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1.

P-N P-N .
- ( - ). N - ( -
).
:

V VD - VS
V7 V,
P- N-

(+ , - )
, ().
,
().

- ()

U.. = 10 1000 .
U. = 0,3 1 .
Ia Ua .

I: ( )
II, III, IV, - ( )

II: ,
( , ),
.
III: . ,

, ( )
, P-N- .
IV: . , , ,
.
- .
, ,
.

- ()

1. (I. .)
- , .
70% .
:
1) (I. < 0,3 )
2) (0,3 <I . <1 0 )
3) (I. > 10 )
( )
, ,
( ,
, . - , , , )

2. (U.)

.
.
( - Ge, - Si)
U. Ge 0.30.5 () U. Si 0.51 ()
(1) (2)

3. (U. max)
() U. max 0.7U. (10100 )
U. max= 1200 .
(12 -U. max= 1200 )
4. (Imax ...)
( mA).
, .
5. () .
'U
R
'I
2
.
.
.
:

.
U.
I.min
I.max


. I . max d I . t I . min
,
'U
R
'I
R=0. U. =3 200
3
n-p ,
p-n-p-n.
- ( ).
- thyra (), "" "".


VS1

( , ).
"" .

: 0 d U d U max - .
U - . , U

U ( )

, .
I t I 4 , (I 4 = I - ), .
, .
( ).
.

:
1. , .
2. .
.
, , ,
.

- .
().
U

1. ( U ) ,
.
2. (U.max) ,
. U.= U.max
3. , .
4. (U.= 0,51 )
5. ,
.
6. ,
7. - .
8. dI . , p-n
dt
,
.
9. dU a .
dt
,
.
10. , ,
.
11. - , ,
.

() :
1.
..
2. .


0< t < Ud=e2
<t<2 Ud=0

: .

: , ,
. , .


( )
0 < t < : V1 ; V2 . Ud=e2 Udm=E2m= 2E 2

< t < 2: V1 ; V2 .
,
( ).
, .
u d (t ) U d  u (t )
T S S
1 1 1 2E2 S 2 2
T 0 u dm sinwtdwt S
ud u d (t )dt 2 E 2 sin wtdwt  cos wt 0 E2 0.9 E 2
S 0 0
S S

2 2 S
ud E2 0.9 E 2 E2 ud 1.11U d
S 2 2

U 1max
2
0 T 2S
T S
t
1-
U U 1 , Z 2
.
,
.
.
.
U n1m
q ;
ud
2
q 2
, m (
m 1
).
2 2
q 2
0.67
2 1 3
, ,
.

:
1. .
2. .
Ud
Id - .
R
I am I dm
ia , id :
Id
Ia
2
2 2
u .m 2 Em2 2 2E2 Su d Su d
2 2
u.m Su d

U d2 E 22
P Ud E2 P - .
R R
, :
u d2 (0.9 E 2 ) 2 0.81E 22
P.. 0.81P
R R R
20% .
( ) .

: S 1.34 Pd ( - )


e 2 ( 0- S )

V1,
R L V4. V2
V3

( ,
).



,
e 2
( S y 2S ) V2
V3 id .
( L 0 ),
id , i1 i2 ( )
L z 0 , id u d
( id ).
( X L Z L > 10 R ) id -
( ).
. ia , i2 , i1
.
R-L , , u d e2 ,
.
2 2
Ud E2 0. 9 E 2 E2 1.11U d
S
Ud
L , id I d ( ) Id
R
Id Id
Ia ; I a max Id
2 2 R
2 S
U .m E2m 2E2 SU d Ud S 1.11Pd
2 2 2

S
U U
.m 2 d

1. .
2. ,
.
:

1. .
2. S 20% .
3. .
.

1. , .
2. S 20% .
3. .
:

1. .
2. , .
E2=10100 .

6 .
: , .
q
: S - () .
q
, .

U n1m
Ud U n1mU
S
U n1m U d U n1m
U

L L-C :

U I R

r .
L L-C :
n= 2

Z - .
Z - .
U 1 I 1m Z

Z Z , U 1 S.

L :

U 1m
Z Z L Z R U 1m R
(Z L) 2  R2
U 1mU U 1mU d R (Z L) 2  R2 (Z L) 2  R2
S : r << R R << ZL
U 1U d (r  R )U 1mU d R r  R

ZL
S Z
R S
Z R S

,
R -

, () .
L :

.
:
1
Xc < 0.1 R
Z

1
Z
Z
Z ZL
S Z 2 LC
Z 1
Z

S Z 2 LC - , LC- .

R-C-

R-C
("" , .. ("") ).
r -

, :
1. 0 < t <t1 e2 > ud V1 , V2 . i a1
2. t1 < t < t2 e2 < ud ( R ). V1 V2 .
3. t2 < t < t3 e2 > ud V2 , V1 . i a2
, .. t2 ud > 0
ud , .
, ud
.
I am (5 y 7)ia .. i a - , .
r .
, ,
.
R , W R p U 1m n ud n S
R = , U dxx = E 2m = 2E 2

:
1. .
2. u d .
3. - U 1m
4. u d R .

R-C

,
r R .
Z r R
Z rR
S Z
Z r  R
r ud R-C
.

7 .
:
.

1.
2.
3. ( , )
U U | const I | const
n U n I V ( )

U
u - - .
( I  I V ) R  u
I u .
u R I  R I V  u
u  u  I R u
Iv I = const
R R
R R
u  u  u u  u 1 
Iv
R R
R R
R f I 0 IV I V max

u max  u
I V max
R : I V max d I . max

R min z 0 I I max IV I V min

R
u . min  u 1 
R. min
I V . min
R : I V min d I . min

u  u
IV  I
R
I V . min u . min I . max
I V . max u . max I . min

u  u u . max  u u  u
R R : d R d . min
I  IV I . max  I . min I . min  I . max

,
.
'u

'u u 'u u
K
'u
'u 'u u
u

r - .
r R
'u 'u
R  r R
r r
r << R r << R 'u | 'u | 'u
R  r R
'u R
'u R 'u r
'u r

'u u R u
K
'u u r u R u
K
K < 20 y 40 r u
R , U ,
.
u | (1.2 y 1.3)u
.
: ,
.


R r .


.
,
.

, (
).

:
1. (p-n-p)
2. (n-p-n)
, .

- .
- .

1. .
2. () , .
na >> n - p-n-p .
, .

():
, .

p-n-p .

( ).
U 0 , U 0 ( - ). na >> n
.
U ! U U U  U
,
.
.
(
).
'I
'I D'I , D - . ( D 0.9 y 0.99 )
'I

.
I I . I  I I  DI (1  D ) I
.
P ( ) o .
I - ()

n ( ) o .

:
I . DI  I (1)
I I  I (2)
I  DI  I (1  D ) I  I
(1) (2) , .
6
(2) ,
I  I
I (3)
1
(3) (1)

I I  I  I (4)
1 1
I
-
I
(1) I  I
| | I | |
(2) (1  ) I  I 1
I I  I  I I  (1  ) I I  I | I
I I  I I  I (1  ) I
I (1  ) I ; h 21


( )

I=f(U) I = const

: I , II , III .
II () .
.
: U => 0 => => =>
=> => I.
I E I  I , I I (1  E) , I D I E I
I U:
I- U U  U , U ! U
U U = const, U = U = U ,
U, U .
, I,
.
I . U 0.2 1
III . U
, .

I = f(U) U = const
I = I + I
- p-n .

U = 0 U.
U > U U, U.
U = 0 I = I
I = I - I = (1-) I - I (2)
'U
r -
'I
r h 11


,

1. .
2. .
.

, . .
, , ..
,
, .

.

I :
I 0, , I = I, I = I = 0, U=E - I R, .. I=0,
U = E.
II :
I ( ) . I = I 0 U,
I, I U.
III
U; U U = (0.21)
E  U
I
R
:
E  U
I I ; U ( U = U ) E
R
U U , .
7

.
: .

, (
).


, U
.

,
. .

, .. .
, .
, ,
U U.
,

T
1
T 0
P U t dt

p-n .
.

.
(E, E, E)
E U .
1) U = 0, .. E, , I, I, I 0, U 0,
E = U. U,
, U = U.
: .
10 I 2 . ,
, : 20-30 I
, .. (
), .
, I = const, I, ..
I = I, U, .. U = E - I R, U .
.

. ,
.
(), (). ,
.. , .
, .

:
U + E = U + I R
U = U + E - I R U + E - I R
I I, .. = 0.99 0.9
. R .
: I = const => => I => I R => U => I
=> I, I U .
: U, U,
,
I R 0.1 E R. R
U.


R, R, K...
: () i, u.
.
1) R
'u
R , i 0, u = 0, .. E . , R , ..
'i
U
R = 0, R U = I r + I R
I
'U
r - r=h11.
'I
I = I + I = I + I = I (1+)
U = I [r + (1+) R]
'I [r  (1  E) R ]
R r  (1  E) R
'I
R 1000 ( , R = )
8
2) KU .
U 'I R 'I E R ER
R = ; K U
U 'I R 'I >r  (E  1) R @ r  (E  1) R
r,
ER R
r + ( + 1) R ( + 1) R; K U | KUXX
(E  1) R R
I I, . (KU<KU..)
- R.
3) R , ,
.
U = 0, I = 0; I I = 0; R = R 1000
:
(/0 ).

( )

3 . R1 R2 ; R3 R4 .
: , ..
. .
R1 R2 U. .. 0 U 1 = 0, . 2 = - ,
1 > 2, .. ( ) .

C1 C2 U U . C1
.

( )

:
U, .

: R , R , I
=> U (U < ) => ; U < U.. R > R, R <
R. .. R U, U . , I => R I =>
U.
: , UXX 1 (0.90.99) U = U - U, U > 0
0.5 0.7 .
, .. , EK ,
, .
U; I, I, IR.


1) R
U
R r  (E  1) (R || R ) 104
'I
U 'I r  'I (R || R ) 'I r  'I (E  1) (R || R ) 'I >r  (E  1) (R || R )@ 2)
U
K UXX , R =
U
U = I [r + (+1) R || R], U = I R = I (1 + ) R
(E  1) R (1  E) R 1
K UXX | 0.9 0.99
r  (E  1) R r (1  E) R r
9
3) R

.. e = 0 => I = 0, => I = 0; R = R.



R = 2000
R = 400
= 10
= 0.4
= 100
~UM = 1
3 .
R, R, KUXX , U, U1, U2.

1. ( - )
R K 2000
K UXX 5
R 400
R = r + ( + 1) R = 100 + (100 + 1) 400 = 40.5 ,
R = 40.4 r = 0
R = RK = 2000
CM KUXX = 0.4 5 = 2
U KUXX = 1 5 = 5
2.
KUXX = 1
R = r + ( + 1) (R||R) = 100 + (100 + 1) 400 = 40.5
R = R = 400
U, U1, U2.


. U
U. : , ,
( ).
1) .
EK => E => I => I => URK => U , .. KU > 1,
U , EK.
2) .
, => I => URK, U.
U..MAX U .
U ..MAX
U .MAX
KU
U >> U..MAX;
.
.

()

4 RK1, RK2, VT1, VT2. EK, -EK.


RK1, RH. .
, .. RK1 = RK2, VT1 = VT2,
.


EK1 2; U1 = U2 = 0, U1 = U2 > 0, U = - U.
U = [- 1 + (I1 + I2) R] 0
.. U = E = - U, I1 = I2;
U1 = U2 = EK1 I1 RK1 U = EK1 I2 R2 - U
U = U2 U1 = 0
, => I1 = I2 => I1 = I2 => U => U1,
U2 => I1, I2 => I1, I2 => I1, I2, . I1 + I2 = const, .. R ,
. R , R
R = .
10

U , I1 + I2 = const


E1 => U1 = U2, U = U2 U1 = 0
.
2- .
1) .
e
U 1 ,
2
U1 > 0 => I1 > 0 => I1 > 0 => I1 > 0 => U1 < 0.
e
U 2 ,
2
U2 = 0 => I2 < 0 => I2 = 0 => I2 < 0 => U2 > 0.
U = U2 - U1 = 2 U
U1 = -U2, I1 = -I2
.. , , I1 + I2 = const
U = 0, :
) .
)
R .
2) , .
U1 = e > 0; U2 = 0.
U1 > 0 =>I1 > 0 => I1 > 0 => I1 > 0 => U1 < 0;
I1, => I1, .. I1 + I2 = const; I2
I2 = -I1.
I
I , I2 = -I1, IK2 = -IK1, U2 = -U1,
E 1
U = U2 - U1 > 0
: 1 , . U>0 U>0.
2 .
.
, U1 = U2,
U = (U1 U2) KU = 0 .
: U = k U, k
. k, .
: .
().

U = 2 U, .. I1 + I2 = const, R =

I 1  I 2 U
I 1  I 2 const , 'I 1  'I 2 ;
E 1 2 r
U
2 E R
U 2 'U 2 'I R 2 'I E R 2 r R
1) K UXX E
U U U U U r
2)
U
R 2 r ; R = 2 r ,
I
3)
U, , .I=0; I=0; I=0; R = 2 R

R.
.
.
U U. R. -
. : 3.2 3.2, 3 , 2 ,
.

U = KU (U1 - U2)
, , .. .

1) KUXX 50000
2) R = 300 ( )
= 10 ( )
3) R.MIN 3 ( )
E 15
I | 7.5 ,
R .MIN 2
I 300
4) U = 5
5) E = r 15 ( r 12,6; r 6,3; r 5 15)
11

U..MAX = (0.9 0.95) E = (0.9 0.95) 15 = 13.5 14.25


, . (U
U2) = E ( )
KU. 50000 ( )
U 15
U2 = 0 (. ), U1.MAX = E.MAX = .MAX | 3.10  4 = 300
K U. 50000
0

1) = . = . U U2
=0
2) R. = ( 300 ), I = 0
3) KU = 50000, KU =
.
.
U(U).

U = 0 U = UCM
:
1) .
2) U .
3) KU .
.

()
U
U = (U - UOC) KU = U UOC = ;
KU
KU , U UOC = 0, U = UOC;
R1
U OC U ;
R 1  R OC
()
U U U R 1  R OC
;
U U OC R1 R1
U
R 1  R OC
KU , KU.


U2 = 0 . .
U1 300 10 6
i 3
10 9 = 1 0
R . 300 10
U1 = 300

i1 + i2 = i = 0, i1 = -i2
U U
i2 ; i1
R OC R1
U U R OC
 ; U  U
R1 R OC R1
R OC

R1

, .. , .
.

i1 + i2 + + in = iOC
U U 1 U 2 U
i OC    ...  n
R OC R1 R2 Rn
R OC R R
U ( U 1  U 2 OC  ...  U n OC )
R1 R2 Rn
ROC R . ROC = R1 = R2 = = Rn,
, .

:
I1 I2 - I1 I2 .
I1 R1 R
U = 0, U = 0
R R
U 1 I 1 1 OC ; .. U => U1 0, U 0.
R 1  R OC
U = 0, U1 = U2 =>
R 1 R OC
R ; .. .
R 1  R OC
U BIX 0 U BX U CM

,
U BX 0 o U BIX z0
, :

, U = 0, U .

. .

1) () r
2) c r ,
1
C
UC iC (t ) dt i BX i C U BIX UC
U BX
i BX
U BIX UC R
1 1 1 U BX (t ) 1
C C C R RC
U BIX iC (t )dt  i BX (t )dt  dt  U BX (t )dt
;
:
t
1
RC 0
U BIX U BIX (0)  U BX (t )dt
, ,
U BIX .
:
z OC 1
ZC 1

z BX R ZR , z OC - ;
z BX -
, .
().
:

1=2

1 , 2 -

1z 2 , .

1
sin Ztdt 
Z
cos Zt
;
1
U BIX Um cos Zt
BX
U Um sin Zt
, ZRC .
, ( 90 ).

r: r || C
.
. .

dUc dU BX U BIX
iC C iC C iR
dt ; iC iR ; U C U BX ; dt ; R ,
:

CdU BX (t ) U BIX

dt R
dU BX (t )
U BIX  RC
dt

z OC R
ZRC
z BX 1
ZC ; , .
().
sin` cos
(sin Zt )` Z cos Zt
U
BX
Um sin Zt o U BIX ZRCUm cos Zt .

, ;
- .

.
U BIX z 0
U BX 0

- . ,
. ,
.
.

:

U BIX .
(- ):

: M 180 q ; .

,
U BX (), U BIX ,
U
BIXMAX
15 . .
: .
:

z OC

z BX
C1 op z OC ;

R on z BX .
:
i 2 i1
1 1 1 dU BX (t ) C1 dU BX (t ) C1
C2 i (t )dt
U BIX UC2 i2 (t )dt  1 C1 dt  dt  UBX
C2 C2 dt C2 dt C2
dU C1 dU BX (t )
i1 C C1
dt dt .
.
U
- , BIX
.
() .
( ),
.
.
, S54 CA3 - ,
- , .
- .
: , - :

U BIX (U OP  U BX ) K U K U | 50000
,
U BX 0 o U BIX U BIXMAX | 13
U BIX | E
U % 0 U BIX ;
BX
U
BX
0 U OP U BIX -13.

BX
U OPU ,U BIX 0 , .
:

n U OP o W 1 p,W 2 n
.
U OP ,
U BIX

.
U BX , ( U
BIX

+13 -13)
U CPK , U , - U BZK .
BX
U BZK
U CPK | U BZK . K B |1
U CPK
Sin o
U BX o t .
, :

U BX , .
, .
.

U 1 :

R2 R1
U1 U OP  U BIX
R  R2 R  R2

1

1
U BIX 0 U OP 0
();

U BX 0 - ,

U BX 0 U 1 U BIX % 0 .

U 1 :
R1 R1
U 1 U OP  U BIX U1 `
R1  R2 R1  R2
U `% U 1 .
1

U BX . UBIX ,
U 1 p . U BX .

:
R1
> , ..
R2 , .

:
1
:
U1 8 cos 314t
U2 1
R1 33
R2 39
C1 0.15
:

Ep 15
R 
 39
U BIX  (U 1 )` 2 U 2  8 R 2 C 314 (  ) sin 314 t  1
R1 33
:
8 39 10 3 0.15 10 6 314 sin 314t  1.18 14.7 sin 314t  1.18

dU BX (t )
U BIX  RC  RC (sin Zt )  RC cos Zt
dt
314
f 50
Z 2Sf 314 2Sf 2S
1 1
T 0 . 02 c 20 mc
f 50
:

2
:
U1 2
U2 62.8 sin 3140t
R1 10
R2 20
C 1
:

:
1
sin Zt 
ZRC
cos Zt
3140 1
f 500 T 0.02
2S 500
1 1
U BIX ( U 1 dt  U 2dt ) ( 2dt 
R2 C
62.8 sin 3140tdt )
R1C
2 62.8
( 3 6
t cos 3140t 200t  1 cos 3140t
10 10 1 10 20 10 1 10 6 3140
3

n 1 2 3 4 5
200*T*n 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2

:
.

, , ().
(), ,
, , , .
()
, ()
, , .
:
() (, , ..),
; -
, , ..
.
(.1).

0.9 Um
T
t
Um t 0.1Um
t t

.1

:
Um- ;
t - ;
t - ;
- ;
f = 1/ - ;
Q = / t - .
t ( 0,1
0,9 Um) tC. t tC << t , t = t = 0.
.. ,
0 1 () ().
().
. : (1) (0).
.
: (), ,
, , .
: (), -
(), - (), - ( ).
:
0 0
- U BX U BX 0;
1 1
- U BX U B 1;
1, 0
- t

1 0
U BX U BX U BX .
. , 155
0 1 0 1
U BX 0,4 , U B 2,4 , I BX 1,6 , I BX 0,04 .
.
"" - , ,
. , =1, =0
. - X, :
0 1. = f (1, 2,,n) (1, 2,,n) 0 1.
1, 2,,n
, = f (1, 2,,n) - .

x1 x1 y= x1 x2 =
1 y= x1 x2 = x1+ x2 &
x y=x = x1 x2
x2 x2

) "" ) "" ) ""


, ,

x1 y= x1 x2 =x1 x2 = x1
1 = x1+x2 & y= x1 x2 =x1 x2 = x1 x2
x2 x2 ) "-" ,

) " - "
,

.2

= f1 (X), - , = f2 (X),

- () f2(X)= X .
(.2), . ( "") - = f3
(1, 2) = X 1vX 2 ( = f3 (1, 2) = X1 +X2 , 1 2,
. . .2).
( , "") - = f4 (1, 2) = X1 / X2 ( = f4 (1, 2) =
X1 X2 , 1 2. . 2).
"" "" , ..
( )
"", "" .. "" ,
"" .

( , " / ") - = f5 (1, 2) = X1pX2 = X 1vX 2 X 1  X 2


, 1 X2 . .2).

- ( ) = f6(1, 2) = X1 X2 = X 1/X 2 X 1 x X 2
, 1 2 . .2).
1 = f (1, 2)
1 X2. .
1
= fK(1, 2)

= fK( 1, 2)
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