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BEATUS HOMO

QUI INVENIT
SAPIENTIAM ÜNNEPI KÖTET
TOMKA PÉTER
75. SZÜLETÉSNAPJÁRA
Tartalomjegyzék

KÉRDEZZÜK MEG ATOMKÁT!!!!!!........................................................................................................................5

TABULA GRATULATORIA.....................................................................................................................................7

ASZT ÁGNES – ENZSÖL IMRE:


Sőtér Ágost, a múzeumszervező régész�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������9

BAJKAI ROZÁLIA:
Újabb adatok az ún. sütőtálak és agyagtepsik kérdésköréhez�����������������������������������������������������������������������������31

BALOGH CSILLA:
„Aranypillangók” — Adatok az avar kori halotti szemfedők és koporsók díszítéséhez��������������������������������������45

BARTOSIEWICZ LÁSZLÓ:
Lóhalál:
a nagytermetű háziállatok levágásának egyik hagyományos módja ������������������������������������������������������������������71

BLAY ADRIENN:
Az architektonikus típusú gyűrű és mediterráneumi kapcsolatai a VI–VII. században���������������������������������������77

BOCSI ZSÓFIA – GALLINA ZSOLT – SOMOGYI KRISZTINA:


Késő római – 5. századi településrészlet Ordacsehi–Csereföldön������������������������������������������������������������������������93

BOLLÓK ÁDÁM:
A „kereszt-phylaktērion” és a mellkereszttel való temetkezés szokásának háttere
a késő ókori Kelet-Mediterráneumban és a Kárpát-medencében����������������������������������������������������������������������133

BUGARSKI, IVAN – IVANIŠEVIĆ, VUJADIN: On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka)
and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate����������������������������������������������������������������������������151

CSISZÁR ATTILA:
„Ujjoncz Dall”. A XIX. századi földbirtokrendezések verses emléke Osliból�����������������������������������������������������169

CSUTHY ANDRÁS – JELÍNEK, PAVOL – PASTIRČÁK, GERHARD:


Újabb kora középkori szórványleletek Gajarból (Gajary; Szlovákia)����������������������������������������������������������������175

DEMO, ŽELJKO:
A hoard of late medieval coins and jewelry found in 1919 at 67 Duga Street in Vinkovci������������������������������183

FODOR ISTVÁN:
A hun halotti máglya és áldozat�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������191

FUSEK, GABRIEL:
Konische Knochengegenstände aus Nitra���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������203

GÁLL ERWIN:
Doboka a „történelemben”. Geloutól Istvánig, dhloboku-tól Dobukáig
Az Árpád-kori várkomplexum a XIX–XXI. századi értelmezések béklyójában��������������������������������������������������209

GÖMÖRI JÁNOS:
Árpád-kori település Nagycenk határában��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������227
802 Tartalomjegyzék

GRÓH DÁNIEL:
A legyező alakú saroktornyok létrejöttének lehetséges irányvonala�����������������������������������������������������������������243

GYARMATI ANDRÁS – KELEMEN ISTVÁN – NEMES ANDRÁS:


A nemeskéri Szent László-templom története és műemléki helyreállítása��������������������������������������������������������257

HAJNALKA HEROLD:
Spätantike und Frühmittelalter – eine technologische Kontinuität?
Analysen zu Funden aus Michelstetten (Niederösterreich)�������������������������������������������������������������������������������277

HORVÁTH ESZTER – RÁCZ ZSÓFIA:


Egy különleges nyakék a Keszthely–Fenékpuszta-horreumi temető 5. sírjából������������������������������������������������311

KÁPOLNÁS OLIVÉR:
A mongol nők és fegyvertáruk a XII–XVII. században a mongol források alapján��������������������������������������������319

KISS GÁBOR:
A szombathelyi belsővár kapuja. Kihullott lap egy időutazóknak való képes útikönyvből�������������������������������327

KONDÉ ZSÓFIA:
Egy kút élete — avar kori településrészlet Tiszabura–Bónishát lelőhelyről������������������������������������������������������337

KOVÁCS LÁSZLÓ:
A IX/X–XII. századi ellentétes tájolású temetkezésekről�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������353

KÖLTŐ LÁSZLÓ:
Késő avar kori sax, egy vörsi padmalyos sírból������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������379

LANGÓ PÉTER:
„Salamon gyűrűi”. Pajzs alakú, kiszélesedő, díszített fejű pántgyűrűk
a X. századi Kárpát-medencei emlékanyagban�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������387

LAUERMANN, ERNST:
Wiederentdeckte langobardischer Altfunde aus Niederösterreich �������������������������������������������������������������������409

M. LEZSÁK GABRIELLA:
Attila sírja – a folyómederbe temetés motívuma����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������417

MADARAS LÁSZLÓ:
Lehetett-e a kunbábonyi sír egy kagán nyugvóhelye?��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������429

MARCSIK ANTÓNIA – SZELEKOVSZKY MÁRTA:


Berettyóújfalu–Nagy Bócs-dűlő lelőhely avar kori humán csontvázanyagának ismertetése�����������������������������437

MERCZI MÓNIKA:
Kora római rugótokos és csuklós ívfibulák a Balassa Bálint Múzeum gyűjteményéből������������������������������������447

MERVA SZABINA:
Adatok a IX. és X–XI. századi fazekasság működéséhez.
Néhány északnyugat–magyarországi lelőhely kerámiájának
archeometriai elemzéséből levonható tanulságok��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������463
   SZAKMÁNY GYÖRGY:
Északnyugat-magyarországi IX–XI. századi kerámiák petrográfiai vizsgálati eredményei���������������������477

NYÁRÁDI ZSOLT:
Régészeti adatok az udvarhelyszéki Árpád-kori templomok keletkezéséhez����������������������������������������������������495

OTTOMÁNYI KATALIN:
A vezetőréteg sírjai a budaörsi vicus késő római temetőjében�������������������������������������������������������������������������511
Tartalomjegyzék 803

PAP ILDIKÓ KATALIN:


Késő népvándorlás kori leletek Körmend belvárosából������������������������������������������������������������������������������������549

PESTI KRISZTINA:
Egy X–XII. századi településrészlet bemutatása a többrétegű Csorna, Lórét lelőhelyen ����������������������������������557
   SÜMEGI PÁL:
A kisalföldi folyómeder változások a földtani és éghajlati hatások tükrében����������������������������������������583

POLGÁR PÉTER:
Ikva-parti telepesek. Egy többkorszakos lelőhely feltárása Sopron keleti határában����������������������������������������597

ROBAK, ZBIGNIEW:
A comparative analysis of three fittings decorated with the Carolingian plant style
coming from Mikulčice, Bojná and Zalavár������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������617

SEKELJ IVANČAN, TAJANA:


Early medieval settlements between the Sava and Drava Rivers
– a few examples of the village in the 9th century�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������625

SOÓS ESZTER:
Kora hun kori edényégető kemence Hernádvécsén������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������649

SZABADOS GYÖRGY:
Avarok eltűnőben, avagy a hasonulás három fokozatáról��������������������������������������������������������������������������������671

SZALONTAI CSABA:
A Szeged–öthalmi avar- és honfoglalás kori lelőhelyekről.
Gondolatok egy mikrorégió hatalmi struktúrájáról������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������687

SZENTPÉTERI JÓZSEF:
Az avar hatalmi központok kutatástörténetének kezdetei:
Tomka Szászky János Hunnia Occ. Abarica című térképlapja 1751-ből�����������������������������������������������������������701

TAKÁCS MIKLÓS:
Egy Szőny–Duna-parti ép Árpád-kori edényről�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������721

TOMKA GÁBOR:
Hun volt, hun nem volt. Adatok egy késő középkori, vésett írásjeggyel díszített veretcsoportról��������������������727

TÓTH GÁBOR – MELIS ESZTER – ILON GÁBOR:


A ménfőcsanaki feltárás (2009–2011) bronzkori leletanyagának embertani
és azokkal összefüggő régészeti eredményei�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������737

VADAY ANDREA:
A szarmata barbaricum határvidékén���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������757
   KÖHLER KITTI:
A szarmatakori temetkezés embertani feldolgozása�������������������������������������������������������������������������������789

RÖVIDÍTÉSEK....................................................................................................................................................795

SZERZŐINK.......................................................................................................................................................799
BEATUS HOMO QUI INVENIT
SAPIENTIAM

ÜNNEPI KÖTET TOMKA PÉTER


75. SZÜLETÉSNAPJÁRA

Győr, 2016
Kiadó: Lekri Group Kft.

Szerkesztette:
Csécs Teréz, Takács Miklós
Közreműködött:
Merva Szabina

Angol nyelvű összefoglalók fordítása:


Kovács Lajos

Technikai szerkesztés, borító:


Csongrádi Péter

Képfeldolgozás:
Tanai Csaba

ISBN 978-963-12-5188-3

Nyomdai kivitelezés: PALATIA Nyomda és Kiadó Kft.


Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka)


and Germanic Finds from the South
of the Avar Khaganate

Abstract: It hаs long been known that after the year Pašić 2003, 279-282, Figs. 14-16; Trifunović 2006),
568 parts of the Germanic population were to be left and a single pottery shard in Lok (Sajkáslak) (Dimitri-
within the limits of the newly-formed Avar Khaganate. jević 1975, 84, n. 51; cf. Bugarski 2012, 25).
This is best confirmed on large and thoroughly exca- Although not very numerous, Gepidic finds from
vated sites, particularly in the cemeteries and the set- Western Banat, i.e. from Bočar (Bocsár), Srpski Krstur
tlement at Kölked-Feketekapu. In the south of the Avar (Ókeresztúr), Mokrin (Homokrév) and Kovin, have
Khaganate, present-day northern Serbian province of been processed as a whole (Ivanišević, Bugarski 2008,
Vojvodina, there is only a limited number of finds to 44-45). The graves from Kovin (Contra Margum), usu-
testify to that effect. In this article, we are going to ally seen as a testimony to Gepidic presence in the south
discuss a group of very interesting finds from Aradac of Banat (Pribaković 1963; Milinković 2005, 208-212;
(Aradka), and to list other finds of Germanic origin Ivanišević, Kazanski 2014, 145-146), were attributed
from this territory, coming from Bečej (Óbecse) and with due caution to the Heruli in a recent survey by the
Bogojevo (Gombos). A special emphasis will be placed authors of this paper (Bugarski, Ivanišević 2013, 474).
on the dating of these grave-finds. Systematic archaeological excavations in Sremska
Mitrovica (Sirmium) have been ongoing for decades
While writing recently about the Gepid-style arte- now, in the course of which a Gepid settlement has
facts from present-day Bulgaria, Attila P. Kiss remarked been discovered, partly damaging luxurious Roman
that ’In Serbien gibt es eine grosse wiesse Flecke mit buildings. These remains have not been published
vielem unpublizierte Fundplatz und Gägenstende, und yet, unlike some of the Gepid period graves (Pejović,
wir können die gepidenzeitlichen Fundorten nicht kar- Lučić 2011). The impact of the Gepidic occupation of
tieren’ (Kiss 2014, n. 19). One can certainly observe Sirmium was well descibed by Procopius, who states
this void in the map prepared by Attila Kiss (2003, that the town and its vicinity were largely deserted:
Abb. 1; cf. Kiss 1992), where the southernmost Gepidic a part of the population was eradicated by the war,
place is Subotica (Szabadka) in the northern part of others by disease and famine, the usual companions
Bačka. The map by Margit Nagy and Ágnes B. Tóth of war (Proc., hist. arc. 18). It is supposed that Cuni-
shows even fewer places between the Tisza and the mund (560-567) struck silver imitations of Byzantine
Danube, but on the other hand it presents the sites and Roman coins in Sirmium (Stefan 1925). Not very
from Srem and the Serbian Danube Region (Nagy, far from Sirmium, Gepidic presence was identified in
Tóth 1998, Abb. 6; reprinted in Quast 2001, Abb. 1; another Roman town. In Cibalae some of their graves
cf. Bóna 1976). However, as early as in the book by were found, as well as stamped pottery (Gračanin, Ra-
Dušan Mrkobrad (1980) a map of the sites/finds at- pan Papeša 2011, 19-21, Map 2).
tributed to the Gepids has been published. Two more Some other finds from Srem are briefly mentioned,
recent maps can be left out of this discussion, as they such as pottery from Kuzmin (Kozmadamján) and
present the widely-dated Migration Period localities swords from Rakovac (Dombó) (Milinković 2005, 213).
in present-day Serbia (Milinković 2005, Abb. 31), or To be sure, some localities from Srem are quite often
in Northern Illyricum (Ivanišević, Kazanski 2014, Fig. listed in the archaeological literature. One of them is
1). Some older publications also hold information on a Gepidic grave from the Bekića Salaš locality in Bata-
Gepidic findings from this territory (Kovačević 1960, jnica, which produced the well-known Baldenheim type
30-41; Dimitrijević et al. 1962), including the seminal helmet (Vinski 1957, 3-27), and a cemetery of 26 graves
monograph of Dezső Csallány (1961). at Jakovo, the Kormadin site, was labeled as Gepidic al-
As regards the territories north of the Danube, some ready in the title of the article by Danica Dimitrijević
Germanic, probably Gepid finds have been published, (1960). Yet, similarly as in the case of Kovin, a Herulic
but are still not very well known. For example, from attribution of this necropolis was opted for (Bóna 1987,
the very southeastern corner of Bačka, i.e. from the Ša- 122; cf. Bugarski, Ivanišević 2013, 476).
jkaška Region, there are settlement remains and corre- The same is true for the other Germanic finds with
sponding Gepid graves in Čurug (Csúrog) (Trifunović, Scandinavian parallels from the Serbian Danube region
152 Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

(Bugarski, Ivanišević 2013, 474). Most scholars as- Bogojevo (Gombos) lies on the left bank of the Dan-
cribe the mid-sixth century horizon of Germanic finds ube, and the Bogojevo I cemetery spreads along the
along the Danube to the Gepids (Simoni 1978, 209- curve of the so-called Roman Ditch between the villag-
214; Popović 1988; Zotović 1994), and for such finds es of Bogojevo and Srpski Miletić. The cemetery can
– and graves – from Gradina on the Jelica Mountain in be dated to the late seventh century, i. e. to the Middle
the Balkan hinterlands a historical interpretation has Avar Period (Vinski 1958, 14; Dimitrijević et al. 1962,
been offered, although with caution, connecting them 39; ADAM 2002, 62). This necropolis was excavated
with Usdibad, Trasarich, Reptila and their Gepid com- at the turn of the nineteenth century and after World
panions who in 567 fled to the Empire from Sirmium War II. Some 70 graves were discovered in total. The
(Milinković 2010, 233-234, 241). Different views were most characteristic ceramic vessel comes from grave
presented by Attila Kiss (1984), whose ’Herulic’ expla- 24 (Cziráky 1900, 263, 264/11). It belongs to the so-
nation of these finds echoes in more recent analyses called grey pottery made on the fast wheel. This pot-
(Ivanišević et al. 2006, 133-136; Ivanišević, Kazanski tery is Late Antique and Germanic in origin, and in
2010, 156; Bugarski, Ivanišević 2013, 474, 476; cf. Sa- Avar contexts it can be dated throughout the Early and
rantis 2011). the Middle Avar Periods. The vessel from Bogojevo,
But let us leave aside the Germanic finds south of untypical of southern Avar posessions, belongs to the
the Sava and the Danube Rivers. This article will fo- subgroup IB2, variant IB2/g2 (or perhaps IB2/g1) from
cus on the latest manifestation of – presumably – Ge- the middle of the seventh century (Vida 1999, 42-
pidic material traces from the north of the rivers, that 63, 181-184, Kat. Nr. 95, Abb. 6, 8, Taf. 174). Grave
is from the southern part of the Avar Khaganate. The 24 produced another interesting finding, perhaps an
presence of the Germans in the Khaganate, who surely antler tool or an amulet (Cziráky 1900, 263, 264/10)
had not all disappeared from their lands after 568 to (Fig. 1).
follow the defeated Lombards (cf. Rusu 1975, 126), is
attested in both the written sources and the archaeo-
logical data. It is even believed that the majority of
the Gepids persisted under Avar rule (Pohl 2003, 580),
although there is also a rather modest estimation of
their share in Early Avar population (Kiss 1992, 64).
A telling illustration of this process is the large cem-
etery Kölked – Feketekapu A, attributed precisely to
the Gepids subjected to the Avars (Kiss 1996; 2000).
Another large necropolis, the neighbouring cemetery
Kölked – Feketekapu B, produced a number of such
graves as well (Kiss 2001). In addition to Transdanu-
bia, one can observe Gepidic continuity in Transylva-
nia too, regardless of the precise date of Avar arrival
there (e.g. Dobos 2013; Bârzu 2010). The manifesta-
tions of non-Avar – Roman and Germanic – material
culture from the opening decades of Avar domination
are easy to recognize; yet they were fading away with Fig. 1 – Bogojevo, grave 24, after Cziráky 1900. No scale.
the passage of time, to make room for another, rather
uniform Middle Avar material culture emerging from At the Pionir Brick Factory locality near Mol (Mohol)
around the year 670 (Vida 2008, 41). by the Tisza River, modest settlement remains were ex-
As regards the southern periphery of the newborn cavated. Apart from the older finds, a few vessels dated
state, from written history we know that in the follow- to the Early Avar Period were collected (Vukov 1952),
ing decades the Avars were threatening the Danube and from the same site a wheel-crafted pot is briefly
limes. Byzantium was forced to pay huge tributes and mentioned, belonging to grey pottery. Regrettably, this
to launch campaigns against them when possible. The- vessel is not illustrated (Mrkobrad 1980, 102, n. 685).
ophylact Simocatta (Hist, VIII, 3) informs us that in the Another grey wheel-made vessel comes from from the
last Byzantine campaign to the Barbaricum (600/601) Polet cemetery in Vrbas (Verbász). This bottle (Nagy
the Avars were heavily defeated on the Tisza River. 1971, T. XLIII/1) was attributed to the IB2/k variant
Thousands of them were captured, as well as the oth- and dated to the Middle Avar horizon (Fig. 2), i.e. to
er Barbarians and Slavs. The Gepids are named in the the time of gradual changes and melting processes in
next account: the Byzantine army, having defeated the material culture (Vida 1999, 191, Kat. Nr. 165).
Avars, is said to have burned three Gepid villages and In Bečej (Óbecse), at the Pionirska Street site, the
slaughtered 30,000 people. Although the numbers seem Avar-period cemetery was excavated on several occa-
exaggerated, these accounts are illustrative of the ethnic sions. It is interesting that in this necropolis the graves
structure of the Khaganate’s southernmost part (Dimi- of different dates are distributed in spatially distinct
trijević 1975, 87-90; Ivanišević, Bugarski 2008, 47). zones. A variety of Early Avar, Early Byzantine and
*** Germanic finds are concentrated in the western part
On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka) and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate 153

Fig. 3 – Bečej, grave 9, after Mikić-Antonić 2012.


Fig. 2 – Vrbas, after Nagy 1971. No scale. Scale 1:1

of the locality, while the eastern is occupied by Late finds from Avar cemeteries might have been of such
Avar graves. The problem is that virtually all graves origin as well (Vida 2002, 181, 185, Taf. 8B/6). On the
from the earlier horizon have been plundered, except other hand, armour lamellae and brushes are common-
for an elite female burial containing a pair of gold- ly found in Avar female graves (cf. Kory 2004, 393;
en Szentes–Tószeg earrings and a cross of cast silver Tóbiás 2007, 341, Abb. 6).
(Bugarski 2009a, 224). The results of the excavations From grave 16 there are small fragments of a bone
are presented in a recent monograph by Branislava comb, a few Early Avar beads and, presumably, frag-
Mikić–Antonić (2012). ments of a sword (Fig. 4). What makes this burial spe-
In this paper, we will focus on the finds of Germanic cial is that it contained a nearly complete skeleton of a
origin. In grave 9 an amulet was found, namely a per- fox (Vulpes vulpes) (Mikić-Antonić 2012, 16-17, n. 2, T.
forated boar’s tooth worn on a string of typical Early VIII/16-1-6). We are not aware of any such Avar grave
Avar beads (Fig. 3). The grave also produced an iron (cf. Grefen–Peters 1987, 275-287). By all means, laying
armour lamella, a simple iron buckle and a bronze a fox in a grave was a very rare occurrence. This was
sheet brush (Mikić–Antonić 2012, 13, 34, 37, 39, Figs. the case in a female grave at the Slog necropolis in Rav-
47, 52, T. VI/9-1-6). Such amulets are common in Ger- na, in the Serbian Danube Region. The grave was dated
manic contexts (cf. Milinković 1998, 268-269), and the to the ninth century (Petković et al. 2015, 89-90).

Fig. 4 – Bečej, grave 16, after Mikić-Antonić 2012. Scale 2:3.


154 Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

Fig. 5 – Bečej, grave 24, after Mikić-Antonić 2012. Scale 1:4 (vessel), 2:3
On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka) and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate 155

(1960, 38, Fig. 78) was the first to attribute the buck-
le to Germanic material culture (Fig. 6). It has been
proposed that this loop was originally part of an ea-
gle-headed buckle (Dimitrijević et al. 1962, 9, Fig. 1).
A similarly shaped buckle, with no pin recess, comes
from the Szolnok – Szanda Gepidic cemetery (Bóna,
Nagy 2002, Taf. 48/154-2, 103/3).
The 7.5 cm by 2.8 cm large strap-end from grave 96
(Nadj 1973, Y 166/6) is of Germanic origin (Fig. 7).
It resembles the finds from grave B336 at the Kölked–
Feketekapu B cemetery (Kiss 2001, Taf. 89/4, 5). The
bronze fitting of the elliptical iron buckle from this
grave is made in the same style, and one of the belt
fittings, approximately quadratic in shape, with rivets
in the angles, matches the find from grave 257 at the
Kölked–Feketekapu A necropolis. Gepidic burials there
are dated to the last third of the sixth and the first two
Fig. 6 – Aradac, after Dimitrijević et al. 1962. Scale 2:3. thirds of the seventh century (Kiss 1996, 75, 278, 285,
Taf. 56/A257-2). Particularly interesting are the qua-
Another damaged grave, grave 24, produced a fast- dratic belt hole fittings with protruding stylized bird
wheel made stamped pot, ascribed to the Gepids. Yet heads (?). The 2.5 cm by 2 cm fittings were attached to
this was not a typical Gepidic vessel, and in certain de- the belt with rivets (Nadj 1973, Y 166/3-5).
tails it differs from the Lombard material in northern In grave 16, of a female (Fig. 8), a perforated ani-
Italy, too. Commenting on the undisputable Gepidic mal tooth was found, most likely an amulet. The strap-
influences, Tivadar Vida attributed this vessel to the end from this grave is decorated in Salin’s animal style
IA/b subgroup of his typology (Vida 1999, 41-42, Kat. II (Nadj 1959, 56, 65, Т. III/19, IV/1; Dimitrijević
Nr. 21, Taf. 174). On the basis of a sheet fitting with et al. 1962, 10). After the Avar conquest, such finds
geometric decoration the grave could be dated to the cluster in Transdanubia. They could be related to the
second half of the seventh century. Other finds from production centres from around the Lake Balaton, con-
this grave are the harness fitting (cf. Csuthy 2013), the trolled by the Lombards before 568. The finds bear-
plates of a reflex bow, the bracelet and the tweezers ing dental ornaments (Zahnschnitt) were found along
made out of bone (Mikić–Antonić 2012, 15-16, 32-33, the Tisza River as well, in what were then Gepid lands
35, 38-39, Figs. 35, 41, 50, 55, T. IX-X). Such objects (Stadler 2008, 68, Fig. 12, 13). It was observed that
are usually metallic. Tweezers are known from Ear- the shape of these strap-ends matches that of the Ear-
ly Avar graves (e. g. Bugarski 2009b, 110), but they ly Avar ones, and that a number of such finds come
are more frequently found in Germanic milieux (cf. from Zamárdi (Daim 2003, 471-473, Pl. 15; cf. Bár-
Ivanišević et al. 2006, 34-35). According to vague de- dos, Garam 2009/2014). A bronze chain from grave 16
scriptions of this damaged grave (Fig. 5), it could in has numerous parallels in the Early Avar cemeteries,
fact have been a double burial, male and female, also commonly dated to the first half of the seventh centu-
containing a horse’s head. ry, but also in Lombard material from Northern Italy
As already mentioned, all these finds were recov- (Garam 2002). The silver earrings match the finds mit
ered from disturbed grave contexts, which makes aufgezogenen Blechkugeln from Tiszafüred, dated from
our attempt to assign them ethnically an even more the end of the Early to the Middle Avar Period (Garam
troublesome task (cf. Brather 2004; contra: Bierbrau- 1995, 274, Abb. 148, 7-19).
er 2004; Curta 2007). The circumstances of the finds A fragmented three-piece, single-sided bone comb
prevent us from reaching any definite conclusions on decorated with horse protomes was found in grave
this matter, apart from acknowledging the indications 112, lying on the skull of the deceased (Nadj 1973, Y
of an ethnically diverse population having been buried 161/1). Both single and double-sided combs are rarely
in the Bečej cemetery (cf. Bugarski 2009a, 224-225, found in Avar cemeteries (e.g. Szabó 1975, 274, Fig.
227-228). 3/7-1; Garam 1995, 382, Abb. 228/13, 14; Nagy 1998,
The cemetery in Aradac (Aradka) is one of the very Taf. 32/3-4, 34/7; Tettamanti 2000, 121, Taf. 5/140-
few thoroughly studied Avar necropolises from Banat. 1), and at least some of them may be attributed to the
Some 120 graves have been uncovered, some of them Germans left within the Khaganate (e.g. Rosner 1999,
producing rich assemblages of Byzantine, but also Taf. 1/2-4). Such objects are much more frequent in
of Germanic provenance. The earliest Germanic find Germanic necropolises. For example, they are com-
at the necropolis is a large bronze buckle loop, cast mon finds at Više Grobalja, where double-sided combs
and gilded, which came from a grave (?) damaged by were usually deposited in the area of the hands of the
well drilling. On the same occasion, two more objects deceased, and the single-sided ones around the skulls
were found (Nadj 1952, 133, Fig. 1), most likely from (Ivanišević et al. 2006, 174, Pl. 18/121-6). On the other
the first half of the seventh century. Jovan Kovačević hand, the find from the Jakovo – Kormadin cemetery
156 Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

Fig. 7 – Aradac, grave 96, after Nadj 1973. Scale 2:3.

may serve as evidence that this was not the rule (Dim- neatly arranged parts of a shield, the battle axe, and
itrijević 1960, 10). Grave 112 (Fig. 9) was dated to three three-winged arrowheads, one of them perforat-
the second half of the sixth century, but judging by the ed to cause fire damage. In this grave there was also,
strap-ends (Nadj 1973, Y 161/4-5), it can be asigned to presumably, a quiver hook (Nadj 1973, Y 160 (3) 1-3).
Zábojník’s FS or MS II phase, i.e. to before 650 or to the The shield consists of the partly preserved handle
last quarter of the seventh century (cf. Zábojník 1991, and the umbo (Nadj 1973, Y 160 (3) 2, 3/7) sans bou-
233, 235, 248, Taf. 4/8, 20/1-5, Abb. 1). ton, resembling a find of the 14.7.3 type from the Više
Among the other finds, not very characteristic, grave Grobalja cemetery at Viminacium. Such shields came
72 (Fig. 10) produced a spearhead too (Nadj 1959, 61, into use already in the second half of the fifth centu-
65, Т. ХVIII/13), the southernmost representative of ry, but the majority of the finds are later than that.
the type IV/1 of Gergely Csiky. Such spearheads are Throughout the seventh century these were typical of
known from southern Germany and Merovingian-age the Lombards in Italy, and there is another Germanic,
Italy. In the Avar milieu, their occurrence is explained probably Gepidic find from the territory of the Avar
by the lively cultural contacts and the influence on the Khaganate (Ivanišević et al. 2006, 42-43, Fig. 24/5).
Avars by the local Germanic and Roman material cul- The handle is a rare find; similar shield handles come
ture (Csiky 2007, 319, 323, Abb. 4/IV-1; 8). from Szekszárd (Rosner 1999, 96, Taf. 50/760-2) and
The most interesting assemblage of Germanic mil- Castel Trosino in Italy, and there is pictorial evidence
itary equipment was found in grave 108 (Fig. 11). from a fresco at Constantinople (Quast 2012, 357,
Along the right-hand edge of the grave pit, there were Abb. 6).
On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka) and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate 157

The 13 cm long battle axe is of a simple design. It grave 16, dated to the middle or to the third quarter
was recently used in the discussion of the sizes of Avar of that century, which would make it one of the latest
battle axes. As it seems that a display of warrior attri- Germanic graves in the Khaganate as well. Yet, among
butes in grave 108 was not to be disturbed by placing ca 120 graves at the cemetery there were only several
a tool in the middle of it, and after analyzing the sizes containing such finds. Even if one were to attribute
of other Avar-time axes, it was concluded that the finds to the Gepids graves which produced Early Byzantine
of this size, ca 12 to 15 cm in length, were in fact battle finds, or some of the graves not containing any eth-
axes (Bugarski, 2015, 131, 139-140, Fig. 3). nically attributable (?) objects, still it could only be
The grave was first dated to the second half of the concluded that some Gepids were buried alongside the
sixth century, and a silver earring and a bone purse- Avars there. These might have been descendants of the
clasp (Nadj 1973, Y 160/7, 160 (3) 1/1, 9) cannot help sixth-century local population, or even a population
us date it with more precision. It can only be suggest- settled there in the course of the seventh century. To
ed that this grave dates from the end of the sixth and that end, it is important to note that north of the cem-
the first half, or the first two thirds, of the seventh etery a pit was found, containing pottery attributed to
century. the Gepids (Nadj 1959, 48, Т. ХХХ/1-2). Given the fact
The eagle-headed buckle is a Germanic find of the that the published ground plan of the cemetery (Nadj
earliest date at the Aradac cemetery. Most likely it 1959) does not present the graves excavated in 1961
came from a grave, which might have been earlier than (including graves 96, 108 and 112), situated east of the
the rest of the burials, or, possibly, of the same date. In previously excavated area, it is not possible to deduce
the latter case, the buckle could have been found and whether or not Gepidic graves were grouped in a par-
preserved by a member of the Avar-time population, or ticular part of the cemetery.
even kept as family jewelry. The cemetery in Mokrin (Homokrév) is the only
Germanic burials at Aradac seem to date from the Early Avar site from Banat published in the form of a
seventh century. It is likely that the the latest was monograph. In this necropolis there was a rather high

Fig. 8 – Aradac, grave 16, after Nadj 1973. Scale 2:3.


158 Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

Fig. 9 – Aradac, grave 112, after Nadj 1973. Scale 2:3.

percentage of horsemen’s graves, and graves with par- grave this utensil originated (Fig. 13), it is not possible
tially buried animals. Dated up to the end of the first to do any further analyses. It can only be stated that
third of the seventh century, this cemetery of some 75 these findings do not represent solid evidence of Ger-
graves (Ranisavljev 2007) also produced some finds manic presence at the site.
datable to the later decades of the seventh century (cf. At this stage, we would like to mention four finds
Bugarski 2009c). attributed to the Gepids, for which we are not sure
In the graves belonging to a heavily militarized Ear- whether they came from the Avar Period or the de-
ly Avar population there were several finds of different cades preceding it. It is not always easy to date Gepidic
origin, but not in large numbers or in contexts which finds from Vojvodina. In the very north of Bačka, at the
would suggest Germanic ethnic affiliation of some Kolut – Ritska Dolina site (Küllőd) there is a settlement
of them. Nevertheless, we would like to point to the horizon attributed to the Slavs and dated to the middle
finds of cast bronze buckles, elliptical in shape, from of the sixth century (Trifunović 1997, 119, 123-124),
graves 39, 46 (Fig. 12) and 49 (Ranisavljev 2007, 46, or up to the year 567 (Trifunović 1999-2000, 61). Yet,
T. XIII/13, XV/12, XVII/1). Such buckles, already es- the proposed ethnic affiliation was based upon hand-
timated as representing ‘Gepid influence’ (Dimitrijević made pottery alone, while typical Germanic finds were
et al. 1962, 20), are common in both the Germanic rep- neglected. Together with vessels of a presumably Byz-
ertoire of the fifth-sixth centuries and in Byzantine ter- antine origin, these wheel-made ceramics comprised
ritories (cf. Ivanišević et al. 2006, 21-22, Fig. 11/5-28). some 20% of all pottery (Trifunović 1997, 118-119, Т.
Particularly interesting is the find of an iron purse V/1-5, 8, 9).
clasp (and not of a strike-a-light), uncommon in Avar Germanic pottery came from a very interesting
sites (Ranisavljev 2007, 53-54, T. ХХХV/8) but quite house (Fig. 14). Labeled as building 1, it was a yurt-
well-known in Germanic material (cf. Milinković 1998, like structure, round in plan. So far, this is the only
146-147). As we do not know from which particular Early Mediaeval house of the kind in present-day Vo-
On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka) and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate 159

jvodina (Trifunović 1999-2000, 73-74, T. XVI), resem- Avar-Age Kölked–Feketekapu A necropolis (Kiss 1996,
bling a house unearthed in Eperjes and attributed to 250, e.g. Taf. 41/A152).
the Gepids (Tóth 1991, 97-98, 104, Fig. 2). Occurrence In the last decade of the nineteenth century, several
of such houses in Eastern Europe (Fl’orov 1996) is ex- artefacts from the Kukula Brick Factory near Sombor
plained by the contacts between the sedentary Slavs (Zombor) were collected. A pair of cast silver earrings
and nomadic populations, especially in the second half with polyeder-like pendants were dated to the fifth and
of the seventh and in the eighth century (Kazanski sixth centuries (Fig. 15), and belt pieces and weapons
2012). to the seventh (Dimitrijević et al. 1962, 58-59, Figs. 1,
However, it is obvious that the house from Kolut 2). Judging by the buckle, the male burial can be dat-
significantly predates these distant parallels, and that ed to the Middle Avar Period, while the earrings most
this building, if not the whole settlement, should be likely came from a grave of significantly older date.
attributed to a Germanic population. It is not clear The chronological ordering of the earring is partly in
whether it should be dated before of after 567. Sim- line with new results. Such earrings are well-studied.
ilar burnished beakers from the well-studied Gepidic They were used for long periods, spanning from D1
Hódmezővásárhely–Kishomok cemetery are dated to phase (360/370-400/410) to the seventh century, as
the second half of the fifth and the first half of the testified to by the finds from the Keszthely area. From
sixth century (Bóna, Nagy 2002, Abb. 75, Taf. 12/28- Dalmatia and the Danube, this type of jewelry was doc-
1; 12/36-1; 14/45-2; 19/9, 10; 22/79-6; 24/93-6), and umented as far as the Don Region (cf. Ivanišević et al.
from the Ribnjak site in Kolut there are some more 2006, 29, Fig. 14/10-16). At any rate, one cannot ex-
finds of Germanic origin, dated to the second half clude the possibility that the luxurious earrings were
of the fifth century and attributed to the Ostrogoths worn for more than one generation. If these were fam-
(Dimitrijević et al. 1962, 43, T. II/4). On the other ily jewelry, the grave could have belonged to a person
hand, similar vessels come from the above-mentioned of Gepidic origin buried at the Avar cemetery.

Fig. 10 – Aradac, grave 72, after Nadj 1973. Scale 2:3.


160 Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

Fig. 11 – Aradac, grave 108, after Nadj 1973. Scale 1:3.


On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka) and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate 161

In the vicinity of Majdan (Magyarmajdán), at the (Adorján). The cemetery was excavated during World
Šušanj stretch, near the presumably Sarmatian settle- War II by a team of the Department of Anthropolo-
ment, according to the older literature ‘the remains of gy at the University of Szeged, lead by Dezső Csallány.
a larger settlement, attributed to the Gepids’ have been The results of the excavations were supposed to be in-
noted. In the course of recent surveys new data were col- cluded in József Korek’s publication Bačka during the
lected (Radičević et al. 2012, 241), and on the basis of the Migration Period which, due to radical changes in po-
quantity of handmade pottery decorated with horizontal litical reality after the war, never got completed. On
and waveform lines the dominant stratum was dated to the initiative of István Bóna, the graves from Nadrljan
the Early Middle Ages (Pašić 2012, 353). Yet, we are not were finally published long after the completion of the
further informed of the Gepidic (?) settlement. At least in excavations (Gere 1998).
theory, it might have existed in the Avar Period. Some 90 graves were excavated at two localities,
From Ada by the Tisza River there is an accidental- marked as Adorján I and II, which were possibly parts
ly found skull. It was artificially deformed, in the same of a single, larger Avar cemetery. Several burials were
fashion as the skull of a Gepid from Kiszombor. Along assigned to an older horizon, attributed to the Gepids
with two skulls from Subotica, deformed in different and dated to the fifth century (Vinski 1958, 13-14; Dim-
ways, the skull from Ada was attributed to the Gepids. itrijević et al. 1962, 49-53), according to which it was
Given that the Ada find came from the Tisza Region, erroneously concluded that cemetery I was of a ‘Ge-
and the Hungarian finds from along that river are usual- pidic-Avar composition’ (Mrkobrad 1980, n. 527). In a
ly seen as being of the Avar Period, it was suggested that letter to Lajos Bartucz from József Korek it was stated
this could be the case with the Ada skull (Farkas 1973). that graves 2, 4, 12, 15 and 28 were Germanic, but it
Furthermore, some finds were, by all appearanc- was also mentioned that the pot from grave 12 was
es, wrongly attributed to the Gepids. This could well Sarmatian. Grave 28 produced a typical fourth-century
have been the case with several graves from Nadrljan Sarmatian vessel and a hollow mirror, and for graves

Fig. 12 – Mokrin, grave 46, after Ranisavljev 2007. Scale 2:3.


162 Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

al. 1962, 51, Sl. 3) – could by no means represent a


fragmented purse decoration, typologically close to
the Bajuwaren type buckles, dated from the middle of
the seventh century onwards (Garam 2001, 113, Taf.
80/6).

***
To conclude, it is easy to agree with the criticism
that Germanic sites in Vojvodina, and Serbia in gener-
Fig. 13 – Mokrin, after Ranisavljev 2007. Scale 2:3. al, have not been sufficiently explored and published.
On the other hand, the present and future authors
2, 14 and 15 it was stated: ‘Hier herrschen die gepi- would be well advised to use what we already have
dischen Merkmale mit etwas hunnischer Abtönung vor’ in a more comprehensive way. Yet, one gets the im-
(Gere 1998, 83). Dezső Csallány thought that those presion that Gepid sites themselves were not very nu-
five graves were of the Sarmatian-Gepid type, i. e. that merous or large. Although it is not always easy to pass
they belonged to a Sarmatian population undergoing judgement on the ethnic composition of Avar cemeter-
influences from the Gepids (Csallány 1961, 229, 311, ies (Vida 2008; cf. Bugarski 2009b, 152-154), on more
352). In Serbian literature, graves 4, 5, 15 and 28 were than 220 Avar-time sites in present-day Serbia (cf.
attributed to the Gepids (Dimitrijević 1975, n. 47). ADAM 2002) only the above-processed few produced
László Gere was right to claim that the vessel from presumably Gepidic finds. This can be well explained
grave 12 was undoubtedly Sarmatian, but he thought by the fact that the Avars arrived in a sparsely popu-
that such attribution of grave 28 is not absolutely re- lated area. The bulk of Gepidic finds should be sought
liable. Furthermore, grave 15, labeled as Germanic in the Sirmium region, but there have so far been few
or Sarmatian, is from the time of Hunnic domination archaeological confirmations of their settlement there
(Gere 1998, 83, T. IX/7, XIV/9-14, XI/8-14). Thus, it (cf. Vinski 1957; Csallány 1961; Dimitrijević et al. 1962;
is important to note that a find from that grave – ‘a Mrkobrad 1980). It is highly illustrative that a volume
pendant with a stylized animal head’ (Dimitrijević et concerned with the Migration Period and Early Me-

Fig. 14 – Kolut, building 1, after Trifunović 1999-2000. Scale 1:4.


On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka) and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate 163

pid cultural influence on the Avars, but more likely of


their persistence within the limits of the newly-formed
state. As already mentioned, according to Theophylact
Simocatta (Hist, VIII, 3) it was precisely in the south-
ern section of this river’s flow that the Byzantines had
Fig. 15 – Sombor, after Dimitrijević et al. 1962. Scale 1 :1. defeated the Avars and slauthered many Gepids. This
military intervention happened at the very begining
diaeval finds from Sirmium and its vicinity does not of the seventh century, and the archaeological finds
discuss any Gepid site, or at least a finding from Srem presented in this paper are dated mostly to the middle
(cf. Duval et al. 1982); only the grave from Mačvanska and the second half of that century. Bearing in mind
Mitrovica on the right bank of the Sava was published the above-cited estimation of Tivadar Vida (2008, 41),
in a separate article (Ercegović-Pavlović 1982). we may conclude that the sporadic archaeological ev-
It can be seen that their findings, although few in idence of the Avar-Period Gepids in the southern part
numbers, concentrate along the Tisza River (Map 1). In of the Khaganate dates mostly from the final stages of
general, they do not seem to speak in favour of a Ge- their ethnic visibility.

Map 1 – Gepidic sites, presumably Gepidic Avar-time finds, and other sites in present-day Vojvodina mentioned in the
article. No scale.
164 Ivan Bugarski – Vujadin Ivanišević

Sources:

Proc., hist. arc. = Procopius Caesariensis, Historia quae Theophylact Simocatta = The History of Theophylact
dicitur arcana (eds. J. Haury , G. Wirth), Lipsiae 1963. Simocatta (eds. M., M. Whitby), Oxford 1986.

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On the Group of Graves from Aradac (Aradka) and Germanic Finds from the South of the Avar Khaganate 165

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