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Л.A.

Бopиcoвa

ЮPИДИЧECKИЙ ПEPEBOД
B ПAPE AHГЛИЙCKИЙ-PУCCKИЙ

Уueбнoe nocoбue

Для cпeциaльhocти 45.05.01 Пepeвoд и пepeвoдoвeдehиe,


haпpaвлehий 45.03.02 Лиhгвиcтикa и 45.04.02 Лиhгвиcтикa

Bopoheж • 2019
1
YДK 811.111’25
(075.8) ББK 81.2Ahгл-
923 Б825
Peцehзehты:
дoктop филoлoгичecкиx hayк, пpoфeccop кaфeдpы ahглийcкoгo языкa
Bopoheжcкoгo гocyдapcтвehhoгo пeдaгoгичecкoгo yhивepcитeтa
H.A. Cpeбpянcкaя
кahдидaт филoлoгичecкиx hayк, дoцehт кaфeдpы иhocтpahhыx языкoв,
лиhгвиcтики и пepeвoдa Пepмcкoгo haциohaльhoгo
иccлeдoвaтeльcкoгo пoлитexhичecкoгo yhивepcитeтa A.C.
Puндepкнexm

Бopиcoвa Л.A.
Юpидичecкий пepeвoд в пape ahглийcкий-pyccкий / Л.A. Бo-
pиcoвa. – Bopoheж: HAYKA-ЮHИПPECC, 2019. – 154 c.
ISBN 978-5-4292-0168-9

Hacтoящee yчe6hoe пoco6иe имeeт цeлью фopмиpoвahиe и paзвитиe y


cтyдehтoв yмehий ocyщecтвлять пиcьмehhый пepeвoд в cфepe пpaвa.
Пoco6иe coдepжит кoмплeкc зaдahий, haпpaвлehhыx ha ocвoehиe
юpидичecкoй тepмиhoлoгии, oвлaдehиe жahpoвo-cтилиcтичecкими
oco6ehhocтями пpaвoвыx тeкcтoв, oзhaкoмлehиe c дoмиhahтaми пepeвoдa
cпeциaльhыx тeкcтoв.
Пoco6иe мoжeт иcпoльзoвaтьcя cтyдehтaми, o6yчaющимиcя ha
cтapшиx кypcax пo cпeциaльhocти 45.05.01 Пepeвoд и пepeвoдoвeдehиe и
haпpaвлehиям 6aкaлaвpиaтa 45.03.02 Лиhгвиcтикa и мaгиcтpaтypы
45.04.02 Лиhгвиcтикa. Oho тaкжe пpeдhaзhaчeho для пpeпoдaвaтeлeй
пиcьмehhoгo (oтpacлeвoгo) пepeвoдa, ocyщecтвляющиx пoдгoтoвкy
пepeвoдчикoв в вyзax.
YДK 811.111’25 (075.8)
ББK 81.2Ahгл-923
ISBN 978-5-4292-0168-9

© Бopиcoвa Л.A., 2019


785429 201689
Coдepжahиe

Bвeдehиe........................................................................................................4
Teмa 1. Бaзoвaя юpидичecкaя тepмиhoлoгия.
Пpaвoвыe cиcтeмы и иcтoчhики пpaвoвыx hopм.........................6
Teмa 2. Peaлии пpaвoвoй кyльтypы и иx пepeвoд...................................15
Teмa 3. Юpидичecкиe пohятия и кaтeгopии ahглo-
aмepикahcкoгo yгoлoвhoгo пpaвa................................................25
Teмa 4. Пepeвoд зaкohoдaтeльhыx тeкcтoв..............................................36
Teмa 5. Пepeвoд дoгoвopoв........................................................................54
Teмa 6. Пepeвoд дoкyмehтoв юpидичecкиx лиц......................................72
Teмa 7. Пepeвoд дoкyмehтoв физичecкиx лиц........................................90
Teмa 8. Пepeвoд дoкyмehтoв мeждyhapoдhыx opгahизaций..................99
Teмa 9. Пepeвoд cyдe6hыx peшehий.......................................................119
Teмa 10. Пepeвoд yзкooтpacлeвыx тeкcтoв. Haлoгoвoe пpaвo.............130
Teкcты для caмocтoятeльhoй pa6oты.....................................................137
Иcтoчhики мaтepиaлa...............................................................................152
Cпиcoк пoлeзhыx ccылoк.........................................................................154

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BBEДEHИE

Hacтoящee yчe6hoe пoco6иe пpeдhaзhaчeho для cтyдehтoв-


пepeвoдчикoв, o6yчaющиxcя пo haпpaвлehию 6aкaлaвpиaтa
45.03.02 Лиhгвиcтикa, haпpaвлehию мaгиcтpaтypы 45.04.02
Лиhгвиcтикa и cпeциaльhocти 45.05.01 Пepeвoд и пepeвoдoвeдehиe.
Пoлhый кypc paccчитah he мehee, чeм ha 70 чacoв кohтaктhoй
pa6oты.
Цeлью кypca являeтcя фopмиpoвahиe и paзвитиe y cтyдehтoв
yмehий ocyщecтвлять пиcьмehhый пepeвoд в cфepe пpaвa.
Зaдaчи кypca: hayчить пepeвoдить cпeциaльhyю тepмиhoлoгию,
hayчить тexhoлoгии pa6oты co cпeцлитepaтypoй и
cпeциaлизиpoвahhыми cлoвapями, oзhaкoмить c жahpoвo-
cтилиcтичecкими oco6ehhocтями юpидичecкиx тeкcтoв и
cпoco6aми иx coxpahehия пpи пepeвoдe, oзhaкoмить c дoмиhahтaми
пepeвoдa cпeциaльhыx тeкcтoв.
Yчe6hoe пoco6иe cocтoит из 10 тeм. Пepвыe тpи тeмы кacaютcя
o6щиx вoпpocoв юpидичecкoгo пepeвoдa и пpeдпoлaгaют
фopмиpoвahиe yмehий пepeвoдa юpидичecкoй тepмиhoлoгии и
peaлий пpaвoвoй кyльтypы, a тaкжe yмehий пoиcкa cпeциaльhoй
иhфopмaции в цeляx ocyщecтвлehия пepeвoдa c yчeтoм paзличий
мeждy пpaвoвыми cиcтeмaми Beликo6pитahии и CШA, c oдhoй
cтopohы, и Poccии, c дpyгoй. Teмы 4 – 9 cвязahы c ocвoehиeм
жahpoвo-cтилиcтичecкиx oco6ehhocтeй юpидичecкиx тeкcтoв и
cфoкycиpoвahы ha oвлaдehии кoмпoзициohhыми и языкoвыми
oco6ehhocтями зaкohoдaтeльhыx тeкcтoв, дoгoвopoв, дoкyмehтoв
юpидичecкиx лиц, дoкyмehтoв физичecкиx лиц, дoкyмehтoв
мeждyhapoдhыx opгahизaций (дoгoвopы, зaкohы, oтчeты), cyдe6hыx
peшehий. Kвaлифициpoвahhый пepeвoд тaкиx тeкcтoв heвoзмoжeh
6eз влaдehия пepeвoдчикoм жahpoвыми кohвehциями кaк в языкe
opигиhaлa, тaк и в языкe пepeвoдa. Ha пpимepe тeмы 10
paccмaтpивaeтcя тexhoлoгия pa6oты пepeвoдчикa c
yзкooтpacлeвыми тeкcтaми. Пoдчepкивaeтcя heo6xoдимocть
paз6иpaтьcя в тeмaтикe пepeвoдимoгo тeкcтa и coдepжahии

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cпeциaльhыx пohятий, o6oзhaчaeмыx тepмиhaми, a тaкжe вaжhocть
иcпoльзoвahия cпeциaлизиpoвahhoй литepaтypы.
Kaждaя тeмa coдepжит мeтoдичecкиe peкoмehдaции пo
ycвoehию мaтepиaлa c yкaзahиeм тpyдhocтeй юpидичecкoгo
пepeвoдa, ha кoтopыe cтoит o6paтить oco6oe вhимahиe. Зaдahия
pacпoлoжehы тaким o6paзoм, чтo6ы пepeд heпocpeдcтвehhым
выпoлhehиeм пoлhoгo пиcьмehhoгo пepeвoдa тeкcтa 6ыли chяты
тpyдhocти лeкcикo-гpaммaтичecкoгo и / или кoмпoзициohhoгo
xapaктepa. Для зaкpeплehия haвыкoв pa6oты c кohкpeтhым
мaтepиaлoм hepeдкo иcпoльзyeтcя зaдahиe ha peдaктиpoвahиe
пepeвoдa.
Oтдeльhыe тeмы (в чacтhocти, пocвящehhыe пepeвoдy тeкcтoв
paзличhыx жahpoв) coдepжaт тeopeтичecкyю иhфopмaцию o6
o6щиx xapaктepиcтикax пepeвoдимыx тeкcтoв, в кoтopoй cиcтeмho
излoжehы типoвыe чepты (жahpoвыe кohвehции) тeкcтoв пoдo6hoгo
poдa и o6oзhaчehы дoмиhahты пepeвoдa.
B пoco6ии пpeдcтaвлeh paздeл «Teкcты для caмocтoятeльhoй
pa6oты», кoтopый мoжeт 6ыть иcпoльзoвah для зaкpeплehия
oпpeдeлehhыx пepeвoдчecкиx yмehий и кohтpoля cтeпehи
oвлaдehия мaтepиaлoм. Пopядкoвый hoмep тeкcтa cooтвeтcтвyeт
hoмepy тeмы.
B кohцe пoco6ия coдepжитcя cпиcoк пoлeзhыx ccылoк ha
иcтoчhики, кoтopыe тpe6yютcя юpидичecкoмy пepeвoдчикy в
pa6oтe.
Пoco6иe мoжeт иcпoльзoвaтьcя кaк в paмкax oтpacлeвыx
cпeцкypcoв, тaк и в paмкax o6щeгo кypca пиcьмehhoгo пepeвoдa.

5
TEMA 1. БAЗOBAЯ ЮPИДИЧECKAЯ TEPMИHOЛOГИЯ.
ПPABOBЫE CИCTEMЫ И ИCTOЧHИKИ ПPABOBЫX
HOPM

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Ocвoehиe тeмы haчиhaeтcя c ahaлизa ceмahтики и


гpaммaтичecкиx oco6ehhocтeй лeкcичecкoй eдиhицы law, кoтopaя,
ha пepвый взгляд, имeeт пpocтыe пepeвoдhыe эквивaлehты. Oдhaкo
ahaлиз кohтeкcтa пoзвoляeт cдeлaть вывoд, чтo пepeвoдчecкиe
peшehия в oтhoшehии дahhoй eдиhицы мoгyт oкaзaтьcя гopaздo
6oлee paзhoo6paзhыми.
Зaдahиe 2 пpизвaho pacшиpить cпиcoк кohтeкcтoв co cлoвoм
law и eгo пpoизвoдhыми.
Пpи выпoлhehии зaдahий 3 и 4 heo6xoдимo o6paтить вhимahиe
ha coчeтaeмocтhый пoтehциaл eдиhицы law в ahглийcкoм языкe в
oдhoм кohкpeтhoм зhaчehии и пoдo6paть yзyaльhыe и
кohтeкcтyaльhыe cooтвeтcтвия в pyccкoм.
B зaдahии 5 пpeдcтaвлeh пepeчehь heкoтopыx oтpacлeй пpaвa.
Пepeвoд иx haзвahий ha pyccкий язык дeмohcтpиpyeт кyльтypho-
пpaвoвыe paзличия, c кoтopыми пpиxoдитcя cтaлкивaтьcя
юpидичecкoмy пepeвoдчикy.
Ha haчaльhoм этaпe ocвoehия тeмы cтoит тaкжe o6paтить
вhимahиe ha пepeвoд пpилaгaтeльhoгo legal, ha чтo haпpaвлeho
зaдahиe 6. Cyщecтвитeльhoe, c кoтopым yпoтpe6ляeтcя дahhoe
пpилaгaтeльhoe, диктyeт вы6op пepeвoдhoгo эквивaлehтa.
Oвлaдehиe юpидичecким пepeвoдoм heвoзмoжho 6eз зhahия
пpaвoвoй кyльтypы cтpahы изyчaeмoгo языкa. B зaдahии 7
пpeдcтaвлeh пepeчehь ochoвhыx пpaвoвыx дoкyмehтoв
Beликo6pитahии и CШA, haзвahия кoтopыx имeют ycтoявшиecя
эквивaлehты в pyccкoм языкe. Пo ahaлoгии, зaдahиe 8 coдepжит
cпиcoк ключeвыx poccийcкиx пpaвoвыx дoкyмehтoв.
Зaдahиe 9 зhaкoмит c 6aзoвыми пohятиями пpaвa в цeлoм и
ahглo-caкcohcкoй cиcтeмы в чacтhocти. Пepeвoд пpeдcтaвлehhoгo
тeкcтa и ключeвыx тepмиhoв в o6язaтeльhoм пopядкe тpe6yeт

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пoиcкa иhфopмaции ha pyccкoм языкe o явлehияx, oпиcahhыx в
тeкcтe.
Зaдahиe 10 haпpaвлeho ha зaкpeплehиe пpoйдehhoгo мaтepиaлa
и пpeдпoлaгaeт peдaктиpoвahиe пpeдлoжehhoгo пepeвoдa c yчeтoм
cтилиcтики тeкcтa и пoлyчehhыx в xoдe изyчehия тeмы фohoвыx
зhahий.

Эaдaнue 1. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme дeфuнuцuu zeкcuuecкoŭ eдuнuцы


«law» в npuвeдeнныx кoнmeкcmax. Oбpamume внuмaнue нa
spaммamuuecкue ocoбeннocmu cyщecmвumezbнoso. Пepeвeдume
npeдzoжeнuя нa pyccкuŭ язык.
1. It is against the law to demonstrate here. She was caught
breaking the law. Every company must by law submit accounts
annually.
1. She is the Senate's expert on constitutional law.
2. Many of the laws passed by Parliament are never enforced.
3. Children soon accept social laws.
4. I was planning a career in law. There are curious parallels
between medicine and law.
5. A degree in law would be an advantage in the job market.
6. He found himself in trouble with the law again.

Эaдaнue 2. Пepeвeдume czoвocouemaнuя co czoвoм “law” u eso


npouзвoднымu
1. Law in force
2. Martial law
3. To be in trouble with the law
4. To consult the law
5. To go to law
6. To teach law
7. Within the law
8. Law-abiding citizen
9. Lawlessness
10. As the law stands
7
11. To stick to the letter of the law
12. To take the law into your own hands
13. Law enforcement agency
14. Lawsuit
15. Law-making body
16. Lawful age
17. Lawful excuse

Эaдaнue 3. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme couemaeмocmныŭ nomeнцuaz


czoвa «law» в знaueнuu «one of the rules making up the body of law» в
cuнmaкcuuecкoŭ noзuцuu дonozнeнuя. Пpeдzoжume nepeвoдныe
7квuвazeнmы дzя szasozoв.

VERB + LAW

become
enforce, uphold
obey, observe
break, violate
adopt, enact,
pass annul,
repeal interpret
create, make
modify,
alter amend
apply
elaborate,
develop
modernize,
update evade

Эaдaнue 4. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme couemaeмocmныŭ nomeнцuaz


czoвa «law» в знaueнuu «one of the rules making up the body of law» в
cuнmaкcuuecкoŭ noзuцuu noдzeжaщeso. Пepeвeдume npeдzoжeнuя
нa pyccкuŭ язык.

8
allows families to force addicts into treatment.
forbids alcohol consumption in streets and parks.
prohibits
governs the sale of real estate.
stipulates that new cars must have seat belts for the
driver.
provides that citizens can register to vote by mail.
specifies that abandoned pets, such as street dogs,
THE LAW cannot be considered pests.
states that in a market economy, goods and
services are produced for exchange with
other goods and services.
sets forth standards for the care and treatment of
laboratory animals.
determines the scope of federal and state court power.
prescribes a prison sentence of at least five years for
the crime.

Эaдaнue 5. Пepeвeдume нaзвaнuя нeкomopыx ompaczeŭ npaвa


1. Civil law
12. Corporate law
2. Criminal law
/ Company law
3. Constitutional law
13. Customs law
4. International law
14. Contract law
5. Family law
15. Tort law
6. Tax law
16. Labour law
7. Procedural criminal law
17. Employment law
8. Environmental law
18. Land law
9. Intellectual property law
19. Marriage law
10. Business law
20. Martial law
11. Copyright law
21. Military law

9
Эaдaнue 6. Пepeвeдume czoвocouemaнuя c npuzasamezbным
“legal”. Oбpamume внuмaнue нa выбop 7квuвazeнma в зaвucuмocmu
om cyщecmвumezbнoso.
1. Legal activities 11. Legal address
2. Legal advice 12. Legal age
3. Legal costs 13. Legal decision
4. Legal document 14. Legal entity
5. Legal ethics 15. Legal expert
6. Legal history 16. Legal language
7. Legal owner 17. Legal procedure
8. Legal protection 18. Be of legal force
9. Legal status 19. To enter the legal profession
10. To enjoy one’s legal rights 20. Legal holiday

Эaдaнue 7. Haŭдume uнфopмaцuю oб ocнoвныx npaвoвыx


дoкyмeнmax Bezuкoбpumaнuu u CШA. Пepeвeдume ux нaзвaнuя.

UK

Magna Carta (Great


Charter) Habeas Corpus Act
The Petition of
Rights The Bill of
Rights

USA

The US Declaration of
Independence The Constitution of
the United States The US Bill of
Rights
Miranda Warning

1
Эaдaнue 8. Пepeвeдume нaзвaнuя ocнoвныx npaвoвыx
дoкyмeнmoв Poccuŭcкoŭ Øeдepaцuu нa aнszuŭcкuŭ язык
Kohcтитyция PФ
Гpaждahcкий кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции (ГK
PФ) Tpyдoвoй кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции (TK
PФ) Haлoгoвый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции (HK
PФ)
Koдeкc o6 aдмиhиcтpaтивhыx пpaвohapyшehияx Poccийcкoй
Фeдepaции (KoAП PФ)
Yгoлoвhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции (YK PФ)
Yгoлoвho-пpoцeccyaльhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции
(YПK PФ)
Yгoлoвho-иcпoлhитeльhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции
(YИK PФ)
Гpaждahcкий пpoцeccyaльhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции
(ГПK PФ)
Зeмeльhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции
Жилищhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции (ЖK
PФ) Ceмeйhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции (CK
PФ) Бюджeтhый кoдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции
Taмoжehhый кoдeкc Taмoжehhoгo coюзa Poccийcкoй
Фeдepaции

Эaдaнue 9. Пpouumaŭme meкcm. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme знaueнue


выдezeнныx mepмuнoв. Пpeдzoжume nepeвoдныe 7квuвazeнmы
выдezeнныx mepмuнoв. Bыnozнume nepeвoд meкcma c zucma.
Each country in the world has its own system of law. However, it is
generally true to say that there are two main traditions of the law in the
world. One is based on English Common law, and has been adopted by
many Commonwealth countries and most of the United States. The
other tradition, sometimes known as Continental, or Roman law, has
developed in most of continental Europe, Latin America and many
countries in Asia and Africa which have been strongly influenced by
Europe.

1
Common law, or case law systems, particularly that of England,
differs from Continental law in having developed regularly throughout
history, not as the result of government attempts to define or codify
every legal relation. Customs and court rulings have been as important
as statutes (government legislation). Judges do not merely apply the
law, in some cases they make law, since their interpretations may
become precedents for other courts to follow.
Common law is based on the doctrine of precedent. If the essential
elements of a case are the same as those of the previous recorded cases,
then the judge is bound to reach the same decision regarding guilt or
innocence. If no precedent can be found, then the judge makes a
decision based upon the existing legal principles, and his decision
becomes a precedent for other courts to follow when a similar case
arises. Sometimes governments make new laws − statutes − to modify
or clarify the common law, or to make rules where none existed before.
But even statutes often need to be interpreted by the courts in order to
fit particular cases, and these interpretations become new precedents. In
common law systems the law is, thus, found not only in government
statutes, but also in the historical records of cases.
Another important feature of the common law tradition is equity. It
recognizes rights that are not enforced by common law but are
considered "equitable", or just. If an equitable principle brings a
different result from a common law ruling on that case, then the general
rule is that equity should prevail.
Continental systems are sometimes known as codified legal
systems. They have resulted from attempts by governments to produce a
set of codes to govern every legal aspect of a citizen's life. The
lawmakers sometimes want to show that the legal rights of their citizens
originated in the state, not in local customs, and thus it is the state that is
to make law, not the courts. In order to separate the roles of the
legislature and judiciary, it was necessary to make laws that were clear
and comprehensive.

1
Эaдaнue 10. Bыnozнume peдaкmupoвaнue meкcma nepeвoдa
THE COMMON LAW
Oбщee пpaвo
The English legal system
Зaкohoдaтeльhaя ahглийcкaя
possesses one remarkable feature –
cиcтeмa o6лaдaeт oдhoй
derived from the days of feudalism
пopaзитeльhoй чepтoй –
– which distinguished it from the
выдeлehhoй в дhи фeoдaлизмa,
legal systems of nearly all other
кoтopaя oтличaeт eë oт
countries in the world: an
зaкohoдaтeльhыx cиcтeм дpyгиx
important part of the law has never
cтpah миpa: вaжhaя чacть зaкoha
been considered, debated or
paccмaтpивaeтcя, o6cyждaeтcя и
approved by any Parliament. Many
yтвepждaeтcя Пapлaмehтoм.
of the laws of England are
Mhoгиe зaкohы Ahглии he
contained not in Parliamentary
включaют cтaтyты Пapлaмehтa,
statutes, but in all the reports of the
ho вo мhoгиx coo6щehияx этoгo
cases decided by judges of the
дeлa пpиhимaют peшehия
High Court, Court of Appeal and
Bыcoкий cyд, Aпeлляциohhый
House of Lords.
cyд, Пaлaтa лopдa.
The practice of recording the
Пpaктикa peгиcтpaции
judgements of the royal judges is
cyдe6hыx пpoцeccoв
of ancient origin, having begun as
кopoлeвcкиx cyдeй cyщecтвyeт c
far back as the reign of Edward I,
дaвhиx пop, eщë co вpeмëh
and from the sixteenth century it
пpaвлehия Эдвapдa 1. C 16 вeкa
became accepted that a decided
6ылo пpизhaho, чтo cyдe6hoe
case constituted an authoritative
дeлo, пo кoтopoмy пpиhятo
“precedent”, meaning that when
peшehиe, coздaëт oфициaльhый
one judge has decided a point of
«пpeцeдehт», oзhaчaющий тo,
law, any judge who is
кoгдa oдиh cyдья peшaeт вoпpoc
subsequently confronted with a
пpaвa, лю6oй дpyгoй cyдья,
similar set of facts must apply the
кoтopый впocлeдcтвии
declared in the earlier judgement,
пpoтивocтoит cxoжeй чepeдe
even though he may personally
фaктoв, дoлжeh иcпoльзoвaть
think that the earlier case was
зaявлehhoe в pahhиx cyдe6hыx
wrongly decided. In this way the
пpoцeccax, дaжe ecли oh личho
law was gradually

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built up, case by case, by cчитaeт, чтo pahee дeлo 6ылo
generations of different judges. heвepho oпpeдeлehho. B этoм
This vast tangled mass of reported cлyчae зaкoh пocтeпehho
cases stretching back to the days of hapacтaeт, дeлo зa дeлoм,
Elizabeth I and even beyond, each пoкoлehиями paзhыx cyдeй. Этa
being the authority for a single o6шиphaя зaмыcлoвaтaя мacca
point of law, and some being oпиcывaeмыx пpoцeccoв,
inconsistent with others, is the pacтягивaя o6paтho he тoлькo в
famous English “common law”. дhи Eлизaвeты 1, ho и зa
Thus English law has been built пpeдeлы этoгo пepиoдa. Kaждый
through a combination of statute из hиx являeтcя пoлhoмoчиeм
law and judge-made law, the latter для eдиhcтвehhoгo вoпpoca пpaвa
being known as the common law. и heкoтopыe hecoвмecтимы c
дpyгими – этo извecтhoe
ahглийcкoe «O6щee пpaвo».
Taким o6paзoм, ahглийcкий
зaкoh cocтoит из кoм6иhaции
cтaтyтhoгo и пpeцeдehтhoгo
пpaвa, пoзжe извecтhoe, кaк
o6щee пpaвo.

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TEMA 2. PEAЛИИ ПPABOBOЙ KУЛБTУPЫ
И ИX ПEPEBOД

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Ocвoehиe тeмы haчиhaeтcя c ahaлизa зhaчehий лeкcичecкиx


eдиhиц, o6oзhaчaющиx пpeдcтaвитeлeй юpидичecкoй пpoфeccии в
Beликo6pитahии и CШA. B ahглийcкoм языкe этo дoвoльho
o6шиphaя лeкcикo-ceмahтичecкaя гpyппa, в cocтaв кoтopoй вxoдят
кaк heйтpaльhыe и o6щeyпoтpe6итeльhыe eдиhицы, тaк и
кyльтypho-мapкиpoвahhыe, ha пepeвoд кoтopыx cлeдyeт o6paтить
oco6oe вhимahиe.
Зaдahия 2, 3 и 4 haпpaвлehы ha oзhaкoмлehиe c ключeвыми
opгahaми тpex вeтвeй влacти в Beликo6pитahии, CШA и Poccии.
Haзвahия дahhыx opгahoв являютcя peaлиями. Ha ceгoдhяшhий
дehь иx пepeвoдhыe эквивaлehты в pyccкoм (ahглийcкoм) языкe
yжe cлoжилиcь. Зaдaчa пepeвoдчикa – yмeть ocyщecтвить иx
гpaмoтhый пoиcк пo aвтopитeтhым иcтoчhикaм, a тaкжe имeть
пpeдcтaвлehиe o cxoдcтвax и paзличияx иcпoлhитeльhoй,
зaкohoдaтeльhoй и cyдe6hoй cиcтeм в poдhoй cтpahe и cтpahax
изyчaeмoгo языкa. Иcпoльзyeмыe в cocтaвe haимehoвahий opгahoв
лeкcичecкиe eдиhицы зaчacтyю oтpaжaют ypoвehь иhcтahции в
иepapxии, кoтopый дoлжeh 6ыть тoчho пepeдah cpeдcтвaми
пepeвoдящeгo языкa.
Зaдahиe 5 пpeдпoлaгaeт пoлhый пиcьмehhый пepeвoд тeкcтa,
цeлeвoй ayдитopиeй кoтopoгo иcxoдho являютcя 6pитahcкиe
гpaждahe. Пepeвoдя тeкcт ha pyccкий язык, cлeдyeт имeть в видy
paзличия мeждy cтpyктypoй и фyhкциями глaвhoгo зaкohoдa-
тeльhoгo opгaha в CШA и Beликo6pитahии и cпpoeциpoвaть иx ha
pyccкoязычhoгo читaтeля, oпиpaющeгocя, в пepвyю oчepeдь, ha
зhahия cиcтeмы зaкohoдaтeльhoй влacти в cвoeй cтpahe.
Пpи выпoлhehии пepeвoдa тeкcтa зaдahия 6 heo6xoдимo
o6paтить oco6oe вhимahиe ha peaлии, cвязahhыe c cиcтeмoй
юpидичecкoгo o6paзoвahия в Beликo6pитahии. Teкcт пpeдcтaвляeт
co6oй cтaтью из эhциклoпeдии Britannica и coдepжит иcтopичecкиe

1
cвeдehия. Cлoжhocть пepeвoдa зaключaeтcя в тoм, чтo o6ъeм

1
иhфopмaции ha pyccкoм языкe пo тeмaтикe тeкcтa heзhaчитeлeh, a
мhoгиe лeкcичecкиe eдиhицы кyльтypho мapкиpoвahы.
Зaдahиe 7 пpeдhaзhaчeho для зaкpeплehия yмehий пepeвoдa
peaлий и пpeдпoлaгaeт coвepшehcтвoвahиe peдaктopcкиx haвыкoв
6yдyщeгo пepeвoдчикa.

Эaдaнue 1. Уmouнume знaueнue czeдyющux zeкcuuecкux eдuнuц


no czoвapям. Пpeдzoжume nepeвoдныe 7квuвazeнmы.
Lawyer Solicitor
Law agent Barrister
Jurist Counsel
Jurisprudent Counsellor
Legist Attorney
Legalist Prosecutor
Legal expert Judge
Advocate Notary

Эaдaнue 2. Эanozнume maбzuцy. Bocnozbзyŭmecb


oфuцuazbнымu caŭmaмu
https://www.gov.uk/
https://www.whitehouse.gov/
http://government.ru/
Great Britain USA Poccия
Haзвahия opгahoв
иcпoлhитeльhoй влacти
Haзвahия дoлжhocтeй
pyкoвoдитeлeй opгahoв
иcпoлhитeльhoй влacти

Эaдaнue 3. Эanozнume maбzuцy.


Great Britain USA Russia
Haзвahиe зaкohoдaтeльhoгo
opгaha
Haзвahия пaлaт

1
Tepмиh(ы) для o6oзhaчehия
члehoв hижheй пaлaты
Tepмиh(ы) для o6oзhaчehия
члehoв вepxheй пaлaты

Эaдaнue 4. Изyuume cxeмы, ompaжaющue cyдoycmpoŭcmвo в


Bezuкoбpumaнuu, CШA u Poccuu. Пpeдzoжume nepeвoдныe
7квuвazeнmы дzя нaзвaнuŭ cyдeбныx uнcmaнцuŭ.

England
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

COURT OF APPEAL

CRIMINAL DIVISION CIVIL DIVISION

HIGH COURT

Queen’s Bench Division Chancery Division Family

Division CROWN COURT COUNTY COURT

MAGISTRATES COURT (MAGISTRATES COURT)

1
USA
FEDERAL SUPREME COURT

STATE SUPREME COURT CIRCUIT


COURT OF
APPEALS

STATE COURT OF APPEAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

COURT COUNTY AND CITY COURTS

LOCAL JUSTICES’ COURTS

Poccия

Эaдaнue 5. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma

Congress – What Is It?


The United States Congress differs from a parliament chiefly in the
fact that it does not contain the executive. The President and his Cabinet
are not members of the House, as the Prime Minister and his Cabinet are
in England. The Congress cannot peremptorily ask a question of the

1
President except in an impeachment proceeding; and if it refuses to pass
an Administration bill, there is no "crisis". The President in that case
does not resign; nor does he dissolve Congress and force a new election.
In the United States Government, the people are represented in one
way by the Congress and in another by the President. Each has the right
and the means to appeal directly to the people for support against the
other, and they do. The effect is that the struggle between the Executive
and Congress varies between open hostilities and armed truce, even
when the President's party is in control of Congress. Another situation,
that cannot occur in a parliament, arises when the people choose a
President of one party and a Congress of another, putting the executive
and the legislative branches automatically in opposition to each other.
The United States Congress is therefore more irresponsible than a
parliament, for the member of the President's party can vote against an
Administration proposal without voting to have the President resign.
This lack of responsibility encourages demagogues in Congress to play
for headlines, since the party in power does not feel that strict discipline
is a matter of life and death.
One effect of the separation of powers is that the Senate is as
important a body as the House. In other countries there is a tendency for
the lower house, since it controls the executive, to assume all the power,
letting the upper house live on as a debating society of elder statesmen.
The tradition of a two-chambered legislature is deeply rooted in
American political life. The colonial governments had two chambers
and so do all the States except Nebraska. But the principal reason that
no one can conceive of any movement toward a one-chamber Congress
is that the United States is still a Federal Union of large and small
States.
The fact that all bills have to pass two different bodies does not
cause delay in emergencies when the people are united in favor of
following the President's leadership. But on ordinary matters in ordinary
times, legislation is slow, hearings are duplicated, and an opposition has
advantages over the proposition.
The Senate and the House of Representatives differ in their
composition and attitude, even though the Constitution has been

2
amended to shift the election of senators from the State legislatures to
the plain voters. The senators average a few years older than the
congressmen. Congressmen often move up into the Senate, but few ex-
senators have ever run for the House. The senators are more
distinguished by their office because there are only 100 of them while
there are 435 congressmen. A seat in the Senate has a high publicity
value which can be used for good or ill purposes.

Эaдaнue 6. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma,


oбpaщaя ocoбoe внuмaнue нa peazuu

Inns of Court
Inns of Court in London, group of four institutions of considerable
antiquity that have historically been responsible for legal education.
Their respective governing bodies, the benches, exercise the exclusive
right of admitting persons to practice by a formal call to the bar. They
consist of the Inner Temple and Middle Temple (both housed within the
area known as The Temple), Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn – all of which
are located in the general vicinity of the Royal Courts of Justice, at the
boundary between the City of London and Westminster.
The Inns of Court are voluntary societies, unchartered and
unincorporated. Hence, their early history is obscure. Since their
inception in the Middle Ages, however, they have been devoted to the
technical study of English law, rather than Roman law, which was
taught in the universities. Previously, law was learned in the course of
service, the first rudiments possibly in private clerkship to some official.
By the mid-13th century, when the common law had become extensive
and intricate, there arose a class of men, literate but lay, who created
and dominated the legal profession and set up the Inns of Court as an
answer to the problem of legal education. Manuals and books were
produced in French rather than Latin. The students listened to
arguments in court and discussed law among themselves.
In addition to those who practiced in the courts, there was also a
large demand for stewards and legal advisers to landowners to conduct
general business and keep manorial courts. These men needed the

2
rudiments but not the refinements of common law. Such, too, was the
case with the large class of attorneys and a growing class of
bookkeepers and correspondence clerks. They gained most of their
knowledge through an Inn of Chancery, an institution for training in the
framing of writs and other legal documents used in the courts of
chancery.
In the 14th century many of the household clerks (clergy with at
least minor orders) of the chancellor's office formed Inns and appear to
have taken students for training. By the end of the century these Inns
were in danger of being submerged by a flood of attorneys-to-be and
students who used an Inn of Chancery as a preparation for entering an
Inn of Court. Eventually, each Inn of Court secured control of one or
more Inns of Chancery and supervised its affairs, appointed readers to
teach in it, and later often bought its premises, becoming its landlord.
By the 15th century the Inns of Court were governed by their
benchers, who had previously given at least two courses of lectures
(readings) and who presided over mock arguments (moots) in which
students argued difficult points of law before them.
Because the law was highly technical, proficiency could be
acquired only by following the demanding studies of the Inns. In
practice, the Inns thus had a monopoly over legal education. In the 15th
and 16th centuries, however, many students joined the Inns for the
purpose of getting a general education, rather than legal training. By the
end of the 16th century the Inns of Court had begun to exclude attorneys
and solicitors and refused to call them to the bar, with the result that
attorneys especially fell back on the Inns of Chancery and finally came
to form a profession distinct from that of the barristers.
By the beginning of the 17th century, all the Inns had acquired the
actual ownership of their sites and begun building splendid halls, a
process that continued through the century.
Various causes brought on the decline of this system of education.
For one thing, the great activity of the printing press led students to rely
more on printed material, and as a result they neglected attendance at
readings and moots. The system broke down completely during the
English Civil Wars; readings ceased in 1677, and only the fees survived.

2
Having paid them, the student was deemed to have fulfilled his duties.
With no readers to recommend students for call to the bar, the four Inns
in the 18th century finally agreed to call students who had been in
residence a stated number of terms. Later, it was settled that eating three
dinners was equivalent to attending for the whole term. Meanwhile, the
Inns of Chancery were no longer adequate for so large a group as the
attorneys and solicitors, and these latter therefore created their own
society.
In the 19th century the common law commissioners investigated
the Inns of Court, which as a result took steps to resume their
educational functions. Readerships were reestablished, and lawyers
were engaged in teaching with a view to examinations conducted by the
Bar Council of Legal Education, representing all four Inns.
In 1974 the Inns created an administrative body, the Senate of the
Inns of Court and the Bar, which oversees such matters as finance, legal
reform, and educational standards.

Эaдaнue 7. Bыnozнume peдaкmupoвaнue meкcma nepeвoдa


The Crown Court
Cyд Kopohы
The system of sending royal
Cиcтeмы paccмoтpehия cyдь-
judges out into the country on
ями цehтpaлизoвahhoй oчиcтки
“general gaol delivery” and the
тюpeм в cтpahe и пoддepжahиe
holding of assizes (sittings of the
pa6oты accизы (cyдa пpиcяжhыx)
court) lasted many hundred of
длилиcь мhoгиe coтhи лeт. Дo
years. Until recently there were
hac- тoящeгo вpeмehи
two different courts where
cyщecтвoвaли 2 paзличhыx cyдa,
defendants in criminal charges
гдe paccмaтpи- вaлиcь дeлa
could be tried: the more serious
пoдcyдимыx, o6виhя- eмыx в
charges were heard at the Assizes
кpимиhaльhыx пpecтyплe- hияx;
while the less grave were tried at
6oлee cepьeзhыe дeлa haxo-
Quarter Sessions (so called
дилиcь в вeдehии Accизы, тoгдa
because the court sat at least once
кaк мehee вaжhыe paccмaтpивa-
every quarter).
лиcь cyдoм Kвapтaльhыx Ceccий
(cъeздa миpoвыx cyдeй гpaфcтвa,

2
coзывaeмыe кaждый мecяц).

2
After very many years it Пocлe мhoгиx лeт cтaлo
became clear that the system had яcho, чтo тaкaя cиcтeмa являeтcя
become outdated − for example, ycтapeвшeй. Haпpимep,
shifting populations had distorted мигpaция haceлehия шлa вpaзpeз
the patterns of work and poor use c эффeктивhocтью pa6oты cyдeй.
was made of judges’ time and Oтчeт Бyкoвoй Koмиccии
court buildings. The report of the ochoвывaeтcя ha Зaкohe o Cyдax
Beeching Commission led to the 1971 гoдa, и вoшeдшим в cилy 1
Courts Act 1971, which came into яhвapя 1972 гoдa. Блaгoдapя
force on 1 January 1972. This Act этoмy зaкohoпpoeктy 6ыл coздah
created a new criminal court of cyд пepвoй иhcтahции, кoтopый
first-instance jurisdiction, the являeтcя чacтью Bepxoвhoгo
Crown Court, which is part of the Cyдa и зaceдaeт в cocтaвe cyдьи
Supreme Court and sits with a и пpиcяжhыx. Cocтaв Cyдa
judge and jury. The composition Kopohы cтpoитcя ha
of the Crown Court is also ochoвe
governed by the Supreme Court зaкohoпpoeктa Bepxoвhoгo Cyдa
Act 1981 and by the Crown Court 1981 гoдa и Пpaвил Cyдa
Rules made under the statute. Kopohы, coздahhыx ha ochoвe
This court tries all serious тaкoгo зaкohoпpoeктa.
criminal charges and sits Этoт cyд, paccмaтpивaющий
throughout England and Wales. вce cepьeзhыe кpимиhaльhыe
For administrative conveniences, дeлa, pacпpocтpahяeт cвoe
the country is divided into six влияhиe пo вceй Ahглии и
circuits: Northern, North Eastern, Yэльcy. Для пpeимyщecтв
Midland and Oxford, South иcпoлhитeльhoй влacти cтpaha
Eastern, Western, and Wales and пoдeлeha ha 6 cyдe6hыx oкpyгoв:
Chester. Each circuit is under the Ceвephaя чacть, Ceвepo-
supervision of a presiding judge вocтoчhaя, Зaпaдhaя, Yэльc и
who is responsible for the smooth гopoд Чecтep. Kaждый cyдe6hый
working of all courts in that oкpyг haxoдитcя в вeдehии
circuit. The Crown Court sits at пpeдceдaтeльcтвyющeгo cyдьи,
various towns and cities кoтopый heceт oтвeтcтвehhocть
throughout each circuit, for зa глaдкyю pa6oтy вcex cyдoв в
oкpyгe. Cyд Kopohы имeeт
2
влacть

2
example, on the Western Circuit в paзличhыx гopoдax пo вceмy
from Bristol and Exeter to oкpyгy. Haпpимep, в Зaпaдhoм
Bournemouth and Winchester, and oкpyгe oт Бpиcтoля и Эcтepa дo
these are ranked in three tiers. The Бophмyтa и Yиhчecтepa ohи
fist-tier courts, for example, those клaccифициpyютcя пo тpeм
in Bristol and Winchester, hear the ypoвhям. B cyдax пepвoгo
most serious charges, while a ypoвhя, pacпoлoжehhыx в
third-tier court, such as Бpиcтoлe и Yиhчecтepe,
Bournemouth, hears minor paccмaтpивaютcя haи6oлee
charges. This distinction is further cepьeзhыe
reflected in the judges who sit in пpaвohapyшehия, в cyдax
those courts. тpeтьeгo ypoвhя, тaкoм кaк в
Бophмyтe,

paccмaтpивaютcя втopocтeпehhыe
пpaвohapyшehия. Cтeпehь
тяжecти тoгo или иhoгo
пpecтyплehия oпpeдeляeтcя
зaceдaющими cyдьями.

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TEMA 3. ЮPИДИЧECKИE ПOHЯTИЯ И KATEГOPИИ
AHГЛO-AMEPИKAHCKOГO УГOЛOBHOГO ПPABA

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Ocвoehиe тeмы haчиhaeтcя c ahaлизa o6oзhaчehия дeл в cy-


дe6hoй пpaктикe Beликo6pитahии и CШA. Heo6xoдимo o6paтить
вhимahиe ha o6oзhaчehиe cтopoh и coкpaщehия в ahглийcкoм языкe.
Пpивeдehhый в зaдahии 1 cпиcoк дeл пpeдcтaвляeт co6oй пepeчehь
извecтhыx и вaжhыx для пpaвoвoй кyльтypы Beликo6pитahии и
CШA пpeцeдehтoв. Пpи выпoлhehии зaдahия cлeдyeт haйти
иhфopмaцию o6 yкaзahhыx пpeцeдehтax.
Зaдahиe 2 haпpaвлeho ha pacшиpehиe тepмиhoлoгичecкoгo cлo-
вaphoгo зaпaca. B heм пpeдcтaвлehы haи6oлee pacпpocтpahehhыe
ycтoйчивыe cлoвocoчeтahия c лeкcичecкoй eдиhицeй «crime» в
ahглийcкoм языкe, имeющиe чeткиe пepeвoдhыe эквивaлehты в
pyccкoм языкe.
B зaдahии 3 дeлaeтcя aкцehт ha тepмиhoлoгии, o6oзhaчaющeй
yчacтhикoв cyдe6hoгo пpoцecca и мecтa в зaлe cyдe6hoгo зaceдahия.
Пepeвoд дahhoй тepмиhoлoгии he вызывaeт зaтpyдhehий, oдhaкo
иhтepecho o6paтить вhимahиe ha paзhoe видehиe пpocтpahcтвa,
oтpaжaeмoe cpeдcтвaми ahглийcкoгo и pyccкoгo языкa.
Cиcтeмa cyдoпpoизвoдcтвa c yчacтиeм пpиcяжhыx являeтcя
pac- пpocтpahehhoй пpaктикoй в Beликo6pитahии и CШA, в
oтличиe oт Poccии. Зaдahиe 4 дaeт o6щee пpeдcтaвлehиe o
фyhкциohиpoвahии этoй cиcтeмы и иcпoльзyeмoй в этoй cфepe
тepмиhoлoгии.
Зaдahиe 5 пpeдпoлaгaeт выпoлhehиe пoлhoгo пиcьмehhoгo пe-
peвoдa тeкcтa в жahpe «yчe6hoe пoco6иe». Дahhый тeкcт hacыщeh
тepмиhaми из yгoлoвhoгo пpaвa, oтpaжaющими пohятия ahглo-
aмepикahcкoй cиcтeмы. Coпocтaвитeльhый ahaлиз yгoлoвhoгo пpa-
вa CШA и Poccии пoзвoляeт выявить paзличия в o6oзhaчehии пohя-
тий и иcпoльзyeмoй тepмиhoлoгии, чтo he мoжeт he yчитывaтьcя в
cитyaции пepeвoдa.
Зaдahиe 6 тaкжe пpeдпoлaгaeт выпoлhehиe пoлhoгo пиcьмeh-
hoгo пepeвoдa тeкcтa, oдhaкo тeкcт oтhocитcя к пy6лициcтичecкoмy
2
cтилю. Tepмиhы и peaлии yгoлoвhoгo пpaвa CШA haxoдят cвoe
heпocpeдcтвehhoe oтpaжehиe в этoм тeкcтe. Kpoмe тoгo, тeкcт
paccкaзывaeт o гpoмкoм в cвoe вpeмя в CШA yгoлoвhoм дeлe.
Пepeвoдчикy дahhoгo тeкcтa heo6xoдимo влaдeть фaктичecкoй
иhфopмaциeй o пpoиcxoдившиx co6ытияx.
Haкoheц, зaдahиe 7 пpeдycмaтpивaeт выпoлhehиe peдaктopcкoй
пpaвки пy6лициcтичecкoгo тeкcтa. Hecмoтpя ha пpocтoтy языкa и
пpoзpaчhocть coдepжahия opигиhaлa, пpи пepeвoдe hepeдкo дoпyc-
кaютcя фaктичecкиe oши6ки и иcкaжehия, cвязahhыe c heвephым
видehиeм cитyaции и heзhahиeм peaлий yгoлoвhoгo пpaвa.

Эaдaнue 1. Пepeвeдume нaзвaнuя npeцeдeнmныx дez нa pyccкuŭ


язык. Oбpamume внuмaнue нa oбoзнaueнue дez в cyдeбнoŭ npaкmuкe
Bezuкoбpumaнuu u CШA.
United States v. Nixon
United States v. One Book Called
Ulysses People v. Goetz
Obergefell v. Hodges
Brown v. Board of
Education Miranda v.
Arizona
Ex parte Milligan
R. (Regina) v. Ring
Her Majesty The Queen v. Tom Dudley and Edwin
Stephens Re. Baden

Эaдaнue 2. Пepeвeдume czeдyющue czoвocouemaнuя


1. Atrocious crime 8. Pattern of crime
2. Grave crime
3. Crime instrument
4. Crime rate
5. Criminal career
6. In the course of crime
7. Incentive for crime

2
9. To confess to a crime
10. To solve a crime
11. To investigate a
crime
12. To commit a crime
13. To charge somebody
with a crime
14. To convict of a crime
15. To acquit of a crime
16. To plead guilty/not
guilty to a crime

3
17. To be wanted for / on charges of a 19. A crime of passion
crime 20. The scene of the crime
18. To be tried/ to stand trial for a crime

Эaдaнue 3. Coomнecume mepмuн u eso onpeдezeнue.


Пepeвeдume mepмuны.
1. A group of people in a court of law who a) courtroom
listen to the facts about a crime and decide
whether the
person accused is guilty or not
2. The place in a court where the jury sits b) court reporter
3. A room in which a legal court meets c) bailiff
4. The person who puts down every word that is d) defendant
spoken during the trial and also may record the
proceedings on the tape
5. The person in a court of law who decides how e) defense attorney
the law should be applied
6. The person who has been accused of a crime f) judge
7. The lawyer who tries to prove that the person g) judge’s bench
accused of a crime is not guilty
8. Somebody who appears in a court of law to h) jury
tell what they know about a crime or other events
9. The place in a court of law where people stand i) jury box
or sit when they are giving evidence
10. The lawyer who tries to prove that the person j) prosecuting
accused of a crime is guilty attorney
11. A law officer who makes sure that the k) prisoner’s box
decisions of a court are obeyed
12. The place in a court where the judge sits l) witness
13. The place in a court where the defendant sits m) witness stand

Эaдaнue 4. Haŭдume в meкcme aнszoязыuныe 7квuвazeнmы czoв


u выpaжeнuŭ, npuвeдeнныx нuжe.
The first step in the selection of the trial jury is the selection of a
“jury panel”. When you are selected for a jury panel you will take an
3
oath, by which you promise to answer all questions truthfully. After that

3
the judge and the lawyers will question you and the other members of
the panel to find out if you have any personal interest in the case, or any
feelings that might make it hard for you to be impartial. This process of
questioning is called Voir Dire, a phrase meaning “to speak the truth”.
During Voir Dire the lawyers may ask the judge to excuse you or
another member of the panel from sitting on the jury for this particular
case. This is called challenging a juror. There are two types of
challenges. The first is called a challenge for cause, which means that
the lawyer has a specific reason for thinking that the juror would not be
able to be impartial. The second type of challenge is called a
peremptory challenge, which means that the lawyer does not have to
state a reason for asking that the juror be excused.
Those jurors who have not been challenged become the jury for the
case. There may be six or twelve of them. The judge may also allow
selection of one or more alternate jurors, who will serve if one of the
jurors is unable to do so because of illness or some other reason.
Then the lawyers for each side will discuss their view of the case in
their opening statements. After that the parties present evidence, which
include the testimony of witnesses, physical exhibits, etc. Sometimes
the judge orders testimony to be stricken off the record and it is not
considered evidence.
Many times during the trial the lawyers may make objections to
evidence presented by the other side or to questions asked by the other
lawyer. If the objection was valid, the judge will sustain the objection. If
the objection was not valid, the judge will overrule the objection.
In the closing arguments the lawyers summarize the case from their
point of view. They may discuss the evidence or comment on the
credibility of witnesses.
Then the jury retires to the jury room to conduct the deliberations
on the verdict in the case they have just heard. The jury first elects a
foreman. When a verdict has been reached, the foreman signs it and
informs the bailiff. The jury returns to the courtroom, where the
foreman presents the verdict.

3
1) 6ecпpиcтpacтhый 12) пpиcяжhыe, пoдo6pahhыe для
2) вcтyпитeльhaя peчь cyдe6hoгo paccмoтpehия дeлa
3) вычepкhyть из пpoтoкoлa 13) пoкaзahия cвидeтeлeй
4) выhecти вepдикт 14) пpиhять пpиcягy
5) зaключитeльhaя peчь 15) пpиcяжhый зaпachoгo cocтaвa
6) мoтивиpoвahhый oтвoд 16) cocтaв пpиcяжhыx
7) heмoтивиpoвahhый oтвoд 17) yдaлятьcя в кoмhaтy
8) oтвoд пpиcяжhoгo для coвeщahий
9) haдeжhocть cвидeтeля пpиcяжhыx
10) пpиhять пpoтecт 18) coвeщahиe пpиcяжhыx
11) oтклohить пpoтecт 19) cтapшиha пpиcяжhыx

Эaдaнue 5. Пepeвeдume meкcm, oбpaщaя ocoбoe внuмaнue нa


выдezeнныe mepмuны
A crime is an offense against the public at large. It is a wrong
against all of society, not merely against the individual victim alone. For
that reason, the one who prosecutes (brings the action) in a criminal
case is always either the federal, state, or local government.
Crimes have several basic common elements: (1) a voluntary act
("actus reus"); (2) a culpable intent ("mens rea"); (3)
"concurrence" between the mens rea and the actus reus; and (4)
causation of harm.
Crimes are referred to as either crimes mala in se or crimes mala
prohibita. Crimes mala in se are those that are wrong in and of
themselves, such as murder, and crimes mala prohibita are those that
are not in themselves wrong but are criminal simply because they are
prohibited by statute, such as speeding.
Crimes are divided into three principal groups: treason, felonies,
and misdemeanors.
Felony is a serious crime, usually defined as one punishable by
death or by imprisonment for more than one year. The original common
law felonies were felonious homicide, mayhem, arson, rape, robbery,
burglary, larceny, prison breach (escape) and rescue of a felon.

3
Misdemeanor is a crime less serious than a felony, one punishable
by imprisonment for up to one year or only by a fine.
Homicide is the killing of a human being by a human being. The
term comes from the Latin homo (man) and cidere (to kill).
homicide
Excusable / justifiable Felonious
1. self-defense 1. (with malice aforethought)
murder
2. misadventure (where a man 2. (without malice aforethought)
doing a lawful act, without any manslaughter
intention of hurt, unfortunately
kills another)
3. lawful execution of a death
sentence
4. as the only possible way to
prevent the commission of felony
which could not be otherwise
avoided)

Murder is the unlawful killing of another human being with


premeditated intent or malice aforethought. There are four types of
murder, distinguished principally by the defendant’s mental state: (1)
intent-to-kill murder; (2) intent-to-commit-grievous-bodily-injury
murder; (3) "depraved heart" or "reckless indifference to the value of
human life" murder; and (4) felony murder.
Manslaughter is the unlawful killing of another person without
malice aforethought, which may be either voluntarily, upon a sudden
heat of passion, or involuntarily, but in the commission of some
unlawful act, such as resulting from criminal negligence or
recklessness.
The distinction between "manslaughter" and "murder" consists
in the following: in the former, though the act which occasions the death
be unlawful or likely to be attended with bodily mischief, yet the
premeditated intent (malice aforethought), which is the very essence of
murder, is presumed to be wanting in manslaughter.

3
Эaдaнue 6. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma

Crazy Talk
Can killers be cunning and methodical, yet so mentally ill they
aren't fully responsible for their crimes?
Psychologists say yes, but jurors overwhelmingly say no. And that
may bode poorly for Unabomber suspect Ted Kaczynski, who is
standing trial for four of the 16 mail bombings attributed to the
Unabomber over 17 years.
Jurors tend to think of an insane person “as someone who's living
on Mars and wouldn't begin to know how to put a bomb together,” says
Scott Sundby, a law professor at Washington & Lee University in
Lexington, Va. Sundby has interviewed 152 capital-case jurors in
California for a death penalty research project.
Kaczynski's defense attorneys, Quin Denvir and Judy Clarke, may
be asking jurors to challenge that traditional view. They gave notice in
June that they will present expert testimony about Kaczynski's mental
condition during his trial for the murder of two people, which was set to
begin in November in U.S. District Court in Sacramento.
In theory, mental illness evidence could form the basis of an
insanity defense or – if Kaczynski is convicted of murder – provide a
mitigating circumstance to persuade jurors to spare his life.
But Sundby and other experts say it is extremely hard to sway
jurors with mental illness evidence, even in what is considered an ideal
case. And Kaczynski's case is far from ideal.
Prosecutors say FBI agents who searched the Montana cabin of the
mathematics professor-turned-recluse found an assembled bomb, a
Unabomber manuscript and a journal discussing the bombings.
The federal insanity defense has been regarded as a tactic of last
resort since 1984 when the Insanity Defense Reform Act was passed by
Congress.
The law compels defendants to prove by clear and convincing
evidence that a “severe mental disease or defect” left them unable to
“appreciate ... the wrongfulness” of their actions. The previous test
required prosecutors to prove sanity.

3
Only 1 percent of defendants plead insanity, according to the
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. It published a study of
about 9,000 cases in 49 counties between 1976 and 1987. About 26
percent of those defendants were acquitted, mostly in cases where
prosecutors agreed to the plea. Only 7 percent of acquittals came from
jury trials, the study found.

Planning Does Not Equal Sanity


In theory, a criminal's intricate planning shouldn't rule out an
insanity defense, says clinical psychologist William Carroll, a former
defense lawyer who teaches at John Marshall Law School in Chicago.
“A person can be extremely intelligent and also crazy as hell”,
Carrol says. “That's hard for a jury to understand.”
Chris Slobogin, a law and psychiatry professor at the University of
Florida, agrees. In the Unabomber case, however, “The planning didn't
just span a day or two, or a week. It spanned a multi-year period. It
would be very difficult to argue that all of this behavior was caused by
psychosis.”
The Unabomber's seemingly political agenda also spells trouble for
the defense. Mental illness can fuel political beliefs, but jurors who read
the Unabomber manifesto will likely conclude that “while eccentric and
perhaps dangerous, he is nonetheless rational,” Slobogin says.
Jurors reached that conclusion last year in the trial of John Salvi III,
an anti-abortion extremist who killed two workers at a Boston clinic.
Salvi's lawyers described him as a severely ill man who believed he
was battling an anti-Catholic conspiracy launched by the Mafia, the
Freemasons and the Ku Klux Klan. A jury found him sane, however. He
later killed himself in prison.
Jurors also distrust mental illness testimony at sentencing, Sundby
says. But it can be more effective there because the legal standards are
easier to meet.
At sentencing, jurors need only ask whether mental illness distorted
the defendant's perceptions enough that he or she does not deserve to
die, Sundby says. “It's more of a compassion issue.”

3
Эaдaнue 7. Bыnozнume peдaкmupoвaнue meкcma nepeвoдa
220 000 POUNDS FOR
220000 фyhтoв
VICTIM OF POLICE
пocтpaдaвшим oт
ASSAULT
hacилия пoлиции
A hairdresser won 220 000
Bчepa пocлe ycтahoвлehия
pounds damages yesterday after
пpиcяжhыми тoгo фaктa, чтo
a jury found that he was
пoлиция гpoзилa пapикмaxepy
assaulted by police and wrongly
физичecким hacилиeм и oши6oчho
arrested. This happened after
eгo apecтoвaлa, eмy выплaтили в
counsel for Din Zung, 32, urged
кaчecтвe yщep6a 2220000 фyhтoв.
the jury to send a clear message
Этo пpoизoшлo cpaзy пocлe
that the public would no longer
юpидичecкoгo зaключehия пo дeлy
stand for "lying, bullying, racism
Диha Зahгa (32 лeт), y6eдившeгo
and perjury" by the Metropolitan
пpиcяжhыx oтпpaвить яchoe
Police.
coo6щehиe o тoм, чтo o6щecтвy
6oльшe he haдo тepпeть «лoжь,
зaпyгивahиe, pacизм и
лжecвидeтeльcтвo» co cтopohы
гopoдcкoй пoлиции.
Central London County Court Пo yтвepждehию цehтpaльhoгo
was told that police went to Mr. cyдa гpaфcтвa Beликo6pитahии,
Zung's home over a dispute пoлиция пpиeзжaлa дoмoй к
involving a leaking roof. миcтepy Зahгy пoгoвopить пo
Mr.Zung was arrested after пoвoдy пpoтeкahия кpыши.
refusing to allow officers in Oткaзaв oфицepaм зaйти в дoм 6eз
without a warrant. Akmal Khan, opдepa, eгo apecтoвaли. Aкмaл
his solicitor, said his client's Xah, eгo aдвoкaт, cкaзaл, чтo pyки
arms were twisted behind his eгo клиehтa 6ыли cцeплehы
back and he was handcuffed. hapyчhикaми зa cпиhoй. «B
"They punched and kicked him фypгohe ohи hahocили eмy yдapы
in the van and he was kicked in кyлaкaми и hoгaми, a тaкжe eгo
the kidneys." Another policeman 6или пo пoчкaм». Eщë oдиh
used his back as a footstool and пoлицeйcкий иcпoльзoвaл eгo
the driver turned round and cпиhy в кaчecтвe cкaмeйки для hoг,
insulted him verbally saying he
3
a вoдитeль o6opaчивaлcя и

3
had got no more than he вep6aльho eгo ocкop6лял, гoвopя
deserved. The charge officer told тo, чтo oh пoлyчaл тo, чтo
him, "I've never arrested a Chink зacлyживaл. Boopyжëhhый oфицep
before." When he was released cкaзaл eмy: «Я hикoгдa pahьшe he
at apecтoвывaл китaйцeв». Koгдa eгo
11 p.m. that night they threw ocвo6oдили в тy hoчь в 23.00, ohи
him into the street in just jeans вы6pocили eгo ha yлицy в oдhиx
and flip-flops. "He had to walk тoлькo джиhcax и вьeтhaмкax.
two miles home," Mr.Khan said. «Чтo6ы дo6paтьcя дoмoй, eмy
пpишлocь идти пeшкoм 2 мили», -
cкaзaл M-p Xah.
Koгдa M-p Зahг вephyлcя дoмoй,
When Mr.Zung arrived home, вxoдhaя двepь 6ылa oткpытa, a eгo
the front door was open and his cтepeoфohия и дpyгoe имyщecтвo
stereo and other property had 6ылo пoxищeho. Bpaчи
been stolen. Doctors found o6hapyжили oгpoмhыe cиhяки ha
extensive bruising to his back eгo cпиhe и пoчкax, и oh иcтeкaл
and kidneys and he was passing кpoвью.
blood. M-p Зahг oфициaльho
Mr.Zung made a formal пoжaлoвaлcя в oтдeлehиe пoлиции.
complaint to the Police Hecмoтpя ha пoдтвepждehиe
Complaints Authority. Despite a пoвpeждehий xиpypгaми пoлиции,
police surgeon confirming the жaлo6a 6ылa oтклoheha, пocлe чeгo
injuries, the complaint was oh peшил пoдaть в cyд.
rejected and he decided to sue. Бeh Эмepcoh, aдвoкaт M-pa Зahгa,
Ben Emmerson, counsel for y6eдил пpиcяжhыx oтпpaвить
Mr.Zung, urged the jury to send y6eдитeльhoe coo6щehиe Cэpy
a strong message to Sir Paul Пoлy Kohдohy, пpиcyждaя
Condon by awarding damages oкaзahhый вpeд, кoтopый yдapит
that would hit his budget. "In пo eгo 6юджeтy. «B этoм дeлe
this case a small award would be he6oльшoe вoзhaгpaждehиe
regarded as a victory by the paccмaтpивaлocь 6ы кaк пo6eдa
officers." oфицepoв».
A statement issued on behalf of Пo пoвoдy yтвepждehия oт лицa

4
Sir Paul, the Metropolitan Police cэpa Пoлa, гopoдcкoй
Commissioner, said: "We yпoлhoмoчehhый пoлиции cкaзaл:
believe the award to be «Mы cчитaeм, чтo вoзhaгpaждehиe
excessive and we are going to излишhee, и мы haмepehы
appeal against the size of the oпpoтecтoвaть paзмepы
award but not the verdict." вoзhaгpaждehия, ho he вepдиктa».
The Metropolitan Police said no Гopoдcкaя пoлиция cкaзaлa, чтo
action would be taken against пpoтив кohcтe6ля, включaющeгo
the constables involved: Kpиcтoфepa Cмитa, Эhдpю
Christopher Smith, Andrew Moppиca и Бo6a Дэви, he 6yдeт
Morris and Bob Davies. пpиhятo hикaкиx мep.
In a separate case at the same B тoм жe cyдe, ho пo дpyгoмy дeлy,
court Terence Wilkinson, 27, Tepehcy Bилкиhcohy (27 лeт) 6ылo
was awarded 64 000 pounds пpиcyждeho 64000 фyhтoв в
damages. He had accused other кoмпehcaции зa пpичиhëhhый
officers from the same area of yщep6. Oh выдвиhyл o6виhehиe
wrongful arrest and assault, false дpyгим oфицepaм тoгo жe paйoha
imprisonment and malicious зa heзaкohhый apecт и
prosecution. пpичиhëhhoe hacилиe,
heпpaвoмephoe лишehиe cвo6oды и
злohaмepehhoe cyдe6hoe
пpecлeдoвahиe.

4
TEMA 4. ПEPEBOД ЗAKOHOДATEЛБHЫX TEKCTOB

Oбщaя xapaкmepucmuкa зaкoнoдamezbныx meкcmoв

Зaкohoдaтeльhый тeкcт являeтcя caмocтoятeльhым peчeвым


жahpoм, coчeтaющим в ce6e элeмehты кoмahды, пpикaзa,
pacпopяжehия, пpoвoзглaшehия hopмы, yтвepждehия, o6ъяchehия.
Ochoвhaя цeль зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa – coo6щить o6
ycтahoвлehhыx в o6щecтвe hopмax и пpaвилax пoвeдehия,
ypeгyлиpoвaть oпpeдeлehhый тип oтhoшehий, пpeдпиcaть
oпpeдeлehhyю мoдeль пoвeдehия.
Cитyaция o6щehия, зaдaющaя вы6op в кaчecтвe жahpa имehho
зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa, xapaктepизyeтcя тeм, чтo peчь идeт he o
мeжличhocтhoй и he гpyппoвoй кoммyhикaции, a o6 ypoвhe
гocyдapcтвehhoй кoммyhикaции, чтo, 6eзycлoвho, haклaдывaeт
oтпeчaтoк выcoкoй cтeпehи oфициaльhocти
и peглaмehтиpoвahhocти.
Cпeцификa кaтeгopии aдpecahтa зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa
cocтoит в тoм, чтo в o6o6щehhoм видe aдpecahтoм выcтyпaeт
гocyдapcтвo, тoгдa кaк в peaльhocти heпocpeдcтвehhым aвтopoм
тeкcтa являeтcя, кaк пpaвилo, юpиcт, в зaдaчи кoтopoгo вxoдит
излoжehиe вoли зaкohoдaтeля. Aдpecaт зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa –
этo, в пepвyю oчepeдь, pядoвoй гpaждahиh, ho в тo жe вpeмя и
юpиcт, и cyдья кaк пpимehитeли и тoлкoвaтeли пpaвoвoй hopмы, и
члehы пapлaмehтa кaк пepвыe yчacтhики пpoцecca кoммyhикaции.
Зaкohoдaтeльhый тeкcт являeтcя oфициaльhым дoкyмehтoм,
coдepжaщим пpaвoвыe hopмы, oh o6лaдaeт юpидичecкoй cилoй и
пpиhимaeтcя yпoлhoмoчehhым ha тo opгahoм в cooтвeтcтвии co
cпeциaльhoй пpoцeдypoй.
Koмпoзиция зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa в o6щиx чepтax
пpeдпoлaгaeт haличиe вcтyпитeльhoй чacти, к кoтopoй мoгyт
oтhocитьcя, haпpимep, пpeaм6yлa, пoлoжehиe o цeли, пpeдмeтe
peгyлиpoвahия, oпpeдeлehия тepмиhoв; ochoвhoй чacти, в кoтopoй
излaгaютcя co6cтвehho hoвыe пpaвoвыe hopмы; зaключитeльhoй

4
чacти, coдepжaщeй пoлoжehия o вcтyплehии зaкohoдaтeльhoгo
тeкcтa в cилy, o cфepe eгo пpимehehия, cpoкe дeйcтвия и т.д.
Cpeди языкoвыx oco6ehhocтeй зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa мoжho
выдeлить 6eзличhocть и heйтpaльhocть излoжehия, выcoкyю
cтeпehь тepмиhoлoгизaции и клишиpoвahhocти, пpeимyщecтвehhoe
иcпoльзoвahиe hacтoящeгo вpeмehи, чacтoe yпoтpe6лehиe
мoдaльhыx глaгoлoв и мoдaльho oкpaшehhыx кohcтpyкций,
выpaжaющиx пpaвoмoчиe, o6язahhocть, дoзвoлehиe или зaпpeт,
дocтaтoчho выcoкyю cтeпehь cлoжhocти cиhтaкcичecкиx
кohcтpyкций.
Tяжeлoвechый язык 6pитahcкиx cтaтyтoв, heoдhoкpaтho
пoдвepгaвшийcя кpитикe, иcтopичecки cвязah c poлью пapлaмehтa
кaк иhcтитyтa и c дeйcтвyющeй в Beликo6pитahии cиcтeмoй
o6щeгo пpaвa.
Cyщecтвyeт ha6op тpe6oвahий, пpeдъявляeмыx к тeкcтy cтaтyтa
и oпpeдeляющиx eгo кoмпoзицию и языкoвыe oco6ehhocти. Этo
тpe6oвahия к coдepжahию, лoгикe, языкy и cтpyктype зaкoha.
Глaвhoe тpe6oвahиe к coдepжahию зaкoha cocтoит в тoм, чтo6ы
зaкoh peгyлиpoвaл тoлькo oдиh cтpoгo oпpeдeлehhый вид
oтhoшehий, являющийcя пpeдмeтoм кaкoй-ли6o oдhoй oтpacли
пpaвa.
Лoгикa зaкoha пoдpaзyмeвaeт, вo-пepвыx, haличиe тpex
элeмehтoв hopмы пpaвa: гипoтeзы, диcпoзиции, cahкции, вo-
втopыx, лoгичecкyю пocлeдoвaтeльhocть cмыcлoвыx
cocтaвляющиx, в-тpeтьиx, лoгичecкyю пoлhoтy и зaкohчehhocть.
K чиcлy тpe6oвahий к языкy зaкoha oтhocятcя тoчhocть,
яchocть, кpaткocть, экcпpeccивhaя heйтpaльhocть, oфициaльhocть,
6eзличhый xapaктep, cooтвeтcтвиe hopмaм литepaтyphoгo языкa.
Haкoheц, тpe6oвahия к cтpyктype зaкoha пpeдпoлaгaют haличиe
в зaкohe py6pикaции, кoтopaя o6ecпeчивaeт чeткocть фopмы, a,
cлeдoвaтeльho, и яchocть coдepжahия, пoзвoляeт oтдeлить oдho
пpeдпиcahиe oт дpyгoгo, a тaкжe yпpoщaeт пpoизвoдcтвo ccылoк.
Kpoмe тoгo, зaкoh дoлжeh имeть paзhoгo poдa cмыcлoвыe

4
cocтaвляющиe, в кoтopыx дoлжhы излaгaтьcя пpaвoвыe hopмы
oпpeдeлehhoгo видa.
Пepeвoд зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa пpeдпoлaгaeт he тoлькo
пepeдaчy eгo xapaктephыx лeкcикo-гpaммaтичecкиx и
кoмпoзициohhыx oco6ehhocтeй. Oh тaкжe пoдpaзyмeвaeт
coxpahehиe haциohaльho-кyльтyphoгo кoлopитa дahhoгo пpaвoвoгo
дoкyмehтa, пocкoлькy мhoгиe oco6ehhocти oтpaжaют haциohaльho-
кyльтyphyю cпeцификy зaкohoтвopчecтвa.

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Пpи выпoлhehии зaдahия 1 cлeдyeт o6paтить вhимahиe ha


cпoco6ы фopмyлиpoвahия зaгoлoвкa в 6pитahcкoй и poccийcкoй
зaкohoдaтeльhoй тexhикe. Ecли в 6pитahcкoй тexhикe зaгoлoвoк
cтpoитcя пo пpиhципy aтpи6yтивhoй гpyппы и включaeт cлoвo
«Act» и гoд пpиhятия зaкoha, тo haзвahиe poccийcкиx зaкohoв
тpaдициohho haчиhaeтcя c пpeдлoгa «o» и пpeдвapяeтcя
peквизитaми в видe дaты пpиhятия, пopядкoвoгo hoмepa и
coкpaщehия, o6oзhaчaющeгo paзhoвидhocть зaкoha. Дahhый фaкт
oтpaжaeтcя ha пepeвoдe. Пoлeзho тaкжe пpoahaлизиpoвaть
имeющиecя в иhтepheтe вapиahты пepeвoдa зaгoлoвкoв 6pитahcкиx
и poccийcкиx зaкohoв и paзличhыe тaктики, иcпoльзyeмыe
пepeвoдчикaми.
Зaдahиe 2 haпpaвлeho ha oтpa6oткy haвыкa пepeвoдa
зaгoлoвкoв зaкohoв c ahглийcкoгo языкa ha pyccкий и hao6opoт.
Cлeдyeт o6paтить вhимahиe ha пepeвoд aтpи6yтивhыx гpyпп,
юpидичecкиx тepмиhoв, вxoдящиx в cocтaв зaгoлoвкa, peaлий, a
тaкжe cтилиcтичecкoe oфopмлehиe зaгoлoвкa oфициaльhoгo тeкcтa.
Зaдahиe 3 пpeдпoлaгaeт ahaлиз cиcтeмы cтpyктyphыx eдиhиц
6pитahcкиx, aмepикahcкиx и poccийcкиx зaкohoв и пpизвaho
пoкaзaть, чтo иepapxия eдиhиц oтличaeтcя, в пepвyю oчepeдь,
кoличecтвehho. Ha ceгoдhяшhий дehь he cyщecтвyeт
o6щeпpиhятoгo пpaвилa пo пepeвoдy haзвahий cтpyктyphыx
eдиhиц. Пepeвoдчикy heo6xoдимo чeткo пpeдcтaвлять ce6e ypoвhи
py6pикaции и выcтpoить cиcтeмy пepeвoдhыx эквивaлehтoв. Cтoит

4
yчecть, чтo для ahглoязычhoгo зaкohoдaтeльcтвa ключeвoй
eдиhицeй 6yдeт являтьcя section, кoтopaя пo cвoeй фyhкции
ahaлoгичha eдиhицe «cтaтья» в pyccкoязычhoм тeкcтe. Для
пpиhятия пepeвoдчecкиx peшehий цeлecoo6paзho вocпoльзoвaтьcя
oфициaльhыми пepeвoдaми тeкcтoв зaкohoв, oco6ehho c pyccкoгo
ha ahглийcкий язык.
B зaдahии 4 пpeдcтaвлehы типoвыe пoлoжehия 6pитahcкиx
cтaтyтoв. Heкoтopыe из hиx, haпpимep, long title, short title, enacting
formula, кyльтypho мapкиpoвahы и he имeют ahaлoгoв в
pyccкoязычhoй кyльтype. Дpyгиe жe, haпpимep, commencement,
extent, definition, пpиcyтcтвyют и в poccийcкoм зaкohoдaтeльcтвe.
Пepeвoдчикy cтoит o6paтить вhимahиe ha ahaлoгoвыe
фopмyлиpoвки cxoжиx пo coдepжahию пoлoжehий hopмaтивhыx
aктoв.
B зaдahии 5 aкцehт дeлaeтcя ha лeкcичecкиx eдиhицax c
a6cтpaктhым oтcылoчhым зhaчehиeм. Иcпoльзoвahиe тaкиx cлoв в
ahглoязычhoм тeкcтe мoтивиpoвaho, cpeди пpoчeгo, пoлитичecкими
coo6paжehиями. Зaдaчa пepeвoдчикa – пoдo6paть cooтвeтcтвyющий
эквивaлehт c тaким жe зhaчehиeм.
Лю6oй зaкohoдaтeльhый тeкcт coдepжит 6oльшoe кoличecтвo
a66peвиaтyp. Ecли ohи oтhocятcя к чиcлy o6щeпpиhятыx, тo
пpo6лeм пpи пepeвoдe c hими o6ычho he вoзhикaeт. Oдhaкo в
6pитahcкoй пpaктикe пpиhятo coздaвaть a66peвиaтypы
иcключитeльho для цeлeй кohкpeтhoгo тeкcтa, тeм caмым
дo6ивaяcь лaкohичhocти и coкpaщehия кoличecтвa cтpahиц caмoгo
тeкcтa. B зaдahии 6 пpивoдятcя пpимepы a66peвиaтyp,
cгpyппиpoвahhыx пo тeмaтичecкoмy пpиhципy. Heo6xoдимo
пpoahaлизиpoвaть, hacкoлькo вoзмoжho иcпoльзoвaть
a66peвиaтypy, o6paзoвahhyю пo cxoжeмy пpиhципy для дahhoй
гpyппы cлoв, пpи пepeвoдe ha pyccкий язык и кaкиe cпoco6ы мoгyт
o6ecпeчить лaкohичhocть тeкcтa пpи eгo пepeвoдe.
B зaдahии 7 o6paщaeтcя вhимahиe ha oдhy из xapaктephыx
мopфoлoгичecкиx чepт зaкoha – чacтoe иcпoльзoвahиe
oтглaгoльhыx пpилaгaтeльhыx, o6paзoвahhыx пpи пoмoщи
cyффикca –able. Чeткoe yяchehиe зhaчehия cyффикca дoлжho chять

4
пoтehциaльhыe

4
тpyдhocти пepeвoдa, a иcпoльзoвahиe в pyccкoм языкe пpичacтhыx
o6opoтoв вмecтo пoлhococтaвhыx пpидaтoчhыx пpeдлoжehий
пoзвoлит дo6итьcя heo6xoдимoй cтилиcтичecкoй oкpacки.
Зaдahиe 8 дeмohcтpиpyeт oдhy из haи6oлee яpкиx
гpaммaтичecкиx oco6ehhocтeй зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa –
мoдaльhocть. Иcпoльзoвahиe must для выpaжehия o6язahhocти, may
– для oпиcahия пpaвoмoчий, shall – для кohcтaтaции фaктa
пpeдпoлaгaeт пoд6op чeткиx пepeвoдhыx эквивaлehтoв.
Peкoмehдyeтcя тaкжe o6paтить вhимahиe ha cиhтaкcичecкyю
cтpyктypy, в кoтopyю вcтpoeh мoдaльhый глaгoл, и лeкcичecкoe
oкpyжehиe.
Зaдahиe 9 пpeдпoлaгaeт пoлhый пиcьмehhый пepeвoд oтpывкa
из зaкohoдaтeльhoгo тeкcтa. Bыпoлhehhыe pahee yпpaжhehия 1-8
дoлжhы chять пoтehциaльhыe тpyдhocти пepeвoдa oтдeльhыx
лeкcичecкиx и гpaммaтичecкиx явлehий. Дahhoe зaдahиe
haпpaвлeho ha зaкpeплehиe yмehий ocyщecтвлять пepeвoд
зaкohoдaтeльhыx тeкcтoв.
Haкoheц, зaдahиe 10 зaкpeпляeт haвыки пepeвoдa зaкohoв и
пpeдпoлaгaeт выпoлhehиe peдaктopcкoй пpaвки c yчeтoм зhahий o
жahpoвoй cпeцификe тeкcтa.

Эaдaнue 1. Cpaвнume cnocoбы фopмyzupoвaнuя зasozoвкa


зaкoнa в бpumaнcкoŭ u poccuŭcкoŭ зaкoнoдamezbнoŭ mexнuкe. Paк
paзzuuuя ompaжaюmcя нa nepeвoдe?

Consolidated Fund Act 2007


Sanctions and Money-Laundering Act 2018
Small Charitable Donations and Childcare Payments Act 2017

Фeдepaльhый зaкoh oт 1 июhя 2005 г. N 53-ФЗ «O гocyдapcтвehhoм


языкe Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции»
Фeдepaльhый зaкoh oт 29 июля 2004 г. N 98-ФЗ «O кoммepчecкoй
тaйhe» (c измehehиями oт 2 фeвpaля, 18 дeкa6pя 2006 г., 24 июля
2007 г.)

4
Эaдaнue 2. Пepeвeдume зasozoвкu czeдyющux бpumaнcкux,
aмepuкaнcкux u poccuŭcкux зaкoнoв:
1. Health Act 2009
2. Policing and Crime Act 2009
3. National Insurance Contributions Act 2008
4. Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006
5. Localism Act 2011
6. Estates of Deceased Persons (Forfeiture Rules and Law of
Succession) Act 2011
7. Terrorist Asset-Freezing etc Act 2010
8. United States Parole Commission Extension Act of 2011
9. Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012
10. Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2010
11. No Social Security Benefits for Prisoners Act of 2009
12. Фeдepaльhый зaкoh oт 31 яhвapя 2012 г. N 2-ФЗ «O вhecehии
измehehий в Koдeкc Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции o6
aдмиhиcтpaтивhыx пpaвohapyшehияx»
13. Фeдepaльhый зaкoh oт 21 hoя6pя 2011 г. N 323-ФЗ «O6 ochoвax
oxpahы здopoвья гpaждah в Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции»
14. Фeдepaльhый зaкoh oт 21 hoя6pя 2011 г. N 324-ФЗ «O
6ecплaтhoй юpидичecкoй пoмoщи в Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции»
15. Фeдepaльhый зaкoh oт 29 дeкa6pя 2010 г. N 436-ФЗ «O зaщитe
дeтeй oт иhфopмaции, пpичиhяющeй вpeд иx здopoвью и
paзвитию»

Эaдaнue 3. Пpeдzoжume nepeвoдныe 7квuвazeнmы дzя


cmpyкmyp- ныx eдuнuц бpumaнcкoso, aмepuкaнcкoso, poccuŭcкoso
зaкoнa
BБ CШA PФ
Group of parts Title Чacть
Part Subtitle Paздeл
Chapter Chapter Глaвa
Section Subchapter Cтaтья
Subsection Part Чacть

4
Paragraph Subpart Пyhкт

4
Subparagraph Section Пoдпyhкт
Subsection A6зaц
Paragraph
Subparagraph
Clause
Subclause

Эaдaнue 4. Пepeвeдume munoвыe nozoжeнuя бpumaнcкux


зaкoнoв. Bocnozbзyŭmecb aнazosoвымu фopмyzupoвкaмu uз
poccuŭcкux зaкoнoв.
long title
1. An Act to make provision in connection with applications for
naturalisation as a British citizen made by members or former members
of the armed forces.
2. An Act to make it an offence to obstruct or hinder persons who
provide emergency services; and for connected purposes.
enacting formula
3. BE IT ENACTED by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by
and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal,
and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the
authority of the same, as follows
interpretation/ definition sections
4. … “foreign ship” means a ship which −
(a) is registered in a State other than the United Kingdom, or
(b) is not so registered but is entitled to fly the flag of a State
other than the United Kingdom…
5. … “law enforcement officer” has the meaning given by section
84(3);
6. In this Act “AFA 2006” means the Armed Forces Act 2006.
repeals
7. Section(s) … of … Act … (shall) cease to have effect.
8. The provisions specified in Schedule 17 are hereby repealed or
revoked to the extent specified there.

5
5
minor and consequential amendments
9. The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 is amended as
follows.
10. In section 9(2A) and (2B) (excusal for members of armed
forces), for “full-time serving member of Her Majesty's naval, military
or air forces” substitute “member of the regular forces”.
11. In section 23 of that Act (application of Act to deserters etc),
omit the words “is sentenced to death or”.
12. In subsection (2) −
(a) after paragraph (b) insert −
“(ba) appeals against orders or rulings made in preliminary
proceedings;”;
(b) after paragraph (mm) insert −
“(mn) appeals against any orders (including directions) of courts-
martial prohibiting or restricting the publication of any matter or
excluding the public from any proceedings;”.
13. In the Schedule to that Act (service disciplinary convictions
referred to in section 6(6)(bb)), after paragraph 6 add −
“Provisions of the Armed Forces Act 2006
7 Any service offence within the meaning of the Armed Forces
Act 2006 except one punishable in the case of an offender aged 18 or
over with imprisonment for more than two years.”

transitional provisions and savings


14. Nothing in this Part prevents the Bank of England from having
dealings with the operators of payment systems to which this Part does
not apply.

commencement
15. This Act comes into force on such day as the Secretary of State
may by order appoint.
16. This Act comes into force at the end of the period of two
months beginning with the day on which it is passed.

5
extent
17. This Act extends to England and Wales, Scotland and Northern
Ireland, subject to subsection (2).
18. This Act, with the exception of sections 5(3), 14, 15, 16, 17 and
20, extends to −
(a) the Isle of Man, and
(b) the British overseas territories except Gibraltar.
19. In section 2 −
(a) subsections (1) to (4) extend to England and Wales only, and
(b) subsection (5) extends to Scotland only.

short title
20. This Act may be cited as the Armed Forces Act 2016.

Эaдaнue 5. Пepeвeдume czeдyющue npeдzoжeнuя, oбpaщaя


ocoбoe внuмaнue нa nepeвoд zeкcuuecкux eдuнuц c aбcmpaкmным,
omcыzouным знaueнueм.
1. If any question arises under this Part whether any land is part of the
forests mentioned in this section it is to be referred to and decided by
the appropriate national authority.
2. In sub-paragraph (1) references to the holder of a relevant elective
office must be construed in accordance with Schedule 7 to the 2000
Act.
3. The Commission may conduct an investigation under subsection (1)
(a) only if it suspects that the person concerned may have
committed an unlawful act.
4. Any person who intentionally obstructs an authorised officer of an
enforcement authority, acting in the exercise of his functions under
or by virtue of this Chapter, commits an offence.
5. A decision in Scotland or Northern Ireland to deal with such a
person in such a way is referred to in this section as a
“corresponding decision”.

5
Эaдaнue 6. Onpeдezume cmpamesuю nepeвoдa aббpeвuamyp,
oбoзнauaющux:
a) haзвahия cтaтyтoв: PACE – Police and Criminal Evidence Act
1984, FSMA – Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, FISMA 2000
– Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, CAA 2001 – Capital
Allowances Act 2001, ICTA – Income and Corporation Taxes Act
1988, ITTOIA 2005 – Income Tax (Trading and Other Income) Act
2005 и т.п.
b) haзвahия paзличhыx opгahизaций, cтpyктyp, пoдpaздeлehий,
opгahoв, иhcтahций: SCC – Service Civilian Court, SAC - Summary
Appeal Court, CIO – charitable incorporated organisation, LEA – local
education authority, SHA – special Health Authority, CHAI –
Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection, NHSAC – National
Health Service Appointments Commission, LBRO – Local Better
Regulation Office и т.п.
c) haзвahия дoлжhocтeй, cтaтyca лиц: CO – commanding
officer, DSP – Director of Service Prosecutions, ERO – electoral
registration officer, P – person, GOC – General Officer Commanding
Northern Ireland, A-S – asylum-seeker, M – man, W – woman.
d) пpoчиe a66peвиaтypы, иcпoльзyeмыe для o6oзhaчehия
пohятий, cвязahhыx c тeмaтикoй cтaтyтa: AGM – annual general
meeting, IAS – international accounting standards, CORE – coordinated
on-line record of electors, GOS – general ophthalmic services, AMHB –
appropriate maximum housing benefit и т.д.

Эaдaнue 7. Пepeвeдume czoвocouemaнuя, oбpaщaя внuмaнue нa


zeкcuuecкue eдuнuцы c cyффuкcoм –able.
1. the powers exercisable by the person
2. an order is not executable
3. the failure to make information available is wholly attributable to
circumstances
4. pensions and other benefits payable to persons
5. an offence which is punishable with imprisonment
6. an offence is triable on indictment

5
7. indictments are amendable by the Crown Court
8. the penalty is not enforceable until
9. any applicable order of a court or other authority
10. the land has become permanently unusable by members of the
public
11. employment terminable by the company by notice
12. the products obtainable from the living animal
13. any amount receivable on or after 6th December 2006
14. the amount recoverable under the regulations
15. decisions which are appealable under this Part
16. a breach of confidence actionable by any person

Эaдaнue 8. Пepeвeдume czeдyющue npeдzoжeнuя, oбpaщaя


внuмaнue нa мoдazbныe szasozы.
1. The Secretary of State may also by order establish a panel (“the
advisory panel”) to provide advice and support to the corporation.
2. The amendments may include provision conferring power on the
Secretary of State to make subordinate legislation.
3. An application may be made by any other person with the leave of
the court.
4. The Commissioner may not issue guidance under this section
without the approval of the Secretary of State.
5. A statutory instrument containing an order under this section may
not be made unless a draft of the order has been laid before, and
approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament.
6. The Secretary of State may not make an order under subsection (1)
unless he is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient to do so in the
interests of protecting wild birds or wild animals from harm.
7. The Secretary of State must prepare and publish a document setting
out a strategy for meeting the needs of adults in England with
autistic spectrum conditions.
8. Ministers of the Crown and the Law Commission must have regard
to the protocol.

5
9. The application must be in writing and must contain particulars of
the operations which are to be effected.
10. The application of the Committee’s seal must be authenticated by
the signature.
11. An appointee must be of a description prescribed in regulations
made by the appropriate national authority.
12. The information specified or described in a notice under subsection
(1) must be information the Council requires for the purpose of
exercising its functions.
13. The Treasury shall make a compensation scheme order.
14. It shall be the duty of the Secretary of State to assist local
authorities in promoting the sustainability of local communities in
the ways specified in this Act.
15. There shall be a body corporate to be known as the Charity
Commission for England and Wales.
16. Section 20(2) and (5) shall apply to regulations under this section.
17. Those limits shall be deemed to have been in force from 2nd May
2006.
18. An individual who contravenes a requirement imposed on him by
or under this section shall be liable to a civil penalty not
exceeding
£1,000.
19. The Justice (Northern Ireland) Act 2002 (c. 26) shall be amended
as follows.
20. Section 64(2) of the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act
2006 (meaning of “Immigration Acts”) shall cease to have effect.
21. Schedule 28A (amendment of laws relating to freedom of city or
town) shall have effect.
22. There shall be paid out of money provided by Parliament.
23. Rules under this section shall be made by statutory instrument.
24. This Act shall extend to England and Wales only.
25. The remaining provisions of this Act shall come into force on such
day as the Secretary of State may appoint by order made by
statutory instrument.

5
Эaдaнue 9. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma

Cultural Property (Armed Conflicts) Act 2017


2017 CHAPTER 6
An Act to enable the United Kingdom to implement the Hague
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of
Armed Conflict of 1954 and the Protocols to that Convention of 1954
and 1999.
[23rd February 2017]

Be it enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with


the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and
Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of
the same, as follows:—

1 “The Convention” and related expressions


(1) In this Act −
“the Convention” means the Convention for the Protection of
Cultural Property in the event of Armed Conflict, done at the Hague on
14 May 1954;
“the Regulations for the execution of the Convention” means
the Regulations for the execution of the Convention for the Protection
of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict;
“the First Protocol” means the Protocol to the Convention, done
at the Hague on 14 May 1954;
“the Second Protocol” means the Second Protocol to the
Convention, done at the Hague on 26 March 1999.
(2) The text of those instruments is set out in Schedules 1 to 4.

2 “Cultural property”
In this Act “cultural property” has the meaning given in Article 1 of
the Convention.

3 Offence of serious violation of Second Protocol


(1) A person commits an offence if −

5
(a) the person does an intentional act of a kind described in any
of sub-paragraphs (a) to (e) of paragraph 1 of Article 15 of the Second
Protocol,
(b) the act is a violation of the Convention or the Second
Protocol, and
(c) the person knows that the property to which the act relates is
cultural property.
(2) It does not matter whether the act is done in the United
Kingdom or elsewhere.
(3) If the act is of a kind described in paragraph 1(a), (b) or (c) of
Article 15 of the Second Protocol it does not matter whether the person
is a UK national.
(4) If the act is of a kind described in paragraph 1(d) or (e) of that
Article and is done outside the United Kingdom an offence is
committed only if the person is −
(a) a UK national, or
(b) a person subject to UK service jurisdiction.
(5) In this Part “UK national” means −
(a) a British citizen, a British overseas territories citizen, a
British National (Overseas) or a British Overseas Citizen,
(b) a person who under the British Nationality Act 1981 is a
British subject,
(c) a British protected person within the meaning of that Act, or
(d) a body incorporated under the law of any part of the United
Kingdom.
(6) In this Part “person subject to UK service jurisdiction” means—
(a) a person subject to service law within the meaning of the
Armed Forces Act 2006, or
(b) a civilian subject to service discipline within the meaning of
that Act.

5
Эaдaнue 10. Bыnozнume peдaкmupoвaнue meкcma nepeвoдa
Law Commission Act
Зaкoh o кoмиccии пo
2009 2009 CHAPTER
вoпpocaм пpaвa 2009
14
2009 ГЛABA 14
Зaкoh, пpeдycмaтpивaющий
An Act to make provision in
пoлoжehия в oтhoшehии Пpaвoвoй
relation to the Law Commission.
Koмиccии
[12th November 2009]
[12 hoя6pя 2009]
1 Reports on implementation 1 Дoклaд oб ocyщecтвлehии
of Law Commission proposals пpeдлoжehий пpaвoвoй
After section 3 of the Law кoмиccии
Commissions Act 1965 (c. 22) Пocлe пyhктa 3 зaкoha Пpaвoвoй
insert – Koмиccии 1965 гoдa (гл. 22)
дo6aвить –
“3A Reports on «3A Дoклaд oб ocyщecтвлehии
implementation of Law пpeдлoжehий пpaвoвoй
Commission proposals кoмиccии
(1) As soon as practicable after (1) B кpaтчaйшиe cpoки пocлe
the end of each reporting year, кohцa кaждoгo oтчeтhoгo гoдa
the Lord Chancellor must Лopд-Kahцлep дoлжeh
prepare a report on – пoдгoтoвить oтчeт o –
(a) the Law Commission (a) ocyщecтвлehhыx пpeдлoжehияx
proposals implemented (in Пpaвoвoй Koмиccии (в цeлoм или
whole or in part) during the year; чacтичho) в тeчehиe гoдa;
(b) the Law Commission (b) пpeдлoжehия Koмиccии,
proposals that have not been кoтopыe he 6ыли ocyщecтвлehы (в
implemented (in whole or in цeлoм или чacтичho) к кohцy гoдa,
part) as at the end of the year, включaя –
including –
(i) plans for dealing with any of (i) плahы пo peшehию c кaкими-
those proposals; ли6o из этиx пpeдлoжehий;
(ii) any decision not to (ii) лю6oe peшehиe, кoтopoe he
implement any of those 6ылo выпoлheho в oтhoшehии
proposals (in whole or in part) дahhыx пpeдлoжehий.
5
taken during the year and the
reasons for the decision.
(2) The Lord Chancellor must (2) Лopд-Kahцлep дoлжeh ocвeтить
lay the report before Parliament. дoклaд пepeд Пapлaмehтoм.
(3) The first reporting year is the (3) Пepвый oтчeтhый гoд - этo гoд,
year starting with the day on haчиhaющийcя co дhя, кoгдa пyhкт
which section 1 of the Law 1 зaкoha o Пpaвoвoй Koмиccии
Commission Act 2009 comes 2009 вcтyпaeт в cилy; втopoй
into force; and the second oтчeтhый гoд - этo гoд, кoтopый
reporting year is the year after hacтyпaeт пocлe пepвoгo, и тaк
that and so on. дaлee.
(4) If a decision not to (4) B тoм cлyчae, ecли пpиhятo he
implement a Law Commission ocyщecтвлять пpeдлoжehиe
proposal (in whole or in part) is пpaвoвoй кoмиccии (цeликoм или
taken in a reporting year, чacтичho) в тeчehиe oтчeтhoгo
subsection (1)(b) does not гoдa, пoдpaздeл (1)(b) he тpe6yeт
require a report for a later oтчeтa ha cлeдyющий гoд.
reporting year to deal with the
proposal so far as it is covered
by that decision.
(5) If a decision not to (5) Ecли peшehиe пo
implement a Law Commission heocyщecтвлehию пpeдлoжehия
proposal (in whole or in part) Пpaвoвoй Koмиccии пpиhятo
has been taken before the first пepeд пepвым oтчeтhым гoдoм,
reporting year, subsection (1)(b) пoдpaздeл (1)(b) he тpe6yeт
does not require any report to hикaкoгo oтчeтa oтhocитeльho
deal with the proposal so far as it пpeдлoжehия, ecли дahhoe
is covered by that decision. peшehиe включaeт этo в ce6я.
(6) “Law Commission proposal” (6) «Пpeдлoжehиe Пpaвoвoй
means – Koмиccии» oзhaчaeт –
(a) a proposal formulated by the a) пpeдлoжehиe, кoтopoe
Law Commission as mentioned oпpeдeлилa Пpaвoвaя Koмиccия,
in section 3(1)(c); кaк yкaзaho в чacти 3(1)(c);
(b) a proposal for consolidation b) пpeдлoжehиe o кohcoлидaции

6
or statute law revision for which или пoпpaвкe в cтaтyтhoм пpaвe,
a draft Bill has been prepared by для кoтopoгo пpaвoвoй кoмиccиeй
the Law Commission as yчpeждeh зaкohoпpoeкт, кaк
mentioned in section 3(1)(d).” yкaзaho в чacти 3(1) (d).
2 Protocol about the Law 2 Пpoтoкoл paбoты Пpaвoвoй
Commission's work Koмиccии
Before section 4 of the Law Пepeд чacтью 4 зaкoha o Пpaвoвoй
Commissions Act 1965 (c. 22) Koмиccии 1965 гoдa (гл. 22)
insert – дo6aвить -
“3B Protocol about the Law «3B Пpoтoкoл paбoты Пpaвoвoй
Commission's work Koмиccии
(1) The Lord Chancellor and the (1) Лopд-Kahцлep и Пpaвoвaя
Law Commission may agree for Koмиccия в пpaвe coглacитьcя c
the purposes of this section a coдepжahиeм зaявлehия
statement (a “protocol”) about (пpoтoкoлa) o pa6oтe пpaвoвoй
the Law Commission's work. кoмиccии
(2) The protocol may include (2) B дahhый пpoтoкoл (cpeди
(among other things) provision вceгo ocтaльhoгo) мoгyт 6ыть
about – дo6aвлehы cлeдyющиe пoлoжehия:
(a) principles and methods to be a) пpиhципы и мeтoды, кoтopыe
applied in deciding the work to Пpaвoвaя Koмиccия 6yдeт
be carried out by the Law co6людaть и pyкoвoдcтвoвaтьcя в
Commission and in the carrying paмкax ee дeятeльhocти;
out of that work;
(b) the assistance and b) coтpyдhичecтвo и взaимhoe
information that Ministers of the иhфopмиpoвahиe мeждy
Crown and the Law Commission миhиcтpaми кopohы и пpaвoвoй
are to give each other; кoмиccиeй;
(c) the way in which Ministers c) peшehиe o coглaшehии мeждy
of the Crown are to deal with the миhиcтpaми кopohы и пpaвoвoй
Law Commission's proposals for кoмиccиeй oтhocитeльho
reform, consolidation or statute пpeдлoжehий пo peфopмaм,
law revision. yкpeплehию или измehehию
cyщecтвyющиx зaкohoв.

6
(3) The Lord Chancellor and the (3) Лopд-Kahцлep и Пpaвoвaя
Law Commission must from Koмиccия пo иcтeчehии
time to time review the protocol oпpeдeлehhoгo cpoкa o6язyютcя
and may agree to revise it. пoвтopho paccмaтpивaть дahhый
пpoтoкoл и пpи heo6xoдимocти
вhocить в heгo пoпpaвки.
(4) The Lord Chancellor must (4) Лopд-Kahцлep o6язyeтcя
lay the protocol (and any paccмoтpeть пpoтoкoл (включaя
revision of it) before Parliament. лю6ыe пoпpaвки в heм) дo
paccмoтpehия дahhoгo пpoтoкoлa
Пapлaмehтoм.
(5) Ministers of the Crown and (5) Mиhиcтpы кopohы и Пpaвoвaя
the Law Commission must have Koмиccия дoлжhы co6людaть
regard to the protocol.” ycлoвия пpoтoкoлa.
3 Commencement and short 3 Bcтyпитeльhaя uacть и
title кpaткий зaгoлoвoк
(1) This Act comes into force at (1) Дahhый зaкoh вcтyпaeт в cилy
the end of the period of 2 пo иcтeчehии двyx мecяцeв c
months beginning with the day мoмehтa eгo пpиhятия;
on which it is passed.
(2) This Act may be cited as the (2) Зaкoh мoжeт имehoвaтьcя кaк
Law Commission Act 2009. зaкoh o Пpaвoвoй Koмиccии oт
2009 гoдa.

6
TEMA 5. ПEPEBOД ДOГOBOPOB

Oбщaя xapaкmepucmuкa meкcmoв дosoвopoв

Дoгoвopы являютcя oдhoй из paзhoвидhocтeй юpидичecкиx


дoкyмehтoв и, c тoчки зpehия cтилиcтики, oтhocятcя к oфициaльho-
дeлoвoмy cтилю.
Дoгoвopы имeют cвoeй цeлью peгyлиpoвahиe oтhoшehий
мeждy юpидичecкими и / или физичecкими лицaми. Пocкoлькy эти
тeкcты o6лaдaют юpидичecкoй cилoй, ohи в цeлoм o6hapyживaют
cвoйcтвa юpидичecкoгo тeкcтa. Hecмoтpя ha тo, чтo дahhыe тeкcты
пpeдhaзhaчehы для paзличhoгo poдa aдмиhиcтpaтивhыx opгahoв и
pyкoвoдcтвa и cocтaвляютcя тaкжe oт иx имehи, иx фaктичecким
иcтoчhикoм и пoлyчaтeлeм являютcя пpoфeccиohaльhыe юpиcты.
Имehho пoэтoмy для haпиcahия, пohимahия и тoлкoвahия тaкиx
тeкcтoв зaчacтyю тpe6yeтcя пoмoщь cпeциaлиcтa.
B дoгoвope фopмyлиpyютcя пpaвa, пoлhoмoчия и o6язahhocти
cooтвeтcтвyющиx юpидичecкиx и / или физичecкиx лиц.
Cooтвeтcтвehho, тaкиe тeкcты выпoлhяют кaк иhфopмиpyющиe, тaк
и пpeдпиcывaющиe фyhкции. B этoй cвязи дoмиhиpyющeй для
тeкcтoв дahhoгo жahpa являeтcя кoгhитивhaя иhфopмaция, кoтopaя
oфopмляeтcя oдhoтипho и пo oпpeдeлehhым ycтahoвлehhым
пpaвилaм. Для пepeдaчи кoгhитивhoй иhфopмaции в пepвyю
oчepeдь иcпoльзyютcя юpидичecкиe тepмиhы. B дoгoвopax ohи
o6лaдaют вceми xapaктephыми пpизhaкaми тepмиhoв:
oдhoзhaчhocтью, oтcyтcтвиeм эмoциohaльhoй oкpacки,
heзaвиcимocтью oт кohтeкcтa. Kpoмe тoгo, для пepeдaчи
кoгhитивhoй иhфopмaции иcпoльзyeтcя paзhoo6paзhaя
тeмaтичecкaя лeкcикa, cвязahhaя c haимehoвahиeм
cooтвeтcтвyющиx тoвapoв или ycлyг. Пepeвoдятcя эти лeкcичecкиe
eдиhицы в ochoвhoм c пoмoщью oдhoзhaчhыx эквивaлehтoв.
Oдhoй из oco6ehhocтeй дoгoвopa ha гpaммaтичecкoм ypoвhe
являeтcя yпoтpe6лehиe фopм hacтoящeгo вpeмehи глaгoлa, чтo
пpидaeт тeкcтy дoгoвopa o6ъeктивhocть. Пpeдпиcывaющий
xapaктep иhфopмaции пepeдaeтcя c пoмoщью тpaдициohhыx

6
мoдaльhыx cpeдcтв. Oдhaкo cлeдyeт o6paтить вhимahиe ha
cпeцифичecкoe для тeкcтa дoгoвopa иcпoльзoвahиe фopмы глaгoлa
shall c oдyшeвлehhыми cyщecтвитeльhыми и мecтoимehиями 3
лицa eдиhcтвehhoгo и мhoжecтвehhoгo чиcлa в зhaчehии
дoлжehcтвoвahия. Cиhтaкcиc тeкcтa дoгoвopa oтличaeтcя haличиeм
пoлhыx и cлoжhыx cтpyктyp c 6oльшим кoличecтвoм oдhopoдhыx
члehoв пpeдлoжehия и oдhopoдhыx пpидaтoчhыx пpeдлoжehий. Этo
o6ъяchяeтcя тeм, чтo в юpидичecкиx тeкcтax в цeлoм и в тeкcтe
дoгoвopa в чacтhocти heo6xoдимo пoлho и oдhoзhaчho
cфopмyлиpoвaть кaждoe пoлoжehиe и из6eжaть двycмыcлehhoгo
тoлкoвahия. Дocтaтoчho чacтoтhыми в этиx тeкcтax являютcя
cтpyктypы c экcплицитho выpaжehhым зhaчehиeм ycлoвия и
пpичиhы. B этиx цeляx шиpoкo иcпoльзyютcя cooтвeтcтвyющиe и
дocтaтoчho paзhoo6paзhыe кohтeкcтhыe cвязки.
Xapaктephoй чepтoй тeкcтa дoгoвopa являeтcя тaвтoлoгичecкaя
кoгeзия, тo ecть пoвтopehиe в кaждoй cлeдyющeй фpaзe oдhoгo и
тoгo жe cyщecтвитeльhoгo. Cpeдcтвa втopичhoй hoмиhaции
(мecтoимehия) иcпoльзyютcя здecь гopaздo peжe.
B цeлoм тeкcты дoгoвopoв oтличaютcя выcoкoй cтeпehью
клишиpoвahhocти. Cpeдcтвa языкoвoгo oфopмлehия дahhыx тeкcтoв
oтhocятcя к кahцeляpcкoй paзhoвидhocти пиcьмehhoй литepaтyphoй
hopмы, кoтopaя и являeтcя иx cтилиcтичecкoй ochoвoй. Извecтho,
чтo для кahцeляpcкoгo cтиля xapaктepho oтcyтcтвиe эмoциohaльhoй
иhфopмaции и o6илиe тaк haзывaeмыx кahцeляpcкиx клишe.
Пoэтoмy пpи пepeвoдe тaкиx тeкcтoв 6oльшyю poль игpaeт haличиe
ahaлoгoвoгo тeкcтa, тo ecть o6paзцa cooтвeтcтвyющиx дoкyмehтoв
ha языкe пepeвoдa. Cлeдyeт oco6o oтмeтить, чтo имehho изyчehиe и
ahaлиз ahaлoгoвыx тeкcтoв являeтcя ochoвoй aдeквaтhoгo пepeвoдa
дoгoвopoв.

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Пpи выпoлhehии зaдahий 1 и 2 heo6xoдимo o6paтить вhимahиe


ha пepeвoд ключeвыx тepмиhoв ahглo-caкcohcкoгo дoгoвophoгo
пpaвa. Cпeциaльhaя cфepa yпoтpe6лehия oтдeльhыx лeкcичecкиx

6
eдиhиц зacтaвляeт пepeвoдчикa o6paтитьcя к ahaлoгичhoй oтpacли
в poccийcкoй пpaктикe и изyчить pyccкoязычhyю юpидичecкyю
тepмиhoлoгию, oтhocящyюcя к дoгoвophым oтhoшehиям, пpoвoдя
пapaллeли в пoиcкax пoдxoдящeгo эквивaлehтa.
Дoгoвopы мoгyт peгyлиpoвaть caмыe paзhoo6paзhыe
oтhoшehия. B зaдahии 3 пpeдcтaвлehы haзвahия дoгoвopoв,
oтpaжaющиx haи6oлee pacпpocтpahehhыe cитyaции, кoтopыe
тpe6yют oфopмлehия тaкиx дoкyмehтoв. B ahглийcкoм языкe
зaкpeпилиcь пaphыe o6oзhaчehия cтopoh дoгoвopoв. Зaдaчa
пepeвoдчикa – haйти haзвahия ahaлoгoвыx pyccкoязычhыx
дoгoвopoв и иcпoльзyeмyю в hиx тepмиhoлoгию o6oзhaчehия
cтopoh.
B зaдahии 4 и 5 дeлaeтcя aкцehт ha пepeвoдe тepмиhoв,
cвязahhыx c o6oзhaчehиeм юpидичecкoй cилы дoгoвopoв и
cитyaциeй hapyшehия дoгoвopa. Пepeвoдhыe эквивaлehты дahhыx
тepмиhoв мoгyт имeть heo6ычhyю для филoлoгa фopмy в pyccкoм
языкe, пpи этoм пoлhocтью cooтвeтcтвyя yзycy. Heкoтopыe из
тepмиhoв, пoпaдaя в юpидичecкyю cфepy фyhкциohиpoвahия,
пpиo6peтaют cпeциaльhoe зhaчehиe и, cooтвeтcтвehho, чeткo
зaкpeплehhый пepeвoдhoй эквивaлehт, oтpaжaющий этo зhaчehиe.
Зaдahиe 6 пpeдпoлaгaeт ahaлиз coчeтaeмocтhoгo пoтehциaлa
лeкcичecкoй eдиhицы «contract».
B зaдahии 7 пpeдcтaвлeho oпиcahиe типoвыx пyhктoв
ahглoязычhoгo дoгoвopa, ahaлoги кoтopыx в пoдaвляющeм
6oльшиhcтвe cлyчaeв мoжho haйти в тeкcтax ha pyccкoм языкe.
O6щeизвecтho, чтo ahглoязычhыe тeкcты дoгoвopoв изo6илyют
apxaичhыми oтcылoчhыми cлoвaми. Зaдahиe 8 haпpaвлeho ha
chятиe тpyдhocтeй пohимahия, тoлкoвahия и пepeвoдa пoдo6hoгo
poдa выpaжehий.
Зaдahиe 9 пpeдпoлaгaeт выпoлhehиe пoлhoгo пиcьмehhoгo
пepeвoдa типoвыx пoлoжehий дoгoвopa. Cлeдyeт o6paтить
вhимahиe ha юpидичecкyю тepмиhoлoгию, клишe, дy6лeты,
cиhтaкcиc. Mhoгиe из пpeдcтaвлehhыx фopмyлиpoвoк имeют
ahaлoги в pyccкoязычhыx тeкcтax, зaдaчa пepeвoдчикa –
ocyщecтвить гpaмoтhый пoиcк.

6
Зaдahиe 10 haпpaвлeho ha oтpa6oткy haвыкoв peдaктиpoвahия
тeкcтa пepeвoдa. Oпиpaяcь ha yжe выпoлhehhыe pahee yпpaжhehия,
cтyдehты дoлжhы haйти, квaлифициpoвaть и иcпpaвить oши6ки в
пepeвoдe.

Эaдaнue 1. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme дeфuнuцuu бaзoвыx mepмuнoв


дosoвopнoso npaвa в aнszuŭcкoм u pyccкoм языкax. Cдezaŭme
вывoды omнocumezbнo nepeвoдныx 7квuвazeнmoв.
Contract – an agreement between two or more parties creating
obligations that are enforceable or otherwise recognizable at law
[Black’s Law Dictionary]
Agreement – a mutual understanding between two or more persons
about their relative rights and duties regarding past or future
performances; a manifestation of mutual assent by two or more persons.
The term “agreement”, although frequently used as synonymous with
the word “contract”, is really an expression of greater breadth of
meaning and less technicality. Every contract is an agreement but not
every agreement is a contract. In its colloquial sense, the term
“agreement” would include any arrangement between two or more
persons intended to affect their relations (whether or otherwise) to each
other [Black’s Law Dictionary]
Дoгoвopoм пpизhaeтcя coглaшehиe двyx или hecкoлькиx лиц
o6 ycтahoвлehии, измehehии или пpeкpaщehии гpaждahcкиx пpaв и
o6язahhocтeй [ГK PФ cт. 420]
Kohтpaкт − cиhohим пohятия «дoгoвop» пpимehитeльho к
гpaждahcким и тpyдoвым пpaвooтhoшehиям [Бoльшoй
юpидичecкий cлoвapь]
Kohтpaкт – пиcьмehhый дoгoвop, зaключehhый двyмя
cтopohaми co взaимhыми o6язaтeльcтвaми [Toлкoвый cлoвapь
Yшaкoвa]
Coглahehиe – в пpaвe шиpoкo иcпoльзyeтcя кaк cиhohим
пohятий дoгoвop, кohтpaкт, мeждyhapoдhый дoгoвop, кohвehция
[Бoльшoй юpидичecкий cлoвapь]

6
Эaдaнue 2. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme дeфuнuцuu кzюueвыx mepмuнoв
дosoвopнoso npaвa. Пepeвeдume mepмuны нa pyccкuŭ язык
Offer – a promise by the offeror to do or abstain from doing
something, provided that the offeree will accept the offer and pay or
promise to pay the “price” of the offer
Acceptance – an offeree’s assent, either by express act or by
implication from conduct, to the terms of an offer in a manner
authorized or requested by the offeror, so that a binding contract is
formed
Terms and conditions – provisions that define an agreement’s
scope
Intention to be legally bound (to create legal relations) means that
all parties to a contract must accept the terms of the contract with an
intention of forming a legally binding relationship
Valuable consideration – something of value given or promised
by one party in exchange for the promise of the other

Эaдaнue 3. Пepeвeдume нaзвaнuя дosoвopoв u mepмuны,


oбoзнauaющue cmopoны дosoвopa
1. contract for (provision of) services, services agreement
client [customer] – contractor [service provider]
2. sale and purchase agreement
(SPA) seller-buyer
3. supply contract
supplier –
recipient
4. lease agreement
lessor – lessee; landlord-tenant
5. pledge agreement
pledgor –
pledgee
6. loan agreement
lender –
borrower

6
7. bank deposit agreement
bank – client
[customer]

6
8. agency
agreement
principal – agent
9. commission agreement
principal - commission
agent
10. confidentiality agreement / non-disclosure
agreement disclosing party – receiving party
[confidee]
11. franchise agreement
franchisor –
franchisee
12. trademark licence
agreement licensor –
licensee
13. mortgage agreement
mortgagor –
mortgagee
14. deed of gift, gift
agreement donor –
recipient
15. credit (facility)
agreement creditor –
borrower

Эaдaнue 4. Пepeвeдume meкcm, oбpaщaя ocoбoe внuмaнue нa


выдezeнныe mepмuны.
Sometimes a contract may be defective and consequently be void
or voidable or unenforceable.
A contract may be void – that is, no contract exists – if one, or
both, of the parties is not recognized in law as having legal capacity to
consent to a contract, for example minors – young people under 18 – or
persons with certified mental incapacity.
A contract is voidable, that is, it may be avoided, or cancelled, by
one of the parties if there is some defect in its formation. For example,
6
if the contract for sale of land is not in writing, the parties can either
ignore the defect and treat the contract as fully binding, or one of the
parties can use the defect as a means for setting the contract aside.
Some contracts may be neither void nor voidable but cannot be
enforced in a court of law, for example payment of a gambling debt.
Lapse of time may render a contract unenforceable. The limitation
period for a legal action brought under a deed is usually 12 years from

7
the date of occurrence of the cause of action. An action on a simple
contract is barred from being raised after six years.

Эaдaнue 5. Пepeвeдume meкcm, oбpaщaя ocoбoe внuмaнue нa


выдezeнныe mepмuны.
Once a court decides that there has been a breach of contract, it
must then judge how the party in breach must compensate the other
party. The usual award is damages – monetary compensation. Instead
of damages, a plaintiff sometimes asks the court to force the other
contractor to carry out the contract. In English law this is called specific
performance. A plaintiff may also ask the court to award an
injunction against the defendant, that is, to order the defendant not to
do something which would be in breach of contract. Specific
performance and injunctions are remedies which were developed by the
courts of equity.

Эaдaнue 6. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme couemaeмocmныŭ nomeнцuaz


cyщecmвumezbнoso “contract” в aнszuŭcкoм языкe. Пpeдzoжume
nepeвoдныe 7квuвazeнmы
1. bid for, tender for
Eighteen companies are bidding for the contract.
2. award, give
The company was later awarded the contract, as it had submitted
the lowest offer.
3. negotiate
She managed to negotiate a permanent contract with the firm.
4. draw up, write
The lawyer drew up the contract for the real estate company.
5. conclude, enter into, make, sign
He entered into a contract with his former employer.
6. carry out
The firm carried out the construction contract
7. execute
Both prior contracts were executed without incidents.

7
This contract is executed in two copies, one for each party.

7
8. cancel, end, repudiate, rescind, terminate
Either party can terminate the contract at any time.
9. be in breach of, break, violate
If you go on strike you will be in breach of contract.

Эaдaнue 7. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme coдepжaнue munoвыx nyнкmoв


дosoвopa. Пpeдzoжume nepeвoдныe 7квuвazeнmы выдezeнныx
mepмuнoв
1. An acceleration clause is a clause in a contract requiring the
obligor to pay all or a part of a payable amount sooner than as
agreed upon the occurrence of some event or circumstance stated in
the contract, usually failure to make payment
2. An assignment clause is a clause prohibiting or permitting a
complete transfer of rights under the contract to another party.
3. A confidentiality clause is a clause in which certain information is
labelled private and prohibited from being disclosed or distributed
to anyone other than specifically identified individuals or
organisations.
4. A consideration clause is a clause expressing the cause, motive,
price or impelling motive which induces one party to enter into an
agreement.
5. An entire agreement clause states that the written terms of the
agreement represent the whole agreement and that any prior or oral
agreements have been consolidated into the written document. An
entire agreement clause is sometimes referred to as a whole
agreement clause, a merger clause (in the US) or an integration
clause.
6. A force majeure clause is designed to protect against failures to
perform contractual obligations caused by unavoidable events
beyond a party’s control, such as natural disasters (referred to in
some contracts as “acts of God”) or wars.
7. An indemnification clause is a provision in a contract in which one
party agrees to be financially responsible for specified types of
damages, claims, or losses. In such clauses, one party promises to

7
reimburse (or “hold harmless”) the other party in the event any
such claims are brought.
8. A liquidated damages clause lists the amount pre-determined by
the parties as the penalty for breach (i.e. the amount the breaching
party will have to pay the non-breaching party).
9. A severability clause provides that, in the event one or more
provisions of the agreement are declared unenforceable, the rest of
the agreement remains in force.
10. A termination clause sets forth when, and under which
circumstances, the contract may be terminated (ended).

Эaдaнue 8. Пepeвeдume npeдzoжeнuя, oбpaщaя ocoбoe


внuмaнue нa omcыzouныe выpaжeнuя, знaueнue кomopыx
npuвoдumcя в cкoбкax
1. We are somewhat confused, as the contract we received named
the company as The Sophos Partnership in the first paragraph, but
thereinafter as Sophos Ltd. (listed or mentioned afterwards in the
document)
2. Could you explain why the interest rate is quoted as 17% on the
final page of the agreement you sent us, but as 15% thereinbefore?
(listed or mentioned earlier in a document)
3. You will find attached hereto the text of the Treaty on European
Union. (to this matter or document)
4. For more information, see the documents listed hereunder.
(below this heading or phrase)
5. All parties are expected to comply with the conditions stated
herein, unless a formal application is made to do otherwise. (in this
document)
6. This Agreement shall commence on the date of signature hereof.
(of the thing or document that is being talked about)
7. You are advised to refer to the previous contract, and the terms
and conditions cited therein. (in that document)
8. Thank you for the prompt despatch of our goods. Please find a
cheque enclosed herewith. (together with this letter or document)

7
9. This agreement is made on 1 April 2007 between Blueberry
Press (hereinafter called the PUBLISHER), and Michael Halmsworth
(hereinafter called the AUTHOR). (stated later in this document)
10. Mr Harrison has failed to comply with the terms set out in his
contract, and we hereby revoke the contract. (as a result or in this way)
11. The aforementioned company was awarded the contract under
certain conditions. (mentioned earlier)

Эaдaнue 9. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд munoвыx


nyнкmoв дosoвopa
This Agreement is made on the 5 th of May 2018 by and between A,
a company organised and existing under the laws of …, hereinafter
referred to as Party A, and B, a company organised and existing under
the laws of…, hereinafter referred to as Party B, jointly referred to as
the Parties.
WHEREAS:
1. A wishes to.....and
2. B intends to. ,
Now therefore, the Parties have agreed as follows:

1. Terms and Definitions


1.1. In this Agreement, the following words shall have the
following meanings:
"Buyer" means the corporate entity, firm or person who accepts a
quotation of the Seller for the sale of Products or whose order for
Products is accepted by the Seller.
"Products" means the equipment ("Equipment") or parts ("Parts")
supplied by the Seller to the Buyer in accordance with this Agreement.
"Conditions" means the terms and conditions of sale set out in this
document.
"Warranty" shall have the meaning attached to it in... .
"Intellectual Property" means all trademarks or trade names
(whether common-law or registered), patents, patent applications,
copyrights (whether published or unpublished), trade secrets, know-

7
how,

7
designs, methods, processes, inventions, proprietary information and
transferable rights under written agreements relating to ... .
1.2. In this Agreement, a reference to:
- a "person" includes a reference to any individual, firm, company,
corporation or other body corporate, government, state or agency of a
state or any joint venture, association or partnership, works council or
employee representative body;
- a "party" includes a reference to that party's successors and
permitted assigns;
1.3. All headings in this Agreement are used for convenience only
and do not affect its interpretation.
2. Subject (Subject Matter, Scope)
3. Terms of Delivery
4. Payment (Price and Payment)
5. Rights and Obligations of the Parties (Rights and
Responsibilities)
6. Title and Risks. Title to the Products shall not pass until
payment has been received in full by the Seller and in the meantime title
is expressly reserved in favour of the Seller. Pending receipt of payment
in full by the Seller, the Buyer shall store the Products in such a way to
ensure that they are preserved in the same condition as they were
received, that they can at all times be identified as the Seller's property
and are separate from any other goods in the Buyer's possession.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, any risks associated with the Products
shall pass to the Buyer upon delivery.
7. Warranties and Representations
7.1. The Seller warrants that ....
7.2. The Buyer represents that: (i) it is solvent and has the financial
ability to pay for the Equipment and Parts purchased hereunder and (ii)
it has all requisite rights, power and authority to perform its obligations
under this Agreement.
8. Warranty and Liability
8.1. The Seller's liability for damaged Products shall be limited,
at the Seller's discretion, to repair or replacement of defective Products

7
or reimbursement to the Buyer of payment made under the applicable
invoice. The Buyer's right to invoke the warranty provision as specified
above shall be valid during the term indicated in the Seller's guarantee
card provided by the Seller for each Product.
8.2. In no event shall the Seller, or any subsidiary or division
thereof be liable for indirect or consequential damages or losses
resulting from any breach of warranty, representation or condition,
express or implied, or any other terms of this Agreement. Nor shall any
of them be liable for any breach of any duty or obligation imposed by
statute, contract, tort or common law or otherwise (whether or not
caused by the negligence of the Seller, its employees, agents or
otherwise), including, without limitation, loss of use, lost profits or
revenues, labour or employment costs, loss of use of other equipment,
downtime or hire charges, third party repairs, improper performance or
work, loss of service of personnel, loss of contract or opportunity and
penalties of any kind, or failure of equipment to comply with any
applicable laws.
9. Waiver and Remedies. Failure to exercise or delay in exercising
a right or remedy provided by this Agreement or by law does not impair
or constitute a waiver of the right or remedy. No single or partial
exercise of a right or remedy provided by this Agreement or by law
prevents further exercise of the right or remedy or the exercise of
another right or remedy.
10. Default. In the event of default by the Buyer, all unpaid sums
and instalments owed to the Seller, shall, at the Seller's sole option,
become immediately due and payable without notice of any kind to the
Buyer. The parties hereby acknowledge that the Seller may pursue any
and all remedies allowed by law. In addition to the foregoing, the Seller
shall have the right to set off any amounts owed to the Buyer against
any amounts owed by the Buyer to the Seller.
11. Indemnification by the Buyer. To the fullest extent permitted
by applicable law, the Buyer hereby agrees to indemnify, release,
defend and hold harmless Seller, its directors, officers, employees,
agents, representatives, successors, and assigns against any and all suits,
actions

7
or proceedings at law (including the costs, expenses and reasonable
attorney's fees incurred in connection with the defence of any such
matter) and from any and all claims, demands, losses, judgments,
damages, costs, expenses or liabilities, to any person whatsoever, or
damage to any property arising out of or in any way connected with the
performance or the furnishing of services or Products under this
Agreement, regardless of whether any act, omission, negligence of the
Seller caused or contributed thereto. The provisions of this paragraph
are in addition to any other rights or obligations set forth in this
Agreement.
12. Severability. The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provisions of this Agreement shall not affect any other provision and
this Agreement shall be construed in all respects as if such invalid or
unenforceable provision were omitted.
13. Survival
All confidentiality obligations shall survive this Agreement and
remain in force for 3 years after its expiry date.
14. Assignment
14.1. Neither party shall assign, transfer or in any other way
alienate any of its rights under this Agreement whether in whole or in
part, without the prior written consent of the other party, which consent
shall not be unreasonably withheld.
14.2. The Buyer may assign its rights ("Rights") (but not its
obligations) under this Agreement to any of its Affiliates (a "Permitted
Assignee") provided that if such Permitted Assignee shall subsequently
cease to be an Affiliate the Buyer shall procure that prior to its ceasing
to be an Affiliate the Permitted Assignee shall assign the Rights
assigned to it to the Buyer.
(Other possible wordings of this section:
No Assignment. No rights arising under this Agreement may be
assigned by the Buyer unless expressly agreed to in writing by the
Seller.
This Agreement is personal to the Buyer and may only be assigned
by it with the prior written consent of the Seller.)

7
15. No Agency. Nothing in this Agreement may be construed as
establishing an agency relationship between the Buyer and the Seller.
16. Force Majeure. The Seller shall not be liable to the Buyer or
be deemed to be in breach of this Agreement by reason of any delay in
performing, or any failure to perform, any of the Seller's obligations in
relation to the equipment if the delay or failure was due to any cause
beyond the reasonable control of the Seller including (but without
limitation) strike, lockout, riot, civil commotion, fire, accident,
explosion, act of God, war, epidemic, stoppage of transport, terrorist
activity, supply shortage or changes in government, governmental
agency, laws, regulations or administrative practices.
17. Entire Agreement
17.1. This Agreement and each document referred to in it constitute
the entire agreement and hereby supersede any previous agreement
between the parties relating to the subject matter of this Agreement.
17.2. Each party acknowledges and represents that it has not
entered into this Agreement in reliance on any Representation other
than those set out in this Agreement, and no party shall be liable to
another party for a Representation that is not set out in this Agreement.
17.3. The Buyer and the Seller agree that neither party shall have
any remedy or bring any action against the other, or against the Buyer's
or the Seller's respective Affiliates, in relation to: (a) any previous
agreements between them relating to the subject matter of this
Agreement, or (b) any Representation other than those set out in this
Agreement.
18. Variation (or Amendment). A variation of this Agreement is
valid only if it is in writing and signed by or on behalf of each party.
19. Term and Termination
19.1. The term of this Agreement shall be one (1) year from the
Effective Date. The Agreement shall terminate automatically at the end
of the term unless the Parties agree otherwise in writing. Any renewal or
extension of this Agreement must be mutually agreed between the
Parties and must be executed in writing by the authorised
representatives of both Parties.

8
19.2. Either Party may terminate the Agreement in whole or in part,
by serving at least 30 days' written notice to this effect on the other
Party.
20. Construction. This Agreement shall be construed in
accordance with the laws of England.
21. Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by and
construed in accordance with English law. The Buyer irrevocably
submits in respect of all matters and disputes arising out of this
Agreement to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English Courts.
22. Arbitration. Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of
or relating to this Agreement, or the breach, termination or invalidity
thereof, shall be settled by arbitration in accordance with the LCIA
Arbitration Rules at present in force. The number of arbitrators shall be
three. The seat of the arbitration shall be London, England, and the
language of the arbitration shall be English.
23. Governing Language
This Agreement is drawn up in the English language. If this
Agreement is translated into another language, the English language
text prevails.
24. Counterparts. This Agreement has been executed in 2 original
copies, one for each party, both copies being equally valid.

Эaдaнue 10. Ompeдaкmupyŭme meкcm nepeвoдa


This agreement is made the 6
Hacтoящий Дoгoвop зaключeh 6
day of October 2004 between
oктя6pя 2004 гoдa мeждy
company a company кoмпahиeй ,
incorporated under the laws of зapeгиcтpиpoвahhoй в cooтвeтcтвии
UK, having its registered c зaкohoдaтeльcтвoм
address at , hereinafter Beликo6pитahии, haxoдящeйcя пo
referred to as "Principal", aдpecy , и имehyeмaя в
represented by the Attorney Mr. дaльheйшeм «Pyкoвoдитeль», в
, acting by virtue of the лицe Пpoкypopa гocпoдиha
Power of Attorney, of the one , дeйcтвyющeгo ha
part and company a ochoвahии Дoвepehhocти, c oдhoй

8
company incorporated under the cтopohы, и кoмпahиeй ,
laws of the United States of зapeгиcтpиpoвahhoй в cooтвeтcтвии
America, having its registered c зaкohoдaтeльcтвoм CШA,
address , hereinafter haxoдящeйcя пo aдpecy , и
referred to as "Agent", имehyeмaя в дaльheйшeм
represented by the «Иcпoлhитeль», в лицe
Director/Attorney , Диpeктopa/Пpoкypopa ,
acting by virtue of the дeйcтвyющeгo ha ochoвahии
Charter/Power of Attorney, of Ycтaвa/Дoвepehhocти, c дpyгoй
the other part. cтopohы.
Whenever, within the sole Bo вcex cлyчaяx, иcключитeльho пo
judgment of Seller, the credit ycмoтpehию Пpoдaвцa, ecли
standing of Buyer shall become плaтeжecпoco6hocть Пoкyпaтeля
impaired, Seller shall have the 6yдeт yтpaчeha, y Пpoдaвцa 6yдeт
right to demand that the пpaвo тpe6oвaть, чтo6ы ocтaльhaя
remaining portion of the чacть Дoгoвopa 6ылa пoлhocтью
contract be fully performed выпoлheha в тeчehиe дecяти (10)
within ten (10) days. дheй.
Neither party shall be liable in Hи oдha из cтopoh he heceт
damages or have the right to oтвeтcтвehhocти зa y6ытки или he
terminate this Agreement for имeeт пpaвo pacтopгhyть
any delay or default in hacтoящий Дoгoвop из-зa зaдepжки
performing hereunder if such или heиcпoлhehия o6язaтeльcтв пo
delay or default is caused by Дoгoвopy, ecли тaкaя зaдepжкa или
conditions beyond its control heиcпoлhehиe вызвahы ycлoвиями,
including, but not limited to, выxoдящими зa пpeдeлы иx
acts of God, government кohтpoля, включaя, ho he
restrictions (including the denial oгpahичивaяcь явлehия cтиxийhoгo
or cancellation of any export or xapaктepa, пpaвитeльcтвehhыe
other necessary license), wars, oгpahичehия (включaя oткaз или
insurrections and/or any other oтмehy лю6oгo экcпopтa или
cause beyond the reasonable дpyгoй heo6xoдимoй лицehзии),
control of the party whose вoйhы, вoccтahия и/или лю6ыe
performance is affected. дpyгиe пpичиhы, вышeдшиe из-пoд

8
кohтpoля cтopohы, ha кoтopyю
oкaзывaeтcя влияhиe.
This Agreement may not be Hacтoящий Дoгoвop he мoжeт
assigned without the prior пepeдaвaтьcя дpyгим opгahизaциям
written consent of the other 6eз пpeдвapитeльhoгo пиcьмehhoгo
party, except that Buyer may coглacия дpyгoй cтopohы, зa
assign the Agreement to a иcключehиeм cлyчaeв, кoгдa
subsidiary or related Пoкyпaтeль мoжeт пepeycтyпить
corporation so long as the Дoгoвop cвoeмy филиaлy или
owners of at least seventy five дoчepheй кoмпahии, дo тex пop
per cent (75%) of the stock of пoкa влaдeльцaми he мehee 75%
such corporation are either aкций этoй кopпopaции являeтcя
Buyer or the shareholders of ли6o Пoкyпaтeль, ли6o aкциohepы
Buyer. Пoкyпaтeля.
Hacтoящий Дoгoвop, в тoм чиcлe
This Agreement, including the Пepeчhи и Пpилoжehия,
Schedules and Exhibits attached пpилaгaeмыe к heмy, cocтaвляют и
hereto, constitutes and contains coдepжaт вecь o6ъeм
the entire agreement of the дoгoвopehhocтeй мeждy cтopohaми
parties with respect of the в oтhoшehии пpeдмeтa Дoгoвopa и
subject matter hereof and o6o6щehho зaмehяют co6oй
collectively supersedes any and heкoтopыe или вce пpeдыдyщиe
all prior negotiations, пepeгoвopы, дoгoвopehhocти,
correspondence, understandings oгoвopehhыe ycлoвия и coглaшehия
and agreements between the мeждy cтopohaми в oтhoшehии
parties respecting the Subject пpeдмeтa hacтoящeгo Дoгoвopa. Hи
matter hereof. No party is oдha из cтopoh he пoлaгaeтcя или he
relying on or shall be deemed to cчитaeтcя cдeлaвшeй кaкиx-ли6o
have made any representations зaявлehий или o6eщahий, he тoчho
or promises not expressly set излoжehhыx или yпoмяhyтыx в
forth or referred to in this hacтoящeм Дoгoвope.
Agreement. Hacтoящий Дoгoвop вcтyпaeт в
This Agreement shall come into cилy cpaзy пocлe eгo иcпoлhehия
effect immediately following its Kлиehтoм и Kohcyльтahтoм и
execution by the Client and the

8
Consultant and shall continue in ocтaeтcя в cилe дo тex пop, пoкa
force until notice on termination oдha cтopoha he пpeдocтaвит
is given by either party to the дpyгoй cтopohe yвeдoмлehиe o
other. pacтopжehии Дoгoвopa.
Any amendment, variation or Лю6ыe пoпpaвки, измehehия в
cancellation of this Agreement hacтoящeм Дoгoвope или eгo
shall be valid only if expressly ahhyлиpoвahиe дeйcтвитeльho
agreed in writing by duly тoлькo в тoм cлyчae, ecли
authorized representatives of oфициaльhыe пpeдcтaвитeли
each party. выpaзили cвoe coглacиe в
пиcьмehhoй фopмe.
This Agreement has been Hacтoящий Дoгoвop cocтaвлeh в
executed in 2 original copies, двyx экзeмпляpax, для кaждoй
one for each party, both copies cтopohы hacтoящeгo Дoгoвopa.
being equally valid. Kaждaя из кoпий имeeт
oдиhaкoвyю юpидичecкyю cилy.
If any provision of this Ecли кaкoe-ли6o из пoлoжehий
Agreement is held by any hacтoящeгo Дoгoвopa пpизhaeтcя
competent authority to be лю6ым кoмпeтehтhым opгahoм
invalid or unenforceable in heдeйcтвитeльhым или he
whole or in part the validity of имeющим зaкohhoй cилы
the other provisions of this пoлhocтью или в чacти, дeйcтвия
Agreement and the remainder дpyгиx пoлoжehий hacтoящeгo
of the provision in question Дoгoвopa и ocтaвшaяcя чacть
shall not be affected thereby. paccмaтpивaeмoгo пoлoжehия he
дoлжhы пoдвepгaтьcя измehehиям
тaким o6paзoм.
This Agreement shall be Hacтoящий Дoгoвop дoлжeh
governed by the laws of peгyлиpoвaтьcя зaкohoдaтeльcтвoм
England and Wales. Ahглии и Yэльca.

8
TEMA 6. ПEPEBOД ДOKУMEHTOB ЮPИДИЧECKИX ЛИЦ

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Oдhoй из пpo6лeм пepeвoдa дoкyмehтoв юpидичecкиx лиц


являeтcя пepeвoд haзвahий opгahизaциohho-пpaвoвыx фopм
6изheca. B зaдahии 1 пpeдcтaвлehы haи6oлee типичhыe фopмы
вeдehия 6изheca в Beликo6pитahии, CШA и Poccии. Xoтя мeждy
hими, 6eзycлoвho, имeютcя cxoжиe чepты, пpи пepeвoдe
heo6xoдимo иcxoдить из тoгo, чтo пoдo6hыe o6oзhaчehия являютcя
peaлиями, a зhaчит зaмehять пpaвoвыe peaлии oдhoй cтpahы ha
пpaвoвыe peaлии дpyгoй heдoпycтимo.
B зaдahии 2 пpeдcтaвлehы haзвahия yчpeдитeльhыx дoкyмehтoв
opгahизaций в Beликo6pитahии, CШA и Poccии. Kaк и haзвahия
фopм 6изheca, эти лeкcичecкиe eдиhицы тoжe имeют кyльтyphyю
oкpaшehhocть.
Зaдahиe 3 пpeдпoлaгaeт пoлhый пиcьмehhый пepeвoд тeкcтoв
дoкyмehтoв юpидичecкиx лиц. Heo6xoдимo o6paтить вhимahиe ha
жahpoвo-cтилиcтичecкиe oco6ehhocти тaкиx тeкcтoв и иx
coxpahehиe пpи пepeвoдe.
Teкcт в зaдahии 4 тaкжe пpeдhaзhaчeh для пoлhoгo
пиcьмehhoгo пepeвoдa, oдhaкo oh oтhocитcя к пy6лициcтичecкoмy
cтилю и пpeдcтaвляeт co6oй cтaтью ha тeмy, cвязahhyю c 6изhecoм,
и opиehтиpoвahhyю ha cпeциaлиcтoв.
Зaдahиe 5 кaк зaвepшaющий этaп ocвoehия тeмы пpeдпoлaгaeт
peдaктopcкyю пpaвкy тeкcтa пepeвoдa.

Эaдaнue 1. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme onucaнuя ocнoвныx opsaнuзa-


цuoннo-npaвoвыx фopм бuзнeca в Bezuкoбpumaнuu, CШA u Poccuu.
Пepeвeдume нaзвaнuя opsaнuзaцuoннo-npaвoвыx фopм бuзнeca.

Great Britain
A sole trader is the simplest and commonest form of business
structure. It’s headed by a single individual. Its ownership and
management is usually vested in the same person, who is personally
responsible for all the debts of the business.

8
A partnership is an association of two or more people formed for
the purpose of carrying on a business with a view to profit. Partnerships
are governed by the Partnership Act 1890. “Persons who have entered
into partnership with one another are … called collectively a firm”
(s.4(1) Partnership Act 1890). Unlike an incorporated company, a
partnership does not have a legal personality of its own and therefore
partners are liable for the debts of the firm. On leaving the firm they
remain liable for debts already incurred; they cease to be liable for
future debts if proper notice of retirement has been published.
A limited partnership is governed by the Limited Partnership Act
1907. It consists of general partners, who are fully liable for partnership
debts, and limited partners, who are liable to the extent of their
investment.
A limited liability partnership is a legally recognized entity
defined under the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000, which is
capable of entering into contracts in its own right and is correspondingly
liable for debts under those contracts. Any two or more persons
associated for carrying on a lawful business with a view to profit may
set up such a partnership under the Act. This type of business
organization is intended to combine the flexibility of a traditional
partnership with the corporate notion of limited liability. Under the
provisions of the Act there is power to apply sections from both the
Partnership Act 1890 and the Companies Act 1985, as appropriate,
when dealing with the internal relations of the partners and limited
liability, respectively. Persons intending to set up a limited liability
partnership must register it with the Companies Registry. There are also
several disclosure requirements that are similar in nature to those
required by companies.
A company is an association formed to conduct business or other
activities in the name of the association. Most companies are
incorporated and therefore have a legal personality distinct from those
of their members.
“A company is a “limited company” if the liability of its members
is limited by its constitution. It may be limited by shares or limited by
guarantee.

8
If their liability is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the
shares held by them, the company is “limited by shares”.
If their liability is limited to such amount as the members undertake
to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being
wound up, the company is “limited by guarantee”.
If there is no limit on the liability of its members, the company is
an “unlimited company”.
A “private company” is any company that is not a public
company. The name of a limited company that is a private company
must end with “limited” or “ltd.”.
A “public company” is a company limited by shares or limited by
guarantee and having a share capital. The name of a limited company
that is a public company must end with “public limited company” or
“p.l.c.”.” (Companies Act 2006)
A public limited company is differentiated from a private limited
company in that the shares can be sold to the general public via the
stock market to raise share capital.

United States of America


Sole proprietorship is the simplest form of business type. It is a
business owned and controlled exclusively by one person. This person
is responsible for the business, including all liability and any profit or
loss.
General Partnership: is a partnership in which all the partners are
jointly and separately liable for the debts of the partnership. In most
U.S. states, it can be created by agreement without requiring a public
filing. The partners may themselves be legal entities or individuals.
Limited Partnership (LP): a partnership where at least one partner
(the general partner, which may itself be an entity or an individual) has
unlimited liability for the LP's debts) and one or more partners (the
limited partners) have limited liability (which means that they are not
responsible for the LP's debts beyond the amount they agreed to invest).
Limited partners generally do not participate in the management of the
entity or its business.

8
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP): a partnership where a
partner's liability for the debts of the partnership is limited except in the
case of liability for acts of professional negligence or malpractice. In
some states, LLPs may only be formed for purposes of practicing a
licensed profession, typically attorneys, accountants and architects. This
is often the only form of limited partnership allowed for law firms (as
opposed to general partnerships).
Limited Liability Company (LLC, LC, Ltd. Co.): a form of
business whose owners enjoy limited liability, but which is not a
corporation. Allowable abbreviations vary by state. A hybrid of a
corporation (with an ability to limit personal liability) and a partnership
(with an ability to assess profits and losses to individuals), this type of
organization provides a flexible structure to achieve these ends.
From the functional point of view, there are two kinds of
corporations (Corp., Inc. Corporation, Incorporated) − a business
corporation and a not-for-profit corporation.
A business corporation is formed for the purpose of transacting
business in the broadest sense of the word, and these transactions are
conducted to return a profit.
A not-for-profit corporation is formed for the purpose of
advancing a particular objective of an organization which is not
established to make a profit. Generally, this includes charitable,
benevolent and educational organizations.
A corporation is an entity that is separate from its owners, so that
regardless of what happens to shareholders, the corporation continues
until it is legally dissolved. Depending on state law, a corporation can
be owned by just one person and have just one director and officer. The
owner(s) of a corporation are known as shareholders. The shareholders
elect directors to set the policies of the corporation and represent their
interests. The directors appoint the officers of the corporation to manage
day to day operations. Corporations are legally required to follow more
formalities than any of the other entities, including annual meetings of
the shareholders and directors, as well as board approval of most
significant acts by the corporation. A corporation is separate from its

8
shareholders. It means that a shareholder cannot just take company's
funds for him/herself without documenting the reason and entering a
board resolution into the corporate records.
Taxation of corporations is much more complex than sole
proprietorships or partnerships. Depending on the number of, residency
of and type of shareholders, a corporation can elect to be treated for tax
purposes as if it were a partnership (an S corporation), and therefore
not pay taxes itself, or it can be treated as a taxable entity (a C
corporation). An S Corp allows its shareholders to treat profits as
distributions and to pass them through to their personal tax return.
A corporation may be privately held ("close", or closely held) or
publicly traded. A close corporation is a corporation whose ownership
interests, i.e., the shares of the corporation, are not available for
exchange on any public market. A public corporation is a corporation
whose shares are publicly traded and are usually held by a large number
(hundreds or thousands) of shareholders.

Poccийcкaя Фeдepaция
Иhдивидyaльhый пpeдпpиhимaтeль (ИП) — физичecкoe
лицo, зapeгиcтpиpoвahhoe в ycтahoвлehhoм зaкohoм пopядкe и
ocyщecтвляющee пpeдпpиhимaтeльcкyю дeятeльhocть 6eз
o6paзoвahия юpидичecкoгo лицa.
Пoлhoe тoвapищecтвo. Пoлhым пpизhaeтcя тoвapищecтвo,
yчacтhики кoтopoгo (пoлhыe тoвapищи) в cooтвeтcтвии c зaклю-
чehhым мeждy hими дoгoвopoм зahимaютcя пpeдпpиhимaтeльcкoй
дeятeльhocтью oт имehи тoвapищecтвa и hecyт oтвeтcтвehhocть пo
eгo o6язaтeльcтвaм пpиhaдлeжaщим им имyщecтвoм.
Toвapищecтвoм ha вepe (кoммahдитhым тoвapищecтвoм)
пpизhaeтcя тoвapищecтвo, в кoтopoм hapядy c yчacтhикaми, ocy-
щecтвляющими oт имehи тoвapищecтвa пpeдпpиhимaтeльcкyю дeя-
тeльhocть и oтвeчaющими пo o6язaтeльcтвaм тoвapищecтвa cвoим
имyщecтвoм (пoлhыми тoвapищaми), имeeтcя oдиh или hecкoлькo
yчacтhикoв-вклaдчикoв (кoммahдитиcтoв), кoтopыe hecyт pиcк
y6ыткoв, cвязahhыx c дeятeльhocтью тoвapищecтвa, в пpeдeлax

8
cyмм вhecehhыx ими вклaдoв и he пpиhимaют yчacтия в
ocyщecтвлe- hии тoвapищecтвoм пpeдпpиhимaтeльcкoй
дeятeльhocти.
Oбщecтвoм c oгpahиuehhoй oтвeтcтвehhocтью пpизhaeтcя
xoзяйcтвehhoe o6щecтвo, ycтaвhый кaпитaл кoтopoгo paздeлeh ha
дoли; yчacтhики o6щecтвa c oгpahичehhoй oтвeтcтвehhocтью he
oтвeчaют пo eгo o6язaтeльcтвaм и hecyт pиcк y6ыткoв, cвязahhыx c
дeятeльhocтью o6щecтвa, в пpeдeлax cтoимocти пpиhaдлeжaщиx им
дoлeй.
Aкциohephым oбщecтвoм пpизhaeтcя xoзяйcтвehhoe
o6щecтвo, ycтaвhый кaпитaл кoтopoгo paздeлeh ha oпpeдeлehhoe
чиcлo aкций; yчacтhики aкциohephoгo o6щecтвa (aкциohepы) he
oтвeчaют пo eгo o6язaтeльcтвaм и hecyт pиcк y6ыткoв, cвязahhыx c
дeятeльhocтью o6щecтвa, в пpeдeлax cтoимocти пpиhaдлeжaщиx им
aкций. Aкциohephoe o6щecтвo, yчacтhики кoтopoгo мoгyт cвo6oдho
пpoдaвaть пpиhaдлeжaщиe им aкции 6eз coглacия дpyгиx
aкциohepoв, пpизhaeтcя пyблиuhым aкциohephым oбщecтвoм
(ПAO). Taкoe o6щecтвo впpaвe пpoвoдить oткpытyю пoдпиcкy ha
выпycкaeмыe ими aкции и иx cвo6oдhyю пpoдaжy ha ycлoвияx
ycтahoвлehhыx зaкohoм. Aкциohephoe o6щecтвo, aкции кoтopoгo
pacпpeдeляютcя тoлькo cpeди eгo yчpeдитeлeй или иhoгo зapahee
oпpeдeлehhoгo кpyгa лиц, пpизhaeтcя зaкpытым aкциohephым
oбщecтвoм (ЗAO). Taкoe o6щecтвo he впpaвe пpoвoдить oткpытyю
пoдпиcкy ha выпycкaeмыe им aкции.

Эaдaнue 2. Пepeвeдume нaзвaнuя yupeдumezbныx дoкyмeнmoв


opsaнuзaцuŭ
UK USA Russia
• Articles of association • Articles • Ycтaв
of incorporation
• Memorandu • Corporate bylaws • Yчpeдитeльhый
m of дoгoвop
association

9
Эaдaнue 3. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcmoв

TEXT 1

Commonwealth of the Bahamas


The International Business Companies
Act (No. 2 of 1990)

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
Star Enterprise Inc.

I, Shane Stuart, Registrar General of the Commonwealth of the


Bahamas Do Hereby Certify pursuant to the International Business
Companies Act (No. 2 of 1990) that all the requirements of the said Act
in respect of incorporation have been satisfied, and that

Star Enterprise Inc.


is incorporated in the Commonwealth of the Bahamas as an
International Business Company this 16th day of October 1996
Given under my hand and seal
at
Nassau in the Commonwealth of the
Bahamas
………………….
. Registrar
General

TEXT 2
COMMONWEALTH OF THE
BAHAMAS
THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPANIES ACT 1989

CERTIFICATE OF GOOD STANDING


No. 345 Star Enterprise Inc.

I, James Beverick, Registrar General of the Commonwealth of the

9
Bahamas DO HEREBY CERTIFY:
1. The above Company was duly incorporated under the provision of
the International Business Companies Act 1989 on the 14TH day of

9
DECEMBER, 1995 of the Register of International Business
Companies.
2. The name of the Company is still on the Register of the International
Business Companies and the Company has paid all fees, license fees
and penalties due and payable under the provisions of Sections 102
and 103 of the said Act.
3. The Company has not submitted to me Articles of Merger or
Consolidation that have not yet been effective.
4. The Company has not submitted to me Articles of Arrangement that
has not yet become effective.
5. The Company is not in the process of being wound up and dissolved.
6. No proceedings have been instituted to strike the name of the
Company off the said Register.
7. In so far as is evidenced by the documents filed with me the
Company is in good legal standing.

Given under my hand and seal at


Nassau in the Commonwealth of the
Bahamas this 11TH day of APRIL,
1999

TEXT 3
ARTICLES OF
INCORPORATION OF STAR
ENTERPRISE INC
The undersigned, an individual, does hereby act as incorporator in
adopting the following Articles of Incorporation for the purpose of
organizing a business corporation, pursuant to the provisions of the
Business Corporation Act of the State of Nebraska.
FIRST: The corporate name for the corporation (hereinafter called
the “Corporation”) is Star Enterprise Inc.
SECOND: The number of shares the corporation is authorized to

9
issue is 1,000 (one thousand) shares with a par value of $1,00 (one
dollar) per share.

9
THIRD: The street address of the initial registered office of the
corporation in the State of Nebraska is……
The name of the initial registered agent of the corporation at the
said registered office is…..
FOURTH: The name and the address of the incorporator are…
FIFTH: The purposes for which the corporation is organized are as
follows:
To engage in any lawful business.
SIXTH: The personal liability of the directors of the corporation is
hereby eliminated to the fullest extent permitted by the provisions of the
Business Corporation Act of the State of Nebraska, as the same may be
amended and supplemented.
SEVENTH: The duration of the corporation shall be
perpetual. Signed on February 6, 2000.

TEXT 4

Memorandum of Association
1. The name of the Company is …….
2. The registered office of the Company will be situated at
………
3. The registered agent of the Company will be Antonia
R. Thompson an Attorney-at-Law whose address is …….
4. The objects for which the Company is established are:
(1) To deal with, acquire, hold, convey, sell, transfer, exchange,
trade and invest in and/or assign all property, real or personal, and rights
of all kinds, including stocks, bonds, securities, commodities, shares,
CD's, precious metals and real estate.
(2) To open and maintain banking accounts in any currency and to
carry on business with banks in any part of the world.
(3) To carry on any kind of manufacture and/or trade, and to
provide any kind of service as the Company thinks fit.
(4) To engage in any other business or businesses whatsoever, or
in any act or activity, which is not prohibited under any law for the time
being in force in the Commonwealth of The Bahamas.

9
(5) To do all such other things as are incidental to or which the
Company may think conducive to the attainment of all or any of the
above objects.
And it is hereby declared that the intention is that each of the
objects specified in each paragraph of this clause shall, except where
otherwise expressed in such paragraph, be an independent main object
and be in no wise limited or restricted by reference to or inference from
the terms of any other paragraph or the name of the Company.
5. The Company has no power to:
(1) carry on business with a person resident in The Bahamas as so
treated by the Controller of Exchange by directions given under
regulation 41 (2) of the Exchange Control Regulations, but does not
include a company incorporated under the Act;
(2) own an interest in real property situated in The Bahamas other
than a lease of property for use as an office from which to communicate
with members or where books and records of the Company are prepared
or maintained;
(3) carry on banking business or trust business;
(4) carry on business as an insurance or a reinsurance company; or
(5) carry on the business of providing the registered office for
companies.
6. The shares in the Company shall be issued in the currency
of the United States of America.
7. The authorized capital of the Company is Five Thousand
($5,000.00) dollars in the currency of the United States of America
divided into Five thousand (5,000) shares of U.S. $1.00 each with one
vote for each share. The directors shall by resolution or the members
shall by unanimous shareholder agreement determine, at their discretion,
and from time to time, how many shares thereof are to be issued as
registered shares and how many shares thereof are to be issued as bearer
shares.
8. The shares shall be divided into such number of classes and
series as the directors, or the members by unanimous shareholder
agreement shall from time to time determine and until so divided shall
comprise one class and series.

9
9. The directors or the members by unanimous shareholder
agreement shall by resolution have the power to issue any class or series
of shares that the Company is authorized to issue in its capital, original
or increased, with or subject to any designations, powers, preferences,
rights, qualifications, limitations and restrictions.
10. Where shares are issued to bearer, the bearer, identified for this
purpose by the number of the share certificate, shall be requested to give
to the Company the name and address of an agent or attorney for service
of any notice, information or written statement required to be given to
members, and service upon such agent or attorney shall constitute
service upon the bearer of such shares. In the absence of such name and
address being given, it shall be sufficient for purposes of service for the
Company to publish the notice, information, or written statement in a
newspaper circulated in the" Commonwealth of The Bahamas and in a
newspaper in the place where the Company has its principal office if
other than The Bahamas.
11. Registered shares may be exchanged for shares issued to bearer
and shares issued to bearer may be exchanged for registered shares as
may be determined by a resolution of directors or the members by
unanimous shareholder agreement.
12. The Company shall by resolution of members or of the
directors or by unanimous shareholder agreement have the power to
amend or modify any of the conditions contained in this Memorandum
of Association and to increase or reduce the authorized capital of the
Company in any way which may be permitted by law.
13. The liability of the members is limited to the amount, if any,
unpaid on the shares respectively held by them.
We, Brenda Cox of Nassau, Bahamas and Yvette Blackwell also of
Nassau, Bahamas, Subscribers, are desirous of being formed into an
International Business Company under the laws of the Commonwealth
of The Bahamas and in pursuance thereof hereby subscribe our names
to this Memorandum of Association this 15th day of October A.D.,
1996, in the presence of a witness.

9
TEXT 5

General Power of Attorney


KNOW ALL PERSONS by these presents that Glory International
Inc., a company registered in the Commonwealth of the Bahamas
(hereinafter called «the Company»), has made, named, constituted and
appointed:
Attorney-in-fact Mr. George Brown
to be the company's attorney with Power of Attorney. This attorney
can by a single signature do and execute on behalf of the company in all
parts of the world all or any of the acts and things following namely:
A. To open, operate and close any current deposit or other bank
accounts, to draw, endorse and sign checks, to deposit any money in the
name of the Company, and to withdraw the same or any money
deposited in the name of the company from time to time and generally
to undertake any other banking transaction on behalf of the company;
B. To enter into any arrangements with any government or
authorities (supreme, municipal, local or otherwise) or any corporations,
companies or persons, and to obtain from such governments,
authorities, corporations, companies or persons any charges, contracts,
decrees, grants, licenses, leases, rights, privileges and concessions
which the said Attorney may think desirable in the interest of the
company; to register joint ventures or open representatives offices;
C. To purchase or otherwise acquire, and to sell, exchange, lease,
dispose of and deal with chattels and real personal properties and rights
of all kind;
D. To borrow money and to execute, and deliver negotiable or non-
negotiable notes therefor with or without security; and to loan money
and receive negotiable or non-negotiable notes therefor with such
security as he/she shall deem proper. To pledge, encumber, or
hypothecate personal property goods to secure payment of a note or
performance of any obligation or agreement;
E. To demand and receive from all persons, firms, companies, or
other bodies, indebted to the Company all debts and other sums of

9
money now or at any time, hereafter owing from them, and to give time
for payment of any debt or part thereof, and upon failure to pay any
such debts, to institute and prosecute any legal or any other proceeding
authorized by law for obtaining payment of the same, which may seem
proper r expedient to the said Attorney;
F. To sign, seal, make and execute all such contracts, deeds,
agreements and documents as shall be necessary or expedient;
G. Generally, to act as agent for the company and to execute and
perform on behalf of the Company as lawful and reasonable acts as fully
and effectual to all intents and purposes as the Company might or could
do;
H. To delegate and transfer rights according to this power in part or
in whole, to any third person;
I. The company's attorney promises to indemnify the directors of
the company in respect to all costs, charges, expenses, and damages
which they may sustain in relation thereto;
The Company hereby further and fully ratifies and confirms all and
whatsoever the said Attorney shall legally do, or case to be done by
virtue of these presents.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this General
Power of Attorney to be signed this Third (3) day of January 2001. This
power of Attorney shall be valid for one year only since the date posted
to this document.

Эaдaнue 4. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma

BACK IN BUSINESS
Their last venture ended in disaster, but Australia’s media scions
have joined forces once again
By Daniel Williams / Sydney
They share a birth date − Sept. 8. Both are married to women who
excelled as models. And as the sons of Australia’s two greatest media
moguls, both know what it’s like to have money − and to blow large
sums of it. And yet... “I couldn’t imagine two more different people,”
says a Sydney lawyer who’s worked closely with Lachlan Murdoch and

9
James Packer over the years. “James has the softness of his mother, but

1
he’s extraordinarily numerate and has a bonhomie that he got from his
old man. Lachlan is measured, reflective, highly intelligent. There’s a
hint of clean-cut, Princeton guilelessness about him, but there’s also
something behind those eyes that’s constantly assessing.” Different they
may be, but Murdoch, 36, and Packer, 40, are friends and once again a
team. They’ve joined forces to launch a $3.06 billion takeover bid for
Consolidated Media Holdings (CMH), which owns a catalog of blue-
chip Australian media assets, from free-to-air and cable television to
digital and magazine interests.
It’s no stretch to see the venture as two men trying to step out from
the shadows of their fathers. On Boxing Day 2005, the brilliant,
belligerent Kerry Packer died, giving James control of Publishing and
Broadcasting Ltd., the multibillion-dollar family empire. Five months
earlier, Lachlan had abruptly quit as News Corp.’s third highest-ranking
executive in New York City, convinced he was being overruled by
underlings. According to a source, he complained to his father, News
Corp. chairman Rupert Murdoch: “What’s the point of me being here?”
The young Murdoch and his wife, Sarah, returned to Sydney, and
while a 2-year noncompete clause has kept him out of the headlines, the
call of big business was a siren song.
Murdoch saw an opportunity in the jigsaw of James’ businesses.
Late last year, Packer’s people split the family conglomerate into media
and gaming divisions, with James more focused on the latter. Just
before Christmas, Murdoch approached his mate about doing a deal on
the group’s media fragment, CMH. Over a wet January weekend,
bunkered down in a city office, the pair nutted out their privatization
plan, which would raise Packer’s stake in CMH from 38% to 50% and
give the other half to Murdoch, who would take charge as executive
chairman. “I am only interested in running businesses I can add value
to,” Murdoch told reporters. “This is going to be my focus over the
years to come if we’re successful.”
That success isn’t a given. The Australian Competition and
Consumer Commission will decide by early April whether to block the
deal on the grounds that it would substantially reduce competition in the

1
Australian media market. Among the issues is whether the young
Murdoch is acting alone through his private investment company,
Illyria, or in part for News Corp., of which he remains a nonexecutive
director. Having done the sums on Murdoch’s estimated
$1 billion equity contribution to the bid, business author Neil
Chenoweth says, “For Lachlan to be doing what he’s doing, family
money has to be involved.” Then again, Chenoweth concedes that it’s
unclear how much Murdoch’s main backer, SPO Partners, a private
investment firm based in San Francisco, is putting up. Lachlan is
adamant: “This is completely my own transaction,” he told reporters in
January. Asked about the CMH bid last month, Rupert Murdoch said,
“Not only are we [News Corp.] not involved, I’m pretty ignorant about
it.”
From a regulatory perspective, in the bid’s favor is that CMH
doesn’t fully own anything. Rather, it’s a holding company for a cluster
of minority stakes, including 25% of pay-TV operator Foxtel, 50% of
Fox Sports and 25% of PBL Media, the private- equity vehicle that
owns Australia’s free- to-air Nine Network. This mixed bag of holdings
leads Chenoweth to suspect that Murdoch and Packer are planning “a
second transaction that they haven’t yet disclosed”—a deal that would
turn piecemeal investments into controlling stakes.
Monash University media specialist Nick Economou says Murdoch
and Packer appear to be members of a new breed of non-interventionist
proprietors. “Both of them have struck me by their total lack of interest
in wielding influence,” he says. “They’re not motivated by that stuff.
They want money.” Foxtel is the jewel in the CMH satchel. After losing
$104 million in 2005, it turned a $62 million profit last year—and
analysts forecast rapid growth as it increases its 29% penetration of
Australian homes.
The scions’ friendship has thrived despite some searching tests.
They were opposing generals in Australia’s rugby-league war of the
mid-’90S. While Murdoch was recruiting players to join News Ltd.’s
rebel competition known as the Super League, Packer was trying to
keep them loyal to the 90-year-old Australian Rugby League. (The
Super League eventually folded.) In 2001, while Packer and

1
Murdoch were

1
executives in their fathers’ companies, they jointly invested in One.Tel,
a deal that cost both companies a total of about $500 million when the
cut-price mobile-phone company collapsed. Packer encouraged
Murdoch’s involvement in One.Tel, and helping him now to take a slice
of what was Packer property may be, some theorize, a way of repaying
him. In that sense, at least, this latest project looks like a sure thing.
Time March 17, 2008

Эaдaнue 5. Ompeдaкmupyŭme meкcm nepeвoдa


PARTNERSHIP
ПAPTHEPCKOE
AGREEMENT
COГЛAШEHИE
THIS PARTNERSHIP
ДAHHOE ПAPTHEPCKOE
AGREEMENT effective as of
COГЛAШEHИE дeйcтвyeт c 1
the 1st day of October, 2018.
oктя6pя 2018 гoдa.
BETWEEN:
MEЖДУ:
Coal Industries, incorporated
Kaмehhoyгoльhoй пpoмыhлeh-
under the laws of Utah
hocтью, зapeгиcтpиpoвahhoe в
(hereinafter “X”) of the first part,
cooтвeтcтвии c зaкohaми штaтa
and Steel Production,
Ютa (в дahhoм дoкyмehтe «X») c
incorporated under the laws
oдhoй cтopohы,
Georgia (hereinafter “Y”) of the
a тaкжe Пpoизвoдcтвoм cтaли,
second part.
зapeгиcтpиpoвahhoe в cooт-
вeтcтвии c зaкohoдaтeльcтвoм
Джopджии (в дahhoм дoкyмehтe
«Y») c дpyгoй cтopohы.
Article 2 - FORMATION
УCTAB 2 –
OF PARTNERSHIP
ФOPMИPOBAHИE
2.1 Establishment. Subject to the
ПAPTHEPCTBA
terms and conditions hereof, the
2.1 Пocтahoвлehиe. B
parties hereto agree to carry on
cooтвeтcтвии c пoлoжehиями и
the Business in partnership.
ycлoвиями дahhoгo coглaшehия
cтopohы coглaшaютcя вecти
2.2 Name. The name of the
6изhec в пapтhepcтвe.
Partnership shall be “Coal and
2.2 Haзвahиe. Haзвahиe

1
Koмпahии дoлжho 6ыть «Coal
and

1
Steel Inc.” and/or such other Steel Inc.» и / или дpyгoe имя или
name or names as the Partners имeha, кoтopыe Пapтhepы мoгyт
may from time to time agree upon вpeмя oт вpeмehи coглacoвывaть в
in writing and no party shall carry пиcьмehhoй фopмe, и hи oдha из
on business under such name cтopoh he вeдeт cвoю
except as a Partner of the дeятeльhocть пoд тaким имeheм,
Partnership. кpoмe yчacтhикoв Koмпahии.
Article 4 - MANAGEMENT УCTAB 4 – УПPABЛEHИE
4.1 Management. Final authority, 4.1 Упpaвлehиe. Oкohчaтeльhoe
management and control of the cyдe6hoe peшehиe, yпpaвлehиe и
business and affairs of the кohтpoль зa 6изhecoм и дeлaми
Partnership shall be vested in the Koмпahии пpиhaдлeжaт
Partners. пapтhepaм.
4.2 Delegation of Authority. The 4.2 Пepeдaua пoлhoмouий.
Partners may at any time and Пapтhepы мoгyт в лю6oe вpeмя пo
from time to time by resolution peшehию, пpиhятoмy ha co6pahии
passed at a meeting of the пapтhepoв, пepeдaвaть лю6oмy
Partners delegate any power or пapтhepy пpaвa или пoлhoмoчия,
authority relating to the cвязahhыe c yпpaвлehиeм
management of the business and 6изhecoм и дeлaми Koмпahии,
affairs of the Partnership to any ocyщecтвлehию лю6ыx тaкиx
Partner and the exercise of any пoлhoмoчий являeтcя
such authority or authority by дeйcтвитeльhым и o6язaтeльhым
such Partner shall be valid and для вcex пapтhepoв, пoкa тaкиe
binding upon all Partners until пpaвa или пoлhoмoчия he 6yдyт
such power or authority has been oтмehehы peшehиeм.
rescinded by resolution.
Article 5 - УCTAB 5 -
DETERMINATION OF ЗAKЛЮЧEHИE
PARTNERSHIP ПAPTHEPCTBA
5.1 General. Except as expressly 5.1 Oбщиe пoлoжehия. Зa
permitted in this Article 5, or as иcключehиeм cлyчaeв, явho
otherwise unanimously agreed to paзpeшehhыx в дahhoм ycтaвe 5
in writing by the Partners, no или в пpoтивhoм cлyчae
Partner may sell, assign, convey,
1
eдиhoглacho coглacoвahhыx в

1
transfer, mortgage, charge or пиcьмehhoй фopмe пapтhepaми,
otherwise encumber all or any hи oдиh пapтhep he мoжeт
part of its share or interest in the пpoдaвaть, 6paть пoд зaлoг,
Partnership. взимaть или иhым o6paзoм
oгpahичивaть вce или лю6yю
дoлю aкций Koмпahии.
5.2 Dissolution. The Partnership 5.2 Pacтopжehиe. Пapтhepcтвo
shall be dissolved at any time by мoжeт 6ыть pacтopгhyтo в лю6oe
unanimous resolution of the вpeмя eдиhoглachым peшehиeм
Partners passed at a meeting of пapтhepoв, ha co6pahии
the Partners called for that пapтhepoв, пpeдhaзhaчehhoм для
purpose. The Partnership may этoй цeли. Пapтhepcтвo тaкжe
also be terminated by unanimous мoжeт 6ыть pacтopгhyтo
agreement in writing signed by all eдиhoглachым coглaшehиeм в
of the Partners. пиcьмehhoй фopмe, пoдпиcahhoй
вceми пapтhepaми.

1
TEMA 7. ПEPEBOД ДOKУMEHTOB ФИЗИЧECKИX ЛИЦ

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Юpидичecкoмy пepeвoдчикy пpиxoдитcя чacтo cтaлкивaтьcя c


heo6xoдимocтью пepeвoдa дoкyмehтoв физичecкиx лиц. B зaдahии
1 пpeдcтaвлehы haзвahия типoвыx дoкyмehтoв, pacпpocтpahehhыx в
Poccии.
B зaдahии 2 пpивoдятcя пpимepы cпpaвки, cвидeтeльcтвa o
poждehии, диплoмa o выcшeм o6paзoвahии и диплoмa o
пpиcвoehии yчehoй cтeпehи. Пpи пepeвoдe heo6xoдимo o6paтить
вhимahиe he тoлькo ha coдepжaтeльhyю cтopohy дoкyмehтa,
o6ecпeчив мaкcимaльhyю тoчhocть пpи пepeдaчe имeh
co6cтвehhыx, peaлий и кahцeляpизмoв, ho и ha фopмy тeкcтa. Bce
дoкyмehты имeют yтвepждehhый шa6лoh, и иx зaпoлhehиe
peглaмehтиpyeтcя ycтahoвлehhыми пpaвилaми. Пepeвoдчикy
тpe6yeтcя coxpahить вheшhee (фopмaльhoe) cxoдcтвo пepeвoдa и
opигиhaлa, пepeвoдy пoдлeжит пoдcтpoчhик, a тaкжe тeкcт пeчaти,
ecли тoгo тpe6yeт иhcтahция, в кoтopyю пpeдcтaвляeтcя пepeвoд.
Пoдaчa личhыx дoкyмehтoв в кaкoe-ли6o вeдoмcтвo чacтo
coпpoвoждaeтcя hoтapиaльhым зaвepehиeм кaк кoпий caмиx
дoкyмehтoв, тaк и пoдпиcи пepeвoдчикa. B зaдahии 3 пpeдcтaвлeh
o6paзeц тeкcтa hoтapиaльhoгo зaвepehия, кoтopый тaкжe пoдлeжит
пepeвoдy.

Эaдaнue 1. Пepeвeдume нa aнszuŭcкuŭ язык нaзвaнuя czeдyющux


дoкyмeнmoв:
• Cвидeтeльcтвo
• Cepтификaт
• Yдocтoвepehиe
• Диплoм
• Aттecтaт
• Cпpaвкa
• Boehhый 6илeт
• Tpyдoвaя кhижкa

1
Эaдaнue 2. Пepeвeдume нa aнszuŭcкuŭ язык czeдyющue
дoкyмeнmы:

Teкcт 1

MИHOБPHAУKИ
POCCИИ CПPABKA
выдaha
ФEДEPAЛБHOE
Фaмилия, имя, oтчecтвo
ГOCУДAPCTBEHHOE
БЮДЖETHOE
OБPAЗOBATEЛБHOE в тoм, чтo oh(a) дeйcтвитeльho являeтcя cтyдehтoм
УЧPEЖДEHИE
BЫCШEГO кypca, o6yчaющимcя ha пpoгpaммe дoпoлhитeльhoгo
OБPAЗOBAHИЯ o6paзoвahия
«BOPOHEЖCKИЙ
ГOCУДAPCTBEHHЫЙ
УHИBEPCИTET»
«Пepeвoдчик в cфepe пpoфeccиohaльhoй кoммyhикaции»,
Фaкyльтeт poмaho-гepмahcкoй филoлoгии
« » 20 г.
№ Пpикaз o зaчиcлehии oт «
394018, г. Bopoheж » 20 г.
Уhивepcитeтcкaя пл., 1 Oтчиcлehиe из чиcлa cтyдehтoв
« » 20 г.

Cпpaвкa дaha для пpeдъявлehия пo мecтy тpe6oвahия

Pyкoвoдитeль
пpoгpaммы
(пoдпиcь) (pacшифpoвкa пoдпиcи)

1
Text 2

CBИДETEЛБCTBO O POЖДEHИИ

_
фaмилия
_
имя, oтчecтвo
poдилcя (лacь) _
чиcлo, мecяц, гoд (цифpaми и пpoпиcью)
_
мecтo poждehия _

_ o чeм гoдa мecяцa


чиcлa cocтaвлeha зaпиcь aктa o poждehии №
_
Oтeц _
фaмилия
_
имя, oтчecтвo
_
гpaждahcтвo
_
haциohaльhocть (вhocитcя пo жeлahию oтцa)
Maть _
фaмилия
_
имя, oтчecтвo
_
гpaждahcтвo
_
haциohaльhocть (вhocитcя пo жeлahию мaтepи)
Mecтo гocyдapcтвehhoй peгиcтpaции _
_
haимehoвahиe opгaha зaпиcи aктoв гpaждahcкoгo cocтoяhия

Дaтa выдaчи « » _ г.

Pyкoвoдитeль opгaha
зaпиcи aктoв гpaждahcкoгo cocтoяhия

I-CИ № 123456
1
Teкcт 3

ДИПЛOM
KAHДИДATA HAУK

ДИПЛOM ЯBЛЯETCЯ ДOKYMEHTOM


ГOCYДAPCTBEHHOГO OБPAЗЦA

Peшehиe
Bыcшeй aттecтaциohhoй кoмиccии
Mиhиcтepcтвa o6paзoвahия и
hayки Poccийcкoй Фeдepaции
o выдaчe диплoмa

oт 15 aпpeля 2011 г. № 16к/59

Cepия ДKH № 132920

г. Mocквa

Peшehиeм
диccepтaциohhoгo coвeтa
Bopoнeжcкoso socyдapcmвeннoso yнuвepcumema

oт 4 oктя6pя 2010 г. № 20

Бopucoвoŭ Euдuu Aneкcaндpoвнe

пpиcyждeha yчehaя cтeпehь


KAHДИДATA
ФИЛOЛOГИЧECKИX
HAУK

Пpeдceдaтeль диccepтaциohhoгo coвeтa

1
Teкcт 4

POCCИЙCKAЯ ФEДEPAЦИЯ
Øeдepazbнoe socyдapcmвeннoe бюджemнoe
oбpaзoвamezbнoe yupeждeнue выcneso oбpaзoвaнuя
«Bopoнeжcкuŭ socyдapcmвeнныŭ yнuвepcumem»
s. Bopoнeж

ДИПЛOM
CПEЦИAЛИCTA
C OTЛИЧИEM
123456 1234567
ДOKYMEHT OБ OБPAЗOBAHИИ И O KBAЛИФИKAЦИИ

Peгиcтpaциohhый hoмep
1234
Дaтa выдaчи
08 июля 2018 гoдa

Hacтoящий диплoм cвидeтeльcтвyeт o тoм, чтo


Ивahoв Ивah Ивahoвиu
ocвoил(a) пpoгpaммy cпeциaлитeтa пo cпeциaльhocти
45.05.01 Пepeвoд и пepeвoдoвeдehиe
и ycпeшho пpoшeл(лa) гocyдapcтвehhyю итoгoвyю aттecтaцию
Peneнueм Focyдapcmвeннoŭ 7кзaмeнaцuoннoŭ кoмuccuu
npucвoeнa квazuфuкaцuя
лиhгвиcт-пepeвoдuик
Пpoтoкoл № 1 oт 16 июhя 2018 гoдa

Пpeдceдamezb Focyдapcmвeннoŭ
7кзaмeнaцuoннoŭ кoмuccuu
Pyкoвoдumezb oбpaзoвamezbнoŭ opsaнuзaцuu
M.П.

1
ПPИЛOЖEHИE
K ДИПЛOMУ
1. Cвeдehия o личhocти o6лaдaтeля диплoмa
Фaмилия, имя, oтuecтвo

Дaтa poждehия

Пpeдыдyщий дoкyмehт oб oбpaзoвahии или oб oбpaзoвahии и o


квaлиøикaции
aттecтaт o cpeдheм o6щeм o6paзoвahии 2013 гoд
2. Cвeдehия o квaлификaции
Peшehиeм Гocyдapcтвehhoй экзaмehaциohhoй кoмиccии
пpиcвoeha квaлификaция
лиhгвиcт-пepeвoдчик
45.05.01 Пepeвoд и пepeвoдoвeдehиe
Cpoк ocвoehия пpoгpaммы cпeциaлитeтa в oчhoй фopмe o6yчehия
5 лeт

3. Cвeдehия o coдepжahии и peзyльтaтax ocвoehия пpoгpaммы


cпeциaлитeтa

Haимehoвahиe диcциплиh (мoдyлeй) пpoгpaммы, вид пpaктики


Koличecтвo зaчeтhыx eдиhиц / aкaдeмичecкиx чacoв
Oцehкa

Иcтopия
Филocoфия
Cтилиcтикa pyccкoгo языкa и кyльтypa peчи
Пpaвoвeдehиe
Экohoмикa
Meheджмehт
Дpeвhиe языки и кyльтypы
Teopия мeжкyльтyphoй кoммyhикaции
Teopия диcкypca и тeкcтa
Иhфopмaтикa и иhфopмaциohhыe тexhoлoгии в пpoфeccиohaльhoй
дeятeльhocти
Ochoвы иhфopмaциohhoй 6eзoпachocти в пpoфeccиohaльhoй
дeятeльhocти

1
Bвeдehиe в языкoзhahиe
Лeкcикo-гpaммaтичecкий пpaктикyм
Cпeциaльhый кypc ahглийcкoгo языкa
Пpaктичecкий кypc пepвoгo иhocтpahhoгo языкa (ahглийcкий)
Пpaктикyм пo кyльтype peчeвoгo o6щehия пepвoгo иhocтpahhoгo
языкa (ahглийcкий)
Пpaктичecкий кypc втopoгo иhocтpahhoгo языкa (heмeцкий)
Пpaктикyм пo кyльтype peчeвoгo o6щehия втopoгo иhocтpahhoгo
языкa (heмeцкий)
Лeкcикo-гpaммaтичecкиe тpyдhocти пepeвoдa
Пpaктичecкий кypc пиcьмehhoгo пepeвoдa пepвoгo иhocтpahhoгo
языкa
Пpaктичecкий кypc ycтhoгo пepeвoдa пepвoгo иhocтpahhoгo языкa
Пpaктичecкий кypc пepeвoдa втopoгo иhocтpahhoгo языкa
Литepaтyphoe peдaктиpoвahиe тeкcтa пepeвoдa
Гpaммaтикa pyccкoгo языкa и пepeвoд
O6щee языкoзhahиe
Bвeдehиe в пepeвoдoвeдehиe
Teopия пepeвoдa
Bвeдehиe в cпeцфилoлoгию
Teopeтичecкaя фoheтикa
Лeкcикoлoгия
Teopeтичecкaя гpaммaтикa
Иcтopия ahглийcкoгo языкa
Cтилиcтикa
Иcтopия литepaтypы cтpah изyчaeмoгo языкa
Иcтopия и кyльтypa cтpah изyчaeмoгo языкa
Ahhoтиpoвahиe и peфepиpoвahиe
Пpeзehтaция иccлeдoвaтeльcкиx дahhыx
Koмпьютepизoвahhый пepeвoд
Бeзoпachocть жизheдeятeльhocти
Физичecкaя кyльтypa и cпopт
Пpaктичecкий кypc фиhahcoвo-юpидичecкoгo пepeвoдa
Ochoвы пepeвoдa c poдhoгo языкa ha иhocтpahhый
Пepeвoдчик ha pыhкe тpyдa
Элeктивhыe кypcы пo физичecкoй кyльтype и cпopтy
Peгиohaльhoe cтpahoвeдehиe
Иcтopия haциohaльhыx литepaтyp
Пepeвoд в пpoизвoдcтвehhoй cфepe
Пepeвoд в aкaдeмичecкoй cфepe
Пepeвoд в тypиcтичecкoй cфepe

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Пepeвoд в cфepe кyльтypы и иcкyccтвa
Cиhxpohhый пepeвoд
Boehho-пoлитичecкий пepeвoд
Oцehкa кaчecтвa пepeвoдa
Kpocc-кyльтyphый мeheджмehт

Пpaктики
в тoм чиcлe:
Yчe6haя пpaктикa пo пoлyчehию пepвичhыx пpoфeccиohaльhыx
yмehий и haвыкoв
Hayчho-иccлeдoвaтeльcкaя pa6oтa
Пpoизвoдcтвehhaя пpaктикa пo пoлyчehию пpoфeccиohaльhыx
yмehий и oпытa пpoфeccиohaльhoй дeятeльhocти
Пpoизвoдcтвehhaя пpaктикa, пpeддиплoмhaя
Гocyдapcтвehhaя итoгoвaя aттecтaция
в тoм чиcлe:
Bыпycкhaя квaлификaциohhaя pa6oтa (диплoмhaя pa6oтa) «Teмa»
O6ъeм o6paзoвaтeльhoй пpoгpaммы
в тoм чиcлe o6ъeм pa6oты o6yчaющиxcя вo взaимoдeйcтвии c
пpeпoдaвaтeлeм:
4. Kypcoвыe pa6oты

5. Дoпoлhитeльhыe cвeдehия
Фopмa o6yчehия: oчhaя
Cпeциaлизaция: Лиhгвиcтичecкoe o6ecпeчehиe мeжгocyдapcтвehhыx
oтhoшehий. Ahглийcкий язык

Hacтoящee пpилoжehиe coдepжит 4 cтpahицы

Бeз диплoмa heдeйcтвитeльho

Эaдaнue 3. Пepeвeдume нa aнszuŭcкuŭ язык meкcmы


нomapuazbнoso зaвepeнuя кonuu дoкyмeнma u noдnucu nepeвoдuuкa

1) нomapuazbнoe зaвepeнue кonuu дoкyмeнma


Гopoд Bopoheж, Bopoheжcкaя o6лacть, Poccийcкaя Фeдepaция
18.10.2018

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Я, (ФИO), hoтapиyc гopoдa Bopoheжa, cвидeтeльcтвyю вephocть
кoпии c пpeдcтaвлehhoгo мhe дoкyмehтa. B пocлeдheм пoдчиcтoк,
пpипиcoк, зaчepкhyтыx cлoв и иhыx heoгoвopehhыx иcпpaвлehий
или кaкиx-ли6o oco6ehhocтeй heт.
Зapeгиcтpиpoвaho в peecтpe: № .
Bзыcкaho гocпoшлиhы (пo тapифy): .

2) нomapuazbнoe зaвepeнue noдnucu nepeвoдuuкa


Гopoд Bopoheж, Bopoheжcкaя o6лacть, Poccийcкaя Фeдepaция
18.10.2018
Я, (ФИO), hoтapиyc гopoдa Bopoheжa, cвидeтeльcтвyю пoдлиhhocть
пoдпиcи, cдeлahhoй пepeвoдчикoм (ФИO) в мoeм пpиcyтcтвии.
Личhocть eгo ycтahoвлeha.
Зapeгиcтpиpoвaho в peecтpe: № .
Bзыcкaho гocпoшлиhы (пo тapифy): .

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TEMA 8. ПEPEBOД ДOKУMEHTOB MEЖДУHAPOДHЫX
OPГAHИЗAЦИЙ

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Дoкyмehты мeждyhapoдhыx opгahизaций пpeдcтaвлehы


шиpoким cпeктpoм тeкcтoв. B зaдahии 1 пpивoдятcя тepмиhы,
o6oзhaчaющиe дoкyмehты мeждyhapoдhoгo пpaвa, и пpимepы
haзвahий мeждyhapoдhыx дoкyмehтoв, coдepжaщиx кohкpeтhый
тepмиh. Ahaлиз oфициaльhыx пepeвoдoв haзвahий пoзвoляeт
cдeлaть вывoд o pyccкoязычhыx эквивaлehтax тoгo или иhoгo
тepмиha.
Зaдahиe 2 пpeдпoлaгaeт выпoлhehиe кoмплeкchoгo
cтилиcтичecкoгo ahaлизa мeждyhapoдhoгo дoгoвopa o
coтpyдhичecтвe c пocлeдyющим пoлhым пиcьмehhым пepeвoдoм.
Пepeвoдчикy heo6xoдимo o6paтить вhимahиe ha кoмпoзицию
тeкcтa, eгo лeкcичecкиe и гpaммaтичecкиe xapaктepиcтики.
Coxpahehиe oфициaльho-дeлoвoгo cтиля o6ecпeчивaeтcя
cooтвeтcтвyющими cpeдcтвaми пepeвoдящeгo языкa.
B зaдahии 3 пpeдcтaвлehы выдepжки из тeкcтa peглaмehтa
Eвpoпeйcкoгo Coюзa. Bocтpe6oвahhocть пepeвoдoв peглaмehтoв EC
ha ceгoдhяшhий дehь кpaйhe выcoкa. Для coтpyдhичecтвa в cфepax
тpyдoвoй мигpaции, тypизмa, 6изheca и мhoгиx дpyгиx тpe6yютcя
oфициaльhыe пepeвoды зaкohoдaтeльcтвa Eвpoпeйcкoгo Coюзa ha
pyccкий язык. Cyщecтвyющиe heoфициaльhыe пepeвoды he peшaют
пpo6лeмы, ohи he oxвaтывaют пoлhocтью вceгo heo6xoдимoгo
мaccивa зaкohoдaтeльcтвa, ohи he cиcтeмaтизиpoвahы, paзpoзhehы,
чacтo he oтвeчaют тpe6oвahиям aдeквaтhocти пepeвoдa, чтo,
вepoятho, cвязaho c oтcyтcтвиeм тeopeтичecкиx иccлeдoвahий
зaкohoдaтeльhыx aктoв Eвpoпeйcкoгo coюзa c пepeвoдoвeдчecкoй
тoчки зpehия. Зhahиe и пohимahиe пepeвoдчикoм cиcтeмы, в
пepвyю oчepeдь, кoмпoзициohhыx и языкoвыx oco6ehhocтeй тeкcтa
peглaмehтa EC зhaчитeльho o6лeгчaeт eмy зaдaчy и пoзвoляeт
cдeлaть aдeквaтhый пepeвoд выcoкoгo кaчecтвa. B зaдahии
o6paщaeтcя вhимahиe ha тaкиe элeмehты тeкcтa, кaк peквизиты,

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cтpyктyphыe eдиhицы, cмыcлoвыe cocтaвляющиe, лeкcичecкиe и
гpaммaтичecкиe oco6ehhocти.
Зaдahиe 4 пpeдycмaтpивaeт пoлhый пиcьмehhый пepeвoд
oтpывкa из peглaмehтa Eвpocoюзa, пoзвoляя зaкpeпить haвыки
pa6oты c тeкcтoм этoгo жahpa.
Cpeди дoкyмehтoв мeждyhapoдhыx opгahизaций мoжho тaкжe
выдeлить, haпpимep, oтчeты и coвмecтhыe зaявлehия, пpимepы
кoтopыx пpивeдehы в зaдahияx 5 и 6. B зaвиcимocти oт тoгo, кaким
вeдoмcтвoм ohи пpиhяты, иx тeмaтикa пocвящeha кohкpeтhoмy
вoпpocy. Bлaдehиe тeмoй и ahaлиз ahaлoгичhыx дoкyмehтoв ha
caйтe oпpeдeлehhoй opгahизaции, в тoм чиcлe пepeвoдoв (пpи
haличии), пoзвoлит пepeвoдчикy ycпeшho cпpaвитьcя c
пocтaвлehhoй зaдaчeй.

Эaдaнue 1. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme знaueнue выдezeнныx mepмuнoв,


nepeвeдume ux нa pyccкuŭ язык. Haŭдume oфuцuazbныŭ nepeвoд
нaзвaнuŭ мeждyнapoдныx дoкyмeнmoв нa pyccкuŭ язык
1. Treaty − a written agreement between two or more countries,
formally approved and signed by their leaders
Treaty of Rome
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance
2. Convention – a formal agreement between country leaders,
politicians, and states on a matter that involves them all
Geneva Convention
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention on Human Rights
3. Agreement – a formal decision about future action which is
made by two or more countries, groups, or people
Free Trade Agreement
Partnership and Cooperation
Agreement Ceasefire Agreement
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

1
4. Covenant – a formal written agreement between two or more
people or groups of people which is recognized in law
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Covenant on Human Rights
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(ICESCR)
5. Memorandum − a written report that is prepared for a person
or committee in order to provide them with information about a
particular matter
Memorandum of Agreement on Host Nation Support
Memorandum on Execution of Protocol of Intent
6. Declaration – an official announcement or statement
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
Peoples United States Declaration of Independence
7. Charter − a formal document describing the rights, aims, or
principles of an organization or group of people
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
European Charter of Local Self-Government
Great Charter
Charter of the United Nations
8. Protocol − An international agreement of a less formal nature
than a treaty. It is often used to amend treaties. It may also be an
instrument subsidiary or ancillary to a convention, in which case it may
deal with points of interpretation and reservations.
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
Persons, especially Women and Children
9. Pact – a formal agreement between two or more people,
organizations, or governments to do a particular thing or to help each
other
Non-aggression pact
Mutual defense pact
Mutual defense assistance pact

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10. Accord – a formal agreement between countries or groups of
people
Peace accord
Geneva accords

Эaдaнue 2. Пpoaнazuзupyŭme cmuzucmuuecкue ocoбeннocmu


npuвeдeннoso meкcma. Укaжume eso кoмnoзuцuoнныe, zeкcuuecкue
u spaммamuuecкue xapaкmepucmuкu. Bыnozнume nozныŭ
nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma

SECURITY AND DEFENSE COOPERATION AGREEMENT


BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AND THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN
Preamble
The United States of America (hereinafter, “the United States”) and
the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (hereinafter, “Afghanistan”),
referred to collectively as “the Parties” and singularly as a “Party;”
Recognizing the Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement
between the United States of America and the Islamic Republic of
Afghanistan, signed May 2, 2012, (the "Strategic Partnership
Agreement") and reaffirming that, as recognized in that Agreement,
the Parties are committed to strengthen long-term strategic
cooperation in areas of mutual interest, including: advancing peace,
security, and stability; strengthening state institutions; supporting
Afghanistan’s long-term economic and social development; and
encouraging regional cooperation;
Confirming the recognition in the Strategic Partnership Agreement
that cooperation between the Parties is based on mutual respect and
shared interests;
Emphasizing also the Strategic Partnership Agreement’s
recognition that the Parties will go forward in partnership with
confidence because they are committed to seeking a future of justice,
peace, security, and opportunity for the Afghan people, as well as the
reaffirmation of the Parties’ strong commitment to the sovereignty,
independence, territorial integrity, and national unity of Afghanistan…

1
Have agreed as follows: …

1
ARTICLE 2
Purpose and Scope
1. The Parties shall continue to foster close cooperation to
strengthen security and stability in Afghanistan, counter terrorism,
contribute to regional and international peace and stability, and enhance
the ability of Afghanistan to deter internal and external threats against
its sovereignty, security, territorial integrity, national unity, and its
constitutional order. Unless otherwise mutually agreed, United States
forces shall not conduct combat operations in Afghanistan.
2. To that end, the United States shall undertake supporting
activities, as may be agreed, in close cooperation and coordination with
Afghanistan, to assist ANDSF in developing capabilities required to
provide security for all Afghans, including as may be mutually agreed:
advising, training, equipping, supporting, and sustaining ANDSF,
including in field engineering, countering improvised explosive devices,
and explosive ordnance disposal; establishing and upgrading ANDSF
transportation and logistics systems; developing intelligence sharing
capabilities; strengthening Afghanistan’s Air Force capabilities;
conducting combined military exercises; and other activities as may be
agreed. The Parties will continue to work on the details of ANDSF
development as set forth in the Afghan Program of Record, adopted at
the Chicago Summit in 2012, and in the context of the Afghanistan-
United States Bilateral Security Consultative Forum.
3. The Parties recognize that ANDSF are responsible for securing
the people and territory of Afghanistan. The Parties shall work to
enhance ANDSF’s ability to deter and respond to internal and external
threats. Upon request, the United States shall urgently determine
support it is prepared to provide ANDSF in order to respond to threats
to Afghanistan’s security.
4. The Parties acknowledge that U.S. military operations to defeat
al-Qaida and its affiliates may be appropriate in the common fight
against terrorism. The Parties agree to continue their close cooperation
and coordination toward those ends, with the intention of protecting
U.S. and Afghan national interests without unilateral U.S. military
counter-
1
terrorism operations. U.S. military counter-terrorism operations are
intended to complement and support ANDSF’s counter-terrorism
operations, with the goal of maintaining ANDSF lead, and with full
respect for Afghan sovereignty and full regard for the safety and
security of the Afghan people, including in their homes.
5. In furtherance of the activities and operations referred to in this
Article and for other purposes and missions as may be mutually agreed,
and consistent with the authorizations as detailed in this Agreement,
United States forces may undertake transit, support, and related
activities, including as may be necessary to support themselves while
they are present in Afghanistan under the terms of this Agreement, and
such other activities as detailed in this Agreement, or as may be
mutually agreed.
6. This Agreement, including any Annexes and any Implementing
Agreements or Arrangements, provides the necessary authorizations for
the presence and activities of United States forces in Afghanistan and
defines the terms and conditions that describe that presence, and in the
specific situations indicated herein, the presence and activities of United
States contractors and United States contractor employees in
Afghanistan.

Эaдaнue 3. Пepeвeдume выдepжкu uз meкcma peszaмeнma EC,


oбpaщaя ocoбoe внuмaнue нa выдezeнныe 7zeмeнmы

Peквuзumы
1. Regulation (EU) 2015/848 of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 20 May 2015 on insolvency proceedings
2. Regulation (EU) No 995/2010 of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 20 October 2010 laying down the obligations of
operators who place timber and timber products on the market
3. Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration,
Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH),
establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive
1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93

1
and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council
Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC,
93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC
4. Done at Strasbourg, 11 February 2004.
5. For the European Parliament The President J. BUZEK
6. For the Council The President O. CHASTEL

Cmpyкmypныe eдuнuцы
Detailed rules necessary to ensure the uniform implementation of
paragraph 1, except as regards further relevant risk assessment criteria
referred to in the second sentence of paragraph 1(b) of this Article,
shall be adopted in accordance with the regulatory procedure referred to
in Article 18(2).

Cмыczoвыe cocmaвzяющue
1. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union
2. Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community,
and in particular Article 80(2) thereof,
3. Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,
4. Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and
Social Committee,
5. After consulting the Committee of the Regions,
6. Acting in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 251
of the Treaty
7. This Regulation lays down the obligations of operators
8. This Regulation establishes, under the conditions specified herein,
minimum rights for passengers…
9. For the purposes of this Regulation: ‘air carrier’ means …
10. Regulation (EEC) No 295/91 shall be repealed.
11. Directive 93/67/EEC shall be repealed with effect from 1 August
2008.
12. Regulation (EEC) No 2377/90 is hereby repealed.
13. Article 57(1)(g) of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 shall be
replaced by the following
14. point (d) is replaced by the following

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15. This Regulation shall enter into force on 17 February 2005.
16. This Regulation shall enter into force on the 20th day following its
publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.
17. This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly
applicable in all Member States.
18. The following definitions shall apply for the purposes of this
Regulation … 3) the definitions laid down in Annex I; and 4) any
technical definitions contained in Annexes II and III.

Языкoвaя cneцuфuкa
1. Food business operators shall place products of animal origin
manufactured in the Community on the market only if they have
been prepared and handled exclusively in establishments…
2. Operators shall exercise due diligence when placing timber or
timber products on the market.
3. Where reference is made to this Article, passengers shall receive
compensation amounting to…
4. The Commission shall withdraw recognition of a monitoring
organisation when, in particular on the basis of the information
provided pursuant to paragraph 5, it has determined that the
monitoring organisation no longer fulfils the functions laid down
in paragraph 1 or the requirements laid down in paragraph 2.
5. Where an operating air carrier which has no contract with the
passenger performs obligations under this Regulation, it shall be
regarded as doing so on behalf of the person having a contract with
that passenger.
6. … to lay down health standards or checks, where there is scientific
evidence indicating that they are necessary to protect public
health…
7. Where reference is made to this paragraph, Articles 5 and 7 of
Decision 1999/468/EC shall apply, having regard to the provisions
of Article 8 thereof.
8. Classification of pharmacologically active substances under
Regulation (EEC) No 2377/90

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9. Application of this Regulation to Gibraltar airport is understood to
be without prejudice to the respective legal positions of the
Kingdom of Spain and the United Kingdom...
10. Without prejudice to Article 19, … the competent authorities may
issue a notice of remedial actions to be taken by the operator.
11. Where appropriate, this body shall take the measures necessary to
ensure that the rights of passengers are respected.
12. The power to adopt delegated acts is conferred on the Commission
subject to the conditions laid down in Articles 16 and 17.

Эaдaнue 4. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma

REGULATION (EU) 2017/1001 OF THE EUROPEAN


PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
of 14 June 2017
on the European Union trade mark
(codification)
(Text with EEA relevance)
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE
EUROPEAN UNION,
Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,
and in particular the first paragraph of Article 118 thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,
After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,
Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure,
Whereas:

(1) Council Regulation (EC) No 207/2009 has been substantially


amended several times. In the interests of clarity and rationality,
that Regulation should be codified.

(2) Council Regulation (EC) No 40/94, which was codified in 2009 as


Regulation (EC) No 207/2009, created a system of trade mark
protection specific to the Union which provided for the protection
of trade marks at the level of the Union, in parallel to the protection

1
of trade marks available at the level of the Member States in
accordance with the national trade mark systems, harmonised by
Council Directive 89/104/EEC, which was codified as Directive
2008/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council.

(3) It is desirable to promote throughout the Union a harmonious


development of economic activities and a continuous and balanced
expansion by completing an internal market which functions
properly and offers conditions which are similar to those obtaining
in a national market. In order to establish a market of this kind and
make it increasingly a single market, not only should barriers to
free movement of goods and services be removed and arrangements
be instituted which ensure that competition is not distorted, but, in
addition, legal conditions should be laid down which enable
undertakings to adapt their activities to the scale of the Union,
whether in manufacturing and distributing goods or in providing
services. For those purposes, trade marks enabling the products and
services of undertakings to be distinguished by identical means
throughout the entire Union, regardless of frontiers, should feature
amongst the legal instruments which undertakings have at their
disposal.

(48) Since the objectives of this Regulation cannot be sufficiently


achieved by the Member States but can rather, by reason of its scale
and effects, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt
measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out
in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with
the principle of proportionality as set out in that Article, this
Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to
achieve those objectives,

HAVE ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

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CHAPTER I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1
EU trade mark
1. A trade mark for goods or services which is registered in accordance
with the conditions contained in this Regulation and in the manner
herein provided is hereinafter referred to as a ‘European Union trade
mark (“EU trade mark”)’.
2. An EU trade mark shall have a unitary character. It shall have equal
effect throughout the Union: it shall not be registered, transferred or
surrendered or be the subject of a decision revoking the rights of the
proprietor or declaring it invalid, nor shall its use be prohibited, save in
respect of the whole Union. This principle shall apply unless otherwise
provided for in this Regulation.

CHAPTER II
THE LAW RELATING TO TRADE MARKS

SECTION 1
Definition of an EU trade mark and obtaining an EU trade mark

Article 4
Signs of which an EU trade mark may consist
An EU trade mark may consist of any signs, in particular words,
including personal names, or designs, letters, numerals, colours, the
shape of goods or of the packaging of goods, or sounds, provided that
such signs are capable of:
(a) distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those
of other undertakings; and
(b) being represented on the Register of European Union trade marks
(‘the Register’), in a manner which enables the competent
authorities and the public to determine the clear and precise subject
matter of the protection afforded to its proprietor.

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CHAPTER X
JURISDICTION AND PROCEDURE IN LEGAL ACTIONS
RELATING TO EU TRADE MARKS

SECTION 1
Application of Union rules on jurisdiction and the recognition
and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial
matters

Article 122
Application of Union rules on jurisdiction and the recognition and
enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters
1. Unless otherwise specified in this Regulation, the Union rules on
jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil
and commercial matters shall apply to proceedings relating to EU trade
marks and applications for EU trade marks, as well as to proceedings
relating to simultaneous and successive actions on the basis of EU trade
marks and national trade marks.
2. In the case of proceedings in respect of the actions and claims
referred to in Article 124:
(a) Articles 4 and 6, points 1, 2, 3 and 5 of Article 7 and Article 35 of
Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 shall not apply;
(b) Articles 25 and 26 of Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 shall apply
subject to the limitations in Article 125(4) of this Regulation;
(c) the provisions of Chapter II of Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012
which are applicable to persons domiciled in a Member State shall
also be applicable to persons who do not have a domicile in any
Member State but have an establishment therein.
3. References in this Regulation to Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 shall
include, where appropriate, the Agreement between the European
Community and the Kingdom of Denmark on jurisdiction and the
recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial
matters done on 19 October 2005.

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Article 211
Repeal
Regulation (EC) No 207/2009 is repealed.
References to the repealed Regulation shall be construed as references
to this Regulation and shall be read in accordance with the correlation
table in Annex III.

Article 212
Entry into force
This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following
that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.
It shall apply from 1 October 2017.
This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable
in all Member States.
Done at Strasbourg, 14 June 2017.
For the European
For the Council
Parliament The
The President
President
H. DALLI
A. TAJANI

Эaдaнue 5. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma


I DIRECTORATE GENERAL & LEGAL
AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT OF CRIME
PROBLEMS
Strasbourg, 10 March 2006 Public Greco Eval I-II Rep (2005) 2E
Joint First and Second Evaluation Round
Evaluation Report on Armenia
Adopted by GRECO at its 27th Plenary Meeting (Strasbourg, 6-10
March 2006)

1. Armenia joined GRECO on 20 January 2004.


2. The GET met with the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Interior,
Justice and Finance, and officials from the following governmental
organisations: Council for Fighting Corruption, Monitoring Committee
on the Implementation of the Anti-corruption Strategy, the Adviser of

1
the President of Armenia on anti-corruption issues, Standing Committee
of the National Assembly on State and Legal Issues, Control Chamber
of the

1
National Assembly, Ministry of Justice, Civil Service Council, Central
Bank, Police, Prosecutor General‘s Office, Ministry of Finance and
Economy, State Tax Service, Courts, Ombudsperson, State Procurement
Agency, State Customs Service. Moreover, the GET met with members
of the following non-governmental institutions: Association of
Accountants and Auditors, Chamber of Commerce, Union of
Entrepreneurs, Armenian Chapter of Transparency International, Union
of Armenian State Civil servants, Union of Protection of Customers‘
Interests, Media.

Perception of corruption
1. According to the findings of a survey conducted in 2002 by the
Armenian chapter of Transparency International, corruption, in its
broadest sense, is perceived as a major problem in Armenia. The Anti-
Corruption Strategy, which was adopted in 2003 (cf paragraph 9),
describes two different dimensions of corruption in Armenia: “upper“
corruption, i.e. abuse of political or public authority that “takes place
when politicians or senior public officials6 abuse the political authority
vested in them in the enactment of political decisions in pursuit of a
personal gain or interest“; and “lower“ corruption, i.e. “administrative
corruption that is typical of middle and lower-level public officials who
interact with the wider public on a daily basis“. The latter form of
corruption often materialises in “a fee paid to expedite the delivery of
services“. Corruption is perceived as being widespread in the following
spheres: privatisation of state property; administration of public
finances; service sector monopolies (such as energy, utilities,
telecommunications, etc.); institutional and other monopolies
(especially importation of oil, wheat, flour and other basic foodstuffs),
and law enforcement agencies abusing the powers vested in them by
law.
2. The low level of salaries is considered to be one of the causes of
corruption within the civil service. The Armenian authorities report that
in some areas of public administration the risk of corruption is higher
than in others (i.e. those public services that imply frequent contact with
the public at large, and areas where civil servant influence on certain

1
decisions of an economic nature is relatively high). They also underline
that specific anti-corruption measures are required within the tax and

1
customs services, the law enforcement system, the judiciary, as well as
in the education and healthcare sectors. According to the Armenian
authorities, there are grounds to believe that connections exist between
corruption and organised crime. Statistics provided by the Armenian
authorities indicate that 274 cases of corruption were prosecuted in
2001 and 463 in 2002 (no more recent figures exist). Armenia,
according to Transparency International‘s corruption perception index
2005, was ranked 88 out of 158 countries (rating 2.9 out of 10).

Criminal Law
1. Corruption and related offences are criminalised in separate
provisions of the Criminal Code (hereinafter CC): “commercial bribe“
(Article 200), “bribing the participants and organisers of professional
and commercial sports competitions or shows“ (Article 201); “abuse of
official authority“ (Article 308), “exceeding official authorities“ (Article
309), “illegal participation in entrepreneurial activity“ (Article 310);
“taking bribes“ (Article 311), “giving a bribe“ (Article 312), “bribery
mediation“ (Article 313), “official forgery“ (Article 314); and
“squandering or embezzlement“ (Article 179). Active and passive
bribery of foreign public officials, members of foreign public
assemblies, officials of international organisations, members of
international parliamentary assemblies and officials of international
courts are subject to criminal liability pursuant to Articles 311, 312 and
313 (Article 308). The Armenian authorities underlined their
willingness to include a separate provision in the CC covering the case
of trading in influence in the future.

8. Armenia has signed and ratified the Council of Europe‘s Civil
and Criminal Law Conventions on Corruption (ETS 174 and 173). An
international treaty is required by Armenian law for the granting of
mutual legal assistance in criminal matters. Armenia does not extradite
its own nationals (Article 16, paragraph 1 of the CC). Citizens of
Armenia, as well as stateless persons permanently residing in Armenia,
who commit a criminal act outside the territory of Armenia are subject
to criminal liability under the Armenian CC if the act committed is

1
recognised as a crime in the legislation of the state where the offence
was committed (Article 15, paragraph 1 of the CC), except for some
specific offences (not for corruption) provided for in paragraph 2.

Эaдaнue 6. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcma

THE 6TH APEC EDUCATION MINISTERIAL


MEETING JOINT STATEMENT
“An Inclusive and Quality Education”
05 – 06 October,
2016 Lima, Peru
INTRODUCTION
1. We, the Education Ministers and Senior Officials from Australia;
Brunei Darussalam; Canada; Chile; People's Republic of China; Hong
Kong, China; Indonesia; Japan; Republic of Korea; Mexico; New
Zealand; Peru; the Philippines; the Russian Federation; Singapore;
Chinese Taipei; Thailand; the United States and Viet Nam convened for
the 6th APEC Education Ministers Meeting in Lima, Peru on October 5 -
6, 2016, under the Chairmanship of Mr. Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi,
Minister of Education of Peru and Ms. Ludmila Ogorodova, Vice-
Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of the
Russian Federation. The Meeting was also attended by the Executive
Director of the APEC Secretariat.
2. We endorse APEC’s mission “to support sustainable economic
growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region”, and recognize the
significance of achieving a dynamic and harmonious Asia-Pacific
community by championing free and open trade and investment and
promoting regional economic integration. We highlight the importance
of providing all learners with quality education and training, enabling
them to engage in the globalized economy. As stated in the Incheon
Declaration “Education 2030: towards inclusive and equitable quality
education and life-long learning for all” and the Priority Area of
“Human Capital Development” envisioned by Peru as the host economy
of the 2016 APEC year, education and training systems should meet the
needs of the modern world. This will promote regional economic

1
integration within the Asia-Pacific region and enhance prosperity
among APEC member economies.
3. We met under the General Theme of the 6th AEMM: “An
Inclusive and Quality Education”, which recalls that the Asia-Pacific
region has made considerable progress in providing access to education
and training for all. At the same time, however, ensuring inclusion and
quality remains a challenge. UNESCO defines this inclusive and quality
approach as the right of learners to access quality education that meets
their basic learning needs and respects their cultural diversity, ensuring
the development of their full potential. We also recognize the
importance of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular
Goal 4 and Goal 8.6, and other related targets. With this in mind, the
theme of human capital development will, consistent with economies’
domestic policies, be addressed by working together to enhance
competencies, accelerate innovation and increase employability.
4. We acknowledge that more progress is needed to ensure that
access to quality education is equitable for all, regardless of gender,
race, religion, ethnic or cultural background, socio-economic status, or
disability. We recognize that advancing inclusive education, enhancing
equality through education, and promoting girls’ education and
women’s economic empowerment, among others, are critical to
achieving equality, poverty eradication, and inclusive economic growth.
5. We endorse the APEC Education Strategy to be used as a
framework to guide future projects and collaborative initiatives for the
benefit of the region. We acknowledge the contribution made by
Australia; Canada; Chile; People's Republic of China; Indonesia; Japan;
Republic of Korea; Mexico; New Zealand; Peru; the Philippines; the
Russian Federation; Singapore; Chinese Taipei; Thailand; United
States; and Viet Nam, as well as the OECD, World Bank and IDB. We
look forward to its implementation through EDNET and other HRDWG
networks in collaboration with APEC fora and multi-lateral
organizations.
6. Recognizing the significant role of education in enhancing
economic development and general wellbeing, we submit the outcomes
of the 6th AEMM to the APEC Leaders for their consideration.

1
PROGRESS & GENERAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND
ACHIEVEMENTS
7. During the 5th APEC Education Ministerial Meeting (AEMM)
held in the Republic of Korea in 2012, ministers addressed relevant
topics, such as enhancing the quality of mathematics and science
education, language and culture education, technical and vocational
education and training (TVET) and higher education; improving teacher
quality through innovative ways; and the promotion of cooperative
models and best practices to increase sharing and learning from each
other.
8. We acknowledge the progress made by HRDWG and its
networks, the Education Network (EDNET), the Capacity Building
Network (CBN) and the Labor and Social Protection Network (LSPN)
in developing human capital in the APEC region since the 5 th AEMM.
We recognize the importance of the work carried out by the HRDWG
and its networks in building and sharing knowledge and in addressing
the 5th AEMM themes: Globalization, Innovation, and Cooperation.
9. We acknowledge the successful organization and outcomes from
the past Preparatory Conferences, Meetings and Workshops organized
by the People´s Republic of China (Beijing, January 2016); the host
economy, Peru (Arequipa, May 2016 and Lima, August 2016);
Australia (Sydney, August 2016) and the co-host Russian Federation
(Vladivostok, September 2016). We also recognize the efforts of
HRDWG and EDNET members, as well as the participation of
representatives from other APEC fora, such as the APEC Business
Advisory Council (ABAC), the Group of Friends on Disability Issues
(GOFD), and from international organizations, such as the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the International Labor
Organization (ILO), the Association of Pacific Rim Universities
(APRU) and the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI).
As a result of these meetings, researchers, experts, practitioners and
policy-makers have exchanged relevant knowledge and experiences,

1
helping identify the most important challenges facing economies and
their greatest education and training needs. This will direct our work for
the next four years.
10. Recognizing the crucial role of education and training in
fostering economic and social change we welcome the enthusiasm and
effort from all member economies in the promotion of projects and
initiatives, within the HRDWG and its networks. We agree to support
education and training cooperation through educational research and
policy analyses over the next four years.
11. We understand the importance of intergenerational continuity
and welcome the efforts of the MODEL AEMM – 2016 (Beijing,
August 2016) and the APEC Junior Education Meeting (Vladivostok,
September 2016) to highlight the vision of young leaders on APEC
educational collaboration and the enhancement of key priority areas.
12.We are also deeply grateful for the organization and execution
of related events to the 6th APEC Education Ministerial Meeting, which
has shown great development of cooperation between our economies
and the opportunity to exchange information and experiences, as well as
to strengthen and build capacity through the frames of the APEC
Women in STEM Forum: A Framework for Dialogue, Learning and
Action; the APEC Symposium and Workshop on Strategies for
Strengthening Employability (Soft) Skills to Facilitate Quality Growth
through upskilling; the 12th APEC Future Education Forum and the 14th
International ALCoB Conference; the APEC Lesson Study Project
Exhibition; and the scholarship program exhibition.
13. We would like to extend our sincere appreciation to the
Republic of Korea for its efforts gone into the submission of the APEC
Education Cooperation Project (ECP), Gyeongju Initiative as directed
by the 5th AEMM. We acknowledge the importance of sustainable and
practical educational cooperation at the level of practitioners in the
APEC region. In this regard, we note that the report contains Education
Cooperation Model and strategies to enhance education cooperation.
14. We note the APEC Conference on Cooperation in Higher
Education held for enhancement of linkages between the governments

1
and academics and for establishment of on-going dialogue on education
in APEC. The Conference is a platform of collaboration and exchange.
15. We would like to extend our sincere appreciation to the EDNET
and member economies for their efforts to develop the Baseline Report
on Current Education in Asia Pacific Region that reflects the most up-
to- date education status in APEC economies and education
development in Asia Pacific Region as a whole. We also acknowledge
its usefulness in enhancing mutual understanding, learning and
reinforcement of education development among APEC member
economies through sharing of systemic and updated knowledge and
information of education systems and in increasing synergy of future
collaborative projects and initiatives among APEC economies and
hence recommend it shall be updated as needed.

1
TEMA 9. ПEPEBOД CУДEБHЫX PEШEHИЙ

Oбщaя xapaкmepucmuкa meкcma cyдeбнoso peneнuя


Eвponeŭcкoso Cyдa no npaвaм uezoвeкa

B cиcтeмe жahpoв юpидичecкoгo диcкypca cyдe6hoe peшehиe


зahимaeт oco6oe мecтo. Этo caмocтoятeльhый жahp c пpиcyщими
eмy кoмпoзициohhыми и языкoвыми oco6ehhocтями. Для
гpaмoтhoгo пepeвoдa cyдe6hoгo peшehия и coxpahehия eгo
фyhкциohaльhыx oco6ehhocтeй пepeвoдчикy heo6xoдимo зhaть
cпeцификy тeкcтa дahhoгo жahpa.
Heoтъeмлeмым пpизhaкoм лю6oгo жahpa являeтcя кoмпoзиция,
пpeдпoлaгaющaя иcпoльзoвahиe тaкиx cpeдcтв, кaк cмыcлoвыe
cocтaвляющиe, cтpyктyphыe eдиhицы и peквизиты.
Koмпoзиция лю6oгo cyдe6hoгo peшehия cocтoит из
вcтyпитeльhoй, oпиcaтeльho-мoтивиpoвoчhoй и зaключитeльhoй
чacти. K чиcлy ochoвhыx cмыcлoвыx cocтaвляющиx cyдe6hoгo
peшehия ECПЧ oтhocятcя: cocтaв Cyдa, Procedure, Facts, Law,
peзoлютивhaя чacть, пpичeм пepвaя и пocлeдhяя чacти he имeют
oтдeльhoгo зaгoлoвкa. Чacти Procedure, Facts, Law, в cвoю oчepeдь,
пoдpaздeляютcя ha cocтaвляющиe 6oлee мeлкoгo пopядкa.
Haпpимep, Facts – ha circumstances of the case и relevant domestic
law (and practice), Law – ha alleged violation of Convention,
application of article … of Convention и дp.
Зaгoлoвoк кaждoй cмыcлoвoй cocтaвляющeй имeeт
cпeцифичecкoe гpaфичecкoe oфopмлehиe, кoтopoe, 6eзycлoвho,
дoлжho 6ыть coxpaheho пpи пepeвoдe. Taк, кpyпhыe cocтaвляющиe
Procedure, Facts, Law he hyмepyютcя и пишyтcя пpoпиchыми
6yквaми 6oлee кpyпhым пo cpaвhehию c ocтaльhым тeкcтoм
шpифтoм. Бoлee дpo6hыe cocтaвляющиe, тaкиe кaк circumstances of
the case и relevant domestic law (and practice), alleged violation of
Convention, application of article … of Convention hyмepyютcя
pимcкими цифpaми и пишyтcя пpoпиchыми 6yквaми, ho кeгль
шpифтa мehьшe. Ecли эти cocтaвляющиe дpo6ятcя ha eщe 6oлee
мeлкиe, тo зaгoлoвки мoгyт 6ыть выдeлehы жиphым шpифтoм или

1
кypcивoм, мoгyт имeть hyмepaцию apa6cкими цифpaми или
6yквehhoe o6oзhaчehиe, пpичeм кaк cтpoчhыми, тaк и пpoпиchыми
6yквaми. Иhыми cлoвaми, гpaфикa тeкcтa opигиhaлa имeeт
6oльшoe зhaчehиe и зhaчитeльho o6лeгчaeт пoиcк в тeкcтe
heo6xoдимoй иhфopмaции. Пoэтoмy пpи пepeвoдe coxpahehиe
фopмы тeкcтa пpиo6peтaeт he мehьшyю зhaчимocть, чeм
coxpahehиe coдepжahия. Haчиhaя пepeвoдить тeкcт cyдe6hoгo
peшehия ECПЧ пo зaкaзy клиehтa, cлeдyeт имeть пoд pyкoй
oфициaльhыe пepeвoды peшehий Eвpoпeйcкoгo Cyдa пo пpaвaм
чeлoвeкa, выпoлhehhыe и oпy6ли- кoвahhыe пpи фиhahcoвoй
пoддepжкe coвмecтhoй пpoгpaммы Eвpo- пeйcкoй кoмиccии и
Coвeтa Eвpoпы. Иx 6eз тpyдa мoжho haйти в иhтepheтe. Taкжe
мoжho вocпoльзoвaтьcя и heoфициaльhыми пepeвoдaми,
cдeлahhыми Yпoлhoмoчehhым PФ пpи ECПЧ. Bce эти пepeвoды
зhaчитeльho o6лeгчaт зaдaчy пepeвoдa тepмиhoлoгии,
ycтoйчивыx выpaжehий и клишe, cтahдapтhыx фopмyлиpoвoк.
Teм he мehee, ahaлиз oфициaльhыx пepeвoдoв тeкcтoв
пocтahoвлehий Бoльшoй Пaлaты ECПЧ пoзвoляeт cдeлaть вывoд,
чтo пpи вceй иx aвтopитeтhocти дaжe в hиx he ha6людaeтcя
eдиhcтвa в вы6ope пepeвoдчecкoгo эквивaлehтa для yhивepcaльhoй
eдиhицы opигиhaлa.
Пepeвoд зaгoлoвкoв чacтeй Procedure, Facts, Law he вызывaeт
paзhoчтehий и выглядит кaк «Пpoцeдypa в Eвpoпeйcкoм Cyдe»,
«Фaкты» и «Boпpocы пpaвa» cooтвeтcтвehho. Чтo кacaeтcя
cocтaвляющиx 6oлee мeлкoгo пopядкa, тo, hecмoтpя ha
yhивepcaльhocть фopмyлиpoвoк зaгoлoвкoв cмыcлoвыx
cocтaвляющиx в AЯ, в пepeвoдe ha PЯ he вceгдa ha6людaeтcя
eдиhcтвo. Taк, пpи пepeвoдe пepвoй чacти зaгoлoвкa relevant
domestic law (and practice) 6ыли иcпoльзoвahы cлeдyющиe
фopмyлиpoвки в PЯ: «cooтвeтcтвyющee haциohaльhoe пpaвo»,
«cooтвeтcтвyющee haциohaльhoe зaкohoдaтeльcтвo», «имeющиe
oтhoшehиe к дeлy hopмы haциohaльhoгo зaкohoдaтeльcтвa». Bтopaя
чacть зaгoлoвкa and practice в пepeвoдe выглядит или кaк «пpaктикa
eгo пpимehehия», или кaк «пpaвoпpимehитeльhaя пpaктикa». He
ha6людaeтcя eдиhcтвa и в пepeвoдe фopмyлиpoвки alleged violation

1
of Convention. Boзмoжhы cлeдyющиe вapиahты пepeвoдa: «Пo
вoпpocy o пpeдпoлaгaeмoм hapyшehии тpe6oвahий cтaтьи …
Kohвehции», «O пpeдпoлaгaeмoм hapyшehии cтaтьи …
Kohвehции», «Boпpoc o пpeдпoлaгaeмoм hapyшehии cтaтьи …
Kohвehции», «O пpeдпoлaгaeмoм hapyшehии тpe6oвahий cтaтьи …
Kohвehции». Kaк видим, ohи oтличaютcя тoлькo cиhтaкcичecким
пocтpoehиeм.
Чтo кacaeтcя фopмyлиpoвoк ввoдhoй и peзoлютивhoй чacтeй,
тo ohи yhивepcaльhы кaк в opигиhaлe, тaк и в пepeвoдe.
A6coлютhaя пocлeдoвaтeльhocть ha6людaeтcя тaкжe пpи
пepeвoдe haзвahия ключeвoй cтpyктyphoй eдиhицы cyдe6hoгo
peшehия ECПЧ – paragraph. B пepeвoдe ha pyccкий язык oha
выглядит кaк «пyhкт».
Дpyгoй oco6ehhocтью cyдe6hыx peшehий ECПЧ являeтcя
haличиe мhoгoчиcлehhыx ccылoк, глaвhым o6paзoм, ha
Eвpoпeйcкyю Kohвehцию o пpaвax чeлoвeкa (the Convention) и
Peглaмehт ECПЧ (the Rules of Court). Oдhaкo hepeдки ccылки и ha
дpyгиe мeждyhapoдhыe дoкyмehты. Mhoгoчиcлehhыe oтcылки к
мeждyhapoдhым hopмaтивho-пpaвoвым дoкyмehтaм и пpямыe
цитaты из hиx пoдpaзyмeвaют, чтo пepeвoдчик, 6eзycлoвho, дoлжeh
pyкoвoдcтвoвaтьcя yжe oпy6ликoвahhыми oфициaльhыми
пepeвoдaми yкaзahhыx дoкyмehтoв.
B cвязи c тeм, чтo пpaктикa ECПЧ являeтcя пpeцeдehтhoй, в
тeкcтe cyдe6hoгo peшehия тaкжe вcтpeчaютcя ccылки ha
пpeдыдyщиe дeлa, пo кoтopым ECПЧ yжe выhec пocтahoвлehия.
Oфopмляютcя ohи cлeдyющим o6paзoм:
see, inter alia, Witold Litwa v. Poland, no. 26629/95, § 49, ECHR
2000-III
Vo v. France [GC], no. 53924/00, § 82, ECHR 2004-VIII
see X, Y and Z v. the United Kingdom, 22 April 1997, § 44,
Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1997-II
Ahaлиз пepeвoдoв пoкaзывaeт, чтo peквизиты дeлa,
иcпoльзyeмыe в ccылкax, пoлhocтью пepeвoдятcя ha pyccкий язык,
oдhaкo, cтopohы дeлa тaкжe yкaзывaютcя в opигиhaльhoм

1
haпиcahии в квaдpaтhыx cкo6кax. B opигиhaльhoм haпиcahии
ocтaeтcя и a66peвиaтypa Eвpoпeйcкoгo Cyдa пo пpaвaм чeлoвeкa.
cм. пocтahoвлehиe Eвpoпeйcкoгo Cyдa oт 26 aпpeля 1991 г. пo
дeлy «Aш пpoтив Aвcтpии» [Asch v. Austria], cepия «A», № 203,
cтp. 10, § 25
cм. пocтahoвлehиe Eвpoпeйcкoгo Cyдa пo дeлy «A. M. пpoтив
Итaлии» [A. M. v. Italy], № 37019/97, § 25, C6ophик peшehий и пoc-
тahoвлehий Eвpoпeйcкoгo Cyдa пo пpaвaм чeлoвeкa ECHR 1999-IX
Пpи paccмoтpehии кaкoгo-ли6o дeлa Cyд, ccылaяcь ha тoт или
иhoй пpeцeдehт, мoжeт ли6o кpaткo излaгaть yжe paccмoтpehhый
вoпpoc, ли6o пpивoдить цитaты из пpeцeдehтa. Для тoгo, чтo6ы
пohять, o чeм идeт peчь, пepeвoдчикy heo6xoдимo haйти yкaзahhoe
дeлo ha иcxoдhoм языкe и oфициaльhый пepeвoд дahhoгo дeлa ha
pyccкий язык, ecли тaкoвoй имeeтcя. Пocлeдhяя oгoвopкa oчehь
cyщecтвehha, пocкoлькy ha ceгoдhяшhий дehь кoличecтвo
oфициaльhыx пepeвoдoв peшehий ECПЧ (мы имeeм в видy
пepeвoды, выпoлhehhыe пpи фиhahcoвoй пoддepжкe Eвpoпeйcкoй
Koмиccии и Coвeтa Eвpoпы) he тaк вeликo в cpaвhehии c чиcлoм
дeл. B Иhтepheтe мoжho haйти и heoфициaльhыe пepeвoды
heкoтopыx cyдe6hыx peшehий, кoppeктhocть кoтopыx тpe6yeт
пpoвepки. Иhыми cлoвaми, дaлeкo he кaждoe cyдe6hoe peшehиe
ECПЧ пepeвeдeho ha pyccкий язык, чтo мoжeт вызвaть
oпpeдeлehhoгo poдa зaтpyдhehия.
Oчepeдhyю тpyдhocть для пepeвoдчикa пpeдcтaвляют peaлии.
B чacти circumstances of the case вcтpeчaeтcя 6oльшoe чиcлo
haзвahий paзhoгo poдa иhcтahций, дoлжhocтeй, вhyтpehhиx
hopмaтивhыx aктoв, o6зopoв cyдe6hoй пpaктики, he гoвopя yжe o
гeoгpaфичecкиx haзвahияx и имehax лиц, yчacтвoвaвшиx в
cyдe6hoм paз6иpaтeльcтвe ha тoй или иhoй cтaдии. Для
кoppeктhoгo пepeвoдa пepeвoдчикy heo6xoдимo имeть фohoвыe
зhahия o пpaвoвoй cиcтeмe, cyщecтвyющeй в тoй или иhoй cтpahe,
o6 иepapxии cyдoв, o6 opгahax иcпoлhehия haкaзahия и дp.
Teкcт cyдe6hoгo peшehия oтличaeтcя выcoкoй cтeпehью
тepмиhoлoгизaции. B cyдe6hoм peшehии ECПЧ иcпoльзyeтcя, в

1
пepвyю oчepeдь, тepмиhoлoгия Eвpoпeйcкoй Kohвehции пo пpaвaм
чeлoвeкa и Peглaмehтa ECПЧ. B этoй cвязи 6oльшyю пoмoщь
пepeвoдчикy мoжeт oкaзaть «Ahглo-pyccкий / Pyccкo-ahглийcкий
cлoвapь тepмиhoв к Eвpoпeйcкoй Kohвehции пo пpaвaм чeлoвeкa»,
выпyщehhый Coвeтoм Eвpoпы в 2007 г. Kлючeвыми тepмиhaми в
этoй cфepe являютcя application, applicant, Government, judgment
имeющиe в пepeвoдe ycтoявшиecя oдhoзhaчhыe тepмиhы-
эквивaлehты: жaлo6a, зaявитeль, гocyдapcтвo-oтвeтчик,
пocтahoвлehиe cooтвeтcтвehho.
Kpoмe тoгo, в тeкcтe cyдe6hoгo peшehия вcтpeчaeтcя
тepмиhoлoгия, oтhocящaяcя к cфepe пpeдмeтa cпopa, a этo мoжeт
6ыть a6coлютho лю6aя cфepa чeлoвeчecкиx oтhoшehий. B этoй
cвязи пepeвoдчик cтaлкивaeтcя c heo6xoдимocтью пepeвoдa тaк
haзывaeмoй тexhичecкoй тepмиhoлoгии, т.e. he
являющeйcя co6cтвehho юpидичecкoй, a
зaтpaгивaющeй paзличhыe o6лacти зhahий, ho иcпoльзyeмoй в
юpидичecкoм тeкcтe. Пepeвoд тaкoй тepмиhoлoгии тpe6yeт
зhaкoмcтвa co cфepoй ee фyhкциohиpoвahия. Haкoheц, cyдe6hoмy
peшehию cвoйcтвehha клишиpoвahhocть.
Ahaлиз пepeвoдoв пoзвoляeт выявить типичhыe эквивaлehты
paзличhoгo poдa cтahдapтизиpoвahhыx o6opoтoв и клишe,
haпpимep, declare the application admissible – o6ъявить жaлo6y
пpиeмлeмoй для дaльheйшeгo paccмoтpehия пo cyщecтвy, deliver a
judgment – выhecти пocтahoвлehиe пo дeлy, the applicant complained
under Article… – зaявитeль, co ccылкoй ha cтaтью …, жaлyeтcя в
Eвpoпeйcкий Cyд, on the basis of the material available to the Court –
из имeющиxcя в pacпopяжehии Eвpoпeйcкoгo Cyдa мaтepиaлoв и
дp.
B o6щeм и цeлoм, пepeвoд cyдe6hoгo peшehия ECПЧ – этo
кpoпoтливый тpyд, тpe6yющий yмehия пpимehять yжe имeющиecя
и ycтoявшиecя пepeвoдчecкиe cooтвeтcтвия из oфициaльhыx
дoкyмehтoв и yмehия пpиhимaть cвoи co6cтвehhыe пepeвoдчecкиe
peшehия, ochoвывaяcь ha зhahии oco6ehhocтeй пpaктики
Eвpoпeйcкoгo Cyдa и жahpoвыx oco6ehhocтeй cyдe6hoгo peшehия
кaк тaкoвoгo.

1
Эaдaнue 1. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд ompывкa uз
meкcma cyдeбнoso peneнuя Eвponeŭcкoso Cyдa no npaвaм uezoвeкa
In the case of Cherkasov v. Russia,
The European Court of Human Rights (First Section), sitting as a
Chamber composed of:
Nina Vajić,
President, Anatoly
Kovler,
Peer Lorenzen,
Mirjana Lazarova
Trajkovska, Julia Laffranque,
Linos-Alexandre Sicilianos,
Erik Møse, judges,
and Søren Nielsen, Section Registrar,
Having deliberated in private on 27 September 2011,
Delivers the following judgment, which was adopted on that date:
PROCEDURE
1. The case originated in an application (no. 7039/04) against the
Russian Federation lodged with the Court under Article 34 of the
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental
Freedoms (“the Convention”) by a Russian national, Mr Anatoliy
Vladimirovich Cherkasov (“the applicant”), on 4 January 2004.
2. The Russian Government (“the Government”) were represented
by Mr G. Matyushkin, Representative of the Russian Federation at the
European Court of Human Rights.
3. The applicant alleged that he had been beaten up by police
officers on 23 August 2004 and that the authorities had subsequently
failed to investigate the episode. The applicant was also dissatisfied
with the outcome of various unrelated court proceedings against private
individuals and State authorities.
4. On 4 September 2008 the President of the First Section decided
to communicate the complaint concerning the applicant’s alleged ill-
treatment and the lack of proper investigation of the matter. It was also
decided to examine the merits of the application at the same time as its
admissibility (former Article 29 § 1).

1

1
THE LAW
I. ALLEGED VIOLATION OF ARTICLE 3 OF THE
CONVENTION
52. The applicant complained that he had been subjected to ill-
treatment by police officers during his overnight detention from 23 to
24 August 2004 and that the domestic authorities had failed to
investigate the matter properly. The Court will examine this complaint
under Article 3 of the Convention, which reads as follows:
“No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment.”
A. Admissibility
53. The Government maintained that the applicant’s case before
the Court was premature, in that the competent prosecutor’s office had
brought supervisory review proceedings challenging the decision of 15
February 2005 and the subsequent court decisions and that the
supervisory review proceedings were still pending. They later informed
the Court that the supervisory review proceedings were unsuccessful
and that the lower courts’ judgments remained in force.
54. The applicant did not make any comments in respect of this
objection and generally considered that the case was admissible.
55. The Court finds this part of the application is not manifestly
ill-founded within the meaning of Article 35 § 3 (a) of the Convention.
It further notes that it is not inadmissible on any other grounds. It must
therefore be declared admissible.
B. Merits
56. The Government submitted that the applicant’s allegations of
ill-treatment had been thoroughly examined by the competent domestic
authorities and had been reasonably rejected as unfounded. According
to them, the investigation had been of sufficient quality. At the same
time, they admitted that the investigation had not resolved the question
of the alleged fight between the policemen and the applicant.
57. The applicant disagreed with the Government and insisted on
his initial version of events.

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1. Alleged ill-treatment in police custody
(a) General principles
58. The Court has held on many occasions that the authorities have
an obligation to protect the physical integrity of persons in detention.
Where an individual is taken into custody in good health but is found to
be injured at the time of release, it is incumbent on the State to provide
a plausible explanation of how those injuries were caused (see Ribitsch
v. Austria, 4 December 1995, § 34, Series A no. 336; see also, mutatis
mutandis, Salman v. Turkey [GC], no. 21986/93, § 100, ECHR 2000-
VII). Otherwise, torture or ill-treatment may be presumed in favour of
the claimant and an issue may arise under Article 3 of the Convention
(see Tomasi v. France, 27 August 1992, §§ 108-11, Series A no. 241 A,
and Selmouni v. France [GC], no. 25803/94, § 87, ECHR 1999-V). The
Court further recalls that, while it is sensitive to the subsidiary nature of
its role and cautious about taking on the role of a first-instance tribunal
of fact, it is nevertheless not bound by the findings of domestic courts
and may depart from them where this is rendered unavoidable by the
circumstances of a particular case (see, for example, Matyar v. Turkey,
no. 23423/94, § 108, 21 February 2002 and, by contrast, Edwards v. the
United Kingdom, 16 December 1992, § 34, Series A no. 247 B, and
Vidal v. Belgium, 22 April 1992, §§ 33 and 34, Series A no. 235 B).
(b) Assessment of the evidence
59. The Court notes that the parties did not dispute the validity of
the medical report drawn up on 24 August 2004 immediately following
the applicant’s release, which confirmed the presence of multiple
injuries to his head, neck, face, ribcage, arms and legs (see paragraph
20). The Government were accordingly under an obligation to provide a
plausible explanation of how the applicant’s injuries had been caused.
60. At the outset, the Court observes that the applicant’s
allegations of ill-treatment were examined and rejected by the domestic
authorities in the course of the criminal investigation into the events of
23-24 August 2004 which ended with the decision of 15 February 2005.
That decision was upheld by the domestic courts at two judicial
instances on 6 June and 16 August 2005 respectively (see paragraphs
36, 37-39 and 41).

1
61. The Court further notes that the authorities accepted the
validity of the medical report of 24 August 2004 and thus the existence
of the applicant’s injuries. Indeed, the findings of the report were
essentially confirmed during the applicant’s medical examination at the
bureau of forensic examinations two days later on 26 August 2004 (see
paragraph 23). The applicant’s allegations of ill-treatment were rejected
with reference to the lack of any evidence implicating the policemen
(see paragraph 36). The Court notes that the medical report was drawn
up by the doctor very shortly after the events at issue (see paragraphs
18, 19 and 20) and there is nothing in the case file or the parties’
submissions to suggest that the injuries described in the report had been
inflicted either before the applicant’s arrest on 23 August 2004 or in the
period following his release on the next day.
62. In fact, the investigating authorities did not bother to collect
evidence from two key witnesses, Judge P. of the Ramonskiy District
Court and prosecutor N. of the Ramonskiy District Prosecutor’s office,
who saw the applicant in person on the morning after the events at issue
(see paragraphs 14-18) and who could have given them very detailed
information in this connection.
63. On the basis of all the material placed before it, the Court finds
that neither the authorities at the domestic level nor the Government in
the proceedings before the Strasbourg Court have advanced any
convincing explanation as to the origin of the applicant’s injuries (see,
by contrast, Klaas v. Germany, 22 September 1993, §§ 29-31, Series A
no. 269). The Court therefore concludes that the Government have not
satisfactorily established that the applicant’s injuries were caused
otherwise than - entirely, mainly, or partly - by the treatment he
underwent while in police custody (see the Ribitsch judgment, cited
above, § 34).
(c) Assessment of the severity of ill-treatment
64. As to the seriousness of the acts of ill-treatment complained of,
the Court reiterates that in order to determine how a particular form of
ill-treatment should be qualified, it must have regard to the distinctions
embodied in Article 3 (see Aksoy v. Turkey, 18 December 1996, § 64,

1
Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1996-VI; Aydın v. Turkey, 25
September 1997, §§ 83 and 84 and 86, Reports 1997 VI; Selmouni,
cited above, § 105; Dikme v. Turkey, no. 20869/92, §§ 94-96, ECHR
2000- VIII; and, among recent authorities, Batı and Others v. Turkey,
nos. 33097/96 and 57834/00, § 116, ECHR 2004 IV (extracts), as well
as Menesheva v. Russia, no. 59261/00, § 55, ECHR 2006 III).
65. Furthermore, the Court reiterates its well-established case-law
that in respect of a person deprived of his liberty, any recourse to
physical force which has not been made strictly necessary by his own
conduct diminishes human dignity and is in principle an infringement of
the rights set forth in Article 3 of the Convention (see Tomasi, § 115,
and Ribitsch, §§ 38-40, both cited above).
66. Turning to the circumstances of the present case, the Court
takes into account the information contained in the relevant medical
reports and the applicant’s own description of events and finds that the
ill-treatment inflicted on the applicant caused physical suffering which
required in-patient treatment in a hospital. Given these considerations
and in view of the Convention case-law in this respect and, in particular,
the criteria of severity and the purpose of the ill-treatment, the Court is
persuaded that the accumulation of the acts of physical violence
inflicted on the applicant amounted to inhuman and degrading treatment
with meaning of Article 3 of the Convention.
67. Accordingly, there has been a breach of Article 3 of the
Convention.

FOR THESE REASONS, THE COURT UNANIMOUSLY
1. Declares the complaints concerning the applicant’s ill-treatment
by police officers during his detention between 23 and 24 August 2004
and the domestic authorities’ failure to investigate the matter admissible
and the remainder of the application inadmissible;
2. Holds that there has been a violation of Article 3 of the
Convention in that the applicant was subjected to inhuman and
degrading treatment;

1
3. Holds that there has been a violation of Article 3 of the
Convention in that the authorities failed to carry out an effective
investigation into the applicant’s allegations of ill-treatment;
4. Holds
(a) that the respondent State is to pay the applicant, within three
months from the date on which the judgment becomes final according to
Article 44 § 2 of the Convention, the following amounts, to be
converted into Russian roubles at the rate applicable at the date of
settlement:
(i) EUR 20,000 (twenty thousand euros) in respect of non-
pecuniary damage;
(ii) EUR 100 (one hundred euros) in respect of costs and expenses;
(iii) any tax that may be chargeable to the applicant on the above
amounts;
(b) that from the expiry of the above-mentioned three months until
settlement simple interest shall be payable on the above amounts at a
rate equal to the marginal lending rate of the European Central Bank
during the default period plus three percentage points;
5. Dismisses the remainder of the applicant’s claim for just
satisfaction.
Done in English, and notified in writing on 18 October 2011,
pursuant to Rule 77 §§ 2 and 3 of the Rules of Court.

1
TEMA 10. ПEPEBOД УЗKOOTPACЛEBЫX TEKCTOB.
HAЛOГOBOE ПPABO

Memoдuuecкue peкoмeндaцuu no ocвoeнuю meмы

Pa6oтa c yзкooтpacлeвыми тeкcтaми тpe6yeт oт пepeвoдчикa


зhahий в cooтвeтcтвyющeй o6лacти и yмehий эти зhahия
пpиo6pecти.
B зaдahии 1 пpeдcтaвлeh cпиcoк 6aзoвыx тepмиhoв пo
haлoгoo6лoжehию и иx дeфиhиций. Пoмимo тoгo, чтo тpe6yeтcя
пpeдлoжить пepeвoдhыe эквивaлehты yкaзahhыx тepмиhoв ha
pyccкoм языкe, heo6xoдимo чeткo пpeдcтaвлять ce6e coдepжahиe
пohятий, o6oзhaчaeмыx тepмиhaми.
Зaдahиe 2 пpeдycмaтpивaeт пepeвoд cпeциaльhoй лeкcики c
pyccкoгo языкa ha ahглийcкий и cфoкycиpoвaho ha coчeтaeмocтhoм
пoтehциaлe лeкcичecкиx eдиhиц.
Зaдahиe 3 пpeдпoлaгaeт выпoлhehиe пoлhoгo пиcьмehhoгo
пepeвoдa yзкocпeциaлизиpoвahhыx тeкcтoв, пocвящehhыx вoпpocaм
haлoгoo6лoжehия.

Эaдaнue 1. Изyuume бaзoвыe mepмuны no нazosooбzoжeнuю u


ux onpeдezeнuя. Пpeдzoжume nepeвoдныe 7квuвazeнmы.
Direct tax Tax collected by the government from the income
of individuals and businesses
Indirect tax Tax levied on the production or sale of goods and
services
Income tax A direct tax on income. Although the term is
generally applied to a tax on individuals (where it
may be designated as personal income tax or
individual income tax), it is also used in some
countries to refer to a tax on legal entities, such as
companies.
Corporation tax A tax that companies have to pay on the profits
they make.
AmE: income tax, corporate income tax

1
Capital gains tax A tax on profits made from the sale of assets such
as stocks or shares
Capital transfer tax A tax levied when capital is transferred from one
person's estate usually into that of another, as by
lifetime gifts or inheritances. Also termed: death
duty, inheritance tax, estate tax
Value added tax A tax levied at each stage of the production or
distribution process. The whole amount is added to
the final price paid by the consumer
Excise duties A tax levied on the consumption of particular
goods. Excise duties may be levied to raise
government revenue, but are often levied at higher
rates on goods whose consumption is believed to
have adverse effects on public health, public order,
or the environment. Excise duties on alcoholic
drinks, tobacco, and petrol are widely used for
both purposes.
Tax base The specified domain on which a tax is levied, e.g.
an individual's income for income tax, the estate of
a deceased person for inheritance tax, the profits of
a company for corporation tax
Progressive tax A tax in which the rate of tax increases with
increases in the tax base
Regressive tax A tax in which the rate of tax decreases as income
increases. Indirect taxes fall into this category.
Regressive taxes are said to fall more heavily on
the poor than on the rich; for example, the poor
spend a higher proportion of their incomes on
VAT than the rich
Tax burden The amount of tax suffered by an individual or
organization
Tax relief Generic term to describe all methods used to
reduce or defer the burden of taxation without
regard to the particular way it is accomplished

1
Tax exemption The process of freeing or state of being free from
an obligation or liability imposed on others, e.g. to
pay taxes
Tax return A form on which a taxpayer makes an annual
statement of income and personal circumstances,
used by the tax authorities to assess liability for tax
Tax deduction An amount that is or may be deducted from taxable
income or tax to be paid
Tax credit A deduction from the amount of tax due as
opposed to a deduction from the taxable base
Tax rate The percentage of income, wealth, etc., assessed as
payable in taxation
Tax refund A repayment by the tax authorities of excess tax
previously collected
Tax haven A country or independent area that has a low rate
of tax and therefore offers advantages to wealthy
individuals or to companies that can arrange their
affairs so that their tax liability falls at least partly
in the low-tax haven. In the case of individuals, the
cost of the tax saving is usually residence in the tax
haven for a major part of the year. For
multinational companies, an office in the tax
haven, with some real or contrived business
passing through it, is required. Monaco,
Liechtenstein, the Bahamas, and the Cayman
Islands are examples of tax havens.
Tax avoidance The lawful arrangement or planning of one's
affairs so as to reduce liability to tax
Tax evasion Any illegal action taken to avoid the lawful
assessment of taxes; for example, by concealing or
failing to declare income

1
Эaдaнue 2. Пpeдzoжume aнszoязыuныe
nepeвoдныe 7квuвazeнmы дzя czeдyющux czoв u
выpaжeнuŭ
1. Cy6ъeкт haлoгoo6лoжehия
2. O6ъeкт haлoгoo6лoжehия
3. Являтьcя o6ъeктoм haлoгoo6лoжehия
4. Bвoдить haлoг
5. Bзимaть / co6иpaть haлoги
6. O6лaгaть haлoгoм
7. Yдepживaть haлoг
8. Иcчиcлять haлoг
9. Oтмehять haлoг
10. Зaплaтить haлoг ha cyммy 10 000 py6лeй
11. Пoдaвaть haлoгoвyю дeклapaцию
12. Идehтификaциohhый hoмep haлoгoплaтeльщикa
13. Пoдлeжaщиe yплaтe haлoги
14. Имeть зaдoлжehhocть пo yплaтe haлoгoв
15. Дo / пocлe вычeтa haлoгoв
16. Haлoгoвoe пpaвo
17. Haлoгoвый кoдeкc
18. Haлoгoвый иhcпeктop
19. Двoйhoe haлoгoo6лoжehиe
20. Фeдepaльhaя haлoгoвaя cлyж6a

Эaдaнue 3. Bыnozнume nozныŭ nucbмeнныŭ nepeвoд meкcmoв

TAXATION (AND HOW TO AVOID IT!)


The primary function of taxation is, of course, to raise revenue to
finance government expenditure, but taxes can also have other purposes.
Indirect excise duties, for example, can be designed to dissuade people
from smoking, drinking alcohol and so on. Governments can also
encourage capital investment by permitting various methods of
accelerated depreciation accounting that allow companies to deduct
more of the cost of investments from their profits, and consequently
reduce their tax bills.
1
There is always a lot of debate as to the fairness of tax systems.
Business profits, for example, are generally taxed twice: companies pay
tax on their profits (corporation tax in Britain, and income tax in the
USA), and shareholders pay income tax on dividends.
Income taxes in most countries are progressive, and are one of the
ways in which governments can redistribute wealth. The problem with
progressive taxes is that the marginal rate - the tax people pay on any
additional income - is always high, which is generally a disincentive to
both working and investing. On the other hand, most sales taxes are
slightly regressive, because poorer people spend a larger proportion of
their income on consumption than the rich.
The higher the tax rates, the more people are tempted to cheat, but
there is substantial ‘black’ or ‘underground’ economy nearly
everywhere. In Italy, for example, self-employed people, whose income
is more difficult to control than that of company employees, account for
more than half of national income. Lots of people also have undeclared,
part-time evening jobs (some people call this ‘moonlighting’) with
small or medium-sized family firms, on which no one pays any tax or
national insurance. In 1986, the Director of the Italian National Institute
of Statistics calculated the size of the underground economy, and added
16.7% to Italy’s gross national product (GNP) figure, and then claimed
that Italy had overtaken Britain to become the world’s fifth largest
economy.
To reduce income tax liability, some employers give highly-paid
employees lots of perks or benefits instead of taxable money, such as
company cars, free health insurance and subsidized lunches. Legal ways
of avoiding tax, such as these, are known as loopholes in tax laws. Life
insurance policies, pension plans and other investments by which
individuals can postpone the payment of tax are known as tax shelters.
Donations to charities that can be subtracted from the income on which
tax is calculated are described as tax-deductible.
Companies have a variety of ways of avoiding tax on profits. They
can bring forward capital expenditure (on new factories, machines, and
so on) so that at the end of the year all the profits have been used up;
this

1
is known as making a tax loss. Multinational companies often set up
their head offices in countries such as Liechtenstein, Monaco, the
Cayman Islands, and the Bahamas, where taxes are low – such countries
are known as tax havens. Criminal organizations, meanwhile, tend to
pass money through a series of companies in very complicated
transactions in order to disguise its origin from tax inspectors or the
police – this is known as money laundering.

High Corporate Tax Rate Impairs U.S. Competitiveness


By George Yaksick, Washington Staff Writer
Much has been made about economic stimulation of late, and how
best to accomplish such a boost. But executives at America's successful
corporations − those who do a lot of the buying, selling and employing
in this country − have ideas of their own on what truly constitutes
economic stimulus.
U.S. businesses would prefer a lower corporate tax rate rather than
faster depreciation, tax executives from some of the country's largest
employers said on February 20, 2008. "Congress must make the U.S.
more attractive for investment," Stuart D. Goldstein, vice president,
taxes, Lockheed Martin Corp. told tax professionals at the Ninth Annual
Tax Council Policy Institute (TCPI) Symposium in Washington, D.C.
The U.S. federal corporate tax rate of 39 percent is the second highest in
the industrialized world.
Pending legislation would reduce the corporate tax rate, but a recent
economic slowdown and worries about the federal budget deficit could
derail the proposal.
Trend for Lower Rates
The trend among our trading partners is to lower their corporate tax
rates combined with a strong research tax credit," Goldstein noted. The
United Kingdom, which is one of Lockheed Martin's largest export
markets, has a statutory rate of 28 to 30 percent and a generous research
tax credit, Goldstein said. Australia and Canada, also significant export
markets, have lower rates. Ireland has a corporate tax rate of 12.5
percent.

1
Retail is another industry that is hampered by the U.S. corporate tax
rate, Del Threadgill, vice president, tax services, JCPenny Company,
Inc., reported. "On average, retail has a high effective tax rate in the low
30s." Moreover, Threadgill noted that the retail industry, unlike the
manufacturing sector, does not benefit from the domestic production
activities deduction, the research tax credit and other incentives that
result in a lower tax rate.
Legislative Fix
"It would be great to have a comprehensive public debate about
business tax reform," Ronald A. Pearlman, a former Treasury official
said, but he recognized that creating such a debate would be a
"challenge." Rep. Charles B. Rangel (D-N.Y.), chair of the powerful
House Ways and Means Committee, has proposed reducing the
corporate tax rate as part of an overhaul of the Tax Code. However,
Rangel's proposal has received very little support from other Democrats.
Republicans, on the other hand, have long favored corporate tax reform
of some kind.
Several think tanks and private organizations have proposed
alternative measures, such as repealing the Code Sec. 199 deduction and
other corporate tax breaks and replacing them with faster depreciation
(35 percent), one speaker noted. Threadgill predicted that, in the retail
sector, enhanced expensing would not result in more stores being built,
more inventory being acquired, or more jobs being created.

1
TEKCTЫ ДЛЯ CAMOCTOЯTEЛБHOЙ PAБOTЫ

TEXT 1
Common Law in the UK
The legal system in many countries, including Australia, Canada
(except Quebec), Ghana, Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Malaysia, New
Zealand, Pakistan, Tanzania, the USA (except Louisiana), the Bahamas,
and Zambia, is based on common law. The common law consists of the
substantive law and procedural rules that are created by the judicial
decisions made in the courts. Although legislation may override such
decisions, the legislation itself is subject to interpretation and
refinement in the courts.
Essential to the common law is the hierarchy of the courts in all of
the UK jurisdictions and the principle of binding precedent. In practice,
this means that the decision of a higher court is binding on a lower
court, that is, the decision must be followed, and in the course of a trial
the judges must refer to existing precedents. They’ll also consider
decisions made in a lower court, although they’re not bound to follow
them. However, a rule set by a court of greater or equal status must be
applied if it’s to the point – relevant or pertinent.
During a trial, counsel will cite cases and either attempt to
distinguish the case at trial from those referred to or, alternatively, argue
that the rule at law reasoned and established in a previous case is
applicable and should be followed. Hence the term case law. A case will
inevitably involve many facts and issues of evidence. The eventual
decision itself doesn’t actually set the precedent. The precedent is the
rule of law which the first instance judge relied on in determining the
case’s outcome.

TEXT 2
Law Reports
A law report contains details of the facts of a case, the judge’s
decision and, most importantly, the reasons for that decision. Reports
appear in professional journals such as the New Law Journal and

1
Family Law and may be bound for reference. For many years The
Times

1
newspaper has carried law reports, which offer outline reports of recent
decisions and in 1886 the newspaper Independent also included a
regular law report, a feature now also to be found from time to time in
the Daily Telegraph. By the nineteenth century law reporting was
sufficiently competent for the courts to emphasize the importance of the
judges’ following decisions in similar cases. For example, in Mirehouse
v. Rennell 1833 Baron Parke, a judge, said that precedents must be
regarded in subsequent cases and that it was not for the courts to reject
them and reject all analogy to them.
Until about 1870 all reports were published privately, and were
identified by the names of the reporters, who were barristers, for
example, “Cl.&Fin.” In short for Clarke and Finnley’s Reports.
Unfortunately not all reports were as accurate as one could have wished.
The need for reliable reports was so great that in 1865 there was
established the Incorporated Council for law Reporting, consisting of
representatives of the Inns of Court and the Law society. In 1870 this
body began to publish the “official” law reports, which however are not
official in the sense of being sponsored or published Her Majesty’s
Government. Although the courts traditionally like to use the official
reports there is also a number of private reports, such as the All England
Reports published by Butterworths.

TEXT 3
Organized crime leaders and terrorists cross paths in cyberspace
The nexus between organized crime and terrorism can be tenuous
and sometimes hard to see. And there can be copycat appropriation of
methods and means used by terrorists for fundraising. But that nexus is
growing so fast in the cyberage, we ignore it at our peril.
That was the takeaway from a panel of current and former high-
level law enforcement and intelligence officials at the 23rd Annual
Review of the Field of National Security Law held Oct. 31 and Nov. 1
in Washington, D.C. The session was co-sponsored by the ABA
Standing Committee on Law and National Security; the Center for
National Security Law at the University of Virginia School of Law; the

1
Center on

1
Law, Ethics and National Security at Duke University School of Law;
and the Center on National Security and the Law at Georgetown
University Law Center.
One of the biggest problems, said panelist Tom Fuentes, former
FBI assistant director for international operations, has been knee-jerk
reactions at the highest policy levels that hastily throw bodies and funds
at emerging terrorism problems without consideration for what might
happen in abandoned areas of enforcement.
Some routine white-collar fraud and similar crimes that have gone
uninvestigated, Fuentes said, “proved later to be critical to the
fundraising activity of terrorist organizations, or the fundamental
fundraising for international organized crime groups.”
Indeed, New York law enforcement agencies recently investigated
ordinary criminal conduct that later turned out to likely be funding
terrorist activities, said panelist Douglass B. Maynard, the New York
City Police Department’s deputy commissioner for legal matters and a
former assistant U.S. attorney in Manhattan.
An investigation into sales of stolen baby formula upstate grew into
a yearlong-plus probe by several law enforcement agencies that
uncovered an even bigger, $55 million operation smuggling untaxed
cigarettes from Virginia—all tied to a massive money-laundering
scheme.
Some of the 16 co-conspirators indicted in Brooklyn Supreme
Court last May on state racketeering charges in People v. Basel
Ramadan were found to have ties to prominent terrorists, including
Sheik Omar Abdel- Rahman, who was behind the 1993 bombings at the
World Trade Center and now is in federal prison.
Investigators didn’t realize the far-reaching implications of their
initial efforts. And two of the men jailed while awaiting trial were
indicted again in October and accused of plotting the murder of a
witness against them, Maynard said.
While it’s difficult to know where the money went (and to
investigate overseas), he said, when “sometimes you act before you
have perfect information, you have an opportunity to disrupt the group
that gives you concerns.”

1
TECH-SAVVY CRIMINALS
The addition of cybertools to organized crime can seem like
steroids in sports, whether they’re driven by a mix of religion and
politics or simple greed. For example, said panelist Luz Nagle, a former
judge in Medellin, Colombia, and now a professor at Stetson University
College of Law in Gulfport, Fla., “to move drugs today, organized
crime is hacking shipping containers.” Nagle teaches courses dealing
with international criminal law, terrorism and national security.
The hackers invade computer systems for managing container
shipments. Recently the Netherlands and Belgium seized large amounts
of heroin and cash in such a case. The hackers used “spear phishing” −
email fraud targeting specific groups of people − and malware attacks
for entering shipping company computers and “changing the locations
and delivery times for the containers with drugs,” Nagle said.
As much of our work and lives have moved online, it was
inevitable that organized crime and terrorists would follow, said panelist
M.E. “Spike” Bowman, former senior counsel for the FBI’s national
security branch, because it is “easier, safer, cheaper to try to steal
money electronically than it is to try to rob a bank or set up a traditional
fraud scheme.”
Bowman said “it has evolved in a very short period of time to
something that is more than just violence and racketeering, but
something that’s become very personal to all of us.”

TEXT 4
Cultural Property (Armed Conflicts) Act 2017
(extract)
16 “Unlawfully exported cultural property” etc
(1) For the purposes of this Part property is “unlawfully exported
cultural property” if −
(a) it has been unlawfully exported from a territory which at the
time was occupied by a state that was a party to the First or Second
Protocol, or

1
(b) it has been unlawfully exported from a territory which at the
time −
(i) was territory of a state that was a party to the First or
Second Protocol, and
(ii) was occupied by another state.
(2) It does not matter whether the property was exported before or
after this section comes into force.
(3) For the purposes of this Part exportation of property is
“unlawful” if −
(a) it is in contravention of the laws of the territory from which
the property is exported, or
(b) it is in contravention of any rule of international law.
(4) A reference in subsection (1) to a state that was a party to the
First or Second Protocol is to a state that was a party to the First or
Second Protocol at the time of the export.
(5) In determining for the purposes of this Part whether territory is
occupied regard must be had to Article 42 of the Regulations respecting
the Laws and Customs of War on Land annexed to the Convention
respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV), done at
the Hague on 18 October 1907.
(6) If in any proceedings an issue arises as to whether cultural
property is unlawfully exported cultural property, a certificate by the
Secretary of State is conclusive evidence as to whether, at a particular
time, territory was occupied by a party to the First or Second Protocol
or by any other state.
17 Offence of dealing in unlawfully exported cultural property
(1) It is an offence for a person to deal in unlawfully exported
cultural property, knowing or having reason to suspect that it has been
unlawfully exported.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to property imported into the
United Kingdom before this section comes into force.
(3) A person deals in unlawfully exported cultural property if (and
only if) the person −

1
(a) acquires or disposes of it in the United Kingdom or imports it
into, or exports it from, the United Kingdom,
(b) agrees with another to do an act mentioned in paragraph (a), or
(c) makes arrangements under which another does such an act or
under which another agrees with a third person to do such an act.
(4) “Acquires” means buys, hires, borrows or accepts.
(5) “Disposes of” means sells, lets on hire, lends or gives.
(6) A person guilty of an offence under this section in England and
Wales is liable −
(a) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding 7 years or a fine (or both);
(b) on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding 12 months or a fine (or both).
(7) A person guilty of an offence under this section in Scotland is
liable −
(a) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding 7 years or a fine (or both);
(b) on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding 12 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum (or
both).
(8) A person guilty of an offence under this section in Northern
Ireland is liable −
(a) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding 7 years or a fine (or both);
(b) on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum (or
both).
(9) In relation to an offence committed before section 282 of the
Criminal Justice Act 2003 comes into force the reference in subsection
(6)(b) to 12 months has effect as a reference to 6 months.

1
TEXT 5
Purchase / Sale of Goods Agreement (extracts)
1. Jurisdiction. Any controversy arising hereunder or in relation to
this Agreement shall be settled in New York as hereinafter provided for.
The Court and the authorities of the State of New York shall have
jurisdiction over all controversies which may arise under or in relation
to this Agreement, especially with the respect to the execution,
interpretation and compliance of this Agreement, the Parties hereto
waiving any other venue which they might be entitled by virtue of
domicile, habitual residence or otherwise. The Parties acknowledge and
agree that the provisions of this clause do not supersede Article 11
(Arbitration). It is the intention of the Parties that the provisions of
Article 11 prevail in the event of any dispute, difference, controversy or
claim. Only in the event that any such dispute, difference, controversy
or claim is not within the arbitration provisions of Article 11 do the
Parties agree to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of the state of
New York. 2. Parties to be bound. The Parties covenant and agree to
conduct their affairs in accordance with the provisions of this
Agreement and to take no action which would constitute a
contravention of any of the terms or provisions of this Agreement.
Nevertheless, notwithstanding anything contained in this Agreement,
the Parties shall so conduct their affairs as to comply with any law,
regulation or other legal requirement
applicable to them.
3. Payment. The Buyer shall effect payment to the Seller by means
of an irrevocable letter of credit which the Buyer shall cause to be
opened by a bank in San-Francisco, US in favour of the Seller, within 3
(three) working days of receipt from the Seller of this Agreement
containing the authorized signature of the Seller.
4. Taxes and Duties. The Buyer shall be solely responsible for and
shall pay, or reimburse the Seller for, all taxes, duties, assessments and
other governmental charges, however designated, which are now or
hereafter imposed under or by any governmental authority or agency,
that are: associated with the performance by the Seller of its obligations
hereunder; the payment of any amount by the Buyer to the Seller
1
pursuant to this Agreement; based on the Purchased Goods or their uses,
or relate to the import of the Purchased Goods in accordance with then
prevailing law or regulations.

TEXT 6

THE STATE OF TEXAS


SECRETARY OF
STATE
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
of Lyonnaise Co., Ltd

The undersigned, as Secretary of State of the State of Texas, hereby


certifies that Articles of Incorporation for the above corporation, duly
signed have been received in this Office and are found to conform to
Law.
Accordingly the undersigned, as such Secretary of State, and by
virtue of the authority vested in the Secretary by Law, hereby issues this
Certificate of Incorporation and attaches hereto a copy of the Articles of
Incorporation.
Issuance of this Certificate of Incorporation does not authorize the
use of a corporate name in this state in violation of the rights of another
under the Federal Trademark Act of 1946, the Texas Trademark Law,
the Assumed Business and Professional Name Act or the Common Law.

Dated Aug. 16, 2010

THE STATE OF TEXAS

Secretary of State
Stamp here

1
TEXT 7

1
TEXT 8
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. The United Kingdom has taken important steps to strive for
improvement in the prevention of corruption in all three sectors of
activity subject to the present evaluation. These steps are in addition to
the fact that Members of Parliament, judges and prosecutors do not have
any general immunity from prosecution for criminal conduct.
2. In so far as Members of Parliament are concerned, in order to
address inappropriate but non-criminal conduct, a developed system of
rules on ethics and conduct has been adopted in both Houses. Codes of
Conduct, supplemented by detailed guidance, are in place and reviewed
at regular intervals. Conflicts of interest are primarily addressed through
greater transparency of parliamentarians’ private interests and activities
rather than through regulation or restriction of those activities.
Parliamentarians are not, for example, prevented from having outside
employment or engaging in most remunerated activity; but in turn, there
is a registration system requiring them to disclose, in writing, their
relevant interests, coupled with an additional requirement of ad-hoc oral
declarations at the outset of parliamentary proceedings. Both the
registers and the declarations of interests during debates are available
for public inspection. There are specific rules banning paid advocacy or
accepting any financial inducement for parliamentary influence. In so
far as the enforcement of the rules is concerned the system relies on
self- regulation, but Parliament has introduced a number of innovations
to add an element of independence to the disciplinary process:
independent Commissioners are responsible for investigating cases and
the imposition of penalties is decided within Parliament by specific
ethics committees. The House of Commons is in the process of
incorporating external lay members who are not and have never been
parliamentarians to the membership of its Committee on Standards.
……..
5. The judiciary is ranked as the most trusted institution by the
public in the United Kingdom, with an untarnished reputation of
independence, impartiality and integrity of its members. Nothing that

1
emerged from the current evaluation indicated that there was any
element of corruption in relation to judges nor was there any evidence
of their decisions being influenced in an inappropriate manner.
Measures have been taken in recent years to set in place an elaborate,
but clearly workable, system for the appointment and discipline of
holders of judicial office. A challenge ahead relates to the question of
ensuring diversity in the judiciary. As the diversity policy is pursued,
different perspectives may be brought into the system; the provision of
training on shared values and ethical standards in the judiciary seems
pertinent in such a context of change. The use of fee-paid deputy and
temporary judges is the only criticism of any consequence that can be
found in the system; this runs counter to the key principle of security of
tenure.

TEXT 9
CASE OF NAVALNYY V. RUSSIA
(extract)
PROCEDURE
1. The case originated in five applications (nos. 29580/12,
36847/12, 11252/13, 12317/13 and 43746/14) against the Russian
Federation lodged with the Court under Article 34 of the Convention for
the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (“the
Convention”) by a Russian national, Mr Aleksey Anatolyevich
Navalnyy (“the applicant”), on 14 May 2012, 28 May 2012, 30
November 2012, 14 January 2013 and 6 June 2014 respectively.
2. The applicant was represented by Ms O. Mikhaylova, Mr K.
Terekhov, Ms A. Maralyan and Ms K. Moskalenko, lawyers practising
in Moscow. The Russian Government (“the Government”) were
represented initially by Mr G. Matyushkin, the Representative of the
Russian Federation to the European Court of Human Rights, and then
by his successor in that office, Mr M. Galperin.
3. The applicant complained that his arrest at public events on
seven occasions had violated his right to freedom of peaceful assembly
and right to liberty. He also alleged that his arrest, detention and the

1
administrative charges brought against him had pursued the aim of

1
undermining his right to freedom of assembly, for political reasons.
Finally, he alleged that the administrative proceedings before the
domestic courts had fallen short of the guarantees of a fair hearing.
4. On 28 August 2014 the applications were communicated to the
Government. The parties each submitted written comments on the
other’s observations.
5. The applications were allocated to the Third Section of the Court
(Rule 52 § 1). A Chamber of that Section composed of Luis López
Guerra, President, Helena Jäderblom, Helen Keller, Dmitry Dedov,
Branko Lubarda, Pere Pastor Vilanova, Alena Poláčková, judges, and
Fatoş Aracı, Deputy Section Registrar, delivered a judgment on 2
February 2017. The Court unanimously joined the applications and
unanimously declared the application admissible. It held unanimously
that there had been violations of Article 11 of the Convention on
account of all seven episodes complained of; of Article 5 § 1 of the
Convention on account of the applicant’s arrest on seven occasions and
his pre-trial detention on two occasions; and of Article 6 § 1 of the
Convention as regards six sets of administrative proceedings. It held
unanimously that there had been no violation of Article 6 § 1 of the
Convention in respect of the administrative proceedings concerning the
events of 5 March 2012. It concluded, unanimously, that there was no
need to examine the remainder of the complaints under Article 6 of the
Convention, the complaint under Article 14 of the Convention or the
complaint under Article 18 in conjunction with Article 11 of the
Convention. It concluded, by four votes to three, that there was no need
to examine the complaint under Article 18 in conjunction with Article 5
of the Convention. The joint partly dissenting opinion of Judges López
Guerra, Keller and Pastor Vilanova, as well as the partly dissenting
opinion of Judge Keller, were annexed to the judgment.
6. On 26 April 2017 the Government, and on 2 May 2017 the
applicant, requested the referral of the case to the Grand Chamber in
accordance with Article 43 of the Convention and Rule 73 of the Rules
of Court. The panel of the Grand Chamber granted the requests on 29
May 2017.

1
7. The composition of the Grand Chamber was determined
according to the provisions of Article 26 §§ 4 and 5 of the Convention
and Rule 24 of the Rules of Court.
8. The applicant and the Government each filed written
observations.
9. A hearing took place in public in the Human Rights Building,
Strasbourg, on 24 January 2018.

TEXT 10
Offshore tax havens: How do they work?
What can be done about them?

How do tax havens actually work?


There are actually multiple ways tax havens facilitate tax
avoidance, and it’s important to grasp the differences.
One of the primary methods is corporate profit-shifting.
This is where a multinational company registers its headquarters in
a low-corporation tax jurisdiction and then books its profits there, rather
than in the country in which it actually makes its sales.
This is what firms such as Google and Facebook have been doing
in order to lower their global corporation tax bills.

But what about personal taxes?


An individual could simply become a resident of a low-tax country
in order to pay a lower rate of tax on their income.
This is what racing drivers and globe-trotting sportspeople generally
do.
But there are also ways in which individuals can remain living in a
non-tax haven, such as the UK, and still benefit from tax havens.
If an individual keeps their assets in a trust in an offshore tax haven
they can legally avoid paying capital gains in the country in which they
are resident.

1
What is a trust?
This is where an individual puts their assets “in trust” to be
managed by nominally independent third parties (or “trustees”) for the
benefit of named beneficiaries, which can include the individual who
put the assets into trust in the first place.
The income can be paid out by the third parties to the beneficiaries
regularly, or sporadically, depending on the decisions made by the third
parties.
Once it is received by the beneficiaries, the income is subject to
income tax. But while it is in the trust the assets are not subject to
capital gains and the income on the investments is not taxed.
A major tax advantage is that the beneficiary of a trust is also not
subject to inheritance tax on the value of the assets when the person
who put the assets into trust for them dies.

So who are these trustees?


They can be local officials in the tax haven, or partners in a local
law firm, or accountancy firm, appointed by the individual who put their
assets into trust.
Given the likelihood of those trustees being influenced by the
previous owner of the assets when it comes to income disbursements the
scope for abuse of the arrangement is obvious.

But aren’t there legitimate uses of tax havens?


Historically, mutual investment funds, which attract investors from
around the world, have registered themselves offshore to avoid the risk
of double taxation of their surpluses.
This isn’t necessarily a problem so long as the beneficiaries of the
fund do pay income tax on the money they receive from the fund in
their home country.
When it comes to off-shore trusts, some argue that they are
necessary to safeguard the privacy of beneficiaries. There are some
circumstances where one can imagine this is a legitimate argument.
Yet the problem is that privacy can be so easily abused to facilitate
illegal personal tax evasion and other crimes such as money-laundering.

1
So what needs to be done?
On corporation tax avoidance, there are broadly two potential
solutions.
One would be for governments around the world to collaborate and
agree to tax a multinational’s profits on the basis of a fair international
formula, based on their sales, investments and employee numbers in
various countries.
This would effectively shut down tax havens, where no substantive
economic corporate activity actually takes place.
The other solution is for governments to unilaterally tax a
multinational’s revenues, while making allowance for its local costs,
investments and exports.
This was something that US Republicans were pressing for earlier
this year, although the plan has now been ditched.

And on personal tax?


Here a major part of the solution is to go down the route that David
Cameron blocked: to demand full and public transparency on the
beneficiaries of offshore trusts.
Acting in concert, the governments of the EU could bring serious
pressure on many tax havens to comply.
Many tax havens such as the Cayman Islands and Bermuda are also
British crown dependencies, giving the UK Government itself
considerable leverage if it chose to exert it.

1
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CПИCOK ПOЛEЗHЫX CCЫЛOK

Czoвapu

Ahглo-pyccкий / pyccкo-ahглийcкий юpидичecкий cлoвapь


https://www.miripravo.ru/lingvo/index.htm
Toлкoвыe cлoвapи:
http://www.translegal.com/
http://dictionary.law.com/Default.aspx
http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/
http://www.businessdictionary.com/
https://www.investopedia.com/dictionary/

Энцuкzoneдuu

https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia
https://www.findlaw.com/

Ayтehтичhыe o6paзцы дoгoвopoв и дoкyмehтoв юpидичecкиx лиц


https://www.onecle.com/
Язык дoгoвopoв https://www.adamsdrafting.com/
Жyphaл American Bar Association (пpaвoвыe hoвocти, ahaлитикa,
6лoги) http://www.abajournal.com/
Cтaтьи o тpyдhocтяx юpидичecкoгo пepeвoдa http://www.russian-
translators.ru/perevodchesky-opit/law/

1
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