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Л.В.Ещенко, М.М.Писаревская, Э.Р.Брагина




Донецк 2018

Л.В.Ещенко, М.М.Писаревская, Э.Р.Брагина

для студентов 2 курса экономического факультета
специальности «Международная экономика»

Донецк, ДонНУ 2018

Отв. за выпуск Н.А.Жданова, канд. филол. наук, доц.

Задания для самостоятельной работы к учебнику “New Insights into Business” для
студентов 2 курса экономического факультета специальности «Международная
экономика» / Л.В.Ещенко, М.М.Писаревская, Э.Р.Брагина. – Донецк: ДонНУ, - 2018
– 134 с.

«Задания для самостоятельной работы по английскому языку для студентов 2

курса дневного отделения экономического факультета специальности
«Международная экономика» предназначено для совершенствования навыков
говорения, работы с англоязычными текстами, грамматических конструкций и
расширения лексического запаса. Предлагаемый материал рассматривается в
учебнике “New Insights into Business”.
Пособие предназначено для студентов с базовым уровнем знаний B1.

Unit 1 Company Structures 6

Unit 2 Recruitment 22

Unit 3 Retailing 38

Unit 4 Franchising 49

Unit 5 International Business Styles 59

Unit 6 Banking 74

Unit 7 Business and the Environment 93

Unit 8 The Stock Market 108

References 132
Unit 1 Company Structure

Working with vocabulary 1

1. Read the conversation between Juan and Peter, where Peter explains
the different job titles in their company hierarchy.

Juan: 'Peter, have you seen the email about the restructuring of the
company. It says that the Board of Directors are going to make an
announcement in the end of the month. What is the Board of Directors?'
Peter: 'The Board of Directors is the group of people who make the big
decisions about the company. About what we do and how we do it.'
Juan: 'So they are the owners of the company?'
Peter: 'In some companies yes, but in our case because we're a large
multinational, no. Here, they are employed by the owners, the shareholders,
to run the company for them. The board is non-executive, which means they
aren't involved in the day-to-day running of the company. The most
important member of The Board is called the Chairman, in some companies
the Chairman is called the President.'
Juan: 'So, if they don't run or manage the company, who does?'
Peter: 'In our company the person responsible for the day-to-day running of
the company is the Managing Director. They are the most senior manager
in a company. In the United States, they are normally called the Chief
Executive Officer.'
Juan: 'So, what does a Finance Director do? Are they non-executive also?'
Peter: 'No, a Finance Director is the job title for a senior manager who is
responsible for the Finance Department. They are less senior than the
Managing Director or Chief Executive Officer, who they have to report to.
Normally, the boss or head of each department is called a Director, like Sales
Director or IT Director. In America, the title of this position is Chief
Financial Officer etc ...'
Juan: 'I think I understand. So under them in the company structure you
have Managers, like us. And Supervisors are subordinate to Managers. Is
that right?'
Peter: 'Basically. Although today it is more common to call a Supervisor,
a Team Leader. They make sure that staff are doing what they should. Then
under them, you have Analysts and Assistants, who don't have any
management responsibilities. In theory the job title of Analyst is for a
position where they have to analyse information or data, for example a
Business Analyst analyses data to find trends. An Assistant is the general job
title for a normal member of staff, like a Customer Care Assistant. But the
title of the position depends on the company.'

1. Fill in the blanks with one of these words/phrases in bold used in the

a. The British job title for the top executive manager in a company, is
________ .
b. The title of the lowest positions in a company, is ________ .
c. The name of the people who have shares in a company, is _________ .
d. The most senior/top person on the Board of Directors, is called the
_________ .
e. The job title of the staff that analyse information or data, is ________ .
f. The name of the group of people who represent the owners of the
company, is the __________ .
g. The British title for the head of the finance department, is
______________ .
h. When somebody isn't involved in the daily running of a business, their
role is _________ .
i. A different job title for Supervisor, is _______________ .
j. The American title for the head of the finance department, is
_____________ .
k. If you _________ someone at work, they are in charge of you
and responsible for telling you what to do.
l. The American job title for the top executive manager who is
responsible for the day-to-day running of the company is
______________ .

2. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable word from the box.

charge for selling decision-making

supervises of responsible

So whom do we call “manager”?

In its broad meaning the term “managers” means the people who are
_______1 for making and carrying out decisions. A Personnel Manager
______2 people in an organization. Financial manager is a person who is in
________3 of finance. Sales manager is responsible ________4 of goods. A
marketing manager is in charge __________5 promotion of products on the
market. Almost everything a manager does involves___________6. When
a problem exists, a manager has to make a decision to solve it.

3. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable word from the box.

Managing Director consists of CEO departments

divided into headed includes overall responsibility

Company structure

A company is _________1 by the President, or _________2 .

The President is assisted by the ________3, who has ___________4 for
the day-to-day running of the company.
The company is ________5 different _________6, each with its own director.
The Marketing and Sales department ________7 the sales team, and
customer services. The Administration department also _________8 Human

4. The chart below shows the organisational structure of Keypoint

Security. Study it carefully, and then write the words missing from the
text using the words from the box and the information from the

Factory subordinate reports department

reports Chairman Marketing Managing

Irena Phillips is the Client Services Manager. She is (a)_______

to the (b) _______ Director, Sarah Street, who, as a director of the
company, (c) __________ directly to the (d) __________ Director, Michael
Vincey, who is also the company (e)___________.
The (f) _______ Managers report to the Production Manager, who is
their (g) ________ head, but who is not on the board.

5. Replace the underlined phrases in italics (1-5) with the synonymous
expressions from the list (a-e).

a. delegates
b. in charge of
c. Deputy
d. reports to the CEO
e. Vice President

Individuals within the structure

The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) runs the company. The level below CEO
is Chief … Officer, for example Chief Financial Officer (CFO). The CFO is
part of the senior management team. The CFO has the CEO as their boss (1).
The CFO is responsible for (2) all the financial side of the business.
The next level down might be country level for a large international
organization, or departmental level. A job title here might be Sales Director
or Head of Sales or VP (3) Sales.
Below this are people with job titles like Manager, Officer, Coordinator, etc.
The word Assistant (4) may also occur at any level. The Sales Director gives
(5) a lot of the work to me.

6. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box.

coordinate employees managers profitability resources efficiency

… decide what will be done, who will do it, when it will be done, and what
… will be used. They train and hire new …, and they … their department’s
activities with other departments. Managers are the heart of a company, the
force that unites everything in the organization to ensure optimum … and …

7. Underline the correct word in italics.

1. The Purchasing Department is responsible for buying parts and raw

materials / making the final product.
2. If you have a complaint, please contact Consumer Services / Customer
3. All recruitment and selection is done by our PR / HR Department.
4. Innovation is the key to our success and we have recently expanded the
Research and Design / Research and Development Department.
5. In the Legal Department we have three lawyers / advocates.
6. It’s the CEO’s job to control / run the company.

7. Our Business Development Officer is responsible for / of finding new
business opportunities.
8. I can’t take that decision. It should be taken by higher people / more
senior people.
9. That decision will have to be taken at a higher level / a more superior
10. She is part of / makes part of a team of designers.
11. As the Financial Controller, I relate / report directly to the Finance

8. Complete each sentence with a verb from the box.

answers arranges checks collects deals maintains

1 The Quality Assurance Section checks that the products have no defects.
2 The Logistics Department _________ the transport of goods and materials.
3 Technical Support __________ specific questions from customers about
how to use the product.
4 The Market Research Section ________ and analyzes information about
the needs of consumers.
5 The Accounts Department __________ with invoices and payments.
6 The IT Department the computer ____________ .

9. Match job descriptions with their titles.

1. I have overall responsibility for the whole company.___

2. My job is to make sure that the company has a good image.___
3. I type letters, file papers and make appointments for my boss.___
4. I make the products which the company sells.___
5. I’m the company’s people manager.___
6. I look after the company’s money.___
7. My job is to find and test new products.___
8. I make sure that we have the products which people want to buy.___
9. I do the books and prepare the balance sheets.___
10. I’m responsible for everything when the boss is away.___

a. Anna Johnson, Chief Accountant

b. Peter Morris, Assistant General Manager
c. Patrick Saunders, Managing Director
d. Erica Graff, Secretary
e. Alison Young, Public Relations Manager
f. John Wood, Finance Director
g. Linda Meyer, Human Resources Director

h. Thomas Sutton, Director of Research & Development
i. Tony King, Production Manager
j. Helen Smith, Marketing Director

10. Choose the correct answer.

1. …….controls all the financial dealings of the company.

a) Senior Manager b) Accountant c) Sales Manager
2. The ……. has the major responsibility for running of the company.
a) Distribution Manager b) Managing Director c) Production Manager
4. A Human Resources department is responsible for recruitment of new
a) employers b) directors c) employees
5. A marketing department is responsible for ………
a) recruitment b) production c) promotion

11. Complete the text using these verbs:

attacked appointed combined defined

constituted reviewed supervised supported

Large British companies generally have a chairman of the board of

directors who oversees operations, and a managing director (MD) who is
responsible for the day-to-day running of the company. In smaller
companies, the roles of chairman and managing director are usually (1)
_____ . Americans tend to use the term president rather than chairman, and
chief executive officer (CEO) instead of managing director.

The CEO or MD is (2) _____ by various executive officers or vice-

presidents, each with clearly (3) _____ authority and responsibility
(production, marketing, finance, personnel, and so on).

Top managers are (4) _____ (and sometimes dismissed) by a company's

board of directors. They are (5) _____ and advised and have their decisions
and performance (6) _____by the board. The directors of private companies
were traditionally major shareholders, but this does not apply to large public
companies with wide share ownership. Such companies should have boards
(7) _____ of experienced people. In reality, however, companies often
appoint people with connections. Yet a board that does not demand high
performance and remove inadequate executives will probably eventually find
itself (8)_____ and displaced by raiders.

12. Match the words with the correct definition.

1) Accounts Dept. A) Department responsible for physical creation of a
2) A.G.M. B) The place where visitors and clients report on
arrival at a company
3) Board of directors C) Department that puts goods on market, including
packaging, advertising etc.
4) Chairperson D) Person responsible for day-to-day running of a
5) Headquarters E) Department responsible for finding and buying
everything for a company
6) Managing director, F) Department responsible for finding clients and
CEO making sales
7) Marketing dept. G) Department responsible for administrating a
company's financial affairs
8) Organisation chart H) Group of people chosen to establish policy for
and control of a company
9) Personnel dept. I) Synonym for chairperson
10) President J) A company's principal or main office or center of
11) Production dept. K) A table or plan showing a company's structure
12) Purchasing dept. L) Department responsible for creating new products
13) R and D dept. M) A person who owns shares in or a part of a
company or corporation
14) Reception N) Department responsible for recruitment and
welfare of employees
15) Sales dept. O) Senior director after the chairman responsible for
day-to-day direction
16) Shareholder P) Annual General Meeting of a company's
17)Vice President Q) Person who heads a Board of Directors, Head of
a company

13. Read the whole text and then complete the organization chart:

I think we have a typical organization for a manufacturing firm. We're

divided into Finance, Production, Marketing and Human Resources
departments. The Human Resources department is the simplest. It consists of
two sections. One is responsible for recruitment and personnel matters, the
other is in charge of training. The Marketing department is made up of three
sections: Sales, Sales Promotion, and Advertising, whose heads are all
accountable to the marketing manager.

The Production department consists of five sections. The first of these is
Production Control, which is in charge of both Scheduling and Materials
Control. Then there's Purchasing, Manufacturing, Quality Control, and
Engineering Support. Manufacturing contains three sections: Tooling,
Assembly, and Fabrication.
Finance is composed of two sections: Financial Management, which is
responsible for capital requirements, fund control, and credit, and

The most common verbs for describing structure are:
consists of contains includes
is composed of is made up of is divided into

e.g. The company consists of five main departments.

The marketing department is made up of three units.
The sales department is divided into two sections.
Other verbs frequently used to describe company organization include:
to be in charge of to be responsible for
to support or to be supported by to assist or to be assisted by
e.g. The marketingto department
be accountable
is intocharge oftothe
be sales
force. to
The marketing department is responsible for advertising, sales
promotions and market research.
The five department heads are accountable to the Managing Director.

14. Describe the organizational chart.

15. Describe the organizational chart.

Board of Directors
with a Chairman (GB)
or President (US)

Managing Director (GB) or

Chief Executive Officer (US)

Production Marketing Finance Research & Personnel

duction Development

Market Sales Advertising Financial Accounting

Research & Management

Northern Southern
Region Region

16. Look at the list of different jobs in the box, and match each one with
the person who is speaking in 1 – 6.

Receptionist Non-executive Director Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Chairman Personal Assistant (PA) Human Resources (HR) Manager

1. Hello. Welcome to Wy-T Computers. Have you got an appointment?

Good. Take a seat and I'll call up to her office. Would you like a coffee?
2. Good morning. My name is Angela Ranscombe, and I am responsible for
my company's productive use of its workforce.
3. I'm Anne Langsdale, and I've been appointed by the shareholders to help
run the company.
4. I'm Judy Briers. I work directly for Liz Hamley, and for her alone. I
perform various secretarial and administrative duties for her.
5. Good morning. I'm Peter Feltham, and I run the company's board
6. And I'm Helen Brown. I attend board meetings, but only to listen and give
advice. I cannot usually make decisions on behalf of the company.

Working with vocabulary 2

17. Insert the necessary prepositions.

to on of in

1. We are very dependent … the launch of a new product.

2. I've always longed to grow my hair myself, but my parents don't
approve … long hair.
3. These figures refer … power consumption in households.
4. Do you believe … UFOs?
5. Bad management resulted … a lot of problems.
6. We need a much stronger focus … the needs of our customers.
7. Future dividends will depend … the success of the new product.
8. You have to work hard if you want to succeed … life.
9. The marketing strategy is to concentrate … developing markets in
10.His irresponsible behavior resulted … commercial disaster.
18. Insert the necessary prepositions.
1. This house belongs … my mother.
2. She finally succeeded … finding a flat.
3. Many people believe … life after death.
4. I don’t approve … your behavior.
5. Our boss insists … everyone being very smartly dressed.
6. Lack of information resulted … product failure.
7. Climate refugee 'crisis' will not result … mass migration.
8. I applied … the job but I didn’t get it.
9. I hope you succeed … finding a job.
10.We are very worried – the economy is not looking good and our
company depends … the disposable income of the consumer too

19. Insert the necessary prepositions.

1. To apply … this post, you must request the forms in writing or via
2. Who does this coat belong …?
3. He was one of the 50 candidates who applied … this job.
4. The professor refers … me … a paper written on this subject.
5. Inflation results ... an excess of demand over supply.
6. I would like to apply ... the position of design engineer.

7. What does your decision depend ...?
8. Their lack of interest ... innovation resulted ... big losses.
9. He has approved … changing the agenda.
10. Our boss says he doesn't approve … the changes. He's totally against
11.After months of trying, we finally succeeded … persuading them.

20. Insert the necessary prepositions.

A. Board of directors is responsible ______1 the long-term success of
the company. In fact, the board meets only several times a year (e.g. 6-8
meetings) to decide on high level matters and approve _____ 2 of overall
The board delegates all decisions on operational running of the company
to the CEO. The CEO reports _____3 the board and can delegate any of
his powers to other executive officers.
Chairperson is in charge _____4 running the board.
CEO/President (actually the name depends ____5 the company’s
articles of association) is the most senior executive director. He is
subordinate _____6 the board and responsible _____7 proposing strategy
and delivering the strategy as agreed.

At my work I am responsible ______8:
1. I report directly _____9 the Customer Service Manager.
2. I deal _____10 customer complaints. Sometimes I have to refer _____11
code of practice used by our company.
3. We work closely with the sales team, who are in charge
_____12 customer accounts.
4. We cooperate with our offices worldwide.

We believe _____13 our company’s values and benefit _____14 our

customers’ loyalty.


21. Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple.
1 I don't know where Lisa is. Have you seen (you / see) her?
2 When I _______ (get) home last night, I ______ (be) very tired and I
________ (go) straight to bed.
3 A: _______________ (you / finish) painting the bedroom?
B: Not yet. I'll finish it tomorrow.
4 George _______ (not/ be) very well last week.
5 Mr Clark_______ (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.
6 Molly lives in Dublin. She _____ (live) there all her life.
7 A: ________ (you/ go) to the cinema last night?
B: Yes. but it ______ (be) a mistake. The film _______ (be) awful.
8 I don't know Carol's husband. I __________ (never/ meet) him.
9 A: Is Martin here?
B: No, he _______________ (go) out.
A: When exactly _______________ (he / go) out?
B: About ten minutes ago.
10 A: Where do you live?
B: In Boston.
A: How long _______________ (you / live) there?
B: Five years.
A: Where _______________ (you / live) before that?
B: In Chicago.
A: And how long _______________ (you / live) in Chicago?
B: Two years.
22. Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple.

Spanish Civil War

Sarah: Hi Kate. …. you …1 your research (to finish)?

Kate: Not yet. It’s about Spanish Civil War. I …2 (to read) many books on it,
but I’m not ready to start writing it.
Sarah: What … you …3 (to find) so far? Anything interesting?
Kate: Well, the war …4 (to start) in 1936 and …5 (to end) just before the II
World War.
Sarah: I …6 (to do) a research on World War II last semester. It …7 (to be)
really exhausting. There …8 (to be) so many things to read. I …9 (to go) to
National Library in the city center just for that research. You look so pale.
Didn’t you sleep last night again?
Kate: No, I …10 ( to spend) the whole night to work on my research. I …11
(to stay) awake many nights in the past week. It’s not a big deal!
Sarah: Oh, poor you. Let’s go and drink some coffee then.
Kate: Good idea.

23. Put the verb into the present perfect or past simple.
1 A: I work for a company of solicitors in London.
B: How long ____________ for them?
A: Six years.

2. A: I used to have a beautiful old Volkswagen camper van.
B: How long (have) __________ it?
A: More than twenty years. I finally sold it about five years ago.
3. A: I drove to Manchester yesterday.
B: How long (take) __________ you to get there?
A: About three hours - there was a lot of traffic on the roads.
4. A: We spent our holiday in Japan holiday last year.
B: How long (spend) ___________ there?
A: Only two weeks. It wasn't really long enough to see everything.
5. A: I went to Japan on holiday last year.
B: How long (be) __________ there?
A: Only two weeks. It wasn't really long enough to see everything.
6. A: I can't send any emails - my computer's broken.
B: How long (be) _______ broken?
A: About a week. I'm going to take it back to the shop when I get
7. A: The train journey to Budapest was exhausting. We should have
B: How long (be) __________ on the train?
A: More than ten hours.

24. Underline the correct words.

1 Yesterday I phoned/I’ve phoned the bank about our overdraft.

2 I work/I have worked here since the end of last year.
3 I work/I have worked from home one day a week.
4 I’m enjoying the conference. I made/I have made a lot of useful contacts.
5 I saw/I’ve seen Hugh Hopper a few days ago – he sends his regards.
6 We went/We have been to an interesting seminar last week.
7 Today has been/was really busy – and it’s only lunchtime!
8 Today has been/was really busy. It’s 7 pm – I’m going home.
9 I’m sorry but Patricia left/has left the office an hour ago.
10 Patricia? No, she isn’t here right now. She left/has left the office.

25. Put the verbs in brackets into either the past simple or present

1 The company is doing very well. Last year sales went up (go up) 15%, and
so far this year they have gone up (go up) another 12%.
2 We operate all over Latin America. Recently we (set up) branches in Peru
and Colombia.
3 (you/see) my laptop? I’m sure I (leave) it here earlier.

4 This doesn’t look like the right block. Are you sure we (come) to the right
5 I (never/speak) to him, but I (speak) to his assistant on the phone
6 I (work) for WorldCom since last year, but now I want to change jobs.
(you/hear) of anyone taking on new staff?

26. Complete this article by putting verbs into correct tense, past simple
or present perfect.

Nike: the brand that keeps growing

An accountant and a sports coach (1) _______ (start) a small shoe company
called Blue Ribbon in 1964. In 1971 it (2)_______ (change) its name to
Nike, and since then it (3)__________ (become) one of the world's most
successful brands. Originally Nike 4) _______ (be) only associated with
basketball, but recently it (5) _____ (expand) into new markets like football.
Now Nike (6) _____ (start) buying other fashion brands that are not even
connected with sport.

27. Complete the text with the present perfect or past simple form of the
verbs in brackets.


Christian Rufer is an accountant with Taurus, a finance company. He

(1) _______ (work) for the company for ten years. Since he first started,
there (2) _______ (be) many changes. ‘For many years,’ he says, ‘the
company (3) _______ (have) a rigid hierarchy with many levels of
Then Gerhard Brock (4) ______ (take over) as CEO two years ago.
Brock’s first decision was to re-structure the company to create a flatter
hierarchy. Since then, a completely new management style (5) _______
(develop). In the past, staff (6) ______ (come) to work at 8:00 every
Now the company (7) _______ (change) to flexible working hours and
staff can start and finish when they want. In the old days, staff (8) _______
(receive) fixed salaries based on their seniority. But now, staff are able to
earn bonuses based on 37 performance and productivity. In the last two
years, I (9) _______ (enjoy) my job much more. I think it’s great!’

28. Put the verbs in brackets into either the past simple or present
1. The company ___________ (not upgrade) the computers since 2008.
2. The company ________(relocate) last year but no one likes the new
3. There ___________(be) a boom in office rents in the last six months.
4. The government ____________________(deregulate) this industry in
the middle of last year.
5. The company _______________ (downsize) the workforce six months
ago and now there aren’t enough staff to do all the work.
6. Sales of the new product _____________ (improve) in the last two
months, but it is still losing money.
7. The company updated its software on Monday, but it _______ (crash)
seven times since then.
8. The sales staff were retrained in November. Since then half of the staff
________________ (leave) to get better jobs with other companies.
9. The director____________ (restructure) the department in a very
unpopular way at the end of last year, then he left the company two
weeks later.
10. A product was re-launched at the beginning of this month but its sales
________________ (be) even worse since then.
11.The CEO ___________ (decide) at the end of last year to slowly
decentralise power to local branches but a new CEO has joined this
month and wants to bring power back to the head office.
12. The market share of one of your competitors _____ (expand) by more
than 300% in the last twelve months.

Unit 2 Recruitment

Working with vocabulary

1. Read the conversation, pay attention to the words/phrases in bold.

Part A.
Sandra: What are you doing?
Terry: You know that I was fired last month, so I am looking for a job. As a
job seeker I went to a recruitment agency, but they haven’t got suitable
posts for me.
Sandra: What are you reading?
Terry: I'm looking at the jobs pages in the paper. Look, Modus International
has a vacancy for the position of Sales Manager in their Brighton office.
Sandra: That sounds like your kind of job. You'd better get your
application form in, if you're interested. What else does it say about the
Terry: It says that the successful candidate should be suitably qualified and
should have experience in sales management.

Part B.
Sandra: That sounds perfect. You’ve been in sales for six years. And you’ve
got very good track record. What's the company offering in return?
Terry: It includes a basic salary of £25000 per annum. In addition to that,
they're offering a 10% commission on all sales made.
Sandra: Well, that's a good incentive. The more you work, the more you
sell. And the more you sell, the more money you'll make!
Terry: Exactly. There's also a guaranteed end-of-year bonus of £1500. Oh,
and there are other perks, such as a company car, free medical and dental
insurance and free meals in the canteen. It also says that there are
promotional opportunities, so I might end up with an even better job
within the company.
Sandra: That’s great!

Part C.
Sandra: So what should you do if you're interested in applying for the job?
Terry: It says if I want to apply for this job, I should send my CV, together
with a covering letter, to their head office in Sheffield. If I am shortlisted,
they'll contact me to arrange an interview at one of their offices nearer
home. And before I am hired I have to complete a probationary period.

1. Fill in the blanks with one of the words/phrases in bold from part A.

a. an unoccupied position that is available in a company.

b. a post of employment; job.
c. an unemployed person who is trying to get a job.
d. a person who applies for a job, grant, etc. (syn.: applicant)
e. a business or organization that helps unemployed job seekers find
suitable jobs.
f. a form that a person fills in when applying for a job, grant,
membership, etc.

2. Fill in the blanks with one of the words/phrases in bold from part B.

a. percentage of profits from sales made by a salesperson.

b. an extra amount of money that is given to an employee for a
good work.
c. the money, or pay, you receive every month or year for doing your
job, not including any extra payments you may receive.
d. a possibility to get a higher position in the future.
e. a list of employee’s achievements or performance.
f. something extra that someone receives in addition to regular
pay for doing a job (e.g. company car, mobile phone, etc.)
g. motivating influence; stimulus.

3. Fill in the blanks with one of the words/phrases in bold from part C.

a. (syn.: US usually résumé) a short written description of your

education, qualifications, previous jobs and sometimes also your
personal interests, which you send to an employer when you are
trying to get a job.
b. an interview to define if an applicant is suitable for a position of
c. to choose some of the people who have applied for a job, and who
have been chosen to come for an interview.
d. a trial period during which your employer tests your character and
abilities to see if you are suitable for job.
e. a letter that contains additional information about the thing it
is sent with.
f. to give work or a job to (someone) in exchange for wages or a
g. to make a formal request, usually written, for something such as a
job, a place in a university, or permission to do something.

4. Match the antonyms.

1. to fire, to sack a. employee

2. to hire b. to sack, to fire
3. employment c. to hire, to recruit, to employ
4. employer d. layoff, redundancy

5. Match the synonyms.

1. to hire a. to sack, to lay off, to make smb redundant

2. job b. applicant
3. search firm c. letter of application, covering letter
4. probationary period d. post, position
5. to fire e. trial period
6. CV f. to recruit
7. candidate g. recruitment agency
8. cover letter h. résumé

Confusing words

1. Job is much more specific than work: your job is the name of the work
that you do to earn money. It refers to your particular employment position,
such as a teacher, accountant, builder, manager, etc.:
E.g. I like my job; I’m a teacher. – NOT: My job is a teacher.
My brother has found a good job as a sales manager at Vodafone.
I’m looking for a new job. = I’m looking for a new position. -
NOT: I’m looking for new work.
What’s your job, Peter? = What do you do for a living?
Job is mostly used as a noun (countable):
E.g. I have two jobs – I’m a taxi driver, but I also work as a part-time
fireman. (countable noun)
You can have a full-time job (40 hours per week) or a part-time
job (around 25 hours per week).
To find a job, you can check the job listings online or in the newspaper –
these are small advertisements about job openings (job opportunities).
2. Work is used in a more general way to talk about general efforts and
activities done to reach a goal. Work can be done both inside an official job
and outside a job!
E.g. Will you go back to work when you've had the baby?
I start work at 8 o’clock every morning.
Work is both a verb and a noun (uncountable).
E.g. I’m busy – I have a lot of work. (uncountable noun) (NOT: I have a lot
of works)

We use work to say talk about the location or who our employer is, NOT
to give a specific description or title:
E.g. John works for Microsoft.
Elizabeth works for a law firm. – NOT: My job is for a law firm.
Tony works in London. – NOT: My job is in London.

6. Use either “job”, “jobs” or “work” in the gaps.

1. How do you usually get to _____ ? By bus or by car?

2. Ask Paul to fix your radiator. He's a plumber - it's his _____.
3. I used to _____in Manchester but now I'm at a company near Leeds.
4. I like my _____; I’m a vet and I love working with animals.
5. I've had three different _____ in the last year - and I hated ALL of
6. What do you do for a living? What's your _____?
7. I’m busy at the moment – I have a lot of _____.
8. She applied for a _____ as a personnel officer.
9. I can’t stop! I’m late for _______!
10. I love my ______ even though I complain sometimes.
11. When I came back from holidays there was so much ______ to do!
12. Have you found a _______ yet?
13. You don’t have to include all your ______ in a CV if they’re not related.

3. Post and position are more formal words for a job in a company or
organisation. They are used especially in job advertisements and when you
are talking about someone moving to a different job:
E.g. This post would suit a recent graduate.
He left last summer for a teaching position in Seattle.

4. Use occupation to talk about an education in a specific field of work, for

example if they are a teacher, lawyer, driving instructor, nurses, accountants,
doctors, architects etc.
E.g. Occupation: police
Job: detective
Position: chief of CID
Occupation is used mainly on official forms.
E.g. State your name, age, and occupation in the box below.

!!! Do not use occupation to talk about your own job

E.g. I am an accountant. – NOT: My occupation is an accountant.

7. Choose the correct option.

1. I saw a very good ......... advertised in the newspaper this week.

a. occupation b. work c. job
2. I don’t like my … It’s not well-paid. What is more, it’s boring.
a. occupation b. work c. job
3. I go to … every day, including Saturday.
a. occupation b. work c. job
4. You must write your name, age and … on the application form.
a. occupation b. work c. job
5. Have you finished your … for today?
a. occupation b. work c. job
6. My father occupies the … of director of the company.
a. occupation b. work c. position
7. Your … is badly done. Come to me after you redo it.
a. occupation b. work c. position
8. I haven’t been able to find a … for the last three months.
a. occupation b. work c. job
9. He was accepted to the vacant … of an engineer.
a. occupation b. work c. post
10. She is a tour guide by ... .
a. occupation b. work c. job

8. Use the words from the box to form fixed expressions.

track recruitment part-time redundant

cover probationary off for

1. _____ period 3. to apply ____ 5. to lay _____ 7. _____ letter

2. _____ job 4. _____ record 6. to make smb _____ 8. _____agency

9. Match the verbs with their definitions.

1. to be sacked a. to decide to leave a job

2. to resign b. to be offered a more senior position in the same
3. to get a pay rise c. to be responsible for
4. to be promoted d. to be forced to leave your job
5. to be in charge of e. to get more money
6. to retire f. to employ a person for payment
7. to hire g. to give up your job when you get to a certain age

10. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in task 9.

1. As soon as Mark won the lottery, he (1) resigned from his job.
2. Greg made a serious mistake which cost the company a lot. As a result he
(2) _____.
3. Pam has been offered a very responsible job. She (3) _____ more than
twenty people.
4. Alison was so good at her job that she (4) _____ twice in one year.
5. He (5) _____ as the company’s chairman last year.
6. Mike was so well-paid that he was able to (6) _____ at the age of fifty.
7. Tim couldn’t live on his salary. He threatened to leave the company unless
he (7) _____.

11. Replace the underlined phrases with correct forms of words and
expressions from the box.

offer accept interview

shortlist turn down qualifications
applicants referees backgrounds

Fred had already (1) refused two job offers when he went for (2) a
discussion to see if he was suitable for the job. They looked at his driving
licence and contacted (3) previous employers Fred had mentioned in his
application. A few days later, the supermarket asked him if he would like the
job and he (4) said yes.
Harry didn't hear anything for six weeks, so he phoned the company.
They told him that they had received a lot of (5) requests for the iob. After
looking at the (6) life stories of the (7) people asking for the job and looking
at (8) what exams they had passed during their education, the company (9)
had chosen six people to interview, done tests on their personality and
intelligence and they had then given someone the job.

12. Complete the passage below using the appropriate words or

phrases from the box.

position recruit hire recruitment agency

CV applicants shortlist application form
interview apply for covering letter letter of application

When a company needs to 1 … or employ new people, it may decide to

advertise the job or 2 … in the appointment section of a newspaper.
People who are interested can then 3 … the job by sending in a 4 … or 5
… and a 6 … containing details of their education and experience. In

some cases a company may prefer to do this initial selection after asking
candidates to complete a standard 7 … . The company’s human resource
department will then select the applications that it considers the most
suitable and prepare a 8 … of candidates or 9 …, who are invited to attend
an 10 … . Another way for a company to 11 … is by using the services of
a 12 … (US= search firm) who will provide them with a list of suitable

13. Complete the letter of application using the following verbs:

contact discuss employed welcome matches
apply enjoy notice advertised
Fiona Scott
52 Hanover Street
Edinburgh BH2 SLM
Nathalie Baudoin Scotland
Patagonia GMBH UK
Reitmorstrasse 50
8000 Munich 22 8th January

Dear Ms Baudoin,
I am writing to .....................1 for the position of Public Affairs Associate
which was......................2 last week in the International Herald Tribune.

Although I am presently .....................3 by a non-profit making

organisation, it has always been my intention to work in a commercial
environment. I would particularly ...............4 the chance to work for your
company and as you will ................5 on my enclosed curriculum vitae, the
job you are offering ...............6 both my personal and professional interests.
My work experience is related to public relations. I am sure that this,
together with my understanding of the needs, would be extremely relevant
to the position. Moreover, as my mother is German, I am fluent in this
language and would definitely …………7 working in a German-speaking

I would be pleased to .................8 my CV with you in more detail at an

interview. Please do not hesitate to ................9 me if you require further

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,
Fiona Scott

14. Match the terms with their definitions.

1. Bonus a. to fire, to sack, to lay off

2. CV (UK) b. a fixed, regular payment, usually monthly,
made by employer to employee
3. to make redundant c. person or firm who employs people
4. salary d. to employ; to hire
5. promotion e. to leave employment, esp. because of age
6. interview f. additional pay given to employee as incentive
or reward
7. notice g. to give up a job
8. to take on h. short list of one’s education, career etc (US –
9. to resign i. the people who work for a firm
10. perk j. advancement in rank or position
11. to retire k. an oral examination of an applicant for a job
12. employer l. advance warning of intention to resign
13. personnel m. something additional to regular salary (e.g. free
meals, corporate car, etc)

15. Read the text below on recruitment. Fill the gaps with words from
the box.

interview qualifications
experience advertisements

Most companies recruit new staff by putting job (a) _______ in the press.
They contain descriptions or specifications of the sort of people the
advertiser is looking for. (b) ________ (degrees, diplomas, certificates) are
very important, but (c) ________ may count for much more. The aim is to
attract a small number of well-qualified applicants, so that it is easy to make
a short list of the people you actually want to (d) _______.

16. Read the texts a, b, c in which wages, salary and benefits are
described and do the task after.

A My name's Sue and I'm a hotel manager in Venice. I get paid

a salary every month. In summer we're very busy, so we work a lot of extra
hours, or overtime; the money for this is quite good. Working in a hotel, we
also get nice perks, for example free meals!
B I'm Ivan and I work as a waiter in Prague. I like my job even if I
don't earn very much: I get paid wages every week by the restaurant. We get
the minimum wage: the lowest amount allowed by law. But we also get tips,
money that customers leave for us in addition to the bill. Some tourists are
very generous!
C I'm Catherine and I'm a saleswoman based in Paris. I get a basic salary,
plus commission: a percentage on everything I sell. If I sell more than a
particular amount in a year, I also get extra money – a bonus, which is nice.
There are some good fringe benefits with this job: I get a company car, and
they make payments for my pension, money that I'll get regularly after I stop
working. All that makes a good benefits package.

17. Mark and Mike are talking about Mark's new job as a photocopier
salesperson. Complete the conversations with the underlined words
from texts a, b, c.

1. Mark: I get paid every month.

Mike: I see. You get a salary, not wages.
2. Mark: I usually have to work late: I don't get paid for it, but I get a
percentage for every photocopier I sell.
Mike: So you don't get _____1, but you do get _____2. That's good.
3. Mark: The people in production get a _____3 if they reach their targets.
Mike: Oh, right. They get an extra payment for producing a certain
4. Mark: The company pays for medical treatment too, and the company
restaurant is fantastic.
Mike: Wow! The company _____4 sound very nice.
5. Mark: And they've given me a _____ _____5 to go and visit clients.
Mike: So you don't have to buy a car, then.
6. Mark: What's more, the company pays in money for us to get when we
don't work any more.
Mike: Yes, it's important to get a good _____6 .
7. Mark: The total _____ _____7 is brilliant.
Mike: Yes, all that extra stuff is really worth having.

18. Carla talks about how she lost her job. Choose the correct form of
the words in brackets to complete the text.

Edizione Fenice is a big magazine publishing company. I was director of

a magazine called Casa e Giardino. Then, Fenice was bought by an
international publishing group. We had to have regular performance (1)
_____ (review/reviews/reviewer) with one of the new managers. After a few
months they started laying staff (2) _____ (off/on/out). Our own journalists
were put on temporary (3) _____ (contracts/contractual/contracting) or
replaced by (4) ______ (freelancer/freelancers/freelanced). Then they started

(5) ______ (laid/lying/laying) off more senior people like me. So I was made
(6) ______ (redundant/redundancies/redundancy).

19. Сhoose the correct option.

Part 1

When a company has a (1) vacancy/vacant for a job, and it needs to hire a
new member of (2) crew/staff, it usually (3) publicizes/advertises the (4) post/
It can do this (5) internally/internationally (for example, in the company
magazine, so that the job is only open to people already working for the
company), or in the 'situations vacant' section of a newspaper. It might also
use a recruitment (6) agency/agenda, which helps people to find (7) job/work. A
job advertisement has to give an accurate (8) describing/description of the
job and what the company needs and expects from the (9)
applicant/application (the person who is (10) applying/appalling for the
job). These (11) requirements/requests might include (12)
qualifications/qualities (academic or professional), (13)
experience/experiences in similar work, and personal (14)
qualifications/qualities (for example, it might say that you need to be (15)
practicing/practical and have a sense of humor). Most advertisements
specify the (16) rewards/remuneration that the company can offer in return
for your work (including the basic annual (17) wage/salary, any (18)
commission/committee you could receive and so on). Some advertisements
will also tell you about other (19) benefits/beneficial (including paid annual
(20) leave/vacations , free medical care, a company car, free meals in the
cafeteria, etc.) that you might receive. If the (21) packet/ package they are
offering is very generous and attractive, the company can expect a lot of
people to apply for the job.
Part 2

If somebody is interested in the job, they are usually asked to send their
(1) e-mails/résumé with a (2) covering/coverage letter. Alternatively, they
might be asked to (3) fill in/fill out an (4) application/applicant form. The
managers of the company will read these and then make a (5) short-
list/small-list of the people it wants to (6) attend/attempt an interview.
During and after the interviews, the managers will consider the different
aspects of the (7) employees/applicants to decide whether they have the
correct (8) potency/potential for the job. They might also consider their family
(9) backing/background (are they married, do they have children?) and (10)
medicine/medical history.

Before somebody is (11) offered/advertised the job, s/he is asked to
provide (12) referees/references from people who know him / her (usually a
former (13) employer/employee, a colleague, and/or a close friend).
Sometimes, s/he may be given a (14) temporary/temporal contract and
obliged to complete a (15) prohibition/probationary period (where his / her
employers make sure that s/he is suitable for the job) before being offered
something that is more (16) permanence/permanent (a fixed-term or open-
ended contract, for example).
After s/he has been with the company for a while, there will probably be
an (17) appraisal/appreciable, to assess how s/he is getting on. These may
be repeated on a regular basis throughout his / her time with the company.

20. Complete the gaps with an appropriate word or expression from the
Part A

hours responsibility based

head office full-time title
nine to five report to branches

James: Hi, Sarah. How's the new job going?

Sarah: Oh, not too bad.
James: Tell me a bit about it.
Sarah: Well, my official job _______1 is Regional Production Manager,
which means that my main ______2 is to supervise the work of the
production department.
James: Where are you _______3?
Sarah: Most of my work is done at the _______4 in central London, but I
also have to spend time at our various ________5. There are several
of these in the South and South-East.
James: Who do you _______6?
Sarah: The Central Production Manager, Tom Atkinson. I've only met him a
couple of times, but he seems nice enough.
James: And what about the ______7?
Sarah: Pretty typical for this kind of job. I'm on a ________8 contract, which
means I work from Monday to Friday, ________9. And occasionally
I have to go in at the weekend, too.

Part B

responsibilities inspect responsible

per annum deal with salary
visit negotiate ensure

James: Not bad. And your ________1? If you don't mind me asking?
Sarah: No, not at all. I get £35,000 ________2, plus expenses, overtime pay
and so on.
James: That's pretty good for a job that just involves checking if things are
running smoothly.
Sarah: Well, there's more to my job than just that. I do have several other
James: Such as?
Sarah: I need to _______4 that the product is manufactured according to
agreed specifications, and I also have to _______5 the quality of the
finished product.
James: That's all?
Sarah: No. I also need to _______6 with our suppliers on prices for our base
materials, ________7 those suppliers on a regular basis to check the
quality of the base materials…
James: Do you have a car for that?
Sarah: Oh yes, the company provides me with one. I also have to ________8
problems as they arise on a day-to-day basis.
James: Anything else?
Sarah: Well, on top of everything else, I'm _______9 for managing 10
machinists, 3 trainees, 2 cleaners and 2 security guards. And I have to
do it all myself!

Ways of expressing future

21. Underline the correct words.

1. A: What do you do / are you doing?

B: I’m an executive secretary.
2. A: What do you do / are you doing?
B: I’m looking for the details on the computer.
3. A: Where do you work / are you working?
B: Paris this month, then Bonn the next.
4. A: Where do you work / are you working?
B: At our Head office in Paris.
5. My name’s Walter, and I come / I’m coming from Frankfurt.
6. I come / I’m coming to Frankfurt next Tuesday – I can call in to your
7. I deal with / I’m dealing with Andrew’s clients while he’s on holiday.
8. I deal with / I’m dealing with the paper work and general administration.
9. A: Who do you go / are you going to the Trade Fair with?

B: This year with Stefano.
10. A: Who do you go / are you going to the Trade Fair with?
B: Usually with Stefano.

22. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the
Present Simple or Present Continuous.

1. I ….. (look at) the details on the screen right now.

2. I ….. (look at) the sales results in detail every morning.
3. The production line ….. (not, work) at weekends.
4. The production line ….. (not, work) at the moment.
5. Yes, I agree. I ….. (think) it’s a good idea.
6. I ..... (think) about it. I’ll let you know tomorrow.
7. Helen ….. (stay) at the Astoria while she’s in Madrid this month.
8. Helen ….. (stay) at the Astoria when she’s in Madrid.
9. We ….. (take) a sample for testing once a day.
10. We ….. (take) a big risk if we go ahead with the project.
11. They ….. (be) usually very flexible if we need to change the order.
12. They ….. (be) flexible about giving us credit for a few more months.

23. Put a tick (√) next to the right sentences, and correct the wrong ones.

1 Which wine are you going to have? …..

2 Which wine are you preferring? …..
3 That’s ridiculous – I’m not believing it! …..
4 That’s ridiculous – I’m not doing business with them again! …..
5 I’m sorry I’m not following what you’re saying. …..
6 I’m sorry I’m not understanding what you’re saying. …..
7 This building is containing all the printing machines. …..
8 This building is getting very old – soon we’ll have to move. …..

24. Complete this dialogue by putting each of the verbs in brackets

into the correct form of the Present Simple or Present Continuous.

MATT: (1) ….. (you / look) for someone?

JENNIFER: Yes, I (2) ….. (need) to speak to Kim Bryant but she isn’t in
her office. (3) ….. (you / know) where she is?
MATT: Oh, I’m sorry, she isn’t here today. She (4) ….. (work) at home
trying to finish an urgent report. I (5) ….. (think) she’ll be back at her desk
tomorrow. Perhaps I can help you?
JENNIFER: Oh, thanks. I (6) ….. (work) for Pritchard Evans. We (7) …..
(organise) corporate hospitality …
MATT: Oh, yes.
JENNIFER: Well, Kim Bryant contracted us last week. Apparently you (8)
….. (expect) a visit by a Korean trade delegation next month.
MATT: Yes, that’s right.
JENNIFER: Kim asked me to call in and give her some information on our
service. Um, I (9) ….. (have) a list of suggestions with me. It (10) …..
(give) you information on where you could take your visitors, and details of
extra services that we can offer, like our pick-up service from the hotel in a
chauffeur-driven limousine.
MATT: Well, that sounds great. I’m sure Kim would be really interested to
see this.
JENNIFER: How long (11) ….. ? (your visitors / stay)?
MATT: Oh, I’m sorry, I (12) ….. (not / know) exactly. You really need to
speak to Kim, she (13) ….. (deal) with this conference. I’ll tell her to give
you a ring tomorrow. What’s the best time to call?
JENNIFER: I (14) ….. (not / work) in the office in the mornings …
anytime after two. Or she can call on my mobile, on 0777 …

25. Complete this article about the magazine Time Out by using words
from the list below. Decide whether to put the verbs into the Present
Simple or Present Continuous.

want provide rely own

try to look for investigate move

Time Out: time to expand

Time Out, the London entertainment magazine, has plans for expansion.
It already (1) ….. the monthly magazine Paris Passion, and now it (2) …..
beyond France to other markets such as Argentina and Japan.
Tony Elliott, Time Out’s founder, says he (3) ….. local people to initiate
and run the magazine, as Time Out’s London office does not have the cash
or management time. Elliott also has plans for the website, Timeout.com,
which was launched in 1995 and (4) ….. information about more than 30
cities. It (5) ….. on advertising revenue and a small amount of money from
ticket sales to survive.
But as Time Out changes and expands, Tony Elliott (6) ….. persuade
advertisers in the printed version to take more space on the Internet site.
Also, he (7) ….. the possibility of charging visitors to the site for access to
some information.
Despite these expansion plans, Elliott says that a flotation on the stock
market is out of the question. He (8) ….. to keep control of the business he
has built up.

26. This is part of a report that a personnel manager wrote after
interviewing a candidate for the position of Director of Software
Development. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or
present continuous tense.

Articulate and well presented, Paul Sutherland is an excellent candidate

for the post of Director of Software Development. He 1 wants (want) to
leave his present employer, a small computer company, because he 2 …
(feel) that he 3 … (not use) his knowledge of software engineering to the
He 4 … (look for) a more challenging position where his field of
specialisation can be exploited in a more stimulating environment. He 5 …
(realise) that our company 6 … (grow) rapidly, and that he would be
expected to contribute to that growth. He is familiar with our existing range
of software and regularly 7 … (read) our publications.
Although at present he 8 … (live) in the south, he 9 … (say) that he is
willing to go wherever we 10 … (decide) to send him. He occasionally 11
… (travel) to various European countries for trade fairs and exhibitions and
12 … (enjoy) meeting people of different nationalities. At the moment he
13 … (attend) a training course at the Goethe Institute in order to perfect
his German.

Personnel Manager.
27th January 2016

27. Complete this dialogue by putting each of the verbs in brackets using
different future forms.

JOANNA: Please, come in, have a seat. Would you like a drink? Coffee?
Mineral water?
GREG: Oh, I (1)...................... (have) a coffee, please.
JOANNA: Lucy ... could you make two coffees? Well, thanks for coming
this morning. I (2)....................... (tell) you why I asked you here. Um, as you
know, there (3)...................... (be) some big changes in the company. In fact,
we (4)....................... (restructure) the whole department.
GREG: Yes, I know. When (5)......................... (it/happen)?
JOANNA: Everything (6)...................... (be) finished by the summer. Um,
the thing is, under the new structure your job (7) ................. (probably
/disappear). GREG: Really? Is that certain?
JOANNA: Well, we (8)............................... (have) a meeting next week to
finalise all the plans, and of course I (9) ....................... (let) you know what
we decide. Anyway, you don’t have to worry.

(coffee arrives)
JOANNA: Well, as I was saying, you don’t have to worry. We 10)
..................... (offer) you a new job. You (11).................................. (have)
more responsibility, and the salary (12)..................................(be) much
better. GREG: That’s l wonderful thank you very much. What exactly
(13)............................ (the new job / involve)?
JOANNA: Well, we (14)................................... (expand) the whole customer
service area. If you accept the job you (15) .................................. (be)
responsible for the new team. Um, it (16)................................ (mean) a lot
more work, of course. What do you think?
GREG: It sounds great, but I (17)................................... (need) a day or two
to think about it.
JOANNA: Of course, no problem. Look, I (18).................................. (not/be)
in the office for the next few days – I (19) .................................. (visit) our
subsidiary in Hungary. (20)................................. (you /have) an answer for
me by next week?
GREG: Yes, I (21). .................................. (give) you my decision on

Unit 3 Retailing

Working with vocabulary 1

1. Read the text. Pay attention to the words in bold.

Wholesale and retail

Part A

Wholesale is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers. In general, it

is the sale of goods to anyone other than a standard consumer.
A wholesaler or shop selling a particular product, such as cars, is a dealer.
Wholesalers and retailers are distributors. Wholesalers are sometimes
called middlemen.

Match the terms in bold used in the text with their definitions.

a. a business or person that sells goods in small quantities to a consumer.

b. a trader who buys from producers and sells to retailers or consumers.
(syn.: an intermediary, go-between, mediator)
c. a wholesaler or middleman engaged in the distribution of a category of g
oods, esp to retailers in a specific area.
d. the products that a store sells.
e. a purchaser of goods or service in retail; an end user, and not necessarily
a purchaser, in the distribution chain of a good or service.
f. a business or person that sells goods in large quantities to retailers.
g. selling goods in large quantities.

Part B

Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to

the end-user. Retailers are part of an integrated system called the supply
chain. A retailer purchases goods or products in large quantities
from manufacturers directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller
quantities to the consumer for a profit.
Retailing can be done in fixed locations like stores or markets, door-to-
door or by delivery. Retailing includes additional services, such as
delivery. With the advent of the Internet there are an increasing number of
online retailers that compete successfully with brick-and-mortar retailers,
and bricks-and-clicks retailers that combine traditional selling with e-

Match the terms in bold used in the text with their definitions.

a. a person or business that produces goods or owns a factory.

b. is a retail store that sells products both in stores and online.
c. is a sales technique in which a salesperson walks from the door of one
house to the door of another trying to sell a product or service to the general
d. selling in small quantities to a consumer.
e. sells products to end users over the internet.
f. is the opposite of online retailers. They sell their products in stores,
not online or through catalogs.
g. a channel of distribution beginning with the supplier of materials or co
mponents, extendingthrough a manufacturing process to the distributor and r
etailer, and ultimately to the consumer.

2. Read the conversation. Jean has just moved into a new house. Her
neighbour, Liz, has come to welcome her. Pay attention to the words in

Jean: I am very glad to see you here.

Liz: How do you like the new place?
Jean: It's marvelous. I am sure we are going to love living here.
Liz: Well, have a look, here it's a shopping guide for the neighbourhood and
a booklet of discount coupons. There are a lot of different retail outlets in
the neighbourhood. Not far from here there's a very good shopping
mall/center. You can also find a huge supermarket, a drugstore, some
department stores.
Jean: Great. Are there any small stores nearby?
Liz: Oh, yes. The map is right here in the shopping guide. There is a little
drugstore a few blocks away, a little grocery store next to it, a little
boutique, a pizza place. You can find a plant store not far from here too.
Jean Are there any good discount stores nearby? We terribly need a new
toaster. Everybody in my family like toasts for breakfast very much. I'd like
to buy it.
Liz: Oh, sure. There is a good discount store in the shopping center. You
may go to a specialty retailer or drive to a hypermarket. It’s not far. And
you can spend the whole day with your family in a retail park. For sure
you’ll have to drive there, but it’s really good.

Match the terms in bold used in the text with their definitions.

a. a large self-service retail market that sells food and household goods.
b. a shop, esp a small one selling fashionable clothes and other items.

c. a pharmacy.
d. a large specially built area, usually at the edge of a town or city, where
there are a lot of large shops and sometimes other facilities such
as cinemas and restaurants.
e. very large stores with a lot of different departments and sections offering
a huge product range of various goods.
f. a general term for a store or shop
that sells small quantities of products or services to the general public.
g. a group of retail shops, restaurants, and other businesses located in the
same building.
h. a sales outlet offering goods at a reduced price.
i. a huge self-service retail outlet that combines the features of
a supermarket, department store, discount store, and specialty store in
one location. Also called hypermart.
j. a type of retail store that specializes in one kind of product.
3. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable terms.

bricks-and-clicks retailer in-stock receipts

checkout counter cashiers payment methods
aisle retail store store flyer

1. Walmart is an example of a ….. that only sell to people who are going to
use their products. They do not sell to companies that resell their
2. I always save my ….. in case I want to return or exchange something
3. I'm looking for bread. Which ….. is it in?
4. One of the things that differes us from the competition is that we try to
keep all of our products…… . It's very bad when our customers are
looking for a product and we don't have it in the store.
5. An example of a ……. is the Vitamin Shoppe. They have physical stores
where they sell vitamins, and they also sell their products on their
6. Stores often put displays of products at the …… . People sometimes
decide to buy additional products while they are waiting in line.
7. ……. include cash, credit card, debit card, gift card, and check.
8. I always check the ….. to see if there are any coupons for the products I
9. Customers spend too much time in line. I think we need to hire more ... .

4. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable terms.

out-of-stock retail chain brick-and-mortar retailer

to refund supermarkets malls
department stores specialty store online retailer

1. Some …… now offer delivery services. Customers can order the products
online and have them delivered to their house.
2. I'm sorry that the product was defective. Allow me …… your money.
3. Yankee Candle Company is an example of a….. . They specialize in
candles and do not sell many other products.
4. Barnes and Noble is an example of a….. . They have many stores in the
United States which are all similar in appearance and in the product
selection they offer. All Barnes and Noble stores are owned by the same
5. During the holiday season, a lot of popular products are …… .
6. A supermarket which only sells its products in their store is an example of
a …. .
7. …… are convenient when you have many things to buy and don't want to
travel long distances to get from one store to another.
8. Amazon is an example of an ….. . They sell products on their website,
but they do not have actual stores that you can go to.
9. Sears, Macy's, and Harrod's are examples of popular …… These stores
have different departments offering many different products. Customers
can find sporting goods, clothes, home appliances, electronics, and more
at these stores.
5. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

1. They use both direct and indirect ... of distribution. a. wholesalers

2. Usually wholesaling ... stands between the producer b. retailer
and the retailer.
3. Usually a wholesaler handles a large ... of items of c. channels
numerous manufacturers.
4. Agent middlemen don't earn salaries, they ... d. assortment
5. A wholesaler doesn't deal with the customers, ... does. e. receive
6. ... simplify the problems of manufacturers. f. middleman

6. Use expressions to complete this presentation.

middlemen consumer wholesalers

resellers distribution channel retailers

Hi, my name's Michael Son. I started out in the PC business 15 years ago
when I tried to buy a PC. There was a complicated (1) d...................
c................ .between the manufacturer and the customer: (2) w..................... ,
(3) r .................... and (4) r .................... all added to the costs, but they didn't
add much value from the (5) c .................... 's point of view. Here at Son
Computers, we manufacture every PC to order and deliver straight to the
buyer. That way we cut out the (6) m ..................... .

7. Match the terms with their definitions.

1. merchandise a. Means that a product is not available for sale.
2. in-stock b. Is the part of a store where you pay for your
3. out-of-stock c. The space between shelves in a store where
customers walk.
4. refund d. Is the piece of paper you get from a store.
It shows the details or your purchase.
5. coupon e. Is the money given back to a customer who is not
happy with a product or service.
6. cashier f. The products that a store sells.
7. store flyer/store g. A piece of paper that allows a customer to
circular receive a discount on a certain product or
8. checkout counter h. An employee who works at the register.
This person receives payment, makes
change, gives receipts, and handles returns
and exchanges.
9. aisle i. A document often provided by retail stores
which shows the sales and promotions
during a certain time period.
10. receipt j. Means that a product is available for sale.

8. Put the necessary word in the sentence.

1. The department store is having a sale and there is a 20 per a. mail-order
cent ... on all light dresses.
2. She doesn't like going shopping, she prefers to do it by .... . b. discount
3. ... is the most expensive link in the chain between a producer c. guarantees
and a consumer.
4. Wholesaler is an important ... between a producer and a d. retailer
5. The firm ... good quality of the product. e. link

9. Match the types of retail outlet with the correct definition.

1. supermarket a. is a retail store that sells products both in

stores and online.
2. hypermarket b. traditional shops that sell their products in
stores, not online or through catalogs.
3. shopping centre/mall c. small shop in a residential area and open long
4. department store d. a large self-service shop selling food and drink
and also small household items.
5. specialist retailer e. a very large supermarket often located on the
edge of a town or city.
6. chain store f. shop in a town centre in the US which sells
medicines; you can also have coffee and meals
7. drugstore g. a covered area with shops, supermarkets and
8. convenience store h. supermarket with very low prices.
9. deep discounter i. a large shop with many departments or sections
- each department sells a different type of goods.
10. brick-and-mortar j. one of a group of shops owned by the same
retailer company.
11. bricks-and-clicks k. a shop which only sells one type of product,
retailer usually of high quality.

10. Look at exercise 9 and say where you go if you want to:

1 park easily and visit different shops without going to the town centre.
2 visit different shops grouped together in a British town centre.
3 buy a packet of sugar when all the supermarkets are closed.
4 have a snack in an American city without going to a restaurant.
5 buy food very cheaply.
6 buy clothes in a town centre without going to a specialized clothes shop.

11. Look at the words below which can be use with the word "sales", for
example: sales potential, sales strategy, sales team.

team campaign strategy

forecast SALES potential
launch figures target

Some of these "word partnerships" can be used to fill the gaps in the
sentences below. Fill in the gaps.
1. The company is planning to launch an important sales …… to promote
their latest product.
2. The sales …….. for the last quarter were very encouraging and we made
a substantial profit.
3. The sales …… consists of the sales director, his assistant and ten sales
4. At the moment, we are conducting market research to find out the
product's sales…… in Germany.
5. The sales director is confident of achieving the sales ……. set last
12. Fill in the gaps with the terms from a box.

Retailing Strategy
Part A

involves specific consumer strategy consumer's

a strategy product generated available

To be successful, a retailer must distinguish itself from other retailers and

develop _____1 for satisfying the needs and preferences of a _____2 group.
This _____3, called a retail mix, _____4 careful consideration of (1) the
product to sell, (2) the quantity at which to make the product _____5, (3) the
location at which to sell the_____6, (4) the time to make the
product available, (5) the pricing of the product, and (6) the appeal that can
be _____7 to attract the _____8 interest.

Part B

psychological benefits benefits

function consumer

The Product

Retailers strive to offer products that appeal to the tastes of the _____1, are
of good quality, and _____2 properly. Sometimes the product must also
provide _____3 and emotional _____4, such as prestige or convenience. For
example, an expensive watch with a well-known, _____5 brand name may
give its owner a sense of prestige.

Working with vocabulary 2

The following table gives a list of words and expressions that are most
frequently used with 'make' and 'do':
 an appointment
 the accounts
 arrangements/plans
 an assignment
 an attempt
 business
 a bed
 one's best
 a change/changes
 the crosswords
 a comment
 damage
 a complaint
 a degree / a course
 a declaration
 drugs (consume/use)
 a deal
 your duty
 a discovery
 an exam
 a difference / an exception
 exercises
 an effort
 a favour
 an enquiry
 the gardening
 an excuse
 a good turn
 fun of something/somebody
 good / harm
 an impression
 a good job
 a mistake
 your homework
 money
 a lesson
 a noise
 a job
 an offer
 justice
 an omelette
 military service
 a phone call
 your nails / hair / make-up
 a point
 a project
 a presentation
 research
 a profit
 (something) right/wrong
 progress
 the shopping
 a reservation
 a survey
 room for something (find place for)
 a test
 a speech
 a translation
 a statement
 well / badly
 a suggestion
 work
 sure / certain
 without something
 a threat

13. Use either make or do:

1. I …… the shopping every Friday afternoon.
2. Please, can you ….. a reservation for me?

3. She doesn't ….. much money.
4. Nobody helps my mother to …… the housework.
5. Will you ….. me a favor? Help me carry this table.
6. Let's … the appointment for 10:00 in the morning.
7. Try not to …. any grammar mistakes in your writing.
14. Choose the right answer.

1. I ….. some research and 4. Can you …. me a favor?

learned several interesting facts. a. do b. make
a. did b. made 5. He …. friends easily.
2. We don't …. business with that a. does b. makes
company. 6. I'll …. my best.
a. do b. make a. do b. make
3. It doesn't …. any difference to 7. I'd like to …. an appointment
me. with Dr. Smith, please.
a. do b. make a. do b. make

15. Use either make or do in the correct tense form:

1. I'll have to …..an appointment for the dentist. My tooth hurts.
2. We had to …. the right decision.
3. After you have ….. your homework, you can go out and play.
4. What does your dad ….. for a living?
5. The company ….. so well that we ….. a huge profit.
6. I …. my best. - What else could I do ?
7. The pupils ….. an excuse after being late for the lesson.
8. He crashed the car and …. a lot of damage to it .
9. Smoking …. harm to your health.
10. I ….. a fortune out of importing expensive cars.
11.She always …. the housework in the morning.
12. I tried to fix the car but I … a complete mess out of it.
13. My uncle Martin …. a lot of money with his company last year.
16. Use either make or do in the correct tense form:
1. You didn't …your homework yesterday. Why?
2. . …. me a favour. Can you pick up my suit from the dry cleaner's
3. Before going to the airport, …. sure you have your ID with you.
4. I think Jane …. a mistake in her presentation yesterday.
5. It won't ….. you any harm to eat more fruit and
6. The police officer was only …. his duty when he questioned you about

the robbery.
7. He's asked me to …… a journey with him to Sydney!
8. It's always a pleasure to ….. business with that company.
9. Jerry has ….. fun of me because of my outfit!
17. Use either make or do in the correct tense form:
1. I'm not in the mood to go to Ellen's party tonight. I think I'll …. an
excuse and I'll stay home.
2. You don't need to win the competition, just … your best!
3. I always ….. coffee before breakfast.
4. I …… a mistake. I’m sorry.
5. Samsung ….. a big profit last year.
6. I love ….. grammar exercises on Speakspeak.com!
7. I'm ….. a maths exam tomorrow. Wish me luck!
8. School children usually have to …… a lot of homework.
9. Be quiet! Don't ….. a noise!
10. I always …… the shopping on a Saturday morning.

18. Use either make or do in the correct tense form:

1. I haven’t eaten chocolate for weeks, but it hasn’t ______ any difference to
my weight!
2. If you’ll _______ the dishes, I’ll sweep the floor.
3. Thanks for ______ such lovely comments about my paintings!
4. Could you call the manager please? I’d like to ________ a complaint.
5. I feel terrible! I really must _______ some more exercise!
6. He’s volunteering at a homeless shelter because he wants to ____ good.
7. She needs to _______ a choice.
8. John _______ a decision to take the bus.
9. Could you possibly ______ me a favour and bring dessert to my dinner party
10. When she was 40 she sold her business and ________ a fortune.
11. Jill has to ____________ three exams this week.
12. I’m fine mum! There’s no need to call the doctor! Don’t _____ a fuss.
13. I really need to _______ some shopping this afternoon.

19. Use either make or do in the correct tense form:

1. You should eat more fruit and vegetables. It would _______ you good.
2. Traditionally, three people ______ speeches at weddings in the UK.
3. Lucy _________ all the ironing, washed the floor and made dinner.
4. John decided that he needed to ________ more research before he could
write his essay.
5. Could I _______ a suggestion?
6. Please call my secretary and ______ an appointment.
7. I spent a long time ______ my hair, but when I went outside, the wind
ruined it in one minute!
8. He ______ an attempt to tidy up before she arrived.
9. How do you like our new kitchen? I think the workmen _____ a good job.
10. They have _______ too many errors in this article. We can’t publish it.
11. I know the shop usually closes at six but could you ______ an exception
12. She tried to ______ her homework early in the evening, so she could
relax afterwards.
13. I ______ a great effort to study hard for that exam, but I still didn’t pass!
14. One tiny piece of chocolate cake won’t _______ you any harm! Eat up!
15. Right, could you _____ arrangements for next week?
16. I spend far too much time ______ housework! I wish I had a cleaner!

20. Use either make or do in the correct tense form:

1. I'm an engineer. What do you ______ ?
2. I'll be late back. I'm going to ______ the shopping.
3. I'd like you to ______ more of an effort.
4. Do you like this skirt? I ______ it myself.
5. I didn't win the competition but I ______ my best.
6. I know you want to help but you are ______ more harm than good.
7. Could you ______ me a favour?
8. I don't promise anything but I'll ______ my best.
9. Is there anywhere I could ______ a phone call?
10. Don't tell them about it. It's not worth ______ a fuss.
11. I don't see how we can ______ a profit in this market.
12. I've ______ all the necessary arrangements.
13. Someone has to ______ a decision.

Unit 4 Franchising
Working with vocabulary

1. Read the dialogue. Pay attention to the words in bold.

Terry: Hi, Hazel, how are you? You look excited.

Hazel: Hi, Terry. Well, I am thinking of starting up my own business. A
beauty salon.
Terry: Wow, it sounds interesting. But aren’t you afraid of failure? How can
you be sure that your business will be a success? And competition in this
market is quite tough.
Hazel: Actually, I am, that’s why I am considering buying a franchise. That
solves a lot of problems including competition. I’ve already found an
appropriate franchisor.
Terry: So, what stops you?
Hazel: Well, there are some good points for me as a franchisee …. For
example, I don’t have to develop my own brand, products and services, as
I’ll use the established ones provided by a franchisor. It’s already known in
this market, so I’ll get a successful business model, existing customers and
good reputation. And a risk of failure is low.
Terry: That’s great.
Hazel: What’s more, I can get support, assistance and advice from my
franchisor at any time.
Terry: And do you need any skills?
Hazel: Of course, if I am a successful applicant, I will need to do a training
course, and my franchisor will provide me with an operations manual, that
contains instructions on the business and can be used as a guide in day-to-
day operations.
Terry: That’s good. Your own successful business.
Hazel: In fact there will be some restrictions as I can’t change product or
service range, prices, choose suppliers.
Terry: Oh, that’s a disadvantage.
Hazel: Yes, a huge one. What’s more it costs a lot. I’ll have to pay the initial
franchise fee to get this franchise agreement, in addition I must pay
royalties and advertising fee, as a franchisor is responsible for a marketing
Terry: Have you discussed all these points with your franchisor?
Hazel: Not yet. I’ve met with a master franchisee who explained
everything, so I have to take a decision.
Terry: Good luck, then. See you later.
Hazel: Thanks. Bye.

2. Match the terms in bold used in the text with their definitions.

a. description of means and methods a firm uses to get profit projected in its
b. a one-time fee paid by the franchisee to the franchisor for the right to
operate a franchise (syn.: front end fee).
c. the company or individual that buys the right to operate the franchise
using the trademarks, know-how and business systems.
d. a detailed description of the system and each of its elements and a list of
instructions how to operate the business.
e. the right to use the trademarks, know-how and business systems of the
f. an ongoing fee paid by the franchisee to the franchisor for advice and
assistance, it is often calculated as a percentage of sales or turnover (syn.:
management services fee).
g. the company or individual that sells the right to operate the franchise
using the trademarks.
h. is a person or organization that controls the franchising activities in a
specified territory.
i. money paid by a franchisee for national and/or regional advertising.

3. Fill in the gaps with the terms from the box.

trademark a franchise an initial fee expanding

licence a franchisee a franchisor royalty

Business format franchise

Purchase of _____1 is a simple way of starting business. A business

format franchise occurs when the owner of a business (_____2) grants a
_____3 to another person or business (_____4) to use their business idea -
often in a specific geographical area.
The franchisee sells the franchisor's product or services under the
franchisor's _____5 or trade name and benefits from the franchisor's help
and support.
In return, the franchisee usually pays _____6 to the franchisor and then a
_____7 (percentage of the sales revenue).
For a franchisor it is a good way of _____8 markets.
4. Read the text and fill in the gaps.

advertising consequences intangibles business franchisor

royalty fee franchising agreements terminates distribute

1________ refers to the methods of practicing and using another person's
philosophy of 2________. The 3_________ gives the independent operator
the right to 4________ its products, techniques, and trademarks for a
percentage of gross monthly sales and a 5__________. Various tangibles and
6_________ such as national or international 7________, training, and other
support services are commonly made by the franchisor. 8_________
typically last five to twenty years. If a franchisee cancels or 9_________ a
contract, it may result in serious 10__________ for franchisees.

5. Choose the best option:

1. Franchising refers to the methods of practicing and using …

a) publishers and vendors
b) another person's philosophy of business
2. The franchisor typically earns royalties …
a) on the sales of the franchisee
b) on licenses
3. Cancellations or terminations of franchise agreements before the
completion of the contract …
a) have serious consequences for franchisees
b) it doesn’t matter
4. Modern franchising came with the rise of franchise-based …
a) universities
b) food service establishments
5. Franchising is a business model used in more than 70 industries and that
generates …
a) more than $1 trillion in U.S. sales annually
b) all types of negotiating

6. Fill in the words from the box.

promoted expanding reliable

volume of sales franchisee franchisor

1) You can't start a small business without _______________ partners.

2) After launching a new brand the company is expecting to
3) One of the advantages of franchising is an opportunity to use a
4) For a stable company franchising is a good way of markets.
5) The company which buys a license is called________________.
6) The company which sells a license is called _______________.

7. Make nouns by adding a suffix (-ity, -ness, -ment, -tion) to the words

You should also make any necessary spelling changes.

a) flexible ____________ e) invest ____________
b) dedicate ___________ f) communicate ____________
с) popular ____________ g) agree _____________
d) fit ____________ h) aware _____________

8. Complete the sentences below with the nouns from the exercise

1. The increasing ___________of home entertainment amongst consumers

is helping the expansion of the home video rental industry.
2. We are meeting next week to sign the rent ___________ for the shop.
3. Growing ____________ of the stress-reducing effects of regular
exercise has led to an increase in gym franchises.
4. Franchisers will only consider candidates who can make an initial
___________of at least $85,000.
5. Employees who take initiative and constantly seek ways to improve
service are rewarded for their ____________.
6. Some companies have on-site exercise facilities as they believe that
physical ______________ plays an important role in the well-being of the
7. Running your own business requires a lot of ________________as you
often have to do whatever is needed to be successful.
8. E-mail makes ______________ with franchising partners around the
world faster, more convenient and less expensive.

9. Match the words with the definitions:

interest costs revenue loss

profit loan capital

1. an amount of money you need to start a business _______________

2. the money you receive from selling a product or service _________
3. what you make if your revenue is more than your costs __________
4. what you make if your revenue is less than your costs ___________
5. an amount of money that someone, e.g. the bank, lends you _______
6. money you pay for things and services to run your business _______
7. an amount you pay for borrowing money, e.g. from the bank ______

10. Choose the correct answer.
1. Opening your own business can be difficult, so some people choose to
open a ______ instead.
(a) franchise
(b) franchisor
(c) franchisee
(d) master franchisee
2. A franchise is an already successful business that franchisees want to get
in order to make a ______ from an established brand name.
(a) help
(b) earn
(c) profit
(d) assist
3. A franchisee usually gets continual support from the franchisor's
______ office.
(a) focus
(b) channel
(c) head
(d) leader
4. Some people decide to open a franchise because they can operate a
business under a ______ brand name right from the business' inception.
(a) disenfranchised
(b) outknown
(c) indefinite
(d) well-known
5. Of course, the franchisee has to pay a(n) ______ set-up fee as well as
continual payments based on revenue that is brought in every month.
(a) next
(b) initial
(c) final
(d) closing
6.Some companies are so successful that they have become ______ names.
(a) household
(b) relational
(c) recognition
(d) familial
7. A percentage of a franchise's ______ has to be paid to the franchisor on
a regular basis.
(a) expenses
(b) losses
(c) revenue
(d) costs

11. Fill in the words from the box.

shows figures functioning dropping

growth franchisees recession risk
business guarantee franchise

The Australian Franchise Federation (AFF) presented a new survey that

shows a continuing boom in the (1)_____sector over the past year. The
federation's annual survey shows this sector continued to grow at 15 per
cent, a level that has continued since end of the last _________(2) in the
early 1990s. The federation's chairman Bill Hawke said, "These are
encouraging (3) ____. The prospects of the franchising business are very
The report (4) ________that the most popular businesses for (5)
________ continue retail outlets. However, other service businesses are
also showing strong (6) ________. One area the federation thinks is likely
to take off over the next few years is property and building services. The
survey also shows that the cost of getting into a franchise is (7)________.
The average start-up cost for a franchise is believed to be about A1$
120,000 - down from A $135,000 last year. Business consultant Francine
Gordon says that many small business owners do not understand the basic
(8) ___________ of the business. Gordon says that seven out of ten small
business fail within five years. “With franchising, the (9) ________ of
failure are lower, because a good franchise can provide a strong business
model for (10) _________to follow," she says. "A franchise is not a (11)
____________ of success, but it certainly helps."

12. Read the extract from the The Sport Shoe®’s franchisee brochure
and fill in the gaps.

start-up cost franchise agreement royalty fee store design

training course opening inventory gross sales direct financing

1. The average ____________ ranges between $250, OOO and $400,000

depending on the size of the store. This figure includes the franchise fee
of $25, 000 for a neighborhood store or $100,000 for an Expo location
(over 10,000 sq.ft.). It also includes: real estate/rent; initial inventory;
insurance; Grand Opening advertising; working capital.
2. No. The Sport Shoe® does not provide ____________ for you. We do
have business relationships with various financial institutions. These
institutions have a working knowledge of our franchise program and can
assist you with your financing needs.

3. The continuing services, or ____________, equals 4% of the gross
sales derived from the franchise business. This fee gives you the right to
the continued use of The Sport Shoe® name and trademark, and all the
benefits that come with being part of the The Sport Shoe® organization.
4. You buy your ____________ directly from manufacturers such as
Nike, Reebok, Adidas, etc. The Sport Shoe® will assist you in opening
your sales accounts and our buyers will assist you in making your buying
5. Once a site has been selected, The Sport Shoe® will provide you with a
___________ that corresponds to The Sport Shoe® concept and a fixtures
and fittings list. You will purchase these items directly from the
appropriate supplier.
6. Building name recognition of The Sport Shoe® will be an important
part of your franchise business. You will be required to spend $10,000 on
Grand Opening advertising during your first 60 days of operation. After
the Grand Opening you are required to spend a minimum of 4% a month
of the ___________ on such advertising as print, radio, TV, direct mail,
7. You and your designated employee will participate in an initial
___________ that will include classroom and in-store training. The
classes will provide instruction on store operations, personnel policies,
merchandising, and accounting. During your first week of business a
trained representative of The Sport Shoe® will provide additional on-site
training with your employees.
8. Once your application is approved, the ____________ signed, and the
franchise fee is paid, you can expect it to take as long as six to eight
months to be ready to open. The Sport Shoe® will do whatever is
necessary to help you speed up the process.

13. Match the words with their definitions.

working capital gross sales fixtures and fittings

real estate opening inventory on-site training
trademark royalty fee start-up cost

1. total value of sales before deducting costs and expenses.

2. land and anything fixed, immovable (syn.: property).
3. an ongoing fee that the franchisee pays to the franchisor, usually paid
monthly and calculated as a percentage of gross sales.
4. money available for day-to-day operations of an organization. (syn.:
operating capital).
5. a form of training taking place in a normal working situation.
6. a name, design, graphics, logo, symbols, words, that uniquely identifies
a firm and/or its goods or services.
7. products or services that a business starts with during a new fiscal year.
8. objects in a property which are sold with the property, both those which
cannot be removed and those which can.
9. an ongoing fee that the franchisee pays to the franchisor, usually paid
monthly and calculated as a percentage of gross sales.

14. Choose the best option.

1. A well-known company may authorize an individual to

operate/misuse his business under its name.
2. When a company authorizes an individual to use its name and system it
becomes a franchisor/franchisee.
3. The system put in place by the company is called the form/format.
4. A company is not only a system selling products, it is also a brand
5. A company that signs franchise agreements can have layouts/outlets in
many countries.
6. The franchisee must pay several money/fees to the franchisor.
7. The amount of money the franchisee already has will encourage a bank
to grant him a loan/debt.
8. The amount of money required to buy the stock and pay for the labour is
called the turnover/ working capital.
9. Still, the franchisee has to pay the breakeven/royalty.
10. The franchisee's first financial purpose is to break even/turn over.
11.The franchisee's next financial purpose is to have an
important turnover/breakeven point.
12. If the business is good, the franchisee will make a profit/front end fee.
13. A franchisee has to fill in and send tax returns/payrolls to tax
14. Working capital/payroll includes a list of employees and their wages.


15. Use either to be used to doing or used to do in the correct form.

1 When I was a child I ... (GO) swimming in the lake.

2 I ... (TO SPEAK) in front of an audience. I am a teacher.
3 As a father I ... (TO CLEAN UP) the mess my children make every
4 In the army I ... (TO GET UP) at six every morning.
5 My grandmother ... (TO WALK) 5 miles to go to church on Sundays.

6 Anderlecht ... (TO ATTRACT) the best Belgian players. Nowadays they
can't afford that any longer.
7 I ... (TO READ) the paper after lunch. That's one of the things I really
8 In Spain you will soon ... (TO TAKE) a siesta in the afternoon.
9 On holiday in Finland my wife ... (TO TAKE) a sauna every day!
10After all this time I have become quite ... (TO OPERATE) this program.

16. In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with:

in the correct form and
2. The verb in brackets (if there is one) in the correct form.

1. I ... (LIKE) meat when I was a child, but now I love it.
2. After a long holiday, you have to ... (WORK) again.
3. He … (BE) a bartender. That's why he's so good at mixing drinks.
4. Did it take you a long time ... (LIVE) in London?.
5. I found her a little eccentric at first but I … (WORK) with her now.
6. I wonder what people … (DO) in the evenings before television was
7. She comes from South America and ... such cold weather.
8. She … (THINK) Switzerland was the capital of Sweden before she came
to Europe.
9. He ... (BE) very fat: now he's quite thin.
10. If you work in a big company, you soon ... reorganisations.
11. When I came to Switzerland, I had to ... (SHAKE) hands much more
12. I … (GO) to a lot of parties when I lived in London.

17. Use negative or positive forms of “used to do” or “to be used to


1. She … (to work) as a sales rep before she was promoted to the Sales
2. Ann Bacon has been promoted to a new position this month but she …
(already, to perform) her responsibilities.
3. Our company … (to operate) in a number of European countries but right
now it is expanding quickly.
4. After graduation from the University he … (to attend) up to five job
interviews per month before he was offered this job.
5. In my department I am responsible for collecting and interpreting data so
I … (to make) reports.

6. We … (to hold) an annual conference locally but this year we’ve
decided to find a venue in a more exotic place.
7. We … (not/to deal) with a lot of paperwork earlier as we do now
following the requirements of our new management.
8. She … (not/to make) so many calls when she started work as a
9. How much time … you … (to spend) on calculating before this new
software programme was installed?
10. I know nobody who can get along with Ms.Burns. It’s very difficult
… (to communicate) with her.
11. We … (to think) that the situation in our company would improve
but the current layoffs show that everything is only getting worse.
12. He … (to do) a lot of training courses to acquire new qualifications.
13. In those days, they … (to drink) milk.
14. Mrs Wilson … (to read) four hours a day when she was young.
15. He is nervous because he …. (not , to speak) English.
16. There …. (to be) a bakery in the village in those days.
17. They ... (to have) lunch in a fast food every Saturday when they were
18. She lives in Los Angeles and she …. (to go) to Disney Land.
19. Don't worry about him, he …. (to get up) early every day.
20. Do you remember that we … (to tell) you stories before you went to
21. Mary ... (to walk) to school but now she takes the bus.
22. I … (not, to smoke) when I was young.
23. When I was a child, I ... (to collect) stamps.
24. He ... (to sing) in his bath.

Unit 5 International Business Styles
Working with vocabulary 1

1. Read the dialogue. Pay attention to the words in bold.

Lizzy: Hi, Jack. You look so smart today.

Jack: Hallo. Well, I am carrying out a very important negotiation with our
new Indian partners today. So I have to keep to the dress code within
business protocol.
Lizzy: Is it your first contact with them?
Jack: Yes, so I’ve made a lot of preparation to avoid making some etiquette
mistakes. I’ve read a lot about their customs and national culture.
Lizzy: And what interesting have you found out?
Jack: Well, Indians pay a lot of attention to social order and their status
relative to other people, be they family, friends, or strangers. All
relationships involve hierarchy. The hierarchical nature of Indian society
states that the boss is the highest individual in authority. In Indian business
culture, any final decision must be in accordance with the family, group and
social structure. It's usually helpful to have an Indian intermediary. For
example, you can bring an Indian colleague.
Lizzy: Are you expecting any difficulties in communication?
Jack: I am not. I’ve got a list of dos and don’ts.
Lizzy: And what are the dos?
Jack: Well, you should always present your business card. It’s very
important. Talking about your friends and family is an important part of
establishing a relationship with those involved in the negotiating process.
Lizzy: And what are the don’ts?
Jack: Indians are very polite, so it’s better to use words like ‘We will see’ or
‘Possibly’ instead of saying ‘no’. You shouldn’t order beef if attending a
business meal in India. Cows are considered sacred in Indian culture.
Traditional Indian food is eaten with the hands. When it is necessary to use
your hands, use only your right hand, as the left hand is considered unclean.
Lizzy: Their culture differs a lot from ours. Good luck!
Jack: Thanks.

1. Fill in the blanks with one of the words/phrases in bold from the
a. a person who acts as a link between people in order to try and bring
about an agreement; a mediator.
b. the moral or legal right or ability to control.

c. ways of behaving or beliefs that have been established for
a long time.
d. a small card bearing information (such as name and address)
about a business or business representative.
e. a way of dressing for a particular occasion or in a particular social
f. a system in which people or things are arranged according to their
g. the way that society is organized.
h. an accepted or official position, especially in a social group.
i. formal rules for polite behavior in society.

2. Complete the text using the words from the box.

hierarchy decisions decision-making subordinates
authority delegate tasks structured

In the traditional management model, senior management used to

exercise their __________1, and the _________2 at lower levels of the
company _________3 had to carry out their decisions.
But the modern business environment is constantly changing. So, in
modern big digital organizations, a team is ___________4 for accomplishing
a certain project with all the team members sharing the responsibility. The
team managers are appointed but their functions mostly lie in the sphere
of coordinating and measuring the ________5 of the staff. For the next
project the teams are re-structured into new ones and with other people in
charge. In this case, _________6 is no longer restricted to senior managers;
managers have to __________7 to people at lower levels and
to empower them to take the necessary _________8.

3. Complete the sentences below with the words in the box.

action agenda body building

business time key small

1 Different cultural assumptions mean that sometimes misunderstanding of

...... language can easily arise.
2 In a hierarchical culture, criticising or disagreeing with a boss or manager
can result in a loss of ........... for both people involved.
3 In many countries, people like to go away from a meeting with a clear
........... plan.

4 Not all cultures have strict approaches to starting and finishing ........... or
the duration of discussion.
5 The idea of hierarchy in a culture is one of the …… areas to bear in mind.
6 The new manager has a very relaxed attitude towards meetings and sees
them as the place for relationship ............ and developing trust.
7 The participants made a ... talk for a few minutes, then the Chair cleared
her throat and said, 'So, let's get down to … .

4. Look at the comments below (1-7) made by people doing business in

other cultures. Match them to the aspects of culture in the box (a-g).

a) age/status 1 Everything went very, very slowly, and a lot of

people arrived late. There was a lot of tea drinking and
chatting, but nothing seemed to happen. I wanted to
make some decisions.
b) body language 2 I tried to make a joke at the start of my presentation,
to break the ice and make people feel relaxed, but
nobody laughed. Everybody was so serious. Nobody
asked any questions either. But we got the contract!
c) entertaining 3 I'm not sure I was taken very seriously, as I'm quite
young. It was a bit strange. There were four people at
the meeting with us, but only one person - the oldest
one- spoke. He asked me when the boss was arriving,
even though I told them I was there to make the deal.
d) humour 4 At the presentation, I couldn't really tell them about
the products properly, as they kept interrupting all the
time. There was a lot of shouting. Nobody seemed
very serious. It was all much too noisy for me.
e) showing emotion 5 There was a lot of nodding when we were making
our offer and we seemed to have a deal. But then
suddenly we didn't. It was all very unusual to me. I
thought nodding meant 'yes, we agree'.
f) socialising 6 At the drinks reception, I tried to keep the
conversation going, but they didn't seem interested.
They just looked bored. Maybe they were shy. It was a
bit awkward, really - just too quiet for me. In my
country, we like a lively conversation. Perhaps they
just didn't like me!
g) time 7 We had a very stressful meal. After I finished each
course, more and more food arrived. I didn't want to
be rude, but the more I ate, the more they brought.
Some of my colleagues couldn't eat some of the more
'unusual' dishes.
5. Complete the sentences below with the words and phrases in the box.

body language emotion socialising risk-taking

relationships personal space meals out

1 _____ can be very stressful, especially if you're served 'unusual' foods.

2 You may find that people show more _____ than you expect, for example
interrupting and shouting. There may be a lot of noise.
3 _____ can be very different. You may try to keep the conversation going,
but the people you're talking to may not seem interested.
4 The idea of '_____' includes how close people stand, and can also include
gestures with the hands and touching.
5 '_____' refers to nodding or shaking of the head, gestures with hands and
facial expressions.
6 Building ______ and developing trust over a period of time are much more
important in certain cultures than getting instant results.
7 _____ may be seen in a different way in another culture, so it may take
longer than you expect to make decisions.

6. Paragraphs 1–9 contain advice for business leaders. Choose the

appropriate heading for each paragraph from the list below.

a A leader should be a good teacher and communicator. 

b A leader must manage time and use it effectively. 
с A leader must have technical competence. 
d A leader must provide vision. 
e A leader must be visible and approachable. 
f A leader should be introspective. 
g A leader should be dependable. 
h A leader should be open-minded. 
I A leader should have a sense of humour. 

1. In large organizations, leaders should spend no more than four hours a

day in their offices. The rest of the time, they should be out with their
people, talking to lower-level employees and getting their feedback on
problem areas. They should be making short speeches and handing out
awards. They should be traveling widely throughout their
2. The best leaders are those whose minds are never closed and who are
eager to deal with new issues. Leaders should not change their minds
too frequently after a major decision has been made, but if they never
reconsider, they are beginning to show a degree of rigidity and
inflexibility that creates problems for the organization.

3. Executives must take a disciplined approach to their schedules, their
post, their telephone calls, their travel schedules and their meetings.
Staying busy and working long hours are not necessarily a
measurement of leadership effectiveness.
4. Leaders may run efficient organization, but they do not really serve
the long-term interests of the institution unless they plan, set and
provide strategic perception.
5. The leader must be willing to pass on skills, to share insights and
experiences, and to work very closely with people to help them mature
and be creative.
6. Leaders should let people know that life is not so important that you
can’t sit back occasionally and be amused by what is happening.
Laughter can be a great reliever of tension.
7. Reliability is something that leaders must have in order to provide
stability and strength to organizations. Leaders must be willing to be
flexible but consistency and coherence are important elements of large
8. Leaders must not only understand the major elements of their
businesses but must also keep up with any changes.
9. Leaders should be able to look at themselves objectively and analyse
where they have made mistakes and where they have disappointed

7. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

employee managers training managerial efficiency

leadership initiative responsible hierarchy decision-making

1. Good ____know how to use the skills of the people who work under them.
2. He has a unique ______style.
3. Good students expect to have _____positions in industry as soon as they
4. Management excluded the union from ______.
5. The company needs strong _______to get it through this difficult phase.
6. In addition to a competitive salary, the company offers attractive
__________ benefits.
7. I was impressed by the speed and ___________with which my order was
8. Several leading companies took the __________to establish an
independent business school.
9. She is quite high up in the management ___________.
10. New employees do a month’s intensive __________before starting.

8. Complete the tips below on doing business internationally with the
words in the box.

red tape breakfasts and business lunches eye contact

the oldest person trust and respect personal space
local language business card business culture

• Pay attention to who's who. In a group of Korean executives, _____1 is
often the most senior. In Mexico, you may need to take the time to socialise
with other businesspeople so you can earn their _____2.
• In most cases, your _____3 should be translated into the local language
where you're doing business. This helps people understand who they're
dealing with.
• If you need to socialise in the _____4, work as hard as you can to improve
your ability to speak it.
Business culture
• In Mexico, you can expect long _____5, but you might not talk about
business until the very end of the meal.
• Wherever you go, try to learn as much as you can about the _____6 before
your visit. The more you know, the easier it is to do business. For example,
in some countries, there can be a lot of _____7. You'll need a lot of official
documents before you can go ahead with a project. You need to be patient.
Politeness and personal space
• Accept _____8 when someone offers it. It's better to accept it and leave
some of it on your plate, rather than say 'no' to the offer.
• In some cultures, looking directly into someone's eyes shows honesty. But
in other cultures, too much _____9 may be impolite.
• Different cultures also have very different ideas about _____10. In Mexico,
people may stand very close to you and they often touch your shoulder or

9. Read the text and answer the questions.

Getting it right: doing business abroad

Good etiquette is important when you do business abroad. It is essential to

research local customs, to avoid misunderstandings. Here 5 are some
Japan. Smiles can express joy or displeasure. Give gifts with both hands and
do not give gifts in odd numbers (bad luck).

China. Exchange business cards using both hands. The following gifts
should be avoided: clocks, umbrellas, white flowers and handkerchiefs -
these signify tears or death.
India. Business cards should be given and received with the right hand.
Avoid wrapping gifts in black or white - these are believed to bring bad luck.
Middle East. Handshakes can last a long time. Do not be surprised if your
host leads you by the hand. Do not be surprised if people interrupt meetings
with phone calls or walk in unexpectedly.
US. Expect people to multi-task in meetings, for example checking and
sending e-mails. In meetings, it is not unusual for people to disagree –

Which countries do these statements refer to?

a) It's impolite to give a business card with your left hand.

b) A smile can show that someone is pleased or not pleased.
c) Handshakes are not quick.
d) Don't give your host a gift of white flowers.
e) People may express their opinion in a loud way.

10. Match the words from the left-side column with their definitions
from the right-side column:

1. manager a. the different levels at which people or things are

organized, depending on how much authority,
responsibility or importance they have
2. responsible b. the process of deciding about smth important,
especially in a group of people or in an organization
3. decision-making c. connected with the work of a manager
4. leadership d. the ability to do smth well with no waste of time or
5. managerial e. a person who is in charge of running a business, a
shop, a department of an organization, a project, etc.
6. efficiency f. the state or position of being a leader
7. training g. the power or opportunity to act and gain an
advantage before other people do
8. hierarchy h. having the job or duty of dealing with sb/sth, so that
it is your fault if sth goes wrong
9. initiative i. a person who is paid to work for smb
10. employee j. the process of learning the skills that you need to do a

11. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

leader goal executive resource effective

completion planning organization department project

1. Our ____ is to increase market share this year.

2. Promotions can be ______ in attracting new customers.
3. Several top ________ have left the company.
4. The keys will be handed over on ________.
5. Do people outside your _________ ask you to help on projects?
6. The company is a world _______ in electrical goods.
7. He’s the president of a large international ___________.
8. Organizing a conference requires a lot of careful ___________.
9. The company has invested a lot in the water ________.
10. We need to allocate available ________ more effectively.

12. Match the words from the left-side column with their definitions
from the right-side column:

1. goal a. producing the result that is wants or intended

2. effective b. a supply of sth such as money, labour, etc. that an
organization or a person has and can use
3. executive c. a company, a thing, a person, etc. that is the best, or in
first place in a business, etc.
4. completion d. a section of a large organization, store or government
5. department e. something that you hope to achieve
6. leader f. a planned piece of work, often involving many people,
that is designed to produce sth new
7. organization g. a person who has an important job as a manager of a
company or an organization
8. planning h. the process of making plans for sth
9. project i. a group of people who form a business or other group
together in order to achieve a particular aim
10. resource j. the formal act of completing the sale of property

13. Read the following passage and choose the correct word from a, b or
c to fill each gap.

Recent research at business schools in the USA has shown that traditional
management styles are rapidly becoming obsolete. In the traditional model,
senior management exercises its 1)______ to ensure that decisions are
carried out by 2)_____ at lower levels of the company 3)______ .

However, in today’s rapidly evolving business environment, it has become
clear that 4)_____ is something that all managers will have to live with and
adapt to. In the modern digital organization 5)_______ is no longer restricted
to senior managers, and employees are not expected to blindly 6)______
orders from above.
Because of the increasing complexity of business, managers have had to
7)______ tasks to people at lower levels and to 8)_______ them to take the
necessary decisions. It has become a system where what you achieve, in
other words your 9)_________, is what determines not only the respect that
other people in the organization have for you but also how you are
10)______ for the work that you accomplish. As one puts it, «Today you
have to be very careful about what you say to someone who works for you
because tomorrow that same person could be your boss!

a b c
1 custom gesture authority

2 bosses subordinates partners

3 culture hierarchy headquarters

4 initiative change etiquette

5 knowledge communication decision-making

6 obey operate value

7 reward signal delegate
8 empower infer familiarize

9 relationship education performance

10 rewarded scheduled measured

14. Choose the correct option.

a. Business etiquette is all about building good ......... with your clients.
(a) reports
(b) rsponses
(c) relationships
(d) reactions

b. Always be ......... when meeting with clients. No one likes waiting around
for someone who is running late.
(a) punctual
(b) persistent
(c) perfect
(d) patient

c. Appropriate ......... is especially important when meeting with potential

(a) aspect
(b) attendance
(c) aspiration
(d) attire

d. Make sure to do research regarding cultural customs and

proper ......... before doing business with people and companies in other
(a) proactivity
(b) performance
(c) protocol
(d) perspectives

e. If you're going to share a meal with a client, be sure to use appropriate

table ..........
(a) style
(b) method
(c) manners
(d) way

f. Try to return messages and ......... to business emails within 24 hours.

(a) retell
(b) repeat
(c) revisit
(d) respond

g. Keep a detailed appointment book to ......... forgetting important meetings

and functions.
(a) organise
(b) avoid
(c) ensure
(d) recall
h. When talking with clients, try to ......... yourself in a clear, eloquent
(a) extend
(b) speak
(c) behave
(d) express

i. Don't ......... others during meetings. Let them finish their thoughts before
you add to the conversation.
(a) interrupt
(b) prevent
(c) interest
(d) prepare

j. Remember to politely ......... yourself if you have to get up and leave during
a meeting.
(a) enter
(b) enable
(c) excuse
(d) exit

15. Read the text and match word combination with ‘culture’ with the
statements below.

Alexandra Adler is an expert in doing business across cultures. She is talking

to a group of British businesspeople.
‘Culture is the “way we do things here”. “Here” may be a country, an area, a
social class or an organization such as a company or school. You often talk
 company or corporate culture: the way a particular company works, and
the things it believes are important.
 canteen culture: the ways that people in an organization such as the police
think and talk, not approved by the leaders of the organization.
 long-hours culture: where people are expected to work for a long time
each day.
 macho culture: ideas typically associated with men: physical strength,
aggressiveness, etc.
But you must be careful of stereotypes, fixed ideas that may not be true.’
Distance between managers and the people who work under them varies in

1. The men really dominate in this company, they don’t make life easy for
women at all. All they talk about is football.
2. Among the management here we try to be fair to people from different
minorities, but there are still elements of racism among the workforce.
3. Of course, the quality of the work you do after you’ve been at it for ten
hours is not good.
4. There was a time when managers could only wear white shirts in this
company - things are a bit less formal now.
5. Here the male managers talk about the market as if it was some kind of
6. They say that if you go home at 5.30, you can’t be doing your job
properly, but I’m going anyway.

16. Which points in the part A are referred to in the part B?

Part A
Here are some areas of potential cultural misunderstanding:
a. distance when talking to people: what is comfortable?
b. eye contact: how much of the time do people look directly at each other?
c. gesture: people make lots of facial gestures? How much do they move
their arms and hands?
d. greetings/goodbyes: do people shake hands every time? Are there fixed
phrases to say?
e. humour: is this a good way of relaxing people? Or is it out of place in
some contexts?
f. physical contact: how much do people touch each other?
g. presents: when should you give them? When should you open them? What
should you say when you receive one?
h. rules of conversation and the role of silence: how long can people be silent
before they feel uncomfortable? Is it acceptable to interrupt when others are

Part B
Sally, a student, is working for a company abroad for work experience.
The company has employees from all over the world. The head of the
company, Henrik, invites Sally to a barbecue for his employees at his home,
at 3 pm on Saturday.
She is the first to arrive, at exactly 3 o’clock. When the others arrive,
some shake hands with each other. Some kiss on one cheek, others on both
cheeks. Others arrive and say hello without kissing or shaking hands. (1…)
Some bring wine or flowers, which the host does not open and puts to
one side. Others bring nothing. (2…)

In conversations, some people move their arms around a lot and seem to
make signs with their hands, others keep their hands by their sides. (3…)
Some people do not let others finish what they are saying, and others say
almost nothing; the people with them seem upset and move away when they
can. (4…). Some people look directly at the person they are talking to.
Others look away more. (5…)
Some touch the arm of the other person whenever they are speaking to
them. (6…) notices that some people seem to be slowly moving backwards
across the garden as the conversation goes on, while the person with them is
moving forward.
(7…) Later, somebody makes a joke but nobody laughs. Everyone goes
quiet. (8…) People start saying goodbye and leaving.

Working with vocabulary 2

Adjectives of nationality

17. Use the correct word.

________1 (Americans/America) working in ________2

(China/Chinese) better have a gift ready when they show up for a business
While the business card is not very important in __________3
(Americans/America), it plays a crucial part in ________4 (Japan/Japanese).
When doing business with the _________5 (Japan/Japanese), __________6
(America/Americans) should have a lot of their business cards, which should
be printed in both English and Japanese.
Be prepared to spend some time just saying hello and goodbye when
in business meetings in ________7 (Belgians/Belgium). While a handshake is
a usual greeting in __________8 (Americans/America), the _________9
(Belgians/Belgium) prefer the kiss — or the "air kiss," to be more precise.
While deadlines are very important in _________10
(Americans/America), the same can't be said in Spain. When doing business
with __________11 (Spain/Spaniards), U.S. business owners shouldn't expect
deadlines to be made on a regular basis.
__________12 (Australia/Australians) are generally friendly and open,
whereas _________13 (Germans/Germany) like to take their time and
consider their options in great detail.
If you are doing business in _________14 (Canadians/Canada), be on
time. ___________15 (Canadians/Canada) tend to be extremely punctual and
meetings are well-organized. ________16 (Brazil/Brazilians) stand very close
and use physical contact during conversations. In ________17
(Brazil/Brazilians), closeness inspires trust, and trust inspires long-term

18. Choose the correct answer.

1. Tom is from Berlin. His nationality is ___.

a. Germany b. German c. Dutch

2. Anna is from Amsterdam. Her nationality is ___.

a. France b. Danish c. Dutch

3. David is from Vancouver. His nationality is ___.

a. Mexican b. American c. Canadian

4. Sarah is from London. Her nationality is ___.

a. British b. Irish c. Scottish

5. Nicole is from Paris. Her nationality is ___.

a. France b. French c. English

6. Carlos is from Madrid. His nationality is ___.

a. French b. Italian c. Spanish

7. Donald is from Geneva. His nationality is ___.

a. Switzerland b. Austrian c. Swiss

8. Bruce is from Sydney. His nationality is ___.

a. British b. Australian c. Austrian

9. Keiko is from Tokyo. Her nationality is ___.

a. Chinese b. Korean c. Japanese

10. Dewa is from Jakarta. His nationality is ___.

a. Japanese b. Indonesian c. Indian

19. Change the word in brackets into correct form (either name of the
country, nationality noun or nationality adjective).

E.g. It is useful to know, for example, that in Britain (British) people shake
hands less often than other European (Europe) people.

Business in Europe

Although ________1 (Europe) countries are located close to each other and
have common practices, it is important to know that their business cultures
have many differences. Here are some useful tips to keep in mind:

 _________2 (Germany) do not like sudden changes in business plans, even if
it will improve the outcome.
 Negotiations and team work are highly valued in ________3 (Danish).
 In _________4 (French), speaking in ______5 (France) is appreciated as it a
highly valued part of their national identity.
 In _________6 (Spanish), people place an emphasis on their social life, rather
than their professional life.

Business in Africa

__________7 (African) has a strong presence on the map and you may have
an ________8 (Africa) business trip in your future. Here are some
useful tips to keep in mind:

 In the countries with colonial pasts, __________9 (Europe) etiquette is

socially acceptable. For example, ________10 (England) manners in Kenya
and _________11 (Nigerian) and __________12 (Holland) manners in various
parts of South Africa.

Business in Asia

Unlike Westerners, ____________13 (Asia) place importance on the group

rather than the individual. In general, they conduct business, make decisions
and socialize as a group. Here are some useful tips to keep in mind:

 Handshakes are a common greeting and are accompanied by a nod or bow.

 Rather than try to learn _________14 (Japan) or ________15 (China) or
_________16 (Thailand) in any depth, pick up some simple local phrases and
expressions that can be dropped into conversation as an ice-breaker.

Business in Latin America

More and more young professionals find themselves doing business in
Southern and Central America every year. Here are some useful tips to keep
in mind:
 Have your business card printed in _________16 (England) and
__________17 (Spain). At any meeting, exchange business cards with
 In _________18 (Brazilian), use __________19 (Portugal) instead of
___________20 (Spain).

Unit 6 Banking

Working with vocabulary

1. Read the conversation. Pay attention to the words in bold.

Peter: Marwan, could you help me with this checklist for helping new
customers, please?
Marwan: Yes, of course.
Peter: So, this is what I’ve got. I can help customers open new accounts. A
current account is for paying everyday bills and expenses and they can take
out money from it whenever you want. This is the type of bank account
which most people's salary/wage from their job is paid into. And a savings
account is sometimes called a deposit account – is that right?
Marwan: That’s right. It’s for savings – money the customers wants to put
aside for the future. With this type of account you can't use it to buy or pay
for things (e.g. in a supermarket) like with a current account. To use the
money in a savings account, you can only withdraw the money directly
from the bank or move it into your current account.
Peter: And does the bank pay the customer interest on a savings account?
Marwan: Yes, that’s right. You can tell customers that at the moment the
interest rate is three percent.
Peter: OK, let’s see. I can also offer new customers a debit card, show
them how the ATM works and help them deposit and withdraw money. Is
all that right?
Marwan: Yes, but don’t forget to offer them cheques as well. People in the
UK and in the USA still use these a lot. Customers also often ask about
online banking so they can do their banking from their computers at home.
Peter: Right. Those are good points, Marwan. Thanks. How about loans and
mortgages? They might be interested in buying a new car or a flat.
Marwan: Yes, you can tell them the interest rates on loans and mortgages.
And don’t forget about overdraft and traveller’s cheques. Our bank
provides these services too.
Peter: Great. Thanks for your help.
Marwan: You’re welcome.

Match definitions with one of these words/phrases in bold used in the


1. A type of bank account where you quickly buy and pay for things from
your own money in the bank (AmE checking account).
2. The extra money that a person pays when they borrow money.
3. When you borrow money from a bank that you have to pay/give them

back in the future.
4. The word that means to 'add' money into a bank account.
5. A type of bank account which is used to save money in.
6. The percentage of interest you pay when you borrow money.
7. Money that banks lend people to buy property is.
8. To remove /take the money out from an account.
9. (ABBREVIATION FOR automated teller machine): a machine, usually in
a wall outside a bank, shop, etc. from which you can take money out
of your bank account using a special card (BrE cashpoint, cash
machine, cash dispenser).
10. A service provided by a bank when a customer can withdraw more
money that he/she has in the account.
11. A piece of paper that you buy from a bank or a travel company and
that you can use as money or exchange for the local money of
the country you visit.
12. A small plastic card that can be used as a method of payment,
the money being taken from your bank account automatically.
13. A printed form, used instead of money, to make payments from your
bank account.

2. Match definitions 1–6 with words a–f.

a. coin b. note c. cash machine d. cash e. card f. bill

1 a machine in a wall that you can get money from: ____________

2 a flat, round piece of metal used as money: _____________
3 a piece of paper that tells you how much you must pay for something: ___
4 a piece of paper money: ___________
5 a small piece of plastic you use to buy something and pay for it later:
6 money in the form of coins and notes: _____________

3. Complete the conversations with the expressions from exercise 2.

A: Can I pay by credit ____________1?

B: I’m sorry but we only take ___________2 here.
A: OK . . . here’s fifty euros.
A: Do you have a one-pound ___________3 for the parking metre?
B: No. Maybe we can get change for a five-pound __________4 at that shop.
A: Excuse me, is there a _____________5 near here?
B: Yes, there’s one over there, on that wall.
A: The post has just come. You’ve got a letter.
B: Let’s see. No, it’s just a ____________6 from my accountant.
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct words:

withdraw current savings card

cash deposited traveler's checks

1. When I got my fist job, I chose to open a __________ account since I

wanted to use it for my day-to-day banking needs.
2. A _____ account wouldn't allow people to _______ money whenever
they need it.
3. A bank _______ allows customers to withdraw cash from an ATM.
4. Leila wants to _________ her check because she needs the money right
5. I am going to buy ________ because I don't want to carry cash when I go
to Paris.
6. Jane's salary is __________ directly into her bank account.
5. Fill in the gaps with the correct words:

1. You can get 2.2% _______ on your savings at our bank.

2. I couldn't buy the house because the bank refused to give me a ________ .
3. We _________ a twenty-year mortgage on the house.
4. We _________ our mortgage last year so we have no debts now.
5. I couldn't afford to buy the car so I got a _________ from the bank.

6. Read and complete the text with the words (a-g) from the list below.

a. policy 1. a level or situation which you intend to achieve

b. threats 2. a general, continuous increase in prices
c. target 3. basic and most important
d. core (adjective) 4. an agreed plan of what to do
e. sound (adjective) 5. potential sources of danger
f. sterling 6. in good condition
g. exchange rate 7. the name of the British currency
h. inflation 8. the rate at which the money of one country can
be changed for the money of another country

The Bank of England

The Bank of England has two ________ 1 purposes. One is ensuring

monetary stability, i.e. having stable prices – low _________2 – and
consequently confidence in the currency.
The Government sets an inflation ____________ 3 and the Bank tries to
meet it bi raising or lowering the official interest rate when necessary.
The Bank can influence the amount of money and the interest rates in
____________4 money market – this is how it implements its monetary
The Bank also deals in the foreign exchange. It can use the UK’s foreign
currency and gold reserves to try to influence the __________ 6 if needed.
The Bank’s other core purpose is to maintain the stability of the financial
system. The Bank has to detect and reduce any __________ 7 to financial
stability, and make sure the overall system is safe and secure. A
__________8 and stable financial system is important, and is also necessary
for carrying out monetary policy efficiently.

7. Complete the sentences below with the best answer:

1. I need to _____________ at the bank because I'm going overseas on

business, and I want to take some of the local currency with me.
A. withdraw money B. exchange money C. buy traveler's checks
2. You ought to ________________ to store your valuables and important
documents in a secure location.
A. rent a safety deposit box B. open a savings account C. pay your bills
3. My father is trying to ______________ to pay for the construction of a
new room to our house.
A. take out a loan B. pay off a loan C. review his bank statement

8. Choose the right words:

debts cashpoint loan overdrawn account

cash interest cheque overdraft borrow

1. She's spending too much money. She's already got an enormous ______.
2. He needs some cash. Is there a __________________ near here?
3. She hasn't got any _________ with her. She'll need to go to the bank.
4. Steve's got quite a few ____________ . He's borrowed money from the
bank and several of his friends.
5. If you want to buy a new car, why not get a _________ from the bank?

6. His salary is paid straight into his ________ at the end of every month.
7. Interest rates are very low. Why don't you _________ the money from the
8. He's going to the bank to pay in this _________ .
9. She'll have to stop spending so much money. She's already _______ by
over £ 300.
10. If you are prepared to take more risk, you'll get higher _______ on your

9. Choose one word from each pair or group to complete the sentences
1. a bank and a building society
2. a current account and a savings account
3. a withdrawal and a deposit
4. a statement and a balance
5. cash and a cheque
6. a bill and a receipt
7. a standing order and a direct debit
9. a loan and an overdraft
1. The best place to invest money, or borrow it when you want to buy a
house, is a ________.
2. The advantage of a _______ is that you can take out money any time
using a cheque book or cash card.
3. My husband made a £500 _______ from the bank and then lost it!
4. I have a _______ of £25 in my bank account.
5. The _______ is made out to Mr. Smith.
6. Goods from this shop cannot be exchanged unless a sales _____ is shown.
7. I pay my electricity bills by _______ . The electric company transfers the
money from my bank account to theirs.
8. I couldn't believe it when I looked at my bank statement. I had a(n)
_______ of nearly £500!
10. Choose the best response for each one.

1. I'd like to _________________ an account.

a. open
b. start
c. understand
2. A document which shows all your withdrawals and deposits (usually for
one month) is called a "bank __________________"
a. stapler
b. statement
c. bill

3. What's another way to say "to withdraw"?
a. to make out
b. to print out
c. to take out
4. I'd like to _________________ some money to my other account.
a. transfer
b. change
c. switch
5. Is there _______________ around here somewhere? ( = a cash machine)
a. an electronic machine
b. an ATM
c. a money machine
6. The money you borrow from a bank is called a _________________.
a. loaner
b. loan
c. lone
7. If you'd like to buy a house, you will probably have to take out a _______.
a. statement
b. mortgage
c. marriage
8. Usually banks have two types of personal accounts - checking and _____.
a. savings
b. save
c. saver
9. What's the _________________ on my account? – It's $450. ( = there's
$450 in your account)
a. statement
b. money
c. balance
10. If your bank account goes into "overdraft", it means _______________.
a. you owe the bank money
b. the bank owes you money
c. your balance is 0
11. A ___________ bank account is one that you share with another person.
a. joined
b. together
c. joint

11. Circle the letter of the correct sentence in each pair.

1. a. Maybe my sister will withdraw me some money.

b. Maybe my sister will lend me some money.
2. a. Can I borrow $10.00 from you?

b. Can I save $10.00 from you?
3. a. I spent my money in the bank.
b. I deposited my money in the bank.
4. a. I spend $6.00 an hour at my job.
b. I earn $6.00 an hour at my job.
5. a. I am saving money now, so I can buy a new car next year.
b. I am spending money now, so I can buy a new car next year.
6. a. I will use the automatic teller machine to spend $20.00.
b. I will use the automatic teller machine to withdraw $20.00.
7. a. How much money did you spend at the grocery store?
b. How much money did you deposit at the grocery store?
8. a. If I save enough money, I can take a vacation this summer.
b. If I lend enough money, I can take a vacation this summer.

Confusing words
1. To charge /to cost
To charge means to demand (an amount) money as a price for a service or
goods provided.
If something costs an amount of money, you must pay that amount to buy or
do it.
E.g. A: It cost £40 to have a check-up at the dentist.
B: You’re lucky! My dentist charges £70 for a check-up.

12. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of either cost or charge.
1. "How much does this book _________?" "It _________ £25."
2. It _______ a lot to buy a house in this part of Sydney.
3. My plumber ________ £20 an hour.
4. "How much will the trip ________?" "No more than £40."
5. The restaurant _________ prices for its food.
6. How much do you __________ for hiring out a bicycle for a week?
7. Smaller cars have better mileage and so __________ less to run.
8. He ________ from $20 to $50 for a haircut.
9. The repairs to our car ________ much more than we were expecting.
10.These shoes only __________ £20.
11. The bank __________ commission to change my traveller's cheques.
12. They ___________ you $20 just to get in the nightclub.
2. To own/to owe
To owe means to be in debt; to be under obligation to pay or repay in return
for something received.
To own means to have something that legally belongs to you.
E.g. "As I recall, " - he said with some irritation, "you still owe me £150."
We own our house.
13. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of either own or owe.
1. I've never __________ a flat in my life.
2. They _________ 20% of the company's shares.
3. I think you __________ (= should give) me an explanation/apology.
4. I __________ you a drink for helping me move.
5. Who _______ the copyright rights on this book?
6. We still _________ $1,000 on our car (= we still need to pay $1,000
before we own our car).
7. I _________ you an apology. Sorry, I'm afraid I forgot to send Amanda
that report.
8. I remember that I still _________ you for the concert tickets.
9. She __________ a popular tourist restaurant on the town's center.
10. Her farther ______________ this house.
14. Complete the sentences. Circle the correct verb.

1. Can I (borrow / withdraw) $5 from you?

2. How much do you (spend / earn) at your job?
3. I am bringing my lunch from home, so I can (lend / save) some money.
4. I (spend / withdraw) a lot of money on clothes.
5. Did the bank (earn / lend) him any money?
6. You have to put money in the bank before you can (borrow / withdraw) it.
7. I just got paid and I am going to (spend / deposit) the check in the bank.
8. He’s quite rich. He can / can’t afford to buy that huge house.
9. She wants to owe money / pay me back in a week.
10. Davie gets $25 pocket money / bank account a week.
11. I owe / save my brother a bit of money.
12. You’re old enough to open / pay back your own bank account now.
13. I won £50, which is great because I’m saving money for / can’t afford a
new computer.
14. I’ll pay some money back to / into my account this Friday.
15. I can / can’t afford anything right now. I’ve spent all my money on a new

15. Match terms with their definitions.

branch loan pay in standing order withdraw

checkbook interest credit bank charges payee
paying-in slip fill inUK checkUS current account statement
deposit account overdraft debit credit card balance
1 n. the difference between credits and debits in an account

2 n. money paid to a bank for the bank's services etc

3 n. local office or bureau of a bank

4 n. book containing detachable checks; chequebookUK

5 n. written order to a bank to pay the stated sum from one's

account; chequeUK

6 n. money in a bank a/c; sum added to a bank a/c; money lent

by a bank - also v.

7 n. (plastic) card from a bank authorising the purchasing of

goods on credit

8 n. bank a/c from which money may be drawn at any time;

checking accountUS

9 n. a sum deducted from a bank account, as for a cheque -

also v.

10 n. bank a/c on which interest is paid; savings accountUS

11 v. to add written information to a document to make it

complete; to fill outUS

12 n. money paid for the use of money lent - interest rate n.

13 n. money lent by a bank etc and that must be repaid with

interest - also v.

14 n. deficit in a bank account caused by withdrawing more

money than is paid in

15 v. to deposit or put money in to a bank account

16 n. person to whom money is paid

17 n. small document recording money that you pay in to a bank


18 n. an instruction to a bank to make regular payments

19 n. a record of transactions in a bank account

20 v. to take money out of a bank account

16. Complete the sentences with words from the box below.

cash refund deposit change

pay cost cheque card

A) Could I borrow your pen to sign this _________ please?

B) I don't like using my credit _______ to shop online.
C) This shirt is too small. I think I'll take it back and get a ___________ .
D) You will have to leave a _______ if you want us to order the goods.
E) You haven't given me the correct ___________ . I gave you £1 and
you've only given me 10p back.
F) Do you have any __________ ? I haven't brought any money out with me.
G) How much did you _________ for those trousers?
H) I'd never buy a new car as they _________ so much.

17. Complete the sentences with words from the box below.

cash refund deposit change

paid cost cheque card

A) I don't usually carry ____ . I prefer to use my credit B) ___________ .

C) I ____£30 for this shirt and then heard it was cheaper in another shop.
So I took it back and asked for a D) __________.
E) The haircut ______ more than I was expecting so I had to write the
hairdresser a F) _________ .
G) I need to get some ___________ for the parking meter, I've only got
H) The house was $90,000 and we had to leave a $5,000 _________ .

18. Complete the sentences with words from the box below.

borrowed owed invest made

saved spent gave wasting

1. In 2003 the group ____________ £4m from investments in overseas

2. The accountants advised us to repay 15% of what we ____________ to
the banks.
3. The shareholders criticized the board for ____________ so much money
on unnecessary trips abroad.
4. The company ____________ £5,000 to a local school to set up a computer

5. My stockbroker suggested I should ____________ in a South East Asia
Unit Trust.
6. The government ____________ over £3.5m on a research and
development project.
7. The government ____________ £6.5 billion from the IMF for a
construction project.
8. We ____________ £323,500 in administrative costs by reducing the
number of office staff.

19. Read the text and do the exercise.

'I'm Lisa. I have an account at my local branch of one of the big high-
street banks. I have a current account (AmE checking account) for writing
cheques, paying by debit card and paying bills. It's a joint account with my
husband. Normally, we're in the black, but sometimes we spend more
money than we have in the account and we go into the red. This overdraft
is agreed by the bank up to a maximum of £500, but we pay quite a high
interest rate on it.

I also have a deposit account or savings account for keeping money longer
term. This account pays us interest (but not very much, especially after

We have a credit card with the same bank too. Buying with plastic is very
convenient. We pay off what we spend each month, so we don't pay interest.
The interest rate is even higher than for overdrafts! Like many British
people, we have a mortgage, a loan to buy our house.'

Look at the text and say if these statements are true or false.

1 You talk about the local 'agency' of a high-street bank.

2 Americans refer to current accounts as check accounts.
3 A joint account is held by more than one person.
4 If you put 10,000 euros into a new account and spend 11,000 euros, you
have an overdraft of 1,000 euros and you are 1,000 euros in the red.
5 An account for saving money is called a safe account.
6 An account that pays a lot of interest has a high interest rate.
7 If you pay for something with a credit card, you can say, informally, that
you use plastic to pay for it.
8 If you pay the complete amount that you owe on a credit card, you pay it

20. Read the text and do the exercise.

'My name's Kevin. I wasn't happy with my bank. There was always a queue,
and on the bank statement that they sent each month they took money out
of my account for banking charges that they never explained. So I moved to
a bank that offers telephone banking. I can phone them any time to check
my account balance (the amount I have in my account), transfer money to
other accounts and pay bills.
Now they also offer Internet banking. I can manage my account sitting at
my computer at home.'

Kevin is phoning his bank. What expressions in the exercises 19 and 20

could replace each of the underlined items?

1. I want to swap £500 from my savings account to my ordinary account,

because I don't want to have the situation where I've spent more than I've put
2. How much is in my savings account? What's the amount in there at the
3. On the savings account, what's the percentage you pay to savers every
4. How much extra money have you added to my savings account in the last
three months?
5. On the last list of the all the money going out of and coming into the
account, there's an amount that you've taken off the account that I don't

21. Fill in the blanks using the words in the box. Be careful. There are
two extras.

lend withdrew afford discount refund

debt interest bargain receipt bill
waste overdraft

Last year I needed to change the washing machine at home as it was

making a terrible while working. As I couldn’t 1) ___________ the latest
model that was very expensive, I started to look for a sale and finally I found
a fifty percent 2) _____________ on washing machines in a shop. I was so
happy to find such a good 3) _______________ that I didn’t think if it was
safe to buy it for such a low price. I 4) __________________ all my money
in my savings account and paid in cash.
Everything was all right until the machine came home. When I
attempted to wash my clothes, I noticed that it didn’t work properly. I always

keep the 5) ____________ in case I need to exchange my purchase or get my
money back. So I called the shop and talked about the problem. I didn’t want
them to fix it because I thought it wouldn’t work properly even if it was
fixed so I asked for a 6) _____________, I wanted to get my money back
because I didn’t want to 7) _____________ my money on a machine that
doesn’t work properly.
The shop assistant told me that they couldn’t do anything for the
products that were on sale. What happened then? I had to get into 8)
____________________ to get it fixed because there was no money left in
my account.
The bank gave me 9)__________________ so I could spend money
when there was no money in my account but I had to pay ten percent
10)______________ to the bank for the credit I used. When I added up all
the extra money I paid for the machine, it turned out to be the worst
shopping I did.

First and second conditional

22. Use the forms of the First Conditional to complete the sentences.

1) If the seminar _________at 9:00 we will be on time. (to begin)

2) If the customer _________ I'll tell her you'll contact her first thing
tomorrow. (to call)
3) If you inform us of any problems by 10:00 a.m. we ________ them the
same day. (to fix)
4) If you adopt this marketing strategy your profits __________
dramatically. (to increase)
5) Your employees _________ all they need to know about the program if
you send them to this training session. (to learn)
6) If I ________ with the customer tomorrow I __________ her your card.
(to meet & to give)
7) Your company __________ better financially if you __________ for the
international market. (to do & to produce)
8) If you ___________ positively you ______________. (to think & to
9) If you __________ biodegradable products it _________ better for the
environment. (to use & to be)
10) We _________Mr. Johnson when we __________the factory. (to see &
to visit )

23. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verb
provided in the 2nd Conditional.

1. It’s Monday today, but if it ____________ (be) Saturday, I

_____________ (go) to the beach.
2. I don’t have any money now, but if I ____________ (have) some, I
____________ (lend) it to you.
3. I have to work tomorrow, but if I _____________ (be) free, I
_______________ (go) shopping with you.
4. Amy can only speak one language, but if she __________ (can) speak two
languages, she ___________ (apply) for a job at the Multicultural Center.
5. Sue doesn’t know how to knit. If she ____________ (know) how to knit,
she _____________ (make) a sweater for you for your birthday.
6. I don’t own a pair of skis. If I ___________ (have) skis, I
______________ (go) skiing with you tomorrow.
7. I can’t understand what he’s saying. If he ____________ (speak) more
clearly, I ______________ (understand) more.
8. We are not going to buy that house, but if it ___________ (be) a little
cheaper, we __________ (buy) it.
9. He is not going to pass his exam. If he _______ (study) harder, he
___________ (pass).
10. John has a lot of car accidents. If he ______________ (drive) more
carefully, he ______________ (have) fewer accidents.
11. Beth eats a lot of junk food. If she ______________ (eat) healthier food,
she ______________ (lose) weight.
12. Robert smokes a lot. If he ____________ (quit) smoking, his cough
__________ (get) better.
13. Frank is always tired. If he _____________ (go) to bed earlier every
night, he ________________ (feel) much better.

24. Put the verb in the correct form to complete each sentence.

1. If global warming continues, temperatures (rise) even higher.

2. What would you do if you (win) a million dollars?
3. If people stopped using cars completely, there (be) much less pollution.
4. When it (rain) again, I won't forget to bring my umbrella.
5. If I spoke English fluently, I (not/need) to take lessons.
6. If Siberia (not/be) so cold, I'd go there in winter.
7. Tom will be at the party tonight. If I see him, I (say) hello.
8. If it (not/rain) so much in England, you wouldn't see so many umbrellas.
9. Where (you/live) when you move out of your flat?
10. If you (can) choose any company, which company would you like to
work for?

25. Study each situation and complete the sentence below. Decide
whether to use a first or second conditional structure.

1. According to the weather forecast there is a chance of snow tomorrow. If

it (snow), I (need) to buy a pair of gloves.
2. Patrick is deciding whether to go to France or Spain on his next holiday. If
Patrick (go) to Spain, he (be) very satisfied.
3. John works 12 hours a day. If John (not/be) so busy, he (have) more time
for his family.
4. Kate is out of work, but she goes shopping every day. If Kate (continue) to
go shopping, she (run out) of money.
5. It is a sunny day with clear blue skies. If it (rain), I (need) an umbrella.
6. Anne's boss is very demanding. If Anne's boss (not/be) so demanding, she
(not/be) so stressed.
7. Daniel has an exam tomorrow. If Daniel (pass) his exam, he (celebrate)
with his friends.
8. Fabio and Carlo are best friends. If Fabio and Carlo (not/be) best friends,
they probably (not/be) living together.
9. Derek doesn't have a car. It takes him an hour to get to work. If Derek
(have) a car, it (not/take) him so long to get to work.
10. The Olympic Games are held every four years. If the Olympics (be) held
every year, they (not/be) so interesting.

26. Put the verb in the correct form to complete each sentence.

1. If I was offered the job, I think I ____________(take) it.

2. If she ____________(be) hungry, she would eat something.
3. If he studied, he _________ (pass) the exam.
4. I __________(send) you a postcard, if I had your address.
5. What _____________________(happen), if you didn´t go to work
6. If she has enough money, she ____________(buy) a new car.
7. What will John do, if he ____________(not get) the job?
8. She would be terribly upset, if I _____________(lose) her ring.
9. Many people would be out of work, if the factory _____________(close)
10. What would you do, if you ____________(be) the president of your
11. If he hurried, he ______________(catch) the train.
12. If he ______________(have) time, he will come.
13. He ______________(ring) the bell, the waiter would come.
14. If I have some money I ____________(buy) a new car.
15. If I _______________(work) harder I will pass the exam.

27. Circle the correct words in parentheses in these mini-conversations.

1. Sue: What’s wrong? You look really stressed out about something.
Ben: It’s this research paper I’m writing. The outline is due tomorrow,
and I’m still working on it. If I don’t finish it tonight, I (get, will
get, would get) an F!
Sue: Well, I can help you if you (need, will need, would need) it.
Ben: Really? That would be great! I get off work at 4:30. Man, I feel
better already.
2. Lynn: Are you ready? Let’s go. The movie starts in half an hour. We need
to leave right now if we (want, wanted, will want, would want) to
get there in time.
Tim: I know, I know, but I can’t find my wallet.
Lynn: Can I do something to help you get ready?
Tim: Well, if you helped me look for it instead of telling me what time it
was, that (is, was, would be) a big help.
Lynn: Okay. But let me say just one more thing: I’d keep my wallet in the
same place every day if I (am, were, can be) you. That way I’d
always know where it was.

28. Choose the sentence that is grammatically incorrect.

a. If I lived closer to work, I'd walk instead of driving every day.
b. If I live closer to work, I would walk instead of driving every day.
c. I might walk to work if I lived closer.
a. I will do some freelance work if I had more time.
b. If I had more time, I could do some freelance work.
c. I would do some freelance work if I had more time.
a. Do you think we'd be more productive if we allowed people to work from
b. Do you think we will be more productive if we allowed people to work
from home?
c. Do you think we'll be more productive if we allow people to work from
a. I would talk to her in private about it if I were you.
b. I'd talk to her in private about it if I were you.
c. If I were you, I'll talk to her in private about it.
a. If they ask me to extend my trip, I'll tell them no.
b. If they asked me to extend my trip, I'd tell them no.

c. I won't do it if they asked me to extend my trip.
a. We'd change suppliers if they didn't have such competitive prices.
b. If they don't have such competitive prices, we would change suppliers.
c. If they didn't have such competitive prices, we would change suppliers.
a. You'll be our top choice if Kelly didn't apply for the position.
b. You'd be our top choice if Kelly didn’t apply for the position.
c. You'll be our top choice if Kelly doesn't apply for the position.
a. If I got promoted, I'd buy a brand new car.
b. I'll buy a brand new car if I got promoted.
c. I'll buy a brand new car if I get promoted.
a. I won't like my job if I didn't like my new coworkers.
b. If I don't like my new coworkers, I won't like my job.
c. I wouldn't like my job if I didn't like the people I work with.
a. If I were bilingual, I'll have more opportunities.
b. If I were bilingual, I would have many opportunities.
c. I would have many opportunities if I speak more than one language.

29. Choose the option that correctly completes the sentence.

1. If I ______ my own business, I ______ more stressed.

a. would have/would be
b. had/might be
c. had/will be
d. didn't have/won't be
2. What ______ you do if you ______ in my position?
a. would/were
b. would/are
c. will/were
d. can/were
3. If John ______ me today, ______ him the news.
a. calls/I would tell
b. calls/I'd tell
c. called/I'll tell
d. calls/I'll tell

4. They said that if they ______ a bigger budget that ______ buying new
a. will have/they'd consider
b. would have/they'd consider
c. had/they'd consider
d. had/they'll consider
5. If Carla ______ such a good relationship with her supervisor, she ______
for another job.
a. hadn't/might look
b. will have/might look
c. wouldn't have/might look
d. didn't have/might look
6. If they ______ me a company car, ______ their offer.
a. offer/I might accept
b. offered/I will accept
c. offer/I'd accept
d. would offer/I'll accept
7. If my schedule ______, ______ earlier.
a. changes/I'll must wake up
b. changes/I'll have to wake up
c. changed/I'll have to wake up
d. will change/I have to wake up
8. If it ______ easier to obtain visas for foreign workers, my
company ______ more software developers from other countries.
a. would be/might hire
b. will be/will hire
c. were/would hire
d. weren't/won't hire
9. If our client ______ us an extension, ______ enough time to do the job
a. grants/we'll have
b. granted/we'll have
c. wouldn't grant/we'd have
d. will grant/we'll have
10. If we ______ free shipping, ______ placing the order today?

a. will offer/would you consider
b. offered/you would consider
c. would offer/would you consider
d. offered/would you consider
30. Choose the option that best completes the sentence.

1. If I didn’t know so many people in the industry, ___________________.

a. ...I will not have my current job.
b. ...I don’t have my current job.
c. ...I wouldn't have my current job.
2. We’ll need more office space _________________________.
a. ...if we continue to grow.
b. ...if we would continue to grow.
c. ...if we will continue to grow.
3. ___________________________ if the tax rates weren’t so low.
a. There will be less foreign investment here...
b. There is less foreign investment here...
c. There would be less foreign investment here...
4. If we run into any problems with this project, ___________________.
a. ...I'd ask my coworkers for help.
b. ...I'll ask my coworkers for help.
c. ...I ask my coworkers for help.
5. If there were a gym in the office park, _______________________.
a. ...I would work out after work.
b. ....I will work out after work.
c. ...I work out after work.
6. Would you talk to HR about it __________________________?
a. ...if you was me?
b. ...if you're me?
c. ...if you were me?

Unit 7 Business and the Environment

Working with vocabulary

1. Read the text and pay attention to the words in bold.

Global warming
What’s the greatest threat to the Earth today? I’d have to say it’s
probably a combination of global warming and the greenhouse effect. I
don’t understand all the science behind it, but I understand it’s to do with the
build up of gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which means
that the planet is slowly but steadily getting warmer, and one of the results of
this is that the polar icecap is melting and the levels of the oceans are rising.
And it’s caused I understand by deforestation, particularly
of rainforests and particularly in the Amazonian Basin.

Now match the terms in bold with their definitions.

1. the cutting down of trees in a large area; the destruction of forests by

2. a tropical forest,
3. an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other gases in the
atmosphere which is believed to be the cause of a gradual warming of the
surface of the Earth.
4. a gradual increase in world temperatures caused by polluting gases such as
carbon dioxide which are collecting in the air around the Earth.
5. a thick layer of ice that permanently covers an area of land.
6. the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe

2. Read the text and pay attention to the words in bold.

Natural world
It’s important not to forget that our actions have an impact not only on
us but on the natural world and other species. So, for example, certain
species are now endangered because of our actions. It’s not just because of
hunting, but because we have destroyed their natural habitats: they do not
enough food or anywhere to live. If we carry on in this way,
the biodiversity of the planet is under threat.

Match the words in bold with their definitions.

1. variety of plant and animal life in a region.

2. seriously at risk of extinction.
3. a set of animals or plants in which the members have similar
characteristics to each other and can breed with each other.
4. the natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives.

Fill in the gaps with the correct word from the box.

species endangered natural

biodiversity under rainforests

We need to make sure that we pay attention to the habitants of

the _________1 world. In many countries, many _________2 of animals
are __________3 threat, i.e. __________4. This is particularly the case in
the ___________5. If we take no action now, we may do harm to the
__________6 of the planet.

3. Read the text and pay attention to the words in bold.


I am absolutely sure that the most serious environmental

problem today is of course pollution. It’s a very pressing green issue and if
you travel to any of the large cities in China, for example, you’ll find that
there is very bad air pollution and there is a layer of smog hanging over the
cities that regularly results in acid rains. It’s not just air pollution, there is
also water pollution. In many parts of the world, the quality of the water is
not good because rivers have been contaminated by all sorts of industrial
waste, that factories and plants dump, by chemicals and fertilisers. And
what we need to do is to recycle our waste and take care of the planet and
try use renewable resources where we possibly can
Match the words in bold with their definitions.

1.to process things that have already been used, such

as bottles or sheets of paper, so that they can be used again.
2. to get rid of (waste) in the sea or on land.
3. polluted air that is a mixture of smoke and fog.
4. is a substance such as solid animal waste or a chemical mixture that
you spread on the ground in order to make plants grow more successfully.

5. a form of energy that can be produced as quickly as it is used such as wind
and wave power.
6. rain containing a high level of acid that can damage the environment. It
is caused by pollution in the air.
7. the process of damaging the air, water, or land with chemicals or
other substances
8. waste materials left over from a manufacturing process
in industrial buildings such as factories and mines
9. made dirty, polluted, or poisonous by the addition of a chemical, waste,
or infection.

Fill in the gaps with the correct word from the box.

dumping urgent contaminated

waste issue smog

One extremely serious __________1 is water pollution. This is largely

caused by factories __________2 chemicals and ____________3 products in
rivers with result that the water has become __________4.
Another __________5 problem is air pollution. In some cities,
the ___________6 is so terrible that people have to walk around wearing
masks so that they do not breathe in the dangerous fumes.

4. Read the text and pay attention to the words in bold.

Another extremely important green issue is of course energy. There
are two points to be made here. The first point is that the way we use energy
is causing harm to the environment. Most of us get energy in the form of
electricity. This electricity is produced by power stations. These power
stations emit all sorts of dangerous gases that cause acid rain which does
harm to our ecosystem and environment. The second point to make about
energy is we need to make sure that we are using energy in a sustainable
way. There is a limit to the Earth’s natural resources and there is a danger
that we use so much energy the Earth is no longer going to be able to provide
us with sufficient coal and fossil fuels. What we need to do is look for
more renewable sources of energy such as wind or perhaps solar
energy from the sun.

Match the words in bold with their definitions.

1. energy and natural materials that replace themselves by natural processes,

so that they are never completely used up.
2.a large building that contains machines which produce power, especiallyel
3. a fuel such as coal or oil.
4. to send something out into the air, especially gas, light, or heat.
5. rain containing a high level of acid that can damage the environment.
6. using methods that do not harm the environment.
7. all the plants and animals in a particular area, considered as a system
with parts that depend on one another.

Fill in the gaps with the correct word from the box.
fossil cleaner renewable
sources stations turbines

We definitely need to find more sustainable __________1 of energy. Not all

the experts agree, but some estimates say that we will run out
of __________2 fuels in the next 50 years. One obvious solution is to
use _________3 energy sources such as solar energy and wind power.
Another benefit of doing this is that wind __________4 and solar panels are
much __________5 and greener than conventional power ___________6.

5. Match a word on the left with a word on the right to make common
1. ozone A. waste
2. nuclear B. layer
3. natural C. rain
4. greenhouse D. effect
5. global E. dioxide
6. dumping F. warming
7. carbon G. resources
8. acid H. ground

6. Use these words to complete the sentences.

waste damage factory emissions

protect recycled pollution environmentalists

1. During the last hundred years we have done great _________ to the
2. There is a large chemical __________ in our town which has polluted the
river twice in a last year.
3. The Government is very worried about ______ of our rivers and beaches.

4. A lot of household ____________ like bottles and newspapers can be
_________ and used again.
5. ___________ are furious with the Government for delaying measures
which will reduce greenhouse gas __________ .
6. There are lots of things we can all do to ____________ the environment.

7. Match a word on the left with a word on the right to make common

1. global a. rain
2. greenhouse b. warming
3. ozone c. effect
4. acid d. layer

Now use these phrases in the following sentences.

1. The gradual rise in the Earth’s temperature is known as ___________ .

2. When heat gets trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere, it is known as the
3. Scientists have found holes in the ____________, particularly over
4. Rain mixed with toxic chemicals from factories is known as ________.

8. Choose the correct option.

1. Exhaust fumes cause a lot of ________, especially in big cities.

A. recycling
B. pollution
2. Everyone should learn to ______ ( = save) energy. Using lights/lamps
only when needed is a good way to do this.
A. conserve
B. converse
3. Nancy is ________ about pollution. This is why she walks to work instead
of driving.
A. cornered
B. concerned
4. ________ is much healthier than driving, and it doesn't pollute the air.
A. Baking
B. Biking
5. Many unethical companies ________ their waste into rivers.
A. dump
B. give
6. ________, which is partly caused by exhaust fumes from cars, is a very
big problem in many big cities across the world.
A. Smog
B. Smoke
7. ________ rain occurs when pollution in the air is absorbed by water
droplets in clouds.
A. Dirty
B. Acid
9. Oil ________ pollute sea water and kill marine life.
A. soil
B. spills

9. Use these words to complete the text.

floods radiation sea level climate

deserts ice caps oceans gases

Scientists have shown that the temperature on the Earth is increasing

by 0.1º every ten years. That’s one degree every century. The _________1
that are produced by factories and cars are allowing more _________2 from
the sun to reach Earth. In the future this will have very serious consequences
for humanity.
As the Earth gets hotter, the Arctic and Antarctic __________ 3 will
slowly melt and the level of the __________4 will rise. A recent report says
that the __________5 will rise by 70 metres over the next hundred years,
causing _________6 in many low-lying parts of the world.
There will _____________7 changes, too. Some areas will become
wetter while others will become much drier. Some areas which today are
green and fertile will eventually turn into __________8. Tropical diseases
like malaria will become common in areas where today they are unknown.

10. Complete the text with these words in the correct form:

to poison save to become extinct accident

threat species ecological disaster ecosystem

An __________1 occurred last year in Mysterycove. Chemical substances

________2 Blue Lake. Environmental associations were worried about the
______________3 that hit the area. In fact the area was contaminated and
many animals and plants died in a short time. Above all, there were some
animal ____________4 that risked_____________5. Many volunteers
worked for a long time trying to __________ 6 the greatest number of
animals. Despite the_____________7, they were able to save both the
animals in danger and the ____________8 of Blue Lake.

11. Match the words with their definitions.

1. acid rain A. a form of energy that can be produced as quickly

as it is used.
2. biodegradable B. the cutting down of trees in a large area; the
destruction of forests by people.
3. biodiversity C. able to decay naturally and harmlessly.
4. carbon dioxide D. animals or plants which may soon not exist
because there are very few now alive.
5. greenhouse effect E. being destroyed so that they no longer exist.
6. deforestation F. a layer of oil that is floating over a large area of
the surface of the sea, usually because an accident
has caused it to escape from a ship or container.
7. endangered species G. the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when
people or animals breathe out.
8. extinction H. a layer of air high above the Earth, which
contains a lot of ozone, and which prevents harmful
ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching the
9. flood I. the number and variety of plant and animal
species that exist in a particular environmental area
or in the world generally.
10. global warming J. a development that is causing little or no damage
to the environment and therefore able to continue
for a long time.
11. renewable energy K. rain which contains large amounts of harmful
12. oil spill L. a gradual increase in world temperatures caused
by polluting gases such as carbon dioxide which are
collecting in the air around the Earth.
13. ozone layer M. unwanted matter or material of any type, often
that which is left after useful substances or parts
have been removed.
14. pollution N. an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and
other gases in the atmosphere which is believed to
be the cause of a gradual warming of the surface of
the Earth.
15. sustainable O. a large amount of water covering an area that is
development usually dry.
16. waste P. damage caused to water, air, etc. by harmful
substances or waste.

12. Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words from the table.

acid – change – endangered – Environmental – layer –

ozone – polluted – rainforests – reduction – renewable

Friends of the Earth is the world’s largest international network of (1)

………… Groups represented in 68 countries. In the UK, it was the first
organization to campaign to save whales, (2) ………….. species and tropical
(3) ………………. . Friends of the Earth also fought against (4)
……………… rain, (5) ………… depletion and climate (6) ……………. .
The organization’s present campaigns cover many more issues, such
as protecting the wildlife and the countryside and cutting air pollution. They
promote waste (7) ………… and cleaning up of (8) ………………….
Rivers. They also campaign for the reduction of traffic levels and the
improvement of public transport.
They lobby politicians and political parties to protect the ozone (9)
……………… and control dangerous chemicals. Their objectives also
include promoting energy efficiency and (10) …………….. energy.

13. Choose the right words.

warming effect deforestation recycle

biodiversity protection pollution gases
1. There is a growing concern over the __________ of species habitat
and _____________.
2. The greenhouse ___________ is an increase in the amount of carbon
dioxide and other ___________ in the atmosphere which is believed to be
the cause of a gradual __________ of the surface of the Earth.
3. There have been many reports about __________ which is destroying
large areas of tropical rain forest.
4. The Japanese _________ more than half their waste paper.
5. We're not doing enough to protect the environment from ____________.
14. Circle the correct choice.

We should try to keep our streets and roads (1) clean / green. It’s difficult,
however, because there’s so much (2) transport / traffic. That’s why our city
air is getting more and more (3) clean / polluted. Experts say that the world’s
(4) flooding / climate is changing. Because of this, (5) sea levels / flooding
are rising. This may cause more (6) sea levels / floods in the future. We use
(7) gas / oil for making parts of machines move smoothly. We usually use
(8) gas / oil for heating our homes and for cooking.

15. Complete the text using an appropriate form of the words:

________is one of the biggest problems facing our society. In POLLUTE

the last decades politicians, _________ and environmentalists SCIENCE
have been very ___________ about the world’s health. WORRY
_______ substances produced by vehicles, companies, rubbish HARM
and the _______ of minerals, forests and oil by businesses and EXPLOIT
ndustry are _______ our future as well as the future of our DAMAGE
children. This problem will be very difficult to _____ because SOLUTION
there are ______ kinds of pollution involving air, water, noise DIFFERENCE
and light, and there are different factors which ________ the THREAT
environment. Information and the creation of __________ of AWARE
___________ issues seems to be an important weapon for ENVIRONMENT
___________ pollution. REDUCTION
For instance, ___________ waste and rubbish as well as RECYCLE
biodegradable materials is the first step that everyone should
take in order to combat this problem.

16. Complete the passage below using the following words:

• sustainability • product descriptions • catalogs •

• empower • commitment •organic • strategies•

Patagonia is an outdoor clothing firm with a strong (1) __________

to environmental causes. It sells its products through retail; outlets and by
mail order .Patagonia is renowned for its spectacular (2) __________
which are filled with unusual and dramatic photos (all taken by
customers) displaying the clothing in exciting ways. They also contain
detailed (3) _______ _________, which include definitions of materials
and explanations of manufacturing processes.
The company makes jackets from recycles plastic bottles and other
recycled and reused substances. It produces clothes from (4) ________
materials. It also donates money to environmental groups and generally
supports efforts that (5) __________ customers to take action. Patagonia’s
strategy is to pioneer new, long-term practices of (6) ___________ in
business, prove their economic viability and persuade other businesses to
When purchasing clothes from Patagonia customers also buy into a
commitment to environmental restoration. Patagonia’s example
demonstrates good green-marketing (7) ___________.
17. Use the correct form of the words in the box to complete the
sentences below.

effective manufacture responsible profit
suit consult commit sustain

1. This particular product is not suitable for use inside the home.
2. We have found that in many countries, suppliers do not understand the
importance of using natural resources that you can ____rather than deplete.
3. We are going to discuss the ____of the new sales policy at the meeting
this afternoon.
4. The best way to reduce the environmental impact of business operations in
developing countries is by helping companies there to take greater ____ for
managing the resources that they use.
5. When designing packaging that can be recycled, it is sometimes necessary
to use the services of ____ who can advise on the best ways to do this.
6. Although selling green products can help to protect the environment, it
must also be _____ for the company.
7. Research shows that consumers would like to see more companies making
a genuine ____ to protecting the environment.
8. _____ industries produce the highest levels of air pollution

18. Write the words/ phrases above next to the right definition.

1) to threaten a) someone who has special skill and knowledge of a

2) disaster b) a situation in which something is damaged without
anyone intending or planning it
3) to destroy c) an event which causes great damage and suffering
4) environmentalist d) someone who is concerned about protecting the
5) location e) all the plants and animals in a particular area
6) accident f) the position of something
7) ecosystem g) to be likely to harm or destroy something
8) safe h) not in danger
9) expert i) to damage something so badly that it no longer

19. Choose the correct word in italics to complete these sentences.

1. Paper, glass and aluminium can all be easily recycled / recharged.

2. Whales, pandas and tigers are all endangered / dangerous species.
3. Unless it is checked, mass tourism will seriously injure / damage the
4. It is everybody's responsibility to help protect / defend the environment.

5. Many restaurants have responded to the increased demand for organic /
organised meat and vegetables.
6. Until genetically / generically modified food has been proved to be safe,
people are reluctant to eat it.

The Passive Voice

20. Complete the following sentences using appropriate active or passive

verb forms. Choose your answers from the given options.

1. The problem …………. to the children. (explained / was explained)

2. Those pyramids ………………. around 400 AD. (built / were built)
3. All the trouble …………….. by your mother. (has caused / was caused)
4. The visitors …………. (were shown / have shown) a collection of old
5. I ……………. him ten thousand pounds last year. (lend / lent / was lent)
6. She ……………… of spiders. (frightened / is frightened)
7. That picture ……………. by my grandmother. (painted / was painted)
8. I …………….. by his attitude. (shocked / have shocked / was shocked)
9. Excuse the mess. The house ……………… (is painting / is being painted /
has painted)
10. I knew why I ………………. (had chosen / had been chosen)

21. Complete the sentences (Active or Passive Voice). You must either
use the Simple Present or the Past Simple.

The Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty __________ (give) to the United States by
France. It _____________ (be) a present on the 100th anniversary of the
United States. The Statue of Liberty ___________ (design) by Frederic
Auguste Bartholdi. It ___________ (complete) in France in July 1884. In
350 pieces, the statue then _______________ (ship) to New York, where it
____________ (arrive) on 17th June 1885. The pieces _____________ (put)
together and the opening ceremony ________________ (take) place on 28th
October 1886.
The Statue of Liberty ______________ (be) 46 m high (93 m
including the base). The statue ______________ (represent) the goddess of
liberty. She ____________ (hold) a torch in her right hand and a tablet in her
left hand. On the tablet, the date of the Declaration of Independence (4th
July, 1776) _______________ (can / see). Every year, the Statue of Liberty
_______________ (visit) by millions of people from all over the world.

22. Make questions in passive voice.

A: There was a storm on the coast last night.

B: _____________ ? (anything/damage)
A: Yes. Some trees fell on cars. Fortunately, nobody was killed.
B: How many cars __________ during the storm? (crush)
A: Three or four.
B: __________ ? (the trees/remove/yet)
A: Yes, they have. But the cars are still there.
B: When ___________? (the cars/remove)
A: Tomorrow, I hope.
B: ____________? (the cars/badly/damage)
A: Yes, they are. One of them is completely destroyed.

23. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences in paragraphs 1

and 2. Write the correct forms of the verbs in brackets to complete the
sentences in paragraphs 3 and 4.

In early February 2013, the tallest building in the EU will be open to

the public. This structure was originally knew as / was originally known1 as
London Bridge Tower, but became the Shard after critics claimed it looked
like “a shard of glass”.
The Shard is designed / was designed2 in the year 2000 by an Italian
architect called Renzo Piano. It has been reported / has reported3 that Mr
Piano at first rejected the idea of designing a tall building, however, he
persuaded / was persuaded4 to participate in the project and began drafting a
design of the Shard on the back of a menu.
The Shard ___________5 (construct) around a very strong concrete
centre, which ___________6 (contain) key building services and 44 lifts. To
ensure that people can _______7 (move) around the building efficiently, the
offices will ____________8 (service) by double-decker lifts and, in case of
emergencies, there are also three sets of stairs. In total, 11,000 glass panels
have _____________9 (use) and the glass exterior is 56,000 square metres.
An interesting fact is that the Shard __________10 (build) using
approximately 95% recycled materials.
When it opens in February, past and present icons of Britain’s capital
city ____________11 (display) in illustrated form throughout the entrance
lobby. Visitors will be able to access viewing spaces on levels 68 to 72 of the
skyscraper. The public __________12 (take) to the 68th floor in lifts that
__________13 (travel) at approximately six metres a second, listening to

music composed by the London Symphony Orchestra. It ____________ 14
(expect) that 1 million people will __________15 (visit) the Shard per year,
and it will also be possible to stay at the 200-room hotel, go to the spa, or eat
at a variety of restaurants which ____________16 (locate) in the Shard.

24. Transform these sentences into the passive voice.

1. Peter bought the house.

2. Mary will bring the wine.
3. My friends are repairing the car.
4. Most students speak English in this class.
5. An elderly couple sheltered her.
6. A policeman helped him.
7. She finished her work by nine o'clock.
8. Nobody can repair this broken chair.
9. They carried him into the hospital.
10. Are they typing the letters?
11. They have not taken the car into the garage.
12. Someone has spilt some milk on the carpet.
13. Did anyone answer your question?
14. They showed me the cathedral.
15. They told the children to leave the room.
16. They allowed her to go to the dining room.
17. They didn't tell me the truth.
18. Someone will give you a new notebook.
19. Someone is teaching him English.
20. They had offered me a job.
21. Someone has read her the letter.
22. Nobody has slept in this bed.
23. They looked after the baby.
24. They have been looking at her for hours.

25. Transform these sentences into the active voice:

1. We are taught grammar by Ms Sullivan.

2. He was praised by the teacher.
3. The injured were taken to the hospital by the firemen.
4. The town was destroyed by an earthquake.
5. The teacher was pleased with the boy’s work.
6. The building was damaged by the fire.
7. By whom were you taught French?
8. You will be given a ticket by the manager.
9. The streets were thronged with spectators.

10. We will be blamed by everyone.
11. The trees were blown down by the wind.
12. The thieves were caught by the police.
13. The letter was posted by Alice.
14. We were received by the hostess.
15. The snake was killed with a stick.
16. The minister was welcomed by the people.
17. He was found guilty of murder.
18. This house was built by John Mathews in 1991.

26. Complete the sentences with a passive construction, using the verbs
given in the form suggested.

1. Much of London (destroy) _________ by fire in the seventeenth century.

(Past Simple)
2. The police (instruct) ___________ to take firm action against hooligans.
(Present Perfect)
3. He (save) ____ from bankruptcy by the kindness of a friend. (Past Simple)
4. A great deal of research (do) ______ into possible causes of cancer
(Present Perfect)
5. It (think) ____________ that the Government would do something to
help. (Past Perfect)
6. Three hundred new houses (build) _________ by the end of next year.
(Future Perfect)

27. Complete the sentences with a passive construction after deciding

the tense, using the verbs given.

1. In 1987, an emergency decision ____________after the oil spill. (take)

2. This morning, aerosol sprays _________from the perfume department.
3. Next month this river _________. (clean up)
4. The 'hole' in the ozone layer________by scientists for 30 years. ( notice)
5. If cars ____________from the area, we will soon suffer from respiratory
illnesses. (not ban)
6. If a nuclear bomb exploded, the earth________________. (destroy)
7. Scientists say that the ozone layer_____________by chemicals. (destroy)

28. Put questions to the underlined words.

1. Peter was accused of murder.

2. No, it hasn't been answered.
3. He was arrested because he hit a man.

4. Few of the girls have been invited.
5. George has been taken to hospital.
6. It will be done next month.
7. The first experiment was made in 1950.
8. It has been tried three times.
9. She was punished by Mr West.
10. He has been asked to leave the house.
11. It was meant for Helen.
12. I was invited by John.
13. Yes , it has already been completed.
14. This book has been translated into 5 languages.
15. It must be written in ink.
16. It was written by Jean.
17. The book was found under the table.
18. They have been told to come.
19. It was signed yesterday
20. It was beautifully written.

29. Change the sentences below to the passive voice.

1. The government built a road right outside her front door.

2. Mr. Ross broke the antique vase as he walked through the store.
3. When she arrived, the changes amazed her.
4. The construction workers are making street repairs all month long.
5. The party will celebrate his retirement.
6. His professors were discussing his oral exam right in front of him.
7. My son ate all the homemade cookies.
9. Some children were visiting the old homestead while I was there.

30. Change the sentences below to the active voice.

1. My books were stolen by someone yesterday.

2. These books had been left in the classroom by a careless student.
3. Coffee is raised in many parts of Hawaii by plantation workers.
4. The house had been broken into by someone while the owners were on
5. A woman was being carried downstairs by a very strong firefighter.
6. The streets around the fire had been blocked off by the police.
7. Have you seen the new movie that was directed by Ron Howard?
8. My car is in the garage being fixed by a dubious mechanic.
9. A great deal of our oil will have been exported to other countries by our

Unit 8 The Stock Market

Working with vocabulary1

Read the conversations, pay attention to the words in bold.

Part A

Juan: I'm thinking about investing my money in the stock market and
buying some shares. The problem is that I have no idea about it. For
example, what's the difference between stocks and shares?
Peter: Basically, they are the same thing. They mean the ownership of part
of a company. In Britain, we normally say shares, but in North America they
use both.
Juan: Can I buy shares for any company in the world on the stock market?
Peter: No, you can only buy stocks and shares on the stock market
for public limited companies (called 'public corporations' in America).
These are generally big companies which allow anybody to buy shares in
them. In fact, only companies which are public limited companies are on the
stock market. The majority of companies in the world are private limited
companies (called 'private corporations' in America), which don't sell their
shares on the stock market.

1. Now match terms in bold from the text above with their definitions.

1. a company whose shares can be bought and sold by the public on a stock
market (abbreviation: Plc).
2. a type of company whose shares are not traded on a stock market and
may only be sold if other shareholders agree.
3. the fact that you own something.
4. one of the equal parts that the ownership of a company is divided into,
and that can be bought by members of the public (AmE stock).

Part B

Juan: Ok. So what's the difference between a stock exchange and the
stock market?
Peter: The stock market means anywhere where stocks and shares are
traded, but a stock exchange means an actual location/organisation where
they are traded. For example, the actual place/organisation in London where
stocks and shares are traded for some companies is called the London Stock
Exchange. In New York, you have the New York Stock Exchange and the
Nasdaq Stock Exchange. All three stock exchanges are part of the stock
Juan: So why does New York have two stock exchanges?
Peter: There are actually more in New York. Each stock exchange has
different companies listed on them. So, if you want to buy shares in Google
your stockbroker has to use the Nasdaq Stock Exchange, because that's
where Google is listed and their shares are traded. But if you want to buy
shares in Ford, your stockbroker has to use the New York Stock Exchange,
because that's the stock exchange where Ford is listed.

2. Now match terms in bold from the text above with their definitions.

1.a person or company that buys and sells stocks and shares for other people.
2. a specific location where securities are bought and sold.
3. to be registered on a stock market and have the right to trade shares/stocks
on it.
4. a general term which is related to any place where stocks are traded.

3. Complete the sentences with the correct terms from the box.

ownership shares private limited company stock market

stockbroker listed public limited company stock exchanges

1. They analysed the combined value of all the shares in a ______ company.
2. ___________ of property may be private, collective, or common, and the
property may be of objects, land or real estate, or intellectual property.
3. The NYSE stands alone among ___________ as a candidate for such
4. If you say you trade in the __________ it would mean that you buy and
sell shares.
5. He invests in stocks and __________.
6. The move from a private to a ___________ would enable to raise capital.
7. I buy and sell them through a _____________.
8. This company is a ____________ so you can’t buy its shares in the stock
Part C

Juan: I would like get a good return on shares, I want to make a lot of
money. Do you have any recommendations on what company's shares I
should buy?
Peter: I don't know. You should get advice from a stockbroker or look at
how company's shares are performing. Check if the share value has
increased or decreased. When you own shares in a company you will
become a shareholder that means you are a part owner of the company and
can vote on who manages or directs the company.
You will also receive a dividend on each share you own, which depends on
company’s performance. If a company is making a profit they normally pay
high dividends to their shareholders. But if a company is making a loss you
will not get a good return.

4. Now match terms in bold from the text above with their definitions.

1. A sum of money paid regularly (typically annually) by a company to its

shareholders out of its profits.
2. The profit that you get from an investment.
3. The value of a stock based on the average of the closing prices of this
stock during the quarterly period.
4. A person who owns shares in a company and therefore gets part of the
company's profits and the right to vote on how the company is controlled

5. Complete the sentences with the correct terms from the box.

value return dividends shareholders

1. Most companies distribute __________ to shareholders in the end of the

2. Investors in the stock market can determine a stock's __________by
looking at such factors as: market share, sales volume, potential and current
competitors, reviewing reports by analysts who follow the company, etc.
3. __________ will be voting on the proposed merger of the companies next
4. The __________ on the money we invested was very low.

Part D

Juan: I'm a little worried about investing in the stock market. It isn't doing
well at the moment. Do you think I'll lose money if I buy shares at the
Peter: You're right. The overall or average value of stocks and shares is
falling at the moment. People who work in the stock market call this a bear
market, when overall share prices are falling. When overall share prices are
increasing, they call it a bull market.
Juan: So how would I know if the stock market is a bear market or bull
Peter: People who buy and sell stocks and shares look at share indices to
see how well the stock market in general is performing. A share/stock
index, measures the average performance of the share prices of a group of

different companies. A share index will tell if the average share price of all
the companies in that group is increasing or decreasing. For example, one of
the most famous share indices is called the Dow Jones 30 index. This share
index measures the average combined performance of the share prices of the
30 largest public limited companies in America. In the last 6 months, the
value of the Dow Jones 30 index has fallen from 13,160 to 12,101. But share
indices only measure the average performance. So although the majority of
companies' share prices are falling, there will be some companies whose
share prices are actually increasing. So even in a bear market where average
share prices are falling, if you buy shares in the right company, you can still
make money.

6. Now match terms in bold from the text above with their definitions.

1. When the stock market is performing very well and the majority of share
prices are increasing, it is called a _________.
2. When the stock market is performing very badly and the majority of share
prices are decreasing, it is called a __________.
3. The group of 30 companies that are used for calculating this average.
4. A series of numbers that shows changes in the average prices of shares on
a particular stock market over time.

7. Complete the sentences with the correct terms from the box.

Dow Jones 30 index bull market stock index bear market

1. The main ___________ was down 350 points.

2. ____________ is the most recognized stock index in the U.S.
3. Due to recession in the world economy every stock market in the world
will soon be in a ____________ for the very first time.
4. One sign of __________ is that investors are willing to pay higher prices.

Part E

Juan: So I need to do some research on companies before I decide which

shares to buy. With the stock market performing so badly at the moment, it
seems like a big risk to invest money in stocks and shares at the moment.
Peter: Not necessarily. But if you want to reduce the risk of losing money,
you could buy preferred stocks/preference shares in a company.
Juan: What does preferred stock mean?
Peter: There are two types of stocks/shares you can buy in a company. The
first type is called a preferred stock/share. With this type, the owner of them
is paid a fixed dividend by the company. So you're guaranteed a dividend

unless the company has very bad financial problems. The second type is
called a common stock, which is also called an ordinary share. With this
type, the dividend you receive can change depending on the company's
performance or how much of the profits that the management of a company
wants to keep and not give in dividends. The amount of profit which a
company keeps and doesn't give to its shareholders as a dividend, is
called retained earnings.
Juan: Maybe, I should buy financial securities instead?
Peter: You do know that stocks and shares are a type of financial securities?
Juan: To be honest, I don't know what financial securities mean.
Peter: Financial securities are normally just called securities. Bank notes,
stocks and shares, bonds etc... are all different types of securities. Securities
are financial contracts which can be bought and sold by different people. So,
with a share, it is a financial contract where the company says you are a part
owner of the company. You can buy the share and then sell it to anybody
you like.

8. Now match terms in bold from the text above with their definitions.

1. A share of a company that provides its owner with a rifgt to vote at

shareholder meetings and to receive a part of the company profit as a
2. A share which gives its holder a right to get a fixed dividend, whose
payment takes priority over that of ordinary share dividends.
3. Financing or investment instruments bought and sold in financial markets,
such as bonds, shares (stocks), derivatives, options, futures, etc.
4. Profits generated by a company that are not distributed to stockholders
(shareholders) as dividends but are either reinvested in the business or kept
as a reserve for specific objectives (such as to pay off a debt).

9. Complete the sentences with the correct terms from the box.

ordinary shares securities retained earnings preference share

1. Some of your ____________________ should be reinvested back into the

business to try and generate future bigger returns for you.
2. The statement said shareholders may wish to sell for 980 cents per
ordinary share and 110 cents per ____________.
3. _________________, also known as common stocks, have a lower
priority for company assets.
4. Most of these __________ were financed by British and Dutch investors.

Part F

Juan: Apart from buying preferred stock, are there any other ways to reduce
the risk of losing your money?
Peter: Choose shares in companies which are stable and buy shares in many
different companies. Your investment portfolio, which means what shares
or stock you own, should be a mixture of shares from different companies in
different sectors and industries. You can also buy bonds. Unlike shares and
stocks, bonds are considered to be a form of a loan, money that you lend to a
company. Instead of dividend bondholders are paid an interest, the fixed
sum of money, what’s more bonds are usually issued by governments or
very stable and established companies. Bonds are less profitable, but at the
same time they are less risky. By the way, stocks and shares that carry no
fixed interest are usually called equities, and the value of the shares issued
by a company is called equity.
Juan: Anymore advice on what stock/shares I should or shouldn't buy?
Peter: Well, you shouldn't try to buy shares or stock in companies when
they first go public, when they first start to sell their shares on the stock
market. This is called an IPO which stands for Initial Public Offering.
Normally, the price of the shares in these companies will decrease a few
days after they have started being traded on the stock market.

10. Now match terms in bold from the text above with their definitions.

1. An official paper given by the government or a company to show that you

have lent them money that they will pay back at a particular interest rate.
2. Money that you earn from lending your money a financial organization.
3. First offering of a company’s share/stock on the stock market.
4. A collection of different types of investments owned by a particular
person or a company.
5. Common stocks/ordinary shares.

11. Complete the sentences with the correct terms from the box.

investment portfolio interest bonds equities IPO

1. I’ve invested some money into Treasury _________ issued by the

American government.
2. A good stockbroker can help you build a balanced _____________.
3. My investments return a high rate of _____________.
4. In September 1998 the planned _______ was cancelled at the last minute.
5. Investors are likely to get richer by investing in _______, rather than
bonds or cash.

12. Now match terms and their definitions.

1. The name of a person who has/owns shares in a A. listed

2. The name for the money that a company pays to its B. shareholder
3. The actual place where the shares of a company are C. stockbroker
bought and sold
4. A different name for 'shares' that is commonly used in D. return on
5. A type of company whose shares are sold on the stock E. Plc
6. A different way to say 'profit' when talking about F. stock
investing your money exchange

7. A way to say that a company 'is on' a stock exchange G. dividend

8. The name of the person who buys and sells shares for a H. stocks

13. Put the words into the gaps in the text.

Share prices fall around the world

The world’s ________ stock markets recorded large losses

yesterday because of fears about the U.S. economy. Many
American homeowners are having problems ________ losses
their housing loans, and this is making investors worry saw
that the US economy is slowing ________. There was a repaying
large sell-off of shares on Wall Street, which ________ its lower
second-biggest drop in four years. This sent waves of major
panic around Asian and European markets, where share fell
prices also ________ sharply. Stocks in Japan, Hong Kong escape
and South Korea dropped by more than two percent. Other down
Asian countries experienced bigger ________. Values in
India, Singapore and the Philippines tumbled by over three
percent. Europe did not ________. London’s FTSE index
and France’s CAC 40 both lost 1.7 percent, while
Germany’s DAX was 1.8 per cent ________.

The poor performances ________ bad times in Indian and

Chinese trading last month, when both markets suffered
________ falls. However, analysts say that Asia's continue
economies remain strong. They believe the recent heavy
________ in stock prices were simply corrections to boom
________ markets that were becoming too hot. David cool
Cohen, ________ economist of the Action Economics not
consultancy in Singapore, said the current mini-crisis is follow
only because of nervousness among investors. Many chief
people are worried that the recent stock ________ is over. declines
They fear that the record prices of last year might now be
at their peak and share prices would ________ to tumble.
Mr. Cohen thinks ________. He predicts the markets will
rebound and the world economy will continue to grow.

14. Read the extract and do the exercise.

Market indexes

If there is demand for shares in a company, for example because it is doing

well, its share price goes up. If not, its price goes down. The overall value
of shares traded on a stock market is shown by an index (plural: indexes or
indices). Some of the main ones are:
1 London: FTSE (pronounced 'Footsie'): the Financial Times Stock
Exchange index.
2 New York: the Dow Jones Industrial Average ('the Dow'). Especially long-
established 'old economy' companies.
3 New York: NASDAQ. Especially hi-tech 'new economy' companies.
4 Paris: CAC 40.
5 Frankfurt: DAX.
6 Hong Kong: Hang Seng.
7 Tokyo: Nikkei.

Complete this financial report using expressions from the text above.

Yesterday in Asia, in (1) ..................... , the Hang Seng closed 1.6 per cent
up at 15,657 exactly. In Tokyo the (2) ..................... was also up, at
15,747.20. In (3) ..................... last night, the (4) ............... closed 1.8 per
cent higher at 10,824 exactly, and the E hi-tech (5) ..................... index was
3.3 per cent up at 3,778.32. Turning now to Europe, in early trading in (6)
..................... the FTSE is 0.1 per cent down at 6,292.80. The French (7)
..................... index is also slightly down at 6,536.85.
The (8) ..................... in Germany, however is 0,1 per cent higher at

15. Choose the correct option.

I started 15 years ago with (1 capital/dividends) of $A50,000. We had

one small restaurant in Sidney and now we have twenty throughout
Australia. My (2 borrowers/shareholders) were members of my family: my
parents, brothers and sisters all put up money. They didn’t receive any (3
dividends/shares) for the first five years: we put all our profits back into the
company. Now we want to issue more (4 equities/dividends), so we are
looking for outside (5 borrowers/lenders).
(6 Lenders/Shareholders) have been very helpful. We obtained
$A50,000 of (7 loan capital/share capital) from a bank when we started.
Now we have paid off all the (8 loan/dividends) and (9 interest/shares) after
seven years.

16. Complete the sentences with the correct term.

stock portfolio share index preference share retained earnings

IPO ordinary stock stake securities

1. The name for the 'profit' that a company makes and doesn't pay to
shareholders as dividends, is ____________
2. A type of stock/share where the owner is guaranteed to receive a fixed
dividend, are called ____________
3. A method which measures the average share price performance of a
group of companies, is a ____________
4. A type of stock/share where the dividend changes depending on profit
performance, is called a ________________
5. All the stocks and shares that an investor owns in different companies, is
called their ______________
6. When a company first sells shares on the stock market, is called an
7. Stocks, shares, bonds and currency are all different types of
8. A word which is used to say what percentage of a company's
shares/stock a person or company owns, is ____________

17. Make phrases by matching an item from each column.

1. go a. are known as “securities”

2. raise b. shares on a stock market
3. shares and bonds c. a loan with interest
4. list d. public with an IPO
5. pay back/off e. capital by issuing bonds

18. Look at the table presenting information about stock market

Market activity: good times ...


Trading has been heavy on the New = buying and selling of shares . . .
York Stock
Exchange, with very high turnover. = large number . . .
We've seen
spectacular gains, especially among = big increases in value . . .
blue chips. = famous companies with history
of profit in good and bad
economic time
This bull market seems set to = rising prices . . .
and dealers seem bullish. = optimistic . . .

... and bad times

There was panic selling on the New = selling shares for any price . . .
York Stock
Exchange today as prices fell to new = their lowest point for five years
five-year ..
lows. We've seen some spectacular = large decreases . . .
The bear market continues, with = falling prices . . .
prices set
to fall further in the next few days.
are bearish. = pessimistic . ..

Find the appropriate terms (in bold) in the text above.

1 shares in company like IBM, Kodak, and Procter and Gamble.

2 buying and selling of shares on a stock market.
3 a day with twice as many shares sold as usual on a particular stock market.
4 shares that were worth $15 and are now worth $110.
5 a period when the stock market index has gone from 20,000 to 25,000.
6 the feelings of dealers who are optimistic that prices will continue to rise.
7. __________ __________ : investors are selling at any price.
8. dealers are ________ as market indeces continue to decline.
9. investors face huge losses due to shocking drop in share prices.

19. Complete the text with correct terms.

issues borrow bond loan

government bondholder exchanges interest

The _________1 market is about ten times bigger than the stock market. If a
____________2 or large company wants to ________3 a large sum of money,
it ____________ 4 a bond and receives the money as a ____________5 from
the institution or individual who buys it (= _____________6). Of course the
bondholder receives ___________7. The bond market is entirely electronic
and does not have any physical __________8.

20. Match the names of the different stock indeces to their descriptions.


1. index of 4,000 US companies, many of them in the technology area, and

some quite small _____________
2. index of 30 large, well-established US companies, chosen by the editors of
the Wall Street Journal ____________
3. index of 30 large German companies ___________
4. index of 40 large French companies ___________
5. index of 100 large UK companies ___________

21. Write these words in the spaces below:

bonds equities stocks securities shares

The general term __________1 refers to _____________2 (or __________3

or _____________4) + ________________5.

22. Circle the correct option.

1. If you buy a company's stock,

a. you own a part of the company
b. you have lent money to the company
c. you are paid an interest

2. If you buy a company's bond,

a. you own a part of the company
b. you have lent money to the company
c. you can help manage the company

3. Monique owns a wide variety of stocks and bonds to lessen her risk of
losing money. This is called
a. savings account
b. investment portfolio
c. equities

4. Securities issued by governments or large companies are called

a. equities
b. bonds
c. shares

5. Maria wants to sell her stocks as prices are declining, i.e. there is a
a. bull market
b. bear market
c. hen market

6. Jennifer is very positive about her investment, as prices are growing and
now there is a
a. bull market
b. bear market
c. hen market

23. Complete the text with correct terms.

IPO investment go public loan

shareholders raise capital founders securities

Stock and bond markets

When a business reaches a certain size, the owners might decide that
they want to __________1 and list their shares (AmE stocks) on a stock
market. The people who own them are known as ___________2 (AmE
stockholders). With the help of an _________3 bank, they sell these shares
to the market at an _________4 (initial public offering). A huge sum of
money enters the business as a one-time event and can be used to expand the
business. Ownership of the business passes from the original __________5 to
the shareholders.
The bond market is also used to _________6, but in this case the
capital is raised as a __________7. Bonds can be issued by companies,
governments and some municipal or state authorities. The investor – the
bondholder- provides money, and this is paid back with interest over the
term of the loan.
Stocks and bonds, which are collectively known as “__________8”, are
actively traded on the markets after they have been issued.
Working with vocabulary 2
Stock Market Table

Before investing in stocks, you will need to understand some basic

tools. One tool is the stock market table. You can use it to see how stocks
are performing, how their prices are changing, and how they have performed
in the past. Reading a stock market table is simple once you understand how
to do it.
Here is a sample line from a stock market table for the stock of
General Electric:

<1> <2> <3> <4> <5> <6> <7>

Ticker Company Name 100s Hi Low Last Change
GE General Electric Co 6567 26.86 24.64 25.73 -2.40

<1> Stock ticker symbol This is the company stock symbol, and it
represents the company's stock. Often, the
stock symbol is similar to the company's

<2> Company Name This is the name of the stock.

<3> Sales 100s The number of shares that traded the last day
this stock traded. The number is given in
hundreds, so you need to add 2 zeros to the
number to get the actual number of shares

<4> Hi The stock's highest price the last day this

stock traded.

<5> Low The stock's lowest price the last day this stock

<6> Last The stock's last traded price. Also sometimes

called closing price.

<7> Change The amount of change of the stock's closing

price and the prior trading day's closing price
(2 trading days ago). A "-" represents a
negative change.
24. Look at the table and answer the questions.

52 week
Hi Low Ticker Company Name 1000s Hi Low Last Change
174.47 78.20 AAPL Apple Inc. 11480 173.90 170.25 173.72 1.56
34.90 23.07 VZ Verizon Commun 12295 31.18 30.90 31.07 -0.19
49.67 13.66 ANF Abercrombie & Fitch 2999 31.65 30.69 31.50 0.17
34.85 15.14 DIS Walt Disney Co. 13952 28.29 27.79 28.08 -0.34
33.64 10.77 BKS Barnes & Noble Inc. 1164 21.60 20.29 21.60 1.03
44.88 16.70 TIF Tiffany & Co 2590 38.18 36.69 38.18 0.83

1. What is the last trade price of the day for Verizon Communications?
2. What is the difference between the daily high and low for Apple Inc.
3. What is the high of the day for Walt Disney Co?
4. What was the lowest price of Abercrombie & Fitch stock in the past year?
5. What is the stock ticker symbol of Barnes & Noble Inc.?
6. Is Apple Inc's stock now worth more or less than yesterday's close?
7. What is the Low of the day for Tiffany & Co?
8. Which company's stock traded the most shares today?
9. What company is represented by the Ticker VZ?
10. What companies’ stock was less valuable today than yesterday?

Working with vocabulary 3

Phrasal verbs

25. Match the following phrasal verbs with their definitions.

buy up look after go about think over

point out call on let down call off

1. to supervise, take care of 5. to reflect upon something

2. to visit 6. to draw attention to
3. to purchase 7. to disappoint
4. to cancel 8. to start doing something

26. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.
1. We look ________ the neighbours' cat while they're away.
2. We could call _________ my parents if we have time.
3. That toy is so popular that parents are buying it ________ all over town.
4. Let’s think __________ his proposal before we see him again.
5. We called _______ the party after half of those invited couldn't make it.
6. I feel I should point __________ how dangerous it is.
7. How can we go ____________ solving this problem?
8. I'm sorry I let you _______. Something came up, and I couldn't meet you.
27. Match the synonyms.

1. to purchase a. to go about
2. to call attention to b. to call on
3. to take care of, to supervise c. to think over
4. to disappoint someone; to fail someone. d. to call off
5. to undertake, to begin e. to point out
6. to visit, to drop in, to arrive, to attend f. to buy up
7. to cancel g. to look after
8. to consider carefully h. to let down

28. Match the antonyms.

1. to stop doing something a. to look after

2. to sell up b. to point out
3. to satisfy, to content c. to think over
4. to ignore, to abandon d. to call off
5. to disregard, to forget e. to call on
6. to to leave, to go away f. to buy up
7. to continue, to keep g. to go about
8. to hide, to conceal h. to let down

29. Complete the sentences with correct phrasal verbs in the correct

buy up look after go about think over

point out call on let down call off

I need someone dependable to ___________ the children while I'm at work.

I've __________ your offer, and I'd like to accept.
He ____________ that we had two hours of free time before dinner.
Stop all printing — the boss __________ this project!
Please, be there tomorrow – don’t ______ me _____.
They want to ____________ all the land in this area
I'm sorry I'm late — I _________ Maggie after work because her mother is
very sick and she needed my advice.
How can we __________ solving this problem?

The Third Conditional

30. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the third conditional.

1. If he had listened to his mother, he _________ (stay) stayed home.

2. If she _______ (pay) more attention she would not have crashed.
3. I wouldn't ___________ (play) that game if I had been you.
4. You __________ (buy) more juice.
5. I __________ (win) the game if I had not made so many mistakes.
6. If Pauline had known about the test, she ___________ (go) to class.
7. I ___________ (finish) my homework on time if I had had time.
8. If Rachel ___________ (study) she would have passed the test.
9. I am sorry. I __________ (no, eat) if I had known you were coming.
10. What __________ (do) if there had been more time?

31. Choose the correct option.

1. If only I had known about your difficult situation, I

a. will help you.
b. would have helped you.
2. We wouldn't have gone bankrupt if ...
a. we had conducted better market research.
b. we conduced better market research.
3. If you hadn't given your approval, ...

a. this would never have happened.
b. this would never happen.
4. Jackie would never have left John if ...
a. he were more reasonable and understanding.
b. he had been more reasonable and understanding.
5. Spain would never have won the World Cup if ...
a. the final stage were played in Brazil.
b. the final stage had been played in Brazil.
6. If we had had a better marketing strategy, we ...
a. would easily have conquered the U.S. market.
b. will easily conquer the U.S. market.

32. Complete the sentences using the given verbs.

1) Use the word: begin

If the seminar ____________ at 10:00 we would have been on time.
2) Use the word: call
If the customer _______ earlier I would have told her to try your cell phone.
3) Use the word: fix
If you had informed us of these problems by 8:00 a.m. we __________ them
this morning.
4) Use the word: increase
If you had adopted that marketing strategy your profits ______ dramatically.
5) Use the word: learn
Your employees ___________ everything about the program if you had sent
them to that training session.
6) Use the words: meet & give
If I ___________ with the customer yesterday I ___________ her your card.
7) Use the words: do & produce
Your company ______________ better financially if you _____________
for the international market.
8) Use the words: think & succeed
If you _____________ more positively you _______________.
9) Use the words: use & "to be"
If you ______________ biodegradable products it ______________ better
for the environment.
10) Use the words: see & visit
We ___________ Mr. Johnson if we ______________ the factory last week.

33. Change the words in brackets into their correct form.

1. If you ______________ interrupting me the whole time, I would have
enjoyed the movie. (be)
2. If I had had your number, I _________________ you. (phone)
3. They ________________ that route if they had known that there were
road works. (take)
4. I wouldn’t have booked that holiday if I ______________ there was a
cheaper deal. (know)
5. If I ______________ my job, I wouldn’t have moved to London. (lose)
6. I _____________ used Groupon if I had known that it existed. (have)
7. If I had seen the weather forecast, I ______________ an umbrella. (pack)
8. If the weather ____________better yesterday, I would have gone for a
swim. (be)

34. Complete the sentences below.

1. Simon woke up late and was 30 minutes late for work. If he

____________ (wake up) early, he ____________ (not/be) late for work.
2. I stayed at home yesterday because of the rain. If it __________ (not/rain),
I ____________ (go out).
3. The tennis player didn't train at all, but he still won the match. If he
______________ (not/be) so talented, he ____________ (not/win).
4. I was almost ready to start looking for another job, but then my boss gave
me a promotion. If he __________ (not/give) me a promotion, I __________
(look) for another job.
5. James won the lottery, so he didn't need to work anymore. He
______________ (not/quit) his job if he ____________ (not/win) the lottery.
6. Debbie was at the party, but I don't think she saw me. If she _________
(see) me, she ___________ (say) hello.
7. I thought the meeting was at 9am, not 8am. I _________ (not/be) late if I
___________ (know) what time it started.
8. Mike failed his university exams. If he ____________ (study) harder, he
_____________ (pass) them.

35. Match two parts of the conditional sentences.

1. You wouldn't like it a) if I told you the truth.
2. You wouldn't have liked it b) if I had told you the truth.
1 a, 2 b
1. What would you have said a) if he asked you?
2. What would you say b) if he had asked you?

1. You could look prettier a) in case you hadn't cut your hair.
2. You could have looked prettier b) in case you didn't cut your hair.
1. If it was not raining now, a) we would go out.
2. If it had not been raining at b) we would have gone out.
1. Provided you were younger a) what would you do?
2. Provided you'd been younger b) what would you have done?
1. He could paint the room himself a) if you had told him.
2. He could have painted the room b) if you told him.
1. If you didn't go on holiday next a) would you go to work?
week, b) would you have gone to work?
2. If you hadn't gone on holiday
last week,
1. I wouldn't have screamed a) if I weren't so scared.
2. I wouldn't scream b) if I hadn't been so scared.

36. Complete the conversation with the third conditional forms.

Nick: United didn’t play very well today.

Tom: We were awful. But if Hacker had taken (take) that easy chance, we
would have won (we / win).
Nick: We didn’t deserve to win. It (1) ___________ (be) pretty unfair if
Rangers (2) ____________ (lose).
Tom: Hacker was dreadful. My grandmother (3) ___________ (score) if (4)
_______________ (she / be) in that position.
Nick: And if Burley (5) __________(not / be) asleep, he (6) ___________
(not / give) a goal away.
Tom: If Johnson (7) ________________ (not / be) injured when we needed
him most, (8)_______________ (it / be) different.
Nick: Yes, (9) __________ (we / beat) them if (10) __________ (he / be) fit.

37. Choose the sentence that is grammatically correct.

a. If I was there, I would have defended you.
b. If I had been there, I would have defended you.
c. If I would have been there, I would have defended you.
a. If I didn't take Intro to Computer Science, I wouldn't have decided to
become a software developer.
b. If I hadn't taken Intro to Computer Science, I wouldn't have decided to
become a software developer.
c. If I haven't taken Intro to Computer Science, I wouldn't have decided
to become a software developer.
a. We might not have succeeded if we hadn't taken a risk.
b. We mightn't succeed if we hadn't taken a risk.
c. If we haven't taken a risk, we might not have succeeded.
a. Would you have helped me with this if I had asked you?
b. Would have you helped me with this if I had asked you?
c. Would you have helped me with this if I asked you?
a. If they knew about it, they might have gone to the party.
b. They might have gone to the party if they had known about it.
c. They couldn't have gone to the party if they had known about it.
a. Something similar might have come along if Facebook wasn't
b. If Facebook hadn't been invented, something similar might have come
c. If Facebook wouldn't have been invented, something similar might
have come along.
a. Do you think Greg would have accepted the deal if we would have
offered him 10% more?
b. Do you think Greg would accept the deal if we had offered him 10%
c. Do you think Greg would have accepted the deal if we had offered
him 10% more?
a. I don't think they would have won the championship if they had fired
the coach in the middle of the season.
b. I don't think they'd won the championship if they had fired the coach
in the middle of the season.
c. I don't think they would have won the championship if they would
have fired the coach in the middle of the season.
a. Melanie could have gotten her master's degree a few years ago if she
hadn't been so busy with work and her family.
b. Melanie could have gotten her master's degree a few years ago if she
wouldn't have been so busy with work and her family.
c. Melanie can have gotten her master's degree a few years ago if she
hadn't been so busy with work and her family.
a. If we haven't had insurance, the accident would have cost us a lot of
b. If we hadn't had insurance, the accident would have cost us a lot of
c. If we hadn't had insurance, the accident would have costed us a lot of
38. Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of the verb. Use
the 2nd and 3rd Conditionals.

1 Rita: Is Trevor a practical person?

Laura: Trevor? No, he isn’t. If __________________ (he / be) practical,
________ (he / put) those shelves up a bit quicker. It took him ages.
2 Tom: Why are you sitting in the dark?
David: Let’s just say that if ________________ (I / pay) my electricity
bill last month, _________________ (I / not be) in the dark now.
3 Matthew: Why are you so angry with me? All I did yesterday was playing
Emma: If _______________ (you / love) me, ______________(you / not /
leave) me here all alone on my birthday.

39. Choose the option that correctly completes the sentence.

1. If I __________, then I ___________ English.

a. wouldn't have moved to London/might not have learned
b. hadn't moved to London/I might not have learned
c. hadn't moved to London/mightn't learned
d. haven't moved to London/might not have learned
2. We ___________ on time for the meeting if we ___________ earlier.
a. would have been/left
b. would have been/would have left
c. would had been/had left
d. would have been/had left
3. I ___________ a virus if I ___________ a better antivirus program.
a. might not get/had bought
b. might not have gotten/bought
c. might not have gotten/had bought
d. couldn't have gotten/bought
4. If Mark ___________ of the hotel on time, he ___________ an extra fee.
a. had checked out/wouldn't have paid
b. checked out/wouldn't have paid
c. had checked out/would pay
d. hadn't checked out/won't have paid
5. If it _________ for a great fourth quarter, we _________ a profit this year.
a. hadn't been/wouldn't have posted
b. haven't been/wouldn't have posted
c. wouldn't have been/wouldn't have posted
d. couldn't have been/couldn't have posted
6. ___________ the same thing if ___________ in my position?
a. You'd have done/if you'd been
b. Would have you done/if you'd been
c. Would you have done/if you'd been
d. Had you done/if you'd been
7. We _______ sooner if our client _______ us their requirements last week.
a. could have started/would have given
b. could have started/gave
c. could started/had given
d. could have started/had given
8. I ___________ banks if their transaction fees ___________ so high.
a. wouldn't have changed/didn't be
b. would changed/hadn't been
c. wouldn't have changed/hadn't been
d. wouldn't have changed/wouldn't have been
9. What do you think the first part of the 20th century _______ like if World
War I _____?
a. would have been/have never happened?
b. would be/had never happened?
c. would have been/wouldn't have happened?
d. would have been/had never happened?
10. If Kevin ___________ an appointment, he ___________ to wait in the
lobby for 45 minutes.
a. would have made/wouldn't have had
b. had made/mightn't have had
c. had made/wouldn't have had
d. had made/couldn't have had
40. Read and complete.
Steve: What’s wrong, Ben? You look terrible!
Ben: Well, I had a terrible day yesterday.
Steve: What happened?
Ben: Well, I think if I 1) _____________ (drive, not) so fast, I 2)
____________ (slide, not) into the tree.
Steve: Icy roads and speed don’t mix.
Ben: I know. But I have one more problem. I didn’t have my driver’s license
with me. If I 3) ___________ (have) it, I 4) _____________ (have to, not)
pay an extra fine in the court next month.
Steve: Why were you driving without your license?
Ben: Well, I lost my wallet some days ago. It slipped out of my pocket,
while I was riding the bus to work.
Steve: Oh, Ben! If you 5)_________(take, not) that bus, you 6)
___________ (lose, not) your wallet. If you 7) ___________(lose, not) your
wallet, you 8)____________ (have) your driver’s license with you when you
hit the tree. If you 9) ____________ (have) your driver’s license with you,
you 10) _______ (have to pay, not) a big fine when you go to court next
week. And of course, if you 11) ______________(drive, not) so fast, you 12)

____________(run into, not) a tree, and you 13) _____________ (be, not) in
this mess now. If I 14) _____________ (be) you, I 15)___________ (take) it
easy for a while and just16) _____________(stay) home where you are safe.
Ben: Enough about me! How about you?
Steve: Well, I’m planning to take off for Florida. I’m sick of all this cold,
rainy weather we’ve been having.
Ben: How do you plan on getting there?
Steve: If I 17)___________ (have) enough money, I 18)________ (fly).
Otherwise, I 19)_____________ (take) the bus. I’ve been looking for a
friend to go with me and share the driving.
Ben: I have a super idea! Why don’t I go with you? I can share the driving.
I’m a great driver!
Steve: Oh, Ben! I can’t believe it.

41. Read and complete.

Eliza: Mike, I’m so sorry, I can’t go with you to the restaurant tonight.
If I 1) didn’t have (not have) so much to do, I 2) __________(come).
Mike: Why are you so busy?
Eliza: I am going on a business trip tomorrow. If I 3) _______________
(can come) with you, we 4) ____________ (spend) a great time!
Mike: But, Eliza…
Eliza: Life 5)________(be) much easier if I didn’t have to go on business
trips. We 6) ________(meet) so many times and 7) __________
(visit) so many places, if I 8)___________(not have) this job and if I
9) ______________ (have) more free time.
Mike: Eliza, listen to me! I know the way out! You should give up this job.
If you 10)__________ (leave) this job, we 11) ___________(spend) a
lot of time together. Eliza, you must follow my advice, and we will
be happy again.
Eliza: Oh, Mike! I can’t be so silly!


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