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Electrical Engineering is a dynamic profession, which provides the expertise to
meet technical challenges facing the nation.
Electrical Engineering concerns generation, supply, distribution, application and
their automation. The electrical engineer is often a key figure in different
Electrical machine is the main type of converter of mechanical energy into
electric, and electric into mechanical, one, as well as one form of electric energy
into another one, different in voltage, current and sometimes in frequency. It has
played, during the entire historic period of electrical engineering development, a
leading role, which has mapped out progress in different fields and, particularly,
in the branch termed heavy-current engineering.
Continuous improvements in the design of electrical machines have made many
new practical applications possible and have become strong impulses for further
progress and more diverse use of electric energy. This account for fact that
electrical machine was given great attention to by scientists and engineers and
that electrical machines attained technical perfection of design so soon.
This textbook is intended for studying the course Electrical Machines for
students, who go through the Bachelor Degree Program in Electrical
Engineering. Students study this course in the fifth semester.
The course is based on the higher mathematics, physics, engineering graphics
knowledge, mechanics and measurement.
The textbook is intended mainly for students, who have already taken courses
TEE 201, 202 Electric Circuit Theory, INCABE 202 Electrical Engineering
Materials. All important concepts of magnetism, electricity and
electromagnetic conversion theory are explained. The mathematical language is
as simple as possible.
The textbook is based on the classical series of the textbooks on Electrical
Machines by A.I. Voldek, M.P. Kostenko and L.M. Piotrovsky, B.F. Tokarev,
M.M. Katsman and it consists of the following topics:
1. Transformers.
2. Induction Machines.
3. Synchronous Machines.
4. Direct Current Machines.
The topic "Transformers" includes the following questions: elements of
construction; basic voltage equations; schemes and group of transformers
winding coupling; distribution of load between transformers and etc.
The topic "Induction Machines" includes the following questions: elements of
construction; rotating magnetic field, voltage equations of induction motor;
energetic diagrams of active and reactive power, induction motor torques,
starting and regulation of rotation frequency three-phase induction motor and

The topic '' Synchronous Machines' includes information about construction and
basic principle of a synchronous machine operation, magnetic field of excitation
winding, reaction of armature, voltage vector diagrams of synchronous
generators, synchronous motors and compensators.
The authors welcome yours suggestions for improvements of future editions of
this textbook.
The topic '' Direct Current Machines' includes information about basic elements
of D.C. Machine construction and principle of their action; the process of
commutation in D.C. Machines; characteristics of direct current generators and
The authors welcome your suggestions for improvements of future editions of
this textbook.

Transformer is a static electromagnetic device with two (or more)
inductively linked windings intended for transforming one (primary) an
alternating current system to another (secondary) one by means of








electrotechnical installations as well as in power transmission systems which

change only the values of alternating voltage and current (Fig. 1.1). While
studying the given section attention is focused on general-purpose power

1 - pole core, 2, 3 - windings, 4 - case, 5 - cooling pipes, 6 - voltage switch

handle, 7, 8 - terminals, 9 expander.
Fig. 1.1

1.1. Design and Operation Principle of Transformers

A single-phase transformer consists of a pole core and two windings. One
winding called primary is cut in to alternating current supply at voltage U 1 .
Load Zload is cut in to another winding called secondary. Primary and secondary
windings of power transformer are not electrically linked and power is
transmitted from one winding to another by electromagnetic way.
Transformer operation is based on electromagnetic induction principle. When
cutting in primary winding to a. c. supply at frequency f alternating current i1
flows in the turns of this winding producing alternating magnetic flux 1 in the
pole core. Being closed in the pole core this flux is linked with both windings
and induces self-induction e.m.f. in primary winding

e1 = w1 d1 dt ,
mutual induction e.m.f. in secondary winding is

e2 = w2 (d1 dt ) ,

where w1 , w2 is turns number in primary and secondary windings.

When cutting in the load Zload to the terminals of secondary winding current i2
is produced under the effect of e.m.f. e2 in the winding turns and voltage U 2 is
induced across the terminals of secondary winding. Step-up transformer shows
U 2 > U 1 and step-down transformer offers U 2 < U 1 .

The second alternating magnetic flux 2 is produced when current flows

across the turns of secondary winding. Direction of this flux depends on the
character of transformer load and may be in opposition or concordant to the flux
of primary winding. Besides, the fact that current appears in secondary winding
causes current change in primary winding but resultant magnetic flux in the
pole core is not changed and depends only on magnitude and the rate of primary
winding voltage. Thus, one may assume that joint flux equals flux 1 .
Modern power transformers are of similar design circuit consisting of 4
main systems, i.e. 1. closed magnetic system - pole core, 2. electrical system 6

two or more windings, 3. cooling system - air, oil, water or combined systems,
4. mechanical system providing mechanical durability of the construction and
possibility of transformer transportation.
The pole core is intended to increase inductive coupling between the
windings. It forms magnetic circuit along which resultant magnetic flux of
transformer is closed. The pole core is made of iron laminations, which are
isolated from one another by a very thin coat of varnish or oxide on one side of
each lamination. Such pole core construction makes it possible to reduce eddy
currents induced by alternating magnetic flux and to minimize energy losses in
the transformer.
Power transformers are produced with pole cores of three types, i.e. coretype, shell-type and shell-core-type constructions.
A single-phase transformer of core-type construction [Fig. 1.2(a)] consists of
four areas, they are two limbs ( L ) and two yokes ( Y ). A limb is considered to
be an area of the pole core which is enclosed by turns per coil, an yoke being an
area of the pole core connecting limbs and closed pole core.



Fig. 1.2

In a single-phase two-winding transformer of core-type construction each

of two windings consists of two parts situated on two limbs connected either in
series or in parallel. Such winding arrangement brings to inductive linking
Cross-sectional area of the limb is step-shaped circle inscribed. An yoke is of
cross-sectional area with less number of steps and four angles which are beyond

the circle. Yoke cross-section is larger than that of the limb that allows, in
particular, to improve the parameters of no-load transformer.
In a single-phase transformer of shell-type pole core [Fig. 1.2(b)] there is one
limb and two yokes which partly cover windings like a shell from diametrically
situated sides. Magnetic flux in the limb of such pole core is twice larger than
that in the yokes, therefore each yoke possesses twice less cross-section than
that of the limb. In single-phase transformer pole core of shell-core type
construction [Fig. 1.2(c)] there are two limbs and two yokes as is the case with
core-type transformer and two more lateral yokes as in shell-type transformer.
Such pole core construction requires larger amount of electric steel but makes it
possible to reduce pole core height that is important for transformer
transportation by railway.
Three-phase transformer pole core of core-type construction [Fig. 1.3(a)]
consists of three limbs and two yokes located in one plane if the pole core is flat.
In spatial pole core the limbs are located in different planes. Flat pole core of
core-type construction is not quite symmetrical as pole core length for the mean
phase is somewhat shorter than for the marginal ones. However, it does not
The pole core of shell-type three-phase transformer [Fig. 1.3(b) may be
schematically represented by three single-phase shell-type pole cores which are
superimposed. The mean phase of such a transformer has reverse switching
relative to marginal phases. In this case fluxes are geometrically added in
contacting areas of the next phases of the pole core instead of being subtracted
that allows to reduce the cross-section of these pole core segments.
In three-phase transformer pole core of shell-core type construction
[Fig. 1.3(c)] there are three limbs and two yokes like in a core-type transformer
and two more lateral yokes like in a shell-type transformer. Advantages and
drawbacks of such pole core design are similar to the like single-phase
transformer design.

For three-phase voltage conversion one can use not only a three-phase
transformer with any type of pole core mentioned above but three single-phase
transformers as well. Such device is called three-phase transformer bank.




Three-phase transformers with the pole core common for all phases are often
used. They are more compact and cheaper. Transformer bank is used in case of
transportation problems and for decreasing stand-by power in case of emergency
Transformer windings are important elements owing to two reasons, i.e.

The cost of materials used for manufacturing makes up about a half of

transformer cost.


Transformer durability often depends on winding durability.

In two-winding transformers the winding to which ceiling voltage is applied

is called high-voltage ( HV ) winding and the winding with very low voltage is
called low-voltage ( LV ) winding.

According to the pole core arrangement on the limb the windings are
classified as concentric and sandwich winding constructions. Concentric
windings are designed in the form of hollow cylinders placed concentrically on
the limbs. LV winding is placed closer to the limb as less isolation distance is
required and HV winding is placed outside.
Sandwich (disc) windings are made in the form of separate HV and LV
sections (discs), which are sandwiched on the limb. They are used only in
special-purpose transformers.
According to engineering design the windings are classified as
1. Cylindrical single- or multilayer windings made of rectangular or round
2. Spiral simplex and multiple windings of rectangular wire
3. Continuous disc windings made of rectangular wire
4. Windings made of foil.
Single- and two-layer cylindrical windings of rectangular wire are used as
LV windings at nominal current up to 800A. The turns of each layer are wound
closer to each other in a spiral manner. Interlayer isolation is made by two layers
of electroisolating 0.5 mm cardboard or by the channel.
Multilayer cylindrical windings made of rectangular wire are used as HV
windings (up to 35 kW). These windings are used in 110 kW transformers and
Spiral simplex and multiple windings are used as LV windings at the current
over 300 A. Turns are wound in the form of one or several movements spiral.
Channels are made between turns and parallel branches.
Continuous-disc windings consist of disk coils connected in series and
wound in continuous spiral without breaking wire between separate coils. The
coils are separated by the channel. They are used as HV and LV windings.


1.2. Basic Transformer Equations

It can be supposed that resultant alternating magnetic flux in the
transformer pole core is sinusoidal time function.
Whereas instantaneous e.m.f. value induced in the primary winding equals

e1 = w1 (d dt ) = w1 max cos t = w1 max sin (t 2 )

where = 2f .
By analogy for the secondary winding this leads to the following

e2 = w2 max sin (t 2 )
Thus, e.m.f. e1 and e2 lag resulting flux in phase through an angle 2 .
Effective e.m.f. value may be written as

E1 =


= 4.44 w1 f max , ,

E2 = 4.44 w2 f max
E.m.f. ratio of HV and LV windings is called transformation ratio






U 1

U 2

Currents I1 and I 2 in transformer windings besides resultant magnetic

flux induce magnetic leakage fluxes 1 and 2 (Fig. 1.4). Each flux is
linked with the turns of only inherent winding and induces e.m.f. leakage in it.
Effective e.m.f. leakage values are proportional to the currents in the
corresponding windings

E& 1 = jI&1 x 1; E 2 = jI&2 x 2 ,



x 1 , x 2 are inductive leakage reactances of primary and secondary

windings accordingly. The sign minus in this expression points to leakage e.m.f.

Fig. 1.4
If the primary transformer winding with ohmic resistance r1 cut into the
voltage U 1 main, voltage equation is

U& 1 = ( E&1 ) + jI&1 x 1 + I&1 r1

In power transformer inductive and active voltage drop is not significant,
therefore one can assume that U& 1 ( E&1 ) .
For secondary transformer winding the voltage drop at the load equals
terminal voltage of secondary winding and voltage equation results is

U& 2 = E& 2 jI&2 x 2 I&2 r2 = I&2 Z load

where r2 is ohmic resistance of secondary winding.
If a transformer runs at primary winding cut into the voltage U 1 main and
broken secondary winding we deal with no-load duty. Current I 0 in primary
winding under these conditions is called no-load duty.

Magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) I 0 w1 produced by this current induces

magnetic flux in transformer pole core with the amplitude

max = 2 I 0 w1 R
where Rm is pole core magnetic resistance.
When secondary winding is closed to load Z load current I 2 develops. As
for the primary winding the current increases up to the value I 1 . Now magnetic
flux in pole core develops under the effect of two m.m.f. I&1 w1 and I&2 w2 .
Thus, it may be considered that resultant magnetic flux value at stable
voltage U 1 does not practically depend on transformer load if its value does not
exceed the nominal value. The considered approach leads to the following
transformer m.m.f. equation

I&0 w1 = I&1 w1 + I&2 w2

I&0 w1 = I&1 w1 + I&2 w2
and transformer currents equation is
I&0 = I&1 + I&2 w2 / w1 = I&1 + I&2 ,

I&1 = I&0 + ( I&2 ),

where I&2 = I&2 w2 / w1 is secondary winding current brought to the primary

winding turn number.


1.3. Transformer Equivalent Circuit

Parameters of primary and secondary transformer windings differ

resulting in marked transformation ratio that makes difficult plotting vector
This problem is eliminated by bringing secondary parameters and the load
to the form of primary winding, they are converted per turn number of primary
winding w1 . As a result, instead of a real transformer with transformation ratio
k = w 1 / w 2 we get the equivalent transformer with k = w1 w2 = 1 , where
w2 = w1 . Such transformer is called the idealized transformer.

Secondary parameters referred above should not influence energetic

transformer values, i.e. all voltages and phase shifts in secondary winding
remain the same as in a real transformer. As a result, turns number of secondary
winding changes into w2 / w2 = w1 / w2 = k times and as a consequence

E& 2 = k E& 2 , U& 2 = k U& 2 .

If electromagnetic voltages of real and idealized transformer secondary
winding are equal then the expression for the secondary winding current is

E& 2 I&2 = E& 2 I&2 = k E& 2 I&2 , I&2 = I&2 / k

Referring to the losses equality in the secondary windings effective
resistance of both real and idealized transformers the expression for idealized
effective resistance of a secondary winding is obtained
I&22 r2 = (I&2 ) r2 = (I&2 / k ) r2 ,

r2 = r2 k 2

Referred inductive leakage reactance of secondary winding is determined

from the equality condition of secondary winding reactive power of real and
idealized transformers
I&22 x 2 = (I&2 ) x 2 = (I&2 / k ) x 2 ,


x 2 = x 2 k 2 .

Referred impedance of transformer secondary winding

Z 2 = r2 + jx 2 = Z 2 k 2
Voltage equations for idealized transformer may be written as
U& 1 = E&1 + jI&1 x 1 + I&1 r1 ,

U& 2 = E& 2 jI&2 x 2 I&2 r2

Currents equation is

I&1 = I&0 + ( I&2 )

These equations show analytical relation between transformer parameters

in the range between no-load and nominal duties.
Lets consider transformer equivalent circuit [Fig. 1.5(a)]. This diagram shows

Fig. 1.5
that ohmic and inductive resistances are conventionally taken out by convention
from the corresponding windings and are energized in series.

As k = 1 in the idealized transformer then E& 1 = E& 2 is obtained. As a result

points A and a, X and x in the diagram are of similar potentials, that makes its
possible to connect them electrically and to obtain T-shape electric equivalent
circuit of the idealized transformer [Fig. 1.5(b)]. Magnetic linking between the
windings is substituted for electric linking in this equivalent circuit.
T-shaped electric equivalent circuit of the idealized transformer makes
investigation of electromagnetic processes and transformer calculations easier.
The circuit is a complex of three branches. The first branch contains impedance
Z1 = r1 + jx 1 and current I&1 . The second branch (magnetizing) contains

impedance Z m = rm + jx m and current I&0 , where rm , x m are the parameters of a

magnetizing branch. The third branch contains impedances of secondary
= rload
and current I&2.
winding Z 2 = r2 + jx 2 , load Z load
are constant and may
All the parameters of electric equivalent circuit but Z load

be determined either by calculation or experimentally (no-load and short-circuit

duties ).
1.4. No-Load Duty

No-load duty is considered to be transformer duty at closed secondary

winding Z load = , I 2 = 0 .
Voltage and current equations take the form
U& 1 = E&1 + jI&0 x 1 + I&0 r1 ;

= E& 2 ; I&1 = I&0 .

U& 20
Magnetic flux 1 in the transformer is alternating one, therefore the pole
core is being steadily remagnetized, there arise magnetic losses from hysteresis
and eddy currents induced by alternating magnetic flux in iron laminations.
Open-circuit current I&0 is of two components, namely, active component I&0 a
owing magnetic losses and reactive one I&0 showing magnetizing current

I 0 = I 02a + I 02

Fig. 1.6
Active component of open-circuit current usually is not significant, it does not
exceed 10% of the current I 0 and therefore it does not significantly influence
open-circuit current.
As net power of transformer while running
under no-load conditions equals zero active
power P0 consumed under this conditions is
spent for magnetic losses in the pole core Pm
and electric losses in primary winding I 0 r1 .

Taking into consideration the fact that open

circuit current I 0 does not usually exceed 210% of primary winding nominal current I 1nom






magnetic losses in the iron core can be

Fig. 1.7

considered to be open-circuit losses.

Electric equivalent circuit and transformer vector diagram are shown in Fig. 1.6
and Fig. 1.7.
& 1 lags behind from current I&0
Angle through which vector of magnetic flux

is called magnetic loss angle. This angle increases with the growth of open17

circuit current active component I&0 a i.e. with the growth of magnetic losses in
the transformer core.

1.5. Short-Circuit Duty

Short circuit is the transformer duty at short-circuited secondary winding

Z load = 0 , U 2 = 0 .

Under operating conditions when nominal voltage U 1nom is applied short

circuit is considered to be emergency duty and a serious hazard to the
transformer. Only steady short-circuit current exceeds the nominal current 10-20
Short-circuit duty is not a hazard to the transformer as step-down voltage
is supplied to the primary winding, in so doing currents in both windings being
equal to nominal currents.
This step-down voltage is called nominal short-circuit voltage and is
usually expressed as a percentage of nominal voltage
u sc = (U sc U 1nom ) 100 = 5 10%

As we have found before the resultant magnetic flux in the transformer pole core
is approximately proportional to primary winding voltage. Consequently, at
short-circuit duty resultant magnetic flux in
the pole core is small, magnetizing current
is required to induce it and it may be
neglected, therefore equivalent circuit does
not posses magnetizing branch.
Equations of voltages and currents take the form

U& sc = I&1sc (r1 + r2 ) + jI&1sc ( x 1 + x 2 ) = I&1sc r1 + jI&1sc xsc = I&1sc Z sc ,

I&1sc = I&2 sc ,

where Z sc is transformer impedance under

short circuit conditions,
rsc , xsc are active and reactive components of

resistance Z sc .
Electric equivalent circuit and vector
diagram are shown in Fig. 1.8 and Fig. 1.9.
Rectangular triangle AOB is called shortcircuit triangle, its legs being active U& sca and
reactive U& scr components of short circuit

OB = I&1sc r1 + ( I&2 sc r2 ) = I&1sc rsc = U& sca ,

BA = jI&1sc x 1 + ( jI&2 sc x 2 ) = jI&1sc xsc = U& scr .
As at short circuit duty the resultant flux is too small compared with its
value at nominal primary winding voltage pole core magnetic losses may be
neglected. It follows that active power Psc , consumed at this duty is spent for
electric losses in transformer windings

Psc = I12sc r1 + I 12sc r2 = I&12sc rsc .


1.6. Transformer Vector Diagrams under Load Conditions

For plotting vector




equivalent circuit of the

idealized transformer and
the basic equations of
voltage and currents are



clearly show relations and

phase shifts between the









phase shift angle between

& 2 and

I&2 one should

know the load character.

At active-inductive load (Fig. 1.10) vector I&2 lags & 2 in phase through an angle
2 = tan 1 [( x 2 + xn ) / (r2 + rn )]

At active-capacitive load (Fig. 1.11) vector I&2 advances & 2 through an angle
2 = tan 1 [( x 2 xn ) / (r2 + rn )]

At marked capacitive load component the voltage U& 2 may be larger than
e.m.f. at open circuit (no-load) duty & 2 . Besides, reactive component of
secondary winding I&2 r = I&2 sin 2 is in phase with reactive component of the
open circuit current I&0 r , showing magnetizing effect on the pole core. It causes


primary winding current I&1 decrease compared with its value at active-inductive
load when the component I&2 r shows
demagnetizing effect.
The above vector diagrams of a loaded
transformer cannot be used for practical
calculations as being complex. By
analogy with short- circuit duty in the
transformers running at the load close to
the nominal one open-circuit current is
neglected and it is considered to be
I&1 = I&2 .
As a result, transformer equivalent
circuit takes a simplified form, it lacks
magnetizing branch. The circuit consists
of connected in series elements
[Fig. 1.12(a)].



Simplified vector diagram is plotted according to nominal voltage values of


primary winding U 1nom , nominal current of primary winding I&1nom , power factor
cos 2 nom and short circuit triangle parameters U& sc , U& sca , U& scr .

Lets explain plotting simplified transformer vector diagram at active-inductive

load [Fig. 1.12(b)]. In an arbitrary way for example, one constructs a current
vector I&1 = I&2 is constructed on Y-axis from its origin. A line is drawn at an
angle 2 , where voltage vector ( U& 2 ) is located on it according to the load
character. One constructs ABC - short-circuit triangle is constructed. The leg
BC being equal to active component of short-circuit voltage is in phase with
vector current. The leg AB being equal to reactive component of short circuit
voltage advances current vector by 90o .
One shifts the triangle ABC without changing the legs of an angle orientation
so that the vertex C could be found on the line directed at an angle 2 to the
current vector until the distance from coordinates origin to the vertex A equals
U& 1 = U& 1nom .
Then phase shift angle 1 between the primary winding current I&1 and its
voltage U& 1 as well as vector value

( U& 2 )are

determined. All vector

constructions are carried out at the usual scale.

1.7. External Transformer Characteristics

Current change of transformer load causes the changes of its secondary

voltage and efficiency due to the change of voltage drop and active power losses
in the windings.
Secondary voltage change is usually expressed in percent and is
determined as follows


U& 2
U& 20 U& 2
U& 20
U =
100 =

U& 20
U& 20
are ordinary and referred voltages (e.m.f.) of secondary
where U& 20 , U& 20
winding open circuit at nominal voltage of primary winding, U& 2 ,U& 2 are
ordinary and referred voltages across transformer secondary winding terminals
at primary winding rated voltage.
Using simplified transformer vector diagram the expression for calculation of
secondary voltage change is obtained
U& = (U& sa cos 2 + U& scr sin 2 ) + 2 (U scr cos 2 U sca sin 2 ) / 200,% ,

where = I&2 / I&2 nom = I&2 / I&2 nom is load factor.

U& =

U& 20 U& 2
U& U& 2
100 = 20

U& 20
U& 20

From the given expression it follows that secondary voltage change

depends on amount and character of the load.
Dependences U& = f ( ) at cos 2 = const shown in Fig. 1.13(a) are


practically linear as the first addend changes proportionally the load and the
second one being insignificant does not practically influence U value.
The second addend is neglected in most cases due to its rather small value
and a simplified formula for U calculation is used

U& = (U& sca cos 2 + U& scr sin 2 )

Dependences U = f ( 2 ) at = const are of more complicated form
[Fig. 1.13(b)]. At 2 = 0

U = U sc this leads to the following result at

2 = 90 0

U = U sc .



voltage change occurs at 2 = sc and is

equal to U max = U sc .
At 20 = (90 0 sc ),

U = 0 .

Dependence of secondary winding U& 2

on load current I&2 or on load factor at
rated voltage and primary winding frequency
under stable load conditions is called external transformer characteristic.
For plotting external characteristic the following formula may be used
U 2 = U 20 (1 U / 100),
where [U ] = % .
External characteristics (Fig. 1.14) due to linearity dependence U = f ( ) are
also linear.


1.8. Transformer Voltage Regulation

Voltages at different sections of energy transmission line where stepdown transformers can be cut in differ from each other and as a rule, from
transformer rated primary voltage. Besides, these voltages change owing to load
changes. Taking into consideration the fact that terminal secondary winding
voltage of the transformer should correspond to State Standard requirements it is
possible to provide these requirements, in particular, by changing transformation
HV windings of step-down transformers have regulating shunts with the
help of which one can obtain transformation ratio that differs from the nominal
one may be obtained.
Regulating shunts are designed in each phase either close to zero point or
in the middle of the phase. In the first case three or five branches are made in
each phase, in so doing medium shunt corresponds to rated transformer ratio and
two ( four ) other shunts correspond to transformation ratio that differs by 5%
( 2.5% and 5% ) from the rated one. In the second case each phase is divided
into two parts and six shunts are formed, that makes its possible to get except for
rated transformation ratio four additional values that differ 2.5% and 5%
from the rated one.
Two kinds of power transformer voltage regulation are provided, i.e.
voltage regulation by switching winding branches without excitation (SWE)
after cutting out all transformer windings and voltage regulation without load
break (LBR), without cutting out transformer windings. Branch switches LBR
compared with SWE are of more complex design because each phase is
provided with special switching devices. LBR equipment is located in the
common tank with active transformer part and its switching is automatized or
done at a distance (from switchboard). Transformers with LBR are usually
intended for voltage regulation within the range of 6-10%.

At higher transformer voltages

LBR equipment seems to be too
complex. In this case one uses
voltage regulation is used with of an
injector transformer consisting of ST
transformer connected in series and
regulating autotransformer (RA) with
switching device (SD) (Fig. 1.15).
Transformer secondary winding voltage ST U& is summarized with line
voltages U& L1 and changes it up to the value U& L2 = U& L1 U& . The value U&
may be changed by the regulation autotransformer (RA) and U& may be
changed through 180o by a pitch regulation switch (PRS).

1.9. Transformer Losses and Efficiency

In the process of electric energy transformation some energy is lost in the

transformer in the terms of electric and magnetic losses.
Electric losses cause heating the transformer windings when electric current
flows across them. Power Pe of electrical losses is proportional to current square
and is equal to the sum of electric losses in primary Pe1 and secondary Pe 2

Pe = Pe1 + Pe 2 = m I 12 r1 + m ( I 2 ) 2 r2
where m is phase number in transformer windings.
This expression for transformer electric losses is used only at the stage of
designing. When manufacturing transformer electrical losses are determined by


the results of short circuit duty taking the voltage at rated currents in the
windings Pscnom

Pe = 2 Pscnom ,
where is load factor.
As electrical losses depend on transformer losses they are called
Magnetic losses Pm occur mainly in the transformer pole core. Magnetic
losses of hysteresis are in direct proportion to pole core frequency of magnetic
reversal, i.e. to a.c. frequency ( p h f ). Magnetic losses from eddy currents are
proportional to the square of this frequency ( pec f 2 ). Total magnetic losses
are considered to be proportional to current frequency by the power 1.3. The
amount of magnetic losses also depends on magnetic induction square in limbs
and yokes of the pole core. If U 1 = const and f = const magnetic losses do not
depend on transformer load, they are called constant. For the manufactured
transformer magnetic losses are determined by the results of open-circuit duty,
measuring open-circuit power P0 nom at rated primary voltage.
Thus, active power P1 released to primary transformer winding is partly
spent for electrical losses in this winding p e1 , for magnetic losses Pm in the pole
core respectively. The remainder is called electromagnetic power and it is
released to secondary winding where it is partly spent for electrical losses in this
winding p e 2 . Active power released to the load of a three-phase transformer P2
(net power) may be determined as follows

P2 = P1 p e1 p m p e 2 = P1 P or

P2 = 3 U 2 I 2 cos 2 = S nom cos 2


P = P0 nom + 2 Pscnom are total losses in the transformer,

S nom is rated transformer power,

I 2 , U 2 are linear current and voltage values of secondary winding.

Transformer efficiency is determined as active power ratio of secondary
winding output P2 to active power of primary winding input P1

= P2 P = (P1 P ) P = 1 P P1 ,

S nom cos 2
S nom cos 2 + P0 nom + 2 Pscnom

The analysis of the above expression shows that transformer efficiency

depends both on the value ( ) and the character ( cos 2 ) of the load.
Maximum efficiency value corresponds to the load at which magnetic losses are
equal to electrical losses

P0 nom = 2 Pscnom ,
i.e. at =

P0 nom / Pscnom .

Transformer efficiency usually is of maximum value at = 0.45 0.65

and decreases slightly at load increase.

1.10. Diagrams and Connection Groups of Transformer Windings

Marking the initial and final windings is done in the following way. In a
single-phase transformer HV winding is denoted by Latin capital letters (Aorigin, X- end). LV winding is denoted by Latin small letters (a - origin, x
end). When the third winding with medium voltage is available its origin and
end is denoted as Am and Xm accordingly. In three-phase transformer HV
winding is denoted by capital letters (A, B, C origins, X, Y, Z ends). LV
winding is denoted by Latin small letters a, b, c origins, x, y, z ends. It is
common practice to consider phase alternation A, B, C from left to right if the
transformer is examined as viewed from HV tapped winding.

In most cases three-phase transformer windings are star- (Y), delta- () or

seldom zigzag (Z)-connected. The first two diagrams of three-phase winding
connection are denoted by Russian capital letters , accordingly.
Zero terminals of star- and zigzag-connected three-phase winding are
denoted in HV windings by capital letter O and in LV winding by small
letter o. In so doing index N (Yn, Zn) is added to letter designation of winding
connection diagrams.
While connecting a transformer in parallel with other transformers phase
shift between primary and secondary winding e.m.f. is of prime importance. The
notion connection group of winding to characterize this shift is applied.
Consider the fragment of core-type construction pole core of a singlephase two-winding transformer (Fig. 1.16). Both windings are wound along the
left spiral line and are of similar wind direction.
In both windings origins A and a are arranged
above and ends X and x below respectively, i.e.
they are marked in a similar way.
E.m.f. induced in the winding is considered to
be positive if it acts from initial to final
windings. In both windings e.m.f. is induced by
the same main magnetic flux. Similar wind
direction and marking makes its possible to hold
that the above mentioned e.m.f. of these
windings acts in a similar direction at every
instant, i.e. coincidentally positive or negative.

E A and E a are in phase. The angle between e.m.f. vectors of

primary and secondary windings equals zero. Conventional symbol is I/I-0 (zero


If the marking in one winding is reversed (Fig. 1.17) or wind direction is

changed opposite in sign e.m.f. will act in the windings at every instant. The
angle between e.m.f. vectors of primary and secondary windings is 180. When
determining the connection group of the winding this angle should be divided
into 30. Conventional symbol is I/I-6 (the sixth group).
Thus, in single-phase transformers two groups of winding connection
zero and the sixth groups are available.
Lets consider three-phase two-winding transformer with HV and LV
star-connected windings under the following conditions:
1. Windings are of similar wind direction
2. Windings are similarly marked
3. Like winding phases are placed on common limbs.
Firstly, vector diagram for HV winding is
plotted, choosing arbitrarily the direction of the first
phase e.m.f., conforming phase alternation with the
others. When plotting vector diagram for LV winding
it should be remembered that the direction of each
vector depends on vector diagram of HV winding.
Then, all the vectors of phase e.m.f. in pairs

E A and E a , E B and E b , E C and E c as well as all


linear e.m.f. vectors in pairs E AB and E ab , E BC and


E bc , E CA and E ca are in phase at every instant, i.e. the

angle between them equals zero (Fig. 1.18).


In three-phase transformers the group of winding connection is defined by

the angle between like linear e.m.f. In the case considered conventional symbol
is Y/Y-0 ( zero group ).
What will be the result if we change LV winding marking per one pitch
around? E.m.f. vector diagram representation for HV winding remains
unchanged. E.m.f. vector diagram of LV winding will be another. The phase a-x
of LV winding is located on a common limb with phase B-Y of HV winding. As
phases possess similar wind direction and are similarly marked core magnetic

flux induces e.m.f. similar in the direction in these phases. Vector E a of LV


winding is represented as being in phase with vector E B of HV winding.


The same reasoning is provided concerning vector E b and E c directions.

As a result e.m.f. vector diagram of LV winding is clockwise displaced 120
compared with the previous vector diagram. The angle between like linear e.m.f.
is determined clockwise from e.m.f. vector of HV winding up to e.m.f. vector of
LV winding. The angle is 120, the fourth group. Conventional symbol is Y/YThus, when changing marking of one winding per one pitch around connection


grouping of winding varies to four as linear e.m.f. vectors are clockwise

displaced 120.

Similar results may be obtained if HV and LV windings have another but
similar winding connection - diagram - delta.
If connection diagrams of HV and LV windings of a three-phase
transformer are similar one can get six even groups are formed: 0, 4, 8, 6, 10, 2
by changing the marking of one winding.
Consider three-phase two-winding transformer with different connection
diagrams (Fig. 1.20) following the conditions mentioned above. LV winding is
delta-connected. E.m.f. vector diagram of HV winding is plotted as shown
E.m.f. vector diagram of LV winding is a triangle, each side being equal
to phase and linear e.m.f. in magnitude and phase. The angle between like linear
e.m.f. is 330, the eleventh group. The symbol is Y/-11.
Marking the change of LV winding per one pitch around marking in
changing connection group of windings to four, it will be the third group. If LV

winding marking is changed again per a pitch around connection group of

winding will change to four again, it will be the seventh group.

It is not difficult to confirm that marking change of one winding in a

three-phase transformer of different winding connection diagrams makes its
possible to get six odd groups: 11, 3, 7, 5, 9, 1.
According to Russian State Standard there are transformers with the
following connection diagrams and connection groups of windings for using:
1. Y/Yn-0
2. /Yn-11
3. Y/-11
4. Yn/-11
5. Y/Zn-11.
In zigzag-connected circuit each winding phase is divided into two parts
which are placed on different limbs (one part is placed on the main limb, the
second one is arranged on the limb of the neighbouring phase in the order of
alternation). In so doing the second half of each phase is switched on in
opposition to the first half. This makes its possible to get phase e.m.f.
higher than in the matched switching.

3 times

However, at matched switching of phase halves e.m.f. of each phase is

1.15 times less than when phase halves are placed on one limb. Therefore wind
wire consumption in zigzag connection increases 15%. This connection is used
only when non-balanced phase load with zero currents is available.

1.11. Parallel Transformer Operation

Parallel operation of two or several transformers is operation at parallel

connection of both primary and
secondary windings. In parallel






connected to the same conductor

(Fig. 1.21) in the mains.




transformer of total voltage is recommended owing to the following reasoning:

1. to provide regular power supply of consumers in case of emergency
when one of the transformers is under repair,
2. to provide transformer operation with high performance indices
(efficiency, cos2) changing the number of transformers under
optimum load conditions,
To distribute the load between parallel transformers proportionally to their
nominal voltages three conditions should be fulfilled.
Firstly, primary and secondary voltages of transformers should be equal
accordingly, i.e. transformers should be of equal transformation ratios
( k1 = k 2 = k3 = K ).
Secondly, transformers should be of the same connection group of

Thirdly, rated short-circuit voltage of transformers should be equal

( U sc1 = U sc 2 = U sc 3 = K ).
When the first condition is not fulfilled even at no-load duty phasing
current Iph develops in parallel transformers. It is due to secondary
e.m.f. difference of the transformers U& (Fig. 1.22)

I& h =

Z sc1 + Z sc 2

where Z sc1 , Z sc 2 are short-circuit transformer

When the load is energized phasing current is superimposed
on load current. In transformers with higher secondary e.m.f. ( in step-down
transformers - transformers possessing less transformation ratio) phasing current
is added to load current. The transformer of similar rating but with larger
transformation ratio is underloaded as phasing current is opposed to load
Continuous transformer overload is impermissible as it requires reducing total
load at different transformation ratios. At marked difference of transformation
ratios proper transformer operation is impractible. It makes possible to operate
parallel transformers with unlike transformation ratios if their difference does
not exceed 0.5% geometric mean
k =

k1 k 2
k1 k 2

100 0.5% .

When the second condition is not fulfilled secondary linear transformer

voltage is phase-shifted relative to each other. In transformer the voltage
difference U& in a circuit arises causing marked phasing current.
Let us consider, for example, energizing two parallel transformers with
equal transformation ratios, one being of zero (Y/Y-0) and another being of the

eleventh (Y/-11) connection group of windings. Firstly, linear voltage U& 21 of

the first transformer will be

3 times higher than linear

voltage U& 22 of the second transformer. Secondly, the vectors

of these voltages will be phase-shifted relative to each other by
30 (Fig. 1.23)

OA = 3 U 22 / 2 as U 22 = U 21 / 3
then OA = U 21 / 2 and

U = U 22 .

Such voltage difference U& results in the phasing

current in secondary transformer circuit, the current exceeding
nominal load current 15-20 times, i.e. emergency conditions
occur. The highest U& value appears when energizing parallel
transformers with zero or the sixth connection group of
windings ( U = 2U 2 ) as in this case the vector of linear
secondary windings is in reverse phase.

When the third condition is not fulfilled neglecting short-circuit currents

parallel transformers [Fig. 1.24(a)] are changed for short-circuit resistances
Z sc1 , Z sc 2 [Fig. 1.24(b)].

As the currents in parallel branches are inversely related to their

resistances relative voltages (loads) of parallel transformers are inversely related
to their short-circuit voltages as well. As a result, it causes transformer overload
with less U sc value and underload with high U sc .

Therefore, State Standard allows parallel transformers energizing at different

short-circuit voltages if their difference does not exceed arithmetic mean 10%
U sc =

U sc1 U sc 2
100 10%
0.5 (U sc1 + U sc 2 )

The greater is short-circuit voltage difference the more significant is transformer

difference by voltage. State Standard recommends nominal voltage ratio of
parallel transformers to be not more than 3:1.
Besides, it is necessary to control the order of phase alternation before
energizing three-phase parallel transformers. Phase alternation order should be
similar in all transformers.



regulations is checked by
transformer phasing (Fig.
1.25). In so doing each
pair of opposite terminals
of a closing switch is
connected by a conductor
(it is not shown) and
voltage is taken with zero









transformer voltages are

equal and connecting
groups of their windings
are similar zero voltmeter reading is zero if there is similar order of phase
sequence. In this case parallel transformers may be energized. If voltmeter

shows some voltage it is necessary to clear out what parallel performance

condition is not fulfilled and eliminate it.
1.12. Non-Balanced Load of Three-Phase Transformers

The reasons of non-balanced load are considered to be uneven distribution

of single-phase receivers by load, emergency conditions that occur at singlephase, two-phase short circuit or at one phase of wiring line failure.
Non-balance of transformer secondary voltages has a detrimental effect on
both the consumers and the transformer. For example, in a.c. motors permissible
load voltage decreases, durability of filament lamps is reduced at high voltage
and luminous intensity is decreased at low voltage. Overload of separate
transformer phases, excessive phase voltage increase and pole core saturation
For investigation of transformer operation at non-balanced load the
method of balanced components studied in the course Theoretical fundamentals
of electrotechnics is widely used. While considering three-phase step-down
transformer non-balanced currents of LV may be represented as the sum of three
balanced systems of positive, negative and zero sequence differing by sequence
of current passing through

I&a = I&a1 + I&a 2 + I&a 0

I&b = I&b1 + I&b 2 + I&b 0
I&c = I&c1 + I&c 2 + I&c 0


The currents forming positive sequence system reach maximum

successively in phases a, b, c. The currents forming negative sequence system
reach maximum successively in phases a, b, c. Zero sequence currents in all
three phases are of one direction (zero shift).
After coefficients a, a2 are entered into the equations (*) they will be
written as follows

I&a = I&a1 + I&a 2 + I&0

I&b = a 2 I&a1 + aI&a 2 + I&0
I c = aI&a1 + a 2 I&a 2 + I&0


Multiplying any vector into coefficient a does not change its absolute
value, but changes 2 / 3 its argument, i.e. rotates vector through 120 towards
vector rotation.
From (**) currents of positive, negative and zero sequence may be
obtained through non-balanced ones

I&a1 = (I&a + aI&b + a 2 I&c )
I&a 2 = (I&a + a 2 I&b + aI&c )
I&S = (I&a + I&b + I&c )


On the basis of the latter equality in (***) it follows that given the
currents of zero sequence currents sum of three phases is not equal to zero.
The advantage of the method of balanced components includes the fact
that balanced system of each sequence can be transformed regardless of the
systems of other sequences using conventional methods of mathematical and
graphical analysis. However, the method of balanced components suggests
application of superposition method, which is valid only for linear systems.
Therefore, as applied to the transformer one makes assumption taking into
account the lack of pole core iron saturation ( Z m = const ) or neglecting opencircuit current ( Z m = ).
Besides, the transformer at non-balanced load is considered to possess
equal number of secondary and primary winding turns ( w1 = w2 ) that does not
allow to use reference procedure.


At balanced load when transformer phase currents make up a balanced

system one can put down I&a , I&b = a 2 I&a , I c = aI&a . Substituting these values in
(***) we obtain

I&a1 = (I&a + a 3 I&a + a 3 I&a ) = I&a ;
I&a 2 = (I&a + a 4 I&a + a 2 I&a ) = 0;
I&S = (I&a + a 2 I&a + aI&a ) = 0, as a 3 = 1; 1 + a + a 2 = 0.
Thus, at balanced load there are currents of only positive sequence.
Therefore, all facts considered above regarding balanced load match transformer
operation with positive sequence currents.
What will happen if the position of two terminals of HV windings (for
example B and C) and LV winding (b and c) is interchanged in the transformer
under balanced load condition? Vector alternation of transformer phase currents
will change to reverse, i.e. it corresponds to negative sequence current
alternation. The duty of the transformer and consumers will not change.
Thus, negative sequence currents are converted from one winding to
another as well as positive sequence currents. Transformer operation regarding
positive and negative sequence currents is similar. Above equivalent circuits are
valid both for positive and negative sequence currents, transformer resistance


these sequence currents is similar and equal to short-circuit

resistance Z sc .
Currents of zero sequence in star-connected windings may develop only
with zero wire. In delta-connected windings zero sequence currents make up
current flowing across the closed circuit and linear currents as current
differences of adjacent phases do not contain zero sequence currents. Therefore
zero sequence currents in delta-connected winding may develop only as a result
of inducing them by another transformer winding.

Zero sequence fluxes are induced by zero sequence currents and therefore
they are in phase in time domain. Let us see how zero sequence fluxes influence
the transformer with different types of pole cores.
In three-phase transformers of shell-type, core-shell-type design and

& S are closed across the pole cores.

transformer bank zero sequence fluxes
& S is slight, therefore even small currents of
Magnetic resistance for the fluxes
& S . If the current
zero sequence I&a 0 = I&b 0 = I&c 0 are able to develop large fluxes
& S equalling
I&a 0 equals short-circuit transformer current magnetic flux
nominal running transformer flux is induced. The similar reasoning refers to

& S .
e.m.f. induced by e.m.f. flux
In a core-type three-phase transformer zero sequence fluxes of all the
phases tend to close from one yoke to another ( for example, in oil transformer
through oil and transformer tank. In this case magnetic resistance for the flux

& S is rather high and eddy currents are induced in tank walls and losses occur.

& S and induced e.m.f. are small.

Therefore, magnetic flux

Physical conditions of transformer operation at non-balanced load.

Case 1. Zero sequence currents are missing. At non-balanced load

voltage drop U in transformer phases is different. If currents of separate

phases do not exceed nominal values U is rather small due to small resistance
Z sc of the transformer.

Thus, non-balanced transformer load in missing of zero sequence currents

does not distort phase and linear voltage balance at secondary winding
As for the case considered primary and secondary currents of positive
sequence in each phase are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. It is valid
for the currents of negative sequence as well and for the current sum of positive

and negative sequences. Therefore the simplifications taken before ( w1 = w2 and

neglecting magnetizing current) make it possible to put down, thus

I& A = I&a ; I&B = I&b ; I&C = I&c .

As a result, one may state that magnetizing forces and currents of primary
and secondary windings are balanced in each phase and separately in each pole
core area.
Case 2. There are currents of zero sequence. Variant a: currents of zero

sequence develop in both transformer windings. These are transformers with

winding connection Yn/Yn, /Yn. Magnetizing current of zero sequence may be
neclected because it contains small total current of sequence and may be written

I&A0 = I&B 0 = I&C 0 = I&a 0 = I&b 0 = I&c 0 .

Thus, magnetizing strength of zero sequence currents of both windings is
mutually balanced in each transformer phase. In such a situation zero sequence
resistance is Z S = Z sc . Zero components of secondary voltage originate due to
small voltage drop Z sc I&a 0 . Therefore, in transformers with winding connection
Yn/Yn, /Yn at non-balanced load phase voltage system is insignificantly
Variant b: zero sequence currents develop only in one winding. There are

transformers with winding connection Yn/Yn. Zero sequence currents flow only
in secondary winding, they are considered to be magnetizing as they are not
balanced by the currents in primary winding. Zero sequence e.m.f. equals
E& 0 S = Z m 0 I&a 0 , where Z m0 is resistance of magnetizing circuit for zero

sequence currents. E.m.f. E 0 S may reach high values. For example, in shell-type
transformers, core-shell-type design and transformer banks magnetizing circuit
resistance for zero sequence currents are equal to magnetizing circuit resistance




Z m 0 = Z sc .



I&a 0 = I&0 (0.02 0.05 )I n zero sequence e.m.f. E 0 S U n and the system of phase

m.m.f. and voltages is markedly distorted that is unacceptable and dangerous for
single-phase loads. Vector direction

E& S

depends on the phase of zero sequence

currents and is determined by load conditions.

Zero sequence e.m.f. does not influence linear voltage value, as zero
components disappear in phase voltage differences.
Winding connection Y/Yn in transformers of shell-type, shell-core-type
designs and transformer banks is not used as a rule but if necessary the third
winding is arranged in each phase. It is delta-connected winding. This winding
terminals are not derived outside if this winding is meant only for balancing zero
sequence currents.
In a core-type transformer and winding connection Y/Yn distortion of
phase voltage system with zero sequence currents is less as Z MO < Z sc .
Variant c: zero sequence currents develop only in one transformer

winding (Fig. 1.26) at the connection Y/Zn. At non-balanced load zero sequence
currents flow across both areas of secondary interstar winding in opposite
direction. In similar turn number of each area of secondary winding the sum of
e.m.f. magnetizing forces from zero sequence currents in each phase equals
zero. Zero sequence currents form only fringing fields. Magnetic balance occurs
in each limb of the pole core and phase voltage neutral shift is slight.


In this respect connection circuit Y/Zn beneficially differs from

connection circuit Y/Yn.
1.13. Multiwinding Transformers

More than two windings with different turn number are located on each
limb of a multiwinding transformer. They are produced as single-phase and
three-phase transformers.
Multiwinding transformers of small rating are widely used in automatics
and radiotechnics. Three-winding transformers are mainly used as power
Resultant magnetic flux of three-winding transformers (Fig.1.27) is
induced by e.m.f. F&0 which is equal to geometrical sum of all e.m.f. windings

F&0 = F&1 + F&2 + F&3 = I&1 w1 + I&2 w2 + I&3 w3 ,

I&0 = I&1 + I&2 + I&3 , I 1 = I&0 (I&2 + I&3 ).



different windings are of the

same form as they are for a twowinding transformer.



transformer (Fig. 1.28) shows

that load change in one of
secondary windings influences
the voltage of another secondary winding as voltage drop change occurs in
primary winding.


To attenuate this effect it is desirable to decrease primary winding

resistance. In concentric position of three windings on the limb the mid-winding
is of less resistance. This winding is appropriate to use as primary one.
Three-winding transformers with two primary and one secondary
windings are used at large power stations. Primary windings are of similar rated
voltage and one powerful generator is connected to each primary winding.
Secondary winding has two parallel branches. These transformers are singlephase and they are connected in a three-phase group. Such transformer design
makes manufacturing primary windings with large currents easy and in case of
short circuit at the terminal of only one generator ohmic and inductive
resistances of two primary transformer windings act between two generators that
minimizes short-circuit current.


1.14. Autotransformers

In autotransformers there is electric linking aside magnetic linking

between the windings.
The winding with turn number wax is the part of primary winding and
secondary winding at a time. For step-down autotransformer (Fig. 1.29) current
equation assumes the following form

I&2 = I&1 + I&12 or I&12 = I&2 I&1 .

The current which is equal to load
current I&2 and primary current I&1 .
difference flows across the turns wax .
If transformation ratio of autotransformer
k AT = w AX


is less than 2 current I&12

is less than current I&1 and turns wax can

be made using the wire of small cross




material and electric steel decreases due

to small winding space.
Reducing active material masses results in decreasing to electric and
magnetic losses, therefore autotransformer efficiency is always higher than in
transformer at similar rated voltage.
Along with above advantages there are some disadvantages of
autotransformers. Due to electric linking of secondary and primary windings
their isolation should be chosen based on the highest voltage. Autotransformers
possess large short-circuit current, as it is limited by resistance of winding area
Aa. Besides, at short circuit primary voltage is applied only to this winding area
that will cause sharp increase of magnetic flux, pole core saturation,

magnetizing current and will result in larger short-circuit current increase in

For providing electric safety of the staff it is impermissible to use
autotransformers for stepping-down the voltage of HV mains up to LV values
supplied to consumers.

1.15. Autotransformers with Alternating Transformation Ratio

This autotransformer is designed on toroidal pole core, some area of

external winding turn surface is bare (without isolation) and carbon brush
(Fig. 1.30) is moving along bare conductors.
The brush is designed so that only one








between winding conductors and brush

limit the current of short-circuited turn. In
more powerful transformers double sets of
brushes with additional resistance are
used to limit the current of short-circuited
Fig. 1.30.

1.16. Transformers for Arc Electric Welding

As a rule, this transformer is referred to as a welding transformer [Fig. 1.31(a)].

It is a single-phase two-winding step-down transformer converting alternating
voltage 220V or 380V to voltage 6070V. Such voltage is enough for reliable
ignition and stable arcing between metallic electrode and welded parts.

The ignition is followed by short circuit of secondary winding. Operating

current of a welding transformer corresponds to electric arc voltage U a 30V
(stable arcing), and arc break develops open-circuit duty.
For current limitation windings are placed on different limbs of the pole core
increasing inductive scattering resistance and transformer choke ( Ch ) is cut in
to secondary circuit. By shifting the yoke of the choke air gap , inductive
resistance of the choke, current I 2 are changed [Fig. 1.31(b)]. In some designs
of welding transformers the choke is brought in line with the transformer.
Marked inductive resistance of a welding transformer reduces its efficiency
which does not exceed 0.40.5, as a rule.


1.17. Transients in Transformers

When a transformer changes one stable duty to another transient occurs.

Transient process usually lasts for a short period but heavy currents and voltages
in windings may appear. It is necessary to take into account this fact in
designing and transformer operation. Transients in energizing transformer and
short circuit at the terminals of secondary winding are of great interest.
Energizing a transformer. In energizing a transformer resultant magnetic

flux may be considered to be the sum of three components

& =
& s +
& ac
& rm ,

& s is stable magnetic flux ( periodic component ),

& ac is magnetic flux of a transient ( aperiodic component ),

& rm is magnetic flux of a residual magnetism matched either with

stable flux (the sign +) or directed in opposition (the sign -).

Energizing transformer when instantaneous value at the terminals of
& rm = 0 is the most favorable. In
primary winding is of maximum value and
this case magnetic flux takes stable value at the first instant.
The most unfavorable case is energizing the transformer when
instantaneous voltage value at the terminals of primary winding equals zero and

& s.
& rm is of opposite sign with
magnetic flux
& reaches the highest value max
As it is seen from Fig. 1.32 flux

approximately half a cycle later after energizing the transformer.

Magnetic flux max may reach the value of 0.5 m and taking into
consideration the fact that aperiodic component of magnetic flux slowly
attenuates then max 2.5 m is obtained.


Magnetic flux increase in transient will cause magnetizing current increase. As it

is seen from (Fig. 1.33) when energizing the transformer magnetizing current
rush may exceed 100120 times short-circuit current or 25 times nominal
current of primary winding. Transient flows quickly, therefore switching
currents are not dangerous for the transformer. They should be taken into
account while regulating protecting devices to avoid cutting out transformers.


Sudden short circuit across the terminals of transformer secondary winding.

Transient is accompanied by instantaneous short-circuit current which may be

considered as the result of two currents, i.e. stable current i sc . s and transient
current stable by direction but decreasing according to exponential law

isc = isc.s + isc.a .

The most favorable short-circuit condition may occur when instantaneous
value of primary voltage is equal to zero (Fig. 1.34).






i sc . max




value of stable short circuit

current and may exceed 2040
times nominal current value.


instantaneous short circuit of

LV transformer lasts not more





transformers 67 cycles. In spite of short time period of short circuit process

(protection devices begin operating not later than in 5 seconds) it is a serious
hazard for transformer windings. Very high short-circuit current markedly
increases winding temperature that may damage insulation. Electromagnetic
strength in transformer winding increases considerably that may cause marked
mechanical damage of the transformer.


Induction machines are widely used in up-to-date electric installations.
They are the most widely spread type of alternating current electrical machines.
As any electrical machine an induction machine is reversible and may run
both under motive and generating conditions. Induction motors as the basis of a
modern drive are prevailing. The area of induction motors application is
impressive. It comprises the motors starting from automatic device drives,
domestic electric drives up to large mining equipment drives (power shovels,
grinders, mills etc.). Therefore power of induction motors produced by electric
machine-building industry ranges up between watt fractions and thousands of
kilowatts at supply voltage, from dozens of volts to 10 kV.
Three-phase induction motors meant for running at power supply
industrial frequency (50Hz) are more often used. Special-purpose induction
motors showing higher aiternating current frequencies (200, 400Hz and above)
are produced as well. In this section given to the emphasis is on three-phase
induction general-purpose motors in the given section of this book.

2.1. Induction Machine Construction

Stationary machine part called stator is a hollow burdened cylinder (stator
core) with longitudinal slots on internal surface located inside one of the
elements of a machine case called engine bed. In slots of a stator core stator
winding is packed. Stator core is made of electric steel, which is isotropic
compared with electric steel of power transtormers. As well as in a transformer
steel laminations are insulated.
Rotating part of the machine called rotor is located in the internal cavity
of stator core and consists of rotor core, winding and shaft. Rotor and stator are

separated by air gap. On the external surface of a rotor core there are
longitudinal slots in which rotor winding is placed. There are rotors of two
kinds, i.e. phase rotors (Fig. 2.1) and short-circuit ones (Fig. 2.2). Phase rotor
winding is similar to stator winding and terminals of input phases are electrically
linked with collector rings on the shaft insulated from each other and from the
shaft. Short-circuit rotor winding is casted from alluminium alloy. The alloy fills
rotor core slots and electrically links them with front surface closing rings and
simultaneously casted ventilation vanes.

Fig. 2.1
1, 7 - bearings, 2, 6 - end shields, 3 - frame, 4 - stator core with winding, 5
- rotor core with winding, 8 - shaft, 9 - terminal box, 10 - lugs, 11 - collector


Two bearings fixed to end shields are placed on the shaft. End shields are
fixed to the engine bed. If there is a ventilator of external blasting at one of
outlet ends of the shaft it is closed by protective case. There are front surface
holes for cooled air inlet in the case and air flow is directed along the ribbed bed.
Terminal box is on the engine bed.
Terminals of stator winding are fixed in the bed and supply voltage is
applied to them.

Fig. 2.2
1 - shaft, 2,6 - bearings, 3, 7 - end shields, 4 - terminal box, 5 - ventilator,
8 - case, 9 - rotor core with short-circuit winding, 10 - stator core with the
winding, 11 - frame, 12 - lugs.

2.2. Three-Phase Windings of A.C. Motors


The windings of a.c. motors are divided into single-layer and double-layer
windings. In single-layer windings there is only one active coil side in each slot
of a pole core. In double-layer windings there are two active sides of different
coils of two layers in each slot of a pole core. In these windings each coil is
placed by one active side in the upper layer and by another active side in the
lower layer of different slots.
Double-layer windings are widely used due to their advantages, i.e.
availability of the winding with short pitch and fractional number
of slots per a pole or a phase,
using coils of similar size and shape,
rather simple shape of coils frontal parts.
The advantage of single-layer windings is considered to be less
consumption of insulation materials and convenience of winding placing
(possibility of mechanization and automatization). An element of any a.c.
winding is a coil, consisting of two active sides and frontal parts. Active sides of
coil windings are placed in pole core slots, frontal parts connecting active sides
of coils and they are situated outside the pole core. The distance between active
sides of the coil is known as winding pitch y . Winding pitch may be diametral
or short but it is always equal to the integral number of slot divisons.
For plotting expanded diagram of any winding if pitch number Z and
pole number 2 p are known one should calculate
1. winding pitch y ,
2. slot number per a pole and phase q ,
3. phase shift angle of e.m.f. of the next pitches expressed in el. grades.

Calculation of a winding pitch. A winding pitch is calculated by the formula


y = ,

where is a relative winding pitch, =

is a diametral pitch expressed in

slot pitches and equal to a pole pitch.

Value in two layer windings is chosen based on the possibility of
reducing higher field harmonics (the fifth, the seventh). Usually is considered
to be 5 .
In single-layer windings = 1 and they are equivalent to diametral pitch
Calculating slot number per a pole and phase q (coil number in a coil set).
Slot number per a pole and a phase is



where m is phase number.

For single-layer windings q is always an integral number, as for doublelayer windings it may be fractional one.
Calculation of e.m.f. shift angle. E.m.f. phase shift angle of adjacent slots
expressed in el. grades is

p 360

Depending on electrical machine potential maximum number of parallel

branches of a double-layer winding is a max = 2 p , of a single-layer winding is

a max = p as it is determined by a number of phase coil sets.


When plotting expanded diagrams of three-phase windings one often uses

slot e.m.f. star which is a system Z

of e.m.f. vectors displaced relative to each

other by an angle .

2.2.1. Three-Phase Double-Layer Windings

Here is an example of plotting expanded diagram of three-phase doublelayer winding with Z = 24 , 2 p = 4 , a = 1.
1. A winding pitch is


24 5
= = 5,
4 6

where = 5 .
2. Slot number per a pole and a phase being


= 2.
2p m 43

3. E.m.f. phase shift angle of adjacent pitches is

p 360 2 360
= 30 el. grades.

Pitch e.m.f. star for the studied winding is shown in Fig. 2.3 and an
expanded winding diagram ( phase C1-C4 ) - in Fig. 2.4.


Fig. 2.3

Fig. 2.4


2.2.2. Three-Phase Single-Layer Windings

Single-layer windings are divided into concentric and diamond windings.

There are coil sets in concentric windings consisting of coils of different size
and similar shape, which are placed concentrically. Frontal parts of such
windings may be situated in two or three planes depending on q .
In diamond windings there are coils of similar size and shape, the coiles
being trapezium-shaped.
As an example of plotting expanded diagram of three-phase single-layer
winding consider the winding with Z and 2 p being identical to the above
double-layer three-phase winding. When plotting expanded diagram of a singlelayer winging (Fig. 2.5) one may use pitch e.m.f. star of double-layer
winding (Fig. 2.3).

Fig. 2.5


2.3. Alternating Current Winding E.M.F.

In a.c. motor design one tends to obtain sinusoidal electromotive force

(e.m.f.) induced in the winding. Higher e.m.f. harmonics may cause undesirable
effect. Therefore one tends to dampen higher e.m.f. harmonics with the help of
special winding construction. Such construction features are
winding short pitch,
winding distribution along the slots,
winding bevelled slots.
Effective value of the first e.m.f. harmonic of the winding phase is

E = 4.44 f1 w w b m ,
where f1 - is frequency of induced e.m.f, w is turn number of winding phase,

w is winding coefficient, b is bevelled slot coefficient, m is magnetic flux

Winding coefficient w assumes the form

w = sp d ,


is short-pitch winding coefficient,

d being coefficient of winding

Short-pitch winding coefficient. Short-pitch winding coefficient may be thought
of as geometric sum of e.m.f. turn conductors ratio to their arithmetic sum.




is sp = sin( 2 )

where =

is relative winding pitch.

In full-pitch winding we obtain y =

= 1 , sp = 1 .

In short-pitch winding it is defined as sp < 1 .

Winding distribution factor. Winding distribution factor may be thought of as
the ratio of geometric e.m.f. sum of coil set Eq ( coil set consists of q coils in
series ) ratio to their arithmetic sum

& q
d =
q E&

Expressing the value & q through of E& we obtain

d =

q sin


2m q

The winding with q=1 is called a concentrated winding and its

distribution coefficient is

d = 1.

The winding with q>1 is called a distributed winding and its distribution
coefficient being d < 1 .
Bevelled slot factor. Bevelled slot factor may be thought of as geometric e.m.f.
sum of separate conductor areas ratio to their arithmetic sum


sin b

b =

where bb , are values of bevel and pole pitch expressed in slot pitches.
Winding e.m.f. due to higher field harmonics. Phase e.m.f. of the winding of
upper field harmonic is

E v = 2 f v w wv bv v ,

f v = f1 v is upper harmonic frequency, v is harmonic order,

wv = spv dv is winding coefficient of harmonic v , spv = sin

is short

being harmonic v distribution factor,
harmonic v coefficient, dv =
q sin

b =


v bc

v bc

v =





v -harmonic


Bv l is magnetic flux amplitude of harmonic v , Bv being

magnetic induction of harmonic v , l/ being axial length of air gap.

2.4. Rotating Magnetic Field


Sketch two simplified transverse sections of a two-pole induction motor in

the form of three concentric circles. External circle is external stator core
surface, mid-circle being internal surface of stator core, internal surface being
external rotor surface.
In the slots of a stator core three-phase simple (concentrated) winding is
placed. Each phase consists of one turn (two conductors in transverse section).
The first phase contains conductors C1 and C4, the second one contains C2 and
C5, and the third phase contains C3 and C6. Conductors of each turn (phase) are
placed at a distance of a pole pitch , i. e. it is a full-pitch winding. Phase
origins are displaced relative to each other by 120 el. grades. Rotor winding
conductors are not shown.
In Fig. 2.6 current directions in stator winding conductors correspond to
time instant when

i1 = I m ,

i2 = i3 = 0.5I m .

Fig. 2.6
The current in the first phase is of positive direction and its value equals
the amplitude. Phase currents are considered to be positive when they are

directed beyond the drawing plane in input phases (conductors C1, C2, C3).
Current distribution around stator circle comprises two areas, each being a pole
pitch in magnitude. Current directions in these areas are opposite.
Conductor currents of stator two-pole winding induce two-pole magnetic
flux 1 , which is closed via stator, rotor and air gap. Magnetic flux axis
coincides with phase axis in which the current has the value equal to the
Fig. 2.6(b) shows current directions for time instant when current phases
change by 30 el. grades and

i1 =

3 / 2 I m , i2 = 0 , i3 = 3 / 2 I m .

From Fig. 2.6 one can see that at current phase change by 30 magnetic
flux rotates in the direction of phase sequence by 30 el. grades as well.
Stator winding of a two-pole motor supplied by three-phase current
produces two-pole rotating magnetic field. In so doing the field rotates by 360
el. grades per a cycle of current change.
Rotation frequency of the field for a two-pole machine is n1 = f1 ,
revolution per second (r.p.s.), where f1 is current frequency of stator winding (
in Hertz - Hz ). In the machine of another polarity magnetic field rotates with the
frequency n1 = f1 / p , revolution per minute (r.p.m.) or n1 = 60 f1 / p , where p
is the number of pole pairs.
At f1 = 50 Hz the following frequencies of magnetic field rotation
depending on number of pole pairs are obtained

n1 , r.p.m.








2.5. Basic Principle and Duties of an Induction Machine

Stator winding produces rotating magnetic flux 1 . When rotating it

intersects the conductors of stator and rotor winding inducing e.m.f. Stator
winding e.m.f. e1 being self-induction e.m.f. acts in opposition to the voltage
induced in the winding limiting the current.
If phase rotor winding is closed under the effect of e.m.f. e 2 current i2
appears, its frequency at stationary rotor being equal to primary frequency f1
(the frequency of stator winding current). In three-phase rotor winding threephase current which produces rotating rotor magnetic flux 2 appears.
Given stationary (fixed) rotor rotating magnetic flux 2 due to equality
of winding pole number is of the same frequency and the direction of rotation as
of magnetic stator flux

n2 = f 2 / p = f1 / p = n1 , r.p.s.
Fluxes 1 and 2 rotate synchronously forming resultant rotating
magnetic flux .
Unlike phase rotor multiphase current i2 is induced at short-circuit rotor
in the limbs of the winding. These currents develop rotating magnetic flux 2
of the same pole number, frequency and direction of rotation as of the phase
rotor flux.
E.m.f. induced in stator and rotor windings by the rotating magnetic flux
may be considered as resultant magnetic flux effect.
As a result of interaction of conductors with current in rotor slots and
resultant magnetic flux mechanical forces F effecting rotor conductors and
electromagnetic torque develop.

Let us show simplified scanning of a two-pole induction motor in Fig.

2.7. In the upper part of the pattern we can see rotating from left to right
sinusoidal induction wave B of the resultant magnetic flux and directed
e.m.f. e 2 in winding conductors of short-circuit rotor induced by the flux.
Current directions of conductors i2 and effecting forces F when phase shift
angle 2 between e 2 and i2 is equal to zero and 90 el. grades are shown below.
At 2 = 0 all mechanical forces act towards magnetic flux rotation.
Therefore electromagnetic torque acting towards magnetic flux rotation
At 2 = 90 o mechanical forces effect the conductors of rotor winding in
such a way that resultant magnetic torque does not develop. It allows concluding
that the torque is developed only by active component of rotor current

I 2 a = I 2 cos 2 .
As rotor winding of an induction motor possesses both pure and inductive
resistances at the very moment of starting (at stationary rotor) one obtains

0 < 2 < 900 . As a result electromagnetic torque develops. If it is more than

static torque on the shaft the rotor will rotate in the same direction as the flux but
at less rotation frequency n . The reason lies in the fact that rotor is symmetrical
regarding electric and magnetic field. Therefore reactive torque similar to that
in synchronous machines does not develop and there is no synchronism of rotor
and flux rotation. For this reason such machines are called induction machines.
Relative frequency difference of flux and rotor rotation is known as slip
and it may be calculated in relative units or percent

S = (n1 n ) / n1 , ..,
S = ( n1 n ) 100 / n1 , %.

Rotor rotation frequency is determined via slip in relative units

n = (1 S ) n1 , via slip in % n = (100 S ) n / 100 .

Fig. 2.7
At the very instant of starting (at stationary rotor) slip equals 1 and at
rotor rotation in synchronism with the flux it is equal to zero. If rotor rotates
synchronously with the flux n = n1 rotating magnetic field relative to rotor is
stationary, e.m.f. in rotor winding is not induced, there is no current in rotor
winding therefore electromagnetic torque is not produced. As it was considered
above the rotor of an induction motor cannot exhibit such rotation frequency.
Thus, induction machine at motor duty exhibits rotor rotation frequency
and slip ranging up

0 < n < n1 ; 0 < S < 1 .


As it was noted before stator and rotor winding fluxes rotate

synchronously at the very first instant of starting (at stationary rotor). Consider
the situation under rotating rotor conditions.
At rotor rotation towards flux rotation the frequency of flux intersection
of rotor winding conductors is proportional to the difference of their rotation
frequencies ( n1 n ), that is why the current frequency in rotor winding will
result in

f 2 = p (n1 n ) = S p n1 = S f1 .
The current frequency in rotor winding is proportional to slip in this case.
At current frequency in rotor winding f 2 < f1 rotation frequency of rotor
field relative to the rotor itself n2 p is less than n1 as well

n2 p = f 2 / p = S n1 .
Rotation frequency of rotor winding flux relative to rotor is

n2c = n + n2 p = (1 S ) n1 + S n1 = n1 .
That is to say rotation frequency of rotor winding flux relative to stator at any
rotor rotation frequency n is equal to rotation frequency of stator winding flux

n1 .
It only remains to add that if the rotor of an induction machine is driven
towards flux rotation at frequency, which is higher, then synchronous one
( n > n1 ) with the help of additional device the rotor will leave the flux behind.
Directions of e.m.f. induced in rotor winding and currents will change to the
opposite ones. Force F and electromagnetic torque directions will change to
the opposite ones as well.


The torque will be braking and the machine will run at generator effect
duty and will release active power to the mains. Slip for generator effect duty is

S < 0.
If the rotor rotates in the opposite to rotation flux direction e 2 , i2 , F are
the same as they are at motor effect duty. Electromagnetic torque will act
towards flux rotation but will brake rotor rotation. This duty of an induction
motor is called electromagnetic brake duty. This duty results for S > 1 .

2.6. Voltage Equations of an Induction Motor

There is no electric linking between rotor and stator winding of an

induction motor. There is only magnetic linking and stator winding energy is
conveyed to rotor winding by magnetic field. In this respect an induction motor
is analogous to the two-winding transformer, namely, stator winding is primary
and rotor winding is secondary.
Like in a transformer, in an induction motor there is resultant magnetic
flux linked both with stator and rotor windings and there are two leakage
fluxes as well. 1 is leakage flux of stator winding and 2 is leakage flux of
rotor winding.
The amplitude of the resultant magnetic flux m rotating at frequency n1
induces e.m.f. in stationary stator winding, its effective value being

E1 = 4.44 f1 w1 1 m .
Magnetic leakage flux 1 induces leakage e.m.f. in stator winding, the
value is determined by voltage drop in inductive of stator winding

E& 1 = jI&1 x 1 ,

where x 1 is inductive leakage reactance of stator winding phase.

Voltage equation of stator winding phase energized at voltage U 1 will be
written as follows

U& 1 + E&1 + E& 1 = I&1 r1 ,

where I1 r1 is voltage drop in pure resistance of stator winding phase r1 .
Final equation does not differ from the voltage equation for primary
transformer winding

U& 1 = E&1 + jI&1 x 1 + I&1 r1 .

Resultant magnetic flux outrunning rotating rotor induces e.m.f. in
rotor winding

E 2 S = 4.44 f 2w2 w 2 m = 4.44 f 1 S w2 w 2 m = E 2 S

where f 2 = f1 S is e.m.f. frequency E2 S in the rotating rotor, E2 is
e.m.f. induced in winding phase of a stationary rotor.
Magnetic leakage flux 2 induces leakage e.m.f. in rotor winding, the
value of which is determined by the voltage drop in inductive reactance of this

E& 2 = jI&2 x 2 S ,
where x 2 is inductive reactance of rotor winding leakage phase of a
stationary rotor.
The voltage equation for rotor winding is

E& 2 S + E& 2 = I&2 r2 ,

where r2 is pure resistance of rotor winding phase.
Final equation is written

E& 2 jI&2 x 2 I&2 r2 / S = 0 .

2.7. Equations of M.M.F. and Induction Motor Currents

The resultant magnetic flux in an induction motor is produced by joint

action of m.m.f. of stator F1 and rotor F2 windings

& = (F&1 + F&2 ) / Rm = F&0 / Rm ,

where Rm is magnetic resistance of motor magnetic circuit, F0 is resultant

m.m.f. which is equal to winding m.m.f. of stator at open-circuit duty
F0 = 0.45 m1 I 0 w1 w1 p ,

where I 0 is open-circuit current in stator winding phase.

M.m.f. of stator and rotor windings per a pole provided motor running
under load conditions are
F1 = 0.45 m1 I 1 w1 w1 p ;
F2 = 0.45 m2 I 2 w2 w2 ,

where m2 is number of rotor winding phases, w2 is winding coefficient of rotor

winding .
When changing the load on motor shaft the currents in stator I1 and rotor

I 2 change as well. The resultant magnetic flux remains unchanged as the

voltage applied to stator winding is invariable ( U1 = const ) and is balanced by
stator winding e.m.f. E1

U& 1 E&1 .


As e.m.f. E1 is proportional to the resultant magnetic flux it remains

invariable at load change

F&0 = F&1 + F&2 = const ,

0.45 m1 I&0 w1 w1 = 0.45 m1 I&1 w1 w1 + 0.45 m 2 I&2 w2 w 2 .

Dividing this equality into 0.45 m1 w1 w1 we obtain the current

equation of an induction motor

I&0 = I&1 + I 2 m2 w2 w 2 m1 w1 w1 = I&1 + I&2 ,

m w
where I&2 = I 2 2 2 w 2 is rotor current referred to stator winding.
m1 w1 w1

The final current equation of an induction motor is

I&1 = I&0 + ( I&2 ) .

From this equation it follows that there are two components in stator
current of an induction motor, i.e. I&0 magnetizing ( almost-constant )
component ( I 0 I op ) and I&2 alternating component compensating rotor
winding m.m.f. Thus, the rotor winding current exerts the same demagnetizing
action on engine magnetic system as the secondary winding current of a
transformer does.
2.8. Referred Parameters of Rotor Winding, Vector Diagram
and Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor

Rotor winding parameters are brought to the form of stator winding so

that e.m.f. vectors, voltages and current of stator and rotor windings could be
shown in one vector diagram. In so doing rotor winding with phase number m2 ,
with phase turn number w2 and winding coefficient w2 is substituted for the

winding with values m1 , w1 , w1 and the powers, and phase shifts of e.m.f.
vectors and rotor currents should be unchanged.
Given stationary rotor referred rotor e.m.f. is E2 = E2 k e , where

k e = E1 / E2 = w1 w1 ( w2 w2 ) is the transformation ratio of an induction motor

voltage under the stationary rotor.




I 2 = I 2 / k i ,


k i = m1 w1 w1 / (m2 w2 w2 ) = m1k e / m2 is the transformation ratio of induction

motor current.
Unlike transformers transformation coefficients of voltage and current of
induction motors are not equal ( k e k i ). This is because the phase numbers in
windings of stator and short-circuit rotor are not equal ( m1 m2 ). Only in phase
rotor engines with m1 = m2 these coefficients are equal.
Referred resistances of rotor winding phase are

r2 = r2 k e k i ;
x 2 = x 2 k e k i .


There is the specificity of

determination of phase number

m2 and phase turns number w2 .

Each limb of this winding is
considered to be one phase,
therefore phase turns number is
w2 = 0.5 ,



being w2 = 1 and phase number

equals limbs number in shortcircuit




m2 = z 2 .
Voltage equation of rotor
winding in the referred form is

E& 2 jI&2 x 2 I 2 r2 / s = 0
Fig. 2.8
Value r2 / s may be written as follows

r2 / s = r2 / s r2 s / s + r2 = r2 + r2 (1 s ) / s ,
As a result, the voltage equation for rotor winding in the referred form

0 = E& 2 jI&2 x 2 I&2 r2 I&2 r2 (1 s ) / s .

Hence it follows that induction motor is electrically much like the
transformer running at resistive load.
For induction motors just as for transformers the vector diagram is plotted
by equations of currents and voltages of stator and rotor windings (Fig. 2.8).






E& 2





2 = arctg ( x 2 s / r2 ) . Electrical equivalent circuits of an induction motor

correspond to voltage and current equations and to vector diagram as well.
In Fig. 2.9(a) T-shape equivalent circuit is shown. Magnetic linking of stator and
rotor windings is substituted for electric linking as it takes place in transformer
equivalent circuit. Pure resistance r2 (1 s ) / s may be considered as external
alternating resistance cut in to stationary rotor winding. This resistance value is
defined by the slip, i.e. mechanical load on motor shaft.
L-shaped equivalent circuit in which magnetizing circuit is taken out to
input terminals of equivalent circuit is more convenient for practical application.
To keep invariable the value of open-circuit current I&0 resistances of stator
winding phases r1 and x 1 are turned on in series to this circuit. The obtained
circuit is convenient as it consists of two parallel circuits, namely, magnetizing
one with current I&0 and operating circuit with current ( I&2 c1 ).
Parameter calculation of L-shaped operating equivalent circuit requires
improvement by introducing coefficient c1 into design formulae such as the ratio
of phase voltage supply circuit U 1 and phase e.m.f. of stator winding at ideal
open-circuit duty ( s = 0 ). As open-circuit current is small at this duty U 1 turns
out to be not much larger than e.m.f. E1 and coefficient c1 slightly differs from
unity. For motors of 3 kW and above we obtain c1 = 1.05 1.02 .


Fig. 2.9


2.9. Energetic Diagrams of Active and Reactive Power of an

Induction Motor

Energetic diagram of induction motor active power (Fig. 2.10) may be

shown in the following way.









P1 = m1 U1 I1 cos1 .
Some part of this power is lost as electrical losses in pure resistance of
stator winding pel1 = m1 I12 r1 , another portion is lost in the form of magnetic
stator core losses pm = m1 I 02 rm .
The remaining active power is electromagnetic power Pem released by
magnetic field from stator to rotor

Pem = P1 pel1 pm = m1 (I 2 ) r2 / s = m2 I 22 r2 / s .

Fig. 2.10
Some electromagnetic voltage is lost as electrical losses in pure resistance
of rotor winding pel 2 = m1 (I 2 ) r2 = m2 I 22 r2 .


The remainder of this power is converted into mechanical power induced

in the rotor

Pmec = Pem pel 2 = m1 (I 2 ) r2 (1 s ) / s = m2 I 22 r2 (1 s ) / s .


Some part of mechanical energy Pmec is

lost inside the machine itself in the form of
mechanical losses p mec (for ventilation,
friction in bearings and on the brushes of
slip-ring induction motor if the brushes do
not raise under operating conditions) and





harmonics of winding m.m.f. and stator

Fig. 2.11

and rotor toothing).

Net mechanical power on the shaft is P2 = Pmec p mec pad .

The sum of motor losses is

P = pel1 + pm + pel 2 + pmec + pad , P2 = P1 P .

Motor efficiency is = P2 / P1 = 1 P / P1 .
It is necessary to mention the following important relations pel 2 = s Pem ,

Pmec = (1 s ) Pem . They show that for reducing p el 2 and increasing efficiency it
is required to obtain small slip s of the motor.
Nominal values of efficiency, slip and power factor of modern generalpurpose induction motors are
n = 0.72 0.95 ; s n = 0.02 0.05 ; cos n = 0.70 0.95 .


Energetic diagram of induction motor reactive power (Fig. 2.11) may be

shown in the following way.
The motor consumes the reactive power from the mains

Q1 = m1 U1 I1 sin 1 .
For leakage flux of stator and rotor winding initiation reactive powers

q1 = m1 I12 x 1 , q 2 = m1 (I 2 )2 x 2 = m2 I 22 x 2 are used.

Reactive power spent for motor resultant magnetic flux Q m = m1 I 02 x m
is the main portion of reactive power of the motor, which is significantly higher
than in transformers due to the air gap. Large values Q m and I 0 significantly
influence power factor of the motor and reduce its value.

2.10. Induction Motor Torques

Electromagnetic torque of an induction motor is produced by current
interaction in rotor winding with rotating magnetic flux and is proportional to
electromagnetic power

M = Pem / 1 = ( p el 2 / s ) / 1 = m1 (I 2 ) r2 / ( 1 s ) ,

where 1 = 2 n1 / 60 = 2 f1 / p is angular rotation frequency of magnetic

The above expression shows that electromagnetic torque is proportional to
electrical losses power in rotor winding. From L-shape equivalent circuit the
current in the closed working circuit is


I 2 =


c1 U 1

) (

r1 + c r1 / s + c1 x 1 + c x 2



(r1 + c1 r2 / s )

+ (x 1 + c1 x 2 )

Electromagnetic torque formula becomes


p m1 U12 r2

2 f1 s (r1 + c1 r2 / s )2 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )2

Parameter values of an induction motor equivalent circuit at load change

remain practically invariable as well as the voltage in winding phase U 1 and
frequency f1 .
Therefore one may conclude that electromagnetic torque at any slip value
is proportional to phase voltage squared (phase rotor current squared). The less
is electromagnetic torque, the larger are such parameters of equivalent circuit as

r1 , x 1 , x 2 .
Consider the dependence (relation) of electromagnetic torque on slip

M = f (s ) at U1 = const , f1 = const and fixed parameters of equivalent circuit

(Fig. 2.12). This dependence is called mechanical characteristic of an induction
Under the slip value s = 0 and s = the electromagnetic torque M = 0 .
Mechanical characteristic exhibits two extrema and maximum induction motor
torque at generator effect duty is slightly larger than at driving duty
( M mg > M mm ).
Critical slip value s sc corresponding to maximum torque is obtained from
the first derivative of the expression for electromagnetic torque, which is
equated to zero

s cr = 1 r1 / r12 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) .

Fig. 2.12
Substituting the expression of critical slip to the formula of
electromagnetic torque we obtain the expression for the maximum
electromagnetic torque
Mm =

p m1 U 12

4 f1 c1 r1 + r + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )

where the sign (+) corresponds to driving and the sign (-) corresponds to
generator effect duty of an induction motor.
Electromagnetic torque reaches maximum value at s = s cr and further in
spite of the increase of I 2 the torque reduces as current I 2 becomes more
inductive ( 2 = arctg[x 2 / (r2 / s )] ). As noted above the active component of
current I 2 determines the value . This active component first increases as I 2
increases and then it reduces in spite of the increase of I 2 . It should be taken

into account that with I1 increase the voltage drop in stator winding increases
and, as a result, e.m.f. E1 and flux somewhat reduce.
For general-purpose induction motors it is defined as r1 << ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )
and therefore, neglecting the value r1 we obtain the simplified expressions for
critical slip and maximum electromagnetic torque

scr 1 r2 / ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) ,
p m1 U 12
4 f 1 ( x 1 + c1 x 2 )

For general-purpose induction motors we obtain

s sc = 0.06 0.15 ,

multiplicity of maximum torque M m / M n = 1.7 3.0 determines the overload

motor duty.

Fig. 2.13
The expression of maximum electromagnetic torque allows to conclude
that maximum electromagnetic torque does not depend on pure resistance of
rotor winding, it is proportional to phase voltage squared (resultant motor
magnetic flux squared) and is inversely proportional to inductive reactance of
stator and rotor winding leakage.


When analysing induction motor operation we shall use mechanical

characteristic M = f (s ) shown in Fig. 2.13. When cutting the motor in the
magnetic stator flux possessing no inertia begins rotating at synchronous
frequency n1 and engine rotor under the effect of inertia forces remains
stationary ( n = 0 ) and slip s = 1 .
Expression of initial starting electromagnetic torque of the motor is
MS =

p m1 U 12 r2'
2 f1 (r1 + c1 + r2' ) 2 + ( x 1 + c1 + x' 2 ) 2

Engine rotor begins rotating under the effect of this torque. In this case the
slip decreases and the torque increases according to characteristic M = f (s ) .
Under the critical slip s cr the torque reaches maximum value m . At further
rotation frequency increase torque reduces until it reaches the value which is
equal to the sum of opposing torques applied to engine rotor, namely, opencircuit torque M 0 and net torque M 2 ( M = M 0 + M 2 = M st - static torque ).
It should be taken into account that at slips close to unity (starting motor
duty) equivalent circuit parameters significantly change their values. The
reasons are considered to be amplification of magnetic saturation of stator and
rotor teeth layers ( inductive reactance of leakage x 1 and x 2 decreases ),
current displacement effect in rotor bars (increase of pure resistance r2 and x 2
decrease). Calculation of starting characteristics is made by the corresponding
parameters of equivalent circuit.
Static torque M st is equal to the sum of opposing torques at uniform rotor
rotation ( n = const ). At rated load of the motor steady duty of motor operation
is determined according to mechanical characteristic by point with coordinates

M = M n and s = s n .


Mechanical characteristic analysis shows that a stable induction motor

performance is possible at slips being less than critical ( s < scr ), i.e. in the area
of mechanical characteristic. It is in this area that the load change on motor
shaft is accompanied by the corresponding change of electromagnetic torque.
When a motor runs at the nominal load there is equality of torques

M n = M 0 + M 2 n . If the net load torque increase up to value 2 then the torque

equality is impaired and rotor rotation frequency begins to reduce (slip
increases). It brings to electromagnetic torque increase up to value

M = M 0 + M 2 (point ) and motor duty becomes stable again. If the motor was
running at nominal load and net load torque decrease up to value M 2 occurred
the torque equality is impaired again but rotor rotation frequency begins
increasing (the slip decreases). It brings to electromagnetic torque decrease
up to value M = M 0 + M 2 (point ). Stable running conditions are restored
again but at another values of and s.
Induction motor operation is unstable at slips s scr . If one obtains
electromagnetic motor torque M = M m and slip s = scr then even a slight
increase of load torque brings to electromagnetic torque M decrease. Futher slip
increase follows until it reaches the value s = 1 , i.e. until the rotor stops running.


2.11. Starting Three-Phase Induction Motors ( IM )

Induction motor starting requirements are the following:
Induction motor should develop a starting torque large enough to
make the rotor rotate and reach nominal frequency.
Starting current should be limited by the value at which motor
damage and normal running duty impairment do not occur.
Starting diagram should be simple, the number and cost of starting
devices should be small.

2.11.1. Starting of Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor

Direct starting. It is the simplest mode of starting. Stator winding is cut in
directly to the mains at nominal voltage (Fig. 2.14). Starting current is

I 1s = U 1n

rsc2 + sc2 = (4 7) I1n .

Direct starting is possible in case of
powerful mains and starting current of
induction motor does not cause large
voltage drops in the mains (not more than
Three modes of low-voltage starting.
These modes of starting are used if direct
starting is not available under the condition
of permissible voltage drop in the mains.
Starting torque decrease ( M s U 12 ) is

Fig. 2.14

considered to be the drawback in this case.


There for these modes may be realized when starting of an induction

motor at light-running or partial load is possible. This often occurs in powerful
high-voltage motors.
Reactor starting (Fig. 2.15). The first switch SW1 is cut in. Voltage is
applied to stator winding via three-phase reactor R; therefore stator winding is
powered by reduced voltage.
Reactor reactance xr is
chosen so that voltage in stator
winding phase is not less than
65% of the nominal one.



rotating frequency the switch

SW2 is cut in. It shunts reactor R
and as a result full line voltage,
which is equal to nominal stator
winding, is applied across the
terminals of stator winding.

Starting current
at reactor starting is I 1sr = U 1n
Fig. 2.15







rsc2 + ( sc + r )



and it

I 1s
r 2 + ( + )
= sc 2 sc 2 r .
I 1sr
rsc + sc

The voltage across stator winding terminals decreases at initial stage of

starting the same number of times.
Initial stage of reactor starting M sr decreases as compared with the initial
stage of direct starting s

M s rsc2 + ( sc + r )
rsc2 + sc2

In the above relations the changes of the value sc at starting are not taken
into account. It is not difficult to do if necessary.
Autotransformer starting (Fig. 2.16). At first switches SW1 and SW2 are
cut in and reduced up to (0.55 0.73)U 1n voltage is applied to stator winding of
induction motor via autotransformer AT.
After a stable rotation frequency is reached the switch SW2 is cut off and
the voltage is applied to stator winding via some winding portion of
autotransformer, the latter working like a reactor in this case. Then switch SW3
is cut in and full line voltage equal to
nominal voltage of stator winding is
applied across the terminals of stator
If the starting autotransformer decreases
starting voltage of IM k AT times ( k AT is
transformation ratio of autotransformer),
then the starting current of IM and current




autotransformer also decrease k AT times.

Starting torque s , proportional to
squared voltage across the terminals of
IM stator winding will reduce k AT

Fig. 2.16


Starting current across high-voltage side and supply current decrease k AT

times as well.
Thus, at autotransformer starting IM starting torque and starting supply
current reduce a similar number of times. At reactor starting IM starting current
is also starting supply current and starting torque s decreases more rapidly
than the starting current. Therefore, at similar values of starting current the
starting torque will be higher at autotransformer starting. In spite of this
advantage of the autotransformer starting over the reactor starting, which is
achieved at the expense of more complicated construction and rise in price of
starting devices, this mode of starting is used seldom compared with reactor one
when reactor starting does not provide necessary starting torque.
Starting by star-delta switching (Fig. 2.17). This mode was widely used
at low-voltage IM starting but had
lost its significance at mains
power increase and is used seldom
For its application all the six
terminals of stator winding are
brought out. In so doing line
voltage equals nominal phase
voltage of stator winding. At the
very starting stator winding is



rotation frequency is achieved




changes for delta connection by

Fig. 2.17

switching SW.
Under this mode of starting

voltage across stator winding phases is applied

3 times decreased compared

with nominal one, starting torque decreases threefold, starting phase current

3 times and starting line current decreases threefold. Thus, the

considered mode of starting is equal to autotransformer starting at k AT = 3 but

commutational overvoltage occurs in stator winding of induction motor at
starting switch.

2.11.2. Slip-Ring Induction Motor Starting




several stages as a rule is cut in to rotor

winding circuit. It is calculated for
instantaneous current flows (Fig. 2.18).
Initial starting torque may be
increased up to maximum motor torque

M s = M max at fixed resistsnce of starting


Rs = Rs ( m )



Resistance value of starting rheostat

Rs ( m ) may be determined by equating

critical slip to unity, i.e.

Fig. 2.18

scr = 1 (r2 + Rs( m ) )

r12 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) = 1 .

Referred active phase resistance of starting rheostat is

Rs(m ) = r12 + ( x 1 + c1 x 2 ) c1 r2 / c1 .

Actual resistance of starting rheostat is defined as follows

Rs( m ) = R (m ) (w2 k w2 / w1 k w1 ) .


Usually one chooses Rs Rs (m ) .

With rotor rotation frequency increase
starting rheostat resistance is reduced
changing one stage for another. Starting
rheostat stages are calculated so that
during switch the torque should be
changed within the chosen range from
M s, max up to M s, min .

Fig. 2.19
2.12. Regulation of Induction Motor Rotation Frequency
Rotor rotation frequency of IM is n = n1 (1 s ) = (60 f1 / p )(1 s ) . It
follows from this expression that rotor rotation frequency may be regulated by
changing any of three values, namely, slip s, current frequency in stator winding

f1 and pole number of stator winding 2p.

Rotation frequency regulation by slip change occurs only in a loaded
induction motor. Under light running conditions the slip and rotor rotation
frequency remain practically invariable.
Evaluation assessment of any mode of rotation frequency regulation is
made according to the following indices:
possible regulation range,
smooth regulation,
drive efficiency change at regulation.


Rotation frequency regulation by changing supplied voltage. Induction

motor torque is proportional to U12 ; therefore mechanical motor characteristics
at voltages less than nominal one (Fig. 2.20) are located under the natural
If static torque M st is
constant, then the slip of
induction motor increases at
voltage drop in stator winding,



decreases. Slip regulation using

this mode is possible within the
range 0 < s < s sc .
Fig. 2.20

The range of rotation frequency

regulation is not significant, that is explained by narrow limits of stable motor

running. The range is limited by impermissible significant increase of nominal
voltage and critical slip value. If the nominal voltage is exceeded there arises a
hazard of induction motor excessive heating caused by sharp increases of
electric and magnetic losses. The motor with more significant critical slip has
higher value of electric losses and lower efficiency.
At voltage U 1 decrease the motor loses overload capability and there is an
increase of summary losses and heating of induction motor at the loads close to
Narrow regulation range confines the field of application of this rotation
frequency regulation.
Rotation frequency regulation by symmetry breaking of the supplied
voltage. At symmetry breaking of three-phase system of alternating voltage
applied to IM, the rotating magnetic field of stator becomes elliptic. Such field

contains reverse component ( reversing field ) which develops torque M r

directed opposition to torque op . Therefore, resultant electromagnetic torque
of induction motor decreases: = op r .

Fig. 2.21
Mechanical motor characteristics in this case [Fig. 2.21(a)] are positioned
in th range between symmetrical voltage characteristic (1) and characteristic at
single-phase supply (2), the latter being asymmetrical limit of three-phase
Asymmetry regulation of applied voltage is provided by cutting in singlephase regulation autotransformer AT [Fig. 2.21(b)] to one of the phases.
The drawback of this mode of regulation is a narrow regulation range and
efficiency decrease of the motor at asymmetrical voltage increase. As a rule this
rotation frequency regulation is used only in smaller rating motors.
Rotating frequency regulation by changing the pure resistance in rotor
circuit. This regulation of rotation frequency is available only in wound rotor
induction motors. Regulation rheostat similar to starting one but meant for
continuous duty is cut in to rotor circuit. Depending on regulation rheostat
construction this rotation frequency regulation may be smooth or stepwise.

Mechanical characteristics of induction motors at different values of rotor

circuit pure resistance (Fig. 2.22) show that as the rotor circuit pure resistance
encreases the slip corresponding to specified static torque increases. Rotor
rotation frequency decreases in this case.

Fig. 2.22
This mode provides rotation frequency regulation in a wide range below
the synchronous rotation frequency. Electrical losses in rotor circuit increase
only due to the losses in regulation rheostat. This mode is more favourable as
compared with the previous one in spite of the motor efficiency drop.
Rotation frequency regulation by changing stator winding current
frequency (Fig. 2.23). This regulation is based on synchronous rotation
frequency change n1 = 60 f1 / p . This is possible if the induction motor power
supply is available with regulating frequency ( FCh ). Frequency regulation
allows to change smoothly rotor rotation frequency within a wide range (up to
To regulate rotation frequency it will suffice to change current frequency

f1 . But in this case the maximum electromagnetic torque of IM will change.

Therefore, to keep invariable the desired level of overload duty, power factor


and motor efficiency it is necessary to change the value of stator voltage U 1

applied to the winding simultaneously with frequency change f1 .
Character of synchronous f1 and U 1 change depends
on the law of torque change of load and is determined by the
following equation
U 1(2 ) U 1(1) = ( f1( 2) f1(1) ) M ( 2) M (1) ,

where U 1(1) and M (1) are voltage and torque at frequency

f1(1) and U1( 2) and M ( 2) are voltage and torque at

frequency f1( 2) .
Fig. 2.23

If IM rotation frequency is regulated at constant torque of

load ( M (1) = M ( 2) = const ) the voltage applied to stator
winding should be changed proportionally to current
frequency change (Fig. 2.24)

U 1( 2) = U 1(1) f1( 2) f1(1) .

When this regulation law is attained
the main magnetic flux of induction





frequency f1 remains invariable and

motor power grows proportionally
to rotation frequency increase.

Fig. 2.24





provided constant motor power ( Pem = M 1 = const ) the voltage applied to

stator winding should be changed according to the law (Fig. 2.25)
U 1( 2 ) = U 1(1)


f1( 2 ) f1(1) .

Fig. 2.25
Rotation frequency regulation by changing pole number of stator
winding. This regulation mode provides stepwise regulation. One can change
pole number of stator winding either by placing two windings with different
pole number in the slots of stator or by placing one winding possessing the
construction that allows to get different pole number by changing over coil
assemblies. The second mode is the most often used.
The principle of transformation of four-pole to two-pole winding by the
example of one phase is shown in Fig. 2.26(a), namely, a) in series accordant
connection of two coils the produced magnetic field has four poles, b) in series
opposition connection two poles are formed, c) in parallel connection two poles
are formed.


Fig. 2.26
IM with pole-changing windings may run at two duties, i.e. constant
torque duty (Fig. 2.27) when the torque M 2 on motor shaft is invariable at
changing stator winding polarity and power P2 changes proportionally to rotor
rotation frequency P2 = 0.105 M 2 n , constant power duty (Fig. 2.28), when
switching the number of poles the power P2 remains aboutthe same and torque
on the shaft M 2

changes in accordance with the rotor rotation frequency

change M 2 = 9.55 P2 n .


Rotation frequency regulation by changing pole number of stator winding

is used only in cage rotor induction motors as in wound rotor induction motors
one should use pole-changing winding that could bring to impermissible
complicated motor construction.

Fig. 2.27

Fig. 2.28

Rotation frequency regulation by additional e.m.f. in rotor circuit.

Additional e.m.f. possessing frequency similar to the main rotor e.m.f. and

directed accordantly or in opposite direction it is introduced from extraneous

Taking into consideration that IM slip is rather small it may be assumed
for simplicity that r2 >> x 2 s , 2 = 0 , r2 = const . Consider IM running at

M st = const .

& = const and M I 2 S . E.m.f E 2 S (1) = E 2 s (1) is

If U& 1 = const we obtain
induced in rotating rotor winding up to additional e.m.f. introduction and current
I 2 S (1) = s (1) E 2 / r2 flows producing necessary electromagnetic torque. Vector

diagram for the considered situation is plotted in Fig.2.29(a).

Fig. 2.29
When introducing the additional e.m.f. E& ad directed in opposition to E 2S (1)
into the circuit of rotating rotor the current in rotor winding decreases at the first
moment. As a result the electromagnetic torque becomes less than the static
torque M st and the rotor starts slowing down its rotation frequency.
At rotor rotation frequency decrease the slip e.m.f. and current in stator
winding increase. Current increase in rotor winding and rotor rotation frequency
decrease occur until this current at new slip s ( 2 ) reaches former value I 2S (1) at
which there was equality of torques M = M st . Vector diagram in Fig. 2.29(b)
will correspond to the new value of rotor rotation frequency.

One can show in a similar way that if additional e.m.f. directed

accordantly with e.m.f. E 2 S is introduced into rotor circuit rotor rotation
frequency increases.
Thus, when proper power supply (frequency changer) cut in to rotor
circuit is available one can provide smooth and economical regulation of IM
rotor rotation frequency.


A synchronous electric machine is an alternating current machine in
which rotor rotation frequency n is equal to magnetic flux rotation frequency of
stator n1 and is determined by line current frequency f1 , i.e. n =60 f1 p ,
where p is pole-pair number of stator winding.
A synchronous generator is the main alternating current generator used for
energy generation (Fig. 3.1).

Fig. 3.1
1 - collector rings, 2 - brush holders, 3 - pole rotor coil, 4 - pole tip, 5 stator core, 6 ventilator, 7 - shaft


Synchronous motors unlike induction motors exhibit constant rotation

frequency, which does not depend on load. The advantage is considered to be
availability of regulating power factor and electrical system power factor.
Synchronous machines have one important application. They are used as
synchronous compensators providing the improvement of electrical system
power factor.

3.1. Construction and Basic Principle of a Synchronous

According to their structure synchronous machines are divided into salient
pole machines and non-salient pole machines (Fig. 3.2).

Fig. 3.2
1 - Stator (armature), 2 - rotor (inductor), 3 - exciting (field) winding.


Synchronous machines stator has the same construction as that of an

induction machine and is called armature. Three-phase armature winding of
synchronous machines as well as the rotor are manufactured with the same pole
number. Fig. 3.2 shows only the terminals of phase origins A, B, C of armature
A rotor of a synchronous machine possesses exciting winding cut in to
direct current supply via two collector rings and brushes. Exciting winding is
meant for developing main magnetic flux in the machine. Rotor with exciting
winding is called an inductor.
If a synchronous machine rotor is set in rotation at rotation frequency n
and is excited then the exciting flux

f will induce e.m.f. at frequency

f1 = p n 60 in armature winding.

Armature winding e.m.f. comprises a symmetrical three-phase system.

While cutting in symmetrical load generator to armature winding it will be
loaded with symmetrical current system. In this case the machine runs under
generator effect conditions.
Being loaded armature winding produces its own rotating magnetic field,
which rotates in the same direction as rotor does at frequency n1 = 60 f1 p = n ,
r.p.m. Armature and rotor fields rotate at similar frequency and are stationary
relative to each other.
A synchronous machine may run as a motor if three-phase current from
the mains is supplied to armature winding. In this case as a result of the armature
and rotor magnetic field interaction the armature field involves the rotor. As a
result the rotor rotates in the same direction as the armature field does.


3.2. Magnetic Field of a Synchronous Machine Excitation

A salient pole machine. In Fig. 3.3 magnetic field of exciting winding in
air gap of a salient pole synchronous machine over a length of a pole pitch


shown. Magnetic induction distribution of exciting winding field B f on internal

surface of armature is shown in Fig. 3.3(b). Actual distribution (1) of magnetic
induction B f is non-sinusoidal and it may be resolved into fundamental (2) and
higher harmonic components.

Fig. 3.3

Fig. 3.4

Field harmonics of exciting winding mentioned above induce fundamental

and higher e.m.f. harmonics in armature winding. Higher e.m.f. harmonics of
exciting winding are small because the magnetic induction field harmonics of
exciting winding corresponding to them, also are small short and the pitch of
armature winding is shortened and distributed.
Amplitude of the first field harmonic is

B fm1 = k f B fm ,

B fm =


k k d

F f k f is amplitude of actual distribution of

exciting winding field induction, k f =

B fm1
B fm

is coefficient of field form of

exciting winding, is minimum air gap, m is maximum air gap, b p is arc

length of a pole tip, being coefficient of a pole arc,

0 is magnetic air

permeability, k - is coefficient of air gap, k d being coefficient of saturation

of magnetic circuit along direct axis ( direct axis d coincides with direct
symmetry axis of each pole inductor, lateral axis q is in the middle between
them ),

Ff =

wf if

is m.m.f. of exciting winding pole, w f , i f being turn

number and exciting winding current.

Usually m = 1 2.5 , = 0.65 0.75 that allows to obtain high values
of coefficient of exciting winding field form k f = 0.95 1.15.
A non-salient pole machine. Fig. 3.4(a) shows magnetic field of exciting

winding in air gap of a non-salient pole synchronous machine over a length of a

pole pitch . Magnetic induction distribution of exciting winding field B f on
internal surface of armature is shown in Fig. 3.4(b). Actual distribution (1) of
magnetic induction B f is of trapezium shape and it may be resolved into
fundamental and higher harmonics components.
Amplitude of fundamental field harmonic of exciting winding is
B fm1 =

0 w f i f 4

k wf ,




k wf

kf =

k wf

is coefficient of field form of exciting winding,

sin( )
2 is winding coefficient of exciting, being ratio of exciting

winding slot number and total slot pitch number of inductor external surface.
Usually = 0.65 0.80 that allows to obtain k f = 1.065 0.965.

3.3. Magnetic Field and Armature Winding Parameters

With the current in armature winding a synchronous machine produces

magnetic field called armature reaction field.
An inductor (rotor) of a salient pole machine exhibits magnetic
asymmetry due to high magnetic resistance of interpolar space (lateral axis q).
Besides, a synchronous machine rotor (both salient pole and non-salient pole
machine) exhibits electrical asymmetry as exciting winding axis of each pole is
placed only along direct axis d.
With magnetic asymmetry in salient pole inductor it is necessary to
consider armature reaction effect along direct and lateral axes individually. Such
method is called the method or theory of two reactions. The method is based on
superposition method, which suggests that magnetic fluxes effecting along
lateral axis do not influence the values of fluxes acting along direct axis and vice

3.3.1. Direct and Lateral Armature Reaction

Consider synchronous generator armature reaction at stable balanced load

(Fig. 3.5-3.7). Armature winding is shown in the form of a simplified three104

phase winding as it was the case when analyzing rotating magnetic field of an
induction machine.
Each phase is a full-pitch turn (A-X, B-Y, C-Z). Exciting winding field polarity is
denoted by letters N, S and lines of force of this field are not shown.
Synchronous generators usually run at combined load (real inductive and
real capacitive). For analyzing influence of armature reaction on synchronous
generator performance consider its running at the loads of limiting character, i.e.
real, inductive and capacitive loads.
Real load. For the position, which is taken by the rotating rotor, the e.m.f.

phase is maximal. As angle = 0 phase current is also maximum i A = I m , in

other phases i B = iC = 0.5 I m (Fig. 3.5).
E.m.f. and current directions can be
established by the right-hand rule.
In Fig. 3.5 they are denoted by crosses
and points. At this current directions
magnetic field axis of armature reaction is
along direct axis q. The direction of
armature reaction field for the angle
= 0 remains the same for any rotating
rotor position as the rotor and armature
Fig. 3.5

reaction field rotate synchronously.

Inductive load. In case of an inductive load the angle between armature

winding e.m.f. E& and I& equals 90 el. grades (Fig. 3.6). It means that current
maximum in phase will set in a quarter of a cycle later as compared with the
previous case when rotor will rotate clockwise through 90. At lagging current
the armature reaction acts along the direct axis and with respect to the exciting
winding field it is demagnetizing (direct demagnetizing armature reaction).


Capacitive load. In case of a capacitive load the shift angle between armature

winding e.m.f. E& and current I& equals -90 el. grades (Fig. 3.7). It means that
current maximum in phase will set in a quarter of a cycle earlier as compared
with the case shown in Fig. 3.5. At leading current the armature reaction acts
along direct axis and in relation to exciting winding field it is magnetizing
(direct magnetizing armature reaction).
At combined load when 0 and 90 current I& may be resolved into two
componets (Fig. 3.8) I&d = I& sin , I&q = I& cos , where I d , I q are direct-axis
and lateral-axis components of armature current.

Fig. 3.6

Fig. 3.7

Fig. 3.8

3.4. Magnetic Fields and E.M.F. of Direct and Lateral Armature


Direct and lateral components of armature current form direct and lateral
components of armature m.m.f. with the corresponding amplitudes
m 2 w kw


m 2 w kw
Faqm =

Iq ,

where m is the number of armature winding phases,
Fadm =

w, k w is the number of phase turns and winding coefficient of armature

p is the number of pole pairs of armature winding.
Wave maximum of armature m.m.f. on direct axis coincides with direct
axis (Fig. 3.9) and wave maximum on lateral axis coincides with lateral axis
(Fig. 3.10).

Fig. 3.9

Fig. 3.10

In case of uniform air gap between armature and rotor the above m.m.f.
could produce sinusoidal spatial induction waves of magnetic field with
amplitudes B adm and Baqm . Due to air gap nonuniformity of air gap the actual
induction distributions (3) are not sinusoidal. Resolving them into harmonic
components one can separate the basic harmonics

(4) with amplitudes

B adm1 and Baqm1 .

The basic magnetic fields induction harmonics of direct and lateral

armature reaction are produced by corresponding fluxes of armature reaction
adm =
aqm =

where k ad =

k ad Badm l ,
k ag Baqm l ,

B adm1
are form factors of the field of direct and
, k aq =
B adm

lateral armature reaction.

& ad and
& aq rotate synchronously with the rotor and induce
e.m.f. in armature winding
E ad = 2 f1 w k o adm ,

E aq = 2 f1 w k o aqm ,
where E ad , E aq are e.m.f. of direct and lateral armature reaction.
Plotting vector diagram of e.m.f. and synchronous generator fluxes at

combined load (Fig. 3.11) allows to get resultant e.m.f. E& and flux

E& = E& + E& ad + E& aq , .

& =
& f +
& ad +
& aq ,


where E& is induced by flux

& aq.
& ad , E& aq
& f , E& ad

E.m.f. E& ad and E& aq may be

represented as follows
E& ad = jx ad I&d ,
E& aq = jxaq I&q ,
where x ad , x aq are inductive
reactance of direct and lateral
armature reaction.
Fig. 3. 11

3.5. Voltage Vector Diagrams of Synchronous Generators

A salient pole machine. Voltage equation of a synchronous salient pole

generator has the following form

where E& a

U& = E& + E& ad + E& aq + E& a I& ra ,

= jxa I& = jxa I&d jxa I&q is leakage e.m.f. of armature

winding phase, xa is the inductive reactance of leakage of armature winding

Using e.m.f. vector diagram (Fig. 3.11) plot a generator voltage vector
diagram at real-inductive load summing up vector E& and vectors of voltage
drop at real ( - I& ra ) and inductive ( - jI& xa ) armature winding phase
reactances (Fig. 3.12). The angle between E& and U& is called the load angle.
Under generator effect conditions E& advances U& and the angle is always
positive, the machine giving up active power to the mains.

After some transformations we obtain E& d and E& q

E& d = E& ad + E& ad = jI&d ( xad + xa ) = jI&d xd ,

E& q = E& aq + E& aq = jI&q xaq + xa = jI&q xq ,

where x d = x ad + xa , x q = x aq + xa are direct and lateral synchronous
inductive phase reactances of armature winding.

Fig. 3.12

Fig. 3.13

A non-salient pole machine. Due to air gap uniformity we have

x ad = x aq , xd = xq that is why there is no need to resolve the armature current

into components I&d and I&q . Voltage equation of a non-salient pole generator
has the form
U& = E& jI& xad jI& xa ra I& = E& jI& x d ra I&.
Vector diagram of a non-salient pole generator is plotted in the following
manner. Sum up vector E& and voltage drop vectors at synchronous inductive
reactance - jI x d = j ( x ad + xa )I& and pure resistance (- I& ra ) of armature
winding phase (Fig. 3.13 ).
3.6. Synchronous Generator Characteristics

The operating properties of a synchronous generator are estimated by its

characteristics, the most important ones of which are as follows: open-circuit
three-phase short circuit characteristics, external, regulating, and induction load.

3.6.1. Open-Circuit Characteristic

( )

E = f i f , at I = 0 , f1 = const

Performance point A of open-circuit characteristic is situated in the area of

characteristic bend. The characteristic (1) coincides with non-saturated area of



corresponds to non-saturated condition of

generator magnetic circuit. Saturation
factor of magnetic circuit k s is thought of
as ratio of total m.m.f. (intercept ) and
air gap m.m.f. ( intercept BC ). For
synchronous general-purpose machines
saturation coefficient is k s = 1.1 1.2.
Fig. 3.14
Choosing performance point in saturation A domain brings to sharp
exciting current increase. Exciting winding becomes cumbersome. Choosing
performance point on linear area A brings to under exploitation of magnetic
materials, their expense increases.


3.6.2. Three-Phase Short-Circuit Characteristic

( )

I = f i f at U = 0, f1 = const
If one neglects pure resistance of armature winding ( ra = 0 ) the equation
of short-circuit voltage has the form
U& = E& jI& xad jI& xa = 0,
where E& = E& jI& x ad = jI& xa .
Due to small voltage drop value at
inductive reactance of armature winding
leakage phase it follows that e.m.f. E& from
resultant magnetic flux is induced by
magnetic flux of small value, Magnetic
circuit is not saturated and the characteristic
is linear (Fig. 3.15).
Fig. 3.15
3.6.3. Short-Circuit Ratio

Short-circuit ratio ( Sh-C R ) (Fig. 3.16)


the ratio of steady three-phase shortcircuit current I sc at exciting current i fo

which produces E = U n at open-circuit
duty to the nominal armature current I n
Sh CR = I sc I n = i fo i fsc .

Fig. 3.16


Sh-C R value for salient pole generators is 0.8 1.8 , for non- salient pole
generators is 0.5 1.0 .

3.6.4. External Characteristics

U = f (I ) at i f = const , cos = const , f1 = const

These characteristics show generator voltage U changes at current change
of load I. External characteristic diagram under different load conditions (Fig.
3.17) is the result of different armature reaction effect. In lagging current (1)
there is direct demagnetizing armature reaction. At real load (2) there is also


armature reaction, however

its effect is slight by less. In
leading current (3) there





Fig. 3.17
U N is voltage change of generator terminal armature winding depending

on the load value. At cos = 0.8 (inductive)

U n % = ( E U ) 100 U n = 25 35%.


3.6.5. Regulation Characteristics

i f = ( I ) at U = const , cos = const , f1 = const

Regulation characteristics show how to regulate synchronous generator
exciting current in order to keep the voltage constant at load change.
Characteristic diagram depends on armature reaction effect (Fig. 3.18) .

Fig. 3.18

3.6.6. Induction Load Curve

( )

U = f i f at I = const , cos = 0 , f1 = const

Fig. 3.19


This characteristic shows how generator voltage U changes at exciting

current i f change provided that the load current I and cos are constant
(Fig. 3.19).
Induction load curve is used to determine demagnetizing armature
reaction effect.

3.7. Pottier Diagram

This diagram is used for non-salient synchronous machines to determine

exciting current, which is necessary to provide the given duty ( U n , I , cos )
taking into account magnetic circuit saturation.
The Pottier diagram can be obtained by joint consideration of open-circuit
characteristic and synchronous generator vector diagram (Fig. 3.20).

Fig. 3.20
The order of plotting Pottier diagram

Open-circuit characteristic is plotted.

Vector of nominal voltage U& n is plotted on Y-axis, vector of
armature current I& being plotted at an angle .
Vectors U& n

voltage drop at inductive reactance of armature

winding leakage phase jI& xa are summed up obtaining armature winding

& .
e.m.f. E from resultant magnetic flux
Exciting current i fe is determined according to open-circuit
characteristic and E& .
Vectors of exciting current i fe and load current k id I& referred to
exciting winding and directed towards the vertical at an angle + are
summed up. As a result one gets exciting current i f to provide the designed

3.8. Parallel Operation of Synchronous Generators

At a electric power station several generators energized to operate parallel

are usually installed. In modern energy systems a number of power stations are
energized for parallel operation. It helps to achieve high reliability of energy
supply and its distribution.

3.8.1. Conditions of Parallel Generator Switching

One should fulfil the following conditions:

e.m.f. of the cut in generator EG should be equal to the mains
voltage U mains ,
generator frequency f G should be equal to the mains frequency
f mains ,


EG and U mains should be in phase,

phase alternation of the generator and the mains should be similar.

The generator and the mains vectors coincide under the mentioned
conditions and rotate at similar frequency (Fig. 3.21). E.m.f. and voltage
difference between like switch contacts when generator is energized (Fig. 3.22)
are equal to zero
E& G U& C = E& G U& C = E& GC U& CC = 0
E.m.f. and voltage equality is achieved by generator exciting current
regulation and is controlled with the help of a voltmeter (not shown). Change of
frequency and generator e.m.f. phase is achieved by changing generator rotor



validity of phase alternation

is checked only during the
first generator energizing.
E.m.f. and voltages being in
phase are controlled with the





Fig. 3.21
Improper synchronizing may cause serious emergency. If, for example,
voltages E& G and U& mains are phase shifted by 180 at the instant of cutting in it is
equivalent to short-circuit at doubled voltage ( E& G U& mains = 2U& mains ).
Synchronizing with the help of a lamp syncroscope may be carried out
according to damping circuit [Fig. 3.22(a)] or light rotation [Fig. 3.22(b)].
Synchronizing circuit for light damping is meant for switching on lamps 1, 2, 3
between like terminals of the generator and the mains. The instant of
synchronizing corresponds to simultaneous damping of all the lamps.

Synchronizing diagram for light rotation provides switching on lamps 1 and 2

between different terminals of the generator and the mains. The instant of
synchronizing corresponds to luminescence of these two lamps with maximum
brightness and lamp 3 damping which is cut in to like terminals of the generator
and the mains.
Fig. 3.22

The method of precise synchronizing suggests the availability of

automatic synchronizers which regulate EG

and f G of the synchronized

generator and cut in the generator automatically for parallel operation under
necessary conditions. However, automatic synchronizers are complicated and
require constant routine maintenance. Besides, in case of emergency

synchronizing process is delayed ( up to 510 min ) that is impermissible from

viewpoint of prompt breaking down emergency situation.
Self-synchronizing method implies that the generator is energized nonexcited ( EG =0) at rotation frequency close to the synchronous frequency, then
exciting current is cut in and generator begins running in a synchronous manner.
At self-synchronizing there occurs marked armature current rush (up to 3.5 I N ).
However, this current is less than at sudden generator short circuit under opencircuit conditions at E& G = U& mains as except for the resistance of generator
armature winding the resistances of the main elements effect as well. Besides,
current rush value is reduced by energizing winding of field damping resistance.

3.8.2. Synchronous Duties of Parallel Synchronous Machine


Synchronous machine operation in parallel with the mains at synchronous

frequency is considered to be a synchronous duty.
Consider a parallel non-salient pole machine neglecting pure resistance of
armature winding phases ( ra = 0 ).
Armature winding current is
E& U& U&
I& =


Reactive power change. Synchronous compensator duty. Provided that all the

conditions of parallel generator cutting in are fulfilled, armature current being

zero, the machine runs at open-circuit duty. If generator exciting current after
synchronization is increased then E& > U& and the current I& lagging U& , E& , U&

Fig. 3.23

The machine will release inductive current and reactive power. If one reduces
exciting generator current then E& < U& , leading current I& relative to E& and U&
develops [Fig. 3.23(b)].
The machine will release capacitive current and consume reactive power from
the mains.
Synchronous machine without real load but loaded by reactive current is
called a synchronous compenstator.
Active power change. Generator and motor effect duty. Provided that the

machine cut in for parallel operation should generate active power, run under
generator effect conditions it is necessary to increase mechanical torque on the
shaft [Fig. 3.23(c)]. In so doing current I& lagging

U& = E& U& by 90

develops. Generator active power value is

P = m U I cos > 0 .
If , on the other hand, machine rotor is being braked developing
mechanical load on the shaft, then e.m.f. E& will lag U& by an angle , current I&
will lag U& by an angle 90 0 < < 270 0 [Fig. 3.23(d)]. In this case the active
power is
P = m U I cos < 0 .
The machine will run under motor effect conditions consuming active
power from the mains.

3.8.3. Angular Characteristics of Synchronous Machine Active Power

P = f ( ) at E = const , n = const

Express the generator active power P from vector diagram (Fig. 3.24)
assuming ra = 0 that


P = m U I cos = m U I cos( ) =
m U I (cos cos + sin sin ) =

m U (I d cos + I d sin ).

Values of armature current components I& d and I&q are also found from
the same vector diagram

Id =

E U sin

Iq =

U sin

Substituting to power expression P we obtain

m E U
m U 2 1
sin +
sin 2 .
2 xq xd
The first component of active power is due to electromagnetic excitation,
the second component results from different magnetic resistances (magnetic
asymmetry) along axes d and q.
Static stability. Static stability of a

synchronous machine is called the






disturbances ( U , i f , n deviations) and

after the termination of their action the





Synchronous machine operating duty

exhibits static stability if P > 0 and
it does not exhibit static stability if
P < 0 .

Fig. 3.24
A non-salient pole machine. From active power equation taking into

account that xd = xq we obtain



m E U
sin .

Fig. 3.25(a) shows angular characteristic of active power P = f ( ) of a

non-salient pole machine under generator effect conditions. At P increase from
zero angle will grow from = 0 0 . At critical load angle = 90 0
maximum power P = Pm is obtained. At further increase (more than 90 0 )
active generator power reduces. Thus, 0 < < 90 0 is stable running domain,
90 0 < < 180 0 is unstable running domain.

Fig. 3.25
A salient pole machine. Angular characteristic of salient pole machine active

power is shown in Fig. 3.25(b). Stable running domain of a salient pole machine
is somewhat less than that of a non-salient pole machine and cr is about 60 0 .

3.8.4. Synchronizing Power (Synchronizing Torque) and Static

Overload of Synchronous Machines


As mentioned above within the fixed value range of load angle a

synchronous machine tends to maintain synchronous operating duty. It is due to
the fact that at angle deflection [Fig. 3.25(a)] to some value power P
develops under the effect of which stable operation conditions are restored.
Power P is called synchronizing power. The electromagnetic torque M ,
which is called synchronizing corresponds to this power. Synchronizing power
factor is
Psm =

P m E U
cos + m U 2


cos 2

Dependences of synchronizing power factors for non-salient and salient

pole machines are shown in dash lines in Figs. 3.25(a) and 3.25(b). Positive sign
of this factors is one of stability criteria of static operation duty.
Static overload of a synchronous machine at

U = U n , i f = i fn

is specified

by the ratio of active power Pm amplitude to the nominal active power Pn ,


= Pm Pn .

The value of static overload factor k n should be not less than 1.6


3.8.5. Synchronous Machine Running at Constant Active Power and

Alternating Excitation

Consider the dependence of armature current I on exciting current i f at

P = const in case of parallel running duty of a machine switched to the mains
with infinitive power ( U = const ,

f1 = const ).

To determine this dependence we use the simplified vector diagram of nonsalient pole synchronous generator (Fig. 3.26).


Fig. 3. 26


At P = const the active component of armature current I a = const , therefore

vector point slides along line in vector diagram. If we suppose that xa 0
then E=U=const and referred component of exciting current i f developing
resultant flux is also constant. Full referred exciting current is

i f = i f I&
As the full referred exciting current i f changes continuously the
armature current I and cos change as well. At some value i f current value I is
minimum, is armature I a and cos = 1 . At the increase of above value i f (over
excitation duty and at its decrease (under excitation duty) the current I rises
since its reactive component increases.

( ) for different values of

Fig. 3.27 shows dependence character I = f i f

P = const . These dependences are called U -shaped characteristics because of

their forms. Lower curve corresponds to P = 0 , in this case i f 0 being the
exciting current value at E = U . Right characteristic areas correspond to the
overexciting machine, left characteristic areas correspond to the underexciting
Line shows regulation machine characteristic at cos = 1 . Line
shows stable duty limit at which = .

3.9. Elements of Transient Theory of Synchronous Machines

Different transients occur at sharp changes of a synchronous machine

operating duty (load cutting in and off, closing and breaking electric windings,


short-circuiting etc.). Transients in one machine may influence the other

machines running in one energy supply system and cause serious emergency
with heavy losses.
Fig. 3.28
1 - generator armature, 2 - generator exciting (field) winding, 3 - generator
witch, 4 - exciter armature, 5 - exciter field winding, 6 - exciting current 7 regulation rheostat of exciter, 8 - resistance of field damping, and 9
automation contacts of field damping (AFE).
Transients of any character are described by differential equations. Salient
pole synchronous machines possess magnetic and electrical asymmetry and the
differential equations have complicated form. The most intensive transients in
synchronous machines are caused by short circuits, which occur due to different
reasons (damage and puncture of insulation, fall of power transmission supports,
wire break etc.).
Short circuits that occur at electrical machines running being charged are
called sudden.

3.9.1. Magnetic Field Damping

Given internal short circuits, in the armature winding of a synchronous

generator (Fig. 3.28), the exciting current i f continues to develop the main
magnetic flux and to induce an armature winding e.m.f., therefore large currents
flow across it. To avoid generator damage it is necessary to bring the exciting
current and flux to zero. Such action is called magnetic field killing.
Field killing is possible by means of generator exciting winding circuit
break with the help of contacts 8. This is however inadmissible because in this
case too large e.m.f. is induced in the generator exciting winding, which is able

to cause insulation puncture. Under normal running conditions contacts 8 are

closed and contacts 9 are open. At internal short circuits the relay protection
closes contacts 9 and opens contacts 8. The generator exciting winding remains
closed via resistance 7 of field killing. This resistance is 35 times higher than
that exciting winding itself. In this case the greater resistance of field killing the
quicker the current fades.

3.9.2. Physical Essence of Phenomena at Sudden Three-Phase Short

Circuit of a Synchronous Generator

The process of sudden short circuit of armature winding is mainly similar

to short circuit of any alternating circuit of secondary transformer winding. It
means that there arise the forced periodic currents and free aperiodic currents,
which fade with some time constants.
The theorem of flux linkage constancy. Differential equation of electric circuit

without extraneous e.m.f. (sources) has the form

= ri ,
where is a total flux linkage of this circuit due to both inherent flux and

mutual induction fluxes of other circuits inductively coupled.

If r = 0 , we obtain

= 0 , whence = const . Consequently, the flux


linkage of a superconductive electric circuit holds constant.

Periodic and aperiodic currents of armature winding. According to the

theorem of flux linkage constancy at ra = r f = ry = 0 armature phase linkages


should remain constant where ra , r f , ry are pure resistances of armature

windings (phases), exciting and damper windings correspondingly.
However, constant stator phase linkages may be developed only by
aperiodic currents in phases of this winding. These currents produce aperiodic
armature flux.
Due to rotor rotation in armature winding phases there arise periodic
sinusoidal currents with amplitude I m , which produce periodic armature flux
directed in opposition to exciting winding flux keeping constant flux linkage of
armature phases.
Periodic and aperiodic inductor currents. According to the theorm of flux

linkage constancy at r f = ry = 0 aperiodic armature flux causes periodic

inductor currents and damper winding and the periodic armature flux causes
aperiodic inductor currents i fa and damper winding currents i .
Values of sudden three-phase short circuit currents. Total subtransient current

of armature winding short circuit is

i sh = i n + i a ,

where in is instantaneous value of periodic armature winding current, ia

is instantaneous value of aperiodic armature winding current.
Instantaneous value of short-circuit
current during transient may be of three




stable. Supertransient armature current

is due to direct supertransient inductive
reactance of armature winding x d (Fig.
3.29), which is determined by the effect
of damper and exciting windings.
Fig. 3.29

Transient armature current is due to

direct transient inductive armature

x d (Fig.



which is determined by exciting

winding. Stable current of short circuit




inductive reactance along direct axis


Fig. 3.30
Aperiodic component of short-circuit current at
Periodic component of short-circuit current at

t = equals zero.

t = equals stable short-circuit



current is
i st = 2 E m / x d

where E m is amplitude value of

armature phase e.m.f.
xd = xa +
Fig. 3.31

xf , xy

are inductive

leakage reactances of exciting and

damper windings correspondingly.

As in the transformer large electrodynamic stresses arise in armature

winding at short circuit. These stresses tend to turn down the frontal parts of
armature winding. Cyclic deformations of frontal parts, especially the parts close
to the slot exit, may cause damage and puncture of isolation. Therefore, reliable
bracing of frontal armature winding is required for large power machines.

3.10. Synchronous Motors and Compensators

3.10.1. Synchronous Motors

As compared with induction motors the synchronous motors have

significant advantages:
the motors can run at cos = 1 and do not consume reactive power
from the mains,
the synchronous motor torque is proportional to the voltage M U
(for induction motors M U 2 ),
the synchronous motor

efficiency is higher than that of an

induction motor due to small losses,

the rotation frequency does not depend on the load.
However, synchronous motors are more complicated constructively and
require d.c. supply to energize the exciting winding. There are also difficulties at
their starting.
There are the following starting modes of synchronous motors:
Starting with the help of extraneous (outside) motor. Rotor of the
exciting motor is set into rotation up to the frequency close to the synchronous
one and is cut in to three-phase circuit with the help of a synchronizer. Then the
auxiliary motor is cut off.
Induction starting. This mode assumes that a starting winding rotor
in pole tips is available. Non-excited synchronous motor is cut into three-phase
alternating mains by stator winding. Rotating magnetic field induces e.m.f. in
rotor starting winding, which produces currents in closed limbs of rotor winding.
Interaction of these currents with armature field produces the torque, which
causes the rotor to rotate. After starting (reaching synchronous rotation


frequency 95%) exciting winding is energized and the motor starts running in a
synchronous manner.
Synchronous motor running characteristics are the dependences of rotor
rotation frequency n , current in armature winding I1 , consumed active power
P1 , power factor cos 1 , net torque M 2 on the net power P2 (Fig. 3.32).

Rotor rotation frequency n remains constant and does not depend on the
load, therefore diagram n = f (P2 ) is a straight line parallel to X-axis. Net
torque on a synchronous motor shaft M 2 = f (P2 ) is a straight line passing
through the origin. Power P1
and current I1 correspond to
the values at P2 = 0 as there
are losses and no-load current.



cos 1 = f (P2 ) depends on the

value of motor exciting current.

Fig. 3.32
3.10.2. Synchronous Compensators

Synchronous compensators are meant for compensation of power factor of

the mains and maintaining standard power supply in the districts of consumer
loads grouping. Overexcitation duty of a synchronous compensator when it
gives up reactive power to the mains is considered to be normal.
There are no drive motors in a synchronous compensator and they are
synchronous motors in themselves running under no-load conditions. In so


doing they consume small active power to compensate the losses. Starting mode
of synchronous compensators is the same as that of synchronous motors.
This does not raise the question as to static stability in synchronous
compensators, they are manufactured with small air gap that allows lightening
exciting winding and reducing the cost of the machine.



Direct current machines are widely used as motors of wide-range and smooth
regulation of rotation speed (rolling mills, electric drawbar of transport,
powerful metal lathes). Direct current (d.c.) generators are used in different
transport and other installations (for energizing electric drives with wide-range
regulation of rotation speed, in electrolysis industry etc.). Besides, they are
exciters and pilot exciters of large synchronous generators.
4.1. Simple D.C. Machine Design and Operating Principle
In Fig. 4.1. a simple design of d.c. machine is shown. Fixed part of the machine
known as inductor consists of poles and a steel yoke to which the poles are
attached. An inductor is meant for producing basic magnetic flux in the
machine. An inductor of a simple d.c. machine has two poles (1) and an yoke
(not shown). Rotating part of the machine consists of a cylindrical armature (2)

Fig. 4.1.
and a collector (3) attached to the shaft. The armature consists of a steel
laminated core and winding packed in the slots of armature core. Armature
winding has one turn connected with isolated from the shaft two copper

collector segments. Armature winding is connected with external circuit by

collector and brushes (4).
The main magnetic flux in d.c. machines is usually induced by exciting winding
which is arranged on the pole core and is energized by direct current. Magnetic
flux flows from N-pole through the armature to S-pole and through the yoke,
then it flows to N-pole again by passing twice the air gap. Pole cores are
produced of electric steel.
Operating principle of a generator. When rotating clockwise e.m.f. is induced
in armature winding conductors, its direction may be determined according to
right-hand rule. The value of induced in the conductor e.m.f. is

ec = B *l *

where is magnetic induction, l is active conductor length, being linear

frequency of conductor shifting.
Total armature e.m.f. of the machine considered is Ea = 2*ec . E.m.f. a is
variable as armature winding conductors run downwards N-pole and S-pole. As
a result e.m.f. direction in the conductor changes.
If armature winding is closed with the help of brushes through external circuit
alternating current develops in the winding and direct current develops in
external circuit. This is because there is always a segment under the upper brash
connected with the conductor placed under N-pole and there is a segment under
the brush connected with the conductor arranged under S-pole. As a result,
polarity of brushes and current direction in external circuit are invariable. Thus,
generator collector is a mechanical rectifier which converts alternating current of
armature winding to direct current of external circuit. General view of d.c.
machine is shown in Fig. 4.2.


Fig. 4.2.
1-shaft, 2-back end shield, 3-collector, 4-brushes, 5-armature core, 6-main pole
core, 7-exiciting winding, 8-engine bed, 9-front end shield, 10-ventilator, 11bracing lugs, 12-bearing
4.2. Armature Windings of D.C. Machines

In modern d.c. machines armature winding is placed in the slots on external

armature surface. These windings are called drum windings. Armature windings
are divided into lap and spiral windings. There are windings which refer to
combination of these two windings ( combined windings ).
Main element of each winding is a section consisting of one or several series
turns which are attached to two collector segments by two ends.
Resulting pitch of any winding is

y = y1 + y 2 ,
where y1 , y 2 are the first and the second partial pitches of the winding.


The first partial pitch of the winding is y1 =


where Z e = Z U s is elemental slot number which is equal to the number of

collector segments , Z being the number of actual armature slots, U s is the
number of elementary slots in one actual armature slot, is the fraction at
which pitch y1 is an integral number, 2 p being the pole number.
The signs ( ) in front of mean lengthened or shortened pitch. As a rule
shortened pitch is taken because of less copper consumption due to smaller
length of frontal windings.
The second partial pitch is defined by the formula

y 2 = y y1 .
Resultant pitch around the collector yC shows the distance in collector division
between the centres of collector laminations to which the ends of the given
segment yC = y are attached. Collector division is the width of a collector
lamination and insulation lining gauge.
4.2.1. Lap Windings
Simplex lap winding. Fig. 4.3(a) and 4.3 (b) show the segments of simplex lap

winding. Resultant pitch of this winding is

y = y C = 1 ,

where the signs ( ) imply right-hand [Fig. 4.3(a)] and left-hand [Fig. 4.3(b)]
windings. The number of parallel branches 2a of simplex lap winding is equal
to that of the pole.
Complex lap winding. Complex lap winding is considered to be the combination

of m simplex windings operating in parallel with brushes. Resultant pitch of

complex lap winding is y = y = m .
The first and the second partial winding pitches are calculated in the same
manner as for simplex lap winding. Parallel branch number is 2a = 2 pm .

Fig. 4.3.

Fig. 4.4.


4.2.2. Spiral Windings

Simplex spiral winding. Fig. 4.6 (a) and 4.6(b) show the segments of simplex

spiral winding. The resultant pitch of simplex spiral winding is

y = y =


where the signs ( ) imply right-hand [Fig. 4.6(a)] and left-hand [Fig. 4.6(b)]

Fig. 4.5.


The first and the second partial pitches of the winding are determined in the
same manner as for simplex lap winding. Parallel branch number of simplex
spiral windings is 2 = 2. Fig. 4.6 shows expanded diagram of simplex spiral

Fig. 4.6.
Complex spiral winding. Complex spiral winding is considered to be the

combination of m simplex spiral windings operating in parallel with brushes.

Resultant winding pitch is



Parallel branch number is 2a = 2m . The diagram of simplex spiral winding wiht

2p=4, Z=Z= S=K=17, y1 = 4; y 2 = 4; y = 8.


4.3. D.C. Machine Magnetic Circuit at Open-Circuit Duty

When designing d.c. machine it is necessary to define the relations

(dependences) between the main magnetic flux and exciting winding
current of poles ie .
Machine magnetic circuit is shown in Fig. 4.7, magnetic line of force of the
torque is shown as a dashed line.

Fig. 4.7.
Magnetic circuit can be calculated based on the law of total current

Hdl = i ,
where H is magnetic field strength, A/m; dl is magnetic line length element, m;

i is total current of magnetic line, A.

Exact calculation of circular integral is difficult in practice, therefore
magnetic circuit is divided into areas and integral is substituted for the sum
assuming that strength H of each area is constant.

Magnetic circuit consists of the following areas: air gap ( ), armature

teeth ( hz ), armature back ( La ), poles ( hm ), yoke ( L y ).
Exciting winding m.m.f. to the pole expressed through m.m.f. of magnetic
circuit areas is
Fe = F + Fz + Fa + Fm + Fy , A,

where Fe = we * ie is exciting winding m.m.f., we , ie . is turn number and exciting

winding current, F = H * is air gap m.m.f., Fa = H a * La is armature back

Fm = H m * hm

is pole m.m.f.,

Fy = H y * L y

being yoke m.m.f.,

H , H z , H a , H m , H y are magnetic field strengths in the areas, A/m; , hz , La , hm , L y are

mean lengthes of magnetic lines of force, m.

When calculating magnetic circuit based on preset value of armature
e.m.f. Ea and induction proportional to it in air gap B one determines the value
H in separate circuit areas is determined.
When performing Fe calculation for some values of the main flux the
dependence = f (ie ) called magnetization curve or magnetic characteristic of
the machine is plotted. The values of saturation factor of magnetic circuit k s for
general purpose machines vary between 1.25 1.35 .


4.4. Machine Magnetic Field at Load Duty

At machine load ( I a 0 ) armature winding produces inherent magnetic field.

Armature and inductor fields acting simultaneously develop resultant field.
Armature field action on inductor field is called armature reaction. In direct
current machine is defined by brush position relative to geometric neutral line.

Fig. 4.8.
Geometric neutral line is a line running through rotor rotation axis in
radial direction in the centre between two adjacent poles.
Lateral armature reaction. If there is current in exciting winding and there

is no current in armature winding ( I a = 0 ) there exists only induction magnetic

field, the pattern is shown in Fig. 4.8(a). The geometric neutral line 1-1 in this

case is the physical neutral line at the same time as the induction of inductor
field is equal to zero at the same points on armature surface through which lines
of geometric neutral run.
If there is current in armature winding and there is no current in exciting
winding ( ie = 0 ) and the brushes are fixed on geometrical neutral line 1-1 the
armature field axis is directed on lateral inductor axis and is called lateral
armature reaction [Fig. 4.8(b)].
If the currents flow across exciting windings and armature windings then
inductor and armature fields arise at the same time. As seen from Fig. 4.8(c)
lateral armature reaction causes field weakening of one pole part and
strengthening of the other one. Due to this fact resultant field axis is turned
according to the generator rotation and is in the opposite direction in a motor.
Physical neutral line is shifted from position 1-1 to position 2-2 through some
angle under the effect of lateral armature reaction. It is called the line of
physical neutral. In a generator physical neutral is shifted towards armature
rotation and it is shifted in the opposite direction in a motor.
Direct armature reaction. If the brushes are shifted from geometric
neutral line by 90 el. grades [Fig. 4.8(d)] armature field axis is directed on
inductor direct axis and is called direct armature reaction field. This field
depending on armature current direction exerts magnetizing or demagnetizing
effect on induction field.
General case. If the brushes are geometrical by neutral shifted by some

angle < 90 el. grades there are both lateral and direct (magnetizing or
demagnetizing) components of armature reaction.


Armature reaction influence on machine magnetic flux. To estimate armature

reaction influence the magnetic flux induction distribution of inductor and

armature in air gap should be considered and the analysis of resultant magnetic
flux is carried out on this basis (Fig. 4.9).




inductor magnetic field (1) is

symmetrical relative to the axis of
pole close to trapezium-shaped.
Distribution of armature winding
m.m.f. (2) is of larger value on
geometric neutral line and it
equals zero along poles axis.



distribution of armature field (3)






armature m.m.f. distribution only


within the range of pole tips. Interpolar space magnetic induction of armature
field sharply decreases that is due to by large magnetic resistance.
Induction distribution of resultant field in air gap is obtained by summing up
distributions (1) and (3) and it corresponds to nonsaturated magnetic circuit (4).
If the machine magnetic circuit is saturated there occurs both induction
distortion of resultant field (5) and decrease in value.
D.c. machine armature reaction shows negative effect. The voltage between
adjacent commutator segments increases at the expense of magnetic field
distortion that deteriorates commutation conditions. If the resultant field
induction is reduced the operating conditions of the machine deteriorate, i.d.,
generator e.m.f. and motor torque decrease.

The effective method against harmful influence of armature reaction is

application of compensating winding. Compensating winding is placed into the
slots of pole tips and is energized in series with armature winding. In such case
its m.m.f. FC is in opposite direction to armature winding Fa . Compensating
winding is uniformly distributed over the entire surface of main pole tips.
Magnetic field with compensating winding remains practically invariable when
there is transition from open-circuit to load duty.
However the machine with compensating winding is more expensive and its
design becomes more complicated. These windings are used in the largest rating
machines operating at sharp load range.

4.5. Commutation

The reasons causing sparking on the commutator are divided into mechanical,
potential and commutating (electromagnetic).
Mechanical reasons are considered to be low brush pressure on the commutator,
salient insulation of commutator segments, commutator pollution, brush
distortion etc.
Potential reasons arise from the voltage between adjacent commutator segments,
when the level of the voltage exceeds acceptable limits (e.g. the voltage is 3035V for larger rating machines). Specified limit excess may cause flashover,
which is dangerous for the machine.
Commutational sparking reasons are caused by physical processes that occur in
the machine at section transition from one parallel branch to another.
Commutation quality according to State Standard is estimated by sparking
degree (commutation grade) under the brush back. There are five grades of



sparking, i.e., 1, 1 , 1 , 2, 3 . Sparking grades 1, 1 , 1

are allowable at any

operating duties.
So-called sparkless commutation (sparking grade 1) is adjusted in the machine.

As brushes and commutator wear down sparking arises which may be

significant and dangerous for the machine (sparking grade 2, 3). Significant
sparking leads to brush scorch and blackened commutator that is favourable for
futher sparking.
Physical commutation principle. Current ia change in the section when it is

switching from one parallel branch to another is called commutation. The

section in which commutation arises is called commutating section and time
period during which commutation process takes place is called commutating

Fig. 4.10
period. Fig. 4.10 (a), 4.10(b), and 4.10(c) show series commutation of section K.
Commutator brush arc is considered to be equal to commutator division.
Assume that e.m.f. is not induced in commutating section during the whole
period of commutation. During commutating period the current in the section
changes from + i a up to i a and is represented as a straight line 1(Fig. 4.11).
This commutation is called straight-line or ideal commutation. Straight-line
commutation is acceptable, as it does not cause sparking.
Under actual conditions commutation process is more complicated. At quick
current change in commutating section self-induction e.m.f. is induced

e L = LS

, where LS is section induction.

As one actual slot may comprise some elementary







commutating section

e = M S


where M S is mutual inductance of simultaneously

commutating sections. Both e.m.f. induce reactive
Fig. 4.11.

e.m.f. in the commutating section

er = eL + e .

Besides, e.m.f. of lateral armature reaction field directed in accordance with

reactive e.m.f. er is induced in the commutating section.
In the machines with compoles their magnetic flux induces e.m.f. in the
commutating section eC .
Thus, e.m.f. is induced in the commutation section

e = er

eC .

Consider three main instances of commutation (Fig. 4.11):


e = 0 , straight-line commutation is observed (1),


e 0,


e 0,

er > eC , lagging commutation is observed (2),

eC > er , accelerated commutation is observed (3).

In lagging or accelerated commutation additional current iad induces

iad =




is the sum of electric resistances for additional commutating

Techniques of commutation improvement. On the basis of analysing

dependences of additional current the following techniques of commutation

improvement are possible, i.e.,

1. application of commutating poles to induce commutating e.m.f. eC ,

2. decrease of reactive e.m.f. er ,
3. selection of brush mark.
Commutating poles are fixed in the centre between the main poles and
commutating pole winding is energized in series to armature winding curcuit.
Commutating pole core is made of steel and is monolithic in construction.
If there are no commutating poles reactive e.m.f. the value er may be decreased
due to inductance section LS decrease by means of section turn number
reduction ( L S w S2 ). Suitable brush mark improves commutation. It is
appropriate to use carbon-graphite, graphite and electrographitized brushes as
they provide the largest value of transient reactance.

4.6. Armature Winding E.M.F. and Electromagnetic Torque

4.6.1. Armature E.M.F.

Mean value of e.m.f. induced in one conductor of armature winding is

Em = Bm l v ,
where Bm is mean value of air gap induction, l being armature core length,



is linear velocity of armature rotation, n being armature rotation

frequency and D being armature diameter.

Armature circumference D is expressed through pole pitch

D = 2 p , then v = 2 p n .

Armature winding e.m.f. value is

Ea = Em

2p n N
= Bm l

where N is effective conductors number of armature winding, 2 is parallel

branch number.
Substituting Bm l = in the expression for we obtain

Ea =

n or E a = C e n where C e =
60 a
60 a
4.6.2. Electromagnetic Torque

E.m.f. acting on current conductor in the magnetic field is

Fem = m l ia ,
where i a =

is the current flowing across the conductor.

Electromagnetic torque is

M = Fem

N = Bm l a N .

As D = 2 p , = Bm l we obtain M = C I a , where

C =

2 a


4.7. D.C. Generators

4.7.1. General Information Concerning D.C. Generators
The classification of d.c. generators. D.c. generators may be classified as

generators of separate excitation and self-excitation generators (Fig. 4.12).










electromagnetic excitation [Fig. 4.12(a)], their exciting winding is cut in to

extraneous d.c. supply and magnetoelectric generators with permanent magnets
excitation. Generators with self-excitation are divided into generators of shunt
excitation [Fig. 4.12(b)], of series excitation [Fig. 4.12(c)] and of compound
excitation [Fig. 4.12(d)] depending on the mode of winding actuation.





Fig. 4.12
Generators of compound excitation have two exciting windings arranged on the
main poles: shunt and series one.

Energy generator diagram of separate excitation is shown in Fig. 4.13.

Mechanical power transmitted to





mechanical p mec , magnetic pm and

additional losses are transformed into
electromagnetic power Pem which are
partially spent for electrical losses in
armature circuit pea and the

remainder is the net power P2 , p e -exciting

winding losses. Based on the above






P1 = ( p mec + pm + pad ) + Pem .

The equation of torques. If one divides both parts of the above equation are

devided into angular frequency of armature rotation = 2 n then

M r = M 0 + M em ,
where M r =

is rotating torque on generator shaft, em =

electromagnetic torque developed-by the armature, M 0 =

pmec + pm + pd

open-circuit torque.
At unsettled duty when rotation frequency n changes the dynamic torque

M dyn = J


where J is moment of inertia of the rotating part.

In general case, when n const we obtain

r = 0 + em + dyn = st + dyn ,
where st = 0 + em is static torque.
The equation of generator e.m.f. and voltages. The voltage across the terminals

of armature winding is

U = E a I a R a ,
where E a = ce n is armature winding, e.m.f., Ra = ra + Rb is circuit
resistance of armature, ra is armature winding resistance, Rb is brush contact
Self-excitation principle of a shunt d.c. generator. Self-excitation principle is

based on the fact that machine magnetic system being magnetized keeps small
residual flux r (of the order of 2 3 % from nominal exciting flux).
Flux r induces residual e.m.f. Er during rotor rotation. As exciting winding is
cut in to armature circuit current ie begins flowing and e is developed. If
fluxes r and e act accordantly armature winding e.m.f. increases that leads
to increasing the exciting current increase. It occurs until generator voltage is
balanced by voltage drop of exciting circuit, i.e. ie re = U 0 .
Fig. 4.14 combines generator open-circuit characteristic (1) and voltage drop
dependence of exciting winding (2). Angle of a straight line slope (2)


proportional to exciting circuit







process completion. However at

some resistance of exciting circuit
dependence ie re = f (ie ) becomes
tangential to a straight line portion


of open-circuit characteristic (3, angle cr ). Under these conditions generator is

not subjected to self-excitation. Exciting circuit resistance at which generator
self-excitation discontinues is known as critical ( recr ).
Generator self-excitation is possible only at rotation frequency exceeding some
value called critical ncr . Open-circuit characteristic (4) corresponds to critical
generator rotation frequency.
Thus, d.c. generator self-excitation is possible under the following conditions: 1)
there is residual magnetic flux r , 2) exciting winding flux e should coincide
with residual magnetic flux r in direction, 3) exciting circuit resistance should
be less than critical, 4) armature rotation frequency should be sufficient, more
than critical.
4.7.2. D.C. Generator Characteristics

D.c. generator operating characteristics are analyzed with the help of opencircuit, short-circuit, external, regulating and load characteristics. These
characteristics are taken almost under the same conditions and are of the same
character as that of a synchronous generator.
Open-circuit characteristic. E = f (ie ) at I a = 0, n = const

For d.c. generator with separate excitation open-circuit characteristic is shown

in Fig. 4.15(a).
The curve has the form of a non-wide hysterisis loop. The centre dash line
represents design characteristic according to which magnetic circuit saturation
factor is determined.
For a shunt generator open-circuit characteristic is of the same character as that
of a separate excitation generator but the characteristic may be obtained only for
one quadrant of coordinate axes.
External characteristic. U = f (I ) at ie = const ( re = const ), n = const

External characteristic for the generator of separate excitation (1) is shown in


Fig. 4.15(b). Falling feature of curve is due to demagnetizing effect of armature

reaction and voltage drop in armature winding circuit.
External characteristic of a shunt generator (2) is closer to that of a separate
excitation generator. This is because apart from above reasons typical of the
generator with separate excitation winding the third reason is added - exciting
current decrease caused by voltage decrease across the terminals of exciting
External characteristic of a compound generator depends on joint action of
series and shunt exciting windings. At accordant energizing the windings
external characteristic (3) runs above the characteristic (1) (series winding
shows magnetizing effect). At energizing windings in opposition external
characteristic runs below the characteristic (2) (series winding shows
magnetizing effect).

Fig. 4.15
Regulation characteristic. ie = f (I ) at U = const , n = const


Regulation characteristic for a separate excitation (1) is shown in Fig. 4.15(c).

The exciting should be increased current for compensating voltage drop in
armature winding and demagnetizing effect of armature reaction.
Regulation characteristic for a shunt generator remains the same as that of the
generator of separate excitation (2).
Regulation characteristic for a compound generator depends on the mode
of energizing series and shunt windings. At accordant energizing the
characteristic (3) runs below (1, 2) and at energizing the oncoming circuit (4) it
runs above (1, 2).
Load curve. U = f (ie ) at I = const , n = const

Load curve of a separate excitation generator (2) is shown in Fig. 4.15(d) and it
lies below open-circuit characteristic curve (1). The reason is that exciting
current increase is necessary to compensate demagnetizing effect of armature
reaction and voltage drop in armature winding circuit.
Load curve of a parallel generator (3) is the same as that of a separate
excitation generator. Load curve of a compound generator depends on the mode
of energizing series and shunt windings. In case of accordant energizing the
windings the curve (4) lies above the curves (2, 3) and in the case of energizing
the windings oncoming circuit (5) it lies below.
Short-circuit characteristic. I a = f (ie ) at U = 0 , n = const

The voltage across the terminals of generator armature winding is

U = E a I a Ra .
In the case of short circuit we obtain U = 0, a I a =

. As Ra is small one

needs to reduce e.m.f. E a should be reduced otherwise current I a will be very

large. It may be done at the expense of exciting winding current. The
characteristic will be linear, as magnetic circuit is not saturated [Fig. 4.15(d)].
Short-circuit characteristics for other generators may be obtained only at

energizing exciting winding from extraneous supply.

4.7.3. Parallel D.C. Generator Operation

Parallel generator operation is determined by regular consumer supply, deficient

low power of one generator, etc.
Conditions of parallel energizing are the following:
E.m.f. of the energized generator E should be equal to voltage of the mains
U mains ,

Terminal polarity of the energized generator should correspond to the

polarity of terminals of the mains.
Fig. 4.16(a) shows the diagram of a shunt generator energized for parallel operation. Assume
that generator characteristic runs below the characteristic (2) (series winding

shows magnetizing effect). G1 develops voltage U mains across the terminals of the mains.
To energize generator G2 in parallel one should proceed as follows. Generator G2 armature is
accelerated to nominal rotation speed and closing switch 1 the generator is gradually excited
up to e.m.f. E = U mains . If generator terminal polarity corresponds to terminal polarity of the
mains voltmeter reading V0 is equal to zero at E = U mains . In this case switch 2 is closed
and generator G2 is energized in parallel to generator G1

Current I 2 is determined according to the expression

I2 =

E U mains
Ra 2

where Ra 2 is armature circuit resistance of generator G2.

To load generator G2 its e.m.f. should be increased at the expense of exciting
current increase. In so doing the mains voltage should remain constant and
generator G1 exciting current should be minimized.
At load currents change I1 and I 2 are distributed between the generators
according to their external characteristics [Fig. 4.16(b)].




4.8. D.C. Motors

Electrical machines possess reversibility characteristics, i.e. they may operate
both under generator effect conditions and motor effect conditions.
According to the mode of excitation d.c. motors are divided like generators into
the motors of separate, shunt, series and compound excitation.
Energetic motor diagram of shunt excitation is shown in Fig. 4.17. Primary

power P1 is electric power and is consumed from the mains. At the expense of

this power excitation losses p e and electrical losses in armature circuit pea are
compensated and the remainder is electromagnetic power Pem = a I a , which is
transformed into mechanical one. Magnetic pm , additional pad and mechanical
p mec losses are compensated at the expense of mechanical power.

The equation of torques. Electromagnetic motor torque is

M em = 0 + e+ dyn ,
where em = em is electromagnetic torque, 0 =

m + ad + mec

open-circuit torque, e is load torque on the shaft, M dyn = J

dynamic torque, J being moment of inertia of the rotating part.











M dyn = 0, em = st , where st = 0 + e .






U = E a + Ra I a , armature winding current being I a =



U Ea
, where

E a = ce n is armature winding e.m.f.

Rotation speed and mechanical characteristics. Equation for armature rotation

frequency is


U I a Ra


I a = M c from the equation for electromechanical torque the

expression for mechanical characteristic is obtained


Ra M

ce ce c 2


4.8.1. Starting D.C. Motors

Three modes of motor starting are possible, namely,

1. Direct-on starting,
2. Reduced-voltage starting,
3. Resistor starting.
At n = 0 e.m.f. E a = 0 that is why armature winding current is I a =


Direction-on starting is used only for smaller rating motors possessing very
high Ra and therefore at starting I a (4 6 )I an is obtained. In larger rating
motors starting current limitation is reached by voltage decrease in armature
circuit. However, it is possible when applying separate supply with regulation
voltage. When energizing starting resistor armature the winding armature
current decreases as well and is equal to

Ia =

U Ea
Ra + RS

At n = 0, I a =

, where RS is resistance of starting rheostat. The value
Ra + RS

Fig. 4.18



is chosen to obtain armature winding current at initial starting

I a = (1.4 1.7 ) I n .
Consider starting of a shunt excitation motor with the help of starting resistance
in detail (Fig. 4.18).
Before starting reverse contact RC of starting resistor takes up zero position and
the motor circuits are open. At the instant of starting the reverse contact RC
(with the help of a handle) is switched to position 1. The circuit of armature
winding and excitation are energized through fixed arch A along which contact
RC slides. As a result currents I a , ie and torque develop. The armature
begins rotating at increased frequency n [Fig. 4.18(b)]. At n increase e.m.f. E a
begins increasing and current I a and torque begin decreasing.
As soon as current I a reaches the value I a min = (1.1 1.3) I an , contact RC is
switched to position 2. Due to resistance RS decrease current I a increases
instantly because of low inductance of armature circuit, torque increases as
well. n grows and as a result E a increases. As for the values I a and they
decrease again. At reverse contact RC transition to positions 3, 4, 5 the process
occurs as described above and the motor starts running under steady-state
Stage number of a starting resistor and value of their resistances are calculated
based on the condition that minimum and maximum armature current values are
similar at all stages.

4.8.2. Rotation Speed Regulation and Motor Operation Stability

There are three modes of rotation speed regulation, i.e.,

by excitation flux change,
by parallel cutting in additional resistor Rad ,
by regulating armature winding voltage.

The first mode makes it possible to regulate rotation frequency upwards from
the nominal one. As the regulation is done by low-powered excitation circuit
this mode is considered to be economic.
The second mode makes it possible to regulate rotation speed downwards from
the nominal one and is linked with significant losses in resistance Rad . This
regulation mode has low energetic indices.
The third mode makes it possible to regulate rotation frequency downwards
from the nominal one a motor operation at U > U n is not possible. In spite of
perfect regulation characteristics it requires separate power supply.
Conditions of motor operation stability. By stable-state motor conditions is

meant the motor ability to restore stable-state conditions at even smaller

disturbances as soon as they stop.
Motor operation stability depends on its mechanical characteristic M = f (n ) and
on torque dependence of shaft resistance M st = f (n ) . The occurance of the last
dependence is defined by mechanism properties actuated by the motor.
Fig. 4.19(a) and 4.19(b) show two characteristic cases of motor operation. Point
of two shown characteristics of intersection corresponds to steady-state
operating conditions (M = M st ) with rotation speed n A .

As it



follows from Fig. 4.19 a operating conditions are steady-state if

Motor operating conditions will be unstable [Fig. 4.19(b)] if

dM dM st

dM dM st

4.8.3. D.C. Motor Performance Characteristics

Motor operation properties are defined by performance characteristics.

Dependences of rotation speed n, torque and net voltage on motor shaft, i.e.
n, M = f (P2 ) are of interest.

Consider n = f (P2 ) for different motors. Armature rotation speed is


U I a Ra

Fig. 4.20(a) shows dependence n = f (P2 ) for a shunt motor (1). Falling curve n
is determined by voltage drop predominance in armature winding circuit over
demagnetizing armature reaction otherwise dependence n = f (P2 ) is increasing
(2) that is impermissible in terms of stable motor operation. Therefore, to obtain
falling curve n light series winding called stabilizing winding is used. This
winding is energized to compensate demagnetizing armature reaction.


In a series motor magnetic flux depends on load current as ie = I a . In so doing

armature rotation speed is

U I a Ra
ce I a

whre ce = k ce , k is proportionality factor. Dependence n = f (P2 ) analysis for

a series motor (3) shows that at light loads (less than 20% from nominal one)
rotation speed n decreases sharply and may reach critical values. Therefore
motor operation at open-circuit duty is not possible.
In compound motor dependence n = f (P2 ) is determined by e.m.f. ratio of
parallel and series windings. In case when parallel exciting winding is powerful
dependence (4) will be closer to the curve (1), when series winding is powerful
it is closer to the curve (3). In general case dependences curve (4) lies between
the curves (1) and (3).

M = f ( P2 )

analysis. Use the expression for the torque

M = c I a . Fig. 4.20(b) shows dependence M = f ( P2 ) for a parallel

motor (1). At n = const M = f ( P2 ) should be linear. However, at load increase
motor rotation frequency decreases and dependence M = f ( P2 ) is non-linear,
where M 0 is open-circuit torque.
For a series motor electromagnetic torque value may be obtained according to
the formula

M = c I a = c I a2 ,
where = k I a , c = c k .
Fig. 4.20(b) shows dependence M = f ( P2 ) for a series motor (2). At large
motor loads magnetic system saturation occurs, magnetic flux does not
practically change and characteristic M = f ( P2 ) becomes linear.
For a compound motor (3) dependence M = f ( P2 ) lies between (1) and (2).


4.8.4. D.C. Motor Braking

If quick stop or rotation frequency decrease is required motor braking is

performed. Braking with electrical machine electromagnetic torque application
is called electric braking.
There are three kinds of braking, i.e., regenerative, dynamic and reverse-current.
Regenerative braking is more economic as it is based on motor transition to

generator effect condition with power supply to the mains.

If the torque is applied to motor shaft directed towards armature rotation under
open-circuit conditions rotation speed and e.m.f. E a increases.
When e.m.f. E a reaches voltage U the machine does not consume current from
the mains. At futher increase of external torque e.m.f. E a is higher than voltage
U. In armature circuit current is induced with another direction. In so doing the
machine runs under generator effect conditions. Electromagnetic torque also
changes the direction and becomes braking one with reference to external torque
acting on machine shaft. Braking torque value is regulated by excitation current.
Dynamic braking implies that motor armature winding is disconnected and

closed for load resistance. In so doing mechanical energy of the rotating part is
transformed to electrical energy which is spent for heating of load resistance.
Armature current under this conditions changes its direction and developed
electromagnetic torque shows braking effect.
Reverse-current braking is used in the case of intensive braking. Its principle

lies in the fact that motor electromagnetic torque which becomes braking
changes the direction by changing current in exciting winding ( or in armature
winding ).


The questions for self-control of residual knowledge
Variant I.
1.What ways to connect three-phase transformer windings do you know?
2.What is the transformer winding connection group determined by?
3.What is no-load duty?
4.What transformer losses are called constant?
5.What transformer is called a three-windings one?
Variant II.
1.What three-phase transformer is called a group one?
2.At what connection of secondary and primary windings does the transformer
have an odd connection group?
3.What is meant by the short-circuit voltage?
4.What provides adjustment of secondary transformer voltage?
5.At what transformer load do the currents of reverse and zero sequence appear?
Variant III.
1.What transformer is called idealized?
2.Why does the cross section of the core in power transformers have a stepped
3.What parameters of the equivalent circuit can result from the no-load duty?
4.Under what conditions does the transformer have the maximum efficiency
5.When do the currents of zero sequence flow in the transformer winding
connected in the star?
Variant IV.
1.What ways of connecting the transformer core and yoke do you know?
2.What is meant by the transformer transformation ratio?
3.Write the equation for the transformer magnetization forces.
4.What parameters of the equivalent circuit characterize the transformer shortcircuit test?
5.What is the difference between the sudden (operational) short-circuit mode
and test mode?
Variant V.
1.What function does the transformer oil have in power transformers?
2. Why does the transformer power coefficient in the short-circuit mode remain
constant, the supplied voltage changing?
3.Name the conditions for parallel operation of single-phase transformers?
4.In what three-phase transformer are the fluxes of zero sequence closed on the
main magnetic path?
5.What is the difference between an autotransformer and a transformer?

Induction machines:
Variant I.
1.By what external features is it possible to determine a phase-rotor induction
2.What three-phase winding is called short-cut?
3.What is the motor slip at the start equal to?
4.Under what conditions does the single-phase induction motor have a starting
5.Why is an induction regulator called a rotating autotransformer?
Variant II.
1.Why can the induction motor frame surface be ribbed?
2.What is the three-phase winding distribution coefficient equal to, if the
number of pole and phase slots is equal to unity?
3.In what mode does the induction machine operate, if its slip value is negative?
4.Why is the motor efficiency always less than unity?
5.What losses in an induction motor are called variable?
Variant III.
1.Why is the motor stator core made of electric sheet steel?
2.Is it possible to make a single-layer winding with a fractional number q
(number of slots on poles and phases?
3.Why is additional active resistance fed into the phase-rotor winding circuit?
4.When does the motor efficiency reach its maximum value?
5.At what slip is the motor torque maximum?
Variant IV.
1.How does the induction motor rotor winding with the short-circuited rotor
look like?
2.What magnetic field is created, if one phase is fed by the alternating current?
3.Name the ways of regulating the rotation frequency of the squirrel-cage rotor
induction motor.
4.What induction motor losses are called constant?
5.What is meant by the no-load condition of the motor?
Variant V.
1.How does a rotor winding of the phase-rotor induction motor look like?
2.Under what conditions does the m-phase winding create rotating magnetic
3.Name the ways of starting induction motors.
4.What is meant by the short-circuit mode of the motor?
5.What is the current frequency in the rotor winding equal to, when the rotor is
Synchronous machines:
Variant I.
1.What synchronous machine is called salient-pole?

2.What does the armature reaction in the synchronous machine depend on?
3.What is the generator external characteristic and under what conditions is it
4.What dependence is considered angular characteristic of the synchronous
5.Where is the starting winding placed in the salient-pole synchronous
Variant II.
1.What synchronous machine is called non-salient pole?
2.What is the armature reaction character in the generator at inductive and
capacitive load?
3.What is regulation characteristic and under what conditions is it got?
4.What is the maximum load angle value for steady operation of the
synchronous non-salient pole generator?
5.Why does the motor rotor rotation frequency remain constant at the change of
the load?
Variant III.
1.How is magnetic field distribution close to sinusoidal achieved in the air-gap
of the salient-pole synchronous machine?
2.What character does the generator armature reaction have at active load?
3.Name the conditions of switching in parallel the synchronous generator with
powerful mains.
4.What is the reactive component of the electromagnetic torque in the salientpole generator conditioned by?
5.What is necessary to be done for the synchronous machine switched in parallel
to operate in the generator mode?
Variant IV.
1.How is magnetic field distribution close to sinusoidal achieved in the air-gap
of a non-salient-pole synchronous machine?
2.Why is Pottier diagram used?
3.Name the losses, which appear at the synchronous generator operation.
4.What determines the synchronous motor rotation frequency?
5.What should be done for the synchronous machine switched in parallel to
operate in the compensator mode?
Variant V.
1.How is current supply to the synchronous machine excitation winding
achieved constructively?
2.Why does the no-load characteristic of the synchronous generator have a nonlinear character?
3.Name the components of the resultant EMF of the synchronous salient-pole
4.Name the ways to start the synchronous motor.
5.What should be done for the synchronous machine switched in parallel to

operate in the generator mode?

Direct current machines:
Variant I.
1.Name the parts of the d.c.machine magnetic circuit.
2.How is it possible to achieve the armature reaction compensation in the
3.What characteristic is called the external characteristic of the generator?
4.Name the conditions of switching the d.c.generator in parallel.
5.How will the d.c.motor rotation frequency change, if the excitation current
Variant II.
1.What are the reasons for the main pole to be made of electric sheet steel?
2.When does the armature reaction in the d.c.machine called lateral?
3.When does the straight-line commutation in the d.c.machine exist?
4.Name the conditions of the d.c.generator self-excitation.
5.What is the armature current of the d.c.motor equal to at the start?
Variant III.
1.What is the value of additional pole in the d.c.machine?
2.Determine the MMF of the armature back, the magnetic flux being known and
the machine having geometrical dimensions.
3. What is the armature EMF of the d.c.motor equal to at the start?
4.Under what conditions does a machine have the maximum efficiency?
5.How is it possible to reduce the motor armature rotation frequency?
Variant IV.
1.What is the resultant simple lap winding pitch equal to?
2.What influence does the armature reaction in the generator have, if the brushes
are displaced in the rotation direction?
3.How is it possible to load the motor?
4.Why is the start of the series excitation motor impossible in the no-load mode?
5.What losses in the d.c.machine are called variable?
Variant V.
1.How is compensation winding switched relatively to the armature winding?
2.Name the reasons of arcing in the commutator?
3.What is meant by the generator short-circuit mode?
4.Why is additional resistance switched at the start in the armature circuit of the
parallel-excitation motor?
5.Name the ways to brake the d.c.motor.
Keys for the questions
Variant I.

1.Star-, delta- and zigzag connections.

2.The displacement angle of the like linear voltages of secondary and primary
3.The mode, when rated voltage of the rated frequency is supplied to the
primary winding and the secondary current is equal to zero.
4.Constant losses are magnetic losses in the transformer, which do not depend
on the load.
5.Transformer with one primary and two secondary windings.
Variant II.
1.Three-phase transformer consisting of three single-phase ones with a magnetic
system not connected magnetically.
2.Star/delta or vice versa.
3.The voltage at the terminals of the primary winding, when the currents in both
windings are nominal at the short-circuit on the terminals of the secondary
4.The change of the number of turns of the high voltage winding with the help
of a special switch.
5.At a non-symmetric transformer load.
Variant III.
1.Its a transformer with the equal number of turns of secondary and primary
2.It makes it possible to increase the core section, amplitude of the main flux
and to reduce the number of windings turns.
3. The following parameters of the equivalent circuit are received: Zm, Xm, rm.
4.The transformer has the maximum efficiency when the constant and variable
losses are equal.
5.Only when there is a zero wire.
Variant IV.
1.There are butt and laminated ways of connecting the transformer core and
2.The ratio of primary and secondary windings EMF.
3. (.168 )
4.Parameters of the equivalent circuit at the short-circuit test are characterized
by Zsc, Xsc, rsc.
5.Sudden (exploitation) short-circuit results from the rated voltage of the
primary winding and from break-down currents in both windings.
Variant V.
1.Transformer oil in power transformers is used for isolation and cooling.
2.Power coefficient remains constant, because transformer magnetic circuit in
the short-circuit mode is unsaturated.
3.Three conditions should be fulfilled, when the transformer is switched in

a)K1=K2; transformers should be of equal transformation;

b)UK1=UK2; rated short-circuit voltage of transformers should be equal.
c)must belong to one windings connection group.
4.The flows of zero consequence are closed on the main magnetic path in group
and shell-core type transformers.
5.An autotransformer in comparison with a transformer has both electric and
magnetic coupling between the windings.
Induction machines:
Variant I.
1.Three contact rings are on the shaft.
2.The winding is called short-cut if it has a pitch less than the pole division (in
3.Its equal to unity.
4.When the single-phase motor has a starting a winding and a phase-shifting
5.Because the inductive regulator has magnetic and electric coupling.
Variant II.
1.It can be ribbed to provide necessary cooling surface.
3.In the generator mode.
4.It is less than unity, because there are mechanical, electrical, magnetic and
additional losses.
5.Variable losses are electric losses in stator and rotor windings.
Variant III.
1.The stator is made of electric sheet steel to decrease steel losses.
2.It is impossible.
3.To reduce initial starting current and to increase initial starting torque.
4.When variable losses become equal to constant.
5. At critical slip.
Variant IV.
1.The rotor winding is made like squirrel-cage.
3.Change of the poles number of the stator winding, slip (change of supply
voltage value), frequency and supply voltage.
4.The sum of steel and mechanical losses.
5.Motor no-load duty is when there is no braking torque on the shaft.
Variant V.
1.Rotor winding of the phase-rotor motor is three-phase (like the stator one).
2.Any m-phase winding creates rotating magnetic filed, if the phase shift in
space and currents are 2/m.
3.Direct; at lowered voltage; supply of additional active resistance into the rotor
circuit; frequency ways.

4.When the rotor is drugged.

5.Stator winding frequency.
Synchronous machines:
Variant I.
1.Machine with a different reluctance to the armature magnetic field on direct
and lateral axes.
2.The load character (R-active, L-inductive, C-capacitive).
3.External characteristic is the dependence U=f(I), when if=const, cos =const;
4.Angular characteristic is the dependence of electromagnetic power on load
(torque) angle.
5.In slots of pole tips.
Variant II.
1.Machine with an equal reluctance on direct and lateralaxes.
2.At inductive load-direct demagnetizing, at capacitive load-direct magnetizing.
3.Its the dependence if=f(I), when U=const, cos =const, n=const.
4.Synchronous non=salient pole generator operates steady up to the load angle
5.When the motor rotor frequency rotation is determined by the expression
n=f/p, where f-power net frequency, p-the number of windings ports.
Variant III.
1.Its achieved due to the pole tip shape.
3.The following conditions should be provided:
a)the equality of EMF values of the switched generator and net voltage;
b)equality of EMF frequencies of the generator and the net;
c)equal order of phase alternations of the generator and the net.
4.Different synchronous resistances on direct and lateral axes.
5.For the synchronous machine to work in the generator mode it is necessary to
apply the rotating torque to the shaft of the synchronous machine.
Variant IV.
1.It is achieved, if a rotor part remains unwound.
2.To determine MMF of the excitation winding, considering magnetic circuit
3.There are mechanical, steel, electric and additional losses.
4.It is determined by the power net frequency and poles of the motor windings.
5.It is necessary to change the synchronous machine excitation current value,
after the machine is connected with the mains.
Variant V.
1.Current supply to the excitation winding is done with two contact rings
connected with the excitation winding, and a brush gear.
2.Because the generator magnetic system is saturated.
3.EMF induced by the main magnetic flux, EMF induced by the direct and

lateral constituents of the armature reaction flux.

4.Synchronous motor can be started:
a)with the help of the additional motor and
5.For the machine to operate in the motor mode its necessary to apply the
braking torque to the motor shaft.
Direct current machines:
Variant I.
1.Air-gap, armature teeth, armature back, pole and frame.
2.Its necessary to apply compensation winding.
3.U=f(I), when ib=const, n=const.
4.Two conditions should be provided:
b)coincidence of polarities of the armature winding and the net.
5.It will increase.
Variant II.
1.Due to technological reasons.
2.When the brushes are on the geometrically neutral line.
3.When the sum EMF in the commutation section is zero.
4.There should be residual magnetic flux, critical resistance, critical rotation
5.I=U/Ra, where Ra-the armature winding circuit resistance.
Variant III.
1.To improve commutation.
2.Fa=HaLa , where Ha-the intensity of the magnetic flux in the armature back;
La-is the length of the magnetic line in the armature back.
3.Ea=0, because n=0.
4.When the constant and variable losses are equal.
5.To supply additional resistance to the armature circuit or to reduce the
supplied voltage.
Variant IV.
2.The main field reduces.
3.To apply braking torque to the motor shaft.
4.Rotation frequency tends to infinity.
5.Electric losses in the armature winding circuit.
Variant V.
1.The compensating winding is connected in series with the armature winding
2.Mechanical, potential and electromagnetic.
3.When the terminals of the armature winding is short-circuited, U=0.
4.To reduce the starting current of the armature winding.
5.Regenerative braking, dynamic braking and reverse-switching.

1. . . M., , 1990.
672.: .
2. M.M. . M., , 1990.
463.: .



. : - , 2004. 178.
4. Richardson D.V. Rotating Electric Machines and Transformers
Technology, Prentice-Hall, 1997. - 731p.
5. Sen P.C. Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics, John
Wiley & Sons, 1997. - 814p.


1. Transformers
1.1. Design and Operation Principle of Transformers
1.2. Basic Transformer Equations
1.3. Transformer Equivalent Circuit
1.4. No-Load Duty
1.5. Short-Circuit Duty
1.6. Transformer Vector Diagrams under Load Conditions
1.7. External Transformer Characteristics
1.8. Transformer Voltage Regulation
1.9. Transformer Losses and Efficiency
1.10. Diagrams and Connection Groups of Transformer Windings
1.11. Parallel Transformer Operation
1.12. Non-Balanced Load of Three-Phase Transformers
1.13. Multiwinding Transformers
1.14. Autotransformers
1.15. Autotransformers with Alternating Transformation Ratio
1.16. Transformers for Arc Electric Welding
1.17. Transients in Transformers


2. Induction machines
2.1. Induction machine construction
2.2. Three-phase winding of a.c. motors
2.2.1. Three-phase double-layer windings
2.2.2. Three-phase single-layer windings
2.3. Alternating current winding e.m.f.
2.4. Rotating magnetic field
2.5. Basic principle and duties of an induction machine
2.6. Voltage equations of an induction motor
2.7. Equations of m.m.f. and induction motor currents
2.8. Referred parameters of rotor winding, vector diagram and
equivalent circuit of an induction motor
2.9. Energetic diagrams of active and reactive power of an induction
2.10. Induction motor torques
2.11. Starting three-phase induction motors
2.11.1. Starting cage rotor induction motor
2.11.2. Slip-ring induction motor starting
2.12. Regulation of induction motor rotation frequency




3. Synchronous machines
3.1. Construction and basic principle of a synchronous machine
3.2. Magnetic field of a synchronous machine excitation winding
3.3. Magnetic field and armature winding parameters
3.3.1. Direct and lateral armature reaction
3.4. Magnetic field and e.m.f. of direct and lateral armature reaction
3.5. Voltage vector diagrams of synchronous generators
3.6. Synchronous generator characteristics
3.6.1. Open-circuit characteristic
3.6.2. Three-phase short-circuit characteristic
3.6.3. Short-circuit ratio
3.6.4. External characteristics
3.6.5. Regulation characteristics
3.6.6. Induction load curve
3.7. Pottier diagram
3.8. Parallel operation of synchronous generators
3.8.1. Conditions of parallel generator switching
3.8.2. Synchronous duties of parallel synchronous machine operation
3.8.3. Angular characteristic of synchronous machine active power
3.8.4. Synchronizing power ( synchronizing torque ) and static
overload of synchronous machines
3.8.5. Synchronous machine running at constant active power and
alternating excitation
3.9. Elements of transient theory of synchronous machines
3.9.1. Magnetic field damping
3.9.2. Physical essence of phenomena at sudden three-phase
short-circuit of a synchronous generator
3.10. Synchronous motors and compensators
3.10.1. Synchronous motors
3.10.2. Synchronous compensators


4. Direct Current Machines

4.1. Simple D.C. Machines Construction and Operation Principle
4.2. Armature Windings of D.C. Machines
4.2.1. Lap Windings
4.2.2. Spiral Windings
4.3. D.C. Machine Magnetic Circuit at Open-Circuit Duty
4.4. Machine Magnetic Field at Load Duty
4.5. Commutation
4.6. Armature Winding E.M.F. and Electromagnetic Torque
4.6.1. Armature E.M.F.
4.6.2. Electromagnetic Torque
4.7. D.C. Generators




4.7.1. General Information Concerning D.C. Generators

4.7.2. D.C. Generator Characteristics
4.7.3. Parallel D.C. Generator Operation
D.C. Motors
4.8.1. Starting D.C. Motors
4.8.2. Rotation Frequency Regulation and Motor Operation Stability
4.8.3. D.C. Motor Performance Characteristics
4.8.4. D.C. Motor Braking










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