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:

1. 5 ;
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4. 8 ;
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7. 11 ;
8. . 811
;
9. . ;
10. . ;
11. . ;
12. . ;
13. . ;
14. . ;
15. . ;
16.
. ;
17.
. .

-
""

373.161.1/075.3
71
38

-:
. . (), . . (),
. . (), . . (),
. . ().

38

: ,
, , , - .: , 2007. - 624 .

.
, , , .
,
.
, . .
, ,
.
ISBN 978-5-94684-935-7
373.161.1/075.3
71

:
./: 8-901-312-1951
e-mail: trigonprint@mail.ru
.
ISBN 978-5-94684-935-7

" "", 2007

4
5
52

105

231

405

497



0, = -
=, a, b - ,

= 0, b 0,

= 0, = 0,


1. 2 2 -4 2 =2( 2 -2)
2. 3a+6b-a 2 -2ab=3-(a+2b)-a(a+2b)=(a+2b)(3-a)
3. :

1.2-2=(-)(+)

9- 4 =3 2 -( 2 ) 2 =(3- 2 )(3+ 2 ); (2-5)(5+2)=(2) 2 -5 2 =4 2 -25

2. (ab)2=a22ab+b2

(4+3z)2=16+24z+9z2
25-10+ 2 =5 2 -2-5-+ 2 =(5-) 2

3. a3b3=(ab)(a2+ab+b2)

27- 6 =3 3 -( 2 ) 3 =(3- 2 )(9- 2 + 4 )


(4+)(16^tx+x2)=43+x3=64+x3

4. ()3=32+23

(2-n) 3 =8-12n+6n 2 -n 3
343+21 10+1475+15=(7+5)3


a
am
: -= --, ,

2
+2
+1 +1 +1

. a b
+
1. +=
mm
m
2

3
1 + 3

a + b _ ab
mm
m

- b' d~

. a b
4. +=

_ a +b_

bd

3-
31- 1-3

8
8
2
4 (-1)" 4 ( - 1 ) " -1
! 7 2
b
a

an+bm

5+
3 " 2

a- nb- m

2 + 76 2
ab
2(5)3
6

,
.
y=f(x), -, , -, .
- , .
: a(f).
- ,
. : b(f).


=+, , b - , .
, - , >0,
- , /<0, - ,
b - , .

< ' >0

/=0

=-

=+

=+

--

=+; ,

1. ... xeR
2. ... yefi
3. +=0; =

4. :
>0,

>0, ( j-;+ool;y<0, x e l ;I

/<0,

>0, x e l -;-I; <0, -; +

5. :

/>0, , xeR; /<0, yl, xeR.


1
1
,1/
; .,; .0; , , - ; , -
\2 + 2= 2 12 1'2 1'2

- (, ),
, , .

(2-=3
( + 3= 5

(2-5=3
( + = - 4

(=23
( + 3 ( 2 3 ) = 5

(= 2 3
(7=14

(17= 17
|3 + = 4

(=1
\=2

|= 34

: (2; 1)

(= 1
|=1

|-5

(25 = 3
(15 + 5 = 20

(5 + = 10
( + 2= 5
(= 5 + 10
\= 2,5 + 2,5

\\

\ = -5+10

: (-1;-1).
2

2 = -2,5+2,5
: (3;-5)

/1 /2 /.,: =/1+1 / ,: =2+2.


(= /qx + fy
=2, b^b2, / J / 2 = ^ + ^

k^k2,bvb2-

- , lf\l2 \= +
2
2

[ = ^ + ^
/ _ - / 1
.
2
2
, /2 - +

. ,
. 1.
1;2;3;4; ...; 1000; 1001; 1002;...

. ,
. 0; 1; 2; 3;...
.

, , meZ, neZ.

. -


10


\\= , >0
-, <0
\\=
>0

.,=, 2= - -

=0

=0 -

<0

||>

>0,

_<

||<

(-; -][; +)

>0,( < f |
^
}>-
-

[-, ]

=0, =0

=0, =0

<0, xeR

<0,


<
[>

<<

\<
[>

<<

\>
[<

<<

CD -Q
VI VI
X X

>
[>

\<
[>

(6; ]

(;)

[;]

^- \

(; ]

-^^

(; +)

^>
b

11


12


, 1,
, .
"= - -... , - , - .

1. ^=

2. - =

5 2 -5 6 =5 8

3. an:am=a"-w

3 17 :3 15 =3 2

4. ()=

(2 7 ) 3 =2 21

5. (ab)n=anbn

6 2 =(2-3) 2 =2 2 -3 2

6. (*)" = *n

[bj

/23

23

73

a", neZ,

, P<ER, a>0,p = meZ, /

"

{)

" =/ ,>0

= 0, =0,> 0


,
. 1)> 0

a. va=
b\\', 2
, >0
lz)o

1. 7ab=7a-7b,a>0, b>0

7225 = 725-9 = 725-79 = 5-3 = 15


/8 < 79
V50 V25 725

3
5

3. 2" =| a |, a -

744 =| 221= 2 2 , -

4. (7a) = a, a>0

(/7) 2 =7,>0

>2
, - . 7 = :\'~

, >0.

[Z)D

1. 7 = 7-7,>0, >0

79-73=727=733=3

-^= f '^' > 0


/

1\

75

= ( / ^ = 7625 = 75^ = 5
V 5

3. () = Vam ,a>0

(74)3 = 74^ = 721" = 2

4. "=4 , >0

77729=7729 = 73^ = 3

5. (7)"=, >0

(72) 5 =2

6. 272,< =| |, /ce/V, a -

7256 = 728 =2

13


14

10 99
^^

100
400
900

121
441
961

144
484

169
529

196
576

225
625

256
676

289
729

324
784

361
841

1600
2500
3600
4900
6400
8100

1681
2601
3721
5041
6561
8281

1024
1764
2704
3844
5184
6724
8449

1089
1849
2809
3969
5329
6889
8649

1156
1936
2916
4096
5476
7056
8836

1225
2025
3025
4225
5625
7225
9025

1296
2116
3136
4356
5776
7396
9216

1369
2209
3249
4489
5929
7569
9409

1444
2304
3364
4624
6084
7744
9604

1521
2401
3481
4761
6241
7921
9801

^\

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


ax2+bx+c=0, *0, , - , - ,
.
2=0; 2+=0; 2+=0 .

:
2 -7+1=0;

52=0

=3; = - 7 ; =1

=5; ==0

= 0

=-1; = -;=0

1,52+9=0
=1,5; =9

1) =0; ^ = 0 ,

1)-1 =0; =0;=0

2) 2+=0;(+)=0;
1= 0
=0

+ = 0'

2) - 2 +5=0; -(-5)=0;
-=0

-5=0' x,= l l

3) 2+=0; 2 = , > 0;
Xi =

, =-

3)6x2-9=0;x2=|;x1=J;x2=-J

.
22+8=0; 2= - 4 ; .

, < 0 .
4) 2++=0; D=b2-4ac
D>0, 12 ==

D=0, , = - .
D O , .
5) 2++=0; ,
,
j=[^j

\1=0

- ; 12 =

/D
^

6) 1,

x2+px+g=0.
(x1x2=q
:

92+6+1=0; =9; =6; =1;

4)2 2 --1=0;
=2;6=-1;=-1;
D=(-1)2^-2(-1)=9;D=9;
_1+3 _ .
_ 1

^ = 32-9 1 = 0
4

1
: 1;

5) 52-7+10=0; =5; = -7; =10;


D=(-7)2-^-5-10=-153<0, .
: 0 .

6) 2 -5-6=0;^7 5 ;^6, 2 =-1.


: 6 ; - 1 .

*1 + 2 = ~

15


16


2++=(-1)(-2), xv 2 - 2++=0
: 2 2 - - 5 = 2 ( - | ) ( + 2) = (2-5)( + 2).2 2 --5=0;=81, 1 2 =^-, 1 =-, 2 =-2.


=2++, , , - ; - ,
.
1. =2
) ... xeR
) ... ; +)
) : =0
)
, [0; +)
yi, (-; 0]
) -
2. =2

;
||<1,
; ||>1,
.

/^^2

,
\

\
\
\
\

\
\
\
\

V />1 /

\ - - / /<<1
0

/1

W
\

V1<a<0

<-1

3. =2+

;
>0, =2
<0, =2 .

4. =(+)2


; >0,
b 0;
<0,
b 0.

=-(-

=(+4)
=(-2) 2 -1
5. =(+)2+
:
= 2 -3;
=(-2)2-1;
=(+4)2;
=-(-5) 2 +4

=(-5+4

17


18


2++>0 , , , - .


1.
ax2+bx+x=0, :
ax2+bx+x>0, >0

1) >0, xv 2 - , , (- 1 )(- 2 )>0


1

x-Xi>
- 2 >
-.,<
-2<

^ZZZZ^

-^^
^

[ 2 ; +)

(-; ,]

: (-; xju[x 2 ; +).

2
2) =0, 1 - , , (-1)2>0
>0 (-.,)2>0 ,
.
: xeR.

3) <0, ,

,2 + + > 0

^>XeR.

ax2+bx+c>0, a<0
1) a>0, xv x2 - , , a(x-x 1 )(x-x 2 )>0

^7777^\
x-^> 0
x - x2 < 0
x-x,< 0
x - x2 > 0

Xi

>xe[x1; x2]
x2

" ^ ^

^^r

Xi

: xe[x ; x ]

X60

x2

2) =0, .,- , , a(x-x 1 ) 2 >0; <0, ( - ^ ^ ,


(-1)2>0 x=xv
.
: =,.

f
ax2+bx+c<0,

ax2 +fox+

0.

>0

1) >0, - , , (- )(- )<0.

^
-^<
-2>
-,>
-2<

Xi

gzzzzzzt

W^

(1; 2)

: (1,2).

19


20
2) =0, 1 - , , (- 1 ) 2 >0. >0 (- 1 ) 2 <0 ,
=1, .
: 0.
2
3) <0, , , + + < 0
> 0

2++<0, <0
1) >0, 2 - , , (- 1 )(- 2 )<0
Xi

-.,< 0
-2< 0
-^> 0
-2> 0

(-; ,)

^^^
2

gZZZZZZZ*
Xi

( 2 ; +)
2

: (-; ^ ^ ; +).

2) =0, 1 - , , (- 1 ) 2 <0. <0 (-1)2>0 ,


x=x v (-1)2<0 , =
: ( (-; 1 )( 1 ; +)).
2 + + < 0
!

XGR

2.
ax2+bx+c=0 :
ax2+bx+c>0, >0
>0, xv x2 - ,
: (-; xju[x 2 ; +00).

=0, 1 - .
: xeR

ax2+bx+c<0, >0

>0, 2 - .
: (1; 2).

=0, 1 - .
: 0 .

<0, .
: xeR.

<0, .
: 0 .

: 2 -2-5<0. 2 -2-5=0.

1+4
5

^ = 1 + 15 = 16 ; 1 , 2 = ^ - ; 1 = - , 2 = - 1 .
:

= 2 -2-5

-1;

' 3

21


22
ax2+bx+c>0, a<0
>0, xv 2 - .
VJIUUI. ^ 2].

ax2+bx+c<0, <0
/^

>0, 2 -
: (-<>; 1 )( 2 ; +<*>).

1/

1
=0, 1 - .
: -

=0, 1 - .
: (-; 1 )( 1 ; +).

1
<0, .

'

<0, .
: XGR.

. -9 2 +6-1=0; -(-9 2 -6+1)=0;


-(-1 )2=0;

: 0 .

>

1\

\
1

: -9 2 +6-1>0.

"


ax2+bx+c=0 .
.
ax2+bx+c>0, >0

ax2+bx+c>0, <0

>0, 2 - .
: (-; xju[x 2 ; +).

>0, 2 - .
: xe[xvx2].

>0,
.
.

<0,
.
.

=0, 1
: xeR.

=0, 1
: =.

.
/+

=dk
Xi

- ,

.
<0, .
: xeR
>0 ,

.

<0, .
: 0 .
<0, ,
.

23


24
ax2+bx+c<0, a>0
>0, x r x 2 - .
: (

ax 2 +bx+c<0, a<0

>. >jr>. >^


+

1 2

X!

Form =0 " -

()

=0, 1 - .

Xl

(91

_^(

<0, .
: xeR.

>0, ,
, .

\?7~
Xl

: (-; x 1 )u(x 1 ; +).

<0, .
-

Xi

+^ ^ +

: x e 0 .

>0, 2 - .
^~ ^ 7 ~
: (-; ,)(,; +). ~/Y? +
g^>

<0 ,
,
.
:

25 2 -10+1>0
25 2 -10+1>0.

(51)

-' -5-

-4-12-9 2 <0
-9 2 -12-4=0.
CXYIOV-

+:^+',
1

1 1
: (-; )u( ; +).

(1.)-0,

: xeR.

3.

( )

\_^/_^
2


=3

- .
1)... xsR
2) ... yeR
3) =0
4):
>0, (0; +>),
<0, (-; 0)
5) : , xeR
6) -

y=(x+af+b
-
;
>0, 0;
<0, 0.

=(-3) 3 +2

| /y=(x-3) J +2

b -
;
>0, b 0;
<0, 6 0.

25


26

1
=
- .
1)..*0
2) .. *0
3) :
4) :
>0, (0; +),
<0, (-; 0)
5) : yi, *0
6) -

-^-ii

( + )

3
=+
+2

;
;\!\

-
;
>0, 0;
<0, 0.

'

~
1

b -
;
>0, 0;
<0, b 0.

^\ !
\
~ +3\ i
\
+2
\ !
Vl_ 2 :i -1i
\<

-^L

Vj
X

=3
- , .
>0, xeR.

|
\=

/<0, yl

xeR. ( ><
=\

>0

Ill

" V

\,v

'

- ,
/>0,
y l .

/0,
y t ^.
\

0
III

'

"

..

IV

27


28
y = yjx
1)0.0.. [0; +)
2) ... ; +)
3) =0
4) : >0, (0; +)
5) : , xe[0; +)

1)[-;0)
2) [0; +~)
3)=0
4) >0, (-; 0)
5) yl, (-; 0]

1) [0; +)
2) (-; 0]
3)=0
4) <0, (0; +)
5) yl, [0; +)

= \/ + +
-
;
>0, 0;
<0, 0.
b -
OY;
>0, b 0;
<0, b 0.

1) (-;
2) (-;
3)=0
4) <0, (-; 0)
5) , (-; 0]

= \/
1 ) 0 . 0 . . xeR

2) ... yeR
3) =0
4) : >0, >0; <0, <0
5) : , xef?

y=f{x) ,
.
2>., f(x2)>f(x1), f{x) - .
y=f(x) ,
.
2>^ f(x2)</:(x1), f(x) - .
y=f(x) ,
f(-x)=f(x). .
y=f(x) ,
f(-x) = -f(x).
.

29


30

1. , , ,
, d, .
d - , a^a^+d; d=a-anV
-: a=a^+(n-^d

: =
0
-: S
n=

++

,+
2a1+(n-1)cf
0Sn= ^

2. , , ,
, q, .
q - , b^b^-q;

q= n_

= h -r,n-1

-: b=b^-q

: b= jbn+k- bn_
br(1-Q")
,
-: S =
|/|<1, .

1-4


jf(x)= , -, .
<0, ; >0, f(x) =a2.
Vf(x)= Vg(x)

Mx~)= 9(x)

\f(x)> 0
g(x)>0
lf(x)= g(x)

(g(x)> 0
\f(x)= g2(x)

jf(x)>

^Jf(x)< .

Jf(x)> a

Jf(x)< a

~(a<0
\f(x)>0
fa>0
f(x)>0
[f(x) = a2

fa>0
\f(x)>0
[f(x)<a2

V ^ 0 > 9(x)

V^ VfiK*)

g(x)> 0
)>0 2
[f(x)> g (x)
(g(x)< 0
-\f(x)>0

\f(x)> 0
g(x)>0
U(x)< g(x)

31


32

>\

/!

\(1;0)
J

x=cosa; y=sina

(1; 0) .

(1;0) .
P a (cosa; sina).
.
sina
tga=
cos a

0 | (30) J (45) | (60) f (90)

^(135
4
(30)

sinx

cosx 0

2(360)
71

tgx

ctgx

oo

1
2

72

V3

72

2
1

2
1

(330)

V3

1
2

7
1

1
0
CO


sin2oc+cos2a=1
1+tg2a =

1
1
- 32 ; 1+ctg 2 a= , 2 ; tga
ctga=1

is a
sin a

sinx

cosx

tg(-a)= - t g a
sin(-a)= - sina

cos(a (3)=cosacos(3 sinasin(3

ctg(-a)= -ctga

cos(-a)=cosa

cos75=cos(45+30 )=cos45ocos30o-sin45sin30=

_ V2 V3_ 72 J_ -/2
" 2 2
sin(a p)=sina-cosp cosasinp

, 0

tgatgB

2 2
o

4
o

cos50sin80 -sin50 cos80 o =sin(80 o -50)=


1
=sin30=
tg150 = tg (60 + 45) =
/3+1

4 + 2
=

W3 ^2-=i

tg60

+tg45 =

/\
lW3

33


34


sin2a=2sinacosoc

sin10x=2sin5xcos5x
8cos3xsin3x=4(2sin3xcos3x)=4sin6x

cos2a=cos 2 a-sin 2 a=2cos 2 a-1=1-2sin 2 a

cos7x= cos2 - = - - sin2


cos16x=2cos 2 8x-1; cos12x=1-2sin 2 6x

2t
no
9a
tg2a= -:r~

2tg2x
- tq4x
1- tg22x" t g 4 X

1 - tg 2 a

1
sin2 a= ^ ( 1 - cos2a)

1
sin 2 5x= - ( 1 - coslOx)

1
cos2 a= =(1+ cos 2 a)

"1
(1+ cos8x)= 2- -(1+ cos8x) = 2cos 2 4x

. _ . +

sina+ sin p= 2sin
-cos

sin 75+ cos 75= sin 75+ cos(90- 15) =

_ . -
+
sin - sin n = 2 sin cos 2
2

7co
-. 75+15
75-15
= sin 75+ sin 15= 2 sin
cos
=
=

cosa+ cos p= 2 cos

cos

= 2sin45-cos30=2.^.^L^

_ . + . -
cos - c o s p = - 2 s i n
sin

08

11

2sin

1 - C0S iT

. 2

12

12

/3 /2

= - 2 s i n - r - sin = - 2 2
3
4

11 5
+
- sin 1 2 12

11

1
sin - cosy= ^(sin(x+ y)+ s i n ( x - ))

2sin50-cos40o=sin90o+sin10=1+sin10

1
sin - siny= - ( c o s ( x - ) - cos(x+ ))

3cos20- cos 80= |(cos100+ cos 60) =

1
cosx- cosy= ^ ( c o s ( x - y)+ cos(x+ y))

= | cos 1 0 0 + !
2
4

,
2a

cosa

sina

-cosa

+sina

+cosa

sina

+cosa

sina

-cosa

sina

tga

ctga

+tga

ctga

+tga

ctga

+tga

ctga

+tga

ctga

2rca

35


36


y=cosx
1)... xeR

5) :

2)... [-1;1]

, [+2;2+2], neZ

3) = ^+ , neZ

yi, [0+2;+2], neZ

4) :

6) : q=2n

>0 , xel - -|+ 2;|-+ 2\ neZ

7) : cos(-x)=cosx

<0, ( | + 2;-^ + 2]

nez

y=smx
6) : =2
7) : sin(-x)=-sinx

1)... xeR
2)... [-1; 1]
3) =, /ceZ
4) :

>0 , (0+2; +2), neZ


<0, (+2; 2+2), neZ
5) :

-+2;^+2/7
2
2
y l , < +2;%+2/7
2
2
,

A7&Z

ntZ

y=tg*

1)0.0..

x*+nkkeZ

2) ... yeR
3) =, keZ
4) :

6) : q=n
7) : tg(-x)= -tgx

>0 , |^0+ /;-+ %k\ keZ


<0, &[-

+ /;0+ /cj, keZ

5) :

xs[-^+2nk;^+2nk\tkeZ

- / 0

'

y=ctgx
1)... , k<=Z

6) :

2) ... yeR

7) : ctg(-x)= -ctgx
71

3) = + /, /ceZ
4) :

>0 , ^ 0 + /;-+ /cj, /cez


<0, x e l + /;+ /cl keZ
5) :
-l, (0+/; +/), /ceZ

1
\
\

il

IVs"2

'\

\ \2

42"

37


38


y=arcsinx

y=arccosx
1)... [-1; 1]

1)... [-1;1]
.
~ 2'2_
3) =0
4) :
>0 , (0; 1]
<0, [-1; 0)
5) :
, [-1; 1], keZ
6)
7) : arcsin(-x)= -arcsinx
2)...

2) ... [0; 1]
3) =1
4) :
>0 , [-1; 1)
5) :
yl, [-1;1], keZ
6)
7)

'

'

;
2

=%\\
-1
i

'

2
/ /

t 1

II

--

\ =< ;osx

y=arcsinx
/ /'/
1

2"

I I - -.*
71 X

/'

-1
iI

-1

/'

VS.
\ N.
I
NJ

X
I -J,

\
2
\
y=cosx

y=arctgx

y=arcctgx

1 ) 0 . 0 . . xeR

2)...

1)... xeR

<{-;)

2) .. ye(0; 7i)

3) : =0
4) :
>0 , XG(0; +)

3) :
4) :
>0 , XGR
5) :
-1, XGR
6)
7)

<0 , XG(-; 0)

5) :
, XGR
6)
7) arcta(-x)= -arctax

/ i

71 j^y
2

.__.

_ 1
7

\
\

,'

i ,
\

/^y=!arctgx
_r

2"

/'
\

/'

N. \
NA

/'

/ \ .

y=arcctgx

" 2

_____
/y=tgx

i>

39


40
1. [-1;1] <

IL-IL
2'2

.
.
2~'2~
arcsin(-a)= -arcsina

arcsina=a : sina=a, [-1;1];

2. [-1; 1] [0; ],
.
arccosa=a: cosa =, [-1;1]; [0; ].

5-

arccos(-a)= -arccosa

3. aeR

71.71

"2'2J'

.
arctga=a : tga =, - ,

.
2 - 2 I-

arctg(-a)= -arctga
4. aeR (0; ),
.
arcctga=oc: ctga =, - , ae(0; ).
a rcctg (-)=- rcctg a


1. sinx=a, |a|<1;

= arcsina+ 2, Z
= - arcsina+ 2,

=(-1 )karcsma+nk, keZ.


sinx=0

asm
arcsina

-arcsina

4 ^ ft

cos

x= nn, ne Z

2. cosx=a, |a|<1;

x= arccosa+ 2/,/ Z
x= - arccos a+ 2 /, / e Z
cosx=1

|sin

x=arccosa+27r/c,

/c eZ
cosx= - 1
a

Y ^^ \o
x = 2, n e Z

x= + 2/<, / ( e Z

41


42

3. tgx=a, a - ; x=arctga+7i/c, keZ

4. asinx+bcosx=c I:Va 2 + b2
yla2+b

sinx+

sin(x+ ) =

ja2+b2

, 2
Ja22 +b

'

cosx=

ja2+b2

arccos

arcsin

Ja2+b

Ja2+b

/2.
V3sir i3x - cos2x== V2 |:V3+1; ^ s i n 2 x - ^1c o s 2 x =
2 '

cos-- sin2x- '5 , n - . c o s 2 x = ;


6
2 x - ^ = (- 1) arcsir
6

V2

x==


/, keZ; 2x- = (-1)' + +
4 6

(-D 8 + 1 2 +

keZ.

,/ceZ;


=, >0, *1 - , -
.
=, >1
1)... xeR
2) ... (0;+)
3) :
4) :
>0 xeR
5) :

xef?

1=
/
/

>1

-] /
.^
0

=, 0<<1
1)... xeR
2) ... (0;+)
3) :
4) :
>0 xeR
5) :
-l xeR

\
X\
' \

<<1

\
\
\ 1
- \ ^
0

^:

=,
>0, * 1 , - .
0, ,
<0, .
:
> <, >0, * 1 .
.
>
<
>1,
,
>
<6
<
>
0<<1,
.
,
x<b
x>b
43


44

b , >0, ^1,
, .
log b=x:ax=b, >0, *1, >0
: al09e b = b, b>0, a>0, *1.

1. log a a=1; 11 =0

14=1; 1761=0
3

2. logab+logac=loga(bc)

1105+1102=11010=1

3. loga - loga c= loga -

log575-log53=log525=2

4. 1"=-1

log381 =log334=4log33=4-1 =4

5. loga = - loga

1^2=21 2 2=2-1=2

6 loga 6= 1
logft a

|057=

1

7

='
1

' g 3 l f = l o g 5
5125=3
log3 5

75


y=logax, >0, * 1 - ,
.
y=logax
1)... (0;+)
2) ... yeR
3) : =1
4):
>0, (1; +)
<0, (0; 1)
5) :
, (0; +)

y=logax
y=logax

1) ... (0;+)
2) ... yeR
3) : =1
4):
>0, (0; 1)
<0, (1; +)
5) :
yl, (0; +)

0<<1


log/(x)=log a g(x), >0, * 1 .
)>
()>
tf(x)= 9(x)

log/(x)>log a g(x), logaf(x)<logag(x)

f(x)<0
g(x)<0

l^(x)< g(x)
lf(x)> g(x)
[f(x)< 0
[f(x)> 0
g(x)<o
g(x)>0
0<<1,

lf(x)> g(x)
[f(x)< g(x)
f(x)>0
>1, g(x)>0

45


46

y=f{x) , -
/7*0, , x+h .
h, h>0,
y=f{x) . V () = Mm -, Ay=f(x+h)-f(x).

(5)'=0;(-|) = 0

(3x-7)'=3; ( l - | x J = -

^
X

1
2/
1
X2

"

-"-1

(+)"

/-(+)""1

- Ina

Inx

sinx
cosx
tgx
ctgx

((2x-5) 3 )'=3-2(2x-5) 2 = 6(2x-5) 2

logax

{Sy=7x;(^=lx(j=lx-L^

(7 x )'=7 x -ln7

1
xlna
cosx
-sin x
1

v(log
3

x) = p-rxln3

COS 2 X

1
sin 2 x

47


48


(u+vy=u'W

(5x 3 -x 8 )'=15x 2 -8x 7

(u-v)'=u'-v+uV

(x 2 cosx)'=(x 2 )'cosx+x 2 -(cosx)'=2xcosx-x 2 sinx

(}

Vx 1 ( ^ * ) '
sinxj^

u'v-uv

smx

~ J*- (sinx)
sin 2 x

r= sin x - 4x- cos x


2Vx
sin2 x

sinx-2xcosx
2Vx- sin2 x

(6tgx)'=6tgx.|n6.(tgx)'=6tgxln6

{u(v)Y=u'(v)V


y=f(x0)(x-x0)+f(x0), 0 -


1. ()>0 ,
f(x) ;
f ()<0 ,
f(x) .

()>0/
/
/

\f'(x)<0
\
\

2. 0 f(x),
0,
f(x)<f(x0).
0 f(x),
0,
f(x)>f(x0).
.
, , .

max

Wmin

xv x2, 3, 4, 5 - .

\
min

1
: = +,.
X
' = 1 - 1

1
: += 0, .

' = 0, 2 -1=0, 12 =1

-10
/

max

^
1
\-2

*
mm

49


50

() f(x)
, c'(x)=f(x).

f(x) = x 9 ^ F ( x ) = ^ - + C

, * - 1

+ 1

Inx+C

X
lt-t-C\

+ b

e kx+b , /*0

1
In|/cx+ |+
/ '
'
+
/

sin(/cx+b), /c^O

1
- cos(/cx+ )+

cos(/cx+b), /c^O

1
sin(/cx+ )+

f(x)= " => () = | +


f(x) = - => F(x) = 4lnx + C
1
r(Xj- ^ ^ + =>/-(Xj-

1
1| /X + J | + 0

f(x)=e"x+2 => F(x)=-e"x+2+C


f(x)=sin(3x-1) => f(x)= - ^ c o s ( 3 x - 1)+

f(x)=cos(2-7x) => f(x)= - y s i n ( 2 - 7x)+


, [;] I X,
y=f(x),
,
=, =,
. S= J f(x)dx-- F(b)-

F(a)

=()

x=b

J f(x)dx+ f g(x)dx

, =- 2 +2+3
.

SABC=l(-x2+2x+3)dx =
= -^ 3 + 2 +| =
3

1-1

= (-|-27 + 9 + 9)-(-1(-1)+1-3):
= 9 - | + 2 = |( 2 )
51


52

. : , , .
- , .
- , .

- , .
: .
- , .
CD .
- ,
, ,
, - . ZAOB ZBOA.

- , ,
.
ZEOD ZDOE.

..

- , .
, =.

^ ^

- ,
.
- , ZFOM=ZEOM


, ,
,
.
180.
Z1+Z2=180

,
.
Z1=Z3, Z2=Z4.

-
, .
.

53


54

- ,
,
, .

.
.
AAcL

, ,
, .
: .

,

.

AB=MN; BC=NK; AC=MK; ZA=ZM\ ZB=ZN; ZC=ZK,


AABC=AMNK.


I
(
)

II
(
)

III
( )

AB=KE,AC=KD,
ZA=ZK, AABC=AKED

=, ZA=ZK,
ZB=ZE, AABC=AKED

=, AC=KD,
BC=ED, AABC=AKED

, , ,
.

55


56



,
.


,
.


,
.

ZA<90, Z6<90, ZC<90C

ZC=90C

90<ZC<180C


,
.
g

,
.

=- ,
; -
.

MN=NK=MK.

C D

180.
ZA+ZB+ZC= 180
- ,
- .
ZBCD - .

, .
ZBCD=ZA+ZB

, ,
.

.

<+; <+; <+



.
=, ZA=ZC


,
.
ZA=ZC, =.

\ *
U

57


58

1. 90
ZA+ZC=90

1. :
=, BC=NK,
AABC=AMNK.

At-h-dC
2. , 30,
.

2. :

ZA=30, =

AABC=AMNK.

^.

ZB=ZN,

Z6=30, = ^ .
3. ,
, ,
30.

M^-h-^K

3. :
AB=MN, ZA=ZM,
AABC=AMNK.

*-^

= )zAB , Z6=30.

= | , ZA=30.
4. :
=, AB=MN,
AABC=AMNK.

, , ,
.

^-^

- ,
.
AM- /,

->

- ,
.
- , =

- ,

.
- , ZBAE=ZCAE

- ,
,
.
, ,, , - .

59


60


, .

, beoc, aj?f , a\\b.


, ,
,
:
1)
2) .

2- :

1- :

, b m , aj?fb, a^b

, , dnb=A, aj/(b

b 8 :
Z4 Z6 - ;
Z1 MZ7 Z2 Z8 - ;
Z4HZ5
Z3 Z6 - ;
Z1 MZ8 Z2 Z7 - ;
Z1 MZ5 Z4 Z8; Z2 Z6; Z3 Z7 - .
Z3HZ5

--''''
-''''

,_.
^^
i

:
, ,
, .

1. ,
.
a\\b, af\c=M, bf]c=N

2. ,
.
|| \\, \\.

/ /

61


62

1.
,
.
\\, -, Z1=Z2
/
/

1/


1.

, .
- , Z1=Z2, \\.
\

2.
,
.
\\, -, Z1=Z2.
/
/

/ 1
/
b
/2

2.
,
.
- , Z1=Z2, \\.

3.
,
180.
\\, -, Z1+Z2=180.

3.

180, .
-, Z1+Z2=180, \\.

/
/
2/

1
\

V
\

- ,
, ,
.
- ,
; R .
- , .
- , ;
d, d=2r.
( C=2nR).
- , .
(/
= 1^8 ,0 ; ))
v

63

- , .
, , ,
.
( S=nR2.)

() - , .
(MON) - ,
ON.
( SM0N =

36QO


64

.
- .
- .
^23... - n-, ,, 3,..., - ,
. , , - . - .
, ,
.

* , ,
.
* .

- 180(-2).
n-, , 360

- ,
.
AB\\CD, BC\\AD, ABCD - .


1.
.


1.
,
- .

ABCD - , AB=CD,
BC=AD, ZA=ZC, ZB=ZD.
2.
.

AB\\CD, AB=CD, ABCD .


2.
, -
.

-//-

ABCD - ,
=, BO=OD.

ACnBD=0,

Ecnv\AB=CD,BC=AD,TO ABCD .
3.
,
- .

ABnCD=0, AO=OC, BO=OD, ABCD.


65


66
- , .
AB\\CD, BC\\AD, ZA=ZB=ZC=ZD=90, ABCD- .


1.
,
,
.
*


,
- .

ABCD - , AB=CD\
BC=AD; AO=OC; BO=OD.
2. .

ABCD - , =.

ABCD - , AC=BD,
ABCD - .

- , .
AB\\CD, BC\\AD, AB=BC=CD=AD ABCD - .


1.
,
,
.

ABCD - , ZA=ZC,
ZB-ZD,
=, BO=OD.
2.
.

ABCD - , AC1BD,
ZBCA=ZDCA,
ZABD=ZCBD.


1.
,
- .

ABCD- , AC1BD,
ABCD - .
2.
,
- .

/1

ABCD- , ZBCA=ZDCA,
ZABD=ZCBD, ABCD - .

67


68

\/

- , . :
- , - .
AB\\CD, BC\\AD, =, ZA=Q0 ABCD - .

:
l.AB=BC=CD=AD
2. ZA=ZB=ZC=ZD=90
3. AC=BD
4. AC1BD, ZBCA=ZDCA,
ZABD=ZCBD
5. BO=OD=AO=OC

- , ,
.
BC\\AD; ABjh CD, ABCD - .

, .
AB=CD.

D~

,
.

- ,
. MN- ABCD.

.
MN\\AD\\BC MN= \{AD+

).


-
1. - , .
2. .
3. , , .

1) : S=ADCH^ S=ABCH2.

.

\>

"<

69

2) : S=ABBC.
.

1
V
<\1,

1
3) : S=ADBH ( ), S= ~- BD.

.
>

1
4) : S=AB2 ( ), S= - 2 ( ).

5) : S= | ( S C + AD)- BH.

.

\*

_AD

6) : S= ^ - .

.

^"

,
.
BH=NH2, f ^ =
}
&MNK
MNK

j
IVIr\


,
,
.

ZA=ZM,

SABC
>MNK

AB-

MNMK

cz=a2+b2.
:
, .

71


72


1 /,
/ ^ .
/ .


1 ,
- .


,


.

ZA=ZM, ZB=ZN,

ZC=ZK,

_ _
, AMNKK
MN~ NK~ MK


I ( )

ZA=ZM,

ZB=ZN,

TOAABCcoAMNK.

II (
)

MN
~ AMNK.

ZA=ZM,

'

( )


MN NK
'
6 ~ AMNK.

XY ( )
CD, XY = JABCD

1) , ,
,
. CD= V/AD- DB.
2)
,
, .
= 78- AD ; = JAB-DB.
73


74



R- ; d- .

d<R,
.
2 .

d=R,
.
1 .

d>R,
.
.


,
.
/ - , - ,
11.

,
,
, .
f]l=A _1_ /, / - .


\ V ^ t
\ \ ^ ^ J ^
\ / \
7 \ ^
\[ \<
)

1)/(0;)
2) MN n .(0;)
/.(0;)
ZMNE-

,
, , 0

.
, -, =, ZBAO=ZCAO.

, ,
, .
ZAOB- , ZAOB=uAB.

, ,
, .
, ,
, :
1) ;
2) .
/ ^
/ 0
\
1 / \ *
)
/W/v \
/
'
V-^

1)(0;)
^ "
2).(0;)
/*

/ .(0;)
(
\ \
Z 6 / \ C - I
\

\^__Jr

75


76
, ZABC=

-^yjAC.

<^

, , .
ZABE=ZACE=ZADE

, , - .
- , ZAEB=90

,

.
n CD=E, = ED

,


,

.

,
,
.

,



,

.

, ,
.

77


78
,


,

180

ABCD- ,
ZA+ZC=ZB+ZD^
80.
: ZA+ZC=ZB+ZD=y\80,
ABCD- .

,



,
.

ABCD - ,
AB+CD=AD+BC.
: AB+CD=AD+BC, ABCD .

,
_

_
cosct=

~
_
tg =
~~~

s i n p = ^ ; c o s p = ; tgp

sin a=

30

45

60

sina

1
2

cosa

/3
2
1
/3

/2
2
/2
2
1

/3
2
1
2

tga

cos2a+sin2a=1 - .

/3

- .
.

^^

- , - .

- , .

( ) .
.
- ,
.

, ,
, -
^^^^
^^^

.
\ b ; a t t - ,
c t 1 d; bT id

- .

79


80
, .
a t T b ; = , =
, , , :
1) ;
2) .
1); 2 ) , *

1)/lt^AT7; 2 ) = /77, .


1)

2)

3)

+
+=

+ = AD

- =

, >0

b , | \
/0,
/<0, a t lb .

, <0


1) + = + -
2) (+ )+ = + (5+ ) -
3) (kl)a= - (/)= / [) -
4) (+ I) a= k-a+ la - I
5) - (+ b)= - - II

: = : , 6:

' - + ^
+
+



.
- = ||- |b|-coscp

- = 0 , =90, b .

- > 0 , - .
b

- < 0 , - .

81


82

, , /.
1) 2 >0
2) ab=ba

- nepeiv

3) (5+ )- = + - -
4) (/- } 5= /- ( i - B ) . -

6 { 2 - ^ , - ^ -

| = V ( x 2 - * i ) 2 + ( y 2 - y i ) 2
I

/1

Xi

*2

{^,} { 2 ; 2 },

: {-1; 2}; {0; -3}.

1) 5+ {^^^}
2) - { ^ - ^ - , }

1) 5 + {-1+0; 2-3} = {-1; -1}


2 ) 5 - 5 {-1-0; 2-(-3)} = {-1; 5}

3) /5 {for,; fry,}

3)55 {5(-1);5-2} = {-5;10}

4)

4) - {-10+2(-3)} = 0-6 = -6.

a-b(xrx2;+y,-y2)

- 1 0 + 2(-3)

* 1 * 2 + 2

5) coscp=

2 '

V*i + \ V 2 +
- .

5) coscp =
VT+4-V0 + 9
>90.

/5

V5

<0

1
S = - a b s i n y .

.
: .
a
b

2R, R -
sin a sin (3 siny
:
.
2= 2+ 2- 2 c o s a


(-0)2+(-0)2=/?2
(0, 0) - , R - .
,
: 2+2=/?2.


+ by + = 0, , , - .
= 0-- .
= 0-- .
= d- - , .
= d- - , .
83


84


,
.

X ,= 180 ( - 2) _ -.
/=1

180-(-2)

- -.

1
S=-=P- r - -
- ,
-.

180

= 2R- sin

, .
180
r= Rcos

)7

3
4
6

R--

,7

,V2

R = a6

= 3
44 -= 44 -d

>7

6 = 4

S4=a2
!


1. , ,
, .
, , /, ., , , 1, - .

2. ,
.
, G /; , , / .

7V

3. ,
, .
, af)fi=l, 1.

1.
,
.

2.
,
.


86

1. .
/ a

2.
3.
,
,
.
. /1|
In a= A

, 1.
, - , , ,
, ,
.
.
, a, a \\ b,
a
/1| , /
|| .
/= , / 1 | .

2.
,
,
.
^
|| , || ,
|| , .



, . \\




, b
, b , axb
, anb


,
,
, .
a^a, bna=B, Bea,
, - .


,
, .
axb, . ^ \\ .

87


88

/ '

>

<

,
4 . 0 < ^ 9 0
.

/
/

,
^ b 1 , Z(a,b)=Z(avb)=(p

/ .

,
/? . \\/3

/7
V

\/

' /

,
\ /?. aC\j8=a




,
.
a,b cza, anb=c,
av ^ a^nb=cv
\\ b\\b o\\j5.


1.
,
.
|| }=,
}nj3=b, ||.

2. ,

, .
||, || ,
bno=B, an/3=A^ bnfi=Bv
=

89


90

,
,
.




, ,
.
a,b ca, anb=A I l a , lib,
I



1.
,
.
|| , alec,
b

2.
, .
alee, , || .

,

,
.

_\_, =,
/ I S C , TO/.LAC.

,

, .
\,=,

11, .

'/
,
,
.

/\6L
/
/
/

'
/

/ - , - , , AC=npJ,
ZMAC - / .

91


92

XL>

a/t

1#

ftffl
.1**"^
/
- -^ '

^ : : : : ; ?

.-^

//

\\

,
,
.

BAla, ABcfi, CAla, ACcza, ABAC BADC.

'
/ ~
/

/
/

,
.


,
,
.

, ,

,
.
anft=a
La

,
1=

,
,
.

an/3=l,
ay

~1~
_
/3

,
,
, ,
.
a^zfa, /. ,

93


94

,
, .

- , 4 .
- .

Ci

, ,
, ,
. : ABCDA^B^C^D^

D,
By

*-V

"

,
, - .


1. .
2. .
3.
.
2=2+2+2

, ,
, ,
.
- .
- .
.
, .
, - .
Sfi
=m h; S
=Sfi
+2S ; V=S h.
.

A^

'

..

.'

.Si

.
V=S

95


96
, n- ,
.
SO(ABC) - ; - - ;
- .
, -
, -
( ) .

1
$= ^- SH, SH- ,
.
1
S0CH= ^ ' ~ .
S

=S fi +S

- ,
, .

,+2

'

, 1 , - ;

, - ;

V= (S.,4- S2 + JSy S2), S1 S2 - ;


3
h=00, -

= +

+ = +
( )

A
a+b+c+d
~= + ~+ CD+

(+ )+ = + (+ )
( )

'

<

t-Q

'

+ + |
1

\ 7~,

= -

+ (-)
: 1.(//)= [la)
( )
2. k(a+b)= ka+kb

97


98
- , ,
.

b
= + yb, , - , , - .


DK= ^(DB+ DC), - ,
- .

= ^(+ + ), - ,
- .

- , = -:
^-1, -

^+x



a{x{,y{,z,}, b{x2;y2;z2}


A{x;,yvzJ, B(x2,y2,z2)
-

a+b= {x^+ x2;y,+ y2;z:+ z2]


a-b= {x,- x2;y,-

+ X2 _y,+ y2 _Z,+ Z2

y2;z,-z2]

'

A~B{x2-xvy2-yv

aajax^ay ^az.,
b - ,
2

'

2
z2-zj

. , b, - , .
= 2+ 3
{x,;y{,Zi}
= - + - jy 1 = 2 + 3 _ b {2; y2; z2}
U 1 =az 2 +pz 3 '
a{x 3 ;y 3 ;z 3 }

2

||= yl(x2- ,) + ( 2 - ^ 2 + (z 2 - z,f , ;^;^); 6(x2;y2;z2)


||= jx2 + y2+ z2 , a{x;y;z}.

- = ||- Iblcos ,

1. 2 > 0, 2 > 0 *
2. - = - ( )

- = ^2+ -|2+ ^z 2
Z1^2
Z

cosa=

JxJTyJ+z2 yjx2+y2+zl

3. (+ b) = - + - ( )
4. (/ca)b= /(- ) ( )

99


100

S6=27rrh
Sn=27rr(r+h)
h=m*h

,
, .

.

- .

, ,
, .
V=^nr2K

/2

Q
J
Jfi
6OK

_ '

360

- .


- ,
, .

, .
V= -^K(S+ S,+ yjS- S^y, S S1 - .
1
V= g nK{r2+ r?+ - ,)

, ,
.
.
S=4^f? 2 - .


(x-x 0 ) 2 +(y-y 0 ) 2 +(z-z 0 ) 2 =R 2 , (0; 0; z0) - ,
(; ; z) - , R - .
,
x2+y2+z2=R2.
101

- , . Vmapa = ^ R 3

- , .
- .
Vc=nh2-\R-h\

R-

, h-

! -
- ,
.

^~"

/^^\

(^5)

- ,
, 90, ,
.
V=^nR2K.

/
'"'
"~

Q''

"S
I

, , , - .


,
,
.
-,
- ,
_\_.

/
(,

j^.--\
\ . / \ \^
/-"^



, ,
,
.
, OA=R, OAla, -
.

103

104
, ,

, ,
,

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
,
.

()

, ,
, .

-, ,
, .



- ,

J?

<"

--""
107

>


108

c =a+b

c-a + b

yS

-^

_^
^v c
^ ^ ^ '

\^

?
,''


-
,
(-S)

<

/4
= -= + {-)

=-

/ ^

-?

~\


z =z-a
, \\ = \z\
, z>0,
z, , z<0
,
z > 0, = -2
, z < 0.
-z-a

2~[

X^



,
.

^
=\ -cosa
*1

109

~ ^
^
\
) ,


110

,
.
,
.
,
.

-
,
.

4
_

rz
-

0 )

,''

rz

X
-
:
rx=x, ry=y, rz=z.
2

r-Jrx

+ry

+rz

=-/ + +z

, (3, , -
, z
-

|/ iyca

cosR-
-

1 -

^x +y +z2

'

Jx +y2+z2
Z

/2 +y2 +z2

111


112

7^

-
:
1) ;
2) 2) .
.
Z, *

43-2
1

\\ = /50 ,

coscc=

3
50

1 2 3 /4

cosp=

Y,
cosy=

50
5
50

=3 , =4 , z=5

,
t=tx t=t2


(
-
t=t\


.
,

.
,
.

t=tx
t=t2.
,
t=tx
t=t2.

t=t2)

t=tx t=t2
(1)
(2).

1 /
/

^ s

' ~ 2

>

113


114


AF At,
,
At :
,
/

v=hm-rr^

^**^

^ ^


.

At,

,
At :

a = \im-r-
/^ At

(

)

vcp

(
) vcp,
AS At,
: = .
-: vcp=,

S- , 0 t.

,

: =^ +v2

S'

v', S' U
S,

S ' U: v=v'+U .

.

, .

^
^/
/ \ ^
/
\
/\

-^ i
N
\
\
i
'

,
J

"~-"'


^?\ """^

^ ^ \ \
: s^Y
\ \
: /
~\ \

= + .

115

1 0


116

^ ^ l i m - r . |t> ,

aT\-lv;

\v\ ,

a^iv.

,
,
.

=^, v- ;
RKp - .

v(t)

v-v0+at, v0 -
/=0.
-



t=u t=t2
(
-

t=tx

at2

r=r0+v0t+,
f(t)

0 - - /=0;
v0 - t=0.
Af=v0-At+^,

v0 -

t=u, At=t2-t}.

t=t2)

117


118


vx=v0x+ax-t,
- t=0
, - .
, /

v = - 2/
=1/2
vx(t)

(-2+1-0 /.

Vtf)

vo, a
,
vx= Voat.
:
+, v0 TT ;

+, ;

-, v0 >1- ;

-, 4- .

at
= 0 +v0x-t + , 0 -
t=0; vox -
/=0.
:

I , M |

:
=5
= - 2 /
=\12

x(t)

(0-?
-2-t +

1 2 3 4

|:

5 ,

VQ,
,
a-t

= v0mt-

:
+, v0 ;

+, ;

- , v0 TNL- ;

- , 5 4- .

119


120

a -At2

Arx=v0x-At+^, x


t=tx
t=h.
(

-

t=tx
t=h)

vox- t=tx
;
- .
:

:
t2=Ac
VQX = - 2 /
2

=\/
-?

= - 2 - 4 + ^ = 0.
2

, S, :

1. t=u t=t2
Ath ,
.
( /,-
: vx>0; vx<0.)
,

t=u
t=h

2. 5,-,
Att. :
)
() () Ar,-: Sj=\xK-Xn\;
) ,
vx(t), t t=tH
t=tK. (tH 4 -
/,).
3. ,
t=tx t=t2: S = X^i i

121


122
:

tr --4
Vo= - 2/
2

1.
vx=(-2+l-t)M/c.

vx t.

=5

2-

1/

0
-1-2-

1
1

i
i

:
tr =0

=1/

>, / ""

1"

i
i

4 si
i

i
i

1
1
1

|>

A\t,c

1
S .?
vx(t) ,
^=0 t2=4c vx
t=2c.
:

Ah (/=0, tK=2c) At2 (tH=2c, tK=4c).

2. ,

?'1'2-

)
aJL
: x = x0+v0x-t +
5'1=|(/=2)-(/=0)|=|3-5|=2 ,
5*2=|(?=4)-(?=2)|=|5-3|=2 .

) vx(t) (. ):
SI=2M;

S2=2M.

3. ,
t=0 t=4c :
S=Si+S2=4 .

tfcii/ct

XOY
\ OY ,
v0 XOY ( ).


OY

Vx(t)

Dx= VQx+axt,

Vy(t)

Dy= Doy+dyt.

v(t)

v = ^]vx + vy

x(t)

x-x0+v0x-t+

y{t)

y-yo+v0y-t+

rx-r0x+v0x-t+

OY

/ = t = t2.
( OY


t = tippt = t2.)

rx(t)

ryit)

ayY-t2
2
2
a-t
A
2

av-t2
ry=r0y+v0y-t+^,

.
,

r0x r0y - -
t=0 \ OY.
-At2
Arx=v0x-At+ x2
,

Arx
Ary=V0y-At + - ^
Ary

VQX -
t=tx \ OY.

123


124

t = t = t2.
( -
t = / = t2.)

Ar - ^Arx2 + Ary2 .



, OY -
.
,

/=0 , .


v=v0+gt'

'

J ^
<

~t

DR

>'

-)*--

'

>-

- t=0.

vx(t)

Vx(t)= Vo' cosa=const,


Vy{t)

Vy(t)= Vo-cosa-g-t,

OY .
, vy = ,
v vMmK=v0x=vocosa

Vy =Vosina-gt= 0,
'

x(f)
y(t)

t>0sina
g
= 0 +v0cosa-t,
2

j = j 0 + u s m a ' fgt- y .
t x{t):
X ' 0

f 0 cosa
y(t):

y = y0+(x-x0)tga-:^-2

--

2v0 cosz a
.
.

125


126


At , R,
(1) (2).
.
AS ( /).
^
^ \ i v"2

V^\
X

Vn

/A/ = AS


/
At, ,
, At :
v

\/k

cpiNA /

-lira


.

(
) .


<
At

co = l i m -

( - .
||= )

, .

co=const, .


:
cp = oW
vn = a>-r

127


128


, ,
,
( 2):
2
= , - ,

,7=

2KR

, > - .

v = = 2
,
.

,
, .
.

| = s ^
\

a... =co2R = .

\4

90 )

R^'~^


\.-'"
\

^
, .

~**^
/
'

Til

,
.
,
.
,

.
, ,
,
.
.

- ,

. , ,
.
1. - . ,
, .
2. .
,
F],F2,Fi,...,Fn,
F ,

^----""^
//

3 3^-^-^

F = Fl+F2+Fi+... + Fn.
F

V F3

129


130


,
. ,
.
,

.

. . , .
, ,
-

-- const

, .
,
, { ).
-> <
,

: = .

777777777777777777777?

1. - , ,
.
2. .
3. ,
( ,
).
4. - ,
.

5. :
, .

:
- 1 (F +F +...+F )
]
2
N
=

.
, , ,
: Fn ~F21,

, ,
.

,
, ,
, : =.

Fs

, .
FT = 2 R

-,

- ;
- ;
R - ,
.

131


132

I.

, .
,

.
.

()

"

'

s<

, ,
.
: F
=kAl,
vm
F - , ;
- ;
/ - (
).
Fynp|
,
, F /

.
,
.



F{ F2,

,

.
?
Fynp=Fl =F2 =kAl.

?
^^

.
, :
F = ,/1, \ - .


?

, - .
F
/,
F = k
,

, k2=nk].
2
\ F.

/=/,+/2=+.
/, 2
,
F ,

,-

= = t^k-7

^^^^

133


134
2
.

HVVWWi

^!
F
,
A/: F = kiAl + k2Al.
= = 1+2.

11.

, ,

. FTpcK =\i-N,
- ,
(,
, ,
).
N-
FTpcK , .

-
, ,

Fx.

Fx =\i-N ( Fx
). , FBHeui <FX,
,
, .
, ,
F
F
--F
, F. <u-N

*
j '
.
. )

FBmm>\x-N,
ulM ^

> F
=u-N
?
I \J * .

|J.N

>-


,
-2
.
, .
F = G 2
G- .
= 6,67-10 - 2 / 2 .

135

F2]

,
2


136


,
. ,


, (
)
,
.
,
-
.
( ).
,

,
, .
.
,
.
1. : ,
2 ,
-
.
2. ,
: ,

, , ,
.
3. (
) =.

4.
, ( ,
) .
5. :
) , - ,
;
) , , , .

, .
, ,
F-G

/77 7772

' , :
1
) (
, );

)
^

2.

2
,


?

). ,
{) ,
(2);
)
,
, .
137


138

,
2
h, , ,
,
(r>R3-h) , ,
, h,
, ^-h.
. s^~ / ^ \

\) -

g
, .
g ,
g
. h ga6c

ga6c =G
.; 3 - , R3 -
(R3+hf

. , hR3, g

h.
:
, , ga6c
, (,&. =9,81 /2,
ga6c.no,.

=9,83

//2)


( ),
, ,
.
, g
:
=

' "
-,,

g
(
?
)

.
g=9,83 /2,
g=9,78 /2,
g=9,81 /

139


140

,
,
,
, .

1
(

S~^c''
_>

yjv

4
/ ->
/

'

V_^
:
maHC-F

= mGf-,

vx = AG- , 3 - .
i\=l,9 /.

III.

. ""

- , , .
,
:
N
.

,
<'


.
F,
rng
ma = mg + N (1)


N: FmBJl =-N (2)
,
(1) (2), Fmm=m(g-a)
? ,
, a g.
.
1. a = g .
.
2.
, a c=g-

(R+h)
(R
+ hf

R - ; h - .

=-

FPn

141


142

.

( ,
) :

-.

, :

FAt (*->0).


.

.
I.
, :
,

F

(->0
?
II
At ,
:
= FAt.

1. , ,
,
Ap = FAt.

2. F ,
At ,
At?
F
:2 -\ = = Z ^ / M
i

, ,
.
,

.


.
,

.
,


: = 1+2+...+.

143


144


TV . ,
/

% = ^ +^ -

(1)

=1

_ , /;
^ _ / (
).
(1) .
,
. ,
, '.

^ = .

(2)



At

.

At, = ^FeuiAt
At?



: p(t) = Pj (t)+p2 {t)+ + Pn (t) = const.
,
- = ^ ^ 5 .
1\1


?
I

= , ^ = 0 5(0
= const.
v

II

= , ^ = 0 5(0
= const.
w

At

'

At


. , ,
III


=
0 > ~^ = 0 =const. ,
IZ^j
\ i
1
At
- ,
,
,
,
.

145


146

F
F
^ ^


,
IV

,
.
.

.

,

, .
?

.

1v
\
- - i- ;
w, - i- ;
- .
~~*

Vc = l i m - , lim'- = Ym,u
'^ At

rrii

'^ At

rrii

= p , ,
m


:
= .
(3)

(3) (2), :

__ -1 __ Z7B

_ ,
.
,
.

, .
,
,
t=0.
-

:
=+ \,
-
At;
- , At;
AvomH - (
).

= -Am , = Am vomil,

lim m = lim vomH = FnmKm .


p
^ At A^O At

(4)

147


148


.
, - -
(4) :
lim = F
JLAAAJL ft 1

->

+F

1 -

At

.
^,
__
,. Am
lim

^ At

<0,

>0;
-

.
,

/77

~*

/77

, FpeaKm =vorm .

, F.

,
F
:
= \ | \ cos = \F AS cos = \F \\ cos a-At = FSAS,

- F , j<
F \ v ; A>S = |Ar| - ; -
; Fs - F .
, ,
F .
,

Na
At, 7Vcp=.


(
)

-V


,
At, ,
, At :

7V = l i m = lim : COS(F,V) = F-VCOS(F,V),


^ At

^ At

'

V ' /'

v -
"

, F.
149


150

,
v, ( , vc):

mV2

,

,
v, ( , ):

=? .

2

:


= 1 + ^ 2 "'""'"^ = 2-1 \i=l


,
:

=2-]=.


: = +.




:
= +.

,
, .
.



:
2 -\ = .
:
= Eni - 1, 1 + 2 = 2 + 2.
,
.

^-*

' ^-\.

- ,_/7
1

i
2

(1).

- F , -F , (2)^*

-^2

-^1

'

(1) (2), : 2 -1=, <0 , ,


.

151


152


,
.
, ,
, .


,
.

:

mxV\+m2v2 = (mx + m2)v', vt v2 ;
' - ,
.
-^-

>
0)
>2

nii

:
2
] v\ m2 v\ ( +m2)v'
+Q,
2
2
2
Q - ,
.

.
.

:

m, Vf +2 2= mlvl+m2v'2.

Vl

>



:
w, V2i m2 V22 _ vl

0,
X


< ^'

0 0 ,
X

153

m2 v'2


154

,

,
.

/
F.
/ I *^~~~-^~-*.

/
J
[
/

.
\
\



: M = F-d( - .
.)
F
,
,
,
: M = F-d-

,
, :
Fl+F2+F,=0.

( )

,
,
,
.


, .
, :
, ,
:
Ml+M2+Mi=0.

,
.


, - 0
- fbf2,...,fn
, , :
7 =m]fl+m2f2+...

+ mr
+2 +... +

155


156
,

,
.
,

( ), .

m4gr4+m3gr3

,
, F_
: - S '
( )
p = p-gh, - ; h -
, g.

"7777777777
77
, h
. .
.
, , ,
: \=2==.
IV

157


158


,

^,
h
p = pA+pgh

"-

, ,
,
, : FA = pxmgVnorp.


"
S,
\h
{

h
2


'

,
V ~
2 =pglh +pA

_
\ = pyKgh] +,

F=SpMg(h2-hl) = pgMV=FA.

|/>1

2_

,
, ,

,
.

, ,
, ,
.

FA

mg

,
.

.

?\gk=?2gh2

159


160

Ffi

s6
V///\/////

- - --=-=-

1.

%
1

-
;
SM S6 - ;
FM v\F6- ,
.
:
2.

3.

R
=

6 J
'


:
S5 5 = SM .

- , ,
.
^=6,02-1023 "1.
- .
H = m0-NA, 0- .

, -
( ), -
/.

NA
N - ;
- ,
.

= 77

n = ^ = v-NA.

161


162

-
1) < >=


, 0- ;

vKB -
.
2) <>=^

(1)

-23

=1,38-10 - .
:

.
2
= ^<>
(2)
- ,
<
En0cm> -
.
:

(
! ).
(1) (2), :
=.
(
).


( -)

(
-)

: p-v=RT,

R - ,
R = k-NA, R=S,3l /-

/7-F=const
= const.

V= const -T
/>= const.

163


164

S -

= const -T
F=const.

p-V"1 = const
-~]= const
-

*
V

() ,
.

.
.

,
.
^^^^^=^^^^^

Pi - ;
:
p^PtY^
mit jUj- .



( )
.

U = ^vRT,

(1)

v- ; - .

,
(1) -

.

,
,

,
( ) AV,
AA = p-AV.

165

,
?
= 0, =0.
p=const. , ,
.
A = p(V2-Vl),
2.
V\ - ;
V2 - .
:
3.
r = const -> MJ = 0, , A=Q.

:
4.
0=0, , A = -AU = U]-U2.
,
>

,

V\ V2
p(V),
,
, Vv\
v,
v2 v
5. V=V
X



V=V2 ().

( ),

',
1.

,
' = -.

V2

Vx

.
Q,


Q, ,

()
Q, ,

Q = , -
.
Q = Xm, X -
.
Q = xm, -
.


, ,


, :
AU = A' + Q, AU = -A + Q, - , ;
'- , .


,
,
.
:
1. (1850): .
2. (1851): ,
.
167


168


(AU = 0),
.
,
:
(/,=.
:
M/ = 0 = a+Q2+...+Qn.
.
:
; ;!

Q0TO - , ;
Qncm - , .


.
(, V),
, ,
.
,
,
,
.

169

>0


170

rp

.-

- , ;
QH - ,
;
Qx - ,
.
: = -100%;

-100%.

3^4

2^3

,

,
.

-
-
- . < - .

'>0


: qx +q2 +... + qN = const.


,
.



: F = \' , =-

4 0

; fc = 9-109

-12

s0 - , s0=8,85-10 /.
, .

: , , .
,
.
q\
q2

Ft,

, q2

171


172


. F,

,
- F
, q\ E=.

,
, .
,

1 1


(
)

480

,
. , :
)
;
) ,

;
) ,
,
.

.
,
(
).

,
. ,
"" ,
"".
) .

)

q b
"" ""

)

q2;
|q2|=qi.

173


174




: = { +2 +...+EN.
:
Q 1 2
,
.
An = Am

/*

\ _ / " \ _ /

^- 2 (1) (2)

(1) (2)
, - 2 = -2-.


.
- 0,

.
= - + ,

= 0 R^> , =0.


:
<= 1 + 2 + . . . + / .

, ,
0, .
Wn ,
, Wa=q-$.
, -
.

, Wn
.

q 1 2 A = q(^-<p2) = W^-Wn2.
, -
,

,
.
1N
i=l

TV- ;
, - , , qt
, q,. -
,
.

175


176

1 ,
. ,
.

.
, -2 =\-, /J, - 1
2 .



R q, ,
, -

>() = -,
. , : 1)> \\() = -^-,


q, .
2)< () = 0, >() =
R'

.
.
- Y - puc. e
(. ). , ( ) R (. ).



^
,
, .
. .

,
,
.

= +

= +

|
|
i

-
.

3^G

! ,G

1
1>

: t-

. |

-*- J T(Hi i TIIHPP

177


178

,

, :

Z7

,
,
q,
-
'

-^

4 0 2 '

,
, ,

:

^ .

.
,
:

= ^,

q - ;
- .
,
.
,
.
.
q
, U- ,
q = C-U .

.
= -^-,

S - ;
d - ;
- ,
.

179


180


,

, .

= qi+42+ = +2+
1-2

_2L

)
*

++++

++++

++++

<\


.
,
,

, ,
q.
:
1-2=(1-')+('-2).

, ,

,-

2 = -

-
+ -

\ +

,
2

+
+

-<'+

-(fh

+
+

_q2
2
2
2
1. (S, d, s )
,
.

: =AW.
2. ,
.

,
, :
^ = .+.,
w_qU_CU

AcT.=&q-U;

Aq - ;
U- .

181


182





, Aq,

At, , At :

^ At



.
,
(, ).
' :
j = -e = \q\nv,
\q\ - ;
- ;
v -
.
/ = |,

/ - , ;
U- ;
R - .

= --,
/ - ;
S- ;
- .

.
:
I
/ =/,=/2.

(1)

1 - " ,

Ri


-* ,
: U = UX+U2. (2)
, (1) (2) :
R = RI+R2.

I
I
*>


:
/ = /i+/2.

(1)



/:
U = U{=U2. (2)
,
(1) (2) :
_j_

/, h

/, 2

R2

, : IT = I T + 1 7

183


184
()
q
.


()

<^> _ ^

I = s,
R+r
I f - ;
- ;
R - .


.
, -
) R.
, , ,
1/11
/, R, ,
L/

rl+IR;

1-

R+

,

g7 _ | f ,

1/11

. , R

10, : /0 =

R + r,

I nin

)
R.

\
n-W,
/ =
R +

-^-

,

l? s = %; h =
R
10, :

/=

10.

lo

~R + n'



, , 1, ,
, 1(1>1),
7?, .
hrA ={1-1) . - .
-!>- ^

I - 1 I
I R

-\2 Zb

Uv, , ,
R'

Uy _u -Uy t rv - .
r

^. = = ^ 6 11

~>

U ,

185

-^


186

,

.

, ,
q, : m-kqkit.
.

II

III

=,
F Z
\i - ; Z - ;
F - , = 9,65-104 /.

-- = - .
1
1 f ,,,
m = - -q = - -IAt.
F z F z

. -
,

,

-

/ , R,
U,
;

p = FU = = I2RR

,
, &: = 1-<.
/
At Q = I2RAt..

. .

.

.
/

().


(
)

,
. , :
)
, ;
) ,
,
;
) ,
, .
, q v
, .

( )

(
\Fn\ = \\--\ -sin V,B (1)
V

( )

187

9"


188
,
, , ,
, :
F = qE + FMasH. (2)

, ,
.
'

(2): FMasH -q--\ -sinv,B


j

.
/, 7,
. /
\FA-IlB-sin 1

v j

D
.


,
. .
1.

qvB-m R
R
qB

:
Vj_
vu. v=v- sin

, , Vj_
R, .

mVl

- = \q\vLB- R =

mV

- mvsma

2.

t>|=t>cosa -
.
h, ,
2nR 2nm

\q\B
1
h -V T =t>cos a
qB
189


190


(
)



S
0 =

BScos ,

(
).

,
,
.
.
, ,

,





.

,.
- - hm

) lim

, .
^ ,

) , lim

,
.

. (
) , ,
.

=
=

. ,
. (,

> )
At


.
. ,


.

( ).
191


192

^ At

%S=-L\im

^ At

L =
. -
, 7,
. I

L
2


,
, .
X = A'0COs(</ + (p0)


.
,
,
.

: v = .

2
= =2nv
. 2 .
.
= + 0,
, .
q>0, ,
t=0,
.

193


194

,
,
, ,
x(t) = x0cos((>t + q>0),
0 - ;
= + 0 - ;
0 - (
/=0);
- ;
= -^. - .


{t) = x't = -xcosin((M + 0) = -0 sin(W + 0 ),
0 =0> - .
px(t) = m-ux(t)
(t) = () = "=-02 cos ( + 0) = -0 cos ( t + 0)

!
, ax(t) = -a2 -x{t).
.

2
= 1 = \
-2(4,
\ mvl (1
8(/
t +, Y\

2 81 ( + 0)=
0)) =


= - (l + cos (2co t + 20 + )).


2<,
.

=^cos2(ffl/



,

, v

mvl

+ cp0) = ^ ( l + cos(2cor + 2cp0))

)21

= += = - = const,
.
*-* ^

-L^n

- ,
/

.

195


196

,
FT=maT=-mg sin a (1), -
.
since . (2)
S,

a ,
S = a7- (3)
(3) (2) (1):

S"


gS
(4)
I

(4) : S = S0cos((ot + (p0),


0 - . ,

t=0.

=2%
(1) g

, g* = -, FH -

m
, .

s:=ax

g*S
I


S = S0cos{a)'t+(f>0).

*_

/5

=2-

, .

,

:
F y n p =0
-,

=
-.

.
7777777777777777^777

! fyr

= x0cos(o)t + 0)

77777777777777777777777
/7777777777777777777777777777
0:

197


198


L.
,
, R=0.

, , 1
2, :
1
1) I = q't, q - 2
R
( ,
);
2)
/ = 2 -, = ^ (
, 0 0 ) .
,
2
1
W =
+^.

, , q',=I:

, , ,
.
, q = q0sin(? + 0),
U = ^ = U0sm(ait + )\

I = q't=I0cos(<ut + (p0).

= ,

4LC


T = 2nVZc - .
, / = / 0 sin </ + 0 + ^ ,

q I U -^

| .

~^
X

^ ^

\ ^

-
X

(1 - cos (2co t + 20)) =



JY3J[ i

= ^ ( l + cos(2(or + 9 0 + n ) ) . 2
AC
q0
1

AC
0

:ZY:":ZY::Z

z_

199

/
t


200

1
LI1
LP = LI
WM =
2
2 ' cos(co? + 90) = -^--(1 + 8(2(+20)).

wu ><

W3JI WLI*
M
, 2
2
/ \
/ \

/
\
/
\
V-
4
/
\
* >
, ,
0
.
-
W
:

= +.=

VJ


,
.

()

,
.

.


, .
.

201


202


Z

h t2>h.

,
Z
v:
= ^ , c o s alt

+ 0

, - .
,
v:

=sin| | tr

+ .

- .
,
(S = 4nR2) .
2,
=.


, ,
, .


- .
,
,
,
.

(3

^ ^ = , 1 2 -
sm p ,
1- 2- ( ).
,
,
, .

203

777


204


<2 ( ),
0, 90, sina0 =.

0
, . 0
.

90

d- ;
/ - ;
F - .
d / , ()
, - .
F , ,
- .
) ,
,

.
F

) , (
), .

) ,
,
.
F

205


206

D

F
, -
.

Z) = 1
\

+J-+JRx

R2

- ,
- ,
,
Ri R2 - .
, -
.

, - (0),
, (D<0).
, (=1,5) ,
Ri ,
R2 - , R\>R2,
:
D=

J_

<0

R2


>1,5, .


?

:
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
,
.

.

207


208




= 3-108/

v =-, - .
= Vs , .
X =vT , - .

v =, v .

,

.

( , ).

.
- . \
.
,
.
.
( ).


,

= , = 0, 1, 2... - , ,

= (2+1), = , 1, 2...
,

(

2;

209


210


1
S ^t^

S'

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

" ' " '


i

1.

- 4 = 4
1
1 2

= ,+ = ^/+

:
= ,*=0,1,2...; ^

=(2-1)|; = ^(2-1)|.

:
= (2 + 1 ) | , = 0 , 1 , 2 . . . ; ?j- = kX; = ^-.
2.

,
,
X. - .

.


1 2.
1
, 2 - .
,

1 2
.

1 2
21\-

(1]

^X
1,
. ,

A{=2dn-^

= kX

(2)

- (= 0,1,2)
, -
. , ,
:

A2=2(dl

a)n-j=(k

+ i)x

(3), rf,+a- .

(2) (3) = .
2

.
, , ,
211

_ X

2-


212

- ,
. .
1.
.
1 2.
.
1 2 =2+,

3.

-
.
2.
,
.
= , =2+ = , =1,2,...

. ,
,
.
(R + af=r2+R2;
2Ra + a2=r2.
2
<2, r = -JlRa.
(1) (2)
:

^-^

[^-||,=1,2,...

3. ,
:
= (2/+1), =0, 1,2,...,

= .

:
= y/2RkX , =\, 2,...
, = ( ) .
) .
,
.
) .

2

1
, .
2>
1 2,

,
,
= -2.
2
X
= (2+1)
- ,
. ,
.

213


214


X d
,
A=<isina.

>k
d

>'

<<
s\a
\

, ds'ma = kX,
=0,1,2,... - .


, , , , .
, .
,
, ..
.
,

, .. .


,
( ).
1. .
:
.
, , , , . . , .
, ,
, , ( - ).
.
- ().
215


216
2. .

. ,
.
,
: ,
, .


'. '
v. X X' v,
Y Y' .
'
.
.
1. , ' ,
. ='

2. .

X, X'

, X
'. , ' 10, (
). /, ,

l = U\

0)

'
V .

.

u
'
- v
, '
. , .
, ,
,
, .

3.

, '
. '
0. -

f!
, , ,
- , . (2) ,
.
, v (
, ).
,
, .
- '-, , ,
'- -, ..
.


.
0
. , .
217


218
( ) , . .
. .


F,
: l i m = F .


.


,

= 2

j-,

h ~

-)

~ TYI

1.

1)


,
, ,
. .
.
= +
- ( ), -
.


0: 0=2.

E=hv, h - ; v - .

hv h
= = =,

- .

v (1)
, hv,
(1) , ,
: =0.
mv = = ^.
1

219


220


I.
, ,
(..
). .. 1889 .
II.

.
III.

, . . X ( vK),
.

YYIXJ

hv = +-^,

v - , -

.
ffll)

- ^ - .
YHu

- ^ = 0, :
.,

_ ^

_ "

\
>




/.
,
, Eh 2.... ,
,
.

()
.
II.

, hv = - ( ).


, ,

mvr = nh,
:
- ;
v- ;
=1,2,3... - , .


222



meAZ2 1
=-- 2h2 ' 2 ~~

( = 1) .
=-13,53.

, ,
.
.
-> = 0.


(>)
hv = ha = Em- En
:

, 2 me'Z2 ( \
3

\\

me'Z1 ( 1

2SQ/J3 \n2

^ - ^11 = ^ | - ^ | ,

i?, =2,067 1016c"1


V

me4Z2 ( 1
3

2h sl \
\)

lS) = Rz2(2

)
S

1
2

, R2=3,29-1015c1.
>

Rx R2 R . (
, .)
_

,
.
Ze, - , Z- ,
.
.. .
- .
A=N+Z, N- .
Z, .
,
,
.

= f-; = Zm + Nm - ,

- , - .
, ,
:

= -Z-me;
Am = Z-mp+N-m -mA +Z-me.
.
,
| : +=.

.
Am = ZmH +(A-Z)m -mA
,
sCB =j-.

223


224

- - (

)'-

2^.

/ -

- ((3~-) ,
.
:
( (3-
: ((3+) - -).

- -
,
- (3-.
.


' ,
=-'
>0 . "<0 .
' ,
. \ '
.
: + = '+'

=-.


N = N0e~Xt - t = 0;
No - /;
X - .

, 7V
:

- , .

A=^

At

= XN.

- ,
. :
N = ^ = N0ekl.

,
: 12 = ,
, 12 0,693

N = N0e~lt ,
.

225


226



, ,

" "
" 299792458 " " "
' , .
, 9192631770 ,

-133.
, ,

, 1
,
, 2 - - 7 .
,

273,16

.
, ,
(, ,
, .), -12
0,012 .
,
, 540-12 ,

_ J _ /.
683

,
.
,
,
, .

227


228

S
V

L2
L3

2
3

LT~

LT2

/2

-i

- i

/3

LMT~

L2MT2

LAW1

LMT'

FM

U MT'

L3M-]T~2

MT~2

2
2
/





:
);

L2MT~2
L2MT~2
L2MT~3

L2MT2
L2MT~2

L2T-2

L2T-2

L2T~2Q-]

j
q


L~2I

TI

/
/

-
/2

]1

) ;

21

) .

U'TI

<

L2MT-3rl

L2MT~3r]

(
)

229

/
/
/


230

2 " 3 / - 1

~31

2-'412

3^2

L-'M-'T'I2

L2MT~3r2

L3MT~3r2

3~1312

L2MJ-2rx
~21
2~22

LMT~2r2

8

- ,
-

- ,

:
-

, ,

,
1/12 ,
().

, ,

1/12 ,

(Mr). ,

(02)=162=32
Mr(H2S04)=1 2+32+16x4=98
,

233


234

JUL

-


.

^
20
^

, - :

-
.
,
, : ,

;
;
;

;

;

,
:

, , ,
, , ,
,

( )
, : ,



,
,


: +02>02

( )

+1

1
1837

-1

A-Z, -
, =

Na 11=^Z = + 1 1 = > nD + = = 11; = 2 3 - 1 1 = 12


:
1) + => Z => ,
, .
- .
2) => , Z .
, ,
, .
3)=> - . ,
( ), -
( ).


1) N .
Na III =>

Na

(+Tl)Y))

2)
.
Na I =>

235


236
3)

N=2n , -

Na M l ) ) J J
4) ,
.
Li(+3)H

Na(+11))])

2 1

5)

(+19)
'2 '8 ' 8 ' 1

2 8 1

, , ( )

- s-
- -
6)

k E

4 "

\
V

"V

4f
4d
4
3d
4s

3s
2

--<
N

d-

4d

*4

Q4s

3d

Q3s

2p

Q2s

2s
1s

1 .

f 3s1

www 2p
w 2s

Na (+11
2 8 1

1s2

H-

4f




.

-
(8)

W
.
II
:

RaT => . .
, Ne, Ar, Kr,


, Rn
RaT

U

. .
. ~ U


.
-
,
, , .

:

237


238


.. Me +

-
Me

Mg

[K5@1)J[F))J

, ,

MgF2; KCI

* #
*
0*0*0
-<^ +
-


.

( ) ,
- ,

Fe,

. .
+
4

. .
+

'


N
23 f f f
| | | 23 N
2

2S Tf V v ^ ^ V /

2 2

FF S

2pUt t t

"

/^.
H. + . 0 +H -^ H (<3Z>0 CED] H


,


- ;

-

- , -

: , , .

: - ,

, , .

- (); Si02; - 0 2 ; 20
239


240

,
NA

, N

, V M

, D

,
,
.
1 - ,
(, , ),
12
, ,
1 : 6,02-1023

,
,

(-1)

N=nN A

.
()
= ; ||=||; ||=||
, 1 .
(t=0 ; =760 . .) 22,4
VM = V

, , (
) , ,
()
.
D = L

/
/
/
/
/
3/


(),

= jL^(x100%), - .
: = *-* (100%)
'''

: =

(100%),

++4

'

nri1; m2, m3 -

=v+v+v<x100%>
1

Vi, V2, V3 -
= ^ , - , V -

241

%
/


242

(S; J2), (2)

(0 2 ; N2)

, ,
.
- ,
.

0 2

0 3

,

,

, ,
,

, ,

, ,
,

.


- ,
, .

1) 1)
0.
, .
2)

2) ,
0 .

,
3)

.

.
3)

4)
- .
0.
+3 -2

1+ 3 2 ^(+3)-2 + (-2)-3 = 0

+5 -2

AIS->AI 2 S 3 ; - > 2 0 5

5 1 4 2 ^(+1)-3 + (+5)+(-2)-4 = 0

+6-2

SO^SOg

S i O 2 ^ x + (-2)-2 = 0 =^=+4
HJ1 SO42 ->(+1)-2 + + (-2)-4 = 0=> =+6

243


244

,
, . . - 2
,0 2;

Si0 2 2 ;

2
AUO;
,i w
2

,

3 0 4 ; HBr; H 2 Si0 3

HCI; HN0 3

H 2 S; H2SO4

,
- "
+ "; ()~

()

,

3+ *<&&.

AI(S0 4 ) 2 " -> AI2 (S0 4 ) 3 ;

();
; ()2

()2;

CaC0 3 ; AgCI

<2)^

Na(Si0 3 ) 2 ^ N a 2 S i 0 3

NaCI; K 2 S0 4


- 4P+5Q 2 ^2P 2 Q 5 +Q
-
Cu(OH)2t!CuO + H 2 Q - Q
-

: 0 3 ^+0 2

-

: + 2 0->() 2

-
: 2HCI+ZnH>ZnCI2+H2?

zr
: CuO+2HCI^CuCI 2 +H 2 Q
CD
CD -
Q.
: Fe(T)+CuCI2(p-p) -4>Cu(T)+FeCI2(p-p)
-

: 2()+12() ->21()

Mn 2
2 H , Q , 2 H , Q + Q , t
S + 0 , U 3 0 ,

-
: H 2 S0 4 +BaCI 2 ->BaS0 4 i+2HCI

-
: 3H 2 +N 2 <=>2NH3
- - :

+1-1
+2
.
Fe+2HCI^FeCI; 1 +HSt
- - :

SO-, 2 +H: 1 O->H; 1 SO; 2


245


246


, , .

Dx.p.

2 - 1 _ + An _ + AC
= +
V(t2-t,)
V-At
At


, - , = + An
D=S-(t2 -t-,)
S-At

,
.

(
)

2Na+2H20=


. 3-

:
..

,
,
.
2S02+02=2S03

:


10


2-4 .
t 2 -t,

Ut 2 =i) t l 7

10

i)= k C S 0 2 CQ 2
,
,


v
=2NaOH+H2T

4+502=2205


t. u=k-CS2
10 .
- ,
Zn + H 2 0^

^ZnO + H2T

t
1 /
247


,
,

.

v
,


,


.

.


248


,
:
) H 2 S0 4 +BaCI 2 ->BaS0 4 i+2HCI
) KOH+HN0 3 ^KN0 3 +H 2 0
) 2 0 3 +21^21+ 2 0+0 2
,
: ,
.
: - , (
) -
, ,
.
N?+0?^2NO-Q
N2+3H2^2NH3+Q

-^
N2

N2~~~7
N0
0 2
NH3
2
/
t
t

'NO
NH3

'
\

t
t

, ,
\) .

, -

- , , , ( (, ).
, ).

- ,
,

Q.

.
S
Q.
X

"s

_Q
10

SX

(1) 00

Q.

-0
X
-L


m ;

3
DO
?

>*

Q.


5
*
-
>s 5
1 CD

.
1_ CD

?

X


J_
.

,.

>

m
5

. .
1) -L

11

m X
m

Si
U.
m >, !_L
\-

1

m
I 10
? Q.
5

.^

Li.

>s

(11

>

00

1-

1-

10

1-

1_

KOHI

Q.

249

-
-
:

. _
5
6.

.0
X


250
>rj

:
NaCI; K2S04. 100

1

CaS04; MgS03. 100



1 0,01
"

"

Fe(OH)3; BaS04. 100



0,01

,
- .


f~~

1/

,
- ,

, ,

, ,

. ()


1) (
) . ,
, - .
1^ + +
NaCI ^ N a + + C r
NaOH^Na + +OH _
H2S04^2H++SCt

2)

K2S04^2K++SOI

D . / A U ^ ^Ba^
. D 2+++20HBa(OH)
2

() -


3)
4) - , ().
,
N
(1 - ,

: ^100%
N

Np - ).

251


252


( >30%)

(<3%)

(30%>>3%)
1) : NaOH; . .
2) : HN0 3 ;HCI; HBr; HJ; H 2 S0 4
3) : KN0 3 ; CaCI2 . .

H2S03; H 3 P0 4

1) : H2S; H2C03; HN0 3


2) NH3
3) 2 0

- ,
, , .
.

>

H2S04+2KOH=K2S04+2H20

2H +S04 +2K +20H- =


= 2K++S0 4 : +2H 2 0

+ += 2 0

K 2 C03+2HN03=2KN03+C0 2 T+H20

2K + +CO"+2H + +2NOi =
= 2++2+02+20

2H + +COl

AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 +3BaCI 2 =3BaS0 4 l+2AICI 3

2AI3+ + 3SOI + 2+ + 6CI =


= 3BaS0 4 l+2AI 3 + +6CI

SOr+Ba2+=BaS04l

=C02t+H20

:
) ;
) - ;
) .
,
1) ;
2) ;
3)


- ,
.

Z\
S

3"
"?

-~~

%
^ ,

&

Z^


(
)

ii

*
*-

I
X/

I )
.

^5

z
X

-Q

i J_
^

CNJ

^.

ZS

X
N

*'

>,

-L

.0
;

m
X

Z
X

; J_
s

-Q

<5

.

1-

-0

'

S
.

2
s

0D

LL

Q.X

>.

: , ,
.

+ 2 0

+ 2

S03+H2O^H2S04

2+12^21

K 2 Si0 3 +2HCI^2KCI+H 2 Si0 3 i

253


254


1)
HN03^H++N03
: H 2 S0 4 -> + + H S 0 4 ; HS0 4 <=> + + SO^ .
+
.
2) + -
H 2 S0 4 + 2NaOH -> Na 2 S0 4 + 2H 2 0;

+ +-^ 2 0 ( )

3) +
2HN0 3 +MgO^Mg(N0 3 ) 2 +H 2 0;

2H + +MgO^Mg 2 + +H 2 0 ( )

4) +
CaC0 3 +2HCI^CaCI 2 +C0 2 T+H 2 0;

0 3 +2 + ^ 2 + +0 2 + 2 0 ( )

(N0 3 ) 2 +H 2 S0 4 ^BaS0 4 i+2HN0 3 ; 2+ + SO 2 " 4 > B a S 0 4 1 ( )


5) + ,
) 2
6)
2AI+3H 2 S0 4 ^AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 +3H 2 t;
2AI+6H + ^2AI 3+ +3H 2 T.
: + (
). ,
.


- ,
.

9
^

3d.

"
~

S
^
^ "

-
; ^
s <S
CQ

J3
X ^-v

<-s
;
U_

^1


( )


.^-

: ( NH4OH) ,
.



) 20+ -
) +
2Na+2H20^2NaOH+H2T; +22^()2+2
CuS0 4 +2K0H^Cu(0H) 2 l+K 2 S0 4
) 20+ -
Li 2 0+H 2 0^2LiOH; CaO+H2O^Ca(OH)2
255


256


1) -
+
: 2+ H 2 S0 4 ^K 2 S0 4 +2H 2 0; " + + ^ 2 0 ( )
. : Cu(OH) 2 +2HCI^CuCI 2 +2H 2 0;
Cu(OH) 2 +2H + ^Cu 2+ +2H 2 0 ( )
2)
)
NaOH^N a + +OH
- ,
.
) +
2 NaOH+S0 3 ^Na 2 S0 4 +H 2 0; 2 0 H " + S 0 3 ->S0 2 4 - + H 2 0 ( )
) +
3 LiOH+FeCI3-Fe(OH)3>l+3LiCI; 30H-+Fe 3 + ^Fe(OH) 3 l ( )
: ", (
), , .
3. - .
Cu(OH) 2 ^>CuO + H 2 0


- , , ,
- 2 .

,

2 0 5 ; 0 2 ; Na 2 0

,

N 2 0; NO; CO

,
.
+1; +2:
Li 2 0; MgO; CuO

, .
:
) 2 0 5 ; 0 2
) +5
0 3 ; 2 0 7

1)

1)

4AI+30 2 ^2AI 2 0 3 ; 4+50 2 ^2 2 0 5

()2-+20

2)

4 +20 2 ^0 2 +2 2 0;

2) H 2 Si0 3 -H 2 0+Si0 2

2H 2 S+30 2 ^2S0 2 +2H 2 0

3) CaC03 ->+0 2 1

257


258

1.

Li 2 0+H 2 0^2LiOH;

, Si0 2 (
)
S0 3 +H 2 O^H 2 S0 4 ;
2 0 5 + 2 0^20 4

+ 2 ^() 2
2.
CuO+H 2 S0 4 -CuS0 4 +H 2 0

CuO+2H + ^Cu 2 + +H 2 0
3.

Si0 2 +2NaOH->Na 2 Si0 3 +H 2 0 ;


SiO,+20H-->SiO?-+HoO
4.
CaO+SiO, -^CaSiO,
3MgO+P 2 0 5 ^Mg 3 (P0 4 ) 2


- ,
.

K 2 S0 4 ; Na 3 P0 4 ;
K2S04^2K++S0I
+

Na3P04 ^3Na +PO|"



.

Ca(HC0 3 ) 2 ; KHS0 4
(0 3 ) 2 ^ 2 + +20 3
KHS04->K++HS04



.

MgOHCI; FeOH(N0 3 ) 2
MgOHCI^MgOH + +CI"
FeOH(N0 3 ) 2 ^ FeOH 2+ +2N0 3 "

: ,


1. + , :
) ( , ) ;
) ,
( );
) , , . . -.
FeS0 4 +Zn^ZnS0 4 +Fe; Fe2++Zn ->Zn 2+ +Fe
2. + (. , . 25)
-
3. + (. , . 27)_
4. + , .
CuS0 4 +BaCI 2 ->CuCI 2 +BaS0 4 sl; SO2. +2+ ->BaS0 4 ( )
: ,
.
259


260

61+21^2113+2

2HN0 3 +CuO^Cu(N0 3 )2+H 2 0

H 2 S04+Cu(OH)2^CuS04+2H 2 0

2 +21^21+ 2 0+02

2+02^203+20

Ca(OH) 2 +CuS0 4 ^Cu(OH) 2 l+CaS0 4 l

+ (. )

Fe+CuS04H>FeS04+Cu

AgN0 3 +NaCI^AgCli+NaN0 3

+ (. )
+ (. )
. + .

+ 2 0 5 -4 3 (0 4 )2

. + (. )
. + (. )

Cu+CI 2 ->CuCI 2

- ()
- ,
.
- ,
. ,
, ,

OK-

Fe-3eH Fe

+3

-
-

S" 2 -2 -> S
-

:
1.
2.
: (H2S~2; N 33)

-
, , . ,
, ,
.
Fe+3+3e
-

Fe
-

S +2 -> S-2

:
1. ; N2; 0 2
2. ,
: H N O , ; H 9 S 0 4


( , , , )
+1 +5

+1

HN032+P + 2 0 - 2 ^
+1 +5

+2

^H,P042 + N 0 2
N+5 + 3eB->N+2
-

15

-5^+5
5N + 5 +3P^5N + 2 +3P + 5
5HN0 3 +3P+2H 2 0^
^3H 3 P0 4 +5NO

1. .
2. ,
.
3. (
)
4. :
,
.
5. ( )
6. .
7. :
.
8. : - ; -.

261


262


,
.
.
, ,
.
: > > -
Li^Li2O^LiOH^Li2S04
1) 4 L i + 0 2 ^ 2 L i 2 0 ;
2) Li 2 0+H 2 0^2LiOH;
3) 2LiOH+H 2 S0 4 ^Li 2 S0 4 +2H 2 0.
: > > >
1

S -> S 0 2 -> H 2 S0 3 -> K 2 S0 3


t

1) s+o 2 ->so 2 ;
2) S0 2 +H 2 O^H 2 S0 3 ;
3) H 2 S0 3 +2KOH^K 2 S0 3 +H 2 0.

9


1. . .
, , ( ),

+; .
+ ; - +,
; , +,
+ .
:
, . -
.
2.
: 1-2 - ,
4 - .
3. ,
.
,
, , ,
.
4. ,
.
,
, , ,
.
263


264
5. , .
, .
+1, +2 - .
+3, +4 ( +2) - .
+5 ;
[-
( ) 6. , .
:

7. ( )
, ,
,
.




. .

:
.
:

Li

Be

Na

Mg

Al

Si

CI

Ca

11

12

14

16

19

23

24

27

28

31

32

35,5

39

40

i
i

, ()
.
(1869 .): ,
, .
( ,
) (
) :
,
.

265


266

.
:
1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) .
1. - , ,
, .
2. - , ,
, .
3. . -
.
,
- .
4. .

1. ,
1, 1 .
2. ,
.
3.
.
4.
,
. ,
.
5.
, R .
, .

1)
B-At

2)


:
)

( 1-3)
)

-
-,

~

. .


-

,_

,
.


) RaT
=>

) RaT

=>


, . .

267


268

+ S:
2AI+3S = AI2S3
Fe+S = FeS

+ 02:
2Cu+0 2 =2CuO
4Li+0 2 =2Li 2 0

N2:
6Li+N2=2Li3N
3Mg+N 2 =Mg 3 N 2

+ CI2:
2Na+CI2=2NaCI
2Fe+3CU=2FeCI,

+ :
)


) -
) , -
,
Zn+CuCI2=ZnCI2+Cu
+ 2 0:
, 2
) -
t
2Li+2H20=2LDH+H2t
+2 2 0=() 2 + 2
) - t
Zn+H 2 0=ZnO+H 2 t
+ :
) , 2
2) -
21+61=2113+2


, . .

(Pt, Au, Ag .)


,
. .

(Fe 2 0 3 ),
(ZnS)


:
(),
(Na 2 S0 4 -102),
(KCI), ( 3 (0 4 ) 2 )

J.

I

. : , 2;
- Al, Mg, Zn

.
tu

ZnO+C = Zn+CO
t

Fe 2 0 3 +3CO=2Fe+3C0 2
W0 3 +3H 2 =W+3H 2 0
t

3Mn02+4AI=3Mn+2AI203
t

: 2ZnS+30 3 =2ZnO+2S0 2
t

ZnO+H 2 =Zn+H 2 0

.
: .


CuO+H 2 S0 4 =CuS0 4 + 2 0
CuS0 4 +Fe=FeS0 4 +Cul


(
).

.

2NaCI = 2Na+CI2

269


270
:
,

:
.


,

:
)

,
;
) CI
, " -

"

X
,




,
. .
,

. .




.

,
. .

:
) ;
)
;
)

-
:
) - , ,
) - Cr, Ni, Zn, Sn .
,
, . .
Cr, Ni, AI, " . .
:
) (
, )
)

:
) -

(),
(

);
) -

,
,

271


272

l-lll
1)

2)

ns1
+1
RaT
=>

ns

If

+2

RaT
=> .

ns
+3
RaT
=>

I
RaT =>

3)

Na2SO4-10H2O
0 3 - , , Al 2 0 3 - ,

, CaS0 4 -2H 2 0 -

, ,
NaCI - 3(04)2 - ,

,
:
NaCI KCI - , , ,

,
.
Na+ . AI -
, , ,

+ - ,


- -
4) -
,
. ,

. , , =660 ,

, , ,


I III

+1

5)

-2

4Li+0 2 =2 l_i2 ,

-

+2 -2

2+0 2 =2

4AI+30 2 =2AI 2 0 3

2Na+02=2Na202
+

+2

2Na+CI2=2NaCi;

-2

Ca+CI2=CaCI2;
t +2 -2

2Na+S = N a 2 S ;

Ca+S=CaS

6Na+N 2 =2Na 3 N;

3Ca+N 2 =Ca 3 N 2 ;

+2

-3

t +2 -1

+ 20

+3

-2

2AI+3S = AI 2 S 3
2AI+N 2 =2AIN;

2Na+H2=2NaH

Ca+H 2 =CaH 2

1+270-

2Na+2H 2 0=2NaOH+H 2 t

Ca+2H20=Ca(OH)2+H2T

2AI+6H 2 0=2AI(OH) 3 i+3H 2 t


+ - (HCI) 2Na+2HCI=2NaCI+H T
2
+
Na+FeCI3,70-. .

(FeCI3)
+ N a + K O H , ^ - . .
()

6)

7)

2AI+3CI2=2AICI3;

:
2NaCI 0 >2Na+CI2

,
,

Ca+2HCI=CaCI2+H2T
2AI+6HCI=2AICI3+3H2T
Ca+FeCI 3 ,7^- . . AI+FeCI ^AICI +Fet
3
3

+, & . . 2AI+2KOH+2H 0=2KAI0 +3H T
2
2
2

. ,
:
:
2AI203
Na3AIFe;mTOK > 4 |+30 2
CaCI2 >Ca+CI2


-, -, -, ,
,

,

.
, ,
, ,

273


274

))))
2 8 14 2

3s23p63d63s2

: +2, +3


Fe 2 0 3 -
Fe 3 0 4 -
Fe203*nH20 -
FeS2 -

,

:
,
, +2 - .
+ : 2Fe+3CI2=2FeCI3; Fe+S = FeS
3Fe+20 2 = Fe 3 0 4 (FeO Fe 2 0 3 )
+ H 2 0: 3Fe+4H 2 0=Fe 3 0 4 +4H 2 t
: 4Fe+30 2 +6H 2 0=4Fe(OH) 3

+3

+ : Fe+H 2 S0 4 (p)=FeS0 4 +H 2 T
. HN0 3 H 2 S0 4
Fe,
+ : Fe+CuCI2=FeCI2+Cu

(II)
t

SFeA -HX>=2Fe304 -KX^


Fe 3 0 4 +CO=3FeO+C0 2
FeO+CO = Fe+CO,

:
1.
-
2.

, ,

:
- ,

,

=1539


+2

+3

FeO; Fe(OH)2 -

Fe 2 0 3 , Fe(OH) 3 -

FeO+2HCL=FeCI 2 +H 2 0;

Fe 2 0 3 +6HCI=2FeCI 3 +3H 2 0

Fe(OH)2+2HCI=FeCI2+2H20
Fe+2

Fe203 +2NaOH=2NaFe02 +H 2 0
Fe(OH)3+3HCI= FeCI3+3H20

Fe(OH)3 +NaOH=NaFe02 +2H20

4Fe(OH) 2 +0 2 +2H 2 0=4Fe(OH) 3


2FeCI 2 +CI 2 ^2FeCI 3


Fe2+ - K3[Fe(CN)6]

Fe3+

3Fe2++2[Fe(CN)6]3"= Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2sl -

1. K4[Fe(CN)6]
4Fe3++3[Fe(CN)6]4"= =Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 i
2. KNCS
NH4NCS
Fe3++NCS" <=>FeNCS2+ -

275


276

)
4-8 (
, )
) R .
s- -


)

) (; Si)
(0 2 , J2)


- ,
- ,

: :
, .
; ; ,


, ,
, -
.


, . .


:
>- ^

..

:
0 2 0 3 -

B-At


. . -
0 (),
- ( F2 ).

+2

NS+3H,

) RaT. =>

) RaT. =>
-

2NH,

N9+0,

:2NO
+4

S+Fe=FeS

s+o2=so2

H^+2Na=2NaH
3C+4AI=AI4C

4
3

2 +CuO=Cu+H 2 0
C+ZnO=Zn+CO

-VII ,

1)
RaT
F
5
CI


ns
S
^

J
2) - 2:

:.+-:^: [<> :

nd

f t1 f
1

F2 -
Cl2 -
2 -
J 2 -

( F d-)
:
-1;0;+1;+3;+5;+7
( F - 1 ; 0)

=>

,

=> , .
-
Cl2
2

(
)
+
+
)20
)
3F 2 0 +2H 2 O^4HF- 1 +O 2
2Fe+3CI^ >2FeCI31
1^+2^1+|-1
)
Cu+Br 2 ->CuBi
2HC|-1+F2^2HF-1+CI
2AI+3Jg-+2AIJ
HF+CI2 &
) -
)
Si+2CI^ ^SiCI 4 1
H 2 + F 2 - 2 1

2KBr 1 +CI, 2KCI+Br2


KCI+Br2 TV>
F2, 2 0

277


278

3) -
, 20 - :
HF
HCI
HBr
HJ
, RaT.

-+-':^ ":

=>
;

=>
:
=> +
":
+ Me: 2HCI+Zn^ZnCI2+H2T
+ . . :
CI"+Ag+->AgCl4-
12+6^21+20
Br"+Ag+->AgBr4- -
+ :
J"+Ag+^AgJ4- -
Ca(OH)2+2HJ^CaJ2+2H20
+ :
2HCI+Na2Si03^H2Si03l+2NaCI
4) -
F - CaF2 -
CI - NaCI - ; NaCI KCI -
Br,J - ,
5)
F2 -
12 - ,
4 Cl+Mn02 ->212+12+220
()

Br2, J2 -

VI

Se

Po

RaT =>

ndu
4

ns 2 lt

A A

i ^f f t. / /

1 1

-
d

:
- 2 ; 0; +2; +4_+
( )

2 1 % ,

,
, , 2 0-35
,

,
,
, ,
,
=-183
=-112
| f
|

) -
,
(02)= -183 , (2)= -196
) - : 2 2 0 2 -^ 2 0 2 +2 2 0
:
2 K M n 0 4 4 0 2 t + M n 0 2 + K 2 Mn0 4

:
1)
2)
:
, -
0 2 - ;

1)
3)
) +: 2Mg+0 2 42lvfg6;
:
2Na+0 2 -^2Na 2 0 2 , Li, 1)
2)

3Fe+20 2 - > F e 3 0 4 -
.
t
t

3) HN0 3 , H 2 S0 4
) +:4+50 2 A . 2 P 2 0 5 ; S + 0 2 4 S 0 2 ; N 2 + 0 2 2NO-Q 4)
2) ,
5)

,
4 +20 2 4 0 2 +2 2 0; CS2 +30 2 - 4 0 2 +2SO2>
,
,
2PbS+30, 4 2 P b O + 2 S O ,
279


280

S8 -

-

. .
.


=119
,=113
I

,
, , ,
,

+ 2 | ^ ^

+ :
Fe+S 0 ^FeS" 2

C+2S^CS 2

ZnS
PbS
FeS2

Na 2 S0 4 - 2 0,
CaS0 4 2H 2 0


S0
^ " - ^ 4 - 6

2AI+3S->AI2S-32
+
2 S" 2
H 2 +S 0 ^H

S+02^S02
S+3F 2 ^SF 6
+
S+2H2S04->3S02+ +2H20


-2
H2S - ,
,
, ,

.


:
FeS+2HCI^H2St+FeCI2

+4
+6
S0 2 - , S0 3 - (VI),
, ,
20,
(
)
S0 3 H2S04 - .
:
-
:
t

4FeS2+1102-2Fe203+ +8S02
:
Na 2 S0 3 +H 2 S0 4 ^
^>Na2S04+S02t+H20
Cu+2H 2 S0 4 4

^CuS04+S02t+2H20

281

:
2S02+02 < {; >2S03

-2
:
)
,
S

+4
:
a) S+4 -

+6
:
a) S+6 -

=> . :
1.

=>
:

2H2S-K}r^2H20+2Si 0 2

2H 2 S+SO 2 ^3S 0 +2H 2 O


2.

2H 2 S+30 2 ^2H 2 0+
+2S02t - 0 2
)

H2S
,

. :
H2S+2NaOH=
=Na 2 S+2H 2 0
H2S+20H-=S2-+2H20
-

+4

+6

2S02+02<=>2S03
) -
,

+ 2 0:
S02+H2O^H2S03

+:
S0 2 +2NaOH^

+ 2 0: H 2 0 + S 0 3 ^ H 2 S 0 4
+:
2NaOH+S0 3 -^Na 2 S0 4 +H 2 0

->Na 2 S0 3 +H 2 0

S02+NaOH^
^NaHS03+H20

+. :
:
H2S -

3S03+H2S=4S02+H20

NaOH + S0 3 -^NaHS0 4 +H 2 0

+ . :
S0 3 +CaO^CaS0 4

S0 2 +CaO^CaS0 3
:
:
1.

2. H 2 S0 4

+6

2 SO,

:


,
,
20:

!

1)
: ,

,
, .
, ,
,
2)

3)

1)
t

4FeS2+1102H>2Fe203+8S02T

2) -
, S0 2 S0 3

t,v 2 o 6

2S0 2 +0 2 2S0 3
S0 3 . H2S04

nS03+H2S04^H2S04n S0 3

283


284
+6

H 2 S0 4

H 2 S 0 4 -

1)
H 2 S 0 4 ^ H + + H S 0 4 \
H S 0 4 ^ H + + S 0 1 - +

H 2 S0 4 - ,
S+6
S^
+8eJ^f^e^
+2
s -2
so
s+4

^ S )
^
< so *>
.
+2
HJ1S04+Zn ->ZnS0 4 +Hjj t - H+ - 1) + ( Au, Pt, Fe.Cr, AI)
3) +.
Cu+2H 2 S0 4 ->CuS04 + 2H 2 0+ S 0 2 t
MgO+H 2 S0 4 ->MgS0 4 +H 2 0
(.)
4) + .
3Zn+4 H 2 S 0 4 ^ 3 Zn S0 4 +SU+4H 2 0
NaOH+H 2 S0 4 ^NaHS0 4 +H 2 0
(.)

2) + , 2

2NaOH+H,S0 4 Na2S04+2H20

4Mg + 5H2+S04 -> 4Mg+S04+H2S t +4H 2 0


()

5)+

2)+

2 3+H2SO4-^K2SO4+C02t+H 2 0
BaCI 2 +H 2 S0 4 ->BaS0 4 >k2HCI

S+2 H 2 S 0 4 ^ 3 S 0 2 t +2H 2 0

Ba2++SC^" -^BaS04 i -

3)
,
CizHzA 1+H2S04^12C+H2S04-1120

SO|-

(.)

.)

As
Sb
Bi

V
RaT =>


N2 - 78%

)
NaN0 3
)

) :

. 0 2 N2
) -

NH4N02^N2+2H20

ns

np
2

It

N -
d

nd

111


IN = N I

,
,


, ,

, .
=-196

(N
+ . Me
+2 -3

6Li+Ng->2Li 3 i N

1) NH 3 HN0 3 ,

2)
,
,
,

:
- 3 ; 0; +3; +5

+
-3 +1

N^+3H^

2NH

,
,
t = 450

285

1+1;+2;+3;+4;+5\

+
+2 -2

+02
2N0
t=2000
,

N^+3F 2 0 ^2NF 3


286


, ,
,
=-33 ,

NH3
) :
N2+3H2 <=>2NH,3T=450-500 , . - Fe,
) - + :
2NH4CI+Ca(OH)2 '"'"12+21+220

NH
NH4+
NH3 N
,


+
N
2 3

tit..

NH 3 +H +

I 11 |-^

1s1

NH3
1) HN0 3
2) NH3

3) - 10%
4)

NH3

N (
), ,
- -

I
- N :
- - NI :
- - NI :
I
I

NH 3
NH3
-
NH3
+
N 3 - N"3 - .
, NH 3
=>
(, +,
,
2
).
1) 4NH 3 +30 2 '^2N 2 +6H 2 01) +: NH3+HCI->NH4CI - ;
2)
-

-3

4NH3+50^4N26+6H20-2
3)
3CuO+2NH,-^3Cu+N+3H,0

2NH 3 +H 2 S0 4 ^ (NH4)2S04 - ;
NH3+H2S04>NH4HS04 -
2) + 2 0: NH 3 +HOH^ NH4OH <^NH4+ +OH"

" ; NH4OH



1)


1) + : (NH 4 ) 2 C0 3 +2HCI->
2) ,
^2NH 4 CI+C0 2 T+H 2 0
, -:
2) + - NH4+,
NH4CMNH3t+HClt
NH3
:

NH 4 N0 3 +KOH^KN0 3 +NH 3 t+H 2 0

NH4NO,^N,Ot+2H,0

3) + : (NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 +BaCI 2 - BaS0 4 l+2NH 4 CI

(NH4)2 S 0 4 ^ N H 3 T+NH 4 HS0 4

287


288

HN03



1) H N 0 3 - . H N 0 3 ^ H + + N 0 3
2) +. . : CuO+2HN0 3 ->Cu(N0 3 ) 2 +H 2 0
3) + . : AL(OH) 3 +3HN0 3 ->AI(N0 3 ) 3 +3H 2 0
4) +: +^+^
HN0 3
1) . HN0 3 t : 4HN0 3 <=>4N0 2 T+H 2 0+0 2 T

2) => -
3) - - NT5 (
), N 0 3 , +, Me + 4 + 2 + 1 0

-3

2. 0 3 +^+ 2 0+ NOi(N0 2 ;NO;N 2 0;N 2 ;NH 4 N0 3 )


Me, .
C 0 u+4HNb 3 (KOH^)^Cu(NO 3 ) 2 +2NO 2 t+2H 2 O
3 Cu +8 HN0 3 (pa36.)-^Cu(N0 3 )2+2N Ot+4H 2 0
4Mg+10HNO 3 (pa36.)^4Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + NH4NO3+3H2O
. HN0 3 Fe, AI, Cr, Au, Pt; . - Au, Pt.
4)
6HN0 3 +S=H 2 S 0 4 + 6 N 0 2 T+2H 2 0
(.

i.

HNO^


.
=83 .
HN03
.


, ,
, ,
, ,

) : . H2S04+
Ba(N03 )2+H2S04->BaS04l+2HN03t
.

)
1) NH3:
t,p,pt

4NH 3 +50 2 -> 4NO+6H20

2) NO N02:
2NO+02^2N02
3) N0 2 0 2 :
4N0 2 +H 2 0+0 2 ^4HN0 3

,

1) + Me
1) t
Mg
Me(N02)n+02 2NOi*2NaNq,4Cgt
Cu(N03)2+Zn^Zn(N03)2+CusL
2) +
Me(N03; 6 Ma MexOy+N02+02 2Zn(NO-32)^t!2ZnO+4N02t+0^t
Me+N02+02 2XgNQL2Ag42N02t+o2T
Ba(N0 3 ) 2 +H 2 S0 4 ^BaS0 4 l+2HN0 3
3) +

Zn(N03)2+2KOH-Zn(OHU+2KNQ3
' '
' Md'
17 (KN03; NaN03; NH4N03; Ca(N03)2 -
4 ) +
2) KN03 ; NH4N03 -
AgN0 3 +NaCI^AgCll+NaN0 3
;
N03~:+H2S04(k)+Cu - N02t(6ypbM)
2NaN03 +2H2 S0 4 +Cut!2N02T+CuS04 +Na2S04 +2H20

m
289


290

sS


: :
- 3 (0 4 ) 2


,
,
, , ,


-
-

, - - . - ,
4.

- , , , ,
,

, , - >
. - ] -
4
,

I
t
L
t

| I
, .
t , .

1) 3 0 4 =>

2)
3)
4)
:


- =>- .

^5

+ :

5C+3Si0 2 +Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 H>5CO+


+3CaSi0 3 +2P
;

+2

2+

-3

3 2

+5

-2

2P,O s

2+1-213
+ -
P+5HN03
(.)

H,PO.+5NO,t+H,0


3 0 4 -

,
2 0 5 - ,

,
,


,

1)
1)+ 2 0

Na 3 P0 4

304^++204
205+20^2304NaH 2 P0 4
3(04)2 Na 2 HP0 4
204^++

0
(
4
2 0 4 ) 2
^-^ + +|

|"
2 0 5 + 2 0^2 2)+

P04,-+3Ag+^Ag3P04i
2 3 0 4 +^

2) +
P20 5 +6NaOH^3H 2 0+2Na 3 P04 ^ 3 (0 4 ) 2 1+ 2
3 ) +
-
P 2 0 5 +4NaOH -> H 2 0+2Na 2 HP0 4 2 3 0 4 +^
-> 3 (0 4 ) 2 1+ 2 0
-
4)+
P 2 0 5 +2NaOH+H 2 0^2NaH 2 P0 4
H 3 P0 4 +3LiOH-
-
+5

3) +

+ 2 0 5 ^(0 4 )2

^Li 3 P0 4 +3H 2 0
5)+
2H 3 P0 4 +3CaCI 2 ^
- Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 i+6HCI

291


292

IV

Si
Ge
Sn
PbJ/

RaT ->

,

ns2

t t


-4; 0; +2; +4


03 - , ,
03 MgC03 -
0 2 ; ;

,

,
,
-


.

.
,

,
, , , - ,

, , ,
, .
, ,
(, , ,

, ); ,
-

0 - => -
*

>^
+4
-2~;-4

+3

-4

1) + Me: 4AI+3C^AI 4 C 3

1} + : + 0 ^ 0 2

t;P;Ni - 4 + 1

2) +2: +2^ + 4

;2+ 0 ^ 2 0 ;

-1
+4 -2
C+2F2^CF4 ;C+2S^CS 2
+4

3) +20 (): +20->+2

293


294


- (II),
, ,
, . ,

) -

) -
+2 -> +4
+:
+2


+4

-1

+2

+4

CuO+CO->Cu + C 0 2


+4 -
+4

+2

+: 2Mg+C0 2 ->2MgO+C
+ :
+4

CO+Cl ->COCI 2 - ,
+ Me:
+2


+ 2 0:
02+2^203
+:
02-()2 ^ 1+,0
0 2
+ :
0 2 +^

+4 -1

2 + 0 - > 2 0 2
+2

0 2 - (IV),
, ,
, .
, 0 2

,

+2

02+->2

- (II),
:

0 2 - (IV),
:
+

f ;H 2 S0 4 <-(k)

-> +20

CaC03+2HCI -^CaCI2 +02+20


:

1000

02+ - * 2CO

1)
2)
3)

03<=>+02
1)
2)
3)
4)


2 , .
: Na2CQ3; 0 3

I : NaHCQ3; (03)2

+ Me

Pb(HC0 3 ) 2 +Fe^Fe(HC0 3 ) 2 +Pbi

+
Na 2 C0 3 +Ca(OH) 2 ^CaC0 3 ++2NaQH
^ | (0 3 ) 2 +2^() 2 |+2_
+ -
2 0 3 +21^21+0 2 1+ 2 0
1 Ca(HCQ 3 ) 2 +2HCUCaCl 2 +2C0 2 T+2H 2 0
+
Ba(HCQ
Na 2 C0 3 +CaCI 2 ^2NaCI+CaC0 3 i
3 ) 2 +Na 2 S0 4 ^BaS0 4 4-+2NaHC0 3
- ,
03^02+
(0 3 ) 2 4+ 2 0+0 2
1)+0 2 + 2 0

< 2)+)^
2)()2+()2^21+220
1) 0 3 + 2 0+0 2 ^(0 3 ) 2
3)(0 3 ) 2 0 3 1 + 2 0 + 0 2 1
295


296


Si -
II I .

Si0 2

=, /\

I ^


Si
Si
- =1000
-
, -
, , =1420
:
Si0 2 + :
S i 0 2 + 2 C ^ S i + 2 C O T ; Si0 2 +2Mg4si+2MgOt

) + :
+4 -1

Si+2F2

+1

t +4 -4

t +4 -2

SiF4 ; Si0 +0->


Si 2
'2

'

Si+C^SiC

+1

+ : Si+2NaOH+H2 - > N a 2 S i p 3 + H 2 t
) - Si+2Mg ^>Mg 2 Si
1) (, )
2) ( )

Si0 2

( =1728 ) , .

) - -
+:

Si02+2NaOH->Na2Si03+H20
+. :
t

Si02+CaO->CaSi03
+:
t

CaC03+Si02 -^CaSi03+C021
+H20: ,
) -
Si+4 - . ,
Si02+2C^>Si+2COt

1)
2) , , ,
3) :
Si02+4HF^SiF4+2H20

297

H2Si03

,
, +,

H2Si03+2KOH^K2Si03+2H20
t

H 2 Si0 3 ^Si0 2 +H 2 0
+
Na2Si03+2HCI^H2Si03i+2NaCI

-
) + Me - , K2Si03 Na2Si03
) +
K2Si03+Ca(OH)2^CaSi03i+2KOH
) +
K2Si03+2HCI^H2Si03i+2KCI
. SiOf"
) +:
K2Si03+CaCI2^2KCI+CaSi03i

1) ,
2) Na2Si03 -

( )



2+2
8; CsH12

( , , N, )

-^

NH2-CH-COOH

1 1
2 :

( , )

R-C^

O-R

R-OH


2-2
34; CsHs

299


300



1) .
.


0,



0;

2) ,
, .
,
.
, , ,
. !

()
I.
1) -
2) , ,

3) :
, -
1
2
3
4
5
6
Cri2 CH3

2,3--4-

3 3 2
3
1 2 | 3 4 5 6
7
2 2 CH2 2,2--4-

2 CH2

II. -
614
2 -2 -2 -2 - -
2 CH2
2-

2,3-


301


302

III.
Mr
Ci - 4 -
" , ,
5- C i 5 -
Ci6 - ... -
IV.
1)
) : 0 2 2 0
t

3 8 +50 2 >0 2 +4 2 0

) 26 -2+ 2
1500

) : 2 4 -> 2 + 2 2 -
2) , -
: C H 4 + C I 2 C - T c H 3 - C I + HClT

CH 3 -CH 3 +CI 2 - ^ C H 3 - C H 2 C I + H C l f

CH3-CH2-CI+CI2 ^ C H 3 - C H C I 2 + H C L t

1,1-

3) -
t;Ni

2 > +

V.
1) - : , , , . .
2) -
3) 4 - 2, 2 2


I.
+
- - ( ) + ,
. ,
.
2 2

->
13
--1
2,2--
3

II.
)
3 -=- 2 - 3

- =

"2

2--2

)
2 =- 2 - 3

-1

-2

III.
1)
) 4 8 +60 2 4 0 2 + 4 2 0
) 3 6 ^-+ 2
) + 0 4 - -

2 = 2 +[0]+ 2 0 -> 2 2


303


304
2) , - .
) + 2: 2 =- 3 + 2 ^ 3 - 2 - 3
) + 2:

2 =- 3 + 2 - ^ 2 - - 3
Br

Br

, .
) +:

3 -=- 3 +1-> 3 - 2 - - 3
t; H +

) + : 9 = 9 + -+ 33 - - "'2, -

CI

3) - ,

2 = 2 ^ ( - 2 - 2 - ) ; 3 -= 2 ^ ( - - 2 - )

IV.
tNi

1) 2 - 3 - 3 - 2 = 2 +
' I 1
2

2) - 3 - 2 - ' L>4 K 2 =,+,0


1 ' l l v
2

V.
1)
2)
3)


- , , ;
- , ;
- - .


I.
. - .
= - 2 - 3 -1; 3 - = - - 3 4--2
II.
Q\-\
) .
CH = C - C H 2 - C H 2 - C H 3 -1; = -- 3 3--1
) .
..
= - 2 - 3 - 1 ; 3 - = - 3 3-2
III. ()
1) : 2 2 2 +50 2 -^40 2 +2 2 0
2) :
) : = +2 '^" 2 = 2
) :
= +2 ->=,
) :

CH = C H + H C I ^ C H 2 = C H - C I
,0

) : = + -

T
3) () 3C 2 H 2 '^> C'R1 H
-
'6 fi

IV. Q
:

:

^|||+2->() 2 + 2 2
^..
>,4

15

2 2 + 2

V.
1) - .
2) , - .
305


306

-
I.
, , , = 80 .
II.

.^
.
CI
)

"
+ HClf
II
I
+CI FeCL

* "
+

' - ^ 3 ^ /
^
-NO,

H 2 S0 4 (k) |
+
II
*-

^
ci

^ /
^

)
/

HON0 2
(k)

)
p i / ^CH

\
I
II + 12 2 C I - C H
CH-CI

^[/
CI-CH^ / C H - C I

I
)
2 \
i
.
" ^ + Ni .
I
+3
c
2 - * 2
I '
hk ,
/

. 2
III. ' 7' C 6 H g
IV.
, ,
, .


- , -
-.
I. :
- ; -
II.
+ -
: 3 - 2 - -; 3 - - 2 - --2.

: v ^ - O p
- -1,2
2 - 2 - -1,2,3

()
()
I
I
III.

- , ,
.
IV.

Q
2 C H 3 - C H 2 - O H + 2 N a ^ 2 C H 3 - C H 2 - O N a + H 2 f ^-^- + [ ] - H 3 C - c f + 2 0
Na

V.
fH +
: 2 = 2 + - ^ 3 - 2 -
VI.
3 - ;
25 - , , ;
- 2 - 2 - - ;
- -

I2

, , ,

307


308

- ,

I.

+ -
H3C-cf

3-2-;

-'-

I 3

' ' 2-
II.
- , 20, .
- ,
20.
III. - .
:
. _2 0~-*-t
1, ^
) ^-
+.

2|
3

) 3 - " +2() 2 > 3 - " + 2 | + 2 0


2 CuOH i- 2 0| + 2 0


IV. - .
V. .
.Q
- , , -.0
;
- \ .
3 -;

'


+ -
"

*-\

()

.-^

()

-^

, R

(R-CnH2n+i

- ,
, ,
2AgJ

, .
- ,
CH 3 -Cf + 2 Cu(OH)2_ C H 3 - C ^ + 2 Cu2OJ+ 2H 2 0 , , ,

to
yjO
+ Ag 2 0
=-
\
\


1)
+ Me: 2CH3COOH+Mg -> (CH3COOH)2Mg+H21
+ . : 2CH3COOH+ZnO->(CH3COOH)2Zn+H20
+ . : HCOOH+NaOH->HCOONa+H20
+ : 2+03 ->()2+02 +20
2) - ,

,0

3-

.CU-

CHz-C
3

RrC'

+ 20

-,

309

0-R;


310

2-0- *
Ri
I

-- /

/
--^
4
R,


1)
2)
3) ( )


() - -
, ,
, - ,
+2

1)
2) ()
3)
- Na
(RCOONa; RCOOK)
4) ,


, - (NH2), (-) .


CH 3 -COOH + CI2 -^CH 2 -COOH+HClt

-+

2 -
NH2

CI

^+ N-H
CH2-COOH+HClt
NhL



,
,
.

1)
2)
- .


, -
2 -COOH+NaOH^CH 2 -COONa+H 2 0

, - N H 2 -
+ (. , . 57)
CH 2 -COOH+HCI^CH 2 -COOH
NH2
NH3CI


.

^
N-
+ H - N - C H T C '/
Hj-N-CH-c
^)

-<

NH-CH

311

NH-CH 2 -C

+nH 2 Q


312

,

1) -
.
2) - ( , ,
, ).
3) :
) - + HN03> ;
) - + NaOH + CuS04- .

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)


- .
- .
- -.
- 0 2
- - .
- -.
- .


-

,

)

- - (, )
()

61206
, ,
, :
.
-



, ,
, ,
, ,

1)+20^
1)
+
0>
2
122211+H2O >
^
a)C 6 H 1 2 0 6 +Ag 2 04Agl

^
>61206 +61206 2) +J >
-
2

5)61206 +()2 4 2 04>


2)
C6H1206 +Cu(OH)2 -^

-
313

1) 1)

2) , 2)
,
, (

1)
,
,

2)

3)
,

1)
2)
3)

4) ,
5)
6)
7)
8)

9)


- ,

.
> ^^
_

K
nCH 2 =CH 2 ^(-CH 2 -CH 2 -)n

- ,
,
; , ,
,

,
(, )


(, );

II
:
2=2^ (-2-2-)

-
(20, NH3)

>--*
R
(-NH-CH-CO) + (-1)
R

20

(, )

(~)

()

315


316

10 .
*2
1
2s^ ^
2s
*
L
- . .
I

sp2
sO

POOL

POOJ

POOj

109 28'
I

I
120
I

i
4



/_ = 0,154

sO
sp

hU

180
I

0

^<)

UO'jtc_c
/= = 0,134
/, = 0,120
. , ,
.
- . .
- . .

. . - . . 71,
. 140, 141. - . . 155-157.
- . 142, 143.



1. - ,

(+2)
(+HN0 3 - HON0 2 )
C 6 H 6 +HON0 2 C 6 H 5 N0 2 +H 2 0
- 1 - -CH CI + H C l t
3

3+

2. - ,
. , -.
. (+2)
. (+2)

= 2 + 2 3 2
3

3 -= 2 + 2 3

. (+)
2 = 2 + HCI ^ 3 - 2 - CI

. (+ 2 0)
2 = 2 + ^ 3 - 2 -

.
. - , ( )
( )
2 = 2 ->(- 2 - 2 - )
. - , , ,
( 2 0)
( 6 10 5 ) + (-1) 2
6 12 0 6

317


318

3. () - ,
.
. (-2)
. (-2)
t;Ai2o3
3 -- 2 + Zn^CH 3 -CH = CH2 +ZnCI2

3 2 3

* 2 = C H CH3 + 2

. (-)
3 - 2 - + ^ 2 =2 + + 20

CI

CI

. (-20)
t>170:H2SO4(k)
,-,-
2 = 2 + 2 0

. (. )
(6105 ) + ( - 1)20 -> 61206
4. - ,
,
.
AICU;t c
'
3 3

I
,



,

,


()
: 1) ;

2) -

t=450-500

t=470-550
;

(t=500
;
-
Pt),
.
.

=2-6.

.


= 40-200

.
_

1 4
+ -150 250
. .


'
.

-|2 0 18

180 -300 -> .


1

"^20

270 -360

. .

18 - 5 0 ->
}
319

-
; ; ;


320

4( 97%)
( 2 - 4 );
(N2)

1)
, ,

4
( 2 - 4 )

, ;
2) .
.

:
t=400-600 ; 2 =25
.

1) ;
2) ;
3) .
.

t=1000C; :
1) -
;
2) >
. .
3) ->
((NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 )
4) -
, .

(CnH2n+2)
, , - . . 72.
- . . 87 ( ).

-

1) . -

)
3 - 3 +CI 2 ^

- 2 - C I + HCI

1) . 3 8 + 5 0 2 ^ 0 2 + 4 2 0
2)
400-500
1022

^510 "|"^512

2-
3) 2 6 1 0 0 0 2 + 2
CI
I
24
-22 + 2

( )
?
+ HCI
^12 ^
3 - +CI,

4)
.

2 2 CI
t" AICI
1-
3 - 2 2 3
' 3 - 3
)

4 + H O N 0 2 ^ C H 3 - N 0 2 +H 2 0
()

2) . ()
3 3

'

. 2 = 2 + 2

321


322

1) - , , ,
2) - , , CH3CI;
3) , :
1500
24
-22 + 2 ,
;
2 0

t;KaT.

+ 2 , - -

1) ;
2) ( "" )
= 2 + 2

3) (
"" )
:3 - 2 \

+ ^ 1 - 3 +Na 2 C0 3

4) ( "" )
3 - C I + 2Na + CI-CH 3 ^ C H 3 - C H 3 +2NaCI
5) , :
143 +12 2 ^ 4 +41()3

(CnH2n)
- . . 87 ( ).
- . . 74.

= 2

- 2

3- = -3 -2
2 2
|
|

2-


= 2
- 2
=

3
2 - - 2


2 = 2
- 1
=
- 2

2 2

323

^ = ^
^
' 2
- - 2
2
^ = ^

- - 2


324

1)
) 3 - = 2 +2 Pt,
3 - 2 - 3
) 3 - = 2 +2 ->3 -- 2
Br Br
- , . .
) : ,
-
, - . .
5 5 0 5 5 0
,- =,+ ->,--,
Br
S

S 55
t;H+
x
x CH,^>CH =.
CH9+HOH ^ ^ C H , - C H - C H ,
) - )
' ^ ^ ^ 4 M 2 T J-iy M
- 2

) 2 =$(- 2 --)

I
,

2)
) 48 + 6 0 2 - 4 0 2 +420
) 04 - , . .
2 =- 3 + [0] + 2 ^ 2 -- 3
I
I
- 1, 2


to

1. C^h^-CsHjo+CsH,
2. 3 - 2 - : t;Pt 2 = 3 +2
3.
0149
LCH, = CH,+ZnBr,

4.

-
:
^ 3 - = -3+1 + 20

--

5.

-
t = 170C;H,SO.
- ^ 3 - = - 3 + 2 0

3 ^-

1. .
2. , , .
3. , .
325


326

(C n H 2n 2)
- . . 87 ( ).
- . . 76.


= 2
- 1
= - - 3

I
3
3 - - 1

= - 2 - 3 - 1
2-
|
||

2-
2 = = 2
- 1 , 3


= 2 2 3
- 1
3 = 2 3
- 2


Pt
) 3 - = + 2 3 - = 2

1) -

8 50 5050
) 3 - > + HBr - > 3 - = 2

) 3 - = + 2 ^ 3 - =
Br

Br

Br

5@ 5 Q 5 0 5 0
) 3 ^ ^ C h i + HOH

h H

^ l i [ C H 3 - C = CH2]^CH3-C-CH3
bs!
()

\^
: +

[ 2 = ]^- 3 -CCJ,

( )

cfe)

) - : ^ i i - ! u

fo

2)

) 2 C 2 H 2 + 5 0 2 - 4 C 0 2 + 2 H 2 0 + Q

* *

) KM n 0 4 : CH = CH + |OJ + H 2 0-> , _ .

2) - ,
) : 3 - = + - > 3 - = + 1/22
) ( NH3): CH = CH + NaNH2 -CH = C - N a + NH3
) Ag 2 0: CH = C H + A g 2 0 - > A g - C = C A g i + H 2 0
.-

- , =>
.
327


328

1.
) 4:

24 ' 2 2 + 2

) : ^ ||| +2()-^()2 +22

Nit
2. 3 - 3 ^ = +22
3.
2 3 - = + 2 + 220

()

3 - C - C h O f 2^3 - = + 2 + 220
()

:
, , , ,
.

, .

( ) + - + - - ,

2 = - 2 - = 2 - 1,4

. -, -,
, (-) - .
2 = - = 2 -1,3

1 4.

329


330

1)
2 = - 2 - = 2 - 1,4

2 = - = - 3 -1,3

2 = - = 2

2- - 1,3

3
2)
2 = - = 2 -1,3

= \

2 =

2 = = - 3
-1,2
3)
2 = - = 2 -1,3
= - 2 - 3

,
- - 1,3

2=

- - 1 , 3

-1

- 1,4 ( 1- )
1. : 2 = - = 2 + 2 ^ > 3 - = - 3
3
2. :

2=- = 2 + 2 ^ 2 - = -2

II

,
Br
CH,

3. : C H 2 = C H - C H = CH 2 +HCI->CH 3 -CH = C H - C H 2
CI

4. : 2 = - = 2 -5(- 2 - = - 2 -)
2=- = 2 ^ ( - 2 - = -2-)
3


1) ( - 1,3)
23 - 2 - t 0 ; A ' 2 3 : Z n 0 C H 2 = C H - C H = CH 2 + 2 2 0 + 2
2)
- 2 - 2 - 1 0 : 1 2 0 ; 2 3 2 = - = 2+2

3 - - 2 - 3 ^ | 2 0 3 ; 2 3 2 = _ = |_| 2
I
I

+22

3)
2 - 2 - 2 - 2 + 2 ^ 2 = CH - CH = CH2 + 2KCI + 2 2 0
CI

CI

, - .

.

- -.
'- 2
/

\
=
-;
-
"^"

'
^
+St! - ,

-, .

331


332

()
( , fi)

2-67

- 66 -

sp2 - =>
3 (2
1 )
120 =>
.
-

1) ,

2)



,
, . = 80 .

,
3)

-
1
CfiH
44


1 ,
,
,
-.

/ = 0,140

4)
.;1

,
,
,


1) -

t;FeCI ;
+CI)

^
^ ^
)
N0,

| \H^NO ? H2S 4(k);t

: + HCI

| +2

+ HCI
()

2) - , , . . -
)
+.

Pt;tc

|+1.

ciyN-ci

3)

15

) 6 6 + ^ 0 2 - 6 0 2 + 2 0
) 66 +-^-0 2
) 0 4 , . . -
333


334

()


) - 3 - 6 5
- 3 -
.
Qu ;

r ^ v s _ J


2, 4, 6
(
-)
=>

2, 4, 6
.


1. , - - 6 5
1) -
,

)
/
/CI
H-^oVcH3+3CI2Fe^CI-^oV-CH3
2, 4, 6-
)
/
^oV-CH 3 +3HON0 2

+3HCI

02

'OaN(oV-CH3+3H20

NO

2
2, 4, 6-
)
/
/
^ V- +3CH3CI 3 ( V- +3HCI

\|_i

1, 2, 3, 5-
2)
)

^ ~ 3 +2 ! ^ ^ _ 3



) - 6 5 - 3 :
- 6 5 -

- 6 5
,
-

=>


II. , - 3
, ,
-

/ o V c - +ci2^

/OVCH2-CI+HCI

III. ,
1) 0 4 (
)

<>

+[0] + 20

<f
(<
^-f

1)
2)

7 1 6 1^1[^] + 4 2
-

^[

(. )
3) -
/ o V B r

+2Na+Br-CH3/0/-CH3+2NaBr

1) -
2) 2,4,6 - (, ) -
3) , .
335


336


(R-(OH) ) ( . . 78)

+ - ( -)

1) -

?
-
I
-2 I I
-1,2
, - ,


2)

3 - 2 -

2 = - 2 - 2 -

( ) 2 -
---1
3) , -

3--2-

3
2--1

-2

Qu _ QI _ Q | _ |
3

2--2


1)
2 2 2

-1
3--2-

2)

3)

3-2-2-

3-2-2-

-1

-1

2--1

3
-
0 -
2
-(

-2

J 5

R- -*0-

: -; -; -.
.
- 5 0 5
(. . 137 ).

- , :
) , - , - .
) ., .

.

337


338

1)
3 - C I + K O H 1 4 ^ 3 - O H + KCI
7 -1
|-| 7 -
|
+2^ |
2 -1
2-
2) - . -
(. . 95).
3) - . -
(. . 95).
4) - .
(. . 115).
5) - .
6 12 0 6 225 + 20 2


I. -:
1) +
Na
-0
CH3-ONa+iH2t
.
R , -
2) + ( )
,, - > - ^ - <

>

3 -

3 - ^ H + HQN0 2 ^ 3 - N 0 ,
II. | 0 :
1) +

( R - 0 - )

2 0

25

,0

3 -( <=> 3 + 2
2)
H 9 SO 4flo ;t<170C ^ - 0 - 3 + 2 0

,-[0-+1-|)-0-,
3) ( )
Q U - C H = CH-CI-U+H,0
^ H 2 SO 4(k) ;t<170C
III. C-JH:
1)
:
(
OK

()
+ H,0 + Cu

t C H 3 - C - C H 3 + H 2 0 + Cu

339

()


-- , .
- , , , , , , .
- .
- , , , - .

,
.
/v
/\

^\
\
/

^>

^>

3 '
-

()

1,2-

- . =430.
, - .

I. - - 6 5 :
'^"^
- ^
,
[jy v |
2, 4, 6 => (
^^
) .
II. - 6 5 -
- ,
- => , .

.
1
2. .
+NaOH^PfoK
.

+NaCI

; ; ; 3-5% (
) - ; .
341


342

I.
1) + ( ) 2) + ( ,

)
|+^ | |+ 2 0

II. -
1)
)
)

JL
Br
[ ]+2^ I I i+
^ (2) >

[ +3HONO, H2SQ4(k) ) !

+3H20

2,4,6- ( )
2,4,6- ( )
2)
)
QH

|+ 2

III.
+ FeCI3 >
IV. -

^~> <

(\

VXJCH2VX,...

+ ..._>

K)J

|oJ

+2

. . 79. - - \

.
HJ

+ -
^
*
- - 2 - '
-
2=-
3-
>

^, 0
-
2=-
I*1
\_.
^1_1

|

()
( )
(
)

8^80

- =>
5 0 , - 8 -
R-*C
Vl
, .

, - ( - , ), . , .
, ,
R .

1)
2) ,R9
- C H - C H 2 - C f

3-

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-Ctf

*
3-2-
3--3

343

()


344

,
,
-.

1) ()
-
.
3 - 2 - ^3-2-2- 1) +

, - .
2)

^
S0.
3 - 2 - ^ + Ag 2 0 3 - 2 - + 2 I
-

-

2) +()2

)=(_2-0-)

3) .
- +2Cu(OH) 2 LH-C 4 + , 0 ^ + 2 , 0
(. 113).
'

-
-
.

1) - .
(. 110)
2) -
0
Hg 2+ ;H + ;t - . .
J>
-
HC = CH+H 2 0

1) ( ; )- ; 40% ()
; ; .
2) ( ) - , ; .

^
,
- V.

+ - +


()

3-

1) -

<

^ ,0
-

()
()
2)

?-.0
-


()

,0
?

2=-


()

345

\/


346

- R -, - - -R.
-
, - .
5 , = > - .

2)
R i - C t
<^
--
0 OR 2 ^

?
_^

3
-^

- -




- (),
d - C 9 - , ; .
2 0 - , R
.

1. - . (. 115).
2. .
^
? + 1->CL
SK + NaCI
SK
-
+NaOH^CH3-C
+CH 3 OH; -;
x
v
ONa
-
O-Na
1)

1. - : ,
, ; , . 2.
- , , , ,
. 3. - . 4. - .


I. - - . - ,
=> . R
, - => R
.

1)
H - C O O H r f H C O O +

4) +

+ ^ + ,0

5) +

2) +
2CH 3 COOH+Mg^(CH 3 COO) 2 Mg + H2 T
_.


3) +
23 + -> (3)2 + 2 0

2CH3COOH + Na 2 C0 3

II. - 0 ( - ).
1) + -
3-

2CH3COONa + C 0 2 t + H 2 0

-
. 2 2

( 2_0-

^
- + - 2 Hl4CH-o-ct? LJ +
ri

3jHp-
2
2__^

-wfip-CH 3 H2SQ4(k)CH
;
(/


2)
III. - -
1) + -
-
^3 3- - *

205
- - + C I 2 ^ -CH-COOH+HCIf
+2
-' < " +^-

6l
- w
2-

IV.
- R .

347

,


.

,
.
CH2-0-Ctp
1

R,-<
0-R2
- R + +
( )
.
1_1 _<?

3

()

<^

|_|


()

-o-ctp
2
CH2-0-Ct?
,

<

- , +
+ -.
2

1531 (
1|_1__-0
,

^^11

CH2-0-Ct?

^1531

^__> ______^
-

; -
().
.

()

1) -> +
C 2 H^cf

+>,^ +25 -0-<

- 2 5

+3H0HCH-0H+3C15H3IC00H
5 31

I Jo "
2 -< ,

i
2-

1531

2) -> +
CzHg-cf

+NaOH^C 2 H 5 -C^ +C2H5OH --^

0-C2H5

ONa

531

J2T

3 1+3NaOH^CH-OH+3C15H3iCOONa

2-0-
2-
3) ,

---
2-0-- U
I

^17

-<?

>^1735

+2^-<?

17

2-<?

^^17133

V^17rl35

CH2-o-cf?
1735

( + )
, ,
, , .
-> ();
- , ,
.

349


350

, , , - . . 84.

1)

C 5 Hi 0 O 5
2)

,=0

- -

CH2-C-C-A-A-cf


2
/ -

SV
^

22


2
S

6 12 0 6

-
6

*>k*fi
50
*
/7\
-6
6


20

/
-

-

8-
- - - -
( 5- ) ^ = 0 .


I. .
1)

2-
[

+ 2-^2]2

2)
+21
2 -]-^ + A g 2 o 4 C H 2 - f C H -
^
14 - 0

*- J
-

)

. . ^

-
+ 2 02 2 0
2- -Cf + 2 C u ( O H ) 2 - c H 2 -
I



II.
+ ()2 -^ Cu(ll) - - .
III. - .
1)

6 12 0 6
>225 + 20 2
2)
C' 6R' H0
M 2 R6
W

)2--

351


352

1)
-
2

_0

4 \

()
1)
(3-
2

2
-

hM
2
-

/^2

2
H ^ n - D H a O

V^H

2) - ; Mr - 1 .

2) - 40 ; Mr - 20 .

3)
()
().

3)
.

4)
,
.

4)

=> .

()
1)

H2S 4;t

(C6H10O5)n + ( n - 1 ) H 2 0 H 2 S 4 ; t n C 6 H 1 2 0 6
(3-


: >

> >
)
(C6H10O5)n + ( n - 1 ) H 2 0

nC6H120
-

2)

,\
, 4

6 7 0 2 - + 3 n H O N 0 2 ^ ^

v
OH,

H2S04

^0-N02
C 6 H 7 0 2 - 0 - N 0 2 +3nH 2 0
" O - N O , n

-
, , ,

6 7 0 2 - ^ ^

3) + l2
l2 + >
( ,
) - .

-o-ct8H?

H 2 so 4 --2
6 7 2

^-^8^

, , .

353

+ 2 0


354

(NH3), ,
.

2) - +
1) R +
3 - - 3 2-
CH 3 -NH 2
CH3-NH-C2H5
NH2

1)
2) - R
C 2 H 5 -NH 2
CH 3 -NH 2
C 6 H 5 -NH 2
CH 3 -NH-CH 3
()
C H 3 - N - C H 3

1) 3
3 ,-CH-NH 2

-
2)

CHo-C-NK
I
I
32- CH 2 -NH 2

NH,

3)
32CH2 -NH,
CH3-CH9-NH-CH,

- N,
( + ).

: N^H ;

\ 0 / ~ ^

R N, - => , .

CH 3 -NH 2

C 6 H 5 -NH 2

- ,
- . ,
. - ,
. , .=184 .
,
.
1.
+
N - .
1) +
CH3-NH 2 4gcHCH3-NH 3 ]CI

2CH3-NH2+H2SCV-HCH3-NH3LSO4

C 6 H 5 -FH^0CI^[CH 3 -NH 3 ]CI



2C6H5-NH2+H2S04-HC6H5-NH3]2S04

^-^
2) + 20
3-+0^^^[-3]++" ,
p
^ D n n rCH3NH2
v(
u K^^^^J^!^un,,

-
.
_5 - N H 2

)
II.
1)
2CH3NH2+ |02^>2C0 2 +5H 2 0+N2
2C6H5NH2 + y 02^12C0 2 +7H 2 0+N2
III. -
. -NH 2 -
=> 2,
4, 6 ( )
2, 4, 6-(0/3jH 2 +3Br 2 ^Br-(oS-NH 2 +3HBr


356

CH 3 -NH 2
I

CH 3 -N0 2 + 6 [] F e + H C J CH3-NH2 +220

1=


Q.

1=

C 6 H 5 -NH 2

(Fe+HCI -> )
C6H5-N02 +6[H] Fe+H 9 l C 6 H5-NH 2 +2H20

, ,
, , .


. . 82.
. . 82.
. . 82.

2)
^

1)
^
--
2

--

J>
22

w
0

NH

NH2
"
2
2
2-
3-2-2-

2-

1) 2) 3)

R-CH-COOH
^NH2
, :
^
NH2
-
/NH2
- RNH2


R-CH-CH 2 -COOH

/NH2
,
NH

2
R

-888H
(3 -

X
H
N
)
R
(
C
O
O
H
)
.
.
82. 2) 3) 2
1)

H2N-CH-COOH^

( ) ( .
. 82.

+
+
)
3H 3 N-CH-COO
, +


. . 82.
. . 82.

"

357


358

,
.

-,

1)

2)

()

-
()


(
;

-
304 . .)

()

()


1) -
.
2) - ,
. ^=0 ^:NH
3) - - (
). ,
, , .
4) - .
.
.


1) - -. .
2) - , ,
. , ,
, t, -.
3) () :
) ( , )
+HN03(k) -> .
) ( )
+ CuS04 + NaOH(k) - - .
4) > N2 + 0 2 + 20 .
. . 83.

359


360


, .

-
-

(99%), , ,

,
, ,


- - (5104)
(5105)
,
! - "1- 1
| ("
- ^
^
304
304 304

, ,
,
. .
(

,
=, = )


-
(, )
. - ,
.

. - ,

11 .

V . . . - - .
1889 . . . - - .
1895 . . - .
1896 . . - => -.
1897 . . - - - .
1897-1903 . . - . - .
1899-1903 . . - -, - -,
; 1909-1911 . - ;
1920 . - .
1909 . . - .
1913 . . - .
1924 . . - - .
1932 . . - .


1902-1904 . . . : ,
, , .
1911 . . - : ,
, , ; .
1913 . . - . :
() ;
.
361


362


, - .
,
, .
. (),
N .
,
(I), / = 0 (-1)

/

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

0;1
0; 1; 2
0;1;2;3

s;p
s; p; d
s;p;d;f

, (
= - / +/.

/ = 0 => = 0 => s
/ = ? = > =-7,-0;+7 = > -

/ = 2 => = -2;- 1; 0; +1; +2 =>


l = 3^m=-3;-2;-1;0;+1;+2;+3^f\


(ms). ms= -V 2 +V2

d
I I I

i - m

, -

1 2
3
4
5
6
7
1 s / 2s; 2 / 3s; / 4s; 3d; 4 / 5s; 4d; 5p / 6s; Af; 5d; 6p / 7s; 5f, 6d; 7p /
1.
2. : 2- 4- .
3. : - .
4. : +1- ;
.

(1816 .)

(1862 .)

(1864 .)

(1865 .)


. :
- - ; - - .
.
2- . .
, ,
. ,
, . . .
,
.
.
, . .
8- .

(1 1869 .)
. . .

. :

.
. - .


1
2
3
4

.
.
.
,
; .

363


364

. . .


- RaT.:
1.
,
- .
2.
> >
.
3.
, . .
, RaT..
- RaT:
1.
,
- .
(
2.
).
, - .

RaT.
) ;

RaT.
) ;
:
)
,
,
,
U
( : Li > Mg; Be -^ Al

).
Ll
B
x
4^x

N
a
<M
g
->AI

sc
,
.
.


=

=
.
=
( ).

*
) ;
)
;
)
,

- ,
, , , .
<-

->


(. . 9)

(. . 9)

N - H + +

Ni

, . -

. 2-
.
HF

- + F:

s-p

I
- ,


.
- -
.

F2
2

0<>0
-

-S-S

(>
s-sp3

(

. )
.

zzt
Cl 2 CI-CI

-


2

, . .


S 2 S=S

214 C H 2 = C r l 2


N2
N=N
Crl2=Cri2

22 =
F-F
!
:FQF:

365

H^U^
(00)

(5}


366
,
1 1 (/)

/

()


- ,

, . .
.
.
:
1. ;
2. ;
3. . .


. .
.

-
( )
,
(F; ; N;), ( ).

1
, ,
20

:
,. ,
20, NH3, HF

^
:
,


- . .

sp

sp

sO

POol^3sP2V
POOj

i
180
I

120

GgD

sp

"-**4 sp

POOJ

109 28'
J,

10928'

180

120
I
:

I

I
I
. .

BeF 2

I

I
I
. .

F3;

367

I

. .

Si
NH3; H 2 0


368
-

(+)

(+)

(+; +)

*
()
100

() -
,

()

()

.
I

(
)
1 100

ZZ

(
)
-
(
)
(
)

1

( ,

)
( ,
,
)

() -
,

.
.+ .+ .+.

+ + +.

I.

II.
III.
IV.


:
1. . -
.
.
2. . -
. ()
.
3. . - "",
(2, HCI, H20, NH3).
. , . - .
. , . , . , . . -
.
. (1860 .).



. .
1861 .

-

.
1874 . . X. - . . .
2. -
,
. . ,
.


1.

,
.
2. .
3.


.

369


370
. .
1. .
.
CI
I

---
I

CI

---
I

2.
, , . . .
^-260^^
--
3-2-0-
v

3 - 2 - + Na -> 3 - 2 - ONa + 1/22; 3 - - 3 + Na /


.
3 -
3
3
.
^ \
l v / ^ ^ 1
r
Y
+
2, 4, 6 =>
] + 2
3 .
\ ^
'
6 5 - . - 3 , - ,
~
""

4. .


- , ,
.
- .
-

2. -

1. -
2

48

46

= 2

2 2
I

- 1
- 1
2 - 2
3. . . - ^, 4^^
GH 2

- 2
4. -

CH2

"


5. . . -
482.

3-2-2-*
-^0
NDH
- 25


6. -
. C3H702N
^
--*0 ^ ^
- -
I
NDH
I
NH2
NC 2
-

- 1 , 3

2 2

48

2 2

2 -

371


372
-

12 2

/
12 12

12

\
2


1)


I
- 1
- 2
2)
=
=
- 1
- 2

3)
3

1 , 2 -

1 , 3 -

() -

(--)
= 2

\
/
\
/
=
=
/
\
/
\


- - 2
- - 2

(
)
- -
I

V^OH

I
"


() - ,
.
-
2 =
--2-2-:
- ,
.
,

-
.

- ,

.
,

-


.

, ,
,

()

,
, ,
, ,

, ,

373

, ,


,
,


374

,
,

, ,
,

,
,
,

(,)

3Z



,
,

-
,

-
,


( . . 16)
I.
( )
1

AICI,

2
2 12 ?

30 2 ^ 2 0 3
() < ()

1
4AI + 3 0 2 ^ 2 A I 2 0 3
+ 2 ^() 2
2NO + 0 2 ^ 2 N 0 2
2
2 = 2 + 2 ->
> 2 2

I'

Br Br
2=2+^
> ?

2 H g 0it^ 2 H g + 0 2
Cu(OH) 2 ^CuO + H 2 0
4HN0 3 *
<^4N02+02+2H20
2
1:2 3

^ CHo = CH2 + Ho

t;H 2 S0 4
CH3-CH0OH

(K)


KOH + H C I ^ K C I + H 2 0
K2C03+2HCI^
->2KCI + H 2 0 + C 0 2 T
Na 2 S0 4 +BaCI 2 ->
->BaS0 4 ^+2NaCI
2
6 5 - + ^
^ 6 5 + 20


1
Fe + CuCI24>
->FeCI 2 +Cu
Ho+CuO^HoO + Cu
CH 4 +CI 2 hv
^CH3CI + HClt
C2H5OH + N a ^
1
->C 2 H 5 ONa+^H 2
C6H6 +Br2 FeBr,
^C 6 H 5 Br + HBr

^CH2=CH2+H20

375


376
II. ,


(-)
1
H 2 S0 4 + 2KOH -> K 2 S0 4 + 2H 2 0
205+20^2304


(-)

1
+3

t2Fe+3CI 2 L2FeCI
3

+3

Fe-3e-Fe

CI,+2e->2CI
+5
+3
N+2e
'- + ,
N
+1 +5

-2

+1 +3

-2

65 + -> 65 + 2 0
+ 3 ^ 3 ,0

20-40,

-2

+1 - 2

+1

+2 - 2 . 0 +1

-2

, + ^ -

+1 - 2

|+ 2 0
-2

-2^
+2

+2>
+1

-2

-2

+1

- 2 +1

Ni;t
- - +.
-
\
+1

-2

+2^>
0

+1

2-2^2


(+Q)
4AI + 30 2 ^2AI 2 0 3 ;

1
H 2 +CI 2 ^2HCI

(-Q)
1
N 2 + 0 2 ^ 2 N O ; Cu(OH) 2 ^CuO + H20
2

4 +20 2 ^0 2 +2 2 0
222 + 50 2 ->40 2 +220

2 4 ^ 2 2 + 2 ;
2 2 ^ 2 = 2 +CH3

=>
.
1\12()+2() = 2\13()+92-
^"---.
IV.

1
H2S04(P_P) + Zn(T) -> ZnS0 4(p _ p) + H 2 1
2AI(T) +6HCI(p_p) ^2AICI 3(p _ p) +3H 2 t

25() +Na (T)

2
^C 2 H 5 ONa (p _ p) + H 2 1

6 6() + - 2() -> 2 1 + 2 ()

1
H 2(r) +CI 2(r) -^2HCI (r)
NaOH(p_p) +HCI(P_P) ->NaCI(p_p) + 2 0 ()
2
24() +30 2 ( ) ^ 2 0 2 ( ) +2 2 0 ()
3()+3()^
^ 3 3 ( _ ) + 2 0 ( )

377


378
V.

1
2AI + 3CuCI2 -^2AICI3 +3Cu
2 + 220 -> ()2 + 2 2 1

1
2S0 2 +0 2 V f2 5 2S0 3
4NH 3 +50 2 ^4NO + 6H20

2
4 +CI2
24

CBeT

CH3CI + HClt

2
op i_i . ~ J,

22 + 2

0022

V^glng

2 =2 + H 2 O tu CH 3 CH 2 OH
VI.

1
2Na + 220 -> 2NaOH + 2
H2S04 + 2K0H -> K2S04 + 2H20

N 2 +3H 2 ^2NH 3
N2+02^2NO

2 = 2 + HCI ->3 -CH2CI

+ 3 <=> + 20
CH3COONa + H20 <=t CH3OOH+NaOH

32 + - 3 - ^ + + 20

- . . 17-18, 19, 22-23.


- - ,
.

I.
1.

S032~+HOH^HS03~+OH ;
" =>
2+ +SO, 2 " + H O H ^ H S 0 3 ~ +OH +2 + ;
K 2 S0 3 +HOH; KHSO3+KOH
;
.
2.

AI3++HOH^AIOH2++H+;
+

=>
Al 3+ +3CI- + H O h M AIOH2+ +H + +3CI-;
AICI3 + H O h M AIOHCI2 +HCI
;
.
3.

Fe2S3 +6H 2 0->2Fe(OH) 3 4 + 3 H 2 S t
, .
,
.


I. > +
t
3 - 2 - C I + H O H ^ C H 3 - 2 - O H + HCI
II. ( ) ->
+

H+;t

J^

3 - -

? J3 -+J3 -
.
III.
(C6H10O5)n + ( n - 1 ) H 2 0 H ^ n C 6 H 1 2 0 6
IV. > -

N H 2 - C H - C - N - C H - C - N - C H - c ' +(n-1 ) 2 0 ^
i

R1

R2

R3

>NH2-CH-C' O H +NH 2 -CH-C; O H +NH 2 -CH-C

J>

R1

379

R2

R3

0H+


4.
-
, . . .
II.
2 +2 2 ^() 2 +22
143 +1220 -> 41()31+3CH4 t
.
15 + 420 -> 304 + 5HCI


V. - ->
+ + 304

it

it

it


it

, R

Na; Fe;

it

it


, R
i
Si; 0 2 ; 2

i
; Ne;

-
-

02:Ca02;N2052

- ,
,

Me,

- ,

( NHJ)

-
,

381


382



NO;N 2 0;CO

-

CuO-Cu(OH) 2
N2O5-HNO3
12-1()

JZL
-



+2; +3; +4
4.

4.


Me
+5
i

i
i


0 2 ; S 0 3
Si0 2

ZnO; Cr 2 0 3 ; Sn0 2
- Me
+1; +2
(
Me
- )


( )


Li 2 0;CaO
CuO;Ag 2 0

FeOHCI2;
(CuOH) 2 C0 3

3*

Na 2 C0 3 ; FeCI3

-



NaHC0 3 ; Ba(HS0 4 ) 2
^ .
j^L
- ->

HCI; H2S

>

( H 2 Si0 3 )

H 2 S0 4 ; HN0 3 ; 24

()
, -

NH;
; ()2

()2
()2


+2; +3; +4
4.


4.


Zn(OH)2; Fe(OH)3

383


384

(

-)
22
-
3 - 2 - 2 -
- 1

Cri2 2 ^


2
NH2
2-

(
, -)
2

=2
- 1

2 = -


2 = - = 2

(
)
Y
,_|
V

2 2

(

)

(
-)

2--1,3

I
2

2
I
2

2
/ \
2-
\
CL

- (F, CI, )

R-

CH3-CH2-CH2CI -1-

R-(OH) n

CH 3 -CH 2 -OH

CH2 - 2

Ar-OH

0 H

/~\

(O)-OH

^
--

R-C-
H
R-i R2

II

II
0

CH3-C ^

- -

0-

<0>-

CH 3 CH 3 2 2

II

II

-1,2

-2

R-C*
^OH

CH 3 -Ct

Ri - 0 - R2



2
--

R.-CJ

--

0-R2

OH

(p)-0Z
\/

-NH2

R-NH2

CH3-NH2

(o)-NH
^'

-N02

R-NO2

CH3-N02

(o)-N0
^'

-NH2
-

R-CH-COOH 3 - -
1

NH2

NH2

-
()

1)
( 1 3)
2) ,
,

" " \

v^^
^""--^.
i
.
- s- -.
- d- f-.
: 92 -


- .
d-
^.
^-^^
""""--^
""\
.
At

><

Is

00

>*
1-

0
>'

. 0
0/..
'"

: RaT ,

1)
-,

,

.
2)

(X
I

^
>> 5
^- ?
00

>>
2
X
fe "

S Q? S
i : -
:


. u
CD

II

387

'

JJ


388

-
-
,
=>
.
:
, ,

-
-,
=>
f

-

- .
t
- =>
.
t - .
:
, , , AI


-
02

1 )
:

n+

Me-ne^-Me
( !)

4Li + 0 2 ^ 2 L 1 0

41 + 30-215 3 0,
+2
t
2Cu+o2^2CuO
2) (
Li) :

:
-
, - :
2Fe+2HCI^FeCI 2
2Fe + 3 C I 2 ^ 2 F e C I 3

2Na + 0 2 ^ N a J 1 0 2
3) Fe :
+2+3

3Fe + 2 0 ,t^ F e 3 0

+s

2AI + 3SLAI 2 S 3

+o +2

Fe S L F e S

+ ;

2Na + C I 2 ^ 2 N a C I

6Li + N 2 ^ 2U 3 N

+2

+2

Mg + J 2 ->MgJ 2

,0

+ 2 -> 3 2

+3

2Fe + 3 C l A 2 F e C I ,

389


-:

2Na H 2 ^ 2 N a H

+2


390



){

+ 20

+
( HNQ3) -^ +2

^"----^

1) ,
2
2)
> + 2

1) ,
2
2)

2Na + 2H 2 0^2NaOH + H2 T

Fe + H 2 S0 4 ->FeS0 4 +H 2 t

+22^()2 + 2 1

Mg + 2HCOOH->

3) - f ->
+ 2

->(HCOO)2Mg + H2f

+2-+2

1)




2)
-
3)

0


4) 2 AI+ 620 -> 2 1()3 + 3
,
5) 3 Fe + 420 ^ Fe 0 4 + 42

Zn + 2KOH + 2 H 2 0 ^
, Zn(OH)4l + H,t

+ -^
> +

+2

Mn + FeS04 ->MnS0 4 +Fe


1) 2C2H5OH + 2Na^2C 2 H 5 ONa+H 2 t
2) 2C 6 H 5 -OH + 2Na^2C6H5ONa+H2t
+2

CH 2 -CH 2 +ZnLCH 2 =CH 2 Z n C I ,


3) I
' CI
CI
, CH 3 -CI + 2Na+CI-CH 3 t
^CH 3 -CH 3 +2NaCI

; ;
- . . 41-42, 40.

->++
2
++^
2-2>2
2 . 2 + ,

- ,

,


( )
-
1) , AI (
), . 2 0
2 0 - > - + |2
2 2 0 + 2->20-+
2) , AI 2,
2 0
3) , 2,

1 ) ,
-
AI;
2) ) , 2,
,
;
) -


(Cr, Ni, Zn);
)
;
) .

-
1) ( F );
2) F"He .

u ^
2 0 - 2 ^ 2 + + 0 |2
2 0
^
'
220-4^4++02'
391


392

( )

Cu(N0 3 ) 2 ^>Cu 2+ +2N0 3


2
0 Cu 2 + +2e^Cu
+
|
2 2 0-4"^4 +0 2

NaBr<=>Na++Br
220 + 2->20-+
2-2-> 2

2Cu(N03)2 +2H 2 0 3JLT01 ^ 2Cu + 0 2 +4HN03

2NaBr+21-1,0 3JLT0I ^H ? ' +Br, +2NaOH

KN03^K +N03
2 2 0+2->20-+
A 2H20-4e^4H++0^

41-1,0 + 2,0
40- + 4+ + 2, + ,
3RT0K

4H,0

ZnCI2<^Zn2++2CI
Zn 2 + +2e^Zn
2H20 + 2e->20H-+Hg
x2
A 2C|--2e->CI
2ZnCI2 +2H 2 0 3 f 1 - T O K Zn + Zn(OH)2 +H 2 +2CI 2


; ,
- . . 47.
- -

2Mg + 02,t 2MgO 2 ; 2 Al + 3CIo ^t ! 2AICI
1) +

3
2
|
3Ba + N ^ B a 3*N3 | 2
2 ; 2Na + S - N a 2 S "


1) +,

2 + - 2 1;

4 + 5 0 , ^ 2 2 0 ; HS+Br2

+ 2 1 - 3 2-3

2)+,

2 <

t.p

S + 0^t!S02

^ 2 N H 3 ; Si + 2F2
;
C + 2CI^ CCI 4 1

4) +

C 6 H 6 +CI

FeCI 3

CH 2 = 2

^ , - 9 - + t

C6H5-CI

^2

C H 3 - Cf u

HCI

S +6HN0,o -t H , SO, + 6 N 0 , +2H,0


+4
C + 2H S0 lt
~ 2S0 + 0 + 2H 0
2

4(K)

HS+CuO^Cu + hbO
c

+2

C + Z n O,t^ Z n + CO
3) +
Ot;Ni
H+CH3-C^
-CHj 1
H

0H +

2
I

,0 + 6NaOH -> Na Br 0 3 + 5NaBr 1 + 3H,0

1
+ | 0 ^ 2 - ^ +HCI-

+6

S+3F, SFfi
N+02^2NO;
2)+
+6

3) +
2HBr + CI->2HC|- 1 +Br 2 ; 2NaJ + B r 2 0 ^
2H 2 S + 3 0 ^ [ - 2 S 0 2 2 + 2 2 0 2 ; 2CrCI 2 1->211
H 2 S + Br 2 ->S + 2 H B r 1 ;
2 S 0 2 + ,1 <=> 2S
, - , + CL0, ^

2HBr

+2

jr

CI?+H,OrfHC|- 1

393

394


1
-

1) +
+
N 2 0; NO; CO
-^ + 2 0
C I + <_->30++|

2HN0 3 + CuO^Cu(N0 3 ) 2 +H 2 0
l
-
2)
+
S 0 2 - H 2 S0 3 ;
+

-> + 2 0
Cl 2 0 7 - 4
2
A
I
(
O
H
)
+
3 3H2S04^
NH3 + O H ^ N H ; + O H - 1) + 2 0 ->
^AI2(S04)3+6H20

N 2 0 5 +H 2 0 - * 2HN0 3

3) +-^+ (+20)
2) + -> + 2 0
IV
S0 3 +2KOH -^K 2 S0 4 +H 2 0 2 H 3 P 0 4 + 3 N a 2 C 0 3 ^
- 3) + (^ 2 N a 3 P 0 4 +3C0 2 T+3H 2 0
, . .
) -^
H2S04+K2Si03^
- ,
+205 -^ 3(04)2 ^H 2 Si0 3 4-+K 2 S0 4
- .
, - ,
. .
+
. .

( HN0 3

H2S04(K) -
! I:
4 N H 3 + 5 0 2 ^ 4 N O + 6H20 Si0 2 +2Mg^2MgO + Si
)
0 2 + *-20
H 2 S0 4 +Mg->
4+202^02+220

^MgS04+H2t
2HBr + C I 2 ^ 2 H C I + Br2
-
2NH3+3CuO2S0 2 +0 2 ^ 2 S 0 3 ;
-3Cu + N 2 +3H 2 0
S0 2 +2H 2 S^3S+2H 2 0
:
CO + CuO^Cu + C0 2 ;2NO + 0 2 <-2N02


)
)

)
,

,

;
)
,

,

.

)
;
)
;


,

)
;
)
;

,


S0 2 < S03;
N203 < N 2 0 5

395

H2S03 < H2S04;


HN0 2 <HN0 3


396


1. - , ,
, .
2. - , +
.
3. - , +.
4;

H 2 S0 3 ; 6 5 -

H 2 S0 3 ; H2S; HOOC-COOH

HN0 3 ; HCI;

Z
( )

3 0 4 ;

2 0 3 | H 2 S0 3

H 2 Si0 3 ; C17H35COOH

H 2 S0 4 ; 1735

HCI; H2S;
HN0 3 ; CH 3 COOH;

H 3 P0 4 ; C 15 H 3 iCOOH;




1.
^ + +
H2S04^H THS04;HS04<=>H++SO| ,

2. + (Me - 2; )
6HCI + 2AI^2AICI 3 +3H 2 T;
2HCOOH + Zrw(HCOO) 2 Zn + H 2 t
6+ + 2AI -> 2AI3+ + 3H 2 t;
2HCOOH + Zn -> 2HCOO" + Zn2+ + H2t
3. + ()
CuO + H 2 S0 4 C u S 0 4 + H 2 0;
2CH3COOH + BaO -> (3)2 + H 2 0
CuO + 2 + ^ Cu2+ + 2 0
23 + -> 23 + 2+ + 2 0
4. + ( )
Zn(OH)2 +2HN0 3 -^Zn(N0 3 ) 2 +2H 2 0;
NaOH + CH3COOH CH3COONa + H20
Zn(OH)2 + 2H+ ^ Z n 2 + +2H 2 0
OH + CH3COOH -> CH3COO + H 2 0
5. +
K 2 Si0 3 + 2HCI -> 2KCI + H 2 Si0 3 4;
CaC0 3 + 2HCOOH-> (HCOO)2 + C 0 2 1 + H 2 0
SiO|+2H+^.H2Si03
CaCO, + 2HCOOH -> 2HCOO + Ca2+ + CO, t +H,0
6. + ( )
t;H*

CH 2 -CH-CH 2 +3HON0 2 ^CH 2 -CH-CH 2 +3H 2 0

()


H,SO,

397

P 2 o 5 ;t

N0 2 N0 2 N0 2

SO, +H,0

C H 3 - C ' + H O - C H 3 <=> - ^ 0 + 2 0

-3

7.

^,

.
0 + 2

, <
, *

"


398


H2S04(K) HN0 3 -
, . . +, .
HN0 3
Au; Pt
Fe; Al; Cr -
t

+ Me

+ Me Me

+ 2 0+ 2 0
i

++

10HNO 3 +4Ca- 4Ca(NO 3/2^

()

Cu + 4HN0 3 -^Cu(N0 3 ) 2 +2N0 2 t+2H 2 0


HN0 3 ()
( )
,

+N,Ot+5H,0
^ ^ + Me
1

+H20+N02(NO)
P + 5HN03->H3P04+5N02t+H20
()

HN0 3
+ Me Me

Au; Pt

conb+NO+H 2 0
3Cu + 8 H N0 3 ^ 3 C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 2 N O 4 2 0

+ Me

()

conb+NH 4 N0 3 +H 2 0
4Ca + 10HNO 3 ^4Ca(NO 3 ) 2 +NH 4 NO 3 +3H 2 O
(p)



H2S04 (.) > Au; Pt
Fe; Al; C r - .
+ Me
' *- + Me
j.

ccyib+S02T+H20
+ 2,
0 4 -> CuS04 + SO, t +2H?0
'2 .Sv-'4
()
+ Me

+8(28)+20
i

8Na+5H 2 S0 4 ^4Na 2 S0 4 +4H 2 0 + H 2 St


()

S0 2 +20+

Q nu ^ 9 Q n t ^ r n
'2 ,
4
C + 2H,S04^2SO, I

3Zn + 4H2 S 0 4 -> 3ZnS04 + SI+4H 2 0


. . .
_
t , * n
H 2 S0 4 (K) - :
+2H,0 2(k)S0 4 +nH 2 0 = H2S04-nH20 + Q,


1) R -
3 - 2 -COOH + CI2 ^

-CH-COOH + HCI
CI

- *+ Ag20 20 + C 0 2 1 +2 I
N

.-.

399


400


1. - , .
2. - , -.
3. - ,
+.
LiOH; NH 3

()2; La(OH)3

; CH 3 -NH 2

Mg(OH)2; C 6 H 5 -NH 2


/
; ()2


NH3; CH 3 -NH 2 ;

( )

ZZ

()2; ;
Cu(OH)2; [NH4]OH;

^3

[CH3NH3]OH

LiOH

NH3; CH3NH2;

Mg(OH)2; LiOH;

1.+

2KOH + H2S04 -^K 2 S0 4 +2H20


+ +->20

Cu(OH)2 +H2S04 -^CuS0 4 +2H20 2CH 3 NH 2 +H 2 S0 4 ^


^[CH 3 NH 3 ] 2 S0 4
Cu(OH)2 +2H+ -^Cu 2+ +2H20
CH3NH2+H+4>[CH3NH3]+
2.

>++" -
"
,
, ,

[NH 4 ]OH^NHj+OH- "


3. +

2KOH + N205 -^2KN0 3 +H 2 0


20- +N 2 0 5 ->2NOi +H 2 0
()2 +20 2 -^(03)2
"+0 2 ^

4. +

2 + 1203
22+ 20
20- +AI 2 0 3 ^2AIOi +H 2 0
KOH + AI(OH)3 ->K[AI(OH)4]
+AI(OH)3^[AI(OH)4]

401


402

5. +
2LiOH + FeCI 2 ^
^Fe(OH) 2 l+2LiCI
20H"+Fe 2 + ^Fe(OH) 2 l
KOH + N H 4 N 0 3 ^
^KN0 3 +NH 3 T+H 2 0
OH+NH;->NH 3 t+H 2 0

6. +
C6H5OH + + 65 + 20
65 + <=> 650 + 20

7. t
-

Mg(OH)2^MgO + H2o

, ,
.
(
+3; +4; +2)

H20

1. + ( )
ZnO + 2HCI^ZnCI 2 +H 2 0
ZnO + 2H + ^Zn 2 + +H 2 0
Zn(OH)2 +2HCI -> ZnCI2 + 2H20

H20 + HCI^H 3 0 + +CI

3 -- + 1->.

NH
->[CH 3 -CH-COOH]CI

Zn(OH)2 +2H+ -> Zn2+ +2H20

NH3
3 -- + + ^

I
NH2
^[ 3 --] +
NH3


404
2. + ( )
ZnO + 2 K O ^ K 2 Z n 0 2 + 2 0 H 2 0 + N H 3 ^ N H i + O H - - + ^
ZnO + 2 0 H - ^ Z n O l " + H 2 0

NH2
^ C H 3 - C H - C O O K + H20

ZnO + 2KOH->K 2 [Zn(OH) 4 ]


-

ZnO + 2 0 H - ^ [ Z n ( O H ) 4 ] 2 "
ri

Zn(OH)2+2KO ^5
->K2Zn02+2H20
Zn(OH)2 + 2 0 H " ->ZnOi" +2H 2 0
Zn(OH) 2 +2KOH^K 2 [Zn(OH) 4 ]
p-p

Zn(OH)2 + 20H ^[Zn(OH) 4 ] 2

NH2
CH3-CH-COOH+OH

NH2

->3---+2
I
NH2

3.
CH2 - - > 2 -
NH,

NH,

4.

n ^ N -- Q
CH - ^

^ [ - N H - C H - C O - ] n +nH 2 0
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462
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() :
-5, < 10
() ={
I 3, > 10

(}
v

:=- 5

_t

i
/

Q j

REM
program zadacha (input, output);
()
{ ()}
INPUT var
;
, : real;
IF X < = 1 0 THEN = -5
begin
ELSE = 3
writeln (' ');
PRINT =;
read In (x);
END
if x <= 10 then y:= -5
else := x*x*x;
writeln ('y = ' , y)
end.

,
( )
1 N.
-

()
/ N /
S:=0

I := 1

INPUT
N; N
S =0
FOR I = 1 TO N
S = S +I
NEXT I
PRINT S = ; S
END

S := S + I

program zadacha (input, output)


var
n, i, s : integer
begin
writeln (' ');
readln (n);
s :=0;
for i := 1 to n do s := s + i;
writenln (' =', s)
end.

N
.
S (s).
I (i), 1 N () 1,

1 N ().
.

I := 1 + 1

463


464



: N () - , - .
: - () ,
, () - .
-

:
1 (i) -
( ).


.

,
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.

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1
/ ,

"max - A i

k:= 1

J*v
<(\ = 2, N^>

^"^ >

1r
/

^^^

"max.

/
/

\r

Q J
k:=i

(^)
v
/ N
*i

:
CLS
INPUT N = ; N
DIM A(N)
FOR 1 = 1 TO N '
PRINT A(" ; ! ; " ) = ;
INPUT A(l)
NEXT I
AMAX = A(1): K = 1 '

FOR I = 2 TO N
IF A(l) > AMAX THEN AMAX = A(l) : = I
NEXT I
PRINT ;
PRINT ; AMAX
END

:
program max
uses crt;
type mas = array [1 ..20] of real;
var
a
: mas;
i, n
: integer;
k
: integer;
amax : real;
begin
ClrScr;
write (' N = ');
readln(n);
for i := 1 to n do {
}
begin
write ('a[', i, ']=');
readln (a[i])
end;
amax := a[1]; k := 1; {
}
for i := 2 to n do
if a[i] > amax then
begin
amax := a[i];
k:=i
end;
writeln;
writeln (' ', );
writeln (' ', amax : 5 : 1);
readln
end.


466



s = 1 + V2 + V3~ + V4 + ... + Vn
.
-

INPUT
n; N
S=0
FOR I = 1 N
S = S + SQR(I)
NEXT I
PRINT S = ; S
END

Q J

program zadacha (input, output);


{

}
var
n, i : integer;
s : real
begin
writeln
('

');
readln (n);
s:=0;
for i = 1 to n do s := s + sqrt (i);
writeln (' = ' , s)
end.


.
.

. ,
,
(SQR sqrt - )
, - .

()

, , ,
. . .

( Slovo, Otvet)
Otvet = , Slovo

Dlina, i, Flag
Dlina := fljiHH(Slovo)
i := 1; Flag :=
(i <= Dlina / 2) Flag
Flag := (Slovop] = Slovo[Dlina - i + 1])
i := i + 1

Flag
j o Otvet:=
Otvet:= He


(Slovo), Slovo
Slovo[i], Slovo

467


468
Qasi
CLS
INPUT : , SLOVO$
Dlina = LEN(SLOVO$)
' : ,
' ..
i =1
Flag = 0
WHILE (i <= Dlina / 2) AND (Flag = 0)
'

Letter1$ = MID$ (SLOVO$, i, 1)


'
Letter2$ = MID$ (SLOVO$, Dlina - i + 1, 1) '
IF Letter1$ = Letter2$ THEN i = i + 1
ELSE Flag = 1
WEND
PRINT
PRINT : ; SLOVO$;
IF Flag = 0 THEN PRINT - . ELSE
PRINT - .
END

:
LEN(SLOVO$), SLOVO$,
MID$ (SLOVO$, i, 1), SLOVO$
i.

Turbo

Pascal

Program Turnover;
Uses Crt;
Var Slovo : String;
Dlina, i : Integer;
Flag
: Boolean;
BEGIN
ClrScr;
Write (' : ' ) ; ReadLn (Slovo);
Dlina := Length (Slovo);
{ : ,}
{ . .}
i:=1;
Flag := TRUE;
While (i <= Dlina / 2) and Flag do
{ }
Begin
{ ( )}
Flag := (Slovop] = Slovo[Dlina-i + 1]);
i := i+1
end;
WriteLn; Write ( ' : ', Slovo);
If Flag then WriteLn (' - .')
else WriteLn(' - .');
ReadLn
END.


Length (Slovo), Slovo.


470


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05663 22 2001 .
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-005-93, 2; 953000 , .
- " ""
191023, -, / 52.
e-mail: info@trigonspb.ru
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