117

120

122

4.1. Simple D.C. Machines Construction and Operation Principle

4.2. Armature Windings of D.C. Machines

4.2.1. Lap Windings

4.2.2. Spiral Windings

4.3. D.C. Machine Magnetic Circuit at Open-Circuit Duty

4.4. Machine Magnetic Field at Load Duty

4.5. Commutation

4.6. Armature Winding E.M.F. and Electromagnetic Torque

4.6.1. Armature E.M.F.

4.6.2. Electromagnetic Torque

4.7. D.C. Generators

134

134

135

137

139

141

143

146

149

149

150

151

176

125

126

127

128

128

131

131

133

4.7.2. D.C. Generator Characteristics

4.7.3. Parallel D.C. Generator Operation

4.8.

D.C. Motors

4.8.1. Starting D.C. Motors

4.8.2. Rotation Frequency Regulation and Motor Operation Stability

4.8.3. D.C. Motor Performance Characteristics

4.8.4. D.C. Motor Braking

151

154

157

159

161

162

164

166

Supplement

167

REFERENCES

175

177

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

..

..

6084/16. .

RISO. . . .

. .-. .

.

.

. C.

. 634050, , . , 30.

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