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Unit 1

Pre-reading activity

Before reading the text try to guess how these professions might use
computers. The word combinations in the box will be of some help to you.
architects musicians
interior designers rally drivers
farmers sales people
landscape gardeners

to plot their best route; to demonstrate alternative designs to clients; to


compose music and to play it back; to design structures; to keep a database of
clients; to experiment with different designs; to keep financial accounts and
to keep a database of livestock

Reading activity

Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms:


data (n) ['deItq] данные, информация, сведения
hardware (n) ['ha:dwFq] оборудование; аппаратные средства;
техническое обеспечение
software (n) ['sOStwFq] программное обеспечение;
программные средства
wordprocessor (n) ['wWd'prousesq] программа редактирования
текстов; текстовый редактор
spreadsheet (n) ['spredSJt] электронная таблица
database (n) ['deItqbeIs] база данных
virus (n) ['vaIqrqs] вирус
menu (n) ['menjH] меню
keyboard (n) ['kJbLd] клавиатура
monitor (n) ['mOnItq] монитор, дисплей
chip (n) ['CIp] микросхема; чип; кристалл
multimedia (adj) ["mAltI'mJdiq] мультимедийный
peripherals (n) [pq'rIfqr(q)lz] периферийные устройства
printer (n) ['prIntq] печатающее устройство
output (n) ['autput] выходные данные
digital (adj) ['dIGIt(q)l] цифровой
compatible (adj) [kqm'pxtqbl] совместимый
email (n) ['ImeIl] электронная почта
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real-time (adj) ['rIql'taIm] в реальном времени
downloading (n) ['daunloudiN] разгрузка; откачка программы (из
оперативной памяти)
uploading (n) ['AploudiN] загрузка; подкачка (в оперативную
память)
webpage (n) ['webpeIG] веб-страница
website (n) ['websaIt] веб-узел, группа веб-страниц
telecommute (v) [telIkq'mjHt] передавать данные на расстоянии
browsing (n) ['brauzIN] просмотр
clipart (n) ['klIpRt] «клип-арт», готовое изделие
компьютерной графики

Read and memorize the following word combinations.

an operating system операционная система


an applications program прикладная программа
graphical interface средства графического взаимодействия;
графический интерфейс
to click a mouse нажать кнопку мыши
a desktop computer настольный компьютер
an expansion card плата расширения
an expansion slot разъем расширения; расширительное гнездо
a handheld computer миниатюрный портативный компьютер
a smart card интеллектуальная карточка, карточка со
встроенной микросхемой
smart devices интеллектуальные устройства
edutainment program развлекательная программа для обучения
an expert system экспертная система
to log on to a system подсоединять к системе
FTP протокол передачи файлов
WWW сеть, «всемирная паутина»
a search engine программа, позволяющая искать
информацию (поисковая служба)
an information superhighway информационная супермагистраль
an email attachment файл, вложенный в электронное письмо
CD-ROM постоянное запоминающее устройство на
компакт-диске
a hard disk жесткий диск

Reading activity

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Text A. COMPUTER USERS

A computer is a device that processes data according to a set of


instructions known as a program. The equipment is known as the hardware
and the programs and data are the software. A special set of programs, called
an operating system, provides an interface for the user and allows
applications programs to communicate with the hardware. Common
applications programs include wordprocessors for creating and editing
texts, spreadsheets for calculating mathematical formulae and databases for
storing data in a way that allows the data to be sorted and searched. Anti-virus
programs are used to detect and remove viruses. Some operating systems
have graphical (user) interfaces that allow the computer user to select items
from menus and to start programs using an input device called a mouse. This
is done by pressing a button on the mouse i.e. clicking the mouse. The main
device for inputting the data is a typewriter-style keyboard and the output is
commonly displayed on a monitor screen that looks like a small television
screen.
There is a range of sizes and types of computer. Those designed for use
by one person at a time are known as personal computers (PCs). Personal
computers include desktop computers and handheld computers that can be
carried around by the user. Electronics can be added to desktop computers by
plugging in expansion cards (electronic circuit boards that can be plugged
into special sockets called expansion slots).
It is also possible to build all the main parts of a computer into one
electronic integrated circuit packaged as a single electronic chip i.e. the
'computer on a chip'. This enables computers to be built into other devices
including household devices such as washing machines and fridges and to be
incorporated into plastic cards i.e. smart cards, which are able to store
information such as health records, drivers' licences, bank balances, etc.
Devices that include a computer circuit are commonly referred to as smart
devices. A multimedia computer can process different forms of data
including text, graphics, audio (sound), animation and video. This enables
computer systems to be used for a combination of education and
entertainment, sometimes referred to as edutainment.
Unlike most machines, computers do not have a fixed purpose. They are
multi-purpose tools. They can be used in a very wide variety of situations and
are found in a wide range of systems including security systems, cars and
phones. Advanced systems, known as expert systems, enable computers to
'think' like experts. Medical expert systems, for example, can help doctors

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diagnose an illness and decide on the best treatment. As computer systems are
developed, they are becoming more common and are gradually being used for
more and more purposes. How they are developed, and for what purposes they
are actually used in the future, can be influenced by computer users. A variety
of devices known as peripherals can be added externally to a computer. One
of the most common peripherals is a printer used for printing the computer
output on paper. A digital camera allows photographs to be input to a
computer for editing.
Not all computer systems are compatible i.e. they cannot use the same
programs and data. Connecting computers together to form a network can
provide the 'connectivity' required to enable computers and software to
communicate and to share resources. Networks connected together form an
internet. The connection of networks throughout the world is known as the
Internet or, more simply, the Net. Various communication services are
available on the Internet, including email (electronic mail) for sending and
receiving text messages and IRC (Internet Relay Chat) which allows users to
communicate using text messages in real-time i.e. without any delay, while
the users are logged on (connected to a network system account, normally
using a password) to the system. An Internet service called FTP (File Transfer
Protocol) is used for transferring data or program files between the powerful
server computers that provide the network services and the client computers
that use these services e.g. downloading music files. Note that copying data
from a larger server system to a client is referred to as downloading and
copying from the client to the server is known as uploading.
One of the newest and most popular services available on the Internet is
the World Wide Web (WWW) which is often simply referred to as the Web.
The Web contains interlinked documents called webpages. A set of related
webpages stored together on a server computer is called a website. Websites,
such as Dogpile and Askjeeves, give the user access to special programs called
search engines that are designed to allow the user to find relevant webpages
on the Web. An Internet system designed to provide free, interactive access to
vast resources for people all over the world is sometimes referred to as an
information superhighway.
Services such as these allow people to telecommute (use their
computers to stay in touch with the office while they are working at home).
Computer uses mentioned in this unit include producing greetings cards; using
the Microsoft Word wordprocessing program including features such as
clipart (ready-drawn graphic images that can be inserted into documents);
communicating on the Internet using email and chat programs including the
use of email attachments (other types of files e.g. video files attached to

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simple email text messages); distance learning and videoconferencing;
electronic classrooms or boardrooms; browsing the Web (moving from
webpage to webpage using a Web browser program); selling, using a website;
painting; scanning pictures; downloading music and creating CD-ROMs. CD-
ROMs are storage devices that use laser light for reading and writing data. The
most common storage device is a hard disk (a set of aluminium disks coated
in a magnetic material and enclosed in a vacuum-sealed case) used for storing
the operating system and applications programs as well as the user's data.

Post-reading activity

Task 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What is a computer? 2. What does an operating system provide? 3.


What types of computers do you know? 4. What are the advantages
of multimedia? 5. Name some types of devices that can be added
externally to a computer? 6. Why are not all computer systems
compatible? 7. What is the connection of networks throughout the
world called? 8. What do we call downloading (uploading)? 9. What
is the structure of the Web? 10.What services does
telecommunication provide? 11. How do CD-ROMs function?
12.What is a hard disk used for?

Task 2. Give the Russian equivalents for:

a spreadsheet for calculating mathematical formulae; interlinked documents;


to select items from menus; by pressing a button on the mouse; displayed on a
monitor screen; to be able to store information; by plugging in an expansion
card; to share resources; a system designed to provide access; a vacuum-sealed
case; sockets called expansion slots; to add externally to a computer; networks
throughout the world.

Task 3. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word
combinations.

1. удалить вирус; 2. нажать кнопку мыши; 3. интеллектуальные устрой-


ства; 4. миниатюрный портативный компьютер; 5. подсоединять к систе-
ме; 6. прикладная программа; 7. выходные данные; 8. программа, позво-
ляющая искать информацию; 9. программное обеспечение; 10. разгрузка.

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a. to log on to a system; b. a handheld computer; c. to remove a virus; d. to
click a mouse; e. an applications program; f. downloading; g. smart devices; h.
software; i. output; j. a search engine.

Task 4. Memorize the following definitions.

1. A spreadsheet is a type of application program with an array of cells


that is used for calculating formulas. 2. An expansion slot is a long thin
connector that is used for adding additional electronics in the form of
expansions cards. 3. A mouse is a common cursor control input device
with two or three button switches on top and a ball underneath that is
rolled on a flat surface. 4. A server is a main computer that provides a
service on a network. 5. Output is the processed data or signals that
come out of a computer. 6. A password is a secret code used to control
access to a network system.

Task 5. Match the terms in Table A with the statements in Table B.

Table A Table B
1. Edutainment a) Software that enables computers to ‘think’ like experts
2. Multimedia b) Use computers to stay in touch with the office while
working at home
3. Expert system c) Internet system designed to provide free, interactive
access to vast resources for people all over the world
4. Telecommute d) Multimedia materials with a combination of educational
and entertainment content
5. Information e) A combination of text with sound, video, animation, and
superhighway graphics.

Task 6.Mark the following as True or False.

1. A personal computer can process different forms of data including text,


graphics, audio, animation and video. 2. Videoconferencing is a form of
communication over a network that uses video cameras. 3. Anti-virus
programs are used to connect a number of computers and peripheral devices
together. 4. A hard disk is a piece of equipment used for putting data into a
computer. 5. A chip which is the common name for a microchip is an
electronic integrated circuit in a small package. 6. Desktop computers are
referred to the powerful type of computers, operated by a team of
professionals.

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Task 7. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

ability to combine; handles; in hardware and software; operating systems;


increased precision; parallel processing; to count; data and information; to
store this program

1. The word ‘computer’ comes from a Latin word which means … . 2.


The feature which makes the computer more than just a calculator is its
… thousands of such small operations into a program and … . 3. All the
data which a computer … are in the form of numbers. 4. The term
“computer generations” helps to single out the major technological
developments … . 5. The production of … - a type of systems
software – and applications software packages increased rapidly. 6. We
must be selective about the type of … we process. 7. Data processing is
getting faster and faster, mathematical calculations continue to be
performed with … . 8. Traditional computers act on only one problem at
a time; … means that many processors will work on the problem at the
same time.

Task 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of


Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect Tenses in the Active Voice.

1. The ability of tiny computing devices to control complex operations has


transformed the way many tasks are performed, ranging from scientific
research to producing consumer products. 2. These smart machines are
designed to take over some of the basic tasks previously performed by
people, by so doing, they make life a little easier and a little more
pleasant. 3. Now that computers are proliferating in many areas and
networks are available for people to access data and communicate with
others, personal computers are becoming interpersonal PCs. 4. Distance
learning and video conferencing are concepts made possible with the
use of an electronic classroom or boardroom accessible to people in
remote locations. 5. Not only is computing equipment getting smaller, it
is getting more sophisticated. 6. I searched the Web for sites on digital
cameras yesterday. 7. The programmer has added some other features to
his computer. 8. We have indicated that the computer cannot replace the
human teacher, nor it is desirable that it should. 9. In certain areas of
both hardware and software we have facilities which the pioneers could
only dream of. 10. Computers have decreased in price dramatically over

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the last ten years, but at the same time they have become much more
powerful.

Task 9. Give the verbs in brackets in the Passive voice and translate the
sentences.

1. The information superhighway (to design) to significantly expand this


interactive connectivity so that people all over the world will have free access
to all these resources. 2. Until the late 1970s, the computer (to view) as a
massive machine that was useful to big business and big government but not
to the general public. 3. Much of the computer activity (to centre) in the
Silicon Valley in northern California, where the first computer-related
company (to locate) in 1955. 4. The word’ software’ (to create) by analogy to
hardware. 5. All these operations, together with input and output, (to perform)
with great speed and accuracy. 6. The problem of being overloaded with
information (to discuss) more and more in business and computer
publications. 7. Modern personal computers always (to look at) with interest.
8. The experiments on the new microcomputer (to carry out) during the whole
month. 9. Information (to transmit) between people in different continents or
inside the human brain in the form of signals. 10. The first IBM PC (to
develop) using existing available electrical components.

Task 10. Work in pairs. Find out this information from your partner. Make
sure you use the correct tense in your questions. For example:

download music from the Internet [what site]


A Have you ever downloaded music from the Internet?
B What site did you use?

1. send a video email attachment [who to, when]


2. fit an expansion card [which type]
3. replace a hard disk [what model]
4. fix a printer fault [what kind]
5. make your own website [how]
6. have a virus [which virus]
7. watch TV on the Internet [which station]
8. write a program [which language]

Task 11.Translate the following sentences into English.

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1.Общеизвестно, что пользователи бывают начинающие и продвинутые.
2. Отдельной категорией выступают люди, профессию которых вкратце
можно назвать словом "компьютерщик" (эти люди умеют абсолютно
все, правда, они сами иногда об этом не знают). 3. Первая категория
пользователей является самой распространенной. 4. Работа компьютера
для них представляется весьма загадочным явлением, и занимаются они
в основном набором и распечаткой текстов, проводят время за играми и
смотрят видеофильмы. 5. Вторую категорию, как правило, уже не
удовлетворяет лишь одна работа за компьютером. 6. Сильное стрем-
ление к достижению новых высот заставляет неокрепшие умы
испытывать различные программные новинки, использовать полезные
советы по оптимизации работы компьютера и многое другое, что
начинающему пользователю совсем неизвестно. 7. Третья категория
пользователей самая малочисленная. 8. В нее входят люди, чья
профессиональная деятельность вынуждает их заниматься сборкой,
настройкой и ремонтом компьютеров.

Task 12. Topics for discussion.

1. Describe the way how a computer processes information.


2. Speak on the range of sizes and types of computers.
3. The multi-purposeness of computers.
4. The compatibility of computer systems.
5. Dwell on the services provided by computers and their advantages
(disadvantages).

Task 13. Read Text B and find the answers to the following questions.

1. How many generations of computers do you know? 2. What were the main
characteristics of the first generation of computers? How did they differ from
the second and third generations? 3. What helped to miniaturize the computer
circuits? 4. How can computers change our lives for better (for worse)?

Text B. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS

Computers have evolved through several generations. Each new


generation is based on technological innovations and new methods of
processing data. The first generation (1951-1958) began with the development
of the earliest large mainframe computers. These room-sized computers, such

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as the UNIVAC 1 (designed by the Eckert, Mauchley, and John von Neumann
team), were based on electromechanical devices and vacuum-tube technology
and generally used punched tape or punched cards as the primary input and
output media.
Computers of the first generation were used initially for computational
purposes, mainly by governmental agencies such as the U.S. census bureau,
but they soon found a broader use in basic business transactions related to
customer billing, internal accounting, inventory tracking, and payroll
calculations. Since computers could be used to replace many of the employees
who were maintaining these records, it was easier to justify their cost. BY the
late 1950s, many of America's larger companies were considering the
purchase of a computer.
Computers based on the transistor, which was invented in the late
1950s, mark the beginning of the second generation of computers (1959-
1964). Transistors brought about the development of smaller, faster, and more
efficient computers. And transistors were not the only improvements of this
period. Magnetic core memories began to appear and computers became more
modular in design. In addition, programming languages, the sets of special
instructional statements that were used to program these computers, became
easier to use and this brought more people into contact with computers. As a
result, a new occupation, computer programmers, came into being and they
began to design new computer programs for use in business and education,
known as applications.
The third generation of computers (1965-1970) used integrated circuits
which opened the door for the creation of even smaller and faster computers.
These smaller computers were known as minicomputers and were the first to
incorporate operating systems which automated many of the computer's
operational tasks, tasks that had been formerly handled by humans. The
International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation introduced the new
“families” of computers, the IBM 360 and 370. Business-oriented programs
were written for these computers that could be used on any of the computers
in the family.
The fourth generation of computers is characterized by large-scale
integration of computer circuitry and small microprocessors. Microcomputers
(also called personal computers or PCs) were based on these microprocessors
and they put computing power into the hands of individual users. The term
large-scale integration (LSI) was used during this period to describe the
constant miniaturization of computer circuits. Today the process of constant
miniaturization of computer circuits is continuing and is termed Very Large-
Scale Integration (VLSI). New high-level programming languages developed

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and they were designed to be easier to use and more closely related to specific
computer tasks.
The fifth computer generation is marked by the evolution of computers
that use newer, faster technologies to carry out a broader variety of tasks.
Some of the tasks that computers will do in the next generation of computing
can be defined as artificial intelligence (AI). Such computers would make
decisions based on available evidence rather than on hard-and-fast rules. If
computers could be taught the rules that are used in decision making, they
might be able to replace the human experts who are currently charged with
those decisions. Some versions of these types of expert systems are already in
use and new ones are now under development.

Task 14. Describe (in writing) how you use computers in your study and in
your free time. Give examples of the impact they have on your lives.

Unit 2

Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms.

portable (adj) ['pLtqbl] переносной; портативный


laptop (n) ['lxptOp] компактный портативный компьютер
handheld (adj) ['hxndheld] ручной, портативный
pen-based (adj) ['penbeIzd] с перьевым вводом
processor (n) ['prousesq] процессор
mainframe (n) ['meInfreIm] универсальная вычислительная машина
plotter (n) ['plOtq] графопостроитель
modem (n) ['moudem] модем
slow up (v) ['slou'Ap] замедлять
cache (n) ['kxS] кэш, быстродействующая буферная память
soundcard (n) ['saundka:d] звуковая плата
coat (v) ['kout] наносить покрытие
vacuum-sealed (adj) запечатанный вакуумным способом
['vxkjuqm'sJld]
format (v) ['fLmxt] задавать формат
track (n) ['trxk] дорожка, канал
rotate (v) [rou'teIt] вращать
speed up (v) ['spJd'Ap] ускоряться
crash (v) ['krxS] приводить к аварии; сломаться

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price (v) ['praIs] оценивать
hertz (n) [hWts] герц
versatile (adj) ['vWsqtaIl] многосторонний, гибкий; универсальный
versatility (n) ["vWsq'tIlItI] разносторонность, многогранность
server (n) ['sWvq] сервер; обслуживающее устройство

Read and memorize the following word combinations.

an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) непрерываемый источник питания


random access memory (RAM) память с произвольной выборкой
read only memory (ROM) постоянная память, ПЗУ
central processing unit (CPU) центральный процессор, ЦП
an input device устройство ввода
an output device устройство вывода
a storage device запоминающее устройство, ЗУ
a floppy disk гибкий диск
a memory address адрес (ячейки) памяти
an address bus адресная шина
a data bus шина данных
a system unit системный блок
a driver card управляющая плата
a port replicator репликатор портов
a hard disk жесткий диск
a redundant array of блок дисков с избыточностью
inexpensive disks (RAID) информации; массив резервных
недорогих дисков
a barcode reader устройство считывания
штрихового кода

Reading Activity

Text A. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

There are different types of computer of varying size and power,


including the following:
Supercomputer (the most powerful type of mainframe)
Mainframe (large, very powerful, multi-user i.e. can be used by many people
at the same time, multi-tasking i.e. can run many programs and process
different sets of data at the same time)

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Minicomputer (smaller than a mainframe, powerful, multi-user, multi-
tasking)
Personal computer (PC) (single user)
Desktop computer (suitable size for sitting on an office desk)
Workstation (most powerful type of desktop, used for graphic design, etc.)
Portable (can be carried around, can operate with batteries)
Laptop (large portable, can be rested on user's lap)
Notebook (size of a sheet of notebook paper)
Handheld (can be held in one hand)
Pen-based (main input device is an electronic pen)
PDA (personal digital assistant, has functions such as task lists, diary, address
book)
Note that the term PC usually refers to an IBM compatible personal
computer i.e. an Apple Mac personal computer is not referred to as a PC. A
computer that provides a service on a network e.g. storing files, sharing a
printer, is known as a server computer. Server computers usually have a UPS
(uninterruptible power supply) attached to them. This is a battery that
automatically provides an electricity supply to allow the server to shut itself
down properly if the main supply fails.
The processor e.g. Pentium, is the most important part of the computer.
It processes the data and controls the computer. Powerful computers used as
servers often have more than one processor. There are two main types of
memory:
a)RAM (random access memory) holds the program instructions and the data
that is being used by the processor,
b)ROM (read only memory) holds the program instructions and settings
required to start up the computer.
The combination of the processor and memory is sometimes referred to
as the CPU (central processing unit), although sometimes the processor itself
is referred to as the CPU. The other parts connected to the CPU are known as
peripherals. These can include input devices, output devices, storage devices
and communications devices. Input devices include: keyboards, scanners,
barcode readers, digital cameras, microphones and video cameras e.g.
webcams (small digital video cameras used on the Web). Output devices
include: monitors (VDU display screens), printers, plotters, loudspeakers,
headphones. Storage devices include: magnetic tape, floppy disks (diskettes),
hard disks, CD-ROMs, CD-R disks, CD-RW disks, DVDs and MO disks. A
common communications device is a modem (a modulator/demodulator used
for converting digital signals to analogue signals and vice versa to allow a
computer to be connected to the ordinary telephone system).

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A set of connectors used for carrying signals between the different parts
of a computer is known as a bus. Data is transferred constantly between the
processor and memory along the system bus. Each part of memory has its
own memory address and the processor determines where processed data is
stored by sending an address signal along an address bus and data along a
data bus. This is synchronised by an electronic clock in the CPU that
determines the operating speed of the processor. Transferring data between the
processor and RAM can slow up the computer; therefore, some very
expensive, extremely fast memory is usually used as a cache to hold the most
frequently used data.
In a desktop computer, the CPU (central processing unit) and storage
devices (pieces of equipment used for reading from and writing to a storage
medium) are normally built inside a system unit which consists of a metal
chassis enclosed in a flat desktop or a tower shaped case. Other peripherals are
attached to the system unit by cables. Each peripheral uses its own driver
card or controller (an expansion card that is plugged into special expansion
slots in the system unit). Expansion cards contain the electronics required to
communicate with and control the device e.g. video or graphics cards are
used for monitors, soundcards are used for audio input/output and NICs
(network interface cards) are used for connecting to other computers in a
network. Extra memory can also be added to the computer using special
memory expansion slots inside the computer. A portable computer that does
not have enough space inside to fit expansion cards may use an external
device called a port replicator to provide connections for peripherals.
Storage devices in the form of a disk or tape are used to store the
programs and data that are not being used. Before a program or data can be
used, it must be transferred from the storage device to the main RAM
memory. Hard disks consist of a set of magnetic coated metal disks that are
vacuum-sealed inside a case to keep out the dust. The magnetic surfaces of the
disks are formatted using a read/write head to provide magnetic storage
areas. These storage areas form concentric circles called tracks and each track
is subdivided into sections called sectors. The disks are rotated at high speed
and read from or written to by the read/write head that moves across the
surface of the disks. In server computers, hard disks can be connected together
and made to operate as one unit using RAID (a redundant array of inexpensive
disks). This can speed up the system and provide a way of recovering data if
the system crashes (fails suddenly and completely, usually referring to the
failure of a hard disk). There is a variety of optical storage devices that use
laser light to read or write to a disk, including: CD-ROMs (compact disk read
only memory), CD-R (recordable compact disk), CD-RW (rewritable

16
compact disk), DVD (digital versatile disk - previously known as digital video
disk).
An input device called a barcode reader is a special type of scanner
for reading barcodes (a set of printed bars of varying thickness that are used
to identify a product e.g. used to price items in supermarkets).
When comparing computers, the power of the computer is important.
This is mainly determined by the speed and capacity (size) of each part of the
computer.
Speed is measured in hertz (Hz) i.e. cycles per second.
Capacity is measured in bytes (B) where 1 byte = 8 bits (binary digits)
= 1 character.

Post-reading Activity

Task 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What types of computers varying in size and power do you know? 2. Can
we speak about a “computer revolution” with the invention of personal
computers? Why? 3. What is the most important part of a computer? Dwell on
it. 4. What is referred to as the CPU? 5. Give five examples of input devices
(five examples of output devices). 6. How are signals carried to different parts
of a computer? 7. Where can you find the CPU and storage devices in a
desktop computer? 8. What external device may a portable computer use?
9. What is the function of storage? 10. What is a hard disk? 11. How does a
hard disk function? 12. Where is a barcode reader used? 13. In what storage
devices is laser light used? 14. What factors are to be taken into account when
buying a computer?

Task 2. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word
combination.

1.Средство связи; 2. шина данных; 3. устройство ввода; 4. запоминающее


устройство; 5. устройство считывания штрихового кода; 6. магистраль
системного блока; 7. ручной компьютер; 8. адрес ячейки памяти; 9. уни-
версальная головка; 10. быстродействующая буферная память; 11. гиб-
кий диск; 12. память с произвольной выборкой

a. a system bus; b. barcode reader; c. a hand held computer; d. a


communication device; e. a memory address; f. a cache; g. a data bus; h. a

17
storage device; i. a random access memory; j. an input device; k. a floppy
disk; l. a read/write head;

Task 3. Match each item in Column A with its function in Column B.

A Item B Function
1. RAM a. controls the cursor
2. processor b. inputs data through keys like a typewriter
3. mouse c. displays the output from a computer on a screen
4. clock d. reads DVD-ROMs
5. 3.5// e. reads and writes to removable magnetic disks
floppy drive f. holds instructions which are needed to start up the
6. monitor computer
7. keyboard g. holds data read or written to it by the processor
8. DVD- h. provides extremely fast access for sections of a
ROM drive program and its data
9. cache i. controls the timing of signals in the computer
10. ROM j. controls all the operations in a computer

Task 4. Mark the following as True or False.

1. The function of a hard disk drive is to delete all the files stored on a disk.
2. Swipe cards are used to provide a secure means of identifying authorised
users of many different facilities such as banks, libraries, and computer labs.
3. A supercomputer is used for processing small amounts of data. 4. Barcodes
provide computer readable information on a product so that it can be identified
and priced automatically. 5. A cache holds the program instructions and
settings required to start up the computer. 6. The capacity of memory is
determined by the period of the time required for the signals to travel the
distance from the memory to the arithmetic/logic unit. 7. A mainframe
computer is designed to be used on an office desk and to be operated by a
single user.

Task 5. Complete each sentence choosing the correct preposition from the
box.

18
outside, between, into, in, from, to, from, along, into, from, inside, into,
across, to, from, to, into

1. The CPU is a large chip ......... the computer. 2. Data always flows ......... the
CPU ......... the address bus. 3. The CPU can be divided ......... three parts.
4. Data flows ......... the CPU and the memory. 5. Peripherals are devices .........
the computer but linked ......... it. 6. The signal moves ......... the VDU
screen ......... one side ......... the other. 7. The CPU puts the address ......... the
address bus. 8. The CPU can fetch data ......... memory ......... the data bus. 9.
A program is read ......... disk .......... memory. 10. The hard disk drive is .........
a sealed case. 11. Tracks are divided ......... sectors.

Task 6. Decide on the correct sequence of events when the data flows
throughout the system. See Figure below for help.

1. The Arithmetic/Logic Unit makes the necessary mathematical and logical


computations as you enter data and formulas. 2. The control unit directs the
transfer of data from an input device to either memory or storage. 3. The
control unit sends the results to memory. It can also send them to storage or to
a printer. It erases the data from memory when instructed to do so. 4. Data in
storage remains there until it is needed for the current processing task. Then
the control unit transfers the data from storage to memory. 5. The control unit
sends the required data from memory to the Arithmetic/Logic Unit.

19
Task 7. Give the appropriate translation to the Russian words.

1. There are also компьютеры общего назначения in the office, at home,


and at school. 2. Twenty or thirty years ago, most books on computers
описывали большие, мощные машины, because they were the most
common. 3. The basic parts of персонального компьютера for the home are
микропроцессор и клавиатура. 4. All of these disk platters inside the sealed
case вращаются с одной и той же скоростью, but each disk has its own
головку считывания-записи. 5. Гибкие диски are a form of переносного
запоминающего устройства that can be inserted into a computer’s
дисковод. 6. Typically, каждый байт хранит один символ, using the same
метод двоичного кодирования practiced in primary coding. 7. Интеграль-
ная схема constituted another важный шаг in the growth of computer
technology. 8. The method of обработки данных as well as имеющиеся в
наличии периферийные устройства define computer generations. 9. Разно-
сторонность and convenience of the microprocessor has altered всю
архитектуру of modern computer systems. 10. The speed of modern
computers is the speed of обращения к памяти.

Task 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the introductory


“there”.

1. There are probably more than 30.000 viruses in existence but only about
200 to 300 are present in sufficient numbers to be a threat to your PC. 2. But
there are some vital questions to be asked. 3. There will probably never be a
programming language which can cope fully with the complexities of natural
languages. 4. There has been recently developed the notion of chipset.
5. Finally, there remains the problem of unplugging all the cables except the
power cord from your computer. 6. There seems to be considerable
disagreement between observations of the same phenomenon by different
authors. 7. There are believed to exist hackers who like to attack and penetrate
computer systems belonging to large, important organizations. 8. There must
be ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) in every bank to provide cash to bank
customers. 9. There are a variety of security measures that can be used to

20
protect hardware and software. 10. Is there any point in talking about it again?
11. There is sure to be trouble when a virus gets into your computer. 12. There
is something worrying me in the way this mainframe functions. 13. There has
been talk of a “computer revolution” ever since the electronic industry learned
in the late 1950s to inscribe miniature electronic circuits on a chip of silicon.

Task 9. Translate the following sentences with the emphatic construction “It
is (was) ... that (who, which, when) ...”.

1. It was the Intel Pentium that was introduced in 1993. 2. It was in 2001 that
Microsoft launched Windows XP. 3. It is an electronic book that I don’t like.
4. It was the Wap phone that was the first mobile phone to make Internet
access possible. 5. It is an alternative to silicon that we need. 6. It was Gordon
Moore that Moore’s Law is named after. 7. It is the central processing unit that
adds new processing capabilities and at the same time gets faster with each
generation. 8. It was in 1867 when the first typewriter was invented. 9. It is in
storage where data permanently reside. 10. It is for this reason that the
computer code generally assigns a unique combination of eight 0s and 1s to
each letter, number, and symbol.

Task 10. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Компьютер представляет собой устройство, способное исполнять


четко определенную последовательность операций, предписанную
программой. 2. Процессор, память и периферийные устройства взаимо-
действуют между собой с помощью шин, стандартизация которых делает
архитектуру компьютера открытой. 3. Внутренняя память подразделя-
ется на оперативную, информация в которой может изменяться проце-
ссором в любой момент времени, и постоянную, информацию которой
процессор может только считывать. 4. Периферийные устройства связы-
вают компьютер с внешним миром, и без них он был бы «вещью в себе».
5. Архитектурный облик PC-совместимого компьютера определяется
рядом свойств, обеспечивающих возможность функционирования про-
граммного обеспечения, управляющего периферийным оборудованием.
6. Кэширование основной памяти для современных процессоров
является средством весьма существенного повышения производитель-
ности системы. 7. Пластины (platter) дисков могут быть гибкими или
жесткими, но в любом случае их материал не должен сильно изменять
свой размер со временем и под действием перепадов температур.

21
Task 11. Topics for discussion.

1. Name the four types of general purpose computers.


2. Explain the importance of learning about computers.
3. Describe the individual process of the computing cycle.
4. Distinguish between random access and read-only memory.
5. Speak on the way the information is stored in the computer.
6. Explain the uses of various kinds of peripheral devices.
7. Even if minis and mainframes were inexpensive, why it is unlikely that
you would buy one for your home.

Task 12. Read Text B and find the answers to the following questions.

1. What is “hardware”? 2. What does the term CPU mean? How does this unit
function? 3. What is the architecture of the system unit? 4. What types of disk
drives do you know? 5. Can you imagine your life without a modem? Why?

Text B. MICROCOMPUTER HARDWARE

Different pieces of hardware – the physical devices – of a computer


system are used to input, process, and output data. Input devices, which range
from keyboards and touch-sensitive screens to mice and light pens, translate
the information into a series of on and off electrical signals.
Processing is controlled by the central processing unit (CPU), which
consists of a control unit that directs the transfer of data and an arithmetic/
logic unit (ALU) that performs mathematical and logical calculations. Once
entered, data is moved to memory for processing – this is the information that
appears on the screen – or written to the disk for permanent storage.
The system unit itself houses the processing devices, electronic circuits,
and other components. Many of these devices are tiny silicon chips, also
known as semiconductors or integrated circuits. These chips include the CPU,
RAM (random access memory), and ROM (read-only memory); they are
plugged into sockets on a printed circuit board (a board with electrical circuits
printed on it). The board that contains the CPU is known as the system board
(or motherboard); it provides several expansion slots that allow users to add
memory and expansion boards for input and output devices (peripheral
devices) such as mice, monitors, modems, and scanners.
Read-only memory contains the computer's built-in instructions; the
computer can read but not alter the contents. Random access memory allows

22
the manipulation of data; if the program is ended or the power turned off
before the changes have been saved, all new material is lost.
Microcomputers typically include a hard disk and one or two floppy
disk drives. The hard disk provides greater storage space and speed than a
floppy disk provides; it is usually sealed within the unit (some removable
drives are available) and contains the operating system and whatever programs
and data you choose to write to it. Because hard disks can malfunction (crash),
it is advisable to back up their data onto floppy disks (or tape) to be stored
outside the system. Other storage devices include optical discs, where the data
has been burned onto the disc by means of a laser, and interactive video.
Input and output devices, connected to the system unit through serial
ports, parallel ports, and specialized ports, let the user interact with the system
to input data and receive processed results. Common input devices include the
keyboard, mouse, scanner, and light pen; common output devices include the
monitor, printer, and plotter. The modem functions as both an input and output
device. The availability of modems has opened up staggering opportunities for
people to link their computers via phone, to access information from remote
databases, and communicate in a variety of ways.

Unit 3

Pre-reading activity

Guess the meaning of the following words.

electronic ["elek'tronIk]; weigh ['weI]; card [kRd]; screen [skrJn];


swipe [swaIp]; keyboard ['kJbLd]; rechargeable [rq'tSRGqbl]; medium
['mJdjqm]; versatile ['vWsqtaIl]; gigabyte ['gIgqbaIt]; conventional
[kqn'venSqnl]; convert [kOn'vWt]

Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms.

peripheral (n) [pq'rIfqrql] периферийное (вспомогательное)


устройство
scales (n) ['skeIlz] весы
barcode (n) ['bRkoud] штриховой код
delete [dI'lJt] стирать, удалять, исключать
cursor (n) ['kWsq] курсор
resolution (n) ["rezq'lHSn] разрешающая способность

23
measurement (n) ['meZqmqnt]измерение
pixel (n) ['pIksIl] точка растра, элемент растра
versatile (adj) ['vq:sqtaIl] разносторонний, универсальный
random (adj) ['rxndqm] случайный, произвольный
processing (n) ['prousesIN] обработка
keyboard (n) ['kJbO:d] клавиатура
plotter (n) ['plOtq] графопостроитель
modem (n) модем, модулятор-демодулятор
scanner (n) лексический анализатор (сканирующее
устройство) – устройство ввода изображения
touch screen (adj, n) сенсорный экран
['tAtSskrJn]
back up (n, v) [bxkqp] резервирование; создавать резервную копию

Memorise the following word-combinations.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) устройство отображения текстовой и


графической информации на жидких
кристаллах
CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) устройство с зарядной связью
EPOS (tills) электронный кассовый аппарат
floppy disks гибкие диски (дискеты)
barcode reader читающее устройство штрихового кода
numeric keypad числовая (цифровая) клавиатура
(вспомогательная)
solid state memory память на полупроводниках
storage device запоминающее устройство
data medium носитель данных (материальный объект,
предназначенный для хранения данных,
напр. диск, перфокарта)
disk or tape drive дисковод (лентопротяжное устройство)
a read/write head головка чтения записи
hard disk жесткий диск (винчестер)
removable storage съемное запоминающее устройство
(можно менять носитель хранения и
переносить на другой компьютер)
fixed storage постоянное запоминающее устройство
(носитель хранения нельзя перенести на
другой компьютер)

24
light pen световое перо (используется как
устройство ввода координат и как
указка)
dot matrix printer матричное печатающее устройство
letter-quality printer высококачественное печатающее
устройство
daisy-wheel printer лепестковое печатающее устройство
ink-jet printer струйный принтер
desktop monitor настольный монитор
graphics tablet or digitiser устройство (цифрового) ввода
изображений

Reading activity

Text A. PERIPHERALS

EPOS (electronic point of sale) tills used in supermarkets form part of a


computer system with various input and output peripheral devices attached to
the till, including: electronic scales for weighing produce, barcode reader
for looking up prices using barcodes, swipe card reader for reading bank
cards, numeric keypad for inputting prices manually, LCD (liquid crystal
display) screen for outputting purchase details.
Digital cameras are gradually being developed that are as good as
conventional cameras. They have various electronic devices inside, including:
a) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen used as a view-finder and for viewing
the pictures after they have been taken.
b) CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) consisting of thousands of photo-
transistors (light-sensitive transistors - a transistor is an electronic switch).
It creates the pictures as a set of dots or pixels (picture elements).
c) Memory cards e.g. flash cards – solid state memory (electronic integrated
circuits, i.e. chips, used for storing the pictures).
There is no delay in getting pictures from digital cameras because there
is no film requiring chemical processing. They can be attached to a computer
to directly transfer pictures for editing using special software and unwanted
pictures can be deleted. However, they cost more than conventional cameras
and the quality is not quite as good. You also need to buy rechargeable
batteries and a photo-quality colour printer with high printing costs for paper,
ink, etc. Two important features when buying a digital camera are:
a) picture quality or resolution. The resolution of a camera is
measured in pixels and given as two numbers, indicating how many pixels

25
there are across the image and how many going down the image e.g. 1280
by 960 (or 1280x960).
b) the number of pictures the camera can store. The higher the
resolution, i.e. the more pixels, the more memory is required to store the
pictures. Data can be compressed to allow more pictures to be stored.
Storage devices are used to store data and programs that are not being
used by the processor. They usually consist of:
a) storage media in the form of a circular disk or a tape where the
data is stored
b) a disk or tape drive that moves the media past a read/write
head that reads the data from and writes data to the storage media.

Types of storage devices include:

magnetic floppy disks (diskettes) and magnetic tape made of a


devices (that use magnetic coated flexible plastic; hard disks made of
magnetism) magnetic coated aluminium disks
optical devices CD-ROM – compact disk read only memory
(that use laser CD-R – recordable compact disk
light) CD-RW – re-writable compact disk
DVD-ROM – digital versatile disk read only memory
DVD-RAM – digital versatile disk random access memory
magneto-optical CD-MO – magneto optical compact disk
devices (that use
a combination of
magnetism and
laser light)

Read only media enable the user to both read data from and write data
to the media. Read and write media can only be used for reading data i.e. the
stored data cannot be changed in any way.
Removable storage enables the user to change the media and transfer it
to another computer.
Fixed storage does not allow the media to be changed or transferred to
another computer.
Other factors that vary between storage devices include:
a) the speed at which the drive moves the media past the read/write head and
reads or writes data to the storage media
b) the capacity of the media i.e. how much data can be stored on each disk or
tape

26
c) the cost of the drive and the media.
There are various types of printers for out-putting text and graphics to
paper.
Some types of printers are mono (print in black and white only) and
others can print in colour. The speed, quality and cost of printing varies
between different types of printer. Some are designed for printing text and are
not really suited to printing graphics.
Data can take many forms and there is a wide variety of input, output,
storage and communication peripherals.
Units of measurement used in data storage include:

bit a binary digit i.e. a 1 or a 0


byte 8 bits = 1 character i.e. a letter, numerical digit or a
punctuation mark
megabyte (MB) 1,048,576 bytes (approximately one million bytes)
gigabyte (GB) 1,073,741, 824 bytes (approximately one thousand million
bytes)
terabit 1,099,5 11, 627,776 bits (approximately one thousand
gigabits)
micron one millionth of a metre
angstrom the approximate radius of an atom

Peripheral devices
Peripheral devices can be classified generally as input devices, output
devices, or both.
Input Devices
Keyboard. In addition to letters and numbers found on a typewriter, computer
keyboards have a series of special keys to control sending information to the
CPU. The use of these special keys is defined and controlled by the software.
For example, with word processing software, arrow keys move the cursor to
any point in a document.
Mouse. A mouse is an input device that operates by controlling the position of
the cursor (in the shape of an arrow) on the monitor.
Light pen. Light pens, often used in stores, are able to input a large amount of
data quickly by moving a light beam across a barcode. This converts the bar-
code into digital data that is usable by the computer. Other types of light pens
are also used for computer-aided design (CAD) and pen-based computers; the
latter interpret and convert human writing into computer form.

27
Scanner. A scanner is an input device that acts like a miniature photocopy
machine connected to a computer, copying graphic images into the computer
and allowing typewritten pages to be entered without retyping. Scanners
include both hand-held and desktop models. A scanner works by passing a
beam of light across the original page or artwork and sensing the reflected
light; it then assembles this information into a data file that describes the
images as rows of tiny dots, each one noted for its colour and brightness. That
file is then passed on to the computer.
Output Devices
Monitors. Monitors, which look like television sets, quickly display and
redisplay the computer's output. They are often called CRTs (cathode ray
tubes), VDTs (video display terminals), or simply screens.
The image displayed on the screen is composed of many rows of tiny
dots, called pixels (short for picture element). The number and size of pixels
determine the resolution (sharpness and clarity) of the display. The more
pixels, the higher the resolution.
Each type of monitor, such as monochrome or colour graphics, requires
a matching type of display adapter in the system unit.
• Desktop Monitors. CRTs, are the desktop monitors that are built in the
same as television sets. They can be monochrome or colour:
• Monochrome monitors show one colour, generally white, green, or
amber, on a dark background.
• Colour monitors (often called graphics monitors) display text
characters and graphic images in colour. They have advanced through
various stages: CGA (colour graphics adapter), EGA (enhanced
graphics adapter), and VGA (video graphics array).
• Printers. Printers create paper copies, called hardcopies, of information
sent from the computer. Four types of printers are in common use:
• Dot matrix printers use a series of dots to form a character. They are
fast and inexpensive, but the output quality can be relatively low.
• Daisy-wheel, or letter-quality, printers create print of the same quality
as a typewriter. Letter-quality printers are slower but they produce a
higher-quality print.
Ink jet printers spray small droplets of ink to create characters. These
printers produce a fine-quality print at an extremely high speed; some print in
colour.
Laser printers are quickly taking the place of other printers for most
uses. Laser printers produce an exceptionally high-quality print at a very high
speed.

28
Post-reading activity

Task 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What various output and input peripheral devices attached to the till do you
know? 2. What electronic devices inside of digital cameras are there? 3. Can
you name the merits of digital cameras? 4. What two important features are
necessary to know when buying a digital camera? 5. What is the main function
of storage devices? 6. What do storage devices consist of? 7. What are the
types of storage devices? 8. What do read only media enable the user to do?
9. What is the difference between removable storage and fixed storage?
10. What are the functions of input devices such as a keyboard, a scanner, a
mouse and a light pen? 11. What do you know about such output devices as
monitors? 12. What kind of printers do you know?

Task 2. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word
combinations.

1. точка; 2. запоминающее устройство; 3. электронные весы; 4. перифе-


рийное устройство; 5. цифровая клавиатура; 6. штриховой код; 7. носи-
тель данных; 8. жесткие диски; 9. световое перо; 10. струйный принтер;
11. память на полупроводниках; 12. хранение данных; 13. единицы
измерения; 14. съемное запоминающее устройство; 15. матричное
печатающее устройство.

a) storage; b) electronic scale; c) pixel; d) hard disks; e) peripheral; f) light


pen; g) ink-jet printer; h) data storage; i) units of measurement; j) removable
storage; k) solid state memory; l) data media; m) numeric keypad; n) barcode;
o) dot matrix printer.

Task 3. Match the terms in Table A with the statements in Table B.

Table A Table B
1. barcode reader a) a piece of equipment that is connected to the central
processing unit of a computer system.
2. peripheral b) a measure of the quality of a display screen in terms

29
of the amount of graphical information that can be
shown on the screen
3. swipe card c) a material used for storing programs and data
4. resolution d) a symbol on the monitor screen that indicates the
point on the screen that is being used
5. cursor e) a plastic card with a magnetic strip running across it
containing confidential data
6. storage medium f) an optical input device that uses the reflection of a
light beam to read barcode labels
7. keyboard g) a common cursor control input device used with a
graphical user interface. It commonly has 2 or 3
button switches on top and a ball underneath that is
rolled on a flat surface
8. mouse h) the main electronic input device that has keys
arranged in a similar layout to a typewriter

Task 4. Mark the following as True or False.

1. Digital cameras are gradually being developed that are as good as


conventional cameras. 2. There is a delay in getting pictures from digital
cameras because there is no film requiring chemical processing. 3. The higher
the resolution of a digital camera the less memory is required to store the
pictures. 4. Storage devices are used to process data and programs that are
being used by the processor. 5. Read only media enable the user only to read
data. 6. Fixed storage allows the media to be changed or transferred to another
computer. 7. Keyboards have a series of special keys to control sending the
information to the CPU. 8. A mouse is an output device that operates by
controlling the position of the cursor.

Task 5. Complete the gaps.

1. The image displayed on the screen is composed of many rows of tiny dots,
called … . 2. Printers create paper copies, called … , of information sent from
the computer. 3. Monitors are often called CRTs (cathode ray tubes), DVTs
(video display terminals), or simply … . 4. Peripheral devices can be classified
generally as … . 5. Storage devices are used to … . 6. EPOS tills used in
supermarkets form … . 7. Types of storage devices include … . 8. There is no
delay in getting pictures from digital cameras because there is ...

Task 6. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

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printers, software, capacity, drive, pixels, scanner, peripherals, barcode,
removable

1. Digital cameras can be attached to a computer to directly transfer pictures


for editing using special … and unwanted pictures can be deleted. 2. The
resolution of a camera is measured in … and given as two numbers. 3. Other
factors that vary between storage devices include: the speed at which the …
moves the media past the read/write head and reads or writes data to the
storage media and the … of the media. 4. There are various types of … for
out-putting text and graphics to paper. 5. Data can take many forms and there
is a wide variety of input, output, storage and communication … . 6. … is an
input device that acts like a miniature photocopy machine connected to a
computer, copying graphic images into the computer and allowing type-
written pages to be entered without retyping. 7. … reader is used for looking
up prices. 8. … storage enables the user to change the media and transfer it to
another computer.

Task 7. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs, need to, have
to and must, to make sensible statements. More than one answer is possible in
some examples.

1. Technical qualifications … to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not


go out of date. 2. You … become an expert in too narrow a field. 3. You … to
have good communication skills to become an IT Manager. 4. You … be an
expert in hardware to become a programmer. 5. You … have worked with
IBM mainframes for at least two years. 6. You … be able to show leadership.
7. You … have a degree but it … be in computing science. 8. You … to have
experience in JavaScript. 9. You … be able to use C++. 10. These days you …
study BASIC.

Task 8. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the
modal verbs and the equivalents.

1. Laser light can travel faster than an electric current. 2. Imagine being able to
access the Internet from a kitchen appliance. 3. You must be able to provide
leadership to junior team members.4. Some operations for this computer have
to be changed and new instructions have to be added. 5. The main task of the
barcode reader is to read barcode labels using the reflection of a light beam.
6. You have to be able to manage a team. 7. In future, domestic appliances

31
will be able to report any breakdowns for repair. 8. Marconi was able to send a
radio signal across the Atlantic. 9. Every student of our speciality has to know
the difference between read only media and read and write media. 10. IT
managers have to take responsibility for budgets. 11. You mustn’t make
unauthorised copies of software. 12. You need to be able to break down a
problem into a number of smaller tasks.

Task 9. Problem solving. Study this list of needs. Which type of peripheral
would you advise in each case? See the box for help.

a. barcode reader, b. digital videocamera, c. scanner, d. tape drive, e. joystick,


f. robot, g. microphone, h. graphics digitiser, i. keyboard, j. hard disk, k.
touchscreen, l. headphones, m. plotter, n. laser printer

1. inputting printed graphics


2. building cars
3. controlling the screen cursor in a fast action game
4. making choices on a screen in a public information terminal
5. recording moving images
6. recording a book loan in a library
7. printing very high quality text and graphics
8. creating drawings
9. printing building plan drawings
10.recording sound
11.listening to music without disturbing others
12.storing programs and data
13.inputting a lot of text
14.backing up large quantities of data

Task 10. Translate into English.

1. Часть компьютера, которая принимает информацию, называется


устройством ввода. 2. Устройство ввода обеспечивает связь между
компьютером и человеком, который интересуется его режимом работы.
3. Блок ввода или устройство ввода позволяет установить связь от
другого оборудования по управлению данными и человеком с
компьютером. 4. Устройство ввода – это функциональная часть компью-
тера, которая принимает данные, с которыми будут работать, а также
программы для работы.

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5. Часть компьютера, которая выдает информацию, называется
блоком вывода. 6. Известно, что устройства вывода варьируются в
зависимости от емкости вспомогательного оборудования, получающего
информацию. 7. Например, на магнитную ленту компьютер может
записывать со скоростью 1 000 000 единиц в секунду.
8. Устройства ввода и вывода обычно называют периферией или
вспомогательным блоком. 9. Все периферийное оборудование работает
медленнее по сравнению с самим компьютером. 10. Соответственно для
эффективного использования невероятно высокой вычислительной
скорости компьютера может использоваться устройство, называемое
буфером. 11. Известно, что буфер является устройством памяти, который
в состоянии принимать информацию с очень большой скоростью от
компьютера и передавать ее с нужной скоростью периферийному
устройству.

Task 11. Writing. Describe the EPOS till using the terms in the box.

barcode reader, swipe card reader, for cash cards and loyalty cards, LCD
screen, printer for receipts, electronic scales

Task 12. Topics for discussion:


1. Speak on peripherals in EPOS tills used in supermarkets.
2. The characteristics of digital cameras as input devices.
3. Speak on the types of storage devices.
4. Classification of input and output devices or both.

Task 13. Now study the text below to get this information:

1. How do input devices range? 2. What other input devices can you name?
3. What flat-panel display do you know? Give their characteristics. 4. Name
three examples of output devices. 5. What devices serve both as input and
output devices? 6. What are the functions of the modem? How does it work?
7. What opportunities has the availability of modems opened?

Text B. DEVICES FOR INPUT AND OUTPUT

The various pieces of hardware – the physical devices-of a computer


system are used to input, and output data. Input devices, which range from
keyboards and touch-sensitive screens to mice and light pens, translate the
information into a series of on and off electrical signals. These signals called

33
bits are combined in specific series to represent letters, numbers, and signals.
Each series of 8 bits is called a byte.
Other Input Devices. Input devices can take many forms. For example,
graphics tablets use a stylus and a special sensitive tablet to let users draw on
the screen as they would on paper; this is very useful for graphics work and
CAD. Trackballs allow the user the functionality of a mouse without a large
flat surface to move around on. Touch-sensitive displays and touch pads are
used in various businesses and industries to allow people to control the
computer with the touch of a finger. Voice-recognition software allows the
user to talk to the computer to give commands; this is finding a use in
computer applications for the disabled.
Output devices
Plotters. A plotter is an output device that produces line drawings.
These devices move a piece of paper under a series of moving pens. As the
paper moves, the pens draw. Many plotters produce colour output by drawing
with several different-coloured pens. Because it uses fine-point pens, the lines
produced with a plotter can be very precise. Plotters are most often used to
produce architectural drawings, maps, charts, and other technical types of line
art.
Other Output Devices. While the most customary output devices are
monitors and printers, not all such devices produce readable information.
Computer-generated music and the movement of a robotic arm are just two
items in a long list of different types of output from a variety of devices.
Portable Monitors. Portable, laptop, and notebook computers are
microcomputers that have become smaller and smaller in size and weight. One
of the devices that has made their development possible is the flat-panel
monitor. These compact devices consume little power, and their flat profile
allows them to provide a full screen in a small folding unit. Early flat-panel
displays were monochrome, but new technologies allow these screens to
display colour. They can be LCD (liquid crystal display), EL
(electrolumines-cent), or gas-plasma:
- LCDs do not consume light of their own, but consist instead of crystal
molecules. The backlit LCDs are easier to read than the original LCDs, which
were difficult to read in strong light.
- EL screens are an improvement over LCDs because they actively emit
light when electrically charged.
- Gas-plasma Screens use a gas that emits light in the presence of an
electric current. Unfortunately, gas-plasma displays cannot be battery-operated
and must be plugged into a regular AC outlet. This limits their use in portable
computers.

34
Devices for both Input and Output
Some peripherals can be used for both input and output. Disk drives,
tapes, and optical drives, while primarily thought of as storage devices,
actually incorporated both input and output functions.
One very important input/output device in common use is the modem
(short for modulator/demodulator). A modem sends data from the computer
out over telephone lines and accepts data over those same lines from other
computers. It works by translating the electrical impulses of computer data
into audible tones (modulation) and, at the other end, converting them back
into electrical impulses (demodulation). A modem can be connected externally
to the computer's serial port or mounted internally as an expansion board.
The availability of modems has opened up staggering opportunities for
people to link their computers via phone, to access information from remote
databases, and communicate in a variety of ways.

Unit 4

Pre-reading activity

Guess the meaning of the following words.

operating ['Opq'reItIN]; user ['jHzq]; perform [pq'fLm]; supervisor


["sjHpq'vaIzq]; command [kq'ma:nd]; resident ['rezIdqnt]; abbreviation
[q"brJvI'eISqn]; Unix ['jHnJks]; mainframe ['meInfreIm]; available
[q'veIlqbl]; XENIX ['zenIks]; icon ['aIkOn]; execute ['eksIkjHt]; package
['pxkIG]; Linux ['laInAks]

Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms.

file (n) [faIl] файл (последовательность или множество


однотипных записей)
interface (n) ['IntqfeIs] интерфейс, стык
wordprocessor (n) текстовый процессор; программа редактирования
[wq:d'prousesq] текстов; система подготовки текстов (программные
средства обеспечивающие ввод, хранение,просмотр,
редактирование, форматирование и печать текстов)
spreadsheet (n) ['spredSJt] электронная таблица
to load (v) [loud] загружать

35
prompt (n) [prOmt] приглашение, вопрос (текст или изображение,
выдаваемые программой на экран дисплея и
указывающие, что система ожидает ввод команд
или данных пользователя)
to click (v) [klIk] нажать и отпустить (клавишу)
icon (n) ['aIkOn] пиктограмма (условное изображение
информационного объекта или операции)

Memorise the following word-combinations.

operating system операционная система


computer hardware аппаратное обеспечение компьютера
supervisor program управляющая программа, программа
распорядитель
command prompt командная строка; подсказка, запрос команды
resident program резидентная программа, постоянно находящаяся в
оперативной памяти
command driven приводимый в действие командой
graphical user interface графический интерфейс пользователя
software package пакет программ
multi-user mainframe большие компьютеры с
computers многопользовательской системой

multi-tasking mainframe большие компьютеры с


computers многозадачным режимом

Reading Activity

Text A. OPERATING SYSTEMS

The OS (operating system) is the set of computer programs that allow


the user to perform basic tasks like copying, moving, saving and printing files.
It also provides an interface between (i.e. provides communication between)
applications programs (e.g. wordprocessors or spreadsheets) and the
computer hardware. As a user interacts with an applications program on the
screen, the applications program communicates with the operating system and
the operating system communicates with the computer hardware. The work of
the operating system takes place in the background and is not always obvious
to the user.

36
The most important program in an OS is the supervisor program. It
remains in memory all the time that the computer is operating, and manages
the OS. It loads other parts of the OS into memory when they are needed.
Programs that remain in memory while the computer is in use are known as
resident programs. Programs that only stay in memory while they are being
used are known as non-resident programs.
Some operating systems are command driven (i.e. the user runs a
program by typing a command). The screen is usually blank except for a
symbol (e.g. $) which acts as a command prompt. When the command is
typed at the prompt and the Enter key is pressed, the command is processed
and the output is displayed on the screen. OS commands are usually short
words or abbreviations (e.g., date, logout, passwd, Is).
Unix is a command driven operating system used on all sizes of
computers, but mostly large multi-user, multi-tasking mainframe computers. It
is available in many versions, such as Linux, Minix, HP-UX, Xenix, Venix,
Ultrix, A/UX, AIX, Solaris, and PowerOpen. Other command driven
operating systems mentioned in this unit include: VAX/VMS, MVS VM
OS/390, NetWare, MS-DOS and PC-DOS.
Some operating systems have a GUI (pronounced like 'goo-ey' -
graphical user interface) that allows the user to use a mouse to click on icons
on the screen or choose commands from a list of choices known as a menu.
Operating systems with graphical interfaces mentioned in this unit include:
MacOS, OS/2, Penpoint, Windows NT, Windows 3.x, Windows 9X and
Windows 2000.
Operating Systems: Hidden Software
When a brand new computer comes off the factory assembly line, it can
do nothing. The hardware needs software to make it work. Are we talking
about applications software such as wordprocessing or spreadsheet software?
Partly. But an applications software package does not communicate directly
with the hardware. Between the applications software and the hardware is a
software interface - an operating system. An operating system is a set of
programs that lies between applications software and the computer hardware.
The most important program in the operating system, the program that
manages the operating system, is the supervisor program, most of which
remains in memory and is thus referred to as resident. The supervisor controls
the entire operating system and loads into memory other operating system
programs (called non-resident) from disk storage only as needed.
An operating system has three main functions: (1) manage the
computer's resources, such as the central processing unit, memory, disk drives,
and printers, (2) establish a user interface, and (3) execute and provide

37
services for applications software. Keep in mind, however, that much of the
work of an operating system is hidden from the user. In particular, the first
listed function, managing the computer's resources, is taken care of without
the user being aware of the details. Furthermore, all input and output
operations, although invoked by an applications program, are actually carried
out by the operating system.

Post reading activity

Task 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What is an operating system? 2. What system provides an interface


between applications programs and the computer hardware? 3. Is the
work of the operating system always obvious to the user? 4. What is the
most important program in an OS? 5. How does the supervisor program
work? 6. What is the difference between resident and non-resident
programs? 7. How can you explain the meaning “command driven”? 8.
What is a command prompt? 9. How can you define Unix? What
versions is it available in? 10. What do you know about GUI? 11.
What are three main functions of an operating system? Give some
examples to prove your answer.

Task 2. Give the Russian equivalents for:

load, available, multi-tasking computer, user, user interface, word processor,


non-resident programs, command-driven, execute, abbreviations, multi-user
mainframe computer, printing files, blank, graphical user interface.

Task 3. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word
combinations.

1. командная строка, подсказка; 2. прикладные программы; 3. текстовый


процессор; 4. электронные таблицы; 5. операционная система; 6. пакет
программ; 7. резидентная программа; 8. управляющая программа, про-
грамма распорядитель; 9. большие компьютеры; 10. пиктограммы; 11.
нажать и отпустить клавишу; 12. аппаратное обеспечение компьютера;

a. spreadsheets; b. operating system; c. computer hardware; d. software


package; e. resident program; f. mainframe computers; g. icon; h. applications

38
programs; i. supervisor program; j. wordprocessor; k. to click; l. command
prompt.

Task 4. Mark the following as True or False.

1. The work of the operating system takes place in the background and is
always obvious to the user. 2. The most important in an OS is the supervisor
program. 3. Programs that remain in memory while the computer is in use are
known as non-resident programs. 4. The screen is usually blank except for a
symbol (e.g.$) which acts as a command prompt. 5. OS commands are usually
long words. 6.Unix is a command driven operating system used in all sizes of
computer but mostly large multi-user, multi-tasking mainframe computers.
7. The hardware doesn’t need software to make it work. 8. An application
software package communicates directly with the hardware. 9. An operating
system has only two main functions.

Task 5. Match the terms in Table A with the statements in Table B.

Table A Table B
1. operating a. The hardware or software that connects two
system systems and allows them to communicate with each
2. interface other.
b. A popular multi-user multi-tasking
operating system originally designed for mainframe
3. applicati computers. A wide variety of versions exist.
ons c. The set of programs that controls the basic
(program or functions of a computer and provides communication
software) between the application programs and the hardware.
4. Unix d. A computer program designed to be used for
a particular purpose, e.g. a wordprocessor,
spreadsheets or database program.
5. menu e. A type of application program with an array
of cells that is used for calculating formulas.
6. spreadsh f. A list of options displayed on a computer
eet screen.
7. swipe g. An application program or collection of
card programs that can be used in different ways.

39
h. A type of computer application program
8. word used for typing and editing text documents.
processor i. A plastic card with a magnetic strip running
9. software across it containing confidential data.
package

Task 6. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

interface, supervisor, manage, memory, package, software, drives, interface,


nonresident, command driven

1. An applications software ... does not communicate directly with the


hardware. 2. Between the applications software and the hardware is a software
... – an operating system. 3. The most important program in the operating
system is the ... program, most of which remains in memory. 4. An operating
system has three main functions: 1) ... the computer resources, such as the
central processing unit, ..., disk ... and printers, 2) establish a user ... , and 3)
execute and provide services for applications ... . 5. Unix is a ... operating
system used in all sizes of computers. 6. Programs that only stay in memory
while they are being used are known as ... programs.

Task 7. Complete the gaps in this summary of the text on operating systems
using these linking words and phrases.

although because in addition such as but therefore


The user is aware of the effects of different applications programs ...
operating systems are invisible to most users. They lie between applications
programs, ... wordprocessing, and the hardware. The supervisor program is the
most important. It remains in memory, ... it is referred to as resident. Others
are called non-resident ... they are loaded into memory only when needed.
Operating systems manage the computer's resources, ... the central processing
unit . ... , they establish a user interface, and execute and provide services for
applications software. ... input and output operations are invoked by
applications programs, they are carried out by the operating system.

Task 8. Problem-solving try to find the commands from the lists below which
will have these actions.

40
VMS: help, directory, search, copy, rename, print, show users, show time,
create/directory, phone, delete
Unix: write, cp, lpr, Is, mkdir, date, rm, man, grep, rwho, mv

Action VMS command Unix command


List all the files in a directory
Delete a file
Rename a file
Copy a file
Send a file to a printer
Obtain help
Create a directory
Show date and time
Show users on system
Talk to other users on system
Search for a string in a file

Task 9. Translate into English.

1. ОПЕРАЦИОННАЯ СИСТЕМА WINDOWS (ОС WINDOWS) –


собирательное название набора операционных систем, разработанных
фирмой Microsoft для персональных компьютеров. 2. Все ОС W. обеспе-
чивают основные функции управления вычислительной системой и
взаимодействия с пользователем. 3. В настоящее время существует
несколько вариантов ОС W., отличающихся по архитектуре и возмож-
ностям, и для каждого варианта выпущено несколько версий. 4. Повсе-
местное признание ОС W. получила с появлением версий Windows 3.x,
которые представляют собой 16-разрядные операционные системы,
предназначенные для управления автономными персональными компью-
терами и рабочими станциями в локальной сети. 5. Главным достоин-
ством этих операционных систем явилось использование графического
интерфейса пользователя, что и обусловило их широкое распростране-
ние. 6. Появившаяся на рынке в 1995 г. Windows 95 представляет собой
интегрированную 32-разрядную многозадачную операционную систему
общего назначения. 7. Она позволяет создать информационную среду с
удобным, ориентированным на рабочий стол интерфейсом. 8. Она
включает в себя средства мультимедиа и 32-разрядную файловую
систему CD-ROM, обеспечивающие высококачественное воспроизве-
дение цифровой видеозаписи, средства компьютерной связи, упро-

41
щающие подключение к Интернету, встроенные возможности приема и
передачи факса и электронной почты.

Task 10. Writing. This description of the Mac OS X is drawn from the table
below. Write a similar description of Linux.

Mac OS X is a Unix-based operating system designed for use on Apple


Mac computers. It includes memory-protection, pre-emptive multitasking and
symmetric multiprocessing support. Graphics are provided by a graphics
engine known as Quartz. It has advanced-PDF standards support, OpenGL and
Quicktime integrated into the OS. The operating system features are accessed
through a graphical user interface called Aqua.

Mac OS X Linux
type Unix-based Unix-based
computer Apple Mac wide variety
features memory-protection, pre-emptive variety of distribution
multi-tasking, symmetric kits available
multiprocessing support
graphics engine Quartz XFree86
standard support advanced-PDF, Open GL,
Quicktime
user interface type GUI command line, GUI
user interface Aqua KDE, Gnome
source code not available freely available
availability

Task 11. Translate the following sentences paying attention to different


functions and forms of Participle I.

1. Having entered the selection criteria, click on the Find button. 2. Using
MIDI, computers can communicate with synthesisers. 3. Each side of a DVD
can have two layers giving an enormous storage capacity. 4. You can down-
load single tracks creating your own compilation. 5. Computers with MIDI
interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments allowing the music
being played to be stored and displayed by the computer on the monitor.
6. MP3 player contains several devices allowing you to control the way the
music sounds. 7. You can download a skin program enabling you to change
the appearance of your player. 8. The line separating the panes is called a
divider. 9. The most important program managing the operating system is the

42
supervisor program, most of which remains in memory. 10. Giving open
access to PCs you may get viruses. 11. Having selected the address tab, enter
the postcode. 12. Using the Personal tab, enter the search criteria.

Task 12. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Absolute
Participle Construction.

1. The cursor can be moved by pressing one of the arrow keys on the
keyboard, each press of an arrow key moving the cursor one character position
in the direction of the arrow. 2. The graphics being displayed gradually, the
webpage is downloaded. 3. An email message having been received you can
forward it to another address. 4. You listen to the first part of a streamed audio
file, the next part being downloaded. 5. Information Technology is a new
branch of science, it being developed at the beginning of the thirtieth century.
6. Register R storing the code for number 3, the computer will perform the
operation 3 times. 7. A printer’s line is usually between 60 and 150 characters
long, with 120 characters being a common length. 8. Specialists use computers
widely, the latter helping in performing computations at great speeds.
9. Doctors use the system to access a number of data bases, the most important
database holding the records of all the patients in the practice. 10. The
command being processed, the output is displayed on the screen. 11. The
supervisor program controlling the entire operating system, it loads into
memory other operating system programs from disk storage only as needed.
12. A brand new computer coming off the factory assembly line, it can do
nothing.

Task 13. Topics for discussion.

1. Speak on the operating system.


2. Speak on the most important program in an OS-the supervisor program.
3. What is Unix? Give its characteristics.
4. Speak about OS as hidden software.

Task 14. Study the text below and find the answers to the following questions.

43
1. What did Linus Torvalds use to write the Linux kernel? 2. How was the
Linux kernel first made available to the general public? 3. What is a
programmer likely to do with source code? 4. Why will most software
companies not sell you their source code? 5. What type of utilities and
applications are provided in a Linux distribution? 6. What is X? 7. What
graphical user interfaces are mentioned in the text?

Text B. LINUX

Linux has its roots in a student project. In 1992, an undergraduate called


Linus Torvalds was studying computer science in Helsinki, Finland. Like most
computer science courses, a big component of it was taught on (and about)
Unix. Unix was the wonder operating system of the 1970s and 1980s: both a
textbook example of the principles of operating system design, and
sufficiently robust to be the standard OS in engineering and scientific
computing. But Unix was a commercial product and cost more than a student
could pay.
Annoyed by the shortcomings of Minix (a compact Unix clone written
as a teaching aid by Professor Andy Tannenbaum) Linus set out to write his
own 'kernel' - the core of an operating system that handles memory allocation,
talks to hardware devices, and makes sure everything keeps running. He used
the GNU programming tools developed by Richard Stallman's Free Software
Foundation, an organisation of volunteers dedicated to fulfilling Stallman's
ideal of making good software that anyone could use without paying. When
he'd written a basic kernel, he released the source code to the Linux kernel on
the Internet.
Source code is important. It's the original from which compiled
programs are generated. If you don't have the source code to a program, you
can't modify it to fix bugs or add new features. Most software companies
won't sell you their source code, or will only do so for an eyewatering price,
because they believe that if they make it available it will destroy their revenue
stream.
What happened next was astounding, from the conventional,
commercial software industry point of view - and utterly predictable to anyone
who knew about the Free Software Foundation. Programmers (mostly
academics and students) began using Linux. They found that it didn't do things
they wanted it to do so they fixed it. And where they improved it, they sent the

44
improvements to Linus, who rolled them into the kernel. And Linux began to
grow.
There's a term for this model of software development; it's called Open
Source (see www.opensource.org/ for more information).
Anyone can have the source code - it's free (in the sense of free speech,
not free beer). Anyone can contribute to it. If you use it heavily you may want
to extend or develop or fix bugs in it - and it is so easy to give your fixes back
to the community that most people do so.
An operating system kernel on its own isn't a lot of use; but Linux was
purposefully designed as a near-clone of Unix, and there is a lot of software
out there that is free and was designed to compile on Linux. By about 1992,
the first 'distributions' appeared.
A distribution is the Linux-user term for a complete operating system
kit, complete with the utilities and applications you need to make it do useful
things - command interpreters, programming tools, text editors, typesetting
tools, and graphical user interfaces based on the X windowing system. X is a
standard in academic and scientific computing, but not hitherto common on
PCs; it's a complex distributed windowing system on which people implement
graphical interfaces like KDE and Gnome.
As more and more people got to know about Linux, some of them began
to port the Linux kernel to run on non-standard computers. Because it's free,
Linux is now the most widely-ported operating system there is.

Unit 5

Pre-reading activity

Guess the meaning of following words.

suite [swJt]; presentation ["prezqn'teISqn]; option ['LpSqn]; Broser


['brauzq]; simulation ["sImjH'leISn]; version ['vWSn]; automatically
["Ltq'mxtIkqlI]; three-dimensional ["TrJdI'menSqnql]; swap items
["swxp'aItqmz]; suited ['sjHtId]

Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms:

applications programs прикладные программы


package (or suite) (n) ['pxkIG] пакет, совокупность программ,
объединенных общим приложением

45
applications package пакет прикладных программ
payroll (n) ['peIrOl] платежная ведомость
office packages совокупность (пакет) программ
делопроизводства
mailmerge (n) ['meIlmWG] подготовка стандартных писем
presentation program программа представления данных
a tab (n) [txb] клавиша табуляции
search criteria ['sWCkraI'tIrIq] критерии поиска
default (n) [dI'fLlt] (используемый) по умолчанию
icon (n) ['aIkOn] пиктограмма (условное изображение
информационного объекта или операции)
games console консоль, пульт управления компьютерными
играми
simulation program программа моделирования (имитации)
download (v) ['daunloud] загружать, пересылать (по линии связи)
lease (v) [lJz] сдавать в аренду
a leased line арендованная, выделенная линия (канал)
remote access удаленный доступ
generic applications типовые прикладные программы
high-end packages мощные, высокопроизводительные,
современные, с широкими
функциональными возможностями пакеты
upgrade (n) ['ApgreId] модернизация, обновление, модификация
предыдущих версий программы
broadband (n) ['brO:dbxnd] широкая полоса частот
flexibility (n) [fleksI'bIlItI] гибкость
swap items ['swxp'aItqmz] элементы данных для подкачки
swap (Shared Wireless Access Protocol) протокол swap – используется
главным образом в домашних приборах

Reading Activity

Text A. APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS

Software is the word used to refer to programs (sets of computer


instructions written in a computer language) and data that is input, processed
and output by a computer system. Applications programs are programs that
allow the user to do various types of work on a computer e.g. wordprocessors,
databases. A set of related applications programs is referred to as a package
(or suite). Common applications programs include:

46
wordprocessors for creating and editing texts
spreadsheets for performing calculations using formulas
databases for storing data so that it can be easily searched
and sorted
graphics for drawing
games for playing fast action games
accounts for keeping business accounts
payroll for calculating salaries
presentation program for creating multimedia slide shows
email for sending electronic mail messages
PIM (personal information for keeping track of appointments, address book,
manager) task list, etc.
DTP (desktop publishing for creating publications to be printed by a
program) professional printer
small business tools for performing various business tasks
website editor for creating and editing webpages
image editor for editing graphic images
developer tools for writing programs to add features to existing
applications and creating integrated program
systems

Some applications programs, such as wordprocessors, spreadsheets


and databases, are commonly referred to as office programs because they are
commonly used in a typical office. Office packages (or suites) such as
Microsoft Office are sets of interrelated office programs. Different versions
of office suites are usually available containing different combinations of
programs. Mailmerging is a useful feature found in most office suites that
combines a database with a wordprocessor document to automatically produce
a copy of a standard letter for each record in the database.
A variety of computer hardware is used in the doctors' practice in this
unit including:

PC common name for an IBM compatible personal computer


network computers connected together
file server a powerful computer that stores and allows users access to data
files on a network

47
laser a very high quality text and graphics printer that has a
printer photosensitive drum that deposits toner powder on the paper
dot-matrix a low quality printer that prints by hammering pins on the paper to
printer print an image made up of dots. The hammering action means that
it can print on special multipart paper where a number of copies
are produced at the same time.
CD-ROM a compact disk read only memory storage device that is cheap to
produce and suitable for storing large amounts of data

The Patient Browser program (GPASS) discussed in this unit is a


type of database for sorting and searching patient records. To search, you
select different option screens by clicking on a tab with a mouse and inputting
the search criteria (details of what you are looking for) in text boxes known
as criteria boxes. Different button icons can be clicked to perform different
operations e.g. the Find button. The default button is the option that is
selected automatically.
Tomb Raider is a popular adventure game that has appeared in various
versions. The main character is represented by a female animated image,
known as Lara Croft. The user follows a storyline in which they have to
solve puzzles and control the movements of the main character, sometimes
having to react quickly to avoid dangerous obstacles. It is available on well-
known games consoles (specialised games computers) called PlayStation and
Dreamcast manufactured by a company called Sega.
SimCity is a simulation program (a program that simulates real life) in
which the user has to develop a city by building roads and 3D (three-
dimensional) buildings, setting taxes, etc. They also have to control objects
such as simulated cars and people. The user can download (copy from a
server computer) additional objects and swap items with other users using a
special website. The game is run on a computer called a Commodore 64 (an
early British type of personal computer particularly suited to games because of
its excellent graphics facilities).
An ASP (application service provider) rents applications to users i.e.
instead of buying software, the user pays for using applications as and when
they need them.
The ASP provides the software, manages the hardware and provides
storage space, security controls and the physical links to customers. The ASP
normally leases storage space for programs and data from data centres
(facilities for storing large amounts of information) owned by data storage
specialists.

48
The user is provided with remote access (access across a
communications network) to a wide variety of programs including: generic
applications such as email (electronic mail) and office suites, high-end
(advanced) packages including large, complex business applications such as
enterprise resource planning tools (e.g. SAP), business services, such as
payroll and accounting systems, expensive specialist tools and e-commerce
resources (electronic commerce - buying and selling on the Internet).
This gives the user more flexibility and saves them having to install and
maintain programs, upgrade (install newer versions of programs), deal with
viruses (programs that can reproduce themselves and are written with the
purpose of causing damage or causing a computer to behave in an unusual
way) and manage email systems (electronic mail systems).
Disadvantages of this system include: the need for a broadband (high
bandwidth i.e. a connection with a high signal capacity network connection or
a leased line (a cable connection that is rented for use in a communications
system) and dependence on the ASP to provide a secure, reliable, readily
available service.

Post-reading Activity

Task 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What are applications programs? 2. What is referred to as a package (or


suite)? 3. What applications programs do you know? 4. What programs are
commonly referred to as office programs? Give an example of an office
package. 5. What is a useful feature of most office suites? 6. What computer
hardware is usually used in the doctors’ practice? 7. What is the Patient
Browser program? 8. How do you search for patient records? 9. What is a
default button? 10. What do you know about games consoles? 11. What
simulation programs do you know? Give an example of such a program. How
does it work? 12. What does the ASP provide? 13. What is the role of remote
access? 14. What are advantages and disadvantages of this system?

Task 2. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word
combinations.

1. подготовка стандартных писем; 2. платежная ведомость; 3. база


данных; 4. пересылать по линии связи; 5. пакет программ делопроиз-
водства; 6. программа представления данных; 7. критерии поиска; 8.
программа моделирования (имитации); 9. типовые прикладные програм-

49
мы; 10. удаленный доступ; 11. выделенная линия; 12. пакет прикладных
программ; 13. элементы данных для подкачки.

a. download; b. application package; c. presentation program; d. simulation


program; e. generic applications; f. remote access; g. search criteria; h. office
package; i. payroll; j. database; k. a leased line; l. mailmerging; m. swap
items.

Task 3. Fill in the blanks with the words or word combinations from the box.

an ASP, flexibility, a leased line, default button, Microsoft office, office


packages, electronic commerce package, search criteria, package

1. A set of related applications programs is referred to as ... . 2. ... are sets of


interrelated office programs. 3. This gives the user more ... and saves them
having to install and maintain programs. 4. ... a cable connection that is rented
for use in a communication system. 5. ... – buying and selling on the Internet.
6. The ... is the option that is selected automatically. 7. The ... are the details of
what you are working for. 8. ... are sets of interrelated office programs. 9. ...
rents applications to users, i.e. instead of buying software.

Task 4. March the terms in Table A with the statements in Table B.

Table A Table B
1. wordprocesso a. an application program or collection of
r programs that can be used in different ways
b. to copy a file from a server to a client
2. mailmerge computer in a network
c. a small picture used in a WIMP system
3. tab (key) to represent a program folder or file or
performance of a system
4. package d. a change that improves the features
(software) e. a type of computer application program
used for typing and editing text documents
5. download f. the computer keyboard key that is used
to move the cursor to the next tabulation point in a
6. icon wordprocessor program so that data can be spaced

50
evenly on the screen
7. upgrade g. a wordprocessing facility that causes a
mailing list to be automatically combined with a
8. simulation standard letter to produce a separate copy of the
letter addressed to each person on the mailing list
9. payroll h. a set of computer programs used for
package calculating pay cheques
i. a programmed virtual environment that
imitates a real or planned system

Task 5. Mark the following as True or False.

1. The advantages of this system include: the need for a broadband network
connection or a leased line. 2. Sim City is a simulation program in which the
user has to develop a city by building roads and 3D (three-dimensional)
buildings, setting taxes, etc. 3. Tomb Raider is a popular adventure game that
appeared only in one version. 4. Applications programs are programs that
allow the user to do various types of work on a computer e.g. wordprocessors,
databases. 5. A set of related applications programs is referred to as database.
6. Tomb Raider is a popular office package. 7. Mailmerging is a useful feature
found in most office suites. 8. The default button is the option that is selected
automatically. 9. The Patient Browser Program is a type of adventure game
that has appeared in various versions.

Task 6. Complete the gaps in these instructions for finding the records of all
members of the Green family living in postcode WX14 3PH and registered
with any doctor in the practice.

1. First enter the search criteria by ... . 2. To ... , enter Green in the Surname
box. 3. Ensure both male and female members of the family are found by ... .
4. ... select the Address tab. 5. Having ... , enter the postcode. 6. ... choose the
Registration tab. 7. Once ... , select All doctors. 8. ... , click on Find to ... .

Task 7. State the type of the conditional sentences and translate them.

1. If there was a power cut while you were using your computer, you might
lose data. 2. If you install a faster processor, your computer can process data
faster. 3. If you don’t virus-check floppies, you can get a virus. 4. If you forgot
your password, you would not be able to access your computer. 5. If you press

51
the delete key, it will delete the character to the right of the cursor. 6. Were
there no computers, we would not be able to do much of what we are capable
to do today. 7. If you had installed a modem, you would have been able to
connect to a telephone line. 8. If you added more memory, it would speed up
the computer. 9. Had you used an LCD display, you would have had more
space at your desk. 10. If you forget to save regularly, you may lose data.
11. If you had used a search engine, you might have found information on the
Web more quickly. 12. If you forgot your password, you would not be able to
access your computer. 13. If you had pressed Print Screen, you could have
made a copy of the screen. 14. If you press Ctrl+Alt+Del in Windows 98, it
will display a list of active programs. 15. If there were no other folders, you
wouldn’t have a letter box in there.

Task 8. Open the brackets and put the verb in brackets into a suitable tense
form.

1. If you had been beginner, you (to choose) a free ISP, but you are not. 2. If
you need to access your email from any computer, web-based email (to be) a
good idea. 3. If you (to include) a site map, it would help visitors to navigate
your site. 4. If I had time, I (to like) to build in new links. 5. If I (have to
make) a choice, I would look at the other sites too for good reasons. 6. If Peter
(to have) a computer, his favourite site would have been the Internet Movie
Database. 7. If you click the mouse pointer on the file, it (to be highlighted).
8. You (not to save) a file until you name it. 9. It the user (to be provided) with
remote access it would have saved him having to install and maintain
programs. 10. If the wordprocessing program supports the use of a mouse, the
cursor (to be moved) to a new position by repositioning the mouse pointer and
pressing a button on the mouse. 11. If he had not given open access to PCS, he
(not get) viruses. 12. If you spilt coffee on the keyboard you (may) damage it.
13. If you (to wait) until a computer reached normal room temperature, you
wouldn’t have damaged the hard disk. 14. If the OK button is clicked, the
copying process (to begin). 15. If I (to be) you I would look at other sites too
for good ideas.

Task 9. Problem-Solving. Study these versions of OfficeSuite and which


version provides the best for the following users. The versions are listed from
cheapest to most expensive.

OfficeSuite OfficeSuite OfficeSuite


Standard Small Business Edition Professional

52
 wordprocessor  wordprocessor  wordprocessor
 spreadsheet  spreadsheet  spreadsheet
 presentation program  DTP  database
 email  email  DTP
 PIM  PIM  presentation program
 small business tools  email
 small business tools
OfficeSuite Premium OfficeSuite Developer
 wordprocessor  wordprocessor
 spreadsheet  spreadsheet
 database  database
 DTP  DTP
 presentation program  presentation program
 email  email
PIM  PIM
 small business tools  small business tools
 website editor  website editor
 image editor  image editor
 developer tools

1. A salesperson who wants to make presentations at conferences. 2. An


administrative assistant who needs to write office correspondence and send
and receive emails. 3. A programmer who wants to develop applications tailo-
red to a company's needs. 4. A company wanting to produce its own in-house
newsletter. 5. A company wishing to develop its own website. 6. A company
which wants to analyse all its sales records. 7. A promotions person who
wants to be able to edit complex graphics and incorporate them in brochures.
8. A company which wants to share documents on a local area network.

Task 10. Translate into English.

Прикладные программы.
1. Для нас наиболее важны как раз программы созидательные,
предназначенные для создания и обработки информации, короче говоря
– Прикладные программы. 2. Офисные программы – это те самые
программы, ради которых большинство пользователей и приобретает
компьютер (за исключением, пожалуй, разве что фанатов компьютерных
игр). 3.Задача этих программ – создание и редактирование документов,

53
будь то текст, электронная таблица, изображение или их совокупность, а
иногда – даже звук и видео, еще недавно проходившие по разряду
компьютерной экзотики... 4. Однако основой офисной информации все-
таки остается текст, а изображения, звук и уж тем более видео считаются
второстепенными элементами. 5. Вот почему профессиональные
программы для обработки этих видов информации и выделяют в особую
группу. 6. Когда-то давно программы, входящие в офисные пакеты,
«жили» поодиночке: редактор текстов – отдельно, электронная таблица –
отдельно, и так далее. 7. Но сегодня отдельных программ этого класса на
рынке почти не осталось – куда чаще продаются «полные наборы»,
включающие все, что вам нужно. И даже больше. 8. Например, самый
популярный офисный пакет Microsoft Office состоит из текстового
редактора Microsoft Word, электронной таблицы Microsoft Excel,
программы для подготовки презентаций Microsoft PowerPoint,
программы управления базами данных Microsoft Access и ряда
вспомогательных программ поменьше. 9. Особняком стоят финансовые и
бухгалтерские программы. 10. Домашняя бухгалтерия сегодня пока что
не стала у нас модной, но это только вопрос времени! 11. На Западе
программы планирования расходов, учета семейных финансов и расчета
налогов всегда были в числе самых популярных. 12. В этой же группе –
электронные таблицы и вспомогательные финансовые утилиты.

Task 11. Writing. Give your recommendations for one of the users.

1. a museum
2. publishers of a subscription-only magazine
3. police headquarters

Give reasons for each applications program you recommend.


Make use of the following words and word combinations in the box.

database, to catalogue items, to be accessed by, spreadsheet for,


wordprocessing for, programs to monitor, DTP, mailmerging for addressing
correspondence, subscribers, graphics package, specialist package, specialist
graphics, package for producing photo fits

Task 12. Topics for discussion.

1. Applications programs, their aims and functions.


2. Speak on the Patient Browser program.

54
3. What popular adventure games do you know?
4. What kind of program is Sim City? Describe it.
5. ASP and its functions.
6. Advantages and disadvantages of ASP.

Task 13. Read the text below to find the answers to the following questions.

1. How do you pay for the applications provided by an ASP? (a. no charge;
b. charged according to use; c. single payment) 2. What two main services
does an ASP provide? 3. How does an ASP ensure that they have enough
storage space for the changing needs of customers? 4. What types of
applications are available from ASPs? 5. Why types of applications are
available from ASPs? 6. What is one of the best established areas of ASP use?

Text B. APPLICATION SERVICE PROVIDERS

If your hard disk is packed to bursting point, the IT department is far too
busy to fix your email problems, and your business can't afford to buy the
tools that you'd like to develop the company website, then it's time to think
about using an application service provider (ASP). Rather than installing
software on each machine or server within your organisation, you rent
applications from the ASP, which provides remote access to the software and
manages the hardware required to run the applications.
There are a lot of advantages to this approach. The havoc caused by
viruses makes the idea of outsourcing your email and office suite services an
attractive option. It also gives you more flexibility - you pay for applications
as and when you need them, rather than investing in a lot of costly software
which you're then tied to for years. Not having to worry about upgrading to
the latest version of your office suite or about battling with the complexities of
managing an email system, leaves businesses with more time. Time to focus
on what they do best.
However, there are some potential pitfalls. To use applications remotely
requires a lot of bandwidth, which is only really available from a broadband
connection or a leased line to the ASP itself. It is also important to ensure that
the ASP will be able to provide a secure, reliable service which will be
available whenever you need it.
Providing applications and storage space for vast numbers of users
requires some powerful technology on the part of the ASP. This includes
security controls and data storage as well as providing the physical links to
customers. For the most part, ASPs don't own the data centres that store the

55
information. Instead, they lease space from data storage specialists. In this
way, they can be confident of meeting customers' increasing storage
requirements by buying more space as it's needed.
There's a wide variety of applications available for use via ASPs. Office
suite applications and email services are two of the most generic applications
available through ASPs. large, complex business applications such as
enterprise resource planning tools like SAP are another popular candidate for
delivery through an ASP. Other business services, such as payroll and
accounting systems are also available. This is particularly beneficial to small
businesses which are likely to grow quickly and don't want to deal with the
problems caused by outgrowing their existing system and having to move to a
high-end package. ASPs also offer a means of using specialist tools that would
otherwise prove prohibitively expensive. Small businesses have the
opportunity to use such tools for short periods of time as and when they need
them, rather than having to buy the software as a permanent investment.
One of the major barriers for small businesses which want to make a
start in e-commerce is ensuring that they have sufficient resources to cope
with sudden large increases in customers. This means not only having
adequate storage for all your customers' details, but ensuring that you have the
technology in place to handle stock levels, efficient delivery and large
volumes of traffic. It's very rare for an e-commerce business to handle all of
these elements by itself, making this one of the best-established areas of ASP
use. Being able to respond rapidly to changes in the size of your customer base
and the type of product that they wont to order from your business, demands
more flexibility than traditional software can provide.

Task 14. Using information from the text, mark the following as True or
False.

1. Software from an ASP must be installed locally on a user's computer.


2. You need a high bandwidth connection to use an ASP service. ASPs usually
use their own storage space for customers. 3. Using an ASP gives you more
flexibility. 4. An e-commerce business usually provides all of the required
technology itself.

Unit 6

Pre-reading activity

56
Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms.

multimedia (n) ["mAlti'mJdIq] комбинация текста, графического


изображения, звука и видеоизображения
graphics (n) ['grxfIks] графическое изображение
animation (n) ['xnI'meISn] оживление
compress (v) [kqm'pres] уплотнять, сжимать, сверстывать
sample (v, n) ['sxmpl] (v) производить выборку; замерять;
(n) проба, образец
tag (n) [txg] тег, признак (хранящийся вместе со словом
в ЗУ)
compilation (n) ["kompI'leISn] трансляция, компиляция
randomize (v) ['rxndqmaiz] вносить элемент случайности, располагать
в случайном порядке
equalizer (n) ['IkwqlaIzq] стабилизирующее звено, уравнитель,
компенсатор
skin (n) [skIn] компьютерная программа, которая
используется для изменения интерфейса
другой программы
ripper (n) [rIpq(r)] программа, которая извлекает песни с CD и
преобразует их в файлы звукового формата
encoder (n) [en'kqude(r)] компьютерная программа, которая
преобразует файлы звукового формата в
MP3 файлы и наоборот
interface (n) ['IntqfeIs] интерфейс, устройство сопряжения
versatile (adj) ['vqsqtaIl] разносторонний (пригодный к выполнению
различных логических операций); гибкий в
эксплуатации
discrete (adj) [dis'krit] дискретный (сигнал, компонент)
strip (v) [strip] удалять
mask (v, n) ['ma:sk] маска, маскировать

Read and memorise the following word combinations.

MP3 метод сжатия аудиозаписей для ускорения их передачи через


Интернет
WAV разновидность звукового файла
URL унифицированный указатель информационного ресурса;
универсальный локатор ресурса

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digital audio цифровые аудиоданные
sound sample звуковой образец
audio file аудиофайл
extra code экстракодовый
play lists списки для воспроизведения
spectrum analyzer анализатор спектра
graphic equalizer графический эквалайзер
frequency display отображение частоты
track info button кнопка информации по дорожкам
a writable CD-ROM дисковод перезаписываемого CD-ROM
drive
MIDI цифровой интерфейс для передачи музыки
mixing desk пульт микширования
DVD универсальный цифровой диск
optical storage media носитель оптической памяти
data transfer rate скорость передачи данных
MPEG формат хранения сжатого до 1:200 файла;
открытый (бесплатный) стандарт на сжатие и
воспроизведение движущихся изображений

Reading activity

Text A. MULTIMEDIA

Multimedia is the term used to refer to a combination of text,


graphics, animation, sound and video.
MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3) is a standard way of storing compressed,
digital audio files (usually music). The name MP3 comes from MPEG
(pronounced EM-peg), which stands for the Motion Picture Experts Group.
MPEG develops standards for audio and video compression. MP3 is actually
MPEG Audio Layer 3.
MP3 competes with another audio file format called WAV. The key
difference is that MP3 files are much smaller than WAV files. An MP3 file
can store a minute of sound per megabyte, while a WAV file needs 11 or 12
megabytes to hold the same amount. How does MP3 achieve this
compression? CDs and audio files don't reproduce every sound of a
performance. Instead, they sample the performance and store a discrete code
for each sampled note. A CD or WAV file may sample a song 44,000 times a
second, creating a huge mass of information.

58
By stripping out sounds most people can't hear, MP3 significantly
reduces the information stored. For instance, most people can't hear notes
above a frequency of 16kHz, so it eliminates them from the mix. Similarly, it
eliminates quiet sounds masked by noise at the same frequency. The result is a
file that sounds very similar to a CD, but which is much smaller. An MP3 file
can contain spoken word performances, such as radio shows or audio books,
as well as music. It can provide information about itself in a coded block
called a tag. The tag may include the performer's name, a graphic such as an
album cover, the song's lyrics, the musical genre, and a URL for more details.
Digital audio is created by sampling sound 44,000 times a second and
storing a code number to represent each sound sample. The files are
compressed by removing any sounds that are inaudible to the human ear,
making them much smaller than files created using other digital audio storage
standards, such as WAV. The size of an audio file is commonly measured in
megabytes (MB) (millions of bytes). The frequency of a sound is measured in
kilohertz (kHz) (thousands of cycles per second). MP3 files have extra code
added, called tags, that give the user information about the file e.g. the
performer's name, a URL (uniform resource locator i.e. a web address) or a
graphic such as an album cover.
Because of their small size, MP3 files are more suitable for transferring
across the Internet (the connection of computer networks across the world).
Some Internet websites (sets of related pages stored on a Web server on the
World Wide Web) are devoted to providing MP3 files for downloading
(copying from a server computer to a client computer). The user can create
their own music compilations (combinations of files) by listening to each file
using a computer program, such as Windows Media Player, and choosing
what files to download, They can then use a computer program called an MP3
player to listen to the files and control the sound. MP3 players let the user
group songs into play lists and randomize the selections. They also have sound
control features such as spectrum analyzers, graphic equalizers, and frequency
displays. A track info button allows the user to see the information stored in
the MP3 file tag. Other buttons may take you to a music library where you can
organize your MP3 files by performer or genre. The appearance of MP3
players can be changed using programs called skins (or themes). These
programs are designed to change the appearance of the most popular players.
MP3 players often include a program, called a ripper, that lets the user rip
(extract) a song from a CD (compact disk) and convert it to a standard WAV
file. Another program called an encoder is used to convert WAV files into
MP3 files or vice versa. Recorder programs are also available that enable the
user to create audio CDs using a writable CD-ROM drive. Special MP3

59
player devices are also available that enable the user to listen to MP3 files
without a computer.
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a standard way of
connecting musical instruments, music synthesizers, and computers. A piece
of electronics called a MIDI interface board is installed on each device to
enable the device to communicate using MIDI standards. As music is being
played, it can be displayed on a monitor screen as a musical score, then edited
using a computer program that uses all the features of a mixing desk (an
electronic device for mixing sounds together), stored and printed. MIDI
systems do not store the actual sound. Instead the sound is encoded (stored as
MIDI messages) in the form of 8-bit bytes (units of capacity equal to eight
binary digits i.e. 1s and Os) of digital information. A bit is a binary digit i.e. a
1 or a 0, and a byte is a group of 8 bits. The MIDI messages commonly
consist of instructions that tell the receiving instrument what note to play, how
long and how loud it should be played, including a number that indicates
which instrument to play. Each instrument is represented by a different
number e.g. 67 is a saxophone.
A DVD-ROM, commonly referred to as a DVD (digital versatile disk -
previously known as digital video disk), is a development of CD-ROM
(compact disk read only memory). It is an optical storage media (a storage
media that uses laser light to store data) that provides large amounts of storage
space for multimedia files. A DVD-ROM drive (a storage device for reading
DVD disks) uses blue laser light (rather than the red laser light used by CD-
ROM drives) to read information from the disk. Both sides of the disk can be
used for storing files and each side can have two separate storage layers. The
data transfer rate of a DVD (the speed that data can be read from a DVD) is
also faster than that of a CD-ROM. The capacity of a DVD is commonly
measured in gigabytes (GB) (thousands of millions of bytes).
MPEG is a method of compressing and decompressing video signals.
MPEG stands for Motion Picture Experts Group, an organisation that develops
standards for audio and video compression.

Post-reading activity

Task 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What does the term “multimedia” mean? 2. What does MP3 stand for?
3. What is the difference between MP3 and WAV files? 4. What kind of sound
does MP3 strip out? 5. What kind of information is included in the tag?
6. Why are MP3 files more suitable for transferring across the Internet?

60
7. What is downloading? 8. How can the user see the information stored in the
MP3 file tag? 9. How can the appearance of MP3 player be changed? 10. Is it
possible to listen to MP3 files without a computer? 11. What is MIDI?
12. What is a DVD-ROM?

Task 2. Match the words from the box with their definitions.

MIDI, MPEG, ripper, skin, down load, MP3, URL, multimedia, tag,
DVD-(ROM)

1. a uniform (or universal) resource locator


2. acronym for musical instrument digital interface. A standard for
connecting musical instruments to computer systems.
3. a Motion Picture Experts Group standard for audio compression
4. Motion Picture Experts Group, a committee that develops
standards for audio and video file formats and compression
5. the combination of text, graphics animation, sound and video
6. a program that extracts songs from a CD and turns them into
WAV files
7. a computer program that is used to change the interface of another
program, e.g. to change the screen display on a MP3 player program
8. a label used in a mark up language. It is attached to a piece of text
to mark the start or the end of a particular function.
9. a process of copying a file from a server to a client computer in a
network
10. a digital versatile disk read only memory. An optical disk
storage device that can hold a large amount of video data.

Task 3. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word
combinations.

1.стандартный способ запоминания (хранения); 2.сжатые цифровые


звуковые файлы; 3.основное различие; 4.минута звучания; 5.замерять
характеристики; 6.дискретный код; 7.группировать записи песен; 8.найти
песню на диске; 9.делать выборку из сборников; 10. пульт микширо-
вания; 11. метод расширения сигнала до обычного размера

a. compressed digital audio files; b. discrete code; c. a standard way of storing;


d. to group songs; e. to randomize the selections; f. the key difference; g. to

61
sample the performance; h. to rip a song from a CD; i. a minute of sound; j.
mixing desk; k. a method of decompressing video signals

Task 4. Mark the following as True or False.

1. MP3 reduces the information stored by removing loud sounds. 2. It is


possible to alter the look of your MP3 player by downloading a skin program.
3. You can “rip” audio information from a CD by using a recorder program.
4. One can convert a WAV file to MP3 format by using an encoder. 5. You
can view the lyrics, notes and author data by clicking on Track Info. 6. MIDI
systems store the actual sound.

Task 5. Match each cause and effect, then link them with an-ing clause.

Model: 1) Using MIDI, computers can communicate with synthesizers.


2) A WAV file may sample a song 44.000 times a second, creating a
huge mass of information.

Cause Effect
1. Computers with MIDI interface a) This permits extra information to be
boards can be connected to MIDI stored on the performer and other track
instruments. details.
2. Each side of a DVD can have b) You can create your own compilation.
two layers. c) This allows you to sample a new
3. MP3 removes sounds we can't group before buying their CD.
hear. d) This gives an enormous storage
4. You can download single tracks. capacity.
5. Each MP3 file has a tag. e) This allows the music being played to
6. MP3 players contain several be stored by the computer and displayed
devices. on the monitor.
7. You can download a skin f) This enables you to change the
program. appearance of your player.
8. You can legally download some g) These allow you to control the way the
music. music sounds.
h) This produces much smaller files.

Task 6. Complete each gap in this text with a suitable word from this list.

brains MP3 digital sampling


second hear sounds format

62
CDs inaudible minute sound
smaller file frequency removed
per WAV compressing megabytes

MP3 is a set of standards for ... (1) and storing ... (2) audio and video.
Whereas CDs and ... (3) files require about 11 MB for one minute of sound, ...
(4) files give you the same ... (5) quality in a ... (6) which requires only about
1 MB for each ... (7) so a single track takes only three to five ... (8).
Computers store sound as digital information. They do this by ... (9) –
taking a sample of the sound thousands of times ... (10) second. ... (11) store
information in a format called CD-DA. This samples 44.000 times per ... (12)
and is broadly similar to WAV.
MP3 files depend on the fact that our ... (13) do not detect all ... (14).
An MP3 encoder removes from a WAV... (15) all but the parts we don’t ...
(16). Sounds above 16 kHz are ... (17) for the most people so these can be ...
(18). Quieter sounds masked by loud sounds of a similar ... (19) are also
removed. The result is an MP3 file which is much ... (20) than the WAV
original.

Task 7. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of the
Gerund.

1. One of the problems in dealing with computer-controlled sound and


graphics is that the related files require extremely large amounts of storage.
2. Storing graphics, sound and video files on a high-capacity device such as
compact disc (CD) is the solution to the problem. 3. These devices store
information by etching the encoded data into the same kind of plastic disk
used to store and play back popular music. 4. With the emergence of more
realistic computer graphics, many people have found the computer’s monitor
to be a limited output device for displaying them. 5. Early computers were
seen primarily for storing and displaying information in the form of numbers
and text. 6. After printing or displaying the graph you can see the advantages
of the new device. 7. Using computer greatly reduces the amount of time it
takes to create presentations that use many different forms of information.
8. They succeeded in making a number of multimedia applications. 9. Today,
special devices have means of storing video images in digital form on a
computer’s magnetic media as computer graphics. 10. By rapidly delivering
these digital graphics images to the computer screen one after the other we can
simulate the kind of video images we see on our television set. 11. Today
software companies are busy creating programmes to manage multimedia

63
resources. 12. We insisted on their developing the programs which vary
considerably in design, but are all capable of incorporating text, graphics,
sound and video into one program. 13. The difficulty was providing special
software for dealing with external devices such as CD-ROM drives and
videodisc drives and for incorporation of digital video.

Task 8. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Одним из методов сокращения объема, занимаемых музыкой, явля-


ется MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). 2. Файлы в формате
MIDI обычно содержат инструкции типа: «сыграть на таком-то инстру-
менте такую-то ноту в течение такого-то количества секунд». 3. В ре-
зультате MIDI-файлы занимают незначительный объем. 4. Тем не менее
сам характер представления звуков не мог полностью удовлетворить как
пользователей, так и разработчиков. 5. Требовалось принципиально
новое решение. MIDI- это скорее не метод записи звука, а способ записи
команд, посылаемых музыкальным инструментам. 6. МIDI-файл (обыч-
но это файл с расширением MID) содержит ссылки на ноты, а не запись
музыки как таковой. 7. Когда МIDI-совместимая звуковая карта получа-
ет МIDI-файл, карта ищет необходимые звуки в таблице через эти
ссылки. 8. Определенный инструмент соответствует конкретной ссылке.
9. Так, например, большой барабан определен цифрой 55. 10. Когда
звуковая карта находит ссылку под номером 55, она выдает звук боль-
шого барабана. 11. Образцы хранятся на диске и загружаются в процессе
воспроизведения звуковых сигналов. 12. Кроме того, существует
возможность для изменения звучания инструментов, а также замены их.

Task 9. Topics for discussion.

1. Multimedia programs bring a variety of media resources under


the control of the computer. Describe the different types of media that are
now being used in multimedia programs.
2. What is digital audio? How is it used?
3. Many experts believe that multimedia will play an important role
in future. Describe how multimedia may be used in different spheres of
human life.

Task 10. Read Text B and find answers to the following questions.

64
1. Is it possible to bring information in the form of graphics, sound and video
under computer control? 2. Is there any difference between the videodisk
player and compact disk player? 3. Why are multimedia authoring systems
widely used to manage the presentation of information? 4. Explain the term
‘virtual reality’?

Text B. NEW APPLICATIONS OF THE COMPUTER

Among the most exciting new applications of the computer is the ability
to bring together information that exists in a variety of forms. New computer
tools, often using combinations of hardware and software, are now providing
better ways to bring together information that is stored on other media in the
form of graphics, sound, and video. These new programs, known collectively
as multimedia applications, bring the other media sources under computer
control.
CD-ROM - based Multimedia
One of the problems in dealing with computer-controlled sound and
graphics is that the related files require extremely large amounts of storage.
One solution is to store graphics, sound, and video files on a high-capacity
device such as compact disk (CD). Compact disks can store huge amounts of
data and the CD drives can be used to deliver this information to the
computer's internal memory as data. Because most of these devices cannot be
used to record information, they are known as read-only memory (ROM)
devices. Although they are used to store computer data, these devices do not
use the same kind of magnetic media generally used by computers to store
data. Instead, these devices store information by permanently etching the
encoded data into the same kind of plastic disk used to store and play back
popular music. Because the stored data is deciphered using a laser-based
reading device, there is no physical contact with the disk and no possibility of
wear to the disk. Their high capacity and permanence are making CD-ROM
disks a common storage and delivery tool for multimedia.
Videodisc
The videodisc player is similar to the compact disk player, but the disks
used are somewhat different. While the CD disks are used to store and deliver
computer data, videodiscs are used to store and deliver video images. They
can be used to deliver high-quality video to a television set by displaying the
video images in sequence at the same 30-frames-per-second rate that is used in
broadcast television. Many videodisc players can be controlled by computer.
And because the video images are stored a single image at a time, one image

65
can be displayed under computer control or a sequence of images can be
displayed to create the effect of live video.
Digital Video
Most of the video images we are used to seeing on our home television
sets were originally captured using a video camera and stored on video tape.
But today, special devices make it possible to store video images in digital
form on a computer's magnetic media as computer graphics. By rapidly
delivering these digital graphics images to the computer's screen one after the
other, we can simulate the kind of video images we see on our television set.
Computer-delivered digital video presents many exciting possibilities.
Because the video images are stored on normal computer media as data in
separate graphics files, there is unlimited potential for editing the video
sequence using computer graphics editing methods. And because the video
images can be displayed on the computer's screen as graphics, they can be
incorporated into presentations that in the past used only still pictures.
Multimedia Authoring Systems
In order to manage the presentation of information that is stored in
dissimilar formats, new multimedia-based authoring systems are being
developed. These programs vary considerably in design, but all are capable of
incorporating text, graphics, sound, and video into one program. These
programs provide special tools to manage these resources and to deliver them
to the user interactively.
Virtual Reality
With the emergence of ever more realistic computer graphics, many
people have found the computer's monitor to be a limited output device for
displaying them. Many found the two-dimensional view of modern, complex
colour graphics did not fully convey the potential held by this new form of
computerized information. This led to the investigation of ways to present and
to interact with more realistic, three-dimensional displays. The result was the
development of highly realistic displays that provide users with the feeling
that they are fully immersed in the computer image. Collectively, these
applications have become known by the title of "virtual reality."

Task 11. Describe (in writing) the techniques related to the new technologies
used with animation, multimedia and virtual reality.

Unit 7
Guess the meaning of the following words.

66
Information systems, documentation, coding, testing and adapting,
pseudocode, internet, encapsulation, polymorphism, object, to click, physical
components, browse

Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms.

analyst (n) ['xnqlist] аналитик


modify (v) ['modifai] модифицировать, изменять;
переадресовывать
feasibility (n) ["fizq'biliti] выполнимость, осуществимость
specification (n) ["spesifi'keiSn] спецификация, определение;
технические условия
software (n) ['sOftwea(r)] программное обеспечение
programmer (n) ['prqugrxmq(r)] программист
clarify (v) ['klxrifai] делаться ясным, вносить ясность
maintain (v) [mein'tein] поддерживать, обслуживать
network (n) ['netwWk] сеть (вычислительная); сетка; схема
adapt (v) [q'dxpt] адаптировать, приспосабливать
document (v, n) ['dokjumqnt] документ; (v) документировать
sequence (n) ['sikwqns] последовательность; (v) устанавливать
порядок, упорядочивать
iteration (n) ["itq'reiSn] итерация, повторение; шаг; цикл
loop (n) [lHp] петля; контур; цикл
repeatedly (adv) [ri'pJtIdli] повторно
flowchart (n) ['flqutSRt] блок-схема
pseudocode (n) ['sjHdqukqud] псевдокод; символический код
artificial ["Rti'fiSl] искусственный
intelligence [in'teliGqns] интеллект
markup (adj, n) ['mRkAp] маркерный, разметка
tag (n)}[txg] тег, признак (хранящийся вместе со
словом в ЗУ)
label ['leibl] метка, маркировочный знак, отметка,
hyperlink (n) ['haipqliNk] гиперссылка
implementation (n) ["implImen'teiSn] осуществление, выполнение
install (v) [in'stLl] устанавливать, монтировать;
располагать; вводить в действие
diverse (adj) [dai'vWs] иной, отличный; разнообразный,
разный

67
encapsulation (n) [en"kxpsju'leiSn] выделение в самостоятельный
элемент, инкапсуляция
convert (v) [kqn'vWt] преобразовывать
bundle (v) ['bAndl] (n) узел, пакет; (v) связывать, собирать
fetch (v) [feC] доставлять инструкцию из памяти
sticky (adv) ['stiki] липкий, клейкий
inheritance [in'heritqns] (v) наследование; наследство
polymorphysm ["poli'mLfizm] полиморфизм

Memorise the following word combinations.

software engineering программирование, разработка программного


обеспечения
systems analyst системный аналитик
network system сетевая система
decision tables таблица данных для принятия решения
loop instruction инструкция цикла программы
artificial intelligence искусственный интеллект
markup language язык разметки
tag codes метки
browser программа, помогающая просматривать
страницы веб сайтов
hyperlink documents документы пересылок
direct implementation прямое осуществление, прямое выполнение
pilot implementation опытное, экспериментальное осуществление
executable modules выполняемые модули

Reading activity

Text A. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

Software engineering is the discipline of designing high quality


software solutions. Software consists of programs (sets of instructions for
controlling a computer) and data (the material that has to be processed).
Programs are written in computer languages by people called programmers.
A systems analyst is a person who designs or modifies information systems
to meet users' requirements. This includes investigating feasibility and cost,
producing documentation, and testing prototypes of the system. Producing a
program, therefore, involves a number of stages including:

68
a) clarifying the problem by considering the requirements of the potential
users
b) designing the solution to the problem by first deciding on the overall
structure of the solution
c) coding the program by first choosing an appropriate programming
language and inputting the program code
d) testing and debugging the program (identifying and fixing any problems or
faults in the program code)
e) documenting and maintaining the program including writing instructions
for using the program.
Systems analysts first need to talk to the people involved in the
computing problem, including the people managing the system and the users
or potential users of the system. They need to establish factors such as:
a) the nature of the problem
b) what systems already exist
c) to what extent any existing systems are computerised (changed so that they
can be operated or controlled using a computer)
d) what output (the processed data or signals that come out of a computer
system) will be required from the system
e) who will be using the system and what parts of the system they need to be
able to use
f) the computing experience of the staff and what training would be required
g) what hardware (the physical components of a computer system) already
exists and what would need to be added, including the specification of the
hardware and whether a network system is required (a system where a
number of computers and peripheral devices are connected together).
They then have to plan the structure of the solution and check it through
with the people involved to make sure it meets their requirements. Next, they
have to choose a suitable programming language and write the program (a set
of instructions, written in a computer language, that control the behaviour of a
computer), continually testing and adapting it until it works to the satisfaction
of the customer and users. The system then has to be put into service and the
users have to be trained. This involves documenting the program
specifications and writing instructions for using the system.
Programming languages commonly use different structures for
sequencing program instructions, including:
a) conditional instructions i.e. if a certain condition is true, then process
this instruction (if X then Y). Decision tables are used to indicate how a
conditional structure will process data. They show all the different inputs

69
that might arise for each condition and the resulting outputs that would be
produced by the conditional instruction.
b) iterations or loop instructions i.e. process these instructions repeatedly
until or while a particular condition is true, or false (do ... until... or do ...
while ...). Program flowcharts can be used to show the sequence of
instructions in a program and are sometimes used for designing parts of
programs such as iterations. Pseudocode is a method of writing a
description of a computer program using a mixture of natural language and
computer language code.
There are a large number of computer languages available for use by
programmers. Each language is designed for use in solving particular types of
problem and therefore has particular strengths and weaknesses. A systems
analyst has to decide which language is most appropriate in each situation.
Languages such as C++ are particularly suitable for writing systems
programs (programs that are used to control the basic functions of a computer
system e.g. operating system programs). Languages such as Visual Basic and
Pascal are easy to use and are particularly suitable for learning how to
program. FORTRAN is designed for solving engineering problems, COBOL
for writing business programs, Ada for military purposes, Prolog and LISP
for working in artificial intelligence (an area of computing concerned with
developing computer programs that perform tasks that can normally only be
done using human intelligence). Logo is particularly suited for use by young
children. Some languages such as HTML and XML are markup languages
rather than programming languages i.e. they use tag codes (labels) for
marking text for use in programs such as Web browsers. Languages such as
Java and Perl have a number of specialised uses including adding features to
Internet connections and webpages (hyperlinked documents).
Converting to new computer systems can be done in different ways.
Each strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. These include:
a) direct implementation where the old system is simply removed and the
new system installed. In this strategy only one system is used at any one time
but there is no fall back (alternative system that can be used if problems occur
in the main system) if the new system does not operate properly.
b) parallel implementation where the old and the new systems are both used
at the same time until the users are satisfied that the new system is working
properly. The advantage is that if the new system does not operate properly,
the old system is available as a fallback. The disadvantage is that two systems
have to be maintained.
c) phased implementation where the old system is gradually replaced by the
new system, one part at a time. The advantage is that people can gradually get

70
used to the new system and certain problems can be dealt with as they arise.
The disadvantage is that this method is more complex and time-consuming. In
addition, there may be problems of incompatibility between the old and new
systems.
d) pilot implementation where the new system is tried out in one section of
the company to make sure that it works as required. The advantage is that
problems can be identified and solved before the new system is implemented
throughout the company. The disadvantage is that it takes longer to introduce
the new system.

Post-Reading activity

Task 1. Answer the following questions.

1. What does the term “software engineering” imply? 2. What does software
consist of? 3. What do systems analysts do? 4. What are the stages of
producing a program? 5. Why do systems analysts need to talk to different
specialists? What factors do they need to establish? 6. When can they start
writing a program? 7. What is used to show the sequence of instructions in a
program? 8. What programme instructions are considered in the text? 9. What
is a pseudocode? 10. Why are there a large number of computer languages
available for use by programmers? 11. Can you compare strengths and
weaknesses of different programming languages? 12. What are the ways of
converting to new computer systems? 13. What are advantages and
disadvantages of direct implementation and pilot implementation?

Task 2. Put these five stages of programming in the correct sequence.

I. a) Design a solution
b) Code the program
c) Document and maintain the program
d) Clarify the problem
e) Test the program
II. To which stage do each of these steps belong.
1. Clarify objectives and users.
2. Debug the program.
3. Write programmer documentation.
4. Do a structured walk through.
5. Select the appropriate programming language.

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Task 3. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian word
combinations.

1. учитывать требования; 2. программирование, разработка програм-


много обеспечения; 3. постоянная проверка и настройка; 4. найти и
исправить ошибки; 5. общая структура решения; 6. отвечать требованиям
пользователя; 7. выполнимость и стоимость; 8. сопровождать программу;
9. технические условия на аппаратные средства; 10. устанавливать
последовательность инструкций программы; 11. выходные данные,
результат вычислений.

a. software engineering; b. to meet user’s requirements; c. feasibility and cost;


d. to consider the requirements; e. overall structure of the solution; f. to
identify and fix faults; g. to maintain the program; h. the specification of the
hardware; i. continually testing and adapting; j. to sequence program
instructions; k. the resulting output.

Task 4. Match the terms with their definitions.

a) artificial intelligence, b) a program, c) a markup language, d)


systems programs, e) a pseudocode, f) an output, g) a systems analyst, h) a
network system

1. A person who designs or modifies information systems to meet user’s


requirements. 2. A set of instructions written in a computer language that
control the behaviour of a computer. 3. The processed data or signals that
come out of a computer system. 4. A system where a number of computers
and peripheral devices are connected together. 5. A method of writing a
description of a computer program using a mixture of natural languages and a
computer language code. 6. Programs that are used to control the basic
functions of a computer system. 7. Developing computer programs that
perform tasks that can normally be done using human intelligence. 8. A set of
tags that can be inserted into a document to indicate its layout and appearance.

Task 5. Mark the following as True or False.

1. Pilot implementation means that both systems run at the same time for a
period. 2. Phased implementation is when parts of the system are converted
separately. 3. Parallel implementation is when the new system is piloted in
part of the company before extending it to the whole company. 4. Pascal is

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extremely difficult to use and is not suitable for learning how to program.
5. Fortran is designed for writing business programs. 6. Java and Perl have a
number of specialized uses including adding features to internet connections
and webpages.

Task 6. Complete the gaps using the verbs from the box.

collected, put, generated, will flow, will help, be directed, be implemented,


touch, will use, will be used, were uncovered, include

Based on the data … (1), the systems analyst must … together an


implementation plan. This plan should … a logical model of the proposed new
system, with a representation how information … , through the new system
from input, through processing, to output. The plan should … on every
potential use of data throughout the organization. As with the reports …
during the previous study stages, the report should be written in terms of the
system’s user’s – in this case, in terms, of how users … the new system and
how it …, them to carry out their jobs. The solutions report should … to
management, to help them understand the need for the new system, the way
the new system … , how it will help the entire organization and how it can …
as a cost effective solution to the problems that … .

Task 7. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of the
Infinitive.

1. Computer information systems may be designed to take care of just one


operational area, but today’s more complex systems are more likely to be
designed to integrate a variety of operational procedures. 2. New methods are
developed to deal with the complex process of designing and maintaining
computer systems. 3. A website designer wants to enable the data or his
website to be easily processed by a number of different programs. 4. Each
element of the system has a particular function and each unit must be designed
to interact with the other elements of the system. 5. Although the complexity
of the tasks to be performed and the number of the users to be served will help
to determine the type of computer to be used, there may be a number of
different hardware configurations that will meet the need. 6. When users of a
system access the data for some useful purpose, they are accessing the data in
order to learn from it or to add it to other types of data for decision making.
7. A computer information system must be seen as a system that is used to
transform data into useful information. 8. If the information system is to be

73
successful, it must be designed to provide information in a way that is usable
and useful to all management personnel. 9. Using centralised system,
computer communications will undoubtedly be used to transmit data
electronically between locations. 10. To update or modify an existing system
the same procedures can be used. 11. As the process of systems analyses and
design has been formalised, a new kind of professionals, known as systems
analysts has emerged with the special skill and knowledge required to deal
with all aspects of systems development. 12. The systems analysts’ function is
to design and implement system that facilitate the storage and processing of
data, and methods for accessing that data.

Task 8. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Для разработки программы с использованием описанного выше спосо-


ба мы представляем ее в виде алгоритма (последовательности инструк-
ций), который определяет выполнение операций с некоторыми данными.
2. При создании современных программ часто применяется концепция,
называемая объектно-ориентированным программированием или 00П. 3.
В объектно-ориентированном программировании программа рассматри-
вается как набор взаимодействующих объектов. 4. Эту методику проще
всего понять на примере программы, моделирующей какой-нибудь
процесс. 5. Так, в программе, моделирующей движение автомобилей по
шоссе, объекты могут представлять автомобили и полосы шоссе. 6. Для
каждого объекта создают алгоритмы, описывающие его поведение в
разных ситуациях. 7. Суть объектно-ориентированного программирова-
ния заключается в разработке объектов и используемых ими алгоритмов.
8. Основными характеристиками ООП являются инкапсуляция, наследо-
вание и полиморфизм. 9. Инкапсуляцию обычно определяют как форму
сокрытия информации или абстрагирования. 10. Это правильное, но
малопонятное определение, поэтому проще сказать, что инкапсуляция -
это способ упрощения определения объекта. 11. Наследование обеспечи-
вает возможность написания многократно используемого программного
кода. 12. Полиморфизм позволяет связать с одним именем несколько
значений в контексте наследования.

Task 9. Topics for discussion.

1. Dwell on the systems analysis.


2. Defining a computer system.
3. System hardware and software planning.

74
4. The role of the system analysis.
5. Strategies of converting to new computer systems.

Task 10. Read Text B and find the answers to the following questions.

1. What advantages of using object-oriented programming are mentioned in


the text? 2. What are the three key features of OOP? 3. What multimedia data
types are referred to in the text? 4. List the different types of triangles
mentioned in the text. 5. What specific type of a rectangle is named in the
text? 6. What features are made quicker by code reusability?

Text B. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING

One of the principal motivations for using OOP is to handle multimedia


applications in which such diverse data types as sound and video can be
packaged together into executable modules. Another is writing program code
that's more intuitive and reusable; in other words, code that shortens program-
development time.
Perhaps the key feature of OOP is encapsulation - bundling data and
program instructions into modules called 'objects', Here's an example of how
objects work. An icon on a display screen might be called 'Triangles'. When
the user selects the Triangles icon which is an object composed of the
properties of triangles and other data and instructions - a menu might appear
on the screen offering several choices. The choices may be (1) create a new
triangle and (2) fetch a triangle already in storage. The menu, too, is an object,
as are the choices on it. Each time a user selects an object, instructions inside
the object are executed with whatever properties or data the object holds, to
get to the next step. For instance, when the user wants to create a triangle, the
application might execute a set of instructions that displays several types of
triangles - right, equilateral, isosceles, and so on.
Many industry observers feel that the encapsulation feature of 00P is the
natural tool for complex applications in which speech and moving images are
integrated with text and graphics. With moving images and voice built into the
objects themselves, program developers avoid the sticky problem of deciding
how each separate type of data is to be integrated and 3-5 synchronized into a
working whole.
A second key feature of OOP is inheritance. This allows OOP
developers to define one class of objects, say 'Rectangles', and a specific
instance of this class, say 'Squares' (a rectangle with equal sides). Thus, all

75
properties of rectangles - 'Has 4 sides' and 'Contains 4 right angles' are the two
shown here - are automatically inherited by Squares.
A third principle behind OOP is polymorphism. This means that
different objects can receive the same instructions but deal with them in
different ways. For instance, consider again the triangles example. If the user
right clicks the mouse on 'Right triangle', a voice clip might explain the
properties of right triangles. However, if the mouse is right clicked on
'Equilateral triangle' the voice instead explains properties of equilateral
triangles.
The combination of encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism leads
to code reusability. 'Reusable code' means that new programs can easily be
copied and pasted together from old programs. All one has to do is access a
library of objects and stitch them into a working whole. This eliminates the
need to write code from scratch and then debug it. Code reusability makes
both program development and program maintenance faster.

Task 11. Write a paragraph describing the strategies of converting to a new


computer system. Explain what its advantages and disadvantages are.

Unit 8

Pre-reading activity

Read and learn the basic terms.

generation (n) ["Genq'reiSn] поколение (вычислительных машин)


sophisticated (adj) [sq'fistikeitid] сложный, тонкий (о приборе,
машине)
execute (v) ['eksikjut] исполнять, выполнять
run (v) [rAn] (однократный) проход, прогон
(программы), эксплуатировать машину
code (v) ['koud] код
assembly (v) [q'semblI] трансляция (с языка ассемблера)
assembler (n) [q'semblq] ассемблер, язык ассемблера;
транслятор с языка ассемблера
mnemonic (adj) [ni'mOnik] мнемонический
module (n) ['modjul] модуль; программный модуль
procedure (n) [prq'sJGq] процедура
implement (v) ['implqment] выполнять, осуществлять
convert (v) [kOn'vWt] превращать, преобразовывать

76
compiler (n) [kqm'pailq] комплектующая программа, транслятор;
составитель, компилятор
interpreter (n) [In'tq:pritq] интерпретирующая программа;
интерпретатор, программа-
интерпретатор
executable (adj) ["eksi'kjHtqbl] выполняемый
interactive (adj) [Intqr'xktiv] интерактивный, диалоговый
refine (v) [ri'fain] очищать, усовершенствовать
query (n) ['kwiqri] запрос, задание на поиск определенных
данных в базе данных
encapsulation (n) [in"kxpsju'leiSn] инкапсуляция
full-fledged (adj) ['ful'fleGd] обученный, знающий

Memorize the following word combinations.

low-level languages язык программирования низкого уровня


high-level language язык программирования высокого уровня
BASIC ['beisik] Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
- универсальный символический командный
язык для начинающих
COBOL ['kqubOl] Common Business Oriented Language - язык
программирования для коммерческих и деловых
задач
FORTRAN ['fLtrxn] Formula Translation – язык программирования
для научных целей
3GL язык программирования третьего уровня
PASCAL [pxs'kxl] Паскаль, язык программирования
OOP Object-Oriented programming – объектно-
ориентированное программирование

Reading Activity

Text A. TYPES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

Programming languages are classified as first-, second-, third-, fourth-,


or fifth- generation languages, according to when they were developed and
how sophisticated they are. The first- and second-generation languages are
very difficult to use and are considered low-level languages. The others are
sometimes called high-level languages.

77
Machine Languages
Machine languages are the first generation of programming languages;
these languages consist of instructions the computer is actually built to
execute. Since at the hardware level computers understand only binary
notation (1s and 0s), programming with a machine language requires writing
out the binary values of the program instructions. A simple machine-language
command might be 10101001 10101010 1011101011010100." Machine
languages vary from one model of computer to another, as each model of
processor is built differently. Machine languages are difficult to understand
and use, so they are rarely used directly by programmers today. Since the
computer understands only machine language, however, any program written
in any other language must be translated into machine language in order to
run.
Assembly Languages
Assembly languages are the second-generation programming languages
and first to use alphanumeric symbols to write code. The creation of assembly
languages depended on the development, using machine language, of an
assembler. An assembler is a program that translates the assembly code into
machine language. It is necessary to have one assembler for each kind of
assembly language and for each kind of computer used.
Assembly languages are the simplest improvement over machine
language; their commands are simple mnemonic codes that stand for the
binary instructions of machine code. When programmers need to deal with the
computer directly, they use assembly language; because it is so close to the
hardware level, it is possible to write very efficient programs in assembly
language. That same closeness to the hardware level, however is what makes
assembly language difficult to use for large programming projects. Therefore,
most assembly programming today is used for writing small modules that can
be included in larger programs written in more convenient languages.
Procedural Languages
Procedural languages are the third-generation languages. They are also
called high-level languages because they represent a higher level of
abstraction from machine code than do assembly languages. Procedural
languages employ more human-like words, and each has its own set of syntax
rules. They are also more efficient, allowing the programmer to express with
one statement what would take several commands in machine language. They
are called procedural languages because they allow the programmer to create
procedures that implement structured programming. Procedural languages are
by far the most widely used programming languages.

78
The development of procedural languages was started by the invention
of translation programs that could convert the syntax of the high-level
language to machine code that the computer could execute. These translators
are compilers and interpreters. A compiler converts an entire program written
in a high-level language to machine language, storing it in what is called
executable file, to be run later at the user's discretion. The original code is then
called the source code, and the machine-language code is called the object
code.
An interpreter reads each high-level program statement, then translates
it to machine language and instructs the computer to execute the statement
immediately. It creates no object code and no executable file; from the
programmer's or user's standpoint, the computer executes the original code.
This method of execution gives the programmer more immediate control of
the machine and lends itself to an interactive method of programming and
refining code and testing it immediately. The interpreter program does not
permanently change the code, allowing users or programmers to make
additions and other modifications to the program more easily. However,
interpreting the code takes more processing than running a compiled program,
so interpreted programs generally run slower than compiled programs.
Some of the most frequently used procedural languages include the
following: BASIC, PASCAL.
Problem -Oriented Languages
Fourth -generation languages, the problem-oriented languages, are a
mixed bag of strategies to make programming easier. They were created to
solve specific user and programming problems rather than to achieve the
broad general usability of procedural languages. This group of languages
includes object-oriented languages, application generators, authoring systems,
HyperTalk, and query languages.
Object-Oriented Programming. Object-oriented programming (OOP)
takes a different approach to creating applications. Traditional programming
treats data and instructions as separate items with the instructions controlling
the data; the instructions are active controls on passive data. In object-oriented
programming, an object is created by joining data and instructions in a process
known as encapsulation. Once an object is made and debugged, it will work.
Objects can then be linked together with messages (calls to the object to
implement its instructions on its data) to form full-fledged applications.
Query languages.
Query languages are used specifically within the realm of databases.
These languages are designed to instruct the computer to retrieve and
manipulate database information and can be used to develop specific

79
applications based on databases, such as database publishing and project
management.
Natural languages
The fifth and final generation of programming languages does not
involve the generation of any code. These natural languages use the normal
grammar of the spoken language to create programs. Some natural
programming languages include Intellect, Broker, and Explorer. Although
they don't yet meet, heir inventors' ideal, they are showing promise, and
continued advances in this area may someday radically change the way we use
computers and how we create programs.

Post-reading Activity

Task 1. Answer the questions to the text.

1. How are programming languages classified? 2. What are low-level


languages? 3. What are high-level languages? 4. What does programming with
a machine language require? 5. What are specific features of the second-
generation programming languages? 6. Why are procedural languages called
high level languages? 7. What do compilers and interpreters do? 8. Can you
name any procedural language? 9. What languages are included in the group
of the fourth-generation languages? 10. Is it possible to use the spoken
language to create programs? 11. When are query languages used? 12. What
languages do not involve the generation of any code?

Task 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the English Terms.

1. авторская система; 2. выполняемый файл; 3. процедурные языки; 4.


буквенно-цифровые символы; 5. программа ассемблер; 6. структурное
программирование; 7. набор синтаксических правил; 8. прикладная
программа; 9. язык запросов; 10. двоичный код; 11. исходная программа,
программа на языке высокого уровня; 12. язык программирования
сценариев

a. binary code; b. structured programming; c. assembly language; d. alphanu-


meric symbols; e. procedural language; f. a set of syntax rules; g. an
executable file; h. source code; i. an application program; j. authoring systems;
k. query languages; l. scripting languages

Task 3. Mark the following as True or False.

80
1. The third-generation programming languages are machine languages that
use binary codes of ones and zeroes to control the activities of the computer.
2. Procedural language is a type of a high-level programming language that
requires each computer instruction to be listed and carried out in sequence.
3. The second-generation programming languages require less specificity in
terms of the order in which the computer instructions are carried out. They are
referred to as nonprocedural languages. 4. Machine languages, assembly
languages are known as low-level languages because they interact directly
with the computer’s hardware, using machine-oriented codes rather than
English-like commands. 5. High-level programming languages use an English
like approach that is easier to use than machine or assembly languages.
6. Programs created with these languages can be used on more than one type
of computer with little modification.

Task 4. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

to provide, to operate, to guide, to initiate, to evolve, to communicate, to


know, to establish, to tell, to type

A programming language is, in many ways much like the languages we


use ... (1) with each other. A programming language ... (2) a special set of
rules and a vocabulary that have to do with a computer’s operation. Before
communication with a computer can be ... (3), the rules and specialised
vocabulary of the programming language must ... (4) to both the computer
programmer and the computer itself. A programming language has words,
symbols and rules of grammar (known as the syntax of the language). A
computer programmer, ... (5) within the structure of these rules, develops an
instruction ... (6) the computer’s operation. The resulting set of instructions is
the computer program. Often these instructions ... (7) the computer what to do
when the user of the program ... (8) some kind of action (when, for example,
the user ... (9) in characters from the computer’s keyboard). Over the years,
computer programming methods ... (10) through the development of
successive ‘generations’ of programming languages, with each new generation
bringing new functionality and ease-to-use.

Task 5. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the use of the
Subjunctive Mood.

81
1. It is necessary that machine languages should be designed for a specific
type of computer processor. 2. The programmer insisted that each instruction
of the source program should be translated to a machine language. 3. I wish
the computer program based on these fourth-generation methods required
fewer statements. 4. It is time a computer user could write statements that are
very much like a normal human language. 5. If I used this high-level
programming language, I would develop the report based on the information
stored in the computer. 6. If the programmer should use this natural language
approach, tell him he doesn’t have to learn special rules of statement entry. 7.
If he had used a database query language, the requests would have been
phrased as normal human-language statements. 8. If it were not for your help,
I shouldn’t be able to carry out the task in time. 9. But for the slow execution
of the program, this instruction-by-instruction method would have become
appropriate to find errors and to fix them immediately. 10. If PC users needed
application programs created for farmers and mechanics, for scientists and
teachers, they would buy commercial software to meet their individual needs.
11. I wish I had known FORTRAN to apply it for scientific application. 12.
Had I used the Internet, I would have got the required information earlier.

Task 6. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Существует множество языков программирования. 2. Высокоуровне-


вые языки программирования во многом напоминают человеческие
языки. 3. Они разработаны так, чтобы человеку как можно легче было
создавать на них программы и читать их. 4. Инструкции высокоуровне-
вого языка программирования гораздо сложнее тех простых инструкций,
которые может выполнять центральный процессор компьютера. 5. Язы-
ки, близкие по структуре к языку инструкций процессора, называются
языками низкого уровня. 6. Они ориентированы на конкретные компью-
теры, поэтому наборы их инструкций для разных компьютеров различ-
ны. 7. Хотя язык ассемблера очень близок к языку, который понимает
компьютер, созданные на нем программы перед выполнением требуют
некоторого простого преобразования. 8. Чтобы компьютер мог выпол-
нить ассемблерную инструкцию, ее нужно транслировать в последова-
тельность нулей и единиц. 9. Инструкции языка ассемблера и их эквива-
ленты, состоящие из нулей и единиц, для разных компьютеров различны.
10. О понятных компьютеру программах в форме последовательностей
нулей и единиц говорят, что они написаны на машинном языке (машин-
ном коде). 11. Нам принципиально важно различие между машинным

82
языком и языками высокого уровня, подобными С++. 12. Заключается
оно в том, что программа на языке высокого уровня должна быть пре-
образована (транслирована) в машинный код, и только тогда компьютер
сможет ее понять и выполнить.

Task 7. Topics for discussion.

1. Describe the characteristics of the succeeding generations of computer


programming languages.
2. Describe the differences between machine languages, assembly
languages and high-level languages.
3. Name four common high-level programming languages.
4. Today programming methods are undergoing changes. New fourth-
generation languages, fifth-generation languages and object-oriented
programming methods are now in use. Describe the differences in these
programming approaches.

Task 8. Read the text and find the answers to the following questions.

1. Haw many processes does the cycle of program development involve?


2. What should programmers do to define the problem correctly? 3. What is
the next step in writing a program? 4. How is an algorithm coded? 5. What is
the program internal documentation? 6. How are programming languages
classified?

Text B. PROGRAMMING

A Program is a set of instructions written in a programming language


and designed to make a computer perform a series of specified tasks that solve
a particular problem or achieve a specific goal. Programming is the act of
designing and writing programs in a development cycle that has five
processes: problem definition, algorithm development, coding, program
testing and debugging, and documentation.
In defining the problem, programmers meet with users to identify the
output desired and other expectations for a program; they also determine the
input and machinery to be used. The programmer constructs the algorithm –
the prescribed set of well-defined rules or processes for the solution of the
problem – that describes the program's process from start to finish, including
the logic structures used. The algorithm can be written in pseudocode or
drawn as a flowchart. Programmers use a structured programming approach,

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building the program in modules in a top-down manner; structure charts show
the relationships among the program modules.
The algorithm is coded (translated into statements) in a programming
language whose choice is sometimes crucial to the success of the program.
Once written out, the program is tested to find bugs, or errors in the syntax or
logic. Program testing and debugging involves desk checking, compilation,
running the program with sample data, and field testing.
A program's internal documentation covers the trail of development,
including comments within the code to remind the original programmer of (or
tell other programmers) the meaning of each line of code and the flow of the
program's logic. External documentation is prepared for user manuals; on-line
documentation supports users while they use the program.
Programming languages are classified as first-, second-, third-, fourth-,
or fifth -generation languages.) The first generation of languages, machine
language, is written in the binary 0 and 1 values the microcomputer can
process. The second-generation assembly languages use alphanumeric
mnemonic codes to replace machine commands and need an assembler to
translate their code to machine language.
The third-generation procedural languages dominate the programming
field and require compilers or interpreters to translate their code to machine
language. Compilers translate the whole program at once, storing object code
in an executable file. Interpreters translate the source code line by line; the
computer can run each line as it is translated. Common third -generation
languages in use today include BASIC, Pascal, C, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada,
RPG, and LISP.
The fourth-generation problem-oriented languages bring programming
more within the reach of nonprogrammers, starting with object-oriented
programming, then the use of application generators and authoring systems,
on to the use of HyperTalk, and finally to query and scripting languages.
The fifth-generation natural languages do not produce code but follow
human language grammar rules. They are not yet well developed.

Task 9. Give the description (in writing) of programming methods and


software design.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

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WEBPAGE CREATOR

Webpages are documents designed for use on the World Wide Web
which is an Internet service that allows users to view linked webpages stored
on Web server computers. A set of related documents stored on a Web server
is known as a website and the starting webpage of a website is referred to as
the homepage. Webpages are viewed using a program called a browser.
Many websites deal with a particular area of interest or topic and almost
every topic imaginable is dealt with by some website. Special websites known
as search engines allow users to find websites related to a particular topic by
searching a database (a type of applications program used for storing
information so that it can be easily searched and sorted) of links to other
websites. Some websites allow users to download files (copy files from a
server computer to a client computer). Files available for downloading include
applications programs that allow the user to perform specific tasks such as
wordprocessing, upgrades to programs that add features or fix bugs (faults in
the program), software drivers (programs that are used to control peripheral
devices such as printers), development tools (software that can be used for
writing programs or creating material such as webpages). Downloadable
programs that are free to download and use are known as freeware. Programs
that are free to download and try but should be paid for if the user wishes to
continue to use them, are known as shareware.
Websites can be created by anyone who has the necessary programs and
equipment. When the website creator creates their website, they publish it
(copy it to a Web server computer). This is referred to in the text as 'putting
up a site'. Every website has a Web address that takes the user to the first
page of the website i.e. the homepage. The Web address usually starts with
'www' and ends with 'com' if it is a company (co.uk is used for a company in
the United Kingdom). The parts of the Web address are separated by dots (.)
e.g. www.themovieshrine.com but there is no dot at the end of the address.
The domain name is the part of the Web address that indicates what network
the website is stored on. Sometimes the Web address used is not the actual
address of the website. When the address is typed into a browser program, the
browser is automatically re-directed to the actual web address. This is usually
done by an ISP (Internet service provider - an organisation that provides
Internet connections for a fee) to make the Web address look as if it is owned
by a private company.
Webpages are created by adding HTML (hypertext markup language)
tags to plain text to determine the way that the webpage will be displayed in a

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browser program and to create hyperlinks (dynamic links that the user clicks
on to display other webpages). Webpages can be created using a very basic
worprocessor program known as a text editor, but special programs are
available that allow the user to create webpages without knowing about
HTML e.g. Netscape Composer. This program is part of a package of
programs for managing websites called Netscape Communicator. A website
owner can register their website on a search engine. This means that they
submit their Web address and details of their website to be included in the
search engine database i.e. to be listed on the search engine. One of the best
known search engine websites is called Yahoo. As well as providing a search
engine, websites such as Yahoo provide a variety of facilities including
enabling users to form newsgroup clubs that discuss various topics using
email. After a website has been created and published, it is important that the
creator updates the webpages frequently to vary and improve the website,
keep the information up to date and make sure that the hyperlinks still connect
to existing websites. A static site is a website that does not change its content.
It is common for an email address to be provided on the website to allow users
to contact the website creator to provide feedback about the website. Creating
a professional website involves more than just publishing webpages. The
website needs to be planned carefully if it is to be a success. This involves a
number of stages including analysing the demand and other related websites,
designing the webpages and the overall structure of the website, publishing
and advertising the website including registering it on search engines and
getting other websites to create links to it, and evaluating the website after it
has been published by using user feedback and statistics on the use of the
website.

THE EX -HACKER

A hacker is a person who attempts to gain unauthorised access to a


network system. They are often young teenagers although they are usually
fairly skilled programmers (people who write computer programs).
Sometimes, the type of person who becomes a hacker is referred to as a 'geek'
(an expert lacking in social skills), or as an 'anorak' (a slang term for an
eccentric, socially inept person with little or no fashion sense and having an
obsessive interest in a hobby or subject). Although 'geek' was originally a
derogatory term it is now used in computing to mean a dedicated expert.
Although it is illegal, people become hackers for different reasons including:
making money, criminal purposes, or to expose political information. But
often people hack (break into a computer system) just because it is an exciting

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challenge. Parents are often unaware that their children are hacking into
computer systems although they usually receive very large telephone bills.
Young hackers are often caught by boasting about their successes to their
friends.
Since hacking (attempting to gain unauthorised access to a network
system) is illegal, hackers want to keep their true identity secret but they often
like to call themselves by special names such as 'the Analyser'. The Internet
has made hacking more common and hackers are found throughout the world.
They sometimes form hacking groups or teams that work together and
exchange ideas. These groups also like to be known by names such as
'Hackers Unite'.
Hackers like to attack and penetrate computer systems belonging to
large, important organisations such as the Pentagon's computer systems,
computer systems belonging to US military bases and Hotmail, the free email
service provided by the Microsoft Corporation. In fact, hackers compete with
each other to be the first to hack into really powerful systems. Often, breaking
into a system is done gradually, with the hacker gaining entry to a system then
planting passwords in the system, allowing them to gain access to the system
more easily in the future.
When a hacker gains access to a system they don't usually break into the
system using the Internet and steal all the data on the system, as is often
portrayed in the cinema. In fact, most hacks (break-ins) are done by company
staff misusing the company network system. Hackers have been known to do
a variety of things to computer systems, including:
a) Downloading files (copying files from a server computer) and leaking
confidential information. Posting information is the term used for making
information available to a large number of users in a newsgroup (an
Internet discussion group that uses a restricted area on a server computer to
display messages about a common interest) or on a bulletin board (an
electronic noticeboard system that enables users to display messages for
other users to read).
b) Exposing email (electronic mail) correspondence managed by well known
email services, causing the service to be shut down while the exposed
weakness in the system is repaired.
c) Programming email server computers to reroute email (send to a different
email address than the one it was originally sent to).
d) Hijacking websites by redirecting the Web address (URL) to point to
another website.
e) Defacing websites by changing the text and graphics on the webpages,
sometimes leaving very rude messages on the system.

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f) Blackmailing the owners of websites by threatening to damage their
systems by doing something like releasing a virus (a program that can
reproduce itself and is written with the purpose of causing damage or
causing a computer to behave in an unusual way) onto their system,
although such a threat often turns out to be nothing more than a hoax.
Sometimes, young hackers put their experience and knowledge to good
use when they become older. Many former hackers have been hired by large
companies as security experts. They are employed to test out the company
systems by trying to hack into them to find any weaknesses in the systems.
Cyberspace is the combination of all the data on all the computer networks
throughout the world, accessed using the Internet. A person who uses their
skills to make cyberspace safer is referred to as a 'white hat' hacker.
A computer system can be hacked (broken into) in various ways
including:
a) guessing somebody's password (secret code used to control access to a
network system)
b) finding a bug (a fault in a system) that allows certain passwords to access
information they are not supposed to access
c) phoning a company, pretending to be a company employee and asking for a
password. People tend to be too trusting.
Connecting to a computer network involves logging in (sometimes
referred to as logging on) by typing a username or ID (identification
username) and a password. Usernames that are often used on networks
systems include 'guest', 'demo' and 'help'.
To avoid a computer system being hacked into, the people managing the
system must work hard to keep ahead of the hackers. There are different ways
of avoiding being hacked into including:
a) installing a firewall (a combination of hardware and software
used to control the data going into and out of a network)
b) using a callback system (a system that automatically disconnects
a telephone line after receiving a call and then dials the telephone number
of the system that made the call, to reconnect the line. It is used in remote
access systems to make sure that connections can only be made from
permitted telephone numbers.)
c) having really secure passwords (secret codes used to control
access to a network system) - don't use common names or dictionary words
d) auditing the system regularly (checking the system regularly
using event logs to find failed access attempts).
Some people do not like to give out their credit card numbers on the
Internet. Hackers have been known to get databases (applications programs

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used for storing information so that it can be easily searched and sorted) of
credit card numbers by hacking computer systems. However, in the opinion of
the ex-hacker in this unit, using your credit card on the Internet is no more
dangerous than giving your credit card number on the telephone or throwing
away a credit card receipt. There are various things you can do to avoid credit
card theft on the Internet including:
a) using a separate credit card for Internet purchases
b) having a small credit limit on the credit card you use
c) buying a pre-paid charge card for small purchases.
In the future, smart cards (plastic cards containing a processor and
memory chip that can be used to store large amounts of confidential data) will
be used instead of credit cards. This will require smart card readers (devices
used for reading smart cards) to be attached to computers.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

An electronic newspaper is an electronic device that connects to the


Internet and displays news items on a display screen.
A channel is a path for the transmission of data.
A gigabit per second is a communications speed of approximately one
thousand million binary digits every second.
A fibre refers to a strand of glass fibre used in fibre optics cable which
carries data using the reflection of laser light.
Visual computer personalities refers to digital images with human
characteristics that are used as an interface between the user and a computer
system.
A hydraulic chair is a chair that has moving parts that are operated
using fluid pressure.
VR games are virtual reality games i.e. computer games that use a
simulated three-dimensional environment that surrounds the user and is
generated by a computer.
An intranet is an internal network webpage system that operates using
the same protocols (agreed communication standards) as the Internet.
The Internet is the connection of computer networks across the world.
A wearable health monitor is a computerised medical device built into
clothing so that it can be worn by the user to take measurements of certain
aspects of the user's health.
A robot is a mechanical device controlled by a computer.

89
A terabit is a unit of storage capacity equal to approximately one
million million binary digits.
Optical fibre is the glass fibre used in fibre cable that carries data using
the reflection of laser light.
A robotic pet is a mechanical device in the form of a pet animal, such
as a dog, that is controlled by a computer.
Robotic devices within blood vessels refers to computer-controlled
mechanical devices that are small enough to be inserted into human veins and
arteries that carry the blood around the body.
Artificial brain implants refers to computerised devices that are designed
to be inserted into the human brain.
Avatars are animated graphical icons used to represent real people in
cyberspace (the combination of all the data on all the computer networks
throughout the world, accessed using the Internet).
Robotics is the study of robot systems.
Barcodes are sequences of vertical parallel lines used to give items
unique identification numbers.
Radio-frequency tags are badges attached to products that emit radio-
frequency signals to provide information about the product.
Computerised (operated or controlled using a computer) versions of
common household items, such as fridges and washing machines, are
becoming available. These devices have touch-sensitive display screens and
can be connected to the Internet to enable email (electronic mail) and
browsing (moving from webpage to webpage using a Web browser program)
using Web protocols (agreed standards for communicating using the Web)
such as WRAP (web-ready appliance protocol). These devices can be
operated by remote control (at a distance) and can communicate with each
other through the house ring main (the common, main electrical supply
circuit). Computerised fridges can use radio-frequency tags to keep track of
the items in the fridge, suggest menus or provide a shopping list.
Wireless network systems (network connections using radio signals
without network cables) are becoming more common. They are used to
connect devices such as PCs (personal computers), mobile phones (wireless
telephones), printers, cameras, credit card devices, headphones and MP3
devices (music players that use MPEG Audio Layer 3 - a Motion Picture
Experts Group standard for audio compression). They communicate using
standard protocols such as Bluetooth or WirelessLAN.
EVAs (electronic virtual assistants) are also likely to become more
common. These are 3D (three-dimensional) animated images that provide a
humanlike interface (connection that provides a means of communication)

90
between a computer user and a computer system. They are used by call
centres (organisations that promote and sell products using the telephone),
advertisers, ISPs (organisations that provide Internet connections for a fee)
and e-commerce (buying and selling goods and services on the Internet).
They can be programmed to operate a search engine (a program designed to
find information in a database according to data entered by the user). They
search the databases (electronic filing systems that store data in records) using
artificial intelligence (an area of computing concerned with developing
computer programs that perform tasks that can normally only be done using
human intelligence). EVAs are controlled by Java applets (small, self-
contained programs written using the Java computer language).
Ananova is the world's first digital newsreader. It is a 3D computer-
generated animated image that has been programmed to have human
characteristics. It operates over the Internet to deliver the news and latest
information to personal computers, mobile phones and televisions. Ananova
converts the information to speech and uses real-time (the immediate
processing of computer data) animated graphics.
An avatars creation system automatically creates a 3D model of a
person that can be used to represent them on mobile videophones (phones
with video screens) and on Internet services, such as email (electronic mail),
Internet chat (real-time, online discussions) and Internet games. Anyone can
have a personal avatar created by emailing their photograph and personal
details to the system. Electronic games played on a games console (an
electronic device used for playing computer games) in which an image of the
user appears in the form of an avatar, could become a killer application (an
application program that is particularly useful and popular, making a computer
system very successful). The increased availability of broadband systems
(communications systems with a high signal capacity) such as ADSL
(asymmetric digital subscriber line) are likely to allow avatars to be used to
create a virtual world populated by virtual humans.
Robotic pets, such as robot dogs, and robotic creatures, such as robot
lobsters and crickets, demonstrate that simple processes can result in complex
behaviours. They use neural nets (an artificial intelligence system that is
capable of developing rules from given input so that it learns how to deal with
more complex input). Experiments in cybernetics (the study of control and
communication in animals and machines) may lead to more humans being
turned into cyborgs (a man-machine system or a person made superhuman by
a machine or external system that changes the way the body functions) in the
future by having chips (common name for microchips – electronic integrated
circuits in small packages) implanted in their bodies to act as transponders

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(devices that respond to received coded radio signals by automatically
transmitting a different coded signal).
Human brains depend on parallel processing (the processing of
different data at the same time) whereas computers process an input serially
(one item at a time). Experiments with neural nets that have the capacity to
form new links in the same way as the brain, are being used to simulate
parallel processing. Robots controlled by computers with neural nets would be
able to learn for themselves rather than depend on fixed programs.

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