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elven rings

Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,

Seven for the Dwarflords in their halls of stone,
Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,
One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne
In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.
One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.
J.R.R.Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
A good stack of examples, as large as possible, is indispensable for a
thorough understanding of any concept, and when I want to learn something new, I make it my first job to build one.
Paul Halmos1

J.Gallian, Contemporary abstract algebra.

Typeset by AMS-TEX

Was sind und was sollen die Ringe

:
: a students guide
1.
1. ,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6. ,
2.
1. ,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
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3. 0
4.
5. :
6.
7.
4.
1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.
7.
5.
1.
2.
3.

: first draught

4.
5.
6.
7.

6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

8.

1.
2.
3.
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5.
6.
7.
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9.

9. -

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

: erste Fassung

-

10.
1.
2.

3.
4.

: first draught

1:
1. ,
, .
1. . .
: .
. R , + , , R
.
, , , :
A1. x, y, z R, (x + y) + z = x + (y + z);
A2. 0 R, x R, x + 0 = x = 0 + x;
A3. x R, x R, x + (x) = 0 = (x) + x;
A4. x, y R, x + y = y + x;
R+ R, ,
, R .
:
D1. x, y, z R, x(y + z) = xy + xz ( );
D2. x, y, z R, (x + y)z = xz + yz ( ).
R Ring (
ring). A,
anneau. ,
2. . 0 ,
. , , 0x = 0 = x0. ,
xy = x(y + 0) = xy + x0 yx = (y + 0)x = yx + 0x x, y R.
, x(y) = 0 xy = (x)y, (x)(y) = xy. , , : x(y) + xy = x(y + y) = x0 = 0,
x(y) = xy.

: x(y z) = xy xz, (x y)z = xz yz.

. ,
/ !
. , 1
. .
. x, y R.
1, 2x + 2y = 2(x + y) = (1 + 1)(x + y) = (x + y) + (x + y).
x
y , x + y = y + x.

3. -. , , , ,
, ! , K[x] + . K[x] , e = x.
(f + g) h = f h + g h. , , , .., , f (g + h) 6= f g + f h
( p 6= 2 f = x2 , g = h = 1).
f = ax p > 0
xp (. ?).
4. . , .
. , R 1, R , .. A1 A4, D1, D2
:
M1. x, y, z R, (xy)z = x(yz);
M2. 1 R, x R, x1 = x = 1x.
, , , ..
M3. x, y R, xy = yx,
R R
( ring).
, e R , ex = x
x R, , xe = x x R. ,
, , e1 , e2 ,
e1 = e2 , R .
. ,
.
. A 1, R
A2 (a, b)(c, d) = (ac, ad). , R , , ,
. ,
.
5. . 1 , . , ,
(x + y)2 = (x + y)(x + y) = x2 + xy + yx + y 2 , x y
( !), x2 + 2xy + y 2 . , n N

n

(x + y) =

n
X
i=0

Cni xi y n1 .

: first draught

(x1 + . . . + xm )n =

X
i1 +...+im

n!
xi1 . . . ximm ,
i
!
.
.
.
i
!
m
=n 1

n m
N0 .
xn y n = (x y)(xn1 + xn2 y + . . . + y n1 )
, .
2.
Q, R, C
1, , ,
, ?, .
.
. Z ( , , . ?) .
.
. R
2 .

, R .
1

1
R = Z 2 , 5 , Z 2 5,

?.
1

1 1
Z 2 , 3 , 5 , , , 3.
. 1
Z/mZ m,
? -, .
Z/2Z Z/3Z
4.
Z/4Z = {0, 1, 2, 3} 4:
+
0
1
2
3

0
0
1
2
3

1
1
2
3
0

2
2
3
0
1

3
3
0
1
2

0
1
2
3

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
1
2
3

2
0
2
0
2

3
0
3
2
1

, 4. ,
2 2 = 0, , 2 6= 0, Z/4Z .
. R X. R , ,
2

, , . ?.

( ) ( ).
, R ,
. 4,
R ,
, 4.
R 1,
( !).
R 1 , x2 = x x R.
. , R .
. R 0 = 1,
x = x1 = x0 = 0. , R
.
0.
. R , 2 . R ,
xy = 0 x, y R. 1 .
R- M , , V K .
2. . , ,
, .
. R , c R. R , x y = cxy. , R
.
, - R(c) 3 .
. R = A B R
, : R A A.
R , xy = (xy). ,
R 4 .

3.
,
.
, .
. K : Z, Q, R, C. K[t]
K .
K
2 3.
3 ..,

. . ,
1952, .7, N.1, .181185.
4 .., . .
, 1955, .102 N.1, c.3335.

: first draught

. K : Z,
Q, R, C. ? M (n, K) ( ,
, R), , ( n 2) 1. n 2
.
. R Ro ( Rop )
, R+ , x y = yx. Ro
R. , o
, opposite. R
, Ro = R. ,
R0
= R, Ro 6= R.
. R1 , . . . , Rs .
R1 . . .Rs , ,
R = R1 . . . Rs , :
(x1 , . . . , xs ) + (y1 , . . . , ys ) = (x1 + y1 , . . . , xs + ys ),
(x1 , . . . , xs )(y1 , . . . , ys ) = (x1 y1 , . . . , xs ys ).
,
R = R1 . . . Rs .
. R R1 , . . . , Rs . :
1) R = R1 . . . Rs ,
2) Ri E R i,
3) Ri Rj = 0 i 6= j.
. 1) = 2) , R . 2)
= 3) Ri Rj Ri Rj = 0. 3) = 1) .
. Ri , i I,
,

Q . ,
Ri , i I, L
Ri .

Ri , i I,
Q
Ri , i I, (xi )iI , xi Ri ,
xi = 0 i.
, , , , . ,
1,
, i- Ri .

!
1. R , , 1. R1 , Z R , ,
(m, x)(n, y) = (mn, my + nx + xy).

10

, R1 1. ,
R 1.
1 1.
, , 1 (
!)
. M R-,
, .. uv = 0 u, v M .
1 R M .
.
4.
1. . , , , R ,
.
. S R
R, x, y S x y, xy R. R
1, S , 1 S.
.
x R , R, .. xy = yx y R.
C(R) R R,
C(R) = {x R | y R, xy = yx}.
, .
.
, 2Z Z. , 1.
h
i
1
Q. 1 Q Z p , p S
S P. , Q
. , .
2. . , Z, Z
.
A . , :
Z[i] , a+bi,
a, b Z, i2 = 1.
Z[]
,

1 + i 3
a + b, a, b Z, =
.
2

Z[ 2] = {a + b 2 | a, b Z}.
.

: first draught

11

5.
, - , .
1. . R S .
. f : R S , f , .. x, y G
f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y),
f (xy) = f (x)f (y).
R , , , , f
, , f (0) = 0. ,
, f , , f (1R ) = 1S . f , f (1R ) = 1S , .
1 1
.
, f , , , , , , , R = S, , , ,
R = S, f .
.
. R , I E R, R/I . R/I
R R/I, x 7 x + I, .
. (2X , 4, ) X. : 2X F2X , Y X , :
Y 4Z = Y + Z ,

Y Z = Y Z .

Y Y , 2X
|X| F2 .
. SX X. 2X
(Y ) = {(y) | y Y }. , 2X :
(Y 4 Z) = (Y ) 4 (Z),

(Y Z) = (Y ) (Z).

. , 2X
, .. Aut(2X )
= SX .
. M
= Rn R u1 , . . . , un - .
EndR (M ) M (n, R),

7 []u ,

M u1 , . . . , un , .

12

6. ,
. u R . Iu :
R R, x 7 uxu1 R, . Iu (x + y) = Iu (x) + Iu (y) Iu (xy) =
Iu (x)Iu (y).
. , R 7 Aut(R), u 7 Iu . ?
Z R, n 7 n1, ()
Z R.
. Q , .
. , .. c Q.
, Z.
. R = R1 . . . Rs
R1 , . . . , Rs , pri : R R1 . . . Rs , (x1 , . . . , xs ) 7 xi ,
.
. , pri : Zn Z, (a1 , . . . , an ) 7 ai
Zn Z.
. e1 , . . . , en Zn . Zn , .. 1 = e1 + . . . + en , e2i = ei , ei ej = 0
i 6= j. , (e1 ) + . . . + (en ) = (e1 + . . . + en ) = 1, (ei )
0 1, (ei )(ej ) = 0 i 6= j.
(ei ) 1.
. Zn ( ).
. R 1, M
. id : R
R M R , g 7 1,
X
X
aug : R[M ] R,
ag eg 7
ag ,
.
R[M ]
Z/mZ Z/nZ 2(n)(n/ gcd(m,n) , (n)
n, .5 .
2.
1. . ,
1 1 . ! , ,
, , 1 1 .
. : T T T ,
1) (x + y) = (x) + (y);
2) (x1 ) = (x)1 ;
5 J.A.Gallian,

J.Van Buskirk, The number of homomorphisms from Zm into Zn . Amer. Math.

Monthly, 1984, vol.91, p.196197.

: first draught

13

3) (1) = 1.
, .

, , ,
.
2. . . , ,
T (+) , T
x y = xy + yx. , , ,
x y = xyx. ,

.
. x, y T , x, y 6= 0, x1 6= y. x1 + (y 1 x)1 T ,
xyx = x (x1 + (y 1 x)1 )1 .
. x1 + (y 1 x)1 . x1 (y 1 x)1 ,

,

(x1 + (y 1 x)1 )1 = (y 1 x)yx = x xyx.

. : T T T ,
, x y = xyx,
,
(xyx) = (x)(y)(x).
. , ,
x y (x) (y). , (xyx) = (x)(y)(x)
x, y 6= 0 , x1 6= y.
. , .
. : T T T ,
, T (+) , ,
(xy + yx) = (x)(y) + (y)(x).
. , y = 1 (x2 ) = (x)2
. ( ) ,
. ,
((x + y)2 ) = ((x + y))2 = ((x) + (y))2 .
, (x)2 + (xy + yx) + (y)2 ,
(x)2 +(x)(y)+(y)(x)+(y)2 .
.
, ,
, T = K 6= 2,
xy = (x y)/2. , ,
x, y, (xy) = (x)(y) (xy) = (y)(x),
2. , (!)
.
3. . .

14

. x, y
(xy) = (x)(y)

(xy) = (y)(x).

. , x y 0. x, y 6= 0, ,
,
((x) (x)(y))(xy)1 ((xy) (y)(x))
0. , 0.
, ,
x, y u, v , (xy) = (x)(y) 6= (y)(x)
(uv) = (v)(u) 6= (u)(v) . ,
z T . ( )
(x)(y) + (xz) = (x(y + z)) = (x)(y + z) = (x)(y) + (x)(z)

(x)(y) + (xz) = (x(y + z)) = (y + z)(x) = (y)(x) + (z)(y).

(xz) = (x)(z). (xz) 6= (z)(x)
(xz) = (x)(z). ((x + z)y), (u(v + z)), ((u + z)v),
, (zy) = (z)(y), (uz) = (z)(u), (zv) = (v)(z),
z.
z = v, (xv) = (x)(v), z = x, (xv) =
(v)(x). , (x)(v) = (v)(x) , (y)(u) =
(u)(y).
, .
(xy) + (xv) + (uy) + (uv) = ((x + u)(y + v)). (
) ((x + u)(y + v)) = (x + u)(y + v)
((x + u)(y + v)) = (y + v)(x + u). ,
, , (x) (v), (y) (u),
, (u) (v),
(x) (y), !
.

: first draught

15

2:
1.
1. . ,
.
. T 1 6= 0 (
), ,
, :
M4. x T , x 6= 0, x1 T , xx1 = 1 = x1 x.
, A1 A4, D1, D2, M1, M2,
M4. , (
!) ,
T = T = T \ {0}.
. K .
, K K , , A1
A4, D1, D2, M1 M4. K K
orper F field .
. Korper corps - , , , ,
. , - skew-field (
campo sghembo), - Schiefkorper Divisionsbereich, -
corps gauche.
. , .
2. . .
. Q, R C . ( .
4),
(a, b), a, b R, ,
cos sin:
(a, b)(c, d) = (ac bd, ad + bc).
. K
, 0 1. , . , F2 = {0, 1} ,

+ 0 1
0 1
0 0 1
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 1
F2 ( , , 3 , , X
).

16

F3 = {0, 1, 1}
:
+
0
1
2

0
0
1
2

1
1
2
0

2
2
0
1

0
1
2

0
0
0
0

1
0
1
2

2
0
2
1

, Z/2Z Z/3Z, 8 ,
p: Fp = Z/pZ
( p
p).
8, Z/4Z ,
0. ,
, Z/4Z. , F4 = {0, 1, u, v},
:
+ 0 1 u v
0 1 u v
0 0 1 u v
0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 v u
1 0 1 u v
u u v 0 1
u 0 u v 1
v v u 1 0
v 0 v 1 u
, , Fq q = pm , , F8 , F9 , F16 , F25 , F27
. q = pm .
, q , q , , , 6, 10, 12, 14, 15 .
?.
. ,
Q , .
, Q(i) ,
a + ib, a, b
Q, i , i2 = 1. ,

Q( 2), a + b 2,
a, b Q. , ,
xn + an1 xn1 + ... + a1 x + a0 = 0, an1 , . . . , a1 , a0 Q,
, ,
Q.
. K - , f K[x]
K. ? f L, f
. , f , L , , ,
L = K[x]/(f ). ( )
, .
. 0 1
. , ,

: first draught

17

0 1 , , K.
, .. x K y K ,
y 2 = x. ,

3
, 2 .
, . R
Q(R), R.
, .
. K[x] K,
K(x), .
.

K(x1 , . . . , xn ), K[x1 , . . . , xn ].
.
K[[x]]
o
nX
ai xi | ai K, ai = 0 i < 0 .
K((x)) =
2.
, , . , ,

1

3+5 2+734

x + y 3 2 + z 3 4, x, y, z .

, , Q( 3 2)
.
1. . ,
Q d Q,
Q. , d
. ,
d .

Q( d) = Q[ d] = {a + b d | a, b Q}

. d

Q( d). Q( d) ,
d > 0 , d < 0.
,

.
,
a + b d 6= 0

1
2
, (a + b d) = (a b d)/(a db2 ) (
0, d Q).

18

.
d = 1,
Q(i) = {a + bi | a, b Q}.
d = 3,

1+ 3
Q(i) = {a + b | a, b Q}, = 2 .

d = 2, Q( 2) =

{a + b 2 | a, b Q}.

d = 5,

Q( 5) = {a + b 5 | a, b Q}.

2. Q( 3 2).
Q(

n
o

3
3
3
2) = a + b 2 + c 4 | a, b, c Q .

,
1.

3
3
, . ,
,

1,
2,
4

3
3
Q, .. a + b 2 + c 4 = 0 a, b, c Q,
a = b = c = 0. ,
, . ,
,

. , 1, 3 2, 3 4 Q.

. c 6= 0, a+b 3 2+c 3 4 = 0
3
3 2. a, b, c ,
2
,
..

Q(
d),
d =

b2 4ac. 3 2 = u + v d , .

, = a + b 3 2 + c 3 4 6= 0. = 1 = x + y 3 2 + z 3 4,
x, y, z Q. ,
(ax + 2cy + 2bz) + (bx + ay + 2cz)

2 + (cx + by + az)

3
4 = 1.

1, 3 2, 3 4
x, y, z

ax + 2cy + 2bz = 1
bx + ay + 2cz = 0

cx + by + az = 0

a
g =b
c

2c
a
b

2b
2c
a

det(g) = a3 + 2b3 + 4c3 6abc.
det(g) 6= 0, 6= 0? , , 6 .

u3 + v 3 + w3 3uvw = (u + v + w)(u2 + v 2 + w2 uv uw vw),
1
u2 + v 2 + w2 uv uw vw = ((u v)2 + (u w)2 + (v w)2 ).
2
6 W.Wi
eslaw,

Algebra geometryczna, Wroclaw, 1974, p.1405, .6061.

: first draught

19

u = a, v = b 3 2, w = c 3 4,
a3 + 2b3 + 4c3 6abc =

3
3
3
3
((a b 2)2 + (a c 4)2 + (b 2 c 4)2 ).
2

0, , 6= 0,
(a b

2)2 + (a c

3
3
3
4)2 + (b 2 c 4)2 = 0,

0. ,

a b 3 2 = a c 3 4 = 0, 1, 3 2, 3 4, a = b = c = 0.
, g 6= 0 , , x, y, z . :

(a2 2bc) + (2c2 ab) 3 2 + (b2 ac) 3 4

=
.
a3 + 2b3 + 4c3 6abc
, .
. ,
.

. , Q( 3 2) Q( 3 2) .

. , a+b 3 2+c 3 4 7 a+b 3 2+c 2 3 4 .

3.
.
K(x). X , f (x, y) = 0, f K[x, y].
f , f K(X), X. R = K[x, y](f )
K[x, y], X, ..
g/h, g, h K[x, y] , f 6 |h. , g1 /h1 g2 /h2 X X, f |g1 h2 h1 g2 . K(X)
X
X. , X , x2 + y 2 = 1,
(1 + y)/x = x/(1 y) K(X). K(X)
( , , , !)
. U C .
U U 7 C = C {}, z 7 f (z)/g(z),
f, g : U C , g 6= 0.
U KU . ,
f /g 6= 0, (f /g)1 = g/f . OU
U .
. .
. , ,

aj z (m+j)/n ,

aj C, a0 6= 0, m Z, n N.

j=0

. , 0
C, , . , ,

20

KC . ,
, , , , z 1/2
z 1/2 !
. C \ R
L = {m + n | m, n Z} . C f
L, f (z + ) = f (z) z C
L.
1 , ,
. , L
. 7 , -
1
(z) = 2 +
z

X
L\{0}

0 (z) = 2

X
L

q
1
2
(z )2

1
,
(z )3

(0 )2 = 43 g2 g3 ,

g2 = 60

X
L\{0}

1
,
4

g3 = 140

L\{0}

1
.
6

,
X y 2 = 4x3 g2 x g3 . X .

4.
1. . . ,
,
: .
1, i, j, k, R H
H = {a + bi + cj + dk | a, b, c, d R},
a 1 a. 1, i, j, k ,
z1 = a1 + b1 i + c1 j + d1 k z2 = a2 + b2 i + c2 j + d2 k
,
, .. a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 , c1 = c2 , d1 = d2 .
, ..
(a1 + b1 i + c1 j + d1 k) + (a2 + b2 i + c2 j + d2 k) =
(a1 + a2 ) + (b1 + b2 )i + (c1 + c2 )j + (d1 + d2 )k.
7 ,

, , .II, .I, 8,9.

: first draught

21

?
:
(a1 + b1 i + c1 j+d1 k) (a2 + b2 i + c2 j + d2 k) =
(a1 a2 b1 b2 c1 c2 d1 d2 ) + (a1 b2 + b1 a2 + c1 d2 d1 c2 )i+
(a1 c2 + c1 a2 + d1 b2 b1 d2 )j + (a1 d2 + d1 a2 + b1 c2 c1 b2 )k.
, , R4 .
, , . , 4
,
2 2 (,
, 44 ).
, , ij = k, ji = k.
, .
, z = a + bi + cj + dk 6= 0. ,
a, b, c, d 0
, a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 6= 0.
,
1
(a + bi + cj + dk)1 = 2
(a bi cj dk).
2
a + b + c2 + d2
2. . K , A K 1, i, j, k ,
i2 = a,

j 2 = b,

ij = ji = k.

:
k 2 = ab,

ik = ki = aj,

jk = kj = bi.

a, b
. K = R, a = b = 1, K
K

1, 1
H =
. ,
R

a, b

,
K
H .

a, b

. a, b K
K
K.

a, b
.
K
, ax2 + by 2 = z 2 K
.
x=y=z=0
. . , c.29.

22

5.
(1906 ). L/K
, , ,
Gal(L/K) = hi . o() = n = dimK L.
a K x.
D = L 1 L x . . . L xn1
D xs = a, x b = b x. , K C(D),
K- D n2 . (L/K, , a) , (L/K, ) a K .
H , K = R, L = C, ,
a = 1. , H = (C/Re, , 1). x = j,
H = R Ri Rj Rij = C Cj
j(a + bi) = (a bi)j = (a + bi)j.
(L/K, , a) R = L[t, ]. (L/K, , a) = L[t, ]/(tn a) ,
- , xn a.
, !
6.
. .
. R , : R R, a 7 a ,
R. , ?
R[x, ], R[[x, ]],
x xa = a x.
, ,
1
R, x1 b = (b ) x1 = bx1 . ,

R[x, x1 , ], R((x, )).

X
X
X
i
i
j
ai x
bj x =
ai bj xi+j
, R = K .
. Aut(K) K, D = K((x, ))
. K0 = K K,

K0 ,
o() = ,
C(D) =
n
K0 ((x )), o() = n.
. f K((x, )), f 6= 0. xi , f xi =
a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . , a0 6= 0. blablabla

: first draught

23

, D = K((x, ))
, o() < . K = Q((t)),
Q- Q((t)), t 2t, xa(t) = a(2t)x.
.
? , H.
,
, , , , , , . . . , ,
, . ? ,
:
,
,
.
. Highschool algebra (, , ), College algebra (, , ),
University algebra (, , ). College algebra
. ,
, , College
algebra. , University
algebra,
University algebra College algebram, .
() , (is
beyond analysis , , beyond algebra).

24

3:
1.
1. . R 1.
R , .. R (alias ) , 1. , , 0
R = R \ {0}.
R .
. , x R , y R, yx = 1. y
x. , x R , z R, xz = 1. z
x. x R ,
, , .. y X, yx = 1 = xy.
y x x1 .
. , x, y, x + y R , x(x + y)1 y = y(x + y)1 x.
. , x, .. ,
y, z, : z = (yx)z = y(xz) = y.
x, , , , ,
. ,
.
. , x , .
. X x,
- y X : X X,
z 7 y + zx 1. x , y
/ (X).
, (u) = (v) ux = vx u = v,
. , ,
X . X
.
, .
. , x
, x .
. , xy = 1. yx 6= 1, y + yx 1 6= y
x.
2. .
R = T , T = T .
Z = {1}.
R (, ), R[x] = R .

: first draught

25

R[[x]] = {a0 + a1 x + . . . R[[x]] | a0 R }.

R = R1 . . . Rs , R = R1 . . . Rs .
A , End(A) = Aut(A).
M (n, R) = GL(n, R).
S R R, S R .
. , S 6= S R . ,
C(R) = C(R) R .
1.
1. . R 1- (weakly
1-finite) (Dedekind finite),
. ,
xy = 1 - x, y R, yx = 1. ,
, 1-, :
;
;
,
: xy = e, det(xy) = det(x) det(y) = 1;
. , R
, ;
0. , xy = 1. x(yx 1) = 0,
yx = 1;
.
,
. :

0 1 0
0 0 1

x=
0 0 0
.. .. ..
. . .

...
...
..
.
..
.

0 0
1 0
y=
0 1
.. ..
. .

0
0
0
..
.

...
...

...
..
.

2.
A theorem may be hard to discover, even though, once discovered, it is
easy to prove. The point of this note is to emphasize that completely
nonrigorous (some may say nonsensical) reasoning is perfectly acceptable
in the discovery stage, and that may furnish clues that enable one to make
a good guess. Proofs can come later.
Walter Rudin

1. .
, .

26

. 1 + yx R , 1 + xy R .
. ,
(1 + xy)1 = 1 x(1 + yx)1 y.
, , 1 + xy.
, , x(1 + yx) = (1 + xy)x y(1 + xy) = (1 + yx)y
, ,
(1 + xy)(1 x(1 + yx)1 y) = 1 + xy (1 + xy)x(1 + yx)1 y =
1 + xy1 x(1 + yx)(1 + yx)1 y = 1 + xy xy = 1.
.
2. . , , ,
(1+xy)1 = 1x(1+yx)1 y? , , , . ,
,
, (rational identities).
.
. ,

(1 + xy)1 = 1 xy + (xy)2 . . . ,

(1 + yx)1 = 1 yx + (yx)2 . . . ,

. , , .
, , ,
. ,
8,9 , ,
.
3. 0
1. 0 . R
1. x R , y R, y 6= 0, xy = 0. y , ..
xy = 0 y = 0, x (sic!).
: xy = xz y = z.
, xy = xz x(y z) = 0, ,
x , y z = 0.
. x R ,
y R, y 6= 0, yx = 0, x . ,
, .
R Reg(R). ,
, ,
.
8 P.R.Halmos,
9 W.Rudin,

p.489490.

Does mathematics have elements, Math. Intelligencer, 1981, v.3, p.147153.

Unique inverses are two-sided, Amer. Math. Monthly, 1985, August-September,

: first draught

27

. /
. , x, y , xy
. , z 6= 0. z(xy) = (zx)y.
x , zx 6= 0, y , (zx)y 6= 0.
, z(xy) 6= 0 z 6= 0.
.
, , 1 , 0 ,
,
.
( ). ,
.
. , 0.
. x, y R, x . , xm = y m
xn = y n , xd = y d d = gcd(m, n).
. R . x M (n, R)
M (n, R),
0 M (n, R), det(x) 0 R.
2. 0.
. R 0, alias , 0.
0 . .
nullteilerfrei, Bereich, Integrit
atsbereich, integral, domain, integral domain
0 Reg(R) = R .
!!!
. 0, . R
[0, ) R. () .
, .
. 0 .
, R
, f g,
Z

(f g)(t) =

f (t s)g(s)ds.
0

1924 .
. R [0, ) .

28

.
, ( 1)
. .
10 , .
4.
1. . .
. x R ,
xn = 0 n.
, 0 , , 0,
. R ,
. , . Z/4Z 2 6= 0, 22 = 4 = 0.
, M (n, K)
n 2.
2. .
. , C(X)
X
0. .
. R , . , x R ,
xn = 0 , x = 0.
, 0. ,
, 0. , Z/6Z 0 , 2 3 = 0,
.
, .
1) p P, m 2 p Z/pm Z .
2) m 2 x K[x]/(xm ) . , K[x]/(x2 ).
3) n 2 M (n, K) . ,
eij , i 6= j.
3. .
. x, y R R.
1) x , xy .
2) x y , x y .
3) x , y R , y x R .
. 1) xm = 0, (xy)m = xm y m = 0.
2) xm = y n = 0, (x y)m+n = 0.
10 .,

. ., . 1959.

: first draught

29

3) y x = y(1 y 1 x), , 1 y 1 x
R . 1) z = y 1 x , , z n = 0.
(1 z)(1 + z + . . . + z n1 ) = 1 z n = 1.
. u R , u 1 ,
.
R U (R).
U (R) = 1 + N (R). , .. U (R) R . ,
. ,

u=

1 1
0 1

v=

1
1

0
1

uv (. ?,
).
. 1) u U (R), u1 U (R).
2) u, v U (R) , uv U (R).
. 1) u = e x, xm = 0. u1 = e + x + . . . + xm1 ,
(x + . . . + xm1 )m = 0.
2) u = e x, v = e y, xm = y n = 0. uv = e x y + xy,
x y , (x + y xy)m+n = 0.
. R , U (R) R .
5. :
, ,
.
L.Brunschwieg,
But so great is the average person fear of the infinite that to this day
calculus is being taught as a study of limit processes, instead of what it
really is: infinitesimal analysis.
Rudy Rucker, Infinity and the Mind

1638 11 XIX .

, , . ,
, 12 .
11 .,

, . ,
.., 1938, .154155
12 ,
, . :
,
,
.

30

1. . K , ,
K = Q, R, C, d K , d2 = 0.
K[d], 1 d K ( x + dy x1 + yd,
x + dy = u + dv , x = u y = v), , 1 d ,
, x, y, u, v K (x + dy)(u + dv) = xy + d(xv + yu).
K.
2. . , K[d] (dy)2 = 0 y K.
dy K[d] ,
(, ,
infinitesimal). , K[d]
, ,
.
R
3. . f : K 7 K ,
K[d] ,
f 0 (x) =

f (x + dy) f (x)
,
dy

f , y K. (, , ), f (x + dy) f (x)
. ,
, , dy dx:
f 0 (x) =

f (x + dx) f (x)
,
dx

, !
4. . , ,
x 7 xn K. x dy
( dx)
x 7 xn . (x + dy)n ,
,
, (x+dy)n xn = nxn1 dy, x 7 xn

(x + dy)n xn
nxn1 dy
=
= nxn1 .
dy
dy
5. .
. . ,
0 , : exp : dx 7 1 + dx. ,

ex+dy = ex edy = ex (1 + dy).

: first draught

31

, 1
ln : 1 + dx 7 dx. ,
ex+dy ex
ex (1 + dy) ex
=
= ex .
dy
dy
, ,

ln(x + dy) ln(x)

ln(1 + dy/x)
1
=
= .
dy
dy
x

6. .
x 7 sin(x). x dy
x 7 sin(x). sin(x+dy)
, , cos(dy) = 1, sin(dy) = dy (
!),
sin(x + dy) sin(x)
sin(x) cos(dy) + cos(x) sin(dy) sin(x)
=
= cos(x).
dy
dy
1. ,
,
. , .

XIX , XX . ,
1960- , ,
,
13 . ,
: , , ,
, .
., , ., ,
1968, 236.
2. , K[t]/(tn ), ?.
, ,
K, K[t]/(tn ). , ,
( !)
.
3. . . ,
13

[Mu], .25, 1950-

0 , 0,
.

32

R R ,
,
, R, ,
R ( , R , !).
,
- .
6.
1. . ,
, , .
. e R , e2 =
e.
en = e n. 0 1
. ,
0: e(1 e) = 0 = (1 e)e.
. e 6= 0, 1 R. 1 e
.
. , (1 e)2 = 1 2e + e2 = 1 e.
e f , ef = 0 = f e.
, e f = 1 e , 1 =
e + f.
. , e f , (e f )2
. .
. , e R
eRe = {exe, x R} R e.
eRe , , e 6= 1.
, , .
. , .
. 2 = 22 = 4, , 2 = 0 ,
, 1 = 1. , x + y = (x + y)2 =
x2 + xy + yx + y 2 = x + xy + yx + y , xy + yx = 0. ,
xy = yx = yx.
2. .
.
. , R x x3 = x, R
.
. (.., , 1986/87 ) (x + x)3 = x + x (x2 x)3 = x2 x, , 6x = 0 3x2 = 3x
x R. , S = {3x | x R} ,
y S y 2 = y (?) , S , , . , 6xy = 0 = 6yx , 3xy = 3yx
x, y R. , (x + y)3 = x + y (x y)3 = x y, ,
2xy 2 + 2yxy + 2y 2 x = 0. y , , 2xy = 2yx x, y. , ,
, , .

: first draught

33

, .
. , R x x4 = x, R
.
.
. R , x
n > 1, xn = x. R .
, , .

3. . g R , g 2 = e.
. , e , 1 2e .
2 Reg(R), e 7 1 2e
R . 2 R ,
.
. , (12e)(12e) = 14e+4e2 = 1. 12e = 12f ,
2e = 2f , 2 , e = f . 2 R ,
g 7 (1 g)/2 .
, e11 + . . . + err
M (n, K) e11 . . . err + er+1,r+1 + . . . + enn . ,
[Artin], [Dieudonne], [OMeara]. ,
2 R . ,
: , .
7.
1. . e , e Cent(R). R
e,
R = Re R(1 e).
M (n, K) n 2
e11 , . . . , enn , , , , .
R = Z/6Z 3 4, 32 3
(mod 6), 42 4 (mod 6), 3+4 1 (mod 6).
R R = {0, 3} {0, 2, 4} , F2 F3 ,
.
. e R , eR = Re, e Cent(R).
. , eR = Re e , ,
eR = eRe. , eR = Re e
, . x R ex = exe = xe.
. , R .
. e R , x R .
(exe ex)2 = (exe xe)2 = 0. ex = exe = xe.

34

, 0.
.
Z/mZ. p, q P. Z/pZ =
Fp . Z/p2 Z
. Z/pqZ . ,
Z/p2 qZ .
R . e R ,
. , e = f + g, f 2 = f ,
g 2 = g, f g = 0, f = 0 g = 0.
. , .
. e2 = e, f 2 = f , . ,
ef 6= 0. e = ef +e(1f ) e
. e , ef 6= 0, e(1 f ) = 0, .. e = ef .
f , f = ef . e = f .
8.
1. . x R ,
1 + yx R y R. J(R) = Rad(R)
R R:
J(R) = {x R | y R, 1 + xy R }.

J(R) = {x R | y R, 1 + yx R }

J(R) = {x R | y, z R, 1 + yxz R }

( 1 + yxz R , 1 + zyx R).

,
, ,
.
. J(R) R.
. , , J(R) .
x, y J(R), z R 1 + z(x + y) = 1 + zx + zy.
1 + zx R , 1 + zx + zy =
(1 + zx)(1 + (1 + zx)1 zy), J(R)
. , J(R)
R : x J(R), z R,
y R 1 + y(zx) = 1 + (yz)x R . ,
. , .
. R , Nil(R) J(R).

: first draught

35

?:
, ,
, .
, .I
Betrogene Betr
uger, eure Ringe sind alle drei nicht echt. Der echte Ring
vermutlich geht verloren.
Gotthold Efraim Lessing, Nathan der Weise
,
, ,
, , ,
,
, .
14
.

A theory is worth studying if it has at least three distinct good hard
examples.

X Y . ,
, , .
, , Y = A . .
f, g : X A, f + g (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x).

:
: (f g)(x) = f (g(x));
: (f g)(x) = f (x)g(x);
, (f g)(x)
f (y)g(z) (y, z), . ?.
1.
A A .
1. /. .
A . R = End(A)
A :
.
14

.., ., XIX .

36

. A End(A) 1.
. , , End(A) ,
(x + y)(a + b) = x(a + b) + y(a + b) = (x(a) + x(b)) + (y(a) + y(b)) =
(x(a) + y(a)) + (x(b) + y(b)) = (x + y)(a) + (x + y)(b),
x + y (
?) , , id
. . ,
x, y, z Map(A, A) a A
(x + y)z(a) = (x + y)(z(a)) = x(z(a)) + y(z(a)) = xz(a) + yz(a).
, , , x End(A),
x(y + z)(a) = x((y + z)(a)) = x(y(a) + z(a)) = x(y(a)) + x(z(a)) = zy(a) + xz(a)
( , x ?), . , End(A)
, End(A) .
End(A) ,
c
. , , , R End(A+ ).
. A . A
. , ,
End(A) A?
2. R-. End(A). , A R-, R- A, ..
A, R-, .. x(a) = x(a)
R, a A. , A R-,
R- x(a) = x(a). R A EndR (A). EndR (A) End(A).
End(A) EndZ (A).
R- A = Rn , R- EndR (Rn ) = M (n, R).
2.
U (, ) k k.
L(U, U ) = End(U ) U . ,

: first draught

37

. End(U ), .
1. . x : U U
alias ,
kxk = sup kxuk = sup kxuk < .
kuk1

kuk=1

kxuk kxkkuk, kxk

c 0 , kxuk kuk. kxk
x ( ).
,
kx + yk kxk + kyk,
kxyk kxkkyk.
, , . , kxyuk
kxkkyuk kxkkykkuk, , , kxyk kxkkyk kxyk. , B(U, U )
.
. B(U, U ) , , . ,
B(U, U ) k k. , B(U, U )
, , kxyk kxkkyk. U , U U , x
x U U .
kx k = kxk, B(U, U )
- . , (xu, xu) = (u, x x, u) , kx xk = kxk2 ,
B(U, U ) C . . , , ,
(1910 ), , x ,
x = x , .

2. . (
!) ,
15 .
. U , GL(U ) B(U, U ) = B(U, U ) .
3. . x : U U
alias , {xu | kuk 1} . C(U, U )
. , ,
C(U, U ) B(U, U ). ,
. ,
. C(U, U ) E B(U, U ).
U , x ,
x .
15

, ibid. .225.

38

4. . x ,
. , F (U, U ) B(U, U ). ,
, F (U, U ) B(U, U ). ,
x , x(U ) , x 16 .
3.
.
1. .
X - R 1, , Z, Q, R,
C. RX

(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x),

(f g)(x) = f (x)g(x),

R- X.
R , RX 1.
.
RX . , .. RX ,
x 7 c, c R.
, , .
: X R
, , X R, , ,
, , , , , , .. C(X) ,
C r (X) r- , C (X) , C (X) ..17 .

.

X
. , RX = (R ) . , f
RX , R. ,
R = K , K X ,
.
. , K X
Y Y X.
2. . R 1, X Y
. RX RY .
16 .,

. , ., 1975, .1443. 4.18.

, 1975

17 .,

: first draught

39

: X Y .
f RY f RX : RY RX , . , ,
f, g RY (f +g) = f +g
(f g) = f g.
(!). , 1 1
, y 7 1
. , X Y , RY RX ,
RX RY . ,
X 7 RX .
:
. , X Y , ,
X , Y , (restriction) resYX :
RY RX , f 7 f |X .
. evx :
RX R, f 7 f (x), ( ,
R-). (evaluation)
x.
3. . X ,
R . RX
.
Y X IY ,
0 Y :
IY = {f RX | y Y, f (y) = 0}.
, IY RX . , f, g IY , (f g)(y) =
f (y) g(y) = 0 y Y , f g IY . ,
h RX y Y (hf )(y) = h(y)f (y) = h(y)0 = 0,
hf IY .
, R = K
. Y = {x} . ,
IY = mx = {f K X | f (x) = 0} RX . , , A K X
, A mx , x X. ,
, ,
X A ( ,
..).
4. -. RX /IY ??
5. . X = X1 t . . . t Xn
X

RX1 . . . RXn .
RX1 t...tXn =

f 7 (f |X1 , . . . , f |Xn ).
, X = {x1 , . . . , xn } , RX Rn = R. . .R, f 7 (f (x1 ), . . . , f (xn )).

40

4.
, , .
, .
1. . X , K , , R, C Qp .
X K. , X
. ,
X = R, Rn , [0, 1] Z.
, A(X).
,
limx (f + g) = limx (f ) + limx (g),

limx (f g) = limx (f ) limx (g)

x X. A(X) .
B(X). , .
C(X). ,
.
BC(X) = B(X)
C(X). .
Cc (X).
, Supp(f ) . ,
Supp(f + g) Supp(f ) Supp(g),

Supp(f g) Supp(f ) Supp(g).

, Cc (X) .
0 C0 (X). , f 0 ,
m Y , |f (x)| < 21m
x X \ Y . , ,
0 , 0 .
. , Y ,
Y, X \ Y X. , C(X)
, X .
2. . f : X Y .
5.
18 , , X C(X)
18 ..,

..,
. . , 1939, .22, .1115.

: first draught

41

, , , . , ,
.
X ,

S
. , X = U , U , , ,
U1 , . . . , Un , X = U1 . . . Un .
. .
, , , . , , , .
, .

, T2 :
T2 . x, y X, x 6= y, x U y V , U V = .
, 1914 Grundz
uge
der Mengenlehre. T
Trennbarkeit,
separation axioms. T4 :
T4 . Y, Z X , Y Z =
U Y V Z, U V = .
, T4 , ( . 1921
., .. .. 19231924 ). 19,20 .
. .
5 . , , ..
T3 , 1921 ..
T3 . x X Y X
, x
/ Y x U V Z,
U V = .
19 .,

. . , ., 1968, .1272, 2 .127.

20 .., .., 4 .97.

42

. 21,22 .
. X , Y, Z X, Y Z =
. f C(X) , f (y) = 0 y Y
f (z) = 1 z Z.
,
. X . C(X) , .. x, y X, x 6= y
f C(X) , f (x) 6= f (y).
. , . , T3 1 , 2

f C(X) , f (x) = 0 f (y) = 1 y Y , Y X

X, x. , T3 1 ,
2
T3 T4 !

6.
1. C(X) X.
C(X) C C(X). , .
. C- C(X) C,
evx x X.
. , C(X) X, evx 6= evy x 6= y. , C(X) C. 6= evx x X,
x X fx C(X), (fx ) = 0,
fx (x) = evx (f ) 6= 0. fx ,
Ux
x fx 0.
S
X = Ux , x X, . X = U1 . . . Un , Ui = Uxi
x1 , . . . , xn , fi = fxi .
f = f1 f 1 + . . . + fn f n C(X) 0 x ,
, C(X). ,
fx (fx ) = 0, (f ) = 0, .
X
= Y C(X)
= C(Y ).
7.
. X ,
A(X) = AC (X) X, . , limx f f x X
. X 0 . x X \ X 0 , limx f = f (x).
21 .,

. .
. , ., 1975, .1408, 1 .87.
22 ., . , ., 1986, .1751, 1.5.10 .75.

: first draught

43

x X 0 , c C f x, U C (alias
, punctured neighborhood) V X x
, f (V ) U . x limyx f (y),
.
, :
limx (f + g) = limx f + limx g,

limx (f g) = limx f limx g,

f, g A(X) , , limx :
A(X) C.
, , , limx (cf ) = c limx f c C
f A(X), C-.
23 , limx
C- , limx (y ) = 0 y X. C- , limx (h) = 0,
h = 0 V x.
. X , , X = N, R C.
X = X {}, , R C , , . X
,
f A(X) lim f . A (X) = {f |X |f A(X)}
X, X. C- A (X) C limx evx x X lim .
. 24 R, , e = R {, +}.
R
lim f lim f . f
, , lim f = lim+ f .
. X , A(X) X, , C(X)
. A(X) C(X), f 7 fb,
fb(x) = limx f , , .. f[
+ g = fbgb fcg = fbgb.
.
8.
X . , . , X = R, Rn [0, 1].
D[a, b]. ,
. ,
D(X) C(X).
23 J.D.Gray,

An algebraic characterisation of limits. Amer. Math. Monthly, 1975, vol.82, N.8,

p.825827.
24 deplorable: presense of wit, but deplorable absense
of etiquette.

44

C 1 [a, b].
, . , C 1 (X) D(X).
r C r (X).
r , r- . , C r (X) C r1 (X).
C (X). (alias ) ,
. , C (X) C r (X) r.
C (X).
C (X) = C (X) C (X).
C (X). , blablabla
, C (X) C (X).
. C (X) C (X) ,

/ . ,
C [a, b] 0. , ,
f : R R [0, 1].
2

f (x) = e1/x

(1x)2

0 < x < 1,

f (x) = 0 25 . , g(x) = f (x 2) f , f g = 0.
. .

9.
1. . V = (a, b), a, b R, a < b, R,
c (a, b) - , C k (V ) k V . m k
Tcm (f )

m
X
1 di f
=
()(x )i .
i
i!
dx
i=0

Tm (f ) m-
f c. f x 7 xc
, ( ) , c = 0
T m (f ) T0m (f ). T m (f ) R[x]. , T m (f ) ,
x. , T m (f )
R[x], R[x]/(xm+1 ) .
( m = 1) (
), ,
, f 7 T m (f ) C k (V )
R[x]/(xm+1 ). , T m (f + g) = T m (f ) + T m (g) ,
25 .,

., ibid., .54.

: first draught

45

T m (f g) = T m (f )T m (g) .

X l di (f ) dj (g)
dl (f g)
=
.
dxl
i dxl dxl
i+j=l

T m (f g) = T m (f )T m (g),
l! 0.
, , m- 0 0, C k (V ) f 7 T m (f )
C k (V ) - .
2. . . C (V )
. f C (V )

X
1 di f
T (f ) =
(0)xi ,
i
i!
dx
i=0
f .
f 7 T (f ) C (V ) R[[x]] . , , , : ,
f 6= 0,
0 0.
n 1/x2
x e
x 6= 0
fn (x) =
.
0
x = 0

n 1/x2
x e
x < 0
gn (x) =
.
0
x 0
fn gn .
, C (V ).
, ., 26
. T C (V )
R[[x]].
, , , 0 0.
, C (V ) . T : C (V ) R[[x]]
26 R.Narasimhan,

232. I, 1.5

, ., , 1971,

46

( 0), . ,
,
.
, ( )
, , ,
- x M .
8. ,
27,28

10. ,

R R C C, ,
, , ..
1. . x 7 xn , n N0 , ..
fe : R R, x 7 an xn +. . .+a1 x+a0 . , ,

. 4, -
, ex R ,
. R[x],
, , fe f = an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 .
.
2. .
.
x 7 en x , R, .. f : R R,
x 7 a1 e1 x + . . . + an en x ,

ai , i R.

4, - ,
ex R , ,
ExpR . ex ex = e(+)x , ExpR .
, ExpR R[R+ ] , .
, , , .. R+ , ! ExpC C C,
27 .,
28

. , ., 1965, .1131.
, . , ., 2000, .1299.

: first draught

47

z 7 ez , C, .
. R[R ] C[R+ ]?
, ?
3. , .

ExpR , ExpoR , . , ExpoR
x 7 xm ex . ,

x 7 a1 xm1 e1 x + . . . + an xmn en x ,

ai , i R, mi N0 .

,
:
xm ex xn ex = xm+n e(+)x .
ExpoC , ai , i C,
.
4. . , , ,
.
R R,
x 7 1, x 7 cos(nx) x 7 sin(nx).
,
x 7 a0 +

n
X

(am cos(mx) + bm sin(mx)),

am , bm R.

k=1

TrigR . ,
cos(x) cos(y), cos(x) sin(y), sin(x) sin(y) cos(x y), sin(x y), ,
TrigR . , TrigR .
.
z 7

n
X

ck eikz ,

cm C.

k=n

TrigC .
11. .
1st installment:

, ,
.

48

. f : [a, b] R.
Vab (f ) f

|f (x1 ) f (x0 )| + . . . + |f (xn ) f (xn1 )|,
n N, a = x0 < x1 < . . . < xn = b. Vab (f ) <
, , f [a, b].
V [a, b] [a, b]
, ., 29 . , V [a, b]
B[a, b], , .
. :
. ,
R[a,b] , . , f V [a, b],
: [a, b] f + f ,
f + (0) = f (0) = 0 , f = f (a) + f + f . , f +
f , Vax (f ) = f + (x) + f (x), f + f
,
f .

. f : [a, b] R
[a, b], > 0
> 0, n N
a < a1 < b1 < a2 < b2 < . . . < an < bn < b
,
|b1 a1 | + . . . + |bn an | <

|f (b1 ) f (a1 )| + . . . + |f (bn ) f (an )| < .
(., 30 ). AC[a, b] [a, b]
. AC[a, b] V [a, b].
. : ,
( bi < ai+1 , ).
, , f : [0, 1] R,
f (x) = x sin(1/x) 0 < x 1 f (0) = 0. , . ,
31 . ,
, .
,
x [a, b] 32 .

.
29 .,

. 2- ., ., , 1976, 319. 6.24.

.335
31 , ibid., .337338.
32 , ibid. .330.
30 [],

: first draught

49

12. .
2nd installment:
. R[a, b]
[a, b]
, ., 33 . C[a, b] R[a, b] B[a, b].
. f : [a, b] R , c R {x [a, b] | f (x) c} .
?? M [a, b] [a, b] , ., . [Rudin],
10.18.
.
() . L[a, b] alias
R
, .. , ab |f |d < , ,
, . , (
) f : [0, 1] R, f (x) = 1/ x 0 < x 1 f (0) = 0
, f 2 34 . , : f B[a, b] M [a, b], g L[a, b],
f g L[a, b].
. , c R {x [a, b] |
f (x) c} . ?

13. .
3rd installment: C
Step(R). . f : R X , c0 , c1 , . . . , cn ,
(, c0 ), (c0 , c1 ), . . . , (cn1 , cn ), (cn , ), f ( f c0 , c1 , . . . , cn ).
. f , g , f , g . , f + g, f g .
.
. , Step(R).
. f : X R , | Im(f )| < . ,
. ,
Im(f + g) Im(f ) + Im(g),

, RX , Y Y X.
. , ...
., 35 . 36 , , ,
33 Rudin,

ibid. 6.10, 6.12.

., ibid., .222.
35 ., ibid. .284
36 , ibid. c.280.
34 .,

50

!!!
.

. . f : R R ,
, z R f 1 (z) .
, X = R , , , , ,
Q .
?. C. , , f : R R C,
C ,
c0 < c1 < . . . < cn , f
(, c0 ), (c0 , c1 ), . . . , (cn1 , cn ), (cn , ), C. ,
. ( )
.
.
. ?
.
?
. ,
cdf : C(R) Step(R),

f 7 cdf (x) = f (bxc),

f cdf (x).
:
cd(f + g) = cdf + cdg,

cd(f g) = cdf cdg.

.
.
. ,
.
14. .
4th installment:
. , f : R R , T f = f , ,
f (x + ) = f (x) x R.
. ,
.
. , , f g
1 , 2 , f +g f g ,
(, , ).

: first draught

51

. , sin(x) sin(x), R \ Q ,
.37 .
. , . , ., 38 .
, , .

14. .
5th installment:
1. . V , . , ,
(f is, rather than has a derivative39 ). , f V ,
g , g 0 = f . , V
, . , ,
: . , : a < b,
.
, .
, , .. ? 1921
40 , . , ,

1
(
cos
, x > 0,
f (x) =
x
0,
x 0.
.
. , f (x) .
.
(
g(x) =

x2 sin
0,

1
x

, x > 0,
x 0.

g 0 f ?
B1 41,42 .
, B1 .
1982 ,
37 .,

., , ., , 1967, 251., .219220.

.
39 A.M.Bruckner, J.Ma
rik, C.E.Weil, Some aspects of products of derivatives. Amer. Math.
Monthly, 1992, February, p.134145.
40 W.Wilcosz, Some properties of derivative functions. Fund. Math., 1921, vol.2, p.145154.
41 ., . .., 1932.
42 , B1 .
, B1 . ,
, ,
38 Maurin,

52

. , , B1 .
, 43 : 1 f g + h,
f, g, h .
15.
44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51
1. . U
Cn . f : U C U ,
x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) U U
V x
X

ai1 ...in (z1 x1 )i1 . . . (zn xn )in ,

i1 , . . . , in N0 ,

f (z) z = (z1 , . . . , zn ) V .
U OU .
Cn , .
.
,
: f1 , . . . , fm
U Cn , g : Cm C ,
x 7 g(f1 (x), . . . , fn (x)) U . ( , ,
??)
, C2 7 C, f, g : U C
. , OU . , ,
.
. f, g : U C U Cn .
f |V = g|V V U ,
f = g U .
43 D.Preiss,

Algebra denerated by derivatives. Real Anal. Exch., 198283, vol.8, p.208216.

.., . , 1951.
45 ., ., . ,
., 1969, .1395.
46 ., ., . , ., 1988, .1303.
47 ., . , ., 1963, .1296.
48 ., . ,
., 1968, .1279.
49 .., . , ., 1985, .1272.
50 .., . , ., 1969, .1576.
51 ., . . , .,
1965, .1165.
44 .,

: first draught

53

, , ,
,
. .
. U Cn OU .
. f g = 0 - f, g OU . f 6= 0,
V z U , f (z) 6= 0 .
g(z) = 0 z V , g(z) = 0
z U , , g = 0 OU .
2. . X
Cn . (U, f ), U , X U Cn
X, f U . , (U, f ) (V, g),
W , X W U V , X,
f |W = g|W .
X.
( !), , (U, f ) + (V, g) = (U V, f + g),
(U, f )(V, g) = (U V, f g), 1, X. OX . , X ,
(X, f ), .. X,
!
X = {x}, Ox
x.
x Cn . C{x1 , . . . , xn }
. , (U, f ) (V, g), f (x) = g(x),
Ox x
. , Ox = {f Ox | f (x) 6= 0}.
. .
. , m = {f Ox | f (x) = 0} Ox .
. , m , Ox /m C.
, Ox , . .

54

?:

: . , . , , :
( );
;
(
);
/ ;
L1 (G) ( ,
R).

.
,
. :
, , (DFT), , ...
6.
, .
P
1. , . iI ai , .. |{i I |
ai 6= 0}| < . , , I .
, .. I
n, n = |I|,
Pn
i=1 ai .

, , ,
n, , .
. P
:
i=1 ai , , Rb
a f (x)dx,
(, ). , .
, ,
?
, , . ,

,
. (, )
. ,

: first draught

55

,
.

2. . R ( ). a1 , . . . am , b1 , . . . bn R.
(a1 + . . . + am )(b1 + . . . + bm ) =

m
X

ai

i=1

n
X

bj =

j=1

X
im

ai

bj

jn

.
, ,
X X
X X XX
ai
bj =
ai
bj =
ai bj
im

jn

im

jn

im jn

, ,

X X
X X
XX
ai
bj =
ai
bj =
ai bj
im

jn

jn

im

jn im

, I = m, J = N , ,
XX
XX
ai bj =
ai bj .
iI jJ

jJ iI

3. . , aij , i j, , , 1 i m,
1 j n. .
,
P
i, ..
P
bi =
aij , 1 j n,
bi ,
1 i m. P
aij , 1 i m,
P j, .. cj =

cj , 1 Pj n.

aij , 1 i m, 1 j n, ,
m X
n
X
i=1 j=1

aij =

n X
m
X

aij ,

j=1 i=1

i j , .
.
4. (test of truth).
. ,
. . ,
,
.
,
.

56

, . , ,
, , , ,
.
5. . .
.
:
XX
XX
cij =
cij .
iI jJ

jJ iI

cij .

(i,j)IJ

. X
,

YY
YY
cij =
cij .
iI jJ

jJ iI

, ,
X .
. R
X Y , ..
X Y ,
X
X
|{y Y | (x, y) R}| =
|{x X | (x, y) R}|.
xX

yY

, |R|.
, .
. , |J| = 2:
X
X
X
(ai + bi ) =
ai +
bi .
iI

iI

iI

.
. ,
1 i m, 1 j n, (i, j), ,
, j i.
, :
n X
i
X
i=0 j=0

cij =

n X
n
X

cij .

j=0 i=j

. ,
, !

: first draught

57

2. ,

.
52

.
1. . M , R + . RM = Map(M, R)
R, M . RM / R[M ], , ,
, , , + .
, ,
.
, f, g RM
f g RM , (f g)(x) R x M . , ,
, . , , -
, .
. f g f g
x M
(f g)(x) =

f (y)g(z).

yz=x

, ,
. ,
M . ,
, . ,
.
.
. , , , ..
? , ,
,
,
, . (),
XIX .
.,
, ,
.
52 .,

, .2, ., 1967.

58

2. , . ,
, , ,
M , .
. y z = x M
. , x M
(y, z) M M , y z = x.
f RM x M ,
f (x) 6= 0:
Supp(f ) = {x M | f (x) 6= 0}.
, , . , M , .
.
:
R[M ] = {f RM | | Supp(f )| < }.
, , , f (x) = 0
x,
, , .
M R. M , R[M ] = RM .
. R(M ), R[M ]!
, . , f, g R[M ],
Supp(f + g) Supp(f ) Supp(g),

Supp(f g) Supp(f ) Supp(g),

f + g, f g R[M ]. ,
R 1, RM R[M ]
1.
. , 53 54 .
. M ,
M M M ,
.. , 55 . , , ,
. . ,
, .

.
3. . , M = G , x y yz = x z = y 1 x.
, x z, y = xz 1 .
53 .,

I, . II; 9,10 c. 294298.

, . VIVIII, ., 1970; 1 2 . 222223,
, ,
55 ., , . I II, ., 1968; . I, 10
54 .

: first draught

59

, ,
y z . , , ,
:
X
X
(f g)(x) =
f (y)g(y 1 x) =
f (xz 1 )g(z).
yG

zG

G ,
X
X
f (y)g(x y) =
f (x z)g(z).
(f g)(x) =
yG

zG

3.
, 2.1
R . ,
R M , .
M

. M , x M
y z = x .
1) RM +, ;
2) R , RM ;
3) M R , RM ;
4) M , R 1, RM 1.
. 1) RM , . , f, g, h RM . , , .
(f + g) h x M :
X
X
((f + g) h)(x) =
(f + g)(y)h(z) =
(f (y) + g(y))h(z) =
yz=x

yz=x

f (y)h(z) + g(y)h(z) =

yz=x

f (y)h(z) +

yz=x

g(y)h(z) =

yz=x

(f h)(x) + (g h)(x).
, .
2) (f g) h f (g h)
x M .
X
(f g)(y)h(z) =
((f g) h)(x) =
yz=x

X
yz=x

X
uv=y

!
f (u)g(v) h(z) =

X
uvz=x

f (u)g(v)h(z).

60

R, ( ). f, g h
, , . . v z = w,
X

f (u)g(v)h(z) =

uvz=x

f (u)

uw=x

!
g(v))h(z)

vz=w

uw=x

.
3) , M R,
(f g)(x) =

f (y)g(z) =

yz=x

g(z)f (y) = (g f )(x).

zy=x

4) 1 RM - e ,
1 x = e 0 x 6= e. , , , e
:
X
(e f )(x) =
e (y)f (z) = f (x).
yz=x

.
, R 1, M R. , RM
, R ,
M .
.
5. .
.
. M = (N, )
, CN
(f g)(n) =

f (l)g(m).

lm=n

. M = (N0 , +)
, CN0
(f g)(n) =

X
l+m=n

f (l)g(m).

: first draught

61

4.
, .. 3.2,
4 .
. 1) R[M ] +, ;
2) R , R[M ] ;
3) M R , R[M ] ;
4) M , R 1, R[M ] 1.
. , 4,
.
1
M
R. .
3 . y M y :

1,
x = y,
y (x) =
0,
x 6= y.
Supp(x ) = {x} x R[M ]. , x , M , R[M ] R-.
,
f R[M ]
P
f =
f (x)x , .

P 0
f =
f (x)x , x Supp(f ). , -
, M , , x y = xy . ,
- x ex ,
Einheit.
, .
. : A B
,
P
P : M N
. A[M ] B[N ],
ag eg 7
(ag )e(g) , . , = id
A[M ] B[M ], , = id
A[M ] A[N ]. .
. ,
(1) R[M N ]
= (R[M ])[N ].
(2) R[M ]o
= Ro [M o ].
(3) I E R, R[M ]/IR[M ]
= (R/I)[M ].
(4) S R, S 1 (R[M ])
= (S 1 R)[M ].
. !!
. , R 6= 0, G
, R[G] 0.

62

. g 6= e n. (e + g + . . . + g n1 )(e g) =
0 R[G].
.
. R 0, G ,
R[G] 0.
. x, y R[G]. x y
( !) , x y
R[H], H G .
1
H , , R[H]
= R[x1
1 , . . . , xn ]
.
. R G C1P
, . . . , Cn . , Cent(R[G])
eC =
eg , g C, C = C1 , . . . , Cn .
. , h G
hC = Ch (?)
P , eC
R[G]. , x =
ag eg R[G],
h G
x = eh xeh1 =

ag ehgh1 =

gG

ah1 gh eg .

gG

, ah1 gh = ag g, h G, x
eC . , eC , eC
eg , .
5.
6.
, .
, ex ey = axy exy , axy R.
Ra [M ]. ,
(axy ), x, y M ,
1.
. 1) Ra [M ] +, ;
2) R , a = (axy )
axy axy,z = ax,yz ayz ,

x, y, z M,

R[M ] ;
3) M R , a = (axy ) , axy = ayx ,
R[M ] ;
4) M , R 1, a a = (axy ) , .. a+x1 =
1 = ax1 , R[M ] 1.

: first draught

63

.
2, . ,
(ex ey )ez = axy exy ez = axy axy,z e(xy)z ,
ex (ey ez ) = ex (ayz eyz ) = ax,yz ayz ex(yz) .
, 2
.
. f : M M 7 R 2- , , , x, y, z M
f (x, y)f (xy, z) = f (x, yz)f (y, z).
2-,
(scaling) R[M ], . ex , x M ,
e0x = ux ex , ux R .

0
e0x e0y = ux uy ex ey = ux uy ex y = ux uy u1
xy exy .
, R ,
M M R,

(x, y) 7 axy = ux uy u1
xy ,

, 2- ( !) 2 axy = ux uy u1
xy 2- 0. ,
, axy bxy = ux uy u1
xy axy .
. , .
7.
1. . . ,
. n
Z/nZ. f : Z/nZ K f = (f0 , . . . , fn1 )t ,
0, . . . , n 1 Z/nZ. f g ,
h = f g, m Z/nZ
P
hm =
fi gj , i, j Z/nZ , m = i + j.
,

a0
b0
a0 b0 + a1 b2 + a2 b1
a1 b1 = a0 b1 + a1 b0 + a2 b2 .
a2
b2
a0 b2 + a1 b1 + a2 b0
K Z/nZ
- xn 1.

64

. RZ/nZ
= K[x]/(xn 1).
, n,
n2 . , K
n K n 1,
K n = K . . . K , n K.
, n 1.

1
1
1
...
1

2
...
z n1
1

2
4
. . . 2(n1) ,
V = 1

...
2
1 n1 2(n1) . . . (n1)
,
, DFT. , F .
. n K n K.
F : K Z/nZ K . . . K ,
f 7 F (f ) = V f,
|
{z
}
n
.
8.
. f : [0, ) C ,
[0, a]. L(f )
,
Z

(L(f ))(x) =

f (t)ezt dt.

, [0, )
Z

(f g)(t) =

f (t s)g(s)ds.
o

, L(f
g) = L(f )L(g). !! , L(f ), L(g) re(x) > r,
L(f g) ..
9.

.

: first draught

65

1. . R CN = Map(N, C)
, ,

(f g)(n) =

X
d|n

f (d)g

n
d

d n.
. R = CN 1.
, ?. , 1
- e = 1n , 1 1, 0
.
.
.
: , ,
(. ?).
. . , f : N C

X
f (n)
L(s, f ) =
,
ns
n=1
s C.
:
L(s, f + g) = L(s, f ) + L(s, g),

L(s, f g) = L(s, f )L(s, g).

. , R
. , f R,
f (1) 6= 0.
. , f g = 0, f, g 6= 0.
m n , f (m) 6= 0 g(n) 6= 0 (f g)(mn). f (1) = 1 ?.?,
.
. , .
. , ,
, C.
. , R
, - e.
, I,
1, .

66

. , I, .
. , R Map(N0 , C)
1. 1 , 1 0 0 . ,
0 f R,
f (0) 6= 0.
ln ,
n ln(n).
. , ln
, , ln(f g) = (ln f ) g + f (ln g).
10.
1. . , , R = CN
. E(n) =
1. f R E f E
f :
X
(E f )(n) =
f (d).
d|n

E(1) = 1, E R.
ms
1
= E 1 . n = pm
1 . . . ps
n. nred = p1 . . . ps .
, n = nred .
. :

(1)s , n = p1 . . . ps ,
(n) =
0,
.
. P : (1) = 1 d|n (d) = 0 n 2. n = nred = p1 . . . ps
, s. : s = 0.
: , , , s 1 , .
(n)
1 Cs1 + Cs2 . . . + (1)s1 Css1 + (n) = 0.
(11)s = 0, , (s) = (1)s .
n 6= nred ,
n. , (p2 ) = 0. ,
m, ,
, n, , (m) = 0.
X
X
X
(n) =
(d) =
(d)
(d),
d|n,d6=n

d|nred

d|n,d6=n
d6|nred

: first draught

67

0 ,
.
2. . f = (E f )
. ,
.

f (n) =

(d)(E f )(n/d) =

d|n

(n/d)(E f )(d)

d|n

, E f , f .
.
P
( ). g(n) =
f (d),
d|n

f (n) =

(n/d)g(d).

d|n

Q ( ).
g(n) =
f (d),
d|n
Y
f (n) =
g(d)(n/d) .
d|n

3. .

(n) =

ln(p), n = pm , p P, m 1,
0,

. 1894 .
n
P
. , (n) =
(d) ln
.
d
d|n
. ,
X

(d) = ln(n),

d|n

.
4. Mathematica . (n) (n) EulerPhi[n]
MoebiusMu[n]. , , DivisorSigma[m,n], m (n) m- , , DivisorSigma[0,n]
n.

68

, , FactorInteger, ,
:
mangoldt[n ]:=Block[{x},x=FactorInteger[n];
If[Length[x]==1,Ln[First[First[x]]],0]]
, ,
n, 1035 n 1040 , , FactorInteger,
CPU.
11. L1

l1 a = (an )<n< ,
P
n |an | < . b = (bn )<n< ,

(a b) =

ai bni

i=

.
<n<

X
X
X

ai bni =
|ai |
|bi |

n=
i=

i=

i=

, a, b l1 ab l1 .
e,
e0 = 1 ei = 0 i 6= 0.
L1 (, )
Z
(f g)(x) =

f (x y)g(y)dy.

, , ,
L1 L1 . , (
-??)

Z Z

f (x y)g(y)dy dx

Z
|f (x y)|dx

Z
|g(y)|dy =

Z
|f (x)|dx

|g(y)|dy.

, , f, g L1 (, ), f g L1 (, ),
kf gk kf kkgk. , 1!!! !

: first draught

69

?.
R[x]. ,
R[x], , R[x, x1 ] , R[[x]]
, R((x)) ,
K[x, ], ..
1.
N0 .
.
1. ? R . R[], R. ,
x R f = an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 , ai R.
fe, c R f c, ..
f (c), c x f :
f (c) = an cn + . . . + a1 c + a0 R.
, fe f , , ,
R = K , , , , ..
fe. ,
K = F2 = {0, 1} . , , x
x2 id : K K.
, , x = x2 . ,
, , ,
, R R ( !)
, , N0 R.
, x R ( ). , x
R, , , f = an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 ,
g = bn xn + . . . + b1 x + b0 , ,
x : ai = bi i N0 .
, , an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 .
, x R , , a priori ,
an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 . ,
, .

2. . , R, R[]
. R[]
(a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ) R. ,
ai R, ai = 0 i, ..
i, . R[]
.
F R[] :
(a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ) + (b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . ) = (a0 + b0 , a1 + b1 , a2 + b2 , . . . ),
, ai + bi 0, R[]
.

70

F R[x]
(a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . )(b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . ) = (c0 , c1 , c2 , . . . )
h N0 ch
X
ch =
ai bj , i, j N0 , i + j = h.
, c0 = a0 b0 , c1 = a0 b1 + a1 b0 , c2 = a0 b2 + a1 b1 + a2 b0 , c3 =
a0 b3 + a1 b2 + a2 b1 + a3 b0 . , , -,
( ch h + 1 ),
, -, 0 ( h
, i j
, , , ai = 0 bj = 0). ,
R[x],
R[x].
, ,
RN0 , N0
. , ,
R[N0 ]. ,
R[x], x = 1 .
. R[x] 1.
?,
.
. . , , ,
R[x] , , . ,
(0, 0, 0, . . . ),
, (a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ), (a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ).
, a b c ,
R , R[] .
(1, 0, 0, . . . ).
.

R[x]. , .
, (a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ), (b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . ) (c0 , c1 , c2 , . . . )
R[x], , P
l-
ai bj ch ,
i, j, h N, , i + j + h = l. .

3. . (a, 0, 0, . . . ) , R,
a R, , (a, 0, 0, . . . ) = a. , R
R[].
x . x = (0, 1, 0, 0, . . . ). x ,

: first draught

71

, xn , n-
1, :
x0 = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...),
x1 = (0, 1, 0, 0, 0, ...),
x2 = (0, 0, 1, 0, 0, ...),
x3 = (0, 0, 0, 1, 0, ...),
...
. xn . , 1, x, x2 , . . . R[x]. (
,
.)
, axn , , 0,
( ).
4. . , an
f = (a0 , a1 , . . . , an , 0, . . . ), f
ai xi , 0 i n:
(a0 , a1 , . . . , an , 0, . . . ) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn ,
( )
x), ..
(a0 , a1 , . . . , an , 0, . . . ) = an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 .
f R[] ,
ai f , (a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ) (b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . )
, ai = bi i Z. ,
, . .
. R[x] ( ) ( )
R. ( ).
2.

. .
1. . c R[x] x R. c c
f R[x] f = an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 , ai R. c an 6= 0,
lt(f ) = an xn c c (leading term)
f , cc lc(f ) = an c

72

(leading coefficient)56 . c, an c c
f , c an 6= 0, am = 0 c m > n. , , ,
, lt(f ) = 0 lc(0) = 0. f (0) = a0
(constant term),
R .
, , / R[x] R[x] R[x] R, :
lt(f g) = lt(f ) lt(g),

lc(f g) = lc(f ) lc(g)

.
. lc(f ) Reg(R), f Reg(R[x]).

R[x] R, ..
(f + g)(0) = f (0) + g(0),

(f g)(0) = f (0)g(0),

c R.
2. . .
. c = an xn +. . .+a1 x+a0 R[x], ai R, an 6= 0.
n c lc(f ) = an f c c
f c deg(f ).
deg degre / degree. f = 0 c c c
. , c deg : R[x]
N0 {} c c,
c c N0 c. ,
c N0 {} cc
c c c, < n,
n Z; + n = + () = .
c 0 c, f = a R, a 6= 0. f = ax + b, a, b R, a 6= 0, c 1, c ;
f = zx2 + bx + c, a, b, c R, a 6= 0, c 2 ; f = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, a, b, c, d R, a 6= 0, c 3
c. x17 + x11 + x 17.
3. .
.
56

(highest term)
coefficient. .

: first draught

73

. 1) f, g R[]
deg(f + g) max(deg(f ), deg(g)),
deg(f ) 6= deg(g) .
2) f, g R[x]
deg(f g) deg(f ) + deg(g).
3) c R c cc, f, g R[x]
deg(f g) = deg(f ) + deg(g).
4) c R c cc, f R[], g R[x] ,
deg(f g) = deg(f ) deg(g).
. 1) c , i- f + g
c i- f i- g, 0, c i > deg(f ), deg(g). (, 0 c
i = deg(f ) = deg(g), c, c f g cc. c deg(f ) 6= deg(g), c
c c).
2) 3) c , c deg(f ) =Pm, deg(g) = n. l-
c cl =
ai bj , i + j = l, ai i-
f , bj j- g. c l > m + n, c
ai = 0, bj = 0. , c c, cl 0.
, c , deg(f g) c c deg(f ) + deg(g),
, am bn = 0, am 6= 0 bn 6= 0. , ,
, c R c cc.
c c cc.
1. c R c cc, R[x] c
cc.
2. c R c cc, R[x] = R .
. deg(f ) > 0, g R[x], g 6= 0,
deg(f g) deg(f ) > 0, f .
3. 1 c cc .
4. c cc 1
.
3. ,
, .
1. . R 1, A , R-
1.

74

. f = an xn +. . .+a1 x+a0 R[x] c

A c x f
f c f (c) = an cn + . . . + a1 c + a0 1 A.
, f R[x] fe : A
A, c 7 f (c), c A
f c. , c A
evc : R[x] A, f 7 f (c), c.
.
. c A evc : R[x] 7 A
R-. , R- : R[x] 7
A = ev(x) .
, , c A evc
, (x) = c.
2. . ,
.
A = R R, f R[x] fe : R
R, c R f c.
fe 57 .
fe : R R. - ,
, fe
f.
A = S R (.. ,
R ), R[x]
S. , ,
..
A = K[x] . f (x) = f , .. f
x. f f (x). ,
, ,
x . ,
.
- A = K[x]. , f (g) f
g g f (sic!)
f g. , , ..,
, f g 6= g f . , f = x2 , g = x+1, f g = f (g) =
(x+1)2 , gf = g(f ) = x2 +1. ,
2 = 0, .. 2.
. , , ..
f, g, h R[x] (f g) h = f (g h).
57 ,

, ,
.

: first draught

75

. R , f, g R[x] f g = 0, f = 0,
g R.
, A .
, . , A = M (n, R), f (c) f R[x] c M (n, R) . M (n, R),
,
M (n, R)[x] = M (n, R[x]).
3. ? R[x]
, R ? R[x]
R. ,
! ,
c R .
, a, b R .
(x a)(x b) = x2 (a + b)x + ab R[x].
a. , (aa)(a b) = 0. a2 (a+b)a +ab = abba 6= 0.
, eva .
, , . ,
, , ! (x a)(x b) =
x2 ax xb + ab. m a1 xa2 . . . am xam+1 ,
x m .
! , , ,
,
/ .
. ,
, (
R R R). ,
?. h R[x] R[x] R[x], f 7 f g,
. , (f + g) h = f h + g h
(f g) h = (f h)(g h). R[x]
(substitutions). h x.
R[[x]] , , h f R[[x]] h
0.

4.
,
, 0 ,
.
1. R[x]. 2 . , , R[x] = R , , R
. , R . , Nil(R)
R.
. ,
R[x] = {f = an xn + . . . + a0 R[x] | a0 R , a1 , . . . , an Nil(R)}.
. g = bm xm + . . . + b0 f . f g = 1,
a0 b0 = 1 a0 , b0 R . , an . , an bm =
an bm1 + an1 bm = 0. an , , a2n bm1 = 0.
, m- an b0 + . . . +

76

i
a0 bn = 0, am
n an bni+1 = 0, ,
m+1
an b0 = 0 , b0 R , an Nil(R). .

2. 0 R[x]. ,
, .
. f R[x] (strongly primitive),
R. , . , .
, ?,
.
. f = an xn + . . . + a0 R[x]
0 R, c R, cf = 0.
. . g = bm xm + . . . + b0 , f g = 0. ai g = 0 i = 0, . . . , n,
, c = bm . ,
j , aj g 6= 0. deg(aj g) < deg(g). ,
f g = (an xn + . . . + aj xj + . . . + a0 )g = aj xj g + . . . + a0 g = 0,
aj bm xj+m j + m .
, f aj g = 0, deg(aj g) < deg(g). g ,
j .
. , Idem(R[x]) = Idem(R).
3. .
R[x] R. (E.Snapper).
.
. , Nil(R[x]) = Nil(R)[x]. , f
, .
. R/ Nil(R) , (R/ Nil(R))[x] .
(R/ Nil(R))[x] = R[x]/ Nil(R)[x].
R[x] ,
.
. f Rad(R[x]). 1 + xf R , R[x]
, f . f
Nil(R[x]).
4. . , K[x]
. , ?
. , K[x] K f 7 f (ax + b), a K , b K.
, K[x] K ,

a
0

b
1

,a K ,b K

. , K[x] K.
, K[x] Aut(K), ,
.

: first draught

77

5. :
, 1, x, x2 , . . . , R-
R[x]. , ,
, ,
.
.
. xn (x c)n
, c = 0.
? , xn (x c)n ?
/ , , ,
.
Pn n
. , xn = m=0 m
(x 1)m .

6. :
. x(n) = xn /n!
n (m+n)
x(m) x(n) = m
x
(divided powers), x(m)
0 , , 0
,
, !
,
exp(x) = 1 + x(1) + x(2) + . . . .
7. :
. 58 .
. [x]n = x(x + 1) . . . (x + n 1)
. [x]n = x(x 1) . . . (x n + 1)
, [x]n = (1)n [x]n
xn = Sn0 [x]0 + Sn1 [x]1 + . . . + Snn [x]n , Snm (
S00 = 1 Sn0 = 0 n > 0).
sni
[x]n = sn0 x0 + sn1 x1 + . . . + snn xn ,
[x]n = |sn0 |x0 + |sn1 |x1 + . . . + |snn |xn ,

.
[x + y]n =

58 .,

n
X
n
[x]m [y]nm ,
m
m=0

[x + y]n =

, ., , 1982.

n
X
n
[x]m [y]nm .
m
m=0

78

8. :
n m
m
x (1 x)nm
n.
( ): (Polynomfolge) fn = xn +
.
,
, ?,
, , , , , , ...
, , , , - 1.

9.

nx = [x]n /n!
Q.
f Q[x] (ganzzahlig, integral), , .. Z[x]. f (ganzwertig, integer-valued), f (Z) Z,
.. , n Z f (n) .
, .
x(x 1)/2, .
,
, :

x
1
= x(x 1) . . . (x n + 1)
n
n!
, .
, . ,
, , , (., , [Ha], 7.3 .75).
. f Q[x] , f (n) Z n Z,
n 0. a0 , . . . , am Z,

x
f = am
+ . . . + a1 x + a0 .
m
.
f . : deg(f ) = 0 x
. : m
= xm /m!+ ,
m Q[x]
am , . . . , a0 Q. ,
. f
x f(x)x =
f (x + 1) f (x). . m = m1
( ),

x
f = am
+ . . . + a2 x + a1 .
m1
G am , . . . , a1 Z. a0

x
c0 = f am
. . . a1 x
m
.

: first draught

79

10.

, Z.
,
, x.
R[x, x1 ]
x R.

am x

+ . . . + a1 x

+ a0 + a1 x + . . . + an x =

n
X

ai xi ,

i=m

ai R.

?
, ,
S = {1, x, x2 , . . . }. x,
, R[x, x1 ] R[x] , , x. ,
xm f , m Z, f R[x].
11.
What is a power series? Take the definition of a polynomial
a0 + a1 X + a2 X 2 + . . . + an X n
and from it delete the last term. This gives
a0 + a1 X + a2 X 2 + . . .
as the definition of a power series; likewise for several variables. So a power
series is simpler than a polynomial.
Shreeram S.Abhyankar59

, -, R 1. R[[x]] R[x], , ,
.
1. . R[[]]
(a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ) R, R[[]] , R[x]. ,
R[[]] :
(a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . ) + (b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . ) = (a0 + b0 , a1 + b1 , a2 + b2 , . . . ),
59 S.S.Abhyankar,

Historical ramblings in algebraic geometry and related algebra. Amer.

Math. Monthly, 1976, JuneJuly, p.409448.

80

(a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . )(b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . ) = (c0 , c1 , c2 , . . . )
P
h N0 ch ch =
ai bj ,
i, j N0 , i + j = h. , 1
.
. R[[x]]
1.
f = (a0 , a1 , . . . , an , . . . ) ai xi , 0 i n:
n

(a0 , a1 , . . . , an , . . . ) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an x + . . . =

an xn ,

i=0

x.

an x +

n=0

X
n=0

bn x =

n=0
n

an x

X
n=0

(an + bn )xn ,

n=0
n

bn x =

X
X
n=0

ai bj xn .

i+j=n

. R[[x]] ( )
R. ( ).

,
, .
Im = {f R[[x]] | ord(f ) m}.
, Im E R[[x]]. Im
0 R[[x]].
R[[x]] (, , .II, .IV, .77-78). R[x]
R[[x]]. , . , .
, , , ..
(). y Q[[x]] , y 2 = 1 + x.

. , , 1 + x

1
1 2
13 3
135 4
y =1+ x
x +
x
x + ...
2
24
246
2468

: first draught

81

12.
1. . , 1
.
. R .
X
R[[x]] = {f =
fi xi R[[x]] | f0 R }.
. , , ,
f g = 1 g R[[x]], f0 g0 = 1, f0 R .
, , f0 R , f .
f f = a0 (1h), h .
(1 h)(1 + h + h2 + . . . ) = 1 = , ,
, f . ( , h
?)
2. . , R = K
, K[[x]].
, f /g, 0 0,
h K[[x]],
P . h = an xn K[[x]]. ,
h . ,
h .
.
. , , h K[[x]] ,
, l, m N,
(aml+1 , aml+2 , . . .
(aml+2 , aml+3 , . . .
...
(am+1 ,
am+2 ,
...

),
),
),

.
. , , g
K[x] , f = gh . g = b0 + . . . + bl xl f = c0 + . . . +
cm xm . gh xn , n > m, ,
b0 an + b1 an1 + . . . + bl an1 = 0. n = m + 1, m + 2,

b0 am+1 + b1 am + . . . + bl aml+1 = 0
b0 am+2 + b1 am+1 + . . . + bl aml+2 = 0
...
.
:

an
an+1 . . . an+h1
an+2 . . .
an+h
a
Hn(h) = det n+1

...
an+h1 an+h . . . an+2h2

82

. (??)
(h)

(h1)

Hn(h) Hn+2 Hn(h+1) Hn+2

(h) 2
= Hn+1

13.

1. . R[[x]] x: f x = f = x f .
R[[x]] ,
R[[x]]0 ,
. 60 .
. R .
R[[x]]0 = {f =

fi xi R[[x]]0 , f1 R }.

. , , ,
f g = 1 g R[[x]]0 , f1 g1 = 1, f1 R .
, , f0 = 0, f1 R , f
. ,
f g. g0 = 0 g1 = f11 n 2 xn
f g 0. , xn
f1 g +f2 g 2 +. . . fn g n , f g (
f g x!). ,

f1 gn + rn (f2 , . . . , fn , g1 , . . . , gn1 ) = 0,
rn Z[x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yn1 ] 2(n 1) , x2 , . . . , xn .
f1 R , gn , g1 , . . . , gn1
P
. , g =
gi xi ,
, f g = x. g0 = 0, g1 R , P
g
h =
hi xi ,
h g = x. , (
R[[x]]0 !), , h = f ,
g f .
Mathematica
ComposeSeries[f,g]
f g, g .
InverseSeries[f,x] f x.
60

, , , ., 1963, 296.

: first draught

83

14.
K . ((x)), K(x)
, K[[x]]
K[x]. , , .
1. . R 1.
am x

+ . . . + a1 x

+ a0 + a1 x + . . . + an x + . . . =

an xn ,

nm

ai R. R
R((x)). , R((x))
.
P
f =
ai xi
am xm + . . . + a1 x1 K[x1 ]
. ,
, , a1 = res(f ), f . , ord(f ) m , am 6= 0. ord(f ) < 0, ord(f )
f 0.
2. . , R = K ,
K((x)) . ,
K[[x]] () f = xm g, g 0, m = ord(f ) N0 .
0 K[[x]], ,
K[[x]], x.
, Q(K[[x]])
K[[x]] x:
Q(K[[x]]) = K[[x]]x = K((x)).
, Q(K[[x]]) f = xm g, , -, ord(g) = 0, m Z. K((x))
, ord(f 1 ) = ord(f ).
, f K[x]
( 0), K(x) K((x)). f /g
f g 1 K((x)) .
.
!
61 . , (x + y)1
/ K[[x, y]]x,y . , x y,
, x + y !
. , x + y a00 + a10 x + a01 y + . . .
, .
61 ourbaki?,

II, .IV, 7 .80.

84

15.
R[x; , ],
xa = (a)x + (a).
Aut(R), Der(R).
16.
Rhx, yi x, y, alias
.
17.
xy = qyx.
18.

, !
1. versus . . , - (
). , ,
, . ,
, , etc.;
, .
, .
, , , ,
( , , ,
, , ..). ,
, , , , etc. , ,
. , , , .. . ,
, , -, . ,
, ., , . , 1997.
,
. :
? ;
? ( , );
? ( );
? ( ..;
);
? ( ,
: versus );
? (, ,
);
? ( , );
? ;
? ;

: first draught

85

? ( , : ,
-, );
? (, , , , , , , . . . , , , . . . ; );
? ( ,
);
? (, , , , );
? ( );
? ( , , , ;
);
? ( );
etc., etc., etc.
, , -
.
( ), ( ). , ,
, , , . ,
.
2. . ,
:
. , ,
.
, , ,
(, Menge Abbildung, set mapping ensemble application ,
, , - ),
,
.
( a priori ,
, , ,
XVIII XIX
:
, , ,
..62 .

. , ,
.
. , XVIII
62 ,

,
, , ,
, .

86

, ,
.
3. . , , , .

, . , generator , , ,
; relation , , , , factor
, , divisor , inversion
, decomposition . , , manifold variety
( Mannigfaltigkeit, ,
Variet
at), unit identity,
( !) .
, , , , (
R , ).
,
( , , ,
, ;
, , ).
( ) - , , , - -. , . ,
- : .
, .

: first draught

87

6.

, , ,
, , .
1. ,
.
1. . , ,
63 .
. I J ( , ), X . I J X
x : I J X. x (i, j) I J
( ) x
(i, j) ( (i, j)).
M (I, J, X) I J X. x
, x(i, j) = xi,j .
xij . : x = (xij ), i I, j J. ,
.
, X .
x y , I J, (i, j) I J x
y , .. xij = yij . ,
X Y
x y,
.
. Mtrixelement. ,
, .
entry, , , , , .

2. .
. , I = m = {1, . . . , m} J = n = {1, . . . , n} , x
( ) m n ( m n).
:

x=

x11
xm1

63 ,

...
...
...

x1n

xmn

, ,
, ., .,
. .I. ., , 1969, .1423; .193.

88

m , n x.
x x = (xij ), 1 i m, 1 j n.
,
, I = J. . I I
X M (I, X) = M (I, I, X).
x m = n ( ) x.
. , , , |I| = |J|. , I = J!
m n X (
X) M (m, n, X), n X m , X mn .
n X
M (n, X) = M (n, n, X).
. , N Z. ,
-
64 .
K(x, y), x, y R, .

2.
, .
1. . ,

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

,
. Mathematica , , ,
IdentityMatrix[3], {{1,0,0},{0,1,0},{0,0,1}}
Table[If[i==j,1,0],{i,1,3},{j,1,3}].
, :
65 . 66 , ,
: , , .
, . ,
, . .
, , X =
{\$, , U, Euro}, axy (x, y), x, y X
x y . (
axx = 1 axy ayx < 1 x 6= y)
( ). . X =
{Euro, DM, FF, Lit}. EMU
. 19992001 , (
!) .
64 .,

. , .,
1960, .1471.
65 : .., .., . , ., 1974, .1296. .12.
66 .., .., . II. , ., 2002.

: first draught

89

2. . . ,
, .
,
GL(n, K),
.
, , ,
, . , ,
(
Sp(2l, K) SO(2l + 1, K) 7 G2 ), .
SO(2l, K) GL(n, K) .
67,68,69 .
,
. , ,
, .
.
|X| = n, X , , , . B(n, K)
n = 4, 1 < 2 < 3 < 4 1 > 2 > 3 > 4:

0 0 0

0 0
0

0.
0 0 ,
0

, . M (X, R), X ?
X N, X Z, X Q, N, Z, Q, , .
B(N, K) B(Z, K) ( !) ,
B(Q, K) ( !)

3.
.
.
1. . ,
.
, X. , I J .

v = (v1 , . . . , vn ) n X
n X 1n,
.
67 N.A.Vavilov,

Structure of Chevalley groups over commutative rings. Proc. Conf. Nonassociative algebras and related topics (Hiroshima 1990), World Sci. Publ., London et al., 1991,
p.219335.
68 E.B.Plotkin, A.A.Semenov, N.A.Vavilov, Visual basic representations: an atlas. Int. J. Algebra and Computations, 1998, vol.8, N.1, p.6197.
69 N.A.Vavilov, A third look at weight diagrams. Rend. Sem. Mat. Univ. Padova, 2000,
vol.204, N.1, p.201250.

90

M (1, n, X) = n X.

u1
.
u = .. X n
un
n X n 1,
: M (n, 1, R) = Rn .
u u =
(u1 , . . . , un )T , T .
. , , , , ,
!!!
, X = R ,
, ?.
X = {0, }:

0
0

0
0

,
0

0
0 .
0 0

2 3, 3 2,
3.
, 3 3

1 2 3
3 2 1,
2 1 3
, ,
, , , ,
{1, 2, 3}.
2. . ,
.
. 0, (i, j) 1,1/2 0, ,
x y, , x y, x y.
,
{a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8},
{White,Red}{King,Queen,Rook,Bishop,Knight,Pawn}{0}
, , , ,
.

: first draught

91

. 640480, 800600,
1024 768, 1152 864, 1280 960, 1280 1024, 1600 1200, c RBG,
3 I. . ,
, . , , ,
, 1152 864 = 995328 ( ,
, 4-5 ). TrueColor |RBG| = 2563 = 16777216.

16777216995328 . . , , , 2995328 , , 2 ,
, 299624 , 150 . 224 ! , 16777216995328 ,
Length[IntegerDigits[16777216 ^ 995328]] , 7190967 ,
3596 !

4. : , ,
.
1. . ,
I = m = 1, . . . , m J = n = {1, . . . , n}
.
. x m n X.
1 i m
xi = (xi1 , . . . , xin ) n X
i- x. , 1 j n
xj = (x1j , . . . , xmj )T X n
j- x.
.
2. . . I 0 I J 0 J
x I J I 0 J 0 . (Untermatrix, submatrix, ) x,
I 0 J 0 . , 1 i1 < . . . < is m
1 j1 < . . . < jt n, 1 s m 1 t n, {i1 , . . . , is } {1, . . . , m} {j1 , . . . , jt } {1, . . . , n}

xi1 j1 . . . xi1 jt

...
xis j1 . . . xis jt
s t. . ,
, I 0
J 0 . ,
I \ I 0 J \ J 0 .

92

M (I, X) . x,
J .
3. . , . ,
(principal diagonal, Hauptdiagonale) x
(x11 , x22 , . . . , xrr ),
r = min(m, n). (i, j) , , .. , i = j, .
, i < j, ,
, , i > j, .
n
(Nebendiagonale) (x1n , x2,n1 , . . . , xn1 ). (skew diagonal) (second diagonal)
, . , x = (xij )
n (x12 , . . . , xn1,n ),
(x21 , . . . , xn,n1 ). , (x1,1+r , . . . , xnr,n ), r- , x (i, j), j i = r.
, (x1+r,1 , . . . , xn,nr ) r- , x (i, j), i j = r.
5.
,
,
.

0
0
0=
...
0

0
0
...
0

...
...
...
...

0
0

...
0

1
0
e=
...
0

0
1
...
0

...
...
...
...

0
0

...
1

. (i, j) e ij .
eij ,
.
. eij (i, j) 1,
0. , (eij )hk = ih jk . ,
, 2:

1 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
e11 =
, e12 =
, e21 =
, e22 =
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 1

: first draught

93

,
M (n, R) R-.
. fij = i,n+1j
,
Reverse , .

0
0
f =
...
1

...
...
...
...

1
0

...
0

0
1
...
0

.
. Testij = 1
,

1
1
Test =
...
1

1
1
...
1

1
1

...
1

...
...
...
...

, , , .
. Chessij = (1)i+j . chessboard matrix
Schachbrettmatrix. 4:

1
1
Chess =
1
1

1
1
1
1

1 1
1 1

1 1
1 1

.
Back Backij = i+1,j ,

0
1
=
...
0

0
0
...
0

...
...
...
...

0
0
...
1

0
0
,
...
0

0
...
=
0
0

1
...
0
0

...
...
...
...

0
...
0
0

0
...
.
1
0

94

, Back Computer Science ShiftLeft,

, ,
, 0. ,
Forward ShiftRight,
.
.

0
...
=
0
1

1
...
0
0

...
...
...
...

0
...
0
0

0
...
.
1
0

Cox1 = e1n + e21 + . . . + en,n1

0
1
=
...
0

0
0
...
0

...
...
...
...

0
0
...
1

1
0
,
...
0

, . Cox
RotateLeft, ,
, , 0. ,
Cox1 RotateRight,
, .
.

1
x1

V (x1 , . . . , xn ) = x21

...
xn1
1

1
x2
x22
...
xn1
2

...
...
...
...
...

1
xn

x2n

...
xn1
n

6. Mathematica
1st installment:
Mathematica , .
1. . , , . , ,

. , , x={{a,b},{c,d}}
a b
x =
. , c d
Mathematica !
MatrixForm[x] x , .

: first draught

95

TableForm[x] x, .
. , MatrixForm TableForm ,
TEX \pmatrix,
(parenthesis) \matrix, ( ,
, ,
, ).
Table[f,{i,m},{j,n}], f i, j, x = (xij )
m n , xij = f (i, j).
Array[f,{m,n}] f , m n ,
xij = f (i, j).
. Table Array? Table , f i, j
(i, j). , , Table[f,{i,3},{j,3}] {{f,f,f},{f,f,f},{f,f,f}}.
i j f , Table[f,{i,m},{j,n}]
Table[f,{m},{n}]. Array , f
, Array[f,{3,3}]
{{f[1,1],f[1,2],f[1,3]},{f[2,1],f[2,2],f[2,3]},{f[3,1],f[3,2],f[3,3]}}.
, Array[f,{m,n}] Table[f[i,j],{i,m},{j,m}].
, , Table[0,{m},{n}] m n.
Table[If[i<j,1,0],{i,4},{j,4}]
{{0,1,1,1},{0,0,1,1},{0,0,0,1},{0,0,0,0}}.
. Mathematica Random[ ], ()
[0, 1]. () 3 3 : Table[Random[ ],{3},{3}] Array[Random[ ],{3,3}]?
. Random[ ] ,
(i, j). .
, , !
DiagonalMatrix[x], x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) x1 , . . . , xn , DiagonalMatrix[{x,y,z}]
diag(x, y, z).
2. .
.
x[[i,j]] x (i, j);
x[[{i1 ,. . . ,ir },{j1 ,. . . ,js }]] x, , i1 , . . . , ir j1 , . . . , js ;
x[[i]] i- x;
x[[All,j]] i- x;
Tr[x,List] x.

7.
. ,
, -
R.
1. . X = A
. .

96

. x y I J A. x y
, .. x+y I J A, (i, j) I J
x y: (x + y)ij = xij + yij .
. M = M (m, n, A) , , :
A1 : x, y, z M , (x + y) + z = x + (y + z);
A2 : 0 M , x M , 0 + x = x = x + 0;
A4 : x, y M . x + y = y + x;
A , M , ..
A3 : x M , x M ,
x + (x) = 0 = (x) + x.
. A1 A4 ,
A , M
.
0,
0,
x = (xij ) , x
: (x)ij = xij .
2. . R 1,
X = A R-.
. A R-, x
I J R x I J
A, (i, j) I J
x : (x)ij = xij . x ,
A R-: (x)ij = xij .
R = R ,
.
2. A R-. M =
M (m, n, R) R-, , (A1) (A4) 4 :
V1 : , R, x M , ()x = (x);
V2 : , R, x
M , ( + )x = x + x;
V3 : R, x, y
M , (x + y) = x + y;
V4 : x M , 1x = x.
,

: first draught

97

V5 : , R, x M , (x) = (x).
. V1 V4 A.
, ,
, A = R R A = RR . , R
, . , K ,
M (m, n, K) K. , ,
mn, M (m, n, K) K mn .
3. M (m, n, R). , x M (m, n, R) , x:
x=

xij eij ,

1 i, m, 1 j n.

eij ehk , (i, j)

6= 0, .
, M (m, n, K), . ,
x - , , e.
, , ,
.
8.
In my paper the fact that XY was not equal to Y X was very disagreable
to me. I felt this was the only point of difficulty in the whole scheme.
Werner von Heisenberg
Now when Heisenberg noticed that, he was really scared.
Paul Dirac

R 1. . , ,
(xy)ij = xij yij ,
x y.
, ,
.
1. .
.

98

. u n R n, v Rn n R. u v

v1
..

uv = (u1 , . . . , un )
= u1 v1 + . . . un vn ,
.
vn
, , , , ,
, ,
uv .
2. . ,
.
,
, . (
), 1842
.
. x M (m, n, R), y M (n, p, R) R. xy M (m, p, R) (i, j), 1 i m, 1 j p, i-
x j- y, ,
(xy)ij = xi yj .
, , .
, .
, ,
(xy)ij x y:
(xy)ij = xi yj = xi1 y1j + . . . + xin ynj =

xih yhj ,

1 h n.

,
, , .
9. , 1st installment

, , .
,
, , .
, , ..
1. ? ,

: first draught

99

xy, x M (l, m, R), y M (m, n, R).

, .
, FG
, F1 , (Friendly Giant) - (FischerGriess)

246 320 59 76 112 133 17 19 23 29 31 41 47 59 71 =

808017424794512875886459904961710757005754368000000000.

196883. 196883 196883 . ,
196883 .
.
E8 248 248, ,
Z[x1 , . . . , xn ].
, .
..70 ,
(
, ,
).

2. . .
j- xy j- y,
,
(xy)j = xyj .
i- xy i- x, ,
(xy)i = xi y.
,
, .

1
0
0
..
, . . . , en = .
e1 =
.
..
0
0
1
Rn n,
f1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0), . . . , fm = (0, . . . , 0, 1).
m R m. i- j- x M (m, n, R)
fi x x ei , :
xi = fi x,

xj = xej .

:
fi (xy) = (fi x)y,
70

(xy)ej = x(yej ).

N.A.Vavilov, E.B.Plotkin, Chevalley groups over

commutative rings. I. Elementary calculations. Acta Applicandae Math., 1996, vol.45, p.73
115.

100

10. , 2nd installment

1. . ,
, x . ,
.
xu x u Rm x,
u:
xu = x1 u1 + . . . + xm um .
vy v n R y y,
v:
vy = v1 y1 + . . . + vm xm .
,
. ax = b ,
b a.
,
. xa = b ,
b
a.
.
. ,
x cox = (x2 , . . . , xn , x1 ),
x cox1 = (xn , x1 , . . . , x,n1 ),
cox x = (xn , x1 , . . . , xn1, ),
cox1 x = (x2 , . . . , xn , x1 ).
. ,
e
u
= DropRight[u],
0
0
u
= DropLeft[u].
e
, , ,

: first draught

101

11.
, .
1. . I = l, J = m, Kn
, l,m n, .
: (I J) (J K) I K t {0}
, .. (i, j) (h, k) = jh (i, k). ,
M (l, m, R) J J R.
eij , i I, j J,
-, 1 (i, j) 0
. M (m, n, R) RJK , M (l, n, R)
RIK . x : I J R
y : J K R
X

(x y)(i, k) =

x(i, j)y(h, k) =

m
X

x(i, j)y(j, k).

j=1

(i,j)(h,k)=(i,k)

I = J = K , , ?.
2. . , ,
, .

eij ehk = jh eik ,
, , ..
, D1 D2 V5.
3. . ,
ejh j- .
,
xejh = (0, . . . , 0, xj , 0, . . . , 0),
xj h- . i-

0
..
.

ehi x = xi ,

0
.
..
0
xi h- .

102

( ). , x test =
d test,
d = diag(x11 + . . . + x1n , . . . , xn1 + . . . + xnn ).
, test x = test d,
d = diag(x11 + . . . + xn1 , . . . , x1n + . . . + xnn ).
12. :
1. 1.
.

v1
v1 u1
... (u1 , . . . , un ) =
vn u 1
vn

...
...
...

v1 un

vn un

71 1.
:
,
1: eij = ei fj .
, u Rm m, ufj
, j- u,
0.
, v n R n, ei
, i- v, 0.
2. 1. x M (l, m, R),
y M (m, n, R), xy
xy = xey = x(e11 + . . . + emm )y = xe11 y + . . . + xemm y = xe1 f1 y + . . . + xem fm y,
:
xy = x1 y1 + . . . + xm ym
, , xy
, m 1.
3. . , x
r, rk(x) = m, x
r 1
.
. , ,
, .., ?.
.
71

, ..
,
, ., , , .165.

: first draught

103

, .. . , ,
, .
.

.
1) x M (m, n, R), rk(x) min(m, n)
2) x, y M (m, n, R), rk(x + y) rk(x) + rk(y)
3) x M (l, m, R), y M (m, n, R), rk(xy) min(rk(x), rk(y)).
!!
13. Mathematica
2nd installment:

x.y Dot[x,y] x y.
Transpose[x] x .
Inverse[x] x .
Det[x] x.
Tr[x] x.
MatrixPower[x,n] n- x.
MatrixExp[x] x.
14.

. tij () = e + eii , R, i 6= j,
. . ,
(i, j) :
tij ( + ) = tij ()tij ().
. ,
tij ()tij () = (e + eij )(e + eij ) = e + eij + eij + eij eij .
i 6= j, e2ij = 0, . ,
, , tij () = tij ().
, tij : R+ GL(n, R), 7 tij (),
.
Xij = {tij (), R}
() GL(n, R).
2. . .

i 6= k, j 6= h;

e
[tij (), thk ()] =
tik ()
i 6= k, j = h;

thj () i = k, j 6= h.

104

. ,
[tij (), thk ()] = (e + eij )(e + ehk )(e eij )(e ehk )
3. . E(n, R),
E(n, R) = htij () | R, 1 i 6= j i.
4. . di () = e + ( 1)eii ,
R , .
di () = diag(1, . . . , 1, , 1 . . . , 1),
i- .
GE(n, R), .
15.
.
16.
1. . , .
. , (xy)z x(yz),
: (xy)z = x(yz).
. , ,
xy, (xy)z, x y, xy (
y) z. , m, n, p, q x M (m, n, R), y M (n, p, R), z M (p, q, R). ,
x(yz) (xy)z m q.
,
.
, - 1 i m, 1 j q, ((xy)z)ij . ,
( !), ,
((xy)z)ij =

p
X

(xy)ik zkj =

k=1
p
n X
X
h=1 k=1

p X
n
X

k=1 h=1
n
X

h=1

xih (yz)hj = (x(yz))ij .

: first draught

105

.
, , ,
.
. , x, y M (m, n, R), z, w M (n, p, R).
(x + y)z = xz + yz x(z + w) = xz + xw.
. ,
R.
2. . , ( , ,
).
:
-, ,
, . , x M (m, n, R), y M (n, p, R), xy ,
yx , m = p.
-, , : x M (m, n, R), y M (n, m, R), xy, yx , xy M (m, R), yx M (n, R). ,
, n n ,

n.
, xy yx ,
R . , 2 . ,

e11 =

1 0
0 0

e12 =

0
0

1
0

, e11 e12 = e12 , e12 e11 = 0.

.
: . , M (n, R),
n 2, , .
.
. , , x2 y 2 =
(x y)(x + y). , ,
! x = e12 , y = e21 .
. ,
(1/f )0 = f 0 /f 2 ,
!!! . , f = (fij ), (f 1 )0 = f 1 f 0 f 1 ,
0
g 0 = (fij
).

106

17. :
1. 2. 2 2
R. , R
! a, b M (n, R) c = ab:

a11
a21

a12
a22

b11
b21

b12
b22

c11
c21

c12
c22

cij = ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j , . ,

, , 8 .
72,73 . .. ,
10 XX .
. 2 2
18 R.
.
d1 = (a12 a22 )(b21 + b22 ),
d2 = (a11 + a22 )(b11 + b22 ),
d3 = (a11 a21 )(b11 + b12 ),
d4 = (a11 + a12 )b22 ,
d5 = a11 (b12 b22 ),
d6 = a22 (b21 b11 ),
d7 = (a21 + a22 )b11 ,
c = ab

c=

d1 + d2 d4 + d6
d6 + d7

d4 + d5
d2 d3 + d5 d7

, O(nlog2 (7) )
.
. 2n 2n ,
7n R.
. n. n = 1 ,
, 2n 2n 7n , ,
2n+1 2n+1 7n+1 . ,
M (2n+1 , R)
= M (2, M (2n , R))
n+1
2
22 c 2n 2n .
7 2n 2n ,
7n R. ,
7 7n = 7n+1 R.
n2,807 . 10 , .
72 .,

. . ., . , . 7.
., ., 1970, .6770.
73 ., ., ., ,,
. , ., 1979, .1536.

: first draught

107

18. :
?
, !! ,
. ,
() , 74,75,76 .
, x M (m, n, R) y
M (n, p, R) mnp . , ,
,
. xyz, z M (p, q, R),
,
.
(xy)z. xy mnp R mp. (xy)z
mpq . , (xy)z mnp + mpq = mp(n + q) .
, x(yz) yz,
npq R nq.
x(yz) mnq . ,
x(yz) npq + mnq = (m + p)nq .
, , , mp(n + q) 6= (m + p)nq. , ,
. , x
M (1000, 1000, R), y M (1000, 10, R), z M (10, 1000, R) x(yz) 50 , (xy)z,
1.01 109 2 107 . , x(yz) 20
, (xy)z, ,
,
. , . ,
106 , ,
,
. ,
!!!
.
, h, g M (n, R), u Rn .
gu n2 ( , R
R!). , h(gu)
2n2 . (hg)u n3 + n2
74 S.S.Godbole,

On efficient calculation of matrix chain products. IEEE Trans. Comput.,

Ser. C, 1973, vol.22, N.9, p.864966.
75 Y.Muraoka, D.J.Kuck, On the time required for a sequence of matrix products. Comm.
Assoc. Comp. Mach., 1973, vol.16, N.1, p.2226
76 ., ., ., ibid., .8385.

108

. ,
n3 , n2 . ,
m n ,
m << n. ,
O(n2 ) , O(n3 ) O(n2,701 ).
18.
, ,
n n- 1.
1. . , , .
M1 : x, y, z M (n, R), (x + y) + z = x + (y + z);
M2 : e M (n, R), x M , ex = x = xe;
, ,
n. A1A4, D1, D2,
.
. R 1 M (n, R) 1
.
, , n 2 . , ,
, i 6= j e2ij = 0.
R , V5,
, M (n, R) R.
V5 x, y M (n, R), R, (x)y = (xy) = x(y).
: R S . : M (n, R) M (n, S),
(xij ) 7 ((xij ).
19.
2 2
R 1, :

1
x y
w y
=
.
z w
xw yz z x
, , ,
. 77 .
, , R = M (n, A) A, , ,
.
. , x, y, z, w, x yw1 z R . ,
y xz 1 w, z wy 1 x, w zx1 y R

x y
(x yw1 z)1 (z wy 1 x)1
=
z w
(y xz 1 w)1 (w zx1 y)1
77 .,

. , ., 1976, .1351, .114. ,

x yw1 z GL(n, R).

: first draught

109

, , , y, z, w
.
x, y, z, w. wzx1 y.

x y
z w

(w zx1 y)1 zx1

(w zx1 y)1

78 .
. , y R ,
z R w R .
x = (xij ) 3 3
:

x1

x22 x33 x23 x32

1
x21 x33 + x23 x31
=
det(x)
x21 x32 x22 x31

x12 x33 + x13 x32

x11 x33 x13 x31
x11 x32 + x12 x31

x12 x23 x13 x22

x11 x23 + x13 x21
x11 x22 x12 x21

2. . M (n, R) R n R GL(n, R).

20.
,
,
. ( , R !) ,
.
.
1. . Ro , R, 7 o
R Ro . trans : M (m, n, R)
M (n, m, Ro ) x M (m, n, R) xt ,
(i, j), 1 i n, 1 j m (xt )ij = (xji )o ,
. .
.
1) : (xt )t = x;
2) : (x + y)t = xt + y t ;
3) : (x)t = xt o
(x)t = o xt .
.
. x M (l, m, R), y M (m, n, R). (xy)t = y t xt .
. , y t M (n, m, Ro ), xt M (m, l, Ro ),
M (n, l, Ro )
78 ..,

. , ., 1967, .1575. .5962.

110

(xy)o . , , ,
. ,
((xy)t )ij = ((xy)ji )o =

(xjh yhi )o =

o o
yhi
xjh =

X
(y t )ih (xt )hj = (y t xt )ij ,

1 i l, 1 j n, 1 h m.
. x 7 xt
M (n, R) M (n, Ro ).
1. M (n, R)o
= M (n, Ro ).
. , M (n, R)
= M (n, Ro )o ,
.
R .
Ro R M (m, n, R)
M (n, m, R).
2. R x 7 xt M (n, R). ,
M (n, R)o
= M (n, R).
2. . ,
.
3. x GL(n, R) (x1 )t = (xt )1 . ,
R GL(n, Ro )
= GL(n, R).
. (
e e,
). ,
inv : x 7 x1 ,
.

trans inv : GL(n, R) GL(n, R)o GL(n, Ro )
. x GL(n, R) x = (x1 )t = (xt )1 , x. ,
(xy) = x y . R x 7 x
GL(n, R).
21.
M (n, R) ,
1. R. : R R R. , , + = +
= . ( !)
, .. = . :

: first draught

R = K[G] G,
A , R = M (n, A),
.

111

ag g 7

ag g 1 ;

: x xt -

R = C , z z .
2. . M (m, n, R) M (n, m, R), x x ,
(x )ij = (x)ji .
. :
1) : (x + y) = x + y ,
2) (x) = x
(x) = x .
3)

, (x ) = x.

. , (xy) = y x .
. ,
(xy)ij = (xy)ji =

xjh yhi =

y hi xjh =

yih
xhj = (y x )ij .

, .
. x 7 x
M (n, R).
22.
, , . . ?
, .
?
? ,
.
: , ?
?

,
.
, ,

M (n, R).
: , , , , ,
( ).
1. .
.
.

x=

1
1

1
0

112

2 1
3 2
5 3
2
3
4
x =
,
x =
,
x =
,
1 1
2 1
3 2
, xn :

Fn+1
Fn
n
x =
.
Fn
Fn1
.
. , x x2 x e = 0.
n

1 1
.
.
1 0

n
2 1
.
.
1 0
2. . , .
.

1 1 0
x = 0 1 1.
0 0 1
.
. x = e + e12 + . . . + en1,n . x
1, . . . , n 1 m1
. , xm
+ xm1
ij = xij
i,j1 .
. 1
2
n1
, xm (1, Cm
, Cm
, . . . , Cm
),
ShiftRight
. ,
? x ,
R[x],
e x. y = x e = e12 + . . . + en1,n ,
ShiftRight, . , y m
m , .. m-
. , y n = 0,
R[x] = R[y]
= R[t]/(tn ) . ,

1
2 2
n1 n1
xm = (e + y)m = e + Cm
y + Cm
y + . . . + Cm
y
.
. , , , m-

1 1 ... 1
0 1 ... 1
z = e + y + y 2 + . . . + y n1 =
.
...
0 0 ... 1
n1
1
2
. z m = e + Cm
y + Cm+1
y 2 + . . . + Cm+n2
y n1 .

: first draught

113

23. M (n, R)
M (n, R). R
1.
. x = (xij ) M (n, R)
, 0, .. xij = 0 i 6= j.
1 , . . . , n R

1 . . . 0
.
..
..
diag(1 , . . . , n ) = ..
.
.
.
0 . . . n
, e = diag(1, . . . , 1).
, (n, R) M (n, R), n
R . . . R,
diag:
diag(1 + 1 , . . . , n + n ) = diag(1 , . . . , n ) + diag(1 , . . . , n ),
diag(1 1 , . . . , n n ) = diag(1 , . . . , n ) diag(1 , . . . , n ).
. , . ,
e = diag(, . . . , ). M (n, R) R.
e, Cent(R).
M (n, R), R.
. x = (xij ) M (n, R) ,
0, .. xij = 0 i > j. , x , 0, ..
xij = 0 i < j. ,
M (n, R), b(n, R)
b (n, R), .
. x = (xij )
M (n, R) , 0, .. aij = 0 i j. ,
x , 0, .. xij = 0 i j. ,

M (n, R).
M (n, R) n(n, K),
n (n, K).
. , n(n, R) b(n, K) b(n, R)/n(n, R)
= (n, R).
, nr (n, R), 0 r n 1, ,
,

114

r 1 0, . , n0 (n, R) = b(n, R), n1 (n, R) = n(n, R),

. ,
n
r (n, R),
, M (n, R).
. R 1. , n(n, R)r = nr (n, R).
24.
, , ,
, xij ij n
. , ,
, ..
. x = (xij ) M (n, R)

a1
a
n

...
a2

a2
a1
...
a3

...
...
...
...

an
an1

...
a1

. , xij
i, j, i j n. ,
M (n, R),
GL(n, R).
, .
. x = (xij ) M (n, R)

a1
an

...
a2

a2
a1
...
a3

...
...
...
...

an
an1

...
a1

. , (1)sign(ji) xij
i, j, ij n. M (n, R),
GL(n, R).
. , d
R. x = (xij ) M (n, R)

a1
dan

...
da2

a2
a1
...
da3

...
...
...
...

an
an1

...
a1

. , , d = 1
d = 1, .

: first draught

115

25.
,
XX 79,80,81 .
. x = (xij ) , xij = 0 i, j, i + j = n + 1.

, , .
. x = (xij ) , xij (i, j) i j,
ij. , h = (n1), . . . , 1, 0, 1, . . . , n1
xh K xij = xij . M (n, R) .
. M (n, R)?
. , / M (n, R).
. x = (xij ) , xij (i, j) i j,
i + j. , h = 1, . . . , 2n xh K xij = xi+j . M (n, R)
.
. x = (xij ) ,
xij = 0 (i, j) , l i j m l, m N0 .

.
. x = (xij ) , xij = 0 (i, j) , |i j| 2.
. x = (xij ) , xij = 0 (i, j) , i > j + 1.
26.
. x = (xij ) , xij = xji i, j. x
, xt = x.
S(n, R).
. , x, y
M (n, R) , .
. , ?
79 .,

., . , ., 1961, .1308.
. , ., 1974.
81 .., . .
, 1984, .39, N.1, .5384.
80 ..,

116

. , x , y
, y t xy .
. x = (xij ) , , ..
xij = x + n + 1 j, n + 1 i i, j.
. , x
, xt = f xf , f
. , f S(n, R).
. x = (xij ) , xij = xji i, j. x , xt = x.
. x = (xij )
, , xii = 0 i. A(n, R). ,
2 , , , , : ,
2xii = 0, xii = 0.
. 2 R . ,
M (n, R) = S(n, R) A(n, R).
2 R ?
. , M (n, R) = S(n, R) + A(n, R). z M (n, R).
xij =

1
(zij + zji ),
2

yij =

1
(zij zji ).
2

x = (xij ) S(n, R), y = (yij ) A(n, R). R , x y

1
1
y = (z z t ).
x = (z + z t ),
2
2
, ,
S(n, R)A(n, R) = 0. , z S(n, R)A(n, R).
A(n, R) zii = 0. , i 6= j zij = zji = zij 2zij = 0
, 2 , zij = 0. , , 2 = 0, A(n, R) S(n, R).

27.
, R 7 .
M (m, n, R) M (m, n, R), x = (xij )
x = (xij ). x + y = x + y.
, R = C,
.
. x = (xij )
, xij = xji
i, j. x
, xt = x.
H(n, R).
. x, y
M (n, R) ?

: first draught

117

. R , x M (n, R). , xt x
: R R R.
xxt . R ,
x x xx ?
. z = x + iy M (n, C) , x, y M (n, R)
, . , x ,
y .

. x = (xij ) ,
xij = xji i, j , , xii = 0.
x , xt = x.
. , x M (n, C) , ix .
. x M (n, C).
z M (n, C). ,
M (n, C) = M (n, R) iM (n, R).
1
(z + z) 2
1
, y = (z z) z. re(z)
2
im(z) .
, , z = x + iy, x =

. ,
M (n, C) = H(n, C) iH(n, C).
. , z M (n, C) z = x + iy, x, y H(n, C).
x=

1
(z + z ),
2

y=

1
(z z )
2

, . , z = x + iy
- z , x = x + iy = x iy. .

28. GL(n, R)
. D = D(n, R) GL(n, R), .
. ,
, B(n, R)
GL(n, R), . B (n, R)
. B(n, R) B (n, R) , ,
. ,
, .
!

. x = (xij )
M (n, R) , 1, .. xij = ij i j. ,

118

x ,
1, .. xij = ij i j.
U (n, R) , U (n, R)
GL(n, R).
. x = (xij ) M (n, R)
, 1
. N (n, R)
GL(n, R). , , N (2, R):

. x = (xij ) M (n, R)
, 1
1, 0.
Wn GL(n, R), Sn .
. , .
29.
. ,

.
1. . ,
(n1 , . . . , nt ) n, n = n1 + . . . + nt .
n.
, , i j, h = 1, . . . , t,
n1 + . . . + nh1 + 1 i, j n1 + . . . + nh .
X1 , . . . , Xt . ,
, |Xh | = nh
h = 1, . . . , t.
M (m, n, R) = (m1 , . . . , ms ) m, = (n1 , . . . , nt ) n. X1 t . . . t Xs = m Y1 t . . . t Yt = n .
xhk = (xij ), i Xh , j Yk , x h- k- . xhk = M (mh , nk , R).
x

x11
...
xs1

...
...
...

x1t
...
xst

x
. (xij ), i Xh , j Y ,

: first draught

119

h- x, (xij ), i X, j Yk ,
k- .
2. . , x, y
M (m, n, R) , ,
= (m1 , . . . , ms ) = (n1 , . . . , nt ).
x + y,
, (x + y)hk = xhk + y hk . , (x)hk = xhk
(x)hk = xhk .
, x M (l, m, R), y M (m, n, R), x
= (l1 , . . . , lr ) = (m1 , . . . , ms ), y
= (m1 , . . . , ms ) = (n1 , . . . , nt ).
x y,
x
y. x y .
xjh y hk M (lj , nk , R).
. ,
(xy)jk = xj1 y 1k + . . . + xjs y sk .
, x y ,
R, ,
. ,
x / y 0, e - !
3. M (l, m, M (n, K))
= M (ln, mn, R). ,
n. x
M (n, R). ,
30.
1. .
x M (k, l, R) y M (m, n, R) x y M (k + m, l + n, R),
:

x 0
x y = diag(x, y) =
.
0 y
, , (x y) z = x (y z),
x y z.
.
x1 , . . . , xt n1 , . . . , nt ,
x = x1 . . . xt n = n1 + . . . + nt , , , = (n1 , . . . , nt ).
,

(x + y) (z + w) = (x z) + (y w),

(xy) (zw) = (x z)(y w).

120

,
M (n1 , R) . . . M (nt , R) M (n, R)
M (n, R), M (n1 , R), . . . , M (nt , R). , ,
, .

31.
R . ,
R .
1. . l, m, n, p
,
: M (l, m, R) M (n, p, R) M (lm, np, R),
x M (l, m, R), y M (n, p, R)
x y,

xy =

x11 y
xl1 y

...
...
...

x1m y

M (lm, np, K).

xlm y

1, x y
, x, y M (2, R).
.
x M (m, R), y M (n, R) x y M (m, M (n, R)), y x M (n, M (m, R)). ,
M (mn, R). , , x y 6= y x.
, y x x y
.

xy. ,
,
82 . ,
, , x y
(r, s), 1 r, s mn.
. (x y)rs .
82 .,

. , ., 1978, .1280, .235236. ,

., ., . , ., 1972,
.1232. .20 .

: first draught

121

. xij yhk ((i1)n+h, (j 1)n+k)

1 i, j m, 1 h, k n. .
2. . . , , ,
x yz x (yz), (x y)z. , , , x + y z
x + (y z), (x + y) z.
. :
1) . x M (l, R), y M (m, R), z M (n, R).
(x y) z = x (y z)
( M (lmn, R)).
2)
(x + y) z = x z + y z,

x (y + z) = x y + x z.

3)
x y = (x y) = x y.
4)

xy uv = (x u)(y v).
. , 4, . 4 , (x u)(y v),
i- j- ,
P
(xil u)(ylj v), 1 l m.

P
R , (xil ylj )(uv) = (xy)ij (uv),
.
. , x y , (x y)1 = x1 y 1 .
. (x y)t ? : 1) xt y t , 2) y t xt , 3) none
of the above.
. ?
1) D(m, R) D(n, R) D(mn, R);
2) N (m, R) N (n, R) N (mn, R);
3) U (m, R) U (n, R) U (mn, R);
4) B(m, R) B(n, R) B(mn, R).
32.

M (mn, R) Rmn , x 7 x1 . . . xn , x , .

122

33.
tr : M (n, R) R.
. x M (m, n, R). , xt x = 0, x = 0.
x M (m, n, C)? ?
tr(x + y) = tr(x) + tr(y),
tr(x) = tr(x),
tr(x) = tr(x),
tr(xy) = tr(yx),
tr(x
y) = tr(x) tr(y).
V
m
tr(
(x)= m- x

: first draught

123

9:

.
, , . VI.
, .

1.
, , . ,
.
1. . R
1.
. I R
R,
AI) I R, .., x, y I, x y I;
LI) I R : x I,
y R, yx I.
I R R,
I1
RI) I R : x
I, y R, xy I.
R .
LI RI RI I
IR I, . yx, y R,
x, xy x. , / ,
/ .
2. / . x R. Rx =
{yx | y R} x. ,
Rx R. , Rx (
0 = 0x x = 1x), x
, yx zy = (y z)x , , x
x z(yx) = (zy)x (!)
Rx R,
x. xR = {xy | y R}
x R,
R, x.
/ ,

. !!! , R ,
x R e R Rx Re = Rxe.
. , ( R !) , y Rx Re, y y = ue u R

124

ye = ue2 = ue = y. , y = vx v R,
y = ye = vxe, .
3. / .
. x1 , . . . , xn R
R.
x1 , . . . , xn R:
Rx1 + . . . + Rxn = {y1 x1 + . . . + yn xn | y1 , . . . , yn R}.
, , ,
x1 , . . . , xn . Rx1 + . . . + Rxn
R. , x1 , . . . , xn .
x1 , . . . , xn R:
x1 R + . . . + xn R = {x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn | y1 , . . . , yn R}.
R, , x1 , . . . , xn . / , / ,
{x1 , . . . , xn }.
4. / . / .
2.
1. . R 1.
. I R , , R.
, , R,
AI, LI RI, .. , RI, IR I ,
, RIR I. , I R
I E R. , , , RIR I
, I .
: a, b, c, . . . .
, : p
, q m .
R , ,
. ,

R. x R, (x) = Rx = xR, x , x. , x1 , . . . , xn R,
R.

(x1 , . . . , xn ) = Rx1 + . . . + Rxn = x1 R + . . . + xn R E R.

: first draught

125

. yxz, y, z R, x R, .
, , a priori , x x. , , , yx + xz x? , , , : M (n, K) n 2 K e11 1,
e21 e11 + e11 e12 = e21 + e12 2 , , e11 .
, , , x,
x. , .
x .
R . R Nil(R) .
, R = K[d] Nil(R) = {dx | x K} = dR.
2.
1. , . : 0 = {0} E R, R E R. I R,
R, . , R = T , . ,
.
. R ,
.
. R = T , x 6= 0
, , x I, I R, y R
y = (yx1 )x I.
, R , 0 6= 1.
x R, x 6= 0, Rx. Rx 6= 0,
Rx = R, x , , , yx = 1. y
, y, x, .
,
, .
. R , .
2. . , .
, ? ,
.
. M (n, T ) n 1 T .
. I E M (n, T ), I 6= 0, x = (xij ) I
I. , h, k, xhk 6= 0.

126

i, j eij = x1
hk eih xekj . , y =
y = (yij ) M (n, T ).

yij eij I

, -, 3- , ,
M (n, T ) (. VI ).
: , ,
.
.
4. : erste Fassung
4. . Z . , m Z mZ,
mZ nZ m = n. ,
R .
. Z mZ m
Z.
. , I E Z, I 6= 0, Z.
, I n. , l I,
l 6= 0. l > 0, n = l, n =
l. I N N
, m. ,
I = mZ. , n I. n m: n = qm + r,
0 r < m. r 6= 0, r = n mq I Z I N,
m. n m , n mZ.
, , 1
,
. , Z
.
, ,
K K[x] , ..
(f ) = f K[x] f K[x].

. ,
.
. , Q .
. R I . I = R(I Z).
. R , x, y R, xy = 0. ,
Rx + Ry 0. , Rx Ry = 0
x + y 0.
. Rx Ry 6= 0 z Rx Ry, z 6= 0, xz = 0 (
z Ry) xy = 0 ( z Rx). a, b R
(ax + by)z = 0, Rx Ry 0.

: first draught

127

, , x+y 0.
z R , (x + y)z = 0 , , xz = yz. ,
xz = yz 6= 0, ax + by
0. (ax + by)zx = (b a)yzx = 0 a, b R, .
5. . R =
K[x, y] . ( ) ?.
, . , I
, ..
I = {f =

, I K[x, y], I = xK[x, y] + yK[x, y] . I .

, I = f K[x, y] f K[x, y], x y
f . f ,
I = K[x, y].
(x, p) R = Z[x] !!
5.
K[x, y]
(. .
, . 1973).
x, 1 x7 , y, 1 y 7 .
xi y j , 0 i, j 7. , , e4 x4 y 3 . ,
Z f = FZ 0, 1.
,
xi y j . xi+1 y j ,
, xi y j+1 , . , xi y j (1 + x)
xi y j (1 + y) . , Z - , ,
fZ Z[x, y], 1 + x 1 + y.
, , , Z, , . ,
fZ = (1 + x + . . . + x7 )(1 + y + . . . + y 7 ) 1 x7 y 7 .
, (1 + x)Z[x, y] + (1 +
y)Z[x, y], 1 + x 1 + y. , fZ = (1 + x)f +
(1+y)g f, g Z[x, y]. , ,
: Z[x, y] R (fZ )
, (1 + x) (1 + y). , ,
: Z[x, y] Z, f 7 f (1, 1), f Z[x, y]
(x, y) = (1, 1). (fZ ) = 2,

128

(1+x) = (1+y) = 0. , fZ ,
1 + x 1 + y , , Z
.
, ,
, ,
, : , , ,
, .. n-
( Z[x1 , . . . , xn ] n ), (
Z[x, y]/(xm 1, y n 1)) .. , ,
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
?, ,
, .
6. .
- I
.
.
1. . R
1, , I R.
. , x, y R
I x y (mod I), x y(I), x y I.
I I . , ,
R, , , Z K[x].
I I = (z) z R , , I
z x y (mod z) R .
.
R = RX X
I = IY , 0 Y X
(. 7 ). f g (mod I),
, y Y f (y) = g(y).
2.
. I R.
I R.
. .
1. : x x(I) x x = 0 I;
2. : x y(I) x y I y x I yx (I);

: first draught

129

3. : x y(I) y y z(I) x y, y z I = x z =
(x y) + (y z) I xz (I).
, I , , I ,
, I R. , , .
. R , , .., , x y, z w
, :
x z y w ( )
xz yw.
. I R.
I R.
. , I . , x y (mod I), z w
(mod I). (x + z) (y + w) = (x y) + (z w) I
I, , x + z y + w (mod I) x z y w
(mod I).
,
I , , xz yw =
xz xw + xw yw = x(z w) + (x y)w.
I , z w I I ,
, x y I I .
, , xz yw I , , xz yw (mod I).
7. - .
, R 1 I - R. ,
I R , ,
- R/I, . x y (mod I) ,
x y I, x R y,
y = x+z z I,
x = x+I = {x+z | z I}. , R/I : R/I = {x+I | x R}.
, , I
, . ,
c, R/I , : R R/I, x 7 x + I , ..
, .
R/I , x + y = x + y x y = xy x, y R/I. , , ,
, .. . ,
I .
, z = x w = y. z x (mod I) w y (mod I) ,
, z + w x + y (mod I) zw xy (mod I). , z + w =

130

x + y zw = xy,
x + y = x + y x y = xy
.
. - R/I : R R/I I.
. , , R/I . R/I : ,
R/I R,
R/I 0 = I, x
x. R/I
R,
R/I 1. , R/I
1.
R/I : R R/I
. , (x + y) = x + y = x + y = (x) + (y)
(xy) = xy = xy = (x)(y). -,
. , x R,
x + I = (x) = 0 = I, .. x I. .

Z/mZ
K[x]/(f ), f , f
2
C=
R[x]/(x + 1)2
Q( 2) = Q[x]/(x 2).
K[x]/(xn )
K[Cn ]
= K[x]/(xn 1)
K[Cm Cn ]
= K[x, y]/(xm 1, y n 1)
K[n ]
= Z[x]/(n ) ( )

. R1 . . .Rs Ii E Ri i. I1 . . .Is E R

R/I
= R1 /I1 . . . Rs /Is .
. K . , K n ( ) 2n - K n
K m 0 m n.
. R, [x, y] =
xyyx, x, y R, R -
.
-
(., , [Ha], 1.1
. 24).
( ). , K[x, y]/(x2 y)
=
K[z].

: first draught

131

( ). , K[x, y]/(xy 1)
=
1
K[z, z ].
( ). f K[x, y]
2. , R = K[x, y]/(f ) K[z],
K[z, z 1 ]. , R?
.
f f = f2 + f1 + f0 f2 .
8.
: R R/I -
I E R.
. A R , I E R
, A I A
A/(A I)
= (A + I)/I R/I.
. , ,
.
A (A + I)/I, x 7 x + I. ,
: xy 7 xy + I = (x + I)(y + I).
.
. I E R. A 7 1 (A) // R/I
// R, I.
. , // R/I //
1 (A B) = 1 (A) 1 (B),

1 (A + B) = 1 (A) + 1 (B).

.

R/I R, I.
. I, A E R, U A, R/A
=
(R/I)/(A/I).
9.
,
R I . ,
(R, I)
R I R, R I.
.

132

1. . RI R R
I R

R I R 1

2 y
R

R/I

, R I R (a, b) R R , a b
(mod I) 1 (a, b) = a, 2 (a, b) = b. ,
Ker 1 = (0, I) Ker 2 = (I, 0). : R R I R,
(a) = (a, a) 1 , 2 .
(R, I) R i I
R I (a, c), a R, c I,
, (a, c)(b, d) = (ab, ad + cb + cd).
. R I R R i I
(R)
= R Ker 1
= I.
. R I R R i I, (a, b) 7
(a, b a). R i I , .
(a, c) 7 (a, a + c).
I Ker 1 .

: first draught

133

10:
1.
Can you do addition? the White Queen asked. Whats one and one
and one and one and one and one and one and one and one and one? I
dont know, said Alice, I lost count.
Charles Dodgson Through the looking glass

.
1. . R 1. : Z R,
n 7 n 1 = 1 + . . . + 1 .
| {z }
n
I = Ker() . Z
, I = mZ m N0 . m 6= 0 R
1 + . . . + 1 = 0, m.
. Ker() = mZ, , R m char(R) = m.
, char(R) = 0, : Z R
char(R) = m, m ,
1 + . . . + 1 = 0.
| {z }
m
char(R) = 0 char(R) > 0, ,
R , , R . , char(R) = p > 0
, R .
.
Z, Q, R, C 0.
Z/mZ m, , Fp = Z/pZ p.
R = 2X , X 6= , (
) 2.
2. . , ,
0, , .
. 1) 0, .
2) 0,
.
. 1) , char(R) = mn > 0, gcd(m, n) = 1.
, R = mR nR. , x mRcapnR,

134

mx = nx = 0 x = gcd(m, n)x = 0. mR nR = 0.
, 1 mR + nR, mR + nR = R, R .
, , R m R
0 m N. , m = kl . ,
R
( 1 + . . . + 1 )( 1 + . . . + 1 ) = 1 + . . . + 1 = 0.
| {z }
| {z }
| {z }
m

k l
, 0,
R , m.
, , , 0,
2. etc. 0
, , .
2.
1. . . .
.
.
p p , m, 1 m p 1,
m 0 (mod p).
. ,

p
p(p 1) . . . (p m + 1)
=
,
m
1 2 ... m
p ,
i, 1 i p 1.
. R p. Fp : R R, x 7 xp ,
R.
. R , (xy)p = xp y p x, y
R. , (
),

p p1
p
p
p
(x + y) = x +
x y + ... +
xy p1 + y p ,
1
p1

p
p1 , . . . , p1
p , , 0 R. , , (x + y)p = xp + y p ,
Fp .
n

, Fpn : x 7 xp , ,

n
n
n
n
n
n
(xy)p = xp y p ,
(x + y)p = xp + y p .

: first draught

135

Fp , Fpn , .
. 0, . p, p > 0 1,
0.
2. .
( )
R = M (n, K), K p.
. R pn , p- R :
U (R) = {u R | m N, o(u) = pm .}
, R , x R p. R , U (R) = Rp p-
R .
3. . ,
.
. K, ,
.
. Q,
0, Fp , p > 0.
. K, 1.
Z, Z/pZ p P.
, ,
Q.
p-. K p. p2
a0 x + a1 xp + a2 xp + . . . .
.
., . , 3.4)
. , p- .
P
P
i
b: K[x] K[x],
ai xi 7 ai xp .
. , f 7 fb p-. f[
+ g = fb + gb, fcg = fb gb,
.
3.
1. . .
. I R , I 6= R.

136

. p R ,
, xy p , x, y
p.
R Spec(R) R. , R.
( ) , .
(0) ,
R . , , a, b
R.
. :
1) p ;
2) - R/p ;
3) , ab p ,
a, b p.
. 1) = 2) (x + p)(y + p) = 0 R/p. ,
xy p. x p y p.
x + p y + p 0.
2) = 3) a, b E R. a = (a + p)/p b = (b + p)/p
R/p. ab p, ab = 0.
a 6 p b 6 p, R/p.
3) = 1) 3 1, ,
=(x), b = (y), x, y R.
1 3
. , x1 . . . xn p, xi p.
. ,
, .
. 0 , R .
, a 6= 0, , a2 (a2 ), a (a2 ). ,
(a) = (a2 ). , a = a2 x x R. ,
a(1 ax) = 0 , , ax = 1.
. .
0 R ,
R .
Z (p), p P,
(0).
K[x] (f ), f
K, (0).
R = K[x, y]. (y), y,
- K[x, y]/(y) = K[x] . ,

: first draught

137

(y) . , , xR + yR,
( x2 +yR,
x3 R + yR, ..)
Z/pn Z, p P, n N,
pZ/pn Z.
2. . I E R , a, b E R, a, b 6= I, ,
a b = I. ab a b, R .
. I R .
. R/I
I = 0. x 6= 0. X
, x, . ,
q E R, x
/ q. , q . ,
R 0.
. p1 , . . . , pn Spec(R) I p1 . . . pn . I pi
- i = 1, . . . , n.
. , , pi , ,
pi , .. pi  pj
T i 6= j. , , I  pi i. I i6=j pi  pj . j = 1, . . . , n

T
xj I i6=j pi \ pj x = x1 + . . . + xn . x I,
x xi 6 0 (mod p)i , x
/ pi , .
3. . : R S
. : Spec(S) Spec(R).
. p Spec(S) 1 (p) Spec(R) . , p 7 1 (p) S
R, Ker().
. I E S R/1 (I) S/I.
. , .
, (p) = 1 (p).
, , , () =
. .
. S/R p Spec(S), p R Spec(R).
.
!!! , Z Q, 0 E Q ,
0 E Z , . ,
. , , , ,
.

138

4.
1. . , p = (f )
, f R.
, p R, p = 0,
p = (f ) f R. ,
?, (f ), ,
. .
. m R , , , ..
, m < R I , m < I < R.
m R x R \ maxi, I + (f ) = R.
x + m R/m , ,
, R/m .
. - R/m ,
m .
,
.
0 K.
pZ, p P, Z.
K n mi = {x =
(x1 , . . . , xn ) K n | xi = 0}.
. , .
. X . ,
C(X)
mx = {f C(X) | f (x) = 0}.
2. .
. K c = (c1 , . . . , cn )
K n
mc = R(x1 c1 ) + . . . + R(xn cn )
R = K[x1 , . . . , xn ], xi ci ,
. , R/mc K. , mc evc : R K, f 7 f (c).
, f R mc ,
f (c) = 0.
, K
, :
R = K[x1 , . . . , xn ] mc c Rn .
. K , m E R = K[x1 , . . . , xn ]
. ( ??) m
n m = (f1 , . . . , fn ), fi ,
fi K[x1 , . . . , xi ].

: first draught

139

. n. n = m A, A = K[x1 , . . . , xn1 ].
, m/nR R/nR
= (A/n)[xn ] !!
3. .
.
. I R .
. R,
I . I X, X .
, X , ..
. , X , , C = A, A X, . ,
C . , x C,
A X , x A. y R, yx A C.
x, y C, A, B X , x A, y B. A, B
. , , A B. x, y B , ,
xy B C. , C .
1
/ A A Y , 1
/ , , ,
. - ,
, I.
. ,
1 R.
! , R ,
. ,
, ,
Q Q/Z.
. R , .