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. . , ., 1959.
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. I, . . , ., 1960 (. 2, , ., 1963; . 3, , ., 1966).
. II, . . ,
. . , . . , . . , .-. . , . . , ., 1962 (. 2, , .,
1963; . 3, , ., 1966).
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.-. . , . , ., 1965.
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., 1967.
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. VIII, . . , . ,
., 1970.
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III. ', . , ,
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IV. - . 120
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V. - , ' -*. , . . , . III, ., 1961.
VI. XI . , ,
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VIII. - - ( ). 15 . . I.
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IX. , - '
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. 1, ., 1964; . I, . 2, ., 1971.
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. . , ., 1966.
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1961.
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II. . . . , . . , ., 1960.

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,
. . , ., 1960 (Bibliotheca Buddhica, XXXI).
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-- (
).
. Ill, . 1. (17981801).
, . . , .,
1962.
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V. . ,
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VI. , ( XVII ). .
1. , ., 1961.
VII. , , . . . . . . . . , ., 1962.

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X. , ( ).
, , . . , ., 1973.
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1967.
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XIX . . .).
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XXIX. -, (). , , . . , ., 1970.
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XXXVII. , . , . . , ., 1973.
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. 132.
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(karika) . .: L. R e n o u ,
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Bd 56, . 404407.
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. : - K r i s h n a m o o r t h y ,
Authorship of the
Dhvanyaloka and Anandavardhana's date and works, IHQ, 1948, vol. 24,
. 180194, 300311; . : R. G n 1 i, Udbhata's commentary on
the Kavyalamkara of Bhamaha, Roma, 1962, . 17.
. :
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the vrttigrantha of Dhvanyaloka, NIA, 1943, vol. 5, . 265272.

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211


bhakti ( 14) gunavrtti ( 17, 18), , ,
, ()
. : auf Obertragung beruhend.
4. (sahrdaya) , {, ] .
sahrdaya ,
: (. . 66) (. 17).
(, . 7). . :
J. Q n d a, The vision of the Vedjc poets, The Hague, 1963, . 287 .
5. (carutvahetu)
alarnkara . , , (. ).
(sabdalaqikara)
(artfialarnkara). (
) ,
(. 1.1.23).
6. samghatanadharmah
varnasarnghatanadharmah. ( [ ]); (. ZDMG, Bd 56, . 582).
, -, (. 18), ,
, varna, - , sarnghatana (, ).
(. . 121122),
samghatana sabdasarpghatana, sabda
, (. , . 142; varnasamghatana pada(sabda)sarnghatana .: M a h i m a b h a t t a , Vyaktiviveka, . 131136;
L. R e n o u , Terminologie grammatical du Sanskrit, Paris, 1957, . 517).
sarnghatana , -, ;
: *
( )

(. 3.5 . 17 ^.
,

( . . 47):
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.
7. (vrtti , , , ), (. 1.612). : 1) , (nagarika); , , 2)
212

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(upanagarika), , ; 3) , (gramya).
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8. . . .
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, .

(pancall; ). :
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10. , ... . .
, .
11. ( 29) ,
213


, ( 4.497), (779813).
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.
(1.4546): (], . , , :
, , ". [] [] ,
(vyutpanna). : {] ,
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13.
(vakrokti ,
) , . , -,
, (. 1.30, 36; 2.8586,
5.66; 6.23). ( 4.3.8) ,
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14. gunavrtti.
, , |[] [ , ] , [ ]. , .
guna , .
guriavrtti
(. . ), ,
, .
15. ,
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,
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, , - (
), -,
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-, - (. 1.93100; 4.3.8). , , ,
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, ( 134), ,
, cumb ()
unmib ( ) ( ).
, .
16. , .
(. , . 46): [], ,

, .
17. (rasadi) : ; ;
, ; , ,
(. 2.3). (rasa ,
) (bhava). (. 67). , VIIX . (. 2.280291; , 4.28),
,
(pariposa). , (sthayibhava), ,
, : (rati),
(hasa), (soka), (utsaha),
(krodha), (bhaya), (jugupsa), (vismaya)
, , (trsnaksayasukha).
: (srngara), (hasya), (karuna), (vlra), (raudra),
(bhayanaka), (bibhatsa), (adbhuta) (santa). , . , ,
, .
, ,
. . . 7 .
18. H a l a, GathasaptasatI 2.75. ,
,
.
, , ,
, . , , , (vidhi), , (pratisedha).
215


19. H a l a, GathasaptasatI 7.67. , - . .
20.
; , ,
. ,
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21. -, ,
, .
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22. , , ,
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( ),
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). (. 7778), , , , , , , , .
23. . . . . (vibhava), (anubhava) (vyabhicaribhava).
,
. , , , ;
, ; , ,
( ,
). , , .
24. (anvayavyatireka)
,
. ,
.
25. (sokah slokatvam agatajh)
Ramayaria 1.2.40.
216


. ,' , ,
.
, (1.2), . ,
, .
,
(kraufica) , .
, .
, , , :
,
. ,
soka () (sloka
; ,
, , ).
. ,
.
26.
, . , , , , ,
(. 8687)
(Kavyamlmainsa, . 7). , , , ,
, ,
.

, X .
. , ,
.: Ch. V a u d e v i l l e , Ramayana Studies I. The
Krauncavadha episode in the Valmiki's Ramayana, JAOS, 1963, vol. 83,
. 327335; , A further note on Krauncavadha in Dhvanyaloka and
Kavyaftrimamsa, JOI, 1961, vol. 11, . 122 .
27. , , . , . , -,
( svadu) , (
nihsyandamana) (, rasa),
-, sarasvati (),
.
' pratibha (, )
217


.
. . 1.5, 1.103; 1.3.16 : { ]... , ,
, , .
(. ) , - (, , ) , , pratibha ,
.
28. (svara) ,
, . (sruti) ; .
29. ,
912, . , ,
, ,
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,
( 9). ,
. . ( 12). ,
( 1011). ,
,
(. Sabarabhasya, vol. I, Poona, 1929,
. 96: , , , , ,
).
, ,
(. K u m a r i l a b h a t t a , Slokavarttika, Sabdapariccheda 343: us
[. . ] , [] ,

[]). , , , .
, 9 ,
, , . . ,
; 1012 , .
, , 218


( 8) ,
, ( 13). ,
, , . . (2.710, 13),
: , , ,
(. : . i d e a u, Theorie de la connaissance
et philosophie de la parole dans le brahmanisme classique, Paris, 1964,
. 402406). ,
, (. . 153
155).
30. , (citra) . . 3.4142.
31. vacyavacakamatra... vacyavacakacarutva...
32. (samasokti) ;
, , . ( ,
, bahuvrlhi) , , , ,
.
( 2.79):
, {] (visesana),
, ,
. , , .
33. :
1) upodharagena... () (: );
2) vilolatarakam (: ).
34. (aksepa) , , ( ) , , , , ,
. , ,
( 2.6770): , :
, ... , , , , (pratisedha) , ; '[ ]
{ ]. : (1)
, ... ,
?" (2) , ,
, ... ,
219


?" ,
(visesa) , .
,
; - (
61). , ( ,
) .
35. : vakyarthaksepoktisamarthyad. ,
(. ): ,
, (. . , ).
36. . anuragavati : .
37.
(dlpaka)

. ,

, , (
), .
, ,
, .
, , . .
( 1.28): (],
, [], []
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. .
. 173.
38. (apahnuti) .
. .
(, 3.2122): , . , . : ,
; [
] ". . 5.34. ,
,
, .
39. .
, ,
(.
. 106107). .
,
. , 220


,
, , .
40. , *
(anuktanimittavisesokti).
(visesokti) ( 5.56):
{], , , , - . []: {
]. , , ,
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,
(.
3.23--24).
41. , -,

(. 117), ( ?) . . , , . , , .
42. paryayokta (, ,
, ). . ( 4.11):
, , . . ,
. : -,
, , - (. , 43); -, ,
. . (4.1213): ,
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!
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43. 3.89: ,
, : ,
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. , , ,
(. ) . (. 120),
.
44. (samkaralarnkara)
; (samsrsti)
, . ,
(. 5.1826), . (
,
)
. .
, , -
( , ),
, ,
, (.
30, 3740, 46 ). ,
, , .
, . , , (.
5.18): (] ,
,
, , . ,

karmadharaya. , , ,
varendus ( )
( [] ;
.: L. R e n u, Grammaire et poetique en Sanskrit, EVP, 1961,
t. 8, . 117 .). , ,
, ; .
45. ,
, , .
46. aprastutaprasarnsa (, , , : , []). , -,
. aprastutaprasarnsa , , ,
222


, . .

. :
( ). ,
(. 128): , , ? .
,- .
, ,
. ,
, , . , , . ,
(. . 127). :
- .
(. 129): , ;
.
, (
). ( ), ,
(, ,
. .). . 15, 62, 64, 80, 128130; .
: D. H. H. I n g a 11 s,
An anthology of Sanskrit court poetry, Cambridge, Mass., 1965, . 297303.
,
.
47.
(guna) ,
, , . .
, -, ,
( , , - . 2.18); -, ^
,
(. 16.95112). ( ): (slesa), (prasada),
(samata), (arthavyakti), (madhurya), (ojas).
(saukumarya), (samadhi), (udarata)
(kanti). , -, (.
1.24, ,
), , ,
223


, ,
. , , , (.: . J b i, Zur Friihgeschichte der indischen Poetik,
SPAW, 1928, 31, . 656670), .
,
, ,
(.
1.1316, 3135;
4.1215; 6.1215 . .). , ,
,
, , , ( ) ,
V . ( ) ,

, (dosa), (. ).
guija, dosa.

(. 1.4042; 1.2.78).
, ,
(, ,

1-7678, ; 3.2.13). , ,
,
.
IX . .
, -, .
, ,
(. . 6, 17
). .
48. ,
.
, , (sabdatattva),
(sabdatman). ,
(dhvani, nada), , (sphota), 224


( ). , (vyanjaka) (prakasaka)
. ,


(. . , , ).
49. Mahabharata 5.35.64.
50. . (abhipraya)
.
51. bhakti (,
). . . 3.
52. [ ] upacara. upacara , (laksana).
53. (laksana)
(:
ativyapti),
(: avyapti), . (, , , ) .: J. F. S t a a 1,
The theory of definition in indian logic,JAOS, 1961, vol. 81, . 122
126.
54. H a r s a , Ratnavali 2.12.
, .
.
55. , - , . . . 179180.
56. .
57. (rudha)
, , (.: L. R e n u, Terminologie, . 259; - t l j u n n i R a j a , Indian theories of meaning, Madras, 1963, . 5962).
, , ,
. . K u m a r i l a b h a t t a , Tantravarttika, vol. 2, Poona, 1930, . 683: (nirudha); ...
, , ,
. lavanya
8 . 19

225


, ,
.
58. " .
, . . ,
,
( 15). , , ,
, ( 16). ,
( ).
17 , -
(skhaladgati, . . ).
.
. ,
, , ()
(. Sabarabhasya, vol. 2, Poona, 1930,
. 746749).
, , . ( , . . )
, , , .
,
, . -,
, , , (.
16).
, )
. -, ,
, ( ), (. . 79),
, .
59. , ,
. , ,
, - ,
. (
) -

226

(upalaksaija), . . , ( ).
. . 162'164.
60. - , ,
,
, ,
,
.
, ,
. , ( , , ,
), (, , ), , , (abhidhavyapa), . . .
61. ,
. , ,
, - (. . 15),
, , bheda dhvani
, asya
(), .
13, ,
(
) .
, .
,
, , 19 ,

,
, , , ,
.

1. ,
, . , , , .
.
, ,

227


. .
86.
,
. , , ,
(. ).
2. . . . 114.
3. (Visamabanallla)
.
,
.
4. (kamala), .
, (., ,
1 i d a s a, Meghaduta 39).
5. Ramayaija 3.16.3. .
6. V a k p a t i a j a, Gaudavaho 406.
7. . . 17 .
, . ,
(. 187), ,
, ,
, ( ) ( ).
8. , , .
, (),
(rasavat).
, , ,
.
9. . 2.6.
10. ( 3.5) ( 2.275279) (preyas) ,
(priti) . , (2.275, 278279): [] ,
, ... , ,
, , , ,
?" , ,
[]. ,
.
11.
. ,
,
. . 110.
228


12. Amarusataka 2. ,
,
( ). .
(8.24.1124), , ,
, ,
.
().
. ,
, .
.
13. , , , . . 89.
14. (slesa , [
])
. Slesa , , (
). .

, (bhangaslesa). ,
.
,
alingan , , , avadhutas , , ( ).
15. , ( )
( ). ,
, . 8.1820 .
16. ityucyate... ...tasyam
(. 211212), , ,
. (ZDMQ, Bd 56, . 604).
17. K a l i d a s a, Vikramorvasiya 4.52.
() . . , .
.
18. 1 i d a s a, Vikramorvasiya 4.67.
.
19. (. 214), , , ,
, .
220


, , ,
(. ).
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
.
20. , , ,
( ). ,
,
(. . ). , , - . , , , ( ).
21.
.
, ,
.
( , ,
), , ,
(. 1.3.12, 4.2.12).
22. (madhurya) . . 2.3:
,
(- ].
. ,

(. 1.5168). (. 3.2.10).
23. , ,
(. ).
24 V (. 219)
. . . 121.
25. (ojas), ( 2.2): , , . ( 1.80):
. ,
(- ).
ojas , , .:
J. G d a, Ancient-Indian ojas, Utrecht, 1952, . 3744.

230


26. B h a t t air a r a y a n a , Vemsaijmara 1.21.
( )
: ( ) , . .
, , , .
, ,
,
, (
).
, , :
, .
27. B h a t t a n a r a y a n a , Venlsaiphara 3.32. , , .
.
,
(: ).
28. (prasada) - . [] , ,
, , ( 2.3). .
( 1.4546) (
3.2.3). ,
.
29. , , . . 2.31
.
30. , ,
,

(gramya), (aslila)
: 1) ", (srutidusta);
, , , ,
. .; 2) ,
(arthadusta); 3) , (kalpanadusta). .
1.4752. ,
( 1.5457): , - ,
, , ,
, ,
, ".
" ganda (", "]
. [] 231


.
,
. . 1.9597: , ", ", " . ., ,
; . , , ,
, ".
. : ", . . 2.1.1519. .
31. (yamaka) .
. ( 3.177).
, , , . .
.
( 3.4): manena manena sakhi pranayobhut priye jane (He
, , ). . : J. G o n d a , Stylistic repetition in the
Veda, Amsterdam, 1959, . 225228.
32. [] (duskara)
(duskaramarga) ,
, ,
, (. 3.38, 78, 83, 96,
186).
33. Amarusataka 81. ,
, , ,
, :
,
.
. .
;
( , , , , , . .).
34. a n a, Kadambari, . 186189. ,
. , ,
. .
35. P r a v a r a s e n a , Setubandha M.5261.
, , , , .
232


36. (, [], [
] (]), , ?
, (
-). . ( 1.21):
, [], ,
'[] , . ,
. . ( 1.23):
' - - - - ,
, -. ,
, .
37. (. 234),
. , , ( 154).
38. 1 i d a s a, Abhijnanasakuntala 1.20.
,
. ,
, ,
(: ... ...).
: .
39. [ ] ,

(svabhavokti) , ( 3.8)
, . .
.
.
40. , -, , .
. (Mahabharata 1.1516), ,
(), . , .
.
. ,
,
. ,
, :
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.
41. H a r s a , Ratnavali 2.4. ,
,
. , ,
(. 240), , , 233


-(] . ,
, , , ,
.
42. ,
. , . (Yonesia asoka)
,
. ,
, (
, . : . 1 m f i e 1 d, The Dohada or
craving of pregnant women, JAOS, 1920, vol. 40, . 124). : , , .
: 1) rakta ; 2) sillmukha .
,
, sasoka
(, , ) asoka,
: a-soka , .
.
43. (vyatireka) ,
( ),
,
( ) , . . 2.75;
3.12.
44. , ,
( ) ( ).
, ,
( saipsrsti ), , , ,
, ( . 44
). ,
, , -, , ; -, , ,
; , -,
.
45. sahari : sa
hari ( ) sahari ( ).
.
46. a, Suryasataka 23.
a (kalpa) , , . 234

: patamga , . ,
. , ,
.
47. , 16,
, ,
.
. :
; , ,
, ^.
48. Amarusataka 9. .
(. 246247):
[] , ,
, . ., .
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sama , samarri vadhubhir valabhlr , , ,
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Vyaktiviveka, . 130).
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(yathasarp.khya) (
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),
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2.27, 4.3.26, ,
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, Vakyapadlya 2.316, Mlmarpsasutra 3.3.14 .; . : - K u n j u n n i R a j a , Indian theories of meaning, Madras, 1963,
. 5054).
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dichterischer, kflnstlerischer Durchbildung), , ,
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246

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sakti (, , ) (.
1.16) pratibha (.
. 27 ).
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2.15, 3.14, .). '
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. . 1.1516.
97. (. 308),
,
. .

1. Mahabharata 5.38.35. :
, , ,
, , ,

.
2. 1 i d a s a, Meghadflta 8. ,
sannaddha ( sannaddhe... tvayi
) .
247


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4 ( 314)
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10.
, : -,
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. ,
: ,
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, ,
(smaraka) , ( .: - K u n j u n n i R a j a , Indian theories
of meaning, Madras, 1963, . 205207).
11. . 2.11 . 30 .
12. A n a n g a h a r s a M a t r a r a j a , Tapasavatsaraja 2.
, ,
, ,
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,
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.
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. ,
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, ), , ,
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16. Amarusataka 104.
17. , , , , -, ,
(. 838),
, -, VVIII .
. ,
, ,

(Bhamahavivarana).

, .
. 2.12: , , , ,
, {].
, ,
. , : 1) , (asamasa)
( ); 2) , (madhyamasamasa); 3) , (dlrghasamasa). , - ,
, . , , , , . (.
1.2.1219),
(atyulbana), . . , , 250

(anulbana) ;
( , )
. , , , , ,
, ,
.

, , , ,
, .
(. 2.45),
( ), ( )
( ).
. : L. R e n u, Grammaire et poetique
en Sanskrit,EVP, t. 8, 1961, . 110114.
18. , gunan asritya... tisthantl
, . , ,
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( 2.6), , , ,
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.
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(. 124125).
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,

251


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, , 2.7,
.
(mandara) iErythrina indica.
20. . , , . (. 27).
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. . . 125
22. ,
. ,
( XIVXVII .) ,
, (. : H a r i C a n d S a s t r i ,
Kalidasa et l'art poetique de I'lnde, Paris, 1917, . 235236).
(. . 130).
23. (nayaka)
(dhlrodatta), 252

(dhlralalita),
(dhlrasanta), (dhiroddhata). (. 24.1719),
, (sTla) : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) .
( ?);
;
,
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24.2325). , .

IX ., , . (., , R a m a c a n d r a , Gut j a c a n d r a , Natyadarpana 69; V i s v a n a t h a , Sahityadarpana 3.3134),
, ,
, , . . (

); , , ,
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); , , ,
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. : . . , , , ., 1961, . 6263.
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.
.
: (uttama) (jyestha)
; (madhyama) , ,
. .; (adhama, nlca), ,
(, . .).
(. 24.1-14).
:
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253


. . ' , ,
. (., , Natyadar 156160).
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25). ,
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. 126).
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2.10, (.: . G o d a V a r m a , Different authorship of the karikagrantha
and the vrttigrantha of Dhvanyaloka, NIA, 1943, vol. 5, 10, . 267).
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254

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:
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-
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, (, ), ,
(, ), (, ). . : L. R e n o u , Grammaire et poetique, . 114116.
27. muktaka (, , ),
, (. 1.13)
,
, .

, , ()
, , muktaka
. . anibaddha
( 1.29; 1.3.2729),
(. 353): Muktaka "... [
], (prabandha),
, . Muktaka
, , (gatha) (doha).
28. , (
),
, .
: 1) sandanitaka
(
yugma, yugalaka) ; 2) visesaka ; 3) kalapaka
255


; 4) kulaka .
,
( , ,
), , ,
. , , , / ,
(. . 32). , , , , , , (. 114160
; 10161039 .).
29. paryayabandha
(,
[]); ,
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Kavyanusasana, . 408); -,
, ,
, ( sataka
) (. ), - , . .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
(, , ,
kosa).
30. parikatha, , . (336.19 , ) (Kavyanusasana, . 407).
(. . 126),
,
( , . .)
(. 354) ,
,
[] , - , , . (. (VIII .),
, ,
, , , , 256

.: H a r i b h a d r a , Samaraiccakaha,
vol. 1, Poona, 1933, . 23). , , parikatha , , , . , ,
, ( , ?). ,
. , , . , , ,
>,
, nidarsana
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, . ( )
(Sudrakakatha),
: [ ],
[] .
31. (khandakatha) (sakalakatha) .
(. . 126),
, ,
. (. 354), ,
. [],
, ;
. (Kavyanusasana, . 407)
(
,
). (
) ,
( ). * (. . ) (. . 30)
, (VIII .), , (.
: A. M a s t e r , Gleanings from the Kuvalayamala Kaha, II, BSOAS,
1951, vol. 13, . 1004, 1016).
, , ,
, . , ,
( X . 9

. 19

257


),
,
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).
32. . , - ; , mahakavya sargabandha
(
). ,
,
,
sarga (
asvasa, sandhi . .). . 1.14, 37; KavyanusSsana, . 395; Sahityadarpana 6.315, 326.
- .
.
,
( 1.16): [ ] , , ,
, ; , - .
. ,
, .
,
: ,
, ,
, ,
. -- , , , ( .
: L. R e n o u , Sur la structure du kavya, JA, 1959, t. 247,
. 1114).
33. (akhyayika , ) (katha , , )
, V IX .
. , (. 1.2529). , ,
,
, ,
; (ucchvasa
, ), (. .
. 1.2627); ,
(?) (udattartha),
, , .
258

,
. ', , (Brhatkatha)
(. 4.39, 49), ,
. , , , (.
1.29, , ),
, , , , ( , ) .
-
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. , (.
1.28)
.
, :
, (, , - . .),
(. . . : , .,
1963, . 15). ( 16.2023), ,
, ,
, ; , , ,
. ( ), , . ,
, ,
. , , , , , , (.: S. . De.
The akhyayika and the katha in classical Sanskrit,BSOS, 1924, vol. 3,
. 507517). ( 162427)
( -, , ;
, ; ,
, . .), , , ,
(
259

9*


),
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34. . (Bharatatlkakara), (. 6):
.
35.
, ,
(.
. 127). , -, , , , (. 1.80); -, ,
( ), (
) ( ). 1.3.2225. ,
.
, , ,
(
vikatabandha), . .
,
. (pada). , ,
(
),
.
(.
L. R e n o u , Sur la structure du kavya, . 20).
; ,
,
( ). , ,
,
( . : L. R e n ,
260

Sur 1'evolution des composes nominaux en Sanskrit, BSL, 1956, t. 52


. 114115).
, , -, . ,

(. ). , ,
. -,
, ,
(
, , ,
, ).
36. a (nataka) , V IX .
.
,
. , , . . 18.1012;
. : S. w, Das indische Drama, BerlinLeipzig, 1920. ,
, (, ,
) .
, , , . , (
), , (. . 35),
.
37.
vastu (, ), itivrtta (; , )
kathaSarlra ,
(. 19.1; 1.23). (vrtta
, [] ), . .
, (utpadya, utpreksita), ,
.
, ,
: ,
, ,
.
38. ,
IX .

(VII .?): 261


,
( S a r a d a t a n a y a , Bhavaprakasana, Baroda, 1930, . 234).
39. .
, (. 19),
, ,
(sandhi , , ,
; . , . 370: ... , itivrttakhandaji, ,
saipdhTyante). (mukha) , ; (pratimukha)
; (garbha) ; (vimar&a)
, ;
(nirvahana) , ,
( ).
, (anga)
12,
13, 14. (19.50109)
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: ;
; ( , , (upaksepa), ; . , . 3, . 3637).
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.
40. , , .
41. (prakrti) ,
,
(. 12.26-27).
42. , , IIII .
.
43. . . , , , ,
,
. .

?62


44. . 18.10: [ , ] "
; .
45. (Bharatavarsa)
, .
46. a (itihasa , )
; , , .
47. (. 367), .
48. (. 368)
,
( 67).
,
, (Mahabharata 1.6369).
49.
(Arjunacarita)
.
50. (vilasa), (, ( 19.75), ),

(2.1823).
, , ,
(
, ), , ,
.
51. (. 373),

(. 3.19).
, , ( ). ., ,
, ( )
,
; ,
, , . .
,
( )
(25).
, ,
, , (. , . 374375).
52. (Madhumathanavijaya, . Mahumahaviaa) ,


- ( . . 1
). ,
(Gafldavaho, 69).
53. Mahabharata 12.149. , ,
. . ,
, , . . , ,
. , , . ,
.
. : , ,
, , , , . . , ,
.
(. 378), .
, , ,
, ,
. . 12.149.103: , ,
, ,
.
54. (sambandha) , ; (
, svasvamibhava) (
avayavavayavibhava). .: L. R e n o u , Terminologie grammaticale du Sanskrit, Paris, 1957, . 326.
55. , karakasakti. karaka (,
, , )
, , , , ,
(. . , ,
, . ). , ,
(kartr), (karman), (karana),
(sampradana), (apadana), (adhikarana).
karaka .: L. R e n o u , Terminologie, . 127; R. R h e r. Agent et
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56. (krt) , "
264

( , );
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57. ( ) . : ,
, , . ( - ), ,
( ), ,
( ,, ,
,
).
58. (. 380381)
. ( 14 ) , ,
, ,
. : ()
(
);
,
; tatra api
; - ( tapasa ),
, , ; -
, , ,
;
nihanti jivati ,
: , .
,
. :
Sakrajit
Indrajit (
, sakra,
, ); -vant prabodhitavant , ,
... ( , ); - gr3265


matika ,
; vi- viluijthana , , , .
59. bandha (, , ), , (.
1.43, 47, 69 .) , , (padaracana, padanyasa),
, , ,
( , ),
( ,
), (
) . . (. 3.1). (. 138 199),
.
( ) , ( , ).
60. Mahabharata 1.119.6. .
61. :
1)
-ta- atikranta pratyupasthita
( ); 2)
-lyas paplya , ; -,

-tara (. papatara) -lyas , , , : ,
(. 6.54; L. R e n u, Sur la structure du kavya, . 33); 3) kalah , .
62. 1 i d a s a, Meghaduta 76. , : -"
, (
: . . 1 -
).
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(. : ,
[ ], [], []).


63. avasara
, , ,
,
,
, . .
( 3).
64.
, , .
65. (. 384385), ,
(
jaabhlruanam , ) , .
66. - (.
-) 94 95: balaa , bhirua .
67. K a l i d a s a , Vikramorvaslya 4.10. .
68. ( ) , ,
(*
). .: L. R e n o u , Grammaire sanskrite, 2-me
ed., Paris, 1961, 516; . : t a k a, Vakroktijivita, 3d ed., Calcutta, 1961, . 130.
69. K a l i d a s a , Abhijnanasakuntala 3.22. , . (. 386), tu .
70. (., , h tr h a r i , Vakyapadlya 2.190, 194) , (dyotaka) , . . , ( , ) , .
71. K a l i d a s a , Abhijnanas'akuntala
1.13. , , .
(. 387), -
prasnigdha , , .
[ ], , (ingudi minalia Catappa) .
72. a, Suryasataka 4. samudvlksya
: sam-ud-vi-. , (. 387): , [] [] ,
, [
].
73. (. 387) :

267


, , ,
, ,
,
.
sam-upa-a-carantam ,
, .
74. 1 i d a s a, Kumarasaipbhava 3.30. ,
.
aho bata.
75. ,
: ha dhik kastam aho [], , !
76. H a l a, GathasaptasatI 7.73. , , (.
),
(hohinti) .
,
, ( , -
), ',
,
. . (. 390).
77. . . () , divasaih ( ) .
, ,
.
78. kva ,
, (. 2.19: , , , ?, . : L. R u, Grammaire
sanskrite, . 512),
tad : idam ; sa :
etajj ; sa : idam ( , : :; f:f; m:n).
79. (. 392),
.
80. (kavyasamaya) ,
:
( , ; . 5.11), (5.1.13),
(5.19) . .
, ,

,
(Kavyamlmarjisa, . 78). , ,
(. 62 ), ,
(. 65), (. 42) . .
(Kavyamlmarjisa 1416).
81. , , (. . ) ,
, .
82. (. 401),
(
),
.
, , ( ,
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. [:] .
! ? , ,
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(vrtti),
. (. 20)!
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, . . ( , ,
); 2) (sattvati),
: , , ,
, . .; 3) (arabhatl), : , , , , . .; 4) (bharatl), (
). , ,
( ): , ( ) ,
(
, . .); . , . 2, . 410411.
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); . . 7 . ,
IX . , , vyalajpkara ( ):
, , . : .
19 (vrttyanaucityam), vftti: 1) (vyavahara); 2) " ; 3) . . . , -,
. , 1014 1819, ,
,, , ,
, - . vrtti (. :
) ,
(. 3.33), () .
85. ,
, :
1)
,
(badhya)
, , ; 2) . (angabhavaprapti ,
[ ]), , :
(svabhaviki) ,
(samaropakrta).
( ) (. 107, 34).
, ,
, , . . , (
), , . ( ,
,
,
nirapeksa , ,
sapeksa, , 270

; . , . 1, . 309.)
(. 1, . 309, 317), ,
, , , ; ,
. ,
, ; , , ( , ).
86. , . ., , .
87. (,
-, ); , XIVXVII . ,
, ,
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,

.
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[] , ,
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88. B a n a, Kadambarl, . 152156.
. . ,
,
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. (. 405406),
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90. ;
.
,
. , ,
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.
91. (. 406),
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... -. : -, , ; -,
(. .
147). , , , ,
, (...bahulatikapasena
baddhva drdham ... - , , ...). Bandha , (.
, . 1, . 317).
92. , . (vidhi)
(, Taittiriyasarnhita 2.1.1: , ,
[], );
(arthavada, , [])
,
(, ,
: . .).
arthavada anuvada (
272

), .
93. ,
, , .
: 1)
,
- ,
(. :
...); 2)
, ( ); ,
( ). .
,
( . . 8384
. 10 )
( ),
. (anudyamana) ,
.
(vidhfyamana) ;
, (. . ). .
94. . (. 410): , , , [],
, .
95. Mahabharata 11.24.17. . , ,
.
, , .
96. ,
(. 20):
, ;
( , ,
)
, , ,
,
.
, ,
.
97. (. 419),
10 .

273


,
: , , , . .;
, , . .
( .
. 139); ( ). (. 6.4446:
, ,
, .
; , , ; , , ;
).
98. :
, (dolaiam ,
) .
99. . ( ) .
, ( ), (
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, .

. , , .
100. , , , ,
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101.
( ). , , , , ,
.
.

(. 423425),
( 7.181): , ( ], . ( ) ,
, ,
274

, , ,
.
102. , ,
, (. habhSrata 3.165170). (. 428)
, ,
:
,
.
( Kirltin, , ; Purarjidara, . ).
103. , , (. . 429). , , , ( , ) .
( , , IIII) : ,
, ,
(. ,
: , ;
, . 4.2223). ,
, , ,
, , (. . 150). (. 147), ;
, ( )
(. . 150).
104. (. 4.5). (
XIII .).
.
105. Mahabharata 12.168.36.
106. , ( 1, 36),
, , ,

( ) .
275



. 1.1017, 174; 36.4 .
107. ( ) (. . 83) (. . 7
), , , (vrtti), (vyavahara) . ,
(. . ,
, . . . 1014, 2030), ,
,
(. 34). ,

: , ,
, (.
20.7374 :
). , , (. 552553),
(, ),
(, ), .
-,
(). , , 33
, ( 47).
108. , (. . 158, 161, 167),
(raga) , , -,
(.
: , ., 1967).
109.
, ,
,
. ,
( . . 154155)
. , ,
, sabda,
, , ,
276

. . . sabda , (. i a r d e a u, Theorie de la connaissanoe


et philosophie de la parole dans le brahmanisme classique, Paris, 1964,
.20, 181).
. . . ( , )
.
111. . 25.
112. : avagamya.
113. , , ,
. .: J. u gh, Some indian theories of meaning,
TPS, 1953, . 165; M. i a r d e a u, Theorie de la connaissance, . 401
406.
114. (upadanakarana) ,
( .).
,
, .
. . 29 .
115. upacara (. ) ; ( )
laksana.
. 162.
116. ()
() ,
,
. ,
, .
117. . . 165.
118. . . 77.
119.
(abhedopacara) ,

(. . ). .
120. , . : , ,
( ,
,
. . 173).
: punarukta ( , ), , .
,

277


121. 9.
122. ...hrdayahladipratlyamanapratitihetutvad.
123. ,

. , ,
, vakyasastra
( , : vakyatattvavidalj, ).
, , , ,
, , .
, ,
. , ,
, , .
, , : , (pauruseyavakya),
, , ,
. ,
(autpattikatva) . , -, ,
,
- , .
(nityatva).
, ,
. ,

, :
.
, (
), ,
. , ,
, , , ,
.
. : . i d e a u, Theorie de la
connaissance.
124.
, . ,
, ,

27S

,
.
125. , -, .
, ,
, ,
, .
, , , , (, , ,
. 2, 10, 54 .)- , , , . .
126. - (. . -)
,
. .:
. i a r d e a u, Theorie de la connaissance, . 265 .
127. ,
(samaya).
128. linga. , , (lingin),
(anumana). , , , , .
129. , (
), ( )
( ), , ( , , ). , , ,
(pramana,
jfiana) (
) .
130. , , ,
, , ( ) , , , ,
.


.
.
131. . 73.
132. ,
.
( ) .
279


aho , ,
.
133. 2.85. . . 13 .
134. (nidarsana) ,
( ) . . 3334: [] ,
[]; ", ", ". :
, , ,
: ".
( 5.1819): [], [ ] [] . : , , ".
( , . .
, .)
135. vyajastuti. . ( 5.1617): [], [ ] , . : ,
!".
136. malopama, , [ ]
.
( 8.2526): , , , [ ],
, ,
[ ]. : , ,
, , , ,
, ".
,
. . , (XI .): , , , ,
, . . (. 103).
137. K a l i d a s a , Kumarasarnbhava 1.28.
.
,
. ,
,
(. Mahabharata
3.108109; Ramayaria 1.3844).
138. : pratipadapathena.

280


139. (Manmatha, . )
.
140. ke'pi , . . ( , ) , ,
, ^ (VakroktijTvita,
. 107).
141. (kaku)
. : 1) sakarnksa
, ;
; 2) nirakarnksa ;
.
. (prasna), (aksepa) (tarka). ,
, , , , . . (KavyamTmamsa,
. 3132). . : V. . u Ik a m i , The treatment of intonation
(kaku) in Sanskrit poetics, JO I, 1966, vol. 16, . 2433.
142. B h a t t a n a r a y a n a , Venisarnhara 1.8.
. :
, ,
, ,

!
. 132 . 158.
143. H a l a , GathasaptasatI 5.17.
144. a li d a s a, Kumarasarnbhava 7.19. ;
. ,
, . . 50 .
145. h a v i, Kiratarjuniya 8.14.
146. ( 122123)
: 1) ( , ); 2) ( : , ,
, ).
,
:
(, ) , 49,
( ,
), (
, ), 281


( ,
), , ,
(. 2.23,
).
, (.
49 . 184).
147. , .

.
,
. , ,
(
, . .), (. , . 515: {], , , , (. . ]. , , ,
, ! ,
, [. .
]). , , ,
. ( ),
, . ,
, .
148. Tantrakhyayika 1.27. ,
.
149.
(VII .). , ,
. ,

(.: D. . . I g a 11 s, An anthology of sanskrit court poetry, Cambridge,
Mass., 1965, . 43).
150. (Sakhotaka) Trophis aspera, , , . , .
151. (pamara) . (badari)
, , .
152. . . 8486.
153. ( ) ,
- .
. , . 7: , .
282

TpetbA
, , ,
. , , ,
, " (),
.
'154. (. . 102103),
,
. , , ,
.
, . , , , . . , (. . 44
).
155. , , , . ,
,
.
, ,
, (. , , ).
, ,
, ,
. . ( , ).
, 6> . . (. 44
).
156.
. (. 536),
16 , , (sokavega).
157. , ,
;
lipta (), , payodasuhrd ( ).
158. B h a t t a n a r a y a i j a ,
Venisairihara 5.26.
. , , ,
, , , .
.
,
, *
283

. , ,
.
, , ( : ); ,
.
; .

( )
, .
90, , ;
( ) .
159. , , . . , , , ; , -, (
, ); -,
, ,
, .
160.
. ,
te , ;
jane , , .
161. ,
(abdhisayana);
. . 75 .
162. (. 541), (drsti):
, , (. 52 ); drsti .
163. 1 i d a s a, M*ghadfita 31.
164. ( ) (. 546) svabhavokti (, ) (
).
165. ,
: (
), , , ,
; .
284

( , ,
, ., 1962, . 2834).
166. ...: ,
. : raktamanas ( ) .
167. 1 a, Gathasaptasati 6.59.
168. ahinaapaorasiesu pahiasamaiesu ({ ]
, , -, ),
pasariagiariarn ( )
, . - ( ,
, ). ,
, : () . . . 549550.
169. . . 9 .
170. , ( . 552): pratltipadavim.
171. , ,
aklistatve. aklistatva
(srutikastadyabhava). ,
(. . 139), , , ,
.
(. 2.1.21); , - , . . , , , (. . 12 ), .
172.
.
173. (. 555),
(vivrti),
(IX .) Viniscayafika ( Pramanaviniscaya).
174. (pratyaksa)
, .

1. B h a r t r h a r i , Satakatraya 93.
2. Amarusataka 82. , . 285


. 141
142.
3. 2.28. ,
(, , , ,
, ; .
() ).
4. Ramayana 1.1.40. . . 25 .
5. Ramayana 7.97. , ,
, ,
, , ,
. . , ,
. .
6. a (sastra, , )
- . - . , ,
,
: 1213
, .
7. ,
,
. ,
(, ).
, , . , , , , .
8. purusartha. ,
: 1) (dharma), ,
. .; 2) , (artha),
; 3) () ; 4) (moksa) . . . .: . . , ,
, ., 1967, . 146164.
9. , .
10. Mahabharata 12.168.4.
11.
286

anukramani (, , ). .
12. ,
, (1.1.4647); .
13. Mahabharata 1.1.193. (Vasudeva )
.
14.
.
( ), , .
15. Mahabharata 1.1.193194:
,
, ,
, ,
...
16. (Harivarpsa), , ,
; : , .
.
17. (Kfsna Dvaipayana, . ) . :
; ,
(Mahabharata 1.57).
18. , purvapaksikrto nyaksena prakasate, , ,
. (purvapaksa) , , ( , , , , . .).
19. (parabrahman) , , , .
20. , (,
. .), , .
21. , -

287


, (. 11.55;
12.4, 1119 .).
22. ,
.
23. (. 575),

(Kasikavrtti) 4.1.114, , , ,
.
24. , , , (Mahabharata
3.103), , . , ,
(, -
).
25. (. 582), , : ,
, .
26. . . .
" %' "^
27. (1.16):
(sabdarthau sahitau kavyam).
.
.
, ,
. . 1.1316: .
. , {],
, []
[, ]; |[] (vyutpatti) , " (sausabdya), |[ , ]
. , ,
: {] . 2.1, . , , , : , - , {]
, [ ].
28. K a l i d a s a, Kumarasarribhava 1.49:

288

, ,
,
,
.

, (1.3149).
29. 1 i d a s a, Kumarasarpbhava 3.53. . . 68 .
30. , 7.13:

, ,
:
.
(, ,
, .) , , , , , ,
, , , , , , (7.926).
31. , 1.117.
32. , 6.5060. , / .
,
:
, ;
, , ,
, , , , ,
, . .
33. .
34.
, (sukha)
(duhkha).
35. ,
, .: . i a r d e a u, Theorie de la connaissance, et philosophie de la
parole dans le brahmanisme classique, Paris, 1964, . 117 .
36. , . , , ?
. -,
(Vyaktiviveka 2.114118): .
... .
29


;
, (pratibha). , (svarfipa) {],
. [
] , , {],
, .
37. , , (, . .). . , . 591.
38. (. 592),
(saindhavabhasa).
mahamaha , (mama.mama),
(madhumathana).
, ,
,
( ). : , , .
.
39. .
40. : parikslnapara...
41. ( ) , ,
.
42. . . ,
, .
43. : vaco'nimita...
44. ;
, " .
45. ! () ,
;
.

BSL
BSO(A)S
EVP
IHQ
JA
JAOS
JOI
JOR
NIA
SPAW
TPS
ZDMG

.
.
.
.
.
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Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies.
London Institution (University of London).
Etudes vediques et panineennes, Paris.
Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta.
Journal Asiatique, Paris.
Journal of the American Oriental Society, New Haven.
Journal of the Oriental Institute, Baroda.
Journal of Oriental Research, Madras.
New Indian Antiquary, Bombay.
Sitzungsberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wiss-:nschaften, Berlin.
Transactions of the Philological Society, London.
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft,
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texts and exhaustive notes by Jagannath Pathak, Varanasi, 1965.
Anandavardhana's Dhvanyaloka, flbersetzt von Hermann Jacobi, ZDMG,
1902, Bd 56, . 393410, 582615, 760789; 1903, Bd 57, . 1860,
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297


(725752) (
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SUMMARY

This book contains a complete translation into Russian of


Anandavardhana's Dhvanyaloka, made after the latest edition
of the text (The Vidyabhawan Sanskrit Granthamala 97, ed. Jagannath Pathak). The translation includes a commentary and
an introductory article on the theory of poetry outlined in
Dhvanyaloka and its place in the history of the medieval Indian poetics.
The interpretation of Anandavardhana's treatise proposed
here is based on the following principles. In solving intertextual problems and defining meanings of key-words information provided by the text itself was used as well as previous
theoretical, primarily Kashmiri, tradition. Later expositions of
the theory (by Mammata etc), including the famous commentary by Abhinavagupta, were not taken into consideration. The
precise meaning of separate categories (and of the whole
system), was defined with regard to characteristic features of
the poetic material studied in Dhvanyaloka. The analysis of the
text along these lines allowed certain conclusions to be made
as to its form, system of terms and general contents.
1. The long-discussed question of correlation between rules
() and commentary (vrtti) in Dhvanyuloka ("precisely,
whether they are parts of one text or different texts) should
be solved in favour of their recognition as separate texts. The
main reason for that conclusion is differences of principle
between karika and vrtti, evident in Ananda's explanations of
2.10, 3.6, 3.19, 3.4142 (a detailed analysis of these differences
is given in notes to the translation; see also p. 24). Thus
Dhvanyuloka must be regarded as a commentary written by
Anandavardhana to a small tractate in verse compiled (probably not long before) by a now unknown author (or, more
likely, by a group of authors).
2. Contrary to the generally accepted opinion, the meaning
of the term 'rasa' as used in Dhvanyaloka is different from
the one in Abhinavagupta's commentary. According to Abhinavagupta, 'rasa' signifies an aesthetic emotion as opposed to
an ordinary emotion, denoted by the word 'bhSva'. But in the
karika and Dhvanyaloka, as in early poetics in general, rasa
and bhava are terms for two forms, strong and weak correspondingly, of one emotional state; this state is not opposed to
301

Summary

ordinary emotion, neither is it conceived of as an emotional


response. It is simply a feeling described in a work of poetry
(cf. definitions of Dandin, Udbhata, Lollata; see also descriptions of santarasa and srngara in Anandavardhana's notes to
3.26, 3.28) '.
Such difference is due to Locana being not the usual type
of commentary, but rather an outline of Abhinavagupta's theory
in the form of a commentary. The core of this theory is a concept quite new in the Indian poetics: that of a specific emotion
evoked by a work of poetry, which results from sharing in the
emotional event described. It is clear that special terminology
had to be introduced to distinguish aesthetic emotion among
other forms of emotion. But Abhinavagupta would not create a
new system of terms. He preferred to remain within the traditional system, widely accepted in literature on theory of
poetics and theatre since NUtyaiustra2, the more so because
that enabled him to substitute his system for that of Dhvanyuloka while formally remaining within the framework of the
text he commented on. Later followers of Anandavardhana
(Mammata and others) artificially combined his theories with
those of Abhinavagupta, preserving the classification of poetical utterances proposed in Dhvanyuloka (that proved superfluous in the Locana system where every poetic utterance is an
utterance with rasa) and changing, after Abhinavagupta, the
meaning of the term 'rasa'. This eclectic system is the basis
of modern conception of the theory of dhvani.
3. Likewise, the widely accepted interpretation of the term
'dhvani' derives from Abhinavagupta's commentary and
treatises on poetics by his later followers. It does not correspond to what we find in Dhvanyuloka. Traditionally dhvani
signifies three concepts; 1) the suggested or 'being-manifested', i. e. implicit, meaning (this meaning of the term is belie1

The difference between raso and bhava is purely theoretical and is


not taken into consideration in the process of concrete analysis. As a rule,
only one term 'rasa' is used in Dhvanyuloka when speaking of emotion.
2
It should be noted that the actual meaning of the opposition rasa
bhava, and, consequently, of the term 'rasa' in Natyasastra is still obscure,
302

Summary

ved to be original, being derived from one of its literal meanings 'echo', 'reverberation'); 2) poetry (or, more exactly,
poetic utterances), where the suggested meaning is dominant;
3) the ability to manifest, i. e. suggest something which is not
expressed directly by the words of an utterance. However, only
two latter meanings are used in the text of karika and by
Anandavardhana, and the second meaning is original here (cf.
the definition of dhvani in 1.13 and Anandavardhana's explanation that this term is borrowed from grammarians and its use
to denote a class of truly poetical utterances is due to the wish
to emphasise their ability to manifest something apart from
their own meaning, for in grammar, more exactly, in Bhartrhari's system the word 'dhvani' (lit. 'sound') denotes a sound
sequence, manifesting a language symbol, with which it is
not identical). In the third meaning 'dhvani' is probably used
in the first karikS and in several places in Dhvanyaloka (e. g.
in the discourse after 3.33). This term has the same two meanings (second and third) in literature of the 10th century
(Bhattanayaka, IndurSja, Kuntaka). Only as late as in Locana
does dhvani come to denote manifested meaning. This shift in
the term's usage results from overall changes in the system,
discussed above (cf. note 47 in the introduction).
4. The theory of dhvani as a whole should be regarded as an
attempt at a solution of problems vital for the poetics of the
89th centuries, the main problems being: 1) the establishment
of a general structural principle determinig the specific character of poetic speech (see in this connection the notion of style
in Vamana); 2) the systematisation of stylistic devices already
known from earlier handbooks (cf. tentative systems of this
kind in Vamana and Rudrata; 3) the definition of conditions
determining stylistic choice in poetry (cf. the contradictoriness
of Vamana's stylistic system, stemming from the absence of
rules dictating choice of stylistic forms). The solution of these
problems, suggested by the dhvani theory, can be summarised
as follows. First of all the very approach to the subject was
changed poetic speech, which had been studied irrespective
of its creators came to be regarded as a system of messages,
303

Summary

necessarily suggesting a poet on one hand and a connoisseur


on the other 3. Thus, the concept of the author's intention was
introduced (or 'wish to say' vivaksa) as a factor determining
choice out of a range of stylistic variants acceptable within an
existing norm. Further on, semantic ambiguity was recognised
as a distinctive feature of poetic speech, namely, the presence
of two layers in the meaning of poetic utterances (at least of
truly poetic ones): a layer of the explicit or expressed meaning
and a layer of the implicit, or 'being-manifested' meaning.
It actually meant establishment of a general feature distinguishing the structure of most traditional 'ornaments' (from
metaphor to pun). As a result a new classification of stylistic
devices appeared feasible: they were divided into two groups
those without manifested meaning (i. e. 'expressed', explicit
ornaments) and those with the manifested meaning. The devices
of the second group were also classified according to the type
of semantic structure, determined by the character of interaction
between the explicit and implicit levels and according to the
hierarchical position of the manifested meaning (within one
structure the manifested meaning may either dominate the
expressed meaning or be subordinate to it). The presence (and,
granted that, domination) of the implicit meaning was considered a condition for the enhancement of the stylistic effect of
a device. Thus, utterances where the manifested meaning
dominates (dhvani), constituted a group of aesthetically strong
devices, utterances where it is secondary in importance a
medium group, while 'expressed' ornaments formed a weak
group. Finally, rasa acquired the role of theme, in the theory of
dhvani, and all elements of a literary work, from plot (o sound
structures, came to be regarded as subordinated to the task of
ils implementation cf. in this connection the introduction of
the new concept of propriety (aucitya).
3
In connection with this approach, the term 'kavya' 'poetry', 'a work
of poetry', most often 'poetic speech' acquires in karika and in Dhvanyaloka
a meaning of 'poetical utterance' (cf. the equivalent term kSvyavakya).

304

15
21
53
58
138
188
235
241

6 .
18 .
9 .
11 .
14 .
8 .
2 .
3 .

241
251
286
302

1 .
2 .
11 .
5 .

sangraha samk$epa

patamga
, ,
.
. sg.
(anulbana)
1.1.40
raso

sangraha, samksepa

patamga
,
.
G. sg.
(anulbana)
1.2.40
rasa
. 181