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373.167.1:811.111
81.2-9
441
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, 2016. 96 . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-222-27175-9

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373.167.1:811.111
81.2-9

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12.12.2015.
05.02.2016.
84108/16. . 2.
2500 . .

344011, . --, . , 150
./: (863) 261-89-50, 261-89-75
: www.phoenixrostov.ru
-: www.phoenixbooks.ru

ISBN 978-5-222-27175-9

.., , 2016
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Training Test 01
TRAVELING BACK IN TIME
When you visit old cities, ancient history comes alive in front of your eyes. Places filled with
historical associations abound across Russia and its neighboring states it may take a lifetime
to see them all. In this training session wed like to help you travel back in time as well as
practice grammar skills, of course!
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TASK 1
RELICS OF THE DISTANT PAST
Tourists of today may overlook this small Belarusian city on their tours. Not everyone
knows that the place was first mentioned in the Fourth Novgorod Chronicle as far back
as the year 1044. This means that the citys history is almost a thousand years long. Over
many centuries, the place 1__________ (SEE) prosperity and war, devastation and rebirth.
We 2_________ (TALK) now about the city of Novogrudok. Actually, at the beginning of
its history the town was a major settlement in the remote western lands of the Kievan Rus.
A credible theory 3___________ (PROPOSE) that the town served as the capital of the
Kingdom of Lithuania. This statement is supported by some scholars, while 4__________
(OTHER) dispute this notion. Anyway, the town is considered a possible first capital of the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with Trakai as another possibility. No wonder the 5__________
(NOTE) relic of the past is the ruins of the castle. It 6__________ (STAND) on a hill
for several centuries before it was razed to the ground by the Swedish army during the
7___________ (NORTH) War. Today, the place provides a perfect setting for ever so
popular medieval reenactments.
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TASK 2
MESA VERDE CLIFF PALACE
America is often referred to as the New World yet it can also boast of some ancient
8_______ (ARCHITECTURE) relics, with Cliff Palace being the most outstanding of all.
Located in the walls of a huge canyon, this 9_______ (MAGNIFY) structure was discovered


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by chance over a hundred years ago. It was a real treasure trove full of various 10_______
(CULTURE) artifacts. To protect the place from commercial 11________ (EXPLOIT) Mesa
Verde National Park was established. We know nothing of the people who inhabited Cliff
Palace as early as the XII century. We even dont know what they used to call themselves.
Although this 12_______ (MARVEL) preserved apartment complex offers some information
on how these people lived, worked and entertained themselves, it still holds many secrets
which archaeologists will never be able to unravel. It is a mystery why these people chose to
build their city in such a lonely and severe place and why they obviously left it soon after its
13______ (COMPLETE). Undoubtedly Mesa Verde Cliff Palace is sacred to the American
heritage.
, 1420.
1420, . .

TASK 3
SEAHENGE
Archaeologists have found wooden posts in the shape of a circle on a beach in Norfolk,
England. They were 14________ after strong winds blew away the earth that had been covering
them. The fifty-five posts are 15______ in Britain, and they are the best-preserved example
of a Bronze Age wooden circle in Europe. They are estimated to be from around 2000 BC,
which puts them at a 16______ time to Stonehenge thats why they were called Seahenge.
The find has 17_______ about many discussions among archaeologists and historians, who
do not all agree why the site was placed where it is. Forty centuries ago Seahenge would have
been further away from the sea rather than on the beach as it is now. Excavations suggest that
the site was 18______ a kilometer away from the sea, but the sea gradually covered it and hid
it from view. Now the archaeologists have to work fast to save Seahenge from destruction.
In order to protect the site, it was decided to 19______ the posts despite peoples objections.
The archeologists have preserved the posts by putting them in special water tanks. After the
wood has been cleaned, examined and studied, it is hoped that Seahenge will be returned to
a place near its original site, and go on 20______ display, becoming one of Britains chief
prehistoric relics.

14

1) created

2) positioned

3) discovered

4) invented

15

1) single

2) only

3) alone

4) unique

16

1) same

2) similar

3) like

4) alike

17

1) caused

2) brought

3) taken

4) raised

18

1) located

2) put

3) created

4) made

19

1) reorder

2) renovate

3) remove

4) rearrange

20

1) public

2) open

3) common

4) free


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(Tasks 13) .
Explain why visiting ancient places can be a worthwhile occupation for any young person.
Use 200250 words including some (or all) of the lexis given in the box below.
tourist spot
ancient ruins
medieval castle

treasure trove
unravel mysteries
hold secrets

national heritage
preserve well
protect the relics

Everybody knows _______________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Speaking of ancient places ________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Yet it is also true that _____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
So it seems that _________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________


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Training Test 02
ENGLISH, WITH A DICTIONARY
In this training session, apart from practicing grammar skills, we are also going to remember
some facts about dictionaries and dictionary makers called lexicographers. You can also learn
a couple of things about a bizarre language called Ebonics.
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TASK 1
AN OUTSTANDING LINGUIST AND NOT ONLY
Few men 1_____ (INFLUENCE) the development of American English as much as Noah
Webster did. He 2_____ (GRADUATE) from Yale University in 1778. Some years 3______
(LATE) he passed the traditional bar exam and got down to 4_____ (PRACTISE) law. His
career was quite successful yet Webster 5_____ (ATTRACT) by another vocation teaching.
Unfortunately most schoolbooks at the time were far from perfect. The same could be said
about schools. Webster set out to create a three-volume schoolbook which included a speller,
a grammar and a reader. He also took part in reforming schools. But his major achievement
lay ahead the 6____ (ONE) American dictionary of the English language. Though not very
popular in Websters days the dictionary has been republished dozens of times and we 7____
(USE) it now. As for Noah Webster himself, he is considered one of the Founding Fathers of
the American nation.
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TASK 2
ON THE ORIGIN OF ENGLISH
English is a Germanic language, though today it is easier to see how Latin rather than
German has influenced the 8__________ (DEVELOP) of English. In the bygone days Latin
was the language of church and science though there are 9__________ (SCHOLAR) terms
taken from Greek as well. The English language has also borrowed words from many other
languages Italian, Russian, Arabic and the process is still going on. But if we look back
we shall see that the language that influenced English most of all was Norman French. After


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the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and this is an 10______ (EXTREME) important date in
the history of both the country and the language English became very confused as two
languages were actually used at the same time with 11_______ (DIFFER) words for the
same thing or idea. It was mostly the lower classes who spoke Saxon English while the
aristocracy 12_________ (TRADITION) conversed in French. Of course the two languages
started to merge. In the late XVIII century scholars, poets and 13_______ (PHILOSOPHY)
tried to create a standard version of the language based on the English spoken in London. It
was very much like the English we speak these days.
, 1420.
1420, . .

TASK 3
IS IT A NEW LANGUAGE?
Chilling, homey? You done eat? Dis good. What does it all mean? Is it even English?
This is African-American English or Ebonics as it is popularly 14_______. These days
it is spoken by a large number of people in the USA. It is also studied by linguists and
15_________ in books, films and music. Thanks to rap and hip-hop it is fast becoming part
of world youth culture. So far scientists havent come to any 16_______ about its 17_____.
Is it a different language from English or is it a different dialect of English? Ebonics is
definitely not slang because it possesses its own distinctive grammar and pronunciation.
Yet since it 18________ many words and other features with other dialect varieties of
American English it is too early to single 19______ Ebonics as a separate language. Some
people look 20_____ Ebonics as lazy or incorrect English. Yet school boards in some
American states approved a resolution recognizing Ebonics as the primary language of
Afro-American students. There is no doubt that Ebonics is melodious and expressive and
many teenagers think that speaking Ebonics is cool. But its speakers often find it hard to
speak Standard English. And they have to get rid of a lot of unprintable words in their
speech as well.

14

1) famous

2) considered

3) known

4) referred

15

1) employed

2) used

3) heard

4) said

16

1) opinion

2) discussion

3) plan

4) agreement

17

1) quality

2) status

3) place

4) origin

18

1) shares

2) separates

3) divides

4) contains

19

1) out

2) off

3) of

4) from

20

1) up to

2) over

3) down on

4) through


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Training Test 20
ALWAYS READY AT OUR SERVICE
There are lots of devices that have served us faithfully for years. The typewriter is one of
them. Its history is interesting in its own right. Practice grammar skills and learn more about it.
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TASK 1
FROM THE HISTORY OF OFFICE EQUIPMENT
What sort of writer is almost non-existent today? The answer is the typewriter. It was one
of the 1______ (GREAT) inventions of the 1860s. Typewriters became indispensable tools
for practically all writing other than personal correspondence. Can one definitely say who
2_______ (INVENT) the typewriter? The answer is no. As with the automobile, telephone,
and telegraph, a number of people contributed ideas and inventions that eventually resulted
in ever more 3______ (COMMERCE) successful instruments. Some researchers say that this
or that form of the typewriter was invented over fifty-two times in history. The story 4______
(DATE) back to 1575, when an Italian printmaker invented a machine to impress letters in
papers.
Some later inventions 5_______ (MAKE) not only by Europeans. A hundred and fifty
years ago a Brazilian priest made his own typewriter with basic materials and tools such as
wood and knives. He was even awarded a gold medal for 6______ (DO) it by the Brazilian
emperor. It is not surprising that most Brazilians are sure their country is the birthplace of
the typewriter. These days the typewriter 7______ (BECOME) a rarity to be seen mostly in
museums.
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TASK 2
KEYBOARDS AND LETTERS
Everyone is familiar with the 8______ (LAY) of the English-language letter keys on a
computer keyboard. Its the so-called QWERTY layout. Few people know that it was
established as early as the 1870s by the typewriter 9____ (MANUFECTURE). Some people


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61

have tried to explain that 10_______ (CHOOSE). One story is that the QWERTY layout
allowed early typewriter salesmen to impress their customers by typing out the example
word typewriter. It can be spelled using the top row of the keyboard only. But what can
be 11______ (EASY) done in English, can hardly be done in Chinese. Can you imagine a
keyboard with separate keys for thousands of characters? However, a hundred years ago, in
1916, a mechanical 12______ (ENGINE) named Hou-Kun Chow invented the first Chinese
typewriter. His technical 13______ (SOLVE) was a mechanical typewriter using a revolving
cylinder to fit Chinese characters on the machine. Hou-Kun Chow had been a student in
Boston and impressed with American typewriters. So much for a good education, isnt it?
, 1420.
1420, . .

TASK 3
A QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS AGAIN
There is a phrase in the English language that is commonly used for touch-typing practice.
The phrase 14_____ as follows: a quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. It has become
very well-known 15_____ to its brevity and meaning. We reckon you have guessed why the
phrase has enjoyed such great popularity. Well, the answer is simple: it contains all of the
letters of the English alphabet. It makes 16______ to remember the phrase well. Otherwise,
misunderstandings may arise. One famous example is the testing of the Moscow
Washington hotline in 1963. The system was established to 17______ the Pentagon with the
Kremlin. Though it is generally known as the red telephone in popular culture, it has never
been a telephone line at all. No red phones were used. The first implementation used Teletype
18_______, and shifted to fax machines later. Now the Moscow Washington hotline is
a 19______ computer link over which messages are exchanged by email. Anyway, back in
1963 the first message sent on the hotline in testing was the famous quick brown fox. Back
then, the Russian translators sent a message in return asking the Americans for 20_______.
Fortunately, it was just a phrase to test the equipment.

14

1) reads

2) means

3) says

4) speaks

15

1) as

2) because

3) for

4) thanks

16

1) sense

2) use

3) possible

4) it

17

1) direct

2) unite

3) link

4) touch

18

1) device

2) equipment

3) facility

4) gear

19

1) classified

2) secret

3) secure

4) safe

20

1) explanation

2) translation

3) reference

4) understanding

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(Tasks 13) .
Prove that the invention of the typewriter was the beginning of the Great Office Revolution.
Use 200250 words including some (or all) of the lexis given in the box below.
indispensable tools
impress people
test the equipment

result in inventions
type letters
be at ones service

use a keyboard
hardware/software
invent machines

Its common knowledge that _______________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
As regards _____________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
But one can argue that ____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Actually _______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________


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1
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18
19
20

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2
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19
20

Test 01
has seen
are talking
has been proposed
others
notable
had stood
northern
architectural
magnificent
cultural
exploitation
marvelously
completion
3) discovered
4) unique
2) similar
2) brought
1) located
3) remove
1) public
Test 09
has been standing
eleventh
enlarged
are told
have served
longer
offering
definitely
various
cultural
sponsorship
festivities
participants
3) venues
2) prestigious
4) requires
1) obligatory
3) to
1) up
1) presence

Test 02
have influenced
graduated
later
practicing
was attracted
first
are using
development
scholarly
extremely
different
traditionally
philosophers
3) known
2) used
4) agreement
4) origin
1) shares
1) out
3) down on
Test 10
has
surrounded
were raided
were replaced
reconstructing
hosting
actually
majority
executions
various
residence
visiting
unforgettable
2) dwelling place
3) attractions
2) complete
1) priceless
3) events
3) back
1) glimpse

Test 03
finishing
birth
telling
has been translated
best
unpredictable
beginning
endless
appearance
imaginative
questionable
forgetfulness
combination
2) adventure
3) solely
2) uncovered
4) vacation
1) trapped
2) inspiration
2) of
Test 11
classical
referred
were woven
next
were placed
sixth
to shed
practically
complexity
closely
transformed
extremely
geometrical
3) scarce
2) imagination
1) activities
3) names
4) economical
4) ways
3) out

Test 04
putting
unknown
fixed
written
served
lively
least
outstanding
elder
naturalist
primarily
variety
lasting
1) wonder
4) fragrance
3) exist
1) enormous
4) kingdom
2) comes
2) in
Test 12
is considered
tireless
wasnt
tragic
had fallen
had taken
involved
practical
historic
celebrations
disorderly
religious
reborn
3) colored
1) back
4) afford
2) edible
3) prerogative
3) charity
4) opt

Test 05
celebrated
easily
wearing
based
has grown
inalienable
gained
customary
variety
creatures
traditional
parking
rightfully
2) expensive
4) mind
1) survey
3) stop
1) case
4) wipe
2) away
Test 13
have been living
nearly
luckier
has been
immortality
has placed
uniquely
absolutely
utterances
ability
disobedience
psychologist
existential
4) show
1) imitated
4) foretell
1) lucky
3) ground
3) single
2) sight


Test 06
taking
telling
newly
had been
another
would become
interested
independently
motorization
distinction
enthusiast
promoter
outstanding
3) just
1) endurance
3) route
4) relocated
1) reliability
2) up
2) puts
Test 14
is expected
first
tallest
surpassing
is holding
would ruin
has been moved
scientists
discouraging
crowded
beneficial
grassy
performance
2) destroyed
3) consisted
4) attached
4) invention
4) introduction
1) touches
3) imagine

Test 07
have captured
first
was flourishing
had been
most popular
increasing
was nominated
unconditional
legendary
faithfulness
citizens
explanation
hopeful
3) companions
2) memorable
2) features
1) names
3) hand
4) fantasy
4) appeal
Test 15
climbing
crossing
wildest
second
being filmed
were broken
has happened
sensitive
freedom
encouraged
portrayals
reduction
threatening
3) clear
2) severe
1) gather
4) corner
2) title
4) turned
1) turn up

Test 08
carried
getting
second
was invented
replaced
has been displayed
fastest
disappearance
solutions
missing
navigation
possessions
unfortunate
3) robbed
1) brave
1) romanticized
4) up
3) nowhere
4) symbol
3) recall
Test 16
no less rich
experimenting
had heard
were awarded
showing
recognized
contemporaries
pursuit
tireless
surviving
productive
sitters
inventive
3) ancestor
1) came
2) result
4) short-lived
2) developments
2) breakthrough
4) familiar


...................................................................................................................... 3
Training Test 01. Traveling Back In Time .......................................................................... 4
Training Test 02. English, With A Dictionary .................................................................... 7
Training Test 03. How Stories Are Born .......................................................................... 10
Training Test 04. My House Is My Flower Garden.......................................................... 13
Training Test 05. Spooky Halloween Smiles ................................................................... 16
Training Test 06. The Automobile Age ............................................................................ 19
Training Task 07. More Than Just Pets ............................................................................ 22
Training Task 08. In The Days Of Sail ............................................................................. 25
Training Test 09. Our Favourite London .......................................................................... 28
Training Task 10. Visiting Ancient Castles ...................................................................... 31
Training Test 11. Popular Arts And Crafts ....................................................................... 34
Training Task 12. A Merry Christmas To You .................................................................. 37
Training Test 13. Birds And More Birds .......................................................................... 40
Training Task 14. Living Urban Life ................................................................................ 43
Training Test 15. Of Our Lesser Brothers ........................................................................ 46
Training Test 16. Looking Through A Photo Album ........................................................ 49
Training Test 17. Lets Talk About Art ............................................................................. 52
Training Test 18. Winter Snow Is Fun .............................................................................. 55
Training Test 19. Let Us Play A Little Game ................................................................... 58
Training Test 20. Always Ready At Our Service .............................................................. 61
Training Task 21. This Sporting Life................................................................................ 64
Training Test 22. Let Us Go Cycling................................................................................ 67
Training Test 23. Travelling By Rail ................................................................................ 70
Training Test 24. Time To Eat Out ................................................................................... 73
Training Test 25. The Holiday Of Easter.......................................................................... 76
Training Test 26. Talking About Dragons ........................................................................ 79
Training Test 27. Houses Of Harmony ............................................................................. 82
Training Test 28. Boot And Shoe Stories ......................................................................... 85
Training Test 29. Would You Like A Cup Of Tea? ........................................................... 88
Training Test 30. Unusual Monuments ............................................................................ 91
........................................................................................................... 94

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