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Министерство просвещения Приднестровской Молдавской Республики

Государственное образовательное учреждение


«Бендерский Медицинский колледж»

Республиканский интернет-конкурс
«Лучшая методическая разработка» среди педагогических работников
организаций начального и среднего профессионального образования
Приднестровской Молдавской Республики

УЧЕБНОЕ
ПОСОБИЕ
по ОГСЭ.03 Иностранный (английский) язык
для студентов II курса
специальностей
31.02.02 Акушерское дело
34.02.01 Сестринское дело
31.02.01 Лечебное дело
33.02.01 Фармация

Авторы: Бойко Александр Александрович, преподаватель английского языка ГОУ


“Бендерский медицинский колледж”,077944269, jamescrowly24@gmail.com
Горбачова Наталья Сергеевна, преподаватель английского языка ГОУ «Бендерский
медицинский колледж», 077800698, n.axiom@mail.ru.

Бендеры, 2017
АННОТАЦИЯ

Данное учебное пособие адресуется студентам медицинского колледжа, изучающим


английский язык на стадии Intermediate Level и выше и направлено на развитие навыков
устного и письменного перевода с английского языка на русский, лексических и
грамматических навыков, навыков устной монологической и диалогической речи.
Пособие затрагивает темы, связанные с медицинскими учреждениями и спецификой
медицины как науки, а также основные анатомические системы тела человека. Пособие
можно использовать как под руководством преподавателя, так и самостоятельно.

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Unit 1. History of medicine

VOCABULARY:
healthy-здоровый
ill-больной
illness-болезнь
brokenbone-сломанная кость honey - мёд
plant- растение to heal - заживлять
taste - вкус prevent - предотвращать
totest - тестировать, испытывать rest - отдых
safe - в безопасности giant - гигантский
todiscover - делать открытия waste – мусор, отходы
fever - лихорадка, жар influenza - грипп
medicine - лекарства, медицина plague- чума
soreskin- воспаленная кожа to fight - сражаться
ancient- древний to infect - заражать
bandage- бинт incurable - неизлечимый
wound– рана to take care - заботиться
cure - лечение a nun - монахиня
patient - пациент a ward - палата
a surgeon - хирург
badly wounded – тяжелораненый

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Early Medicine
Early people were nomads – they didn't live in one place and traveled around to look
for food. Early people were healthy, because they lived outdoors most of the time and they
walked and ran a lot. They hunted animals and ate meat and plants when they were still fresh.
Early nomads used mud to heal broken bones. If they broke an arm or a leg, they put wet mud
on it. Then the mud became dry and hard, and it stopped the arm or leg moving so that the
bone inside could heal.
Early people believed that they got ill because evil spirits were inside them. Many
people had amulets – things that can bring luck. They hoped that their amulets could stop
them being ill. People cared for each other when they were ill. A shaman was a man or
woman who sang songs, danced, and did magic spells to make people well. Many people
believed that these magic spells worked. Nowadays some people also visit shamans because
they believe that a shaman can help them.
When early people tasted plants to test which ones were safe to eat, they sometimes
discovered plants that cured illness and fever. These plants were the first medicines. One of
the oldest books about medicines made from plants was written in China more than four
thousand years ago. Most early medicines were made from parts of plants such as flowers.
People ate the plant parts or they made them into drinks. Sometimes they made the plant parts
into lotions to put on their body. Nowadays many people also use medicines made from
plants. For example, we use lotions made from aloe vera plants to make sore skin feel better.

I. Answer the questions.


1. Why were early people healthy?
2. What did they eat?
3. How did early people heal broken bones?
4. Who was a shaman?
5. How did early people discover plants that cured illness and fever?
6. When was the first book about medicines made from plants written?
7. What are the lotions made from aloe vera plants used for?

II. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and phrases.
Кочевники, здоровые люди, свежий, растения, накладывать влажную грязь, сломанные
кости, заживать, злые духи, приносящий удачу, больной, совершать магические обряды,
пробовать (на вкус), проверять, безопасный, обнаруживать, болезнь, лихорадка,
лекарство, лосьон, раздраженная кожа.
III. Match the words with their definitions.
1. shaman a. people who do not live in one place
2. discover b. a man or a woman doing magic spells
3. nomads c. things that can bring luck to people
4. amulets d. to find something new

IV. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb to be.
1.Early people …. nomads. They …. healthy people.
2. Hippocrates … the most famous of all the Greek doctors.
3. Amulets ... things that people think are lucky.
4. Lotion from aloe vera plant … a cream that people use to make sore skin feel better.
5. My brother … a doctor when he graduates from the university next year.
6. She … at home last night.
7. This medicine … safe and effective.
8. My friend … ill last week, but now he feels better.
9. This amulet … lucky.
10. Nowadays there … many medicines made from plants.

Medicine in Ancient Times

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Ancient Egyptians. We know about medicine in Ancient Egypt because Ancient
Egyptians wrote about their world. They cut words into walls and wrote on a type of
paper. We know that Ancient Egyptians used magic spells to cure people, but they also
had the first doctors. These doctors made medicines from plants, and they were good at
putting bandages on wounds. They also used honey to help wounds to heal. This was a
good idea. Even today, doctors put honey on wounds because it helps wounds to heal
quickly.
Ancient Greeks. About 2 500 years ago in Ancient Greece many people believed
that evil spirits or angry gods made them ill. Hippocrates was a Greek doctor and a
teacher. He is the most famous of all the Greek doctors. And he is often called “the father
of medicine”. Hippocrates believed that people became ill because there was something
wrong with there body. He told doctors to watch patients and to think about their
illnesses. Doctors wrote down what they learnt. They made medicines from plants and
they wrote about which medicines worked. Soon doctors started to understand different
illnesses. To prevent illness they told people to eat good food, to rest often and to do
exercise.
Ancient Romans. Ancient Roman doctors learnt that being dirty and drinking
dirty water could make people ill. To prevent illness Ancient Romans built baths and
toilets for lots of people to use. At the baths there were big pools like swimming pools.
Every day Romans went to the baths to wash and to meet friends. In some places Romans
built giant bridges called aqueducts that brought water to cities from the high hills. This
gave people clean water that they could drink and use. Romans also built pipes to take
waste away from the cities to keep the cities clean.

I. Answer the questions.


1. How do we know about medicine in Ancient Egypt?
2. What did Ancient Egyptians use to help wounds to heal?
3. Who believed that people got ill because there was something wrong with their body?
4. What did doctors in Ancient Greece tell people to do to prevent illness?

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5. Why did Ancient Romans build baths and toilets for lots of people to use?
6. What is an aqueduct?

II. Find English equivalents for the following words and phrases.
Древние египтяне, высекать слова на стенах, вылечить, накладывать повязку на
рану, мед, быстро зажить, древние греки, Гиппократ, пациент, предотвратить
болезнь, часто отдыхать, древние римляне, бани, огромные мосты, акведук, трубы,
мусор.
III Complete the sentences.
1.Ancient …. doctors learnt that being dirty could make people ill.
2.Ancient Egyptian doctors were good at putting …. on wounds.
3. Every day Romans went to the …. to wash and to meet friends.
4. Romans built pipes to take …. away from the cities to keep the cities clean.
5. Giant bridges called …. brought water to the cities from high hills.
6. …. was the most famous of all the Greek doctors.
7. Hippocrates is called the …. of medicine.
8. To …. illness doctors told people to eat good food, to rest often and to do exercise.

IV Fill in the blanks with prepositions.


1. Ancient Egyptians cut words into walls and wrote ... a type ... paper.
2. Doctors made medicines ... plants, and they were good ... putting bandages ... wounds.
3. Even today, doctors put honey ... wounds because it helps wounds to heal quickly.
4. ... Ancient Greece many people believed that evil spirits or angry gods made them ill.
5. Ancient Greek doctors made medicines made ... plants and they wrote about which
medicines worked.
6. Romans built giant bridges called aqueducts that brought water to cities … the high
hills.

V. Make up sentences from the given words.

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1. used/to make/plants/Ancient doctors/medicines.
2. thought/Ancient Romans/drinking/ill./dirty water/that/made people/
3. Doctors/were/putting bandages/in Egypt/on wounds./good at/on wounds
4. Every day/ went/ to wash/ Romans/ and/ to meet friends./ to the baths
5. used /Early/mud/ to heal/people/ broken/ bones.
6. safe to eat./Early people/ plants/ which ones /tasted /were / to test

Medicine in the Middle Ages


In the Middle Ages millions of people died from such diseases as diphtheria,
typhoid, fever, influenza and leprosy. But the worst disease at that time was the plague.
Plague (the “Black death”) killed millions of people in Europe and Asia. Nobody knew
how to fight with the disease and people just ran away from the infected areas. Leprosy
was also incurable. Patients with leprosy lived in special colonies away from other
people.

The first hospitals appeared in Ceylon in the fifth century b. c. and in India in 260
b. c. During the Middle Ages hospitals were founded in Italy, France, England and other
European countries. Monks and nuns cared for patients in hospitals. They were not

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doctors ornurses and they did not cure patients. They just gave patients food and a bed
and said prayers with them.
Monks and nuns cared for many patients who had the plague because the patients had to
stay in hospital until they died.
At the same time in the Middle East there were many hospitals. Many doctors and
nurses cared for patients there. These doctors also made medicines for patients. They
treated everyone who came to them and they taught new doctors and nurses about
diseases. There were different wards for different diseases in these hospitals. There were
also pools and fountains because doctors thought that the sound of moving water helped
patients to rest.
Barbers were the first surgeons. People could go to barber shops where the
barbers cut hair. They could also pull out sore teeth. Later barbers started to treat wounds
from fights and cut off arms or legs which were badly wounded.

I. Find the following words and phrases in the text.


Дифтерия, брюшной тиф, лихорадка, грипп, чума, бороться с заболеванием,
зараженные, неизлечимый, монах, монахиня, заботиться, пациент, медсестра,
читать молитвы, изготовлять лекарства, палата, отдыхать, цирюльник, хирург,
выдернуть больной зуб, тяжело раненый

II. Fill in the blanks.


The worst …. in the Middle Ages was the plague. Nobody knew how to …. with the
disease. Monks and …. did not cure patients, they just gave patients food and a bed.
Doctors in the Middle Ages made …. from plants. Acupuncture doctors put thin …. into a
patients body at special places called …. points.

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Unit 2. Medical student’s working day

VOCABULARY:

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an early riser -«ранняя пташка»
to go on foot- ходить пешком
a break (short, long) -перерыв (короткий, большой)
to attend lectures -посещать лекции
to deliver lectures- читать лекции
a foreign language -иностранный язык
to be over- оканчиваться
either... or...- или... или..., либо... либо...
right after classes -сразу после занятий
to make reports -делать доклады
to carry out research-выполнять исследовательскую работу
Many of you are either applying or thinking of applying to medical school—but what
is it really like?
I am a student. My dream has come true. A new life began. I guess it is not easy to
study at the Medical College. Every day I have much work to do. My week-days don’t differ
much one from another. My working day begins early. English people say: «Early to bed and
early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise». I am not an early riser, but I have to get
up at 7 a.m. At a quarter past 8 a.m. I leave the hostel for the college. I go to there on foot as it
is not far from the hostel where I live. Many of our students live at home. They go to the
college by bus or trolley bus.
Our classes usually begin at 8.30 a.m. Every medical school has a different
curriculum. A student goes to school for 4-8 hours of a traditional lecture-based format, and
then comes home and studies. Medical school is difficult due to the large amount of material
presented and tested in each course. The students have practical classes, lectures and seminars
in numerous theoretical and special subjects. For most students, the hardest course, right at the
beginning, appears to be Biochemistry taught in the first semester of the first year. Physiology,
Pathology and Pharmacology are also very intense course.
Like most of our students I attend all the lectures as they are delivered by qualified
teachers, and are very interesting and important. We work much in class, at our laboratories
and library to get deep knowledge. As the students want to become not ordinary but good
specialists they must study not only their text-books but read special medical literature in
Russian and foreign languages. So English, German and French are taught at our college. To
know some foreign language is necessary for every person because its knowledge also helps
to learn more about culture, science, life and other events abroad. The students carry out
research work and then make reports at the conferences. My classes are over either at 2.40 or
4.10 p.m. Right after classes I go straight to the hostel. Sometimes I go to the library to
take some books or articles necessary for my studies.
I. Восстановить недостающую информацию из текста.
At a quarter past 8 a.m. ...
They carry out research work...
Right after classes...
English people say.
As a rule we.
I am not an early riser but.
We work much in.
In the evening I.

II. Посмотрите на «часы» и скажите: Какое время они показывают?


7: 00 a.m.
7: 30 a.m.
8: 15 a.m.
12:50 p.m.
3: 25 p.m.
III. Расскажите группе о своем рабочем дне, опираясь на следующие вопросы:
1) What are you?
2) When does your working day begin?
3) Are you an early riser or a heavy sleeper?
4) When do you leave home for the college?
5) How do you get to the college?
6) Are you late for classes?
7) When do your classes usually begin?
8) Do you miss lectures?
9) What subjects are you studying in the 1st year?
10) When are your classes over?

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11) Where do you go right after classes?

Unit 3. At the medical college

VOCABULARY:
to leave school - оканчивать школу
a first-year student - студент первокурсник
was founded - был основан
named after - назван в честь
the academic year - учебный год
terms - семестры
to wear a uniform - носить форму
a white gown - белый халат
a lunch break - обеденный перерыв
well-equipped - хорошо оснащены (оборудованы)
the maternity hospital - роддом
the ambulance department - отделение скорой
помощи the chemist’s - аптека
to follow a regular timetable - иметь постоянное
расписание

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humanities - гуманитарные дисциплины natural
sciences - естественные науки hostel - общежитие
easy to get along with - хорошо ладить, легко общаться

My name is Peter Ivanov. In June I left school and entered the medical college.
Now I am a first-year student.

The Medical College was founded in 1930 and was named after L.A. Tarasevich.
The college is situated in the central district of Tiraspol.

The academic year begins on the 1st of September. We have two terms and
summer and winter holidays. Students of our college wear a uniform: a white gown. Our
classes begin at 8.30 a.m. and usually finish at 2.30 p.m. We have a lunch break at 11.20
a.m. We have a good canteen and during our lunch period we take our meals there. There
is a gym on the ground floor. Our library is on the ground floor too. It contains a lot of
books on medicine, newspapers and magazines. Our classrooms and laboratories are large
and light. Our labs are well-equipped. Every day we attend lectures and have practice.
Senior students have practice outside the college: at the policlinic, at the maternity
hospital, at the ambulance department, at the hospital, at the laboratories, at the chemist’s.
Students follow a regular timetable. There are many subjects in our timetable. We
study hu humanities (Russian, English, Moldavian, History, Geography…); natural
sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Microbiology); special sciences (Pediatrics, Surgery,
Obstetrics and Gynecology and so on).

I do well because I want to be a good specialist. At the end of each term we pass
exams. I’ll try to pass them successfully. Many students of our college live in the hostel.
It is near our college. We have classes 6 days a week. Sunday is a day off. I like my
college. I always feel at home there. Everybody is friendly and easy to get along with.

II. Ответьте на вопросы.


1. When was the Medical College founded? What was it named after?

14
2. When does the academic year begin?
3. What kind of uniform do students wear?
4. When do classes begin and finish?
5. What is there on the ground floor?
6. What are laboratories?
7. Where do students have practice outside the College?
8. What subjects do students study?
9. What days of the week do students have classes?
III. Прокомментируйте предложения следующим образом. Если предложение
соответствует содержанию текста, скажите “It is right” и повторите
предложение вслух. Если предложение неверно, скажите “It is wrong” и
скажите правильный вариант.
1. The Medical College was founded in 1940 and was named after T.G. Shevchenko.
2. The academic year begins on the 2nd of September.
3. Students of our college wear a uniform: a white gown.
4. There is a gym on the first floor.
5. Our classrooms and laboratories are large and light.
6. At the end of each term we don’t pass exams.
7. We have classes 5 days a week.
IV.Расскажите о своём колледже.
V. Подготовьте проект или презентацию о медицинском колледже.

Unit 4. The 1st Moscow Medical Institute

15
VOCABULARY:
Found – основывать, утверждать, создавать
founded on facts – основанный на фактах
over - над, свыше, больше; to be over-оканчиваться
department-отделение; факультет; кафедра
such-такой; such as-как например; такой как
different-различный; разный, отличный (from)
carry out-выполнять, проводить
nurse-медицинская сестра; v ухаживать за больным
last-продолжаться; a последний; прошлый
surgery-хирургия
surgical-хирургический
so-так, таким образом; итак, поэтому
gain-приобретать
knowledge-знание (-я); the knowledge of medicine-знания по медицине
necessary-необходимый, нужный
experience-опыт
main-главный, основной; in the main-в основном
complete- v заканчивать, завершать; a законченный, полный

16
appointment-назначение
field-поле, область (деятельности)
prepare-готовиться, приготовиться

The 1st Moscow Medical Institute was founded in 1764. Now it has over 70
departments. As in all Soviet medical institutes, the course of studies is six years. During
this period the students master the basis of theoretical and practical medicine.
For two years the students learn the so-called pre-clinical subjects, such as
Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Human Anatomy, Histology and others.
The students have clinical subjects from the third to the fifth year. During the
three-years’ period the students learn to diagnose different diseases, to carry out
laboratory analyses and to treat people for these diseases.
At the end of the third year all the students have a six-weeks’ practical training. During
this period they work as nurses. After their 4th year the students have another practical
training. It lasts for eight weeks. During the second practical training they work as
doctors’ assistants at the therapeutic, surgical and other departments. After the 5th year
the students have a six-weeks’ practical training at a polyclinic. So in five years the
students gain the knowledge necessary for a general practitioner.

In the 6th year the students gain more experience in one of the three main clinical
subjects: Therapy, Surgery or Obstetrics.
When the students complete subinternship they get their work appointment. But
before they begin to work at the place of their appointment they work as interns at a large
hospital.
Such a system when a young doctor specializes for two years in one field of
medicine helps to prepare necessary specialists.

I. Read and explain the rules of reading:

Plaster, complete, polyclinic, general, gain, young, city, afternoon, main, they, X-ray,

17
vein, yesterday, master, last

II. Answer the questions:


1. What date is it today? 2. What date was it yesterday? 3. What date will it be
tomorrow? 4. What date was it the day before yesterday? 5. What date will it be the day
after tomorrow?

III. Explain the use or omission of articles:


1. The doctor treats him for tuberculosis. 2. They specialized as nurses. 3. The doctor
asked the nurse to prepare all the analyses necessary for the diagnosis. 4. Medical
students study general subjects in the first and second year. 5. He is the best student
among us.

IV. Give the singular of the following nouns:

Women, teeth, feet, children, friends, lives, studies, dresses

V. Give the plural of the following nouns. Spell the endings:

Baby, history, wife, life, mass, box


VI. Translate these sentences. Find the pronouns:
1. My father is over 35 years old. 2. Do you know them and their parents? 3. Many of
her relatives study at different institutes. 4. At the conference I met him among the
delegates. 5. Their practical training lasted for a month.

Unit 5. The Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy

18
VOCABULARY:

staff - штат

staff member - сотрудник

faculty - факультет

Medical Faculty - медицинский факультет

Faculty of Preventive Medicine - медико-профилактический факультет

Pharmaceutical Faculty - фармацевтический факультет

Stomatological Faculty - стоматологический факультет

Military Medicine Faculty - факультет военной медицины

course of study - курс обучения

term – семестр

to do a practicum – проходить практику

dean – декан

facilities – возможности, условия

research (work) – научно-исследовательская работа

19
under the supervision – под руководством

students’ scientific society – студенческое научное общество

hostel – общежитие

first-year student – студент-первокурсник

oath – клятва

to swear – клясться, принимать клятву

to graduate – окончить

a graduate – выпускник высшего учебного заведения

The Academy was founded in 1758 as a faculty of the Moscow University and in
1930 it was reorganized into an independent higher learning institution. The Sechenov
Moscow Medical Academy, one of the oldest and biggest medical schools in Russia, was
formerly the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University, founded by the great Russian
scientist M.V. Lomonosov. The University had three faculties: Philosophical, Law and
Medical and only thirty students studied at these faculties. Among them were the first
medical students: Sybelin, Veniaminov and Yastrebov. The students were taught by three
professors of natural history, anatomy and chemistry, respectively. At that time the
majority of the staff were foreign professors.The first Russian professor of medicine was
one of the graduates - Professor Sybelin.

By the 19th century there were six departments at the Medical Faculty: the
departments of anatomy, physiology, pathology, surgery, internal medicine and
midwifery. The first clinical hospitals were opened in 1805. They were the hospitals of
surgery and obstetrics. By the end of the 19th century 26 departments and 12 clinical
hospitals had been founded and new departments added: the departments of hygiene and
anatomic pathology.

20
The professors and students of the Medical Faculty took an active part in the
political and social life of the time. The ideas of Herzen and Belinsky were very popular
among the staff and students. At that time many outstanding doctors worked at the
Faculty. They were: A.A. Ostroumov, a physician; N.V. Sklifosovsky, A.A. Bobrov, P.I.
Dyakonov, surgeons; A.U. Kozhevnikov, a neurologist; S.S. Korsakov, a psychiatrist;
B.F. Snegirev, an obstetrician-gynecologist; N.F. Filatov, a pediatrician; I.M. Sechenov, a
physiologist; F.F. Erisman, a hygienist, and others.

At present there are many more faculties at the Academy: the Medical Faculty, the
Faculty of Preventive Medicine, the Pharmaceutical Faculty (with an evening division),
the Nursing Faculty, the Stomatological Faculty, the Military Medicine Faculty and the
Faculty for Advanced Training of doctors and pharmacists. The head of each faculty is
the Dean.

The course of training at the Academy is divided into junior and senior levels.
There is a six-year course of study at the Medical, Preventive Medicine, Stomatological
and Military Medicine Faculties. At the Pharmaceutical Faculty the students are trained
for five years. The course of training in the Nursing Faculty is four years. Over 9,000
students study at these faculties.

I. Прочтите следующие утверждения и выразите согласие или несогласие.

Начните свои ответы со слов: Yes, you are right...; No, I don' think you are right...;
No, I don't think that is correct... .

1. By the end of the 19th century there were 26 departments and 12 clinics at the Medical
Faculty of the Moscow University.

2. N.V. Sklifosofsky, A.A. Bobrov and P.I. Dyakonov were famous surgeons.

21
3. B.F. Snegirev, one of the famous physicians, worked at the Medical Faculty of the
Moscow University.

4. The dean is head of the department.

II. Поставьте специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям и запишите


их. Используйте вопросительные слова, данные в скобках.

1. In 1758 there were three professors at the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University.
(when?)

2. Only 16 students studied medicine in 1765. (how many?)

3. The first clinical hospital of the Moscow University Medical Faculty was opened at the
end of the 19th century. (what?)

4. The great Russian writer A.P. Chekhov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the
Moscow University. (who?)

5. The graduates of the Moscow Medical Academy work in various parts of our country.
(where?)

III. Вас пригласили на встречу со студентами-иностранцами, только что


поступившими в ММА им. И.М. Сеченова. Ответьте на вопросы
первокурсников об истории Академии.

1. When was the Moscow Medical Academy founded? 2. Who was the founder of the
Moscow University? 3. Who was the first professor of medicine at the Moscow
University? 4. What famous scientists worked at the Medical faculty at the end of the
19th century? 5. How many faculties were there at the Moscow University? 6. How many
faculties are there at the Moscow Medical Academy now? 7. How many students study at
the Moscow Medical Academy today?

22
Unit 6. The Health service in Great Britain

VOCABULARY:
aid - помощь; здравоохранение
aids — приспособления, hearing - слух
вспомогательные средства item - отдельный предмет, предмет
arrange - располагать в оп- ухода за больным
ределенном порядке, организо- list - список
вывать mind - разум, ум, умственные
artificial – искусственный способности
attention – внимание necessary - необходимый
average – средний need - нуждаться
chemist - химик, аптекарь; oblige - обязывать; to be obliged -
chemist’s shop — аптека быть обязанным
consulting-room - кабинет (врача) obtain – получать
duty - долг, обязанность; ordinary - обычный, обыкновенный
дежурство; to be on duty - дежурить pay - платить
expensive - дорогой, дорогостоящий practitioner-практикующий врач;
health - здоровье; health service - general practitioner— врач общей

23
практики service - служба
prescribe - прописывать sickness - болезнь
prescription — рецепт
sight – зрение
private - частный
treatment - лечение
provide - обеспечивать waiting room - приемная
register - регистрировать

The National Health Service (NHS) provides free medical treatment both in

hospital and outside. It covers sickness of mind as well as ordinary sickness, and includes

the treatment of teeth, the provision of aids to sight and hearing, as well as wheelchairs,

artificial limbs and other expensive items.

People are not obliged to use the service; they may still go to doctors as private

patients if they wish to do so, and in big towns there are some private hospitals which

people may use rather than the hospitals which are within the Health Service.

In order to obtain the benefits of the National Health Service a person must

normally be registered on a general practitioner’s list, and if he needs medical attention

he first goes to his general practitioner or has the general practitioner 3 come to see him.

The family doctor gives treatment and prescribes medicine, or, if necessary, arranges for

the patient to go to hospital or to be seen at home by a specialist. If the doctor' prescribes

medicine, a written prescription must be taken to a chemist’s shop where the chemist

prepares what is necessary. At first, from 1948, the patient had nothing to pay for med-

24
icine, but since 1951 a small fixed payment has been necessary.

Each person is free to choose a general practitioner in the area where he lives and

be registered on his list. The average general practitioner has a little over 2,000 people on

his list; the maximum is around 3,500. Out of his earnings he must provide a waiting-

room and a consulting room for his patients, a car, and a secretary. It is usual for three or

four general practitioners to join together in a partnership, arranging their work so that at

least one of the partners is always on duty and taking care of each other’s patients during

free days.

I. Закончите предложения, используя информацию из текста “The Health


Service in Great Britain".
1. The NHS provides all kinds of medical treatment including...
2. People who want to obtain the benefits of the NHS must ...
3. If a person needs medical attention he first...
4. If it is necessary the family doctor arranges...
5. Since 1951 patients have to pay...
6. Out of his earnings a general practitioner must provide ...
7. Usually three or four general practitioners...

II. Подберите к словам из левой колонки слова с противоположным


значением из правой:

private public
ordinary extraordinary
healthy natural
expensive cheap

25
healthy sick

III. Укажите в каждой цепочке “лишнее” слово, объясните свой выбор.


— help — assistance — aid — service
— to obtain — to oblige — to get — to receive
— chemist’s shop — drugstore — pharmacy — pharmacology
— sickness — illness — weakness — disease
— drug — medicine — prescription — medication

IV.Закончите предложения, заполнив пропуски в предложениях подходящими


по смыслу глаголами из списка, приведенного ниже. Переведите предложения
на русский язык.

1. If you use the NHS you don’t have to... for the treatment.
2. In order to... the necessary information we looked through a lot of journals.
3. The general practitioner will... for you to be seen by a specialist if necessary.
4. We shall... all that is necessary for your work.
5. Doctors usually... this medicine in the cases like yours.
6. They decided to... this subject in the course of Study.

include, provide, obtain, prescribe, pay, arrange

V. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту “The Health Service in Great Britain”.

1. What medical treatment does the National Health Service provide?


2. What diseases does the National Health Service cover?
3. What aids does it provide?
4. What medical services, apart from the NHS, may a patient use?
5. What does a patient do to obtain benefits of the National Health Service?
6. What are the duties of a family doctor?

26
7. Where does a patient buy a prescribed medicine?
8. Since when does a patient pay for medicine in Great Britain?
9. How many patients does a general practitioner have on his list?
10. What does a general practitioner provide out of his earnings?
11. Why do several general practitioners join in partnership?

Unit 7. The Health service in Russia

VOCABULARY:
health care - здравоохранение
district doctor - участковый врач
emergency ambulance service – скорая (неотложная) помощь
primary medical care - первичная медицинская помощь
to be equipped with - быть оборудованным чем-либо
qualitative - качественный
mental impairment - умственное расстройство
medical insurance - медицинское страхование
The characteristic feature of health care in Russia is the attention paid to the
prophylaxis. One of the main tasks is the fight against various diseases is the early

27
detection of the first signs of the diseases. That’s why much attention is paid to the health
education of the population.

The primary medical care is provided by polyclinics. Modern polyclinics are large,
they have their own laboratories and X-ray, physiotherapy (medical treatment), surgical
and dental departments. There are polyclinics for adult patients and for children. Out-
patients are seen at the polyclinics by district doctors.

The emergency ambulance service operates day and night and is free of charge. A
person has to dial 03 for a doctor to come.

Specialized hospitals in big cities are for the treatment of particular diseases –
infectious diseases and mental impairments, cancer, eye diseases and others. Nowadays
there are a number of private diagnostic and consultation centers, general hospitals
specialized clinics in Russia. Medical and health care is provided with compulsory and
voluntary medical insurance programs set up by the State via private insurance
companies.

I. Найдите английские эквиваленты.

Раннее выявление; санитарное просвещение, взрослые пациенты, участковые


врачи, работает день и ночь, надо набрать 03, определенные заболевания,
обязательное и добровольное страхование.

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты.

the attention paid to the prophylaxis; the fight against various diseases; polyclinics for
adult patients and for children; are for the treatment of particular diseases.

III. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the characteristic feature of health care in Russia?

2. Why is much attention paid to the health education of the population?

28
3. What is primary medical care provided by?

4. Is ambulance service free of charge in our country?

5. What are specialized hospitals for?

Unit 8. The Human Body

VOCABULARY:
abdomen - живот, брюшная cavity - полость
полость chest - грудь, грудная клетка
accompany - сопровождать chief - основной, главный, ведущий
activity – деятельность connect - связывать, соединять
affect - воздействовать, влиять; diaphragm - диафрагма
artery – артерия disturb - беспокоить, нарушать
beat (beat, beaten) - бить, разбивать; excretory - выделительный
the heart beats — сердце бьется extremity - конечность
bladder - мочевой пузырь finger - палец
blood - кровь gall-bladder - желчный пузырь
bone - кость heart - сердце
brain - мозг hip - бедро

29
intestine - кишка spinal column — позвоночный столб
kidney - почка stomach – желудок
limb - конечность support - поддерживать; n опора
liver - печень tissue - ткань
lung - легкое trunk - туловище
shoulder - надплечье urinary - мочевой
skeleton - скелет vein - вена
skull - череп whole - весь, целый; n целое
spine - позвоночник;

There are three chief parts of the human body, the head, the trunk and the limbs or
extremities. The skeleton of the body is composed of 223 bones of various sizes and
shapes, which give firm but flexible support to the soft tissues, muscles and organs. The
bony framework of the head, enclosing the brain and supporting the face, is the skull. The
skeleton of the trunk mainly consists of the spinal column made of a series of bony rings.
The trunk is divided into two large cavities by the diaphragm. The chest is the upper of
these cavities, the belly or abdomen — the lower.
The upper cavity contains heart and lungs. In the lower cavity there is stomach,
liver, gall-bladder, kidneys, bladder and the intestines. The lungs belong to the respiratory
system. Kidneys and bladder are part of the urinary system. The heart, the arteries, veins
constitute the cardiovascular system.
The upper extremity is divided into the shoulder, the upper arm, the forearm and
the hand. Each hand has four fingers and one thumb.
The parts of the lower extremity are the thigh (hip), the lower leg and the foot.

I. Закончите предложения, заменив русские слова в скобках их английскими


эквивалентами.

1. The (мозг) is the main center which regulates and coordinates all body activities.

2. The human (сердце) normally beats about 70 times a minute making the (кровь)

30
move along (артерии), (вены) and capillaries.

3. (Кости) protect and support the organs of the body.


4. (Мышцы) produce all kinds of movements in our body, from smiling and eye
blinking to running and weight lifting.
5. (Легкие) are the main organ of breathing.
6. The functions of the (печень) is to metabolize chemicals.
7. (Почки) are the part of (выделительная система), they serve as filters which separate
the urine from the blood.
8. Man has several organs of sense: the organs of sight are the (глаза), the organs of
hearing are the (уши), the organ of smell is the (НОС).

II. Закончите предложения, используя подходящие по смыслу слова,


приведенные ниже.

1. Four.... see more that two (a proverb).

2. Agood surgeon must have an eagle’s..., and lady’s...


3. You are so thin! You look almost like a...!
4. “The Jolly Roger” is the emblem on pirates’ flags, it pictures...
5. It’s raining heavily! I am wet...
6. They told him to hold his... and to keep their secret.
7. This carpet is very expensive, it is ...-made.
8. He is a brilliant scientist, in fact, he is the... of our research group.

9. He will forgive you, I am sure. I know him as a man with a kind ...

10. Parks and forests around Moscow are the “green ...” of our city.

eye (eyes); heart; hand; skeleton; brain; from head to foot; tongue; skull and cross

- bones; lungs.

31
III. Найдите в тексте “The Human Body” английские эквиваленты следующих
слов и словосочетаний. Составьте предложения с ними по содержанию
текста.

основные части; верхняя (нижняя) полость;


кости различной формы и размера; дыхательная система; сердечно-
твердая опора; сосудистая система;
мягкие ткани; составлять что-либо;
заключать в себе; принадлежать;
костная основа; состоит из.
большая полость;

IV. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту “The Human Body”.

1. What are the chief parts of the human body?


2. What does the skeleton consist of?
3. What does the skull contain?
4. What do we call the large cavities into which the trunk is divided?
5. What organs does the chest contain?
6. What are the parts of the upper extremity?
7. What organs are located in the abdomen?
8. What parts does the lower extremity consist of?
9. What systems of organs are named in the text?
10. What system of organs do lungs belong to?
11. What organs belong to the urinary system?
12. What constitutes the cardiovascular system?

Unit 9. Skeletal System

32
VOCABULARY:
bone – кость sternum - грудная кость

ligament - связка flexible - гибкий

tendon – сухожилие ankle - лодыжка

muscular system - мышечная система femur - бедро

spine - позвоночник tibia - большая берцовая кость

vertebra - позвонок fibula –малая берцовая кость

cartilage - хрящ coccyx - копчик

curved - изогнутый hip bone - тазовая кость

rib – ребро sacrum - крестец

breastbone - грудина, грудная кость ulna - локтевая кость

33
radius – лучевая кость wrist – запястье

elbow - локоть

34
The skeletal system is made up of bones, ligaments and tendons. It shapes the body and
protects organs. The skeletal system works with the muscular system to help the body move.
Marrow, which is soft, fatty tissue that produces red blood cells, many white blood cells, and
other immune system cells, is found inside bones.

The Spine. The spine is the central support for the body. Another word for the spine is
the backbone. The spine is made of separate irregular bones called vertebrae. The vertebrae are
made up of spongy or cancellate bone surrounded by a layer of compact bone. In between each
vertebrae is a layer of cartilage that keeps the bones from rubbing against each other.

There are twenty six vertebrae in the spine. Although each vertebrae can only move a
little bit, the total spine is very flexible. The spine of a human being is curved. Most other
mammals have a straight spine. The curves allow the spine to support and balance the body on
only two legs.

The breastbone, or the sternum, is linked to the bones which make up the ribs. The
sternum is a flat bone that is about 6 inches long. The ribs curve around from the spine to the
front of the body. This makes a bony framework which is known as the thoracic case. This case
helps protect your chest.

Most people have 12 pairs of ribs. The ribs are connected to the sternum by cartilage.
This makes the ribs more flexible, which is necessary during breathing. The first seven pairs of
ribs are attached directly to the breastbone. The eighth, ninth and tenth pairs are attached to the
sternum by a cartilage band. The last two pairs of ribs are not attached to the sternum or
cartilage. The last five pairs of ribs are called false ribs.

Hands & Feet. The bones of the hands and feet are flexible. The foot has twenty-six
bones, one less than in the hand. The bones in the toes are shorter and fatter than the bones in the
fingers. This helps us to balance on two feet.

The seven bones in the ankle are called tarsal bones. The main part of the foot is made of
metatarsal bones. Phalanges are the bones in the toes. The arch in the foot helps to support the
body's weight.

Each hand has twenty-seven separate bones. These are connected with muscles and
tendons. Hand bones are also called the metacarpus. Just like the foot, the bones in the fingers
are called phalanges.
The fingers have three phalanges and the thumb has two. These joints allow the finger to
flex. Because of this, the human hand can make more precise and finer movements than other
creatures.

Hips & Legs. The hip bones help us stand upright and move. They support much of the
body's weight. Each hip is made up of three bones. These bones are called the ilium, ischium,
and pubis. When you are born, these three bones are separated. As you get older, they begin to
join together.

The main bones of the legs are the femur, tibia and fibula. Another name for the femur is
the thigh bone. The femur extends from the hip joint to the knee This is the longest bone in the
body.

The tibia and fibula are the bones of the lower leg. As it helps to support the body's
weight, the tibia is the strongest bone in the body. The thinner bone is the fibula and helps to
control the movement of the ankle. Another name for the fibula is the shin bone.

The bone that is at the middle of the leg is the patella, or knee cap.

I. Найдите английские эквиваленты.

Придает форму телу, защищает органы, мягкая ткань, очень подвижен, позвоночник,
позвонки, костный каркас, рёбра, грудина, необходимо во время дыхания, тазовая кость
помогает, копчик, бедро, лодыжка, сустав.

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты.

Made up of bones, ligaments and tendons, twenty six vertebrae, to support and balance the body,
the ribs curve around from the spine, are attached to the breastbone, the arch in the foot, to stand
upright and move, very flexible, a hip bone, a coccyx, curved, an ulna.

III. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the skeletal system made up of?

2. What is the spine?

3. How many vertebrae are in the spine?

4. Is the spine of a human being curved?

5. Do the ribs curve around from the spine to the front of the body?

6. What are the main bones of the legs?


7. What bone is the longest in the body?

Unit 10. Skeleton

VOCABULARY:
fused – соединённый

supplemented - подкреплённый

ligaments - связки

tendons – сухожилия

cartilage – хрящ

a scaffold - платформа

to anchor – укреплять

femur - бедренная кость

stapes - стремечко

pelvis - таз
cranium - череп
interconnected - взаимосвязаны
ossicles - косточки
articulate - соединять
hyoid bone - подъязычна кость
point of attachment - точка прикрепления
The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and
supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which
supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungs and heart.
The biggest bone in the body is the femur and the smallest is the stapes bone in the
middle ear. In an adult, the skeleton comprises around 14% of the total body weight, and half of
this weight is water. Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are
interconnected directly: There are three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that
articulate only with each other. The hyoid bone, which is located in the neck and serves as the
point of attachment for the tongue, does not articulate with any other bones in the body, being
supported by muscles and ligaments.

I. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

What is the skeleton? What does it do?

The skeleton is the entire collection of bones inside our body. The skeletal system is one
of the major systems of the human body, and has four major functions:

• It protects vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and lungs.

• It supports the body and gives us our distinctive shape. Without our skeleton, we would look
more like a slug.

• It allows us to move in particular ways.

• It makes new blood cells to maintain a healthy bloodstream.

With so many important jobs to do, the skeleton is a vital part of the human body.

Putting the pieces together

When humans are born they have around 350 bones. As they grow, some bones fuse together
over time to form a single bone. As a result, adults have only 206 bones. The bones of the
skeleton can be placed into two groups. The first group is called the axial skeleton, the bones that
form our center. The bones of the axial skeleton support and protect the organs of the head, neck
and trunk, including the skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebrae. The second part of the human
skeleton is called the appendicular skeleton. It is made up of all the bones related to our arms and
legs (or appendages), including the bones of the arms, hands, legs, feet, shoulder, and hip. The
place where two bones meet is called a joint. There are two different types of joints: moving
joints and fixed joints. In a fixed joint, the bones are fixed in place and do not move at all. The
skull has many of these joints. Although it looks like one solid piece of bone, it is actually made
up of 28 bones fused together with fixed joints. Moving joints allow a person to twist and bend.
Bones are held together at the joints by stretchy bands of tissue called ligaments. In between the
bones of a joint, there is a firm, rubbery tissue called cartilage.
II. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.

1. What does the human skeleton consist of?

2. What are the biggest and the smallest bones in the body?

3. What does the skeleton comprise in an adult?

4. What do fused bones include?

5. What is the name for three bones in middle ear?

6. What is the hyoid bone?

III. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих русских слов и


словосочетаний:

Соединённые кости, подкреплены связками, служит платформой, защищает органы, самая


большая кость, бедренная кость, вес тела, взаимосвязаны напрямую, соединены друг с
другом, гиоидная кость, служит точкой прикрепления.

IV. Дополните предложения словами из текста.

1. It serves as a … which supports organs, … muscles, and protects organs such as the brain,
lungs and heart.

2. The biggest bone in the body is the … and the smallest is the … bone in the middle ear.

3. Not all bones are … directly.

4. The hyoid bone, which is located in the … and serves as the point of … for the tongue, does
not articulate with any other bones in the body, being supported by muscles and… .

Unit 11. Skull


VOCABULARY:
hyoid bone - подъязычная кость

to communicate - сообщаться

to contain – содержать, вмещать

cranial cavity – черепная полость

diploe - диплоэ (губчатое вещество костей свода черепа)

eyeball – глазное яблоко

firmly – твердо, крепко

to knit - скреплять

ossicle – мелкая кость

auditory ossicle – слуховая косточка

mandible - нижняя челюсть

sinus - пазуха

spongy - губчатый

The skull is the skeleton of the head and face. The skull is made of twenty-nine bones
including the mandible, the hyoid bone and the auditory ossicles (ear bones). Twenty-one bones
are so firmly knit together that they are taken apart with difficulty; they are built together in such
a way that they enclose one large cavity and three smaller ones. The large cavity is called the
cranial cavity, and contains the brain and its membranes; the smaller cavities are the cavities of
the nose, and the two orbits, which hold the eyeballs. There are lesser cavities contained within
certain of the skullbones; these cavities are the middle-ear, the internal ear, and the air-sinuses.
The skull bones consist of two plates or tables of compact substance that enclose a layer of
spongy substance between them; in skull-bones this substance is called diploe. In some of them
the diploe is absorbed leaving cavities or air-sinuses between the tables of compact bone; the
sinuses communicate with the cavity of the nose and have a mucous lining continuous with that
of the nose.

I. Закончите предложения, используя подходящие по смыслу слова или


словосочетания в скобках. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The skull is the skeleton of...(the head and face, the limbs).

2. The large cavity is called...(the cavity of the nose, the cranial cavity).

3. The skull is made of... (twenty-nine bones, a mucous lining).

4. The bones of the skull enclose... (one large cavity and three smaller ones, two large cavity and
one smaller one).

II. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний.


Составьте с ними предложения по содержанию текста.

- образован 29 костями;

- нижняя челюсть, подъязычная кость, слуховая косточка;

- черепная полость;

- глазное яблоко;

- названа диплоэ;

- пазуха сообщается с полостью носа.

III. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, используя информацию текста «Skull».

1. What is the skull?

2. How many bones is the skull made up of?

3. Why are the bones of the skull taken apart with difficulty?

4. What cavities does the skull consist of?

5. What substance is called diploe?

IV. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:


1. A number of studies is presented in this journal.

2. The new forms of treatment are discussed by doctors.

3. The process of mitosis is studied by physiologists.

4. The paper was followed by a series of reports.

5. A typical experiment was carried out as follows.

6. The sick man was taken to hospital in an ambulance.

7. Much effort will be made to lower the incidence of infectious diseases.

8. This theory will be referred to in the journal.

9. This work will be much spoken about.

Unit 12. Muscles

VOCABULARY:
muscle - мышца
establish - устанавливать
introduce - вводить
change - изменяться, n изменение
weight - вес
divide - делить, разделять
wide - широкий
direction - направление; указание (на выполнение чего-л.)
tissue - ткань;
connective tissue - соединительная ткань
vessel - сосуд
blood - кровь
find - находить;
find out - обнаруживать
determine - определить, определять; устанавливать
contraction – сокращение
The word «muscle», according to one theory, comes from a Latin word that means «little
mouse»: that is, when a man's muscles are contracting they look as if a little mouse runs about
under his skin. According to another theory the word «muscle» comes from a Greek expression
that means «to enclose», that is, layers of muscles enclose the body. We know that the muscles
constitute approximately 50 per cent of the total body weight, slightly more in the average male
than the female. Tendons, fasciae and the various organs themselves depend on the muscular
system and the function of muscle cells.

There are three main types of muscular tissue that we identify and classify on the basis of
structure and functions:

1) smooth or visceral muscle,


2) striated or skeletal muscle,
3) cardiac muscle.
Smooth muscles can contract slowly. They make up the walls of the internal organs such
as those of the blood vessels, and the digestive tract. Since we identify the internal organs as
viscera, we sometimes call smooth muscles visceral muscles. The visceral muscles react
relatively slowly to changes within the body and do so without the intervention of the will.
The walls of the blood vessels are contracting or expanding when they respond to certain
chemicals in the blood or in response to the effect of temperature but we cannot deliberately
cause them to lift our arm or open our mouth. For this reason, we may call them involuntary
muscles. Smooth muscle tissue consists of long cells. Smooth muscle fibers are bound (связаны)
into bundles by connective tissue which contain blood vessels and nerves.
Striated muscle tissue consists of large fibers in the form of bundles. Striated muscles are
most necessary for manipulation of the bones of the skeleton. Those are the muscles necessary
for walking, running, turning the head and so on. That's why we sometimes call them skeletal
muscles. This type of muscle tissue includes the large muscle masses of the body, the muscles of
the arms, legs, back etc. It includes all those muscles which must react quickly to changes in the
environment, i.e. those that become active through an effort of will. For this reason, we call
striated muscles voluntary muscles.
Cardiac (heart) muscle is, in a sense, a cross between the previous two. A characteristic
feature of cardiac muscle is that fibers have neither a beginning nor an end. In other words, the
heart is simply a huge net of muscles in which all elements are continuous with each other.
Cardiac muscles («heart» - Greek) have the strength and force of contraction of the skeletal
muscle. Cardiac muscle is under complete involuntary control. In that, it resembles visceral
muscle.
I. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. How many types of muscular tissue are there?
2. How do we sometimes call smooth muscles?
3. What is another name of striated muscles?
4. What is the difference between the cardiac and skeletal muscles?
5. What does the muscular tissue consist of?
6. What contraction produces various movements?

II. Прочтите и переведите следующие однокоренные группы слов.


1. muscle, muscular, musculature, musculation;
2. to close, to enclose, close, closely, closed, closing;
3. to contract, contracted, contracting, contractile, contraction;
4. to vary, variant, various, variable, variation, variety;
5. to connect, connecting, connection, connective
III. Прочтите следующие предложения и определите, какой частью речи
являются выделенные слова.
1. The word «muscle» means «little mouse» in Latin.
2. A positive test means the presence of bacteria in the blood.
3. Tendons, fasciae, various organs and the bones function by means of muscles.
4. Cardiac muscle is under involuntary control.
5. The involuntary muscles control the beating of the heart.
6. Nerve impulses cause the muscle to contract.
7. We do not know the cause of his illness.
IV. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
1. По структуре и функции мышцы можно разделить на три группы.
2. Гладкие мышцы сокращаются непроизвольно.
3. Соединительная ткань гладких мышц включает нервы и кровеносные сосуды.
4. Поперечно-полосатые или скелетные мышцы реагируют на изменения в
окружающей среде.
5. Волокна сердечной мышцы непрерывны.
V. Закончите предложения, заменив слова в скобках их английскими
эквивалентами.
1. The body is covered by (кожа).
2. (Кости) protect the organs of the body.
3. (Мышцы) are formed by a mass of muscle cells.
4. The muscular fibers are connected together by (соединительная ткань).
5. The skeleton is covered by (подкожная соединительная ткань).
6. There are many blood (сосудов) in the human body.
VI. Переведите предложения на английский язык:
1. Мышечные волокна соединяются соединительной тканью.
2. На концах мышц находятся сухожилия.
3. Нервы соединяют мышцы и центральную нервную систему.
4. Скелет покрыт кожей, слоем подкожной ткани и мышцами.
5. Кожа состоит из двух слоев: наружного слоя и внутреннего.
6. Мышцы - это активные факторы движения и сокращения.
7. В мышцах находятся кровеносные сосуды и нервы.

Unit 13. Heart

VOCABULARY:
pump - насос

circulate - циркулировать

tube - труба

carry - переносить

artery - артерия
vein - вена

adult -взрослый

pulse - пульс

skin - кожа

occur - происходить

wrist - запястье

chest - грудная клетка

breast - грудь

chamber - камера

valve - клапан

atrium - предсердие

ventricle - желудочек

death - смерть

apply - применять

pressure - давление

squeeze - сжимать

spine - позвоночник

relax – расслабиться

The heart is simply a pump, which circulates blood throughout the body. Tubes called
blood vessels carry it from the heart to all parts of the body and back again. This round trip is
known as the circulation. Vessels carrying blood away from the heart are known as arteries and
those returning blood to the heart are known are known as veins.

The heart pumps blood round the body about 70 times a minute in adults. The heartbeats
can be felt as the pulse where certain arteries lie just beneath the skin, and the most well – known
place where this occurs is at the wrist.

The heart lies in the chest immediately behind the breast bone. It consists of two
chambers, left and right, separated from each other by a wall. Each chamber is further divided
into upper and lower compartments, which communicate with each by valves. Each upper
compartment is called an atrium and each lower a ventricle. Note that there is no communication
at all between the left and right sides of the heart.

Heart failure, or cardiac arrest, means that the heart has stopped beating. This of course,
means that no blood is being pumped round the body and death occurs in a few minutes. But as
the heart is just a simple pump, it can be made to beat artificially by rhythmically applying
pressure to the chest. This squeezes the heart between the breast bone and forces blood out the
heart into the circulation. When pressure on the chest has been relaxed, blood returns to the heart
again.

I. Найдите в тексте следующие эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний:


1. Просто насос
2. Кровеносные сосуды
3. Круговое движение
4. Известны как
5. У взрослых
6. Располагаться непосредственно под кожей
7. Где это происходит
8. Состоит из двух камер
9. Каждый верхний отдел
10. Вообще нет сообщения
11. Его можно заставить биться искусственно
12. Выталкивать кровь из сердца.
II. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:
1. Throughout the body
2. Blood vessels
3. About 70 times a minute
4. Immediately behind the breast bone
5. Separated from each other
6. Upper and lower compartments
7. Communication
8. Cardiac arrest
9. Round the body
10. To beat artificially
11. Pressure on the chest
III. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную форму.
1. The heart circulates blood throughout the body.
2. The heartbeats can be felt as the pulse.
3. Each chamber is divided into upper and lower compartments.
4. The heart has stopped beating.
5. Death occurs in a few minutes.
6. Vessels returning blood to the heart are known as veins.
IV. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту:

1. What is heart?
2. What are tubes carrying blood called?
3. Where can the heartbeats be felt?
4. Where does the heart consist of?
5. What compartments is each chamber divided into?
6. What are the compartments called?
7. What does heart failure mean?
8. Can the heart be made to beat artificially?
9. When does blood return to the heart again?

V. Переведите на английский следующие предложения:

1. Сердце похоже на простой насос.


2. У взрослого человека сердце сокращается с частотой примерно 70 раз в минуту за час
оно перекачивает около 300 литров крови.
3. Работа сердца очень важна. Оно непрерывно движет кровь по кровеносным сосудам.
4. Если прижать стенку артерии к кости там, где она ближе к коже, то можно ощутить
пульс.
5. Сердце состоит из двух камер, разделенных перегородкой.
6. Правый и левый отделы сердца не связаны между собой.
7. Паралич означает, что сердце остановилось.
8. Когда давление на грудную ослабевает, кровь вновь возвращается в сердце.
VI. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Heart”.

Unit 14. Circulatory system


VOCABULARY:

circulatory – кровеносный

collecting channels – собирательные канальцы

to convey – передавать, проводить

to furnish – снабжать, обеспечивать, давать

tube – труба, трубка

The heart furnishes the driving force for the blood. In the normal circulatory system the
channels which convey the blood away from the heart are arteries, and those which return it to
the heart are veins. The central supply tube is termed the aorta and the central collecting tubes -
the venae cavae. The arteries divide into smaller tubes which are known as arterioles and these
divide into still finer tubules which are called capillaries. On the other side of this network of
fine tubules lie the smaller collecting channels or venules. The latter finally unite into veins and
these unite into the venae cavae.

Accordingly, the entire circulatory system may be divided into three parts: into arteries,
capillaries and veins. It must be said that any vessel which conveys the blood away from the
heart is known as an artery and any vessel which returns the blood to this organ as a vein. The
decisive factor in this terminology is the direction of the blood flow and not the character of the
blood. Thus, it is a well known fact that the pulmonary artery conveys venous blood to the lungs,
while the pulmonary vein carries the arterial blood from these organs to the heart.

I. Составьте вопросы, ответами на которые являются приведенные ниже


предложения.

1. The channels which convey the blood away from the heart are arteries.
2. The central supply tube is termed the aorta.

3. No, the smaller collecting channels finally unite into veins.

4. The entire circulatory system may be divided into three parts: into arteries, capillaries and
veins.

5. Yes, the decisive factor in this terminology is the direction of the blood flow.

6. The pulmonary artery conveys venous blood to the lungs.

II. Найдите в предложениях причастия и определите их формы и функции.


Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Giving a large number of illustrations, a doctor provided a basis for discussion. 2. The method
used helped the doctor to make a correct diagnosis.

3. The portal vein enters the liver dividing into two branches there.

4. The capillaries of the hepatic artery joining those of the portal vein mix the blood of one
system with the blood of the other system.

5. The aorta formed by series of vessels is divided into three parts – the arch, thoracic and
abdominal aorta.

6. The blood conveyed away from the heart through the veins to the right atrium is called
venous.

III. Образуйте Present Participle от следующих глаголов и переведите их:

То convey, to furnish, to return, to supply, to term, to collect, to divide, to know, to call, to unite,
to be, to open, to beg

IV. Прочтите предложения и определите функцию Present Participle. Переведите их


на русский язык.

1. The collecting tubes are the venae cavae. 2. The student describing the circulatory system is
my friend. 3. Being the largest artery of the body, the aorta is situated partly in the thorax, partly
in the abdomen.

Unit 15. Digestive system


VOCABULARY:
abdomen – живот, брюшная полость

accessory – добавочный, дополнительный, вспомогательный

alimentary – пищевой, пищеварительный

appendage – отросток, придаток

caecum – слепая кишка

coat – оболочка

colon – толстая кишка

to conduct – проводить

to cover – покрывать

deciduous – временный

digestive – пищеварительный

duodenum – двенадцатиперстная кишка

esophagus – пищевод

(to) fold – складка, сгиб, сгибать

gallbladder – желчный пузырь


ileum – подвздошная кишка
jejunum – тощая кишка
large intestine – толстый кишечник
liver – печень
mucous – слизистый
orifice – анат.отверстие, устье
pancreas – поджелудочная железа
permanent – постоянный
related – связанный
salivary – слюнной
serous – серозный
sphincter – сфинктер
small intestine – тонкий кишечник
stomach – желудок

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and related or accessory organs.
The alimentary canal is formed by the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
large intestine and rectum.
The accessory structures are the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, hard and soft palates, liver,
gallbladder and pancreas. The alimentary tract from esophagus to rectum conforms to a definite
structural plan. The layers from within outward are mucous, submucous, muscular and serous. In
the esophagus the serous layer is lacking and the outer coat is fibrous in nature. The organs of the
digestive system contained in the abdomen are covered with the serous coat, the peritoneum. The
peritoneum has two layers, the visceral and parietal. The mouth is the first division of the
alimentary tract. Important structures of the mouth are the tongue, which contains the end organ
for taste, and the teeth which divide and mix the food. There are two sets of teeth, first the
deciduous or milk teeth and later the permanent teeth. The palatine tonsils are on the lateral walls
of the oral pharynx between the palatine arches. The oral and laryngeal portions of the pharynx
serve as a channel for the passage of both food and air; food is conducted through it from the
mouth to the esophagus and air from the nasal pharynx to the larynx. The esophagus conveys
food from the pharynx to the stomach.
The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal lying in the upper abdomen just
under the diaphragm. It is a retaining and mixing reservoir in which the process of digestion
begins. The circular muscle layer is thickened at the pyloric and cardiac orifices to form
sphincters. The glands of the fundus and body are most important in the secretion of gastric
juice. They are formed mainly of chief and parietal cells.

The small intestine is a thin-walled muscular tube about 7 meters long. Its three portions
are: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The bile and pancreatic ducts empty into the duodenum.
Special structural features of the small intestine are the villi and the circular folds. The intestinal
glands or crypts of Lieberkuhn secrete the intestinal juice containing the digestive enzymes. The
large intestine is about 1.5 meters long and is divided into caecum, colon and rectum. Special
structural features of the large intestine are teniae coli, haustra, semilunar folds and epiploic
appendages. The large salivary glands consist of the parotid, the submaxillary and the sublingual.
Ducts from the three pairs of glands open into the mouth.

The liver is the largest gland in the body. It is directly beneath the diaphragm on the right
side of the abdomen. The liver cells are arranged in architectural units, called lobules. The bile
capillaries and sinusoids lie between chains of liver cells in the lobule. Branches of the portal
vein, bile duct and hepatic arteries encircle the periphery of the lobule. The liver secretes bile and
has many other important functions such as stimulation of red bone marrow, production of
fibrinogen, glycogenetic function and urea synthesis.

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped hollow sac attached to the under surface of the liver. It
concentrates the bile. The pancreas is a long slender organ with its head to the right in the loop of
the duodenum, its body posterior to the stomach and its tail touching the spleen on the left. The
pancreas forms an external secretion important in digestion and an internal secretion, insulin,
concerned with carbohydrate metabolism.

I. Закончите предложения заменив русские слова в скобках на английские.


1. The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and related or accessory
(органы).
2. (пищеварительный канал) is formed by the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,
small intestine, large intestine and rectum.
3. The alimentary tract from esophagus to (прямой кишки) conforms to a definite
structural plan.
4. The organs of the digestive system contained in the abdomen are covered with the
serous (оболочкой), the peritoneum.
5. (рот) is the first division of the alimentary tract.
6. The esophagus conveys food from the pharynx to the (желудок).
7. The stomach is under the (диафрагма).
8. The bile and pancreatic ducts empty into the (двенадцатиперстную кишку).
II. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту "Digestive system".
1. What does the digestive system consist of?
2. What is the alimentary canal formed by?
3. What structures are the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, hard and soft palates, liver,
gallbladder and pancreas?
4. What are the organs of the digestive system contained in the abdomen covered with?
5. What does the first division of the alimentary tract contain?
6. What is the function of the teeth?
7. What do the oral and laryngeal portions of the pharynx serve as?
8. Where does the process of digestion begin?
9. What are three portions of the small intestine?
10. What is the large intestine divided into?
11. Where do ducts of the large salivary glands open to?
12. Where is the largest gland of the body?
13. What does the liver secrete?
14. What is a pear-shaped hollow sac attached to?
15. What does the pancreas form?
III. Прочтите предложения и переведите их на русский язык с использованием
словаря.
1. The pelvis, or basin, generally described as a separate cavity, lies below the chest.
2. The principal contents of the abdominal cavity are digestive organs and the associated
glands.
3. The stomach and liver, both lying to a large extent under cover of the ribs, occupy the
hollow of the diaphragm.
4. The large intestine lies in the flanks on either side in front of the kidneys, crossing
below the stomach from right to left.
5. Hanging down from the stomach in front of the bowels is the omentum, or apron.
6. When food is taken into the stomach, the process of digestion begins.
7. Kidneys, protected to a great extent by the last two ribs, lie against the back wall on
either side.

IV. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующую смыслу видовременную


форму Present Simple in Passive and Active Voice.

1. The digestive system (to consist) of the alimentary canal and a number of associated glands.

2. The liver transplantation (to consider) very important.

3. Kidney disease (cause) high blood pressure.

4. The alimentary tract (to form) by the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large
intestines.

5. The soft and hard palates (to be) in the oral cavity.

6. Teeth (to mix) the food.


7. Food from the pharynx to the stomach (to convey) by the esophagus.

8. The bile and pancreatic ducts (to empty) into the duodenum.

V. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную форму.

1. The accessory structures are the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, hard and soft palates, liver,
gallbladder and pancreas.

2. The mouth is the first division of the alimentary tract.

3. The oral and laryngeal portions of the pharynx serve as a channel for the passage of both food
and air.

4. The process of digestion begins in the stomach.

5. The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal.

6. The pancreas is a long slender.

7. The liver secretes bile.

8. The large salivary glands consist of the parotid, the submaxillary and the sublingual.

Unit 16. Respiratory system

VOCABULARY:
Breathing - дыхание
Provide – обеспечивать
interchange - обмен
protective - защитный
cage - клетка
rib - ребро
muscle - мышца
diaphragm - диафрагма
abdomen - живот
throat - горло
larynx - глотка
trachea - трахея
bronchi - бронхи
huge - огромный
air sac - легочная альвеола
network - сеть
passage - проход, проходить
airway - воздушный путь
surround - окружать
simultaneously - одновременно
replenish - пополнять; снова насыщать
eliminate – устранять
Respiration means breathing. Its function is to provide the means whereby oxygen enters
the blood and carbon dioxide leaves. This interchange of gases occurs in the lungs which are
situated in the chest, one on each side of the heart.

The chest forms a protective cage for the heart and lungs. The bars of the cage are formed
by the ribs – which are joined to the breast bone in front and spine behind. The spaces between
the ribs are filled by the rib muscles. The floor of the cage is formed by the diaphragm, which is
a sheet of muscle separating the chest from the abdomen.

In order to reach the lungs, the air we breathe enters the throat through the nose or mouth
and passes into the larynx. Below the larynx the air passes along a tube called the trachea, which
runs down the neck to the chest where it divides into two. These two branches are known as the
right and left bronchi and they enter their respective lungs. Just as arteries divide up into smaller
arteries and finally into thin – walled capillaries, so do the bronchi divide inside the lungs. Each
bronchus divides into many smaller and smaller tubes until eventually ends up as a huge number
of tiny air sacs, which comprise each lung. A network of capillaries originating from the
pulmonary artery passes round each air sac.
Air breathed in through the nose passes via the throat, larynx, trachea and bronchi to the
air sacs of the lungs. This passage from nose to lungs is known as the airway. In the lungs,
oxygen from the air passes through the thin walls of each air sac and its surrounding capillary to
reach the blood. In the same way carbon dioxide passes simultaneously out of the blood into the
air sacs. This gaseous exchange for replenishing the blood with oxygen and eliminating the
waste product, carbon dioxide, is the sole purpose of respiration.

Oxygen enters the blood by combining with hemoglobin in the red cells; where as carbon
dioxide is carried by the plasma.

I. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями из


текста.
1. to provide the means
2. to be situated
3. the bars of the cage
4. to be joined to the breast bone
5. the space between the ribs
6. a sheet of muscle
7. to pass into larynx
8. to pass along
9. thin – walled capillaries
10.a huge number of tiny air sacs
11. pass round
12. to reach blood
13. the sole purpose
14. to be carried by
II. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1. What is respiration?
2. How can you characterize its function?
3. Where does the interchange of gases take place?
4. What does the chest form?
5. What are the spaces between ribs filled by?
6. What does the diaphragm separate?
7. Where does the air pass below the larynx?
8. How do the bronchi divide inside the lungs?
9. What passes round each air sac?
10. How can you describe the airway?
11. What is the sole purpose of respiration?
12. What takes place in the red cells during respiration?
III. Задайте вопросы к выделенным курсивом словам или словосочетаниям:
1. The floor of the cage is formed by the diaphragm.
2. Below the larynx the air passes along the trachea.
3. The bronchi divide inside lungs.
4. Air enters the body through the nasal cavities.
5. There are three divisions of the pharynx.
6. The larynx contains the vocal cords.
IV. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
1. Легкие расположены в грудной клетке.
2. Пространство между ребрами занято межреберными мышцами.
3. Диафрагма отделяет грудную клетку от брюшной полости.
4. Воздух, который мы вдыхаем через нос или рот, проходит по
дыхательному пути в легкие.
5. В альвеолах происходит обмен газов между организмом и средой.
6. Длина трахеи примерно 15 см.
7. Каждый бронх входит в легкое, где ветвится на мелкие бронхи и бронхиолы.
8. Всего имеется около 300 миллионов альвеол.
9. Альвеолы оплетены капиллярами.
10. Стенки альвеол очень тонкие.
11. Через тонкую стенку и происходит газообмен.

Unit 17. The exchange of Gases in the Lungs


VOCABULARY:
observe – наблюдать за; изучать, следить
investigate – исследовать
isolate – отделять, изолировать; выделять
combine – соединять; объединять
able – способный, умелый; to be able – быть в состоянии, мочь
conclusion – вывод, заключение; to draw a conclusion – сделать вывод
accomplish – выполнять; заканчивать; завершать
exchange – обмен
due – обусловленный, должный, надлежащий; due to – вследствие, благодаря, из-за
solution – раствор, растворение
salt – соль
prove – доказывать; оказаться
transfer – перенос, передача
enable – давать возможность
I. M. Sechenov(1829-1905)was a prominent Russian scientist, the founder of Russian
physiology and scientific psychology.

The range of Sechenov’s scientific interests and the number of his research works are
really great. 106 scientific works were written by him. In these works he included the findings
which he had observed and determined before.

Some of his research works were connected with the investigation of the blood gases and
their role in the respiratory process.
I. M. Sechenov isolated the blood gases and found out that most of the blood gases were
combined with erythrocytes. No physiologist had been able to do it before Sechenov. On the
basis of his observations I. M. Sechenov came to the conclusion that hemoglobin was that
substance of the blood which accomplished the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the
respiratory process. Physiologists of many countries who had worked on this problem before
Sechenov could not estimate the role of hemoglobin in the act of respiration. So the
accomplishment of the respiratory process is due to hemoglobin.

I. M. Sechenov investigated the process of absorption of carbon dioxide by the solutions


of salts. When he had completed his investigations, he proved that only 2/3 of carbon dioxide
were dissolved (растворяются) in plasma. The rest of carbon dioxide was combined with red
blood cells. The transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs was due to the law
(закон) of diffusion of gas from fluid into the air. When Sechenov had investigated this
phenomenon, he was able to answer the question why oxygen passed into the blood from
atmospheric gases during the act of respiration.

The exchange of gases takes place in the alveoli of the lungs. Oxygen passes into the
blood and carbon dioxide passes into the atmospheric air.

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is due to the difference of partial pressure of
these gases in the alveolar air and in the venous blood.

The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolar air is higher than in the venous blood. The
transfer of oxygen from the atmospheric air into the blood is due to this difference of pressures.

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide is higher in the venous blood and this enables
carbon dioxide to pass from the blood into alveolar air.

The process of transfer of gases into the medium with a lower partial pressure is called
diffusion. Hemoglobin is that substance of the blood which transfers oxygen in the blood. The
oxygen capacity of the blood averages to 18-20 millilitres (ml) per 100 gr of blood. Carbon
dioxide is transferred in combination with hemoglobin and as bicarbonic salts.

The combination of oxygen and hemoglobin is called oxyhemoglobin, that of carbon


dioxide and hemoglobin — carbohemoglobin.

I. Переведите предложения на английский язык

1. Органы дыхания образованы гортанью, трахеей, легкими, плеврой.


2. Гортань - это орган голоса.
3. Легкие— основные органы дыхания.
4. Оба легких покрыты тонкой серозной мембраной, плеврой.
5. Каждое легкое конической формы.
6. Легкие делятся на доли, которые, в свою очередь, делятся на дольки.
7. В процессе дыхания воздух поступает через нос и проходит через горло,
гортань, трахею и достигает легких.
8. Передняя граница перекрывает перикард.
9. Трахея - это продолжение гортани.
10. Стенка бронхиальных трубок насыщена волокнами эластичной ткани.
II. Поставьте следующие предложения в страдательный залог и переведите
их:
1. A doctor can make an instant diagnosis after examining a patient's chest.
2. The pericardium covers the heart.
3. Some patients may develop tolerance.
4. A doctor must listen to the lungs to be sure of his diagnosis.
5. Cartilages form the larynx.
6. A thin serous membrane covers the lungs.
7. The lungs can change their volume in some circumstances.
8. Each ventricle of the heart must pump the same amount of blood.
9. An infected cell may release an unknown substance.
10. The rise of temperature may follow this reaction.
III. Дайте эквиваленты русским словам и словосочетаниям.
Кровеносные сосуды, венозная кровь, артериальная кровь, верхняя полая вена, нижняя
полая вена, капиллярная сеть, легочный круг кровообращения, большой системный круг
кровообращения, артериальная система сосудов, венозная система сосудов, кровяное
русло, химические элементы, необходимые для жизни клеток, предсердие, желудочек,
камера, сосудистая система, периферические части тела, артериальная часть капилляров,
венозная часть капилляров, желудочно-кишечный тракт.
IV. Прочитайте слова и словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык.
To consist of the aorta, arterial system, venous parts, capillary network, chemical constituents,
contractions of a chamber, pulmonary circuit, blood circulation, to lead off from the heart,
peripheral circulation, pancreas, via the liver artery.
V. Переведите следующие словосочетания.
1. life-giving gas, life-giving gas exchange;
2. tissue masses, tissue masses structures;
3. respiration waste products, respiration waste products removal;
4. carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide exhalation;
5. doublewalled membrane, double-walled lung membrane;
6. blood capillaries, blood capillaries dense network; 7.
thoracic cavity volume, thoracic cavity volume increase;
8. body cell oxygen, body cell oxygen supply.

Unit 18. Nervous System

VOCABULARY:
spinal cord – спинной мозг
to send – посылать
to receive – получать
to respond – отвечать
environment – окружение
to keep the body in order – поддерживать тело в порядке
to allow – позволять
rest – остаток
bundle – пучок
external – внешний
forebrain – передний мозг
cerebral cortex – кора
involve – вовлекать
to wire – связывать
The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and nerves. One of the most
important systems in your body, the nervous system is your body's control system. It sends,
receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout the body. These nerve impulses tell your
muscles and organs what to do and how to respond to the environment. There are three parts of
your nervous system that work together: the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous
system, and the autonomic nervous system.

Brain. The brain keeps the body in order. It helps to control all of the body systems and
organs, keeping them working like they should. The brain also allows us to think, feel, remember
and imagine. In general, the brain is what makes us behave as human beings.

The brain communicates with the rest of the body through the spinal cord and the nerves.
They tell the brain what is going on in the body at all times. This system also gives instructions
to all parts of the body about what to do and when to do it.

Spinal Cord. Nerves divide many times as they leave the spinal cord so that they may
reach all parts of the body. The thickest nerve is 1 inch thick and the thinnest is thinner than a
human hair. Each nerve is a bundle of hundreds or thousands of neurons (nerve cells). The spinal
cord runs down a tunnel of holes in your backbone or spine. The bones protect it from damage.
The cord is a thick bundle of nerves, connecting your brain to the rest of your body.

Senses. There are five main senses - touch, smell, taste, hearing and sight. These are the
external sensory system, because they tell you about the world outside your body. Your senses
tell you what is happening in the outside world. Your body's sense organs constantly send signals
about what is happening outside and inside it to your control center - the brain.

The cerebrum is part of the forebrain. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the
cerebrum. Certain areas of the cerebral cortex are involved with certain functions.

Sensory areas such as touch, smell, taste, hearing and sight receive messages from the skin,
nose, mouth, ears and eyes. We feel, taste, hear and see when these messages are received by the
sensory parts of the brain.

The Peripheral Nervous System. The nervous system is made up of nerve cells or
neurons that are "wired" together throughout the body, somewhat like communication system.
Neurons carry messages in the form of an electrical impulses. The messages move from one
neuron to another to keep the body functioning.

I. Найдите английские эквиваленты.

Нервная система состоит из; центральная нервная система; периферическая нервная


система; вести себя как человек; достигать всех частей тела; защищать от повреждений;
получать информацию (сообщения) от кожи; электрический импульс.
II. Найдите русские эквиваленты.

It sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses; to respond to the environment; to keep the body
in order; brain communicates with the rest of the body; nerves divide many times; tunnel of
holes in backbone or spine; thick bundle of nerves

III. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the function of brain?


2. How does the brain communicate with the rest of the body?
3. What senses do you know?
4. What is neuron?
5. What is the function of neuron?

Unit 19. Brain

VOCABULARY:
to weight – весить

stimuli - мн.ч. побудители, стимулы, послания

spinal cord - спинной мозг

area – область
The brain is the most wonderful organ in the human body. It consists of about 12 billion
cells and weights about 1 kilogram. It is soft and spongy with 3 membranes and fluid in between
the first and second membranes.

The brain is the center of a wide system of communication. It controls the body functions.
It keeps all the body parts working together. Thousands of stimuli come into the brain through
the spinal cord. The messages come to the brain from our eyes, ears and other sense organs for
pain, temperature, smell and other feelings. All the stimuli are analyzed and then the brain sends
orders through the spinal cord to different parts of the human body. Due to these orders we eat,
move, hear, see and do many other things.

There are special areas in the brain which control vision, hearing, physical movements and
even emotions.

I. Найдите английские эквиваленты.

Самый замечательный орган; состоит; весит; центр системы; функции организма; через
спинной мозг; органы чувств; анализируются; посылает приказы; особые области в мозге.

II. Найдите русские эквиваленты.

The human body; soft and spongy; fluid; through the spinal cord; stimuli are analyzed; sends
orders; due to these orders.

III. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. The brain is the most wonderful organ in the human body, isn´t in?

2. Is the brain soft and spongy?

3. What is the main function of the brain?

4. Do thousands messages come to the brain each minute?

5. Are the messages analyzed in the brain?

6. What does the brain send to different parts of the body?

7. Are there special areas in the brain? What do they control?

Unit 20. Conditioned Reflexes


VOCABULARY:
feed - кормить(ся), питать
feeding - питание.
obtain - приобретать; получать; доставать.
develop - развивать(ся); обнаруживать(ся); появляться
supply - обеспечивать, снабжать; питать; и питание; снабжение; запас.
response - ответ; реакция

All the visceral and somatic reflexes including the protective, feeding and others are
formed by various internal and external stimuli. These stimuli produce reactions not depending
on surrounding conditions. The great Russian physiologist Pavlov called them nnconditioned
reflexes.

In human beings the nervous system has the additional ability to form cortical
associations which increase the range of reactions. This function is obtained by all the human
beings and formed upon signalization, i.e. the process in which an ineffective reflex stimulus
forms the same reactions as the stimulus with which it has become associated. Pavlov called
these individually obtained reflexes conditioned, because they are developed only in connection
with some other reflexes.

It is through constant contacts of life that men develop many conditioned reflexes. They
begin to develop already in infancy. During human development their number is much increased
through training and education.

In experimental conditions it was determined by Pavlov that many new conditioned reflexes
to stimuli not supplied by Nature could be established in dogs. But such stimuli had to be
associated with those which formed an unconditioned response. Pavlov determined that in higher
animals it was in the cortex that conditioned reflexes were formed.

I. Запомните факты, изложенные ниже:

Do you know that

1. the vision centers are located in the occipital area of the cortex? 2.the nervous system of the
human being has about ten times more nervous cells than the number of all people in the world?
3. the stimuli pass into the brain through the spinal cord very rapidly — about 100 m per second?

II. Найдите и назовите инфинитивы:

1. Не may examine the patient.

2. He may be examining the patient now.

3. He may have examined the patient already.

4. He may be examined by Doctor Sedov.

5. He may have been examined by 11 a.m.

III. Переведите следующие предложения:

1. Can the patient have developed such a bad pain in the stomach after taking the medicine? 2.
The infant is quiet now. Mother must have fed it. 3. The blood pressure may have decreased after
the administration of this drug. 4. Can the investigator have drawn such a conclusion after a
number of experiments?

Unit 21. Microbiology


VOCABULARY:
harmless - безвредный
dangerous - опасный
subdivide - подразделять
shape - очертание, форма
decayed teeth - гнилые (испорченные) зубы
chain - цепь
cluster - гроздь
strain - штамм
gumboil - флюс
acute - острый
gingivitis - воспаление десен
exist - существовать
survive - выживать
resistant - резистентный, устойчивый
The body provides a home for a great number of the smallest organisms –
microorganisms. Most of them are harmless but some take part in dental diseases. There are three
different groups of microorganisms: fungi, bacteria and viruses. They may be of different kinds,
both harmless and more or less dangerous.
Bacteria are subdivided into groups according to their shape bacilli, cocci, spirochetes,
spores.
Bacilli are rod – shaped bacteria. For example, lactobacillus is found in decayed teeth.
Cocci are round bacteria.
Streptococci are berry – shaped bacteria which grow in twisted chains. They are
associated with different diseases.
Hemolytic streptococci (called hemolytic because bacteria cause hemolysis) are
responsible for such conditions as “strep” throat, tonsillitis.
Streptococci viridians (viridians means “green” and these bacteria produce a green color
on the growth medium) are less virulent (poisonous) than the hemolytic form and cause
infections in teeth.
Staphylococci are bacteria which grow in small clusters like grapes. One strain of
staphylococcus may be found in gumboils.
There are also spiral bacteria (spirochetes) found in acute necrotizing ulcerative
gingivitis.
Some bacteria can exist in the form of spores. Spores can survive extremes of
temperature and live for years until conditions become more favorable again. They are highly
resistant to destruction.
I. Укажите русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

1. to provide a home;

2. both harmless and less or more dangerous;

3. to be associated with;

4. the growth medium;

5. to cause infection,

6. gumboils;

7. to survive extremes of temperature;

8. to be highly resistant to destruction.

II. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

1. Безвредный

2. более или менее опасные

3. в соответствии с формой

4. ассоциироваться

5. менее вирулентный

6. острый

7. споры

8. перепады температуры

9. более благоприятные условия

10.разрушение

III. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What does a mouth provide a home for?

2. Are all bacteria harmless?

3. What groups of bacteria do you know?


4. How are bacteria subdivided?

5. What are bacilli and where are they found?

6. How do streptococci grow?

7. What do they initiate?

8. What bacteria are called staphylococci?

9. What can be found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?

10. Can spores survive extremes of temperature?

IV. Закончите следующие предложения:

1. Streptococci are less virulent than …

2. Viruses are sometimes more dangerous than …

3. One strain of staphylococcus is easier found in gumboils than …

4. Spores are more resistant to destruction than …

5. Bacteria are often more dangerous than …

6. Inflammation may be more protective than …

7. Infection may be often the initial cause of the disease than …

V. Переведите на английский следующие предложения:

1. Большинство бактерий безвредны, но некоторые вызывают серьезные заболевания.

2. Споры гораздо более устойчивы к неблагоприятным условиям, чем другие бактерии.

3. Они более устойчивы к разрушению, чем другие виды бактерий.

4. Этот вид бактерий такой же опасный, как и тот, который мы изучили на прошлом
занятии.

5. Иногда воспаление – скорее неблагоприятная реакция, чем защитная.

Unit 22. Microorganisms


VOCABULARY:
growth - рост; увеличение; новообразование
however - однако, тем не менее, несмотря на
favorable - благоприятный; положительный; удобный
multiply - размножать (ся)
size - размер, величина
certain - некоторый; некий; определенный
environment - окружающая среда
invade - вторгаться; поражать болезнью
destroy - разрушать, уничтожать
occur - встречаться, случаться; происходить
reveal - показывать, обнаруживать, выявлять
persist - сохраняться, продолжать существовать
impair - повреждать, ухудшать; нарушать
skin - кожа
catch - схватить; заболеть; заразиться
report - докладывать; сообщать; и доклад; сообщение
All the existing microorganisms can be divided into two main groups — aerobic and
anaerobic. Aerobic microorganisms must have atmospheric free oxygen for their life and growth.
However one knows that free oxygen is not favourable for the development of anaerobic
microorganisms. Bacteria vary in shape and according to this feature they are divided into some
groups. Spherical bacteria have been called cocci. They are also subdivided into several groups.
Rod-shaped (палочковидные) bacteria are called bacilli.

When bacteria multiply they divide. The growing organism increases in size up to a certain
limit and in due time divides. The process of division depends on the conditions of the
environment.

Any minute virulent microorganisms may invade the human body. But due to the local
protective agents of the human organism they are destroyed. In this case no disease occurs.

However the local protective agents of the human organism are not always able to destroy
completely the invading microorganisms. It is known that in such a case a local or general
infection may occur.

Most of the microorganisms produce diseases when they enter the tissue and destroy it. If
one examines under the microscope the alveoli of the lung of the man with lobar pneumonia a
great number of pneumococci can be revealed. While the disease persists the lung may be
considerably impaired because of the consolidations which may develop in it.

But the human organism can fight against the microorganisms which have passed its first
protective barriers, i.e. skin and mucous membranes.

The prominent Russian scientist 1.1. Mechnikov had made many investigations before he
was able to come to the conclusion that leucocytes could catch and destroy certain microbes. 1.1.
Mechnikov called them phagocytes or microbe cell destroyers.

I. Определите инфинитивы. Переведите предложения.

1. The first heart sound can be impaired in certain cardiac diseases. 2. One can impair the health
if one does not sleep for a long period of time. 3. Cholera and other infectious diseases must be
fought against. 4. The human organism can fight against microorganisms thanks to phagocytes.

II. Из данных слов составьте предложения, соответствующие русским.

1. Ученые считают, что каждую секунду в теле человека разрушается около 10 000 000
красных кровяных телец ( scientists, that, 10 000 000, are, consider, about, red, blood, cells,
the, destroyed, every, second, human, in, body.

2. Через кожу всасывается не более 1% кислорода, необходимого организму человека (not,


oxygen, the, human, for, body, more, than, necessary, is, absorbed, 1%, of, through, the, skin).

3. В благоприятной окружающей среде микроорганизмы могут размножаться очень


быстро (in, multiply, favourable, may, very, environment, microorganisms, rapidly, a).
III. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What conditions are favourable for the growth and life of both aerobic and anaerobic
microbes?

2. According to what are bacteria divided into groups?

3. To what limit do growing organisms increase in size when they multiply?

4. Due to what are minute virulent microorganisms destroyed when they invade the human
organism?

5. In what case may local or general infection occur?

6. What can be revealed under the microscope in the alveoli of the lung of the man with lobar
pneumonia?

7. Why may the lung be considerably impaired while the disease persists?

8. What barriers do skin and mucous membranes form?

9. What is the role of leucocytes in the human body?

Contents
Unit 1. History of Medicine…………………………………………………………... 3
Unit 2. Medical student’s working day ……………………………………………… 9
Unit 3. At the medical college ………………………………………………………. 11
Unit 4. The 1 st Moscow Medical Institute………………………………………….. 13
Unit 5.The Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy .………………………………….
15
Unit 6. The Health Service in Great Britain………………………………………….
19
Unit 7. The Health Service in Russia………………………………………………....
22
Unit 8. The Human Body……………………………………………………………..
24
Unit 9. Skeletal System……………………………………………………………….
27
Unit 10. Skeleton……………………………………………………………………...
30
Unit 11. Skull……………………………………………………………………….... 33
Unit 12. Muscles……………………………………………………………………… 35
Unit 13. Heart…………………………………………………………………………. 38
Unit 14. Circulatory system………………………………………………………….. 42
Unit 15. Digestive system……………………………………………………………. 44
Unit 16.Respiratory system ………………………………………………………….
49
Unit 17. The exchange of Gases in the Lungs ……………………………………….
52
Unit 18. Nervous System …………………………………………………………….
55
Unit 19. Brain…………………………………………………………………………
58
Unit 20. Conditioned Reflexes………………………………………………………..
59
Unit 21. Microbiology…………………………………………………………………
61
Unit 22. Microorganisms……………………………………………………………...
64

Список использованной литературы


Основная
1. Маслова А.М., Вайнштейн З.И., Плебейская Л.С. Учебник английского языка для
медицинских вузов. – Изд.: Лист Нью, 2006.
2. Муравейская М.С. , Орлова Л.К. Английский язык для медиков.- Изд. Флинта, Наука,
2009.
3. С.А. Крайникова, В.В. Охотская “Human Anatomy”, Волгоград: Изд-во ВолГМУ ,2010.
4. Малецкая О.П., Селевина И.М. “Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому
языку”.
Дополнительная
1. Баранова Л.Г. Шадская Т.В. Английский язык для медицинских училищ и колледжей.
– Изд. дом Дашков и К, 2007.
2. Темчина Н.А., Тылкина С.А. Пособие по английскому языку для медицинских
училищ. – М.: «АНМИ», 2003 г.
3. Аванесьянц Э.М. Английский язык для старших курсов медицинских училищ и
колледжей./ Э.М. Аванесьянц, Н.В. Кахацкая, Т.М. Мифтахова. – М.: «АНМИ», 2006.
4. Воропаева Е.Л. Учебное пособие по английскому языку для медицинских колледжей.
– Омск: ФГОУ СПО ОМК, 2009.

Интернет-ресурсы
1. http://www.britannica.co.uk
2. http://en.wikipedia.org
3. http://www.study.ru