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2012/2013 .

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4
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17. . . -
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18. ( ). .
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22. . . -
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24. .
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I 8
I.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
I.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
I.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
I.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
I.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
I.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

II 20
II.1 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
II.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
II.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
II.4 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
II.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
II.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
II.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
II.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

III II- 36
III.1 II- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
III.2 II- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
III.3 II- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III.4 II- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III.5 II- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

IV 42
IV.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
IV.3 An . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
IV.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
IV.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
IV.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
IV.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
IV.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
IV.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
IV.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

V 57
V.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
V.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
V.3 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
V.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
V.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
V.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
V.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
V.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

VI 76
VI.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
VI.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
VI.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
VI.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
VI.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
VI.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
VI.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

VII 88
VII.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
VII.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
VII.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
VII.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

VIII 94
VIII.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
VIII.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
VIII.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
VIII.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
VIII.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

IX 99
IX.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
IX.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
IX.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

X 108
X.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
X.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
X.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
X.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
X.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
X.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
X.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
X.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
X.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
X.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

XI 120
XI.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
XI.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
XI.3 . . . . . . . 125

XII 129

134

7
I

I.1


1. a = AB b = BC c = AC.
.

ab b
(b). ,
,
.

2. x {e1 , e2 , e3 -
(x1 , x2 , x3 ), :

x = x1e1 + x2e2 + x3e3 . (I.1)


(x1 , x2 ):

x = x1e1 + x2e2 . (I.2)

, ,
n, ( n = 2
{e1 , e2 }. , ,
() , ,
.

3 () (-
):

: x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ), y = (y 1 , y 2 , y 3 ), :

x y = z = (x1 y 1 , x2 y 2 , x3 y 3 ). (I.3)

4. , -
, ,
, -:


A1 A2 + A2 A3 + . . . An1 An + An A1 = 0. (I.4)

5. a ( a) a
, a ;

8
I.1.

a , a, -
, a, - .
.

x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ). (I.5)

6. , ,
.
:

b = a. (I.6)

a = (x1 ; y1 ; z1 ), b = (x2 ; y2 ; z2 )

:
x2 y2 z2
= = .
x1 y1 z1

1. O ,
{O; e1 , e2 , e3 }. O .

2. M {O; e1 , e2 , e3 } -

r = OM :


M (x1 , x2 , x3 ) OM = x1e1 + x2e2 + x3e3 . (I.7)


3. AB
[AB] :


AB = (x1B x1A , x2B x2A , x3B x3A ). (I.8)

4. , . M (x1 , x2 , x3 ) -
[AB] , ..:

AM = M B, (I.9)

x1A + x1B 2 x2 + x2B 3 x3 + x3B


x1 = ,x = A ;x = A . (I.10)
1+ 1+ 1+

9
I.

I.2

()
a b ( a b ) -
, :

() d

a b = |a||b| cos a b . (I.11)
i.

AB :

pi AB

A B , , -

A B , , A B

i, , A B i .

-
:
()
a b = |a|pa b = |b|pb a. (I.12)
:

()
a b
pb a = . (I.13)
|b|

1. :

() ()
a b = b a ; (I.14)

2. :

( ) () ()
(a + b) c = a c + b c ; (I.15)

3. , -
:

()
a b = 0 a b. (I.16)

4. ( -
):


() ()
a a = a 2 = |a| = a a . (I.17)

10
I.2.

d
5. . = a b a b
, .
[0, ].
d
d

a b = 0, a b , a b = , a b
.

1.
()
e e = 1.
.

2. ,
():

( )
ei ek = ik = (1, i = k; 0, i = k). (I.18)

3.
i, j, k :

|i| = |j| = |k| = 1, (I.19)


() () ()
i j = j k = i k = 0. (I.20)

4. (), O
{i, j, k}, , O - .
r
:

r = ix + jy + kz

r = (x, y, z).


{i, j, k} a b :

a = (xa , ya , za ), b = (xb , yb , zb ).

1. :

()
a b = xa xb + ya yb + za zb . (I.21)

2. :

11
I.


()
|a| = a a = x2a + ya2 + za2 . (I.22)

3. :

()
d
a b xa xb + ya yb + za zb
cos a b = = . (I.23)
|a||b| x2a + ya2 + za2 x2b + yb2 + zb2

4 :

a b. -
b -
a , -
a:
b = a, (I.24)
-
a , b , -
a:
( )
a b = 0, (I.25)

:
b = b + b . (I.26)
, (I.24) (I.25)
. 1. b - a,
(I.25):
a. ()
() a d
a b = |a|2 ; = = (I.27)
|a|2

, (I.24) I.26) :
() ()
b = a b b = b a d
a; a. (I.28)
|a|2 |a|2

, b , pa b.

I.1. b = (3, 1, 2) -
a = (1, 2, 2).

:
()
a b = 1; |a| = 3.
:
b = 1 (1, 2, 2); b = 1 (26, 7, 20).
9 9

12
I.3.

I.3

.
a b x, -
:(1) -
[]
d

6 x = a b a b; (2) |x| = |a||b| sin a b ; (3)
, (a, b, x) (. 2).

b  *. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............

  ....
.
 I .....
O  ) -. . .
a 1.

[]
?
x1 = b a [] []
a b = b a . (I.29)

. 2. - 2.

[ ] [] []
(a + b) c = a c + b c . (I.30)

3. ,
a b.

4.
:

[]
a = b a b = 0. (I.31)

5. :


i j k
[]
a b = xa ya za . (I.32)
xb yb zb

6. ABC
:
A(xA , yA , zA ); B(xB , yB , zB ); C(xC , yC , zC ).
:


j k
1 [] 1 i
|.
S = | a b | = | xB xA yB yA zB zA (I.33)
2 2
xC xA yC yA zC zA

7. :

13
I.


1 xB xA yB yA 1( )
S = | |= (x2 x) (y3 y1 ) (y2 y1 )(x3 x1 ) . (I.34)
2 xC xA yC yA 2

I.4

a, b, c ,
[] ( )
a b c. a , b , c , ..:

( ) def ( [ ] )
a, b , c = a b c . (I.35)

1. :

[] [] []
( a b c) = (a b c ) = ( b c a). (I.36)

2. :

( ) ( ) ( )
a, b , c = b , c , a = c , a, b =
( ) ( ) ( )
= b , a, c = a, c , b = c , b , a . (I.37)

3. . (a, b, c) ,
:

( )
a, b, c a , b , c = 0. (I.38)

4. . :



( ) xa ya za
a , b , c = xb yb zb .
(I.39)
xc yc zc

5. -
a, b, c , (. . 3).

A, B, C, D - , ,
. :

xB xA yB yA zB zA

V = xC xA yB yA zC zA . (I.40)
xD xA yD yA zC zA


:
1
V = V .
3

14
I.5.

[] a) b)
x = a b
6

 ..   .. 
. . . . . . ... 

. . . . . . ... 

h
..

 .


h  ..

c
..

c
..


b * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 . . .

a * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 . . .



-


-

a b

? []
x = a b

. 3.

I.5

[ [

]] a, b, c a b c
.

ABC=BAC-CAB):
[ []] () ()
a b c = b a c c a b . (I.41)

(IV.18) -
-
.

, (IV.18), -
. . .

I.6

I.2. x = 3a 4b + 2c , a, b, c
.
1. x {a, b, c}.
2. ,

p = 2a b + c, q = a + 2b c, r = a + b 2c

15
I.

1. (I.1) , x {a, b, c}
x , .., x = (3, 4, 2).
2. p, q, r {a, b, c}:

p = (2, 1, 1), q = (1, 2, 1), r = (1, 1, 2).

, , -
, :

2 1 1

= 1 2 1 .
1 1 2

, :
= 6 = 0,
, p, q, r , .., .

I.3. a = (1, 2, 2) b = (2, 4, 4).


, a b -
, .

1. :


|a| = 12 + 22 + (2)2 = 3;

|b| = 2 12 + (2)2 + 22 = 2 3 = 6.
()
a b = 1 2 + 2 (4) + (2) 4 = 14.

2. :

()
d
a b 14 7
cos a b = == =

|a||b| 18 9
.

3. :

()
a b 14
pb a = = .

|b| 3

4. :


i j k
[]
a b = 1 2 2 = 0 i 8 j 8 k = 8(0, 1, 1).
2 4 4

5. :

16
I.6.

[]
S = | a b | = 8 2.

d

I.4. c, a b .

c a b, :

c = a + b.


() ()
d
d
a c c b
a c = c b = = .
|a| |b|
, , :
() ()
a b a b
|a| + = + |b|.
|a| |b|

, :

14 7
3 = + 6.
3 3
, :
16 = 32 = = 2.
, , = 1, : = 2. :

c = 2a + c = (4, 0, 0) = c = (1, 0, 0) = i.

I.5. a = (2, 3, 1), b = (1, 1, 3), c = (1, 9, 11)?



2 3 1

1 1 3 = 2(11 27) 3(11 3) 1(9 + 1) = 0.

1 9 11

I.6.

[] [] []
[ a b c] + [ b c a] + [ c a b] = 0.

(IV.18).
:
[ []] () () [ []] () ()
c a b = a c b b c a , a b c = b a c c a b ,
[ []] () ()
b c a = c b a a b c .

17
I.

.
.

I.7. :

A(1, 2); B(5, 5); C(7, 10).

: ABC, , ,
B, AD, D - , ABC (. . 4).


AB AC :

AB = (4, 3); AC = (6, 8).

, :

|AB| = 42 + 32 = 5; |AC| = 62 + 82 = 10.

, ,
(
)
AB AC 48 24
cos A = = = .
|AB| |AC| 10 5 25
. 4. -

:

( AB AC ) 48
=
|AD| = pAC
AB = .
|AC| 5

F BC ,

AB AC:
1 [ ]
SABC = AB AC .
2
, :

i j k
1
6 8 0 = 1 |k|
6 8 | 6|
SABC = 2

4 = = 3,
2 4 3 0 3 2

|k| = 1. :
1
SABC = |AC| h,
2
: h = 65 .

I.8. :

A(1, 1, 1); B(3, 1, 2); C(2, 3, 3); D(1, 2, 5).

, ABC , D
.

18
I.6.

1. , :


AB = (xB xA , yB yA , zB zA ) = (2, 2, 1);

AC = (1, 2, 2); BC = (1, 4, 1);

AD = (0, 3, 4).

2. :


|AB| = 3; |AC| = 3; |AD| = 5; |BC| = 3 2.

3. :


[ ] i j k

p = AB AC = 2 2 1 = (6, 3, 6) = 3(2, 1, 2).
1 2 2

4. :

1 [ ] 9
S = AB AC = .
2 2

5. :

( ) ( )
AB, AC, AD = p AC = 33.

6. :

1 ( ) 11
V= AB, AC, AD = .
6 2

7. :

3V 11
h= = .
S 3

19
II

II.1 :

1. . d = d(M0 ; q), M0 q,
M, :

M0 M = q. (II.1)

M0 , q ,
, , - .

2. M
M0 :

M (x, y, z); M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ),

q {i, j, k}

q = (l, m, n).

(II.1) :



x = x0 + l ;


x = x0 + l ;
y = y0 + m ; ( ) := (II.2)



y = y0 + m

z = z0 + n

3. . (II.2) -
:

x x0 y y0 z z0 x x0 y y0
= = ; ( ) := = . (II.3)
l m n l m

II.2

1. . -
:

A(x x0 ) + B(y y0 ) = 0, (II.4)

20
II.2.

:
Ax + By + C = 0, (II.5)
A, B .

4. . A, B -
(l, m) q :

A = l, B = m, ( = 0). (II.6)

5. . -
d:
N
( )
= (A, B),
N N q = 0. (II.7)

:
( )

N M0 M = 0. (II.8)

6. . d1 d2 ,
:

d1 : A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0; A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0

, :
A1 B1
= ,
A2 B2
, :
A1 B1 C1
= =
A2 B2 C2
, :
A1 B1 C1
= = .
A2 B2 C2

7. . :
1
= sgn(C) , (II.9)
A + B2
2

.
, :

x cos + y sin p = 0, (II.10)

- , , Ox, p -
:
A B |C|
cos = sgn(C) ; sin = sgn(C) ; p= . (II.11)
A2 + B 2 A2 + B 2 A2 + B 2

21
II.
a) b)

y y R
H
HH M 6 QQ 6 . . . .
AK HH Q  ..
..
A H Q Q  ..
A HH Q Q  ..
..
Q
A HH QQ 
* .. M0 (x0 , y0 )
r A  HH    ...
Q 0
r .
A p H  Q ..
HH  Q ...
A n  n   .
HH Q.. M
A  I HH  Q
A ) - x  Q
HH Q - x
Q
O O QQ

. 5.

8. . M0 ,
+d, M0 , d, M0
.
:

= x0 cos + y0 sin p, (II.12)

(x0 , y0 ) M0 .

9. .
() :
( ) ( )
q1 q2 1 N
N 2
cos d\
1 , d2 = ; cos d\
1 , d2 = . (II.13)
|q1 ||q2 | |N
1 ||N
2 |

10. .
,
:

|C2 C1 |
d1 ,d2 = . (II.14)
A2 + B 2

II.3

1. . d1 (M1 , ; q1 )
d2 (M2 ; q2 )

. :

22
II.3.

( )
q1 , q2 , M1 M2 = 0 (II.15)

. :

( )
q1 , q2 , M1 M2 = 0. (II.16)

2. (II.15), ,

a. :

[ ]
q1 q2 = 0, (II.17)

. :

[ ] [ ]
q1 q2 = 0; q1 M1 M2 = 0, (II.18)

. :

[ ] [ ]
q1 q2 = 0; q1 M1 M2 = 0. (II.19)

3. .
:

( )

q1 , q2 , M1 M2
d1 ,d2 = [ ] . (II.20)

q1 q2

4. .
:

[ ]

q1 M1 M2
d1 d2 = . (II.21)
|q1 |

23
II.

II.4 :

.
N (M0 ; q1 , q2 ), M0
6 {q1 , q2 }, -
M
, :
 M0 
PP - q2 
M0 M = 1 q1 + 2 q2 , (II.22)
  P PP 
    q1 q M M0 , q1 , q2
  , -


, 1 , 2 , -
(M0 ; q1 , q2 ) -
(. . 6).

. 6.
-
.

2. . :

M0 (X0 , y0 , z0 ); M (x, y, z); q1 = (l1 , m1 , n1 ); q2 = (l2 , m2 , n2 ).

(M0 , q1 , q2 ) :



x = 1 l1 + 2 l2 ;



y = 1 m1 + 2 m2 ; . (II.23)





z = 1 n1 + 2 n2

3. . (II.22) -

q1 , q2 , M0 M :

x x0 y y0 z z0

l1 m1 n1 = 0. (II.24)

l2 m2 n2

4. . (M0 ; N ), M0 -
, M , :
N
( )
M0 M N
= 0. (II.25)

( ) . (.
N
. 6.)

5. . :

= (A, B, C).
N

24
II.5.

(M0 ; N ) (4)
:
A(x x0 ) + B(y y0 ) + C(z z0 ) = 0, (II.26)
:
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0. (II.27)

6. :

[ ]
= q1 q2 .
N (II.28)

(II.28) (II.24) (II.26).

7. . -
(II.27) :

1
= sgn(D) (II.29)
A2 + B 2 + C 2

( )
:
x cos + y cos + z cos p = 0, (II.30)
, , - , , p
:

A B
cos = sgn(D) ; cos = sgn(D) ;
A + B2 + C 2
2 A + B2 + C 2
2

C |D|
cos = sgn(D) ; p= . (II.31)
A + B2 + C 2
2 A + B2 + C 2
2

(II.12) .

II.5

1. . 1 ) 2 (M2 ; N
1 (M1 ; N 2)

. :

[ ]
1 N
N 2 = 0, (II.32)

. :

[ ] ( )
1 N
N 2 = 0 2 ,
1 , N
N M1 M2 = 0 (II.33)

. :

25
II.

[ ] ( )
1 N
N 2 = 0 N 2 ,
1 , N M1 M2 = 0. (II.34)

2. , ,
; , :
A1 B1 C1 D1
= = = (II.35)
A2 B2 C2 D2
, :
A1 B1 C1 D1
= = = . (II.36)
A2 B2 C2 D2

1 ) 2 (M2 ; N
3. . 1 (M1 ; N 2 )
:

( )
1 N
N 2
\
\
1 2 = N1 N2 = cos = . (II.37)
|N
1 ||N
2 |
, , :
( )
1 N
N 2
0. (II.38)
=

4. . d 1 (M1 ; N 1 ) 2 (M2 ; N
2)
d(M0 ; q), M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) - , q
:

[ ]
q = N1 N
2 . (II.39)

5. .
:

Ax + By + Cz + D1 = 0;

Ax + By + Cz + D2 = 0.
:
|D2 D1 |
1 2 = . (II.40)
A2 + B 2 + C 2

II.6

1. . d(M1 ; q)
:

. ) :
(M2 ; N

( )
q N = 0; (II.41)

26
II.7.

. :

( ) [ ]
qN =0 q M1 M2 = 0, (II.42)

. :

( ) [ ]
qN =0 q M1 M2 = 0. (II.43)

)
2. . d(M1 ; q) (M2 ; N

. :

( )
qN
sin = . (II.44)
|q||N
|

3. .
, :

|Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D|


d, = (II.45)
A2 + B 2 + C 2
:
M1 M2 N

( ) ( )
| M1 M2 N
| | q1 , q2 , M1 M2 |
d, = = . (II.46)
|N
| |N
|

II.7

II.1. d1 A(1, 2) q = (3, 4), d2


:
4x + 3y 15 = 0,
d3 :

x2 y3
= .
4 3
d1 d2 d1 d3 .

d1 q = (3, 4), , , N
1 = (4, 3).
d2
N 2 = (4, 3),

- , . d1 :

4(x 1) + 3(x 2) = 0 = 4x + 3y 10 = 0.

27
II.

, d1 d2 .
:

| 15 (10)| 5
d1 ,d2 = = = 1.
32 + 42 5

d3 (2, 3) (4, 3),


3 = (3, 4), :
N

3(x 2) + 4(y 3) = 0 = 3x + 4y 2 = 0.

: ( )
1 N
N 3 = 4 (3) + 3 4 = 0,

d1 d3 .
:
4x + 3y 10 = 0 ;
.

3x + 4y 2 = 0
, :
( )
34 38
M , .
25 25

II.2. x y + 1 = 0.

,
1 1
= .
2
1 + (1) 2 2

:
1 1 1
x + y = 0.
2 2 2

II.3. P (1, 2) 2x + y 3 = 0.

:
2 1 3
x + y = 0.
5 5 5
P (1, 2). ,
2 1 3 3
= + (2) = .
5 5 5 5

II.4. , x2y+1 =
0 2x + y 2 = 0.

28
II.7.

.
1 2 1
x + y = 0
5 5 5

2 1 2
x + y = 0.
5 5 5
,
3 1 1
x + y + = 0
5 5 5
y = 3x 1.
,
1 3 3
x + y = 0,
5 5 5
1
.. x + 3y 3 = 0 y = x + 1.
3
II.5. x y + 1 = 0 2x + y + 1 = 0 ,
3x + y + 1 = 0. .

(x y + 1) + (2x + y + 1) = 0 ( + 2)x + ( + )y + + = 0. :
1 4 5
+ 2 = 3 + = 1, . . = , = . : 3x + y + = 0.
3 3 3
II.6. ABC :

A(1, 2); B(4, 6); C(8, 3).

, , B,
B.

1. , :

AB = (3, 4); BC = (4, 3); AC = (7, 1).

( )
AB BC = 3 4 + 4 (3) = 0,

B : B =
2.

2. . (BD) , -
=
B N

AC :
( )
AC BM = 0 = 7(x 4) + 1(y 6) = 0 =

(AC) : 7x + y 34 = 0.

29
II.

3. h. , (AC)
:
= (m, l).
q = (l, m) = N
, :
1 = (1, 7)
N

(AC):

(AC) : 1(x 1) + 7(y 2) = 0 = x + 7y 13 = 0.



( 50 = 5 2):
1 7 13
(AC) : x + y = 0.
5 2 5 2 5 2
, B (AC) :
1 4 + 7 6 13 14
B = = .
5 2 5 2
h.

4. . [AC], E:
1+8 9 2+3 5
xE = = ; yE = = .
2 2 2 2
:
1 7
BE = ( , ) = q = (1, 7).
2 2
(BE):

x4 y6
= = 7x + y 34 = 0.
1 7

5. . d1 B -
, (AB) (BC). (AB) (CD):
x1 y2
(AB) : = = 4x 3y + 2 = 0;
3 4
x4 y6
(BC) : = = 3x + 4y 36 = 0.
4 3
:
4x + 3y 2
(AB) : = 0;
5
3x + 4y 36
(BC) : = 0.
5
, B ( ) :

d1 ,(AB) = d1 ,(BC) .

,
. , :

d1 : x 7y + 38 = 0.

30
II.8.

II.8

II.7.
x+1 y1 z+2 x2 y+1 z5
= = , = =
2 0 1 1 2 0
?

(II.15),

3 2 7

= 2 0 1 = 3 2 + 2 1 + 7 4 = 36 = 0.
1 2 0

II.8. d1 (M1 , q1 ) d2 (M2 , q2 ), :

M1 (1, 2, 5); q1 = (2, 1, 2); M2 (5, 6, 3); q2 = (1, 2, 2).

1. , .

M1 M2 = (4, 4, 2) = 2(2, 2, 1)

:

( ) 2 1 2

q1 , q2 , M1 M2 = 2 1 2 2 = 6 = 0.

2 2 1

, d1 d2 .

2. . :

[ ] i j k

q1 q2 = 2 1 2 = (2, 2, 3).
1 2 2

: ( )
| q1 , q2 , M1 M2 | 6
d1 ,d2 = [ ] = .
| q1 q2 | 17

3. . :
( )
q1 q2 8
cos = = .
|q1 ||q2 | 9

31
II.

II.9. M (1, 1, 2) 3x y + z + 1 = 0.

:
3x y z 1
+ = 0.
11 11 11 11
:
3 1 2 1 7

d = = .
11 11 11 11 11

II.10. , M0 (1, 2, 2)
3x + 2y z + 1 = 0.

N 1 (3, 2, 1).
( ) , N 1 . 3(x1)+2(y2)(z+2) = 0
3x + 2y z 9 = 0.

II.11. , M0 (1; 2; 2)
3x + 2y z + 1 = 0.

(II.38) 3A2 +2B2 C2 = 0. C2 = 3A2 +2B2


A2 (x1)+B2 (y2)+C2 (z+2) = 0. : A2 x+B2 y+(3A2 +2B2 )z = 5A2 2B2
.

II.12. :

: 4x 2y + 4z + 25 = 0

:
x2 y4 z1
d1 : = = ,
1 4 1
x3 y1 z1
d2 : = = .
2 1 2

1. . -
q1 , q2 :
N
= (4, 2, 4) = N
N = (2, 1, 2);

32
II.8.

q1 = (1, 4, 1); q2 = (2, 1, 2).

2. .
. , : x = z = 0, y = 25/2. ,
25
M0 = (0, , 0)
2
.

3. .
( )
q1 N
= 0,

, d1 .
( )
q2 N
= 1 = 0,

, d2 .

4. , d1 :
( )
17
M0 M1 = 4, , 1 .
2
, q1 , , -
d1 .

5. .
( = 1/6):
2 1 2 25
x+ y z = 0.
3 3 3 6
M1 :
4 4 2 25 29
M1 = + =
3 3 3 6 6
, d1 : = 29/6.

6. F d2 .
:
x = 3 + 2t ;

y = 1 + t;

z = 1 2t
x, y, z :

4(3 + 2t) 2(1 + t) + 4(1 2t) + 25 = 0,

:
39
t= .
2

33
II.

, -
:

( )
41
F = 42, , 38 .
2

7. d2 . :
( )
q2 N
sin = .
|q2 ||N
|

:
414 1
sin = = .
33 9

II.13. :

1 : 2x 2y + z 21 = 0;

2 : x + 2y 2z + 9 = 0.

1. .
1 = (2, 2, 1);
N 2 = (1, 2, 2).
N

2. .

[ ] i j k

q = N 2 = 2 2 1 = (2, 5, 6).
1 N

1 2 2

, .

3. . -
. , , z = 0. :
13
2x 2y 21 = 0; x + 2y + 9 = 0 = 3x 12 = 0 = x = 4; y = .
2
,
13
M0 = (4,
, 0).
2
q. :
13
x4 y+
d = 1 2 : = 2 = z.
2 5 6

34
II.8.

4. . :
( )
N1 N2
cos = = 0.
|N
1 ||N
2 |

, 1 2 .

35
III

II-

III.1 II-
: , , . -
-
.

1. . a b - . -
:

x2 y2
2 + 2 = 1. (III.1)
a b

2. . Ox
:
x2 y2
2 2 = 1, (III.2)
a b
( Oy) :

x2 y2
+ = 1. (III.3)
a2 b2

3. . p . -
Ox :

y 2 = 2px. (III.4)

1. . a > b.
Ox.

c = a2 b2 < a, (III.5)


c
=
< 1, (III.6)
a
. :

F1 (c, 0) F2 (c, 0),

36
III.1. II-

. , b > a c
(III.5) (III.6), a b.
Oy, .

2. . d1 , d2 ,
:

a a2
d1,2 : x= (= ) (III.7)
c
.
. 7.
x2 y2
2
+ 2 =1
a b

3. .
M0 (x0 , y0 ) :
xx0 yy0
2 + = 1. (III.8)
a b2

4. , +
.


c= a2 + b2 > a, b, (III.9)


c
= > 1, (III.10)
a

. :

F1 (c, 0) F2 (c, 0),

. d1 , d2 , :

a a2
d1,2 : x= (= ) (III.11)
c

37
III. II-

y
d2 2. .
d1 M(x,y)
5. . -

r2 M0 (x0 , y0 ) :
r1
xx0 yy0
2 = 1. (III.12)
F1(-c,0) O F2(c,0) x a b2

6. . :

x=- ae x=+ ae b
y= x (III.13)
a
.
. 8.

x2 y2
=1
a2 b2

D
d M(x,y) 7. M (p/2, 0)
, d,
r :
p
O d: x= , (III.14)
2
F(p/2,0) x . -

M0 (x0 , y0 ) :

yy0 = p(x + x0 ). (III.15)

x=- p
2

. 9. y 2 = 2px

III.2 II-

1. . M II- :

1,2 = |F1,2 M |. (III.16)

: ,
:
1 + 2 = 2a. (III.17)

38
III.3. II-

2. . : -
, :

|1 2 | = 2a. (III.18)

III.3 II-
II- ;

1. d
, -
:
|F M |
= . (III.19)
d

III.4 II-

1. . , ,
.

2. . , ,
,
.

3. . , ,
.

1. , -
, II-
:
p
= . (III.20)
1 + cos

III.5 II-

III.1. , :
x2 y2
+ = 1.
9 25

39
III. II-

:
a= 9 = 3; b= 25 = 5.
, b > a Oy:

c = 52 32 = 4; F1 (0, 4); F2 (0, 4).

:
c 4
== .
b 5
( Ox):
b 25
d1,2 : y = = .
4

x2 y2
III.2. + = 1, -
25 16
2x 3y + 1 = 0.

Ax + By + C ( = 0
)
3
2x 3y + 1 = 0 2A 3B = 0 A = B , : 25A2 + 16B 2 = C 2 .
( 2
)
9 17
, 25 + 16 B 2 = C 2 , .. C = B.
4 2
3 17 1
A = B, C = B B,
2 2 2
: 3x + 2y 17 = 0.

III.3. ,

d : 3x 4y + 5 = 0

= 1/2 F1 (5, 10) -


. .

:
3 4
x + y 1 = 0.
5 5
F1 :
3 4
F1 = (5) + 10 1 = 10.
5 5
, F1 10. -
:

a a2 a2 c2 b2
c= c= = .
c c c

40
III.5. II-


a2 b2 1
= =
a 2
:
3
b= a.
2
, :
10 5 5
a= ; b= , c= .
3 3 3

q = (4, 3),

4(x + 5) + 3(y 10) = 0 = 4x + 3y 10 = 0.

M (x0 , y0 ) - . -
:
3 4
M = x0 + y0 1,
5 5
:

3 4
M0 = x0 + y0 1 .
5 5

M0 :

1 = (x0 + 5)2 + (y 10)2 .

21 = 2 2M0 .

, , :
25 ( )
(3x0 4y0 + 5)2 = (x0 + 5)2 + (y0 10)2 .
4
, -
(x0 , y0 ) .
, . , ,
Ox N = (4, 3) ( ,
), :

3x 2 9y 2
+ = 1.
25 100

41
IV

IV.1

A = - ,
A , B , C , . . .. V .

IV.1. A =
V , ,
A V :
g : A A V (IV.1)
( ):

IV.1. ( 1 ) A A a V -
B A, :

g(A, B) = a ; (IV.2)

( g(a, B) = AB);

IV.2. (2 ) A, B, C A :
1

AB + BC = AC ; (A, B, C A) . (IV.3)

V
A, - A.


AB = CD AC = BD . (IV.4)

AA = 0 , A A . (IV.5)

AB = BA , A, B A . (IV.6)

AB = 0 A = B . (IV.7)
1 .

42
IV.2.

IV.2. A -
V :
def
dim A = dim V . (IV.8)

n An . , -
, . -
{A} ( ), {V } {R}
( ). V , R
, ;
A , V (IV.1), [IV.1],
[IV.2].

IV.2

A A - , V V -
f : V V .

IV.3. A A -
:

: A A | f (A B ) = AB , A, B A , (IV.9)
A = (A) A, B = (B) af - A , B.

A A ,
(IV.9).

IV.4. n + 1
{O, A1 , A2 , . . . , An } An , ,

OAi = ei Vn (i = 1, n) (IV.10)

Vn , , -
. O .

IV.5. n + 1 A0 , A1 , . . . , An An

, A0 A1 , A0 A2 , . . . , A0 An Vn .

O An
{ei }n Vn : {O; e1 , . . . , en }. An - : An
A(Rn ).

IV.6. OM Vn - M An -
O A.

43
IV.

IV.7. {O; e1 , . . . , en } -:

OM = xiei (IV.11)

: M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).

A B {O; e1 , . . . , en } A(a1 , a2 , . . . , an )
B(b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ), .., [IV.7] :

OA = aiei ; OB = biei . (IV.12)

, [IV.7], (A, B) Vn

AB.

IV.1. AB ,
:

AB = (x1B x1A , x2B x2A , . . . , xnB xnA ) . (IV.13)

IV.8. f : An An An -
, .

An {O; e1 , . . . , en } {O ; e 1 , . . . , e n }
M An , {xi } , M
:

f : M M | OM = xiei O M = xi e i , M An . (IV.14)

-
:

xk = xi Ci k + xkO , (IV.15)

:
[x] = C 1 [x] + [xO ] , (IV.16)
C 1 , C.
:

-
(IV.15),

.

IV.3 An

IV.9. d A, M0 A -
q V , M A, , :

M0 M = q , {} = R . (IV.17)

44
IV.4.

M0 , q - ,
- , R.

M0 = 0. d, M0
q, d(M0 ;

q ).

IV.2. M1 - d(M0 ; q ) q1 -
, q. M1 q1 :

d(M1 ;

q1 ) = d(M0 ;

q ).

IV.3. M0 M1 A .

(M0 M1 ).

IV.4

IV.10. , M [M1 M2 ] ,
:

M1 M = M M2 , (IV.18)
= 1 : M1 , M , M2 .
:
(M1 M2 , M ) = . (IV.19)

IV.11. , M M1 M2 , :

(M1 M2 , M ) > 0; (IV.20)

:
(M1 M M2 ) (M1 M2 , M ) > 0. (IV.21)

. M1 M2
(M1 = M2 ) (M1 M2 ):

[M1 M2 ] = {M1 , M2 } M A | (M1 M M2 ) . (IV.22)

(M1 M2 ), M1 M2 , -
, M1 M2 ( ).

. [M1 M2 ) M1 M2 -
(M1 M2 ):

[M1 M2 ) = {M A} | M1 M = M1 M2 ; {} = R+ } . (IV.23)

45
IV.

IV.5 ,
[M1 M2 ], M1 (xi1 ) ; M2 (xi2 ). -
M (xi ), [M1 M2 ] (.., : 1).
(IV.18), :
xi xi2 = (xi1 xi ) ; i = 1, n .
x ( = 1), :
i

xi + xi2
M1 M = M M2 xi = 1 ; (i = 1, n) . (IV.24)
1+

, = 1, .., (1 : 1),
:
xi1 + xi2
[M1 M ] = [M M2 ] xi = , (i = 1, n) , (IV.25)
2
.

IV.6

, -
.

,
{O ; {ei }n } {O ; {e k }n }, M , (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ),
M = f (M ), {xi }: M (xi ).
V ,
{ei }n {e k }n : f : {ei }n {e k }n .
x, {ei }n {xi }, x , {e k }n
{xi }. ,
, - .

IV.4. .

IV.5. -
.

IV.6.
.

IV.7. .

IV.8. , - .

IV.9.
, - .

46
IV.7.

IV.7
k -
, d(M0 , q),
M0 q (. [2]). VK Vn - - k -
Vn - An , (0 < k <= n 1), M0 An
- - An .

IV.12. k - k (M0 ; Vk ) An , M0
Vk , M An ,

M0 M Vk , .., { }

k (M0 ; Vk ) = M |M An , M0 M Vk . (IV.26)
Vk , M0
- .

IV.10. k - .

Vk , -
k (M0 ; Vk ) Ak k, Vk -
.

k -
An - {O; e1 , . . . , en }. k (M0 ; Vk ) An
{q1 , q2 , . . . , qk } - Vk .
(IV.26)

M k (M0 ; Vk ) M0 M Vk ,
:

M k (M0 ; Vk ) M0 M = q . (IV.27)
(IV.27) k - , R; ( =

1, k) - , , q - -
.
, M0 Vk -
{q1 , q2 , . . . , qk } k (M0 ; q1 , q2 . . . , qk ). ,
k- :
{ }
k (M0 ; q1 , q2 . . . , qk ) = M An |M0 M = q ,

{ 1 }
, . . . , k = Rk . (IV.28)
, M , . . .,
R; ( = 1, k) .
.
xi - M , xi0 - M0 {O; e1 , . . . , en }, qi - -
q {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }, ..:
q = qi ei .
(IV.28), -
k - :
xi = xi0 + qi , (i = 1, n; = 1, k). (IV.29)
- n n M , -
k .

47
IV.

IV.8

f : An An .

(, )
{O; e1 , . . . , en } {O ; e 1 , . . . , e n }, , -
(xi ) (xi ) (., -
, [2]):

x i = Cki xk + x i0 , (IV.30)

Cki - , {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } -
Vn , {e 1 , e 2 , . . . , e n }, - Cki :

e k = Cikei , e = eC; Cij Ckj = ki , (IV.31)

det C = 0. (IV.32)

A ( A)
(IV.30). ,
). Cik (i, k = 1, n); ).
a(xi0 ). n2 + n = n(n + 1)
. , (IV.32),
. ,

A n(n + 1) , (Cki , xJ0 ).
:

IV.11. A IV.30 -
.

n(n + 1),
, An , n(n + 1)-
An;n(n+1) .

IV.9

IV.1. :

IV.12. -
.

,

(BOD). .

48
IV.9.

B C
A 
 A  
 {A , AD , AB}.
 A O  
A 
ABCD -
 
 A  :
  A 

  A  A(0, 0) ; B(0, 1) ; C(1, 1) ; D(1, 0) .
  A 
A
 -A D , -
, -
(AC) (BD).
. 10. -

x y x y1
(AC) : = ; (BD) : =
1 1 1 1
{ ( )
x = y 1 1
O = (AC) (BD) | O ,
x = 1y 2 2
( )
1 1 1
AO = , AO = AC .
2 2 2

IV.2. :

IV.13. (). -
, - .

:
ABCD ; O = [AC] [BD] |

AO = 1/2AC ;

BO = 1/2BD .
, ABCD - .

B - C
A 
 A  

 A O  
 A  
AU
 AA  BO + OC = BC 1/2BD + 1/2AC = BC ;
  AA 
 (IV.33)
  AA 
 AA  AO + OD = AD 1/2AC + 1/2BD = AD .
A
 - AU D (IV.34)

(IV.33) , (IV.34) AD = BC ,

. 11. - ..

IV.3.

IV.13. ,
, , .

49
IV.

,
.

IV.14. -
1 : 2.

B
A
 A
 A -
 A [IV.6],
 A
 A [IV.7].
E  A F
Q
Q A , :
 Q  A
Q O AE = 1/2AB ;
 Q A
  Q A
 Q BF = 1/2BC .
  Q A
 Q A
Q AG = 1/2AC .
A
 QA C
G , O = [AF ] [BG] = [AF ] [CE]

| OF = 1/2AO; OE = 1/2CO; OG = 1/2BO.
. 12. -
: {A; AC, AB}. -
A, B, C :
A(0, 0), B(0, 1), C(1, 0).

E, F, G (IV.24) (IV.25) , -
: E(0, 1/2), F (1/2, 1/2), G(1/2, 0).
:
x y
(AF ) : = x y = 0; (IV.35)
1/2 1/2

x y1
(BG) : = 2x + y = 1 ; (IV.36)
1/2 1

x1 y
(CE) : = x + 2y = 1 . (IV.37)
1 1/2

(IV.35) (IV.36)
:

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0
2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 ,
1 2 1 1 2 1 0 3 1

, 2.
,
(IV.35) (IV.37), O, .

(IV.35) (IV.37), : O(1/3 ; 1/3). OA = (1/3 ; 1/3),

AF = (1/2 ; 1/2),

OF = AF AO = (1/6 ; 1/6) .

:

OF = 1/2AO (AOF ) = 2 : 1 .

50
IV.10.

IV.4.
ABCD , E F -
, , (CE, D) = 2,
(BF, C) = 3. ,
(EF ) (AC).

, -


(AB, C) = = AC = CB

. 13. - :
(AC, M )
CD = 2DE; BC = 3CF .

-, , -
. 13:
{A, D, D} = A(0, 0); D(0, 1); D(1, 0), C(1, 1).
, E F , , (BC) : y = 1 (CD) : x = 1,
:
E(1, y); F (x, 1).
:
( )
2 2
(1, 0) = 3(x 1, 0) = x = = F ,1 ;
3 3
( )
1 1
(0, 1) = 2(0, y) = y = = E 1, .
2 2
(AC) (EF ) , :

x0 y0
(AC) : = = x = y;
10 10

x1 y + 1/2
(EF ) : = = 9x + 2y 8 = 0.
2/3 1 1 + 1/2
( 8 8
)
, M 11 , 11 . ,
:
( ) ( )
8 8 3 3
AM = , ; MC = , .
11 11 11 11

:
8 8
AM = M C = (AC, M ) = .
3 3

IV.10

d :

d : Ax + By + C = 0 , (IV.38)

51
IV.

1 A(xA , yA ).
B(xB , yB ), d.
, B?
(AB):
x xA y yA
(AB) : = = . (IV.39)
xB xA yB yA
( II), (IV.39) -

AM = AB, A, M, B ()
(IV.19): = /(1 ). , (AB) d
D = d (AB).




1 (IV.38), (IV.39) D , -
.
B
B

D:
.

 AxA + ByA + C
. A

  D =
A(xB xA ) + B(yB yA )
. (IV.40)


 d

 

(IV.40) , (AB) d -
 D , :
  2

A(xB xA ) + B(yB yA ) = 0 , (IV.41)

. 14.

( = ). A B 1 .
, (AB) d , .., (IV.41) .

(IV.40) A, D, B (AD = DB):

def AxA + ByA + C


A/B = D = . (IV.42)
AxB + ByB + C

, D [AB], A B -
1 2 . D > 0. D -
[AB], A B ( 1 ).
< 0. , -
(IV.42) . , (IV.38)
, (IV.42) , A B
d. :

IV.15. d, -
(IV.38), 1 2 (a = a d - )
A(xA , yA ) B(xB , yB ) - , d. -
M (x , y ) M = Ax + By + C A
B -
A AxA + ByB + C
A/B = = . (IV.43)
B AxB + ByB + C
A B
:
A/B > 0 A , B 1 , (IV.44)
-
A/B < 0 (A 1 , B 2 ) . (IV.45)
A/B .

52
IV.10.

IV.14. , ,
, .
, , .


[CA) [CB) C, ,
1 2 , 1 - , 2 - . -
{O; e1 , e2 } : A(xA , yA ), B(xB , yB ), C(xC , yC ).
, , - 1 2 , P (xP , yP )?
A , B , C ,

: {C , A , B} {C ; CA , CB}. CP

V2 {CA , CB}:



2  1
B 
CO * P

   

 C   CP = CA + CB . (IV.46)
 C A 

C  C-  ( , ) -
C  P . -
@
I 6
@ C  , P
@ C  ,

@ C 
@C , :


O
P ( , ) | > 0 , > 0 .

. 15. -

= 0 , > 0 > 0 , = 0, - P ; = 0, = 0
- C. , P

2 . (CP = OP OC; CA = OA OC; CB =

OB OC) A , B , C, (IV.46)
:
xP xC = (xA xC ) + (xB xC ) ;

yP yC = (yA yC ) + (yB yC ) . (IV.47)


(IV.47) , :

(P, B ; C) (A, P ; C)
= ; = , (IV.48)
(A, B ; C) (A, B ; C)

:
def xA xC xB xC
(A, B ; C) = . (IV.49)
yA yC yB yC
(A, B ; C) :

IV.1. (A, B ; C) , 3
A , B , C ( , 2 ).

53
IV.

IV.2. (A, B ; C) :

(A, B ; C) = (B, A ; C) . (IV.50)

(IV.48) , ,
.
.
1 : 1 = A B ,
, A (CB) A: A = 1 ((CB), A), , B ,
(CA) B: B = 2 ((CA), B). (CA) (CB)
(IV.49) :


     1
2       

B        x xC xA xC
(CA) : (M, A ; C) =
y yC yA yC
= 0;
   P   
B       
       x xC xB xC
(CB) : (M, B ; C) = = 0.
C    A   y yC yB yC
      
      

      
:

       (CA) : A = yA yC ; B = (xA xC ) ;
       A

  
  C = xC (yA yC ) + yC (xA xC ) ;
(CB) : A = yB yC ; B = (xB xC ) ;
. 16. - C = xC (yB yC ) + yC (xB xC ) .
. 2- .

[IV.15] P/A , P/B , :

P/A = , P/B = , (IV.51)

, , P 1 .

IV.16. , P 1 , -
, :

P 1 P/A > 0 ; P/B > 0 . (IV.52)

IV.5. , A(1, 1) B(3, 4) d :


x y + 1 = 0.

: A = 1; B = 6; A/B = 1/6 < 0.

54
IV.10.

A B d.

IV.6. , A(1, 1)
.

O(0, 0), : O = C = 1. -
, O/A = 1 > 0.
A d.

IV.7. [CA) [CB) C, A(2, 2),


B(3, 4), C(1, 1). , P (5, 6).

, (IV.48), (IV.49) :

1 2 4 2
(A, B ; C) = = 1 ; (P, B ; C) = = 6;
3 5 7 5

1 4
(A, P ; C) = = 5 .
3 7
: = 6 : (1) = 6, = (5) : (1) = +5, .., P
2 .

IV.8. ABCD

A(1, 2); B(5, 5); D(7, 10).

, P (4, 5) ABCD.

, :

AD = (6, 8); AB = (4, 3)


AP = (3, 3)

{AD, AB}:

AP = AD + AB = (3, 3) = (6, 8) + (4, 3).


, -
, :
. 17. - }
3 = 6 + 4
P ,
3 = 8 + 3
ABCD

55
IV.

, :
3 6
= ; = .
14 14

0 1, 0 1, =
P ABCD.

IV.9. ABC

A(1, 2); B(5, 5); C(7, 10).

- ( ).
, P (4, 5) ABCD.

:

AC = (6, 8); AB = (4, 3) AP = (3, 3)

AP {AC, AB}:

AP = AC + AB = (3, 3) = (6, 8) + (4, 3) =

3 6
= ; = .
14 14

(BD)

{A, AC, AB} :
x y1
(BD) : = = x + y 1 = 0.
1 1
:
3 6
P = 1+ (1) 1
14 14
17
= 0; A = 0 1 0 1 1 = 1 0 =
14
A P -
(AB),
: P
. 18.
ABC.
P ABC

56
V

V.1
B : V V R, V V Vn .

V.1. B(x, y ) ,
x, y , z Vn R :
(1) B(x + z, y ) = B(x, y ) + B(z, y );
(2) B(x, y ) = B(x, y );
(3) B(x, y + z) = B(x, y ) + B(x, z);
(4) B(x, y ) = B(x, y ),
.. , .

.
B(ei , ek ) = ik ,

n
B(x, y ) = ik v i y k , (V.1)
i,k=1

ik . (
, )

11 12 ... 1n
21 22 ... 2n

B= . . ... . ,
(V.2)
. . ... .
n1 n2 ... nn
.
.

n
e k = Cikei . :
i=1

B = C T BC. (V.3)

-
.

, det C T = det C ( ),

det B = (det C)2 det B, (V.4)

-
.

57
V.

V.2. B , -
, .. B T = B.

V.3. B (-
), , ..
B T = B.

B ik ,
:

ik = ki (i, k = 1, n). (V.5)


,

ik = ki (i, k = 1, n). (V.6)


(V.6) i = k , ii = ii ,
i = k , .

V.4. B(x, y ) , x, y
Vn B(x, y ) = B(y , x).

V.5. B(x, y ) ,
x, y Vn :B(x, y ) = B(y , x).

.
-
.
B(x, y )) = B1 (x, y ) + B2 (x, y ). (V.7)

V.6. B(x, x) ,
B(x, y ) y x.

(V.7)
y x. B2 (x, y ) 0
B(x, x) = B1 (x, x). : ,
B(x, y ), , B1 (x, y )
B(x, y ).
, :

11 12 ... 1n
12 22 ... 2n

B= . . ... . ,
. . ... .
1n 2n ... nn

B(x, x) = 11 (x1 )2 + 212 x1 x2 + . . . + 21n x1 xn + 22 (x2 )2 + 223 x2 x3 + (V.8)
n1 n n 2
+ . . . + 2n1n x x + nn (x ) .
,
:

58
V.1.

1. ( ) -
,

2. ,

3.
B = C T BC.

( B = n), -
.

V.7. , -
, , .

V.1. Vn
{e 1 , e 2 , . . . , e n }

B(x, x) = (y 1 )2 + . . . + (y s )2 (y ) . . . (y r )2 ,
s+1 2
(V.9)

, s , (r s)
, s (r s) r = n
.

V.8. B(x, x) ,
x = 0 B(x, x) > 0.

V.2. , , -
, n.

,


B(x, y ) = x 1 y 1 + x 2 y 2 + . . . + x n y n . (V.10)


n
V.3. (). B(x, x) = ik xi xk -
i,k=1
, B :

11 12 . . . 1n

11 12 12 22 . . . 2n
11 > 0, > 0, . . . , > 0. (V.11)
12 22 ... ... . . . . . .

1n 2n . . . nn

59
V.

V.2

V.9. En -
, Vn
g(x, y ),
(
).

, {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }

n
g(x, y ) = gik xi y k , (1) gik = gki (), (2) det(gik ) = 0 (.)
i,k=1
x y
()
x y , g - .
, , -

() ()
(a) x y = y x ;
( ) () ()
(b) (x + z) y = x y + z y ; (V.12)
( ) ()
(c) x y = x y .

()
x y -
, :
()
x y = gik xi y k , (V.13)
( )
gik = ei ek .

()
x x = x2 = gik xi y k (V.14)
x.
|x| , ,

|x| = gik xi xk . (V.15)

V.10. -
En ,
()
x x = gik xi xk
, ..:
()
x x 0 (x En ),
, -
.
En .

, (V.12)a, b, c) -

()
x2 = x x >0 (x = 0) (V.16)

60
V.2.

()
x x = 0 , x -.
, {i1 ,i2 , . . . ,in },
-
x2
x2 = (x1 )2 + (x2 )2 + . . . + (xn )2 . (V.17)
, {i1 ,i2 , . . . ,in }
{
1, i = k
gik = ik =
0, i = k
(gik )
1
1

g=
. .
(V.18)
. 0
0 1
,
( ).

V.11. x, y ,
()
: x y = 0.

{i1 ,i2 , . . . ,in } , -


, (V.18)
{
( ) 1, k = m
ik im = km = , (V.19)
0, k = m

.. , -
. ( ). , (V.18)
En , -
.
,
( ), ,
. , -
: v
u n
() n
u
(a) x y = x y ; (b) |x| = t (xk )2 .
k k
(V.20)
k=1 k=1

V.12. x, y (
()
x y
0 ), .
|x||y |

gik xi y k
cos = . (V.21)
glm xl xm gjh y j y h

(V.21)


n
xk y k
cos = v k=1
v . (V.22)
u n u n
u u
t (xk )2 t (y k )2
k=1 k=1

61
V.


En
. .

V.13. A = (ki ) ,

AT A = E, (V.23)


n {
1, k = m
kp m
p
= km = (V.24)
m.
0, k =
p=1

(V.24) ,
, .
.
, (V.24).
(V.23) , (det AT ) (det A) = det E (det A)2 = 1, , , A - -
,
det A = 1. (V.25)
, , (V.23)
A1 , (V.23)
AT = A1 , (V.26)
(V.26) .

V.3 -

V.14. (
) ( A(x)
) (),
A(x) = A (x), .. A(x) y = x A(y ) , x, y En .
c

A
A = G1 AT G, (V.27)
, G = E,
A = AT ki = ik . (V.28)


( -
).

, A(x) , ..
km = m
k
, A(x) .

V.4. .

V.5. , -
, .

62
V.3. ..

-

- -
En
.

En , {f1 , f2 , . . . , fk } (k n), , -
, - (
-
).
f1
f1 , g1 = . f 2 =
|f1 |
1g1 + f2 1 , f 2 g1 , ..
( ) ( )
g1 f 2 = 0. , 1 1 + g1 f2 = 0,
( )
1 = g1 f2 .

f
f 2 g2 = 2 .
|f 2 |

f 3 = 1g1 + 2g2 + f3 1 , 2 , -
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
f3 g1 g2 : g1 f3 = 1 1 + g2 f3 = 0, g2 f3 = 2 1 + g2 f3 = 0, ..
( ) ( )
1 = g1 f3 , 2 = g2 f3 .

f
f 3 g3 = 3 . , -
|f 3 |
- {g1 , g2 , . . . , gk },
, .
{i1 ,i2 , . . . ,in },
f1 , . . . , fk , En ,
g1 , . . . , gk , .

n n
n
g1 = xm
1 im , . . . ,
gk = xmim . x = xm
1 im ,
k
m=1 m=1 m=1
g1 , . . . , gk .

( )
n
g1 x = xm
x m
= 0

1

m=1

( )
x2 x = 0
n
m m
g2 x =
. (V.29)
...........................
m=1




()
n

g x = xm
k
x m
= 0
m=1

x , -
. (V.29) -
k ( g1 , . . . , gk ), (n k) -
. -
h1 , h2 , . . . , hnk . {g1 , g2 , . . . gk , h1 , . . . , hnk }
En . -
{i1 ,i2 , . . . ,in } {g1 , g2 , . . . gk , h1 , . . . , hnk } .
- {g1 , g2 , . . . gk , h1 , . . . , hnk }.

V.6. En n -
. -

63
V.

, ,

1
.


1
. , (V.30)


s
.
s

, ,
.

-
( ),
-
. (V.6) ( -
).


n
V.7. B(x, x) = ik xi xk (ik = ki )
i,k=1
:

B(x, x) = 1 (y 1 )2 + . . . + 1 (y r1 )2 + . . . + s (y n )2 (V.31)

1 , . . . , s () = det(ik ik ),
, .1

En

V.15. An
En .

, -
,
.
, En
-
,
En , , , .

V.16. {O;i1 , . . . ,in } En , {ik }n -


.

{O;i1 , . . . ,in } {O; i 1 , . . . , i n } En


, .. . -
C = (Cm k ),

i k = Cm
k im .
1 1 , k1 , r1 .

64
V.4.


n
Cpk Cps = ks ,
p=1

(V.24) ,
.
, A = (ki ), , , -
. {e1 , e2 , . . . , en }
En .


n
e
k = kmim .
m=1

, -
() En .
+1, ( , , E3
), 1,
( , , E3
).
, -

, :
}
() xk = Ckm x m + k
, (V.32)
() x k = Cmk + k


() (x) = C(x) + ()
, (V.33)
() (x) = C 1 (x) + (
)
C = (Ckm ) , , (V.33)() C 1
C T (V.26).

V.4

V.17. , En ,
{O; e1 , . . . , en }, {O ; e 1 , . . . , e n }, -
.

, ,
, {ei }n {e j }n , :
( ) ( )
{ei }n |{ ei ek = ik } {e i }n |{ e i e k = i k }, (V.34)

V.7 ,
C, , :
C T C = E 1 = C T , (V.35)
(V.35):
det C = 1. (V.36)

, -
(V.36) (V.35). -
, (V.35), ,
n2 , (V.36) ,
(V.35).

65
V.

, , En -
, En ,
.

V.8. n- , En , -
n(n + 1)
N = .
2

Dn;N .
3, 6. V.17 , -
, Dn;n(n+1)/2 En
An;n(n+1) : Dn;/,n(n+1)/2 An;/,n(n+1 , 2 .


, -
. F F .

V.18. D En ,
F F , F F -
:

F
= F f D|f (F ) = F . (V.37)

, :
, - . -
, - . - -
, .

V.5
, En , -
, En . ,
C (V.35) (V.36):

det C = 1.

V.19. Dn ,
C , +1, I- , Dn ,
C , 1, II- :

Dn | det C = 1 I DnI ;
(V.38)
Dn | det C = 1 II DnII

V.9. , DnI Dn
, En , , DnII , .

, , -
,

66
V.6.

.
, ,
- . , -
, ,
.

V.6
, -
:

V.10. En
:
( ) ( )
x y = x y , (x, y En ). (V.39)

-
En

:

V.11. -
.

, A, B , En , -

AB, ()

() . :

V.12. (-
) En .

V.13. -
, .

V.13
: -
, -
.

V.20. M En () -
f An,N , :
f (M ) = M . (V.40)

67
V.

M {O; e1 , . . . , en } M0 = (x10 , x20 , . . . , xn0 ).


(V.40) (IV.30) -
:

xi = Cki xk + xi0 .

, f
:

(Cki ki )xk = xi0 . (V.41)

, ,
, (V.41) -
:
(ki Cik )xk = Cik xk0 . (V.42)


, E2 .

n(n + 1)
N= = 3.
2
, D2;3 .


(IV.30), -
, {O; e1 , e2 }, {O ; e 1 , e 2 }, x1 = x, x2 = y:

x = C 11 x + C 12 y + x0
, (V.43)
y = C 21 x + c 22 y + y0

||C ik || = c1 - , C. :

C 11 = ; C 12 = ; C 21 = ; C 22 = .

:
( )

C 1 = .

, ,
:
( )

C= .

(V.35):
( ) ( ) ( )
1 0
= .
0 1

, , :

x = x cos y sin + x0 ;
(V.44)
y = x sin + y cos + y0 ,

r0 = (x0 , y0 ) - . , x0 , y0 -
.
.

68
V.6.
y
J
]
J
J
J M (2, 3)
.
. ..
6y J .. 6 3 x

J . . .. 
. . .. 
J. . .. 
J .. 

JO M .. 
J .. 
M (2, 3) 
. . . . . . . . . . .. J 

e 1 

..
..
J
]
e 2 J I
3)


. :
 -
 

...   O
e1
..
  
6
..  OO
   .


- . -
x
O e1

. 19.


(V.42) .
(V.44),
M (x, y)2 :
x(1 cos ) + y sin = x0 ,
(V.45)
x sin + y(1 cos ) = y0 .

(V.45) :

1 cos
=
sin = (1 + )(1 cos ) = 2(1 + ) sin2 . (V.46)
sin 1 cos 2

, , f , : {O; e1 , e2 },
{O ; e 1 , e 2 } , f (R) = R . (V.45)
(V.46).

1. : = 1.
). = 0 = 0, .., e i = ei . , , (V.45)
, , , f :

xs = xs cos ys sin + x0 ,
MS (xs , ys )| : (V.47)
ys = xs sin + ys cos + y0 .

). = 0 = 0; (e i = ei .) (V.44) :

x = x + x0 ,
(V.48)
y = y + y0

a = (x0 , y0 ). ,
(a = 0), (V.45) , -
, f . a = 0,
, .
2 .

69
V.

II. = 1, .., f - 2- .
:
( ) x0
x sin
y cos
=
s 2 s 2 sin 2 2
,

MS (xs , ys ) : ( ) (V.49)
y0
xs sin ys cos cos = .
2 2 2 2
2- O1 y1
O1 x1 .
, .., :


x0 cos + y0 cos = 0.
2 2
,
- .
, 2- , f - .

V.7

V.1. :

x = 2x + 5y + 4
f:

y = x + 3y 4

, , , , .

, C:
( )
2 5
C=
1 3
, ,
, 1
, .
det C,
det C = 2 3 5 1 = 1.
, f - I- .

,
, -
, .., !:

C C T = E. (V.50)

, :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 5 2 1 29 17 1 0
C CT = = = .
1 3 5 3 17 10 0 1

70
V.8.

, f .

V.2. :


x =
3 1

x+ y+3
2 2
:



y = 1 x 3 y 2
2 2
, , , , .

C :

3 1
2 2

C= , = det C = 1.
1 3

2 2
:

3 1 3 1 ( ) ( )
2 2
1 0 1 0
C C =
T 2 2 = = .
1 3 1 3 0 1 0 1

2 2 2 2
, II- .

V.8

V.3. En ,

1 0 0
1 1 0

f1 =
0 , f2 = 2
, f3 = 1 .

0 0 1
0 0 0

{g1 , g2 , g3 }
En ,
g1 , g2 , g3 .
. f1 . |f1 | = 12 + (1)2 = 2.

1
g1 = (i1 i2 ).
2
,
( ) 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 = g1 f2 = , f2 = g1 + f2 = i1 i2 + i2 + 2i3 = i1 + i2 + 2i3 .
2 2 2 2 2 2

f2 1
g2 =
= (i1 + i2 + 4i3 ).

|f 2 | 3 2
,
( ) ( ) 4
1 = g1 f3 = 0, 2 = g2 f3 = ,
3 2

71
V.

4 1
f 3 = g2 + f3 = (2i1 + 2i2 i3 ) i4 .
3 2 9
( )
2 1 9
g3 = i1 + i2 i3 + i4 .

3 10 2 2
(V.29)

1 1
x1 x2 = 0

2 2
1




x = 2c1
2
1 1 4 x = 2c1
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0
3 2 3 2 3 2

x3 = x4 = c1



x5 = c2 .
2 2 1 9

x1 x2 + x3 x4 = 0

3 10 3 10 3 10 3 10

x1 = 2i1 2i2 + i3 + i4 , x2 = i5 .

1
1 = (2i1 2i2 + i3 + i4 ), h2 = i5 .
10
{i1 ,i2 , . . . ,i5 } {g1 , g2 , g3 , h1 , h2 }

1 1 2 2
0

2 3 2 3 10 10


1 1 2 2
0
2 3 2 3 10 10



C= 0 4

1

1
0 . (V.51)

3 2 3 10 10


3 1
0 0 0

10 10

0 0 0 0 1

V.4. .

2x1 x2 + 2x1 x3 2x1 x4 2x2 x3 + 2x2 x4 + 2x3 x4

.
.

1 1 1

1 1 1
det(A E) = = ( 1)3 ( + 3). (V.52)
1 1 1
1 1 1

(V.52) , A 1 = 1 3
2 = 3.
:

A(x, x) = y12 + y22 + y32 3y42 . (V.53)

72
V.8.

, -
.
A.

4
1 = 1 (pq 1 pq )xq = 0, ,
q=1
:
x1 + x2 x3 x4 =0


x1 x2 x3 + x4 =0
. (V.54)
x1 x2 x3 + x4 =0


x1 + x2 + x3 x4 =0

1 ( 2, 3, 4 ).

x1 = x2 + c3 c4 , x2 = c2 , x3 = c3 x4 = c4 ,

. :

1 1 1
1 0 0
f1 =
0 , f2 =
1 , f3 =
0 .
0 0 1

, -
:

1

1 1 2 3

2 6
1

1
1 2 3

g1 = 2 , g2 = 6 , g3 = .
1

0 2
2 3

3
0 0 3
2
2 = 3

4
(pq 2 pq )xq = 0
q=1

, ,

1
1
f4 =
1 .
1

f4 , , g1 , g2 , g3 ,
1 = 2
1
2


1

2

g4 = .
1


2


1
2

73
V.


:
1 1 1 1

2 6 2 3 2


1 1 1 1

2
2 6 2 3

C= .
1
2

1
0
3 2 3 2



3 1
0 0
2 2

V.5.

3x2 + 10xy + 3y 2 2x 14y 13 = 0

.
.

3 5

det(A E) = = 2 6 16 = 0.
5 3

1 = 8, 2 = 2.
- 1 = 2 , -
.
1 1

2 2

g1 = , g2 = .
1 1

2 2
, , g1 , g2
1 1

x = x y

2 2


1 1
y = x + y ,
2 2

8(x )2 2(y )2 8 2x 6 2y 13 = 0.
:
( )2 ( )2
1 3
8 x 2 y + 13 4 + 9 = 0.
2 2
:
1 3
x = X + , y = Y ,
2 2
:
8X 2 2Y 2 = 8,

Y2
X2 = 1. (V.55)
4

74
V.8.

, x, y X, Y ,


x = X cos 4 Y sin 4 + 2



y = X sin + Y cos 1.
4 4

, ,
4
( ) O (2; 1),
(V.55) c O X Y = 2X.

75
VI

VI.1
V - , V \{0} - - -
V . V P = ,
, A, B, C, . . . .

VI.1. P -
R (, - ),
: V \{0} P, (VI.1)
( )

VI.1. - 1 ;

VI.2. , , (VI.1) :
(x) = (y ) y = x, ( R\0). (VI.2)

, :
2 V :
(x) = X = (x) = X.
, P -
V . (x) = X, ,
x X. ,
.

VI.2. dim V = n+1, P n-:


dim P = n Pn .

VI.3. Vk+1 Vn+1 (k + 1) - -


Vn+1 , Pn = (Vn \{0}) - n - .
(Vk+1 \{0}) Pn
1 .. P .
2 .

76
VI.2.

k- k Pn . -
(k = 1) ,
(k = 2) - .


V \{0}. , x y V \{0}
: xy , , ..:
( )

xy , R\0 x = y ; x, y V \{0} . (VI.3)

VI.1. , , -
V \{0}.

a V\{0} ,
a:

A = {xa V \{0} xa = a; {} = R\0} .
, ,
a. ,
P (V ):
def
P (V ) = V \{0}/.
0 V \{0} P (V ), ,
0 (x) , x. ,
0 :

0 : (V \{0}) P (V ) (VI.4)

1,2 VI.1. , P (V ) -
.
,
V.
V n + 1: dim V = n + 1, .., V = Vn+1 .
VI.2
P (V ) dim V = n. P (V ) Pn (V ).

VI.2
n + 1- Vn+1 {ei }n+1 , {gi }n ; (i = 0, n.)

VI.4. , {ei }n {gi }n Vn+1 -


, :
R ei = gi ; (i = 0, n). (VI.5)

VI.1 , , -
,
. , {ai }n+1 , Vn+1 :

: Vn+1 P

P (V ) (n+1) A0 , A1 , . . . , An ,
.
.

77
VI.

def
VI.5. ({ai }n ) = (ai ) P (V )
V .

, Pn -
n + 1 .
m Vn+1 \{0} {ai }n+1 :

= xiai ,
m xi R; i = 0, n. (VI.6)

x - , xi .

: Vn+1 Pn (V )

Vn+1 \{0} M = (m)


m Pn (V ).

VI.6. x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ), ,
P (V ).
M = (m)

, , : M (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ).
Vn+1 {ai }n+1
{bi }n+1 , :
bi = ai , ( R\0, i = 0, n).

m
:

= xiai ;
m = y ibi =
m

= y i ai =
m
xi = y i ; (i = 0, n), (VI.7)
, :

M P (V ) ,
.

VI.7. (n + 2) A0 , A1 , . . . , An , An+1 n- -
Pn , (n + 1)
n.

, n -
(n + 1) A = {a0 , a1 , . . . , an }
Vn , (.., ), , e, , ,
n A e,
Vn+1 .
:

e = a0 + a1 + . . . + an , (VI.8)

E = (e) P (V ). -
.

VI.2. {A0 , A1 , . . . , An , E} - (n+2)


n- Pn (V ),
(ai ), (i = 0, n), , ( n )

(ai ) = Ai ; ai = E. (VI.9)
i=0

78
VI.3.
O
d0

BJ

 BJ
P(O)
 BJ

 B J

 B J

 B J
d1
d2  d3 B dn J

 B J

 B J

 B J

 B J

 B J

 B J

 B J d

 B J

 B J
: d P(O)
M1  M2 M3 B Mn J

. 20.

,
, = {A0 , A1 , E}, , - -
, = {A0 , A1 , A2 , E},
.

VI.3
VI.3 P1 (V2 ) -
, P(O), A2 . , : P(O) P1 (V ),
, di P(O), Mi Mi P1 (V ).
, , P1 , A2 .
d A2 , , ..,
d P(O). ( ) M d

: M P(O) (VI.10)
:
(M d) = (OM ). (VI.11)
d P(O).
, M P(O),
d , .., M = d P(O) (. . 20). ,
:
M1 = M2 = (M1 ) = (M2 ),
, P(O) d0 , d,
. -
d. , ,
A1 , , .., -
P1 .
, , -
. , M , ,
d0 d, d :

(M ) = d0 . (VI.12)

d0 d P(O) , M (VI.12)
- d. , , ,
, ,
, :
d = d M (VI.13)

79
VI.

P1 , - .
d P1 , -
.

VI.4
d = P1 -
:

= {A0 , A1 , E}; (A1 , A2 , E =).

M , ..,
: (x0 , x1 ).

O
B@ , PO, d, -
e0  B @ , d
 .... B @ R.e1
@
  ..... B ..@ ,
M  ... B . @
... .. {A0 , A1 , E}.
  BN.. E @ M (. . 21). -
  B @@ d M ?
A0  M BE A1 (OE)
{A0 , A1 , E}
E OE.
. 21.

E E.
(OA0 ) (OA1 ) P(O) e0 e1 , , :

e0 + e1 = OE.

, e0 , e1 E .

, OM , ,

OM (. . 21). ,

OM :

OM = x0e0 + x1e1 (VI.14)
VI.7 VI.2
M , M (x0 , x1 ).

VI.5
, , , ,
,

= {A0 , A1 , A2 , E},

.

M (OM ) S(O), m
= OM
{a0 , a1 , a2 } :

OM = xiai = x0a0 + x1e1 + x2a2 . (VI.15)

VI.7 x0 , x1 , x2
M : (M (x0 , x1 , x2 ).)

80
VI.6.

.... A2
.. @ ..
E1 ...... ..@ .
 .. ........ @ E (OM ), (OA2 ) (OE) S(O)
 ... ...q.... @0 m, a2 e -
. . E
 .. ... . .. .. M0
. .... ... .....@ (M OA2 ) (EOA2 ) -
 .. ... .
.... ...@
.
S(O). -
 ....... ..... ... .....@
 ..... ..... .. ...@ (A2 M )
...
M1 ................ ..
. ..@... (A2 E). (A0 OA1 )
. q
............................. .. .@... S(O) , ,
. . M . . . . . .. .@
....... .. . .... ....... .. (A0 A1 ).
.... .
.
.. . . . . . .......@
...
..
A0 M2 E2 A1
A0 A1 A2 {M0 , M1 , M2 },
{E0 , E1 , E2 }:
. 22.

def def
(A0 M ) (A1 A2 ) = M0 ; (A0 E) (A1 A2 ) = E0 ;

def def
(A1 M ) (A0 A2 ) = M1 ; (A1 E) (A0 A2 ) = E1 ; (VI.16)

def def
(A2 M ) (A0 A1 ) = M2 ; (A2 E) (A0 A1 ) = E2 .

Mi , Ei (i = 0, 2) M, E -
Ai (Ak Aj ), (i, j, k =).
:
def
e0 = a1 + a2 ;
def
e1 = a0 + a2 ; (VI.17)
def
e2 = a0 + a1 .

OA0 A1 A2 :

e0 (OA1 A2 ); e1 (OA0 A2 ); e2 (OA0 A1 ).

VI.3. = {A0 , A1 , A2 , E} - (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )


- M , Ei , Mi (i = 0, 2) - E, M P i
Ai (Aj Ak ) (i, j, k =). (x1 , x2 ) -
M0 0 = {A1 , A2 , E0 }; (A1 A2 ); (x0 , x2 ) - -
M1 1 = {A0 , A2 , E1 }; (A0 A2 ); (x0 , x1 ) -
M2 2 = {A0 , A1 , E2 }.

VI.6

P1 3 A, B, C, D -
= {A0 , A1 , E}. A, B, C, D :
A(x0 , x1 ), B(y 0 , y 1 ), C(z 0 , z 1 ), D(u0 , u1 ).

VI.8. ( ) A, B, C, D
:
3 P1 = P1 (V2 ), P2 = P2 (V3 ).

81
VI.


x0 x1 y0 y1

z0 z1 u0 u1
(AB, CD) =

.
(VI.18)
x0 x1 y0 y1
u0 u1 z0 z1

(VI.4) :

(AC) (BD)
(AB, CD) = , (VI.19)
(AD) (BC)
(XY ) - , X Y.

VI.4. .

: ,
:
A(x0 , x1 ), B(y 0 , y 1 ), C(z 0 , z 1 ), D(u0 , u1 ).
||Cik ||,
, :
( )

||Cik || = , = = 0.

x0 = x0 + x1 ;
i
x = Cik xk = .
x1 = x0 + x1

.
, (VI.4):
0
x x1 x0 + x1 x0 + x1
0 = .
z z 1 z 0 + z 1 z 0 + z 1

, -
: 0
x x1 x0 x1
0 = . (VI.20)
z z1 z0 z1
:
0 0
y 1 y y 1 x0 x1 x0 x1 y 0 y 1 y 0 y 1
0 y1 = 0 ; = ; = .
u u u u1 u0 u1 u0 u1 z 0 z1 z0 z1

(VI.4) , -
.

VI.5. A, B, C, D - , D -
,
(AB, C)
(AB, CD) = , (VI.21)
(AB, D)
(AB, CD ) = (AB, C), (VI.22)
(AB, C) (AB, D) - .

82
VI.6.

, P1 , = {A, B, C}.
A, B, C : A(1, 0), B(0, 1), C(1, 1). (VI.4) :
u0
(AB, CD) = . (VI.23)
u1
:

A, B, C -
, D, (AB, CD).

(VI.4).

VI.1.
:
(CD, AB) = (AB, CD). (VI.24)

VI.2.
:
(BA, CD) = (AB, DC) = (AB, CD)1 . (VI.25)

VI.3. :
(BA, DC) = (AB, CD). (VI.26)

VI.4. D = A, :
(AB, CD) = 0 D = B,
(VI.27)
(AB, CD) = 1 D = C.

VI.6.
.

VI.7. : d d ,
.

VI.1. : d d
, .

83
VI.

VI.9.
P(O) g P(O) -
. -
O (AB, CD) g -
, a, b, c, d, -
@
B
 B @ , (ab, cd), -
 B @ .
  B @ D
  C Ba @a g
A a Ba B @
  B @
VI.8. a, b, c, d -
Aa  aB C B a @ D
a b Bc @a g P(O) g
B O. -
, (ab, cd), -
. 23. g.

: - g , P(O), ..,
O g . g a, b, c, d A , B , C , D ,
(. . 23).
P(O) g g : g g
:
(A) = a , (B) = B , . . .
, (AB, CD) = (A B , C D ).

VI.2. : P(O) P(O )


,
.

A0 -
=
@
A
B
 BA@ {A0 , A1 , A2 , E}
  BA @ g : A(a0 , a1 , a2 , B(b0 , b1 , b2 ), C(c0 , c1 , c2 ),
  BA @ D(d0 , d1 , d2 ). :
PP   EBa A @ (AB, CD).
PPAa
PP B   B A @ g ,
PaP  B A @
 A1P  PP aC E0B A D @ A2 , , A0 , A1 , A2 ,
a a a a B
PP a Aa @a , A0
A B C PPAa
PP g (. . 24).
D PPg
: g (A1 A2 ) -
O P(O).
-
:

. 24. (AB, CD) = (A B , C D ). (VI.28)


84
VI.7.

(A1 A2 ) 0 = {A1 , A2 , E0 }.
A , B , C , D A, B, C, D A0
(A1 A2 ). VI.3 -
, 0 :

A (a1 , a2 ); B (b1 , b2 ); C (c1 , c2 ); D (d1 , d2 ).

:
a1 a2 b1 b2

c1 c2 d1 d2
def (A C )(B D ) .
(A B , C D ) = = (VI.29)

(A D )(B C ) a1 a2 b1 b2

d1 d2 c1 c2

(VI.28), :

(A C )(B D )
(AB, CD) = . (VI.30)
(A D )(B C )

, , g A0 , =
{A0 , A1 , A2 , E}, g
(VI.4), :

x0 x1 ; x1 x2 .

A1 A2 , -
. (VI.29)
.

VI.9. M (x0 , x1 , x2 ) = {A0 , A1 , A2 , E}


x
, (A A , E M ) -
x
: , A , A , , E , M , (A A ) E, M ,
A , ( x = 0, .., M (A A )).

VI.7

VI.10. A, B, C, D ,

(AB, CD) = 1. (VI.31)

, C D A B, ,
A, B C, D .
D
A, B, C.

(VI.24) - (VI.27) , :

, :

(AB, CD) = 1 = (CD, AB) = 1, (BA, CD) = 1, (AB, DC) = 1. (VI.32)

a, b, c, d , -
:
(ab, cd) = 1. (VI.33)
A, B, C, D - .
. 21 A24 = 6, (. (. 25)).

85
VI.

B
 VI.11. , -

... 
,
.. A, B, C, D, ,
..  
...   , -
A b ... ....
. .
B@ R .  
. . . .
B ...b.....
B..@
....
 .. @b C
A, B, C, D -
. . . ....  Bb . , (AB), (AC),
...   ...  @
. .
.. 
. . . D  ..  B . (AD), (BC), (BD), (CD) -
b...
. b B.b @
............................................................@b .
S M L N ,
, ,
R, S, L
-
, , (RS), (RL), (SL),
-
.
. 25.

M N (SL) , (AC) (BD),


R :
M = (AC) (SL); N = (BD) (SL).
, S, L, M, N , ..:
(SL, M N ) = 1. (VI.34)

: S, L, M, N (SL) (AC) D,
( (VI.8)):
S C, L A, M R, N N =
(SL, M N ) = (CA, RN ). (VI.35)
A, R, C, N (AC) (SL)
B, :
A S, R M, C L, N N =
(CA, RN ) = (LS, M N ). (VI.36)
, (VI.35) (VI.36) :
(SL, M N ) = (LS, M N ). (VI.37)
(VI.25) :
(LS, M N ) = (SL, M N )1 . (VI.38)
, (VI.37) (VI.38) :
(SL, M N )2 = 1 = (SL, M N ) = 1.
(SL, M N ) 1, (VI.27)
M = N, , A, B, C, D
.
(SL, M N ) = 1, =
(AC, RN ) = 1, (VI.39)
((SA)(SC), (SR)(SN )) = 1. (VI.40)

, :

VI.10. :

86
VI.7.

1. ,
, , -
;

2. ,
, -
, ;

3. ,
, .

VI.11. C - [AB]. A, B, C, D
:
(AB, CD ) = 1. (VI.41)

: {A, D , B} (AB), .., : A0 = A, A1 =


D , E = B. :

A(1, 0); D = (0, 1); B(1, 1).

(AB).
, C, :
1
C = (1, ).
2
(AB, CD) (VI.4), (VI.19) :

(AC) (BD )
(AB, CD ) = =
(AD ) (BC)

1 0 1 1

1 12 0 1
(AB, CD ) = = 1.
1 0 1 1

0 1 1 21
, .

87
VII

VII.1

. d {A0 , A1 , E} M
M (x0 , x1 ). M.
:

0). d A0 , A1 , E.
- .

). O d.

). (OE) E e = OM .

). (OA0 ) (OA1 ) a0 a1 , : e = a0 + a1 .

(x0 , x1 ) {a0 , a1 }.
). m

). M |OM = m
(OM ). d
M : M = (OM ) d.

.
.I
.. @ O
. @
..  @
.
..  @ R@ . a1
..  .. @
. a0 e. VII.1.
.. ...... .. @
..  . .
... E @ . d
M ...
...  @ {A0 , A1 , E}, -
...
. @ M.
 @ . 26 -
q
M (2, 1) A0 E @A@
1 M (2, 1).

. 26. M
(-2,1) -

VII.2. d {A0 , A1 , E }.
[A0 A1 ] .

88
VII.2.

@
 @
 @
a0  @ d
 @ A0 A1 (. . 27).
 @ O
 @ , -
O -
@ E
C@ e d. -
 C @ 
  C 1@  E . -
12 a.
.0. 
C 2 a@ R
@1.
O a0 = OA0
 ... . .. 
 ... C . @
... C ..
. @ a1  a1 = OA1 . :
 .... C . .
@ 
 ..CW.. @
R d
A0 A A1 a0 + a1 = OA0 + OA1 =
{A0 , A1 , E }
= A0 O + OA1 = A0 A1 =
= a0 + a1 = e.
. 27.

A - [A0 A1 ]. , A
OA0 OA1 OA0 A1 , .
,
1 1
OA = a0 + a1 =
2 2
( )
1 1
= A , = A(1, 1).
2 2

VII.2

..
.. (4)
.. ..` C
Q .. U ......
@ ..
.. ..
@ (1) .. .....
@ . . .
..
.. ....
@ .. ...... VII.3. d
@ .. . . N,
@
..
.. ... ...
.. . .. S, L, M.
@ .. .. ...
@ ... . . . V
.. .. 
@...` D (6)... ... (5)   (3)
.. @ . . 
... .. .. 
.. .@ . ..  .

.. .. ...` B
.. . @ d 3 -
.. .  .. @ S, L, M (. . 28). -
 ..` .
 . ...... A ... @ N,
(2)  .. .
. .. @
 ... .... ...
. . S, L, M :
 @
 .. .. .. @
 ..
.
..`.

p . .. . @p
 S
 .N .. ....
L M@
@

. 28. ,

89
VII.

1. M (M Q) (1);

2. S (SU ) (2);

3. : D = (SU ) (M Q);

4. S (SV ) (3);

5. : B = (SV ) (M Q);

6. (LD) (4);

7. : A = (LD) (SV );

8. (LB) (5);

9. : C = (LB) (SU );

10. (CA) (6);

11. : N = (CA) d. N - .


-
:


, .

a b , -
, .., .

VI.5 [AB] M
, (AB, M D ) = 1, D (AB).

VII.4. M -
, a a .

a a M, (. . 29).
a a - .
D . . ,
(M D ), M
D .
. , -
, . ,
,
.

(. . 29):

1. S, a a ;

2. , S, M
a a (1) (2);

3. : B = (1) (a), C = (2) a, B = (1) a , C = (2) a ;

4. (BM ) (3) (B M ) (4);

5. S (5), M -
a a ;

90
VII.3.

A 
A 
AS
A
 A
 A
(3)  A
@B A
@ AC a
@ A
 @ A
 @ A A
 @ A
 N M A x
PP @ q
 PPP A
  A PP A
q PPAq C a


 B A
(4) (1) (5) (2) A

. 29. ,

6. : A = (BM ) (5) A = (B M ) (5);

7. (CA) (C A ). , ABC A B C - ;

8. : N = (CA) (C A );

9. (M N ).

(M N ) . , M = (AB) (A B ), N = (AC)
(A C ) D = (BC)(B C ),
ABC A B C , , . ,
(M N ) D .

VII.3

M (x0 , x1 , x2 ) = {A0 , A1 , A2 , E}
(. . 30):

0). A0 A1 A2 -
E, .
= {A0 , A1 , A2 , E}.

). E : Ei ,
E
A0 A1 A2 .

). , , (A0 E) (A2 E) ,
M0 M2 , .

). e0 = A0 M0 e2 = A2 M2
, , A0 A2 .
: {a1 , a2 } {a 0 , a 1 }.

). (A0 A1 ) 2 {A0 , A1 , E2 }, P(A2 )


{a 0 , a 1 } M2 (x0 , x1 ).

). (A1 A2 ) 2 {A1 , A2 , E0 }, P(A0 )


{a1 , a2 } M0 (x1 , x2 ).

91
VII.

.A
..
2

a 0 @ C ..
.
.. C ..@ R. .. a 1
.
 ....C ..... @
.. .. . R.
 e CW..... ... @ .
 C ....... .. @
 . .
C ..q. M2  @q E0
 C  ..  @
..
 Cq ... @
  E C .. @
a2........e..0 ...
 
* . C .. @
 .. . C .. @
... q
.
...... -. -.. Cq .. @...
A0 ......a1 . . E2 ..M2 A1 .....
...... .. .. ...
 .q ....
.............................. .. ...
M0 ........... ..
.. ...
...
...... .. ...
...... .. ...
...... .. ...
......q ...
....... ...
. .
M .. ....... . ...
.. ...... ...
.. ...... ...
.. ......
.. ...... .....
.. ...... ...
.. .........
. ....q...
M ..0

{A0 , A1 , A2 , E}

. 30. M (1,2,2) -

). (A2 M2 ) (A0 M0 ) . -
M (x0 , x1 , x2 ) :
M = (A0 M0 ) (A2 M2 ).

VII.4

VII.5. ABCA B C
, P, Q, R, (. . 31). ,
.

(AA ), (BB ), (CC )


S . P, Q, R -
A B C .
1. P, Q, R , -
;
2. : P , Q , R ;
3. P QR P Q R . , , -
, S ;
4. : (RQ), (R Q ) (RP ),
(R P ) :
V = (RP ) (R P ) W = (RQ) (R Q );

92

.
... 
 Aq 

HHH .
. .
 ..
. ... .........q B
VII.4. 
. ..... .

 ..H ... ........... ... 
 ... H . H .
.. q ... .
  . ..q........H . .
...  .. ....R
. .
.........  C .... ... 
... .... ... ..... . . 
...  .............. ....... ... ...... 
.. . .
A...q...
. .. .
.. ... ..  ........q...Q 
 ... ... .... ... .. . .. .... 
.. .
 .... ...... ............. ...... .....
 ............... . .. ...
P......q.... ..  .. ..  .....
 . .  .. .. . .
qB ...
.... .. . ...
 ... ... ....... . . ...
.. . R...q.... . ... ...
. ...
 . . . . .  . ...
AqH
 . . . . .. . . .
.. .
...... ..........q..Q. ...
... .. ..... q
...
H...H ...... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. ...... ...
. .H .q . C ... . . ....... ...
... .....P HH  .. . . . . .......
...
...
.. ... . .. . ...
. . H.q..... .... ......
......... C ........ ... ... ...... ...
..
.... .. . .. .... ... ......
q. ..........................................
..........
.......
q.... .......................................................
......... .........
....q
V U. ......
W

. 31. A B C

5. s = (V W ) . s -
(A B C ) (ABC) :

s = (ABC) (A B C );

6. , , (A C )
s U :
U = (A C ) s;

7. U P (U P ).
,
P. ( ,
);

8. A = (U P ) (A A) R A R;
9. C = (U P ) (C C) Q (C Q).

, B = (A R) (B B) B = (C Q)

(B B) .

93
VIII

VIII.1

VIII.1. -
, .

r = r(t)


r0 = r(t0 )
( )
r + D = 0,
N

:
(( ) )
r(t) + D
N = 0;
t=t0

d (( ) )
N r(t) + D = 0;
dt t=t0

d2 (( ) )
N
r (t) + D = 0.
dt2 t=t0

, :
( )
r0 + D = 0,
N (VIII.1)
( )
r0
N = 0, (VIII.2)
( )
r0
N = 0. (VIII.3)

, ,
.
, .
, A0 , : -
,
.
, A0 A1 , -
A0 A1 A2 .
, .
(VIII.3) ,
. , .

94
VIII.2.

-
.

(VIII.2) (VIII.3)
, .
.
[ ]
= r r .
B (VIII.4)

( )
r r0 , r0 , r0 = 0, (VIII.5)

x x0 y y0 z z0

x0 y0 z0 = 0; (VIII.6)

x0 y0 z0
,
[ ]
r0 r0 = 0. (VIII.7)
. , -
,
.

VIII.2

VIII.2. , -
.

.
, , -
.
.
1. , , .
1. , , .

,
, .
, . -
:
1. , .
2. , .
3. , , .

,
.

T =r . (VIII.8)
-
[ ]
B = r r . (VIII.9)
.


[ [ ] ]
=
N r r r . (VIII.10)

95
VIII.

VIII.3
, t, A0 ,
t = t0 , . ,
A0 A,

t
s= | r |dt. (VIII.11)
t0

s t.

ds
= | r (t)|
dt

, -
. , , -
, .
, , , -
, t < t0 s, (VIII.11),
, t > t0 .
s -
, s . , ,
-
.
,
, , ,
, .

VIII.4
-
, , .
, .
, .
1. , -

= r . (VIII.12)

2. ,

r
= . (VIII.13)
|r |

3. , , ,
. 32
.
,
, .

2 = 2 = 2 = 1;

() () ()
= = = 0. (VIII.14)

96
VIII.5. -

-
,
; - -
- - , -
, -


[] [] []
= ; = ; = .
(VIII.15)

. 32. -

VIII.5 -
.
, .
.
,
d d
= (r ) = r ,
ds ds
, , .

d
= k , (VIII.16)
ds
k - , s.
.
,
(VIII.16)

d [ d ] [ d ] [] [ d ] [ d ]
= + = k + = .
ds ds ds ds ds
,
d
, .
ds
, , .
d
,
ds
. - ,

d
= . (VIII.17)
ds

, ,
, (VIII.16) (VIII.17).

d [ d
] [ ] [] []
= + d = + k .
ds ds ds

, ,
, (VIII.16) (VIII.17).

d [ d
] [ d ] [ ] []
= + = + k .
ds ds ds

97
VIII.

(VIII.15)
, :
d
= + . (VIII.18)
ds
, , -

d
= k ; (VIII.19)
ds
d
= k + ; (VIII.20)
ds
d
= . (VIII.21)
ds

98
IX

d du d
(u) = + u, (IX.1)
dt dt dt
d dv du
(uv ) = u + r, (IX.2)
dt dt dt
d[ ] [ dv ] [ du ]
u v = u + v . (IX.3)
dt dt dt
:
[] ()
| a b |2 + | a b |2 1.

IX.1. :
r = a cos t + b sin t + c,
a b - .

, :

r= a sin t + b cos t; r= a cos t b sin t; r = a sin t b cos t.
, :

[r r] = [a b]; (r, r, r ) = 0.
, , , - .
:

|[r r]|
k= ,
| r |3
:
()
| r | = a2 sin2 t 2 a b sin t cos t + b2 cos2 t

|[a b]|
k = ( )3 .
( )
a2 sin t 2 a b sin t cos t + b2 cos2 t
2

99
IX.

IX.2. ,
r = a cos t + b sin t + c
, , M0 (r0 )|r0 = c
a b, .

, , .
(M0 ; a, b) xOy M0 (r0 ): :

r r0 = a cos t + b sin t.


:
a
e1 = ,
|a|
- ,
(M0 ; a, b) -
e1 (. . 33):
[ []]
a b a
e2 = [ [ ] ] .
| a b a |

M -
:

r r0 = e1 + e2 = a cos t + b sin t,

-
. 33. IX.2
a b
, -
:
() []
a b | a b |
= |a| cos t + sin t; = sin t.
|a| |a|
,
[] ()
| a b | = ab sin ; a b = ab cos ,
- a b, a = |a| b = |b| - ,
:
= a cos t + b sin sin t;
= b cos sin t,
- (M0 , a, b).
cos t sin t, :

sin t = ; cos t = ctg . (IX.4)
b sin a a
(IX.4) , :
( sin cos )2 2
2 2 + 2 2 = 1.
a sin b sin
(M0 ; a, b)
:
( )2
1
det(B) = ;
ab sin

100

. =
2
a = |a|, b = |b|.

IX.3.

r(t) = (t cos t, t sin t, at) (IX.5)

:

x x0 y y0 z z0

x0 y0 z0 = 0, (IX.6)

x0
y0 z0

(0, 0, 0) t = 0. -
(IX.5), :

r= (cos t sin t, sin t t cos t, a); r= (2 sin t t cos t, 2 cos t + t sin t, 0).

, :

r (0) = (1, 0, a); r (0) = (0, 2, 0).)

(IX.6):

x y z

1 0 a = 0,

0 2 0

:
ax + z = 0.

IX.4. :

1 : (x, y, z) = 0,
2 : (x, y, z) = 0.

S: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2
C: x2 + y 2 = R2 , .

, T , :

T = [ ] ,

F - F :
( )
F F F
F = , , .
x y z
, = 1 2 t.

r= T .

101
IX.

- :
( )
d r dT T dx T dy T dz ()
r= = = + + = 2 T T .
dt dt x dt y dt z dt

, , .., 1 :
()
= [r r] = [T T T ].
B
. , ( ) :


= (x, y, z);
= (x, y, 0).

T = [
]
= (yz, xz, 0) (y, x, 0).
:
()
T =x y
y x

()
T T = (x, y, 0).
:
()
[T T T ] = (0, 0, x2 + y 2 ) = R2 (0, 0, 1) =
= (0, 0, 1).
, XOY
. :
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2 ; x2 + y 2 = R2 = z = 0,
, :
= (x x0 ) 0 + (y y0 ) 0 + z 1 = 0 = z = 0.
(r r0 , )

IX.5. , :
r(t) = (t, t2 , t3 ) (IX.7)
.

- (IX.7):

r= (1, 2t, 3t2 ); r= (0, 2, 6t).
t = 0. , :

r (0) = (1, 0, 0); r= (0, 2, 0).
:
, , , , ,

T = =r (0) = (1, 0, 0);

= [r (0) r (0)] = (0, 0, 2) = = (0, 0, 1).
B
, , :
[]
= = (1, 0, 0).
.
, , ,
1 / .

102
IX.1. -

IX.1 -

- :
= k ;
= k + ;
(IX.8)

= .

IX.6.
.

r = ae() + bk = (a cos , a sin , b).

, :

r= ae1 () + bk = (a sin , a cos , b).

, :

t t
s= |r|dt = a2 + b2 dt = t a2 + b2 .
0 0

:
s
t= .
a + b2
2

, , -
: ( )
s bs
r = ae + k.
2
a +b 2 a + b2
2

r
= ,
|r |

k = |r |
- . , :
a
r = e(),
a2 + b2
a
|r | = k = ,
a2 + b2
= e().

IX.7. -
.

103
IX.

IX.6,

ae() + bk
= r = ;
a2 + b2

r
= = e()
|r |
[ ] ak be()
= = .
a2 + b2

a
k = |r | = , (IX.9)
a2 + b2

d d d
be()
= = 2 = ,
ds d
ds a + b2
,
b
= . (IX.10)
a2 + b2
-

d a
= 2 ,
ds a + b2
d a b
= 2 + 2 ,
ds a + b2 a + b2
d b
= 2 .
ds a + b2

IX.2

, -
:
d
k = lim = . (IX.11)
S0 S ds

, , :

d

|| = lim = . (IX.12)
S0 s ds

r = r(b),
: [
]
r r

k= , (IX.13)
| r | 3

( )
r, r, r
= [ . (IX.14)
] 2
r r

IX.13 IX.14 :

y z 2 z x 2 x y 2
+ +
y z z x x y
k= 3 . (IX.15)
(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2

104
IX.2.


x y z

x y z
... ... ...
x y z
= 2 2 2 . (IX.16)
y z z x x y
+ +
y z z x x y

IX.8.

x = cos3 t, y = sin3 t, z = cos 2t.

IX.15

x = 3 cos2 t sin t, y = 3 sin2 t cos t, z = 2 sin 2t;

x = 6 sin2 t cos t 3 cos3 t, y = 6 sin t cos2 t 3 sin3 t, z = 4 cos 2t.


,

6
k= .
25| sin 2t|

IX.9. ,

x = 1 + 3t + 2t2 , y = 2 2t + 5t2 , z = 1 t2

, , .

,

r (t) = (3 + 4t, 2 + 10t, 2t);

r (t) = (4, 10, 2);

r (t) = (0, 0, 0).



(r, r, r )
= = 0.
[rr]2
, , , .
, , ,
, , , , -
t. t ,
:
x1 3 2

y 2 2 5 = 0,

z1 0 1

105
IX.

2x + 3y + 19z 27 = 0.

IX.10. , IX.8

= [,
]; = [,
]; = [,
].

= a + b + c.

] = b + d = k ,
[,
b = 0, d = k.
] = a
[, d = k + ,

a = . .

[ , ]
= [ + k ,
]
= [ , ]
= .

= + k .

-
(
).

IX.11. , :

r = ()e(), e() = (cos , sin , 0) .

t : t = , :

r= e() + 2e(),

r= ( )e() + 2e1 ()
[ ]
r r = (22 + 2 )k,

| r | = (2 + 2 )3/2 ,
:
2 + 2 2 r
k= .
(2 2 )3/2

IX.3

,

k = k(s); = (s). (IX.17)

106
IX.3.

IX.12.

x = ct, y = 2c ln t, z = ct1 .

t s.
( )
2 1 c2 (t2 + 1)2 2
ds = dx + dy + dz = c 1 + 2 + 4 dt2 =
2 2 2 2 2
dt ,
t t t4
..
c(t2 + 1)
ds = dt.
t2

t ( ) ( )
t2 + 1 1 1
s=c dt = c t c t 0 .
t2 t t0
t0

t0 = 1, ( )
1
s=c t .
t
t s :

s + s2 + 4c2
t= .
2c
:

s + s2 + 4c2 s + s2 + 4c2 2c2
x= , y = 2c ln , z= .
2c 2c s + s2 + 4c2
, s, -
:
c 2
k== 2 .
s + 4c2

107
X

X.1
, , .
,
.
, ,
, , , ,

.
, , .
u, -
v
, u v. -
u v, ,
, .
.
, , -
. , u, v,
. - -
u, v, , r
u, v,

r = r(u, v). (X.1)


-
.
.
1. r0 - , a b
. u v, , ,

r = r0 + au + bv . (X.2)

2. , r0 - , i ,
, j , .
,

r = r0 + (i cos + j sin )

r = r0 + e(). (X.3)
.

z = f (x, y). (X.4)

108
X.1.

, . ,
,

r = (x, y, f (x, y)). (X.5)
, -
r(u, v) , , .
, .
, , .
,

r = r(u, v), (X.6)

t. -
,
u v.
, , , -
t.

u = u(t); v = v(t) (X.7)

. -
, , (X.7)
(X.6)
r = r(u(t), v(t)), (X.8)
. , -
, , , ,
- r t. , , ,
(X.8) r t u v,
dr ( r du ) ( r dv )
= + . (X.9)
dt u dt v dt
,

dr r
= ru ; = rv (X.10)
du v
, ,
. ,
. 34.

M0
.
r0 , (X.10) ,
M , -
, -
r0 -
, , -
du dv,
r
.. -
o , ,
.
. 34.

, , -
, , , ,
, .
, ,
ru rv .
[ ]
= ru rv .
N (X.11)

109
X.

, ,
, ru rv
. , ru rv ,
.
[ ]
, ru rv = 0
. -
r, - r0 ,

( )
ru , rv , r r0 = 0. (X.12)

, , -
, (X.12) .

X.2
, .
(X.7) (X.8). .

ds2 = dr 2 ,

dr = ru du + rv dv,

ds2 = ru 2 du2 + 2rurv dudv + rv 2 dv 2 .



ru 2 = E; rurv = F ; rv 2 = G, (X.13)

ds2 = Edu2 + 2F dudv + Gdv 2 . (X.14)


, ,
t1 t2 ,

t2
s= ds.
t1

ds (X.14) t,

( ) ( )2
t2 2
du du dv dv
s= E + 2F +G dt. (X.15)
dt dt dt dt
t1

, u v t E, F, G,
du dv
, (X.15)
dt dt
,
t2
f (t)dt.
t1

(X.14) -
.

1 = Edu2 + 2F dudv + Gdv 2 (X.16)

, du dv -
, ,
. 1 . -
, , ,

110
X.3.

. , ,
.. E, F, G u v ,
, .
, .

E = ru 2 ; G = rv 2
,

E > 0; G > 0. (X.17)

[ ]2 ( )2
ru rv = ru 2rv 2 ru rv = EG F 2 .
[
. ru
]
rv = 0.
EG F 2 > 0. (X.18)
(X.17) (X.18) ,
du dv, .
, , -.

X.3
,
. , .

dr = ru du + rv dv; r = ru u + rv v

, ,
. 35.

, -
-
. ,
-
. -

dr = ru du + rv dv; r = ru u + rv v

, -
-
, -
. 35.
. 35.

drr
cos = ,
|dr||r|



|dr| = ds = Edu 2 + 2F dudv + Gdv 2

|r| = s = Eu 2 + 2F uv + Gv 2
drr = (ru du + rv dv)(ru u + rv v) = ru 2 duu + rurv (duv + dvu) + rv 2 dvv =

111
X.

= Eduu + F (duv + dvu) + Gdvv.


,
Eduv + F (duv + dvu) + Gduv
cos = . (X.19)
Edu + 2F dudv + Gdv 2 Eu 2 + 2F uv + Gv 2
2

,
, .
, , , ,
,
.
(X.19) , ..

du = 0; dv = 0
u = 0; v = 0,

F
cos = (X.20)
EG.
, , , ..
, ,

F =0


ds2 = Edu2 + Gdv 2 . (X.21)

, .

X.4

. -
.
:

S= EG F 2 dudv. (X.22)
D
, -
.

X.5

X.1. ,
M M :

: , M = M , (X.23)

, ,
:
s(M1 M2 ) = s ((M1 )(M2 )). (X.24)

, ,
, , .

112
X.6.

. , -
. u, v, ..,
M 1 (u, v).
, , M =
(M ) , M . -
.
:

: ds2 = E(u, v)du2 + 2F (u, v)dudv + G(u, v)dv 2 , (X.25)


: ds 2 = E (u, v)du2 + 2F (u, v)dudv + G (u, v)dv 2 . (X.26)

X.1. , , ,
, -
-
:

E (u, v) = E(u, v); F (u, v) = F (u, v); G (u, v) = G(u, v). (X.27)

X.6
. ,
, , , -
, .
:

, -
. -
:

1. ;

2. ;

3. ;

4. ( ).

X.7
,
. {x1 , x2 } -

, {x1 , x2 } .
, {x1 , x2 } -
:

g11 = E(x1 , x2 ); g12 = g21 = F (x1 , x2 ); g22 = G(x1 , x2 ), (X.28)


1 2
{x , x } :

113
X.


g1 1 = E (x1 , x2 ); g1 2 = g2 1 = F (x1 , x2 ); g2 2 = G (x1 , x2 ). (X.29)
-
:

ds2 = gik dxi dxk , (i, k = 1, 2); (X.30)


2 i k
ds =g i k dx dx , (i , k = 1, 2. (X.31)

,
:

gik dxi dxk = gi k dxi dxk (X.32)
.

{x1 , x2 } {x1 , x2 } :

x1 = f 1 (x1 , x2 ); x2 = f 2 (x1 , x2 ). (X.33)
, , -
:

f 1 1
f 1 2
dx1 = dx + dx ; (X.34)
x1 x2
f 2 1 f 2 2
dx2 = dx + dx , (X.35)
x1 x2
:

dxi = Aik dxk , (X.36)
:

xi
A: Ai k = . (X.37)
xk
:

dxi = Aik dxk , (X.38)
:

xi
A1 : Ai k = . (X.39)
xk
, :

Aik Akj = ji ; Aik Aji = kj = AA1 = E. (X.40)
X.33 , -
:

xi

det A = k = 0. (X.41)
x


X.2. ai ai i, i = 1, n, :

ai = Aik ak , (X.42)

114
X.8.

X.32 X.36 , -
:
gik dxi dxk = gi k Aii Akk dxi dxk . (X.43)
, -
:

gik = Aii Akk gi k . (X.44)

gi k = Aii Akk gik . (X.45)

X.3. aik ai k i, k, i , k = 1, n, :

ai k = Aii Akk aik , (X.46)

-
.

,
.

X.8 -

(x0 , y0 , z0 ) - .
, z (x0 , y0 , z0 ),
x y . (x0 , y0 , z0 )
z = f (x, y), z0 = f (x0 , y0 )

f f
= = 0,
x x=x0 ,y=y0 y x=x0 ,y=y0
..

f = 0.
x=x0 ,y=y0

z = f (x, y), .. d 2 f = fxx dx2 + 2fxy dxdy + fyy dy 2


aij = fxi xj , x1 = x, x2 = y ( ).
(x0 , y0 , z0 ) f
= 0.

X.4. z = f (x, y)
M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ), f
= 0, (aij ). -
(aij ) ,
: a11 + a22 = k1 + k2 , k1 k2 - ,
K = k1 k2 = det(aij ) = a11 a22 a12 a21 .

115
X.

-
.
, :
z , x y , , z = f (x, y)
f
= 0 (x0 , y0 ).
.

r = r(u, v). (X.47)


[ ] [ ]
ru rv = | ru rv |n, n - , |n| = 1.
r = r(u(t), v(t)) . :

r= ru u + rv v, r= (ruu u 2 + 2ruv uv + rvv v 2 ) + (ru u + rv v).

ru n rv n,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
r n = ruu n u 2 + 2 ruv n uv + rvv n v 2 = b11 u 2 + 2b12 uv + b22 v 2 . (X.48)
()
. r n -
(u, v) u = x1 , v = x2 .
b11 = L, b12 = M, b22 = N.
() 2
r n dt = bij dxi dxj = L(du)2 + 2M dudv + N (dv)2 .

() 2
X.5. r n dt
(X.47).

.
, :

1) ds2 = gij dxi dxj , (X.49)


() 2
2) r n dt = bij dxi dxj . (X.50)

ds2 . ,
.
( ) ( )
g11 g12 b11 b12
G= , Q= (X.51)
g21 g22 b21 b22

(g21 = g21 , b21 = b12 ).

det(Q G) = 0 (X.52)

(b11 g11 )(b22 g22 ) (b12 g12 )2 = 0.


1 , 2 .
}
(b11 i g11 ) 1i + (b12 i g12 ) 2i = 0,
(X.53)
(b12 i g12 ) 1i + (b22 i g22 ) 2i = 0,
1i , 2i - . 1 , 2 - , (X.53)

f1 = ( 1 , 2 ), f2 = ( 1 , 2 ).
1 1 2 2

116
X.9.

f1 , f2 ; f1 -
1 f2 2 .
()
ei ej
gij i, j = 1, 2 ( gij ).

X.1. , -
.

f1 f2 .

f1 = 11e1 + 21e2 , f2 = 12e1 + 22e2 .

,
()
f1 f2 = gij i1 j2 = 0.

-
:

gij dxi dxj = ds2 , (X.54)


bij dxi dxj , x1 = u, x2 = v. (X.55)

X.6. k1 , k2 -
. -
K , H - :
1
K = k1 k2 ; H= (k1 + k2 ) (X.56)
2

X.9
M0 (M0 ; x, y, z),
M0 z .

z = f (x, y),
M0 :
fx (M0 ) = fy (M0 ) = 0.
M0 :
gij (M0 ) = ij ,
g11 = 1 + fx2 , g12
= fx fy , g22 = 1 + fy2 .
:

L = b11 = fxx ; M = b12 = fxy ; N = b22 = fyy ,

:
1a). K > 0, 1 > 0, 2 > 0: ( f (x, y) M0 .)
1b). K > 0, 1 < 0, 2 < 0: ( f (x, y) M0 .) - , K > 0 -
. . ,
, .
2). K < 0 : 1 < 0, 2 > 0 1 > 0, 2 < 0,
(), .
3). K = 0 : 1 = 0 2 = 0 , -
.

117
X.

X.10 -

X.7. kg -
-
:
kg = |. .r | (X.57)
.

X.8. kn
-
:
kn = N r . (X.58)

, -

: r = r(u(t), v(t)) (X.59)

. -
-
:
[ ]
N = ru rv . (X.60)

-
:
( )
r N

kn = N r = = .
|N
|

(r , ru , rv )
kn = [ ] . (X.61)
. 36. | ru rv |

, (X.57) :
kn2 + kg2 = k 2 = r 2 ,
k - ;
( )2
r N
( ( )2 )
1
kg2 = (r )2 2 r N
N .
|N
|2
N2
( ):
[ ]2 ( )2
a 2b 2 = a b + a b ,
:
1 [ ]2 1 [ ]
kg2 = 2 r N
= kg = r N . (X.62)

N |N
|

118
X.10.

X.60 :
[ []] () ()
a b c = b a c c a b ,

:
( ( )2 ( )( ) ( )2 )
1
2
kg = E r rv 2F r rv r ru + G r ru . (X.63)
EG F 2
, -
,
.

X.9. , -
.

119
XI

: r = r(u, v) = (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)).

- :
r r
ru = , rv = ,
u v
:
( )
r 2u = E; r 2 = G; ru rv =F

:
ds2 = Edu2 + 2F dudv + Gdv 2 , (XI.1)
.
: ( )
E F
G= .
F G
G :

det G = 0.

ru rv , , -
. :
[ ]
N = ru rv .

XI.1. .

r = a(e() cos + k sin ),


r = ae1 () cos ,
r = a(e() sin + k cos ),
[ ]
= r r = ar,
N

120
XI.1.

r) = 0.
r(

XI.2. (. . 37):

r = e()t + ak. (XI.2)

-
(XI.2), :

rt = e() = (cos, sin , 0);


r = (t sin , t cos , a).

E = (rt , rt ) = 1; F = (rt , r ) = 0;

G = (r , r = t2 + a2 ).
:

ds2 = dt2 + (a2 + t2 )d2 . (XI.3)

. 37. :

XI.1

:
: u = u(t); v = v(t).
:
t1
s= u 2 + v 2 dt.
t0

:
: u = u( ), v = v( )
M0 :
M0 = = u(t0 ) = u(0 ); v(t0 ) = v(0 ).

. :
E u0 u0 + F (u0 v 0 + u0 v0 ) + Gv0 v 0
cos = .
E u 20 + 2F u0 v0 + Gv 20 E u 20 + 2F u0 v 0 + Gv 20

:

S= EG F 2 dudv.

121
XI.

XI.3. , ..,
.

R :

r = R(cos cos , sin cos , sin ).

: = (t); = (t).

:
: = 0 .
M0 (0 , 0 ).
:
Tm = r |M0 = R( cos 0 sin 0 , sin 0 sin 0 , cos 0 ).
, :

m = ( cos 0 sin 0 , sin 0 sin 0 , cos 0 ).

T = rt = R( sin cos cos sin , cos cos sin sin , cos )M0 .

:
|T | = R 2 + cos2 2 .
t = , :

T = ( sin cos cos sin , cos cos sin sin , cos )M0


|T | = 1 + 2 cos2 ,
d
= . , : (T , m ) = 1.
d
, -
, :
1
cos = .
1 + 2 cos2

,
:
1 d
tg = = cos = (XI.4)
m d
. 38. d
= md, (XI.5)
cos

m - , -
.
, :
( )

ctg = cem .
4 2

122
XI.1.

XI.4. , -

r = ((a + b cos v) cos u, (a + b cos v) sin u, b sin v), 0 u, v 2.

-
-
:

ru = ((a + b cos v) sin u, (a + b cos v) cos u, 0);

rv = (b sin v cos u, b sin v sin u, b cos v).


E = (a + b cos v)2 ; F = 0, G = b2 .

. 39. (X.22)
:

22 22
= EG F 2 dudv = b(a + b cos v)dv du =

0 0 0 0

2
2
= 2b (a + b cos v)dv = 2b (av + b sin v)|0 = 4 2 ab.
0

XI.5.

= Aem (XI.6)
, :

r = ( cos , sin , ctg ),

2 - , - . -,
:
r = (cos , sin , ctg ),

r = ( sin , cos , 0).


:
1
E = (r r ) = ; F = (r r ) = 0; G = (r r ) = 2 .
sin2
:

d2
ds2 = + 2 d2 . (XI.7)
sin2

123
XI.

= 0; = t, (XI.6): = , = Aem , d = md.


M0 0 = Aem0 .
:
r t (0 , 0 ) = (cos 0 , sin 0 , ctg );
(XI.6) :

r (0 , 0 ) = 0 (m cos 0 sin 0 , m sin 0 + cos 0 , m ctg ).

:
1 m2
|r t |M0 = ; |r |M0 = 0 + 1;
sin sin2
m
(r t r )M0 = .
sin

, :

(r t r )M0 m
cos = =
|r t |M0 |r |M0 m2 + sin2
(= Const). .., (XI.6)
:
sin
tg 0 = .
m
, (XI.6) -
.

. 40. (XI.6):
A = 1, m = 0, 1

XI.2

XI.6. .

(X.62), :
[ ]
kg = r m ,

m
- .
:
[ ]
r = R(cos cos , sin cos , sin ), [0, 2], , .
2 2
, ,

= 0 ,

124
XI.3.

..:
: r = R(cos cos 0 , sin cos 0 , sin 0 ),
- .
:

r = R( sin cos 0 , cos cos 0 , 0); r = R(cos sin 0 , sin sin 0 , cos0 ).

[r , r ] , :
( )
r
m
= (cos cos 0 , sin cos 0 , sin ) =
R

- : -, -
. -
, ,
2R cos 0 . , .
- :

dr = R cos 0 ( sin , cos , 0)d.

, :

ds = |dr| = R cos 0 d.

, . , :
d 1 d
= .
ds R cos 0 d
, :
1
r = (cos , sin , 0).
R cos 0
:
tg 0
r ] =
[m, ( sin , cos , 0) =
R
tg 0
r ]| =
kg = |[m, .
R

XI.3 -

XI.7.

. , ,
OO ( ) ,
, (. . 41). ( ,
) . Oz
:
x = cos ;

y = sin ; , (XI.8)

z = z

= x2 + y 2 - , - ,
:
= (z); [0, 2], (XI.9)
.., (z).

125
XI.

x1 = u = x2 = v = z.
z = Const , = Const -
.

-
(XI.8):

r
ru = r = = ( sin , cos , 0) ;

,
r
rv = rz = = ( cos , sin , 1)
z
(XI.10)

d
= .
dz

. 41.

:
( )
E = r 2 = 2 ; G = rz 2 = 1 + 2 ; F = r rz = 0. (XI.11)

, z :

ds2 = 2 (z)d2 + (1 + 2 (z)dz 2 ), (XI.12)


( )
2 (z) 0
G= (XI.13)
0 1 + 2 (z)
, ..:

-
.

, z = z0 , z = z1 -
= 0 , = 1 , :
z1 1
S= EG F dudv = dz (x) 1 + (z) 2 d =
2

z0 0

z1
(1 0 ) 1 + (z) 2 dz. (XI.14)
z0

z :

1 + 2 (z)
= d, (XI.15)

126
XI.3.

- :

ds2 = 2 ()(d2 + d 2 ). (XI.16)

XI.8.

.
:

x = r cos cos ;
[ ]
y = r sin cos ; [0, 2], , , r [0, ) (XI.17)
2 2
z = r sin ,

R r = R:

r = R(cos cos , sin cos , sin ). (XI.18)

, , ..,
, , . ,
:
cos 0. (XI.19)

:
= R cos ; z = R sin , (XI.20)
, , :
/
d d dz
= = , = = tg ; (XI.21)
dz d d
/
d dz 1
= , = = . (XI.22)
d d R cos3
(XI.21) 1 + 2 , :

1
1 + 2 = . (XI.23)
cos2


(XI.12), (XI.13), :

ds2 = R2 (cos2 d2 + d2 ), (XI.24)


( )
2 cos2 0
G=R . (XI.25)
0 1
,

det G = R4 cos2 (XI.26)



= . (XI.27)
2
,
N, , S, , .

127
XI.

XI.9.

(XI.24) , =
/2 = 0 . = Const, (XI.24):

ds2 = R2 d2 =

ds = Rd
( ). , , :

0 ( )
s= Rd = R 0 . (XI.28)
2
/2

, , , 0 . = Const = 0 ,
(XI.24) :

ds2 = R2 cos2 0 d2 = ds = R cos d

( ) , :

2
s= R cos 0 d = 2R cos 0 . (XI.29)
0

XI.10.

, ,
, /2, F =
g12 = 0.

XI.11.

, , (XI.24)
(XI.26):

g = R4 cos2 .

, :

S = R2 cos dd. (XI.30)

128
XII

Ldu2 + 2M dudv + N dv 2 ,

L, M, N :
( ) ( ) ( )
L= m ruu ; M = m ruv ; N= rvv ,
m

m
- .

[ru , rv ]
m
= ,
[ru , rv ]2

(
) (
) (
)
ruu , ru , rv ruv , ru , rv rvv , ru , rv
L= ; M= ; N= ,
[ ]2 [ ]2 [ ]2
ru rv ru rv ru rv


xuu yuu zuu xuv yuv zuv xvv yvv zvv

xu yu zu xu yu zu xu yu zu

xv yv zv xv yv zv xv yv zv
L= ; M= ; N= .
EG F 2 EG F 2 EG F 2

B :
( )
L M
B=
M N

- :
( )
L E M F
B = B G =
M F N G

u , ( = 1, 2) :

(B G)U = 0.

,
1 = k1 , 2 = k2 .
:
K = k1 k2

129
XII.

,
1
H= (k1 + k2 )
2
.

XII.1.

.
:

( ) i j k

N = r rz = sin cos 0 = (cos , sin , ). (XII.1)

cos sin 1

:
1
n = (cos , sin , ). (XII.2)
1 + 2

, .
- (XI.8), :

r = (cos , sin , 0), ;

rz = ( sin , cos , 0), ; (XII.3)

rzz = (cos , sin , 0).

: ( )
L = n r = ;
1 + 2
( )
M = n rz = 0; (XII.4)

( )
N = n rzz =
1 + 2
- :
( )
1 0
B= . (XII.5)
1 + 2 0

, z -
. :

L E 0
= 0, (XII.6)
0 N G

, 1 , 2 , , , k1 , k2 :

L 1 N
k1 = = k2 = = . (XII.7)
E 1 + 2 G (1 + 2 )3/2

LN
K = k1 k2 = = . (XII.8)
EG (1 + 2 )2

130
, -
, . , C:

C: = Const, = 0, = 0 :
( )
0
B= ,
0 0
.., : K = k1 k2 = 0.
H1 :

H1 : = ch t, z = sh t =
d d dt
= = = th(t),
dz dt dz
dr dt 1
= = 3 = 0.
dt dz ch t
, (XII.8):

-
.

XII.2.

(XII.4) 130 :
1
k1 = k2 = . (XII.9)
R
, , -
( ).
:
K = R2 > 0. (XII.10)
, -
.

XII.3. , ,
:
r = (t cos , t sin , a.) (XII.11)

XI.2:

rt = e() = (cos, sin , 0);


,
r = (t sin , t cos , a).

E = 1; F = 0; G = t2 + a2 .
:

ds2 = dt2 + (a2 + t2 )d2 . (XII.12)

131
XII.

:
= [rt , r ] = N := (a sin , a cos , t).
N

, :

|N
| = a2 + t2 .

, , m,
:
1
=
m (a sin , a cos , t).
a + t2
2

- :

rtt = 0, rt = ( sin , cos , 0); r = (t cos , t sin , 0).

:
a
Btt = (m,
rtt ) = 0; rt ) =
Bt = (m, ; B = (m,
r ) = 0.
a 2 + t2
-:
a

a 2 + t2
||B G|| = a .

a + t2
2

det (B G) = 0,

:
a a
1 =
2, 2 = 2
2 .
a +t a + t2
; (H) (-
, K,) :

1 + 2 a2
H= = 0; K = 1 2 = < 0.
2 (a + t2 )2
2

XII.4. ,
.

, , -
. :

r = ( cos , sin , a2 ).

, , :

r = (cos , sin , 2a); r = ( sin , cos , 0);

r = (0, 0, 2a); r = ( sin , cos , 0); r = ( cos , sin , 0).


:
= [r , r ] = (2a2 cos , 2a2 sin , ) =
N
1
=
m (2a cos , 2a sin , 1).
1 + 42 a2

132
. : ( )
1 0
||G|| = ;
0 2 + a2
2a
0

1 + 42 a2
B=

.

2a2
0
1 + 42 a2
:
2a 2a2
1 = ; .
1 + 42 a2 1 + 42 a2 (2 + a2 )
,
1. K > 0, , ;

2.
2
1 = 2 = 1 =
+ a2
2

a = 0, , .

133

[1] .. . . I. , 2000 ,
.

[2] .. . 1. . , 1997 .,

[3] .. . . II. , 2001 ,


.

[4] .. . . , 2001 , .

[5] .. . . , 2001 ,
.

[6] . . II. . ., , 1987.

[7] .. . . ., , 1986.

[8] . . ., , 1972.

[9] .., .., .. I. ., , 1974.

[10] .., .., .. . II. ., , 1975.

[11] .., .. . I. ., , 1986.

[12] .., .. . II. ., , 1987.

1
c BI BLIO ..

134
:

- .., .-. , ,

- ..
2013 .

19.04.13
6084
. .. 11 .-. . 10,8
. 100 . 1-05

-

. ..
420008, . , . , 35
LATEX2 ...
C BIBLIO ..