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GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

374F / 390F Hydraulic Excavator


SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
MODULE 11 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV1994

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trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -2- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OVERVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8
SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION������������������������������������������� 10
SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16
SWING MOTOR OPERATION�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23
SWING BRAKE OPERATION��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25
ANTI-REACTION VALVE OPERATION������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31
SWING DRIVE - MECHANICAL OPERATION�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 44
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 46
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 48

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -3- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

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PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure technicians are


able to locate, identify, and describe the functionality of
all major components and service points of the swing
hydraulic system, describe the operation of the swing
hydraulic system, and demonstrate knowledge of the
strategies used to control the swing function.

4
PURPOSE

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -5- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

REASON

It is necessary for technicians to be able to properly


locate and identify all major components and service
points of the swing hydraulic system, explain system
component operation, and possess knowledge of the
strategies used to control the swing function in order to
properly diagnose and correct problems in the swing
system, which will ensure customers experience quick,
accurate resolution of swing system complaints.

5
REASON

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COMPETENCY STATEMENT

At the completion of this training session, participants will be


able to locate and identify all major components and service
points of the swing hydraulic system, describe the function and
operation of components in the swing system, and demonstrate
the ability to test and properly adjust the swing hydraulic
system during lab exercises. Participants will also be able to
demonstrate general knowledge of the swing hydraulic system
operation and describe the strategies used for controlling the
swing function during a classroom post-assessment with at
least 80% accuracy.

6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
Upon completion of this 374F/390F Hydraulic Excavator
Swing Hydraulic System module, participants will be able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the swing hydraulic
system and explain the swing system operation.
• Properly test and make adjustments to the components
of the swing hydraulic system.
• Describe the operation of the swing hydraulic system and
the methods and strategies used to control the swing
function.

7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -8- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

8
SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OVERVIEW

• Swing hydraulic system major The 374F and 390F swing hydraulic systems are each controlled by a single valve
components: spool located in the center section of the Adaptive Control System (ACS) main
-- Rear main hydraulic pump hydraulic control valve (1) (ACS Valve), which supplies high pressure pump oil to
operate the two Swing Motors (2). The rear pump provides the high pressure
-- ACS main hydraulic control supply oil for operation of the swing motors, via the swing control valve spool.
valve (1)
-- Swing motors (2) Swing joystick movement causes the joystick position sensor to send a Pulse
-- Swing brake solenoid valve Width Modulated (PWM) signal to the Machine ECM. The Machine ECM responds
by ENERGIZING one of the two swing solenoid controlled Proportional Hydraulic
• Overview: Modulating Valves (PHMVs) in direct proportion to the joystick movement. The
-- Rear pump provides hydraulic PHMVs control the movement of the swing control valve spool, which controls the
oil to swing motors direction and flow rate of high pressure oil to the two swing motors.
-- Joystick position sensor
provides PWM signals to The two swing motors are fixed displacement, bidirectional, piston-type hydraulic
Machine ECM motors. The swing motors each have a pinion gear attached to their output shafts.
-- Machine ECM controls the The pinion gears engage with the internal gear teeth of the large swing gear. The
swing spool PHMVs swing gear is held stationary to the undercarriage structure. Rotation of the swing
motors cause the upper structure to rotate above the undercarriage.
-- Machine ECM ENERGIZES one
of the Swing PHMVs
Each swing motor is equipped with a swing parking brake that holds the upper
-- Machine ECM ENERGIZES the structure in place. The swing parking brake is spring applied and hydraulically
swing brake solenoid to release released. The disc-and-plate friction-type swing brakes are released using pilot
the swing brake during swing pressure oil from the swing brake solenoid valve, which is installed in a manifold
and implement operation located on the rear motor swing motor assembly on the 390F (shown above).

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -9- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

The swing brake solenoid valve is installed in a manifold located on the left swing
motor assembly on the 374F. The Machine ECM ENERGIZES the swing brake
solenoid to send pilot pressure oil to release the brakes. The swing brake is
applied if no implement movement is requested and is released during any swing
movement and during any movement of the boom, stick, and/or bucket.

Prior knowledge of the ACS main hydraulic control valve, the main hydraulic
pumps, the pilot hydraulic system, and implement controls is necessary before
beginning this module. This module will not focus on the details of these
prerequisite modules, except for detailed explanations of the control valve, related
circuit components, and strategies used in the swing hydraulic system.

NOTE: Throughout this module, callouts in graphics that are not mentioned
in the text are for reference information only.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -10- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


FRONT VIEW - SWING SYSTEM COMPONENTS
(1)
SWING LEFT
Pressure Port

(2)
Swing Makeup
Oil Port

(3)
SWING RIGHT
Control Valve
PHMV

(4)
SWING Pressure
Sensor

(5)
SWING RIGHT
Pressure Port

10
SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
ACS Valve - Swing Hydraulic System Components
• Location and identification of Major swing hydraulic system components located on the front of the ACS Valve are:
the swing hydraulic system
components located on the front • SWING LEFT Pressure Port (1): Directs high pressure oil from the swing
of the ACS Valve control valve to the SWING LEFT inlet port of Swing Motor 1 through a high
pressure hose when the operator requests SWING LEFT.
• Brief functional description of • Swing Makeup Oil Port (2): Directs oil in the ACS valve return oil passages
the swing hydraulic system through a hose to the swing circuit when the operator requests a stop from
components located on the front swing and momentum of the upper structure causes the swing motors to
of the ACS Valve continue rotating. The makeup oil supply prevents cavitation in the swing
motors.
• SWING RIGHT Control Valve PHMV (3): ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM
to actuate the swing control valve spool that controls the flow of high pressure
oil to the inlet and direct the flow of return oil from the outlet of the swing motor
circuit during a SWING RIGHT command.
• Swing Pressure Sensor (4): Monitored by the Machine ECM and indicates
the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the swing circuit. This data is used in
controlling the rear pump, for swing system strategies, and for several other
hydraulic strategies on the machine.
• SWING RIGHT Pressure Port (5): Directs high pressure oil from the swing
control valve to the SWING RIGHT inlet port of Swing Motor 1 through a high
pressure hose when the operator requests SWING RIGHT.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -11- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


RIGHT REAR VIEW - SWING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(1)
SWING LEFT
Control Valve
PHMV

11
• Location and identification of Major swing hydraulic system components located on the rear of the ACS Valve
the swing hydraulic system are:
component located on the rear of
the ACS Valve • SWING LEFT Control Valve PHMV (1): ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM
to actuate the swing control valve spool that controls the flow of high pressure
oil to the inlet and direct the flow of return oil from the outlet of the swing motor
• Brief functional description of circuit during a SWING LEFT command.
the swing hydraulic system
component located on the rear of
the ACS Valve

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -12- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

12
Machine ECM
• Machine ECM location and Moving the seat, pedestal, and seat back completely forward and removing the soft
identification in the rear cab area, trim panel behind the seat in the cab, gains access to the B5:M1 type Machine
behind the operator seat ECM (arrow). The Machine ECM monitors the swing pressure sensor and controls
the swing PHMVs.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -13- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING SYSTEM
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION

(10) (1)
(8) Swing Drive Swing Motor
Upper Assembly Assembly
Structure

(9) (2)
Swing First Stage
Gear Planetary
Gear Set

(3)
Second Stage
Planetary
Gear Set

(4)
Lube Oil
Drain Valve

(5)
Pinion Shaft
(6) and Gear
(7) Swing
Undercarriage Bearing
13
Swing System Mechanical Component Identification and Operation
• Component identification of the The swing systems for the 374F and 390F both use two swing drive assemblies.
swing drive assembly The following explanation applies to both swing drive assemblies in both machines.
Each swing drive assembly contains a double-reduction planetary gear system. The
• High level explanation of the swing drive planetary gears reduce the rotational speed, but increase the torque of
swing drive mechanical operation the swing motor.
The Swing Motor Assembly (1) is bolted to the top of the Swing Drive Assembly (10).
The swing motor provides the rotational power input to the swing drive assembly.
The double reduction planetary gear system inside the swing drive housing consists
of a First Stage Planetary Gear Set (2) and a Second Stage Planetary Gear Set (3).
The splined swing motor output shafts drives the sun gear in the first stage planetary
gear set. The first stage planetary gear set drives the sun gear of the second stage
planetary gear set, which drives the Pinion Shaft and Gear (5). The pinion gear is
the rotational power output of the swing drive assembly.
The swing drive is bolted to the Upper Structure (8). The gear teeth of the swing
drive pinion gear engage with the gear teeth on the inner diameter of the Swing
Gear (9), which is part of the Swing Bearing (6) assembly. The swing gear and
swing bearing are bolted to the Undercarriage (7), or carbody.
As the pinion shafts rotate around the inside of the swing gear, they cause the upper
structure to rotate, or swing about the undercarriage.
Also shown above is the Lube Oil Drain Valve (4), which is used to drain the lube oil
from the swing drive housing, when needed. Both assemblies have a drain valve.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -14- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

6 7
8

4
4

2 1
3
14
374F Swing Drive Assemblies - Component Identification
• 374F swing motor assembly Swing drive assembly 1 (1) is located forward of the ACS valve, on the right side of
component identification: the machine. Swing drive assembly 2 (2) is located on the left side of the machine.
-- Swing drive assembly 1 (1) The swing drive lube oil fill tubes (6) contain lube level gauges (dipsticks). The
breathers (4) for the swing drive assemblies prevent internal case pressures from
-- Swing drive assembly 2 (2) building as the lube oil and swing drive components heat up from swing operation.
-- Pilot supply line (3) to swing A pilot supply line (3) delivers or drains pilot oil to and from the swing brake
brake solenoid valve solenoid valve, which is installed in the manifold beneath the hose fitting on swing
-- Swing drive housing drive assembly 2. Pilot pressure oil from the pilot manifold is used to RELEASE
breathers (4) the swing parking brake. Draining the pilot pressure oil ENGAGES the swing
parking brake.
-- Swing relief valves (5)
The swing relief valves (5) are installed in the rear of the swing motor assembly
-- Swing drive lube oil fill tubes housings and open to relieve the initial high pressures at swing start.
and dipsticks (6)
Case drain oil from the swing motors is returned to the case drain oil filter for
-- Swing makeup and relief oil motors through the hoses (8) connected to the top the swing drive assemblies.
lines (7)
Relief oil from the swing relief valves is directed to the return oil passages in the
-- Swing motor case drain ACS valve through the makeup hose (7) that is connected to the top center port of
hoses (8) the swing drive assemblies. The internal swing motor makeup valves also draw oil
-- Inlet manifold (9), containing from the return oil system through this hose when required.
the swing ant-reaction valves The swing anti-reaction valves are installed in the high pressure supply oil inlet
manifold (9), at the front of swing drive assembly 2. (The anti-reaction valves are
sometimes called cushion valves.)

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6 8
5
9
1

4
8

7
4
2
5 3
6 15
390F Swing Motor Assemblies - Component Identification
• 390F swing motor assembly Shown above are the swing motors and related components for the 390F
component identification
• Swing drive 1 assembly (1)

• Swing drive 2 assembly (2)

• Pilot supply line (3) to and from the swing brake solenoid valve, installed in the
manifold beneath the hose fitting on swing motor 2

• Breathers (4) for the swing drive assemblies

• The swing relief valves (5)

• Swing drive lube oil fill tubes (6) and lube level gauges (dipsticks)

• Makeup and relief hoses (7)

• Case drain oil hoses (8)

• Anti-reaction valves (9), installed beneath the manifold at the right side of
swing drive 1 assembly

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -16- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System
(2) (3)
(1)
Rear Pilot Oil
Front
Pump Pump
Pump

(15)
From Pilot

Drain
Pilot
Pilot
Manifold
(6)
Front Pump
(4) Bypass Cut
Rear Pump (22) Main
Hydraulic Relief Spool
Bypass Cut SWING MOTOR 1
Valves (16) SWING MOTOR 2
PHMV
Swing
(21) Brake
(7)
(5) Front Pump Makeup
Rear Pump (17)
Bypass Cut Valves
Bypass Cut Swing
PHMV Brake
Spool
Solenoid
(20) Valve
Relief
Valves
Return Oil Return Oil

Right Left
(9)
(8) (10) Swing Swing RIGHT
Swing LEFT Control Valve PHMV
PHMV
(18) Anti-Reaction
(12) To Valves
Boom/Bucket (19) Relief and Makeup Line
ACS VALVE IMV Sections
(11) To
Stick IMV
CENTER SECTION
Section
(14)
(13) Combiner
Combiner Valve PHMV
Valve

Return Oil Return Oil


Pilot

Pilot

374F / 390F SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Pilot

Pilot

SWING HOLD - NEUTRAL

16
SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION
Swing HOLD - NEUTRAL
• Explanation of the swing The swing hydraulic system controls the rotation of the upper structure above the
hydraulic system in the stationary undercarriage. Left and right rotation of the upper structure is achieved
NEUTRAL condition by the rotation of the two swing motors in either direction.
The Rear Pump (2) provides oil flow for the swing circuit. Rear pump oil flow is
• Explanation of component directed to the Swing Control Valve (10), which is located in the ACS Valve Center
functions in the swing hydraulic Section. The swing control valve determines the direction and rate of oil flow to
system the swing motors. The direction and flow rate of oil flow determines the speed and
direction of rotation for the swing motors.
Pilot pressure oil From the Pilot Manifold (15) is sent to the ACS valve center
section and is directed to the Swing LEFT PHMV (8), the Swing RIGHT PHMV (9)
and the Swing Brake Solenoid Valve (17). The swing brake solenoid valve is
installed on Swing Motor 2 and controls the Swing Brake (16) in both swing motors.
The swing brakes are spring applied and hydraulically released. In the NEUTRAL
condition, the swing brake solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, which causes the valve to
drain the oil from beneath the swing brake pistons, keeping the brakes ENGAGED.
When either of the implement joysticks is moved from the NEUTRAL position, the
joystick position sensors send PWM signals to the Machine ECM. The Machine
ECM responds by ENERGIZING the swing brake solenoid to pressurize and
RELEASE the parking brake. The swing parking brake is RELEASED with any
request for boom, stick, bucket, swing, and/or attachment movement.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -17- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

With no command for swing movement from the swing joystick, the Swing LEFT
PHMV and the Swing RIGHT PHMV remain DE-ENERGIZED. In this condition,
the bias springs and full pilot pressure from the PHMVs at either end of the spool
keep the swing control valve centered, blocking oil flow to the swing motors.
With no request for swing movement, the swing motors are held stationary by
the swing brakes, preventing rotational movement of the upper structure. With
the swing motors held by the brakes and the swing control valve spool in the
NEUTRAL position, the (blue) oil between the control valve and the swing motors is
trapped oil.
The Rear Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (4) and the Front Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (7)
are DE-ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM. This action places the Rear Pump
Bypass Cut Spool (5) and the Front Pump Bypass Cut Spool (6) to positions that
allow the oil to flow into the return oil passages of the ACS valve, maintaining
STANDBY pressure in the hydraulic system with the flow from the main hydraulic
pumps.
The following is a brief description of the remaining circuit components that are not
active when the swing system is in the NEUTRAL condition:
• Relief Valves (20): Limit the maximum pressure in the left and right swing
circuits. These dual stage relief valves initially open at a lower pressure to
reduce hesitation in the swing circuit at swing start and swing stop. They also
dissipate short duration pressure spikes, but allow for higher swing circuit
pressures to provide increased swing force.
• Anti-Reaction Valves (18): Dampen pressure spikes in the swing system
whenever swing movement is stopped. These valves inhibit counter rotation
of the swing motors when swing is stopped, which reduces swing “wag.” The
valves also help provide a smooth swing start-up.
• Makeup Valves (21): Open whenever the pressure on one side of a swing
motor circuit falls below return oil pressure. The makeup valves prevent the
motors from being starved of oil during swing slow down. The makeup valves
can also open when the upper structure is rotated by external forces but no
swing command has been requested. The makeup valves can draw return oil
from the ACS valve through the Relief And Makeup Line (19), which allows the
swing motors to rotate from an external force without being starved of oil, to
ensure a quick, smooth response upon the next swing request.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -18- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

(2) (3)
(1)
Rear Pilot Oil
(22) Front
Pump Pump
Swing Pump
Pressure
Sensor
(23)
Rear Pump
Pressure (15)

Drain
Sensor From Pilot

Pilot
Pilot
Manifold
(6)
Front Pump
(4) Bypass Cut (24)
Rear Pump (25) Main Rear Pump
Hydraulic Relief Spool
Bypass Cut Pressure SWING MOTOR 1
Valves (16) SWING MOTOR 2
PHMV Sensor
Swing
(21) Brake
(7)
(5) Front Pump Makeup
Rear Pump Valves (17)
Bypass Cut Swing
Bypass Cut PHMV
Spool Brake
Solenoid
(20) Valve
Relief
Valves
Return Oil Return Oil

Right Left
(9)
(8) Swing RIGHT
Swing LEFT (10) Swing
PHMV
PHMV Control Valve
(18) Anti-Reaction
(12) To Valves
Boom/Bucket (19) Relief and Makeup Line
(11) To ACS VALVE IMV Sections
Stick IMV CENTER SECTION
Section

(14)
(13) Combiner
Combiner Valve PHMV
Valve

Return Oil Return Oil


Pilot

Pilot

374F / 390F SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Pilot

Pilot

SWING RIGHT - START OF SWING

18
Swing Hydraulic System - Swing Right - Start of Swing

• Detailed explanation of the swing The illustration above shows the swing hydraulic system in the SWING RIGHT
hydraulic system operation in condition at the START OF SWING.
the START OF SWING RIGHT
condition When the swing joystick is moved to the full SWING RIGHT position, the PWM
signal from the swing joystick sensor causes the Machine ECM to send full PWM
current to the Swing Brake Solenoid Valve (17). When the swing brake solenoid
valve is ENERGIZED, it sends pilot pressure oil to both Swing Brake (16) pistons.
The pilot pressure oil RELEASES the swing parking brakes. (The swing parking
brakes are released before swing pump supply oil flows to the swing motors.)

With the swing request, the Machine ECM sends a PWM signal to ENERGIZE the
Swing RIGHT PHMV (9) in direct proportion to the amount of movement of the swing
joystick and considering other inputs. When ENERGIZED, the Swing Right PHMV
begins to drain the pilot pressure oil at the right end of the Swing Control Valve (10)
spool. This action allows the pilot pressure at the left end to shift the valve spool to
the RIGHT.

With the control valve spool shifted to the right, high pressure supply oil from the
Rear Pump (2) flows to both swing motors, causing the swing motors to rotate,
which causes the upper structure to rotate in a clockwise (CW) direction. Return
oil from the two swing motors combines and flows back to the swing control valve,
which directs the oil into the return oil passages of the ACS valve.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -19- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

At the same time, the Machine ECM responds by performing the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the Rear Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (4), which causes the Rear
Pump Bypass Cut Spool (5) to close off rear pump oil flow into the tank
passages of the ACS valve.
• Proportionally ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (14), which moves the
Combiner Valve (13) to the CLOSED position, preventing front pump oil from
combining with rear pump oil.
• DE-ENERGIZES the Stick Side Warming Valve (not shown), blocking rear
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to the
ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves (25), placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.

The right Anti-Reaction Valve (18) shifts at the start of swing to ensure a smooth
swing start. This shift directs some of the high pressure oil into the low pressure
side of the circuit, which dampens the sudden pressure increase in the pressure
side of the hydraulic circuit. The Relief Valves (20) on the pressure side of the
circuit can open if the oil pressure exceeds the pressure setting of the valve.

If the machine is positioned on a slope and the swing right command causes the
upper structure to rotate toward the downhill side, the weight of the upper structure
and gravity can place the swing motors in an overspeed condition. If this condition
occurs, the pressure in the return oil side of the circuit can become higher than the
pump supply side of the circuit. In this situation, the swing motors begin to draw
more oil than the swing pump and control valve are supplying, which causes the
Makeup Valves (21) to open, supplementing the pump supply oil. In this fashion,
the makeup valves prevent cavitation in the swing motors.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -20- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System
(2) (3)
Pilot Oil (1)
(22) Rear Front
Pump Pump
Swing Pump
Pressure
Sensor
(23)
Rear Pump
Pressure (15)

Drain
Sensor From Pilot

Pilot
Pilot
Manifold
(6)
Front Pump
(4) Bypass Cut (24)
Rear Pump (25) Main Rear Pump
Hydraulic Relief Spool
Bypass Cut Pressure SWING MOTOR 1
Valves (16) SWING MOTOR 2
PHMV Sensor
Swing
(21) Brake
(7)
(5) Front Pump Makeup
Rear Pump Valves (17)
Bypass Cut Swing
Bypass Cut PHMV
Spool Brake
Solenoid
(20) Valve
Relief
Valves
Return Oil Return Oil

Right Left
(9)
(8) Swing RIGHT
Swing LEFT (10) Swing
PHMV
PHMV Control Valve
(18) Anti-Reaction
(12) To Valves
Boom/Bucket (19) Relief and Makeup Line
(11) To ACS VALVE IMV Sections
Stick IMV CENTER SECTION
Section

(14)
(13) Combiner
Combiner Valve PHMV
Valve

Return Oil Return Oil


Pilot

Pilot

374F / 390F SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Pilot

Pilot

SWING RIGHT - FULL SPEED


20
Swing Hydraulic System - Swing Right - Full Speed
• Detailed explanation of the swing The illustration above shows the swing hydraulic system in the
hydraulic system operation in SWING RIGHT - FULL SPEED condition.
the FULL SPEED SWING RIGHT
condition In the FULL SWING RIGHT condition, the swing motor is at the commanded
rotational speed. The pressure on the supply side of the swing motors has
decreased enough for the Relief Valves (20) to CLOSE, which is indicated to
• Swing motor has achieved the the Machine ECM by the Swing Pressure Sensor (22). The Machine ECM
commanded rotational speed proportionally decreases the current to the Pump 2 NFC PRV solenoid to
UPSTROKE the rear pump to meet the flow demand from the swing request.
• Relief valve is CLOSED and
anti-reaction valves are equalized The pressures are equalized at both Anti-Reaction Valves (10) when the
commanded swing speed is attained, but they can shift to help dampen any spikes
• When swing speed is attained, in pressure during the swing operation. The anti-reaction valves will also help
pump pressure is low enough to cushion the shock to the upper structure at SWING STOP.
deactivate the swing relief loss If the machine is positioned on a slope and the SWING RIGHT command causes
strategy - pump UPSTROKES the upper structure to rotate toward the downhill side, the weight of the upper
structure and the force of gravity can place the swing motor in an overspeed
• If swing motors go into an condition. If this condition occurs, the pressure in the return oil side of the circuit
OVERSPEED condition, the can become higher than the pump supply side of the circuit. In this situation, the
makeup valves OPEN and draw swing motor begins to draw more oil than the pump and control valve is supplying,
oil from relief and makeup line which would cause the left Makeup Valves (20) to open, supplementing the pump
supply oil via the Relief and Makeup Line (19). In this fashion, the makeup valves
• SWING LEFT operates in the prevent cavitation in the swing motor.
same manner, but in opposite The SWING LEFT condition operates in the same manner as SWING RIGHT.
direction

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -21- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System
(2) (3)
Pilot Oil (1)
(22) Rear Front
Pump Pump
Swing Pump
Pressure
Sensor
(23)
Rear Pump
Pressure (15)

Drain
Sensor From Pilot

Pilot
Pilot
Manifold
(6)
Front Pump
(4) Bypass Cut (24)
Rear Pump (25) Main Rear Pump
Hydraulic Relief Spool
Bypass Cut Pressure SWING MOTOR 1
Valves (16) SWING MOTOR 2
PHMV Sensor
Swing
(21) Brake
(7)
(5) Front Pump Makeup
Rear Pump Valves (17)
Bypass Cut Swing
Bypass Cut PHMV
Spool Brake
Solenoid
(20) Valve
Relief
Valves
Return Oil Return Oil

Right Left
(9)
(8) Swing RIGHT
Swing LEFT (10) Swing
PHMV
PHMV Control Valve
(18) Anti-Reaction
(12) To Valves
Boom/Bucket (19) Relief and Makeup Line
(11) To ACS VALVE IMV Sections
Stick IMV CENTER SECTION
Section

(14)
(13) Combiner
Combiner Valve PHMV
Valve

Return Oil Return Oil


Pilot

Pilot

374F / 390F SWING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Pilot

Pilot

MAKEUP OPERATION - STOP FROM SWING RIGHT


21
Swing Hydraulic System - Makeup Operation - Stop From Swing Right
• Explanation of the swing circuit The illustration above shows the swing hydraulic circuit in the MAKEUP OIL
state in the MAKEUP OIL OPERATION condition caused by a STOP FROM SWING RIGHT.
CONDITION from a STOP FROM
SWING RIGHT When the swing joystick is returned to the NEUTRAL position after a SWING
RIGHT command, the PWM signal from the swing joystick position sensor causes
the Machine ECM to DE-ENERGIZE the Swing Right PHMV (9) solenoid, which
• Pilot supply blocked to swing causes the PHMV to pressurize the pilot chamber at the right end of the Swing
spool and spool is centered Control Valve (10) spool. The spool’s centering springs then return the spool to
its centered position, which blocks the flow of pump supply oil to, and the flow
• Pump and return oil to/from the of return oil from the swing motors. At the same time, the Machine ECM also
swing motor is blocked - flow to performs the following actions:
pump regulator reduces flow to
STANDBY • DE-ENERGIZE the Rear Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (4), which causes the Rear
Pump Bypass Cut Spool (5) to shift, allowing rear pump oil to flow into the
• Right relief valve opens and left return oil passages of the ACS valve, maintaining STANDBY pressure in the
makeup valve opens rear pump hydraulic circuits.
• Maintains the same current to the Combiner Valve PHMV (14), which keeps
• Anti-reaction valves dampen the the Combiner Valve (13) in the CLOSED position, preventing front pump oil
pressure shocks back and forth from combining with rear pump oil.
• DE-ENERGIZES the Lift Mode Solenoid, draining pilot pressure oil to the ends
of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves (25), placing the hydraulic system in Low
Pressure Relief Mode.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -22- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

Although the oil flow to and from the swing motors is stopped by the swing control
valve spool, the machine’s upper structure continues to rotate because of its mass
and the resulting inertia. Due to the mechanical connection between the upper
structure and the swing motors, the continued movement of the upper structure
causes the swing motors to operate like a pump. This condition causes the oil
pressure to rise rapidly on the right side of the swing motor circuit and a negative
pressure (vacuum) is created on the left side of the swing motor circuit.
The right Relief Valves (20) OPEN to vent the pressure oil into the Relief And
Makeup Line (19) from the initial pressure spike created at SWING STOP. The
negative pressure on the left side of the swing motor circuit causes the left Makeup
Valves (21) to OPEN. The pressure oil from the relief valves is then returned to the
negative pressure side of the circuit through the makeup valve.
The Anti-Reaction Valves (18) help dampen the stop at the end of rotation of the
upper structure. The orifice at the left anti-reaction valve creates an initial low
pressure beneath the valve while high pressure oil is present at the top of the
valve. This imbalance in pressure causes the anti-reaction valve to shift, venting
some of the high pressure oil into the low pressure side of the circuit. This action
helps dampen the pressure spikes in the circuit. (A more detailed explanation of
the anti-reaction valves is found later in this module.)
Because damage can occur to the swing motors if the Swing Brakes (16) are
applied before all upper structure movement has ceased, the Machine ECM does
not apply the swing brake immediately. The Machine ECM DE-ENERGIZES
the Swing Brake Solenoid Valve (17) approximately 6.5 seconds after the swing
joystick position sensor indicates there is no swing request. When the swing brake
solenoid valve is DE-ENERGIZED, the pilot pressure oil to the brakes is drained,
allowing the brake springs to ENGAGE the swing brakes. This time delay ensures
the swing brake does not engage completely until the rotation of the swing motors
has ceased.

NOTE: This schematic is also representative of the condition when an


external force would try to rotate the upper structure when no command for
rotation has been requested.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -23- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING MOTOR (5) (4)

(11) (11)

(11) (10)
Relief
Valves
(5)
Swing Brake
Solenoid Valve
(12)
Makeup (6) (4) Brake Piston
Valves Case
Drain (3) Barrel (2) Retainer

(1)
Drive Shaft

(14) (7) (8) (9) (10)


(13)
Port Plate Piston Discs Shoe Plate
Supply Oil or
and Plates
Return Oil Passage
23
SWING MOTOR OPERATION
• Identification of the swing motor The swing motor assembly consists of three groups:
components
- rotary group • Rotary group: Consists of the Barrel (3), the Pistons (7), the Shoes (9), the
- parking brake group Retainers (2), the Port Plate (14), the Plate (10), and the Drive Shaft (1).
- valve group • Brake group: Consists of the swing brake assembly, containing the Discs and
Plates (8), springs, and Brake Piston (4).
• Explanation of the swing motor • Valve group: Consists of the Relief Valves (11) and Makeup Valves (12)
operation within the swing motor assembly.

The swing control valve directly supplies high pressure pump supply oil to the
swing motors and directs return oil back to tank through the Supply Oil And Return
Oil Passages (13) in the swing motor heads.

Pump supply oil from the swing control valve flows into the swing motor supply oil
passage, past the makeup valve and the relief valve, through openings in the port
plate, and then into the piston cylinders.

The pistons are set in shoes that are held against the surface of the plate by
retainers. As the pump supply oil fills and pressurizes each piston, it is forced
outward (RIGHT) from its cylinder in the barrel. The force of the piston moving
outward causes the shoe and the piston to slide upward along the slope of the
plate.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -24- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

This sliding force causes the cylinder barrel to rotate. Since the barrel is splined to
the drive shaft, the drive shaft rotates with the barrel. The drive shaft is the input
to the planetary gear set that reduces the speed and increases the torque of the
motor in order to cause the rotation of the upper structure.

As each piston and shoe reaches the top center position of the plate, the piston is
closed off from the pressure passages in the port plate and becomes open to the
return oil passages in the port plate. As the barrel rotates, each piston is moved
back inward (LEFT) as the shoe and the piston slide downward along the slope of
the plate. As each piston moves inward, it forces the oil from its cylinder through
the return oil passages of the port plate and then into the return oil passage in the
motor head. The return oil flows past the relief and makeup valves in the motor
head and then back to the swing control valve.

Depending on the swing direction commanded by the swing joystick, the swing
control valve directs the pump supply oil through one passage or the other, causing
the motor to turn in a CW direction or in a CCW direction, which determines the
direction of swing.

The pistons and shoes are designed to allow a small amount of oil to leak through
the head of the piston and the shoe to provide lubrication and cooling between the
shoes and the plate. This oil fills the motor case and further provides cooling and
lubrication for the rest of the components in the motor. When the motor case fills
with oil, it is drained through the Case Drain Port (6) to the case drain oil filter for
motors and then into the hydraulic tank.

Operation of the swing brake, the makeup valves, and the relief valves are
discussed in more detail later in this presentation.

NOTE: The anti-reaction (cushion) valves are installed in the inlet manifold,
which is attached to the swing motor. Although they are an important part
of the swing hydraulic circuit, they are not part of the swing motor.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -25- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING BRAKE
ENGAGED

(5) (6) (7) (8) (9)


Barrel Housing Brake Brake Passage to
Spring Piston Brake Piston
(10)
Chamber
Passage
to Case

(11) Pilot Supply

(12) Spool

(4)
Brake (13) Spring
Piston
(3) (14) Pin
Brake
(2) Disc (1)
Friction Swing Brake
Plate Solenoid Valve

25
SWING BRAKE OPERATION
Swing Brakes ENGAGED
• Explanation of the swing parking The swing brake assembly is contained in the swing motor assembly and prevents
brake operation - BRAKES the rotation of the swing motor barrel. The swing brake consists of the following
ENGAGED components:
• Swing Brake Solenoid Valve (1): This ON/OFF solenoid operated valve is
installed in a manifold on Swing Motor 2. The solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED to
ENGAGE the swing brake by draining oil from the Brake Piston Chamber (8).
The solenoid is ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to send Pilot Supply (11) oil
to pressurize the brake piston chamber in order to move the brake piston UP
against the force of the brake springs, RELEASING the brakes.
• Friction Plates (2): The friction plates are mechanically connected to the
motor Housing (6) and are compressed against the discs by the force from the
brake piston.
• Brake Discs (3): The brake discs are mechanically connected (splined) to the
motor Barrel (5) and are compressed against the friction plates by the force
from the brake piston.
• Brake Piston (4): The circular brake piston is pushed DOWN against the
discs and plates by the force from the brake springs to ENGAGE the brake.
The brake piston is hydraulically pressurized to move the piston UP, away from
the discs and plates to RELEASE the brake.
• Brake Springs (7): The brake springs apply force to the top of the circular
brake piston to compress the discs and plates together.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -26- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

The swing brakes default to the ENGAGED condition when no movement of the
boom, stick, bucket, attachment, or swing is commanded. Any movement of either
joystick will cause the Machine ECM to ENERGIZE the swing brake solenoid valve
to RELEASE the swing brakes. (The brakes are ENGAGED when the engine is
OFF or when the hydraulic activation lever in the operator compartment is moved
to the LOCKED position.)

When the swing brake solenoid valve is DE-ENERGIZED, the solenoid Pin (14) is
retracted and the Spool (12) is shifted DOWN by the force of the return
Spring (13). With the spool shifted DOWN, Pilot Supply (11) oil is blocked from
entering the Passage to the Brake Piston (9). The oil in the spring chamber
beneath the spool is drained through the cross-drilled holes in the spool through
a center-drilled passage and flows UP through the center of the spool. This oil
then flows through the Passage to Case (10), which blends with the swing motor
case drain oil and is returned to the hydraulic oil tank via the case drain oil filter for
motors.

The Brake Springs (7) above the Brake Piston (8) hold the brake piston DOWN.
With the brake piston held DOWN, the discs and the friction plates are pressed
together to ENGAGE the brakes. With their mechanical connections to the barrel
and the motor housing, the friction between the discs and plates prevent the
rotation of the cylinder barrel within the swing motor, and the rotation of the upper
structure is prevented.

Since the Machine ECM does not DE-ENERGIZE the swing brake solenoid
valve until approximately 6.5 seconds after both joysticks are returned to the
NEUTRAL position, the rotation of the swing motor stops before the swing brake
is ENGAGED. If the solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED before the rotation of the swing
motor stops, damage and/or wear to the swing brake could occur.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -27- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING BRAKE
RELEASED

(12) (5) (6)


Brake Piston Brake Spring Passage to
Chamber Brake Piston (7)
Passage
to Drain

(8) Pilot Supply

(9) Spool

(10) Spring
(2)
Brake
Piston (11) Pin
(3)
Disc
(4) (1)
Friction Swing Brake
Plate Solenoid Valve

27
Swing Brakes RELEASED

• Explanation of the swing parking When either joystick is moved from its NEUTRAL position, requesting boom, stick,
brake operation - BRAKES bucket, attachment, and/or swing movement, the Swing Brake Solenoid Valve (1) is
RELEASED ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM.

When the solenoid is ENERGIZED, the solenoid Pin (11) is extended, shifting the
valve Spool (9) UP against its return Spring (10). When the spool shifts UP, Pilot
Supply (8) oil flows past the lands of the spool and then through the Passage to the
Brake Piston (6). A connecting hose directs pilot pressure oil to the swing brakes in
Swing Motor 1.

As the pilot oil pressurizes the Brake Piston Chamber (12), the Brake Piston (2)
is moved UP against the force of the Brake Springs (5). This action releases
the force compressing the Discs (3) and the Friction Plates (4), allowing them to
separate. The swing brake is RELEASED.

Some case oil flows between the discs and plates to keep them cool and lubricated
as they slide past each other. (The discs rotate with the barrel and the plates are
held stationary by the motor housing.)

When the swing brake is RELEASED, the swing motor barrel can then rotate and
the rotation of the upper structure is ENABLED.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -28- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING BRAKE
MANUAL RELEASE

(5)
Pilot Supply (4)
Spring
(2)
(3) Temporary Brake
(6)
Pin Release Screw
Spool

(1)
Swing Brake
Solenoid
Valve

(7)
To Brake Piston 28
Swing Brakes - Manual Release Procedure

• Explanation of the MANUAL If the swing brakes becomes inoperable due to failure of the Swing Brake Solenoid
RELEASE procedure for the Valve (1), the swing brakes can be RELEASED by turning the Temporary Brake
swing parking brakes (engine Release Screw (2) in a CW direction until the temporary brake release screw stops.
running)
Moving the screw IN mechanically extends the solenoid Pin (3), moving the valve
Spool (6) to the LEFT against the force of its return Spring (4). Pilot Supply (5)
oil can then flow around the lands of the valve spool To the Brake Piston (7),
RELEASING the brakes, as described earlier.

The brakes can manually be ENGAGED again by reversing this process.

The swing brakes cannot be released in this fashion, however, if no pilot oil
pressure is available to the swing brake solenoid valve. The engine must be
running and the hydraulic lock lever must be in the UNLOCKED position for the
manual brakes release procedure to work.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -29- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING RELIEF VALVE OPERATION

(1) Stem (2) Spring (3) Pressure (4) Piston


Chamber

(12)
NEUTRAL
MINIMUM SETTING

(7) Orifice (6) Dampening Chamber (5) Stop

(13)
START OF SWING
OR
PRESSURE SPIKE

(9) Orifice
(8) Drain
(10) Orifice (11) Fill Chamber
Passage

(14)
SWING STALL
MAXIMUM SETTING

29
Swing Relief Valve Operation

• Explanation of the swing relief Two dual stage, swing relief valves are located in the head of both swing motors.
valve operation for the following These relief valves limit the maximum pressure in either side of the swing motors.
conditions:
The dual stage, swing relief valves open initially at a lower pressure to reduce
-- NEUTRAL the shock of the initial high pressure in the swing circuit at swing start. The relief
valves also open to reduce the sudden pressure spike associated with swing stop
-- START OR STOP OF SWING (or or to handle short duration pressure spikes during swing operation. The relief
a pressure spike during swing valves allow for the highest swing circuit pressure that will provide the maximum
movement) swing force without causing damage to any of the components, hoses, or fittings in
the swing circuit.
-- SWING STALL
In NEUTRAL (12), the force from the Spring (2) moves the Stem (1) to the LEFT,
to the CLOSED position, and moves the Piston (4) to the right against the Stop (5).
When CLOSED, the stem is seated and prevents system pressure from entering
the Drain Passages (8).

At the START OF THE SWING condition, or if a Pressure Spike occurs (13),


system pressure at the valve’s left end moves the stem to the right, which opens
the work port to the drain passages. System pressure oil also flows through the
Orifice (7) at the left end of the stem, then through the center of the stem and into
the Pressure Chamber (3). As oil fills the pressure chamber, it flows simultaneously
through the Orifice (9) to fill the Dampening Chamber (6) and also through the right
most Orifice (10) into the Fill Chamber (11).

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -30- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

Because the surface area of the piston that is exposed to the fill chamber is larger
than the surface area of the piston exposed to the pressure chamber, the same
pressure oil on either side of the piston begins to move the piston to the left,
compressing the valve spring and the oil in the dampening chamber.

As pressure increases in the dampening chamber, it slows the movement of the


piston to the left. As the piston moves to the left, oil in the dampening chamber
is forced out of the Orifice (9) in the piston and into the pressure chamber. At
the same time, more oil flows into the fill chamber. This feature modulates the
movement of the piston to the left to gradually compress the relief valve spring,
increasing the relief valve setting.

In the Swing Stall - Maximum Setting (14) condition, the oil initially operates the
valve the same as during a pressure spike, but the piston is moved fully to the left
to compress the spring even more to the maximum spring pressure setting.

The system pressure is lowered as the high pressure oil is vented into the drain
passages. As soon as the system pressure is lowered to the setting of the relief
valve, the stem moves back to the left until it is seated, as shown in the NEUTRAL
(top) example.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -31- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

(7) Swing Motor


ANTI-REACTION VALVE
NEUTRAL
(8) Relief
Valves

(9) Makeup (6) Relief and Makeup Line


Valves

(10) Swing Motor


Supply and Return
Oil Ports

(111)
Small
Spring
(1) Swing
(12) Control Valve
Valve

RIGHT LEFT
(13) (5)
Orifice Dampening
Chamber
(14)
Ball
(4) (2)
(15) Plunger Return Oil
Large Passage
(16) (3)
Spring Piston
Stop
31
ANTI-REACTION VALVE OPERATION
• Detailed explanation of the Due to its mass and inertia, it is difficult to stop the upper structure from swing
purpose of the Anti-Reaction movement at the desired position when the swing joystick is returned to the
Valves NEUTRAL position from a swing command. Besides the dampening effect built
into the swing relief valves, anti-reaction (swing cushion) valves are used to help
• Operation in the NEUTRAL reduce the initial shock from stop and inhibit counter rotation of the swing motor.
condition With the Swing Control Valve (1) in NEUTRAL, no pump supply oil can flow to
the Swing Motor (7). Although the swing control valve blocks the flow of pump
supply oil to the swing motor, the slow return check valve (in the return oil system)
maintains a pressure slightly higher than tank pressure Return Oil Passages (2) of
the ACS valve. The Relief And Makeup Line (6) ensures oil is readily available for
the Makeup Valves (9) to draw from, in the event the upper structure is moved from
external forces, causing rotation of the swing motor.
With no swing command and/or oil flow, there are no pressure differentials present
in the swing circuit. Both Plungers (4) in the anti-reaction valves are held down by
the Large Springs (15). The Small Springs (11) hold the upper Valves (12) down
against the plungers. The Pistons (3) are held inside the bottom of the plungers by
the force of the Stops (16) at the bottom.

NOTE: The anti-reaction valves are installed at the inlet to swing


motor 1 on the 390F and are installed at the inlet to swing motor 2 on the
374F. These two valves work together with the makeup and relief valves.
Therefore, the operation of the anti-reaction valves is explained with the
operation of the rest of the circuit.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -32- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

(7) Swing Motor


ANTI-REACTION VALVE
START OF SWING
(8) Relief
Valves

(9) Makeup (6) Relief and Makeup Line


Valves

(10) Swing Motor


Supply and Return
Oil Ports

(11)
Small
Spring
(1) Swing
(12) Control Valve
Valve

RIGHT LEFT
(13) (5)
Orifice Dampening
Chamber
(14)
Ball
(17) (4)
(2)
Orifice Plunger
(15) Return Oil
Large (3) Passage
(16)
Spring Piston
Stop
32
Anti-Reaction Valve Operation - Start of Swing
• Detailed explanation of the Anti- When the swing joystick is first moved toward the SWING RIGHT position, the
Reaction Valve operation in the Swing Control Valve (1) shifts and pump supply oil flows to the Swing Motor (7)
SWING START condition through the right Swing Motor Supply Oil Port (10).
Return oil from the swing motor flows back to the swing control valve through the
left oil port. After the return oil flows across the swing control valve, it flows to the
hydraulic oil tank through the slow return check valve (in the return oil system).
The swing motor begins rotating and the upper structure begins to SWING RIGHT.
At SWING START, the right Relief Valve (8) and the left Makeup Valve (9) open to
reduce the initial pressure spike. The Machine ECM also ACTIVATES the Swing
Relief Loss Strategy to reduce the swing circuit pressure at swing start. The
swing circuit oil pressures are also sensed by the anti-reaction valves through the
supply and return oil ports as follows:
• Right Anti-Reaction Valve: The high pressure on the right side of the swing
motor is sensed through the center of the Valve (12) and the Plunger (4) to the
chamber above the Piston (3). As the pressure increases in the chamber, the
Ball (14) is moved down by the pressure sensed through the center passage
of the plunger, but cannot seal the passage through the plunger. The pressure
is sensed in the chamber above the piston. The Large Spring (15) chamber
is opened to the tank pressure in the return oil side of the circuit through the
Orifice (17). The high pressure on all the bottom surfaces of the valve and the
pressure in the piston chamber move the valve and plunger UP, against the
force of the springs and the pressure above the valve. The piston remains
DOWN, against the Stop (16).

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -33- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

• Left Anti-Reaction Valve: High pressure supply oil flows through an internal
passage to the Large Spring (15) chamber. At the same time, the Valve (12)
is open to the tank pressure on the return oil side of the circuit. The center
passages of the valve and the Plunger (4) keep the top of the Piston (3) open
to tank pressure. With high pressure beneath the plunger and the piston, the
plunger, piston, and valve all move UP, against the force of the Small
Spring (11) and the Large Spring (15). As the valve moves up, oil fills the
Dampening Chamber (5) through the Orifice (13).

NOTE: The relief and makeup valves in the SWING LEFT condition operate
identically to the SWING RIGHT explanations. SWING LEFT causes the
oil to flow and the swing motor to rotate in the opposite direction, with
component operation reflecting the change in oil flow direction.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -34- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

(7) Swing Motor


ANTI-REACTION VALVE
CONSTANT SPEED
(8) Relief
Valves

(9) Makeup (6) Relief and Makeup Line


Valves

(10) Swing Motor


Supply and Return
Oil Ports

(11)
Small
Spring
(1) Swing
(12) Control Valve
Valve

RIGHT LEFT
(13)
(5)
Orifice
Dampening
Chamber
(14)
Ball
(4) (2)
(15) Plunger Return Oil
Large Passage
(16) (3)
Spring Piston
Stop
34
Anti-Reaction Valve Operation - Constant Speed
• Detailed explanation of the After the initial increase of pressure on the right side of the Swing Motor (7) at the
Anti-Reaction Valve operation in start of the SWING RIGHT, the upper structure begins to gain momentum and
the CONSTANT SPEED condition requires less pressure to continue swing movement.

After the Makeup Valve (11) and the Relief Valve (8) have CLOSED, the Machine
ECM DE-ACTIVATES the swing relief loss strategy. The rear pump can then
UPSTROKE, increasing the flow of oil to the swing motor to meet the flow demand,
as regulated by the Machine ECM.

During the CONSTANT SPEED condition, the oil pressure on the supply side of the
swing motor decreases once the upper structure is moving and gaining momentum.
The rear pump flow rate will be adjusted by the Machine ECM to match the
operator’s swing speed request.

The valves, pistons, and plungers remain in the positions in which they were placed
at SWING START, but the pressure differential between the supply side and the
return side of the circuit is not as great.

If the swing is uphill or downhill, these pressures will vary, but the anti-reaction
valves will remain in the same condition and positions, unless the operation should
place the system into a MAKEUP OIL condition.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -35- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

(7) Swing Motor


ANTI-REACTION VALVE
MAKEUP OIL OPERATION
(8) Relief
Valves STOP FROM SWING RIGHT

(9) Makeup (6) Relief and Makeup Line


Valves

(10) Swing Motor


Supply and Return
Oil Ports

(11)
Small
Spring
(1) Swing
(12) Control Valve
Valve

RIGHT LEFT
(13) (5)
Orifice Dampening
Chamber (2)
Return Oil
(14)
(4) Passage
Ball
Plunger
(15) (17)
Large Slow Return
(16) (3)
Spring Check Valve
Stop Piston

35
Anti-Reaction Valve Operation - Makeup Oil Operation at Stop From Swing
• Detailed explanation of the Anti- When the swing joystick is returned to NEUTRAL from the SWING RIGHT
Reaction Valve operation in the command, inertia tends to keep the upper structure rotating. Pump supply oil is
SWING STOP condition blocked at the Swing Control Valve (1). The mass and momentum of the upper
structure causes the Swing Motor (7) to continue rotating. This SWING STOP
condition causes the swing motor to act as a pump.

Since the return oil from the swing motor is blocked by the swing control valve,
pressure increases rapidly on the left side of the swing motor. The return oil
passage is also blocked by the centered swing control valve, causing the swing
circuit pressure to decrease below tank pressure (vacuum) on the right side of the
swing motor.

The left Relief Valve (8) OPENS immediately to relieve some of the pressure on the
left side of the swing motor.

The right Makeup Valve (9) also OPENS to allow the relief oil into the low pressure
side of the motor to prevent motor cavitation. Some of the relief oil also flows
through the Relief and Makeup Line (6) and into the Return Oil Passages (2) in the
ACS valve. The Slow Return Check Valve (17) maintains a back pressure that is
somewhat higher than tank pressure to ensure that the makeup valve can open
quickly.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -36- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

The swing circuit oil pressures on each side of the swing motor are also sensed by
the anti-reaction valves through the Swing Motor Supply And Return Oil Ports (10)
as follows:
• Left Anti-Reaction Valve: The pressure on the left side of the swing motor
is sensed through the center of the left Anti-Reaction Valve (12) and into the
ball chamber. The Large Spring (15) chamber is opened to the negative
tank pressure through an internal passage in the valve housing. Initially, as
pressure increases in the ball chamber, the Piston (3) and Plunger (4) move
down. The Valve (12) also starts to move down from the force of the Small
Spring (11) and the high pressure above. The oil in the Dampening
Chamber (6) slows and modulates the valve’s downward movement to allow a
slow flow of oil from the ball chamber through the small internal passage to the
negative pressure side of the circuit. When the valve moves down far enough
to contact the top of the plunger, the piston chamber becomes pressurized.
The added upward force from the pressure in the piston chamber causes the
valve and the plunger to move back UP, but the piston stays DOWN, against
the Stop (16).
• Right Anti-Reaction Valve: The high pressure on the left side of the swing
motor is sensed in the Large Spring (15) chamber of the right anti-reaction
valve through an internal passage in the valve housing. The negative pressure
on the right side of the swing motor is sensed through the center passage of
the Valve (12). The change in pressures in the ball chamber moves the
Ball (14) UP against and seals the bottom of the valve. The difference in
pressure above and below starts to move the valve up, separating it from the
Plunger (4). Once the valve and the plunger separate, the high pressure from
the internal passage enters the ball chamber and equalizes above and below
the plunger and the Piston (3). The high pressure moves the valve all the way
UP and the large spring keeps the plunger and piston moved down. As the
valve moves up, oil fills the dampening chamber through the Orifice (13).

The relief and makeup valves rapidly exchange oil from the high pressure side
to the low pressure side of the swing motor. The anti-reaction valve components
have moved again, easing the changes in pressures from one side of the swing
motor to the other side.

As the pressure is relieved on the left side of the swing motor, the relief valves and
the makeup valves CLOSE and the swing motor stops. When the motor stops, the
differential of the higher pressure on the left side of the motor and lower pressure
on the right side of the motor causes the motor to start to COUNTER ROTATE.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -37- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

(7) Swing Motor


ANTI-REACTION VALVE
START OF COUNTER ROTATE
(8) Relief
Valves

(9) Makeup (6) Relief and Makeup Line


Valves

(10) Swing Motor


Supply and Return
Oil Ports

(11)
Small
Spring
(1) Swing
(12) Control Valve
Valve

RIGHT LEFT
(13) (5)
Orifice Dampening
Chamber

(14) (4) (2)


Ball Plunger
(15) Return Oil
Large Passage
(16) (3)
Spring Piston
Stop
37
Anti-Reaction Valve Operation - Start of COUNTER ROTATE
• Detailed explanation of the Anti- Due to the higher pressure on the left side of the motor (caused by the SWING
Reaction Valve operation in the RIGHT momentum at SWING STOP), the Swing Motor (7) begins to COUNTER
START OF COUNTER ROTATE ROTATE (reverse its direction). As the motor begins to counter rotate (from CCW to
condition CW), the pressure on the left side of the motor drops rapidly due to the high
pressure at SWING STOP. At the same time, the pressure on the right side of the
motor INCREASES (from the negative pressure at SWING STOP).
Since the pressures on either side of the swing motor are now below the settings of
the Relief Valves (8), no oil is vented into the Relief And Makeup Line (6). The oil
flow from the high pressure and low pressure sides of the motor can now only pass
through the anti-reaction valves.
• Left Anti-Reaction Valve: The lower pressure from the right side of the swing
motor circuit is sensed in the ball chamber and the Large Spring (16) chamber.
With these lower pressures, the large spring moves the plunger DOWN quickly,
which separates the Valve (12) and the Plunger (4). The higher pressure from
the left side of the motor circuit is sensed above the Valve. The higher pressure
plus the force of the Small Spring (11) moves the valve DOWN slowly. This time
delay in the valve’s downward movement is due to the oil in the Dampening
Chamber (5) being slowly forced through the Orifices (13). This slow downward
movement is the dampening effect that helps the upper structure settle into a
static position without an abrupt stop. Until the valve and plunger reconnect,
the ball chamber provides an orifice effect from the high pressure side of the
circuit to the low pressure side. When all movement of the upper structure has
ceased, the valve will have moved all the way down until it reconnects with the
plunger and reverts back to the position seen in the NEUTRAL condition.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -38- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

• Right Anti-Reaction Valve: With the valve and plunger already separated,
the ball chamber now creates an orifice effect from one side of the circuit to the
other. The ball remains seated against the bottom of the Valve (12), due to the
higher pressure below and the lower pressure above. However, the pressure
increase above the valve, due to the counter rotating movement, plus the force
of the Small Spring (11) begins to move the valve downward slowly. Like the
left anti-reaction valve, this time delay in the valve’s downward movement is
also due to the oil in the Dampening Chamber (5) being slowly forced through
the Orifices (13). This slow downward movement adds to the dampening
effect that helps the upper structure settle into a static position without an
abrupt stop. As the pressures on both sides of the swing motor equalize and
all movement of the upper structure has ceased, the valve will have moved
all the way DOWN until it reconnects with the plunger and reverts back to the
position seen in the NEUTRAL condition.

The swing motor changes direction several times before all movement ceases.
Each time the motor reverses direction from counter rotation, the oil flow is slower
and the pressures are less than the time before. This is due to the orifices at the
dampening chambers. During the alternating pressures, the dampening chambers
depressurize, allowing both valves to be shifted DOWN by the small springs. As
the valves move DOWN, the orifice between the plungers and valves becomes
smaller until the two pieces are rejoined.

When the plungers and valves are rejoined and all oil flow has ceased, the swing
system and the anti-reaction valves are placed back in the NEUTRAL condition first
shown.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -39- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING DRIVE
(1) First Stage
Planetary Carrier
(12) Shaft
(2) First Stage
Planetary Gear

(3) Second Stage


(11) First Stage
Planetary Carrier
Sun Gear

(4) Ring Gear


(10) Second Stage
Sun Gear
(5) Second Stage
Planetary Gear

(9) Housing

Sun Gears - Red


Ring Gear - Green
Input Shaft - Orange
Planet Carriers - Pink
(6) Roller Bearing Planet Gears - Brown

(7) Pinion Shaft

(8) Swing Gear

39
SWING DRIVE - MECHANICAL OPERATION
• Component identification of the The 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators use two swing drive assemblies for
swing drive assemblies rotating their upper structures. Both swing drive assemblies are identical in
construction. The swing drive consists of a double reduction planetary gear
• High level explanation of the system. The planetary gears reduce the rotational speed, but increase the torque
swing drive mechanical operation of the swing motors. A swing motor is bolted to the top of each swing drive
assembly.

The swing drive is bolted to the upper structure. The teeth of the swing drive output
pinion shaft engage with the teeth of the swing gear, which is inside the swing
bearing. The swing gear and bearing are bolted to the lower structure (carbody).
The pinion shaft rotates around the inside of the swing gear. This rotation causes
the upper structure to rotate, or swing. The splined swing motor output Shaft (12)
drives the First Stage Sun Gear (11).

The swing drive is divided into two groups. The first group provides a double
reduction of motor speed.
• The components of the first stage reduction are:
-- First Stage Sun Gear (11)
-- First Stage Planetary Gears (2)
-- Ring Gear (4)
-- First Stage Planetary Carrier (1)

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• The components of the second stage reduction are:


-- Second Stage Sun Gears (10)
-- Second Stage Planetary Gear (5)
-- Ring Gear (4)
-- Second Stage Planetary Carrier (3)

The second group transmits the output speed and direction of the planetary gear
sets to the swing gear. The components of the second group are:
• Roller Bearings (6)
• The Pinion Shaft (7)

The roller bearings are installed in the Housing (9) and support the pinion shaft.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -41- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

PLANETARY ASSEMBLY
(1) (4)
First Stage Shaft
Planetary
Gears
(5)
First Stage
Sun Gear

(2)
First Stage (6)
Planetary Swing Motor
Carrier Output Shaft

(1)
First Stage
(3) Planetary
Ring Gear Gear

(4)
(4) Shaft
Shaft
41
• Brief explanation of the The Swing Motor Output Shaft (6) is splined to the First Stage Sun Gear (5). The
mechanical operation of the First Stage Planetary Gears (1) in the First Stage Planetary Carrier (2) mesh with
FIRST STAGE planetary gear set the First Stage Sun Gear (5). When the first stage sun gear rotates CCW, the first
operation for the swing drive stage planetary gears rotate in a CW direction on Shafts (4) that are connected to
assemblies the First Stage Planetary Carrier (2).

The Ring Gear (3) is bolted to the swing drive housing and is held stationary. The
first stage planetary gears also mesh with and move CCW around the inside of the
ring gear.

As the first stage planetary gears move CCW around the inside of the ring rear, the
first stage planetary carrier rotates CCW as it is driven by the planetary gear shafts.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -42- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

SWING DRIVE
POWER FLOW

(10) (9) (8)


Second Stage Second Stage First Stage
Planetary Carrier Planetary Gear Planetary Gear

(11) (7) Inner


Planetary Shaft Circumference

(12) Sun Gears - Red


Input Ring Gear - Green
Shaft Planet Shafts - Cat Yellow
Planet Carriers - Pink
Planet Gears - Brown
(6) Input Shaft - Orange
First Stage
Sun Gear

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


Pinion Roller Second Stage Ring First Stage
Shaft Bearings Sun Gear Gear Planetary Carrier

42
• Component identification of first The First Stage Sun Gear (6) is driven by the Input Shaft (12).
stage and second stage planetary
gear set Splines on the Inner Circumference (7) of the First Stage Planetary Carrier (5)
engage with the splines on the Second Stage Sun Gear (3). This engagement
• Brief explanation of the causes the second stage sun gear to rotate CCW when the First Stage Planetary
mechanical operation of the Carrier (5) rotates CCW.
SECOND STAGE planetary gear
set The Second Stage Planetary Gears (9) engage with the second stage sun gear.
When the second stage sun gear rotates CCW, the second stage planetary gears
• Explanation combines the rotate CW on their Planetary Shafts (11). As the second stage planetary gears
explanation of the power flow rotate CW, they move in a CCW direction around the inside of the stationary Ring
from FIRST STAGE planetary Gear (4).
gear set to the SECOND STAGE
planetary gear set to the PINION Since the second stage planetary gear shafts are connected to the Secondary
SHAFT Planetary Carrier (10), the second stage planetary carrier turns CCW. The splines
on the inner circumference of the second stage planetary carrier engage with the
splines of the Pinion Shaft (1). When the second stage planetary carrier turns
CCW, the pinion shaft rotates CCW.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -43- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

(2)
(1) Swing Gear
Pinion
Shaft

PINION SHAFT
ROTATION

43
• Explanation of pinion shaft The Pinion Shaft (1) of each swing drive engages with the inner circumference of
engagement with swing bearing the Swing Gear (2). The bearing gear is bolted to the lower structure and is
gear - rotation of upper structure stationary.
about the stationary swing gear.
As the pinion shafts rotate CCW, the pinion shafts move in a CW direction around
the inside of the swing bearing gear.

Since the swing drives (and pinion shafts) are bolted to the upper structure, the
upper structure also rotates in a CW direction around the swing bearing gear. This
rotation causes the upper structure to swing to the right (CW rotation) about the
lower structure (undercarriage).

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -44- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure technicians are


able to locate, identify, and describe the functionality of
all major components and service points of the swing
hydraulic system, describe the operation of the swing
hydraulic system, and demonstrate knowledge of the
strategies used to control the swing function.

44
PURPOSE REVIEW

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REASON

This training was necessary for technicians to be able


to properly locate and identify all major components
and service points of the swing hydraulic system,
explain system component operation, and possess
knowledge of the strategies used to control the
swing function in order to properly diagnose and
correct problems in the swing system, which ensures
customers will experience quick, accurate resolution of
swing system complaints.

45
REASON REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -46- Module 11 - Swing Hydraulic System

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Participants are now able to locate and identify all


major components and service points of the swing
hydraulic system, describe the function and operation
of components in the swing system, and demonstrate
the ability to test and properly adjust the swing
hydraulic system during lab exercises. Participants
have also demonstrated general knowledge of the
swing hydraulic system operation and described the
strategies used for controlling the swing function
during a classroom post-assessment with at least 80%
accuracy.
46
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
Participants have completed this 374F/390F Hydraulic
Excavator Swing Hydraulic System module and are able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the swing hydraulic
system and explain the swing system operation.
• Properly test and make adjustments to the components
of the swing hydraulic system.
• Describe the operation of the swing hydraulic system and
the methods and strategies used to control the swing
function.

47
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

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48
MODULE CONCLUSION

This concludes the Swing Hydraulic System module for the 374F and 390F
Hydraulic Excavators.

When used in conjunction with the Systems Operation Manuals, the Test and
Adjust Manuals, the Operation and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), and other
service publications, the information in this module will aid the service technician
in troubleshooting, testing, adjusting, and correcting problems with the swing
hydraulic system, swing system components, and the components of the ACS main
hydraulic control valve that control the swing hydraulic system.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), Service Manuals, and other related service
publications.

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