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GLOBAL SERVICE TRAINING

374F / 390F Hydraulic Excavator


BOOM, STICK, AND BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS
MODULE 10 - TEXT REFERENCE

SERV1994

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar
and may not be used without permission. © 2014 Caterpillar Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -2- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY BRIEFING��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
PURPOSE����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
REASON������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
COMPETENCY STATEMENT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
LEARNING OUTCOMES������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
BOOM, STICK, AND BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS������������������������������������������������������������ 8
BOOM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OVERVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������11
BOOM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION��������������������������������������������� 12
BOOM HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16
BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OVERVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31
BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION����������������������������������������� 32
BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OPERATION������������������������������������������������������������������������� 36
STICK HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OVERVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 40
STICK HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION��������������������������������������������� 41
STICK HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OPERATION����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 45
IMPLEMENT CYLINDERS�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53
CYLINDER SNUBBER OPERATION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 54
PURPOSE REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 55
REASON REVIEW�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 57
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58
MODULE CONCLUSION���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 59

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SAFETY BRIEFING
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
SAFETY BRIEFING

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

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PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure technicians are


able to locate, identify, and describe the functionality
of all major components and service points of the
boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits, describe the
operation of those hydraulic circuits, and demonstrate
knowledge of the strategies used to control these
implement circuits.

4
PURPOSE

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REASON

It is necessary for technicians to be able to properly


locate and identify all major components and service
points of the boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits,
explain component functions, and demonstrate
knowledge of the strategies used to control those
circuits in order to properly diagnose and correct
problems in the hydraulic circuits. These abilities
will ensure customers experience quick, accurate
resolution of implement hydraulic circuit complaints.

5
REASON

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COMPETENCY STATEMENT

At the completion of this training session, participants will be


able to locate and identify all major components and service
points of the boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits,
describe the function and operation of those circuits, and to
demonstrate the ability to test and properly adjust components
that control those circuits during lab exercises. Participants
will also be able to demonstrate general knowledge of the main
hydraulic control valve operation and describe the strategies
used for controlling the boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic
circuits during a classroom post-assessment with at least 80%
accuracy.
6
COMPETENCY STATEMENT

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
Upon completion of this 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavator
Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits module,
participants will be able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the boom, stick, and
bucket hydraulic circuits in the main hydraulic control
valve and explain their operation.
• Test and properly make adjustments to the components
of the boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits.
• Describe the operation of the boom, stick, and bucket
hydraulic circuits and the methods and strategies used to
control those circuits.
7
LEARNING OUTCOMES

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8
BOOM, STICK, AND BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS

• Explanation of the topics and This module will discuss the operation of the 374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators
circuits that will be discussed boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits in varying conditions. This module is an
during this module extension of the previous Main Hydraulic Control Valve module and will address the
strategies and further explain the operation of the individual circuits that are
• Prior to this module, the controlled by the Adaptive Control System (ACS) Main Hydraulic Control Valve.
participants should have gained
knowledge from the following The main hydraulic pumps supply high pressure hydraulic oil to the ACS Main
preceding modules for the 374F Hydraulic Control Valve (ACS valve). Pilot pressure oil from the pilot manifold
and 390F Hydraulic Excavators: is sent to the ACS valve. The electronic joysticks provide the signals that drive
the Proportional Hydraulic Modulating Valves (PHMVs). The PHMVs control the
-- Main Hydraulic Control Valve movement of Independent Metering Valve (IMV) valve spools in the ACS valve.
The IMV valve spools, in turn, control the flow of the high pressure oil to and from
-- Main Hydraulic Pumps the implement cylinders. The ACS valve determines the direction and speed of the
implement cylinders in proportion to the movement of the electronic joysticks. The
focus of this module is to address the operation of the following hydraulic circuits:
-- Pilot Hydraulic System
• The boom cylinders, RAISE and LOWER under various conditions

• The stick cylinder, IN and OUT under various conditions

• The bucket cylinder, OPEN and CLOSE

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Prior knowledge of the ACS Valve, the main hydraulic pumps, and the pilot
hydraulic system and implement controls is necessary before beginning this
module. This module will not focus on the details of these previous modules,
except for detailed explanations of the ACS valve components, related circuit
components, and strategies used to control the hydraulic system and the boom,
stick, and bucket circuits.

NOTE: Callouts in graphics or photos that are not mentioned in the text
are shown for illustration purposes only and normally will be addressed in
subsequent graphics or photos.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -10- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

4 5

10
Boom, Stick, and Bucket Circuit Components

• Identification of the boom, stick, The following pages provide explanations of the boom (2), stick (4), and bucket (6)
and bucket structures and the hydraulic circuits, which are controlled by the ACS valve. Operational control of the
controlling hydraulic cylinders boom, stick, and bucket are discussed in detail. Also discussed is the operation of:
• Boom drift reduction valve
• List of the hydraulic circuit
components related to the • Boom regeneration strategy
operation of the boom, stick, and • Stick drift reduction valve
bucket hydraulic circuits that will
• Stick regeneration strategy
also be explained
• Boom priority strategy

Two boom cylinders (1) are used to RAISE and LOWER the boom. When the
boom cylinder rods EXTEND, the boom RAISES. When the boom cylinder rods
RETRACT, the boom LOWERS.

One stick cylinder (3) is used to move the stick IN and OUT. When the stick
cylinder rod EXTENDS, the stick moves IN. When the stick cylinder rod
RETRACTS, the stick moves OUT. (Some arrangements of the 390F use two stick
cylinders, but the operation of the stick is similar.)

One bucket cylinder (5) is used to OPEN and CLOSE the bucket. When the
bucket cylinder rod EXTENDS, the bucket CLOSES. When the bucket cylinder rod
RETRACTS, the bucket OPENS.

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ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


BOOM SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(2)
Boom
PHMVs

(1)
Boom
IMV Section

(3)
Boom Drift
Reduction
Valve

11
BOOM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OVERVIEW
• Location and identification of The Boom IMV section (1) is the bottom row of four Boom PHMVs (2) on the ACS
the boom hydraulic system valve. The PHMVs operate the IMV spools, which control the flow of high pressure
components located on the ACS oil to and from the boom cylinders.
main hydraulic control valve
The four IMV spools that control boom movement are:
• Brief functional description • Head End Pump-to-Cylinder spool (HE/P-C spool): Controls the flow of oil
of the boom hydraulic system from the pump inlet in the boom section of the ACS Valve to the head ends of
components located on the ACS the boom cylinders
main hydraulic control valve • Head end Cylinder-to-Tank spool (HE/C-T spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the head ends of the boom cylinders back to the tank passages in the
ACS valve
• Rod end Pump-to-Cylinder spool (RE/P-C spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the pump inlet in the boom section of the ACS Valve to the rod ends of
the boom cylinders
• Rod end Cylinder-to-Tank spool (RE/C-T spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the rod ends of the boom cylinders back to the tank passages in the ACS
valve
The electronically controlled Boom Drift Reduction Valve (3) is installed at the boom
cylinder head end pressure port.
The ACS ECM 1 receives input signals and controls the PHMV solenoids for the
operation of the IMV spools in direct proportion to the PWM signal from the boom
position sensor in the electronic joystick, and considering engine speed, system
and circuit pressures, and other electronic inputs to the implement system.

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ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


BOTTOM FRONT VIEW - BOOM SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(1) (8)
Boom Head End Boom Rod End
Cylinder-To-Tank Cylinder-To-Tank
PHMV PHMV

(2) (7)
Boom Cylinders Boom Cylinders
Head End Rod End
High Pressure High Pressure
Port Port

(3)
Boom Drift
Reduction
Valve

(4) (6)
Boom Head End Boom Rod End
(5)
Pump-To-Cylinder Pump-To-Cylinder
Boom Section
PHMV PHMV
Load Check Valve

12
BOOM HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
ACS Valve Boom Circuit Components
• Location and identification of Major boom hydraulic system components located on the front of the ACS Valve
the boom hydraulic system are:
components located on the front
of the ACS Valve • Boom Head End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (1): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the
• Brief functional description head end of the boom cylinder during a BOOM LOWER command.
of the boom hydraulic system
components located on the front • Boom Cylinders Head End High Pressure Port (2): Directs high pressure
of the ACS Valve oil to, and receives return oil from the head ends of the boom cylinders through
a high pressure hose connected to the port.

• Boom Drift Reduction Valve (3): Controlled by the boom drift reduction
solenoid valve. The drift reduction valve prevents oil from leaking from the
head ends of the boom cylinders, and therefore, prevents the boom from
drifting down when the control lever is in NEUTRAL and the implements are
suspended above the ground.

• Boom Head End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (4): ENERGIZED by the ACS


ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the head end of the boom cylinders during a BOOM RAISE command.

• Boom Section Load Check Valve (5): Installed in the front of the boom
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SERV1994 - 05/14 -13- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

IMV valve section and is situated upstream of the oil flow to the IMV valve
spools. The load check valve prevents the boom from moving until pump
supply pressure can overcome the existing pressure in the boom circuit, which
prevents boom “droop” and boom “lag.”

• Boom Rod End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (6): ENERGIZED by the ACS


ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the rod end of the boom cylinders during a BOOM LOWER command.

• Boom Cylinders Rod End High Pressure Port (7): Directs high pressure oil
to, and receives return oil from the rod ends of the boom cylinders through a
high pressure hose connected to the port.

• Boom Rod End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (8): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM
1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the head
end of the boom cylinders during a BOOM RAISE command.

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ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LEFT REAR VIEW - BOOM SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(6)
Boom Head End
Line Relief and
Makeup Valve

(5)
(1) Boom Drift
Boom Rod End Reduction
Line Relief and Solenoid Valve
Makeup Valve

(4)
Boom Head End
Pressure Sensor
(2) (3)
Boom Rod End Boom
Pressure Sensor Inverse
Shuttle Valve

14
• Location and identification of Major boom hydraulic system components located on the rear of the ACS Valve
the boom hydraulic system are:
components located on the rear
of the ACS Valve • Boom Rod End Line Relief and Makeup Valve (1): Installed in the boom
cylinder rod end circuit and serves two purposes.
• Brief functional description -- Opens to relieve excessive pressure in the boom rod end circuit, protecting
of the boom hydraulic system the boom circuit and the hydraulic components from damage.
components located on the rear
of the ACS Valve -- Opens to draw tank oil into the boom rod end circuit when external forces
cause the boom to move downward, protecting the aforementioned
components.

• Boom Rod End Pressure Sensor (2): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the rod end of the boom
cylinder circuit. This data is for use in controlling the drive pump, the boom rod
end IMV spools, and for several hydraulic strategies on the machine.

• Boom Inverse Shuttle Valve (3): Ensures that the lower, workport pressure
is sent to adjust the boom flow control spool. This valve may be removed or
replaced by unscrewing the valve cartridge from the block bolted to the rear of
the ACS valve.

• Boom Head End Pressure Sensor (4): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the head ends of the boom
cylinder circuit. This data is for use in controlling the drive pump, the boom
head end IMV spools, and for several hydraulic strategies on the machine.

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• Boom Drift Reduction Solenoid Valve (5): Installed in the boom drift
reduction valve and is ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to allow downward
movement of the boom when there is a request for BOOM DOWN movement.

• Boom Head End Line Relief and Makeup Valve (6): Installed in the boom
cylinder head end circuit and serves two purposes:
-- Opens to relieve excessive pressure in the boom head end circuit,
protecting the boom and the hydraulic components from damage.
-- Opens to draw tank oil into the boom head end circuit when external
forces cause the boom to move upward, protecting the aforementioned
components.

Later in this module, the IMV spools will be referred to as:


• Head End Pump-to-Cylinder IMV Spool (HE/P-C IMV Spool)
• Head End Cylinder-to-Tank IMV Spool (HE/C-T Spool)
• Rod End Pump-to-Cylinder IMV Spool (RE/P-C IMV Spool)
• Rod End Cylinder-to-Tank IMV Spool (RE/C-T Spool)

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ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


HIGH SPEED BOOM RAISE
(2) (1)
Rear Pump Front Pump

(7) Swing Left (6) Swing Right

Drain
Drain

Drain

Pilot
Pilot

Pilot
Pilot

Pilot
(3) (25)
(4) (24)
Front Pump Front Pump
Rear Pump Rear Pump
(5) Main Bypass Cut Bypass Cut
Bypass Cut Bypass Cut (34) Boom Drift (35) Boom Drift
Hydraulic Spool PHMV
Spool PHMV Reduction Solenoid Reduction Valve
Relief Valves
(14)
Stick Side (13) Boom Side
Warming Warming Valve

Pilot
Valve

STICK BUCKET BOOM


SECTION SECTION SECTION

(26) HE/C-T

(33) HE/C-T
IMV Spool
PHMV
(8)
Swing Control
Valve

(27) HE/P-C
(9) Straight Travel Valve

PHMV

(32) HE/P-C
IMV Spool
(31) RE/P-C
IMV Spool
(10) Combiner Valve

(28) RE/P-C
PHMV
(15)
Pilot
Relief CENTER (36)
Valve SECTION Combiner

(29) RE/C-T

(30) RE/C-T
IMV Spool
Valve PHMV

PHMV
(11) (12)
Right Travel Left Travel
Valve Valve
Makeup

Drain
(23)
(22)
Pilot

Pilot
Pilot
Pilot

(16) Boom
Bucket
Stick Cylinders
Cylinder
Cylinder
(17) (18) (19) (20) (21)
Right Right Swing Left Left
TOP OF Travel Travel Return Travel Travel
VALVE Forward Reverse Oil Reverse Forward 16
BOOM HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION
• Explanation of the state of all The illustration above shows the hydraulic schematic of the ACS valve and the
involved components and the related boom hydraulic circuit components in the HIGH SPEED BOOM RAISE
flow of all oil through the ACS condition. When the operator moves the boom joystick all the way to the BOOM
main hydraulic control valve RAISE position, the joystick position sensor sends the full PWM signal to the
during a HIGH SPEED BOOM Machine ECM. The Machine ECM then responds by performing the following
RAISE condition actions:
• ENERGIZES the Front Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (25), which causes the Front
Pump Bypass Cut Spool (3) to shift to the RIGHT, closing off oil flow into the
return oil passages of the ACS valve.
• ENERGIZES the Rear Pump Bypass Cut PHMV (24), which causes the Rear
Pump Bypass Cut Spool (4) to shift to the RIGHT, closing off oil flow into the
return oil passages of the ACS valve.
• Fully ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (36), moving the Combiner
Valve (10) to the OPEN position, which allows front pump and rear pump oil to
combine for operation of the BOOM RAISE command.
• ENERGIZES the Pump 1 NFC PRV and the Pump 2 NFC PRV for the Front
Pump (1) and the Rear Pump (2), which causes both pumps to UPSTROKE.
• ENERGIZES the Lift Mode Solenoid to send pilot pressure oil to the ends of
both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves (5), placing the hydraulic system in High
Pressure Relief Mode.
• Ensures the Boom Side Warming Valve (13) and the Stick Side Warming
Valve (14) solenoids are DE-ENERGIZED, blocking front pump oil and rear
pump oil from flowing into the return oil passages.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -17- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

The front pump and the rear pump will only UPSTROKE enough to produce the oil
flow required for the BOOM RAISE command.

The Machine ECM determines the amount of current sent to the NFC PRV
solenoids by monitoring the joystick position sensor, the pump pressure sensors
and the boom circuit pressure sensors, as well as considering other electronic
inputs. As a result, the pumps UPSTROKE only enough to supply the oil flow
required for the demand requested.

At the same time, communications from the Machine ECM causes the ACS ECM 1
to respond by opening two IMV spools in the BOOM SECTION of the ACS valve:
• ENERGIZES the HE/P-C PHMV (27), which causes the HE/P-C IMV
Spool (32) to move to the LEFT
• ENERGIZES the RE/C-T PHMV (29), which causes the RE/C-T IMV
Spool (30) to move to the LEFT

These actions allow high pressure oil from both pumps to flow past the HE/P-C IMV
spool in the boom section, open and flow past the Boom Drift Reduction Valve (35),
then flow to the head ends of the Boom Cylinders (23).

As the cylinder head ends fill with oil, the cylinder rods begin to EXTEND. When
the cylinder rods EXTEND, oil from the rod ends of the boom cylinders flows back
to the return oil port in the boom section, past the RE/C-T IMV spool, then into the
return oil passages of the ACS valve and back to the hydraulic oil tank. The boom
RAISES.

The ACS ECM 1 monitors the boom head end and rod end pressure sensors in the
boom circuit and receives data from the Machine ECM regarding pump pressures,
joystick position, engine speed, engine speed dial setting (desired speed), and
other inputs. The ACS ECM 1 will vary the current to the two PHMV solenoids to
constantly make adjustments to the position of the IMV spools in order to maintain
the cylinder speed requested by the operator.

The next illustration will explain more detail regarding the BOOM RAISE condition
for the boom circuit.

NOTE: Callouts in this graphic, and in subsequent graphics or photos that


are not mentioned in the text are shown for illustration purposes only and
normally will be addressed in subsequent graphics or photos.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -18- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LOWER IMV SECTIONS OPERATION
BOOM RAISE
(38) (36) Combiner
Rear (37)
Valve PHMV
Pump Combiner
Valve

(10)
Bucket
Cylinder

(1)
Front
Pump (2)
Pilot
Supply

(14) RE/CT (13) RE/PC (12) HE/PC (11) HE/CT


PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(3) (9)
Rod End Head End
Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor

(8) (4)
Line Relief Line Relief
and Makeup (17) RE/PC and Makeup
Valve Spool Valve
(35)
Boom
Cylinders

(7)
Bucket Flow (18) RE/CT (15) HE/CT
Compensator Spool (5) Spool
Load (16) HE/PC
Valve Spool
Check Valve

BUCKET (6) (36)


Bucket Inverse Head End
SECTION Shuttle Valve Pressure
Sensor
(22) RE/CT (23) RE/PC (24) HE/PC (25) HE/CT
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(19)
Rod End
Pressure Sensor (33)
Drift
(20) Reduction
Line Relief Solenoid
and Makeup (27) RE/PC (32) Drift
Valve Spool Reduction
Check
Valve

(21)
Boom Flow (26) RE/CT (30) HE/CT (31)
Compensator Spool (28) Spool
(29) HE/PC Line Relief
Valve Load
Spool and Makeup
Check Valve
Valve

BOOM (34)
Boom Inverse
SECTION Shuttle Valve

18
Boom RAISE Condition

• Explanation of the state of all The illustration above shows the hydraulic schematic of the BOOM and BUCKET
involved components and the SECTIONS of the ACS main hydraulic control valve that control boom and bucket.
flow of oil through the Boom IMV The previous schematic illustrated all of the actions that take place and the related
Section of the ACS Valve during a boom hydraulic circuit components in the HIGH SPEED BOOM RAISE condition.
BOOM RAISE condition
When the operator moves the boom joystick all the way to the BOOM RAISE
• Explanation of the BOOM position, the joystick position sensor sends the full PWM signal to the Machine
PRIORITY strategy during a ECM. The Machine ECM then responds by performing the following actions:
BOOM RAISE and STICK IN • ENERGIZES both the front pump and rear pump bypass cut PHMVs, which
operation causes the front pump and rear pump bypass cut spools to close off oil flow
into the tank passages of the ACS valve, building pressure in the system.
• ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (36), moving the Combiner
Valve (37) to the OPEN position, which allows front pump oil and rear pump oil
to blend for operation of the BOOM RAISE command.
• Ensures the Boom Side Warming Valve and the Stick Side Warming Valve are
DE-ENERGIZED, blocking front and rear pump oil from flowing into the tank
passages.
• ENERGIZES the Pump 1 NFC PRV and the Pump 2 NFC PRV for the Front
Pump (1) and the Rear Pump (38), which causes both pumps to UPSTROKE.
• ENERGIZES the Lift Mode Solenoid to send pilot pressure oil to the ends
of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in High
Pressure Relief Mode.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -19- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

All of the above actions allow the combined front pump oil and rear pump oil to flow
into the Boom Section of the ACS valve. This combined oil flow then enters the
boom IMV valve section inlet and flows through the Boom Flow Compensator
Valve (21) and opens the Load Check Valve (28).

At the same time, the ACS ECM 1 ENERGIZES the HE/P-C PHMV (24) and the
RE/C-T PHMV (22). This action reduces pilot pressure from above the HE/P-C
Spool (29) and the RE/C-T Spool (26), causing them to be moved UP by the full
pilot pressure beneath. The algorithms in the ACS ECM 1 software consider the
joystick position, circuit pressures, system pressures, desired and actual engine
rpm, and other electronic inputs to determine the current sent to the solenoids on
the PHMVs, which determine the positions of the IMV valve spools. Depending on
external forces, the spools will be adjusted constantly to maintain the requested
cylinder speed, as determined by joystick position.

The oil also flows to the inactive RE/P-C Spool (27), but is blocked. The oil
pressure at the inactive spool is directed to the left side of the Boom Inverse
Shuttle Valve (34) and is at system pressure. The oil that flows past the HE/P-C
spool is at the same pressure as that in the head ends of the Boom Cylinders (35).
This is called load signal pressure. The load signal pressure is directed to the right
side of the inverse shuttle valve. Since the pump pressure is higher, the inverse
shuttle valve shifts to the right and the load signal pressure is directed to the
bottom of the boom flow compensator valve. The load signal pressure constantly
adjusts the flow compensator valve as pressures change in the boom cylinders
and/or the system.

As the oil flows from the boom IMV section, it flows to and opens the boom Drift
Reduction Check Valve (32) as it flows out to the boom cylinders. As oil fills
the head ends of the boom cylinders, the cylinder rods EXTEND and the boom
RAISES. As the cylinder rods extend, oil in the rod ends of the cylinders returns to
the boom IMV section and flows into the return oil passages of the ACS valve via
the RE/C-T spool. The position of this IMV spool is also determined by the ACS
ECM 1, which ENERGIZES the RE/C-T PHMV. The current sent to this solenoid is
also determined by similar electronic inputs as the RE/P-C PHMV.

There is an initial pressure drop as the oil flows across the flow compensator valve.
A secondary pressure drop occurs as the oil flows past the active HE/P-C Spool.
The pressure drops are directly related to the position of the IMV spool and the
position of the flow compensator valve.

Boom Priority
Since the BOOM RAISE condition places the combiner valve in the state that
allows front pump oil and rear pump oil to combine, the boom may require priority
over the stick during a combined BOOM RAISE and STICK IN request in order to
provide the proper amount of oil flow to both circuits. However, if other circuits are
being operated at the same time, the traditional BOOM PRIORITY condition may
not be activated as in previous hydraulic excavator hydraulic systems. This is due
mainly to the ACS valve having four spools to control the oil flow to any one circuit.
Previous hydraulic excavator main control valves (Back-To-Back and Side-By-Side
valves) had two spools each for controlling boom and stick.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -20- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

During combined operations of BOOM RAISE and STICK IN, the control algorithms
in the ACS ECMs and the Machine ECM consider the input signals from the
joysticks, signals from the boom and stick circuit pressure sensors, pump pressure
sensors, engine speed dial position, and other electronic inputs to determine the
amount of current to be sent to the pump-to-cylinder and cylinder-to-tank PHMVs
for both boom and stick. The flow allocation to the boom and stick circuits are
automatically adjusted by the software so that the traditional BOOM PRIORITY
strategy is not necessary. The implements will operate as requested by the
operator, however, once pump flow limits are reached these circuits could slow
down, but working pressures will be proportionally maintained according to the
operator request.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -21- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS CONTROL VALVE - BOOM IMV SECTION


BOOM RAISE
(8)
Boom
Cylinders

(7) (6)
RE/C-T
ON ON
HE/P-C
PHMV PHMV (5)
Boom
Drift
Reduction
(2) Solenoid
Load
Check
Valve

(4)
Boom
Drift
Reduction
(1)
Check Valve
(11) (9) (10) Flow (3)
Tank RE/C-T Pump Compensator HE/P-C
Passage IMV Spool Inlet Valve IMV Spool
21
• Explanation of the oil flow from The image above is representative of the oil flow path from the Pump Inlet (10) to
the pump inlet to the boom the Boom Cylinders (8) in the BOOM RAISE condition. This image shows the
cylinders and return oil flow physical flow path shown in the previous schematic and does not illustrate the
back to tank in the BOOM RAISE pressure drops across valve spools as shown in the schematic.
condition
When the operator moves the joystick to the BOOM RAISE position, the ACS
• This image is a valve cutaway ECM 1 ENERGIZES the HE/P-C PHMV (6) and the RE/C-T PHMV (7), which
that is representative of the reduces the pilot pressure oil above the HE/P-C IMV Spool (3) and the RE/C-T IMV
previous hydraulic schematic, Spool (9). This action allows both affected IMV spools to move UP.
but without illustrating the
pressure drops across the valve Pump supply oil enters the Boom IMV valve section at the pump inlet and flows
spools through the holes in the periphery of the Flow Compensator Valve (1), then up
through the center to the Load Check Valve (2). When the pressure of the pump
supply oil becomes greater than the existing oil pressure in the passage to the
cylinder head ends, the load check valve opens UP. Pump supply oil then flows
past the load check valve and across the HE/P-C IMV spool to the Boom Drift
Reduction Check Valve (4). The initial pressure opens the drift reduction check
valve and the oil flows to the head ends of the boom cylinders.

As the oil flows into the head ends of the cylinders, the cylinder rods EXTEND
and the BOOM RAISES. As the cylinder rods extend, the oil in the rod ends of
the boom cylinders flows back to the return oil port in the Boom IMV section. The
return oil enters the IMV section and flows through the return oil passage and
across the RE/C-T IMV spool into the Tank Passage (11).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -22- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LOWER IMV SECTIONS OPERATION
BOOM LOWER WITH RESISTANCE (DIG)
(38) (36) Combiner
Rear (37)
Valve PHMV
Pump Combiner
Valve

(10)
Bucket
Cylinder

(1)
Front
Pump (2)
Pilot
Supply

(14) RE/CT (13) RE/PC (12) HE/PC (11) HE/CT


PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(3) (9)
Rod End Head End
Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor

(8) (4)
Line Relief Line Relief
and Makeup (17) RE/PC and Makeup
Valve Spool Valve
(35)
Boom
Cylinders

(7)
Bucket Flow (18) RE/CT (15) HE/CT
Compensator Spool (5) Spool
Load (16) HE/PC
Valve Spool
Check Valve

BUCKET (6) (36)


Bucket Inverse Head End
SECTION Shuttle Valve Pressure
Sensor
(22) RE/CT (23) RE/PC (24) HE/PC (25) HE/CT
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(19)
Rod End
Pressure Sensor (33)
Drift
(20) Reduction
Line Relief Solenoid
and Makeup (27) RE/PC (32) Drift
Valve Spool Reduction
Check
Valve

(21)
Boom Flow (26) RE/CT (30) HE/CT (31)
Compensator Spool (28) Spool
(29) HE/PC Line Relief
Valve Load
Spool and Makeup
Check Valve
Valve

BOOM (34)
Boom Inverse
SECTION Shuttle Valve

22
Boom LOWER With Resistance (Dig) Condition
• Explanation of the state of all The illustration above shows the hydraulic schematic of the BOOM SECTION and
involved components and the BUCKET SECTION of the ACS main hydraulic control valve in the BOOM LOWER
flow of oil through the Boom condition, with resistance to movement (digging). When the operator moves the
IMV Section of the ACS Valve boom joystick to the BOOM LOWER position, the joystick position sensor sends a
during a BOOM LOWER WITH PWM signal to the Machine ECM. The Machine ECM then responds by performing
RESISTANCE condition (digging) the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the front pump bypass cut PHMV, which causes the front pump
bypass cut spool to close off oil flow into the tank passages of the ACS valve.
• Partially ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (36), which moves the
Combiner Valve (37) to the CLOSED position, preventing front pump oil and
rear pump oil from combining.
• ENERGIZES the Boom Drift Reduction Solenoid (33), which drains the oil from
the spring chamber and allows the Boom Drift Reduction Check Valve (32) to
open when oil flow from the cylinder head ends is present.
• Ensures the Boom Side Warming Valve is DE-ENERGIZED, blocking front
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to
the ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.
• Proportionally DE-ENERGIZES the Pump 1 NFC PRV for the Front Pump (1),
which causes the front pump to UPSTROKE. The Pump 2 NFC PRV remains
fully ENERGIZED, sending full NFC pressure to keep the Rear Pump (38) in
the STANDBY condition.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -23- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

These actions allow only the front pump oil to flow into the Bucket and Boom
Sections of the ACS valve. Front pump oil enters the boom IMV valve section inlet
and flows through the Boom Flow Compensator Valve (21) and opens the Load
Check Valve (28).

For BOOM LOWER, the ACS ECM 1 ENERGIZES the RE/P-C PHMV (23) and the
HE/C-T PHMV (25). The Pilot Supply (2) oil pressure beneath the RE/P-C
Spool (27) and the HE/C-T Spool (30) moves the IMV spools UP, allowing front
pump oil to flow to the rod ends of the Boom Cylinders (35). Return oil from the
head ends to flow back to the Boom IMV section and into the tank passage. As the
return oil flows from the cylinder head ends, it opens the boom drift reduction valve
as it flows into the boom IMV section. The cylinder rods RETRACT and the BOOM
LOWERS.

Front pump oil also flows to the inactive HE/P-C Spool (29), but is blocked. The
oil pressure at the inactive spool is directed to the right side of the Boom Inverse
Shuttle Valve (34) and is at system pressure. The oil that flows past the RE/P-C
spool is at the same pressure as in the boom cylinder rod ends (load signal
pressure). The load signal pressure is directed to the left side of the inverse
shuttle valve. Since the pump pressure is higher, the inverse shuttle valve shifts
to the left and the load signal pressure is directed to the bottom of the boom flow
compensator valve.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -24- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS CONTROL VALVE - BOOM IMV SECTION


BOOM LOWER WITH RESISTANCE (DIG)
(8)
Boom
Cylinders

(6) (7)
ON RE/P-C
PHMV
ON HE/C-T
PHMV (5)
Boom
Drift
Reduction
(2) Solenoid
Load
Check
Valve

(4)
(1) Boom
(9) (10) Flow (3) (11) Drift
RE/P-C Pump Compensator HE/C-T Tank Reduction
IMV Spool Inlet Valve IMV Spool Passage Check Valve 24
• Explanation of the oil flow from The image above is representative of the oil flow path from the Pump Inlet (10) to
the pump inlet to the boom the Boom Cylinders (8) in the BOOM LOWER WITH RESISTANCE condition. This
cylinders and return oil flow back image shows the physical flow path shown in the previous schematic.
to tank in the BOOM LOWER
WITH RESISTANCE condition When the operator moves the joystick to the BOOM LOWER position, the ACS
ECM 1 ENERGIZES the RE/P-C PHMV (6) and the HE/C-T PHMV (7), which
reduces the pilot pressure above the HE/C-T IMV Spool (3) and the RE/P-C IMV
• This image is a valve cutaway Spool (9). This action allows the respective IMV spools to move UP.
that is representative of the
previous hydraulic schematic, Pump supply oil enters the Boom IMV valve section at the pump inlet and flows
but without illustrating the through the holes in the periphery of the Flow Compensator Valve (1), then up
pressure drops across the valve through the center to the Load Check Valve (2). When the pressure of the pump
spools supply oil becomes greater than the existing oil pressure in the passage to the
cylinder rod ends, the load check valve opens UP. Pump supply oil then flows past
the load check valve through internal valve passages to the left high pressure port
and out to the rod ends of the boom cylinders.
At the same time, the Machine ECM ENERGIZES the Boom Drift Reduction
Solenoid (5), which drains the oil in the spring chamber to the right of the boom
drift reduction valve. This action allows the return oil flow to open the Boom Drift
Reduction Check Valve (4) and then flow into the Boom IMV section.
As the oil flows into the rod ends of the cylinders, the cylinder rods RETRACT and
the BOOM LOWERS. As the cylinder rods RETRACT, the oil in the head ends
of the boom cylinders flows back to the right high pressure port in the Boom IMV
section. As the return oil enters the IMV section, it opens and flows past the drift
reduction valve, then flows across the HE/C-T IMV spool into the Tank Passage (11).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -25- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LOWER IMV SECTIONS OPERATION
BOOM LOWER WITH REGENERATION
(38) (36) Combiner
Rear (37)
Valve PHMV
Pump Combiner
Valve

(10)
Bucket
Cylinder

(1)
Front
Pump (2)
Pilot
Supply

(14) RE/CT (13) RE/PC (12) HE/PC (11) HE/CT


PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(3) (9)
Rod End Head End
Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor

(8) (4)
Line Relief Line Relief
and Makeup (17) RE/PC and Makeup
Valve Spool Valve
(35)
Boom
Cylinders

(7)
Bucket Flow (18) RE/CT (15) HE/CT
Compensator Spool (5) Spool
Load (16) HE/PC
Valve Spool
Check Valve

BUCKET (6) (36)


Bucket Inverse Head End
SECTION Shuttle Valve Pressure
Sensor
(22) RE/CT (23) RE/PC (24) HE/PC (25) HE/CT
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(19)
Rod End
Pressure Sensor (33)
Drift
(20) Reduction
Line Relief Solenoid
and Makeup (27) RE/PC (32) Drift
Valve Spool Reduction
Check
Valve

(21)
Boom Flow (26) RE/CT (30) HE/CT (31)
Compensator Spool (28) Spool Line Relief
Valve Load
(29) HE/PC and Makeup
Check Valve
Spool Valve

BOOM (34)
Boom Inverse
SECTION Shuttle Valve

25
Boom LOWER With Regeneration Condition
• Explanation of the state of all The schematic above shows the BOOM SECTION of the ACS valve in the BOOM
involved components and the LOWER WITH REGENERATION condition (no resistance to lowering). Boom
flow of oil through the Boom regeneration does not require the use of additional components as in previous
IMV Section of the ACS Valve excavators, but is accomplished by opening a third IMV valve spool.
during a BOOM LOWER WITH
REGENERATION condition When the operator moves the boom joystick to the BOOM LOWER position, the
joystick position sensor sends a PWM signal to the Machine ECM. Because there
is no resistance to the boom lowering, the boom Head End Pressure Sensor (36)
detects a higher pressure than does the boom Rod End Pressure Sensor (19).
This condition causes the ACS ECM 1 to control the Boom IMV section differently
than in a normal boom lower condition. Since there is more oil being exhausted
from the boom cylinder head ends than is needed to fill the rod ends, head end
oil is used to fill the rod ends and the Front Pump (1) need not UPSTROKE. The
Machine ECM then responds by performing the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the front pump bypass cut PHMV, which causes the front pump
bypass cut spool to close off oil flow into the tank passages of the ACS valve.
• Partially ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (36), which moves the
Combiner Valve (37) to the CLOSED position, preventing front pump oil and
rear pump oil from combining.
• ENERGIZES the Boom Drift Reduction Solenoid (33), which drains the oil from
the spring chamber and allows the Boom Drift Reduction Check Valve (32) to
open when oil flow from the cylinder head ends is present.
• Ensures the Boom Side Warming Valve is DE-ENERGIZED, blocking front
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -26- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to
the ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.
• ENERGIZES the Pump 1 NFC PRV for the Front Pump (1), which places the
front pump in the STANDBY condition. The Pump 2 NFC PRV remains fully
ENERGIZED, sending full NFC pressure to keep the Rear Pump (38) in the
STANDBY condition.

These actions allow only the front pump oil to flow into the BOOM SECTION of the
ACS valve. Initially, front pump oil enters the boom IMV valve section inlet and
flows through the Boom Flow Compensator Valve (21) and opens the Load Check
Valve (28).

As in the BOOM LOWER condition, the ACS ECM 1 ENERGIZES the RE/P-C
PHMV (23). But because of the REGENERATION condition, the ACS ECM 1 only
partially ENERGIZES the HE/C-T PHMV (25). In addition, the ACS ECM 1 partially
ENERGIZES the HE/P-C PHMV.

The ACS ECM 1 must consider the amount of signal from the boom position
sensor and the pressures detected in the rod end and head end oil passages,
as well as other input signals to determine the current values sent to the PHMV
solenoids. Algorithms in the software then adjust the current values to reduce, but
not completely drain the pilot pressure oil above the HE/P-C Spool (29) and the
HE/C-T Spool (30). This action allows the pilot pressure beneath the HE/P-C to
move them to a position that allows just the right volume of oil to flow across the
HE/P-C spool to the RE/P-C spool. This oil then flows to the boom cylinder rod
ends. The HE/C-T spool is positioned so that the remainder of the head end return
oil flows into the tank passage.

The cylinder rods RETRACT and the BOOM LOWERS with REGENERATION.
This strategy keeps the front pump DESTROKED, which aids in increases in fuel
efficiencies since the engine need not work hard to power the pumps.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -27- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS CONTROL VALVE - BOOM IMV SECTION


BOOM LOWER WITH REGENERATION
(6)
Boom
Cylinders

(7)
HE/P-C
PHMV

(5) (8)

ON RE/P-C
PHMV
ON ON HE/C-T
PHMV (9)
Boom
Drift
Reduction
(2) Solenoid
Load
Check
(10)
Valve
Boom
Drift
Reduction
Check
Valve

(11)
Tank
Passage

(12)
HE/C-T
IMV Spool
(1) (13)
(4) (3) Flow HE/P-C
RE/P-C Pump Compensator IMV Spool
IMV Spool Inlet Valve 27
• Explanation of the oil flow from The image above is representative of the oil flow path from the head ends of the
the pump inlet to the boom Boom Cylinders (6), through the Boom IMV section, and then to the boom cylinder
cylinders and return oil flow back rod ends for the BOOM LOWER WITH REGENERATION condition.
to tank in the BOOM LOWER
WITH REGENERATION condition When the operator moves the joystick to the BOOM LOWER position and the
boom, stick, and bucket are suspended in the air, the ACS ECM 1 ENERGIZES
• This image is a valve cutaway the RE/P-C PHMV (5) and the HE/C-T PHMV (8), which reduces the pilot pressure
representation of the previous above the HE/C-T IMV Spool (12) and the RE/P-C IMV Spool (4). This action
hydraulic schematic allows these two IMV spools to move UP. When the boom head end pressure
sensor detects a higher pressure than the boom rod end pressure sensor, the
ACS ECM 1 recognizes the REGENERATION condition and also ENERGIZES the
HE/P-C PHMV (7). This causes the HE/C-T IMV Spool (12) to move UP, also.

Algorithms in the ACS ECM 1 software use the head end and rod end sensor data,
as well as the joystick sensor data, when determining the current values required to
be sent to the HE/C-T PHMV and the HE/C-T PHMV. The IMV spool position must
be adjusted so the correct volume of head end return oil needed to fill the cylinder
rod ends is allowed to flow to the RE/P-C IMV spool. The remainder of the head
end return oil flows past the HE/C-T IMV spool into the Tank Passage (11).

Pump supply oil, at STANDBY pressure, enters the Boom IMV valve section at the
Pump Inlet (3). When the boom initially moves DOWN (with no resistance), the
rod end circuit pressure falls below tank pressure. But because the STANDBY
pressure at the pump inlet is higher than the cylinder rod end pressure, the Load
Check Valve (2) opens UP.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -28- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

The oil from the head ends of the cylinders immediately flows past the load check
valve and into the passage to the rod ends due to the pressure differential.

Depending on the cylinder speed commanded by the joystick boom position


sensor, the rod end circuit pressure can vary. In the illustration above, the operator
has requested a slow downward movement of the boom. A high speed BOOM
DOWN command would cause the rod end circuit pressure to fall below tank
pressure. This condition would allow the rod end makeup valve to open until the
pressure rose higher than tank pressure.

The Machine ECM also ENERGIZES the Boom Drift Reduction Solenoid (11), to
allow the head end oil flow to open the Boom Drift Reduction Check Valve (10) and
then flow into the Boom IMV section.

The Flow Compensator Valve (1) moves DOWN from the initial flow of pump oil,
and then from the flow of regeneration oil during downward movement of the boom
during the regeneration condition.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -29- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

BOOM DRIFT REDUCTION VALVE OPERATION


BOOM RAISE

(1)
Boom HE/P-C (2)
IMV Spool Boom Cylinder
(1)
Boom HE/P-C Head Ends
IMV Spool
(3) (3)
Drift Drift
(2) Reduction Reduction
Boom Cylinder Solenoid Solenoid
Head Ends
(6)
Solenoid
(6) Solenoid Valve Spool
Valve Spool

(4)
Drift
Reduction
Check Valve
(5)
Spring
Chamber

29
Boom Drift Reduction Valve Operation
• Explanation of the function of the The boom Drift Reduction Valve is installed on the right side of the ACS valve,
boom drift reduction valve adjacent to the boom IMV section. The purpose of this valve is to prevent oil from
leaking from the head ends of the boom cylinders, preventing the boom from
• Explanation of the operation of drifting down when the boom joystick is in HOLD and the boom, stick, and bucket
the boom drift reduction valve in (or attachment) are suspended above the ground.
the BOOM RAISE condition The illustration above shows the boom drift reduction valve and its component
parts in the BOOM RAISE condition. A schematic of the boom drift reduction valve
is also shown for comparison.
During a BOOM RAISE command, the Machine ECM keeps the boom Drift
Reduction Solenoid (3) DE-ENERGIZED, so the Solenoid Valve Spool (6) is held to
the left by its spring. This position keeps the passage to the Boom Cylinder Head
Ends (2) connected to the Spring Chamber (5).
When the boom joystick is moved toward the BOOM RAISE position, the Boom
HE/P-C IMV Spool (1) opens to allow pump supply oil start flowing to the head
ends of the boom cylinders. The high pressure oil flow from the boom HE/P-C IMV
spool flows to the left end of the boom Drift Reduction Check Valve (4). Initially,
the high pressure oil from the IMV spool is higher than the pressure in the spring
chamber, so the drift reduction check valve cracks open. As the valve opens, oil
flow from the boom HE/P-C IMV spool flows past the drift reduction check valve
and out to the boom cylinder head ends.
As oil flow from the IMV spool INCREASES, the drift reduction check valve opens
further. The boom cylinder rods can EXTEND.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -30- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

BOOM DRIFT REDUCTION VALVE OPERATION


BOOM LOWER

(1)
Boom HE/C-T
ON
(2)
IMV Spool Boom Cylinder
(1)
Boom HE/C-T Head Ends
IMV Spool
(3) (3)
Drift Drift
(2) Reduction Reduction
Boom Cylinder Solenoid Solenoid
Head Ends ON

(6)
(7) Tank Solenoid
Passage (6) Solenoid Valve Spool
Valve Spool

(4)
Drift
Reduction
Check Valve
(5)
Spring
Chamber

(8)
Lip

30
• Explanation of the operation of The illustration above shows the boom drift reduction valve and its component
the boom drift reduction valve in parts in the BOOM LOWER condition. A schematic of the boom drift reduction
the BOOM LOWER condition valve in the BOOM LOWER condition is also shown for comparison.
During a BOOM LOWER command, the Machine ECM ENERGIZES the boom
Drift Reduction Solenoid (3), causing the Solenoid Valve Spool (6) to move DOWN,
against its spring. This spool position connects the Spring Chamber (5) to the
Tank Passage (7), relieving any pressure that may exist in the spring chamber and
allowing free movement of the check valve.
As the boom lowers, return oil from the Boom Cylinder Head Ends (2) flows into the
Boom IMV section to the boom Drift Reduction Check Valve (4). Initially, the drift
reduction check valve is held CLOSED by its spring, causing the return oil pressure
to INCREASE. The Boom HE/C-T IMV Spool (1) is OPEN, due to the BOOM
LOWER command, so the oil pressure on the left side of the drift reduction check
valve is at tank pressure.
The larger surface area of the Lip (8) on the drift reduction check valve is acted
upon by the return oil pressure to move the valve to the right, away from its seat.
Because the valve spring chamber is now at tank pressure, the flow of oil opens
the drift reduction valve far enough to accommodate the oil flow.
As oil flow from the boom cylinder head ends INCREASES, the drift reduction valve
opens further. The boom cylinder rods can then RETRACT.
When oil flow across the drift reduction check valve stops, the valve will CLOSE to
the left from the force of the spring on the right.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -31- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


BUCKET SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(2)
Bucket
PHMVs

(1)
Bucket
IMV Section

31
BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OVERVIEW

• Location and identification of The bucket IMV section is the upper row of four Bucket PHMVs (2) in the
the bucket hydraulic system (lower) Bucket IMV Section (1) of the ACS Valve. The PHMVs operate the IMV
components located on the ACS spools, which control the flow of high pressure oil to and from the bucket cylinder.
main hydraulic control valve
The four IMV spools that control bucket movement are:
• Brief functional description of
the bucket hydraulic system • Head End Pump-to-Cylinder spool (HE/P-C spool): Controls the flow of oil
components located on the ACS from the pump inlet in the bucket section of the ACS Valve to the head end of
main hydraulic control valve the bucket cylinder.
• Head end Cylinder-to-Tank spool (HE/C-T spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the head end of the bucket cylinder back to the tank passages in the ACS
valve.
• Rod end Pump-to-Cylinder spool (RE/P-C spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the pump inlet in the bucket section of the ACS Valve to the rod end of
the bucket cylinder.
• Rod end Cylinder-to-Tank spool (RE/C-T spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the rod end of the bucket cylinder back to the tank passages in the ACS
valve.

The ACS ECM 1 receives input signals and controls the PHMV solenoids for the
operation of the IMV spools in direct proportion to the PWM signal from the bucket
position sensor in the electronic joystick, and considering engine speed, system
and circuit pressures, and other electronic inputs to the implement system.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -32- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


BOTTOM FRONT VIEW - BUCKET SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(1) (7)
Bucket Head End Bucket Rod End
Cylinder-To-Tank Cylinder-To-Tank
PHMV PHMV

(2) (6)
Bucket Cylinder Bucket Cylinder
Head End Rod End
High Pressure High Pressure
Port Port

(3) (5)
Bucket Head End Bucket Rod End
(4)
Pump-To-Cylinder Pump-To-Cylinder
Bucket Section
PHMV PHMV
Load Check Valve

32
BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
ACS Valve Bucket Circuit Components
• Location and identification of Major bucket hydraulic system components located on the front of the ACS Valve
the bucket hydraulic system are:
components located on the front
of the ACS Valve • Bucket Head End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (1): ENERGIZED by the ACS
ECM 1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the
head end of the bucket cylinder during a BUCKET OPEN command.
• Brief functional description of
the bucket hydraulic system • Bucket Cylinder Head End High Pressure Port (2): Directs high pressure oil
components located on the front to, and receives return oil from the head end of the bucket cylinder through a
of the ACS Valve high pressure hose connected to the port.

• Bucket Head End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (3): ENERGIZED by the ACS


ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the head end of the bucket cylinder during a BUCKET CLOSE command.

• Bucket Section Load Check Valve (4): Installed in the front of the bucket
IMV valve section and is situated upstream of the oil flow to the IMV valve
spools. The load check valve prevents the bucket from moving until pump
supply pressure can overcome the existing pressure in the bucket circuit,
which prevents bucket “droop” and bucket “lag.”

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -33- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

• Bucket Rod End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (6): ENERGIZED by the ACS


ECM 1 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil
to the rod end of the bucket cylinders during a BUCKET OPEN command.

• Bucket Cylinder Rod End High Pressure Port (7): Directs high pressure
oil to, and receives return oil from the rod end of the bucket cylinder through a
high pressure hose connected to the port.

• Bucket Rod End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (8): ENERGIZED by the ACS


ECM 1 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the
head end of the bucket cylinders during a BUCKET CLOSE command.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -34- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LEFT REAR VIEW - BUCKET SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(1) (5)
Bucket Rod End Bucket Head End
Line Relief and Pressure Sensor
Makeup Valve

(4)
Bucket Head End
(2)
Line Relief and
Bucket Rod End
Makeup Valve
Pressure Sensor (3)
Bucket
Inverse
Shuttle Valve

34
• Location and identification of Major bucket hydraulic system components located on the rear of the ACS Valve
the bucket hydraulic system are:
components located on the rear
of the ACS Valve • Bucket Rod End Line Relief and Makeup Valve (1): Installed in the boom
cylinder rod end circuit and serves two purposes.
• Brief functional description of -- Opens to relieve excessive pressure in the bucket rod end circuit,
the bucket hydraulic system protecting the bucket circuit and the hydraulic components from damage.
components located on the rear -- Opens to draw tank oil into the bucket rod end circuit when external forces
of the ACS Valve cause the bucket to OPEN, protecting the aforementioned components.
• Bucket Rod End Pressure Sensor (2): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the rod end of the bucket
cylinder circuit. This data is for use in controlling the drive pump, the bucket
rod end IMV spools, and for several hydraulic strategies on the machine.
• Bucket Inverse Shuttle Valve (3): Ensures that the lower, workport pressure
is sent to adjust the bucket flow control spool. This valve may be removed or
replaced by unscrewing the valve cartridge from the block bolted to the rear of
the ACS valve.
• Bucket Head End Line Relief and Makeup Valve (4): Installed in the bucket
cylinder head end circuit and serves two purposes.
-- Opens to relieve excessive pressure in the bucket head end circuit,
protecting the bucket circuit and the hydraulic components from damage.
-- Opens to draw tank oil into the bucket head end circuit when external
forces cause the bucket to CLOSE, protecting the aforementioned
components.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -35- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

• Bucket Head End Pressure Sensor (5): Monitored by the ACS ECM 1 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the head end of the bucket
cylinder circuit. This data is for use in controlling the drive pump, the bucket
head end IMV spools, and for several hydraulic strategies on the machine.

Later in this module, the IMV spools will be referred to as:


• Head End Pump-to-Cylinder IMV Spool (HE/P-C IMV Spool)
• Head End Cylinder-to-Tank IMV Spool (HE/C-T Spool)
• Rod End Pump-to-Cylinder IMV Spool (RE/P-C IMV Spool)
• Rod End Cylinder-to-Tank IMV Spool (RE/C-T Spool)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -36- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LOWER IMV SECTIONS OPERATION
BUCKET CLOSE
(38) (36) Combiner
Rear (37)
Valve PHMV
Pump Combiner
Valve

(10)
Bucket
Cylinder

(1)
Front
Pump (2)
Pilot
Supply

(14) RE/CT (13) RE/PC (12) HE/PC (11) HE/CT


PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(3) (9)
Rod End Head End
Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor

(8) (4)
Line Relief Line Relief
and Makeup (17) RE/PC and Makeup
Valve Spool Valve
(35)
Boom
Cylinders

(7)
Bucket Flow (18) RE/CT (15) HE/CT
Compensator Spool (5) Spool
Load (16) HE/PC
Valve Spool
Check Valve

BUCKET (6) (36)


Bucket Inverse Head End
SECTION Shuttle Valve Pressure
Sensor
(22) RE/CT (23) RE/PC (24) HE/PC (25) HE/CT
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(19)
Rod End
Pressure Sensor (33)
Drift
(20) Reduction
Line Relief Solenoid
and Makeup (27) RE/PC (32) Drift
Valve Spool Reduction
Check
Valve

(21)
Boom Flow (26) RE/CT (30) HE/CT (31)
Compensator Spool (28) Spool
(29) HE/PC Line Relief
Valve Load
Spool and Makeup
Check Valve
Valve

BOOM (34)
Boom Inverse
SECTION Shuttle Valve

36
BUCKET HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OPERATION
Bucket CLOSE Condition
• Explanation of the state of all The illustration above shows the hydraulic schematic of the lower boom and bucket
involved components and the IMV sections of the ACS main hydraulic control valve. This schematic illustrates
flow of oil through the Bucket the actions that take place in the bucket hydraulic circuit in the BUCKET CLOSE
IMV Section of the ACS Valve condition.
during a BUCKET CLOSE
condition When the operator moves the bucket joystick all the way to the BUCKET CLOSE
position, the joystick position sensor sends the full PWM signal to the Machine
ECM. The Machine ECM then responds by performing the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the front pump bypass cut PHMV, which causes the front pump
bypass cut spool to close off oil flow into the tank passages of the ACS valve.
• Partially ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (36), which moves the
Combiner Valve (37) to the CLOSED position, preventing front pump oil and
rear pump oil from combining.
• Ensures the Boom Side Warming Valve is DE-ENERGIZED, blocking front
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to
the ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.
• Proportionally DE-ENERGIZES the Pump 1 NFC PRV for the Front Pump (1),
which causes the front pump to UPSTROKE. The Pump 2 NFC PRV remains
fully ENERGIZED, sending full NFC pressure to keep the Rear Pump (38) in
the STANDBY condition.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -37- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

All of the above actions allow idler pump oil to flow into the lower IMV valve section
of the ACS valve. This oil flow then enters the bucket IMV valve section inlet and
flows through the Bucket Flow Compensator Valve (7) and opens the Load Check
Valve (5).

At the same time, the ACS ECM 1 ENERGIZES the HE/P-C PHMV (12) and the
RE/C-T PHMV (14). This action drains pilot oil from above the HE/P-C Spool (16)
and the RE/C-T Spool (18), causing them to be moved UP by the full pilot pressure
beneath. The algorithms in the ACS ECM 1 software consider the joystick position,
circuit pressures, system pressures, engine rpm, and other electronic inputs to
determine the current sent to the PHMV solenoids. The current values determine
the position of the IMV valve spools. Depending on external forces, the spools will
be adjusted constantly to maintain the requested cylinder speed, as determined by
joystick position.

The oil also flows to the inactive RE/P-C Spool (17), but is blocked. The oil
pressure at the inactive spool is directed through the spool’s signal passages to
the left side of the Bucket Inverse Shuttle Valve (6) and is at slightly reduced pump
pressure. The oil that flows past the HE/P-C spool is at the same pressure as that
in the head end of the Bucket Cylinder (10). This is called load signal pressure.
The load signal pressure is directed to the right side of the inverse shuttle valve.
Since the pump pressure is higher, the inverse shuttle valve shifts to the right and
the load signal pressure is directed to the bottom of the bucket flow compensator
valve. The load signal pressure constantly adjusts the flow compensator valve as
pressures change in the bucket cylinder.

As the supply oil flows from the bucket IMV section, it fills the head end of the
bucket cylinder. The cylinder rod EXTENDS and the bucket CLOSES. As the
cylinder rod extends, oil in the rod end of the cylinder returns to the bucket
IMV section and flows into the tank passages of the ACS valve via the RE/C-T
Spool. The position of this IMV spool is also determined by the ACS ECM 1,
which ENERGIZED the RE/C-T PHMV. The current sent to this solenoid is also
determined by similar electronic inputs as the RE/P-C PHMV.

NOTE: Valve cutaway graphics are not provided for the Stick IMV Valve
Section and the Bucket IMV Valve Section for any of the conditions
shown with schematics. The stick and bucket PHMVs, IMV spools, flow
compensator valves, inverse resolvers, and load check valves all operate
identically to those in the boom IMV valve section.
NOTE: The bucket hydraulic circuit does not contain a drift reduction valve.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -38- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LOWER IMV SECTIONS OPERATION
BUCKET OPEN
(38) (36) Combiner
Rear (37)
Valve PHMV
Pump Combiner
Valve

(10)
Bucket
Cylinder

(1)
Front
Pump (2)
Pilot
Supply

(14) RE/CT (13) RE/PC (12) HE/PC (11) HE/CT


PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(3) (9)
Rod End Head End
Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensor

(8) (4)
Line Relief Line Relief
and Makeup (17) RE/PC and Makeup
Valve Spool Valve
(35)
Boom
Cylinders

(7)
Bucket Flow (18) RE/CT (15) HE/CT
Compensator Spool (5) Spool
Load (16) HE/PC
Valve Spool
Check Valve

BUCKET (6) (36)


Bucket Inverse Head End
SECTION Shuttle Valve Pressure
Sensor
(22) RE/CT (23) RE/PC (24) HE/PC (25) HE/CT
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV
(19)
Rod End
Pressure Sensor (33)
Drift
(20) Reduction
Line Relief Solenoid
and Makeup (27) RE/PC (32) Drift
Valve Spool Reduction
Check
Valve

(21)
Boom Flow (26) RE/CT (30) HE/CT (31)
Compensator Spool (28) Spool
(29) HE/PC Line Relief
Valve Load
Spool and Makeup
Check Valve
Valve

BOOM (34)
Boom Inverse
SECTION Shuttle Valve

38
Bucket OPEN Condition
• Explanation of the state of The illustration above shows the hydraulic schematic of the lower boom and bucket
all involved components and IMV sections of the ACS valve. This schematic illustrates the actions that take
the flow of oil through the place in the bucket hydraulic circuit in the BUCKET OPEN condition.
Bucket IMV Section of the ACS
Valve during a BUCKET OPEN When the operator moves the bucket joystick all the way to the BUCKET OPEN
condition position, the joystick position sensor sends the full PWM signal to the Machine
ECM. The Machine ECM then responds by performing the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the front pump bypass cut PHMV, which causes the front pump
bypass cut spool to close off oil flow into the tank passages of the ACS valve.
• Partially ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (36), which moves the
Combiner Valve (37) to the CLOSED position, preventing front pump oil and
rear pump oil from combining.
• Ensures the Boom Side Warming Valve is DE-ENERGIZED, blocking front
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to
the ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.
• Proportionally DE-ENERGIZES the Pump 1 NFC PRV for the Front Pump (1),
which causes the front pump to UPSTROKE. The Pump 2 NFC PRV remains
fully ENERGIZED, sending full NFC pressure to keep the Rear Pump (38) in
the STANDBY condition.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -39- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

All of the above actions allow front pump oil to flow into the Lower IMV Valve
Section of the ACS valve. This oil flow then enters the bucket IMV valve section
inlet and flows through the Bucket Flow Compensator Valve (7) and opens the
Load Check Valve (5).

At the same time, the ACS ECM 1 ENERGIZES the RE/P-C PHMV (13) and the
HE/C-T PHMV (11). This action drains pilot oil from above the RE/P-C Spool (17)
and the HE/C-T Spool (15), causing them to be moved UP by the full pilot pressure
beneath. The algorithms in the ACS ECM 1 software consider the joystick position,
circuit pressures, system pressures, engine rpm, and other electronic inputs to
determine the current sent to the on the PHMV solenoids. The current values
determine the position of the IMV valve spools. Depending on external forces, the
spools will be adjusted constantly to maintain the requested cylinder speed, as
determined by the joystick position.

The oil also flows to the inactive HE/P-C Spool (16), but is blocked. The oil
pressure at the inactive spool is directed to the right side of the Bucket Inverse
Shuttle Valve (6) and is at slightly reduced pump pressure. The oil that flows past
the RE/P-C spool is at the same pressure as that in the rod end of the Bucket
Cylinder (10). This load signal pressure is directed to the left side of the inverse
shuttle valve. Since the pump pressure is higher, the inverse shuttle valve shifts
to the left and the load signal pressure is directed to the bottom of the bucket
flow compensator valve. The load signal pressure constantly adjusts the flow
compensator valve as pressures change in the bucket cylinder.

As the supply oil flows from the bucket IMV section, it fills the rod end of the bucket
cylinder. The cylinder rod RETRACTS and the bucket OPENS. As the cylinder rod
retracts, oil in the head end of the cylinder returns to the bucket IMV section and
flows into the tank passages of the ACS valve via the HE/C-T spool. The position
of this IMV spool is also determined by the ACS ECM 1, which ENERGIZED the
HE/C-T PHMV. The current sent to this solenoid is also determined by similar
electronic inputs as the RE/P-C PHMV.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -40- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


STICK SYSTEM COMPONENTS

(1)
Stick
(3) IMV
Stick Section
Drift Reduction
Valve

(2)
Stick
PHMVs

40
STICK HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• Location and identification The stick IMV section contains the upper row of four Stick PHMVs (1) in the
of the stick hydraulic system Stick IMV Section (1) of the ACS Valve. The PHMVs operate the IMV spools,
components located on the ACS which control the flow of high pressure oil to and from the stick cylinder.
main hydraulic control valve
The four IMV spools that control stick movement are:
• Head End Pump-to-Cylinder spool (HE/P-C spool): Controls the flow of oil
• Brief functional description from the pump inlet in the stick section of the ACS Valve to the head end of the
of the stick hydraulic system stick cylinder.
components located on the ACS • Head end Cylinder-to-Tank spool (HE/C-T spool): Controls the flow of oil
main hydraulic control valve from the head end of the stick cylinder back to the tank passages in the ACS
valve.
• Rod end Pump-to-Cylinder spool (RE/P-C spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the pump inlet in the stick section of the ACS Valve to the rod end of the
stick cylinder.
• Rod end Cylinder-to-Tank spool (RE/C-T spool): Controls the flow of oil
from the rod end of the stick cylinder back to the tank passages in the ACS
valve.
The electronically controlled Stick Drift Reduction Valve (3) is installed at the stick
cylinder rod end pressure port.
The ACS ECM 2 receives input signals and controls the PHMV solenoids for the
operation of the IMV spools in direct proportion to the PWM signal from the stick
position sensor in the electronic joystick, and considering engine speed, system
and circuit pressures, and other electronic inputs to the implement system.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -41- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


TOP FRONT VIEW - STICK SYSTEM COMPONENTS
(1) (8)
Stick Cylinder Stick Section
Rod End Load Check Valve
High Pressure
(2) Port
Stick Drift
Reduction (7)
Valve Stick Cylinder
Head End
High Pressure
Port

(3) (6)
Stick Rod End Stick Head End
Cylinder-To-Tank Cylinder-To-Tank
PHMV PHMV

(4) (5)
Stick Rod End Stick Head End
Pump-To-Cylinder Pump-To-Cylinder
PHMV PHMV

41
STICK HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
ACS Valve Stick Circuit Components

• Location and identification Major stick hydraulic system components located on the front of the ACS Valve are:
of the stick hydraulic system
components located on the front • Stick Cylinder Rod End High Pressure Port (1): Directs high pressure oil
of the ACS Valve to, and receives return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder through a high
pressure hose connected to the port.
• Brief functional description
of the stick hydraulic system • Stick Drift Reduction Valve (2): Controlled by the stick drift reduction solenoid
components located on the front valve. The drift reduction valve prevents oil from leaking from the rod end of
of the ACS Valve the stick cylinder, and therefore, prevents the stick from drifting down when the
control lever is in NEUTRAL and the stick is suspended above the ground.

• Stick Rod End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (3): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM 2
to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the rod end
of the stick cylinder during a STICK IN command.

• Stick Rod End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (4): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM 2
to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil to the rod
end of the stick cylinder during a STICK OUT command.

• Stick Head End Pump-To-Cylinder PHMV (5): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM
2 to actuate the P-C IMV spool that controls the flow of high pressure oil to the
head end of the stick cylinder during a STICK IN command.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -42- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

• Stick Head End Cylinder-To-Tank PHMV (6): ENERGIZED by the ACS ECM
2 to actuate the C-T IMV spool that controls the flow of return oil from the head
end of the stick cylinder during a STICK OUT command.

• Stick Cylinder Head End High Pressure Port (7): Directs high pressure oil
to, and receives return oil from the head end of the stick cylinder through a
high pressure hose connected to the port.

• Stick Section Load Check Valve (8): Installed in the front of the stick
IMV valve section and is situated upstream of the oil flow to the IMV valve
spools. The load check valve prevents the stick from moving until pump
supply pressure can overcome the existing pressure in the stick circuit, which
prevents stick “droop” and stick “lag.”

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -43- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


LEFT REAR VIEW - STICK SYSTEM COMPONENTS
(1) (6)
Stick Head End Stick Rod End
Pressure Sensor Line Relief/Makeup
Valve

(5)
Stick Drift
Reduction
Solenoid Valve

(4)
Stick Rod End
Pressure Sensor

(2)
Stick Head End
Line Relief/Makeup (3)
Valve Stick
Inverse
Shuttle Valve

43
• Location and identification Major stick hydraulic system components located on the rear of the ACS Valve are:
of the stick hydraulic system
components located on the rear • Stick Head End Pressure Sensor (1): Monitored by the ACS ECM 2 and
of the ACS Valve indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the head end of the stick
cylinder circuit. This data is used in controlling the drive pump, the stick head
• Brief functional description end IMV spools, and for several hydraulic strategies on the machine.
of the stick hydraulic system
components located on the rear • Stick Head End Line Relief and Makeup Valve (2): Installed in the stick
of the ACS Valve cylinder head end circuit and serves two purposes.
-- Opens to relieve excessive pressure in the stick head end circuit, protecting
the stick circuit and the hydraulic components from damage.
-- Opens to draw tank oil into the stick head end circuit when external forces
cause the stick to move inward, protecting the aforementioned components.

• Stick Inverse Shuttle Valve (3): Ensures that the lower, workport pressure
is sent to adjust the stick flow control spool. This valve may be removed or
replaced by unscrewing the valve cartridge from the block bolted to the rear of
the ACS valve.

• Stick Rod End Pressure Sensor (4): Monitored by the ACS ECM 2 and
indicates the amount of hydraulic oil pressure in the rod end of the stick
cylinder circuit. This data is used in controlling the rear pump, the stick rod
end IMV spools, and for several hydraulic strategies on the machine.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -44- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

• Stick Drift Reduction Solenoid Valve (5): Installed in the stick drift reduction
valve and is ENERGIZED by the Machine ECM to allow inward movement of
the stick with a request for STICK IN movement.

• Stick Rod End Line Relief and Makeup Valve (5): Installed in the stick
cylinder rod end circuit and serves two purposes.
-- Opens to relieve excessive pressure in the stick rod end circuit, protecting
the stick circuit and the hydraulic components from damage.
-- Opens to draw tank oil into the stick rod end circuit when external
forces cause the stick to move outward, protecting the aforementioned
components.

Later in this module, the IMV spools will be referred to as:


• Head End Pump-to-Cylinder IMV Spool (HE/P-C IMV Spool)
• Head End Cylinder-to-Tank IMV Spool (HE/C-T Spool)
• Rod End Pump-to-Cylinder IMV Spool (RE/P-C IMV Spool)
• Rod End Cylinder-to-Tank IMV Spool (RE/C-T Spool)

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -45- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


STICK IMV SECTION OPERATION
STICK OUT
(23) Stick Side
(25) Pilot
Warming Valve
Pressure Sensor
(26)
Stick
Cylinder (24)
Pilot Relief
Valve

(22) Rod End


Pressure Sensor

(15) HE/C-T (16) HE/P-C (17) RE/P-C (18) RE/C-T (21) Drift
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV Reduction
(14) Head End Solenoid
Pressure Sensor

(13)
Line Relief
and Makeup (10) HE/P-C
Valve Spool (20) Drift
Reduction
Check
Valve
(19)
(12) (11) HE/C-T (8) RE/C-T Line Relief
Stick Flow Spool Spool STICK and Makeup
(7) Load
Compensator
Check Valve (9) RE/P-C SECTION Valve
Valve
Spool

(6)
Stick Inverse
Shuttle Valve (3) Rear
Pump (4)
Combiner
Valve PHMV

(5)
Combiner
(2)
Valve
Pilot
Supply
(1) Front
Pump 45
STICK HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT OPERATION
Stick OUT Condition
• Explanation of the state of all The illustration above shows the hydraulic schematic of the (upper) stick IMV
involved components and the section of the ACS main hydraulic control valve. This schematic illustrates the
flow of oil through the Stick IMV actions that take place in the stick hydraulic circuit in the STICK OUT condition.
Section of the ACS Valve during a
STICK OUT condition When the operator moves the stick joystick all the way to the STICK OUT position,
the joystick position sensor sends the full PWM signal to the Machine ECM. The
Machine ECM then responds by performing the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the rear pump bypass cut PHMV, which causes the rear pump
bypass cut spool to close off oil flow into the tank passages of the ACS valve.
• ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (4), which moves the Combiner
Valve (5) to the right envelope position, allowing front pump oil to combine with
rear pump oil, if needed.
• Ensures the Stick Side Warming Valve (23) is DE-ENERGIZED, blocking rear
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to
the ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.
• Proportionally DE-ENERGIZES the Pump 2 NFC PRV for the Rear Pump (3),
which causes the rear pump to UPSTROKE. The Pump 1 NFC PRV remains
fully ENERGIZED, sending full NFC pressure to keep the Front Pump (1) in
the STANDBY condition.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -46- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

All of the above actions allow the rear pump oil to flow into the STICK SECTION
of the ACS valve. This combined oil flow then enters the stick IMV valve section
inlet and flows through the Stick Flow Compensator Valve (12) and opens the Load
Check Valve (7).

At the same time, the ACS ECM 2 ENERGIZES the RE/P-C PHMV (17) and the
HE/C-T PHMV (15). This action drains pilot oil from above the RE/P-C Spool (9)
and the HE/C-T Spool (11), causing them to be moved UP by the full pilot pressure
beneath. The algorithms in the ACS ECM 2 software consider the joystick position,
circuit pressures, system pressures, engine rpm, and other electronic inputs to
determine the current sent to the solenoids on the PHMVs, which determines the
position of the IMV valve spools. Depending on external forces, the spools will be
adjusted constantly to maintain the requested cylinder speed, as determined by the
joystick position.

The oil also flows to the inactive HE/P-C Spool (16), but is blocked. The oil
pressure at this inactive spool is directed to the left side of the Stick Inverse Shuttle
Valve (6) and is at system pressure. The oil that flows past the RE/P-C spool
is at the same pressure as that in the rod end of the Stick Cylinder (26). This is
called load signal pressure. The load signal pressure is directed to the right side
of the inverse shuttle valve. Since the pump pressure on the left side is higher,
the inverse shuttle valve shifts to the right and the load signal pressure is directed
to the bottom of the stick flow compensator valve. The load signal pressure
constantly adjusts the flow compensator valve as pressures change in the stick
cylinder.

As the oil flows from the stick IMV section it flows to and opens the stick Drift
Reduction Check Valve (20) as it flows out to the rod end of the stick cylinder. As
oil fills the rod end of the stick cylinder, the cylinder rod RETRACTS and the stick
moves OUT. As the cylinder rod retracts, oil in the head end of the cylinder returns
to the stick IMV section and flows into the tank passages on the ACS valve via the
HE/C-T spool. The position of this IMV spool is also determined by the ACS
ECM 2, which ENERGIZES the HE/C-T PHMV.

NOTE: Valve cutaway graphics are not provided for the Stick IMV Valve
Section and the Bucket IMV Valve Section for any of the conditions
shown with schematics. The Stick and Bucket PHMVs, IMV Spools,
Flow Compensator Valves, Inverse Resolvers, and Load Check Valves all
operate identically to the Boom IMV Valve Sections.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -47- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


STICK IMV SECTION OPERATION
STICK IN WITH RESISTANCE (DIG)
(23) Stick Side
(25) Pilot
Warming Valve
Pressure Sensor
(26)
Stick
Cylinder (24)
Pilot Relief
Valve

(22) Rod End


Pressure Sensor

(15) HE/C-T (16) HE/P-C (17) RE/P-C (18) RE/C-T (21) Drift
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV Reduction
(14) Head End Solenoid
Pressure Sensor

(13)
Line Relief
and Makeup (10) HE/P-C
Valve Spool (20) Drift
Reduction
Check
Valve
(19)
(12) (11) HE/C-T (8) RE/C-T Line Relief
Stick Flow Spool Spool STICK and Makeup
(7) Load
Compensator
Check Valve (9) RE/P-C SECTION Valve
Valve
Spool

(6)
Stick Inverse
Shuttle Valve (3) Rear
Pump (4)
Combiner
Valve PHMV

(5)
Combiner
(2)
Valve
Pilot
Supply
(1) Front
Pump 47
Stick IN With Resistance (Dig) Condition
• Explanation of the state of all The illustration above shows the hydraulic schematic of the stick IMV section of the
involved components and the ACS valve in the STICK IN WITH RESISTANCE condition. This schematic is
flow of oil through the Stick IMV representative of the system when digging or when moving the stick IN from
Section of the ACS Valve during a vertical toward the machine.
STICK IN condition
When the operator moves the joystick all the way to the STICK IN position, the
joystick position sensor sends the full PWM signal to the Machine ECM. The
Machine ECM then responds by performing the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the rear pump bypass cut PHMV, which causes the rear pump
bypass cut spool to close off oil flow into the tank passages of the ACS valve.
• ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (4), which moves the Combiner
Valve (5) to the right envelope position, allowing front pump oil to combine with
rear pump oil, if needed.
• ENERGIZES the Stick Drift Reduction Solenoid (21), which drains the oil from
the spring chamber and allows the Stick Drift Reduction Check Valve (20) to
open when oil flow from the cylinder rod end is present.
• Ensures the Stick Side Warming Valve (23) is DE-ENERGIZED, blocking rear
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to
the ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -48- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

• Proportionally DE-ENERGIZES the Pump 2 NFC PRV for the Rear Pump (3),
which causes the rear pump to UPSTROKE. The Pump 1 NFC PRV remains
fully ENERGIZED, sending full NFC pressure to keep the Front Pump (1) in
the STANDBY condition.

All of the above actions allow the rear pump oil to flow into the STICK SECTION of
the ACS valve. This oil flow then enters the stick IMV valve section inlet and flows
through the Stick Flow Compensator Valve (12) and opens the Load Check
Valve (7).

For STICK IN, the ACS ECM 2 ENERGIZES the HE/P-C PHMV (16) and the
RE/C-T PHMV (18). The Pilot Supply (2) oil pressure beneath the HE/P-C
Spool (10) and the RE/C-T Spool (8) moves the IMV spools UP, allowing rear pump
oil to flow to the head end of the Stick Cylinder (26) and return oil from the rod end
to flow back to the Stick IMV section and into the tank passage. The cylinder rod
EXTENDS and the STICK moves IN.

The rear pump oil also flows to the inactive RE/P-C Spool (9), but is blocked. The
oil pressure at the inactive spool is directed to the right side of the Stick Inverse
Shuttle Valve (6) and is at system pressure. The oil that flows past the HE/P-C
spool is at the same pressure as in the head end of the stick cylinder (load signal
pressure). The load signal pressure is directed to the left side of the inverse shuttle
valve. Since the pump pressure is higher, the inverse shuttle valve shifts to the left
and the load signal pressure is directed to the bottom of the stick flow compensator
valve.

As the return oil flows from the cylinder rod end, it opens the unlocked stick drift
reduction check valve as it flows into the stick IMV section.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV1994 - 05/14 -49- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

ACS MAIN HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE


STICK IMV SECTION OPERATION
STICK IN WITH REGENERATION
(23) Stick Side
(25) Pilot
Warming Valve
Pressure Sensor
(26)
Stick
Cylinder (24)
Pilot Relief
Valve

(22) Rod End


Pressure Sensor

(15) HE/C-T (16) HE/P-C (17) RE/P-C (18) RE/C-T (21) Drift
PHMV PHMV PHMV PHMV Reduction
(14) Head End Solenoid
Pressure Sensor

(13)
Line Relief
and Makeup (10) HE/P-C
Valve Spool (20) Drift
Reduction
Check
Valve
(19)
(12) (11) HE/C-T (8) RE/C-T Line Relief
Stick Flow Spool Spool STICK and Makeup
(7) Load
Compensator
Check Valve (9) RE/P-C SECTION Valve
Valve
Spool

(6)
Stick Inverse
Shuttle Valve (3) Rear
Pump (4)
Combiner
Valve PHMV

(5)
Combiner
(2)
Valve
Pilot
Supply
(1) Front
Pump 49
Stick IN With Regeneration Condition
• Explanation of the state of all The schematic above shows the stick IMV section of the ACS valve in the STICK
involved components and the IN WITH REGENERATION condition (no resistance to inward movement). Stick
flow of oil through the Stick IMV regeneration does not require the use of an additional regeneration valve, as in
Section of the ACS Valve during a previous excavators.
STICK IN WITH REGENERATION
condition When the operator moves the joystick to the STICK IN position, the joystick
position sensor sends a PWM signal to the Machine ECM. Because there is no
resistance to the stick moving inward, the stick Rod End Pressure Sensor (22)
detects a higher pressure than does the stick Head End Pressure Sensor (14).
This condition causes the ACS ECM 2 to control the stick IMV section differently
than a STICK IN WITH RESISTANCE condition. Since there is not enough oil
exiting the stick cylinder rod end to fill the head end, the Rear Pump (3) need only
UPSTROKE slightly to supplement the rod end oil directed into the head end. The
Machine ECM then responds by performing the following actions:
• ENERGIZES the rear pump bypass cut PHMV, which causes the rear pump
bypass cut spool to close off oil flow into the tank passages of the ACS valve.
• ENERGIZES the Combiner Valve PHMV (4), which moves the Combiner
Valve (5) to the right envelope position, allowing front pump oil to combine with
rear pump oil, if needed.
• ENERGIZES the Stick Drift Reduction Solenoid (21), which drains the oil from
the spring chamber and allows the Stick Drift Reduction Check Valve (20) to
open when oil flow from the cylinder rod end is present.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -50- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

• Ensures the Stick Side Warming Valve (23) is DE-ENERGIZED, blocking rear
pump oil from flowing into the tank passages.
• Ensures the Lift Mode Solenoid is ENERGIZED to send pilot pressure oil to
the ends of both Main Hydraulic Relief Valves, placing the hydraulic system in
High Pressure Relief Mode.
• Proportionally DE-ENERGIZES the Pump 2 NFC PRV for the Rear Pump (3),
which causes the rear pump to UPSTROKE. The Pump 1 NFC PRV remains
fully ENERGIZED, sending full NFC pressure to keep the Front Pump (1) in
the STANDBY condition.

These actions allow the pump supply oil to flow into the STICK SECTION of the
ACS valve. Pump supply oil enters the stick IMV valve section inlet and flows
through the Stick Flow Compensator Valve (12) and opens the Load Check
Valve (7).

As in the STICK IN WITH RESISTANCE condition, the ACS ECM 2 ENERGIZES


the HE/P-C PHMV (16). However, there is not enough oil flowing from the stick
cylinder rod end to fill the head end during the REGENERATION condition,
therefore, the ACS ECM 2 does not ENERGIZE the RE/C-T PHMV (18). The ACS
ECM 2 ENERGIZES the RE/P-C PHMV (17) ensuring that all of the rod end oil can
be directed to the cylinder head end.

The ACS ECM 2 must consider the amount of signal from the stick position sensor
and the pressures detected in the rod end and head end oil passages, as well as
other input signals to determine the current values sent to the PHMV solenoids.
Algorithms in the software then adjust the current values to drain the pilot pressure
oil above the RE/P-C Spool (9) and the HE/P-C Spool (10). This action allows the
pilot pressure beneath to move the RE/P-C and the HE/P-C spools to a position
that allows the rod end return oil to flow across the RE/P-C spool to the HE/P-C
spool. This rod end return oil, along with the exact amount of pump supply oil, then
flow to the stick cylinder head end.

The cylinder rod EXTENDS and the STICK moves IN with REGENERATION.
This strategy keeps the rear pump UPSTROKED only enough to make up for
the difference between the volume of oil exiting the rod end and the volume of oil
needed to fill the head end of the stick cylinder. This strategy helps increase the
fuel efficiency of the machine since the engine need not work hard to power the
pumps.

When the stick reaches the vertical position, or when the bucket contacts the
ground and resistance to inward movement is encountered, the regeneration
strategy stops. The ACS ECM 2 recognizes the change in state when the stick
head end and rod end pressure sensors detect the change in pressures. The
ACS ECM 2 then sends commands to change the state of the PHMVs and their
associated IMV spools to operate as shown in the previous condition - STICK IN
WITH RESISTANCE.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -51- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

STICK DRIFT REDUCTION VALVE OPERATION


STICK OUT

(1)
Stick RE/C-T (2)
IMV Spool Stick Cylinder
(1)
Stick RE/P-C Rod End
IMV Spool
(3) (3)
Drift Drift
(2) Reduction Reduction
Stick Cylinder Solenoid Solenoid
Rod End
(6)
Solenoid
(6) Solenoid Valve Spool
Valve Spool

(4)
Drift
Reduction
Check Valve
(5)
Spring
Chamber

51
Stick Drift Reduction Valve Operation
• Explanation of the function of the The stick Drift Reduction Check Valve (4) is installed on the right side of the ACS
stick drift reduction valve valve, adjacent to the stick IMV section. The purpose of this valve is to prevent oil
from leaking from the rod end of the stick cylinder, and the stick from drifting down
• Explanation of the operation of when the joystick is in HOLD and the stick and bucket (or attachment) are
the stick drift reduction valve in suspended above the ground.
the STICK OUT condition The illustration above shows a cutaway view of the stick drift reduction valve and
its component parts in the STICK OUT condition. A schematic of the stick drift
reduction valve is also shown for comparison.
During a STICK OUT command, the Machine ECM keeps the stick Drift Reduction
Solenoid (3) DE-ENERGIZED, so the Solenoid Valve Spool (6) is held UP by
its spring. This position keeps the passage to the Stick Cylinder Rod End (2)
connected to the Spring Chamber (5).
When the stick joystick is moved toward the STICK OUT position, the Stick RE/P-C
IMV Spool (1) opens to allow pump supply oil to start flowing to the rod end of the
stick cylinder. The high pressure oil flow from the stick RE/P-C IMV spool flows to
the left end of the stick drift reduction check valve. Initially, the high pressure oil
from the IMV spool is higher than the pressure in the spring chamber, so the drift
reduction valve cracks open. As the valve opens, oil flow from the stick RE/P-C
IMV spool flows past the drift reduction check valve and out to the Stick Cylinder
Rod End (2).
As oil flow from the IMV spool INCREASES, the drift reduction check valve opens
further. The stick cylinder rod can RETRACT.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -52- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

STICK DRIFT REDUCTION VALVE OPERATION


STICK IN

(1)
Stick RE/C-T
(1) ON IMV Spool
(2)
Stick Cylinder
Stick RE/C-T Rod End
IMV Spool
(3) (3)
Drift Drift
(2) Reduction Reduction
Stick Cylinder Solenoid Solenoid
Rod End ON

(6)
(7) Tank Solenoid
Passage (6) Solenoid Valve Spool
Valve Spool

(4)
Drift
Reduction
Check Valve
(5)
Spring
Chamber

(8)
Lip

52
• Explanation of the operation of The illustration above shows a cutaway view of the stick drift reduction valve and its
the stick drift reduction valve in component parts in the STICK IN condition. A schematic of the stick drift reduction
the STICK IN condition valve is also shown for comparison.

During a STICK IN command, the Machine ECM ENERGIZES the stick Drift
Reduction Solenoid (3), causing the Solenoid Valve Spool (6) to move DOWN,
against its spring. This spool position connects the Spring Chamber (5) to the Tank
Passage (7).

As the stick moves inward, return oil from the Stick Cylinder Rod End (2) flows into
the Stick IMV section to the stick Drift Reduction Check Valve (4). Initially, the drift
reduction check valve is held CLOSED by its spring, causing the return oil pressure
to INCREASE upstream of the check valve. The Stick RE/C-T IMV Spool (1) is
OPEN, due to the STICK IN command, so the oil pressure on the left side of the
drift reduction check valve is at tank pressure.

The surface area of the Lip (8) on the drift reduction check valve is acted upon by
the return oil pressure to move the valve to the right, away from its seat. Because
the valve spring chamber is now at tank pressure, the flow of oil opens the drift
reduction valve far enough to accommodate the oil flow.

As oil flow from the stick cylinder rod end INCREASES, the drift reduction check
valve opens further. The stick cylinder rod can then EXTEND.

When oil flow across the drift reduction check valve stops, the valve will CLOSE to
the left from the force of the spring on the right.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV1994 - 05/14 -53- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

IMPLEMENT CYLINDERS
(4) Snubber

(1) Boom
Cylinder

(5) Snubbers

(2) Stick
Cylinder

(6) No Snubber

(3) Bucket
Cylinder

53
IMPLEMENT CYLINDERS

• Explanation of the three types of Dual acting cylinders are used to move the boom, stick, and bucket.
implement cylinders used:
The Boom Cylinders (1) have a Snubber (4) only on the rod side of the cylinder
-- Boom cylinders - snubber on piston.
rod ends
The Stick Cylinder (2) has a Snubber (5) on the rod end and the head end sides of
-- Stick cylinder - snubber on rod the cylinder pistons.
end and head end
The Bucket Cylinder (3) has no Snubber (6) on either side of the cylinder piston.
-- Bucket cylinder - no snubbers
Snubbers are used to slow the speed of the cylinder as the cylinder rod reaches
the end of its stroke. The snubber prevents the cylinder rod from harsh contact
against the cylinder end cap, which can cause damage to the cylinder over time.

The bucket cylinder has no snubber by practical design. With no snubber, the
operator can “shake” and “bang” the bucket at either end of the stroke in order to
empty the bucket of wet or sticky material that may tend to remain in the bucket. A
snubber would slow the end of stroke too much to allow this technique.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -54- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

SNUBBER OPERATION

(3) (4)
Passage Snubber

(1)
Boom and Stick Cylinder
Rod Extending

(6) (5)
Snubber Passage

(2)
Stick Cylinder
Rod Retracting

54
CYLINDER SNUBBER OPERATION

• Explanation of cylinder snubber As the Boom and Stick Cylinder Rods Extend (1) to near the end of their strokes,
operation the oil in the Passage (3) is restricted by the Snubber (4).

As the Stick Cylinder Rod Retracts (2) to near the end of its stroke, the oil in the
Passage (5) is restricted by the Snubber (6).

The snubber reduces the size of the passage through which the return oil must
pass. In this fashion, the return oil is compressed somewhat due to the restriction.
This restriction creates a temporary “cushion,” which slows the extension of the
cylinder until it reaches its full stroke and all of the return oil has been exhausted
from the cylinder.

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -55- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure technicians are


able to locate, identify, and describe the functionality
of all major components and service points of the
boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits, describe the
operation of those hydraulic circuits, and demonstrate
knowledge of the strategies used to control these
implement circuits.

55
PURPOSE REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -56- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

REASON

This training was necessary for technicians to be able


to properly locate and identify all major components
and service points of the boom, stick, and bucket
hydraulic circuits, explain component functions, and
demonstrate knowledge of the strategies used to
control those circuits in order to properly diagnose
and correct problems in the hydraulic circuits. These
abilities will ensure customers experience quick,
accurate resolution of implement hydraulic circuit
complaints.

56
REASON REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -57- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

COMPETENCY STATEMENT

Participants are now able to locate and identify


all major components and service points of the
boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits, describe
the function and operation of those circuits, and
demonstrate the ability to test and properly adjust
components that control those circuits during lab
exercises. Participants have also demonstrated
general knowledge of the main hydraulic control
valve operation and described the strategies used
for controlling the boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic
circuits during a classroom post-assessment with at
least 80% accuracy.
57
COMPETENCY STATEMENT REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -58- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Participants have completed this 374F and 390F Hydraulic
Excavator Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits
module and are able to:
• Locate, identify, and describe the functionality of all major
components and service points of the boom, stick, and
bucket hydraulic circuits in the main hydraulic control
valve and explain their operation.
• Test and properly make adjustments to the components
of the boom, stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits.
• Describe the operation of the boom, stick, and bucket
hydraulic circuits and the methods and strategies used to
control those circuits.
58
LEARNING OUTCOMES REVIEW

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SERV1994 - 05/14 -59- Module 10 - Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits

59
MODULE CONCLUSION

This concludes the Boom, Stick, and Bucket Hydraulic Circuits module for the
374F and 390F Hydraulic Excavators.

When used in conjunction with the Systems Operation Manuals, the Test and
Adjust Manuals, the Operation and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), and other
service publications, the information in this module will aid the service technician
in troubleshooting, testing, adjusting, and correcting problems with the boom,
stick, and bucket hydraulic circuits and the components of the ACS main hydraulic
control valve that control these circuits.

For service repairs, adjustments, and maintenance, always refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manuals (OMM), Service Manuals, and other related service
publications.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow