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Alexander N. Eremin, Anton N. Eremin, Nikolai A.

Eremin

SMART FIELDS AND WELLS

A Textbook

Publishing Center of Kazakh-British Technical University (KBTU) JSC


Almaty

2013

Александр Николаевич Еремин,


Антон Николаевич Еремин,
Николай Александрович Еремин

УМНЫЕ МЕСТОРОЖДЕНИЯ И
СКВАЖИНЫ

Учебное пособие
Издательский центр АО «Казахстанско-
Британский Технический Университет»

Алматы

2013
Al.N. Eremin, An.N. Eremin, N.A. Eremin

SMART FIELDS AND WELLS

A Textbook

Approved by the Educational - Methodical Council of Kazakh-British Technical


University (KBTU) JSC/Protocol No… dated October 2013 as a textbook for the students,
undergraduates and doctorates of the engineering- technical specialties of the discipline
"Oil and Gas Business".

Publishing Center of Kazakh-British Technical University (KBTU) JSC


Almaty

2013
Еремин Ал. Н., Еремин Ан. Н.,
Еремин Н.А.

УМНЫЕ МЕСТОРОЖДЕНИЯ И
СКВАЖИНЫ

Учебное пособие

Рекомендовано к изданию Учебно-методическим


советом АО «Казахстанско-Британский технический
университет» (протокол № 4 от 22.10.2013) в качестве
учебного пособия для студентов магистрантов и
докторантов инженерно-технических
специальностей дисциплины «Нефтегазовое дело»
Издательский центр АО «Казахстанско-
Британский Технический Университет»

Алматы

2013
УДК 622.1/.2 (075.8)
ББК 33.36я73
Е66

Рекомендовано к изданию
Учебно-методическим советом АО «Казахстанско-
Британский технический университет»
(протокол № 4 от 22.10.2013)

Alexander N. Eremin
Е66 Smart Fields and wells: A textbook (in English)/ Alexander N. Eremin,
Anton N. Eremin, Nikolai A. Eremin. – Almaty: “Kazakh-British Technical
University” JSC, 2013. - 344 p.: ill.

ISBN 978-601-269-053-8

The textbook is dedicated to the issues of the innovative development of the


oil and gas fields: the smart oil and gas company, the smart oil and gas field,
the smart well. The examples of the implementation of the artificial intelligence
to the smart fields of the first and second generations are given. The design of
the smart production and the injection wells; the inflow and injectivity control
devices are described. The modern techniques of the control of the exploration,
the drilling, the development and the operation in real time are presented. The
main features of the revolution in science and technology in the development of
hydrocarbon resources of the World Oceans are given: the creation of underwater
fiber-optic grids for the collection and the transmission of the offshore field
metadata; the development of the second generation of the smart fields and wells,
the standardization of the metadata in the drilling, the oil and gas production,
the use of a new generation of the high-performance computing systems and the
database management of the geological and field metadata.
For the students, the undergraduates and the doctorates of the engineering-
technical specialties of the discipline "Oil and Gas Business", for the
engineering and technical workers of the oil and gas industry.
Reviewers:

Doctor of Sciences, Professor of Kazakh –British Technical


University (KBTU) JSC Davlet Mukhamedzhanovich Sheikh-Ali
(Tynyshpayev)
PhD, Professor, chief of the chair “Exploitation and
Maintenance of oil and gas fields”, KazNTU named after
K.I.Satpayev, Talgat Albayevitch Ensenbayev

This publication is the property of "Kazakh-British Technical


University "JSC and its reproduction (play) by any means are prohibited
without the consent of the University.

5
УДК 622.1/.2 (075.8)
ББК 33.36я73

ISBN 978-601-269-053-8 © Ерѐмин Ал.Н., Ерѐмин Ан.Н.,


Ерѐмин Н.А., 2013
© АО «Казахстанско-Британский
технический университет», 2013 ©
Аязбаева Зарина, оформление и
дизайн учебного пособия, 2013

6
УДК 622.1/.2 (075.8)
ББК 33.36я73
Е66

Ерѐмин Ал. Н.
Е66 Умные месторождения и скважины: Учеб.
пособие (на английском языке)/ Ал. Н.
Ерѐмин, Ан. Н. Ерѐмин, Н. А. Ерѐмин – Алматы: АО
«Казахстанско-Британский технический
университет». – 344 с.: ил.

ISBN 978-601-269-053-8

Данное учебное пособие посвящено


вопросам современной разработки нефтяных и
газовых месторождений: умная нефтегазовая
компания, умное нефтегазовое месторождение,
умная скважина. Рассмотрены примеры
реализации элементов систем искусственного
интеллекта на умных месторождениях первого
и второго поколений. Описаны конструкции
умных добывающих и нагнетательных скважин,
устройств контроля притока и приемистости.
Описаны современные методы управления
процессами поиска, разведки, бурения,
разработки и эксплуатации в режиме
реального времени. Приведены основные
особенности революции в науке и технике при
освоении углеводородных богатств Мирового
океана: создание подводных оптоволоконных
решеток для сбора и передачи метаданных с
морских промыслов; разработка второго
поколения «умных» скважин и месторождений;
стандартизация данных в бурении, добыча
углеводородов; использование новой
генерации высокопроизводительных
вычислительных комплексов и систем
управления базами геолого-промысловых
метаданных.
Для студентов, магистрантов и докторантов
инженерно-технических специальностей
дисциплины «Нефтегазовое дело», для
инженерно-технических работников нефтяной и
газовой промышленности.

7
Рецензенты:
доктор техн. наук, профессор АО
«Казахстанско-Британский технический
университет» Давлет Мухамеджанович
Шейх-Али (Тынышпаев)
профессор, заведующий кафедрой
«Эксплуатация и обслуживание
месторождений нефти и газа», КазНТУ
им. К.И. Сатпаева, Талгат Аблаевич
Енсепбаев

Данное издание является собственностью АО


«Казахстанско-Британский технический
университет» и его репродуцирование
(воспроизведение) любыми способами без
согласия университета запрещается.

УДК 622.1/.2 (075.8)


ББК 33.36я73

ISBN 978-601-269-053-8 © Ерѐмин Ал.Н., Ерѐмин Ан.Н.,


Ерѐмин Н.А., 2013
© АО «Казахстанско-Британский
технический университет», 2013 ©
Аязбаева Зарина, оформление и
дизайн учебного пособия, 2013

8
Introduction

The textbook “Smart Fields and Wells” is based on the courses of lectures
given to the students:
 Kazakh-British Technical University (KBTU) JSC – “Production
Technology” (2011-13 yy.) and “Offshore Field Development” (2013 y.);
 Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas – “The Management of
the Development of Smart Fields” (2010 – 13 yy.)
 Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT, Russian State
University) – ”The Technologies of the Management in Real Time” (2012-3
yy.)
The textbook is directed towards BSc, MSc and PhD students specializing in
the application of the technologies of the management of the development of oil
and gas fields in real-time. The objective of the textbook is to give a basic
understanding and knowledge of the innovative technologies of the offshore oil and
gas fields, smart fields and wells of the first and second generations. The
textbook gives the students the insights into the fundamentals of the developing
offshore and onshore smart oil fields and wells of the first and second
generations and acquaints them with the scope of work associated with the
operations of the smart oil and gas wells in real time. The contents of the
textbook include the conceptual design, specifics of the exploration, the
reservoir and production engineering for the offshore field development, platforms
and subsea solution concepts, offshore pipelines and subsea processing facilities,
the petroleum legislation, the project economics, the risk and decision making.
The textbook gives the students a thorough understanding of the scope of work
associated with the development of offshore oil and gas field.
Key objectives of this textbook are:

 Give the student a broad overview of the scope of work associated


with the development of smart oil and gas field and wells

 Give the students specifics of exploration, drilling, reservoir and


production engineering of smart fields in real time

9
 Acquaint the students with the types of the first generation of smart
fields and wells (2002 - 2012 yy.), including the integrated development
systems, the processing facilities, and the infield gathering and
transportation of hydrocarbons

 Acquaint the students with the basics of petroleum environmental


system in real time

 Give the students an extended overview on the project design of smart


fields, stages in decision making associated with the project design, the
computer simulation and the project execution in real time

 Enable the students to estimate the necessary measures for the


implementation of the information and communication technologies in new and
old fields

 Give the students the understanding of the control centers of


exploration, drilling, development, operation of oil and gas fields in real
time.

The following topics are discussed:

 Smart industrial complex and Smart oil company in chapter 1;

 Conceptual and system design of the smart oil and gas fields in
chapter 2;

 Smart Field Automation basics, ICT: measurement, sensor, and fiber


optic sensors in chapter 3;

 Specifics of the integrated reservoir modeling and the simulation of


the smart oil and gas fields in chapter 4;

 Petroleum Exploration in Real Time in chapter 5;

 Drilling in real time in chapter 6;

 Basics of Smart production and injection wells in chapter 7;

 Smart Field Development in chapter 8;

 Reservoir and Well Robotics in chapter 9;

10
 Smart and Integrated Operations, Smart Well management and operations
in chapter 10;

 Smart Oil and Gas Treatment in chapter 11;

 Smart Oil and Gas Infield Transport in chapter 12;

 Ecomonitoring in Real Time in chapter 13;

 Smart Asset Operations, Risk assessment and decision analysis in


chapter 14;

 POSC’ standards for oil and gas data - WITSML, PRODML, RESQML in
chapter 15;

 Big Data problem in smart fields of first and second generations,


High Performance computer in Real Time, 3D Real – time performance manager,
Database Management System in Real Time in chapter 16.

Examples of ongoing smart field projects and wells deployed in different


geographical areas, technology challenges and future opportunities are discussed
in the textbook.
The authors are grateful to the students of Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas and Moscow
Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) who prepared
the course papers on the lectures in the years 2010-3. The materials of those term
papers enriched the content of a number of the chapters in the textbook.
We wish to thank the management and the Faculty of Energy and the oil and gas
industry of KBTU – Z.A. Bekmuhametova, B.S. Arymbekov, S.Z. Kabdulov, S.S. Usupov;
the faculty of exploitation and development of oil and gas fields of Gubkin
Russian State University of Oil and Gas –I.T. Mishchenko, A.B. Zolotukhin, L.N.
Nazarova, M. A. Mokhov, Yu.A. Sazonov, the Department of Radio Engineering and
Cybernetics of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT, Russian State
University) – S.N. Garichev, V.A. Astapenko, N.N. Shchelkunov, A.M. Markeev, S.N.
Kolonkov who showed an interest and encouraged the implementation of this
textbook, as well as peer reviewers - professors D.M. Sheikh Ali, (Tynyshpayev)
and T.A. Ensepbaev.

11
The authors express their deep gratitude to the OGRI RAS Academician A.
Dmitrievsky for the choice of the directions and the support in the research
studies in the field of oil and gas smart technologies that are included in the
part of the materials in this textbook.
Special thanks to L.M. Voevodina for her help in translating and editing of
the textbook in English.

12
Chapter 1. Smart oil & gas company

Abstract

Modern oil and gas company must represent a system of production,


preparation, processing and meeting the market demand for oil, gas and petroleum
products in real time. The tasks of such a "smart" oil and gas company are: the
integration of technological and information cycles, lower operating costs and
capital costs due to the real time operations, further enhancing of the operating
efficiency in order to achieve the recovery rates by the end of the period of the
development of oil fields and gas recovery in gas fields. In the oil companies
with a well-implemented technology the "smart fields" of the business processes
will be carried out in coordination with different functional areas and even
possibly with different territorial areas, which will enable the management to
compare them. In this case, the organization may be represented as a General
service center.

Keywords: Real time mode, Concept of "sustainable development";vertically

integrated companies; real-time management; smart oil and gas company; digital oil
and gas company (DOGC); "Complex" fields; transputer technology; synergy of ocean
and space development; parallel neurocomputers; HPC technologies; “sustainable
development” concept, Real Time Centers.

Main chapter themes

Basic concepts. The main problems of oil and gas industry. The main
direction of the oil and gas industry development in the near future. Smart Oil
and Gas Company. The modern revolution in science and technology in the
development of the World Ocean resources. A comparative analysis of the
revolutions in science and technology in Space Exploration (1950s) and the
development of hydrocarbon resources of the World Ocean (2010s). Oil and gas
company in real time. Evolution of oil and gas company. Synergy of oil and gas
company management in real time. Factors determining the choice of control
13
technology in real-time. Hierarchical levels of oil and gas company management.
Advantages and disadvantages of control centers and oil and gas companies in real
time. Integrated approach to the management of the operations in the oil and gas
company. The main goals and objectives. The main feature of the integrated oil and
gas company. The main objectives of the "smart oil and gas company" controlled in
real time. Levels of management of smart oil and gas company. The main objectives
of the ideal information and communication systems of oil and gas company. Goals
and objectives of the remote control and optimization of production shown by the
example of Shell.
Introduction

Oil and gas companies seek to improve the management of the development of
their reserves in order to maximize the return to meet all the growing needs
including those in real-time. Oil and gas industry must improve not only
technological, but production and information and communication processes as well
to meet the long-term growth in demand for energy resources. Oil and gas companies
are trying to follow the concept of the "sustainable development." From the
economic point of view, the concept of sustainable development is based on the
understanding that in the current economic system the income actually received
today is not really an income, if the same one cannot be obtained tomorrow in the
same economic system. The optimal use of the limited natural resources is based on
it. In this case the innovative development is an integral and essential part of
the sustainable development. A modern oil and gas company must represent a system
of production, preparation, processing and meeting the market demand for oil, gas
and petroleum products in real time. The tasks of such a "smart" oil and gas
company are: the integration of technological and information cycles, lower
operating costs and capital costs due to the operations in real time, further
enhancing of the operating efficiency in order to achieve the recovery rates by
the end of the period of the development of oil fields and gas recovery in gas
fields.
Oil and gas companies, in which the management is performed in real time,
follow the way of the evolution of management, vertical integration and

14
optimization of all the processes. This requires a powerful information and
communication system.
The general direction of innovative oil and gas development in the near
future is the transformation of the oil and gas complex into a new mode of control
in real time: the collection of geological field data sensors across the entire
technological chain of oil and gas production and processing facilities, the
creation of a management system of the meta volumes database in real time; the
development of highly efficient computing systems (supercomputers) able to load,
unload and process the meta volume data in real time. In the first sub section
we’ll consider the trend of the development tendency of the mining and processing
industry and the fact that in the near future the oilfields possessing a number of
specific features are going to be developed have.

1.1. Smart Industrial Complex

Trends in the development of the producing and processing industry indicate


that in the near future mainly "hard" and remote territories will be developed,
and as well mineral deposits which have a number of problematic physic -
geographic, climatic and natural conditions, and other important features
including the remoteness of the territory and difficult natural conditions,
complex geological and geophysical conditions, shortage of energy and man
resources, lack of human resources and qualified staff, complex and insufficiently
developed transport infrastructure, increased danger and other conditions unable
to control the real time system directly. To achieve the economic efficiency of
the development of such facilities there is a serious need for fully-automated,
maximum «deserted» industries with the elements of "artificial intelligence" -
"smart" industrial complexes (SIC). This requires the creation of computer models
of complicated industrial complexes, intellectual control systems of
technological, power and transportation manufacturing processes using embedded
systems, SCADA, MES technologies and their integration in the unified
technological platform for applying in CAD/CAE and PLM systems. The concept for
creating a multi-level control system for the mining and metallurgical industrial
complex, which analyzes three control levels: the 1st level – is the use of

15
program–controlled microsystems, microcontrollers and programmable logical
controllers (PLC, «on-a chip», etc) for the ongoing monitoring and control of the
equipment, machines and mechanisms in the main technological processes; the 2nd
level – is the use of intellectual integrated systems for technological process
control SCADA and MES systems for the main simple-function productions (mine,
process plant, hydrometallurgy, energy, transport and warehousing). The 3rd level
is the use of the EPR integrated intellectual information systems for strategic
and operating control of manufacturing complexes as a whole.

1.2. Smart Oil Company

Oil industry is undergoing significant changes. The main current problems


facing these enterprises in the industry are: the increasing demand for energy.
The increase in the population of the Earth, the growth of the world economy (per
person) and the demand for transportation and movement, cause an increase in
energy demand. The increased demand requires oil companies to increase production
both in the existing and in the new “complex” oil and gas fields.
Operation of "complex" fields. Oil companies claim that the easily accessible
oil reserves in the world are almost gone. Most of the large oil fields are in
operation since the 1960-70 years, so that their working capacity in the past
twenty years has decreased significantly. As the "easy" oil and gas reserves are
becoming more and more scarce, the oil companies feel the need to develop
unconventional resources in the more complex operating environments. The
unconventional resources include heavy oil, oil and gas in ultra-deep water, tar
sands and shale hydrocarbons. - "Replacing the team”. The labor force in the oil
industry is decreasing, both in terms of numbers and in terms of knowledge and
experience. In western sources this phenomenon is often referred to as «The Big
crew change» - team replacement. The industry is facing difficulties in attracting
talented young professionals. In this case a large number of experienced
professionals are leaving the oil and gas industry, and the number of the coming
graduates are reduced, which results in a large gap in the transmission of
experience. This gap is partly due to large-scale layoffs, which the oil companies
was conducted in 1980.

16
In the traditional centers of oil and gas production (Russia, USA, Canada,
UK, Norway) there is developing a serious demographic situation as in the next 10-
15 years the generation of highly qualified specialists and scientists retire,
without a new generation replacement. At the same time, there are regions (China,
India), where oil and gas production is inconsiderable, but the release of young
professionals is increasing rapidly. The main problem for the oil and gas
companies in the coming years will continue to be a strong need for highly
qualified personnel.
Because of the low price of oil and gas during the crisis of 2008-2010
years, many leading companies have drastically reduced staff and the costs of
research. Currently, there is a tendency to strengthen the national companies and
to weaken the role of international companies, which in the future will be
available for only costly hydrocarbon reserves, the development of which will be
associated with high capital and operating costs, including the costs of
environmental protection.
The international service companies are beginning to wage a serious struggle
for the possession of the staff, who owns the key technical skills and knowledge.
The information technologies, telecommunications infrastructure will play an
important role in providing the instruments for cooperation and communication, so
necessary for the introduction of the digital technology.
DOGC minimizes the problems associated with the location of hydrocarbon
deposits, distance and time. The problems facing the staff in the remote areas can
be resolved by the experts in the headquarters, which are located many thousands
of miles away from the place where the problems arose. Quick access to the
information allows the company to take highly technical solutions on time and
accurately. In DOGC the interaction between different segments of the company's
management who are responsible for the rise in the value of its assets is
improving and the contacts with government agencies, universities and research
institutes are intensifying.
Control limits extend from the regional office (or an offshore platform or
drilling) to the sensors located on the underground or surface equipment, and to
the mobile workers, equipped with modern technology and communications. The web of
fiber-optic and satellite communications links the staff, the field data and

17
processes into a single system worldwide. Oil and gas companies, in which the
control is carried out in real time, follow the path of the evolution of
management, vertical integration and optimization of all the processes. This
requires a strong information and communication system (ICS).
The tasks of the ideal information and communication system are: to handle
database of 4D seismic of up to petabytes in monitoring the development process;
to make it easier for each specialist to store, organize, access, and analyze much
of the data in real time; to be completely automatic at the instrumental level
(sensors, transmitters, to be auto installed, auto monitored. To create the new
and expand the old data warehouse with complex applications quickly and
inexpensively; to store and to manipulate not only the data, but the logic of
decision-making; to visualize the processes in real time.
The main components of the information space are: access to the information
that involves an instant access to the relevant information in the right place and
at the right time. It contributes to the solution of the actual management tasks,
namely, locating the problem area, the locations of core resources; the creation
of a team of specialists will enable to overcome the bureaucratic barriers in the
organization of the company:
Co-ordination of efforts. The teams must have the necessary tools and
technologies that can support the effective coordination of the oil and gas
company;
The access to telecommunication resources. The teams must have the
telecommunication resources for the interaction and data exchange;
Motivational factors. The current state of the oil and gas industry is based
on rich developments and technologies of the past years. The real time access and
exchange in the database of technical knowledge and technologies will contribute
to the further development of science and technology of oil and gas;
The heterogeneity of the application the simultaneous access of many
specialists to the same data will generate a lot of diverse and effective
solutions to the new technical issues or problems; the transformation and
professionalism. The asset value at the company is based on the team's ability to
interpret the information correctly to model, and to evaluate the environmental
impact and the financial position of the company.

18
It’s necessary to evaluate correctly the scale of the transformation to the
digital technology with requires to study the following: the geography and
location of the main HC recovery regions and the way they can be integrated; the
organizational interface; the organizational processes; the information and data;
the technical culture and what new technical facilities and technologies are
required to the introduced into production and what must be done to create the
atmosphere of confidence and cooperation.
Unifying the communication media (audio and video, mobile, and video
communications, computers, etc.) requires an intellectual communication system
that will maintain and improve the management of the company worldwide. The
intellectual communication provides an opportunity for close interaction between
the experts and improves the exchange of views in real time.
Requires the development of systems to prevent technological accidents on
offshore platforms, well pads, gathering systems and training products,
development of remote monitoring and control fields in real time.

1.2 Synergetic of ocean and space development

The modern scientific and technological revolution (STR or Hi-Tech) is in


the development of hydrocarbon resources of the oceans. According to the scale and
significance of it is comparable to the STR during space exploration in the late
1950s. Tab. 1.1 shows the synergy of the development of the resources of the World
Ocean and the conquest of space (according to [1] and the EC ESA workshop on
innovation and technology within space exploration, 2010). NTR's of the 2010’s
will determine the long-term trend of the oil and gas development and ensure the
transmission of the oil and gas industry to a new level of technology. The most
successful, innovative solutions in the field of marine technology and engineering
of hydrocarbon production are widely implemented on the continental deposits of
oil and gas. The compilation of the latest scientific and technical achievements
in the field of offshore oil and gas recovery allows to formulate the general

19
direction of the innovative development of the oil and gas industry for the
nearest perspective, namely to transfer it into the management mode in real time.
In OGRI RAS under the leadership of academician Dmitrievsky A. N. is
developing the technology platform "Resource and innovative model of oil and gas
field in real time" within which a systematic approach to the introduction of
domestic and foreign high technologies in the oil and gas industry. The
technological Platform "Resource and innovative model of oil and gas fields of the
real-time" is created in accordance with the decision of the Government Commission
on High Technology and Innovation dated August 3, 2010 The implementation of this
technological platform will create the necessary scientific and technical basis
for the modernization of the oil and gas sector of the economy and the progress in
all areas of production and processing of oil and gas.
Russia is the second country in the world after the United States, with its
own strategic ruler in the area of the integrated control systems in the real time
oil and gas complex. The components of the strategic lines are: "smart" fields and
wells, a private group of GLONASS satellites, fiber optic technologies for the
collection and transmission of information, high-effective computing systems,
unmanned management systems of complex objects (spaceships, "Buran", etc.). At the
first hierarchical level control of oil and gas fields in real time (RTD) there is
a system of sensors based on the optical technologies from the well bottom, gas
gathering and treatment interfiled transport. The second level analyzes geological
and field metadata; at the third level there is performed a performance
optimization in the field and at the fourth level (if necessary) there may taken a
decision concerning the transformation of the hydrocarbon production chain. There
are several varieties of modes of managing oil and gas processes in real time:
quarterly, monthly, daily, hourly, minute’s and even second. For example, the
processes of drilling and well operations are controlled in every moment, and / or
hourly mode.
Compared to conventional methods in the management of oil and gas fields in
real time there are dramatically reduced the overheads of resources, energy and
labor time. All the stages of the development of hydrocarbons field (exploration,
prospecting, drilling, development, and operation) are becoming more energy
efficient and resource-saving. In particular, at the drilling stage there is

20
achieved economy of capital investments of about 5 -15% and operational cost -
from 5 to 10%. For example, in the SPD fields (company Salym "Petroleum
Development"), the average time of sinking wells to the depth of 2500 m is 8 days,
which is significantly less than the average time of making holes with the same
depth in the fields of Western Siberia is 20 days. By the 2012 year the number of
the “smart” wells of the first generation exceeds 200. The leadership in owning
of the “smart” oilfields among oil and gas companies belongs to such huge
companies as BP, Exxon/Mobil, Chevron, Shell, SaudiAramco, Statoil and Petrobras.
BP has announced the launch of two "smart" field of the second generation in the
North Sea: Valhall and Skarv. The main difference of the second generation of
"smart" fields from the first one is the implementation of a remote field
development control of the offshore centers and the use of fiber-optic channels
connecting the marine and coastal infrastructures. If in the Valhall field the
amount of the remote-controlled operations is 40, then in the Skarv field it
reaches 46.
In the optic fiber the scattering can take place either on the material
heterogeneities (Rayleigh scattering) or on the acoustic waves (scattering
Mandelshtamma - Brillouin otherwise - Brillouin scattering) or molecular
vibrations (Raman, otherwise - Raman scattering). The very fiber optic cable
throughout is a continuous distributed sensor that can replace thousands of point
sensors. In two of three fields of the second generation of the North Sea it is
planned to establish the bottom fiber-optic arrays with the multiple fiber optic
connections to the land fiber-optic lines. In the arrays the optical fiber cable
gratings itself is a distributed sensor type, in which each part, such as in
length of 50 cm, is a fiber optic sensor. The length of the optical fiber lines in
each of the arrays will be from 2000 to 4000 km, so that the number of fiber optic
sensors will reach 48 million. The total demand for the fiber optic cable for the
infield grids of the monitoring system of the development processes in real time
will reach 10-15% of world production. For the "smart" fields of the third
generation the 1.52-fold the pack of the fiber antenna systems should be forecast.
Till the year 2010, space information transfer systems were used to transfer
geologic field data from offshore fields to the field development control. Since
the year 2010, more often they began to build fiber-optic data transmission

21
systems because of the growth of the data obtained in the exploration and
development. The data rate for "smart" field of the first generation usually
amounted to 10 Gbit/s. The construction of the bottom antenna complexes will lead
to an even greater amount of the prospecting data in the fields of the second
generation - petabytes of the information generated at even shorter intervals.
Their transmission is the so-called problem of BigData - «big data." To transfer
an extremely large data volume the systems require the use of a higher data rate
of 40 and possibly 100 Gbit/s. The unmanned underwater and surface hydrocarbon
complexes can be widely used in the oil and gas provinces in the Arctic, Eastern
Siberia and the Far East, where there is no infrastructure.
The most popular systems for the unmanned production of hydrocarbons may be
the second and third generation of "smart" fields. This will reduce the risks of
human factors and improve the environmental safety. We refer to the "smart" fields
in such projects as the Sahalin II and Salym group of fields. The "smart well" is
the development of the technology that allows monitoring and control of the well
and its status in real time through the use of the distributed sensors and at the
mouth of the well, the bottom, the casing and the tubing (see Fig. 1, 2) fig.
The number of the distributed fiber-optic sensors in the "smart" wells of
the second generation grows up to 2,050,000 as compared with 410 sensing units in
the "smart" wells of the first generation. The most popular may be the pipe
visualizer: casing, tubing and inter-field ones. In its introduction in the fields
it will be able to monitor the status of the mechanical and physical
characteristics of the pipe at each point throughout the life cycle of the field,
in particular it will be possible to control the process of cementing in real
time. As you know, in Russia 60-70% of the completed wells has problems with
annulus cementing. Color indicates the technologies developed by the IPNG Academy
of Sciences, where 1G i-fields - intelligent fields of the 1st generation, 2G i-
fields are the fields of the second generation and 3G i-fields are the third
generation. The international oil and gas companies spend annually $ 100 billion
only to create systems of oil and gas development in the real-time. The costs of
Russian companies in the oil and gas science are generally of two orders.
There is required a state program the annual amount of at least $ 10 billion
to support the efforts of "Rosneft", "Gazprom" and other Russian companies to

22
build "smart" fields and the wells of a new generation operating in real-time (on-
line). According to the RBC daily in the article "Too much oil" dated October 15,
2012, "thanks to the boom in production of hydrocarbons" in the U.S. "because of
the development of the technology," six U.S. companies, including Shell and BP,
for the first time in decades are ready to export large volumes of oil from the
U.S.
Out of the 200 "smart" fields of the first generation the share of Shell and
BP is respectively 10 and 20 fields. According to independent organizations, the
introduction of "smart" technologies of the first and second generations will
increase the world's total ultimate recovery from 30 to 50%.
As to the oil company SaudiAramco, the introduction of formation nano-robots
and bio-nanorobots in the oil fields, which are at the late development stages,
will increase the ultimate recovery to 60-70%.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) routinely operates the robotic
spacecraft millions of miles from the Earth. The robotics capabilities developed
at the JPL have been applied to the Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, Deep
Space 1, EOS1 and other space flights and are used on many JPL research projects
conducted for NASA, the US Department of Defense and private industry. Although
developed for space applications, these technologies are also highly relevant to
the problems in oil and gas exploration and production. The benefits from the
introduction of these technologies include a greater precision, an increased
reliability, a reduced uncertainty, an increased productivity, a reduced cost, and
the accelerated development and the task completion schedules. The instruments and
the Earth-orbiting satellites developed at the JPL are used to study the geology,
hydrology, ecology, oceanography, gravitation and the climate of the Earth. There
are a number of similarities between the space applications and the applications
in the oil & gas industry (Oxnevad, 2010). In both cases, the systems are deployed
at remote locations with limited access for intervention, maintenance or repair.
The operational environments are often hostile with harsh temperatures and
pressures and corrosive materials. The reliability of the systems is extremely
important in space and in the oil and gas industry. The failures can be
catastrophic both in, financial and in public perception, and can reduce the
support of the programs.

23
1.3. The history of the development of managing a smart oil company in real time

The scientists and the engineers in the BP (UK) have developed a new system
of managing the development of oil and gas "field of the future." This system
integrates the existing and the future development technologies with established
data management system from wells, reservoirs and oil and gas processing
facilities received in real time at the control center, which can provide a 10-
fold increase in productivity of seismic interpreters, reducing the time to
determine the location of the wells. The petroleum engineers have the ability to
communicate with the control center from anywhere in the world using a laptop, i-
phone, i-pad, to review the information and to make decisions on the drilling
optimization aimed at a 25% reduction of non-productive drilling time; a complete
return of the investments in a short time, a 20% increase of the quality of
drilling, a 50% reduction of time spent on drilling and pumping. When using this
system the management decisions are made more quickly and accurately due to the
simultaneous access to the new information of each team member engaged in the
development management. If it took the skilled professionals days to make such a
decision, it takes only hours with introduction of a new system. The main goal of
BP is to support the production growth by introducing the right technologies (e-
technology or exact-technologies).The main tasks are:
 The current one is to reduce the transaction and capital costs;
 The one is the recovery of residual oil in the amount of 76 million tons,
 The final task is to achieve the recovery factor through the introduction
of the innovative technologies in real-time.
The integrated team, or, as they call it, "synergy group", is designed to solve
difficult, complex tasks of the development hydrocarbon deposits more efficiently
and cost-effectively. The main advantages of the work are a significant reduction
of the meetings on coordination and clarifying various related aspects, and thus
un increase of the time devoted to the project itself, the delegation of financial
responsibility to lower levels of decision-making, the improvement of the
consistency of the objectives and the results between the managers and the
professionals. An integrated team of specialists amounts from 10 to 30 people who

24
represent from 10 to 15 specialties. The use of such groups reduces the cost of
designing 2-fold and dramatically reduces the time of 1.5-2 fold. The number of
the staff involved in the design process is reduced by more than a factor of 2-3.
The beginning of the period of an integrated approach should be attributed to
the mid-80s of the 20th century. By that time there were created dozens of
supercomputers and nearly 70% of their computing time was purchased by the oil
corporations. The integrated forecasting allows a more efficient use of the
resources of the oil company. The development engineer of the Company may receive
the computer files of the 3M geological and mathematical models of deposits in a
matter of minutes from the branch of the company, which can be located on a
different continent. After that, via the Internet he can contact via the Internet
the colleagues from the branch company and discuss the results.
Oil and gas companies, in which the management is performed in real-time,
follow the way of the evolution of management, vertical integration and
optimization of all the processes. This requires a powerful information and
communication system. As compared with the situation in the year 2002 by the year
2012, the number of oil and gas companies controlled in real time significantly
increased. The volume of the work performed, monitored in real time, has increased
significantly since the transition from the first generation of smart fields to
the second-generation smart fields in which data is transferred by a powerful
fiber-optic communication channels. The qualitative organization of the company's
information systems enables to provide a mutual organization between the
structural units, to ensure the standardization and the optimization of the data
exchange processes, their quality processing in real-time. The control limits
extend from the regional office (or an offshore platform or drilling) to the
sensors placed on the underground or surface equipment and the mobile worker,
equipped with modern technology and communication. The web of the fiber-optic and
satellite communication links the staff, the field data and the processes into a
single system worldwide.
The general direction of the innovative oil and gas development in the near
future is a transmission of a new oil and gas operating mode in real time (RT):
 collecting geological and field data of the sensors throughout the
technological process of production and gas processing facilities;

25
 the creation of database management system for big volumes of the data in
real time;
 the development of high-performance computing systems (supercomputers)
which are able to load upload and manage great volumes of data in real
time.
The management structure of the DOGC is represented by 4 levels.
Level 1 (low) –the instrumental, is: the data acquisition in real-time to
improve the daily management; the installation of remote sensors on the
underground and surface equipment for data collection in real-time.
Level 2 - the informative, is the automatic verification of the data and
their analysis; the installation of the appropriate software for data management
and visualization; the transition from "data" to the information.
Level 3 –the operating presents: the integration and optimization of
production processes; the automatic forecasting of emergency situations; the
integrated control of the processes taking place underground and on the surface.
Level 4 –the managing consists of the transformation of operational
processes; the innovative technologies, the new production processes and the
virtual teams.
One of the main assets of the digital oil and gas company is to own a
vertically-integrated hardware system that works in real time. It should be noted
that in the world the vertically integrated companies dominate, since the very
vertical integration, including those based on a system of financial participation
and joint ownership, has acquired a multistage character, adequate to the
conditions of the modern market economy. The vertical integration of a large
industrial (industrial-commercial-financial) companies means the financial and
economic integration of different technology related industries. In the oil
industry this integration comprises the companies that make up the main sequence
stage process, namely, exploration and production of oil – transportation,
processing, petrochemicals, sale of petroleum products and petrochemicals. The
integration allows the users to secure economic ties and to strengthen to
incentives for the most efficient outcome, to concentrate resources in the most
effective areas of technical policy, to use the most efficient settlement system,

26
including the use of the settlement prices, to increase the competitiveness of the
Russian producers on foreign markets.

1.4 An integrated approaches to the management of the operations in a smart oil


company

The main essence of the integrated approach is accelerating the simulation


by network. There are expanding opportunities for the personal interaction. The
computer technology is based on the latest developments in such areas as
computers, local area networks, wide database and 3D visualization in real time.
An integrated approach to the development of hydrocarbons includes: the
multivariate modeling; morphological modeling objects; the automation and
simplification of the geological modeling; the high-performance computing (high-
performance computing systems); the optimized selection of a rational option. The
application of an integrated approach results in the 80% reduction in time costs
and up to 10% of capital costs for the field development. The centers of decision-
making in real time for drilling, development and exploitation are, as a rule,
located in the main offices of the companies.
The introduction of the operating Center in real-time results in the reduced
time of 50% spent on the decisions. This increases the quality of the made
decisions. The main objectives of the operating center are: the production
monitoring in real time; the integrated interaction during the construction
activities; the adaptation of the history of the development; the optimized
operating control system operation. The bulk of the information about the oil
reservoirs comes from seismology, geophysics, geology and development. The data
processing, the interpretation of the results, the process modeling, the storage
of the data mass frequently updated need high-performance computer systems that
can load, unload and handle huge geological and field data in real-time.
The use of technologically advanced stimulation methods, the horizontal
technology, and the development of complex oil and gas reservoirs required of a
great deal of additional information about the reservoir. The computers have

27
greatly expanded the possibility of the thorough, detailed reservoir simulation in
its development of its natural regime, flooding, and the use of different CF. The
transputer technology is used in a family of parallel computers, and is
characterized by: a shared memory, a distributed memory and a very long
instruction word. The parallel computers with a shared memory allow each processor
to connect with its memory. It requires a very expensive technology of the fast
memory access. There were created cheaper computers with the distributed memory
architecture (ring, tree, and supercube). The most popular architectural diagram
is Hypercubic for data transfer and synchronization. In this case, each processor
performs various system operations with different data. The philosophy of using
local parallelism inherent in the user’s program was founded in the computers
with a very long instruction word. This achieves a significant increase in the
rate calculation. The key issues of the disparallelization are the data
structuring, the transfer data between processors, and the development of the
solutions of linear equations. The unsolved issues are the creation of unified
software which will is suitable for all types of parallel computers with different
amount of processors, the even parallelization of the computational processes, the
decomposition of the formation; the account of the special geological structure
(cracks, wedging, lenticular).
The development of the traditional technology is the creation of parallel
computers. The parallelization technique of the vector algorithmic account allows
a high counting rate. The traditional and parallel computers are helpless in
solving a number of problems, such an algorithm for which the solutions are very
difficult or impossible. This is the problem of creating, modeling,
identification, analysis of complex systems. The characteristic properties of
these problems are: the method of solution is known or has been tested on a number
of examples, there are many similar situations with the solutions found, and there
are more recent items in at least two sets. The solution of these problems is
realized by using the neuro-computers that do not use the algorithm but create
their own rules by training, analysing various design situations. This yields the
results essentially unattainable with the traditional algorithmic approach.
One of the features of the integrated approach is the mobility and
accessibility of the information. Within seconds the huge masses of information of

28
successively pass from the program blocks one scientific discipline to another.
The major oil companies integrate their computer units, scattered throughout the
world, in a network. Such networks can get information from any database, from any
specialist. These networks organize the conferences, subject training concerning
the keen issues of exploration, development of oil and gas fields as often as the
budget of the company allows. Maps, graphs, tables are sent to the specialists in
a short time by email. The computer networks form a kind of the informative world
and communication, called "cyberspace" (by B. Gibson). The computer networks allow
you to send and receive the information on the many hundreds of channels. Creating
the systems of decision-making enabled to reduce the design development from 3
months to 3 weeks and increase to 30-50% net present value. The cost of the system
of the decision-making system is about 1.5$ million.
Thanks to networks the databases stored in the head offices of the oil
companies, to became readily available to the integrated team of specialists
working out the workstations. The databases are created to store the GIS data,
maps, core analysis, seismic interpretation, lithological studies, 3D modeling,
system analysis, forecast development, drilling, daily, weekly and monthly reports
on drilling and production.

1.5 Smart Oil Companies on the example of BP, Shell, Saudi Aramco, Chevron

The remote control and production optimization used by the Shell Company.
With the development of technology, more and more fields are monitored in real
time remotely from the office. This is also applied to the wells and the
facilities. The company "Shell" is taking a number of remote controls at
facilities around the world. These means include: the continuous monitoring on
real-time and optimization of wells; the virtual dimension; the technical
supervision in the ESP - control in real-time and the remote control; the advanced
monitoring of the rotating equipment; the integrated production system modeling;
the collaborative environment to make common solutions.
Under the "smart fields" program the company "Shell" has introduced a number
means of continuous monitoring and production optimization. For the period 2002-
2009 this enabled the company "Shell" and its partners to make big profits

29
amounting to the U.S. $ 5 billion (Van den Berg, 2010). The implementation
includes both the modernization of the existing fields, and planned intelligence
in the design of new facilities (Potters, 2005) and (De Best, 2006). So that the
company could get all the necessary information at the proper time and in the
proper place it is required to provide the co-ordination of the structure and the
principles of the management of the information technologies with the tasks and
objectives of business departments.
Mentioning the organization and the management of the information systems,
of the company we mean the structure with determines the related authorities and
responsibilities of the managers in decision-making; provides a mutual
coordination between the structural units (separated geographically and/or in the
organization manner); provides the standardization and optimization of products,
processes and services in the company. Based on it, the managing structure of the
information technologies includes: organization structure; coordination
mechanisms; and the processes of decision-making with in the aggregate stimulate
the desired direction in the development and application of the information
technologies.
For the extraction and exploitation of the company "Shell", the smart field
includes a range of solutions that form the basis of the company's management in
real-time, continuous monitoring and optimization of wells in real time, data
collection and forecasting and optimization of production, based on modeling (Van
den Berg, 2007) and (Gerrard, 2010). It includes continuous monitoring and
optimization of wells in real time and virtual dimension, independently associated
with planning production rate of hydrocarbons and complex modeling of the
production system (IPSM). All the systems are integrated into the standard
architecture in the office and in the field of process control. The standard
architecture for data collection and management (DACA) provides security,
encrypted communication between your office and field.
Saudi Aramco (GigaPowers). A great number of seismic, geological and
engineering data are available for the large reservoirs of the Middle East. If the
high resolution of seismic data is used, these geological models could be in the
order of billions of cells. In practice, due to the limitations the of reservoir
simulators, these high resolution models are often upscaled to flow models of a

30
few million cells. The new parallel reservoir simulator, GigaPOWERS™ runs
geological models with or without minimal up scaling. The world’s largest oil
reservoirs with long production histories can now be simulated using over 1
billion cells in practical time spans. This technology provides highly detailed
pictures of the activity inside the reservoirs capturing the movement of fluids.
It is a very powerful tool for designing new production scenarios to recover every
last drop of oil using the most cost-effective means. The fine grid high
resolution models result in two major types of benefits: reduced or eliminated
upscaling, and higher numerical solution accuracy due to smaller grid size. The
advantage of the reduced rough eliminated up-scaling. The reservoir heterogeneity
in reservoir models is essential. If this is not accomplished and simulations are
built on averaged reservoir properties, the result produced by the simulator
reflects an averaged reservoir performance.
The fluid movement between the wells is largely misrepresented by the
upscale models. Although the measured properties, such as well pressures, water
cuts and gas-oil ratios (GORs), can be matched in the wells with the upscale
models, the distribution of oil and water within the reservoir (between the wells)
cannot be matched with upscale models unless the reservoir heterogeneity is
properly represented in the reservoir model. Figure1.3 shows that flow channels in
the geological model disappear in the upscaled model using a 0.25 km areal grid.
The upscale model cannot adequately simulate the fluid flow in channels
specifically, and throughout the reservoir in general. The geological model can be
simulated using as many cells as required to maintain the integrity of all the
data, the resulting reservoir model would adequately capture the fluid flow within
the reservoir for the more accurate reservoir management.
Vertical Resolution. A high resolution, fine grid models should have a
sufficient number of vertical layers to capture the vertical heterogeneity. The
log scale layering 2 in the order of one foot would capture all in the vertical
heterogeneity; and, this increases the computer time. The proper up scaling can be
applied to select the layers while still capturing vertical heterogeneity. This is
important in capturing the advancing water and gas fingers and the similar fluid
movement inside the reservoir. Figure 1.6 shows an actual field case where near
log scale vertical layering was selected.

31
GigaPOWERS3 has succeeded in simulating the world’s largest offshore oil
reservoir, Safaniya, in its full volume, with 1 billion and 8 million cells
incorporating 60 years of production. The areal grid size was 15 m in the oil-
water system reservoir in a run made on a cluster computer using 2,000 cores and
performed in only 15 hours.
The largest onshore oil reservoir, Ghawar, was also simulated as a full-
field model using 1 billion and 32 million active cells. This was a three-phase
black oil simulation run. Again, using 4,000 cores of a cluster computer, the
GigaPOWERS simulator completed the run in 21 hours incorporating 60 years of
production history involving many production and injection wells. The red color
represents oil, and the blue color represents water. Under the given production
scenario, the mega-cell simulator shows that the water will move much faster,
sweeping a larger area, leaving no oil behind. This example illustrates the clear
effect of numerical dispersion for the mega-cell simulation, which is unrealistic.
The giga-cell simulation shows less numerical dispersion. Based on the
results of the giga-cell simulation, additional oil pockets indicated by the
simulator should be produced by in-fill drilling or sidetracking the wells. Giga-
cell simulation presents opportunities to recover more hydrocarbons.

Conclusion

The chapter provided an overview of the changes needed in the establishment


of a "smart" company. It also shows the examples of technologies and processes
used by some "smart" companies. The introduction of such technologies is
impossible without integrating people, technology and business processes. The
application of “smart” and integrated technologies allows the specialists to
exchange the knowledge more effectively, which finds its reflection in the
productivity of the operations and makes it possible to take considered and
accurate decisions ensuring the largest profits. All of these tasks must be
performed in the most efficient management of the company, and it is in real time.
To provide the maximum oil and gas recovery of each well and the reservoir, the
production optimization is required. The optimization requires a careful analysis
in real-time a greater volume of the prospecting data, integrated with the data

32
from other fields, such as geology and physics. This, in turn, requires an
increase in the availability and the use of the real time data to improve the
production processes in the oil and gas, so the modern oil and gas company should
have effective mechanisms to manage all the processes in real-time, innovative,
super-powerful computer systems and tools.
Acknowledgements

The first chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin
"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as course papers students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: F.R Mavlyutdinov., O. Korzun and others.

References:

1. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой


интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ
нефти и газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.:
ил. ISBN 978-5-91961-019-9; Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н.,
Еремин А.Н. Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 2. Учеб.
пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и газа
имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-91961-
329-7.

33
2. Marat Yambaev (SPE), Kenny Forest (SPE), Malcolm Jones (SPE), David Brown
(SPE), Alexander Kovalevich (SPE), Sakhalin Energy Investment Company. "A
significant increase in the production of an effective monitoring of drilling
and development management deposits on the PA field of" Sakhalin Energy ".
Article. 2011
3. S.D. Shevchenko, D.V. Mironov, V.A. Manure, E.Y. Muslimov, R.L. Pchelnikov
(TNK-BP), D.E. Kondakov, A.V. Gladkov ("Center of modeling technologies").
"Samotlor: Production optimization in real time for the largest field in
Russia." Article. 2011
4. Franz van der Berg, SPE, Kit-Chun Guo, SPE, Edwin van Donkelaar and Robert
Parchevsky, SPE, the company "Shell". "Remote control and optimization of
production performed by" Shell ". Article. 2010
5. M.L. Drnec, SPE, and M.D. Andrea, Schlumberger. «Successful Implementation of
an Intranet Web-Based, Secure, Real-Time, Project-Knowledge Repository
System». 2012
6. Robert F. Heming, Chevron Petroleum Technology Company. «Integrated
management of offshore oil and gas fields in real time». 2010
7. J. K. Martinez, SPE, and M. R. Konopczynski, SPE, WellDynamics International
Ltd. «Integrated Reservoir Management in an Intelligent Well Environment».
2008
8. БушуевВ.В., БелогорьевА.М., АполонскийО.Ю.,
БорголоваЕ.А., ТиматковВ.В./ подред. В.В.
Бушуева. «Устойчивое развитие
нефтегазовых компаний: от теории к
практике»— М.: ИЦ «Энергия», 2012. — 88 с.
9. Dick Barden, Vertex petroleum Systems; Chuck Smith, EOG Resources; Stephen
Schubarth, Halliburton Energy Systems. «Coupling Reservoir Simulation
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10. http://www.otcnet.org OTC 22989 Space Robotics Technologies for Deep Well
OperationsHari Nayar, Khaled Ali, Andrew Aubrey, Tara Estlin, Jeffery Hall,
Issa Nesnas, Aaron Parness, Dean Wiberg, Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
California Institute of Technology

34
11. http://www.saudiaramco.com/content/dam/Publications/, Author: Dr. Ali H.
Dogru ; Spring 2011, Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology.

List of figures

1) Fig 1.1 The amount of data and the number of downhole sensors for each
generation of "smart" wells
2) Fig. 1.2 Digital Oil and Gas Company
3) Fig. 1.3 A coarse grid model with 6 million cells indicating a gas cap
breakthrough in a horizontal well after 2 years of production.
4) Fig.1.4 Fine grid model with 166 million cells showing no gas cap breakthrough
in the horizontal well after 2 years of production.
5) Fig. 1.5 The largest offshore oil reservoir in the world simulated in over 1
billion cells.

List of tables

1) Table 1.1 Synergy of the development of The World Ocean resources and The
Space exploration

List of abbreviations

SCADA - Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition; DOGC - Digital oil


company; ICS - Informative communicative system; STR - scientific and
technological revolution; BP – British Petroleum; CERA – Cambridge Energy Research
Associates; e-field – electronic field.

Questions from chapter 1.

1. What is a smart industrial complex?


2. What are the goals and objectives of pursuing the creation of the smart oil
and gas company?
3. What is the synergy of World Ocean and Space?

35
4. What are the different levels of the management hierarchy of the smart oil
and gas company in real time?
5. What is an integrated approach to the management of oil and gas company?

36
Figures and Table to chapter 1

Рис. 1.1. Объем данных и количество скважинных


датчиков для каждого из поколений “умных” скважин
Fig 1.1. The amount of data and the number of downhole sensors for each generation of "smart"
wells
Source: A.N. Dmitrievsky, academician RAS, N.A. Eremin (IPNG RAS); Resources and Innovation
Model and the Solution of Acute Oil and Gas Field Development Problems.

Рис. 1.2 Цифровая нефтегазовая компания

37
Fig. 1.2 Digital Oil Gas Company
Source: Nikolai A. Eremin (IPNG RAS); Еремин Н.А. Управление
разработкой интеллектуальных месторождений нефти
и газа. Кн. 1. М.: РГУ нефти и газа имени И.М. Губкина,
2011

Fig. 1.3 A coarse grid model with 6 million cells indicating a gas cap breakthrough at a
horizontal well after 2 years of production.
Рис.1.3 Грубая модель сетки с клетках указывает
прорыв газовой шапки на горизонтальной скважине
через 2 года производства.

Source: Dr. Ali H. Dogru ; Spring 2011, Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology.

38
Fig.1.4 Fine grid model with 166 million cells showing no gas cap breakthrough at
the horizontal well after 2 years of production.
Рис.1.4 Точная модель сетки с 166 миллионами клеток не
указывает прорыв газовой шапки на горизонтальной
скважине через 2 года производства.

Source: Dr. Ali H. Dogru ; Spring 2011, Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology

Fig. 1.5 Largest offshore oil reservoir in the world simulated in over 1 billion cells.
Рис.1.5 Моделирование крупнейшего оффшорного
месторождения в 1 миллиард клеток

Source: Dr. Ali H. Dogru ; Spring 2011, Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology

39
40
Таблица 1.1 Cинергия освоения богатств Мирового
океана и покорения космоса
Table 1.1 Synergy of development of The World Ocean resources and The Space exploration
Source: A.N. Dmitrievsky, academician RAS, N.A. Eremin (IPNG RAS); Resources and Innovation
Model and the Solution of Acute Oil and Gas Field Development Problems.

41
Chapter 2. Smart Fields

Abstract

A smart field is a system for controlling and management of oil and gas
operations in real time, providing the continuous optimization of the integrated
reservoir model and production management model to enhance oil and gas recovery
and to reduce capital operating costs. A smart field is an innovative technology
that allows us to transmit the information directly from the field to the advanced
collaboration centers in real time. This gives us the maximum measurement and
control to optimize the operation of all field facilities: wells, reservoirs,
pipelines and other surface facilities to receive the data to take decisions in
real time. The problem of the XXI century is the exploration and development of a
smart field in real time, the main advantages are: a rapid assessment of the
development scenarios and the production cases, the integration of the technology
cycles, the reduction of costs through the real-time operations, further enhancing
the performance of technological operations. By the year 2013 there are about 200
smart fields, including 13 in Russia; about 1000 smart wells in the world,
including 40 in Russia. During the 2002-2012 years there existed only the first
generation smart fields, but in by the end 2012 oil companies started building the
second generation of fields.

Key words: a smart field, the field of the future, the digital field, a smart
well, an intellectual well, an electronic field, a remote access, an integration,
an optimization, a model, a monitoring, an innovation, automation, an i-field, an
Аdvanced Collaboration Center, Сollaborative Workplace Environment, Аdvanced
Decision Environment, sensors, fiber optic systems, 3D visualization, the first
generation smart fields, the second generation smart fields, integrating
operations of the first and the second generations.

42
Main chapter topics

Definition and objectives of management processes exploration and development


of oil fields in real time. The concept of intelligent oil and gas fields. Goals
and Objectives of intelligent field. Definition of Intellectual field. Smart
Fields of the first and second generations - the characteristics, advantages and
disadvantages. The evolution of the first generation Smart Fields 2002-2012 yy. is
the creating history, the main tendencies and results. The main trends in the
development of the first generation of smart fields in the international oil and
gas companies (Shell's Smart Fields, electronic deposit (e-Field, BP), intelligent
field (i-field, Chevron), the future field (Field of the future, BP), a digital
oil field of the future (CERA), digital field (Marathon)). Optimization of
intelligent field and remote control in real time. The second generation of smart
oil and gas fields. The terminology of the various companies to identify i-field.
The main differences between smart fields of the first and second generations.
Necessary conditions for the existence of intelligent field and problems of the
implementation of smart (digital) fields. The concept of “the field of the
future”. Аdvanced Collaboration Centers.

Introduction

The main aim of the modern development of oil and gas companies is to increase
the value of assets of the company in real time based on the integration of all
its components into a whole one, that is the most characteristic feature of the
exploitation of hydrocarbons is computerization and a widespread use of the
information and communication technologies as well. This chapter gives the most
important information about smart fields, their definitions, objectives, history
of the creation, their classification and differences, working principles and
advantages being the company’s great asset.

One of the main objectives of the modern development is the creation of a


unified system of management of oil and gas companies and the decision-making in
real-time, the unification of collecting, preparing, processing and transmission
of the data on the basis of common standards, data formats and communication
43
protocols, the development control and management of manufacturing operations and
industrial complexes, modeling of technological processes of production,
preparation, transportation, processing and marketing of the products in a state
close to real time (by the year 2010 - quarterly, 2020 - monthly, 2030 - weekly
and 2040 - daily mode). The most important goals of the modern development also
include the reduction of the low and average -professional engineering staff and
the transition to a fully automated hydrocarbon production technology, the
transfer of the information about the state of the oil and gas company at the
stock exchanges in real time, and the increase of the ultimate oil recovery up to
50% and gas recovery up to 90% in the producing fields.

These results can be achieved only by using of the new technology, innovations
and the integration of the processes; it is the maximum measurement and control to
optimize the operation of all the field facilities in real time.

2.1 Smart Fields

A smart oil and gas field is a system for controlling and management of oil and
gas operations in real time, providing the continuous optimization of the
integrated reservoir model and the production management model to enhance oil and
gas recovery and to reduce the operating and capital costs. This is the maximum of
measurements and control, allowing to optimize the performance of all the field
facilities such as wells, reservoirs, pipelines and other surface facilities, as
well as to get the data to form a field model. The smart fields are also known as
Digital fields, Fields of the future, Intellectual fields, Electronic fields,
Integrated operations, Smart operations, etc.

Since the beginning of exploration for the hydrocarbon fields in the early
1860s, more than 50,000 oil and gas fields have been discovered. Studies show that
more than 90% of these oil and gas fields are insignificant and their impact on
world oil production is minimal. The greatest effect on the world economy may have
the introduction of the smart technologies in large and giant oil and gas fields.
44
In the year 2011 there were about 800 "smart wells" in the world, now there are
more than 1000 ones.

The «Deloittes» company, which advises oil and gas companies about the
implementation of electronic technologies in their operations, defines the Smart
Fields as follows: "This is nothing but the evolution and the integration of new
technologies of oil and gas drilling, as well as the exploration and the
production by electronic control combined with the standardized communication
technologies". According to «Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) » experts
the transition to the production technology in real time can reduce the
maintenance up to 7%. The widespread implementation of real-time recovery
processes could increase the global oil production to 18 million tonnes, or 125
million barrels by the year 2013.

The main objectives are the integration of technology and information cycles,
reducing of the operating costs by 5% and the capital costs by 10% due to the
operations in real time, further enhancing the performance of the technological
operations in order to achieve 50% recovery factor by the end of the period of the
development of oil fields and 80 - 90% gas recovery in gas fields. Shell, Saudi
Aramco, BP, Statoil, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Total which are the leaders of the
world oil market are introducing the digital technology into the processes of
drilling and oil production for a long time.

The innovative technologies of the new generation have their names in each
company: Shell calls it “Smart Field”; Chevron – “Intelligent field or i-
field”; BP - "The field of the future”; Petoro – “Smart Operations”; in
Statoil it is “Integrated Operations”; Halliburton identified as "Real Time
Operations”; “Smart wells” - Schlumberger; “ eDrift” (OD); in CERA “ Digital
oil field of the future”; “Intelligent Field Optimization and Remote Management
/ INFORM” (Cap Gemini); ADCO has its own terminology as “Integrated Asset
Operation Model (IAOM)”, etc.

Despite the difference in their names, the new control technologies are
essentially similar and identical in their goals and the solved problems in real
time: faster processing of the increasing of information volume, modeling of

45
multiple scenarios of production, maximization of the production and achieving
high rates of recovery of hydrocarbons, making the right decisions to optimize the
production. The concept of "Smart field" company Shell implies that all the wells
in the field, also including the injection wells, transmit the data of the
operation mode: the production rate or the amount of the injected liquid to be
processed within the model of the field in real time.

The concept of smart field includes: 4D seismic survey, the development of


software (Seismic data while drilling), smart wells, remote work, virtualization
technology (good example is the ChevronTexaco's Аdvanced Collaboration Center in
Houston, serving one field for 12 hours and another 12 hours more in real time),
forecasts models of the Earth's crust, the information and data node. The smart
fields are really important for savings and additional profits in hundreds of
millions of dollars for the international and national oil companies, thereby
reducing the costs of exploration; accelerating the start of production,
optimizing the production, improving the reservoir data, obtaining the most
efficient production and a long-term production.

There are several myths about a smart oil and gas field: the smart oil and gas
field is the processes or the automation of processes; it is IT, information
technology; the operators trust the models, which are built by a team of assets
management; the main capital-intensive projects are the development of new fields.

We should believe the general information about a smart field: at first, the
management of geological and field data is actually worse than we thought; the
power of the digital technologies is much broader than of those already in use;
the management abilities of the smart field is much more than just discharging the
staff; the digital technologies from the related industries are difficult to
implement in the fields of hydrocarbons and there exist many fairy tales about
smart field nowadays.

2.2 The first and the second generation Smart Fields

The smart Fields appeared at the beginning of the last decade, in the year
2002, for the purpose to monitor and control the devices on the wells. The first

46
decade of Smart Fields in Shell was focused on the new technologies, improving the
business cases as widely as possible. The Smart Fields value assessment shows
great contribution of smart fields to the development; especially it is reflected
at bottomhole. The beginning of the second decade was focused on the
implementation of new technologies into life and their firm security. To
understand the key drivers and pitfalls in global implementation of technologies,
a ‘Sustain’ methodology was developed which provided insight in where these
successes and improvement areas are. Based on the results from the ‘Sustain’
assessments, the approach and focus of the roadmap ‘from technology to
commodity’ was adjusted to deliver robust and sustainable deployment and
continued value creation of Smart Fields technologies.

The Smart Field” involves the systematic application and integration of


control engineering in real time and IT concepts to oil and gas field management.
By combining the data gathering, integrated modeling and elements control in the
so-called “value loops”, the optimization opportunities are created at every
stage of the resource lifecycle. Different data sources may be combined to reduce
the uncertainties in field models.

The first smart field is Iron Duck field, located in the South China Sea, was
explored by Shell in the year 2002. Champion West is another example of one of the
first "smart" fields, located in Brunei, South China Sea, 90 km away from the
coast of Brunei. The occurrence depth of the reservoir varies from 2,000 up to
4,000 m. It was discovered as early as 1975, but it was brought into the
development because of the lack of the effective processes of hydrocarbon
extraction. The productive complex is represented by a complex alternation of thin
layers, which are localized in more than 100 lenses with different types of
hydrocarbons: oil, gas, oil and gas. Currently, via the fiber optic system the
sensors from the horizontal wells deliver the digital information about the
temperature, the pressure and other reservoir conditions to the main control
center located on the shore. The center carries out a constant monitoring of
production and the petroleum engineers can quickly make decisions to maximize the
oil recovery and to control the processes of displacing oil from the reservoir. An
effective concept of this type of the reservoir development was drilling

47
technology of "snake" wells (the production rate reaches 2,000 m3 per day), which
meanders in the horizontal and vertical directions passing through dozens of small
hydrocarbon accumulations. Such "snake" wells allow opening up to four separate
lenticular oil fringes. In the field an uninhabited offshore platform and dozens
of "snake" wells with smart completions of up to 8 km along the wellbore and 4 km
of them along the course of trend.

Champion West field was really successful and yielded up to 9 tons per day at
peak production; the project development of the field was equal to 50 years.

During 2007 – 2009 Statoil performed a series of steps to introduce the


integrated operations (IO). They included the introduction of the standardized
work processes, a common operating model in the Statoil-operated fields on the
Norwegian Continental Shelf. The IO manual based on seven IO success criteria was
worked out.

Since then a lot of large and small decisions, have been carried out under the
guidance of "smart fields", a modification of the existing fields and the new
projects (see Figure 2.1. Shell Smart Fields’ range of solutions).

In the year 2005 BP embarked on the implementation of two major projects. The
first was a creation of the new producing center in the Valhall field; the second
was the development of the new Skarv field. The implementation of the project of
the second generation fields started in the year 2012. These projects have enabled
the company to get a new experience in using the latest digital technology, as
well as to put into operation two smart fields of the second generation.

The difference between these generations of smart fields mainly consists in the
data transfer process and the volume of information (see Figure 2.2. Comparison of
data processing capabilities for 1 and 2 generations). The data transmission in
the first generation fields is carried on by the satellite transmission system,
whereas in the second ones – by the fiber-optic communications, the data
transmission rate increasing from 10 to 100 Mbit per second. For the second
generation smart wells the average length of arrays varies from 2000 to 4000 km,
while for the first generation fields the fiber system length was not more than
100 km.
48
With each generation the number of sensors increases, which in turn leads to an
increase in the data volume and a higher degree of integration of the processes:
the number of such sensors in the fields of the second generations is tens or even
hundreds of times larger than in the fields of the first generation (Table 2.1.
Comparison of techniques used for smart fields of 1 and 2 generations).

The level of automation increases, which leads to the possibility of unmanned


production and technical processes, especially in the offshore fields because of
the water depth and other climatic conditions. In its turn, non-productive costs
of preparatory processes reduce, as a rule; the associated water is injected into
the intermediate horizons in order to utilize it or to control reservoir pressure.
From the smart fields the consumers are dispatched ready products such as oil, gas
and condensate; as well the cost of their collection also decreases.

2.3 The history of creation and development trends of Smart Fields

The first smart fields were appeared in the year 2002, which were developed and
continue to be developed in accordance with the concept, which involves:

1. The priority of the safety of people, equipment, processes, and


environmental protection;

2. Reducing the loss of oil by the monitoring and the remote control of the
recovery processes of oil and gas;

3. Minimize expenses by management improvement, reducing the amount of


equipment and wells repairs;

4. Reducing the influence of the "human factor" - the automation of the main
processes.

The IBM Corporation, which employs about 1,000 people in the creation of new
technologies for the oil and gas industry, estimates the potential market for
smart fields in the $ 1 trillion by 2020, Bill Sevan, the director of research
strategies and production in the CERA (Cambridge Energy Research Associates) notes
that the digital oil field is not a conceptual scientific development but the
49
actual reality of the oil and gas industry. The widespread implementation of
digital technologies in oil and gas fields is constrained by traditional caution
of the companies in relation to the experimental development.

Due to the ever increasing volumes of horizontal drilling, a very urgent


problem is to control in real time the direction of the borehole during the
drilling process. A complex transducers for the directional control of the
wellbore comprises the sensors for measuring the borehole inclination angle and
its azimuth. The measurement system is equipped with a standoff position sensor to
manage the process of horizontal drilling.

The Geoscience & Logging Complex is based on the digital integrated downhole
equipment from which the geophysical parameters can be transmitted wirelessly to
the surface processing and recording equipment when drilling in real time. Such
systems are known as LWD-systems. This system allows the faster adjustment of the
well path and the additional time is not wasted on the tying logging.

The management of a smart field in real time provides: an expert support during
the field development, reduction of the possibility of unforeseen problems, the
security of the operation and optimization of production, the reducing of the
equipment downtime, the ensuring of the uninterrupted field development, and the
increase of the duration of the maximum level of production.

A “smart well” works in the self-regulating mode, from the distance


constantly informing, how it behaves, whether it is a standard situation or not. A
real time well "removes" a large amount of information about the rock, fluids of
itself. All this information to the monitoring and control system that
automatically adjusts the operation of the well. In particular, the well will
reduce the rotating speed of the pump, if it warms up to more than one hundred and
ten degrees Celsius. The "smart wells" provide the optimum production conditions,
which lead to lower costs of the field development on average to 20%.

A smart field includes two control lines:

50
1. The operating line provides control over the effectiveness of management
processes in field operations (production, control and management modes and
condition of the equipment, support processes, etc.);

2. The simulating line provides a dynamic development management model under


varying external (context) and internal (content) conditions.

Ahead of schedule the Shell Company managed to put some fields on commercial
production with the so-called "smart" completions, implying the use of a complex
of special equipment with sensors and the data transmission system in real time.

The international and national oil companies are trying to improve the
management of the development of their reserves in order to maximize the
profitability to meet the increasing social and political needs of their
countries. In modern conditions, the oil and gas industry must improve not only
technological, but also production and information processes to meet the long-term
growth in demand for energy. The production of oil and gas must overcome not only
the spatial boundaries, but the time as well.

The actual problems in hydrocarbon production are: increasing of energy


consumption by 19 million tons / day by the year 2025 (source: Shell global Energy
Scenarios 2005), the development of deep, remote and complex fields (small
deposits; deposits with low permeability and porosity; heavy oil deposits,
carbonate deposits; the Arctic oil fields), the offshore field development and the
development of hydrocarbon resources by the ecologically environmentally
responsible way (resource saving water, metals, energy) technology of the
development of hydrocarbon reserves, the reduction of CO2 emissions and waste
production).

The field management is executed in real time at four main levels.

Level i1 - Instrumental: getting data in real time to improve the daily


management and installation of remote sensors on the underground and surface
equipment for data collection in real time.

51
Level i2 - information, it is an automatic verification of the data and their
analysis and the installation of the appropriate software for data management and
visualization, the transition from "data" to "information".

Level i3 - operational, which involves the integration and optimization of the


production processes, automated forecasting of emergency situations, the
integrated control of the processes taking place underground and on the surface.

Level i4 – Management, it consists of the transformation of operational


processes, innovative technologies, new production processes and virtual teams.

The most important business challenges today are the depletion of production in
the existing fields, tightening the environmental requirements; such operating
problems as reduction of staff to service the increasing wells stock, processing
the field data through the implementation of remote-controlled sensors, monitoring
and optimization of hydrocarbon production, the development of heavy reserves
(transfer of the resource base from the C2, C3, D1, D2 to C1, an increase of the
recovery factor, the development of deep, remote hydrocarbon deposits; abnormal
high pressure and temperature, heavy oil, CO2, sulfur, subsea production systems,
secure transport products to the shore (the control of hydrate plugs)); the
increased costs of reservoir pressure maintenance (RPM) in mature fields (the
increased costs of collection and preparation of products, lifting products, loss
of income from unplanned shut-ins of wells and accidents on field pipelines;
further drilling costs; EOR/IOR costs; well stimulation methods (the hydraulic
fracturing, the drilling of the side tracks and horizontal holes).

One of the main assets of smart oil and gas company is actually a vertically-
integrated hardware and software system that works in real time. The current state
of the development of oil and gas fields makes us possible to conclude that the
flow of the source of information should be directed to the solution of industrial
problems, application of primitive tools to process the field based on Excel; the
management of unstructured data is a serious problem; serious work is required to
on standardize the data; a functional approach rather than a system one prevails
in using the information. Despite the fact that the investments in automation are
growing, but very often it is difficult to find the information in the collected
52
data and many digital tools and devices are not integrated into a single system,
the new capital-intensive projects involve collecting a huge number of commercial
information, but there is no integrated approach to the use of the collected
information.

2.4 Synergetic of Smart Fields

The specific feature of the oil and gas industry is huge investments, the slow
money turnover and great geological and economic risks. As regards the market
relations, not only the state, but also directly an oil company as such, the local
authorities and the consumer are interested in them. Their interests must be
obviously taken into account in shaping the goals in the oil and gas development,
and design solutions must be aimed at their fullest satisfaction. The turn of big
revolutionary changes has come the turn in the technology design as such the
integrated or synergistic technology study and modeling of hydrocarbon deposits
have replaced the coherent technology which existed for decades. The main aim is
to reduce the operating cycle by 50%. The use of the integrated modeling
technology is designed to reduce the design period 2-3 fold to decrease the
capital cost of the design decisions and the necessary number of specialists by an
order.

In recent years there has been an active implementation of computer technology


in the oil industry. It becomes possible to integrate the efforts of specialists
from different disciplines working simultaneously on the same problem. The need
for an integrated holistic approach to the study of such complex objects as oil
and gas reservoirs was proclaimed 15 years ago at the dawn of a system approach to
development.

Every engineer highly skilled in his/her own discipline, as a rule, is well


aware of the uncertainty of the data with which he/she has to work. Uncertainties
are often ignored when transferring data from one specialist to another. Each
recipient of the information wants to work only with the determined information. A
53
team approach has another advantage that is such as the experts understand the
importance of the uncertainties in the related disciplines and pay attention to
their impact on the results of their own technical sections. The requirements
placed upon the smart fields are a common technological cycle, an iterative
multivariant, the integration of risk assessment and economy, the joint analysis
of the entire team of experts, simplicity and functionality, an integrated model
and a risk analysis.

Currently, the net present value, which is necessary to get from the
development of the field, directly depends on the completeness of the equipping of
the underground and surface machinery with sensors, monitoring equipment and
process control; the accuracy of the localization of hydrocarbon distribution in
the reservoir, the efficiency of these hydrocarbon recovery, models and algorithms
for the optimization of the scenarios of production, the work of the submersible
pumps and surface structures in the time scale of seconds to the whole time of the
field development. The philosophy of a smart field is based on the following
scheme:

"to measure – to simulate - to take a decision – to follow – to control."

The first stage is the measurement. The following instrumentation aspects are
acceptable in the Аdvanced Collaboration Centers. The technology of "smart
fields" is based on the measurement of process parameters in the reservoir and on
the surface. In the existing fields, the measuring process parameters are at a low
level. The problem is the installed old technology equipment, on which it is
technically difficult to replace the old instrumentation by the new one. It is
important to measure the parameters of process conditions as accurately as
possible. Digital tools that can be applied in the smart fields are: the digital
pressure gauges, temperature and reservoir pressure monitoring devices,
temperature and flow; 4C - quaternary seismic sensors (one - for the longitudinal
and three - for transverse waves) to monitor the process of depletion of the
reservoirs. 4D seismic allows us to see what is going on under the ground, where
there are accumulations of oil, gas or water breaks. The sensor information must
be collected and integrated.

54
The second stage is simulation. To optimize the life of the field in the mode
of 24 hours a day there are required the innovative processes, tools and
technologies that will enable the team of experts to conduct a comparative
analysis of the possible development scenarios with and the implemented one on the
basis of its decisions in real time.

Shell Company uses the following scheme (software):

1) FieldWare Production Universe (PU). Its scope includes the engineering


supervision and the alarm signal system, optimization of the real-time well
systems and the virtual dimension. The economic benefit is obtained by optimizing
the production through a quicker detection and elimination of accidents in the
well. FW PU operates 2,000 wells producing a total of 2 million barrels a day.

2) Energy Components (EC) Hydrocarbon Allocation. EC is a software package,


that stores the production data and the borehole parameters and then automatically
processes the information. It quickly and easily generates the data, the status
and delay reports, which can be used as a source of data to manage the reservoir
and the distribution of hydrocarbons.

3) Plant Information Data Historian. The objective is to combine the streams of


information from the multiple sources into a single system. Simply speaking, it is
a data base

4) Data Acquisition and Control Architecture (DACA) Security. DACA is a


Shell’s defensive strategy, which consists of several layers of protection and
the barriers to external threats. This system allows us to adjust the flow of
information in and the controls from the field to the office. The program holds
enough controls and safety barriers to prevent the hackers in the fields and the
offshore areas. Unfortunately, the above software elements can’t be running in a
"smart" manner when used individually. These components should be incorporated in
the design of smart fields so that they collaborate and share the data from one
part of the system to another.

The reservoir management requires good quality data at the right time, modern
integrated models, innovative management processes that reduce the time from the

55
moment when the new data are obtained to making a decision and a team of qualified
professionals.

2.5 Smart Field optimization and remote control in real time

The new technology of smart oil fields allows oil companies to reduce the cost
of exploration and to produce more oil in old fields with a significant reduction
in the cost of the high-professional labor-power. The innovative technologies
require significant job changes not only for the top managers, but firstly for the
lower and middle level managers. It is very important that the new digital
technology of the development of hydrocarbon fields helps to understand better the
reservoir itself as the most changeable part of the process of extracting oil and
gas. A hydrocarbon fields is just the part of the assets which is least known to
the oil and gas company. The smart technology of hydrocarbon fields, which
operates the data in real time, will allow a better control of the production of
oil and gas in the long term period. In particular, the aerospace monitoring and
control of the development will rapidly expand its positions.

The problem of the XXI century is the development of smart fields in real time,
the main advantages of which are the rapid assessment of the development cases,
the integration of technology cycles, the reduction of costs through real-time
operations, the further enhancing of the technological operational performance.

The statement of the problem of the fuzzy system design includes the following
main stages: the identification of fuzzy goals of the reservoir management systems
and their classification, the building of a hierarchical design situation and its
representation as a fuzzy graph and Hasse diagram (diagram of maximal chains)
forming a plurality of original model situations of the OGFD, the structuring of
model design decisions (development cases), the definition of a host development
options in the space of the objectives and constraints; to select a recommended
OGFD case by constructing a graph of fuzzy inclusion and Hasse diagram of maximal
chains.

56
The design of oil field development is closely related to the progress in the
development of new methods and technologies for extraction of petroleum,
hydrocarbons, the application of mathematical models of fluid filtration and
reservoir behavior in general, the new information and communication technologies
in real time. The development and the modernization of the arsenal of means and
methods of the design of oil field development serve the objectives of improving
the system of reservoir development, monitoring and controlling processes of
recovery of hydrocarbons.

A conceptual diagram of the design must be built from the standpoint of the
multicriteriality of the reservoir design. Any oil & gas field development project
should deal with the issues of aggregation of heterogeneous data about the fields
(seismic surveys, logging, laboratory and field data), the geological base that is
the reservoir model for the task of designing should be founded and selected, the
production objects are separated; the multistage switching from the natural drives
to the active recovery methods is defined; the well placement system must be
selected; the technological and economic parameters of the project cases must be
calculated and the development of a rational case must be defined. The
accumulation of experience in the development of fields in different geological
conditions, the creation of new methods and stimulation technologies have
contributed to the improvement of the knowledge in the design, the detailed study
of specific design problems.

At different stages of the project cycle we may use different systems of


artificial intelligence such as expert systems (ES), the decision-making systems,
the computer-aided design (CAD), the automated design systems (ADS) and the data
base control system (DBCS) in real time. At the initial and final stages of the
cycle there exist wide opportunities to apply the expert systems (ES). At the
initial development stage it is explained by the lack of the initial information
in full measure, thus it is quite natural to rely on the expert knowledge of the
specialists.

At the final stage of the development (conservation of wells and / or


liquidation of fields) mostly we have to rely on the knowledge of engineering and
technical personnel who have recently worked in well servicing. In drawing up the
57
technological scheme and design of the project the systems such as CAD, VIP, and
Eclipse are mainly used. The decision-making systems that do not require the large
scale amount of payment transactions, should be naturally applied at the
justification stage of the project situation, the establishment of a feasibility
study and at the final stages of development as well.

The integrated teams of scientists and experts include geologists,


geophysicists, petroleum engineers and environmentalists. Applying an integrated
approach to the design has led to the fact that the total investments in research
in the field of technology development and production decrease in 3 fold. Such
teams usually work on large-scale development projects, but they can solve complex
and specific problems. There are several approaches or areas of research such as
serial, parallel and integrated, used in the work on the project to develop oil
fields.

Graphical visualization has been widely accepted since the middle of 80s. The
3D visualization of seismic data, logging and development, allowed getting quickly
the horizontal and vertical slices of the reservoir by rotating, animation,
glossing over with smooth color transitions. Using this technique, the specialists
got the opportunity to analyze the 3D model oil reservoir from the top, bottom,
side and inside. The logging data, contour maps, seismic sections, and 3D color
core images can be sent in a few minutes from one data center to another.
Computers can simultaneously correlate over hundreds and thousands wells.

The synthesis of a variety of data with simultaneous visualization allows


analyzing the geological aspects of the development process both in the macro-and
micro-scale. The use of digital technologies will increase the efficiency of the
development that is the operating costs will be reduced by 5% and the capital
costs by 10%, the additionally recovered residual oil in the old fields and the
recovery factor up to 50% through the implementation of smart technologies.

2.6 The dynamics of the Аdvanced Collaboration Centers

58
One of the most important elements of a smart field is the centers of
communication and remote control. Аdvanced Collaboration Centers have different
names in different companies. For example, in Shell - CWE (Collaborative Workplace
Environment), BP - ACE (Advanced Collaboration Center), in Chevron - ADE (Advanced
Decision Environment), etc. Аdvanced Collaboration Centers represent the top
level of decision-making. The structure of these centers usually includes
situational (collaboration) rooms for co-operation and a room for the decision
making support (Figure 2.3. Аdvanced Collaboration Center).

The control center began operating in real time in the new corporate
headquarters of ChevronTexaco in Houston in January 2005. The Center includes the
visualization room where the technicians can monitor the data in real time, the
current ones through the fiber optic cable in the Gulf of Mexico. The sensors
transmit acoustic, temperature, and pressure information about the drilling
progress from the field.

A smart field can solve such problems as:

1) the transformation of the oil business in order to increase the production


and to reduce the costs through the optimization of numerous fields, the
integration of the system of hydrocarbon recovery, high level of automation of the
production operations; remote operations with a global collaboration, finding a
reasonable balance in decision-making between equipment and a man;

2) The improvement of manufacturing operations for major capital projects:


design and planning, in the integrated and optimized systems, minimization of the
cost of upgrading and improvement of the system design.

A smart field manages the assets of the company, that is controls the processes
at all stages, including drilling and well operations, optimization of production
systems, research of wells and the reservoir, operation and integrated management,
asset management, planning and scheduling, health, labor safety and environment,
contracts and procurement, transportation, marketing and sales.

The standard solution is available in the form of organization of smart fields


that forms the basis for the continuous monitoring and optimization of wells in

59
real-time data collection and optimization, production prediction based on
modeling (Van den Berg, 2007, Gerrard, 2010). It includes a continuous monitoring
and optimization of wells in real time and a virtual dimension, independently
associated with planning the production rates of hydrocarbons and complex modeling
of the production systems. All systems are integrated into a standard architecture
in the office and in the field of the process control.

The standard architecture for data collection and management (DACA) provides
the secured communication between the office and the field. There were defined the
standard workflows that guide the staff in the performance of the regular
manufacturing operations and the cooperation at the right moment, allowing the
team of the object to achieve the maximum.

Saudi Aramco has established a number of collaboration centers that are


economically and technically profitable and multidiscipline. These centers cover
the areas of exploration, geonavigation, real-time drilling, and field
development, as well as the production and smart-field management in real time.

The advances in interactive, high-performance technology solutions (hardware


and software) and easy to use in visual communication technologies presented
additional opportunities to extend the fields of application and the impact of the
collaboration centers including the virtual laboratories.

2.7 The prospect of development of Smart Fields

Collecting and managing data in real time is an important part of the concept
of a smart field. In December 2010 the ORACLE company launched the world's first
open database management system in real time.

Nowadays in oil and gas industry the technological revolution, comparable in


scale to the Cosmos exploration takes place. The key points of the scientific and
technological revolution are: the creation of fiber optic systems for the
collection and transmission of geological information in real time; 3D

60
visualization of process data and processes in real time, creating cosmic groups
for precise positioning of oil and gas facilities.

"A smart well – a smart field" model combines the simultaneous solution of the
problem with a fundamentally new approach to the management of the field
development. A smart well has three distinctive features.

Firstly, a well completion system should include the downhole monitoring


capabilities with the function of transmitting the information to the surface in
real time without conducting the intrawell operations.

Secondly, a certain flow regulation system should be installed in a smart well,


which could be controlled from the surface. Finally, it should be ensured the
possibility of the analytical flow control using the information obtained at the
first stage. A built-in algorithm should set into motion the analytical system of
valves in one direction or another in order in reply to the approximation of the
production parameters to the threshold or to the passage of this threshold.

In future that at the distance from the coast we will be able to have the
minimal installation tools, many of them are usually remote, tested and. The
production process can be fully optimized through a single area or a group of
areas to cover the hydrocarbons to the remote-controlled wells, resulting in a
larger recovery. The single operating centers located in each basin to management
with well production and a plant through large areas, maximizing the amount of oil
and gas delivered to the market.

Relying on the experience already gained, the plans are being developed to
rapidly expand the deployment of the "field of the future" technologies and
processes in the existing onshore and offshore areas, and to increase the
intelligence in several major projects now in development.

Thanks to the improved technology and scientific progress in the oil and gas
research and the information fields we had come to the emergence of second
generation fields by the end of 2012.

The main differences between these smart fields are shown in the Appendix
(Table 2.2. Smart fields of 1, 2 and 3 generations - the conceptual differences,
61
Figure 2.4. Volumes of data of 3G smart fields over fiber optic cables, Figure
2.5. Dependence of the volume of data transmission of three generations smart
fields on the number of downhole sensors).

Assessing the impact of new technologies on the traditional methods of


development managing and making selective changes in the sequence of operations we
can significantly increase the return of the field. The balanced organization of
such changes is a very important part of the transformation of any field to the
smart one (Figure 2.6. Increase in the number of smart fields).

Conclusion

A smart field is a system of automatic controlling and management of oil and


gas operations in real time, providing continuous optimization of the integrated
reservoir and surface models, and production management model, it is a maximum of
measurement and control,, allowing to optimize the performance of all field
facilities such as wells, reservoirs, pipelines and other surface facilities as
well as to get the data to form the model. The innovative technologies of the new
generation have their own names in each company: Shell calls it “Smart Field”;
Chevron – “Intelligent field or i-field”; BP – “Field of the future”, etc. but
they all have the same principle.

The main objective of the modern development of oil and gas companies is to
increase the value of assets of the company in real time based on the integration
of all its components into a whole one. These objectives can be achieved by
diversification of the existing systems into the innovative, high-tech and high-
performance. The smart fields are being developed in accordance with the concept
which involves: the priority of the safety of people, equipment, processes, and
environmental protection; reducing the loss of oil; that is monitoring and remote
management of oil and gas recovery; reducing costs; that is a improving
transparency, reducing the amount of equipment and wells repairs; reducing the
influence of the "human factor"; that is the automation of the main processes. The

62
remote monitoring of working conditions, data analysis and interpretation in real
time, collaborative work environment for the employees, remote monitoring of wells
and production optimization - all of these technologies are already included in
the project of the field of the future, however, there still remain many problems,
which must be solved.

Nowadays oil and gas industry is exposed by the technological revolution,


comparable in scale to the development of the Cosmos. The key points of the oil
and gas technological revolution: the creation of fiber optic systems for the
collection and transmission of geological information in real time; 3D
visualization of process data and processes in real time, creating cosmic groups
for precise positioning of oil and gas facilities. It is obvious that there is an
increase in the volume of the data that leads to the emergence of a system for
effective preparation oil, gas and condensate, that is the number of smart fields
will only increase, and the concept of their creating and working will only be
improved.

Acknowledgements

The second chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin
"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as course papers students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: D. Skotnikova, M. Denisova, A. Kachalova, P. Shibanova, A. Evfremov,
R. Akhmadiev, Gun Chanmin, M. Gordeeva, A. Samayeva and others.

References:

63
1. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ
нефти и газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.:
ил. ISBN 978-5-91961-019-9
2. Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н., Еремин А.Н.
Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 2. Учеб.
пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и газа
имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-91961-
329-7.
3. Еремин Н.А. Современная разработка
месторождений нефти и газа. (Умная
скважина – Интеллектуальный промысел.
Виртуальная компания. M.: ООО
«НедраБизнесцентр», 2008 - - 244 pages. ISBN 978-58365-
0311-6
4. SPE 153271 Toward an automatic metadata management framework for smart oil
fields, 2013
5. Дмитриевский А.Н., Еремин Н.А. Решение
актуальных проблем разработки
месторождений нефти и газа. //Нефть. Газ.
Новации. №10, 2012, с.30-3
6. Judson Jacobs and Richard Ward, Digital oil field of the future, Cera, The
Wall Street Journal on February 7, 2006
7. Leslie HAINES, Don LYLE. The Digital Oil Field Today
8. SPE 150407 Shell, 2012
9. SPE 132149 Smart fields: How to generate more value from hydrocarbon
resources, 2012
10. SPE 150160 The Second Generation Of Digital Oilfields, 2012
11. SPE 162373 Real time data empowers the ADCO, 2012
12. SPE 128245 Business value from Intelligent field, 2010

64
13. SPE 141401 Smart E&P Collaboration centers: design, technology support and
lessons learned, 2011
14. SPE 150418 Integrated operations in Statoil – from ambition to action, 2012
15. SPE 163431 Remote operations center –an efficient and highly competent
environment to optimize operational performance and to reduce risk, 2013
16. Encyclopedia Britannica http://www.britannica.com.
17. SPE 108206-MS, Frans G. van den Berg, Shell Intl. E&P B.V., Smart Fields -
Optimising Existing Fields. Digital Energy Conference and Exhibition, 11-12
April 2007, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.

List of figures

1) Figure 2.1. Shell Smart Fields’ range of solutions


2) Figure 2.2. Comparison of data processing capabilities for 1 and 2
generations
3) Figure 2.3. Аdvanced Collaboration Center
4) Figure 2.4. Volumes of data of 3G smart fields over fiber optic
cables
5) Figure 2.5. Dependence of the volume of data transmission of three
generations smart fields on the number of downhole sensors
6) Figure 2.6. Increase in the number of smart fields

List of tables

1) Table 2.1. Comparison of techniques used for smart fields of 1 and 2


generations

2) Table 2.2. Smart fields of 1, 2 and 3 generations - the conceptual


differences

List of abbreviations

65
BP – British Petroleum; CERA – Cambridge Energy Research Associates; HC –
hydrocarbons; ACC – Аdvanced Collaboration Center; CWE – Сollaborative Workplace
Environment; ADE – Аdvanced Decision Environment; RM – recovery methods; STR –
scientific technological revolution; RTM – Real Time Mode; ORF – oil recovery
factor; GRF – gas recovery factor; CRF – condensate recovery factor; SW –
software; GIS – geoinformation systems; AHFP – abnormally high formation pressure;
AHFT – abnormally high formation temperature; IOR/EOR – improved/enhanced oil
recovery methods; RPM – reservoir pressure maintenance; BHT – bottomhole
treatment; OGFD – oil & gas field development; PO – production object (facility);
DMS – decision making system; CAD – computer-aided design; DBCS – Data Base
Control System; DACA – Data Acquisition and Control Architecture; i-field –
intelligent field; e-field – electronic field; 1G fields – first generation
fields; 2G fields – second generation fields; ADCO – Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore
Oil Operation; IAOM – Integrated Asset Operation Model; EC – Energy Components;
FDIS – Field Data Integration system; PU – Production Universe

Questions from chapter 2.

1. What is a smart oil and gas field and its main differences from the
traditional fields?
2. What distinguishes a smart field of the second generation from the first
one?
3. What are the key features for managing the development of oil fields in real
time?
4. How did the evolution of the first generation of smart fields take place
from 2002 till 2012 years?

66
Figures and Tables to chapter 2

Fig. 2.1. Shell Smart Fields’ range of solutions [17], where HSE - Health, Safety
and Environment.

Рис 2.1. Спектр решений умного месторождения Shell


[17]

Fig. 2.2. Comparison of data processing capabilities for 1 and 2 generations [5].

67
Рис. 2.2. Сравнение возможностей обработки данных 1
и 2 поколений [5].

Fig. 2.3. Advanced Collaboration Center (АСС).

Рис 2.3. Центр управления месторождением (ЦУМ)

Fig. 2.4. Volumes of data of 3G smart fields over fiber optic cables [5].

68
Рис 2.4. Объемы передачи данных трех поколений
умных месторождений по оптоволоконным каналам
[5].

Fig. 2.5. Dependence of the volume of data transmission of three generations smart
fields on the number of downhole sensors [5].

Рис 2.5. Зависимость объема передачи данных


трех поколений умных месторождений от числа
скважинных источников [5].

69
Figure 2.6. Increase in the number of smart fields [1].

Рис 2.6. Динамика роста числа умных


месторождений [1].

Table 2.1. Comparison of techniques used for smart fields of 1 and 2 generations

Таблица. 2.1. Сравнение технологий,


применяемых на умных месторождениях 1 и 2
поколений

70
Table 2.2. Smart fields of 1, 2 and 3 generations - the conceptual differences [5].

Таблица 2.2. Месторождения 1, 2 и 3 поколений –


концептуальные различия [5].

71
Chapter 3. Smart Automation

Abstract

The instrumental basis for smart fields is fiber- optic sensors and sensors.
Fiber-optic sensors are a fiber-optic device for detection of variables:
temperature or strain, displacement, vibration, pressure. They were designed for
measurements in deep oil wells in the temperature conditions too high for
conventional sensors. The implementation of a fiber-optic control, the built-in
flexible risers is an important step in the transformation of the risers into the
structure of the riser in real time. The temperature control can be used to
monitor damages of the outer shell of flexible pipes. A unique feature of the
distributed temperature sensor is that the system can obtain the profile
measurements over the entire length of the sensor cable at intervals of every 1 m
over a range of 10 km, allowing the temperature measurements at 10,000 discrete
sensing points. The fiber-optic sensors are located along the bottomhole assembly.
The devices can operate in real time or writing them into the memory by switching
between the telemetry and a memory receiver.

Keywrds: Fiber-optic sensors, visualizer of marine production risers,


measurement-while-drilling (MWD), a distributed temperature sensor in real time,
data management and visualization in real time, fiber-optic communications,
Multifinger Imaging Tool (MIT), Big Data, smart coil tubing, visualizer of
flexible tubing.

Main chapter subjects

Studies and the operations while are sources of getting big geological and
field data in real time. The downhole fiber-optic sensors. The visualizer of the
casing and the tubing. The visualizer of flexible tubing and marine production
risers. Downhole sensors in multiphase flow in real time. The fiber-optic sensors
in the oil and gas collection and preparation in the field. The fiber-optic
sensors for the field pipeline transfer. Types of fiber-optic sensors. Types of

72
dispersion of the light pulse. The main advantages of fiber-optic sensors of
marine production risers. The goals and objectives for the use of sensors in the
drilling. The main advantages and disadvantages. Measuring systems while drilling
in real time: the use and the components. The visualizer of the casing in real
time: an operation principle and the advantages of use. A smart flexible pipe. The
main types of technologies for the transmission of Big Data from the oil and gas
field, their advantages and disadvantages.

Introduction

The chapter consists of 6 major parts: downhole fiber-optic sensors,


visualizer of marine risers, investigation of the temperature in real time,
distributed temperature sensor for real time, measurement while drilling in real
time: the application and defectoscopy of the flow tubing.
The first section discusses the definition and use and the types of fiber-
optic sensors.
The second section discusses the advantages of flexible risers and also
shows the methods of monitoring in real time.
The third section provides temperature research in real time.
The fourth section discusses the definitions, goals and objectives of the
distributed temperature sensor for real-time performance.
The fifth section considers different types of channels for measurement
while drilling in real time: the advantages and disadvantages.
The sixth section shows the defectoscopy methods of flow tubing.

3.1 Downhole fiber-optic sensors

Fiber-optic sensors - a fiber-optic device for detection of variables:


temperature or strain, displacement, vibration, pressure. The external fiber-optic
sensors use an optical fiber cable, normally multi-mode, capable of transmitting
modulated light either from a non-fiber-optical sensor or from an electronic
sensor connected to an optical transmitter. The main benefit of external sensors

73
is their ability to reach the places that were previously inaccessible. Outwardly
the fiber-optical sensors for superior ensure a perfect protection of the
measurement signals from the noise interference and the immunity to
electromagnetic interference, flexibility and ease of installation, the dielectric
properties. The external sensors are used to measure vibration, rotation,
displacement, velocity, acceleration, torque, and twisting.
The temperature logging of oil and gas wells; monitoring of the
perforations; record of the dynamics of the displacements of contact zones of
water / oil, gas / oil phases; fixing thermal fields within the well without
dislocating the sensor; monitoring of the submersible systems of well completions;
check for the tightness of the production string and tubing; identification of
temperature fluctuations in the casing and the cement conductor; creation of a
monitoring complex of multiple wells simultaneously. The main results of the
application of fiber-optic sensors can be attributed to an increase well
productivity, an increase of the productive capacity, the reduction of operational
costs, preventing the stability loss and the destruction of the well lining.
The phase sensors are the ones which use highly coherent light source and
measure the wave phase, changing under the influence of an external parameter; the
coding spectral sensors are the ones which, unlike purely phase and use a
radiation source with a wide spectrum being capable to analyze of the whole
spectrum; the amplitude sensors are the ones in which the measured parameter
modulates the passing or the reflected wave; the tunnel sensors are the ones which
use tunneling effect of radiation through a small gap; the polarization sensors
are the ones which use the information about the polarization of the light wave.

3.2 Visualizer of marine risers

To drill wells on land and at sea, the equipment which would provide a safe
and cost-effective performance of works as a whole must be used. The production
marine risers are used to transport producing liquids (or injecting gas and
water), and are also used in the well workover systems. They consist of flexible
pipes and provide the transit of producing oil (gas) from the seabed to the top
deck of offshore oil production platforms. Some advantages of the fiber-optic

74
sensor systems for the use in monitoring the risers is their multiplexing that
exceeds most conventional electronic sensors and requires a smaller number of
cables and their resistance to electromagnetic interference. It is worth
considering the fact that they are passive sensors using only the low power light
signals, to interact with the measurements and to transmit the sounding data
through the optical sensing cable. The new advances in optical technology and
production methods of a riser means that a set of real-time monitoring can provide
a much more accurate picture of the state of a riser during the operation.
The typical form of a flexible marine riser is hanging loose a form like a
flexible pipe when it sags between two points, and it is only affected by its own
weight (figure 3.1), flexible risers are attached directly from the platform to
the seafloor. The flexible risers are used for pumping gas and liquid products,
which differ in temperature and pressure depending on the operating conditions
and, on the external pressure under varying loads. The disturbance in work can
lead to the termination of the development and, consequently, to significant
economic losses. The real-time monitoring can provide a much more accurate picture
of the riser during the operation. Over the past few years various methods have
been developed to monitor the flexible pipes (Fancy et al, 2006; Marinho et al
2008; Pipa and others 2010; Weppenaar and others in 2008.) Most of these
techniques have been developed for monitoring the integrity of the outer coating
or the tension of marine riser. One of the most promising technologies for real-
time monitoring is the integration of optical fibers in the flexible risers. The
optical fibers have shown very good properties, especially for measuring the
temperature and strain in the longitudinal direction along the entire length of
the fiber. This technology has been used for years in other industries, and also
supports a wide range of installed equipment and procedures with the optical
telecommunications industry. The embedding of the optical fiber has the advantage
that there are no protrusions on the outer surface of the tube, and it does not
depend on the changes in the pipe diameter, for example, in turning the limiter so
that the optical fibers may be used to monitor any location along the tube. The
technique has been developed for epoxy optical fibers to be installed, which are
then distributed on a flexible pipe (Andersen 2001), as shown in Figures 3.2.-3.

75
3.3 Investigation of the temperature in real time

The temperature monitoring of the ring of a flexible pipe (at the area
between the inner and the outer shell) can give important information about the
operating status of the system of pipelines. In the temperatures can help in
monitoring can assist in monitoring in the event of the temporary closure of the
flow in the well. For some materials, the hydrate plug may be formed if the
temperature falls below a certain level. These plugs are very difficult to
dissolve as soon as they are formed in the pipe. With the temperature control
system in a flexible pipe the information can be obtained for the decision making:
to turn the flow back or to leave at the same level as the liquid solvent.
The temperature control can also be used to monitor the damages of the outer
shell of flexible pipes. The outer shell affects the integrity of pipes and can
lead to a reduction in life due to the penetration of the sea water at significant
damages. The corrosion is strongly aggravated by the supply of the sea water, it
is very important to detect a second damage or failure while repairing on the
already flooded risers. With the integrated fiber-optic temperature monitoring
system, the external shell disorders can be detected.
The detection of the outer shell with the temperature failure in the
monitoring system is based on the temperature difference, which is normally
present between the hole and the surrounding seawater. The thermal design of the
flexible pipe is such that the main temperature difference will be through two
polymer layers (the inner layer and the outer shell). The temperature profiles of
the outer wall of a typical flexible pipe are shown for four different temperature
gradients between the orifice and the environment in Figure 3.4. If any
disturbance appears in the outer coating, the temperature will be lowered relative
to the ambient temperature locally in place of the disturbance.
The temperature control system is based on the fiber-optic sensors embedded
in a ring of flexible risers. To be able to detect the external shell disturbances
of the monitoring system we must be able to detect the temperature continuously
along the entire length of the tool pipe and to detect the co-ordinated
information about the temperature, time and position. The main characteristics of
the temperature measurement system are as follows:

76
1. The sensitivity range from -40 to +130 ° C.
2. The temperature resolution 0,2 ° C.
3. The spatial resolution of 1 m
4. The sampling times once per minute.

3.4 Distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in real time

A unique feature of the distributed temperature sensor (DTS), as shown in


Figure 3.5, is that the system can obtain the measurements of the profile over the
entire length of the sensor cable at intervals of every 1 m in a range of 10 km,
allowing the temperature measurement at 10,000 individual sensitive points. The
distributed temperature sensor illuminates the optical fiber core glass with a
laser pulse of the duration of 10 nanoseconds (corresponding to 1 m. pulse). As
the optical the pulse propagates along the fiber, undergoing scattering, even in
the absence of impurities and structural defects. Part of this scattered radiation
is known as the Raman combined scaterring for which some of the light moves back
to the wavelength analyzer, which moves in both directions from the original. The
ratio of these two components possesses well-defined functions of temperature. It
is this ratio, coupled with the time of movement of the light pulse, which is used
to determine the temperature of the layer at this point.
The distributed temperature sensors of the monitoring systems have been used
in various fields for the control of the temperature profile, especially for pipes
and wells for oil and gas. The best performance is achieved through the
installation of a multi-mode optical fiber, when the characteristics are within
the limits required for the external monitoring of damages of the coating. The
sensors can be used in intelligent alarms, including the general system messages,
the fiber break, the zone temperature limit of max / min or a tendency to anxiety
and hot point / cold alarm point (the point of deviation from the average) to
provide an automatic control of the outer coating damage and the feedback process
control.

3.5 Measuring systems while drilling in real time: the use and the components

77
As a result of years of research and a practical application in the real
drilling conditions there were widely adopted three channels of communication, and
one is currently being implemented: optic-fiber, conductive, hydraulic,
electromagnetic. Each of these channels has its own advantages and disadvantages.
A variety of drilling conditions, and also the economic feasibility determine each
communication channel its field of application. Let us dwell on the advantages and
disadvantages of each of the considered channels in detail.
Currently there is implemented the latest technology that uses the fiber-
optic communication channel. The system MWD uses a system of fiber-optic sensors
and fiber-optic data transmission. The fiber-optic sensors are located along the
bottom hole drill string assembly. The information received from these sensors is
transmitted through one or more fiber-optic cables passing along the drill string.
This link provides a two-way communication of the bottomhole assembly with the
surface. However, one or more electrical cables along the fiber-optic provide the
supply of the bottomhole drill string assembly components. (figure 3.6.). The test
of the fiber-optic communication channel was carried on the rig DOE Long Valley
Magma Energy.
The use of the fiber-optic communication channel enables to speed up the
transfer of the data from the downhole equipment to the surface and back to 1
megabit per second. The idea of using the optical fiber as a channel of
communication was borrowed from missile defense systems. The use of the fiber-
optic communication channel for the MWD has the following features: the fiber-
optic communication channel is light and compact, allowing one person to cope with
it at the well site, it is easy to install, as is passes through the drill string
on the surface.
Subsequently, there appeared the problems with the devices holding the
fiber-optic in the drill string. Since the thickness of the fiber-optic with the
coating comes to 0.5 mm in diameter, various available clamping devices and rubber
grommets were ineffective. It was proposed to clamp the fiber-optic between two
rails and the non-rotating drums. This is a simple and efficient optical fiber
mounting, because the system is compact, has no concentrated load on the optical
fiber and contains no moving parts.

78
The equipment for the use with an optical fiber is: a light source and a
detector can be located on the surface and / or in the borehole. An option is
possible when one light source may be used to control two or more fiber-optic
sensors if the sensors are configured to detect various parameters of interest.
The multiplexer forms the optical signals for controlling the operation of the
sensors. Using of fiber-optic sensors and communication channel can increase the
accuracy speed and the data transfer during the drilling process and simplify the
structure of the bottom hole drill string assembly (BHDSA) and also increase its
reliability.

3.6 Defectoscopy of flow tubing

The downhole Sondex Wireline Multifinger Imaging Tool MIT with 24, 40, or 60
fingers is manufactured for a variety of pipe sizes. Each finger comes into
contact with the inner surface of the pipe and provides accurate radius
measurements in order to detect such defects as corrosion, large cracks, and
formation of solid precipitate, bends, wrinkles and openings. The regular well
logging using the MIT provides an early warning of the damages and facilitates the
identification of suspicious mechanical problems. This tool does not depend on the
type of the wellbore fluid and can be used both separately and in conjunction with
other devices for recording the data in the memory or in real time.
The MIT has the key features: the highest accuracy and resolution of the
measurements in all types of well fluids, various size devices ensure gathering of
the total information about the pipes; variants with the telescopic finger can
perform the logging of a wide range of pipes; the UltrawireTM system provides both
high speed logging and high quality data; the devices are designed to facilitate
maintenance procedures and to improve the reliability, the built-in inclinometer
measures the deviations and determines a higher proportion of wells. The MIT
(Figure 3.7.) is used to determine the changes in the state of the inner surface
of the pipe or the casing. The caliper levers provide a high degree of accuracy,
and record the slightest changes.
The instruments for monitoring the integrity of the well and the data
acquisition system of the Sondex, provide maximum flexibility in use. The devices

79
can operate in the transmit regime of the data logging in real time or their
record to memory by switching between the crossover telemetry to memory. The
systems of surface data reading can be mounted in the racks for the stationary
installation, or delivered in a portable hard case with a laptop, having military
specifications for use at several units. The data recording systems in the memory
is controlled from a laptop (notebook), they can be mains or battery powered.
The basic functions of data acquisition systems are data reading systems on
the surface and recording the data in the memory are working with the software for
data acquisition “Warrior”; the laptops with military specifications are used in
the logging portable systems to protect the data;, the systems in racks have a
dual hard disc to protect the data, the data reading system on the surface work
with all the devices of series UltrawireTM; as well as with third-party devices
with an optional panel; the operating system MS Windows.
The UltrawireTM battery-powered device for data recording in the memory
monitors the logging devices and stores the data logging. The depth data are
recorded for a certain time and then the two sets of the logging data unite in a
standard format API. The telemetry crossover sends the logging data to the surface
in real time with UltralinkTM. Sondex supplies both the portable logging data
acquisition systems and the systems for mounting in a rack, and also a host of
accessories by the choice of the user.

Conclusion

The fiber-optic sensors have been developed for the measurement of oil and
gas wells in extreme conditions. The fiber-optic sensors are a fiber-optic devices
for the detection of variables such as: temperature or strain, displacement,
vibration, pressure. The main feature of the fiber-optic sensors is their ability
to measure a wide range of reservoir conditions. The optical fibers have shown a
very good performance, in particular, for measuring the temperature and strain in
the longitudinal direction along the entire length of the well. The external
fiber-optic sensors use an optical fiber cable, normally a multi-mode, capable of
transmitting the modulated light either from the non-fibrous optical sensor or
from an electronic sensor connected to an optical transmitter. The temperature

80
control can be used to monitor the disturbances (damages) of the outer shell of
flexible pipes. The use of the fiber-optic communication channel can increase the
data transfer rate. The most promising technologies for the monitoring of the
extraction of oil and gas in real time are the installation of the optic fibers in
the flexible risers. The technology was developed for the epoxy optical fibers to
be installed in the grooves of the soft coatings, which then are placed in a
flexible tube. The use of the fiber-optic communication channel for MWD has the
following features: the fiber-optic communication channel is light and compact,
allowing one person to cope with it at the well site, easy to install, as it
passes through the drill string on the surface. The regular well logging using MIT
provides an early warning of the damages and facilitates the identification of the
suspicious mechanical problems. A unique feature of the distributed sensor is that
the system can obtain the measurements through the entire length of the profile of
the sensor cable at intervals of every 1 m in a range of 10 km, allowing the
temperature measurements at 10,000 discrete sensing points. The distributed
temperature sensor illuminates the glass of the optical fiber with a laser pulse
of the duration of 10 nanoseconds (corresponding to 1m. pulse). The pulse travels
down the fiber and undergoes scattering, even in the absence of impurities and
structural defects.

Acknowledgements

The third chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin
"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as course papers students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: P. V. Bashkirceva, I. Chzhai, Yu. Li, T. B. Vidiabkhakti, K.
Saprykina, D. Yakupov, M. Sergazyuly.

List of references

81
1. «Experimental Study On Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Long Flexible Pipe In
Sheared Flows» Sup Hong, Jong-Su Choi, Hyung-Woo Kim, Tae-kyeongYeu; 2011.
The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers.
2. «Robotic MFL Sensor and Vibration based Deepwater Riser Monitoring System»
C. Huang, SPE, Graduate Student; S. Nagarajaiah, Professor, Rice
University; 2012. Offshore Technology Conference.
3. S.A. Egorov, A.N. Mamaev, I.G. Likhachiev, Yu.A. Ershov, A.S. Voloshin,
Eliesar Nir, Advanced signal processing method for interferometric fiber-
optic sensors with straightforward spectral detection, SPIE, Vol.3201,
4. «FIBER-OPTIC SENSORS IN MWD APPLICATIONS» Baker Hughes Incorporated United
States Patent. 2011 г.
5. «Next Generation Directional MWD Tool Requirements for Relief Wells»,
Gordon Richardson and Robert L. Waters 04.2011 г.
6. «Electromagnetic Measurements While Drilling: a Telemetry Solution for
Casing-While-Drilling» M Zarir Musa, Dian Semesta Bt Abdul Aziz, Trigunadi
Budi Setiawan and Heru Hermawan (PETRONAS) Ilen Kardani, Mohd Azlan Shah
Askar Ali, and Rosli Sidek,(Halliburton). 10.2012 г.
7. Sondex’s data

List of figures

Figure 3.1. Free hanging catenary for flexible risers.


Figure 3.2. Flexible pipe composed of several layers of steel and polymers.
Figure 3.3. Optical fibers are embedded in the grooves of the tensile wire
sheathing.
Figure 3.4. Temperature profile of the cross section of a flexible tube structure.
Figure 3.5. Distributed temperature sensing.
Figure 3.6. Fiber-optic communication.
Figure 3.7. Calipers.

List of abbreviations

82
MFE – Marine floating equipment; FDR - Floating drilling rig; BHA – Bottom
hole assembly; MWD - Measurement while drilling; RTM - Real-time mode.

Questions from chapter 3.

1. For solutions of which tasks are the downhole fiber-optic sensors used?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of downhole fiber-optic sensors?
3. What is the visualizer of the marine production riser?
4. What goals and objectives are set before monitoring the pressure and
temperature of flexible pipeline systems in real time?
5. What unique features are available in the distributed temperature sensor
(DTS)?
6. Which tasks are solved by the MWD in real time?
7. What problems are solved by the defectoscopy of the flow tubing?

83
Figures to chapter 3.

Figure 3.1. Free hanging catenary for flexible risers.


Рисунок 3.1. Свободно висящая цепная линия для
гибких райзеров.

Figure 3.2. Flexible pipe composed of several layers of steel and polymers.
Рисунок 3.2. Гибкая труба состоит из нескольких
слоев стали и полимеров

Figure 3.3.: Optical fibers are embedded in the grooves of the tensile wire
sheathing (foreground) to protect them during the manufacture, installation and operation

84
of the pipeline. This enables the direct and accurate measurement of temperature and
strain tensile wire sheathing.
Рисунок 3.3. Оптические волокна, внедренные в
пазы на растяжение провода обшивки (на переднем
плане) их защиты в процессе изготовления, монтажа
и эксплуатации трубопровода. Это дает
возможность прямого и точного измерения
температуры и деформации на растяжение провода
обшивки.

Figure 3.4.: Temperature profile of the cross section of a flexible tube structure
for four different temperature differences in (1, 2, 3, 4) between the opening and the
environment. In case of violation of the outer shell temperature drops.
Рисунок 3.4.: Температурный профиль по сечению
гибкой структуры трубы для четырех в различных
перепадах температур (1, 2, 3, 4) между отверстием и
окружающей среды. В случае нарушения внешней
оболочки температура снизится.

85
Figure 3.5. Distributed temperature sensing. The temperature is determined from the
Raman scattered components in the spectrum from a given point.
Рисунок 3.5. Распределенное измерение
температуры. Температура определяется из
соотношения комбинационного рассеянного
компонентов в спектре от заданной точки.

86
Figure 3.6. Fiber-optic communication
Рисунок 3.6. Оптоволоконный канал связи

Figure 3.7. Calipers.


Рисунок 3.7. Профилемеры.

87
Chapter 4. Integrated modeling and Project Design

Abstract

The main objective of the modern development of oil and gas companies is to
increase the value of assets of the company in real time based on the integration
of all its component parts into a whole by integrating the modeling of oil and gas
fields. The integrated collaboration environments are the specialized working
environments that allow: to establish a physical or virtual interaction between
the decision-makers; to simplify the connection between the employees and to
optimize an asset performance; to provide a quick and easy access to the tools or
software products. Many oil and gas companies began the creation of the integrated
local collaboration environments or the centre of high-techs, communications,
visualization, and control rooms that enable the more effective data collection,
monitoring, communications and knowledge & information exchange. These integrated
environments are designed to help the personal to make more substantiated
decisions and to take the appropriate actions on the enterprise scale.

Key words: integrated collaborative environment; local collaborative


environments; network organization; business processes; discretization of oil and
gas field; data transfer, and control; a global remote support centre, object-
orientated models, the problem of Big Data, modern modeling and simulation,
Gigacell simulation, the well-bore management (artificial lift, workovers,
completions).

Main chapter topics

The integrated modeling and design of oil and gas development in real time.
The concept of integrated modeling of oil and gas company. The bases of integrated
modeling of oil and gas fields. The range of software of various companies. The
principles of the using of 3D static and dynamic models for the tasks of
controlling the development process. The evaluation of initial and current volumes
of hydrocarbons in real time. The analysis of the effectiveness of the existing

88
production and recovering of hydrocarbons in real time. The ISE is an integrated
collaboration environment for oil and gas companies: goals, main tasks, strengths
and weaknesses. The examples of the use of integrated technologies in the oil and
gas companies. Modeling in the oil and gas companies in real time, that is the
goals, objectives and means. The structure of training and the creation of an
integrated model of hydrocarbon fields. The modern simulators to model oil and gas
reservoirs. The simulation of oil and gas fields in real time, the aims and tasks.
The problem Big Data is a large amount of commercial metadata for the integrated
modeling of oil and gas fields. The discretization of an oil and gas field in
space and in time. The types of discrete models. The concept of 3D geological and
3D hydrodynamic models. The model of the database cells.

Introduction

This chapter highlights the concept of an integrated oil and gas company
collaboration environments. The first section describes the objectives, main
tasks, strengths and weaknesses, which are owned by oil and gas companies. The
second section explains such concepts as the discretization of an oil and gas
field, types of discrete models created for it in 3D geological (static) and 3D
hydrodynamic (dynamic) models. The third section identifies the limitations
associated with the problem of Big Data, that is, a large amount of commercial
metadata for the integrated modeling of oil and gas fields. The fourth section
examines the important goals of modern development, which includes the creation of
modern simulation models of oil and gas reservoirs. The fifth section provides the
examples of the integrated technologies used in different oil and gas companies.
The sixth section describes the great results can be achieved only by introduction
of a new technology, innovations and the integration of the processes, which give
an opportunity to have maximum measurements and control, enabling to optimize the
operation of all field facilities.

4.1 The ICE is an integrated collaboration environment of oil and gas


companies: goals, guidelines, advantages and disadvantages

89
The ICE - an integrated collaboration environments can support the drilling,
production, production optimization, or "centers of expertise". The integrated
collaboration environments are the environments that allow to establish a physical
or virtual interaction between the decision-makers in drilling, in the oil fields,
on the offshore platform or in the office, to simplify considerably the connection
between the technicians, engineers and operators, the interdisciplinary
collaboration and to optimize the asset performance, to provide a quick and easy
access to the tools or software products in order to "show and tell" the
information from the available data, to analyze it and to make well-founded
decision.
The functional of specialized working environments is created by using
advanced hardware and software, digital displays and projectors, various computer
devices, mobile cameras, data management tools in real time; communication means
and systems using the programmable consoles and creating the workspace and the
work environment. The latest telecommunication and network tools are reliable,
affordable for the user and simple to maintain.
The complex modeling is necessary to optimize the daily production in a
short-term tactical planning and in a long-term strategic development of oil and
gas fields. A large amount of time and experience is required to the optimal
process conditions. Good quality data at the appreciate time; modern integrated
models, innovative management processes that reduce the time from obtaining the
new data to making the decisions, as well as a team of qualified professionals are
required to get the qualitative modeling and good reservoir management. Many
factors are important for the modeling concept. A set of related software products
is needed which enables to transfer the data from one software product to another.
The use of technology should be focused on the adoption of the most informed and
profitable decisions. An interdisciplinary approach is needed in the case of
integration that can be provided by a team of specialists in various fields. The
multivariate modeling should help to make more informed decisions. The experts
will have a free access to the previous results. The integrated model should be
cost-oriented and include an assessment of risks. The oil and gas industry
requires finding the way of performance in the new environment, which is formed by
two factors: the availability of energy to meet the growing needs of the world,

90
the availability of energy. Oil and gas companies have implemented a number of
smart energy solutions. Joint and remote operations are manufacturing operational
centers, the centers for the exploitation and maintenance of drilling in real
time, which require substantial changes in the methods of work, the shift of the
focus from the implementation of the new technology to the people, to the changes
the processes, and in the organization. The integrated optimization of assets is
centers of integrated support and optimization of assets, which put forward the
new requirements for the people, processes and organizational changes. Over the
last decade the smart fields generated from the small technology decisions through
the joint operations to the integrated optimization of assets. The model that
describes the steps required in the transition from the local centers of
cooperation to the network organization is shown in Figure 4.2 in the measurement
of the processes, communities, staff and knowledge management.
The expert assessments are one of the external resources in to the main team
of the project and the location. The operational processes are needed to encourage
a greater cross-functional cooperation in regional centers. At the level of global
support centers (GSC) that should be complemented by the promotion of the GSC in
the intercultural management of changes in assets. The GSCs have to offer
management services that are relevant to the assets. The business processes
include the solutions with account of different time scales and time zones. The
continuous monitoring in real time requires the ability to transfer between the
shifts. The optimization of activity requires less attention to the transfer and
more attention to a good documentation. The GSC must be equipped on a 24 hour
basis for a full coverage of the monitoring operations in real time.
The collaboration tools are required to connect people in remote places. The
joint communication technologies can reduce the frequency of trips. The
collaboration environment gives an opportunity to the data at local and regional
centers in real time. The motivation is another important aspect in the process of
cooperation. The percentage of the non-local operations is increasing in a
networked organization. The experts are needed in a networked organization for
working more efficiently and independently of the location. It is not enough to
use global resources in order to implement the networked organization; the people
should work as a community to ensure the success of the organization. The

91
collaboration technologies and the corporate thinking are needed to cover all the
accumulated knowledge and experience, which become common and may be used by
different specialists to bring benefits to the company.

4.2 Discretization of an oil and gas field. Types of discrete models. The concept
of 3D geological (static) and 3D hydrodynamic (dynamic) models. The database
of the model cells

The integrated model of the field uses the following: 4D seismic data, well
logs, seismic, a reservoir model, a classification system, and petrophysics. Using
a wide range of data allows creating the optimized (with less risk and high
return) scenario of the field development by using of modern computer technology.
The preparation work for creating the model involves the following elements:
characteristics of the reservoir; a static model, a dynamic model, and the
database. All these elements are interconnected. The delivery or extraction of
information from the database is occurring at each stage. The Database cells
include: the permeability, the porosity, the density, the cell coordinates, the
initial saturation, the initial pressure, the fluid properties, and the relative
permeability of the rock. Typically, the starting point of the stochastic modeling
of the reservoir is the interpretation of the existing seismic data. The selection
of the multiple surfaces is produced after the temporary migration followed by the
interpolation and depth conversion using a model of a medium speed. The
chronostratigraphical surfaces with high resolution, which are invisible on the
seismogram, can be interpolated between the wells. The construction of the exact
scheme of bedding is very important. The seismic stratigraphy emphasizes the
significance of the correlations based on time limits. In favorable cases, the
boundaries of complexes or maximum flooding surfaces can be a valuable source of
information. The fundamental role of application of the chronostratigraphic
correlation is the describing of the structure of the formation, for example the
total thickness by each stratigraphical unit. It may serve as an important
criterion for changing the parameters of the stochastic pattern between the
layers.
There are two types of models:

92
1. Object-oriented models. This modeling method is relatively simple: each
type of sand body is modeled using a simplified geometry and statistical
information about the size: potential options for interpreting logs, as well as
the basic elements of uncertainty, which should be taken into account in the
simulation. The thickness of the sand body can be determined on the basis of
statistical histograms of the thicknesses of the horizons observed in the wells
and their width can be determined on the basis of their size using the
relationship between the thickness and the width. The object-oriented models make
it possible to create a lot of different options for the geological conditions.
Initially, the object-oriented models were limited mainly to the random
determination of the spatial arrangement of the clay interlayers, but such types
of the current models require the use of complex constraints imposed by the
geological data.
2. Indicator simulation. The indicator simulation is used in some applied
research for the distribution of genetic sand bodies. The main difference between
the indicator and the object-oriented modeling is in performing the heterogeneity
characteristics of the reservoir. The sandy or clay bodies are modeled as the
objects distributed in an object-oriented modeling. These objects can be described
using a specific (but arbitrary) shape or size. The geological structure is
described by means of the "indicator variograms” in the indicator method.
The classification can be used to compare the algorithms of the object-
oriented modeling and the indicator modeling on the basis of the different
iterative, sequential and direct methods. The iterative methods are implemented
through the first stage of a random three-dimensional model, which does not meet
all the constraints according to the input data. The model is created step by step
and at every stage is checked for compliance with the specified limits. The direct
methods are based on a mathematical algorithm, which provides a record of all the
constraint conditions, without being repeated. The ultimate goal of the stochastic
modeling for a design engineer is to reliably reproduce the spatial distribution
of petrophysical properties for the subsequent hydrodynamic simulation: the
simulation of genetic units and lithological characteristics, which can be useful
to represent the characteristics of the geological structure.

93
4.3 The problem of Big Data - a large amount of field metadata for the
integrated modeling of oil and gas fields

The simulation combines the parameters which characterize the reservoir. The
seismic data are used to determine the structural characteristics of mapping
distortions, to detect the stratigraphic of changes and the mapping of the
sedimentary surfaces (distinction between rocks and display of these boundaries),
to detect the hydrocarbons.
In accordance with the graph of the porosity - permeability relationship in
logging, we obtain the information about the profile of the permeability. The
logging provides the information about the porosity, the saturation, the depth,
the thickness of the productive zone of the reservoir. Thanks to the well testing
we obtain the information about reservoir, skin factor, the boundaries of drainage
areas, etc. Through such studies it is possible to suppose the presence of
hydrocarbon fields with more confidence. All the data are placed in a mesh, which
serves as the basis for the construction of a grid structure model. The results of
the geophysical research can only indirectly estimate the average formation
parameters; they cannot give a detailed picture of the distribution of the
properties. It is necessary to solve the problem of interpolation and
extrapolation of measurements in the boreholes and the annulus. The key problem in
the development of hydrocarbon fields is the construction of the reservoir model,
which allows obtaining reliable forecasts of the production volumes by using
various development scenarios.
After drilling of a number of appraisal wells or after a few years of
production, an oilfield geologist is able to create a model of the geological
structure of the inter-well space. This model is a conceptual representation of
the structure of rock members (river channels, floodplain clay), within which
there can be later defined the features of the distribution of the petrophysical
properties. Such models have a significant impact on the selection of certain
decisions from the economic point of view. As an example, we can mention the
choice of the location of wells, sealing the development design grid, or the
construction of a hydrodynamic model, when the obtained results affect the choice
of the development strategy. The correlation diagrams reproduce the features of

94
the geological environment, including the well data and the information on the
conditions of sedimentation, facies associations and geometry. The construction of
a three-dimensional geological model manually is almost impossible. As a result,
the conceptual geological model is often significantly different from the models
used in hydrodynamic modeling, because the three-dimensional models used by the
petroleum engineers do not reflect the geological information contained in the
detailed two-dimensional correlation schemes. In most cases, the a geologist can
also build other geological sections or schemes of correlation, which would as
well correspond to the available well data and the information on the geological
structure that is typical for this type of depositional environment. The level of
specification in each of the four phases depends on the stage of the field
development. When there are a limited number of wells available at the stage of
the survey it is enough to simulate the rock members with account of the estimated
permeability because of the high degree of uncertainty. The lithological variation
of petrophysical properties can be modeled in more detail in the subsequent stages
of the field development.

4.4 Modern modeling and simulation of oil and gas reservoirs

The Petrel software package makes it possible to describe the reservoirs in


real time. The integration of geophysics, geology and field development within a
single model enables an effective collaboration between the project team members
and allows the assessment of the development scenarios and the use of the
hydrodynamic models at the early stages of development. Understanding of the
processes occurring in the reservoir provides a more accurate assessment of the
assets, which allows predicting the initial geological reserves at an earlier
stage, to predict the reservoir behavior and to evaluate the capital and operating
costs. Account of the relationship of the data and the parameters helps to quickly
update the model as the new data enter, to control the scenarios to calculate the

95
exact analysis of the history of the development and to analyze the risks and
uncertainties throughout the life of the deposit.
PIPESIM is a software package for modeling, design and work analysis of the
surface infrastructure and pipeline systems. PIPESIM modules are used for such
analyses, as modeling the well, artificial lift optimization, simulation of
pipelines and processing equipment the field development planning. The program is
an indispensable tool in the calculations of the surface infrastructure and
pipeline capacities. It supports the integrated approach linking the potential
wells with the production capacity of the surface equipment. An important feature
is an integrated and open construction of the system. This allows developing a
complete model of the production structure of, starting from the field and
finishing at a central collection point. The simulation of the steady multiphase
flow for oil and gas systems: is the modeling the production system to increase
the overall production rate, making the right decisions on the management of the
production system of, the simulation of production and injection wells; the
calculation of loss of pressure and temperature at the well, the design and
analysis of the artificial lift (ESP rod pumps, gas lift), the simulation of
complex systems for the collection and preparation of the various fluids, pumping
systems, pipelines; modeling of complex systems for the collection and preparation
of various fluids, pumping systems, field pipelines, the consideration of the
interaction between the wells, pipelines and facilities, the calculation of the
required diameter of the pipeline, modeling and calculation of various types of
mixtures including the viscous and highly viscous oils, the forecast of the
formation of hydrates, wax, asphaltenes; the calculation of the amount of paraffin
fields in the pipes from time to time, the forecast of the appearance of a liquid
plug and the determination of its size; the definition of the conditions of the
fluid accumulation of at the bottom hole, the calculation of corrosion and
erosion; the model of the sensitivity studies and its optimization, the model of
integration of the acquisition system with the system of well production and a
hydrodynamic model of the field
The “Drilling Office” software suite is a modern software system
consisting of separate modules that enable you to design and optimize the
processes in the construction of the phase of well drilling. The program is used

96
both in the design and in well drilling.. The “Drilling Office” program allows
you to adjust the methods, modes of drilling, construction and layout of the drill
string, its equipment based on the actual data. This allows not only to
qualitatively optimize the drilling processes, but also to warn potential
emergency situations in the construction of wells.
The software package “ProSource” is an application that makes it possible
to realize the process of finding and managing the data distributed across the
multiple and diverse subsystems. The program allows you to visually integrate, to
carry out a simultaneous search, to compare, to view, and to edit the data. The
feature of the program is the ability to compare and to view the data from
different sources through the logging interface, tables and forms, reducing the
time loss the of experts for the exploration and development of oil and gas fields
in the solution of the problems of collection and preparation of input data for
the projects, the improving the efficiency of the collaboration work of the
project teams through the creation and use of the unified information environment.

4.5 Examples of application of integrated technologies in the oil and gas


companies

The data from the production well enter the internal computer system
"Shell", which is based on a standardized global operating system environment and
secure high-speed network, known as “Data Acquisition and Control Architecture”
(DACA). The Real time data flow to a personal computer of an engineer, who then
provides the proper interpretation of the data quality and the generation of
solutions. In the integrated group, comprising the experts from various
disciplines there are used visualization and simulation software. With their help
the data in real time are analyzed, and based on the obtained information the
decisions are taken. If necessary, the experts are making changes in the
production system which allows them to optimize at the lowest costs. Most of the
"smart assets" the Shell includes are as follows: 1) the monitoring and
measurement: downhole tools; temperature measuring sensors, cable-free devices. 2)
the control: flow-control valves; electronic, gas lift valves; optimizing the
operations in real time. 3) Modeling: modeling of production; field model fields.

97
The introduction of such technologies is impossible without integrating people,
technology and business processes. According to the Shell the use of "smart"
technologies,, shows their value in several areas: improving the ultimate
hydrocarbon recovery factor by 8% (5% for gas and 10% for oil); increasing
production by 10%; reducing the risks and uncertainties associated with the
development; other important benefits, including safety, health and the
environment. The use of "smart" and integrated technologies allows the experts to
share the knowledge more efficiently, which is reflected in the productivity of
the work and allows you to make more informed and accurate decisions, ensuring the
achievement of the greatest benefits.
The McErloy and Chevron maintained the system to discuss the implementation
of the process of the Integrated Production Systems Optimization (IPSO). The
system of integrated optimization of production systems was built so as to link
the center of production and the construction with the strategic outlook of
production. The McElroy field is located not far from Midland, TX. Each McElroy
Reservoir Engineer is a part of the multi-disciplinary field management team which
includes production/operations engineering, reservoir engineering, earth science,
operations, production gathering and treatment, and well construction. The team
would like to enhance the base production through the asset/reservoir management,
development drilling, new projects on the production, the well-bore management
(artificial lift, workovers, completions, etc) and technology application. The
McElroy field is under secondary recovery now and the reservoir engineers are
heavily involved in the practical aspects of managing and optimizing the
waterflooding. State of the art smart field tools (IMET, WEST, PEST, etc) are used
to manage the waterflooding by exception. The McElroy is targeted for conversion
to tertiary recovery (CO2 flooding) in 2014.
IMET (Injection Management Exception Tool) – This software uses real time
data from Chevron’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system to
provide on-line visualization of actual versus target injection rates and
pressures for each injection well. The tool uses visualization coding to display
operational performance of each well making it simple and quick to identify
problem wells. The technical team uses IMET in twice-weekly meetings with field
specialists. Injection problems are identified and addressed within 24 hours.

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Figure 6 shows the IMET summary page. Each large numbered box represents a
640 acre section of the McElroy field. The colored rectangles represent each
injection well within that section. The size of the rectangle is proportional to
the injection volume and the color of the rectangle is an indicator of how close
the actual daily injection volume is to the target injection volume. Black
rectangles indicate that the well is within +/- 10% of the target injection rate.
Blue colors are indicators of over injection and red colors are indicators of
under injection. The user can instantly spot injection problems and set action
plans for specific wells
WEST (Well Event Exception Tool) – This software application uses well test
data and alert criteria to identify producing well problems. There are up to 16
alert criteria which can be set by the user to identify problems. Rules are set
based on changes in production, decline rate, water oil ratio, etc. The software
runs each night, identifies all wells violating the rules, and sets an alert flag.
The technical team meets twice a week with the field artificial lift specialist to
review all producing wells which show an alert. Problems are quickly identified
and action plans are built to mitigate the problem. Figure 7 shows the main screen
of WEST. The red boxes indicate that the well is in alert status and the remaining
columns provide summary information about the well. The user can filter based on
alert status and on production volumes to identify specific wells to look at in
detail. Figure 8 is the well detail view. The top center of the page provides oil,
water, gas, WOR, GOR, and oil cut information. The top right section of the page
provides artificial lift performance detail. The center section provides alert
diagnostics allow the user to fully understand why the well is in alert status.
The left column has links to production plots, neighborhood well performance
information, and other software functions. All information necessary to complete a
well analysis is either displayed or linked to the WEST tool making it very
efficient of the user to identify, analyze, and make well action plans.
PEST (Pattern Event Surveillance Tool) – This software application uses
allocated production data to evaluate flood patterns against alert criteria to
identify injection pattern problems. The program runs once a month and checks
decline rates, injection volumes, injection withdraw ratio, water oil ratio, and
other criteria set by the user. Complete pattern analysis is then mapped to see

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extent and locations of pattern alerts. The PEST tool links to the WEST and IMET
applications allowing the user to pinpoint how pattern alerts relate directly to
wells within each pattern. Figure 9 shows the map view of PEST. Each injection
centered waterflood pattern is displayed on a field map and the patterns are
colored to depict current status vs. pattern rules set by the user. Green is an
indicator that the pattern has no problems. Yellow indicates that the pattern is
approaching alert status. Red indicates that the pattern is in alert. Note that
the individual wells within the patterns are also color coded to match their
status from the WEST tool.
WFDM (Waterflood Depth Mapping) – This application uses injection profile
data to build a visual display of which zones are taking injection and the
relative volume of injection. The software provides critical information in multi
zone floods to allow the user to quickly identify areas where zones are being
bypassed. Figure 10 is an example of the WFDM. In this example each small box
represents 200 bwipd. Boxes are stacked at the injection well to reflect the total
injection volume. The color of the box represents the zone of injection. Wells
with desired distribution of injection to each zone can be identified by multiple
boxes of each color. Wells with poor distribution are easily identified by
multiple boxes of the same color.
To enhance the usage of the new waterflood management tools, an Asset
Decision Environment (ADE) was built. The ADE facility includes a 20 foot wide
screen with multiple projectors to allow all pertinent information to be displayed
simultaneously enabling faster and more informed decisions. All stakeholders can
meet together in an ADE to efficiently view, discuss, and agree on action plans.
As discussed previously, the current process is to meet twice weekly for injection
well reviews using IMET and twice weekly to review well alerts using WEST.
Detailed project reviews using the full suite of i-field tools are conducted on a
regular schedule managed by the technical team. The engineers on the McErloy’
smart field completed a detailed inventory of equipment and tools created to
display the data of each object in the field. The data on the equipment have been
used to develop a theoretical performance for each object. The results were
compared with the actual data from the field and were discussed with field staff
to develop a more accurate model. The system of integrated optimization of

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production systems was built to capture all the production data and the
theoretical potential for each piece of the equipment at each site. At the same
time the McErloy team is building the forecast of production and injection for
each object. This forecast takes into account the production base, the future
capital repairs and future drilling. In addition, the projected growth potential
opportunities discharge. The data forecast was built in Excel format that can be
associated with the tools of integrated optimization of production systems. The
manufacturing tools use the forecast data to test the expected performance for
each unit. The output data enable the technical team to clearly define the
potential problem areas in any part of the field. Each numbered cell is a part of
the field. The use of the smart field and IPSO technologies has had a significant
impact on the field McErloy. The injection rate in the injection performance
increased by 10%, from 185 to 275 wells within 8 weeks of the IMET existence. The
number of prospective workover increased to more than 100 when the WEST has been
included in the daily workflow. That was achieved by stopping the decline in
production, which was directly associated with improved performance on the
injection and production wells. Using the tools of IPSO now defines industrial
projects in the budget and in the future will enable to go to operate without the
problem sites. Chevron is working to expand the water flooding management using
the smart field instruments and the IPSO processes in all other key water flooded
fields managed by the company.
The business model of BP aims at creating the production value throughout
the chain of the operation with hydrocarbons. It begins with the exploration and
ends with the supply of energy and other products that are fundamental to daily
life. Each stage of the chain of creation of hydrocarbon value has the opportunity
to create their value as through the successful implementation of the activities
both through the successful performance and the use of distinctive advantages and
capabilities of the company. The company aims at searching, development and
production of the main sources of energy that people need. The company provides
customer with fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, lubricants,
petrochemicals used in everyday life (for example, plastic bottles). The producing
(Upstream) segment of the company is responsible for the exploration of oil and
natural gas, field development, production, transportation, processing, and also

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trade in natural gas. The exploration company division gets an access to the
resources and finds them in many hydrocarbon basins around the world. The BP
company focuses on the areas that are its strengths, namely, deepwater drilling,
gas distribution chain (including the infrastructure "from the field to the
market"), and the giant field. The BP increases investments with a focus on
exploration.
A family of software products from Schlumberger Avocet help make timely the
decisions and to predict the results in order to reduce downtime and increase the
efficiency of production operations. The cooperative solution is made for
monitoring any processes related to the production of hydrocarbons for managers
and engineers: the reports of the management companies of the on the assets;
monitoring the real time data by using Avocet SurveillAnce programm. This is the
monitoring of the production processes such as: the state of wells, the movement
of fluids, pump performance, the state of the ground equipment (separators,
pipelines); the monitoring of the wells, ESP performance, selection of candidates;
the breakthrough of sand, corrosion/erosion, flooding, loss of paraffin and
hydrates. The visualization interface for the collaborative operation centers
“Avocetvolumes manager (AVM)” includes: collection, quality control and
consolidation of all production and operating oil and gas field data, production
records, rapid calculation of the return distribution for all the fluids (gas,
oil, water, gas condensate), the formation of regulatory and operational
reporting, including through the WEB (daily reports, etc.), the possibility of the
remote data acquisition (RDA version), and directly from the telemetry systems
(SCADA).
The integrated solution for the analysis and management of geological and
production data “OFM (Oilfieldmanager)”: the selection of candidate wells
geological and technical measures (hydraulic fracturing, acid treatment, side-
tracking, etc.); the evaluation of additional oil produced by the well
intervention; assessment of basic economic indicators of the effectiveness of well
intervention; the assessment of the expected operational performance (evaluation
of the forecasts), the analysis and optimization of flooding (the analysis of the
compensation, the evaluation of the recovery factor, the coverage by flooding in
volume, the value of injection; work with different types of data and high

102
frequency; a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the field development;
different levels of analysis (the field, the object of development, the license
area, etc.); the ability to work with well pads (with account of factor of the
distribution and losses for the well pads), the ability to create templates for
analysis, the ability to collaborate on projects.
The selection and optimization of an artificial lift by using “AvocetWell &
SurfaceModeler” package: ESP, electric motors, gas separators, receiver modules,
protectors, control stations, frequency converters, transformers, cables, gas-lift
valves, quick selection of ESPs for wells with high water content, the alignment
of start-up and service valves, the calculation of the deepest point of discharge,
the comparison of trials. The integrated solution for optimizing the gas lift
operations in real time by using “AvocetGasLiftManager” package: checking and
correction of test results, gas lift the automatic update model, diagnosing of the
valves, diagnostics models, optimization, with account of all the constraints of
the system in real time optimization of gas lift for maximum production without
additional hardware costs. The complete solution for modeling fields throughout
the period of development by using Avocet IntegratedAssetModeler package: enabling
to integrate the models of the reservoir, wells and field equipment, data
acquisition, preparation and processing; to specify the complex restrictions
including the operating parameters of field facilities and financial factors. The
unified managed system: accounting of the effect of the restrictions of surface
equipment on the formation; expanding of the network bottleneck; optimizing gas
production; the optimization of the distribution of gas lift, evaluation and
optimization of artificial lift; elimination of the possibility of choosing the
wrong equipment, selection of power compressor equipment, planning of exploration
drilling programs, reduction of energy formation losses by minimizing the
depression on individual wells while maintaining a constant total production for
the field: modeling the life cycle of the field.

4.6 Technology of the future - Gigacell simulation

The 4D monitoring (4D seismic) is the best means of monitoring in real time
of the status of wells and reservoirs; it is what geophysicists around the world

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have strived for years. Today it became possible to continuously monitor without
using of stimulation sources of seismic signals. The 4D monitoring is the basis
for the solution of such problems as the choice of the direction of horizontal
drilling, the definition of the places of drilling out of large producers,
building the model of stress-strain state of rock masses, the control of various
kinds of impact on the formation, etc.
The vast amounts of seismic, geological and engineering data are available
for the large reservoirs of the Middle East. The high resolution seismic data are
used, in the geological models in the order of billions of cells. Due to the
limitations of the reservoir simulators, the models are often upscaled in the
order of several million cells. The new parallel reservoir simulator, GigaPOWERS™,
which is used to build the geological models with or without a minimum of scaling.
The world’s largest oil reservoirs with long production histories can now be
simulated using over 1 billion cells. It is a very powerful tool for designing the
new production scenarios using the most cost-effective means.
The reservoir heterogeneity in reservoir models is essential. If the model
will be built by using the average reservoir properties, the simulation result
will reflect the average reservoir performance. Fluid movement between wells is
largely misrepresented by the upscale models. Although measured properties, such
as well pressures, water cuts and gas-oil ratios (GORs), can be matched at wells
with the upscale models, the distribution of oil and water within the reservoir
(in the space between the wells) cannot be matched with upscale models unless the
reservoir heterogeneity is properly represented in the reservoir model. Figure 5
shows that flow channels in the geological model disappear in the upscaled model
using a 0.25 km areal grid.
The geological model can be simulated using as many cells as required to
maintain the integrity of all data, enabling to discover the regions untouched by
the development of old fields. The fine grid models should have a sufficient
number of vertical layers to capture vertical heterogeneity. GigaPOWERS has
succeeded in simulating the world’s largest offshore oil reservoir, Safaniya, in
full measure, with 1 billion and 8 million cells incorporating 60 years of
production. The areal grid size of 15 m was computed with the help of a cluster
using 2,000 cores and performed in only 15 hours. Another example is the largest

104
onshore oil reservoir Ghawar, is also using 1 billion and 32 million active cells.
The production case was calculated by using a three-phase black oil simulation.
Again, using 4,000 cores of a cluster computer the GigaPOWERS simulator completed
the run in 21 hours incorporating 60 years of production history involving many
production and injection wells.
Under the given production scenario, the mega-cell simulator shows that
water will move much faster, sweeping a larger area. This example illustrates the
clear effect of numerical dispersion for the mega-cell simulation, which is
unrealistic. Giga-cell simulation shows less numerical dispersion. The Giga-cell
simulation, however, reveals that there will be unswept zones, which will have oil
remaining if this production scenario is to be applied. Based on the results of
the giga-cell simulation, the additional oil volume can be produced by infill
drilling or sidetracking the wells. The giga-cell simulation presents
opportunities to recover more hydrocarbons.

Conclusion

The chapter provided an overview on the changes needed in the establishment


of a "smart" company. It has also shown examples of technologies and processes
used by some "smart" companies. The introduction of such technologies is
impossible without integrating people, technologies and business processes. The
complex modeling is necessary to optimize the daily production in a short-term
tactical planning and a long-term strategic development of oil and gas fields. The
use of "smart" and integrated technologies allows the experts to share knowledge
more efficiently, which is reflected in the productivity of work and allows you to
make more informed and accurate decisions, ensuring the achievement of the maximum
benefits. The object-oriented models can claim to be the almost universal tool
that allows you to play a lot of different options for the geological conditions.
The Giga-cell simulation is expected to be beneficial for mankind in its quest to
produce more hydrocarbons to sustain the world’s economic development.

Acknowledgements

105
The fourth chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin
"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as course papers students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: Zholmurzayeva A.B. and others.

References:

1. Chapman and P. Forbes, I. (2010). Smart Oil and the Development of the
Networked Organisation. SPE 128452.
2. Jim Crompton, H. G. The Future of Integrated Operations. SPE Economics &
Management, 2011.
3. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-019-9; Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н., Еремин А.Н.
Управление разработкой интеллектуальных
месторождений: Учеб. пособие для вузов: В 2 кн.
– Кн. 2. Учеб. пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-329-7.
4. A.L. Khasanov (2010) Hierarchy of integrated models. SPE 117412.
5. http://www.saudiaramco.com/content/dam/Publications/Journal%20of%20Technology
/Spring2011/GigaCell.pdf
6. Jan Sagen, IFE, Monica Østenstad, Bin Hu, SPT Group, Kjell Eirik Irgens
Henanger, Siv Kari Lien, Statoil ASA, Zhenggang Xu, SPT Group, Steinar
Groland, Terje Sira, IFE (2012) “A Dynamic Model for Simulation of
Integrated Reservoir, Well and Pipeline System”, SPE 147053

106
7. A.N. Dmitrievsky, academician RAS, N.A. Eremin (IPNG RAS),(2012) “Resources
and Innovation Model and the Solution of Acute Oil and Gas Field Development
Problems”
8. Hui Deng, Roberto Aguilera and Antonin Settari, SPE, Schulich School of
Engineering/University of Calgary (2010)“
9. An Integrated Workflow for Reservoir Modeling and Flow Simulation of the
Nikanassin Tight Gas Reservoir in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin “,SPE
146953
10. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION USING GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION
TECHNIQUES T. L. Mason, C. Emelle, J. van Berkel Shell International
Production and Exploration B.V
11. SPE-149668, Chevron's Digital Oilfields Solutions and Base Business Processes
Maximise Value at McElroy Field, West Texas

List of figures

1. Figure 4.1 Evolution of Networked Organization


2. Figure 4.2 Journey to the Networked Organization
3. Figure 4.3 Simulated well performance comparison using course grid (66
million cells) shown in red and fine grid (166 million cells) shown in blue.
The fine grid model reveals longer production
4. Figure 4.4 Largest offshore oil reservoir in the world simulated in over 1
billion cells
5. Figure 4.5 Giga-cell simulation of the largest onshore reservoir in the world
6. Figure 4.6 Water cut match of Ghavar by GigaPOWERS

List of abbreviation

The ICE - an integrated collaboration environments; AVM - Avocetvolumes


manager; BP – British Petroleum; CERA - Cambridge Energy Research Associates; IPSO
– Integrated Production Systems Optimization; OFM – Oilfieldmanager; CWE –
Сollaborative Workplace Environment; DACA – Data Acquisition and Control
architecture; SCADA - supervisory control and data acquisition; HC – hydrocarbon;

107
PS – program support; GTM – geological-technical method; HF – hydraulic
fracturing; GSC – Global Support Center; EOR – enhanced oil recovery; OFD – Oil
field development; EO– exploration object; SDBM– system of data base management;
ESP– electrical-submersible pump; injection withdraw ratio – объемы
нагнетания в единицах поровых объемов; ADE -
Asset Decision Environment.

Questions from chapter 4.

1. What are the goals and objectives of pursuing an integrated collaboration


environment (ICE) in the oil and gas company?
2. What types of discrete models of oil fields do you know?
3. What is a 3D geological (static) model of fields?
4. What are the objectives the creation of 3D hydrodynamic (dynamic) model?
5. What are the challenges to the growth of the field metadata (Big Data)?
6. What modern simulators of oil and gas fields do you know?
7. What is the technology Giga-cellular modelling?

108
Figures to chapter 4.

Figure 4.1 Evolution of Networked Organization


Рисунок 4.1. На пути к сетевой организации

Figure 4.2 Journey to the Networked Organization

109
Рисунок 4.2 Необходимые изменения на пути к
сетевой организации

Figure 4.3 Simulated well performance comparison using course grid (66 million cells)
shown in red and fine grid (166 million cells) shown in blue. The fine grid model reveals
longer production
Рисунок 4.3 Сравнительное моделирование работы
скважины (66 миллион ячеек – красный цвет и 166
миллион ячеек – синий цвет)

110
Figure 4.4 Largest offshore oil reservoir in the world simulated in over 1 billion cells
Рисунок 4.4 Самый крупный в мире морская нефтяная
залежь смоделирован в 1 млрд. ячеек

111
Figure 4.5 Giga-cell simulation of the largest onshore reservoir in the world
Рисунок 4.5 Гига-ячеестое моделирование самого
большого месторождения в мире на суше

Figure 4.6 Water cut match of Ghavar by GigaPOWERS


Рисунок 4.6 Показатель обводненности
месторождения Гавар на GigaPOWERS

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Chapter 5. Exploration in real time

Abstract

The purpose of the exploration works while the development (EWD) is the
identification, assessment and evaluation the new and the current reserves of
hydrocarbons in real time. In the course of the exploration works applied the
geological, geophysical, geochemical, MWD, LWD and SWD are used. The exploration
while oil and gas field development in real time is aimed at monitoring of the
dynamic of changes of the geologic parameters including the filtration and
capacity ones. The exploration while development in real time allows continious
updating of the 3D geologic and hydrodynamic models and adjusting the prognosis
production parameters for the short – and middle terms.

Key words: the real-time exploration while the development (EWD), logging-
while-drilling (LWD), measurement-while-drilling (MWD), 4D seismic survey, 4C
seismic survey, 4D gravimetry in real time, 4D magnitometryin real time, acoustic
monitoring of deepwater wells in real time, geophone, hydrophone, 3D digital core
model, smart well testing, microseismic survey, seismic while drilling (SWD).

Main chapter topics

Geological, seismic, geophysical and well testing tools for monitoring,


control and management of processes of oil and gas fields in real time. Center for
management of field and geological prospecting, further development, geophysical
monitoring of the development of oil and gas fields in real time. Seismic survey
while drilling, exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields. The concept of
4C and 4D seismic data for monitoring the development of oil and gas fields.
Logging while drilling and well operations. Acoustic monitoring wells in real
time. The downhole microseismic survey. Methods of well surveys, design
parameters. Geophysics survey control tasks in real time. Field survey in real
time. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D seismic data for the problem of control
and monitoring of development processes. Objectives and major tasks of "seismic

113
timelapse» -4D seismic surveys. Advantages and disadvantages of 4D seismic surveys
under development and operation of oil and gas fields. Advantages and
disadvantages of 4C and 4D seismic surveys. Objectives and major tasks for the use
of 4C seismic monitoring of development of hydrocarbon fields. Main advantages and
disadvantages.

Introduction

In this chapter, we will consider the methods and tools of the exploration
works while the development (EWD) to control and monitoring of the hydrocarbon
production: 3D and 4D seismic surveys, 4D gravimetry and magnetometry, logging
while drilling (LWD), measurement while drilling (MWD), seismic survey while
drilling (SWD), microseismic monitoring, acoustic monitoring, smart exploration
well, real-time exploration center, smart well testing, 3 D digital core model, to
carry out the exploration of hydrocarbons in real time. According to Andrew Gould
the head of Schlumberger, from 2013 to 2030, global oil and gas industry will have
to invest in exploration for at least $ 350 billion a year. The companies have
chosen the innovative technology of the exploration in real time. More completely
this technology is used by Halliburton in the development of shale gas in the
United States. Over the past ten years this industry has made a tremendous
technological breakthrough, and companies have used their latest achievements. It
is critically important to drill the horizontal well accurately in the shale gas
deposits and effectively to carry out a multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The
technology of geological exploration in real time allows you to receive new
information directly in the process of drilling and to correct the drilling
direction according to the readings of the devices. The technology of the
exploration works while development in real time has grown into a global model of
the concept of a digital field, which can operate in real time. At the same time
the experts of different profiles - geophysic, drilling technicians and others can
simultaneously work. Here they find themselves inside a common information
environment which is open for modeling, measurement and optimization. The focus

114
has been made not only on the technical aspect of their innovations, but on the
use of the professional human potential completely. The instrumental tools of the
exploration while the development (EWD) include 4D seismic and 4C seismic, 4D
gravimetric and 4D magneto metric, smart well testing, digital core model. The
multi-component seismic exploration produces Big Geologic Data, which eventually
will be available to any engineer.[1]

5.1. Geological prospecting and exploration works in real time

The centers of real-time exploration while developments (RTEWDС) allow the


experts in various fields and the engineers to be in any point of the world
without having to be physically in the centers. RTEWDС enable the experts and the
engineers to collaborate and work concurrently on multiple wells located in
different parts of the world; to minimize the issues by reducing the number of the
staff who must be on site; to decrease the time required to make the right
decisions by facilitating the collaboration in real time; to reduce the costs for
exploration operations; to reduce the amount of complications while drilling and
workovers; to reduce the time needed for geological prospecting operations; to
reduce the travels to remote and dangerous locations. Centers provide the ideal
environment for experienced engineers to train and mentor the rising generation
and speed their development to facilitate knowledge transfer.
In 1996 year Edgar Ortiz from the Halliburton Energy Services Group first
introduced the concept of operations in real time. The Halliburton built more than
fifty centers conducting the exploration operation in real time around the world.
About half of them were built for national and international oil companies, and
the rest were built as the internal "hubs" to improve the quality of their own
service and operational quality control.
Fully adaptable to the needs and conditions of a particular location, RTEWDs
can integrate all the aspects of a project, from complex studies to the well
planning, drilling, evaluation, optimization, field delineation, and reservoir
modeling and production enhancement. As the operations expand and move
increasingly to the offshore and other challenging environments. The concepts
provide the ability to monitor rig operations remotely while fostering the

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efficient collaboration among the team members, improving safety thus reducing the
costs and, ultimately, enabling our customers to make better decisions.
Defining the geological prospecting and exploration works in real time
RTEWDs typically used the techniques and the processes based on modeling.
They use the model measurements in a real environment, optimizing the parameters;
or, on the contrary, using the parameters measured in real time environment to
update the model.
The paradigm “Model, Measure, and Optimize” must be introduced into all the
spheres of the geological prospecting operations. The need to integrate these
steps into all phases of geological prospecting and exploration generates is
critical for future exploration wells within any producing area as well as other
producing areas with similar characteristics around the world. The experience
needs to be recorded and used in future applications. Otherwise, we will not be
able to support of occurring knowledge process or modeling. This simple paradigm
needs to be embedded and reiterated for each process within geological prospecting
and exploration operations. The accumulated experience should be valid and used in
future projects.
The exploration operations while the development in real time can be
considered as a “global extended network of experts” functioning on the basis of
24/7 to solve any drilling, exploration or completion problems that might occur.
The experts working in a virtual team can take joint solutions, exchange their
opinions and make recommendations. With the right integration, the analysis of the
exploration data can be conducted in real time by the multiple databases in
geophysical, logging, drilling, fluid testing, and production. Various databases
can be used to benefit and must be preserved. The information on the performed
operations creates a large volume of knowledge that can be used for future wells.
The collaboration of disciplines in the fields represents one of our biggest
challenges. The joint work on one team of the specialists of various fields of
knowledge represents a huge departure from the normal way we do business today.
However, the collaboration across disciplines is beginning to take root within
several large IOC and NOC clients. Also, the integrated tools and technologies for
collaboration are being intensively developed, and they drive efficiencies. The
awareness of the importance of the collaboration across multiple disciplines is

116
growing among oil and gas specialists. The integrated oil and gas production
facilitate the optimization and efficiency of recovery process, reduces both time
of the production cycles and non-productive temporary expenses. The exploration
operations while the development in real time is comprised of many components.
It is possible to present EWD as a pyramid, the one comprised of four levels
that support each other (Fig. 5.1).
Level 1 is a digital connectivity.
For more than 25 years, oil and gas industry has completely changed to
digital technologies. Such tools as data control, the network and optic-fabric
infrastructure now provide digital connectivity worldwide.
Level 2 refers to advanced technologies. These items are the applications,
tools, and technologies that improve the productivity of today’s professionals.
However, most of these improvements have been made to fulfill one certain task.
The industry was mostly focused on these two levels.
Level 3 refers to the integrated working processes.
It consists of integrated, cross-disciplinary workflows that automatically
share the data within the same session.
Level 4 is the decision – making.
The better grounded decisions are made through the efficient, effective
analyses of integrated processes.
The combination of these 4 levels is what makes up the concept of the EWD in
real time. The new definition of the working relationships within the operator
environment opens the opportunity to accelerate the E&P and to extend the scarce
resources. [1]
The key factor in the working process concept “Real Time” is the ability to
gather the right data at the right time for the right engineer, team, or, to some
extent, for a the RTEWDC (Real Time Exploration While Development Center. The
center is the place where well placing and logistics are planned; the monitoring
of the service workflows and operations in real-time is performed. One of the
goals of this center is to help ensure any qualified engineer has access to any
data, any technology, any asset, anywhere, anytime with the proper expertise
needed to do a job. The Center is the catalyst in creating an environment where
the key players can jointly communicate environment with the proper technologies

117
of well drilling or during strategic planning of well drilling before the well
begins. [2]
5.2 4D seismic survey

In the 20th century, 3D seismic survey played an important role in reducing


discovery costs for the hydrocarbon fields. In the 21th century 4D seismic
analysis and interpretation enables oil companies to optimize the production and
to increase oil and gas recovery through monitoring fluid movements throughout the
field. Joint exploration and production (E & P) or the exploration while the field
development in real time can increase the success of 4D seismic exploration
through 3D visualization, and can prepare an integrated development option. 4D
seismic surveys (seismic time-lapse) is one of the instruments of the exploration
during the field development process in real time. 4D seismic method involves
acquisition, processing, and interpretation of repeated seismic survey data in the
process of hydrocarbon field development. Modern technologies of 4D seismic
surveys require a large number (tens, hundreds of thousands) of point receivers.
The idea of 4D survey is simple. Recollection of 3-D seismic data is from the
producing fields, and after the processing and interpretation of these data you
can see what changes have occurred in the reservoir during production. By making
successive seismic images in the same field, the reservoir engineers can identify
the missing deposits, to optimize the spacing of production wells and to clarify
the drilling programs of the injection wells.
The task of 4D seismic survey is to monitor and to map the displacement
processes of oil and gas during the field development. 4D seismic survey allows
tracking, how change the properties of the reservoir in the development of the
field change which is reflected in the seismic characteristics and on the basis of
these data to monitor the oil and gas production. 4D seismic survey helps carry
on: monitoring of the depletion processes in the field scale; the displacement
fronts of gas and oil; the poorly drained areas/lenses; the changes of hydrocarbon
saturations change and formation pressures. The movement of the reservoir fluids
can be predicted both independently and in addition to the infill drilling data
and reservoir simulation. The primary objective of 4D seismic processing is to
maximize the repeatability of the datasets, while attaining sufficient temporal

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and spatial resolution for the detection of the expected subsurface variations. A
final 4D seismic processing product is in interval survey data. This difference
should be close to zero, with the exception of the changes that have taken place
in the field during the interval between seismic surveys. The subsurface
variations as a rule influence the acoustic impedance value.
The most advanced technology of the field development monitoring in real time
is a 4D seismic survey with 4C (four-component) sensors - one hydrophone and 3
axis accelerometers, respectively, for longitudinal and transverse waves. 4C
sensors are placed in a fixed position in the trench on the sea floor. The four-
component (4C) seismic survey collects the data using three orthogonal geophones
(mutually perpendicular with one vertical and two horizontal phones) and a
vertical hydrophone. The 4C seismic survey allows the shear-wave energy to be
recorded, e.g. from the converted reflection or transmission. 4C acquisition
originally gained popularity in hydrocarbon exploration onshore in the mid 1980’s
but this interest has lowered due to the inability of the data to improve the
images and reservoir characteristics. During the second half of the 1990’s the
multi-component acquisition re-emerged in the marine prospecting, with the advent
of ocean bottom seismic surveys. The first 3D-4C surveys were conducted around the
year 1997 and proved their efficiency in processing the images in difficult
geological areas such as gas shallow pools in marine deposits in the Valhall field
in North Sea.
4D seismic was conducted in several fields in the Norwegian sector and some
UK fields in the North Sea: Schiehallion, Foinaven, Draugen, Troll, Oseberg,
Norne, Statfjord, Forties, Ekofisk, Heidrun and Gannet. One of the elements of a
real-time - "Life-of-Field Seismic», was realized in the Ekofisk field. It helped
to understand the reservoir depletion and allowed the planning of new wells.
There are a number of important problems that would allow to further use of
4D seismic data in the world. These problems include: a) increasing the vertical
resolution 4D (ideally 1-10 m), and b) control of non-repeatability surveys, and
c) the search for innovative ways of combining 4D seismic survey with other
modeling techniques, and d) large volume of the seismic data must be processed and
interpreted in a short time, and e) improved resolution of reservoir properties.
4D gravimetric exploration in real time
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StatoilHydro is conducting now gravity reservoir monitoring at six Norwegian
offshore gas fields. The purpose is to track the changes in the gas/water
contacts, and the field-wide gravity monitoring offers a unique possibility to
directly measure the mass changes in the subsoil, actually changes in mass of
producing reservoir. Four time-lapse gravity surveys have been conducted in the
Troll field in a pioneering attempt to image and monitor the rise of the gas-water
contact during gas production. In the Sleipner field two surveys showed the
average change in density when CO2 is injected into the water-saturated sandstone.
The results were later confirmed by well and seismic data, and are actively used
for reservoir management purposes.
The ocean gravimeter - ROVDOG II (Remote Operated Vehicle Deep Ocean
Gravimeter) was developed by the StatoilHydro comprises three gravity sensors and
three pressure sensors, it can also be used to monitor the seabed subsidence
caused by the reservoir rocks undergoing compaction after the gas is removed. In
the Troll field a seabed subsidence of 1-3 cm was observed in the thickest part of
the reservoir for a three-year period. The instrument can measure the subsidence
of less than one centimeter. [4]

5.3 Exploration while development in real time

MWD (measurement while drilling) is a group of directional devices and


systems that do not need to stop the drilling to receive the information. The
objective of the MWD tools is to monitor the inclination and the azimuth of the
drilling. Obtaining of the real time information can reduce the cost of most wells
by improving casing point selection, as well as minimizing non-productive time
costs and improving the drilling efficiency. In the 1980s, MWD measurements were
restricted to simple resistivity curves and gamma ray logs and used more for
correlation than formation evaluation. Gradually sophisticated resistivity,
density and neutron porosity logs have been added to MWD arsenal. With the advent
of high deviation, horizontal and now slim multilateral wells, the MWD

120
measurements often provide only the evaluation reservoirs. The MWD applications
not only include the petrophysical analysis, but also geosteering and geological
interpretation of the MWD imaging. The Measurements While Drilling or MWD refers
to the acquisition and the collection of wellbore deviation directional surveys;
drilling mechanics data, such as the downhole torque, the drill bit pressure, or
vibration; and the process of sending the data up well in real-time.
The MWD survey defines the three dimensional position of the drill bit in
space. The survey consists of the Measured Depth along the well path, the
Inclination angle at that measured depth, the Azimuth at that measured depth. The
inclusion of BHA special sections, called Section MWD - Measurement While
Drilling, or measurement while drilling section allows the drilling wells and
simultaneously the monitoring of the well path. MWD allows the driller to obtain
the information on the geology of the formation, the bottomhole pressure and
temperature, the intensity of the borehole deviation and other parameters. The
section MWD consists of a telemetry module, the module code, the pulse generator,
the energy generator, a battery pack and a navigation module. The telemetry module
controls the entire instrument. It contacts with other modules via the various
communication lines. The gamma module measures the natural background radiation or
gamma radiation coming from the formation rocks. The obtained result is used to
determine the lithological types of drilled formations and their thickness. In
horizontal drilling, the given gamma module data used to control the layout of the
bottom hole assembly in producing horizon.
The pulse module has two functions: firstly, it acts as a power generator,
and, secondly, prevents the establishment of the pressure pulse by the flow of
drilling fluid, which might be fixed on the surface. This module is the only one
among all which is connected to a telemetry module. The module of the telemetry
system controls the operation of the pulse generator and encodes the digital
information in the pulses which are fixed and decoded on the surface by a pressure
transducer and a computer. The pulse generator is usually located in the upper
part of the MWD device. The battery pack provides power to the entire instrument
in the absence of the flushing fluid flow, feeding the generator.
The navigation module includes the magnetometers and accelerometers for
measuring the deflection of the compass needle in the upper part of the

121
arrangement and, consequently, the angle of inclination of the well. Such
information is measured along the entire depth of the well, is then used to
calculate the trajectory of the well. The navigation unit is usually located at
the bottom of the MWD unit, so it is closest to the bit. MWD can be defined as the
evaluation of physical properties, usually including pressure, temperature and
well bore trajectory in three-dimensional space, while extending a well bore. Data
transmission methods vary from company to company, but usually involve digitally
encoding data and transmitting data to the surface as pressure pulses in the mud
circulation system. These pressures may be positive, negative or continuous sine
waves.
The drilling process and the evaluations of a reservoir are critically
connected to each other. MWD offers a link between them and helps to the dialogue
between the drilling engineer and the formation evaluation specialist. This type
of execution unsurprisingly creates an overall economy regarding good quality
drilling and data collection. MWD systems measure the formation properties (e.g.
resistivity, natural gamma ray, porosity), well bore geometry (inclination,
azimuth), drilling system orientation (tool face), and mechanical properties of
the drilling process. MWD tools which measure formation parameters (resistivity,
porosity, sonic velocity, gamma ray), are referred to as logging-while-drilling
(LWD) tools. LWD tools use similar data storage and transmission systems.

Logging while drilling (LWD).


The logging while drilling (LWD) made its debut in the late 1980s. The
formation evaluation and drilling mechanics information in real time are critical
for effective geosteering (the act of directing a drill bit along a defined path
while drilling a well). The logging while drilling (LWD) was developed so that a
driller, with recommendation from the Well-site Geologist, could geosteer the bit,
always knowing in terms of the geology exactly where it is. LWD systems can
collect a range of complex electrical and other signals, which give information on
the rock layers being penetrated by the bit during the information drilling
process that was formerly only available through conventional logging after the
bit was withdrawn. Along with the gamma ray curve, the parameters include
resistivity, neutron and formation density, giving valuable information on both

122
the formation rock types and the fluids contained within them. LWD also has the
advantage that it measures a clean formation relatively undisturbed by drilling
mud. Logging While Drilling or LWD is the general term we use to describe the
systems and techniques for gathering downhole data while drilling a well. A more
specific definition is the acquisition of petrophysical data. Generally, LWD
offers the same measurements as wireline with some differences in quality,
resolution and/or coverage.
LWD tools are really large instrumented components of drill collars. The
sensors are arranged so that they can make relatively unimpeded measurements of
the formation. The electronics and batteries are housed so that drilling fluid
can flow through the tool at high flow rates. The key differences (see the table
1) between conventional wireline logging and LWD are:
- time (especially in the oilfield, where rig rates are half a million
dollars per day)
- real-time (LWD is enabling decisions that are placing wells in the right
place, and making them safer and more efficient to drill).

LWD tools record where the wireline log is rarely used: in deviated wells,
unstable boreholes. The most important measurements are near the bit, such as
the basic resistivity and GR sensors, followed by annular pressure, density and
porosity. The NMR measurement is over 30m above the bit. If the full NMR
coverage over a specific interval is needed, then it’s necessary to drill at
least 30 m past that zone so that device could reach the required zone.
Telemetry is the conversion of a logging tool measurement to a signal suitable
for transmission to the surface. The companies usually offer four MWD/LWD
telemetry systems to conduct well logs while drilling (MWD/LWD): positive mud
pulse, annular venting mud pulse, electromagnetic and via the drillpipe column.
As the number of down-hole LWD sensors increase the data transmission rate
becomes critical. To obtain the wireline quality information it is necessary to
make measures at least one data point every 15cm, but the conventional LWD
telemetry systems are limited to a data rate of 0.5 to 1.5 bits per second. If
three logs are being run together, as a rule about 80 bits of information is
usually need to be transmitted. Thus, the measurement data can be transmitted
through the new telemetry systems have now increased data rates to around from 6
123
to 12 bits per second and, with data compression, the LWD quality will be much
better. The fundamental component of the Weatherford LWD system is a positive
pulse telemetry. This is a pulse generation able to generate detectable signals
in the harshest conditions, both of a great depth and in heavy mud solution. The
pulser is characterized by extreme reflectebility and tolerance to LCM – up to
80 lbs/bbl.

The primary method of data transfer is used by Schlumberger is a mud pulse


telemetry system.The telemetry systems are able to deliver the real-time data in
extended reach wells (over 12 km) and support real-time decision making. The
ability to compress the data bottom hole allows us to transmit large data
volumes from complex LWD assemblies in real time at extreme depths. The next
generation of the data transmission is possible by the use of wired drill pipe
signal.
Baker Hughes offers the systems for mud pulse telemetry, MPT, the wired
pipe telemetry, WP, and electromagnetic telemetry. The axcelerate telemetry
system provides the platform for our high-end MWD and LWD services. Baker Hughes
offers the highest in the industry raw data rate to the surface of the industry
and the unique capability to downlink information to the downhole tools to
optimize their performance. In the near future the new telemetry will be
improved in such a way that allows to transmit the data in real time without
data losses. If such telemetry tool were constructed LWD&MWD would displace
Wireline because of receiving speed and data quality.
Seismic While Drilling
SWD ("Seismic While Drilling") is a group of methods to reduce risks in the
drilling wells, using basically the seismic information obtained directly during
the drilling process. Seismic While Drilling (SWD) specifically encompasses the
seismic techniques which operate while the drillstring is lowered in the borehole,
during effective drilling, during maneuvers or while connecting drill pipes. The
use of the SWD improves the performance and safety of drilling processes. SWD
helps to determine the bottom-hole location and the direction of drilling, to
update the seismic data, to predict the conditions of further drilling and to
solve a variety of other different problems directly during the drilling process,

124
thus significantly reducing the risks. There are three main SWD technologies, used
at present time in practice: SWD Drill-Bit, VSP-WD and Swept-signal SWD.
Drill-Bit SWD. The Drill-Bit seismic technique uses the bit energy as a
source of seismic oscillations to provide the information while drilling in real
time. The SWD Drill-Bit usually solves the following problems: reliable current
formation pressure prediction which will help to predict the curve reservoir
pressure required to choose the drill mud density, to predict the formation
exposing with abnormally high or low pressure, to reveal promptly the bit
deviation and the potential places of sticking of drill pipe, precise and safe
prediction of drilling hazards. Drill-Bit Seismic also known as Seismic Guided
Drilling or Drill Noise VSP is based on a very simple guiding principle (see Fig.
5.6.). It uses the acoustic energy generated by a rolling drilling bit as it
destroys the rock at the bottom of the hole. From seismic point of view bit acts
as a dipole source for P-Waves radiating acoustic energy into the formation. It
helps to determine time to depth as the well is being drilled. The vibrations are
detected at the surface by geophones/hydrophones or a combination of the two and
the vibrations travelling in axial direction can be detected by placing a sensor
such as accelerometer on the swivel or top drive mechanisms.
The acoustic oscillation energy is transmitted along the drill string to the
accelerometer, and through the formation mass to the surface sensors on the day
surface. The acoustic velocities of the wave propagation in these two ways differ:
the signal traveling through the drill pipe to the accelerometer comes before the
signal to the geophone. Through the cross correlation of the accelerometer signal
and the surface signal the so-called relative time which we calculate the travel
time along the drill pipe and the formation thickness is determined. The Drill-Bit
Seismic technology is unreliable in either rocks with low density and great depth
(> about 18,000ft) and for horizontal wells; highly deviated wells.
The BP Amoco Company tried to optimize the drilling process using the SWD
Drill-Bit in real time in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The technology has
been used in sufficiently deep waters (900-950m), the depth of the target horizon
was set at 3800 m. The results showed that this technology enabled to achieve the
tasks to optimize the drilling process. In the end, the BP declared that the
method was suitable for use.

125
VSP-WD (Vertical Seismic Profiling – While Drilling) is almost identical to
the conventional VSP using the same surface source and downhole sensors (fig.
5.7.). The main difference between them is the absence of direct cable connection
between the bottomhole tools and the surface. The downhole sensors are
incorporated in the common borehole assembly (BHA) which receives the seismic
energy from a seismic source deployed on the surface. The source works while drill
string connections or during the drilling pauses, while the mud circulation is
stopped and the drill-pipe is stationary so that the drilling noises do not
interfere with the data acquisition process. The seismic signal received from the
underlying boundaries as well as the direct wave from the source can be registered
by the device. The downhole tool contains sensitive receivers, processors and
memory. The signal is processed directly in the well to determine the first
arrival times or to check the shot times. This information is then transferred to
the surface in real time by the mud pulse telemetry system.
Advantages of the VSP-WD. In the horizontal wells, VSP-WD seems to be the
only method to record VSP- type data, since it is undesirable for a round trip to
mount a commonin case of the borehole wall instability and security. Large savings
can be realised as compared with the traditional VSP, due to the lack of the idle
time of drilling. As the driller can observe in real time the position of the bit
in respect to the objects on the seismic section, the drilling accuracy increases.
This method also allows an early identification of the areas with pressure
anomalies.
Disadvantages of VSP-WD are the accuracy of the seismic surveys is low; a
high precision of the temporary synchronization of a borehole device with the
bottom hole equipment on the surface is required.
SWD Swept-signal. The seismic profiling using the sweep impulse hydraulic
tool is the innovation in the field of SWD techniques. The application the
vibrosources enables to overcome the majority of limitations of using a bit as a
source. The SWD using the vibrosource is effective in working with low-density
rocks and enables the work in the wells with a great deviation angle.The basis of
this method is the use of a hydraulic drilling method: special equipment creates
sharp pressure drops at the bottomhole. At the same time it is possible to use the
appearing acoustic waves as those passing useful information.

126
The advantages of the SWD Swept-signal are true real-time information;
reverse vertical seismic profiling for depth correction; intrastratal pressure
control; obtaining high-resolution seismic profiles; early warning of gas shows;
the possibility of using them in horizontal wells; the ability to conduct the
interwell research [4].
Real-Time Completion Monitoring (RTCM). Real-Time Completion Monitoring
(RTCM) is a new nonintrusive surveillance method for identifying permeability
impairment in sand-screened completions. This method utilizes acoustic signals
sent via the screened pipe. These signals are carried by tube waves or Stoneley
waves causes reciprocaling action of the borehole fluid radially across the
completion layers. Such tube waves are capable of “instant testing” of the
presence or absence of fluid flow across the completion and they are sensitive to
the changes occurring in the wire-wrapped screened pipes, in gravel packing,
perforations, and possibly the reservoir (see the Fig. 5.8.).
The well characteristics (velocity, attenuation) passing through the
operating bottom hole with the permeability deteriorated or different from
adjacent elements change. The RTCM method requires permanent acoustic sensors and,
thus, can be conventionally thought of as the “miniaturized” 4D acoustic on
conditions acoustic monitoring in an individual wellbore. The tube or Stoneley
waves are a fundamental axisymmetric mode that represents a reciprocal vibration
of the fluid column resisted by the borehole wall. The sensors perform the
soundings at the start of production and then they repeat these measurements
during “the life” of the well.
The RTCM method allows: to detect changes in permeability both in and around
the well (and thus the fluid inflow) in real time, to identify the well structure
responsible for some problems (screen, perforation, etc.), to help design the best
withdrawal of well production without impairing the operation factors, to reveal
the problems or complications in advance when they are not acute and can be solved
with lighter efforts; and help characterize cross-flows and differential depletion
in wells with multiple commingled producing intervals. [4]
Microseismic monitoring is the placement of receiver systems in advantageous
positions from which small earthquakes (microseisms) induced by some downhole
process can be detected. In the case of hydraulic fracturing the sensitive-

127
receivers having numerous levels are typically placed in an offset well at a depth
relatively close to the process. These receives detects detects the seismic energy
generated by the microseisms by the use of three-component system of geophones or
accelerometers, and then the processing algorithms locate the “event” using an
assortment of information obtained from compression (P-wave) and shear (S-wave)
waves. The basic microseismic processes are not difficult and they are a direct
application of standard earthquake seismology principles that have been developed,
used, and tested for decades. If the velocities are known, that is the best-fit
location for the microseismic source in which the observed travel-time differences
between levels and phases (P- and S-waves) will be calculated using the known
formation velocities. If the monitoring is from a single vertical well, then it is
also necessary to obtain the directional information on the incoming seismic
waves, and on the polarization of both P- and S-waves.
Uncertainties are both in the data themselves, and also in the velocity of
the geological formation. The uncertainty in the data quality involves many
features, such as structural and electronic noises, the number of tools, sample
rate, frequency response, receiver coupling, and geometric positioning, but it is
also affected by the size of the microseisms. The uncertainty resulting from
inadequacy of the velocity model is a more serious issue because the accuracy of
the velocity model cannot be determined easily, whereas the accuracy of the data
normally is visually apparent [5].

5.4 3D digital core models

Core analysis is one of the key links in the exploration and development of
oil and gas fields. These core studies are needed to determine the oil and gas
resources, capabilities and technology of their extraction, assessment of the
economic benefits from the development of the field. In the innovative technology
a key way to get the data is a computed core tomography. The post-processing of
the tomographic data enables to create a three-dimensional (3D) digital model.
The methods of forming a digital core model include the folo.lowing stages :
a) the logging of data are obtained from the reservoir which include deep
reservoir intervals, and their treatment; b) the examination is made of one or

128
more of the interpretable borehole images, in order to generate for one complete
circumferential curled images of the borehole wall; c) the receiving of one or
more core of the reservoir to generate the core digital data for one or more deep
reservoir intervals, and d) the processing of the core digital data to generate
the numerical core model. The technical result is a three-dimensional (3D)
creation of numerical cores according the ray computed tomography (CT-scans, CT
tomograms) and forming of the microimages (FMI) of the geological section of the
well and modeling and implementation of these numerical flow cores to understand
the routes of fluid flows and rates of recovery in the selected reservoir. The
digital rock models are built from 2-dimensional (2D) thin sections of images
obtained by using a scanning electron microscope, the computer generated packaging
areas of spheres and images obtained using a scanning laser confocal microscope,
and various types of images obtained by computerized tomography, such as
traditional computer microtomograms and synchrotron computer microtomograms. The
images obtained by computed tomography (CT, X-ray tomography) are the most widely
used approach. The computer X-ray tomograms represent two dimensional (2D) cross-
sections, obtained by the X-ray source which rotates about the specimen. The
density is calculated from the X-ray attenuation coefficients. The tomograms of
the series of cross-sections are used to build a three-dimensional (3D) image of
the specimen. Due to the high density contrast between the rock and the pores
filled with fluid, the computer tomogram images can be used for imaging systems
"rock-time". The resolution varies from the submillimeter to the micron-scale,
depending on the device used [9].

Conclusion

Future exploration work in real time in the next decade will be based on the
creation of the latest technology of the next generation of the exploration while
development. A special finite difference method of the migration in the solution
of the reverse time migration in the time domain (Reverse Time Migration, RTM) has
been created. A reverse time migration provides the best solutions for the
migration of seismic data in a complex wave pattern. The processors used in the
companies’ supercomputers perform computation, on the basis of fast Fourier

129
transform actoin 40 times faster than the processors of the leading brands. The
analyses of the azimuthal velocity of widely azimuthal 3D seismic data can be used
to assess in real time the state of stress. The differences in the seismic
velocity and amplitude along the azimuth can be determined from the wide azimuth
seismic survey to predict fracture density reservoir. Mapping of real-time natural
fracture systems that are integrated and calibrated with the existing data of
borehole cores and the produced logs, and other geomechanical knowledge enable to
optimize the drilling in the field. The zones of reservoir rocks with a lower
Poisson's ratio (CP) have more fragile rocks. All this allows identifying the best
efficiency zones in real time, enabling the optimization of the well locations,
and drilling. The companies are working to establish a three-borehole seismic
source that is designed to one well and cross-well seismic survey. In principle,
the greatest relevance in multi-source seismic waves occurs in borehole seismic
studies, when the research is conducted on transient waves (VSP imaging) [10].

Acknowledgements

The fifth chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin
"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as course papers students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: A.Y. Makarova, O. Karamysheva, N. Danilko, V. Desinov and others.

References:

1. "Business Guide (Innovation)". Appendix, №47 (47), N. Ivanov, 01.12.2013;


2. “Microseismic Monitoring: Inside and Out”, Norm Warpinski, NOVEMBER 2012;
3. “Smart oil and gas fields”, N.A. Eremin, Moscow, 2011, p. 171-172;
4. “High-precise systems of downhole telemetry for well testing”,
Feofilaktov S., “Сфера нефтегаз” magazine, 3/2012;

130
5. “Digital core analysis”, Grachev N. E., Introvision, Moscow;
6. “Method of creation of digital core model by using borehole images,
digital rock samples and multi-point statistics”, Chzan Tuanfen, Herly
Nail Frensis, 2012.
7. “Development of new technologies in exploration works in real time”, S.
V. Goshovski, P. T. Sirotenko, Kiev, 2012.
8. http://www.bakerhughes.com/products-and-services/drilling/drilling-
services/logging-while-drilling-lwd-services;
9. http://www.globalpetrotech.com/technical-words/index.aspx?Itemid=372;
10. http://www.halliburton.com/ps/default.aspx?navid=1757&pageid=125&prodgrpid
=MSE%3a%3a1045758984896793;
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lling%20Baker%20Hughes%20weatherford%20Halliburton%20schlumberger%20ge%20o
il%20gas%20downhole%20tools.pdf., 2011;
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20.pdf,2010
15. SPE 159405, Michael Bittar, Hsu-Hsiang Wu, and Shanjun Li, Halliburton,
New Logging-While-Drilling Ranging Technique for SAGD: Theory and
Experiment,2012
16. SPE 146732. Jason Pitcher, Jennifer Market, and David Hinz,
Halliburton.Geosteering with Sonic in Conventional and Unconventional
Reservoirs, 2011
17. SPE 133431, Nedhal Al-Musharfi, Radhey Bansal, etc. Halliburton Sperry
Drilling,Real Time Reservoir Characterization and Geosteering Using
Advanced High-Resolution LWD Resistivity Imaging, 2011.
18. Воскресенский Ю.Н. Полевая геофизика:
Учеб. для вузов. – М.: ООО «Издательский
дом Недра», 2010. – 479 с.: ил.
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20. Jin Long, Gottfried Tiller, Daniel Weber, Shipeng Fu, Javier Ferrandis,
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List of figures

Fig 5.1. Components of geological prospecting and exploration works in real time.
Fig. 5.2. Technology of 4D seismic survey.
Fig. 5.3. Example of 4D seismic survey Field Galfuks, the North Sea.
Fig. 5.4. Example of monitoring of oilfield in West Africa.
Fig. 5.5. Matrix image of 45 4D maps.
Fig.5.6. Technology of SWD using a drill bit as a source in RTD.
Fig.5.7. Technology of VSP.
Fig 5.8. Real-Time Completion Monitoring (RTCM).
Fig. 5.9. 3D digital core model after segmentation.

List of tables

Table 1. Main differences between conventional wireline logging and LWD.

Questions from the chapter 5.

1. What systems and tools used during the exploration in the field development
in real-time?
2. What is a 4D seismic survey in the development and the operation of the
field?
3. How is the geological information obtained in real time while monitoring the
drilling of exploratory and development wells?
4. What is a 3D digital model of the core or core CT (computer tomography)?

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5. What are the prospects for the exploration in the development in real-time?

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Figures and table to chapter 5

Fig 5.1. Components of geological prospecting and exploration works in real time.
Рис. 5.1. Компоненты геологоразведочных работ
в режиме реального времени

Fig. 5.2. Technology of 4D seismic survey changes of acoustic impedance while


development cause changes between amplitude δА and time δt [18].
Рис.5.2. Принцип 4D сейсморазведки: изменение
акустических импедансов в процессе разработки
приводит к различию трасс по амплитудам δА и
временным

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сдвигам δt [18].

Fig. 5.3. Example of 4D seismic survey Field Galfuks, the North Sea [19].
Рис. 5.3. Пример 4D сейсмики, месторождение
Gullfaks, Северное море [19].

Fig. 5.4. Example of monitoring of oilfield in West Africa. Results of choice of


reservoir model with using of 4D seismic data.: а) – 4D seismic attributes; б) –

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changes in oil saturation before choice of model ; в) – changes in oil saturation after
choice of model [20].
Рис. 5.4. Пример мониторинга месторождения в
Западной Африке. Результаты выбора модели
резервуара с использованием 4D сейсмических
данных: а) – 4D сейсмические атрибуты; б) –
изменения в нефтенасыщенности до выбора модели;
в) – изменения в нефтенасыщенности после выбора
модели [20].

Fig. 5.5. Matrix image of 45 4D maps Oilfield Valhall, Norway region of North sea
[21].
Рис. 5.5. Матричное изображение 45 4D карт
разностей. Месторождение Valhall, норвежский
сектор Северного моря [21].

136
Fig.5.6. Technology of SWD using a drill bit as a source in RTD.
Рис.5.6. Принцип действия СВПБ с использованием
долота в качестве источника в PРВ.

Fig. 5.7. Technology of VSP.


Рис 5.7. Принцип работы ВСП ВПБ в РРВ.

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Fig 5.8. Real-Time Completion Monitoring (RTCM). (a) When tubing wave interacts
with permeable interval, through which fluid flow between wellbore and reservoir can
occurs, such a wave is attenuated and its velocity decreases. (b) Schematic cross
section of offshore deep wells equipped with screened pipe.
Рис. 5.8. Мониторинг заканчивания в РРВ. (a) При
взаимодействии трубной волны с проницаемым
интервалом, через который может происходить
взаимный переток флюидов между стволом
скважины и пластом-коллектором, такая волна
затухает и ее скорость снижается. (b)
Схематический разрез эксплуатационного забоя
глубоководной скважины, оборудованного
противопесочным фильтром.

Fig. 5.9. 3D digital core model after segmentation. At the left pores visualization, at
the right – section of interest area. Green is open porosity, red — closed one.

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Рис. 5.9. Образец модели керна после
сегментации. Слева приведена визуализация
порового пространства, справа - сечение объема
области интереса плоскостью. Зеленым отмечена
открытая пористость, красным — закрытая.

WireLine �LWD

small, light and delicate big, heavy and tough

since the 30s since the 70s

high data speeds slow telemetry

easy communication limited control

good borehole contact subject to drilling

powered through cable batteries and mud turbine

takes time after-the-fact transparent to drilling real-time

specific coverage problem at high azimuthally can log in any


deviation direction

susceptible to hole condition more capable in tough environment

Table 1. Main differences between conventional wireline logging and LWD


Table 1. Основные различия между традиционным
каротажем и каротажем во
время бурения

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Chapter 6. Smart drilling

Abstract

Nowadays the use of Geonavigation system (geosteering) in drilling of


production wells, that is drilling monitoring in real time is becoming very
popular. Including the modern technology of geological maintenance of drilling on
the basis of use of digital three-dimensional geological models which was
developed by Schlumberger’s experts is widely used. The advanced technology
allows to reach the maximum efficiency of conducting and the productivity of
horizontal wells by performance of a complex of preliminary calculations at the
choice of the most perspective site and an optimum trajectory of a new well, the
analysis of geomechanical properties of rocks, the definition of a design of a
well taking into account economic efficiency of the project. The use of logging
complex instrument well drilling allowed to carrying out the further field
exploration, to receive the reliable information about the properties of rocks, to
avoid a number of the technological problems connected with drilling and
completion of wells. As a result, the fields where the technology of drilling in
real time as successfully introduced came to the design oil rates in the shortest
possible time.

Key words: geonavigation system, logging while drilling, drilling in real


time, measurement while drilling, specific electrical resistivity, automated
drilling rigs, offshoot, horizontal bore hole, navigation system, E-drilling
system, control centre of drilling in real time, geological model in real time,
gamma ray, electromagnetic logging, directional survey, azimuthal deviation, fiber
optic sensors, visualization.

Main chapter topics

Monitoring of drilling and further drilling of production wells, kickoff of


lateral and horizontal boreholes in real time; geonavigation systems of production
well drilling and drilling of inclined and horizontal wells (sensors of

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measurement of specific electrical resistance; measurement while production
drilling in real time; fiber-optical sensors in drilling); control center of
drilling of production wells, inclined and horizontal wells and workover in real
time; the automated and mobile drilling rigs; management of offshore drilling
platforms and vessels in real time; measurements while operational drilling and
inclined and horizontal wells; control centers of operational drilling in real
time: main objectives and problems of creation, examples; drilling of lateral
boreholes and horizontal wells in real time; geonavigation in real time – the
concept, the purposes and tasks; visualization of navigation systems on the
example of PeriScope (Schlumberger) system; geological modeling in real time in
maintenance of wells; monitoring of drilling of wells in real time; advantages of
monitoring systems while drilling in real time; drilling automation: advantages
and disadvantages; concept about E-drilling system;

Introduction

The chapter highlights the new technologies for improvement of quality of


drilling and depreciation of expenses on drilling and the maximum opening of the
productive layer by means of GS and BS. In particular the solution of all these
problems is the control while drilling and the possibility of change of parameters
of drilling in real time. This chapter consists of seven sections. Section 1
“Management of well drilling: the geonavigation system” considers the methods
and the principle of management by drilling and kickoff of lateral and horizontal
modeling in real time. Section 2 “Control Centre of Drilling in Real time”
presents the information about the devices and the equipment used for drillings
monitoring. Section 3 “The Automated and Mobile Drilling Rigs” outlines the
information about the automated drilling rigs of hydraulic type. Section 4
“Management of Sea Drilling Platforms and Vessels in Real time” present the
information about the systems and the software designed for management of offshore
platforms. Section 5 “Visualization of Systems of Navigation of PeriScope”
considers the possibilities of the PeriScope technology in a complex of rotor
operated Power drive system. Section 6 “Geological Modelling in Real time”
presents the need of geological maintenance for drilling in Real time and

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interpretation examples. Section 7 “Advantages of Systems of Monitoring of
Drilling in real time” considers the main advantages of monitoring of drilling in
real time and the concept about E-drilling system.

6.1 Monitoring of drilling: Geonavigation system

Monitoring of drilling in real time is a continuous control of the process of


drilling of the formation. The monitoring is essential in the course of drilling
operations. Continuous monitoring of the drilling process and the use of special
navigation systems, logging-while-drilling, etc., provide significant advantages:
increased productivity and recovery factor; design performance production with
less drilling operations is achieved; the water cut decrease; many complications
while drilling are eliminated; accuracy of the estimate of the formation is
increased; it becomes possible to develop the reserves previously considered
uneconomical. The introduction of special telemetry systems in the past two
decades has created the prerequisites for the rapid development of construction
with horizontal well completion, sidetracking, and the oil production increase.
The main objectives to be pursued by the monitoring system include obtaining of
navigation, geophysical, technical and other data and transferring them to the
surface in real time. The processes of acquisition, processing and delivery of
downhole parameters to the receivers at the mouth must not have a negative impact
on the length of the well construction.
The data recorded by the downhole telemetry system can be subdivided into
several categories: navigation ones determining the trajectory of the wellbore;
Process ones characterizing the drilling mode; geophysical ones the reflecting
properties of layers and the cross-sectional well shape; specific ones stating
self-TS elements etc. To achieve these characteristics use is made of the the
appropriate sensors, a set of which depends on the layout of the monitoring system
and its equipment.
Drilling sidetracks and horizontal wells in real time. The navigation data
include the angles of deviation of the well axis from a zero values of the zenith
(vertical), azimuth (horizontal) and spindle position-deflector (tool-face). This
set is called directional (see fig 6.1). This information is needed to assess the

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location of hole in space. The inclinometer measurements are made by electronic
devices: accelerometers and magnetometers or gyroscopes. Because of the high
sensitivity to vibration, significant sizes and the presence of accumulated error
(slip “zero”) during rotation of drill pipes the gyroscopes have not found
widespread use in telemetry systems yet. However, they have a number of
advantages, in particular, they are characterized by a low sensitivity to magnetic
fields, and the ability to determine the exact value of the zenith angle and
azimuth (± 7 °) of this position of the borehole.
The efficiency of the magnetometers depends on nearby magnetic fields, so to
avoid interference telemetry systems the developers seek to maximize the removal
of the magnetized body parts from the place of installation of magnetometers, a
minimum of 4 m in each direction, and periodically demagnetize these housing
elements in servicing. The most common ways to reduce the influence of magnetic
mass production of body parts are the manufacturing of housing elements located
next to the directional sensor, from such non-magnetic materials as aluminum and
titanium alloys, beryllium copper, etc. The range of directional devices
complement a probe gamma ray (GR), which allows you to select the bench mark
horizons for later comparison with the independent geophysical investigations in
the open borehole. Simultaneously, the location of low permeability (clay) layers
is predicted by the diagrams of GR with some degree of probability. The
electromagnetic logging tool with a large distance (4-6 m) between the transmitter
and the receiver used for the induction log (IC), also can be ranked among the
navigational devices, as it is mainly used to assess the approach to the boundary
changes of the specific electrical resistivity, for example to the oil-water
contact (OWC).
Sensors of specific electrical resistance measuring. The surface near SER
along the inductive distribution provides a more effective definition of not
productive zones with an increased resistance (see fig 6.2). The geonavigation is
carried out in some stages: the trajectory calculations (plan and inclinometer);
the deposit delimitation on the basis of logging data; the definition of an
azimuthal deviation; the interactive specification of geological cuts; the
interactive analysis of possible trajectories of wells (see fig 6.3).

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The principles of geonavigation are the following: the definition of target
object (zone) for drilling and exposing; the determination of location of the
casing shoes; the prevention tail outlet of a horizontal well beyond the borders
of the target object is presented on fig 6.4. The target object (zone) is defined
based on the technical and economic analysis of the development with account the
analysis of the neighboring wells and according to the geological and geophysical
researches. The geonavigation possesses certain tactics. It is: the definition of
degree of accuracy of drilling of a horizontal borehole on the productive layer.
The interactive modification of a 3D model “target layer – a trajectory of a
horizontal hole” during the penetration. The use of geophysical devices for
recognition of features of a geological structure (breaks, a roof and a surface of
stratum).
Fiber optic sensors for drilling. The main system of a signal transmission
consists of the following components: entrance signal, the amplifier, the source
of an optical signal, the optical proofreader, the line of optical fiber (the
first site), connection, the line of an optical fiber (the second site), the
receiving proofreader of a signal, the amplifier and a an exit signal of (Fig.
6.5). In signal transmission system the signal passes through an optical fiber
with the transmitter which transforms electromagnetic waves to an active component
of this process, that is optical (light) energy. As soon as the signal is
transmitted through the fibers and on the other end of a chain there is the third
component which is called as the optical or accepting detector the mission of
which is in conversion of an optical signal in the electromagnetic energy similar
to an initial signal. The way in which the well depth is determined is the
following: as the velocity of light is known, we measure the time during which the
signal comes back to the surface, and the software determines the depth with
application of a simple formula.
The temperature measurement somewhat differs from the measurement of depth
and this process is much more difficult. It is based on the Raman effect, that is
an inelastic dispersion of optical radiation on the substance molecules (solid,
liquid or gaseous), accompanied by a noticeable change of frequency of the
radiation (Fig. 6.6). Unlike the Rayleigh dispersion, in case of the combinational
dispersion of light in a range scattered radiations there appear spectral lines

144
which aren’t present in a range of primary (exciting) light. The number and
arrangement of the appeared lines is defined by a molecular structure of
substance.
The Raman or combinational dispersion arises in inelastic dispersion of
photons of an entrance light impulse on the atoms of vibrating molecules. As a
result there appear the photons both with smaller energy, than at an entrance
impulse, that is with a bigger length of a wave, the so-called stokes, and with
greater energy, that is antistokes with a smaller length of a wave. The antistokes
are most sensitive to temperature change. Usually a measure of temperature is the
intensity relation of anti-stokes to intensity of stokes. The intensity of signals
of the Raman dispersion is small, and their allocation demands the application of
sensitive spectrometers. However the shift of lines of a range of this dispersion
concerning length of a wave of an entrance impulse is rather great that
facilitates the solution of this task. The characteristic feature of the sensors
based on the registration of scattered radiation is their distribution along a
continuous light conducting core, that is, the reflections of a diffused light
happen throughout reflected wave, and the reflection from each elementary site of
reflected wave defines the condition of this site caused by temperature or other
factors. The short monochromatic impulses of a laser source go into the offshoot
which by means of translucent mirrors divides a beam into two parts, one of which
is sent to the reflected wave, and the another to a spectrometer. The scattered
beams from each reflected wave element in a certain cone of dispersion propagated
back and through an offshoot they get into a spectrometer, where by comparison of
lengths of waves of the entrance impulse and reflected light the signals of the
Raman dispersion are allocated. Further processing of the allocated signals
happens in the detector.
Rayleigh signals damp in time according to the exponential law. The
allocation of reflections from a certain site is carried out by a temporary method
(Optical Time-Domain Refleclometry – OTDR). For this purpose the laser sends short
monochromatic impulses of light for rather a long reflected wave. As the velocity
of light in reflected wave is known, the time of the arrival of the reflected
signal defines the location of the reflected wave element from which there was a
reflection that is its distance from a source. Choosing the moments of measurement

145
of the reflected radiation concerning the moment of radiation regarding the
entrance impulse, it is possible to estimate the location of the reflecting
element of a reflected wave. If the measurements are made in consistently
increasing timepoints, the assessment of reflections will be continuously carried
out along all the length of a reflected wave or in the certain, points located in
series.
As a result, the use of fiber - optics while well drilling in real time
allows: to receive the biggest data while the drilling operation; to realize the
operations with the greatest confidence and knowledge of the characteristics of
the object; to compare the information which makes it possible to take decisions
in real time; to define the problems while drilling to prevent changes in the
process; to optimize the use of liquids; to improve further exploration plans.

6.2. Monitoring centre of drilling in real time

As one of key instruments of implementation of the concept of Digital Asset,


the Control centers of operations in real time of the Halliburton Real Time
Centers™ company (RTC ™) allow the experts in various areas and the other experts
of the rare directions to be in any point where they are to be at this moment,
without the need for their physical presence. They allow experts to be present and
work at the same time at once at several wells located in different parts of the
world, to minimize the quantity of the problems connected with the labor
protection, safety and health, and environmental protection, at the expense of the
reduction of the number of employees who are to be directly in places and to
reduce the quantity of time necessary for taking of the correct decisions at the
expense of assistance to the interaction in real time. They also provide an ideal
opportunity for the skilled professionals to train and to mentor the young
generation and to accelerate their development for more effective transfer of
knowledge that is an important question for our branch. Halliburton constructed
more than fifty centers of operations in real time worldwide. About half of them
were constructed for the national and international oil companies, as a rule,
completed with our experts, and our clients as well. The others were constructed
as internal “hubs” for the improvement of the quality of our own service and

146
expeditious quality control. They are fully completed by the personnel of
Halliburton and give support in borehole operations within the regions.
Completely adapted for the requirements and conditions of the concrete
region, the Centers can unite all the aspects of the project, starting with
performing complex of researches before planning the wells, drilling, carrying out
an assessment, optimization, and delineation of a field, reservoir modeling and
oil recovery increase. The feedback in real time, available in these centers, is
capable to provide the interaction between experts worldwide, without the need for
trips to the remote or dangerous sites. In the process of expansion of a range of
production operations and their growing movement offshore and in other difficult
conditions, the Centers provide the opportunity to trace the operation of drilling
rigs remotely, at the same time stimulating effective interaction between the
employees, to increase the level of safety that helps to cut down expenses and,
finally, will allow our clients to make more reasonable decisions.

6.3 Automated and mobile drilling rigs in real time

World experience of using the drilling rigs shows that their operating
effectiveness depends on the use of automation, especially in such repeated
operations as round trip operations. The automation not only reduces the number of
the drill crew personnel, but also as a consequence, increases the level of
operational safety on the drilling site. The automated hydraulic drilling rigs
such as HH series were developed by the Drillmec company to ensure high standards
of safety in drilling operations, their high efficiency, to reduce the drilling
costs and to reduce the impact of drilling on the environment. These rigs require
two times less land to accommodate the equipment than the traditional ones,
provide the most rapid assembly-disassembly and transportation to another point,
reduce non-productive time and cost, offer high performance.
Drilling rigs have the form of a unique design, which differs significantly
from conventional drilling rigs (Fig. 6.7). The purpose of this design has
increased the safety of drilling crew and the improvement of technical and
economic parameters of drilling. The design of the rig HH uses different hydraulic
equipment for maximum automation of the drilling process. All functions rig

147
driller cabin is made of. Drilling rigs of HH series are available with rated
static hook load capacity from 70 to 350 tons, which makes it possible to drill
wells up to 5000 meters in depth, depending on the structure and profile of the
well. Therefore, the drilling rigs of this design could potentially be in high
demand, as 90% today, drilled onshore in the world of oil, gas and geothermal
wells are within the technical capabilities of this series. The largest drilling
rig of series HH, designed to work in Saudi Arabia, with the hook load capacity –
of 600 tons has been developed and is in production. Drilling rigs Series HH are
integrated with the trailer base on which they are transported as a unit. These
rigs are self-elevating as with the help of hydraulic cylinders they are put
forward in the operating position to the desired height. A self-setting mast is of
the reduced height. After lifting of the base of the drilling rig to the required
height of the subrotor structure the mast is lifted in the vertical position by
two hydraulic cylinders. The top drive is also mounted into the position. The top
drive is equipped with a dynamometric wrench; it can horizontally move that allows
it to move pipes from the hole for “one-tube” to the well center, and on the
contrary. Besides, the drilling rig is equipped with the automatic pipe handline
mechanism which turns inside the unique vertical racks for the drilling pipes
radially located round a well site. These vertical racks consist of a certain
number of mobile racks. The number of racks depends on the size and type of the
drilling rig. The pipe grapples are mounted on a vertical rotating tower support
and equipped with two clips each. By these clips the mechanism grips a drilling
pipe from any racks and moves it into the hole for making a connection, or, on the
contrary, depending on the previous electronic set sequence.

6.4 Management of offshore drilling platforms and vessels in real time

The automation of offshore drilling platforms and vessels traditionally


involves many difficulties. Since all the processes are attached to the platform,
the important role is played by the mass and dimensions of the installed
equipment. In addition, the devices on the platform are exposed to corrosion and
need constant maintenance. One of the main tasks of life support of a platform is
to create the system of remote monitoring. The equipment used on offshore

148
platforms, must be certified in accordance with the naval standards, confirming
its use in severe sea conditions. Among the main requirements are corrosion
protection, the ability to withstand extreme temperatures, resistance to
electromagnetic interference and constant vibration. Special requirements also put
forward to the communication network as it must be reserved, to provide high
throughput capacity and secure data transfer. The management of offshore drilling
platforms and vessels are constantly developing to give the oil companies more
access to the information in real time. The traditional scheme of the remote
monitoring system is based on the transmission of the data from the multiple
remote offshore drilling units (MODU) to the central drilling platform, where the
SCADA-system is placed. To solve this problem the use is made of the industrial
Ethernet-high capacity network that connects the sensors and the controllers of
PBU and HMI / SCADA-system of the central platform. The central drilling platform
must be equipped with automation systems that are designed to serve the
construction and technical areas, that is, to control of lighting, air
conditioning, electricity, etc.
On most rigs there are installed the video surveillance systems to be
integrated into a common trunk network of data transmission. To solve this
problem, MOXA company provides with the servers IP-Series Surveillance Vport,
which transmit images from video cameras and enable a remote management of CCTV-
system platform. Currently, the engineers are more extensively use the Ethernet
communication in all fields of industry, including maritime tasks. This is due to
such features of standard Ethernet as, universality, resistance to adverse
effects, ease of building the systems. Any rig downtime leads to lower
productivity. Building a redundant communication network is a key factor in
ensuring the continuous control over the infrastructure of the rig. Many rigs are
located far from the coast, and you can reach them only by helicopter. To
communicate with a remote RAS central platform wirelessly channels are used. In
case of transferring the data over long distances, the radio or satellite
communications are utilised. For communications over short distances and the
mobile access the connection Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11a/b/g is also used. MOXA company
offers a wide range of communications systems Wi-Fi, starting with the wireless
access point and finishing with wireless serial servers to the Ethernet.

149
Experimental information and communication systems and technology to monitor
and control the development of offshore hydrocarbon fields in real time.The scope
is the development of large offshore hydrocarbon fields at the stages of seismic
survey, exploration, drilling, oil and gas production in transit and deepwater
areas using the floating equipment, drilling rigs, drilling platforms and subsea
production platforms. Objectives: monitoring of the state of deposits and the
environment using the advanced tools: sensors, ground stations, water antennas and
other measuring devices; semi nature modeling of field development and the
technology development; seismic stage is an intelligent seismic vessel; the stage
of exploration drilling is an intellectual drilling platform, an intellectual
exploration well; the production stage is an intelligent production platform (or
subsea production units).
The development methods of adaptive planning and control at all stages of
development of the field in real time are: a day, a week, a month, a quarter, six
months, a year. The evaluation and the optimization of the cost of operations.
The planned results of the semi nature simulation are:
the seismic stage is building a 3D geological model of the field, evaluation
of reserves and hydrocarbon resources, recommendations on the exploration drilling
and the location of the drilling platform;
the stage of exploration drilling is clarification of 3D geological model of
the deposit, confirmation of hydrocarbon reserves as a result of exploratory
drilling; recommendations on the location and design of intellectual platform,
including the “deserted” production platform (or subsea production system);
the stage production is the changes in the 3D geological and hydrodynamic
models building the 4D model of the field, control and monitoring of production of
hydrocarbon reserves based on 4D model, recommendation on the production plan
(well flow management), cost estimation.
The technologies developed to monitor and control are: downhole tools and
floor applications, embedded control systems, satellite communication technology,
the Ka band for a broadband access to the surface data networks, technologies of
processing and interpretation of large amounts of data, ultra high performance
computers.

150
6.5 Visualization of systems of PeriScope navigation of systems

Maximizing of the contact of the wellbore with a productive reservoir by


means of technology of tracing of boundaries of a layer of PeriScope in the Odopta
sea field – (Sakhalin). Target - borehole drilling with a big vertical deviation
in the Odoptu-sea, field Sakhalin, without drilling of a pilot hole, the
achievement of the maximum hole contact with a productive reservoir, optimization
of the length of a horizontal section and the minimization of crookedness of the
borehole. Solution - use of PeriScope technology of geonavigation in a complex
with the rotor one controlled by PowerDrive system. For the geonavigation of the
well of “RN SMNG” the decision was made to use KNBK which included the
instrument with technology of tracing of boundaries of the PeriScope the reservoir
and PowerDrive rotor controlled system. The well was drilling successfully in the
productive reservoir without drilling of a pilot hole, and then by means of
geonavigation using the PeriScope technology, the horizontal section was
completely drilled within a productive layer. The decisions on the geonavigation
were accepted by a group of engineers on geological borehole drilling and the
experts in directional drilling of slant holes, based on the interpretation of bed
boundaries by PeriScope measurements in real time. The use of the oriented deep
measurements by the PeriScope instrument was an ideal solution for the given case
as there was rather an accurate contrast on the conductivity between an oil
reservoir, a roof and the bottom argillites. Receiving the distance of the bed
boundaries, and also the orientation of such boundaries in space by means of the
PeriScope technology allowed to identify and interpret the calcite inter layers,
and information on the orientation of a roof of formation allowed to define the
pitch angles of the geological structure.
Results:
- the well was successfully drilled at distance of 1 meter from a formation
roof.
- One slotting resulted in drilling 604 meters of a horizontal section
with 100 % of striking of a productive reservoir; the geonavigation in
relation to a roof and a surface of stratum, the exact image of
boundaries of formation; monitoring of the depth of the hole vertically,

151
allowing to carry out a complex appraisal of filtration and capacity
properties of a producing formation.
- The results exceeded the planned indexes.
The well drilling in 35 days “SGK-Bureniye” sets up a record in Western
Siberia. The PeriScope and PowerDrive instruments for delimitation of a formation
and optimization of a path of a hole provided the drilling of a 400-meter interval
with 89 % of layout within a producing formation. Target - to drill with the
minimum curvature of 400 m an interval without a pilot hole in the short test
possible time. Solution - to use PeriScope for the formation delimitation in the
course of drilling, geological hole drilling and rotor controlled system (RUS)
PowerDrive X5 for effective drilling. The bottomhole assembly composition included
the PeriScope tool for the formation delimitation and RUS PowerDrive X5. Thus,
starting a stage of planning and up to the achievement of project depth of the
bottomhole, all the data arrived at an office in real time. Such an approach
allowed the drillers to make promptly the right decisions in the interactive form.

6.6 Geological modeling in real time in maintenance of wells

The main purpose of geonavigation is to increase the productivity of wells by


entering the most productive parts of the reservoir. To achieve this goal, various
software visualization and process simulation are used. Version of work
environment of the geonavigation team might look like this (Figure 6.2-6.4). In
the working window there are presented the models of geophysical curves of the
planned were trajectory constructed on the basis of the initial geological model,
that is model before well drilling. The results of interpretation helped to define
the target object boundaries and the reservoir entry point. You can see that in
spite of the difference of the well trajectory from the ideal curve, the
resistivity model is similar to the data obtained in real time. On the whole, the
data indicate the absence of unexpected outputs from the reservoir or encountering
the massive heterogeneities of reservoir properties. An example is the currying
out of the geosteering by the NPE company in the north of Dakota. During
monitoring well trajectory was slightly modified in relation to the planned
trajectory that did not affect the successful outcome. Borehole drilling in

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Holland 9-19H in the reservoir was over 900 m in the horizontal wellbore. Drilling
accompaniment of Alice 16H well in Ecuador is remarkable by the fact in the
navigation of this well there was widely used the assistance of computers to
update the model and to make changes in drilling parameters. The subvertical well
Alice 12 located close to the planned well was selected as the basic for the
constructions.
The computer built the structural interpretation of the well section (the
planned trajectory), which was later updated by drilling data. As a result, it was
possible to see a graph of planned borehole drilled in real time, and also current
measurements of electrical resistivity and gamma ray logs in real time. In each
measurement the computer automatically recorded the distance to the top of the
reservoir, allowing sticking the configuration of the given surface.

6.7 Advantages of systems of monitoring of drilling in RTR. Drilling automation:


advantages and disadvantages. Concept of E-system drilling

Nowadays of importance is the application of consulting system in real time


intended for the adjustment of data in real time, for the responses to the
questions which can occurs to a drilling crew, and also for the decision-making.
The process of optimization of drilling requires the integration of extensive
number of the data from different sources. The development of the executive
reference system will provide the technology capable of combining of several of
these data sources. This system will help the users to make decisions by giving
consultations and recommendations on taking measures in real time which will allow
improving the drilling process.
When using the automated systems of drilling in the real time the following
advantages are observed: coherence in the operation, maximum productivity,
lowering of operational expenses, safety increase. The experience of other
industries shows in most cases that the increase in the level of automation can
increase the general operational and economic indexes of drillings operations. In
this case it is necessary to know, how the automated system will behave in non-
traditional (abnormal) situations, whether it can find them or leave unnoticed.

153
The present automation is of huge value especially if the data in this case
enter in real time but to avoid misunderstanding in the implementation of this
technology, a high level of automation must be accompanied by a person.
Е – drilling is a new and innovative system for real time drilling
simulation, 3D visualization and control from a remote drilling expert centre. The
concept uses all available real time drilling data (surface and downhole) in
combination with real time modeling to monitor and optimize the drilling process.
This information is used to visualize the wells in 3D in real time. The system is
composed of the following elements:
- automated pipe handling; an advanced and fast integrated drilling
simulator which has the capacity to model different drilling sub-
processes dynamically, and also the interaction between these sub-
processes in real time; the automatic quality control and corrections of
drilling data making them suitable for processing the computer models;
- the advisory technology for more optimal drilling; a virtual wellbore,
with advanced visualization of the downhole processes; a new generation
visualization system is designed to integrate all the participants
involved; data flow and computer infrastructure.
Management of Pressure Drilling (MPD) is a necessary block in the automated
drilling. The AGR’ CMP system may be used with the existing BOPs and drilling
riser systems, the ORS’ LRRS system is intended to be used with in future a thin
BOP and HP riser system. Common to both solutions are: the well influxes will be
detected much earlier than with the existing systems, firstly, due to the increase
in power consumption by the pumps of the mud lifting systems; secondarily, thanks
to the pressure transducers in the subsea riser. The well eliminates the dynamic
process, that is, without shutting-down in order to mix heavy mud. The more
difficult operations on well killing: are as follows: the actions of pressure
management while drilling; maintenance of constant pressure at the bottom at all
stages of drilling; the use of a telemetric pipe for the purpose of forecasting of
bottomhole pressure in real time; the automated process of taking out of service
necessary for maintenance of constant pressure in a bottomhole. An automated
process is a very important factor to avoid the interference of a human factor in
making decisions.

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Conclusion

The monitoring is essential when performing drilling operations. The


productivity and the recovery factor are increased. The design performance
production with less drilling operations are achieved. The water cut is reduced.
Many complications during drilling are eliminated; The accuracy of the evaluation
of the formation is increased. It becomes possible to develop the reserves
previously considered uneconomical. The control centers of works in real time
allow the experts in various areas and the other experts of the rare directions to
be in any point where they are to be for this moment, without the need for their
physical presence. The automated hydraulic drilling rigs are designed to ensure
high standards of safety in drilling operations, their high efficiency, to reduce
the drillings costs and to reduce the impact of drilling on the environment. The
automation of the offshore drilling platforms and vessels traditionally involves
many difficulties. One of the main tasks of life support is of a platform to
create a remote monitoring. Equipment used on offshore platforms, must be
certified in accordance with maritime standards, supporting its use in severe sea
conditions. In using of the oriented deep measurements of the instrument PeriScope
there was an accurate contrast on conductivity between an oil reservoir, a roof
and subsurface argillites. Receiving the distance to the layer boundaries, and
also the orientation of such boundaries in space by means of the PeriScope
technology allowed to identifying and interpreting calcite interlayers, and the
information on the orientation of a roof of the formation allowed to define the
dipping and restoring angles of the geological structure. The main purpose of
geonavigation is to increase the productivity of wells by entering the most
productive parts of the reservoir. To achieve this goal, various software of
visualization and simulation process are used. Nowadays of importance is the
application of the consulting system in Real time intended for the adjustment of
the data in real time, for responses to questions which occur to a drilling crew,
and also for decision-making. At present the automation is of huge value
especially if the data in this case enter in real time but to avoid

155
misunderstanding in case of implementation of this technology, the high level of
automation must be accompanied by a person.

Acknowledgements

The six chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin
"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as coursework students and undergraduates following the above-mentioned
universities: A. Smailova, B. Ibrayeva, S. Koryakovsky, T. Goroshkova, A. Buzilov,
A. Tazhibov, P. Avdeev and others.

References:

1. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой


интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-019-9;
2. Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н., Еремин А.Н.
Управление разработкой интеллектуальных
месторождений: Учеб. пособие для вузов: В 2 кн.
– Кн. 2. Учеб. пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-329-7.
3. http://www.slb.com/services/technical_challenges/real_time/rtd.aspx
4. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-128958-MS
5. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-143468-MS

156
List of figures

Fig 6.1 Geonavigation system (geosteering)


Fig 6.2. Geonavigation in real time
Fig 6.3. Determining the distance to fault by electrical measurements of low
resistance.
Fig. 6.4. Return to productive layer
Fig. 6.5 “An impulse flow on optical fiber”.
Fig. 6.6 Raman’s Effect and ranges of radiation
Fig 6.7. HH-300 automated rig hydraulic type

List of abbreviations

OS- offshoot; HB- horizontal borehole; GR –Gamma ray logging; OWC- oil water
contact; ORF- oil recovery factor; IL- inductive logging; SER- Specific electric
resistivity; DRT- drilling in real time; BHA- Bottomhole assembly.

Questions from chapter 6.

1. What is the main target of the geonavigation?


2. What is the E-system drilling?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages available for automated drilling
rigs?
4. What are the main objectives of the system of monitoring of drilling in real
time?
5. What opportunities exist in the drilling control centers in real time?

157
Figures to chapter 6

Рис. 6.1 Технология геонавигации (геостиринг)

Fig 6.1 Geonavigation system (geosteering)

Fig 6.2. Geonavigation in real time, where are presented subsurface resistivity (SER) by
the induction distribution; azimuthal resistivity, deep resistivity by the induction
distribution; resistivity at the bit, distance from the drilling tool to the surface of
unproductive zone, productive zone; unproductive zone
Рис 6.2. Геонавигация в режиме реального времени,
где представлены близповерхностное удельное
электрическое сопротивление (УЭС) по
158
индуктивному распространению; Азимутальное УЭС;
Глубокое УЭС по индуктивному распространению;
УЭС на долоте; Расстояние от бурового
инструмента до контакной поверхности;
продуктивная зона; Непродуктивная зона

Fig 6.3. Determining the distance to fault by electrical measurements of low resistance.
Notation as in figure 6.2.

Рис 6.3. Определение расстояния до разлома по


электрическим измерениям низкого
сопротивления. Обозначения см. рис.6.2.

159
Fig. 6.4. Return to productive layer: a- angle of sight; b - distance from drill bit to
the sensor; c - distance for decision-making; d - speed of a set of a correcting curve; е
- distance keeping for drilling again; f - possible changes of the layer; g - curve
distance for a return to the original position;
Рис. 6.4. Возвращение в продуктивный пласт: а - угол
падения; b - расстояние от долота до датчика; с -
расстояние для принятия решения; d - скорость
набора корректирующей кривой; е - удерживание
расстояния для перебуривания; f - возможные
изменения структуры; g - расстояние кривой для
возврата в исходное положение

Fig. 6.5. "An impulse course on optical fiber", where are presented the signal processing
unit of the outgoing radiation, LASS - files, standard system data logging, laser, optical
data processing unit of the outgoing radiation, optical fiber, the direct laser radiation,
the effect of back radiation, the reservoir, the area of perforation, the well
Рис. 6.5 «Ход импульса по оптическому волокну», где
представлены блок обработки сигнала обратного
излучения, LASS – файлы, стандартная система
обработки данных каротажа; лазер, блок
оптической обработки обратного излучения,
оптическое волокно; прямое лазерное излучение,
эффект обратного излучения, продуктивный пласт,
зона перфорации, устье скважины

160
Fig. 6.6 Raman's Effect and Ranges radiation which shows the structure of the quartz glass
in the solid state, the thermal motion, the light wave, the Raman effect, anti-Stokes of
the component, Stokes component, laser light (Rayleigh radiation), intensity, spectral
position, Raman scattering.
Рис. 6.6 Эффект Рамана и спектры излучения, где
представлены структура кварцевого стекла в
твердом состоянии, тепловое движение, световая
волна, эффект Рамана, антистоксовая компонета,
стоксовая компонента, Лазерное излучение
(Релеевское излучение), интенсивность,
спектральное положение, комбинационное
рассеяние

161
Fig 6.7. Automated rig hydraulic type HH-300

Рис 6.7. Автоматизированная буровая установка


гидравлического тип НН

162
Chapter 7. Smart Wells

Abstract

One of the most significant breakthroughs in the innovative technologies of


hydrocarbon technologies in the recent years is the technology of the smart wells.
It enables the engineers to actively monitor, remote choke or shut the productive
zones with the poor performance without the well shut downs. The smart well
completion with inflow control valves and isolation packers is used to selectively
produce from each reservoir (or injection on into, each zone). Components and the
equipment for "smart" well operations are successfully applied in various regions
of the world, including the Russian Federation, USA, the North Sea, the Western
Africa, the Middle East, Brunei and Australia. Nowadays the world observes the
growth of the application of "smart" wells in the fields. The quantity of smart
wells of the first generation for 1.01.2013 amounted to 800, 40 of them being in
Russia. The creation of smart wells of the second generation is at a stage of
pilot tests.

Keywords: smart well, smart well of the first generation, smart well of the
second generation, perfect well, smart production well, smart injection well,
smart multilateral well, smart branched well with the maximum sweep, a bionic
well, smart systems, fiber-optical visualizers of wells, a design of smart wells,
configuration of smart wells, fiber-optical technologies, fiber-optical sensors,
smart completion of a well, management of a smart well in real time, well
monitoring, examples of application of smart wells.

Main chapter topics

Management of a smart well in real time. Classification of smart wells. Smart


wells of the first and second generations. Smart production well. Smart injection
well. Smart multilateral well. Perfect well. Smart branched well with the maximum
sweep (with 5-6 smart laterals, the sensors of continuous control connected by
system of feedback with the operated valves - regulators of inflow). A bionic well

163
with the smart electric actuator (quantity of smart laterals to 100-150). Fiber-
optical visualizers of wells. 3D monitoring of a well during all its life cycle.
Bottom hole measuring and operating system. Main types of transformation of the
vertical well spacing in the smart horizontal and branched well spacing. The
classification of operated valves - regulators of inflow of production and
injection of working agents. A smart well: definition, purposes and tasks, basic
elements. The evolution and the development of systems of smart wells. The main
differences of smart wells of the first and the second generations. Types of Smart
systems. The types of sensors applied in smart wells. The smart completion of a
well. The main configuration of an Smart well (on the example of Shlumberger's
equipment). Some examples of application of smart wells. The well with the
extremal and the maximum sweep. The fiber-optical technologies in smart wells.

Introduction

Smart wells or wells with smart completion are wells that are completed with
permanent down hole measurement equipment or control valves or both (Gao et al.,
2007). The smart well technology enables the permanent monitoring, remote choking,
or the shutting off zones with the poor performance without well shut down. A
smart well system generally requires the following elements: flow control devices;
feed‐through isolation packers; control, communication and power cables; downhole
sensors; surface data acquisition and control. The purpose of the chapter is
consideration of the questions connected with the construction, introduction and
development of “smart” technology of well operations. The chapter consists of 5
main parts: smart wells, classification of smart wells, design and configuration
of smart wells, management and monitoring of a smart well in real time, examples
of application of smart wells.
In the first section definitions, the purposes and problems of smart wells
are considered, the history, evolution, and development of systems of smart wells
are studied. The classification of smart wells is given in the second section. The
definitions of smart wells, differences between snake and dragon wells, wells of
the first and second generation are given, multilateral and branched wells from a
bionic well, types of smart systems are also considered. In the third section the

164
design and the configuration of smart wells are considered. This section includes
the smart completion and fiber-optical technologies. In the fourth section the
methods of management and monitoring of a smart well in real time are shown. In
the fifth section the examples of application of smart wells in the oil and gas
fields and a well design on the example of a bionic well are given.

7.1 Smart wells: definition, purposes and tasks

A smart well is the complex of the underground equipment consisting of the


control unit of inflow (ICV); zone isolation; systems of tracking in real time,
borehole digital (BD) and fiber-optic systems (FOP), automatic systems of safety,
telemetric equipment. A smart well is a complex of actions and the equipment with
the purposes: of increasing and/or optimization of production, increase of final
oil (and gas) recovery; decreasing and/or optimization of capital expenses;
decreasing and/or optimization of operational expenses.
A smart well system generally requires the following elements:
inflow control value, which are usually operated internal control valves used
to control flows into or out of the reservoir;
feed‐through isolation packers that enable control lines to be fed through to
subsurface control valves;
control and communication systems, used to monitor and control subsurface
conditions;
downhole sensors; surface data acquisition and control, which report
pressure, temperature and flowrates back to the surface.
The problems of a smart well are receiving reliable and operational
information about the rate (liquid, gas), energy expenses, a condition of the
borehole pump installation, information processing, the analysis, saving of
information, making decisions on the change of the parameters of work of the
system "formation-well-pump installation" by the given criterion (the oil
production volume, volume of production of reservoir fluid, electric power
expenses, the sum of capital and current expense for the system work when
providing the planned output, etc.) and the optimum production from several
formation the management of injection in some layers, drainage of several oil

165
zones in the separated layers, the development of oil rims, the intra-well gas-
lift, variable gas production, the inflow control from separate holes of a
branched-hole well, increase of the sweep by the influence in the system of
production and injection wells, obtaining the information on the processes
occurring in a wellbore, non-stationary flooding, interbedded fluid transfer for
maintenance of the formation pressure, tie-in wells (linking wells), the test of
prospecting wells, the sensors in the abandoned wells, systems of borehole seismic
acoustic monitoring.
There are three benefits of smart well technology. Firstly, the most
important benefit is improved reservoir management. Smart completions cover
multiple reservoirs, or multiple reservoir zones, but with an access to a single
well. Smart completions allow avoiding cross‐flow caused by different pressures in
the producing layers. Smart completions improve the management of the injection of
the working agents in injection wells, thus creating opportunities to optimize the
production. Secondly, smart well completions can result in less time are or to the
first production. The multiple zone completion requires a complicated completion
with multiple packers and tubing strings. If this was not possible the production
had to be sequenced that is the; production from one zone first, then from the
others, in this case the production starting with the deepest zone. Thirdly, the
smart well technology gives the reduced well intervention costs. The cost of the
well shut down is quite high, especially in deepwater or subsea wells, which means
that the economic benefits from the smart well technologies are large.
History, evolution and development of systems of smart wells.Since the first
smart completion was installed in August, 1997 at Saga’s Snorre Tension Leg
Platform (TLP) in the North Sea, the technology was widely adopted. More than 900
similar completions were established worldwide – beginning from the fields at a
late stage of development, to the deep-water offshore fields in Brazil. The first
smart completion system SCRAMS was produced by WellDynamics’. SCRAMS is typically
used to control the Infinitely Variable Interval Control Valves (IV‐ICV™). These
valves are controlled hydraulically with the hydraulic force provided from the
hydraulic control lines from the surface
One of constituent motivations and development of hi-tech borehole
configurations was the fact that in the 1980th the production from wells the of

166
the first generation of the offshore fluids started declining thus resulting in an
emergence of numerous difficulties in the implementation of the actions in the
maintenance of production levels. Besides, the emergence of deep-water wells with
underwater completion began to demand carrying out the extremely expensive intra
borehole works. In total by the year 2013 from 600 projects of "smart" wells
existing at that time 22% was carried out the wells of underwater, another 26% of
hi-tech configurations were established on the wells of the offshore platforms.
Previously the only possible way of obtaining information on the formation
was carrying out the downhole logging, assuming the interference into the well
work. The measurements were carried out with some frequency for obtaining various
parameters, including pressure, temperature and flow rate. Though the downhole
logging is also source of valuable information, it demands inherently expensive
and risky intervention in to the planned work of a well. As a result the
measurements are carried out irregularly, and there is a lack of fresh information
that limits the possibilities of the operator. The first smart systems of
completion used the stationary electronic sensors in the wells which carried out
online measurement of pressure and temperatures. As the similar systems justified
the price, the systems supervising the flow rate and water cutting of production
were developed. These borehole sensors were added with the newly developed electro
hydraulic monitoring systems of the flow rate. In practice the problem was that
the systems were unstable at high temperatures and the share of failures doubled
with everyone 10оС. And as the sense of the system of smart wells is that it is
stationary and without any external access, its value directly depends on the
reliability of sensors and configuration and their period of operation without
repair. Soon these systems were rejected because of their low reliability.
In recent years the innovations in the fiber-optic sensors and control
systems greatly improved the reliability and led to the expansion of the market of
the smart well technologies.
The condition of payback of a smart well is undoubtedly, its ability to carry
out continuous monitoring of the development is. If the borehole systems
constantly fail, practically there is no sense from the obtained data on the well
work. Therefore all the forces were directed to create such a system in which the
monitoring was constant and stable, and the price was rather acceptable.

167
7.2 Classification of smart wells. Snake and dragon wells. (see fig. 7.1-7.10)

One of versions of "smart wells" is a "snake" well. Such a well as "snake",


wriggles here and there and covers only highly productive zones. The integration
of smart technologies with a snake well allows to reach the selection which is
equivalent to the selection from several vertical wells, and to guarantee that
each highly productive area is involved in development. Such wells applied to the
development of Champion West field in Brunei. The output of a snake well reaches
2000 t/day. The technology of drilling of "snake" wells made it possible to bring
the field with complicate geology into development. Unlike the horizontal wells, a
"snake" one wriggles in the longitudinal direction and connects the productive
zones which are unevenly distributed along the space of the reservoir. The
technology of the construction of "snake" wells enables to penetrate both
individual productive zones and the whole series of the perspective horizons. The
"snake" wells represent the equipment of the directed drilling using of special
technologies, such, as rotor operated system, applied in aggregate with a program
complex which creates the detailed model of a trajectory of a well, based on a
deep structure of layers. The similar technologies allow the drilling foremen to
enter a 2 meter design circle of the admission at the depth of several miles from
an earth surface. The drilling of snake wells will allow reducing the quantity of
wells drilled from the surface. That is, it is possible to drill some wells, but
each of them will find its continuation in productive layers of a field.
The version of a snake well is a “dragon” well, dragon well which is more
difficult in structure in respect of crossing the layers and penetrates the far
and wide the strike.
Smart wells of the first and second generations. The smart well of the first
generation is a well equipped with the system of continuous monitoring (point
electric sensors) and the monitoring system of hand-operated inflow of valves (no
more than five intervals). The smart well of the second generation is a well
equipped with the system of continuous monitoring (the distributed fiber-optical
sensors) and the inflow monitoring system (more than 24 zones of control), capable
to work without any interference of a main.

168
Main differences of smart wells of the first and the second generations.As
the progress is constantly advancing, and the technology of smart wells is
constantly improving, at present the smart wells of the second generation are
introduced. The main differences of wells of the first and the second generations
are presented in table 7.1.
Smart production and injection well. The difference of a smart production
well from a smart injection well is that in a smart production the well inflow
control is exercised, and in a smart injection well the well infectivity control
is performed.
Smart multilateral well. Control of valves in each perforated zone of a well
is exercised from the surface. Such management leads to the reduction of the
quantity of workovers for the whole life of a field, and the repairs of wells
become significantly safe. The smart completion of wells gives the chance to
control and manage of a wellbore in order to respond immediately to the not
designed behavior of the reservoir and the continuous adjustment of volumes of
water injection and oil withdrawal by each zone of a well.
Smart branched well with the maximum sweep. Each of the electronic - operated
valves near the perforated openings of "a smart well" is equipped with the sensors
of position valve, inflow of fluids, temperatures. The wells are designed with 5-6
smart laterals, the sensors of continuous control connected by system of feedback
with the operated valves regulators of inflow.
Bionic well with the smart electric actuator. A bionic well (from the word
bionic) is a well possessing an extreme coverage of a productive layer. The
quantity of smart laterally is unlimited. Every lateral is supplied with an
electric actuator. The number of smart laterals reaches 100-150.
The SCRAMS (Surface Controlled Reservoir Analysis and Management System), was
presented in the market in the year 1996, and in August, 1997 it was established
on a platform on the tension support of Sogaz Snora in the North Sea for the first
time. SCRAM allows the operator to carry out pressure and temperature monitoring
for each zone in real time. The availability of such information determines the
possibilities of the operator on the optimization of work of the formation and the
production process. SCRAM is used for the management of the step less valve
regulator of inflow for an exact interval control of the liquid in a well. Thanks

169
to a modular design of borehole devices all the valves regulators can be
supervised by SCRAMS. The communication between the surface and intra borehole
devices is carried out through means of hydraulic and electric information
channels. The hydraulic communication channel transfers the SCRAMS module a
driving force which, in turn, using the electromagnetic distributors, transfers
this force to each part of the valve regulator of inflow. The electric conductor
enables to transfer the force and the signal from the well Controller to all the
borehole elements through the means of multichannel telemetry.
The Direct hydraulic systems are used to control the inflow to a well from
the productive intervals (off/on, variable). They can be applied on land, platform
and deep-water installations. Direct Hydraulics can't be used in those cases where
a stepless pipe connection is required.
The mini hydraulic systems of are usually used when remote selective
production, or well killing is required and there is a limited number of
wellheads. It is extremely valuable when it is impossible or unprofitable to
install the wire communication line, for example in wells with big curvature of a
trajectory, the horizontal wells equipped with EP, etc. The mini hydraulic systems
are very suitable for the wells working on some layers where the water or gas
break is possible.
The smart Infos system uses the hydrodriving sliding couplings with
possibility of remote management, the insulating packers and the intra borehole
systems of monitoring to achieve the remote control of inflow, and also to reduce
the detection and response time in the conditions of changing the borehole
conditions. The hydraulic Infos system of can be controlled manually or
automatically, using the valves and the power drives coupled to the SCADA system
module (dispatching management and data collection). The possibility of the
hydraulic control can be provided on the control panel of the operator on a
production platform.
InCharge is the first system of smart completion using the valves with the
electric drive and stepless connections. The InCharge system performs the
monitoring of measurements of temperature, pressure and production rate in real
time at the bottom of both in tubing, and in annular space. The system of stepless
change of connection allows regulating the inflow from separately taken

170
thicknesses. The operator can provide the necessary conditions for the production
optimization taking into account the latest information from a well, operating the
conditions in production and/in injection in real time and the inflow from
separate thicknesses. The profile of the inflow can be equalized, of water or gas
breakthrough can be warned, and separate thicknesses can be brought into operation
or killed. All the above-mentioned operations are carried out by means of a
control system on the personal computer.

7.3 Design and configuration of smart wells (see fig.7.11-7.19)

A typical "smart" well consists of distributive valves for control of inflow


and constant sensors to measure of various physical quantities such as: pressure,
temperature, and flow rate, speed of waves (seismic and acoustic) and tension. The
main equipment is presented by the downhole flow meters and the adjusting valves
which can transfer the data to the surface and can be controlled from the surface,
the fiber-optical cables, the electric centrifugal pumps, the production rate
measuring. For the measurement of inflow of fluids from the horizons and water
cutting, the flow meter, pressure and temperature sensors are used.
Basic elements of a smart well:
1. The active control units of inflow (Inflow Control Devices – ICV), unlike
the passive inflow control devices (ICD) are controlled from surface and allow to
regulate the rate the flow from an interval of perforation
2. The measurement systems at the bottom.
3. The packers isolating separate intervals of perforation
The operating valves of inflow of liquid to the bottom, the activation system
is more often hydraulic, or seldom the electric. There are constant sensors at the
bottom (PDG – permanent down-hole gages), sensors of inflow of liquid at the
bottom, the distributed system of P/T measurement.
Smart completion of a well. The main configuration of a smart well (on the
example of Shlumberger's equipment). The most important element of the
configuration is the borehole valves regulating the fluid inflow into a well.
Earlier the valves could work only for opening and closing, but now can be used up
to 10 steps of change of the connection (+ closing). The configuration of the

171
Shlumberger company for example the stationary adjusting valve TRFC-HN AP [5], is
hydro driving and the fluid inflow from the annular to the tubing can be used to
regulate. The TRCF-HN LP valve has a cap on the connection and can regulate the
production from the same tubing. The TRCF-E valve is also stationary regulating,
but it has an electromechanical regulating connection and the built-in sensor the
measuring instrument of temperature, pressure and the mass flow rate. These
sensors can measure the flow parameters in tubing and in the annular space.
Reliability is an extremely important indicator of the system which is intended
for work throughout the entire period of the well operation. Some systems
installed by Shlumberger, continue to work since the year 1998. In smart
completion the measuring devices, valves, packers and other equipment intended for
the isolation of productive intervals, sensors of control of inflow and the sand
entry, and also the equipment for the mechanized production are used. However the
installation of the reliable and safe equipment in itself doesn't mean a smart
completion. For the optimization of production or injection the repeated
monitoring cycle, the modeling, and the control are carried out.
Fiber-optical visualizers of wells. The visualize compaction imager in real
time (Real-Time Compaction Imager - RTCI) is a technology on a fiber-optical cable
which continuously traces the changes of a form of the casing with a high spatial
destitution (~ 1 cm) and high-precision (~ 10 micro deformations) deformation
measurement along and round the pipe section, which then are transferred to a
quantitative assessment of the deformation. VUC is sensitive to all types of
deformation, including the axial compression, bending, ovalization, temperature
and pressure change. VUC allows to reveal at early stages and quantitatively to
estimate the geomechanical loadings, such as reservoir compaction and its
expansion, sliding of the shift surface, etc. to take of the appropriate measures
for prevention of further damage of the wellbore and the production optimization.
For the first time the VUC test in the real casing was conducted in the Pinedale
fielf (the State of Wyoming, the USA) by the Shell Company in the year 2013 for
the section of two 7-inch. The system allowed carrying out in real time monitoring
of the deformation of the sandy screen and a fiber-optical cable form of the
casing by means of. The nature of deformation of the borehole along its section
depending on the properties of the accruing unconsolidated rocks is divided into

172
two types: increasing the area of the cross section of the borehole (caving’s and
borehole well collapses); reducing the area of cross section of the borehole
(swelling of clays). The timely identification and quantitative assessment of such
deformations at early stages can help the operator to prevent a potential danger,
and also to correct the data of seismic monitoring of the process of production.
Of particular interest at an early stage of life of a well is the opportunity
to supervise the tension change, namely the opportunity to control the
differential pressure between the internal and external walls of the casing during
the injection the, circulation of cement and in cooling the cement stone.
Excellent results were received in cementation the intermediate casing, and also
of the production casing. After the completion of the process of cementation in a
gas well at the depth of more than 2.5 km the monitoring of tension proceeded
about six months. The well is influenced by a number of essential geomechanical
tensions which its integrity. Consolidation of rocks or active fault; can have put
the big pressure upon the borehole, and in some cases lead to the well
elimination. The traditional control methods of geomechanical deformations and
tensions are a little limited in comparison with the VURV. The radioactive marks
on the body in combination with the gamma log were used in the past to measure the
consolidation of the reservoir. These methods are limited with a spatial
resolution of about 3 m that is insufficient in many situations as the
consolidations can happen in the layers of less than a meter thick. Besides, VUC
can supervise also deformations and consolidation in real time with a fine
precision and permission.
The Visualizer of the casing. The VUC monitoring system consists of three key
elements shown in the picture: fiber-optical cable with Breg’s sensors; a land
block; a computer. The optical fiber is a passive element of sounding which
contains thousands of sensors of the deformation evenly distributed along all its
length. The fiber is wrapped round the casing on a clesigned angle of wrap to
monitor of various deformation changes. The land block is used to receive and to
receive the obtained data. The computer is responsible for the management of the
land block, turning the obtained data into the image of the casing. The computer
and the land block are on the surface and instrumental are connected with the
sensors through a fiber-optical cable. Winding of a fiber-optical cable on the

173
casing under different angles defines the sensitivity to a certain mode of
deformation. Tens of thousands of sensors are located spirally at a distance of
about 1 cm from each other are, built in the sandy screen, each of which are
measures submicron deformations. They fix all the pipe tensions, including: axial
loadings, pipe collapsing, localization of the borehole, pressure, temperature. An
alternative of the use of auxiliary measurements of compensation of the
corresponding tension because of pressure and temperature on the column is the
combination of several angles of wrap. Axial compression, pressure and temperature
are characterized by a continuous shift of the registered parameter. The one fold
measurement there is a problem of identification of the influence of each
deformation mode. However, the sensitivity of an optical fiber to certain types of
loadings strongly depends on the wrapping angle. The measurements at different
angles of wrap can, probably record the parameter of interest to us.
Method of distributed acoustics - use of a fiber-optical cable for
measurement of temperature, pressure, a flow rate. The fiber-optical system of
distributed acoustics is the technology allowing defining the concrete events
occurring in a well, noises caught by an optical cable. It depends on the way of
establishing a number of very sensitive microphones in a well and listening to the
sand movement along the pipeline the (tubing), turbulence of a stream, a leak,
listening to now the as valves open and closed to check their condition. At
present in many countries the fiber-optical cable for measurement of temperature,
pressure, flow rate, and seismic measurements is used and the same cable can be
used as a microphone by the installation of the new electronic unit on the
surface. The device sends a light signal down along the fiber. The light changes
the properties as a result of noise round the cable. Having analyses the reflected
light signal registered by the device on the surface, it is possible to find out,
what noises were "heard" by the fiber-optical acoustic sensor, and even to define
the location of a source of a sound. The system allows to register synchronously a
sound through each meter along all the cable, and also its amplitude (dynamic
range more than 90 dB), frequency and a phase. The fiber-optical technologies have
long been used in various areas of technique, making a basis for not only the
information transmission means, but also in various devices of measurement and
control. In the last decade the fiber-optical technologies more intensively rate

174
into the oil and gas industry, especially into such interconnected sections of
this branch, as seismic exploration, drilling, geophysical researches in wells and
oil and gas production. On the basis of the fiber-optical technologies there have
been developed various measuring systems which, possessing high precision, surpass
the electronic devices of the same appointment regarding the stability and the
thermal stability. Measuring elements (sensors) of such systems aren't subject to
the influence of magnetic and electric fields and are stable to vibration and
blows. An optical fiber is a thin quartz thread, comparable with a human hair
which allows to measure such physical quantities as temperature and pressure, to
analyze acoustic fluctuations. And the most interesting, is that gives the chance
to register all this, obtaining the necessary data from any point of the optical
fiber, no matter how long it was either 1 or 40 km. Thus, the fiber-optical
sensors can work practically in combination with any technology of production,
transferring to the operator the information on current state of parameters in a
well.
Thanks to the fiber-optical technologies wide range of tasks connected with
monitoring of formation parameters by geophysical methods is solved. Among them it
is possible to note the thermometry (an assessment of quality of a design, an
assessment of a profile of inflow/intake rate), optical, acoustic methods, and
pressure sensors. However, when receiving such a large number of information there
arises is a need of its transfer for the further analysis. In this case the fiber-
optical technologies are also used as the most reliable and the fastest way of
information transfer. Such technologies are used on "smart" fields of the second
generation. They allow transferring gigabytes of a information every year
practically from several thousand sensors.
It is known that at the end of the year 2010 the BP Company completed the
construction of a fiber-optical communication channel of 1200 km long which
connected all the offshore platforms of this company in the Gulf of Mexico. The
implementation of this project cost the companies about 80 million dollars. The
Norwegian companies have some experience, but in connection with the big extent of
the coastline, they performed numerous evaluations of fiber-optical communication
channels from the platforms and underwater production complexes to the coast.

175
Bottom hole measuring and operating system.An effective way of management of
the development of a field, formation, by system of wells, a well with difficult
dynamics is the smart borehole control system (SBCS) focused on the systemically
open objects with automatic decision making on the basis of created and
accumulated in the managing director of system of knowledge. The adaptive SBCS of
the first generation can adapt to the changing external conditions and improve the
work while gaining experience (information). The basis of the SBCS is the smart
well including the information channel of communication; the computer and
tomographic complex of borehole control of phase structure and volume consumption
of gases before oil streams; the modules of sounding of near well and inters
borehole space on the basis of constructive elements of flow tubing.
The known telemetric devices transfer deep parameters along a cable. The
devices of remote control run along a cable via the special wellhead lubricator
device. In a number of the oil and gas extraction countries of the world the
"smart" completion of wells provides the mechanized way of production with wire
communication. However, cable complicates the a surveys of wells and their
operation, especially in injection wells and in oil production by flowing.
The similar systems also have more remote prospect. So, the limitation of
hydro carbonic resources results in the need of the development of nonconventional
resources in sedimentary pools. First of all they include gases hydrate of
saturated thicknesses and permafrost rocks, gases of carboniferous thicknesses and
dense formations, gases of deep fields and the water dissolved gases of the
underground hydrosphere, high-viscosity oil and bitumen. Because of natural
properties of nonconventional reserves known technologies of development aren't
effective. The need for the ISSU increases in the process of growth of volumes of
the IS resource development in small fields and an transition of the majority of
large-scale of deposits to the closing stage. The analysis shows that the IS
greatly affect the development of the oil and gas industry, and will lead to the
creation of essentially new technologies of construction and operation of
production facilities of the branch, and will increase economic efficiency and
ecological reliability of the development of low-productive and remote reserves
and development of nonconventional sources of hydrocarbons.

176
Classification of operated valves regulators of injector of production and
forcing of working agents. The ability of smart systems of completion to unite the
selection and to set remotedly a configuration of several zones of a reservoir by
means of the valves control of intervals allows operators to operate at distance
influents and effluents though the isolated intervals where selective management
of production or injector is necessary. Currently the Halliburton Company offers
two types of valves of management of intervals: MS - ICV and HS-ICV for the smart
completion of wells. From the point of view of expenses MC — ICV valves of
management of intervals is an effective the decision for smart completions of
wells where the moderate or low production rate is expected. The choke valve unit
can be developed individually, with possibility of adjusting its provisions of the
flow overlapping so that to provide the most effective choking for specific
borehole conditions in all positions thus actually increasing quality of control
of the field development. The control valves by intervals of HS-ICV are intended
for application in the conditions of high pressure/temperatures which are usually
met in extreme working environments. When the information on the position of the
HS-ICV valve in real time is necessary, the sensor of the position of the valve
with possibility of data transmission about its position on surface with their
display on the screen, indicating the position from 0 to 100% is provided.
The types of sensors applied in smart wells.Usually constant sensors are
classified by the technology of measurement (electric or optical) and by the
quantity of points of measurements (point, quasi - distributed and distributed).
The quartz and electric sensors represent a more economic option and are focused
on collecting more private parameters, such as productivity of pump system or
pressure/ the temperature at the bottom or in the borehole. These technologies
have obvious advantages concerning the productivity, reliability, cost and the
mounting convenience. The problem sites of wells are found quicker, than in using
other technologies, and it is possible to eliminate the problems before the cost
of the decision will exceed reasonable limits. During the work with wells with
several productive intervals and the complicated conditions of production the
fiber-optical devices give opportunities which other technologies cannot provide.
Nowadays, in multicoated wells the simple complexes consisting of one manometer,
gave way to smart systems with initially built-in devices of measurement of

177
pressure and the multiphase flow meters, the distributed thermometry, borehole
seismometer and remote flow control.

7.4 Management and monitoring of a smart well in real time (see fig. 7.20-7.22)

Fiber-optic monitoring of Real-Time Casing Imager (RTCI) by Baker Hughes. The


real-time casing images for the first time shows the condition of consolidation
and deformation of the casing / sandy the screen meter by meter along the
borehole. Continuous monitoring with the casing images inreal time facilitates the
adoption of operational decisions on operational parameters, workovers. RJKI can
lead to considerable economy in completion of wells at the expense of monitoring
of deformation of the sand screen and the form of the casing by means of fiber
optics in real time. The system is developed by the Shell and Baker Hughes
Incorporated companies. RJKI uses the Breg’s lattice sensors which have been
built in the sandy screen, instrumentally connected with the optic-fiber cable for
monitoring of the deformation and allows receiving three-dimensional images of
deformation of high resolution on the screen. The RJKI is used now both for the
casing and for the 9 5/8-inch gravel filter. The first successful test of VORV in
the real casing took place the Pinedale field, State of Wyoming, USA, the Shell
Company in the year 2008. The system was used for the section of two 7-inch casing
under different angles of wrapping of a fiber-optic cable on the casing an angle
of wrapping defining the sensitivity to a certain mode of deformation. The key
moments of cementation of the casing (cement slurry injection movement of bridge
plugs) were well seen on the screen. The nature of deformation of the borehole
along its section depending on the properties of lying unstable rocks is divided
into two kinds the increasing area of cross section the borehole or reducing it.
The first results from collapses and cavings of the walls of a well. The second
type of deformation of the borehole (narrowing) is connected with clay bedding in
a section of a well capable to constant fluidity before final overlapping of
section of the borehole.
Continuous, highly - efficient measurements on the basis of a fiber-optic
cable along a borehole string: axial deformation (compression and intensity);

178
shift; flexibility / stability; losses of an oval form / collapsing of pipes. The
numerous test installations completed cementation of casing in a well have been
carried out. Tens of thousands of sensors are located spirally at the distance of
about 1 cm from each other, each of them being capable to measure submicron
deformations. They provide real time continuous monitoring of the deformation of
pipes, consolidation of the oil and gas reservoir, integrity of a well, without
any intervention from the outside. They also fix all the pipe tensions, including
axial loadings, pipe collapsing, pressure and temperature.

7.5 Examples of application of smart wells (see fig. 7.23 – 7.24)

FD-11 Well in the Fala fluid. The FD-11 well of was the first smart well
which represented the integrated work of the government of Dubai and
ConocoPhillips. At took nearly a year to development the optimum configuration for
operation. The configuration of a smart well is connected with a stationary QL
packer. The production from the bottom zone is carried out at the expense of
overlapping of the annular space by this packer, letting in the cased in the
surrounded part (9 5/8 inches) while the production from the top zone is carried
out along the tubing - casing space. The valves which regulate the production from
two horizontal branches are located rather high, in the part with small curvature
where they can be pulled out by a special cable. However the technology of smart
completion is rather reliable, as the need for pulling didn't arise. The tubing
and the valves can isolate or choke any of two horizontal branches, and special
measuring instruments receive the information on pressure and temperature which is
necessary for tubing for decision-making on the production optimization. The
measuring device for monitoring is installed on a wall of the tubing and can
measure pressure both in it, and in the tubing-casing space. In FD-11 well the
electro-fiber-optical lines of sensors were applied for the first time. Such
measuring means represented an electric cable with the fiber-optical inserts. The
production in FD-11 well is supported at the expense of the gas-lift, and the
thermo- profiles allow to supervise the efficiency of gas-lift valves and to
perform the production optimization. Within the first year of operation the valves
regulators of inflow replaced more than 160 positions on the FD-11 well. In future

179
when there will be a strong water cutting of production, and there will be a need
for overlapping of one or both branches, that is the possibility that the mix of
water and oil will accumulate in these branches, and will be separated and in
opening the valves it will give additional production.
Bionic well or well with an extreme sweep.The wells with the maximum sweep
were drilled for an increase in the productivity (to 3 fold in comparison with a
vertical well) and the increases in fluid inflow into a well, at the same time the
problem of reduction of expenses for a share of the received production was being
solved. The smart completion was applied to achieve the maximum balanced
production from these multilayer fields, and also the control of the formation
pressure decrease and the reduction of water cutting of production. Speaking about
the carbonate collectors with fractures and cracks, the system of a smart
completion allows reaching the maximum working development.
Other oil companies, such as the Indian Oil and gas corporation (ONGC),
support the policy of drillings of wells with the maximum coverage of a reservoir
and equipment by their smart systems and in terrigenous reservoir and systems the
control of sand recovery as well.
The well in the figure 7.24 represents a well with the maximum coverage of a
reservoir in a huge field in the Middle East. It drains a non uniform carbonate
reservoir and has 2 branches from walls of the main well. On condition of standard
completion and heterogeneity of a reservoir the water cutting of production
increased to 23% in a year thus, leading to a decrease in oil production. The
system of smart completion has been established for production control from each
additional horizontal borehole. The successful system of smart completion isn't
limited only by the technological effectiveness of the configuration: it also
means a systematic approach to planning that includes the information from deposit
model. The work of multidisciplinary collectives is necessary throughout the work
on a deposit: from the development plan to its implementation.The configuration of
this smart well represents the QUANTUM Multiport packers and 3 TRFC-HN AP valves
to control operation of horizontal additional boreholes and the main boreholes.
The Watcher well represents a system of monitoring of the condition of a
deposit and production control in real time, by means of the data on temperature
and pressure in a well. The information is sent along the ultra-new and fast

180
communication channels. The received information together with the data on
qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the flow serves for the selection
of the development mode (the maximum quantity of oil, the minimum water cutting of
production) at the expense of valve regulator shift. After the installation of the
equipment of smart completion, the oil production was established at 950 m3/day,
water cutting of production wasn't observed. An early identification of problems
allowed preventing premature closing of the horizontal branched borehole.

Conclusion

A smart well is a complex of the underground equipment consisting of the


inflow control unit of (ICV); zone isolation; bottom hole systems of tracking in
real time - Borehole Digital and Fiber-optic systems (FOS), automatic systems of
safety, telemetric equipment. There are following types of smart wells: a snake
well, a dragon well, a smart well of the first generation, a smart well of the
second generation, a bionic well, a smart multilateral well, a smart branched well
with the maximum coverage of layer (sweep). The typical "smart" well consists of
the distributive valves to control the inflow and constant sensors for the
measurement of various physical values such as: pressure, temperature, and flow
rate, speed of waves (seismic and acoustic) and tension. The real time casing
imager shows for the first time the condition of consolidation and deformation of
the casing / sand screen meter by meter along the well bore. The RTCI uses the
Brag’s lattice sensors which have been built in the sand, screen, instrumentally
connected with a fiber-optic cable for the monitoring of deformation and allows
receiving three-dimensional images of deformation of high resolution on the
screen.

Acknowledgements

181
In the seven chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A.
Eremin "Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as coursework students and undergraduates following the above-mentioned
universities: A. Smailova, D. Sokolov, A. Enilin, D. Gorbunova and others.

References:

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интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
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– Кн. 2. Учеб. пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и
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91961-329-7.
2. Еремин Н.А. Современная разработка
месторождений нефти и газа. (Умная скважина –
Интеллектуальный промысел. Виртуальная
компания. M.: ООО «НедраБизнесцентр», 2008 - - 244
pages. ISBN 978-58365-0311-6
3. A.B.Zolotukhin, A.A.Khrulenko "Application of hi-tech wells for the
purpose of increase of efficiency of development of offshore oil and gas fields",
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4. R. R. Gabdullov "Experience in application of technologies for ORE of
multibedded fields in JSC Oil Company Rosneft"

Internet source

182
 Oil & Gaz Journal http://www.ogj.ru/
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 Salyn Petroleum http://www.spdnv.ru
 Tambaineftegas http://tambaineft.ru
 Oil site of the 1st international conference “Smart field: world practice and
up-to-date technologies ” http://oilconference.ru/
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Revolution» [http://www.Weatherford.ru];
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[http://www.annualreview.shell.com];
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 Schlumberger: “PowerDrive vortex” [http://www.slb.ru];
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[http://news.brunei.fm];
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snake_Wells];
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Mechanics and Fatigue Analysis Services and Software”, S. Menand, L.
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183
 Gao, C., Rajeswaran, T., & Nakagawa, E. (2007). A literature review on
smart‐well technology [SPE 106011].

Abbreviation

VCRT - Visualizer of a casing in real time; CVRT - Consolidation visualizer


in real time; SBCS - Smart borehole control system; ROS - rotor operated system;
EP – electro centrifugal pump; ICV – the active control unit of inflow, ICD -
passive control units of inflow; DTS - Fiber-optic systems; PDG - Constant sensors
on a face.

List of Figures

1. Figure 7.1 – "Snake" wells


2. Figure 7.2 – The Schematic image of the "snake" well drilled through
interlaying productive zones.
3. Figure 7.3 – Dragon well
4. Figure 7.4 – Smart multilateral well
5. Figure 7.5 – Smart multilateral well. Selection horizons
6. Figure 7.6 – Shaft of a Smart Multilateral Well
7. Figure 7.7 – Mouth of a well with fiber-optical sensors
8. Figure 7.8 – "Smart well" of D-17 in the Douglas field (The Liverpool gulf,
Great Britain)
9. Figure 7.9 – Smart multilateral well. Valves
10. Figure 7.10 – Smart multilateral well
11. Figure 7.11 – Design of a smart well
12. Figure 7.12 – Basic elements of a well
13. Figure 7.13 – Standard smart well
14. Figure of 7.14 Updating in dynamics is an extremely important component in
monitoring and control of development of a deposit.

184
15. Figure 7.15 – TRFC-HN AP and TRFC-HN LP valves walking jointly to control the
operation of two productive thicknesses working in common for control
16. Figure 7.16 – Main components of a visualizer of an casing column
17. Figure 7.17 – Development of oil field by a Smart borehole control system
18. Figure 7.18 – Robotization of Process of Development of a Reservoir of
Hydrocarbons
19. Figure 7.19 –Dual-bore Smart well
20. Figure 7.20 – Scheme of continuous monitoring of operations on production,
repair and completion of lateral branch of wells
21. Figure 7.21 – Visualizer of a Casing in Real Time – fiber-optic monitoring
22. Figure 7.22 – Casing Visualizer
23. Figure 7.23 – Smart completion, allowing the control of water cutting in a
well
24. Figure 7.24 – Smart completion of the well which is most covering a reservoir
(control of well influx)

List of tables

1. Table 7.1.1 – Difference of Wells of the First and Second Generations

185
Figures and table to chapter 7.

Figure 7.1 – "Snake" wells

Рис. 7.1 «Змеиная» скважина

Figure 7.2 – The Schematic image of the "snake" well drilled through interstratifying
productive zones.

Рис. 7.2.2 Схематическое изображение «змеиной»


скважины, пробуренной сквозь переслаивающиеся
продуктивные зоны.

186
Figure 7.3 – Dragon well

Рис. 7.3 Драконовая скважина

Figure 7.4 – Smart multilateral well

Рис. 7.4 Умная многозональная скважина

187
Figure 7.5 – Smart multilateral well. Selection horizons

Рис. 7.5 Умная многозональная скважина. Горизонты


отбора

Figure 7.6 – Shaft of a Smart Multilateral Well

Рис. 7.6 Хвостовик умной многозональной скважины

188
Figure 7.7 – Mouth of a well with fiber-optical sensors

Рис. 7.7 Устье скважины с оптоволоконными


датчиками

189
Figure 7.8 – "Smart well" of D-17 on a Douglas reservoir (The Liverpool gulf, Great
Britain)

Рис. 7.8 “Умная скважина” D-17 на месторождении Douglas


(Ливерпульский залив, Великобритания)

Figure 7.9 – Smart multilateral well. Valves

Рис.7.9 Умная многозональная скважина. Задвижки

190
Figure 7.10 – Smart multilateral well

Рис.7.10 Умная многозональная скважина

191
Figure 7.11 – Design of a smart well SPD.

Рис.7.11 Конструкция умной скважины Салым


Петролеум Девелопмент.

Figure 7.12 – Basic elements of a smart well

Рис. 7.12 Основные элементы скважины


192
Figure 7.13 – Standard smart well

Рис. 7.13 Типовая умная скважина

Figure of 7.14 Updating’s in dynamics. The extremely is important component in monitoring


and control of development of a deposit.

Рис. 7.14 Обновления в динамике. Является крайне


важной составляющей в мониторинге и контроле за
разработкой залежи

193
Figure 7.15 – TRFC-HN AP and TRFC-HN LP valves works of two productive thicknesses working
in common for control

Рис. 7.15 TRFC-HN AP и TRFC-HN LP клапаны работающие


совместно для контроля работы двух продуктивных
толщ

Figure 7.16 – Main components of a visualizer of an casing column

194
Рис. 7.16 Основные компоненты визуализатора
обсадной колонны

Figure 7.17 – Development of oil field by a Smart borehole control system

Рис.7.17 Разработка залежей нефти умной скважинной


системой управления

Figure 7.18 – Robotization of Process of Development of a Reservoir of Hydrocarbons

Рис. 7.18 Роботизация процесса разработки


месторождения углеводородов

195
Figure 7.19 –Dual-bore Smart well

Рис. 7.19 Двухустьевая интеллектуальная


скважина

Figure 7.20 – Scheme of continuous monitoring of operations on production, repair and


completion of lateral branch of wells

196
Рис. 7.20 - Схема непрерывного мониторинга операций
по добыче, ремонту и заканчиванию боковых
стволов скважин

Figure 7.21 – Visualizer of a Casing in Real Time – fiber-optic monitoring

Рис. 7.21 Визуализатор обсадки реального времени –


опто-волоконный мониторинг

Figure 7.22 – Casing Visualizer.

Рис. 7.22 – Визуализатор обсадной трубы

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Figure 7.23 – Smart completion, allowing controlling water cutting in a well

Рис. 7.23. Умное заканчивание, позволяющее вести


контроль обводненности в скважине

Figure 7.24 – Smart completion of the well which is most covering a collector (control of
well flood)

198
Рис. 7.24 Умное заканчивание скважины, максимально
охватывающей коллектор (контроль за обводнением
скважины)

Characteristics First Generation Second Generation

The number of sensors <45 <10 000

Types of fiber optic


electrical fiber optic
sensors

Siting point Распреде


Точечное
distribution ленное

Valves <5 24 and more

The degree of human


Manual control Automatic control
intervention

Table 7.1. Main differencies between wells of first and second generation

Таблица 7.1. Основные различия между


скважинами первого и второго поколений

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Chapter 8. Smart Field Development

Abstract

In this chapter on the subject "Smart field development" consideration is


given to the questions connected with the management of development of a smart
field. The first subsection presents the definitions to the term "smart well",
"smart field" and their interpretations in different companies are considered.
Schedules of quantity of Smart fields among the leaders of the world oil and
gas companies are provided. And also the monitoring of the development of a
field in real time is described in detail. The oil companies all over the world
are faced with such common problems as falling production, growth of expenses,
complication of geographical conditions of oil production, deterioration of
hydrocarbon reserves, shortage of the skilled personnel and a high degree of
uncertainty of the data used for decision-making. One of solutions of these
problems is the introduction of new equipment and technologies, including the
automation and computerization of production processes. The general direction
of the innovative development of oil and gas industry for the near-perspective
is to transfer it to the control mode in real time. Today the concept of an
intelligent (smart) field acts as a strategic element of the development of the
leading oil companies of the world. The problem of the XXI century is the
production and the development of a smart field in real time the main
advantages of which are: fast assessment of the scenarios of the production and
the development; the integration of production cycles; the decrease in expenses
due to the operations in real time; the further increase of productivity of
technological operations. For the year 2013 there are about 200 smart fields in
the world, 13 of them are in Russia. During the period 2002-2012 in the world
there existed only the fields of the first generation, but at the end of 2012
the third generation fields were already discovered.

Key words: Smart field, intelligent well, smart wells, remote monitoring
centre, real-time mode, continuous control in real time, underground gas
storage, methods of enhanced oil recovery, monitoring of the field condition,
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semi-natural modelling of the field development, 3D visualization, the
integrated operations of the 1st and the 2nd generations, fields of the 1st and
the 2nd generations, wells of the 1st and the 2nd generations.

The main subjects of the chapter

The management of the development of a smart field in real time. The


development control centre in real time. The monitoring of the field
development in real time. The smart primary conditions of the development. The
smart secondary methods. The smart water. The smart flooding. The water
flooding. The zone flooding in real time. The smart management of the
development with the change of operating systems of flooding and the well
spacing. The smart tertiary methods of simulation (EOR/IOR methods). The
assessment of the extent of the development of the reserves in real time. The
methods of enhanced coefficient of the formation sweep with account of the
nature of heterogeneity of reservoirs. The management of underwater production
complexes in real time. The management of the offshore producing platforms in
real time. The smart underground gas storage (natural gas, helium, N2, SO2). The
main tools for the management of offshore producing platforms. The areas of
applications and the range of the tasks under solution. The specific features
of monitoring of the oceanic continental slopes using the drilling platforms in
real time. The determination of the parameters of the productive reservoir in
real time: purposes and tasks. Control centres of the development of different
companies. Examples. The control centres of the development of a field.
Advantages and disadvantages. An example of the organization of management of a
field according to the event in Shell. The key factors of successful
introduction of the RMC. The classification of underwater treatment complexes.
The advantages of underwater processing complexes. A smart flooding. A "smart
injection". Purposes, tasks and advantages.

Introduction

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The purpose of this chapter is a consideration of the questions connected
with the management of the development of a smart field. The first subsection
gives the definition to the term "smart well", "smart field" and the
understanding of these definitions and terms in different companies is
considered. Further in the text of the report "smart" means the integrated,
intelligent and digital fields. The second subsection gives a detailed
description of the monitoring of the field development in real time and the
production in the world companies. The examples of such centres in different
companies, as BP, by Shell, Chevron, Honeywell, Statoil, Conoco Philips are
reviewed. Then, it has been defined that the centres of interaction and remote
control firstly result in a rapid response and the production optimization,
thus increasing the production, secondly, increase in the efficiency of the
production operations thus decreasing the operational expenses. The smart
management leads to the logistics optimization thus also decreasing the
operational expenses. The next section considers primary, secondary and
tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery (EOR/IOR) in smart fields. It is
followed by the subsection on the smart underground gas storage. The subsection
"Management of Sea Production Platforms and Underwater Production Complexes in
Real Time" specifies the purposes of a package of the measures of the
management of the offshore field development. The last part of a chapter
describes the key factors of successful introduction of the centres of remote
monitoring and examples of development of different companies.

8.1 Smart development management in real time

With the development of the technology the fields are more and more
supervised in real time remotely from the office. It also concerns the wells
and the installations. The Shell company applies a number of means of remote
control in the field facilities worldwide. These means include: a continuous
control in real time and the optimization of wells; the virtual measurement;
the technical supervision of ECP that is a control in real time and the remote
control; expanded control of the rotating equipment; the complex modelling of
the production system; the environments for the collaboration for the purpose

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of adoption unified decisions. These technologies allow the personnel in the
facilities quicker and more effectively to cope with a wider range of questions
at the expense of carrying out the necessary comprehensive examination
practically in real time. It includes the association of a number of
disciplines for faster and effective decision-making.
Within the program of "smart fields" the Shell company introduced a number
of means of continuous control and production optimization. During the period
2002-2009 it allowed the Shell company and its partners to gain big profit of
$5 billion. The introduction included both the modernization of the existing
fields, and the inherent intellectuality in designing the new facilities. The
size of the profit is formed by summing up the profits gained at all the stages
of the cycle: data collection, modelling, decision-making and its realization
in the field. On the majority of working installations worldwide, accounting
for about 60% of the general oil production of the Shell company, the FieldWare
tool kit developed by the "Shell" including the software of FieldWare
Production Universe was mounted. An example of the continuous control of the
wells in real time is the Salymsky group of oil fields in Western Siberia. The
production is carried out in a mechanized way, generally using the ECP with
drives with an adjustable speed for more than 300 wells. The controllers of the
pump and the equipment of the mouth of a well are united in the monitoring
system and the data collection (SCADA)/archive. The main control system was
improved by means of the gradually mounted tools of the complex organization of
smart fields from the "Shell". Four FieldWare modules were installed:
Production Universe — a continuous control in real time and a virtual
measurement of the oil, gas and water discharge for all the wells and a
continuous control in real time of the ECP parameters working in the wells; the
ECP the pump efficiency curves in real time, reports, technical supervision and
the remote control, supplemented with the measurement of the level of fluids by
means of Mikon's sonic depth finder; the Production Universe EOR – the
optimization of the water injection into the formation and the water discharge
in real time from the injection source, including a real-time continuous
control of the levels in the surface tanks, surface pumps and the injection
pressures and velocities in wells; WellTest – the optimization of tests of the

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wells allowing to display the results of the tests of the wells in real time,
to find and to eliminate the faults and also the automatic data transmission of
the tests to the system of the accounting of hydrocarbons [1].
The scientists and the engineers of the BP Company (Great Britain)
developed a new control system of the development of oil and gas fields called
“The Field of the Future”. This system integrates the operating and the
future technologies of the development with the created control system of data
from the wells, reservoirs and the oil and gas processing complexes received in
real time in the control centre that can give a 10-fold increase in the
productivity of seismic interpreters, the time reduction by the determination
of the location of wells. The oil engineers have an opportunity to contact the
control centre from any point of the world by means of the notebook, i-Phone,
i-Pad, to analyse the information and to make the decisions on the drilling
optimization directed at: the 25% decrease of the unproductive drilling time; a
full return of the invested funds in a short time; the 20% increase of the
quality of drilling operations; the 50% decrease of the drilling and injection
time. When using this system, the administrative decisions are made more
quickly and qualitatively at the expense of the simultaneous access to the new
information of each member of the team on the development management. If
earlier it took the specialists some days to take the similar decision, it
takes only hours to introduce a new system. The main objective of the BP
company is the support of the incremental production at the expense of the
introduction of the proper technologies (e-technologies or е - hi -
technologies). The main objectives of the development management in real time
are: 1) current – the 5%decrease in operational costs and 10% in capital
expenditures; 2) the main –an additional recovery of residual oil in the volume
of 76 million tons; 3) the final – 50%achievement of the oil recovery factor at
the expense of the introduction of innovative technologies in real time.
In oil and gas sector the Microsoft Company aims the efforts at the
development of the vertical decisions for the management in real time -
Realtime Performance Management (RPM). In the book "The World is Flat" Thomas
Friedman has noted that in the world there appeared three important innovations
which will have an essential impact on the world production, including the oil

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and gas industry, namely, the emergence of new ways of business, a new
generation of labour and the new technologies. The managing director of oil and
gas sector of the Microsoft Company Marise Mikulis points out that the HC field
development management projects is improving with the growth of information on
a field. By analogy with the term "artificial intelligence", the Microsoft
Company suggests using the concept "design intelligence". One of improvement
ways of the "design intelligence" is an introduction of technologies of "a
digital oil field" at early stages of the HC reservoir prospecting and
development. In particular, the creation of a similar "Design intelligence" for
the development of the Shtokman GKM is a very important task. With expansion of
the information base on a field the chance of the improvement of the process
management of the production of oil and gas increases. The Microsoft Company
believes that the training and the improvement of the qualification of the
working personnel in the oil and gas industry can be qualitatively made if to
use the tools like game consoles X-Box as a technical base. By now the computer
games aren't a subculture any longer. "The Federation of American Scientists"
(FAS) is developing the new training manuals for the oil and gas industry on
the basis of game consoles thus making these tools more needed and attractive.
The FAS is creating the similar training complexes for the Ministry of Defence
and the medical industry of the USA [2].

8.2 Field Development Monitoring in real time

The monitoring in real time allows operating the process of horizontal


drilling, to make the proper technical decisions on the basis of the received
information for the optimization of spacing and construction of the current and
also the subsequent wells. To reach these purposes, the processes which promote
an operational efficiency must be always present both at a design stage and at
a stage of well drilling. Lately the concept of an smart field (Intelligent
Field) has become more urgent. This approach includes some information levels:
1) the data collection system (communication channels, sensors); 2) the
analytical data processing (instruments of modelling, monitoring system); 3)

205
the integration of the obtained data with the decision-making process; 4) the
feedback (impact on wells, change of frequencies of ECP).
The process of integration of the systems of data collection with the
instruments of analytical data processing and modelling was realized on the
example of the Southern License Territory (SLT) of the Priobsky field. The
decisions which allow to carry out the daily monitoring of the potentially
dangerous "knots" and to inform the relevant services of emergency of cases
have been approved.
These decisions were realized for the development monitoring and the
operations control of the production of the Priobsky field that allowed to
solve the main problems: the collection of the information in the field in real
time; the creation of the working instrument of the control of the mechanized
fund for the technologists; ensuring the access to the information on the
problem wells with the period not less than once a day; compiling the cuts and
analytical reports on problem wells; the creation of the instrument of planning
and development monitoring for the specialists in modelling and management of
flooding.
The results of the project give the chance to analyse the lessons which
were received during its realization, to estimate the prospects of the "return
of investments (ROI)", the models contributed to the construction (which in
this case are constantly updated and used in work). An important result of the
project is also to ensure the transparency and increase in speed of decision-
making during the process of oil production [3].
At present the net discounted income which has to be received from the
field development, directly depends on: the completeness of equipment of the
underground and surface equipment with touch sensors and the equipment of
control and regulation of the technological processes; the accuracy of
localization of hydrocarbon distribution in the reservoir; the efficiency of
extraction of these hydrocarbons; the models and the algorithms of the
optimization of the production scenarios, the operation of the borehole pumps
and surface facilities on the time scale of seconds to the whole period of
field development. Therefore the philosophy of a digital field is based on the

206
following scheme: "measure - model - make the decision - carry out -
supervise".
The first stage is measurement. The RMC adheres to the following control
and measuring aspects: the foundation of the "smart fields" technology is the
measurement of technological parameters in the formation and on the surface. In
the existing fields, the measurement of technological parameters is at a low
level, both in the Russian Federation, and abroad. The problem is in the
installed old processing equipment and on which it is purely technically
difficult to replace the old measuring equipment with the new one. It is very
important to measure the parameters of the technological modes as precisely and
accurately as possible.
The digital tools which are applied in "smart fields" are digital sensors
of pressure, temperature and flow rate for monitoring of the change of
reservoir pressure, temperature and the flow rate; 4C - four-component seismic
sensors (one for longitudinal and three - for cross waves) for monitoring of
the processes of the depletion of formations. 4D seismic allows to see what
occurs underground where there are oil or gas accumulations and where there are
breakthroughs. It is necessary to collect and integrate the information from
the sensors.
The second stage is modelling. The optimization of the life of a field in
the cycle of every 24 hours requires the innovative processes, tools and
technologies which will allow a team of experts to carry out the comparative
analysis of possible scenarios of the development with the realized one and on
its basis to make decisions in real time. Thus the field management needs: the
good qualitative data in due time; the modern integrated models; the innovative
management processes allowing reducing the time from obtaining the new data to
the decision-making; a team of the qualified experts.
The new technology of digital oil fields enables the oil companies to
lower the prospecting and exploration costs and to recover more oil in the old
fields with the essential reduction of the expenses for the qualified labour.
The widespread introduction of technologies of digital oil and gas fields are
restrained owing to the traditional care of the companies in relation to the
trial development. The new technologies demand essential changes of workplaces

207
not only for the top managers, but first of all for the experts of the lower
and middle control lines. It is very important that the new digital technology
of the development of the fields helps to understand better a field as the most
changeable part of the oil and gas recovery process. The HC deposit is just the
part of the assets which is least known to the oil and gas company. In the
long-term prospect the technology of digital HC fields operating with the data
in real time will allow to operate the oil and gas production better. In
particular, space monitoring and the development control will rapidly expand
the positions.
The oil and gas companies will be able to receive a reliable tool on daily
monitoring of the performance of goals on the production and the production
realization, and also on the improvement of the effectiveness of the
administrative personnel. Fig. 1.2 presents the scheme of the continuous
monitoring of the HC production, the work of wells and the processes of the
well work over (underground) and the completion of wells. The digital oil field
will help to overcome the space and the time which lies between the person
making the decision (PMD) and the field experts. The decision maker will be
convinced that on the basis of the digital fields the specialists in management
choose the best one from a set of possible decisions, and the field experts
will understand more deeply an essence of the made solution of a technical or
technological problem on the basis of the synthesis of knowledge of various
sciences [4].

8.3 Smart primary, secondary and tertiary methods

For the last 20 years there was a sharp reduction of the average sizes of
stocks of new oil and gas fields four-fold. From 15% the share of large-scale
fields decreased to 10% among the newly discovered fields. The reservoir
properties of the productive horizons and the qualitative structure of the
fluids saturating them have considerably deteriorated. In the majority of
regions the hydrocarbon resources are already explored up to the depth of 2500-
3000 meters and many of them have long been exploited. High working of the

208
stocks is an inevitable consequence of water cutting of well production and the
decrease of the well production rate. For this reason the application of
traditional technologies not only reduces the competitiveness of the economy,
but also prevents from using oil and gas stocks in the future.
To use the best latest world developments in technique and technology of
drilling, to create own highly effective technical and technological solutions
is here a key to overcoming the problems of oil production. The problem of
increasing the well production rate in conditions of decreasing the production
is very urgent for the majority of oil-producing countries of the world. For
this reason the set of the applied technique and technologies of enhanced oil
recovery of the reservoirs and commissioning of residual oil reserves is
constantly improving.
For the last years the Shell company and its partners acted as initiators
of a significant amount of projects in the field of methods of enhanced oil
recovery, including the application of chemical reagents, stream influence and
injection of mixing-up components in a wide variety of geological conditions
and the hydrocarbon saturation.
The achievement of significantly more detailed understanding of
fundamental physical and chemical properties of rocks and fluids which have a
decisive impact on the increase in total recovery and the increase of the
economic factors of the project curved out to be a key aspect in the decrease
of risks and the authorization of these projects.
In this regard an essential increase in experimental opportunities for the
measurement of the corresponding properties of rocks and fluids, and also the
methods of visualization and modelling of processes of the bed simulation in
various geological and temporary scales was required.
The modern experimental installations for the improvement of the quality
of visualization and understanding of the process of an overflow in the
environments, and also for the exact measurement of physical and chemical
parameters were constructed.
A specially prepared complex of the programs for modelling of the
reservoir processes was subjected to the modernization to incorporate
adequately the corresponding processes of the reservoir simulation and the

209
processes of the interaction of rocks and fluids, the structures in particular,
in-situ combustion, injection of polymers, programmed wafer flooding (Designer
Water™ flooding), injection of alkaline surface-active polymers, a gas-oil
gravitational drainage with a thermal bed stimulation (Thermally Assisted-Gas-
Oil-Gravity-Drainage), oil quality improvement directly in the reservoir the,
use of a wide variety of solvents and hybrid methods on various scales in the
modelling range from separate fields to the whole field as a whole.
The concept of the highly intelligent field development means a continuous
optimization of resource base of hydrocarbon raw materials 24 hours per day and
seven days in a week.
This optimization includes the localization and the conditions of the
selection of hydrocarbon raw materials, the increase of parameters of
extracting installations (wells) during all the life cycle of the field
development in the temporary scale changing from several seconds to full period
of the field operation.
An important part of the concept of highly intelligent field development
is the closed cycle of control of the field development (Closed Loop Reservoir
Management, CLRM) in which these of the data collected at an operational phase,
for the improvement of the quality of the reservoir models and the organization
of a faster cycle in a control system of field development is provided. A
desirable result is the increased well productivity or a reliable strategy of
injection which in turn, must keep the stability with relation to the remaining
key uncertainties.
Along with the achievement of the increased total of oil withdrawal, the
important incentives in the development of new technologies were the rational
use of energy and decrease in the influence of CO2 emissions. Besides a lot of
success resulting in the further decrease of specific technological expenses
and the degree of the environmental impact has lately been achieved.

8.4 Offshore production platforms and subsea production systems management in


real time

210
Sphere of activities: the development of large offshore fields of
hydrocarbons at the stages of seismic survey, prospecting drilling, oil and gas
production in transit and deep-water zones with the use of floating vessels,
the derricks, the drilling platforms and the underwater production complexes.
Solved tasks: 1) Monitoring of a condition of the field and the environment
with application of the developed tools: sensors, ground stations, underwater
antennas, etc. and the measuring devices. 2) The semi-natural modelling of the
field development of and the development of the technology: the seismic
exploration stage: the intelligent seismic vessel; the stage of prospecting
drilling: the intelligent drilling platform; the intelligent prospecting well;
the production stage: the intelligent extracting platform (or underwater
production a complex) 3) The development of the methods of the adaptive
planning and production control at all stages of the field development in real
time: days, a week, a month, a quarter, half year, year. The assessment and the
optimization of expenses for the work performance.

The planned results of the semi-natural modelling of the offshore fields


development. Seismic exploration stage: the construction of a 3D geological
model of a field; the assessment of reserves and resources of hydrocarbon raw
materials; the recommendations on the prospecting drilling and the arrangement
of a drilling platform. The stage of the prospecting drilling is: specification
of the 3D geological model of a field; the confirmation of the reserves of
hydrocarbon raw materials by the results of prospecting drilling; the
recommendations on the arrangement and the design of the intelligent production
platform, including a "deserted" one (or an underwater production complex). The
production stage is: the modification of the 3D geological and hydrodynamic
models, the construction of the 4D field model; the control and the monitoring
of the development of the reserves of hydrocarbon raw materials on the basis of
the 4D model; the recommendations on the production planning (management of the
well production rate), the assessment of expenses [9].
The specific features of the development of offshore oil and gas fields is
real time are as follows: 1) with account of the severe sea hydro
meteorological conditions the creation of special hydraulic engineering

211
facilities of the new floating equipment (floating crane ships,vessels of
service, pipelaying barges and other special vessels) for geophysical,
geological prospecting works and the construction of the oil-field facilities
on the sea shelves and their service in the course of the arrangement,
drilling, operation and repair of wells, and also in gathering and transport
their production; 2) drilling of the inclined - directed cluster of wells from
the individual stationary platforms, from the rack platforms, on the artificial
islands, from the self-elevating and semisubmersible drilling rigs and other
facilities both onshore, and offshore; 3) in designing the choice of the most
rational for this field or a field the well pattern with such a density that
that doesn’t require its packing as in sea conditions it is connected with
extremely great difficulties because of the already existing system of field
construction and a network of underwater communications when the placement of
the new hydraulic engineering equipment for drilling of additional wells can be
impossible; 4) the choice of rational designs and number of stationary
platforms, rack platforms, floating operational decks and other equipment for
the placement of the optimum number of wells on them (depending on the bedding
the period of hole drilling, the distance between their wellheads, their
production rates expected the available wellhead pressure, etc.); 5) the
compliance of durability and reliability of the hydroengineering and other
facilities to the terms of the development of oil and gas fields, i.e. to the
period of the maximum oil extraction from a formation and the whole field; 6)
speeding up of the construction of wells by creating the reliable equipment and
the progressive technology for drilling of the inclined-directed wells with a
necessary deviation from a vertical and ensuring the autonomy of work of the
drilling crews (so as work didn't depend on the hydrometeorological conditions
of the sea) in the constrained conditions of the platforms, the rack and other
platforms that allows to finish for a short time a drilling of all the designed
wells and only after that to start their development, excepting the need for
the simultaneous drilling and the operation of wells.
The factors complicating the development of offshore fields. There is a
set of various factors in any case complicating the development of reservoirs
of natural hydrocarbons and reducing its efficiency. The last one to a much

212
granter extent refers to oil rather than to gas and gas-condensate fields. Most
important of such factors are heterogeneity of filtration and capacity
properties of the reservoir along the strike and across the strike the adverse
ratio of the mobility of the phases which were filtered in the reservoir; the
gravitational division of the phases leading to the primary gas filtration
along the upper part of the formation, and the water in its lower part; the
water and gas cones (see fig. 8.8). All these factors which are displaying
separately or together result in a low macroscopic (i.e. displaying within all
the formation) sweep by stimulation and, as a result, in a low oil recovery.
Another factor influencing oil recovery is the oil drive factor. This factor is
often called a microscopic sweep efficiency. The formation of the unrecovered
oil (i.e. zones from which oil isn't practically displaced) is often connected
with the process of water or gas drive from of oil non-uniform permeable
strata. This effect significantly increases in case of the displacement of
high-viscosity oil at which adverse ratio of the mobilities of the displacing
(water, gas) and displaced (oil) phases becomes more obvious. In this case the
permeable heterogeneity of reservoir results in the formation of the so-called
lateral conings which bypassing the low permeable regions of reservoir, leave
behind them the zones with oil saturation considerably higher than the residual
one and that’s why they are called pillars. In the conditions of static
balance, i.e. prior to the displacement process, gas, oil and water in
reservoirs are distributed according to their densities. In case of the
availability of free gas it is located down in the upper part of formation
forming the so-called gas cap which is followed by the oil-saturated part of
formation or the oil zone of the bottom underlying waters. In the course of
production this balance is broken because of the pressure gradients accepting
especially high values in the bottom hole zone of producing wells. The presence
of high pressure gradients leads to the change of the interfaces (i.e. water-
oil and gas-oil contacts), forcing them to bend towards the perforated openings
of a well through which the production is carried out. In exceeding by the
pressure gradients (or pressure difference between a well and a reservoir) a
certain level there can expect the water and/or gas breakthrough resulting in a
sharp decrease of the oil production rate or the unjustified high gas and/or

213
water production. Because of the higher mobility of gas and water in comparison
with oil coning can lead to a further reduction of the sweep by the
displacement process and the deterioration of conditions of oil production (a
high gas factor, high water cutting of production, a low oil output, etc.). As
mentioned above, the combination of the heterogeneity of the filtration and
volumetric reservoir properties with an adverse ratio of mobilities and
densities of the phases filtered in it leads to low sweep by the stimulation
and, as a rule it doesn't allow to achieve high rates of development.

8.5 Smart underground gas storage

The Underground Gas Storages (UGS) provide generally the following:


1. Compensation for the seasonal irregularity of the gas consumption
connected with heating in winter time. 2. Reduction of capital investments in
the gas main and the compressor stations. 3. Ensuring of conditions for a
steady rhythmical operation of the sources of gas and constructions of the gas
mains (AMP) with continuous average annual supply at the utilization rate of
the installed capacity of the CS close to unit. 4. Creation of the state gas
stocks (fuel and raw materials for chemical plants) in the necessary regions of
the country. 5. Conservation of petroleum gas in the new oil-extracting areas
and of hydrocarbon condensate at a temporary impossibility of its use. 6.
Increase in the oil recovery factor in the old oil-extracting areas in case of
constructing of the UGS in the developed oil fields. 7. Creation of stocks of
raw materials and fuel for the petrochemical plants and stocks of the finished
production after its development. 8. Reduction of the capacity of the plant in
removing H2S and SO2 and in production of gas sulphur. 9. Increase of
reliability of the operation of the system of distant gas supply as a whole.
10. Alignment of the fluctuations of electricity consumption.
Compensation for the seasonal irregularity of gas consumption. The
consumption of natural gas by consumers of various groups is characterized by
the irregularity of seasons of the year (summer, winter), months, weeks, days,

214
hours. The coefficient of monthly irregularity of gas consumption Kim is called
the relation of the actual monthly consumption of Qіm gas to the average monthly
Qсм:
Кім = Qім/Qсм, (1)
Where Qcм= Qг/12; Qг — the volume of annual consumption of gas, m3.
In winter months the coefficient of monthly irregularity is less than
unit. To store the summer excess of gas which in winter the consumer is
supplied during the rhythmical operation of the gas main with an average annual
productivity the underground storages are constructed. If the coefficients of
the monthly irregularity of gas consumption are known, the volume of the gas Qa
(active volume) which is subject to storage is possible to be determined by the
formula

n n  Q  Qг n
Qa =  (Qсм  Qiм )   Qсм 1  Qiм   12  (1  K iм1 ) (2)
i 1 i 1  см  i 1

or

Qг n
Qa =  (1  K iм1 )
12 i 1
(3)

Где Кiм<l — the coefficient of monthly irregularity is less than unit;


п — number of coefficients.
Determination of buffer gas volume in underground storages at gas and
water-drives. The total amount of gas in the underground storage is divided
into two parts: 1) the active (working) volume which is annually injected and
extracted from the UGS; 2) the cushion (residual) gas volume which is
constantly held in the UGS during its operation. The cushion gas is intended
for the creation in a storage of a certain pressure at the end of pumping out
at which the necessary flow rate of the gas extracted from the storage is
ensured, the requirements to the conservation of nature reserves and the
conditions of gas transportation to the area of consumption are observed; for
the reduction of the water travel to the storage; increases in the well
production rates; reduction of the rate of gas compression at the CS. The more
the volume of the cushion gas is the more is the pressure in the storage and
the output of separate wells, the less is the total number of wells for gas
extraction from the storage and the rate of gas compression at the CS of the
215
underground storage in delivering it to the consumer. The volume of the cushion
gas in the underground storage depends on a depth of a trap, physical-
geological parameters of the reservoir, formation thickness and an angle of the
bed slope the operation conditions of a storage; the operating practices of the
operation condition of well and gas pressure on the head of the wells at the
end of the period of gas extraction. In turn, this pressure depends on the
consumer (MG, soot, cement or metallurgical combines), length, diameter and the
throughput flow capacity of the connecting gas pipeline, pressure in its final
point. The volume of the cushion gas determined with account of the operating
conditions of the underground storage doesn't often meet the economic
requirements. Thus the costs of gas storage during the working hours of storage
are more than minimum. The cushion gas represents the production at a fixed
price. It is clear that the higher is the price of the cushion gas, the less it
must be in the storage, all other things being equal. The volume of the cushion
gas excepting the operation factors depends on capital investments in drilling
of wells, the operational expenses during their work, the cost of a unit of
volume of the cushion gas and the operational costs of its injection and
recovery, capital investments in the construction of CS operational expenses
for its work. The volume of the cushion gas amounts from 60 to 140% of lift
gas. The volume of the cushion gas, the number of operational wells and the
capacity of the CS are interconnected [10].

8.6 Remote Monitoring Centres (RMC) in real time

The key moment of a smart field is a control centre of development in real


time, or Remote Monitoring Centres. The first centres of remote monitoring
appeared in 1999 and represented mainly the centres for geological maintenance
of drilling. Along with the comparative simplicity of the data collection and
the information transfer, such a specialization demanded difficult expert
decisions. British Petroleum (BP) became the first company which has created
the centre of remote monitoring. The similar centres also function in
ConocoPhillips, Shell, Chevron. In time the purposes and the tasks of these
centres change, and the centres transform as well. So, the ConocoPhillips

216
centre of the drilling support created in Norway in the year 2002 was being
reconstructed 7 times till the year 2010. In different companies the Centres of
remote monitoring are called differently, so in Chevron - Advanced Decision
Environment, in British Petroleum (BP) - Advanced Collaboration Centre, ACE; in
Shell - Collaborative Workplace Environment, CWE; in Conoco Philips – Onshore
Operation Centres, OOC [11].
In the year 2006 of Statoil, Asea Brown Boveri Ltd (ABB), International
Business Machines (IBM), Aker Solutions and Svenska Kullager fabriken AB
integrated their efforts for the implementation of the program of improvement
of operational management in the "TAIL" oil production on the development of
the new technology increasing efficiency of the offshore field development in
the North Sea, being at 4 the stage of the life cycle. The measured target
indicators were: the increase of daily production by 5%, the decrease in cost
of production by 30% and the increase of safety of operations (at the expense
of the decrease in emergencies) [12].
The TAIL program was divided into 5 directions: monitoring of the status
and the capacity of the equipment, the robotization of operations, the ensuring
of wireless communications, the visualization for ensuring of joint (remote)
work of engineers.
At the budget for the research and experimental - designing works in 45
mln. dollars a number of innovative solutions were developed on 35 platforms.
For example, the Skarv field in the North Sea Floating Production, Storage and
Offloading (FPSO – floating system for production, storage and oil shipment) is
equipped with the fiber-optical telecommunication infrastructure with the
management from the centre, located onshore, and in the Valhallfield the
coastal control centre is connected with the platforms by a fiber-optical
cable.
Honeywell has recently introduced the project of the control of the
condition of the productive wells of a gas field in the Queensland Gas Company
(QGC) field in Australia. [13]. Within the first phase of the Honeywell project
over 1800 wells scattered on the territory of more than 300 thousand sq.km will
be automated. The project also includes the development of the project
documentation, the software and the equipment.

217
In the British Petroleum (BP) company on a shelf of Angola the control of
the oil production facilities is exercised from the British Petroleum (BP)
office located in the English city of Sanberi. From the situational centre the
experts observe all the processes taking place in the field, in the form of
three-dimensional models. Besides, in the office of British Petroleum (BP) it
is possible to simulate a specific situation in oil production, for example, to
construct the model imitating the crisis situation, and to develop the measures
for its prevention.
In the Shell company the fields are equipped with the system of sensors
the indications of which show an oil production picture. All the information
enters the centre of decision-making in which there are functioning the system
of monitoring of a field in real time, the system of optimization of
production, 4D-seismics and the remote control centre of the field development.
All the data are visualized in 3D - technologies. Displaying of the data in the
3D gives an opportunity to see the oil-bearing reservoir on all sides and on
the basis of it to choose the optimum technologies for oil production.
The Norwegian Statoil company, one of the most hi-tech oil companies of
the world has created the land Control centres of the fields development
located in the Barents Sea and northern Atlantic. The monitoring of the oil
production processes is online from the near-mud line marine performed
platforms, the control over raw materials transportation by means of the
underwater pipeline to the stationary accumulative terminal or the tanker. The
similar technologies are also used by the Russian Lukoil when developing the
Korchagin field in the Caspian Sea.
Economic effect of i-field is reached at the expense of the introduction
of the business processes directed at the optimization of the field
development, the management of a well and the reservoir, the management of
construction, and the use of the suitable tools. The economic effect is
measured by the dynamics of operational performances, for example, the
incremental oil production, the reduction the well shut downs, decrease in
operational expenses. The centres of interaction and remote control lead,
firstly, to a rapid operating response and the production optimization that
results in the production increase, secondly, in the increase the efficiency of

218
the production operations thus decreasing the operational expenses. The remote
management leads to the logistics optimization thus decreasing the operational
expenses.
The centre of remote monitoring represents the top level of the decision-
making. The structure of these centres usually includes the situational
(collaboration) rooms for the interaction and the room of the support of
decision-making. The experts gather in the situational rooms of necessity.
These rooms are the environment for the interaction of the groups, which
activity includes regular meetings, the interaction directed at the solution of
arisen problems, and also the exchange of information between the remote groups
on places and the head office. Externally they represent video conference rooms
with additional screens, the possibility of connection of several computers and
the special Workspace software (working space). As a result of such work the
mutual understanding between the specialists of different groups improves, the
efficiency of the analysis, the decision-making speed, and also overall
performance of the personnel increase.
The analysis of the world experience of the establishment of the Centres
of remote monitoring shows that key factors for their successful introduction
are: 1) the ability of the Centres of remote monitoring to make decisions on
work of wells that demands the presence of the experts and the support of the
management of the enterprise; 2) a quick access to the consolidated information
on the work of wells, it is desirable to have an automatic system of collection
of the information; 3)the visual reflection of losses (in an interactive mode);
4) the identification of the decrease and oil flow rates; 5) the notification
of the shops on the oil and gas production about the deviation of control
indicators for the rapid response (under individual settings of the user); 6)
the well express analysis, the diagnostics of the current state, the definition
of the reason of shut-down/failure; 7) the management of priorities (more high-
output well must be put into operation first of all).

Conclusion

219
For the last several years such technological development as "a smart
field" showed itself as the effective and reliable design decision providing
the equipment of the completed well with the electronic control units of inflow
and outflow of liquids (in the first case of hydrocarbons, in the second –
injected water). The current analyses have shown that the smart management of
the projects of the development is improving with the increase of information
on a field. The main objective of the modern development of the oil and gas
companies is an increase in the cost of assets of the company in real time on
the basis of the integration of all its components into a whole. These goals
are reached by the diversification of the operating systems in to the
innovative, highly technological and highly productive ones. "The field of the
future is being developed according to the accepted concept which assumes: the
priority of safety of the people, the equipment, the processes and the
environmental protection; the reduction of losses of oil – monitoring and the
remote management of oil and gas production process; the reduction of expenses,
that is, the transparency improvement, the reduction of the number of repairs
of the equipment and the wells; the reduction of the influence of "a human
factor", namely the automation of the main technological processes. Remote
monitoring of the working conditions, the analysis of data and the
interpretation in real time, joint environments for the work of the employees,
the remote control of the well operation and the production optimization, all
these technologies being already included in the project program of the future
field, however, still, there are a lot of tasks which should be solved. Now the
oil and gas sphere experiences the scientific and technical revolution the key
moments of which are: the creation of the fiber-optical systems of collecting
and transferring of the geological information in real time; the 3D
visualization of technological data and processes in real time; the creation of
the satellite groups for exact positioning of oil and gas facilities. It is
obvious that there is observed the growth of the volume of data transmission
that leads to the emergence of the system of effective oil, gas and condensate
treatment, that is the quantity of smart fields will only increase, and the
concept of their creation and work will only be improved. The new technology of

220
digital oil fields gives the chance to the oil companies to lower the
exploration costs and to recover more oil in the old fields at an essential
reduction of the qualified labour costs.

Acknowledgements

In the eighth chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A.


Eremin "Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as course papers of the students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: R. Tsokur, O. Belostockaya, A. Manhanova, A. Rauanov and others.

List of references

1. F.Berg/SPE; Keith-Chun Go/SPE; E.Donkelaar and River Parchevski/SPE,


Shell. Remote control and the optimization of production applied by the Shell
company, SPE-136384, 2011.
2. Maxim Grigoryevich Volkov, "Evolution of the centres of remote
monitoring of production: current state and prospects", Engineering Practice
No. 9, 2010.
3. A.Baryshnikov, V. Sidorenko, A.Tychinsky, Yu.Timokhovich, D. Safronov/
«Gazpromneft-Hantos"; A.Gladkov, O.Kondakov / JSC Center of Modelling
Technologies. Implementation of the concept of monitoring in real time of YuLT
of the Priobsky field. SPE-136375, 2011.
4. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ нефти
и газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.: ил. ISBN 978-
5-91961-019-9; Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н., Еремин А.Н.
Управление разработкой интеллектуальных

221
месторождений: Учеб. пособие для вузов: В 2
кн. – Кн. 2. Учеб. пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ
нефти и газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил.
ISBN 978-5-91961-329-7.
5. J. Regtiyen/SPE, Shell International Exploration and Production.
Distribution of the concept of intelligent methods of the fields development in
the field of methods of enhanced oil recovery. SPE-136034, 2011.
6.http://vseonefti.ru/upstream/sposoby-razrabotki.html
7. R.Tsokur "Management of sea producing platforms in real time", Course
term paper, RGU ofterGubkin, Moscow 2012
8. A.E. Mankhanova "Smart carbon capture and storage", course paper,
Almaty 2012
9. O.B.Belostotskaya, "Development control center in real time", course
paper, RGU of Gubkin, Moscow 2012
10. www.kipinfo.ru Innovations in energy industry. Intelligent oil
production: from industrial control system in oil production and to "a smart
field". p. 13-17, No. 18/201
11. CONTROOL of Engineering Russia, the Solution of Honeywell for the
creation of the intelligent fields, August, 2012.

List of figures

1. Fig. 8.1 – Definitions for a smart field in different companies.


2. Fig. 8.2 – The scheme of a continuous monitoring of operations in
production, repair and completion of the side holes.
3. Fig. 8.3 – Tools, effect from I-field and the location of the centres
of interaction and remote control.

4. Fig. 8.4 –The automated sequences of operations to obtain and to


control the necessary data of the field development monitoring in real time.

5. Fig. 8.5– Reservoir pressure within two settlement months (kPa).

6. Fig. 8.6 – Change of viscosity with time.

7. Fig. 8.7 –reservoir temperature within two settlement months (°C).


222
8. Fig. 8.8 – Process of the water cone formation.

9. Fig. 8.9. –The schedule of gas consumption by the city (the shaded
area — the gas volume which is subject to the storage in the underground
storage).

10. Fig. 8.10 – Evolution of the Centers of Remote Monitoring (CRM) in


the world companies.

List of abbreviations

BP – British Petroleum: ADCO – Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operation;
ACC – Аdvanced Collaboration Center; HC – hydrocarbons; RMC - Remote Monitoring
Centres; CWE – Сollaborative Workplace Environment; ADE – Аdvanced Decision
Environment; i-field – intelligent field; e-field – electronic field; 1G fields –
first generation fields; 2G fields – second generation fields; STR – scientific
and Technical revolution; RTM – Real Time Mode; CERA – Cambridge Energy Research
Associates; IAOM – Integrated Asset Operation Model; SM - stimulation method; EOR
– Enhanced oil recovery; IOR – Improved oil recovery; RPM – reservoir pressure
maintenance; EC – Energy Components; DACA – Data Acquisition and Control
Architecture; DBMS – a database management system; CAD – computer-aided design;
FDIS – Field Data Integration system; AR(F) – abnormal reservoir (formation
pressure); PF – Production Faulty; ORF – Oil Recovery Factor; GRF – Gas Recovery
Factor; CRF – Condensate Recovery Factor; SW – Software; GIS – Geoinformation
System; AR(F)T – Abnormal Reservoir (Formation) Temperature; RPM – Reservoir
Pressure Maintenance; BHT – Bottom Hole Treatment; OGFD – Oil and Gas Field
Development.

223
Figures to chapter 8.

Fig. 8.1. – Automated sequences of operations for receiving and control of necessary data

Рис. 8.1.1 – Автоматизированные последовательности


операций для получения и контроля необходимых
данных

Fig. 8..2 – The scheme of continuous monitoring of operations on production, repair and
completion of lateral trunks of wells

224
Рис.8.2 – Схема непрерывного мониторинга операций
по добыче, ремонту и заканчиванию боковых
стволов скважин

Fig. 8.3 – Tools, effect from I-field and a place of the centers of interaction and remote
control of Shell company

Рис. 8.3 – Инструменты, эффект от умных


месторождений и место центров взаимодействия и
удаленного контроля месторождении компаний Шелл

225
Fig. 8.4 – The automated sequences of operations for receiving and control of necessary
data of monitoring of development of a field in real time

Рис. 8.4 – Автоматизированные последовательности


операций для получения и контроля необходимых
данных мониторинга разработки месторождения в
режиме реального времени

Fig. 8.5 – Layer pressure in two settlement months (kPa)

Рис. 8.5– Пластовое давление через два


расчетных месяца (кПа)

226
Fig. 8.6– Change of viscosity in time

Рис. 8.6 – Изменение вязкости во времени

Fig. 8.7 – Layer temperature in two settlement months (°C)

Рис. 8.7 – Пластовая температура через два


расчетных месяца (°С)

227
Fig. 8.8. Coning in vertical production wells, where a - gas cone, b - a water cone

Рис. 8.8. Конусообразование в вертикальных


добывающих скважинах, где а – газовый конус; б –
водяной конус.

Fig. 8.9. – The schedule of gas consumption, where the consumption of gas, m3 / h, cold
winter, the usual winter; temporary stop; LNG - liquefied natural gas, gas storage -
underground gas storage, salt caverns, depleted fields, aquifers, storage of gas; own oil
and / or gas supply

Рис.8.9 – График газопотребления, где


потребление газа, м3/час; холодная зима; обычная
зима; временные остановки; СПГ – сжиженный
природный газ; ПХГ – подземное хранилище газа;
соляные каверны; истощенные месторождения;
водоносные пласты; хранение газа; собственная
добыча и/или поставки газа

228
Fig. 8.10. – Evolution of the Remote Monitoring Centers (RMC) in the world companies

Рис. 8.10. – Эволюция Центров удаленного


мониторинга (ЦУМ) в компаниях мира

229
Chapter 9. Reservoir nanorobots and bionanorobots

Abstract

The innovations and the achievements in the field of nanotechnologies,


molecular, engineering and quantum calculations open the new prospects of the
development of technologies, medicine, defensive and textile industry. Reservoir
nanorobots will become our "eyes, ears and a nose" in the layer, with their help
we will be able to analyze the formation pressure, temperature, fluid type, system
of pores, to collect information in the built-in memory and to transfer the data
to a surface.The development and the improvement of the reservoir nanorobots will
find an extensive application in the prospecting and the development of fields, in
an assessment of the reservoir and the deposit geometrization, in well spacing, in
monitoring the layer, in the development control to increase the oil recovery.

Keywords: nanorobot, microrobot, bionanorobot, underwater robots, borehole


robots, nanoemulsion, nanodispersion, nanobacteria, nanoparticles, perforation,
log running, sensors, borehole tractor.

Introduction

The innovations and the achievements in the field of nanotechnologies,


molecular, engineering and quantum calculations open the new prospects of the
development of technologies, medicine, defensive and textile industry. However not
enough attention was paid to the application of nanotechnologies for the solution
of subsurface problems of oil and gas industry. The first section gives the
definitions of robots in oil industry, the application of the reservoir
technology, on the reservoir boundary, in a well. The second section presents the
reservoir nanorobots, tasks, advantages, technical and economic parameters of the
nanomaterial. The third section presents the definition of the reservoir
bionanorobots, the purposes set before the robot, tasks, sensors, nanoemulsion,
dendrimers. The fourth section considers the underwater robots, a concept, the
main characteristics (on the example of the Chinese underwater Arctic-ARV robot),
the mission and the advantages of using the underwater robots. The fifth section

230
characterizes the borehole micro-robots, a concept, the main characteristics,
types, the movement and management mechanism and their mission, the device and the
principle of work on the example of the borehole robot of the CIRCO company. The
sixth section gives the definition to the reservoir microrobots, a concept, the
main characteristics and the mission, the tasks, and the purposes. The seventh
section considers microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), a concept, the main
characteristics and their application in the oil and gas industry.

9.1 Robots in oil industry

The chapter presents a short review of the technologies which are considered
the most influential in the last decades, namely, microrobots, nanorobots, the
robots supervising the operations of pipelines and wells. Each of these
technologies has a deep impact on the oil industry (see Tables 1 and 2). These
technologies are applied in the reservoir, on the reservoir and well boundaries.
They are clever devices for the contact control, the analyses of autonomous
regions, passive seismic monitoring, input of special liquids. Though the majority
of them are simply dreams, considerable progresses which were made for achievement
of these purposes are singled out. Oil industry, especially in the extracting
sector, has received a lot of attention recently. Some attention was positive, and
some not. This attention is caused by many factors including the growth of the
global demand for energy as a whole (in particular, for oil). Currently, in the
world there is a great demand for energy (Administration of power information,
2005), and the demand, is expected, to increase within the next several decades by
2-3% a year.

9.2 Reservoir nanorobots

The nanoparticles can be used in the drilling, the completion, the


stimulation, and injection fluids, one can drill faster, prevent or remove near
wellbore damage, mineback hydraulic fractures, plug water-thief zones, reduce
waterflood fingering, encourage oil production, and prevent water breakthroughs.
The high-pressure/high-temperature nanoparticles can help delineate the waterflood
front, identify bypassed oil location, map super-permeability zones in-situ in the
231
oil and gas reservoirs, map tortuosities in the rock, optimize well placement,
formulate realistic geological models, optimize well design, delineate the extent
of the asset, and target delivering chemicals to support enhanced oil recovery
objectives.

These robots of about 200-500 nanometers in diameter are entered into the
reservoir for studying of its characteristics, and they are introduced in large
amounts with the injected liquid into the reservoir (see fig. 9.1-3). While
staying in the reservoir, they will analyze the reservoir pressure, temperature
and type of a fluid and to store this information in memory which is built in the
robot. Then they will be lifted (at least the most part of them). By means of the
nanorobots the oilmen have exact ideas the reservoir, and they use the data to
create the reservoir models depending on the reservoir size (the operation of
nanorobots can take some months). However the control of the good working order of
the robot happens in real time (through the borehole telemetry). The supply is
provided from the friction with liquids or from the station in a well), they also
can be added in to the reservoir by special nanogenerators. Imagine that it is
possible to send these robots ahead of a drilling bit instead of geonavigation and
to find the water oil contact, several years ago it was improbable, but the
opportunities are infinite. The achievements in the field of miniaturization of
nanosensors happen quickly. The nanotechnologies have achieved considerable
successes in the material and medical fields, but not in oil industry.
Nevertheless, the efforts to achieve this progress in our branch are undertaken.
For example, the SPE Expanded seminar of technology, "Nanotechnologies in E&P
production: Nano-Scale revolutions of Mega-Scale calls" was held on February 3-6,
2008 for this purpose.

Many companies conduct active researches on the development and the


introduction of nanorobots. SaudiAramco has achieved success. Saudi Aramco
analysed a core in Ghawar by 850 plugs and plotted the distributions of the pore
sizes. The distribution was bimodal, but an important observation is that the
majority of pores is more, than about 500 nanometers. As it became clear, the
cores are generally 500 nanometers in size, respectively the bionanorobot must be
smaller. Besides, the nanoparticles of certain size and the corresponding

232
concentration are injected into the core samples, thus analyzing the morphology of
distribution of particles and their propagation. The following step is carrying
out a physical experiment in which the nanoparticles of a certain size and at the
set concentration enter into the reservoir. Besides, all the movement of
nanorobots through the pore space is modeled in the software. In other words, the
first milestone in pursuit of happiness of nanorobots is to answer the question in
three ways: by supervision of pore size distribution, carrying out an empirical
experiment of the nanoparticle injection, and the software for modeling (see Fig.
9.4). All the tests are carried out by means of a scanning electronic microscope
and power-disperse spectroscopy

Tasks of nanorobots: reservoir limit test; reservoir pressure analysis;


temperature measurement; evaluation of a fluid type; definition of distribution of
cracks and fractures in the reservoir, definition of ways of higher permeability;
optimization of well spacing; development and creation of more realistic
geological models of an asset; address injection of chemical substances deep in to
the reservoir to increase the recovery of oil and gas.

Advantage of nanorobots:

 Increase in efficiency of recovery of HC = growth of quantity of recoverable


reserves (growth of the RF from 35% to 50% will almost double the proved
reserves);
 Detailed idea of the pool boundaries in reservoir conditions,
characteristics of the fluid saturating the formation;
 Increase of accuracy of drilling of wells
 Control of characteristics in real time and their adjustment if it is
necessary.

The purpose of nanorobot is the reservoir distribution to collect the


information and to analyze the reservoir pressure, temperature, type of a fluid,
system of pores, residual oil, change of physical and chemical properties and
others. The information received in the course of work must be transferred to the
surface where, later, it is possible to solve how to use nanoparticles to increase
the oil recovery.

233
The nanoparticles are divided into passive, active and reactive. The passive
nanorobots are indicators which bear information on various parameters such as
temperature, structure, pH, concentration of ions and so on. Passive agents are
bar coded with the intent to cross-correlate injectors with producers in the
field. In same cases they can be a form of advanced DNA tracers. Active in-situ
sensing agents are basically reservoir environment markers. Active agents work to
capture, sense and record the reservoir environment and perform fluid-typing
activities during their journey between wells. Reactive agents are in-situ
intervention agents that work to rectify unfavorable hydrocarbon recovery
conditions. They may act as shear-thickening agents to optimize hydrocarbon sweep
efficiency or as nanocarriers to target deliver chemicals (polymer, surfactant
etc.) deeper into the reservoir.

The waterflooding will be used to inject and displace functionalized


hydrophilic nanoagents that can be interrogated for their 3D location and the in-
situ reservoir environment and condition (see fig. 9.5). Remote interrogation
templates could include magnetic/electromagnetic contrast agents or
acoustic/seismic noise agents. The process could postulate a nanoscale chemical
delivery system to alter wettability, reduce interfacial tension, and enhance oil
recovery deep into the reservoir. A number of Resbot types (chemical, pH,
electrical, or thermal) can be postulated based on functionality and the breakups
of the nanotechnology definition.

Magnetically Guided nanorobot is basically a simple nanoparticle comprising a


ferromagnetic material. A nanoparticle can be considered as a nanorobot, because
all components and functions that constitute a robotic system have been moved
outside of the robot structure. Actuation and propulsion could be achieved using
an external magnetic field and its gradients that could apply a six degree – of -
freedom magnetic force on the nanoparticle(s) (see figure 9.5). Sensing and
tracking of the nanoparticle motion could be done using external imaging
modalities such as microscopes or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. Once
the actuation and sensing has been achieved using the external magnetic field and
imaging modalities then it is possible to implement a closed loop control
algorithm that will guide the nanoparticle/nanorobot at the desired location.

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Research in this field has been pioneered since 2003 by Sylvain Martel at the
Ecole Polytechnique de Montr´eal. A systematic approach towards MRI-based
guidance of nanoscale functionalized robotic capsules began for the first time, in
the summer of 2008 in the context of the European Project NANOMA. Researchers of
the NANOMA team have successfully developed a process for producing agglomerates
of ferromagnetic filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNT) that were able to
be steered in a MRI system. Their process is capable of producing vertically
alignedmulti-walled carbon nanotubes filled with high aspect ratio nickel (Ni),
iron (Fe), and cobalt (Co) with a sufficient magnetic susceptibility artifact to
be detected by the MRI modality. The direction and magnitude of the forces that
are applied on the magnetic microparticles are generated according to a control
law, where the feedback (i.e., the endovascular position of the microparticles) is
calculated by the processing of the MRI data. Navigation techniques in combination
with appropriate chemical modification of the nanoparticles’ surfaces yield a
more the localized and controlled treatment as well as controlled release
mechanisms. One of the limitations of MRI scanners for being used in the guidance
of magnetic nanoparticles is the generation of weak magnetic gradients that are
much smaller than those required to produce adequate propulsion forces that can
move and guide the nanorobots at the nanoscale. One way to resolve this challenge
is to develop specially designed electromagnetic systems that can generate strong
external magnetic fields with high magnetic gradients that can be used in the
manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles at the nanoscale. A five degree-of-freedom
electromagnetic manipulator has been developed in Brad Nelson’s laboratory that
in its newer version can steer and control magnetic delivery nanoagents.

In order for the nanorobot to carry out the reservoir tasks set, it must
correspond to the following main components: Size and form; Sensors; Means of
mobility (movement); Electricity generation; Data storage; Telemetry and data
transmission; Control and navigation. It is obvious that there are a number of
problems to realize it in reservoir nano – scale (see fig. 9.6).

9. 3 Reservoir bionanorobots

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The term bionanorobotics was first introduced in 2003, denotes all
nanorobotic systems that include nanocomponents that are based on biological
elements such as proteins and DNA. Biological elements are used to fabricate
robotic systems. A plenty of molecular machines and machine components that could
be used in reservoir nanorobotics has already been developed by scientists coming
from the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, chemical and biomedical
engineering (see fig. 9.7). In an effort to bridge the gap between physicists,
chemists, and biologists developing bionanorobotic systems and components on one
side and the robotics community on the other, Dinos Mavroidis’ group in US and
Antoine Ferreira’s group in France proposed several new bionanorobots based on a
bottom-up approach inspired by equivalent approaches in the macro-robotics field.
The Mavroidis’ group focused on two different protein-based nanomotors: (a) a
viral-based linear nanomotor called VPL and (b) a protein-based nanogripper.

In the nature the nanorobots are of bacterial or chemical character, or


cumulative one. Nanorobots must be less than 200-300 nanometers – less than a size
of pores, various reservoir rocks, for a free movement in pore system. To increase
oil production the active nanobacteria inject peculiar nanomicrobes whish in turn,
push out the oil or improve its properties. It is necessary to reconsider and
prove the technical and economic parameters of the biomaterial which will be used
as a basis of nanobacteria. The main problem in the development of bioindicators
and active biorobots is that the size of such robots shouldn't exceed 500
nanometers. The majority bacteria are in size more than it is required though the
"nanobacteria" existence (the size 0,2 – 0, 5 microns) which was found in a
thermal source has been confirmed. The average diameter of nanobacteria measured
by an electronic microscope is less than of any known cell of an organism.

The ultrafiltrational methods give even smaller sizes. Nanobacteria can pass
through the smaller pores, than their own sizes and must have flexible walls of
cells. It was also proved that in filtration the nanobacteria lose part of their
apatite layer. Changing the structure of the environment it is possible to change
the constitution of complexes from nanoparticles, and it is possible to design
nanobakteria similar particles by any ordered structure. Using this process the
complexes which are called bions were created. Bions can imitate the biological

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forms which seem living. They promise to explain further how the construction of
the materials consisting of tiny nanoblocks, made and collected in the nature is
taking place. And the understanding of the fact how small particles were formed
from minerals in a complex with organic molecules can clarify the emergence of
life on the Earth billions years ago.

The reservoir bionanorobots can be used for the solution of a wide range of
tasks:

- In the increase of efficiency of drilling operations, the use of nanorobots


in the solution when drilling wells for the purpose of data collection and for
geonavigation.

- In prospecting by the bionanorobots they injected into the reservoir


through the injected well and exposing the formation, can help define the boundary
and the position of the oil – water contact.

- The constant analysis of the properties, will allow to receive all the
geological and petro physical data in real time.

- In reservoir monitoring, the bionanorobots will be able to neutralize the


water show, to change the properties of a fluid.

- In the increase of oil recovery of the reservoir the bionanorobots are used
for delivery of active additives, surface-active substances, the components
increasing the coverage, the wettability, and forcing out the residual oil.

- In creation of a pore network in real time thanks to small sizes, the bots
are able to analyze the pores and regularly to change the created model of the
filtration.

The main goal in the field of bionanorobotics is to use various biological


elements—whose function at the cellular level creates motion, force, or a signal -
as nanorobotic components. These components perform their preprogrammed biological
function in response to the specific physiochemical stimuli but in an artificial
setting. Proteins and DNA could act as motors, mechanical joints, transmission
elements, or sensors. If all these different components were assembled together in

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the proper proportion and orientation they would form nanorobotic devices with
multiple degrees of freedom, able to apply forces and manipulate objects in the
nanoscale world.

The size and the form depend on the mission and an operational environment of
bionanorobots. The bot in the bottom-hole formation zone differs from the bot in
the reservoir by the size and the form. The reservoir nanorobot of the first
generation was a simple spherical ball. The last projects form the bots in the
form of bacteria to improve movement in various pore systems (see fig. 9.8). The
main criterion of the design is a minimum size, for a quieter free penetration
into the pores; otherwise there will occur the contamination and the decrease in
the reservoir permeability. The form depends on type of the rock and the pore
system. The nuclear magnetic resonance and the accompanying researches can help
determine the minimum size.

Sensors. The nanorobots for a full performance of the functions must be able
to feel the change of the parameters of a well and the reservoir. Thus, they must
be capable to record (a) the formation type of a fluid; (b) the reservoir
temperature; (c) the reservoir pressure; (d) the key petro physical parameters;
(e) the fluid factors; (e) the trajectory and the position, and so on. For early
prototypes 1-2 sensors are enough, it is a huge step forward for clever tracers.
Further, the number can increase.

The means of mobility (movement) are an important factor. The early


prototypes were simply of a spherical form without mobile mechanisms. They were
injected into the reservoir and moved along the natural lines of the fluid flow
from the injection to the producing wells. The advantage of using nature’s
machine components is that they are highly efficient and reliable. There are
newest developments of vehicles, for example, Peter Krall and his colleagues from
university of Illinois in Chicago developed the molecular screw with the blades
formed by the flat aromatic molecules and the shaft from carbon nanotubes.
Bionanorobots could be used to manipulate nano-objects; to assemble and fabricate
other machines or products; to perform maintenance, repair, and inspection
operations. Figure 9.9. shows one such concept of a bionanorobot, with its
“feet” made of helical peptides and its body using carbon nanotubes while the
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power unit is a biomolecular motor. Also, as an option there is a movement option
with the help of twists which copy the nature. The twist operated bacteria is the
smallest free engine of the nature.

Any of the movement methods must be practical and conform to the following
requirements: to move through a rock pore without jamming and damage of the
reservoir, to move without help aid of a fluid flow under the influence of
gravitational forces, overcoming the fluid viscosity, to be capable to move
against a fluid flow, to change the movement direction.

One more important factor is the supply for the devices of intelligent
nanorobots which will need the energy to perform the planned operations. In nano
areas the tension from tens to hundreds of picowatts, micro watts, depending on
functions is required. The potential means generating the capacity for nanorobots
are: capacity from a fluid flow; the supply from the reservoir temperature; the
capacity from friction forces; the borehole fuel elements from monolithic
hydrocarbons; borehole power units.

The collection and data storage are the key components of nanorobots
necessary to perform the main functions. The quantum calculations can help in
future nano-data storage. Telemetry and data transmission. It will be one of the
most difficult tasks in creating they little miracle. The last data of the tests
of the researchers of UC Irvine (University of California, Irvine) – Zettl, Burke
and others prove that is possible to create a radio from carbon nanotubes which
have the size of some atoms in the diameter and have the opportunity to transfer
the information in nano - scale.

To complete successfully the activities described above, virtual prototyping


tools based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulators had to be developed in order to
understand the protein molecular mechanics and to develop dynamic and kinematic
models to study the bionano-system performance and control aspects. The ability to
visualize the atom-to-atom interaction in real time and observe the results in a
fully immersive 3D environment was an additional feature of such simulations (see
fig. 9.10.) Virtual reality (VR) technology was applied in these MD simulators,
which not only provided immersive visualization but also gave an added

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functionality of CAD-based design, simulation, navigation, and interactive
manipulation of molecular biological components. The simulation system shown in
figure 9.11 allows manipulation, connection, and assembly of bio-nanorobotic
components in molecular dynamic simulations using real-time VR devices such as
stereo glasses, 3D trackers, force-feedback devices, and 3D graphical display.

Control and navigation system. It is supposed to operate the bionanorobots


from the surface. It is almost impossible but who knows, and we hope in future
this question will be resolved. Many of the above criteria are only the planned
purposes. It can take decades to design an ideal reservoir nanorobot, but it is
possible and today's technologies confirm it. Today, the oil and gas business
activity applies the biomethods to increase oil recovery. The basis of many of
them is nanobacteria. The most widespread and the most often applied are
nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions and dendrimers.

Nanoemulsion. The nanodispersion, nanoemulsion or nanoliquid is the liquid


containing the particles and agglomerates of particles with a specific size of 0.1
— 100 nanometers. Such liquids represent colloidal solutions of nanoparticles in
the liquid solvent. Owing to the small amount of inclusions such systems possess
special physical and chemical characteristics. The share of the surface in them
falls to 50% of all the substance. They possess the increased superficial energy
in connection with a large number of atoms being in the excited state and having
not less than one free electron at the external power level. Nanodispersions are
of various nature. The polyorganosilocanes, metallic, oxide, carbide, nitride
nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes etc can act as the dispersed substances. As the
dispersive environment water or ethylene glycol is usually used. In oil industry
the nanoemulsion water in oil can transfer the products not transportable with oil
owing to their insolubility, to the areas to which it is impossible to supply
large amounts of water because of the problems connected with corrosion,
destructions etc. The evolution of oil and gas nanodispersions is a kinetic
controlled process in which the intermediate structures are separated from the
equilibrium conditions by considerable kinetic barriers. In particular, the
nanoemulsions can be used as carriers of inhibitors of corrosion, inhibitors of
asfaltene and paraffin deposits or for acid treatment. The nanoemulsions can be

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used for cleaning the oil pipelines. Great prospects are connected with their use
as carriers of the additives incompatible with each other or to start the reaction
of polymerization or jellification in the corresponding areas of a well. At
present the main problem is high cost, as a result of the need to use high-energy
systems, such as homogenizers of a high pressure, to obtain them. Due to their
structure and instability of the sizes of the units of nanoemulsion, the
nanodispersion, as a rule, are quite unstable. Their properties easily change and
strongly depend on the external influence.

Dendrimers. Dendrimer (English dendrimer) is a macromolecule with a symmetric


tree – like structure with regular branchings. Dendrimers belong to the class of
the polymeric connections which molecules have a large number of branchings. In
their receiving with each elementary act of connecting the monomer the number of
branchings increases. As a result, with are increase in molecular weight of such
connections the form and rigidity of molecules change that is, as a rule,
accompanied by the change of physical and chemical properties of denrimers, such
as characteristic viscosity, solubility, density and another changes. Dendrimers
of the 3rd and higher generations are characterized by the high density of
molecular structure and have the form close to spherical. The solutions of
dendrimer possess much lower viscosity, than the solutions of other substances
with the same molecular weight. The properties of dendrimers in many respects are
defined by the type of functional groups on their surfaces. The dendrimers with
hydrophilic end groups (for example, carboxyl) are soluble in water, and with the
fluororganic are in supercritical CO2. The dendrimers are actively investigated in
connection with the possibility of their use in the most oil and gas areas. The
dendrimers can serve as peculiar containers to create the system of metal
nanoparticles practically of the same size which can be used as catalysts of
chemical reactions. The scientists learned to hold ions of metals on the surface
of the dendrimer by means of helatny groups. Such dendrimern "maring" on the basis
of gadolinium and magnesium are actively used as contrasts when carrying out the
researches by the method of the nuclear magnetic resonance. The dendrimers with
the photochromic groups are capable to transform light energy that is perspective
for the use in optical devices. The dendrimers are capable to form complexes with

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other molecules, the stability of such complexes being supervised by a condition
of the environment (see fig. 9.12 – 9.13).

Thanks to the adjoining "branches" of the branched molecule the internal


cavities in which there can be various small molecules which not chemically
connected with a dendrimer are formed. The dendrimers can also hold the substances
with the radioactive marks, used for diagnostics. Generally they find application
in medicine, but the technology is applicable in oil and gas industry as well. The
introduction of reservoir nanorobots in the process of oil production will help to
save huge sums of money, will bring the technology prospecting, exploration and
oil recovery to an absolutely new level. They will change the developed "rules of
the game" in oil and gas industry, creating the systems of control, estimation,
supervision, monitoring and management of the reservoir and the deposit as a
whole.

The technology on the creation of the ideal reservoir nanorobot is at the


conception stage, but it promises big prospects. Having taken in to attention the
results received with application of nanoemulsions and dendrimers it is possible
to tell with confidence that is the future behind them. In the XX century, the
reservoir flooding was introduced for the purpose of increasing the coefficient of
oil recovery. Today, it is a standard technique which is applied almost in all the
fields. It is quite possible that in some years the reservoir bionanorobots will
be applied with the same success, as the basis for this purpose has already been
created.

Bacterial – based nanorobotics. This type of nanorobotic system is based on


the way that bacteria move in a porous environment. This is a “biomimetic” type
of nanorobot as it uses systems or concepts developed by nature. The bacterial-
based nanorobotic systems and some of their versions could also be as either a
bionanorobotic system or a magnetically guided nanorobotic system as presented
earlier. There are two different approaches in developing bacterial-based
nanorobotic systems. The first approach is using living bacteria to serve as the
nanorobotic system that will move in the porous environment and manipulate objects
in it. The other approach is developing fully artificial bacteria-like nanorobots
that are powered using an external magnetic field. The first approach is trying to
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take advantage of the biological engineering already in place in living bacteria
and most importantly their propulsion capability through their flagella motors.
The goal is to use a team of bacteria to move forward a small object in a porous
media and be able to control this process (the speed, direction, amount of
displacement, and on demand stop and resume of this process). A special type of
bacteria called magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) offer more possibilities for
manipulation of objects at the micro and nanoscale. MTB are bacteria that possess
magnetic nanoparticles on their membrane. Their main functional characteristic is
magnetotaxis, i.e., they can orient along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines.
The naturally embedded magnetic nanoparticles of MTBs could be performed by the
external magnetic field to generate a torque for MTB steering control. The second
approach in developing bacterial-based nanorobotic systems is a biomimetic one.
The goal is to create completely artificial nanoswimmers by copying nature’s
design from bacteria. Inspired by the motion of spermatozoa, Dreyfus et al.
developed a microswimmer consisting of a thin paramagnetic filament. By applying
an oscillating magnetic field the swimmer propelled the cell through continuous
deformation of the filament in a manner somewhat similar to a eukaryotic
flagellum. Recent examples of artificial flagellum in the form of a nanocoil that
has been propelled using a rotating magnetic field have been proposed by Brad
Nelson’s group (see figure 9.14). The selfscrolling fabrication technique to
fabricate helical swimmers of a size comparable to E. coli which are capable of
swimming in both water and paraffin oil has recently been performed as well by the
same group.

9.4 Underwater robots, concept, the main characteristics (on the example of
the Chinese underwater Arctic-ARV robot), mission and advantages of use of
underwater robots

The underwater Arctic-ARV robot with system of collaboration of the


automation and the remote control, has been independently developed in China. The
experiments and the researches armed at studying of the properties and the
opportunities of the use of underwater robots in oil and gas area were carried out

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in conditions of the water area (under ice) being on 84 ⁰n.e. for the first time
in such high-latitudal water area. The experts from Shanghai University (Shanghai
Jiao Tong University) created the robot with the remote control oriented to the
depths of about 3,5 km which is one of the most advanced robots of a sort in the
world, and the depth of 3,5 km the robot (the sizes: length of 3 m, height of 1,8
m, the weight of 3 t) reaches in 30 minutes.

The underwater robot is equipped with a sensor, five video cameras, six
underwater searchlights and two mechanical arms, each of which is 4 times more
than an arm of the person and can lift some hundred kilograms. Two searchlights
can shine the area in the radius of 100 m round the robot. According to the
Chinese scientists, the Arctic-ARV robot will be used mainly for the research of
microorganisms and deep-water beings. Main objectives of use of underwater robots:

- survey and search works, including search and inspection of the sunk
objects, inspection of underwater constructions and communications (pipelines,
cables, conduits);

- the prospecting works including topographical and photo video survey of the
seabed, acoustic profiling and relief mapping;

- subglacial works, including laying of pipelines, the cable at the Arctic


bottom, the service of the systems of supervision and illumination of an
underwater environment;

-oceanographic researches, monitoring of the water environment;

- military operators, including anti-submarine investigation, patrol, safety


of drilling platforms, etc.

Advantages of use of underwater robots. The absence of a man onboard the


underwater machine allows:

- to lower the costs of the development of the underwater robot in comparison


with the piloted devices;

- to exclude the risk of human losses;

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- to exclude the restrictions determined by the physiological opportunities
of crew (duration of autonomous swimming; a constant stress determined by the
possibility of a sudden emergency situation of bearing a constant threat to the
lives of pilots).

9.5 Borehole micro robots, concept, main characteristics, types, movement


and management mechanism and their mission

The device and the principle of work on the example of the borehole robot of
the CIRCO company. The borehole robot of the CIRCO - company is an independent
intra borehole robot. The design of the borehole robot is directed at providing
research programs and wireless monitoring of the underwater wells, measurements of
key variables in wells and the communication with the surface. This technology
doesn't demand a cable to transmit the electric power and the data and allows to
carry out a semipermanent monitoring of the well condition. The independent robot
is capable of moving in a well to the places of carrying out measurements and to
transfer or load these data into a docking station. The measurements are carried
out in the positions defined in advance. Such indicators are measured as:
pressure; temperature; flow velocities. The device (see fig. 9.15) consists of:
the driving back and forward wheels (driving wheel); transmission (gearbox);
electrical motor (electricalmotor). The power supply system includes the
following: a turbine (turbine); a generator (generator). The design is modular,
the coupling of modules is magnetic (magnetic coupling). The main idea of the
model is that the autonomy of a product is reached at the expense of the
continuous inflow of energy; the product streamlining by the flow of oil/gas sets
the turbine connected with the generator in motion, resulting in charging of the
onboard accumulator. When the energy becomes enough, the measurements (pressure,
temperature, flow velocity) are carried out and the broadcast session is
transmitted. Ways of management and control (see fig. 9.16): from a surface
through a cable; autonomous. The classification of well robots are presented in
figure 9.17. Purpose of robots: inspection of the condition of wells and
pipelines; data recording in the extracting wells. The borebole tractor is a

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robotic vehicle for work in the well channel. The basic purpose of the delivery of
various logging equipment, measuring devices and so on in various places of a
well.

By the ways of movement the tractors are divided into two groups:

1. The tractors on wheel draft (SlbTuffTrac, Sondex) are applied to work in


the cased well.

2. The tractors moving as a worm (SlbMaxTRAC, SmartTrac), are applied to work


in an open well.

The main domestic and foreign producers of borehole tractors are such as the
AMAK "OB" hardware and methodical autonomous complex (development 1996-98,
production tests – 1998). Among the domestic producers the following developments
are still possible to be mentioned: The JSC NPF Geofizika; The Geotron company;
Schlumberger company tractors: TuffTRAC and MaxTRAC; the SmartTracs (USA); the
Sondex – the European company; WellTec and the Chinese product from the China
Petrolium company.

Application: Perforation; Carrying out logging; Analysis of the casing;


Cement and corrosion assessment.

Advantages: reduces the risk of jamming of the equipment; opportunity to


carry out logging in horizontal wells; simplification of the fishing operation
(fishing); carrying out the tests in running tools, against the fluid flow.

9.6 Reservoir microrobots, concept, main characteristics and mission

The microrobots are it devices from 1 mm to 16 mm, in size a device slightly


noticeable to a human eye which studies borehole space, and the stratal space if
necessary. Microrobots are injected into the borehole space and into the formation
to study the characteristics; they are being injected into the reservoir with the
injected fluid in great amounts. White staying in the reservoir the microrobots
are capable to analyze the reservoir pressure, temperature, type of a fluid and to
store this information in the built-in memory. After passing through the formation
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the microrobots are lifted to the surface in the producing wells (at least the
most part of them). By means of the reservoir microrobots it is possible to
receive the exact ideas of the reservoir characteristics which are used
subsequently for the creation of models of the reservoir and well.

In the assembled form the microrobots represent the devices of 160 mm high
and weighing 0,06 kg. By the data of Saudi Aramco it is observed that the most
practical microrobots are made of wire in the form of round balls which, in turn,
is very convenient, for example, for welding long seams with a small amount of
extension. The previously prepared seams often in general can't be welded by a
direct (straight) wire. Such wire if possible to weld, but only very short
connections.

The sensitive part of the manometer represents a glass cylinder in which the
heater from a tungsten wire with the diameter of 0,01 mm and with the resistance
of 80 Ohms are placed. To increase the sensitivity of the manometer in the range
of high pressures it is necessary to use a straight wire.

The tasks of microrobots are as follows: the temperature measurement in the


borehole space, the pressure measurement, the address injection of the chemical
substances into the borehole space and into the reservoir, the assessment of a
fluid, the optimization of well spacing.

9.7 Microelectromechanical system (MEMS), concept, the main characteristics


and their application of the oil and gas industry

MEMS is a set of micro devices of the most various design of application in


which production the modified processing methods of microelectronics are used (see
fig. 9.18). The micro electromechanical systems are produced by a combination of
mechanical elements, sensors and electronics on the general silicon basis by means
of the micro production technologies. All the elements can be realized in the form
of a uniform product, and at once ten miles by hundreds, as chips on a silicon
plate. The basis of it is the approved traditional production technology of
semiconductor integrated chips. Their development began by the early 1960s, but

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the commercial application began sinсе the 90s, and the earliest applications of
MEMS were the sensors of pressure printing heads of stream punters and
micromirrors of digital projectors quite recently, by clearly the 2000s, on these
3 segments were necessary more than 80% of all production of MEMS. The sensors
detect the temperature, mechanical, chemical and optical changes whereas the
components of the power drive are physically established in a standard position
and measure and regulate various elements of the environment. The national
scientific fund defines the "micro" - range from 1 micron to 1 mm, and the "nano"
- range begins already outside 1 micron. For comparison, a diameter of a human
hair is usually equal to 50-100th (nm). The small sizes have their advantages. The
MEMS blend the limited space, such as the wellbore or the bottomhole tool, and
takes very little place where the free space is of paramount importance. Their
need for power supply is comparable with that for the silicon electronic chips and
is low in comparison with the ordinary macroscopic devices which are carrying out
the similar tasks. Besides, after a careful development of effective mastering of
manufacturing techniques of MEMS the mass production of devices with MEMS can
become profitable. In industry the MEMS have already proved the reliability and
ease of integration in the designed systems.

The standard process of the production of the devices with MEMS consists of
three main stages. On a suitable pallet, usually from silicon, sometimes from
sapphire thin films are grown up or deposited. It is followed by the process of
lithography by means of which a drawing is made, and then the etching process
which creates a three-dimensional structure. This sequence can be reiterated so
create more complex structures. Stages of sedimentation or etching are passed, a
photoresist as a rule, a photosensitive emulsion or a polymer layer is used as a
consumed layer in the creation of free suspended structures or templates for the
selective cultivation of a new material. In the course of production of the MEMS
the fourth stage, that’s seaming of two and more plates together is possible.

All these processes must take place in the purest conditions as on such a
scale even the smallest foreign particles can result in the defects, capable to
worsen the product characteristics. In pure apartments there are carefully
controlled the concentration of natural pollutants, including the dust, microbes

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transferred by air, aerosol particles and vapors of chemicals which are capable to
create complications in MEMS production. In pure apartments the extensive complex
systems of filtration, circulation and a transitional the air through locks are
working, and also scrupulous procedures of maintenance of purity by the working
personnel are introduced. In most cases on one plate a set of devices is created.
Then the plate is cut by a high-precision tool, resulting in the MEMS party. On
the increased scale. The ready plate containing 800 devices, though 50 of these
chips are not functional control structures. The chips from this plate will be
used for the production of pressure sensors on the basis of MEMS of a joint
development of the Schlumberger company and the Californian institute of
technology (Caltech). The diameter of the plate is 100 mm (4 inches), and each
sensor microchip is of 2 × 2 mm in size. The MEMS devices can feel, think, work
and communicate. Its possible divide all the MEMS device into two groups depending
on their appointment: sensors and executive mechanisms-activators. They redirect
the light, inject and mix fluids, and also defect molecules, heat, pressure or
movement. The interaction of electronics, mechanics, light or the working liquids
operating together, make up micro electromechanical systems, or MEMS.

There exist 3 main types of MEMS:

• Pressure sensors

• Chemical sensors

• Motion sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes)

The MEMS are widely used in oil and gas and construction industries. The MEMS
can promote the development of new advanced technologies to seize the new markets,
to increase the efficiency of the existing markets. The MEMS can be used as the
basis for the new power sources:

• Improvement of already existing industrial components;

• Increase of efficiency of the oil and gas companies, namely prospecting and
development of fields.

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The oil and gas industry studies new ways of images, monitoring and research
of conditions directly on the remote field facilities. The MEMS proposes the
perspective solutions for this segment, being highly sensitive sensors which are
of small sizes and reliable. One of the examples of application is the seismic
image of deposits which can be made by means of the MEMS devices. The use of the
MEMS offers the productivity improvement in addition to essential economy of means
and time for a wide range of technologies for the oil and gas industry. Thanks to
the possibility of continuous control, these technologies can become a basis of
smart fields.

Conclusion

The introduction of robots into to the process of formation saves huge sums
of money, will bring technological exploration and oil recovery to quite a new
level. They will change the established "rules of the game" in the oil and gas
industry, a system of monitoring, evaluation, supervision, monitoring and
management of the reservoir and the formation as a whole. The technology to create
the perfect formation of nanorobots is still at the stage of conception, but it
has great prospects. Taking into account the results obtained with the use of the
nanoemulsion we can surely say that they are the future.In the XX century there
was introduced the waterflooding reservoir to increase oil recovery. At present,
it is a standard procedure which is used almost in all fields. It is possible that
in a few years the reservoir nanonorobots well be applied as well, because the
basis for this has already been created.

Acknowledgements

In the ninth has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin


"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
250
as the course papers of the students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities:Galperina A., Bakeyeva S.A. and others.

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эксплуатации нефтяных месторождений, 2003
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интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
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329-7.
9. Еремин Н.А. Современная разработка
месторождений нефти и газа. (Умная
скважина – Интеллектуальный промысел.
Виртуальная компания. M.: ООО
«НедраБизнесцентр», 2008 - - 244 pages. ISBN 978-58365-
0311-6.
10. L. Modiu, Sanni, A. Rami KamalandDr. Y. Mazen Kanj "Reservoir Nanorobots".
11. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques, Constantinos Mavroidis
and Antoine Ferreira, 2013
12. Nanotechnology Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production
Sergio Kapusta, Leandro Balzano - Shell International E&P, Inc.; and Paul
te Riele - Shell International E&P B.V, 2011 IPTC 15152
13. Application of Nanofluid Technology to Improve Recovery in Oil and Gas
Wells Paul McElfresh, SPE, David Holcomb, SPE, and Daniel Ector, SPE, Frac
Tech Services International, Inc., 2012 SPE 154827
14. Nano-Technology- Its Significance in Smart Fluid Development for Oil and
Gas Field Application Md. Amanullah, SPE, and Ashraf M. Al-Tahini, SPE,
Saudi Aramco, 2009 SPE 126102
15. Applications of Micro and Nano Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry-
An Overview of the Recent Progress Xiangling Kong, SPE, China University
of Petroleum (Beijing), and Michael M. Ohadi, The Petroleum Institute
(UAE), 2010 SPE 138241

Internet resources

1. Oil & Gaz Journal http://www.ogj.ru/


2. Tatneft http://www.tatneft.ru
3. Salym Petroleum http://www.spdnv.ru

252
4. JSC Tambayneftegaz http://tambaineft.ru
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well.html];
7. Energy: "Oil: Squeezing Out Every Drop", May 21, 2007
[http://www.businessweek.com];
8. Annual Review 2006, "Underwater robots"
9. [http://www.annualreview.shell.com] "Borehole robots"
10. http://web.mit.edu/research/topic/nano.html#labs
11. http://www.iris.ethz.ch

List of figures

Fig 9.1 Nanorobots in pore space


Fig. 9.2 The size of the nanobot is one thousandth the thickness of a human hair
Fig. 9.3 Distribution of nanoparticles in the sample of carbonate rock
Fig. 9.4. Injection nanoagents (Resbots) into the reservoir. [SPE 126102 Nano-
Technology- Its Significance in Smart Fluid Development for Oil and Gas Field
Application Md. Amanullah, SPE, and Ashraf M. Al-Tahini, SPE, Saudi Aramco, 2009]
Fig 9.5. General concept of closed-loop system for propulsion and guidance of
magnetically driven nanoparticles using external magnetic fields and imaging
modalities
Fig.9.6 A fully functional, autonomous nanorobot for in situ monitoring and its
individual components [Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques,
Constantinos Mavroidis and Antoine Ferreira, 2013]
Fig. 9.7. Nanorobotics—a multidisciplinary field.
Fig. 9.8. The bots in the form of bacteria to improve movement in various pore
systems.
Fig.9.9. A bionanorobotic organism: carbon nanotubes form the main body; peptide
limbs can be used for locomotion and object manipulation; a biomolecular motor
located at the head can propel the device in various porous environments.

253
Fig. 9.10. Basic concept of virtual environment and haptics technology coupled to
multiphysics computational methods for bots delivery by the nanovector simulation
Fig. 9.11 Experimental interactive simulation platform using virtual reality
interfaces. In the virtual molecular dynamics (VMD) environment, the user applies
forces to simulated bio-nanorobotic structures via a force feedback haptic
interface while manipulation is performed through a virtual hand. The head tracker
is mounted on a pair of shutter glasses for operator immersion.
Fig. 9.12 The scheme synthetics of dendrimer increasing from core
Fig. 9.13 The synthesis of dendrimer
Fig. 9.14. Artificial bacterial microswimmers developed at ETH Zurich. By
adjusting the rotating speed and direction of the external magnetic field,
velocity and direction of the motion of the helical swimmers can be tuned in a
controlled fashion [B.J. Nelson, ETH Zurich]
Fig. 9.15 Driving gear
Fig.9.16 Control mode
Fig. 9.17 Classification of robots: (а) type of pig, (b) type of wheel, (c) type
of track, (d) type of spring, (e ) type of pacing, (f) type of screw, (g) type of
spiral
Figure 9.18 Using of MEMS in diversity sphere

List of tables

Table 9.1. Nano technologies for exploration, reservoir management and drilling
[Nanotechnology Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Sergio
Kapusta, Leandro Balzano - Shell International E&P, Inc.; and Paul te Riele -
Shell International E&P B.V, 2011 IPTC 15152]
Table 9.2. Nano technologies for the oil and gas production [Nanotechnology
Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Sergio Kapusta, Leandro
Balzano - Shell International E&P, Inc.; and Paul te Riele - Shell International
E&P B.V, 2011 IPTC 15152]

List of abbreviations

254
MEMS- Electro- mechanical systems: CIRCO- autonomous borehole robot; Arctic
ARV-Underwater robot; CIN- Oil Recovery increase; SPE- Wide seminar on technology

255
Figures and tables to chapter 9

Рисунок 9. 1. Нанороботы в поровом пространстве


Рис 9.1 Nanorobots in pore space

Figure 9.2 The size of the nanobot is one thousandth the thickness of a human hair
Рис 9.2 Размер наноробота составляет 1/1000 от
толщины человеческого волоса.

256
Рис. 9.3 Distribution of nanoparticles in the sample of carbonate rock
Рис. 9.3 Распределение наночастиц в образце
карбонатной породы.

Fig. 9.4. Injection nanoagents (Resbots) into the reservoir. [SPE 126102 Nano-Technology-
Its Significance in Smart Fluid Development for Oil and Gas Field Application Md.
Amanullah, SPE, and Ashraf M. Al-Tahini, SPE, Saudi Aramco, 2009]

257
Рис. 9.4. Нагнетание наноагентов (Resbots) в пласт. [SPE
126102 Nano-Technology- Its Significance in Smart Fluid Development for Oil and Gas Field
Application Md. Amanullah, SPE, and Ashraf M. Al-Tahini, SPE, Saudi Aramco, 2009]

Fig 9.5. General concept of closed-loop system for propulsion and guidance of magnetically
driven nanoparticles using external magnetic fields and imaging modalities
Рис 9.5. Общая концепция замкнутой системы для
обеспечения движения и руководство магнитным
приводом наночастиц с помощью внешних магнитных
полей и методов визуализации

258
Fig.9.6 A fully functional, autonomous nanorobot for in situ monitoring and its individual
components [Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques, Constantinos Mavroidis and
Antoine Ferreira, 2013]
Рис.9.6 Полностью функциональный, автономный
наноробот для пластового мониторинга и его
отдельные компоненты [Наноробот: Современные
подходы и методы, Константинос Mavroidis и Антуан
Феррейра, 2013]

Fig. 9.7. Nanorobotics—a multidisciplinary field.


Рис. 9.7. Нанороботикс - междисциплинарная область
знаний.

259
Fig. 9.8. The bots in the form of bacteria to improve movement in various pore systems.
Рис. 9.8. Боты в виде бактерий для улучшения
движения в различных пористых системах.

Fig.9.9. A bionanorobotic organism: carbon nanotubes form the main body; peptide limbs can
be used for locomotion and object manipulation; a biomolecular motor located at the head
can propel the device in various porous environments.
Рис.9.9. Бионанороботный организм: углеродные
нанотрубки образуют основной корпус; пептидные
конечности можно использовать для передвижения
и манипулирования объектами; биомолекулярный
двигатель, расположенный на головке может
передвигать устройство в различных поровых
средах

260
Fig. 9.10. Basic concept of virtual environment and haptics technology coupled to
multiphysics computational methods for bots delivery by the nanovector simulation
Рис. 9.10. Основная концепция виртуальной среды и
тактильные технологии в сочетании с
мультифизичными вычислительными методами для
создания ботов путем нановекторного
моделирования.

Fig. 9.11 Experimental interactive simulation platform using virtual reality interfaces.
In the virtual molecular dynamics (VMD) environment, the user applies forces to simulated
bio-nanorobotic structures via a force feedback haptic interface while manipulation is
performed through a virtual hand. The head tracker is mounted on a pair of shutter glasses
for operator immersion.
Рис. 9.11. Экспериментальная интерактивная
платформа моделирования с использованием

261
виртуальных интерфейсов реальности. В
виртуальной молекулярной динамике (VMD)
окружающей среды, пользователь прикладывает
силы к искусственным био-нанороботным
структурам с помощью тактильного интерфейса с
обратной связью по усилию во время манипуляции
виртуальной рукой. Поворотное смонтирован на
паре затвора очки для оператора погружения.
Головка трекера (манипулятора) крепится на паре
закрытых очков для операторского погружения в
виртуальную среду

Fig. 9.12 The scheme synthetics of dendrimer increasing from core


Рис. 9.12. Схема синтеза дендримера, растущего с
сердцевины (двумерная проекция).

262
Fig. 9.13 The synthesis of dendrimer
Рис. 9.13 Синтез дендримера.

Figure 9.14. Artificial bacterial microswimmers developed at ETH Zurich. By adjusting the
rotating speed and direction of the external magnetic field, velocity and direction of the
motion of the helical swimmers can be tuned in a controlled fashion [B.J. Nelson, ETH
Zurich]
Рис. 9.14. Искусственные бактериальные микропловцы
разработанные в ETH Zurich. Регулируя скорость
вращения и направление внешнего магнитного поля,
263
скорость и направление движения спирального
пловцов может быть настроена в управляемом
режиме [BJ Нельсон, ETH Zurich].

Fig. 9.15 Driving gear


Рис.9.15 Транспортный привод

Fig.9.16 Control mode


Рис. 9.16. Способ управления

264
Figure 9.17 Classification of robots: (а) type of pig, (b) type of wheel, (c) type of
track, (d) type of spring, (e ) type of pacing, (f) type of screw, (g) type of spiral
Рисунок 9.17 Классификация роботов: (a) типа свинья,
(b) колесный тип, (c) гусеничный тип, (d) пружинный
тип, (e) шагающий тип. (f) червячный тип, (g) винтовые.

Figure 9.18 Using of MEMS in diversity sphere


Рисунок 9.18 Использование МЭМС в различных сферах

265
Table 9.1. Nano technologies for exploration, reservoir management and drilling
[Nanotechnology Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Sergio Kapusta,
Leandro Balzano - Shell International E&P, Inc.; and Paul te Riele - Shell International
E&P B.V, 2011 IPTC 15152]
Таблица 9.1. Нано технологии для разведки,
разработки месторождений и бурения [Nanotechnology
Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Sergio Kapusta, Leandro Balzano -
Shell International E&P, Inc.; and Paul te Riele - Shell International E&P B.V, 2011 IPTC
15152]

266
Table 9.2. Nano technologies for the oil and gas production [Nanotechnology Applications
in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Sergio Kapusta, Leandro Balzano - Shell
International E&P, Inc.; and Paul te Riele - Shell International E&P B.V, 2011 IPTC
15152]
Таблица 9.2. Нано технологии для нефти и газа
[Nanotechnology Applications in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Sergio Kapusta,
Leandro Balzano - Shell International E&P, Inc.; and Paul te Riele - Shell International
E&P B.V, 2011 IPTC 15152]

267
Chapter 10. Smart operations

Abstract

In the past decade, there has been a observed a gradual transition in the way
the leading oil and gas companies operate, that is safer operations, significant
improving performance, enhancing the production and increasing the recovery factor
through the use of digital oilfield techniques and an integrated operations
philosophy. The bases of the effective project and operations management processes
remain fundamental, but in combination with modern ways of working, they can
result in great benefits. Today such major operators as Shell, BP, Statoil,
ConocoPhillips, Chevron, Saudi Aramco, Petrobrasand Woodside Energy have their
programs of integrated operations called Smartfields, Field of the Future, efield
and ifield, and iOps. To be effective, these programs envisage the transformation
of the operating methods, using a comprehensive approach that takes into account
people, processes, organization, technology and the physical working environment.
First the technology of integrated operations was applied by Statoil Hydro near
the coast of Norway in the year 2006. The first two steps towards improving the
efficiency of operations on the continental shelf include, in addition to the
reorganization measures, a better application of the data of seismic surveys and
the using of modern technologies contributing to the expansion of knowledge about
the oil and gas basin in general. The essence of the third and the basic, step is
in the best use of the data obtained during drilling and operations. The purpose
of these "steps" is a 10% increase in production from the field and nearly 30%
reduction in labor costs.

Key words: Integrated exploitation, smart field, integrated operations,


exploitation control centers, production optimization, subsea production systems
in real time, smart operations, production monitoring.

Introduction

268
The term "integrated operations" is widely used in the oil and gas industry.
In fact, the fully "digital" fields in their present understanding do not exist,
since they are a combination of several technologies - both new and old, which
together form the overall concept. This concept is largely still under
development, but we can safely predict that the digital fields will soon become
commonplace. The company «Deloittes», which advises oil companies on the
introduction of electronic technologies in their operations, defines the digital
field as follows: "This is nothing but the evolution and integration of several
technologies of oil and gas drilling, as well as the exploration and electronic
control combined with standardized communication technologies”. This chapter
discusses the basics of the problem, the current status and trends of the
integrated operations, with particular attention paid to the systems for
monitoring and control of oil and gas production in real time. The features of the
subsea production control systems are pointed out. Currently, the oil companies
use a variety of intelligent systems to monitor and to analyze the operating
parameters of the well stock, which is an integral part of the concept of "smart
fields".

10.1 Integrated exploitation

The integrated exploitation is a system exploitation of hydrocarbon (HC)


fields on the basis of advances in the information and communication technologies
and the data coming from the field facilities in real time in order to increase
the recoverable reserves and to reduce the costs of investment. The integrated
exploitation facilitates the integration of all production processes in one common
system of exploitation. The integrated exploitation in real time includes:
optimization of the portfolio of assets; integration of old and new technologies;
improving organizational structures. Simplifying the supply chain of equipment and
services: optimization of the portfolio of assets in real time; access to the data
in real time; transfer exploitation to the real-time mode. The basics of
integrated exploitation include: standards for the effective using and
transmission of information; advances in the information technologies for the
information acquisition and the remote control of the field exploitation in real

269
time; the integration of decision-making cycles in production and business; the
effective implementation of the taken decisions.
The productivity increases by reducing the time of decision-making, as the
production system is controlled from a remote center, allowing the use of global
cooperation. In the field with a highly integrated system of exploitation there
are improved sensors (in reservoirs, wells, gathering and treatment systems) and
the software to detect the deviations from the design process parameters that are
connected with the management system of field by the channels of information
transmission and wireless communication (fig.10.2).
The exploitation of a smart field includes the creation of integrated
exploitation centers that control several fields, with the time of the decision-
making is significantly reduced; the remote monitoring and control of equipment by
the suppliers of specialized equipment; the implementation of the concept of
proactive monitoring and control of the exploitation to avoid the development of
contingencies; the reduction of the staff of workers and engineers; the
technologies for the transmission, processing, and metadata management (fiber
optic, space, microwave); the technology to support the distributed simulation and
decision-making based on the integration of software tools, visualization,
simulation, knowledge management; intelligent, self-adjusting equipment, field
broadband communication, distributed control systems, automatic detection of
anomalies in the normal operation of equipment, handling of alarms, and the
production optimization, the development of downhole sensors, equipment for the
process monitoring and the well control in real time; simulators for automatic
optimization of production; systems for simultaneous optimization of development,
downhole production and gathering and treatment processing. The latention of the
data, i.e. the waiting period in the cycles to make a decision varies greatly. For
the development optimization problems it is months or years, while for the oil and
gas production optimization problems, it is hours and days (fig.10.3) [1].
The Real-time Operations Center is the place where well planning, real-time
monitoring, well delivery, and a wide variety of operations execution workflows
are performed. The Real-time Operations Center is the catalyst in creating an
environment where the key players can communicate in a collaborative environment
with the proper technologies at critical moments to take decisions. “Real Time”

270
namely is the ability to gather the right data at the right time for the right
person, team, or, to some extent, for a Real Time Operation Center (“RTOC”). The
goal is to help ensure that any qualified person can access any data, any
technology, any asset, anywhere, anytime with the proper expertise needed to do a
job.
With the advent of widespread real-time technologies and the drastic cost
reductions the majority of IOCs and NOCs are learning to use this type of
technologies in order to take advantage of the global expertise. The key
objectives of Real Time Operation Сenters (RTOCs) are: reducing non-productive
time (NPT); personnel discharging (POB), reducing risks and uncertainties;
improving the decision making; and increasing the performance. Real Time Operation
Centers (RTOCs) functions are: well planning: 24/7 monitoring; drilling
optimization; continuous accompanying of drilling; monitoring reservoir parameters
of flow intensification monitoring; cement flow monitoring; data management; real
time IT support. The first five features are constantly being executed in RTOC on
a permanent basis. The others are included as needed.
There are three main models of Real Time Operation Сenters (RTOCs): 1 - RTOC
is an integral part of the oil and gas company, 2 - RTOC is included in the
infrastructure of the operating oil and gas company, but it is controlled by the
contractor, and 3 - the remote RTOC which is included in the infrastructure of the
contractor.
The three above-described operational centres in real time (RTOC) provide a
more efficient operation and allow you to control several exploration teams at the
same time. They provide a more in-depth study of the field during its development,
a quick education and training of young specialists [2]
The multi disciplined environments such as Real Time Operations Centers are
generating a better integration and more efficient operations. Highly experienced
and knowledgeable people have always been a key ingredient of the successful
production operations (drilling and well completions). The RTOCs create an
environment of cooperation, in which experts from a variety of multiple
disciplines cross thus providing the rapid mastering and the development of
production skills both for the new employees and the young professionals, and
therefore, creating an intangible value to the company. The RTOCs help the asset

271
teams of the company share the gained experience in using the technologies in real
time for the planning and the development new fields and wells. The 24/7
monitoring process begins with Sperry’s INSITE® system on the rig, which
aggregates the drilling information and delivers it across Shell’s satellite
network to a sister INSITE server in the RTOC. During the drilling operations, the
experienced engineers look at real-time data overlaid on top of the predictive
models. If there are discrepancies, they have to be checked out and explained.
Interactions between the rig and RTOC staff follow clear protocols, based on a
traffic light system. Green light means the RTOC is tracking the well’s progress,
the collating information, and making available to the rig more holistic views of
data. [2]
In the smart Ormen Lange field in the year 2007 and Snøhvit in the year 2006
the exploitation control centers were established [2], [3]. As a result the fields
are controlled from the remote control centers; sensors for monitoring in real
time are installed in the wells the equipment and in the pipelines; the system for
remote control and production optimization was created; a new concept of
exploitation and maintenance was developed.
A smart Field is a complex of new digital technologies for the control and
management of hydrocarbon production facilities. This complex includes the
multiple fiber optic sensors that can withstand high pressure and temperature,
which are placed in the well and are connected with a single control center. The
main objectives of the control centers are: production monitoring in real time;
integrated interaction in production operations; adaptation of development
history; optimization of operation control system. The main part of the
information on oil reservoirs comes from the seismology, geophysics, geology and
development. The data processing, the interpretation of the results, the modeling
of the development processes and the storage of the mass of constantly updated
information require the high-performance computer systems that can load, process
and unload metavolumes of geological field data in real time.
To monitor and to analyze the parameters of the well in real time different
systems are used. One of such systems is the system REPOS Alps (Reservoir
Engineering Production Optimization System) of the Russian manufacturing.

272
The REPOS Alps is a monitoring system of the artificial lift. The analysis of
the well stock is made not only at the level of the company, a field or a
workshop, but also of individual wells. At the company level, the field and the
workshop the REPOS Alps has the analysis tool of the well stock as a whole. In
addition, there is a tool for analyzing the changes in the general condition of
the well stock, which allows us to understand whether the situation with well
stock is better or worse at a given moment [4]. In the analysis of the well stock
at the level of the company, a field and a workshop you can quickly find the key
wells and move immediately to the level of their more detailed analysis. The REPOS
Alps also allows you to quickly diagnose and correct the problem of production, to
monitor the performance of the pump and the process of optimization, to manage the
exceptions, to build the analytical sections, to reduce the data from different
sources into a common interface and the reduce the labor effort required to find a
problem. To identify the problem wells in the Alps system the principle of
"alarms" is used: for each parameter the ranges of values, corresponding to the
normal (green), transitional (yellow) and the state of emergency wells (red) are
set. At a critical value of any parameter the system issues a warning ("alarm"),
so you can respond to the problems as quickly as possible. In addition, the system
allows you to keep track of dynamics of the "alarms", including the qualitative
(color) and quantitative changes of the parameters for a certain period of time.
Thanks to this visual picture of the well stock it is possible to evaluate the
effectiveness of the wells in real time and to identify the problem areas. The
first results of the implementation of the project ALPS look promising: by
automating the collection and the primary analysis of the data the specialists
were able to pay more attention to the control and optimization of the mechanized
well stock. The ALPS application reduces the operating costs, increases the
efficiency of production processes and increases the production [5].

10.3 Smart operations

In the oil industry, the integrated operations (IO) are referred to the new
work processes and the ways of the oil and gas exploration and production, which
have been facilitated with the new information and communication technology. The

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multi-discipline collaboration in plant operation is one example. In a sense the
IOs have also taken the form of a movement for renewal of the oil and gas
industry. The IO is a multiprofile collaboration with production in focus.
In the oil industry the term is used to describe the increased cooperation,
independent of the location, of the operators, the maintenance personnel, the
electricians, the production scheme as well as the business-plan and the suppliers
to provide a more rational plant operation. A prominent idea in the IOs is real-
time optimization of the whole production-supply chain, from the long term
operating design of the oil reservoir, with bandwidth of the pipeline capacity
network and the calculations of the net present value of the produced oil.
The woodside Energy company calls its integrated operations program iOps,
intelligent Operations. The iOps is a way of working that includes optimized and
remote control of the development of reservoirs and safer and more reliable
facilities; the predictive decision-making based on the exploration data obtained
in, real time and on the diagnostics; and the collaborative-support from remote
centers and supporting locations. The key objectives of the iOps are reduced
personnel at the producing facilities and the risk exposure; the improved working
environment health, and safety (HSE); the improved integrity and reliability of
well and facilities; the optimized production, the improved oil recovery; the
increased efficiency and reduced operating cost; the improved quality and more
timely decision-making; the improved staff reward, the retention and attraction of
the new personnel; the sustained scheme of continuous improvement.
The Perth iOpscentre of integrated operations is designed to work 24/7 a week
to be more supportive to operations; is equipped with a highly visual means the,
collaborative environment with a large amount of real time information available;
to become proactive rather than reactive, and for the better response to
incidents. The real-time tactical decisions are made in the main department of the
center, and are supported by long term or strategic decisions made on the basic of
external data. The key performance indicators are always visible to get the
information of the course of operations. The information can be viewed on a number
of large screens, with interactive multi-touch desktops and portable devices. The
entire value chain from the reservoir to the customer is represented and tracked
in real time [6].

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The Integrated control systems of the first generation are based on the
integration of the control center offshore and the one onshore; a constant onshore
support. The first generation includes the integrated centers of report in real
time; the decision-making in conjunction with the onshore and coastal services;
the collection of data in real time, using which the personnel on the shore, is
able to define the tasks of management and security, to discuss and make
adjustments to the process of the field development; the ability to maintain the
process at different intervals of workings (business) hours, depending on the need
and the risk of the process (e.g., when drilling support is 24/7, while to the
other areas - in excess of normal business hours). To significantly improve the
quality and the speed of the cooperation of the offshore facilities with the
onshore control centers the technologies including high-quality audio and video
systems are widely used. The main features of the integrated operations of the
first generation are the crews on the shelf which, receive a continuous support
from the onshore control centers; the onshore centers receive the real-time
information about the work of the continental shelf. The integrated control
systems of the second generation are characterized by the distributed system of
the onshore control centers; computing services; the new business - models. All
the above operations contribute to the integration of the company into a single
entity.
The second generation of the integrated operations includes the workflow
management by the service providers (rather than the operators as before); the
automatic multi-level monitoring of workflows and possible risks; the rapid
decision-making, which is based on the cooperation of onshore and expert services;
the work of the centers in the mode of 24/7; the implementation of works on solar
time; the performance of the service providers in a digital form, i.e., though the
computer the networks; mutual access of the participants through the improved
[7]
cooperation system.
Common to most companies is that the IO leads to cost savings because of the
reduction of the workhouse and an increased efficiency the productive operations.
The lower costs, more efficient reservoir management and fewer mistakes while well
drilling will in turn raise profits and make more oil fields economically
feasible. The IO comes at the time when the oil industry is faced with the fields,

275
with hard-recoverable reserved "tail production" that is the development at the
late stage. In such fields the cost of the extracted oil will be higher than its
market value, unless the major improvements in technology and work processes are
made. It has been estimated that the introduction of the IO can produce 300
billion NOK of added value on the Norwegian continental shelf alone. On a longer
time-scale, the working onshore control and monitoring of the oil production may
become a necessity as the new fields in deeper waters are developed purely on
unmanned sub-sea facilities.
The technology is a key factor for the integrated operations. They must be
reliable, easy to use and maintain. It is vitally important to ensure a
qualitative communication between the control center and the oil field for the
data transmission. The physical environment is also important to improve the
personal interaction and to facilitate the cooperation.

10.4 Smart monitoring of artificial lifted well stock

The InterACT system of control and the data transfer secure online workspace
of in real time of the Schlumberger company ensues the remote control of the well
cluster, data collection and a collective analysis, as well as on-lure decision-
mailing. Data can be viewed in real time for critical operations such as drilling,
logging, formation sampling, well testing, cementing, and stimulation, or by
scheduling periodic updates and setting exception and alarm events defined by
individual users. Based on a web technologies the InterACT system provides the
transmission of data through the Internet or a local intranet; an immediate access
to the data; the connection via a secure channel and the confidentiality of the
data; the two-way communication, allowing the remote control of the devices; the
data exchange in real time with the engineering and diagnostic applications; the
individually adjustable computer screens and "graphic trends". The InterACT system
offers unique advantages in terms of exploitation. The immediate delivering of the
key events to the qualified experts reduces downtime and production. Furthermore,
there is no or reduced need for trips to the wells, this reducing the risk and
operating costs. A secure access to the data in real-time allows to predict the

276
tendencies of the wells operation for the timely intervention. This improves the
protection of assets and helps cope with the reduction in performance.
The system of diagnostics adjusting and increasing the operating performance
of the well stock LiftPro of the Schlumberger company enables to apply the
required measurements and the experience of the experts in one place and at one
time to optimize separate wells with account of the previously performed similar
operations.
According to the experts estimations in two out of three artificially lifted
wells the production rate can be significantly increased due to the improved
operation. A 10% net increase in oil production is an expected baseline
performance of the LiftPro process. For some wells, the performance increase by of
over 100% has been proved by the production measurements taken before and after
the optimization process.
The LiftPro process enables fast and clear performance evaluation of the
artificial lift system and the well on the whole. This is achieved by the limited
combination of the field information and the knowledge of the field operator with
the Schlumberger measurement technology, services, and artificial lift
capabilities.
The espWatcher system of the Schlumberger company provides a remote control
and the handling of ESPs. It complements the LiftPro service in a variety of ways.
The espWatcher system provides obtaining the continuous, real-time data from the
ESP wells, along the secured channel through the Internet. These data can be used
to select the candidate wells, to provide regular “preventive inspectors” to
identify the emerging problems, and detect the events that require are immediate
action to recoved the production. The LiftPro service can be made more efficient,
both in terms of scheduling and prioritization, in the fields where the espWatcher
service is provided.
The financial risk can be defined and controlled using LiftPro risk-sharing
commercial models for the candidate well selection. The operators can be able know
which wells will promise the increased production to justify the affiliation of
the personnel and the optimization facilities.
To monitor the artificial lifted wells are the measurements of flow rate,
pressure and temperature are carried on.

277
Flow rate measurement. The flow rate is the primary measurement in any well
optimization, but it is performed in a variety of ways thus resulting in the
uncertainties of various parameters. A consistent measurement and an understanding
of its uncertainty is fundamental to analyze the well performance before and after
any adjustment.
The LiftPro process enables optimize by the work of separate wells with
account of the similar procedures previously performed. The PhaseTester portable
flowmeter, with Vx* technology of multiphase, well research enables to measures
the multiphase flow rate accurately, consistently, and quickly. High sampling
rates enable the LiftPro service to detect the changes in operating conditions
immediately. This ability is particularly important when performing the multirate
tests in gas-lift wells or when diagnosing the well instability. The PhaseTester
service provides a continuous rate measurement of individual of phases of the well
fluid without their separation for a quick performance analysis and immediate
diagnostics that enhance the efficiency of the LiftPro applications. The
solutions-oriented PhaseTester service supports all the stages in the testing
process, from the design to the reservoir interpretation. The mobile PhaseTester
unit is designed for an easy mounting in the well. Its rated performance is in
compliance with the American Petroleum Institute (API) standards. It can accept
the fluids directly from the flowline and return them to the flowline after the
measurement. Pressure lossis in the system are typically 3 to 30 psi [21 to 207
kPa], which is much lower than with conventional flow separation systems. The
minimal interference with flowline pressure response allows an accurate diagnosis
of the well operation.
The module has a minimal supporting and area is easy to install, at enables
to reduce the cost, through the increased efficiency and the improved logistics.
The PhaseTester module has an excellent dynamic response to the changes of the
well flow rate, so it requires little or no stabilization time. In many fields,
this feature, combined with the mobility of the module, allows the multiple wells
to be evaluated in a single day.
Pressure measurement. Flow rate directly response to the changes in wellbore
pressure. For the improved performance, it is certainly preferable to rely on the
actual measurements of the downhole pressure, rather than on the calculations. The

278
permanent downhole monitoring technology, such as the Phoenix system, allows a
thorough diagnosis of the response of the production system to the wellbore
pressure. Combined with the multiphase flow measurements, the diagnostics based on
the pump intake and discharge pressures can provide a very accurate picture of the
artificial lift response.
Distributed temperature monitoring. The fiber-optic distributed temperature
monitoring technology provides the measurements along the whole length of the
fiber in the wellbore. The SensaLine system can be temporarily run on a thin cable
using the standard equipment. Another variant is the stationary Sensa system which
is installed on a control cable, using our proprietary technology. In the LiftPro
monitoring of the distributed temperature the Sensa system enables to get
immediately the information on the status of the system of the artificial lift
production and the well as a whole [8].

10.5 Subsea production centers in real time

In the world a wide range of subsea equipment allowing to develop offshore


fields has been created and is under operation. The subsea separators and subsea
compressors, providing the transportation of multiphase hydrocarbons flow are in a
trial operation. The features of the subsea production systems are as follows all
the manufacturing operations (production field treatment) are performed under the
water; the drilling is carried out using offshore drilling units; all the wells
are drilled with account of their subsea completion. The subsea fields can be
completely autonomous and can also be used in combination with the fixed or
floating technological platforms. The equipment for the underwater operation is
divided into "wet", "dry", and hybrid systems. Most commonly employed in the world
is the "wet" systems (90% of all subsea wells), which are distinguished by a large
variety of design including a free-standing Christmas tree and the complicated
complex, located inside the submerged hydraulic structures with a cluster of 12-24
and more wellheads, a manifold, a power unit, a control system, etc.
The management of subsea production center includes the data receiving; the
processing of the data in real time; an early warning system; a joint decision-
making by the experts who can identify the appropriate actions and select the

279
recommendations to improve the development process; the maintenance and the
process change, that is, taking the necessary measures to ensure the effective
development; the creation of the databases and database management. The monitoring
of the development is an observation system designed to achieve a continuous
operation and to get the maximum performance of the subsea production center. The
availability of reliable information on the production process and the underwater
complex and also the continuous updating of this information is critical to making
the right decisions at the right time. The monitoring of the development allows to
receive the information on the status of the sensors and equipment (checking the
basic functioning of the sensors and testing the reserve devices); to ensure the
collaboration with subsea control module (communication, distribution of hydraulic
and power generation and analysis of hydraulic and electrical parameters); to
detect and to prevent the leaks of hydrocarbons; to monitor the subsea equipment
(compressors, multiphase pumps, separators, coolers); to monitor the state (the
integrity of the system, deposits of sand, erosion); to create a database (history
of the data, event log, and documentary support). The systems of early prevention
of potential failures offer the opportunities to improve the efficiency of the use
of the equipment, the impact of the planned maintenance. The support control
center of subsea field development is made up with the specialists on fluid
extraction technology, cybernetics, hydrodynamics and providing a continuous
production [9].

Conclusion

The integrated operations is a way of working which can enhance HSE,


substantially increase the project value, and to support the development of the
staff, as the project expenses are spent relative to the expected benefits. To
control the smart fields the exploitation control centers operating in real time
are created. They monitor the production in real-time, the integrated interaction
in production operations and the optimization of the operation control. The
development of information and communication technologies enabled to create the
integrated operations of the second generation. The integrated operation of the
second generation in contrast with the first one do not only provide the

280
integration of the control centers onshore and offshore in the company, but also
the integration between the companies, the operators and the suppliers. The
integrated operations of the second generation are characterized by a large flow
of data due to more complex equipped well equipment and the equipment with the
various sensors. To monitor the artificial-lift wells different systems of
optimization are used. They allow the identification of non-optimized wells
operated by the artificial lift, the application of the technology to determine
the causes of the low performance; giving the recommendations and identifying of
the required corrective measures, the assessment the results. The productivity is
increasing and the costs are reducing. For the development of offshore fields the
subsea production systems are used in real time, the features of which are in the
fact that all the manufacturing operations are carried out under the water, the
drilling is performed using the offshore drilling units, all the wells are drilled
with account of their subsea completion. The integrated operations connect the
offshore with the onshore control centers, allowing making better decisions
faster, thus increasing the profitability of the projects.

Acknowledgements

In the tenth chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A.


Eremin "Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as the course papers of the students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: Bakeyeva S.A., Salimova D.B. and others.

References:

1. Еремин Н.А. Современная разработка


месторождений нефти и газа. (Умная скважина –
Интеллектуальный промысел. Виртуальная

281
компания. M.: ООО «НедраБизнесцентр», 2008 - - 244
pages. ISBN 978-58365-0311-6.
2. http://www.statoil.com/en/OurOperations/ExplorationProd/partneroperatedfield
s/OrmenLange/Pages/default.aspx
3. http://www.statoil.com/en/OurOperations/ExplorationProd/ncs/snoehvit/Pages/d
efault.aspx
4. M.A Shakirov. «Creating the monitoring system of electrical submersible
equipment of USC «Gaspromneft-Khantos». «Engineering Practice» » №9, 2010.
5. R.A Ptchelnilov. System of monitoring and analysis of well operations in
real time is an element of the «smart field». « Engineering Practice » №5, 2011.
6. D Cavanagh, J Westcott. “The influence of an intelligent operations
philosophy on design and operation of remote large-scale oil and gas developments
in Australia”. 2011 APPEA Conference.
7. http://www.schlumberger.ru/userfiles/file/Case%20Studies/08-AL-
31_LiftPro%20(RUS).pdf
8. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-019-9; Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н., Еремин А.Н.
Управление разработкой интеллектуальных
месторождений: Учеб. пособие для вузов: В 2 кн.
– Кн. 2. Учеб. пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-329-7.
9. SPE Paper 83978. L.A. Saputelli, U. of Houston; PDVSA; S. Mochizuki,
ExxonMobil; L. Hutchins, BP; R. Cramer, Shell; M.B. Anderson, J.B. Mueller,
Schlumberger; A. Escorcia, Halliburton; A.L. Harms, ConocoPhillips; C.D. Sisk, BP;
S. Pennebaker, J.T. Han, ITSVE; A. Brown, EPS; C.S. Kabir, ChevronTexaco; R.D.
Reese, Case Services; G.J. Nunez, ITSVE; K.M. Landgren, Schlumberger; C.J. McKie,
C. Airlie, EPS. “Promoting Real-Time Optimization of Hydrocarbon Producing
Systems”, 2003

282
List of figures

Fig. 10.1. Integrated operating system [eDrift, Norwegian Oil Industry Association
(OLF), 2010].
Fig. 10.2. Fields with remote control, equipped with advanced technology.
Fig. 10.3. Data latention for decision-making.

List of abbreviations

HC – hydrocarbons; HSE –health, safety, environment; IO – integrated


operations; NPV – net present value; ESP – electrical submersible pump.

283
Figures to chapter 10

Fig. 10.1. Integrated operating system [eDrift, Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF),
2010]

Рис. 10.1. Система интегрированной эксплуатации


[eDrift, Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF), 2010]

Fig. 10.2. Fields with remote control, equipped with advanced technology

Рис.10.2. Месторождения с удаленным управлением,


хорошо оснащенные передовой техникой

284
Fig. 10.3. Data latention for decision-making

Рис.10.3. Латенция данных для принятия решений

285
Chapter 11. Smart Oil and Gas Processing

Abstract

Nowadays there is a wide range of computer technologies and products that


can be used both to improve the strategic indicators of field development, for
example, to increase the ultimate oil recovery factor and the operational factors,
such as the performance of the current production plans, in minimizing the
operating costs and improving the efficiency and the reliability of the use of
field equipment. The smart field is based on the technology, the essence of which
is that the installed down hole equipment makes it possible to carry out the
automated measurement and to transmit them from the site to the control station in
real time. The operators constantly receive the relevant information enabling them
to manage the work well more effectively. In addition, it minimizes the number of
visits to their or multiple well, platforms and hence it reduces the costs and
risks of accidents. Based on these measurements, the models are created, which
help to calculate various options reduce the cost of the development, the
optimization, the production and the water injection into the reservoir. Using a
constant flow of the integrated data, the effective solutions for the entire life
of the well can be made.

Key words: Production control system in real time, advanced process control,
smart wells, subsea production systems, subsea separators, wellhead valves for
water injection, in underwater separation, pressure reduction and injection
station, water injection pump, multiphase pump, sand removal station, monitoring
of production processes, distribution control system, information and
communication systems, enterprise production environments, automated control
system, production relational database management system, gas collection and
treatment system management in real time, intelligent process control over the
system for gas treatment in real time, underwater field, spiral-axial multiphase
pumps, underwater compressor units, automated process control system of primary
oil treatment, a system of supervisory control and the data acquisition, remote
terminal, the central control room (dispatch center), soft-real-time mode, human-
286
machine interface, ergonomic operator's work, the information security of the
enterprise, Integrated communication system, a remote object, the central control
panel, the data exchange in real time, the sensor network, the technology of self-
organizing wireless networks

Introduction

This chapter deals with modern technical equipment and software in the field
of information and process automation and production management that enable to
solve a wide range of tasks to improve the efficiency of the development of oil
fields. The proposed concept of the Petroleum Development company is based on the
smart field technology the essence of which is that the installed downhole
equipment makes it possible to carry out the automated measurement and to transmit
them to the site in the control station in real time. The operators are constantly
receiving relevant information, enabling them to manage the work well more
effectively. In addition, it minimizes the number of visits to their multiple well
platforms, and hence it reduces the costs and risks of accidents. Based on these
measurements, the models are created, which help to calculate various options to
reduce the cost of the development, the optimization, the production and the water
injection into the reservoir. Using a constant flow of the integrated data, the
SPD takes more effective solutions for the entire service of the well.
Today it is practically impossible to imagine the work of industry in
condition of increasing technical and environmental requirements without the high-
tech equipment. The paper precuts the Smart Wireless solutions, allowing you an
access to all of the valuable information available in the company. In this case,
it will be possible to add the new points of measurement, where previously it was
not possible or it required too much work to connect.

11.1 Intelligent management system infield gathering and preparation of


hydrocarbons in real time

287
The modern information systems allow you to get in a convenient form for the
operator the data from the wells, gathering station, storage tanks, primary oil
treatment plants, the booster group pumping stations in real time. The material
basis for the collection of the information is provided by the modern controllers
and database management systems that allow you to store and process data the bolt
in real time, and from the relational databases. On the pyramid (Fig. 11.1 levels
of automation) – they are levels L1 - L2. As part of the monitoring functions of
production processes and the dispatch management in modern information systems,
including the following tasks are solved. The user gets the basic values of the
monitored parameters (flow rate, pressure, temperature, etc.) of the wells, group
metering stations, processing plants of surface facilities, storage and delivery
of products, etc. in real time. In this, case the visualization of bottlenecks is
carried out : the screen provides the current values in comparison with their
established limits in controlled processes. The data of well operation are
processed and issued upon the request in the format required. The user is supplied
with the rich by the opportunities the report generator that allows to design
reports in a standard format in different directions: changeable and daily
production reports, reports on the production and delivery of hydrocarbon,
injector volumes, status of wells, etc.
The monitoring and the reports on the events, the data of which come from
the distributed control system (DCS) and the sensor systems security are carried
out. The sequence of events that triggered the alarm are recorded and analyzed. A
continuously verification of the safety valves on the potentially dangerous areas
of gathering and initial treatment of oil and gas is executed and on its basis the
generates reports of any changes in their conditions are made up. For example, in
fig. 11.2 (Window of application control of the valves) presents a list of
standard reports generated by a specific application of Safety Valve Scout
Honeywell on the control of valves. The monitoring and the analysis of all the
equipment shut-downs directed out fixing all the reasons for shut-downs, the shut
offs on the basis of restoration in the history of the process of all the actions
that led to a shutoffs is conducted.

288
The reports are prepared based on the made analysis (figure 11.3 Window of
application of monitoring disconnections of technological facilities). A separate
subsystem, along with the subsystems of fire and explosion dangers, is the
subsystem control of pipeline leaks. Today one of the most promising areas are the
acoustic systems to detect and locate the leaks. The advantages of such systems
are the ability to operate at all the stages of the pipeline operation (start /
stop pumps, changing the values of flow rate, etc.), a low rate of false actions
which is very important for the purposes of automated data protection, easy
maintenance and high reliability of operation. An important requirement for a
modern security system is it’s integration with a distributed control system,
which allows to respond to potential threats and emergency situations, and to
operate the equipment in a safe mode [4].
Production Management. Modern production management system or MES
(Manufacturing Execution System) is the information and communication system of
the production environment of the enterprise. In the structure of the automated
enterprise management the MES is the connected with the process control systems
(ERP Enterprise Resource Planning). MES, collecting and processing the data in
real time from the processing facilities and control systems and the historical
data from the production relational databases, the MES supports the automatic or
manual control of decision making. Simultaneously, the MES prepares and transmits
the information in the required form to the ERP. Currently, the following areas of
MES in oil companies can be identified.
The present level of the introduction of methods and software to manage the
design and the development of oil fields enable you to formulate and solve complex
optimization problems of field development. On the basis of mathematical
hydrodynamic model of the formation, which allows to take into account the mutual
influence of the hydraulic wells, the problem of selecting the optimum production
rate of the recovery and the injection wells. As an optimization criterion we
refer to technical and economic criteria such as minimizing the volume of
associated water, subject to the limitations on the downhole pressure and the
implementation of plans of oil production. Currently, to solve such problems an
effective mathematical apparatus based on the methods of mathematical programming,
and considerably taking into account the specifics character of the mathematical

289
model of the problem has been developed [6]. While investigated and proposed were
the methods of solving more general organization of the problems which along with
the production rates include the optimum multitude of newly commissioned wells
from the infinitely many possible drilling locations. The selection of the optimum
option of the construction of surface field facilities. Given a set of indicators
of field development options, calculated by solving the above problems are solved
the problem of optimal development of ground-based arrangement. To solve the
problems that arise at this stage, special methods of integer programming [7].

11.2. Control system for gas collection and treatment in real time. Modes of
operation of intelligent process control system, of gas treatment in real time.
Gas treatment plant in real time (definition, operating process, composition,
production)

To date, the number of refineries and petrochemical plants of Russian


systems use the advanced control - APC (Advanced Process Control) [9]. The
implementation of such systems at the facilities of the gas treatment and
processing has not carried out yet, despite the suitable conditions for this such
as a number of technological problems, reducing the negative effect that can be
achieved through the use of advanced control systems. In this paper we propose a
variant of the complex gas treatment plant (CGTP) with the help of the advanced
control. The sections [10, 11] describe the features of the process facilities of
CGTP in the Cenomanian Urengoy gas field. In addition, the presence of similar
problems at the CGTP for the Yamburgskoye Cenomanian gas field is pointed out in
the review [12], thus enabling to make a conclusion their generality and the
abundance at the Russian field gas treatment facilities.

Functions of the Advanced Process Control. CU (advanced control) is a set of


software and algorithmic tools for centralized management and the technical-
economic optimization of complex systems. The advanced control includes three main
concepts:
• Multicoupling regulation, based on the model predictive control (MPC -
Model Predictive Control).

290
• Virtual analyzers (inferential measurements) - empirical - neural network
or regression - models that reflect the relationship of the immeasurable parameter
and the indirect factor.
• Technical and economic optimization in real time.
Multicoupling control unit (for example, a column with a coupled heat
exchanger, process furnace, etc.) can be realized with a single multiply
controller regulating the, PID control knobs that represent the basic automation
system, or directly the actuators.
The virtual analyzers acting as the conventional measuring devices can be
used instead of them or in conjunction with them. As the immeasurable parameter
often characterizes the performance of the entire automation system and wider the
process facility in general and may be included in the objective function of
optimization or restriction (e.g., quality of the output product, the dew point
temperature, etc.) the virtual analyzers are a basis of construction of the
optimization system. Technical and economic optimization is usually calculated for
the whole unit (for example, distillation, catalytic cracking, etc.) and is
implemented as a larger unit that controls a set of multiply regulators. The
control through the APC system is used to solve the problems of two classes: high
quality stabilization process based on the minimization of the integral criterion
of the quality of the transition process and the optimization of the process as
the higher-level tasks.
The technological process of gas treatment at the CGTP in the Cenomanian
Urengoy field. At the CCTP of the Cenomanian deposit the hydrocarbons treatment is
realized under the absorption dehydration technology with the use of diethylene
glycol (DEG) as an absorbent. The field preparation is to extract moisture and
mechanical impurities from the formation gas and to ensure the dew point
temperature of 20 oC in summer and -10 oC in winter, according to the requirements
of [17]. Duration of operation of the Cenomanian deposits, the main sources of
natural gas of the Urengoy field is nearing the age of 35 which is a very
significant period. Over such a long period there was a significant drop in
reservoir pressure, which led to the need to transfer the field to the compressor
stage of development. Due to the significant increase of the gas temperature after
the compressor station the conditions of glycol dehydration are deteriorating and

291
it becomes more problematic to achieve the required quality factors of the gas
dehydration determined by the dew point temperature. Thus, temperature increase
gas contact DEG to one degree oC increases the dew point temperature, to
approximately 0,9 oC, while the decrease of the contact pressure gas - DEG to one
atmosphere increases the dew point by 0.2-0.3 oC (converted to 4 MPa). The dew
point temperature of dry gas directly depends on the concentration of the
regenerated DEG (RDEG) and, accordingly, on the temperature of the DEG in the
evaporator. The lower concentration of RDEG by 0.1 wt%. entails an increase in the
dew point temperature at 1 oC. The amount of gas passing through the evaporation
also affects the quality of gas treatment. When reducing the flow through the
device (at a constant contact pressure) the linear gas velocity through the device
decreases and consequently the velosity factor, which reducing the intensity of
the mass transfer the coefficient of the wettability of the nozzle and the
deterioration of the dew point temperature. Since the Cenomanian deposits of the
Urengoy field has long entered a stage of declining production and is
characterized by high water invasion, the engineers, from the 25 C
"Urengoygazprom" are still trying to find solutions for the effective
modernization of the field gas treatment in order to adapt to the changed (and
continues to change) field conditions. In reference [15] analysis is given to the
modernization of field options, all of them being associated with significant
capital costs because they assume new construction and / or reconstruction of old
facilities.
Consequently, it is possible to implement the individual CGDP control based
on the CU system. With regard to the use of such systems, the increased complexity
of their operation is often spoken of. But this is compensated by the relative
simplicity of the processes occurring at the CTP compared with the processes of
refining and petrochemicals, as well as by a large number of similar CTP,
therefore, even the introduction of this "piece" tool, which is the system of APC,
developed for specific facilities, you can "replicate" a large number of CGTP with
minimal modifications.
The first step of the Engineers of the Ltd. "Urengoygazprom" on the
modernization of field facilities was conversion of the CGT to work on the new
scheme, based on the technology of two-stage dehydration (Figure 11.4). As

292
mentioned above, after the first stage of BAC the gas is considerably heated,
which reduces the absorption efficiency of gas dehydration. In order to cool the
gas after the first stage of BAC level the air coolers (AC) are used. Since the
gas at this stage of the preparation contains a fairly large amount of water, and
a bank of tubes that pass through the air cooler cools unevenly because of the
design features in the winter time the dehydration is probable. To combat it, the
following method is used: the saturated DEG (PDEG) from absorbers with a mass
concentration of about ~ 95% is injected into the pipeline after the separation
process. The separating filters separates the treated NDEG (ONDEG), which
delivered for the regeneration. In this case the dehydration of gas flow with a
minimum efficiency of 0.5 theoretical plates [10], allows to reach the hydratless
nature of AC. Thus, the application of this process scheme solves the problem of
lowering the temperature of the gas contact - DEG through deeper gas cooling in
the air coolers apparatus BAC of the first stage (as partially dehydration gas).
The improvement cooled of the efficiency of the GPP of the Cenomanian
deposit can be achieved through the following approaches:
1. Implementing Virtual analyzers which data will serve as a basis for
constructing multiply regulators and the optimization process, and will allow the
operator to judge the flow process in real time:
a. The virtual analyzer of dew point temperature. The use of the dew point
line analyzers has found a wide application. So, at the Russian CGTP of the
Urengoyskoye OGCO the line "Kong Prima" analyzers are used. They have the
following disadvantages: a significant duration of one measurement cycle of about
10-15 minutes, a fast drift of readings which requires a constant maintenance of
the device, the complexity of such services. The virtual analyzers of dew point
temperature enable to improve the efficiency of data collection and to provide the
necessary for the APC systems collection frequency measurements. Moreover, their
readings can be reflect the drift of real measuring device reading.
b. The virtual analyzer of the concentration of saturated DEG.
c. The virtual concentration analyzer of regerated DEG.
d. The virtual analyzer of the concentration of DEG in a flow of the
dehydrated gas is determination of DEG losses with dehydrated gas.

293
2. The implementation of a multiply regulator gas dehydration plant for the
purpose of stabilizing the absorption dehydration process, characterized by a mult
connected, complex dynamics of flow, considerable inertia and fluctuations in raw
material input flow rate and composition. This functions of the controller can
also be controlling the angle of attack of the blades of the air coolers for the
uniform cooling of the bank of tubes at the entrance to the dehydrate shop. To
implement this punition the measurement results of the dew point temperature
should be delivered to the regulator entrance after the first dehydration stage.
They can be prepared with the corresponding virtual analyzer.
3. The implementation of a multi-connected array controller of separation.
There is a problem of generating plug flow in gas gathering systems which leads to
a drastic removal of large amounts of fluid in parallel separators separation unit
that can not cope with this problem. As noted in the paper [12] it resents in
partial flooding of the absorption column, which leads to a considerable decrease
in efficiency of the dehydration process.
4. The implementation of a multiple regulator of the plugging control. This
system enables to conduct the flow in the pipe in the desired mode and to avoid
plugging, the negative effect of which was discussed above. The principles of
construction such a system based on the CU algorithms are discussed in the paper
[15].
5. The implementation of the unit of the CGPP optimization. Its functions
are as follows:
a. Providing a uniform distribution of well production and the washing fluid
between the separators.
b. Ensuring even an loading of absorbers (multiple parallel processing line)
for gas and absorbent. The stabilization of the dew point temperature putting into
production and shutting in the parallel lines.
c. The optimization of the load on the regenerator gas dehydration plant
(optimization of energy consumption) under the constraints by the dew-point
temperature (defined by the degree of dehydration) at the output of the second
stage of dehydration. As a sub-task is optimizing of flow rate of which is
injected DEG, was fed to the first stage of the gas dehydration.

294
11.3 Intelligent control of surface structures in the Salym Petroleum
Development company

The company has introduced new process methods, using advanced data
collection tools to get the maximum recovery in the Salym fields. There formed
specialized teams of technical experts from various fields, including the
specialists in reservoir engineering, field experts and the groups of
international experts to develop the effective reservoir management programs. As a
result of an extensive operations well samples of thanks to the core and reservoir
fluids, as well as the best logging practices the most valuable information was
renewed to understand of the reservoir. This information is used for the following
purposes: the improved well design, the optimization of drilling and well
completion activities within the program Drilling the Limit, establishing of a
common strategy to extract more oil at lower volumes and the impact of drilling
operations on the environment.
In December 2006, the SPD began the work on the creation of the first in
Russia "smart" wells in the Vadelyp field. The SPD started this project only with
the installation of flow meters for the automatic measurement of inflows in real
time, but in case of the further inflow changes the well had to be physically
shut-down. Subsequently, the company will equip the well with the control valves.
After testing this technology in the Vadelyp field the technology of "smart" wells
will be transferred to other fields of the Salym project.
The use of the data. The data on the reservoir, resulting from the
construction and maintenance of wells, and, more recently, from the "smart" wells,
are stored and analyzed in a high-precision production database created by the
engineer of the company. In 2007, the SAP developed the first three-dimensional
sector models of high resolution in the West Salym field. The models are based on
the large amount of data on the structure of reservoirs collected for the previous
three years. The models make it possible to visualize the dynamic fluid flows in
three dimensions, and thus the engineers and the employees responsible for making
decisions can better understand the behavior of the reservoir and improve the
development of mineral resources to ensure maximum recovery of oil. Now the

295
corresponding group in the SAP is working on a complete integrated model of the
West Salym field.
Modern telecommunications. The technology of "smart" fields and well-
coordinated work of many specialists would have been impossible without modern
communication system. This system ensures the reliable data transmission between
the base camp, all the major objects in the Salym and the export oil pipeline
valving. In is used in the integrated protection system that provides round the
clock surveillance, the system of admission and the operation of protection
systems. The existing infrastructure of the information technology system meets
the needs of the SAP in the modern means of communication, computerization and
automation, and for many years to come it will suit to the requirements of the
company. In constructing of field facilities true have also been installed the
fiber-optic communication lines, only in the West Salym their length being about
100 km. In the coming decades, the data from the Salym fields will be used in the
future developments to enhance oil recovery factor. The basis of the
telecommunication infrastructure is the microwave transmission system provided by
seven communication masts of up to 82 meters. The wireless communication is
connected to the general commuted telephone network, a cellular communication
system in the field. This is one of the first digital systems in the main
telephone service in Russia and such first system is in the Khanty-Mansi
Autonomous Okrug [18].
The advantage of the integrated innovative technology "Smart Field" SAP are:
large-scale project of the management of wells and reservoirs directed at
development of systematic approaches and ensuring the sustainability of field
development in the DR, regular monitoring of the rate of oil production and water
injection into the bed, water cutting and pressure, the effective use of stock,
limiting the operating costs, optimization of water injection, increased
production, improved planning and more efficient oil recovery. The smart fields
technology is a reliable basis for projects of the incremental oil production,
resulting in the fact that the system is allowed to close the well control cycle
and reservoir, and the operators in PPB receive the information, process it using
the tools of the integrated management of the well stock, determine the
correlation of the parameters and operators in the PPB as well regulate the

296
operation of each well using an automatic control system, reducing of unplanned
downtime, longer trouble-free operation of downhole equipment, reducing of
chemical consumption, reducing the number of trips in the field and reducing of
the cost of transport, increasing the staff efficiency in the oilfield, downhole
production increases by an average of 2-2.5% per year, the operator spends most of
his time in the control room serving 30-40 wells, communication information
transfer from the multiple well platform to the control zoom is performed in real
time, the operators more quickly respond to the behavior of the downhole
equipment, smart technology on the intake, injection and treatment of water -
Fieldware Water Injection System, the system is available from both the Salym
platforms and from the office in Moscow [19].

11.4 Management of subsea data collection and treatment of


oil and gas in real time

The experience in the development of the North Sea and the Beaufort Sea
fields demonstrates an active development of offshore technology of the field
development and preparation of well production. For the development of The Russian
offshore technology it is necessary to attract actively the domestic scientific
potential using the foreign. The technology of the underwater itc. treatment
significantly enhances the flexibility in the recovery of well production. Big
operating companies with private capital, such as Shell, Exxon, Total, BP,
Woodside, Statoil and Petrobras, are leaders in promoting the elaborations and
applications of new offshore technologies in injection and treatment of the
borehole fluid. Actively contribute to the development of all the areas of
offshore technologies, despite the potentially high risk when investing in new
elaborations. Norway has managed to create simultaneously a national innovation
system and to make it part of a global one, it coned make the foreign corporations
operating in the local market, spend the localization of their technologies in the
country, or pass them to the Norwegian research institutions. The way of using of
offshore field is considered as the most promising direction in developing of
fields in such conditions as freezing and non-freezing seas using the equipment of
treatment and injection of fluids in the submarine performance, including multi-

297
phase pumps, separators, compressor units and subsea drilling rigs (figure 11.5-
6).
The underwater treatment of hydrocarbons includes the separation of
reservoir fluid, injection of sea water and gas compression. To enable the
underwater treatment of production high-voltage electrical supply over long
distances, the modern system of control and management of processes, cost-
effective installation, maintenance and removal of equipment. The advantages of
the underwater treatment of production are to improve the productive capacity of
pay to accelerate the recovery to, reduced capital and operating costs. The above
advantages are becoming especially important in developing of fields in the Arctic
because of deep-water deposits, the fields are large distance from the shore
fisheries, lack of infrastructure and harsh environmental conditions.
Subsea multiphase pumps. To date, the use of multiphase pumps has become a
real and viable solution for the efficient movement of multi-phase gas-liquid
flows from the wells at the bottom of the sea through the field pipelines and the
risers onto the top structures of the platform or the onshore facilities. Several
types of pumps that are used both on the deepwater fields of the Alaska shelf, and
in the fields of the Gulf of Mexico, South America and Australia have been
elaborated. The spiral-axial multiphase pumps can pump large amounts of downhole
products and exceed the rotary pumps by gas ratio, and the piston pumps by
performance. One of the latest developments is a high pressure pump of the High-
Boost MPP company Framo with the capacity of up to 1600 m3 / h at pump pressure of
up to 20 MPa which can operate at gas-oil ratio of 95%, which is a breakthrough
technology in the possibilities of field development at depths of 2-3 km. Of
widely application are the two screw pumps manufactured by Bornemann, Flowserve,
Nuovo Pignone, etc., which are mainly used to pump the produced fluids with a high
content of the gas phase. These pumps refer to the of the volumetric displacement
categories and remain operational even when the volume content of the gas phase is
up 95%. The Bornemann company in recent years has made a significant step forward
in the development of subsea multiphase pumps. So, in the year 2007, the BP
company, setting a two deepwater subsea pump Bornemann MPC-335 at the King Field
in the Gulf of Mexico, and immediately broke two world records: its the depth
(1700 m) and for the distance from the platform (29 km).

298
The main disadvantages of modern multiphase pumps include a low (30 to 50%)
efficiency of units. However, the work on improving the performance of the
multiphase pumps, conducted since the 1990s, enables to hope for a significant
progress in the coming years, given that the current efficiency of centrifugal
pumps is 60-70% and of compressor ones is 70-90%.
Subsea Separators. Originally they were intended for the use in the
development of small offshore fields in the North Sea, and then they found their
applications in the fields with the existing platforms, from which the management
of the subsea systems and supply are performed.
The world's first real working installation of it subsea separation of
production and the effective water injection into the reservoir mounted on the
Troll field, 80 km away from Bergen. The system consists of a horizontal
gravitational separator, wherein the hydrocarbon flow is separated into gas, oil
and water. The structure of the subsea installation of the division the reservoir
products, in addition to the multi-phase pump and separator includes wellhead
equipment of the injection of produced water into the reservoir and the manifold
for the distribution of downhole flow. The separated water is pumped into the
reservoir by the multiphase pump developed by Framo firm, and oil and gas are
transported together into the upper structures of the platform. The control system
allows you to monitor and control the level of the phases in the separator, to
change the performance of the multiphase pump. The analysis of the underwater
separation plants of Troll Pilot and VASPS identified the need to further
improvement of their performance. Thus, the technical solutions used in the Troll
C field, do not include the mechanical impurities separation system, since this
equipment has maximum size and weight characteristics corresponding to the
equipment used on land. Therefore, the separator has been designed with a diverter
line for a gas phase and the separation system of oil, water and sand (for
installation in the Tordis field (fig. 11.7)).
The use of the separators under water can bring tangible benefits, including
the increasing of the life of the field, reducing the probability of problems of
hydrotizing in the marine risers and reducing the size of equipment for the
treatment of the products on the platform. These factors contributed to an
increase in the number of projects of underwater separation which are often

299
integrated with the pump and compressor units. The presence in the well production
of a significant amount of sand will require the improvement (upgrading) of the
design of underwater separators, especially when used in conjunction with the
underwater gas compression units, resulting in the increased demands for the
quality of treatment. The use of underwater gas compression technology will extend
the life of the fields at the late stage of development on the falling pressure
schedule and the active water inflow.
Subsea compressor units. The beginning of the development of research in the
field of underwater compression can be considered the year 1990 associated with
the fist compressor module (850 kW) constructed by the company GE's Oil & Gas, and
tested in the year 1992 in industrial conditions. In the year 2001, GE's Oil & Gas
and Aker Kvaerner signed a contract and joined the Norwegian government program
Demo 2000, under which the projects for the construction and testing of subsea
modules of 2.5 and 12 MW were launched. Installation of 12.5 MW (vertical
centrifugal compressor GE's Oil & Gas driven by an electric motor) is an
experimental model on the way to the introduction of the subsea compression
technology in the Ormen Lange field. In constructing the Ormen Lange field
facilities (Fig. 11.8) in the year 2016 it is planned to use an underwater
compressor unit consisting of four identical lines (one is reserve). Three of them
will be commissioned during the first year of field development. Each of the four
modules provides the increased pressure to 6 MPa and the capacity of about 60
million m3 per day, and the electricity will be supplied from the shore
substation. The similar developments in the field of underwater compression are
implemented by the Siemens and MAN Turbo companies in the project for Statoil's in
the Asgard field. In Norway there was tested the MAN Turbo's Hofim-type
installation, and in the year 2009 the Siemens ECO-II compressor was tested.
Within the "Asgard" project the laboratory owned by Statoil and Aker Solutions,
carrying on a program to test the subsea compressor units. This is due to the fact
that the Statoil company is planning to install two compressor units (8-10 MW) in
the Mikkel gas-condensate deposits from which the products are transported to the
Asgard B platform. It is expected that, due to the installation of the compressor
modules it will be possible to increase the recoverability of the products up to
70-80%.

300
Compressor station (CS) of the Aker Solutions for the Asgard field will
include the processes of separation of liquid from gas and the pressure rise of
each phase separately. As noted above to launch the project "Asgard" in the
year2014 with a maximum capacity of 10-18 million m3/day apply, two MAN Turbo
compressor unit of 10 MW are used. Each of them provides an increased pressure to
5 MPa and the capacity of approximately 25 million m3 per day, and the electricity
will be supplied from the Asgard B platform. The compressor unit of the
centrifugal design is intended to work with wet gas, and has been developed with a
high-speed motor (without gears and couplings), on magnetic bearings (without
grease). The Statoil is planning to place underwater CS in the Gullfaks South
field in cooperation with the Aker Solutions' Framo Engineering. Such a solution
is an alternative to a special platform designed for the compressor module.
Nevertheless, under these conditions, there may be difficulties associated with
the power transmission (20-40 mW) over long distances (about 140 km) [19].

11.5 Structure of intelligent process control system of primary oil


treatment in real time. The structure of intelligent process control systems of
primary oil processing

SCADA (abbreviated from English. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition is


a system of supervisory control and data acquisition. SCADA-systems enable the
development of control system in a client-server or in a distributed architecture
(DCS abbr. from English. Distributed Control System). The SCADA-system consists of
three components:
1. The remote terminal, called in English Remote Terminal Unit (RTU). The
complete processing of data information in real time passes through. This terminal
may be differently designed. For example, it may represent the most primitive
sensors that read the information from the process at specified intervals. The
fault-tolerant multiprocessor computing devices are sometimes used as remote
terminals. They process the information already in hard real time.
2. The main, central, terminal or a master station. In English it is called
Master Terminal Unit (MTU), Master Station (MS). It performs data processing and
management at the highest level. The soft real-time is used here. The main task of

301
the structural component of the SCADA-system - is the creation of human-machine
interface, providing the ergonomic work of the operator of control systems.
Depending on the tasks to create the HMI there is used both a single computer
which receives all the information from different points of the economic
facilities and the entire computing system that integrates, all the local control
panels. That is in creating a central control panel the problems of the
information security of the enterprise are solved.
3. The channels of communication or the integrated communication system
which in English stands for Communication System (CS). Its purpose is to create
the links between the remote sites and the central control unit [21].

11.6 The advantages of wireless systems for automation of oil industry. The
advantages of using sensor networks. The technology of self-organizing wireless
networks

Smart Wireless solutions. In the development of and measuring devices


controlling in real time in the field condition the use of wireless technologies
have received wide recognition. Smart Wireless solutions provide access to all the
valuable information available in the company. It will be possible to add new
points of measurement where previously it was not possible or required too much
work to connect. Smart Wireless solutions provide the ability to connect directly
the measuring devices in the wireless network, and then to get the information to
the control system through a wireless gateway. Each sensor is equipped with its
own antenna, and an autonomous power source for maintaining the efficiency for a
long time. Smart Wireless solutions operate in the range of 2.4 GHz band, and they
securely coexist with other wireless networks established at the enterprise. Smart
Wireless solutions are based on the technology of self-organizing wireless
networks. Unlike most wireless measuring instruments that require a direct
visibility between the transmitter and the gateway for the transmission of
information, Smart Wireless solutions provide the ability to wireless field
devices interact with each other by themselves. Each instrument is a full and
independent member of wireless network and is able to communicate with other

302
devices independently. Each device can transmit it is information as well as the
information from other devices and in this case, it is the translator of the
signal. Each device automatically finds the most convenient way to send a signal
to the gateway. In case of obstacles for the signal to pass along the already
traversed path, the network will automatically converts to a new structure of
channels of information exchange. Reliability This way of organizing the
information transmission is more than 99%, which was proved during a trial
operation. That is more than 99% of the measurements are delivered to the user.
This is achieved through the use of redundant communication links in the network,
without carrying on long and costly research in the structure. Typical solutions
from one point to and their ensure the reliability level only of 40%.
A multilevel approach to wireless network security allows you to maintain
the protection of the network from the unauthorized access. The devices in the
wireless networks use encryption, authentication, verification, protection network
from interference and the key control for sending data only through a wireless
gateway.
Smart Wireless solutions are easily integrated into the DeltaV ™, Ovation ®,
AMS ™ Suite: Intelligent Device Manager system, the traditional upper-level system
and the archiving system based on the field standard protocols. A gateway is an
entry point for data transmission from the wireless devices, which is then
converted into a format compatible with other systems. Through the Ethernet or
serial RS-485 connection the system integration is possible trough Modbus, OPC,
TCP / IP. The 1420 wireless gateway allows you to receive the measured values that
have not been collected before. The 1420 wireless gateway provides a high level of
security, the ability to expand the wireless network, as well as additional
possibilities for the industry.
Using Smart Wireless solutions can enable to learn more about the
technological process and to see the possibilities of improving it: to detect the
supercooling centers in the steam line to prevent overflow by using the alarm,
replace recording deices the spot. The use of wireless networks for monitoring
processes can increase the amount of the collected information for more effective
management. Smart Wireless solutions provide access to the information that
previously could not be obtained at all or access to which required a lot of

303
expenses. The expenses of a traditional wired connection make up a significant
part of any project connected with the installation of measuring devices.
The cost of wires, additional hardware and worklabour increases the cost of
any project regardless of its size. High costs is one of the biggest barriers to
the introduction of new technologies or adding the new points of measurement.
Smart Wireless solutions can reduce the installation costs up to 90% compared with
traditional wired connection, allowing you to add the new points of measurement at
the lowest cost.
Wireless gateway 1420 is a major unit of self-organizing wireless network.
It is responsible for the network management, the data transmission security and
their integration in the upper level. The gateway is the entry point for data
transform from the wireless devices, which are then converted into a format
compatible with a variety of control systems. The data admission and transmission
in a wireless network is provided through a radio signal on a frequency of 2.4 /
2.5 GHz HART / protocol. The 1420 supports a simultaneous connection of up to 100
wireless measuring instruments devices.
With the cooperation of the Emerson Process Management companies and the
industrial METRAN groups also the pressure sensors, temperature sensors and level
meters have been elaborated.
The technology of wireless sensor networks based on standards is the
technology with which you can solve the problems of monitoring and control, which
are critical to the time of autonomous work of sensors. The sensors combined into
a wireless sensor network, form a distributed, self-organizing system for the
collection, processing and transmission of information. The main area of
application is the control and monitoring of the measured parameters of different
physical fields, environments and facilities.
The advantages of the systems based on sensor networks are:The avengement in
remote places, where it a difficult and expensive to pull ordinary wired
solutions, the efficiency and convemenell of deployment and maintenance of the
system, the reliability of the whole network that is in case of failure of one of
them, the information is transmitted through the adjacent cells, the ability to
add or exclude any number of devices from the network, a long time without
changing the batteries.

304
Using inexpensive wireless control options opens up the new areas for the
application of telemetry and control, such as: the replacement of cables in the
ACS systems, timely detection of possible failures of the actuators for the
control of such parameters as vibration, temperature, pressure, etc., the control
access to the systems of the facilities, the structure perimeter control, controls
over the movement of staff around the factory, automation control of inspections
and maintenance, environmental monitoring environmental parameters. The use of
wireless devices to create a dispatch system that provides the operator an instant
access to the information on the serviced sites [22].

Conclusion

Modern information systems allow you to get in a convenient form for the
operator the data from wells, gathering stations, storage tanks, primary oil
processing plants, booster and group pumping stations in real time. As part of the
monitoring functions of production processes and dispatch management the modern
information systems solve, the following tasks as well. The user gets the basic
values of monitored parameters (flow rate, pressure, temperature, etc.) of the
wells, group metering stations, processing plants of surface facilities, storage
and delivery of products, etc. in real time. To date, the number of units of
refineries and petrochemical plants Russian systems use the advanced process
control, the APC. The CU (advanced control) is a set of software and algorithmic
tools for centralized management and technical-economic optimization of complex
systems. The control via the CU system is used for solving the problems of two
classes: high quality stabilization process by minimizing the integral criterion
of the quality of the transition process and optimizing the process as a higher-
level task. Using a constant flow of integrated data, the SPD takes more effective
solutions for the entire life of the well. Data on the reservoir, resulting from
the construction and maintenance of wells and, more recently, of "smart" wells,
are stored and analyzed in a high-precision production database created by the
engineer of the company. Now the corresponding group in the SAP is working on a
complete integrated model of the West Salym field. To date, the use of multiphase
pumps has become a real and viable solution for the efficient movement of multi-

305
phase gas-liquid flows from the wells at the bottom of the sea through the field
pipelines and risers on the platform top structures and onshore facilities.
Several types of pumps that are used for deepwater offshore in Alaska, and in the
fields of the Gulf of Mexico, South America and Australia have been developed. The
main disadvantage of the modern multiphase pumps is a low (30 to 50%) efficiency
units. Process control system for oil (PCS) is designed to automate the process
OTP, automation of control the specialists, activities and the management of
technological processes and production, to ensure timely information control
(monitoring) of the technological mode of devices and installations of OTP, high-
performance process control of the OTP. Smart Wireless solutions provide access to
all the valuable information available to the company. It will be possible to add
new points of measurement, where previously it was not possible or required too
much work to connect. Smart Wireless solutions provide the ability to connect
directly the measuring devices in a wireless network, and then get the information
to the control system via a wireless gateway. Each sensor is equipped with its own
antenna, and an autonomous power source for maintaining the efficiency for a long
time.

Acknowledgements

In the eleventh chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A.


Eremin "Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as the course papers of the students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: A.A.Khatmyllin, E.Vasilenko, A.R.Kononenko., E. Adigeev, G.S.
Adaibaeva and others.

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промышленности. - 2009. - №11 - С. 3-9.
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решения по автоматическому управлению на
морских платформах // Нефтяное хозяйство. - 2011
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7. Бабич О. А., Муштонин А. В., Першин О. Ю.
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Автоматика и телемеханика. - 2003. - №5. - p. 147 - 156.
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9. H.P. Bieker, O. Slupphaug, T.A. Johansen Real Time Production Optimization
of Offshore Oil and Gas Production Systems: A Technology Survey //SPE 99446, SPE
Intelligent Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 11-13 April, 2009.
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19. Еремин Н.А. Современная разработка
месторождений нефти и газа. (Умная скважина –
Интеллектуальный промысел. Виртуальная
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List of figures

Fig.11.1 – Automatization levels


Fig. 11.2 –Valves work control script
Fig. 11.3- Monitoring of switching off technological facilities objects
Fig. 11.4 – Main concepts of APC
Fig. 11.5 – Integrated system for gathering and treatment in real time
Fig.11.6 – Equipment for subsea oil treatment
Fig. 11.7 – Subsea preparation in the Tordis oilfield
Fig. 11.8 – Scheme of transmitting the data via Smart Wireless

List of abbreviations

RTD – Real time; DCS – Distribution Control System; APC – Advanced Process
Control;SPD – Salym Petroleum Development; МРР - Multiphase pump; OTP – Oil
treatment plant; AMS TP – Automative management system for technologic process; CS
– Control station; MES – Manufacturing Execution System; APCS – Advantages Process
Control Systems; CGTP –Complex Gas Treatment Plant; MPC – Model Predictive
Control; DEG – Diethylene glycol; OGCF – Oil-gas-condensate field; SCADA –
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition; RTU – Remote Terminal Unit; MTU – Master
Terminal Unit; CS – Communication Systems.

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Figures to chapter 11.

Fig.11.1 – Automatization levels

Рис.11.1 - Уровни автоматизации

Fig. 11.2 – Valves work control script

Рис. 11.2 -Окно приложения контроля работы клапанов

310
Fig. 11.3- Monitoring of technological objects switching off

Рис. 11.3- Окно приложения мониторинга отключений


технологических объектов

Fig. 11.4. Main concepts of APC

Рис. 11.4. Основные концепции УУ

311
Fig. 11.5. Integrated system for collecting and preparing in real time

Рис. 11.5. Интегрированная система сбора и


подготовки в РРВ

Fig. 11.6. Equipment for subsea oil preparation

Рис.11.6. Оборудование для подводной подготовки


продукции

312
Рис. 11.7. Подводная сепарация на месторождении
Тордис

Fig. 11.7. Subsea preparation in Tordis oilfield

Рис. 11.8. Схема передачи данных посредством Smart


Wireless

Fig. 11.8. Scheme of transmitting data via Smart Wireless

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Chapter 12. Smart oil and gas transport

Abstract

A perfect solution to preserve the integrity of the pipeline and to prevent


the negative effects of leakages is to prevent the leaks before they occur. The
following main reasons for leakages are man-made, natural, criminal, and caused by
a human factor. Man-made reasons are, as a rule, the destruction of the pipeline
or other mechanisms (pumps, intermediate tanks) due to aging of the metal, the
defects in the construction of the pipeline, the use of defective equipment and
machinery, etc. There are possible leakages because of the pipeline failure, due
to natural disasters (earthquake, flood, and storm) and as will because of the
erosion of karsts rocks near the pipeline or other natural uses. The criminal
reasons for leakages are most often associated with the stealing of delivered
product; the leakages may be the result of the hooligan or terrorist actions. The
leakages may be the result of blunders of the operating or maintenance personnel,
the errors in the shifting of locking devices valves, careless repairs and
maintenance of the equipment. The probability of leakages of one kind or another
depends on the area of the pipeline and delivered product, and the age and
condition of the pipeline. Pipelines operate at high pressure, and the violation
of their integrity results in the emissions of products pumped. A serious problem
is the unauthorized pipeline tapping for the purpose of pumping gas (theft),
occurring mare serious scales. The unauthorized interventions are accompanied by
mechanical effects on the pipeline, the leakages and the inflammation of the
product, leading to serious environmental disasters, as well as causing a serious
damage to the companies, probably, economic loss on liquidation of consequences of
accidents, the economic damage from the liquidation of the company, possibly
revoking the license for the type of activity, the drop in the share prices of the
company and other numerous effects. Thus, for the safe operation of the gas
pipeline transportation and protection against the unauthorized interference a
reliable system for continuous remote control (monitoring) of the technical state
of gas pipeline is required. The sensitivity of the system, its accuracy and high
speed, i.e. the ability to detect the small leakages and mechanical damages in the

314
shortest time, are the most important requirements. Small, but time-consuming
leakages can, as the experience shows, result in significant environmental and
financial consequences.

Key words: smart pipelines, multiphase pipelines, monitoring, fiber-optic


monitoring, subsea risers, distributed temperature sensor, risk management system
of pipelines, main pipeline, compressors

Main chapter topics

The management of intra-field transport of hydrocarbons in real time. Smart


intra-field pipelines, gas and condensate pipelines. The control systems of intra-
field transport of oil, gas and condensate in real time. Underwater and surface
systems of multiphase intra-field transport of products. The features of fiber-
optic cable installation field pipelines. The advantages of using fiber-optic
monitoring system. Gas leak detection system. The main causes of gas leakage
during transportation. Management of the intra-field oil transport in real time.
The pipeline risk management system of pipelines (PRMS). Vibroacoustic system of
continuous monitoring of an extended structure (SAMPO). The monitoring of the
condition of intra-field pipelines using robotic systems.

Introduction

This chapter consists of 3 main parts: smart oil and gas transportation,
system of smart intrafield pipelines, system of flexible pipelines. The first
section considers the definitions, the purposes and problems of smart
transportation, system of management and their classifications. The second section
consists of the types of pipelines, control system, leak detection and risk
management. The third section deals with the flexibility of smart lines, and the
effectiveness of their application and control system.

12.1 Smart oil and gas transportation

315
Classification of systems of subsea pipelines/ Petroleum products consist of
a variable mixture of oil, condensate (light oils), natural gas, formation water,
and formation solid particles (sands). Many technological challenges associated
with petroleum production in the deep sea areas are a result of the action of
these components. In particular, the presence of water along with gas in the
product flow increase the potential for hydrate formation and subsequent clogging
of the pipelines. A recent MMS (Minerals Management Service, USA) study classifies
the subsea piping systems into four categories/types based largely on the degree
of separation of the components of crude petroleum that is achieved in future. The
four classifications are: Type 1 – multiphase mixture transportation is carried
out directly, Type 2 – partial separation of the production flow, Type 3 –
complete separation of the production flow in subsea conditions, and Type 4 –
export pipeline of high quality oil and gas. Type 1 and 2 systems are currently
being used by the oil industry to produce oil and gas in the subsea environment.
Type 3 and 4 systems are under development and may be used by the oil industry to
produce oil and gas production activities.
The multiphase pumps are the crucial subsea processing technology. The
multiphase pumps involve the use of a pump/boosting system to transport the
multiphase mixture through pipelines on the floating production vessels,
platforms, or to shore. There is no separation of the multiphase mixture until it
reaches the processing platform or facility. The formation water and sands are
pumped to the processing facility along with the other fluids. This makes it the
most economically affordable and achievable system for subsea processing. These
types of systems are applied to overcome the pressure losses associated with long
pipelines and to enable flow rates outside the plugs (FMC Technologies). By
eliminating the problems associated with plugs and high pressures, the rate and
uniformity of flows in the pipelines will increase.
The multiphase pumping systems are a proven technology for subsea processing
that have been used in the oil industry for several years around the world. There
are three main types of multiphase pumps: helical-axial, twin-screw, and piston.
The helical-axial pump technology has been the established industry leader. In
Brazil the PETROBRAS initially attempted to install the Leistritz SMBS-500 of a

316
twin-screw multiphase pumping system in 2006. Due to the damage the during initial
installation the final installation was delayed until November/December, 2007, or
later. The “Type 2” system provides partial separation of crude oil and fluid.
These systems typically combine a separator unit with a multiphase pumping system
or the gas compression system to pump the separated liquids and gases to the
surface. These systems are the most technologically advanced systems currently
applied in the subsea processing. “Type 2” systems can be based either on a two-
phase (gas/liquid) or three-phase (oil/gas/water) separation processes. These
systems have the potential to significantly reduce costs on the offshore platforms
by placing the equipment necessary to separate the reservoir products on the
seafloor. By placing the equipment on the seafloor, the capacity to process oil on
the platform should increase and the need to separate potentially large volumes of
produced water on the platform is eliminated. The separation and the removal of
produced water is especially important at the end of the field producing life when
the water fraction increases. Separating the produced water on the seafloor also
keeps the produced water from entering the riser and the flowline system, which in
turn reduces the well back pressure and allows to increase oil production. The
produced water can be a major contributing factor for gas hydrate formation in
flow lines. The separation of the produced water will help to control the gas
hydrate formation in the oil flows (Devegowda and Scott 2003). Reducing the volume
of produced water entering the flowlines may also lead to reductions in the amount
of chemicals used to control hydrate and wax formation in flow lines.
“Type 2” technologies can be combined with the injection and stimulation.
There are three options for the disposal of produced water: to pump to the surface
along a separate flow line, reinject into the reservoirs, and to discharge into
the surrounding water. Current applications typically pump the produced water and
sands to the surface where they receive further treatment prior to disposal
according to existing regulations.
The injection of the produced water and sands can be eliminated at the
expense of pumping these materials to the surface (FMC Technologies 2006b). By
reducing the total volume of fluids, the injections may also allow the use of
smaller and fewer flowlines and risers to the platform (Bringedal et al, 1999).
The injection of the produced water can also be used as a method of enhanced oil

317
recovery. When produced water is injected into the reservoir, the pressure within
the reservoir can be increased, which will lead to an increase in the amount of
oil produced. However, the injection is limited by reservoir conditions and the
water quality required for the injection should meet the certain standards.
The direct discharge of produced water to the ambient seawater is the
simplest method of disposal. However, the separation of produced water from the
oil is not complete, and the direct disposals would result in releasing of oil and
other chemicals (emulsifiers, etc.) into the sea. The deep reservoirs may
potentially have high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which can
significantly increase the toxicity of produced water. On addition, the high
partial pressure of gasses in deep sea conditions will increase their
concentrations in produced water, potentially resulting in hydrate formation at
high depth. The only practical method of discharge of produced sands is to mix
them with the produced water and transport the sands to the surface for separation
and disposal according to current regulations. Technologies have not been
developed to fully remove the oil and other chemicals from the produced sands.
Furthermore, current regulations prohibit the discharge of produced sands. At
present, “Type 2” systems have seen limited use. Two large applications of this
type of system are the Troll C in the North Sea field and the Vertical Annular
Separation and Pumping System (VASPS) developed by PETROBRAS and field tested off
the coast of Brazil. The VASPS is comprised of a, centrifugal subsea separator
combined with an electrical submersible pump (ESP) The system is a two-phase
separation process that separates the liquid and gas phases of the product. After
the gas/liquid mixture, the liquid phase is separated and pumped to the platform
by the ESP and the gas is vented to the platform. The VASPS have proven to be a
feasible solution to increase subsea production from the marginal and mature
fields.
“Type 3” systems involve a complete separation of the production flow in
subsea conditions. This system assumes the use of both a separator and a scrubber
stages for the production slow. As was with a “Type 2” system, the separation
system is combined with a pump (multiphase or single) or a gas compressor to move
the product to the surface. The majority of the produced water is removed from the

318
production stream and is either pumped to the surface, injected, or discharged in
to the sea.
“Type 4” systems will produce the quality of export pipeline of oil and
gas. This system involves the use of a multi-stage separator with additional fluid
treatment to produce oil and gas of export quality. The separation system is
combined with single-phase pumps or compressors to move the product to the
surface. All of the produced water would be removed and either pumped to the
surface, injected, or charged in to the sea.
“Type 3 and 4” systems have the possibility of extending the economic life
with the subsea development. These systems help to reduce significantly the costs
associated with the lifting of large volumes of water to the surface (Scott et al.
2004). These systems are still under development and are not being used yet.
However, they may be applied in the future. Because of their unproven status,
there has been any resistance to the full use of subsea oil and gas. Any
application of these types of technologies will likely require cooperative efforts
in oil industry. With the Type 3 and 4 systems of the subsea processing the issues
connected with the displacement or disposal of sand in this system have not been
taken into account.

12.2 System of smart intrafield pipelines

Nowadays the Subsea multiphase pumping is one of the most real and vital
solutions for the effective oil recovery from subsea tie-backs. In boosting
applications, seabed pumps improve production economics by reducing backpressure
on the reservoir which increases flow rates, and total recoverable reserves. In
other applications where there is poor sweep efficiency or low reservoir drive,
single phase pumps can be used to inject water (seawater or produced water) into
the well to increase pressure in the reservoir and sweep hydrocarbons from the
formation raising recovery and enabling increased production rates. Benefits:
accelerates production; increases recovery and extension of field life;
facilitates production from low energy reservoirs; reduces OPEX; improves flow
assurance performance; faster and safer start-up of low energy wells.

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Leveraging our experience as a subsea systems integrator, FMC Technologies
has developed a vast knowledge of pumping applications and the know how to apply
the right technology to maximize performance of the subsea system. To further the
development of "state of the art" pumping technology, FMC Technologies is
collaborating with Sulzer Pumps Ltd., one of the leaders in pumping solutions, to
fully qualify a new multiphase 3.2 MW 5,000 psi helico-axial pump system for high
boost applications. This new solution will leverage Sulzer Pumps' field-proven
pump hydraulics coupled with FMC Technologies's advanced high-speed permanent
magnetic motor technology and subsea system design and integration experience. The
product family will include: helico-axial multiphase pumps, hybrid pumps, and
single-phase centrifugal pumps.
Subsea boosting has been proven as an effective means to increase production
rates and ultimate recovery. The key to achieving these goals is reducing back
pressure on the well. This becomes increasingly more challenging in deepwater
developments where back pressures are higher due to the fluid gradient and in long
step-outs where frictional pressure losses are inherently greater. FMC
Technologies and Sulzer Pumps Ltd. have collaborated on a new, high speed 3.2 MW,
5,000 psi helico-axial pump solution that addressed these challenges. Helico-axial
pumps operate on a rotor-dynamic pumping principle and are a cross between a
centrifugal pump and an axial compressor. The pump consists of multiple stages of
impellers (helico-axial-type rotor) and circles of guide vanes (diffuser-type
stators). Compression of the fluid is achieved through the transfer of kinetic
energy from the rotating impeller blades through the fixed diffuser vanes. The
technology has been developed to handle hydrocarbon flow at high gas volume
fraction (GVF). The pump is capable of generating a differential pressure up to
200 bar (2,900 psi) depending on the GVF and suction conditions. The pump is
driven by a power-dense permanent magnet motor which offers higher speeds, power,
and efficiency than an equivalent induction.
One of the most effective ways to control the integrity of the pipeline and
the timely detection of leaks and the delivered product is the development and
implementation of specialized JMA - leak detection systems. Such systems are
intensively developed both in our country and abroad. There are about 20 of these
developments:

320
1. Acoustic system: SNKGN-1-2 SNKGN imaging Institute at Tomsk Polytechnic
University (Tomsk, Russia); A "Trap" system of LLC "Project-resource"
(Russia, Nizhny Novgorod).
2. Parametric systems:
- Leak Detection System of the »Company Process Automation Systems (PAS,
Czech Republic); «LeakSpy» Company "Energoavtomatika" (Russia); «Leak Detection
System» of Company SEIC (Italy);
- «Pipeline Leak Detection System» of Tokyo Keiso-KROHNE Pte. Ltd.
(Singapore); «ATMOS (TM) Pipe» company ATMOS (UK); «Leak detection and
location system» of Simulation Software Limited (UK).
3. Based on the fiber-optic cable: Vibroacoustic monitoring system based on
fiber-optic cable LLC "Hughes" (Russia); the Fiber-optic sensor (cable) for the
detection of leaks of oil products of the JSC spills and oil "Management Company"
Constellation "with IPM RAS (Russia); "The Rapid remote control leaks (ODC)" of
CJSC "MosFlowline", based on the measurement of conductivity insulating coating
line;
4. «Secure Pipe» of Australia's «Future Fibre Technologies».
Currently, the pipelines are operated by a number of systems, which are based
on different physical principles.The acoustic system record in the acoustic
frequency the range of the waves generated by leaks. Parametric systems are based
on the measurement of pressure and flow rate of the product. There are also
systems that work on other physical principles, among which, in particular, it
should be noted the monitoring system based on the fiber-optic cable should be
pointed out.
Fiber optic monitoring system is intended for the continuous monitoring and
visualization in real time of the vibration state and the integrity of the
pipeline. The vibration monitoring system enables to detect the changes around and
within the pipeline to discover the conducting of various technical works close to
it, eg, construction equipment operation, an attemt to dig or try to damage the
gas pipeline. As a sensitive element (vibrosensor) in the vibration monitoring
system use is made of the seamless fiber optic cable, located along the gas
pipeline (buried in the ground, and so on - a hidden location) or mounted directly
on the surface of the pipeline (clear placement). For best results, the distance

321
from the sensor to the pipe walls should not exceed 1 meter. The installation and
mounting of the cable is performed by licensed professionals. Cable sensor
contains no electric conductors and no special requirements for the placement.
Construction of cable length sensor (typically 4-6 km.) Are connected together by
special protected joints for the fiber-optic cable. Connecting of the cables and
their subsequent repair in case of the rupture are performed by welding of optical
fibers.
The advantages of fiber optic monitoring system are: Continuous analysis of
the pipeline condition, an instant reaction to the event; high accuracy (+ - 5 m)
of determining the place of the failure. The possibility of classifying the
following types of failures: a mechanical effect on the metal of the pipeline, a
broken cable, gas leakages, vehicle access to the pipeline or the excavation
nearby; the high sensitivity of the system. The registration of the impact in the
displacement of the sensor by 3x10-7, the length of the area controlled by one
operating module is up to 150 km. Relatively recently there has been developed a
system of distributed integrity monitoring (DTS) pipeline, in which a fiber-optic
cable used as a sensor, which allows you to control temperature change (delta T
°) and tension (Δε) at every point along the entire length of the pipeline. The
change of the delta T ° and / or Δε in any section of the pipe result in change
of the parameters of the adjacent optical fiber, which is continuously receiving
the probe pulses from the meter. When the probe pulse reaches the problem area,
part of the optical signal is reflected back.
The localization of the events is based on the use of the principle of the
radar, that is the length of time between the moment of start of the optical pulse
in optical fiber sensor and the receiving time of the back reflected pulse to the
photographic recorder of the measuring device. Knowing the speed of light
propagation in the optical fiber and the time elapsed between the sending of a
signal and its return, it is easy to determine the distance to an obstacle, from
which the light waves are reflected. If the back of the reflected pulse returned
after 2 sec, the distance to the obstacle is approximately 300 m, because the
light has covered this route twice - from the transmitter to the obstacle and from
the obstacle to the transmitter.

322
Pipeline risk management systems in real time. PRMS users are subdivided into
three categories. The first category comprises the employees with limited access
to the system functions. Such an employee may view all the pipeline data, but they
may only edit the sections accessible to him or her. The second category comprises
the performance unit (PU) administrators. Such administrators may edit the data on
any facility or event within the certain PU. An administrator may close a
reporting period, but may not open such a period. Therefore, once the reports are
closed, any changes to the system may only be made as agreed by a higher level
administrator.
The third user category consists of the Corporate Center (CC) administrators
who have access to all the system functions. A CC administrator may edit the
references, assign the system roles, view the event logs, and edit the all
sections, open and close reports. In addition, the CC administrators track the
operations of the PU administrator and make sure that the PU administrators close
any reporting periods in a timely fashion.
Pipeline risk management system structure. In terms of the structure, PRMS is
a modular system consisting of five modules. Its key module is “Pipelines”; in
addition, there are such modules as “Import”, “Reports”, “References”, and
“Settings”. In future it is planned to increase the functional possibilities of
the PRMS in pipeline operations. The “Pipelines” module lists all the pipelines
with the selection filtering capability. The parameter display field sorts the
data alphabetically for the text values and for numerical values they are sorted
from minimum to maximum (or vice versa). Standard filters include the performance
unit names, status and the purpose of a given pipeline, year of commissioning of
the pipeline, etc. In addition, the user can see the technical condition of the
facility and the degree of risk involved in operating the pipeline at present.
Each risk category is color-coded. Red means a very high risk, orange indicates
the need for extra actions on the pipeline, yellow shows that the pipeline needs
attention even though the actions may be deferred, while green refers to a
problem-free pipeline.
The “Sections” sub-module of the “Pipelines” module contains the
information on pipeline sections, river crossings, and the properties of the
product pumped through any pipeline. The specialized sections on “Leaks”,

323
“Technical diagnostics”, “Maintenance”, and “Corrosion prevention” contain
the information regarding relevant events, linked to the time interval and the
relevant facility. These sections allow for files to be attached as text documents
(MS Word, Excel or PDF), images, or photos. Furthermore, an operating risk module
has been created within the PRMS using the priority setting model. It may be used
to change the preset calculation algorithms, to update automatically the
calculation results, and to save any changes made to the system. Any change made
in this way results in a recalculation of the risk level assigned to the relevant
pipeline; therefore, this value is always up-to-date. Currently the discussions
are under way to see if the information may be entered into the PRMS at an earlier
date, i.e., on the occurrence of any event, rather than on the completion of the
relevant reporting period. For instance, in case a leak occurs, the information
regarding such a leak must be input into this system right away. The “Reports”
module makes it possible to generate reports automatically. Meanwhile, whereas the
reports used to be generated once a month, nowadays reports may be uploaded as of
the current point in time, covering any PU and any topic, such as pipelines,
pipeline sections, leaks, technical diagnostics, repairs, corrosion protection,
river crossings, etc. In order to expedite the information input, the system
features an Import module. The information may be imported as MS Excel files
matching a preset template, or keyed in manually. The Reference module contains
reference information regarding the Company’s organization, pipeline
characteristics and actions, corrosion protection status, estimation references.
The reference information is changed only by a CC-level administrator at the
request of any user group. Finally, the Settings module enables to manage the uses
access control, the event logging, and the system visit statistics, along with the
calculation and official services. In its turn, the Period Lock sub-module enables
to restrict the data entry and to edit the information within a preset time
interval.

12.3 Systems of smart Flexible pipelines

Visualiser of subsea risers. Drilling of wells on land and on the sea


requires such equipment that would ensure the safe and cost-effective operations

324
as a whole. However, on the sea the offshore drilling of oil and gas wells is much
more complex, because it uses specific technical devices and systems, which are
never used on the land. These technical devices are: system for anchoring and
positioning of marine units (IPU) underwater wellhead and blowout preventer, the
compensation pitching system unsupported offshore drilling units (MODU), etc. A
riser is a column of pipes (steel, flexible), stretching from the ship to the
bottom, the wellhead. Risers have been used since 2003 in the offshore of Brazil
and the Gulf of Mexico. A marine producing riser is thin, flexible structure that
connects the wellhead on the sea bottom with the stationary or movable platform or
ship, a kind of a pipe that transports the internal flow of hydrocarbons during
production.
The design of complex technical systems, such as floating offshore rigs, and
in a more general sense, all the offshore oil and gas systems is impossible
without the preliminary strength and dynamic analysis of critical components. The
ocean currents, the lateral movement of the floating marine devices, wind and wave
loads, accidental disconnection of the marine riser and offshore drill pipes from
the underwater wellhead have a decisive impact on the dynamics and reliability of
underwater marine drill string and thus the safety of all the works in the sea as
a whole. Recent implementation of the fiber-optic control built-in the flexible
riser is an important step on the path of the formation of a riser monitoring
structure. Sharing optical sensor point and fully distributed optic-fiber opens
new possibilities to monitor different characteristics and technological actions
such as break of the outer shell, transporting of condensate polymer temperature
and pipe temperature measurements during the shut in, wear and broken wires. Some
of the benefits of fiber-optic sensor systems for use in monitoring of risers are:
multiplexing (mixing in English) sealing the channel, i.e. sending multiple
streams (channels) with a lower data rate (bandwidth) for one channel, which is
higher than the most conventional electronic sensors and requires fewer numbers of
cables, as well as their resistance to electromagnetic interference. The fiber-
optic sensors are passive sensors, and use only the low power light signals, for
more accurate measurements and the data transmission over the fiber-optic cable.
The new advances in optical technology and the methods of producing risers
means that a set of real-time monitoring can provide a much more accurate picture

325
of the riser condition during the operation. This improves the decision-making,
enabling to solve the structural and temperature issues to be detected at an early
stage, and to eliminate by the most effective way the meeting the safety and
regulatory requirements and to ensure the maximum performance of the field. Risers
can be used in various configurations with the buoyancy of the module and other
accessories in order to customize the system for specific conditions. A typical
configuration of deepwater platforms is a freely hanging chain line, where the
flexible riser is attached directly to the mounting surface to the seabed.
The unbonded flexible pipes of the composite structures constitute several
concentric layer of steel and polymers, with the main layers (from central bore
outward): the frame is made from profiled steel strip to lock, for the main purpose
of resisting the external pressure; the inner liner is made from a polymeric
material, which is the main fluid barrier in forming the bore; the armor pressure
is typically C- or Z-shaped steel wire previously connected with each other,
mainly to resist the internal pressure in the bore; the anti-wear tape between
various metallic layers; the outer sheath made from a polymeric material to protect
the pipes from the marine environment. The flexible risers are used to supply gas
and liquid products which vary in temperature and pressure depending on the
operating conditions and on external pressure at varying loads. A failure in
operation will result in stoppage of production and hence a significant economic
losses.
The real-time monitoring can provide a far more accurate picture of the riser
condition during the operation. This improves and solves the structural and
temperature issues to be detected at the earliest possible stage and enables to
eliminate them in the most efficient manner, ensuring the maximum oilfield
productivity. Within the last few years a number of techniques have been developed
for monitoring the flexible pipelines (Carneval et al. 2006; Marinho et al. 2008;
Pipa et al. 2010; Weppenaar et al. 2008). Most of these techniques were developed
for monitoring the integrity of the outer sheath or the integrity of the tensile
of sheathing wires. One of the most promising technologies for real-time
monitoring is building in of optical fibers in flexible risers. The optical fibers
have shown very good properties especially for measuring temperature and strain in
the longitudinal direction along the length of the fiber. This technology has been

326
utilized for many years in other industries, and is support is an extensive range
of the installed equipment the and procedures from the optical telecommunications
industry. Building in the optical fiber has the advantages as there are no
protrusions on the outside of the pipe and it is not affected by changes in the
pipe diameter, for example in tuning the limiters, so that the optical fibers can
be used to monitor anywhere along the pipe. The technique has been developed to
expose optical fibers in grooves in the tensile sheathing wires, which are then
incorporated into the flexible pipe (Andersen 2001).
Temperature Control. Temperature monitoring of the annulus region of a
flexible pipe (the section between the inner and outer sheath) can yield important
information about the operational condition of the pipe system. In the monitoring
operation the temperatures t can assist with the process control in case of a
temporary shut-in of the flow in the bore. For certain production materials the
hydrate plug can be formed if the temperature drops below a certain point. These
plugs are very difficult to dissolve once formed in the pipe. With a temperature
monitoring system in the flexible pipe the information can be obtained for deciding
whether to turn the flow back or to leave it at the same level with the fluid
dissolvent.
Another operational application is the monitoring of the flexible pipeline for
hot spots with auditioned insulation on the pipe. This can be in the region of the
pipe immediately under the floating vessel where a bend of stiffness is mounted on
the top of the riser mare protect from the bend. If a well is running at a high
temperature these hot spots may reach the temperatures which increase the
susceptibility to aging for some of the polymer materials.
Since corrosion is severely aggravated by the supply of fresh seawater, it is
important to be able to detect a second failure or a fault in repairing on the
already flooded risers. With a built in fiber-optic temperature monitoring system,
the outer sheath failure can be detected both under the wet annulus conditions and
the dry ones.
The detection of an outer sheath failure with a temperature monitoring
system is based on the temperature difference which is typically present between
the bore and the ambient ocean water. The thermal design of a flexible pipe line
is such that the main temperature drop will be though the two polymer layers (inner

327
liner and outer sheath). The temperature profiles of the outer wall of a typical
flexible pipeline are shown for four different temperature differences between
the bore and the medium in figure 12.1. If any failures appear in the outer
sheath the temperature will be lowered in relation to the temperature of the
medium locally at the position of the failure as shown in figure 12.1.
The temperature monitoring system is based on the optical fiber sensors built
in in the annulus of the flexible riser. To be able to detect an outer sheath
failure the monitoring system must be able to detect the temperature continuously
along the entire length of the instrumented pipe, and to reveal the coherent
data of temperature, time and position. The main specifications for a
temperature measurement system are: sensing range of -40 to +130 °C.; temperature
resolution of 0.2 °C.; spatial resolution of 1m, sampling rate 1/minute.
Distributed temperature sensor (DTS). The unique feature of the
distributed temperature sensor (DTS), shown in Figure 12.2, is that the
system can obtain the profile measurement along the entire length of the
sensing cable, at intervals of every 1 m, over a range of 10 km, giving the
temperature measurements at 10,000 individual sensing points. The DTS illuminates
the glass core of the optical fiber with a laser pulse of 10 nanoseconds in
duration (this corresponds to a 1m pulse). As the optics the pulse propagates
down the fiber and it undergoes scattering, even in the absence of impurities and
structural defects. Part of this scattered radiation is known as Raman scattering,
for which some of the light travels back towards the analyzer with a wavelength that
is shifted either side of the original (see in Figure 12.2). The ratio of the two
components has a well-defined function of temperature. It is this ratio, in
conjunction with the time the moment of an optical pulse, which is used to
determine the temperature of the fiber at a given point. The DTS can provide very
accurate temperature measurements depending on the measurement parameters it can
have resolutions of better than 0.01 °C. A measurement time of 30 seconds is
required to achieve a temperature resolution better than 0.05 °C along the full
length of 2 km of fiber. A long range of versions of the DTS (>40 km) will operate
at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The shorter wavelength versions are limited to ~10 km
but are likely to be more suitable for use in risers as they are more resistant to
a differential loss caused by hydrogen darkening.

328
DTS of the monitoring systems have been used in a variety of field for
temperature profile monitoring, particularly for the pipelines and oil and gas
wells. The best performance is provided by installing a multimode optical fiber,
when the specifications are within the raisers required for outer sheath failure
monitoring. The DTS can be as with intelligent alarms including the general system
alarms, fiber break, zoning temperature limit max/min or alarms trend and
hotspot/cold spots of alarm (point of deviation from average) to provide on
automatic outer sheath failure monitoring and feedback for the process control.
Data management and visualization. In order to make the main technologies
accessible to the end users, an integrated data management system is not required.
While we have discussed in detail the benefits of the new monitoring
technologies, a disadvantage can be the volumes of data (Big Data) generated by
such systems. Bearing in mind the DTS as a rule the generations in one reading per
meter of a riser with multiple fibers may have the order of 20,000 temperature
readings for every survey. The temperature of the survey can be generated as often
as every 10 seconds, the dynamic strain being several times a second. In the office
the domain individual databases exist for the distributed data sets (DTS, strain
and others) as well as the data refer to the sources. A full client interface
combines different monitoring data and correlates with the operating
information available from the servers such as the production data historian.
This gives the experienced users an easy access to all the different types of
information they may need. The web browser can support the configurable alarms
and a control board display which was preconfigured to show the users the real
time data and health in the system providing a single, easy to use interface for
all the monitoring systems. The system has been designed to be fully compatible
with the secure network environments operated by most major operating companies.
The configuration and communication network is shown in figure 12.3.

Conclusion

The relevance of the registration of leaks with low intensity is extremely


high, since such leakages in some cases lead to large-scale disasters. The
leakages of low-intensity are characteristic of the unauthorized penetrations as

329
well. If the pipeline capacity is 2000 m3 / h, 30 minutes are enough to fill the
tank with the capacity of 10 m3 without exceeding the sensitivity limit of the
leak detection system of 1%. In some cases the capacity of large pipelines is
about 10 000 m3 / h, and the process of the unauthorized withdrawal of product in
such lines is about 6 minutes. Using the smart pipelines enables us to reduce to
significantly the risk of emergency cases with the environmental consequences of
the accidents in the pipeline; to comply with the requirements of the legislation,
the international treaties, the standards and regulations in the field of
environmental management, the environmental protection and the ecological safety;
to raise the status of the customer as an environmentally focused company, based
on the trust of international environmental organizations, partners, customers and
the population in the regions where the Customer operates; the increased recovery;
the reduced capital and operating costs. These advantages become especially
significant in deeper sea fields; at greater distance from the field to the shore;
with the lack of infrastructure; in more severe environmental conditions.

Acknowledgements

The twelfth chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A.


Eremin "Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as coursework students and undergraduates following the above-mentioned
universities: D. Skotnikova, M. Denisova, A. Kachalova, P. Shibanova, A. Evfremov,
R. Akhmadiev, Gun Chanmin, M. Gordeeva, D. Dikhan.

References:

1. «Grieb, T.M., T.E. Donn, J. Collins, J. Radde, C. Perez, J.B. Smith, G.


Rowe, S. Scott, and G.T. Ririe. 2010. Effects of subsea processing on
deepwater environments in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Dept. of the Interior,

330
Minerals Management Service. Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, LA.
OCS Study MMS 2010-022. 66 pp.
2. VatanyooVichitrananda, Nigel Simms, and Joy Sumner, Cranfield University,
SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 8-10 October 2012, San
Antonio, Texas, USA, 4.8.3 Flow Assurance in Subsea Systems.
3. DeepStar, The State of Art of Subsea Processing, Part A. Stress Engineering
Services (2011).
4. G. Mogseth, M.Stinessen, Subsea Processing as Field Development Enabler,
FMC, Kongsberg, Subsea, Deep offshore Technology conference and Exhibition,
New Orleans, 20

List of figures

Figure 12.1: Temperature profile across the section of a typical flexible


pipe structure for four different temperature differences between bore and
ambient. In the case of an outer sheath breach the temperature will
decrease towards ambient.
Figure 12.2: The DTS provides a full profile by measuring the temperature
every 1 m along the optical fiber. Temperature is determined from ratio of
Raman scattered components in the spectrum from a given point (inset).
Figure 12.3: Riser temperature data and location information.

Abbreviations

PRMS - pipelines risk management system in; MFE - marine floating equipment;
FDR - Floating drilling rig; BHA – bottom hole assembly; MWD - measurement while
drilling; MRT - Mode of Real-time; DTS - Distributed temperature sensor.

331
Figures to chapter 12

Figure 12.1: Temperature profile across the section of a typical flexible pipe
structure for four different temperature differences between bore and ambient. In
the case of an outer sheath breach the temperature will decrease towards ambient

Рисунок 12.1: Температурный профиль по сечению


гибкой структуры трубы для четырех в различных
перепадах температур (1, 2, 3, 4) между отверстием и
окружающей среды. В случае нарушения внешней
оболочки температура снизится

Figure 12.2: The DTS provides a full profile by measuring the temperature every 1 m
along the optical fiber. Temperature is determined from ratio of Raman scattered
components in the spectrum from a given point (inset)

Рисунок 12.2: Датчик температуры предоставляет


полный профиль путем измерения температуры
каждого 1 м по оптическому волокну. Температура

332
определяется из соотношения комбинационного
рассеянного компонентов в спектре от заданной
точки

Figure 12.3: Riser temperature data and location information

Рисунок 12.3: температурные данные и информация о


местоположении

333
Chapter 13. Ecomonotoring in Real Time

Abstract

Oil and gas industry has a strong and complex impact on the environment. The
extraction and the use of oil and gas lead to anthropogenic impacts on the
environment during the entire production cycle, from exploration, extraction and
transportation of oil to the recovery and consumption of petroleum products. The
construction, development and operation of wells in the uninhabited areas
undermine the natural ecosystem. One of the most significant ecological violations
occurs due to the drilling wells which carry out prospecting, exploration and
exploitation of oil and gas fields. The research is needed in order to find
ecologically expedient balance maintained at a level that gives the maximal
ecological, social and economic effect in the development of the area of the
depths containing hydrocarbons. The ecological monitoring in real time is an
indispensable element in a comprehensive program of socio-economic development of
different regions, territorial production complexes and individual enterprises.
The ecological monitoring of oil and gas fields in real time is considered as a
set of integrated tools for monitoring anthropogenic and natural sources of
impact, the environment, the dynamics of the changes taking place in it, the
forecast of the development and the management of the situations. The bases of the
monitoring are systematic observations of the ecological effects and the
interaction between the nature, the people and the oil industry.

Keywords: Ecological monitoring in real time multi-level ecological


monitoring, robotic control, aerospace monitoring, remote sounding of the earth,
satellite ecological monitoring, information provision of eco-monitoring, unmanned
flying machines.

Main chapter topics

The ecological monitoring of the extraction of oil and gas in real time, the
main characteristics of the system of the multi-level ecological monitoring of oil

334
and gas field development in the real time and the types of subsystems, the
robotic monitoring of the technical state of the surface and subsea oil and gas
facilities to predict the degree of their injury, the comprehensive ecological
monitoring of potentially dangerous surface, water and marine facilities;
aerospace monitoring of the field, aerospace monitoring of the processes of oil
and gas field development in real time: the concept, goals, objectives, a
structure, processing steps of aerospace information in real time on the example
of monitoring of oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico after the accident on April 20,
2010; ecological monitoring of oil spills in real time, remote sounding of the
earth for the tasks of monitoring of oil spills and pollution in real time - the
goals and objectives, the main advantages of satellite subsystems of ecological
monitoring of oil spills in real time the main tasks of the subsystem of
information support of oil spill monitoring oil in real time, the use of unmanned
flying machines (UFM) in the oil and gas business, goals and objectives; name the
advantages unmanned flying machines over the pilot flying machines (PFM) and give
examples of the use of unmanned flying machines in the oil and gas business;
ecological monitoring with the use of drones, unmanned helicopters and balloons in
real time for example the Samotlor field.

Introduction

The ecological monitoring of oil and gas fields in real time is considered
as a set of integrated tools for monitoring anthropogenic and natural sources of
an impact, the environment, the dynamics of changes taking place in it, the
forecast of the development and management of situations. Subsection 13.1.
analyzes the current trends of the development of ecological monitoring of the
extraction of oil and gas in real time, the main characteristics of the system of
multi-level ecological monitoring of oil and gas development in real time and
types of sub-systems, the robotic control of the technical state of the surface
and subsea oil and gas facilities to predict the degree of their injury, the
complex systems of ecological monitoring in real time, the potentially hazardous
surface, water and marine facilities. Subsection 13.2. gives a detailed
description of practical application of aerospace monitoring of the field in real

335
time. Separately there were analyzed the methods of aerospace monitoring of real
time of the processes of oil and gas fields in real time: the concept, goals,
objectives, structure, the desorption is given to the use of remote sounding of
the earth for the monitoring problems of oil spills and pollution in real time,
the main advantages of satellite ecological monitoring subsystem of oil spills in
real time. Subsection 13.3. presents the concept of the ecological monitoring of
oil spills in real time, the main problems of the information security subsystem,
the processing steps of aerospace information in real time as an example the
monitoring of oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico. Subsection 13.4. demonstrates the
possibility of using unmanned flying, machines (UFM) in the oil and gas business,
goals and objectives, describes the advantages of unmanned flying machines over
the pilot flying machines (PFM), provides the ecological monitoring data with the
use of drones, unmanned helicopters and balloons in real time the Samotlor field
as an example.

13.1 Ecological monitoring of the extraction of oil and gas in real time

Falling of oil and its components into the environment, the air, the water,
or the soil causes a change in their physical, chemical and biological properties
and characteristics disturbing the flow of natural biochemical processes. During
the transformation the oil hydrocarbons are capable of forming toxic compounds
possessing the properties hazardous to human health, including carcinogenic ones,
characterized by resistance to microbial decomposition. The monitoring of oil
pollution in the environment is one of the most difficult tasks. The variety of
petroleum products encloses the complexity of the problem of their monitoring:
each product having its own conditioned chemical composition has an individual
solubility and biodegradation. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of oil
pollution in various ecological objects depend on the type of oil products or
water utility and are as follows: water from - 0.001 (phenol) to 3 mg / l. The
accepted total content of oil products in accordance with OST 38.01378-85 is 0.05
mg / l and for the soil - 0.1 mg / kg. Maximum permissible concentration of total
content of oil products in soil is not standardized; the maximum permissible

336
concentration for certain oil products are: benzene - 0.3 mg / kg; toluene - 0.3
mg / kg; xylene - 0.3 mg / kg; for air - 0.05 - 5 mg / m.
In development special attention is given to the observations of the macro
benthic communities, because their composition is dominated by the long-living
species with long life cycles. Thanks to these forms, the structure of communities
preserves the traces of anthropogenic impact, which is very valuable in terms of
the long-term monitoring. In their infrared range oil and oil products have their
individual absorption spectra. The infrared analysis of hydrocarbons uses a range
of 0.7 to 25 microns, which is usually divided into three regions: the near - 0.7
- 2.5 microns, the area of main frequencies - 2.5-6 microns, far - 6-25 microns.
The far-infrared area is used primarily to identify the source of contamination.
On this basis there were created instruments for infrared spectroscopy, a
fundamentally new step being the elaboration of the laboratory infrared
spectrometers based on the Fourier transform. The majority of domestic and foreign
portable infrared analyzers of oil products perform the measurements of the
concentrations of oil pollution on the same wavelength. The fluorescent methods
are characterized by a high speed and sensitivity, which allows them to be used
for the systematic monitoring of the biosphere and hydrosphere, and for
determining of the micro elements, as well as the total content of the
contaminating organic substances and individual organic compounds. The instruments
for the fluorescent analysis can be divided into two groups: fluorimeters and
spectrometers. The fluorimeter uses filters, and the fluorescence spectrometers
use diffraction lattices.
The main characteristics of the system of multi-level ecological monitoring
of oil and gas field development in real time and types of subsystems. The system
of continuous monitoring of subsurface structures in the sea water areas should
provide the information on the key parameters of the marine environment in real
time to assess the current impact, on the one hand, on the objects of subsoil
structures, on the other hand, on the most important components of marine
ecosystems. An early detection of leaks of pollutants is required to take timely
measures to prevent the major accidents. The long-term monitoring data are used to
monitor the status of key ecological parameters and to distinguish the human
factors on the background of natural trends.

337
The ecological monitoring system in real time has the following
characteristics: it has a multi-layered structure; provides the continuous
information on changes in the key parameters of the state of the interacting
natural environments: the surface layer of the atmosphere, the sea surfaces, of
the water mass, of the seabed including the sedimentary layer and the Earth's
crust, it uses the multisensor approach applying the modern remote and contact
technical means and methods, it is cost-effective, and is mainly based on the
domestic technologies, it is a regionally-adapted with account of specific
regional characteristics of the shelf zone, the local structure and the dynamics
of ecosystems and the nature of the anthropogenic pressures, as well as taking
into account the features of the regional climate. In this call it uses the new
scientific and technological solutions, including the automation of measurements,
the robotics, and the case processing methods of satellite data and signal
recognition. The technical complex of the multi-level ecological monitoring in
real time includes the following subsystems: hydro-meteorological monitoring,
monitoring of the presence of oil pollution in the marine environment; geodynamic
monitoring, monitoring of subsurface structure from a vessel; satellite
monitoring, information provision.
The robotic technical inspection of the underwater oil and gas facilities to
predict the degree of their injury. An active elaboration of the world ocean by
the developed countries necessitates the intensive conducting of underwater
operations both at small and average-depths and at the deep-sea depth, at various
facilities and in various conditions. The underwater work is a complex of
operations with the utilization of the widest range of technical means. Such means
include the remotely operated unmanned underwater vehicles (ROUUV) (Fig.13.1.).
The world experience in using these devices says that without the use of the
teleported unmanned under water vehicles it is impossible to imagine the
development of offshore oil and gas industry in the shelf region. The Modern self-
propelled unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) are a separate class of robotic
objects with the inherent tasks, the specific features of the technology, the
composition of the systems and the functional properties. All the self-propelled
unmanned underwater vehicles are divided into two subclasses: the non-autonomous
(anchored) unmanned underwater vehicles and the autonomous unmanned underwater

338
vehicles (AUUV). The non-autonomous unmanned underwater vehicles include the self-
propelled or tethered (anchored) underwater vehicles. The non-autonomous
underwater vehicles principally require the presence of the power supply wire
channel and the remote control (cable bundle). In a class of non-autonomous
unmanned underwater vehicles of interest are the self propelled vehicles (vehicles
with the propulsion system). The autonomous unmanned underwater vehicles are the
self propelled unmanned underwater vehicles with the autonomous power supply
system and, as a rule, the wireless remote control and a channel of communication.
The unmanned underwater vehicles with the autonomous power supply system, but with
a wire pilot channel and the communication channel (usually on the basis of the
fiber-optic line), constitute a class of semi-autonomous units. Depending on the
tasks the remote-control unmanned underwater vehicles can be equipped with sensor
system to measure the by hydrochemical, hydrobiological, hydrophysical parameters:
the temperature, the salinity, the transparency, the oxygen and phytoplankton
concentrations, and the electrical conductivity.
The complex of the remote-control unmanned under water vehicles includes the
acoustic positioning system, which allows determining its position in relative
coordinates, and with the help of the satellite navigation system on board the
vessel to define the accurate absolute coordinates of the remote control unmanned
underwater vehicles and the faculties under study. The optional equipment of
remote- control unmanned underwater vehicles in addition to the sensors and data
acquisition systems may include: a view sonar-circular, a side-scan sonar, a
profiler, a multi-beam sonar, an ultrasonic thickness gage or flaw detector, a
laser size meter able to scale video, laser detection system of oil spills, the
locator, the 4, 5, 6 or 7-functional manipulators, the underwater electric and
hydraulic tools, the inertial navigation system, the special equipment and sensors
on request of the customer.
Complex systems of ecological monitoring of natural environments. Complex
systems of ecological monitoring are carried out at three main stages: the stages
of construction, operation and abandonment of the deposit. A common requirement is
the precise coordination of the monitoring component - physical, geochemical and
biological measurements are performed at the same station grid. The first stage of
the comprehensive ecological monitoring includes the ecological baseline survey

339
before the start of drilling exploration wells. Synchronously with the process of
drilling exploration wells on a regular grid of stations and the standard
procedure the first monitoring survey is performed. Its main task is to ensure the
ecological safety drilling the drilling operations. At this stage of the field
development, as a rule, there is no confirmed information on the characteristics
of stocks, the development scheme.
During all the field development a long term monitoring is performed. In
this case, the monitoring surveys conducted by ships over a large area, are
advisable to carry out every three years. The satellite monitoring of the water
are should be conducted on a monthly basis during this period (in the ice-free
seasons). The Monitoring of hydrological, hydro-chemical, biological, geophysical
parameters of the environment in the area of the producing complex are held almost
continuously by the autonomous and the cable bottom and the submerged plants. For
the purposes of ecological safety it is necessary to conduct a continuous
monitoring of the technical parameters of the industrial facility with the
appropriate sensors.
After the complete elimination of the marine industrial facility it is
necessary to perform at least two geo-ecological surveys of the former field with
a gap of several years. This period is determined by the duration of the processes
of natural restoration in the region. If the consequences of the elimination of
the facility continue to be observed, the monitoring from the ship should be
extended. In the presence of the underwater pipelines or tanker transportation of
the product, the measurements along the route are carried out regularly,
preferably with a resolution of 5-10 km. If during the measurement presence of a
strong or previously expected impact, is established an operative local regular
grid of stations with a space of 200-500 m a for the purpose of an exact
localization of the source.
The technical particularities of oil field development on the shelf are
difficult to estimate and to prevent possible impact on the fragile Arctic
ecosystems during the oil field development. The environmental protection in the
Arctic Regions is ensured by the legal environment protection. The existing state
system of the ecological monitoring and the experience of the “United Monitoring

340
System” programs are presented. It is very important to estimate the ecological
damage and liquidate it in time.

13.2 Aerospace monitoring of the field in real time

The aerospace monitoring of oil and gas fields in real time a system of
space-time observations of the territory in order to assess their condition and
prognosis, implemented by the aerospace systems of the remote sensing of the Earth
using integrated geographic information systems. The aerospace monitoring is
divided into the remote monitoring - a set of aviation and space monitoring.
Sometimes this notion includes tracking the environment with the instruments
installed in the almost impassible places of the earth (in the mountains in the
Far North), their readings being transmitted to the monitoring centers using the
methods of long-distance transmission of information (by radio, through wire the,
satellites, and so on). The aviation monitoring is carried out by aircraft,
helicopters, airships and other flying machines (including floating balloons,
etc.) not rising to the height of the space (mostly from outside the troposphere).
The space monitoring is the monitoring from space surveying.
In the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) the robot of the spacecraft is
operating million of miles from the Earth. The capabilities of the robotics
developed at the JPL have been applied to the Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration
Rover, Deep Space 1, EOS1 and other space missions and are used at many JPL of the
research projects conducted for NASA, the US Department of Defense and the private
industry. Although developed for space applications, these technologies are also
highly relevant to the problems in oil and gas field and production. The benefits
from the introduction of these technologies include a greater precision, an
increased reliability, a reduced uncertainty, an increased productivity, a reduced
cost, and the accelerated development and the schedules of the completion of the
tasks. The instruments and the Earth-orbiting satellites developed at the JPL
study the geology, hydrology, ecology, oceanography, gravity and the climate of
the Earth. There are a number of similarities between the applied space
technologies and the applications in the oil & gas industry (Oxnevad, 2010). In
both cases, the systems will be deployed at remote locations with the limited

341
access for the intervention, maintenance or repair. The operational environments
often encounter harsh temperatures, pressures and material corrosion. The
reliability of the systems is extremely important in space and in the oil and gas
industry. The failures can be catastrophic both, financially and in the public
perception thus weakening the support for programs.
Aerospace monitoring of oil and gas development process in real-time: the
concept, goals, objectives, structure. In organizing the space monitoring in the
interests of the oil and gas industry it is necessary to use the principles
inherent in complex information systems. The process of aerospace monitoring of
the oil and gas bearing areas and the facilities of the oil and gas complex forms
the initial information (space images, and other data remote sensing and the
geophysical information as well.) When using the air services for monitoring the
operational processing of information in some cases may be carried out on board
the aircraft and its results can be transmitted to the consumers in real time or
can arrive at the ground processing devices. The information from different
satellites can be effectively relived at the antenna complexes of land receiving
centers. To monitor the oil, gas and product lines efficiently radio tomography
method is used based on the multi-frequency radio sounding.
Remote sounding of the Earth for the tasks of monitoring of oil spills and
pollution in real time. The Remote sounding of the earth is the observation and
measurement of the energy and polarization characteristics of the radiation of
facilities in various ranges of the electromagnetic radiation in order to
determine the location, type, and properties of temporal variability of the
environmental structures without any direct contact of the measuring device with
them. In the last decade, much attention is paid to the study of the world ocean
by means of remote sounding (RS), which facilitate the monitoring of the global
anthropogenic pollutions of waters. Each year the oil pollution scale is
significantly increasing because of the increased volume of production and
transportation of oil products. Timely detection in satellite images of the places
in real time subject to this kind of pollution prevents the risk of damage to the
environment. The remote radar sounding can be used for the detection and
monitoring of oil pollution on the sea surface. In the pictures the oil field
appears as dark spots of the reduced intensity of the backscattered signal. The

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problem is that in light winds these spots are not easy to distinguish from, for
example, some types of organic films, the wind shadow areas, ice, upwelling zones
(the process of upwelling to the surface). The oil spilled in the sea forms the
films of different thicknesses, as crude oil and products of its processing are
complex mixtures. In the form of aggregates, in the emulsified form and in films
oil can exist in the ocean for a long time. The largest number of oil films is
detected in the summer months, so in this period the observation should be done
with great care and frequent regularity for the prompt and efficient detection of
the accidents connected with oil pollution of waters. On the radar images the oil
spills are characterized by a form of (oil pollution is characterized by a simple
geometric form), the edges (smooth boundary with a higher gradient than the slicks
of natural origin), the size (too large spots are usually slicks of natural
origin, such as algae or plankton colonies); the geographical location (primarily
the oil spills occur in the oil production areas or oil transportation routes).
The processing of the data obtained from the radar remote probe is conducted by
the experienced technologists and experts and the efficiency of the data
processing is essential for a rapid response to an emergency.
Since May 2010 PETROBRAS has been using space sensors of the remote sensing
for its sea surface monitoring program in the Campos, Santos and Espírito Santo
Basins of the southeastern Brazilian coast. The data of the ocean color (SeaWiFS
and MODIS), the thermal infrared radiation (NOAA/AVHRR), a scatterometer
(QuikSCAT) and synthetic bottom hole radar (RADARSAT-1 and ENVISAT) were
integrated in order to detect and characterize different sorts of marine pollution
and meteo-oceanographic phenomena. The near real time processing and delivery of
the SAR data allow to check and process timely the samples of remotely registered
areas. The satellite sensors operating in the visible part of the spectrum are
used to monitor the ocean color variations and the biomass changes associated with
it. Thermal infrared radiometers are ideal to monitor the features such as oceanic
fronts and upwelling lines. However, the major limitation for both types of
sensors is the extensive and persistent presence of clouds in the monitored area.
Such, microwave sensors of the image of space SAR can collect the oceanic images,
regardless of the cloud cover. With the space SAR systems available it is possible
to have almost a daily synoptic view of large areas with suitable spatial

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resolution for the detection of different natural and men-made events. The
integrated analysis of these data presents an important decision tool for
emergencies, as well as for the elaboration of the plans and the evaluation of the
impacts of the oil industry activity.
The main advantages of the satellite subsystems of eco monitoring of oil
spills in real time. The subsystem of the satellite monitoring of oil pollution
should be primarily based on radar satellites. It provides the detection of oil
spills and their sources of origin in the vast water area, the estimation of the
direction and velocity of the oil spill moving. A wider application of satellite
techniques using color scanners, infrared radiometers, altimeters and scatter
meters allows to estimate the concentration of the suspended matter and
chlorophyll, the primary production in the near-surface layer of the sea, and the
sea surface temperature, speed and direction of the near-water wind, sea surface
level anomalies. The satellite observations provide a regular sequence of spatial
distributions of each of the above parameters and allow a timely detection of the
occurring changes and to identify their causes. The satellite observations make it
possible to track the sources of the detected contaminants and thereby to
distinguish the pollution caused by oil and gas producing activities from the
pollution not associated with this activity.

13.3 Ecological monitoring of oil spills in real time

With increasing of oil production from year to year an issue of ecological


protection and the elimination of the consequences of oil spills on land, in
rivers and seas is becoming sharper. The Information on oil spills and pipeline
breaks in the largest oil producing and refining companies is insufficient. The
problem of detection, localization of oil spills and liquidation of their
consciences in real time is complex. In the oil and gas industry a threat to oil
spills may be an emergency, an accident, failure to comply with the technical
standards of safety. A modern approach to the application of geographical
information systems (GIS) in ecological monitoring is proposed. There are a number
of foreign developments of geographical information systems that solve a variety
of industrial or regional problems. Such information systems are focused on the

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study and monitoring of the same objects, for example, the Tactical Response Plan
and Florida Marine Spill Analysis Systems aimed at the study and protection of
water area and the coastal zone of the Gulf of Mexico. In Norway, Thailand and
Japan are developed the geographical information systems to assess the ecological
condition of the facilities and to simulate the emergency situations.
At present, the global trend is to create an open Internet of the modules of
the geographical information systems for monitoring the ecological safety of oil
and gas complexes in real time. An example of these geographical information
systems can be the interactive maps in real time from the Google and Yandex
companies. To get this platform it is necessary to develop the database of the
geographical information system that will include the information on oil and gas
facilities in view of their attributes such as the type of the facility, the area
and the power. In integrating of the open geographical information system
developed by the Google with the developed database, the obtained result can be
used in monitoring the oil and gas facilities in real time. In creating of special
units of information processing, the system can act as a platform for forecasting
and oil spill liquidation. To work with the user it is necessary to create the WEB
interface. The scheme of the received information system is presented in Figure
13.2
The stages of processing of aerospace information in real time on the
example of monitoring of oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico after the accident on
April 20, 2010. The subject treatment was carried out on-line and involved the
following stages: masking the land, isolation of cloud, isolating the region of
interest, selecting the optimal parameters for the classification of the area of
interest using the algorithm ISODATA; allocation of classes corresponding to two
levels of the oil pollution of the water surface; tracing the results and their
integration into the geographical information systems. Fig. 13.3. presents an
example of processing of the multispectral satellite image taken on May 31, 2010
from the board of the Terra satellite. The same figure shows the result of the
classification by the cluster analysis and a map with the area of the oil image
propagation displayed in the Google Earth system. Compiling the maps of oil
pollution on the results of the Modis data processing in the program Modis Earth
Map and Google Earth resulted in creating a map of the distribution of spots. With

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the ENVI 4.5. program, the following pictures (MODIS): (fig. 13.4.) were
processed. As a result, one can clearly see the dynamics and the area of
propagation of the oil slick in real time. The most informative are the data
obtained by the MODIS spectroradiometer, mounted on the TERRA and AQUA satellites
(Figure 13.5.). Space optical images obtained by using MODIS, have an extremely
high informatively for its comprehension level of and are freely available. As
part of this work there were used the MOD02HKM seven-channel images with a spatial
resolution of 500 meters. The product loading of the MODIS data from the web-
server of the operator, as well as their preliminary and subject processing were
performed at the Research Center of Aerospace Monitoring "Aerospace" during the
implementation of the operational monitoring of the effects of the accident in the
Gulf of Mexico.
The main tasks of the subsystem of the information support of the eco-
monitoring of oil spills in real time. The main purpose of the information
subsystems is to provide: the collection and processing of the data from different
subsystems of observations (stationary, ship’s, satellite), the analysis of the
information and the transmission of the created on information products its basis
to the corporate bodies of management of industrial and ecological safety, and
public authorities of the management of natural resources and the ecological
protection. It’s reasonable for the information products to include the following
information: the evaluation of the anthropogenic impact, the forecast of possible
adverse changes in the corresponding elements of the natural environment and the
natural complex in general, the recommended measures that reduce the negative
effects and localize the human activity. The functioning of the information
subsystem should be performed in two modes: operational in real time mode and
reserving the aggregate information.

13.4 Using unmanned flying machines (UFM ) in the oil and gas business, goals and
objectives

An unmanned flying machine (sometimes abbreviated as UFM, which is often


colloquially called as "drone", in English) is a flying machine without a crew on
board. In the oil and gas business the drones can be used in the cases when the

346
working conditions are unsafe for a man. We refer here also the work in full dark,
in conductions of sandstorms and at extremely high and low temperatures. These are
flies over the sea in the Arctic and in the deserts, it is necessary to make
regular flights along the same route. To use drones is economically profitable.
The Drones consume up to 20% less fuel. The average price of a mile of shooting
drops from $ 15 to $ 3, compared with the manned vehicles. Unmanned systems offer
a higher quality material than the systems controlled by a man. This is due to the
fact that they have lower metal mass thus providing a lower level of noise and
interference in the measurements of the magnetic and gravitational fields. A drone
can take on board up to 50 kg of equipment and work within 14 hours. Drones have
almost no restrictions concerning the working height. One of the best examples of
such a case is patrolling the pipeline. It can be realized with the help of the
satellite, but the relation of "price / quality" will give a way to drones very
much. This method will greatly depend on the time, because the satellite is not
always over the object of interest. For this purpose chevron Texaco company uses
the Israeli unmanned flying vehicle Aerostar, successfully applying it in their
facilities in Angola and Nigeria. The unmanned systems offer a higher quality
material than the systems controlled by man. This is due to the fact that they
have lower metal mass thus providing a lower level of noise and interference in
the measurements of the magnetic and gravitational fields.
Ecological monitoring with the use of drones, unmanned helicopters and
balloons in real time as the an example the Samotlor field. TNK-BP is planning to
use unmanned flying vehicles to monitor the Samotlor field. The experimental
production testing of drones, specially designed for TNK-BP in the Center for
Space Research in Korolev near Moscow, is currently being performed in Western
Siberia. A high-tech drone, equipped with a digital camera and video recorder, as
well as thermovision is, adapted for the use in harsh environments and can be off-
line to provide overall monitoring of the situation, to assess the ecological
situation and to identify the irregularities in the infrastructure and pipelines
in remote areas of the field. According to a source in the company, it is expected
that already in 2012-2013. The unmanned flying vehicles will be flying around the
clock over the entire pipeline system within the license areas of TNK-BP, to
monitor cuttings in, breakthroughs and unauthorized approach to the pipelines. The

347
Samotlor fields needs 6 drones which will explore every part of the pipeline 4
times a day.
This method of monitoring will be used in the field of almost 2 million
square kilometers in area where the unmanned flying vehicles (UAV) are used. The
flight range is 100 km, and the non-stop flying over the territory of the
facilities and fields can last up to four hours. In the case of oil leakage in the
pipeline the machine will see and give the coordinates with a precision of
centimeters. All the data in real time enter the control room. It also accumulates
the information obtained through the GPS sensors established on the drilling rigs.
The Samotlor oil field has become the first field in Russia, modeled in 3D. Thanks
to the virtual simulation of the field the experts see the field facilities in
small detail and have a full understanding of its condition, choose the optimal
methods of the production process control. The modern tracking system allows you
to receive the regular information on the volumes of recovery and hydrocarbon
reserves, to control the integrity of the production facilities, the availability
of breakthroughs or illegal cuttings in.

Conclusion

The aerospace monitoring is divided into the remote monitoring - a set of


aviation and space monitoring. The aviation monitoring is carried out by aircraft,
helicopters, airships and other flying machines (including floating balloons,
etc.) not rising to the height of the space (mostly from outside the troposphere).
The space monitoring is the monitoring from space surveying. Tracking the natural
environment by using the instruments installed in impassible places of the earth
(in the mountains, in the Far North), their indications being transmitted to the
monitoring centers using the methods long-distance transmission of information (by
radio, through the wire, the satellite, etc.). The geographical information system
is a means of creating an integrated platform for the monitoring and modeling of
oil spills in real time. An unmanned flying marching (UFM) is sometimes
abbreviated as (UFM), which is often colloquially called as "drone" in English) is
a flying machine without a crew on board. In the oil and gas business the drones
can be used when the working conditions are unsafe for a man. The drones have

348
almost no restrictions concerning the working height. To use drones is
economically profitable. The drones consume up to 20% less fuel. An Unmanned
flying machine (a drone) can take on board up to 50 kg of equipment and work
within 14 hours. The average price of a mile shooting drops from $ 15 to $ 3,
compared with manned machines. The Unmanned systems offer a higher quality
material than the systems controlled by man.

Acknowledgements

In the 13th chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A.


Eremin "Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as coursework students and undergraduates following the above-mentioned
universities: Anferova Student, V.I. Kolomyicev, A.R. Letifullina, G.A. Adaibayeva
and others.

References:

1. Scientific journal “КубГАУ”, №86(02), 2013, Yu.S. Kalantayevskii,


A.V.Aleksandrova.
2. Textbook “Ecological monitoring the oil and gas industry”, 2007,
M.N.Saksonov, A.D.Abalakov.
3. “Emergency Oil spills in the sea and their control”, 2012, A.I.
Alkhimenko.
4. “Geo-environmental monitoring of marine oil and gas”, L.I. Lobkovskii,
D.G. Levchenko.
5. “Monitoring of oil pollution of the seas and oceans on the basis of the
data of the remote sensing of the Earth”, T.A. Chibisova.
6. “Environmental Safety of Oil Resources, Exploitation In the Russian
Offshore Arctic Regions”, 2012, V.I. Pavlienko, E.K. Glukhareva.
7. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/app/Preview.do?paperNumber=ISOPE-I-12-
171&societyCode=ISOPE

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8. “Space Robotics Technologies for Deep Well Operations”, 2012, Hari Nayar,
Khaled Ali, Andrew Aubrey.
9. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/app/Preview.do?paperNumber=OTC-22989-
MS&societyCode=OTC
10. “Offshore Oil Spill Detection And Monitoring In E & P Areas: An Operacional
Multi-Sensors Approach”, 2010, C.M. Bentz and A.T. Politano, Petrobras R&D Ctr.
11. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/app/Preview.do?paperNumber=SPE-98660-
MS&societyCode=SPE
12. “Using the unmanned flying machined for monitoring Samotlor oil field”,
2012, K.K. Sevastyanova, V.V. Shmakov, S.A. Nekhaev.
13. http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/app/Preview.do?paperNumber=SPE-162060-
MS&societyCode=SPE

Abbreviations

MPC-maximum allowable concentrations; UFM -unmanned flying machines; PFM-


pilot (aircraft) flying machines; UUV- unmanned underwater vehicles; ROUUV-
remotely operated unmanned underwater vehicles; AUUV- autonomous unmanned
underwater vehicles; GIS-geographic information systems

List of Figures

Fig.13.1. Remotely controlled unmanned underwater vehicle


Fig13.2. The scheme of an information system for environmental monitoring
Fig.13.3. Formation of maps of oil pollution in the Gulf of Mexico
Fig.13.4. The result of processing of satellite images using ENVI 4.5., the Gulf
of Mexico
Fig13.5. TERRA and AQUA satellites

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Figures to chapter 13.

Fig.13.1. Remotely controlled unmanned underwater vehicle

Рис. 13.1. Телеуправляемый необитаемый подводный


аппарат

Fig13.2. The scheme of an information system for environmental monitoring

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Рис.13.2. Схема информационной системы
экологического мониторинга

Fig.13.3. Formation maps of oil pollution in the Gulf of Mexico on the results of image
processing, 31.05.10 Terra satellite

Рис.13.3. Формирование карт нефтяных загрязнений


в Мексиканском заливе по результатам обработки
изображения, полученного 31.05.10 со спутника Terra

Fig.13.4. The result of processing of satellite images using ENVI 4.5., Gulf of Mexico

352
Рис. 13.4. Результат обработки космических
изображений с помощью программы ENVI 4.5.,
Мексиканский залив

Fig13.5. TERRA and AQUA satellites

Рис.13.5. Спутники TERRA и AQUA

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Chapter 14. Smart Asset Operation

Abstract

The chapter is devoted to the effective management of the assets of oil


companies in real time being on actual problem at present. The assets of oil
companies include wells, pumping equipment, tanks, surface facilities, pipelines,
separators, etc. Natural resource becomes an economic asset of oil and gas
companies when it comes to its rational use, a deliberate choice of most preferred
and practical option among all the entire set of alternative uses. This paper
provides examples of asset management systems, and special attention is paid to
the analysis of the effectiveness of new systems for evaluating the assets of oil
companies. By the year 2013 the packages of such programs as IBM Maximo, Avocet,
etc. of evaluation of the cost of assets of the company in real time had been
elaborated.

Key words: Asset management in RTM, the assets of the enterprise in RTM,
current assets, the interaction of the team, effective data management, efficient
operation of enterprises in RTM, liquid assets, enterprise resource planning,
enterprise asset management

Introduction

This chapter consists of 5 sections: management of oil and gas assets of the
company in real time - the concept, goals and objectives, types of assets are oil
and gas companies, the decision of IBM Maximo for Oil and Gas industry, there
Avocet integrated asset management, the interaction of the team, the impact of the
level of experts on decision-making on the management of oil and gas assets.
Section 14.1. describes the concepts of oil and gas assets, the goals and
objectives of asset management of the oil and gas companies in RTM, section 14.2.
lists the types of productive assets, including oil and gas assets. Sections 14.3.
and 14.4. present the ways of solving the asset management in RTM and the last
section 14.5. analyzes the impact of the level of experts on decision-making on
the management of oil and gas assets.
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14.1 Asset Management in oil and gas company in real time – concept,
goals and objectives

The resource becomes an economic asset when it comes to its rational use, a
deliberate choice of the most preferred and practical option among all the set of
alternative uses. In today's oil and gas company there is a close correlation of
the asset valuation represented by the reserves of hydrocarbons in the depths,
with the major cost and technological indicators of the activities of the oil and
gas company. The assets if oil and gas companies include wells, pumping equipment,
tanks, surface facilities, pipelines, separators, etc. The most important task is
to develop the organizational and economic system capable of ensuring the
efficient use of assets. The management of oil and gas assets (economic assets) in
real time means an efficient use of natural resources, of oil and gas companies
using software packages (IBM Maximo, Avocet) to assess the value of the companies
that had been established by the year 2013. These are systems of strategic
management of the production company that can operate at a global level and with a
simple adaptation to local requirements. It is necessary to solve complex problems
in managing the assets of the oil and gas companies. The most important of the are
the following:
- the formation of organizational and economic system capable to ensure an
efficient use of the assets in the oil and gas companies PPB;
- the creation of the necessary technological infrastructure that would
ensure the operation and continuous improvement of the managements system assets
of the company;
- the formation of the team able to successfully meet the challenges of
sustainable use of the assets in the difficult and controversial economic
conditions of the modern economy.
The three main components of the growth in the value of assets must be
closely related: the definition of the objectives and their qualitative and
quantitative identification, and analysis of the value chain in order to increase
the return of each element of the chain. The formation of integrated management in
RTM is a rather complicated process of adoption and implementation of solutions

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developed by the experts. It is necessary to link together various parts of the
organization, providing a strategy, elaboration, the implementation of current
plans, as well as the technological development. The element of the integrated
management is the formation of an asset management system related to the
hydrocarbon reserves in the depths with effective work.

14.2 Types of Assets in oil and gas companies

Define the operational and financial assets are defined. Financial assets are
cash and various forms of the requirements for the right to earn the income. The
production assets are divided into tangible and intangible. The tangible assets
are: hydrocarbon reserves in the depths, the fixed capital stocks (wells,
pipelines, storage facilities, processing plant, etc.). The intangible assets
include the qualifications of the personnel of the company, patents, inventions,
technical innovations, reputation of the companies. The optimization of the
company's assets is made at different hierarchical levels of the company (from the
wellhead choke to the development system) on different time scales from seconds to
the life of the field. All the assets of the company can be divided into the
following hierarchy levels:
Level 1: compressor, pumping station, steam generator, electric centrifugal
pump;
Level 2: the gathering and treatment of products;
Level 3: field (reservoir, wells, surface facilities, transportation of
products);
Level 4: a group of fields;
Level 5: vertically an integrated oil and gas company.
The reserves of mineral resources in the bowels refer to basic productive
assets. Hydrocarbon reserves relate to tangible assets, they are actually involved
in the production process and are the subject of the application of efforts by
various mining companies, but they are public property. Subsoil users are those
who develop natural resources, that is, oil and natural gas, and quickly, on time
deliver the product to the market. An asset in the eyes of the investor, is a
balance value of the wells, equipment, as well as an integrated company. The

356
valuation of assets of the company presented by the hydrocarbon reserves in the
depths, has a significant impact on all the major resulting performance of its
activities. The resulting performance of the oil and gas companies involves: the
volume of production; the cost of production; the value of the assets of the
company; the profit on current operations; the value of the shares; the
capitalization of assets etc. All these indicators are closely related to each
other as the profit on current operations affect the value of the assets of the
company, the supply of reserves also directly affects the level of capitalization
of the company, etc.
The analysis of the asset management in the oil business can more clearly
represent some of the key features of this process. Namely, the role of asset
management systems presented by the hydrocarbon resources in the depths is valid
and even increases.

14.3 IBM Maximo Solution for Oil and gas Industry

The IBM is actively developing the innovative solutions for the oil and gas
industry which will enable the system as a whole to adapt better, to be more
efficient, safer and smarter. The IBM Maximo Asset Management is a product of the
IBM automating the processes of the operations management, maintenance and repair
of technological equipment and the facilities of the transportation and operatinf
infrastructure of the company. A distinctive feature compared to other systems of
this class is the extended functionality of the service management and service
relationships. The effective business depends on the reliability of equipment and
on the degree of the influence of the occurring failures on the market losses. In
this case the condition of the equipment may result in not only direct but also
indirect losses, so you need to evaluate the technical condition qualitatively.
You can get the estimates of the current state of the equipment, while the further
development of the tools will enable to assess the risks, predicting a change in
the state and the extent of occurring arising defects. The critical state of the
equipment, the condition forecast with the risk assessment is the key points in
the formation of influence to maintain the readiness for the operation. A

357
comparison of the costs and their impact on the effective business of the programs
allows you to create repair or modernization, technical re-equipment.
The system provides the following functionality: managing the lifecycle of
production equipment; planning of repairs and maintenance, renovation and
replacement of fixed assets; management of the production staff; the creation of a
unified system of management of the production document action.
New generation technologies are an integrated model of asset management, a
field, and in a variety of companies they are called as: "Optimization of an
intelligent field and a remote management» Intelligent field and remote control
management / Inform, «The integrated model of asset management» - Integrated Asset
Operation model (IOAM). These systems are similar in aims and objectives, they are
designed to simulate various scenarios for the development of the situation in the
production and give a solution.
The petroleum engineers can communicate with the control center from anywhere
in the world using a computer, to analyze the information on the field and to make
a decision on the optimization its operation. Creating such a system requires
careful gathering of information about the wells and the field the experience of
many experts. Today parts of the system are functioning in old fields. And at
present the newly designed (new) fields have such an opportunity. It was presented
at the SPE conference, in the report of made by Andrew Mebian from the Salym
Petroleum Development Company. Andrew Mabian, deputy director of the production
department of CPAs, received a regional reward (Russia and the Caspian region)
from Ganesh Thakur the President of the International Society of Petroleum
Engineers (SPE) regional award. It marked the achievements of Mabiana in improving
the safety and efficiency of extraction and exploitation of the oil field with the
help of "smart fields", which today in Russia is recognized as one of the best in
the monitoring and control of the well stock and is considered for the
implementation in the fields of other companies.

14.4 Avocet Integrated Asset Management

The Avocet provides a single solution for the entire life cycle of the field
which integrates the production stratum, wells, surface infrastructure and the

358
equipment for processing, as well as the operating parameters of field facilities,
financial performance and economic conditions into a single management environment
of production, collection and transportation of hydrocarbons. The success of the
implementation of the technical solutions depends on the technology and the staff.
Since the geography of oil and gas companies is becoming increasingly diverse,
companies must rely on the experts who are far away from the oil fields as well as
on each other. With the use of the Avocet IAM the experts in different areas,
regardless of where they are located, build the models, the results of which are
transmitted to the end integrated model. Working together, they identify and
eliminate the constraints that could lead to an increase in the cost or a decrease
in the performance. The integrated models based on economic indicators clearly
show the effectiveness of the project and help to extend the life cycle of the
asset. The Avocet IAM allows to improve the quality of decisions at the planning
stage of the field development, to optimize the production and to control the
costs.

14.5 The interaction of a team, the influence of the competence of


specialists on decision-making on the management of oil and gas assets

A person joining in the team must be prepared to meet the challenges of both
the professional and interpersonal values. In other words, he must be able to
perform the respective roles specialist, a colleague, a mentor, etc., which are
the basis taking him or her to the team. The analysis of the operation of various
teams enables to identify the following qualities of the professionals, the
manifestation of which contributes to the creation of successful teams:
responsibility for their work and the whole team; the knowledge and professional
skills; the quality of the execution of activities; the desire for cooperation,
trust in colleagues; the reliability; the ability to accept criticism; a
willingness to a compromise, communication skills. These qualities reserved the
maximum rating in the cause of extensive studies maximum rating. But apart from
them where are mentioned dozens of qualities with lower rating values, but also
playing an important role. The ability of employees to work in a team is as
important as their professional knowledge. The management team needs highly

359
responsible, creative and professional people. The team not only collectively
generates the criteria for the selection of the personnel, but also focuses on the
individual characteristics of each of the participants, delegating the functional
tasks according to a person's ability and not vice versa, as it is the case in the
bureaucratic structures. Very often at the first stage of the formation there
appears an exaggerated idea of the team members themselves as professionals,
everyone expects himself well-trained and able to solve any problem. Joint work
pretty quickly brings the realization of inconsistencies of their ideas and real
possibilities, and this happens independently and is an additional incentive to
the education. The education in this team is considered necessary both for the
team, and for the specialist as increasing the personal skills the staff provides
the constant changes and the transformation of the organization necessary for its
success. The formation of a team - is also the development of the ability of its
members to educate themselves on the basis of practice, coordinating the pace of
their personal development, the transition from periodical improving of their
qualifications to the concept of human resource development of the team.

Conclusion

The effective business of oil and gas companies depends on the reliability of
equipment and on the degree of the influence of the occurring failures on the
market losses. In this case the condition of the equipment may result in not only
direct but also indirect losses, so you need to evaluate the technical condition
qualitatively. You can get the estimates of the current state of the equipment,
while the further development of the tools will enabled to assess the risks,
predicting a change in the state and the extent of occurring defects. The critical
state of the equipment, the sorecast with the risk assessment is is the key points
in the formation of influence to maintain the readiness for the operation. A
comparison of costs and their impact on the effective business enables to
elaborate the programs of repair or modernization, technical re-equipment.

Acknowledgements

360
The fourteens chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A.
Eremin "Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as course papers of the students and undergraduates from the above-mentioned
universities: Kerefov, Kalashnikov, Bekkojanova M. and others.

References

1. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой


интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ
нефти и газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.:
ил. ISBN 978-5-91961-019-9; Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н.,
Еремин А.Н. Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 2. Учеб.
пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и газа
имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-91961-
329-7.
2. Shlumberger Avocet Integrated Asset Management (pdf file)
3. Tatenergo, Asset Management in electricity (pdf file)
4. Salym Petroleum http://www.spdn.ru/index.php?s=53&id=95

List of abbreviations

RTM - Real-time mode; SPD- Salym Petroleum Development.


Chapter 15. POSC’ standards

Abstract

361
Some of the international standards of data exchange were developed in oil
and gas industry, part of them was integrated into EC practice at the end of the
year 2011:
 ISO 15926, “Integration of data for total operation of the
refineries including the gathering and treatment systems of oil and gas”.
 POSC standards (Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation);
 WITSML (Wellsite Information Transfer Standards Markup Language) –
standards in the drilling;
 PRODML – standards in the production;
 RESQML –standards in the development.
Nowadays there is a complex of works for integration of standards in
pipeline transportation [1].

Key words: Smart oil and gas fields, industrial standards, WITSML standard
of oil and gas data in the drilling, PRODML standard of oil and gas data in
production, RESQML standard of oil and gas data in the development, Petrotechnical
Open Software Corporation (POSC), Data storage, Data base, POSC exchange format,
Model of the Epicenter data, User’s interface, Digital platform, Extendable
markup language, Reservoir modeling, Data format, Modeling and analysis,
Visualization in real time, Solutions of applied tasks, Monitoring of drilling
process, Server.

Main chapter themes

Standards of oil and gas data. Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation’s


standards (POSC). WITSML standards of oil and gas data in the drilling. PRODML
standards of oil and gas data in the production. RESQML standards of oil and gas
data in the development –. PRODML production standard – the purposes, development
history. Characteristic of Data according to PRODML. Advantages and disadvantages
of using PRODML.WISTML drilling standard - purpose, advantages and disadvantages.
Characteristics of the processes covered by the WITSML standard. RESQML
development standard. The purpose of the RESQML standard. Extendable markup
language for reservoir modeling. Features of RESQML development standard. The main

362
causes and perquisites of creating POSC – the main advantages of creating
POSC.POSC data storage -data models and exchange format. The object of POSC
activities. Examples of POSC business benefits.
Introduction

When the engineers work with smart fields they are faced with huge amounts
of information. In today's smart fields these volumes can simultaneously be tens
or hundreds of petabytes (PB) / pebibytes (PIB). The work with such amount of data
may be realized only with the availability of standardized forms of their
presentation. To ensure the uniform standards base, several major oil and gas
companies in the U.S. and Europe founded the Petrotechnical Open Software
Corporation (POSC)in October 1990. From the beginning it was a non-profit, neutral
organization to the suppliers. Its work is dedicated to providing a unified set of
specifications that will allow the data to flow easily between software products
manufactured by different organizations, and the user to easily switch from one
application to another. The presence of common standards ensures that the results
of different, researches of intelligent wells will be in a format compatible with
the rest of the data received at the next stages of the study of wells and fields
in general. With the guaranteed compatibility of data, the engineers can more
effectively use a variety of applications. Another advantage of having standards
is that they allow the sharing of products from different vendors. Finally, the
exchange of information, or at the request to the database the standards will
enable the geoscientists to differentiate the "raw" curves and treated curves
easier, and also to distinguish the other features of the data, such as the type
of treatment that has been applied, the performers of the treatment, etc. The
identification of such bend marks is particularly relevant for smart companies
with the automated work with databases.

15.1 Standards of Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation (POSC)

The main advantages of creating POSC. Previously, oil and gas companies
faced the problems of data management and dramatically increasing additional costs
of the computer systems. Hidden costs manifested, for example, because of the need

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to develop the software (software) to transfer the acquired application to a
format corresponding to the one functioning in the applications of the company.
The effective development of software required considerable costs for training the
personnel and, in extreme cases, it was necessary to create something like the
"Department of reformatting" [2] to facilitate the data transfer between different
applications. It is not profitable for the intelligent companies to keep extra
units of the staff and to allocate the funds for reformatting. In addition, the
problems associated with information processing lead to a decrease in the velocity
of analytical processes, which complicates the work in real time. Under these
conditions, any method that ensures the software a free access software to the
properly formatted input data will result in a significant increase in labour
productivity. This method is the software standardization.
The main advantages of creating POSC are: the removal of barriers to the
purchase of computer technology from different vendors, and the ability to
communicate with each other and with the corporate databases from different
applications, the ability to use multiple applications together, facilitating the
user’s activities, increasing the labor productivity, the rapid deployment of new
and the better use of existing technologies, reducing the design cycle time,
reducing additional costs and income growth, the rationalization of economic and
investment portfolios.
POSC data storage -data models and exchange format. There is a clear need to
maintain and manage the technical data of E & P beyond a variety of applications.
Among the POSC the data storage location is called a data warehouse POSC (POSC
Data Storage - DS). The DS specification allows different organizations to
distribute their data in different ways. The POSC specifications provide all these
configurations and ways to multiple data storages, so that they could have an
access to each other at any time. Each DS may comprise many different types of
data. They need to be identified, determined and assigned to a certain type of
structure. The POSC has created such a structural model called the "Epicenter", it
is defined independently of any application and comprehensively describes the
required DS content. The Role of the Epicenter Zero is to determine in what form
the software interface will present the data from the DS to the applications. The
Epicentre is the only commercial data model that provides an access tothe data

364
about thedata and theinformation sharing throughout the life cycle of the asset.
The applications also need an access to the data that are not yet part of the data
warehouse of the POSC. These amounts of the data must be available for a number of
software’s created by different companies. Consequently, there is a need in the
general, physical format to share all the types of the E & P data and to archive
them for the future reference. The benefits of having the exchange format POSC is
that the employees will have fewer a problems in passing the data between the
specialized systems, for the application developers to have a single format will
reduce the need to support a large number of the exchange ones, the consumers will
be able to determine the compliance of the standard model format, and also to
download and to get an access to the data without any translation.
The object of POSC activities.Sometime later, after introducing the
Epicenter, the intellectual Texaco company decided to apply the commercial
standards to its main Kern River project (an oil field in California, USA). This
project was created for their perforation of wells to increase the production by
10%. The field was in the third stage of development and produced more than 11
tons of oil per day. At that the time costs were only spent to provide the steam
injection to displace the heavy oils. Decreasing of water saturation by 1% led to
the increased profits by $ 45 million a year. The field was managed by 2
geologists. They decided to integrate on the market the current software with the
Epicenter model. The total cost of the project, visualization and access data
system amounted to more than $ 0.5 million. As a result of the integration was an
enhanced production to 14 tons / day, which made it possible to complete the
project 12 months ahead of schedule. The total cost of the project was paid off in
9 days after increasing the production. Asset management team attributed these
results to the improved data management and visualization. These two ingredients
for success are the most fundamental of all the smart technologies. After the
success with the Kern River about 25 other companies began to demand for the
Epicenter model. These and other projects cost less than $ 30,000 and were
implemented for 1 day [3, 4, 5].
The use of the POSC standards enables to achieve not only a significant
economic but also a technological effect. That is, it contributes to increase
profits, not only by reducing the finance and the time spent on the work with the

365
data, but also by enhancing oil production, which becomes possible thanks to more
efficient work with the data and, as a consequence, to the adoption of more
effective solutions of the management of smart fields.

15.2 Standards of oil and gas data in the drilling - WITSM

WISTML drilling standard - purpose, advantages and disadvantages. The year


2000 marked the beginning of the development of the WITSML standards to transfer
the data in a serial form, and their integrations from different rigs in the XML
format. The pioneers in this project are the BP and the Statoil. The Energetic
company provides an independent support to the WITSML standards from the beginning
of the year 2003, when a specialized group the WITSML Special Interest Group (SIG)
was formed. The planned development allowed the group to include representatives
from all major and many other oil and service companies. WITSML is primarily the
implementation of WITS on the contemporary language, transportation and program
basis: through the XML, Internet and Web services. The WITSML is designed to
improve the decision-making, thanks to the continuous flow of real-time data. The
WITSML developing thanks to the Energistics company, has more than 50 member
companies, members of a special team engaged in solving the specific problems, as
well as it was included into over 40 software products and applications used by
oil and gas companies around the world.
Most oil companies have already implemented the WITSML technology to
transmit the data in real time from the drilling rigs and from their archives, or
are planning to do so in the near future. The volume of software compatible with
the WITSML is increasing in response to these demands, and the standard itself is
considerably becoming a treaty obligation already, especially when it relates to
the new fields. At the moment a number of reasons cause the deployment of the
WITSML. The standard provides the intelligent tools for the data integration, and
is the basis for the technology of the drilling centers. At the moment, the latest
version of WITSML 1.4 supports the optimization of the automated use of the
scenarios to minimize user’s intervention in the processing of data streams. It
is supplemented with the new data objects for a more flexible description of the
coordinate reference system (Coordinate Reference Systems), while the operator (as

366
opposed to the vendor - a company that develops and distributes software) focuses
on the daily drilling report. In the preparation process of the version there were
processed over hundreds of requests for optimization. One of its main advantages
is the ability to expand and to supplement easily to support the future
technologies of the well engineering. The advantages of using a standardized
approach to the information exchange on drilling are intuitive to most engineers,
drillers and drilling authorities and are usually characterized by the following
aspects:
1. The WITSML enables to increase the return on the investments in high-tech
areas, and opens up the new possibilities for the automation and optimization of
the energy companies that would otherwise be impossible or difficult.
2. The WITSML reduces the cost of information exchange between the software
applications within a company - developer and between companies - developers,
joint ventures, partners, contractors and regulatory bodies.
3. The WITSML reduces the costs for the replacement or substitution of the
software, and as a result improves the functionalities.
At the same time, its adoption and implementation contributes to the
increased level through the promotion of branch standards. The published
specifications of the WITSML exchange formats of a specific integrator (the
customer) are always available. The undersigned client receives the data of the
integrator, to who’s published procedure it is connected. To retrieve the
historical data if the connection is lost (for example, faults on the satellite
link) using the non-state Web-protocols the WITSML provides a special type of
«GetFromStore» request. «GetFromStore» enables not only to receive the data
stream, but also to perform the application request to the available objects, such
as "well", "well bore" and to retrieve the data sorted by the mnemonics,
intervals, updates, etc. However, this flexibility requires special efforts to
ensure the information security. The basic data of the field geophysics can be
only obtained during and immediately after drilling (before the column cementing).
Therefore, they are expensive. The well data can enable to evaluate the reserves
and hence the cost of the fields. This is extremely valuable business information.
To protect it, the network constraints do not usually permit to enter the
corporate network from the external environment. So that the companies engaged in

367
the aggregation of data could search for and check their data directly while
drilling of wells, they need a remote access inside the data center of the service
company engaged in drilling. Alternatively, they can provide a place on your
intranet to the service companies, but in this case it is necessary to support the
multiple systems of different service companies with their infrastructure of
interaction and security.
The WITSML document is presented in a convenient XML format. From the people
who know the English terminology of well logging, it does not require great skills
of sight-reading. According to the Petrolink company 95% of the integration
problems is associated with the gathering and coordination of the data of well
drilling. The WITSML can obviously help to improve the situation. But there are
some cons: WITSML is still not well know and is more difficult to use in the field
treatment. Due to the lack of the universally recognized industrial sample the
WITSML flexibility a potentially fraught with confusion and duplication in the
data types. In theory, the work with the WITSML data scheme should be quite
simple, on the relationship of the objects:
Well → Wellbore → The borehole inclination (path for hole) → log
structure.
But every service company implements this scheme in its own way. One company
stores both path logging data, and the information on the inclination in the same
structure, therefore, the standard ML request will not work. Another company does
not follow the normal WITS authorization procedure of point-to-point connection,
etc. In contrast to the WITS replicated it many times and long configured the
practical experience in implementing and applying WITSML hasn’t been established
yet.
The WITSML was 'invented' by the customers, producing and major service
companies which decided to save money on the integration of the data available to
them from various sources. The implementation depends on the service operators
directly involved in drilling and data collection. For them, the transition to the
new format is fraught with additional costs. The Service companies may have
private data and internal formats, the access of the third parties to which is
undesirable. The integration with the customers in the overall network online
required to implement a secure service-oriented architecture of the WITSML,

368
contradicts the rules of the internal security of many companies. WITSML
development costs have not been in vain. Not replacing the WITS in the
coordination of businesses, the WITSML proved a very useful tool for cross-program
and cross-system integration, especially in the globally distributed companies.
Instead of connecting in pairs the programs and corporate databases there appeared
a possibility to display all their internal circuits on the WITSML circuit, saving
significant efforts on the analysis and the development. To date, at the market
there appeared the ready WITSML- adapters widely spread in the world of
geophysical software systems.
Characteristics of the processes covered by the WITSML. The processes
covered by the standard are: the assembly / disassembly of the equipment,
drilling, making a connection, the wellbore enlargement, the pilot borehole
drilling, core sampling, drilling mud treatment, the drill string assembly running
into the well,, the pulling out of the string, the preventive maintenance of
drilling equipment, the repair of drilling equipment, hauling the tackle system,
wire-line directional survey logging, casing running, casing cementing, plugging-
back, cementing under pressure, molding, waiting on cement, drilling out of
cement, mounting / dismounting of anti – aircraft defence, pipe formation testing,
fishing operations, well orientation operations, killing the well, stitch of
pipes, the expectation of weather conditions, underwater operations, wellhead
overflow test, the column pressure testing, determination of the rock strength
under the shoe, absorption, a short drill stem assembly running, a short drill
stem assembly pulling out.
Some energy companies such as Statoil and Saudi Aramco, have long recognized
the benefits of using the WITSML and as a result, their master service agreements
stated that the WITSML should be used for the provision of drilling data in real
time. However, this does not apply to a wider sector of the oil and gas industry.
The introduction of the new technology simply because of the efficiency is mainly
perceived in the industry as a solution that "It would be nice to accept" rather
than "it is necessary to accept”. In the case of a new well design, there are two
distinct stages - planning of the well and preparing the well for the operation.
Both stages require the support of the service team, working in the well performed
by the depth and drilling disciplines of the service, as shown in Fig. 1. A number

369
of software tools will be used by the engineers -specialists and the crew in the
well to support the planning and preparing the well for the operation. This
structure will be more valuable for the business with planning in advance. The
individual processes are clearly represented by the majority of oil and gas
companies, but to what extent they are related to the effective sharing of the
data is significantly different depending on the project. The main reason for this
is the use of the approach "do it the way we did before," and, besides, there is
no planning of full information flow. Exchange of information is sometimes
considered as a necessary evil rather than is treated as an opportunity to
increase the full effect in the work of project managers and team leaders at the
wells.
The situation is more complicated in using of software from different
vendors, which happens very often. Despite the fact that to date the WITSML offers
only a partial solution of the problem, the standard moves towards a significantly
increasing the efficiency of the data exchange in the future, since the
development is accelerated due to the demand of the end. In conclusion, it should
be noted that the subject of the information exchange should be a critical aspect
of the well preparing system for operation and the use of the WITSML is likely to
have a major impact on the value of the project. There are fixed documented cases
when the WITSML significantly increased the profitability of the project, but
often the standardization is not part of the project strategy. It may be that
those who are responsible for making decisions on the project do not have the
technical expertise in the field of WITSML and do not imagine what important role
it can play. Under these circumstances, the result in the best case will be
achieving some profit despite the ineffectiveness of data exchange. The key issue
in this case is, what could be the return on the project, if the WITSML was a part
of the overall strategy. And what is more important is the fact, how much there
will be the overall return from the oil and gas industry in the universal
introduction and use of the WITSML.

15.3 Standards of oil and gas data in the production- PRODM

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PRODML production standard – the purpose, development history. PRODML is a
commercial initiative designed to provide standard interfaces between different
software products which is used to monitor, manage and optimize the production of
hydrocarbons. The purpose of the PRODML is an optimization in real time, that is,
an instant process of the implementation of the technology and any decision in the
current recovery process. The PRODML also enables to deploy a plan of afield in
electronic form for a unified control and to provide single source of reliable
information by the optimization cycles. Version 1.0 was developed in the year 2005
as a result of concentrated and joint efforts on the part of the five oil
companies: BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. At the moment, the working
group of the community has more than 30companies developing the standards for
production.
Characteristic of Data according to PRODML. At the request the data transfer
of the following nature can be performed:
• Passing volumes of the extraction and injection with account of the
conditions everywhere. You can take into account them measured, modeled,
recommended, and other types of data.
• Testing of the well.
•Distributed fiber-optic temperature measurements (Distributed Temperature
Sensing DTS) and other data from the well sensors and transmitters.
•Operational reporting on internal operational, partner and state standards.
Advantages and disadvantages of using PRODML. Both the operators and the
vendors benefit from the data of these standards. The operators are guaranteed a
high degree of compatibility between different vendors' software products and the
reduction of the integration costs. They are also guaranteed the improvement of
the production efficiency and cost reduction through a more efficient use of
information. With an access to more timely information, the operators will be able
to support the system working at the well better and to contribute to the
optimization of production and its internal processes. The vendors will get an
opportunity to integrate more easily their software products into the architecture
of the customer while reducing the cost of the recovery and the development.
Ultimately, the industry gets an advantage due to the improved standards
which permit the resource owners, the operators, the customers and the regulators

371
to exchange easily the data with greater operational reliability. The operators
can exchange the information and collaborate with the partners, the government and
the service providers more efficiently, ensuring the observance of the
contractual, corporate and other liabilities. There is also noted an increase in
the operation security: the possibility of remote monitoring, collaboration and
instant intervention to solve the problems are added up to a reduction of risks to
the personnel and the safer working conditions.

15.4 Standards of oil and gas data in the development - RESQML

RESQML development standard-The purpose of the standard. Modeling of the


deposits multi-stage, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary process. The
"literate" modeling requires geophysical, geological, geochemical and
petrophysical data. Up-to-data models of the tanks are sufficiently detailed, can
display important geological features, and therefore can weigh up to tens of
terabytes. Fast and high-quality data exchange is a key point in the workflow. The
problems in the absence of a single standard are:
 The data are often lost, because only part of them can be exported or
imported between different software packages;
 The Multi format data transmission is a time-consuming process requiring
that the user should have a lot of experience and patience;
 The absence of a unified standard of data storage and transmission acts
asa barrier to the introduction of new applications and the work flow integration.
The Standard allows a quick and effective exchange of data without losses
and the real-time interaction of all the E & P processes.
Extendable markup language for reservoir modeling. Standard development
(RESQML) is an extendable markup language for modeling the reservoirs. This is a
format with the extension used for storage, export /import of data. It allows you
a quick and, reliable transmit of three-dimensional models with multi-million
cells. The standard is designed by the Energistics, a global on-profit
organization, managing the open data and the standards in the development and
production of hydrocarbons. The standard has been applied since January, 2012.

372
Features of RESQML development standard. The RESQML allows us to represent
the model as a framework consisting of horizons, faults, areas of disagreement and
chronological relationships between them. The support of multiple geometric
representations of each item, including a set of points, a regular two-dimensional
grid, a triangular surface and sets of curves has been realized. The transmission
of the information on the horizons and faults does not require any communication
with the three-dimensional grid. Application of the standard ensures a quick and
easy data import / export, as regardless of the amount of information the
transmitted files will be only two, namely, the main document with the extension
and an additional one with the extension.resqml.h5; a simple updating of the
model, for example, when necessary, to transmit only a fault, or a structural
surface, not the entire model, the improved features of the grid, which operate in
the construction of multi-million-cell model, all the elements of the reservoir
have their own coordinates, and the integration with the WITSML and the PRODML,
the integration is supported with the following WITSML objects: a well, the
wellbore, a trajectory, a formation marker, a welllog; etc.

15.5 Standardization barriers in oil and gas industry

The aging of the workforce in the industry and the increased exploration and
production of oil and gas in harsh environmental conditions will raise the need of
the urgent adoption of standards. Because of the reduction of experienced
engineers working at the well sites and also the rising costs of the personnel
maintenance at these sites, the petroleum companies will rely more on their mote
data processing centers that will process the information coming from these remote
sites, require the data in standard formats and use the standard protocols to be
cost-efficient. The industry can benefit from the experience of other industries
and move straight to a standardized environment. The lagging industries are able
to develop their position by the immediate adopting of advanced technologies
rather than by replicating the previous technological arcs. Therefore, the
strategy must be built around the status of the lagging oil industry so as to use
it as an advantage. This will require that the oil industry should understand the

373
character and the driving forces of the industry and also spread the industrial
processes and technologies. An important part of adopting of standards is finding
the ways to coordinate with other firms and to set a growth strategy for the
transition from the current methods to the improved standards. Using the efforts
of contractors, operators, and governmental entities, the improvements in
reporting on the exploration and production activities a better reaction to the
world market and the environmental condition can be achieved. The compatibility of
the data allows to make better decisions - throughout all the processes, drilling
and well completion, development and production, and finally operations and
maintenance. This also will ensure the governmental bodies a better control of the
environmental impact and the production monitoring with fewer personnel.

Conclusion

The presence of standards leads to a significant increasing of the final


business results, i.e. reduction in the finance and the time on the spent work and
the increasing profits by enhancing the production of oil or gas and a more
rational utilization of mineral resources. The industry gets an advantage due to
the improved standards which permit there source owners, operators, and regulators
customers to exchange easily the data with greater operational reliability. The
operators can exchange the information and collaborate with the partners, the
government and the service companies more efficiently, ensuring the observance of
the contractual, corporate and other liabilities. There is also noted an increase
in the operations security: the possibility of remote monitoring, collaboration
and instant intervention to solve the problems are added up to a reduction of
risks to the personnel and the safer working conditions. The use of the POSC
standards enables to achieve not only a significant economic but also a
technological effect in the management of smart fields.

Acknowledgements

The fifteenth chapter has benefited the lectures of Professor Nicholai A. Eremin
"Managing the development of smart fields", "Produсtion Technology" and

374
"Technology of the management in real time," delivered at the Gubkin Russian State
University of Oil and Gas in the yr. 2008-2013., The Kazakh-British Technical
University (KBTU) JSC in 2012-13 yy., The Moscow Institute of Physics and
Technology (MIPT, Russian State University) in 2011-13 yy., respectively, as well
as coursework students and undergraduates following the above-mentioned
universities: Srebrodolskaya M., Zholmurzayeva A.B., and others.

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11. D. Pickering, L. Gryovik, D. Franssens, D. Diks, N. Doniger, A. Shei: “WITSML
attains its majority in the global industry of drilling and development”.
12. http://www.epmag.com/Technology-Digital/SPE-Intelligent-Energy-WITSML-Enables-
Multi-Vendor-Solutions_98311
13. http://www.spe.org/atce/2009/pages/schedule/documents/spe1243471_000.pdf
14. Еремин Н.А. Управление разработкой
интеллектуальных месторождений: Учеб.
пособие для вузов: В 2 кн. – Кн. 1. М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2011. – 200 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-019-9; Еремин Н.А., Еремин А.Н., Еремин А.Н.
Управление разработкой интеллектуальных
месторождений: Учеб. пособие для вузов: В 2 кн.
– Кн. 2. Учеб. пособие для вузов: М.: РГУ нефти и
газа имени И.М. Губкина, 2012. – 210 с.: ил. ISBN 978-5-
91961-329-7.

List of abbreviations

POSC – Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation; WITSML – Wellsite


Information Transmit Standards Markup Language; PRODML – Production Markup
Language; RESQML – Reservoir Characterization Markup Language; DS – Data Storage

List of figures

Fig.15.1. Requirements of data exchange in planning the operations and


propagating the wells for operations.
Fig. 15.2. Monitoring of the drilling process.
Fig. 15.3. RESQML development standard program.

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Figures to chapter 15

Fig.15.1. Requirements of data exchange in the planning works and preparation well for
operation

Рис. 15.1. Требования к обмену данными при


планировании работ и подготовке скважин к
эксплуатации

Fig. 15.2. Monitoring of drilling process

Рис. 15.2. Мониторинг процесса бурения


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Fig. 15.3. RESQML development road map

Рис. 15.3. Программа развития стандарта RESQML

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Chapter 16. High Performance computer

Abstract

In the reservoir development the oil companies faced the task of effective
extraction of raw materials. The investigations and computer simulations should be
executed before drilling of new wells, choosing the method of production for oil
and gas. The simulation of oil and gas field model and its analysis by modern
software is required before proceeding to the development in practice. The
simulation is also necessary in the working out of the measures to increase the
productivity of the existing wells, as the bad-considered actions can cause more
harm than benefit.

Keywords: 3D visualization, supercomputer, real-time regime (RTR), a database


of the extremely big data, parallel computing, high-performance computing system
(HPC), simulation, sound channel, reservoir, gigabyte system.

Introduction

In the given chapter the technology of creating of three-dimensional digital


models of oil and gas fields and the formation of the design and technical
solutions on this base is described. Presented are the basic program software
products of the world's leading Vendors that provide the given technology to
optimize which the additional algorithmic and software products are offered. The
concept of extremely big oil and gas data (Big Data), the solution of which is an
actual topic in our time of high technology has been revealed. The description is
given to the concept of a database management system in real time, the main
functions of the database in real time are enumerated. Section 3D modeling and
design includes a description of the methods and technologies for the creation of
models, their scope, goals and objectives. 3D visualization section includes the
types of the data required to create the visualization, its functions, progress of

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3D visualization over the past decades. The technology of the casing visualizer is
presented as well as its actuality and application in practice.

16.1 The concept of the problem Big Data

Big data in information technology is a series of approaches, tools and


methods for processing of structured and unstructured data of large amounts and a
significant diversity to gen the human-readable results, effective in conditions
of the continuous increase, the distribution through the numerous computer
network, formed in the late 2000s, the alternative traditional database management
systems and the solutions Business Intelligence of the class. The series includes
the means of massive and parallel processing of indefinite structured data, first
of all, the decisions of the NoSQL category, algorithms, MapReduce, software
frameworks and libraries of the Hadoop project. As the defining characteristics
for big data there are pointed "three V»: volume (Engish volume, in terms of value
of the physical volume), speed (Eng. velocity in terms of both the rate of an
increase and the need for high-speed processing and getting the results),
diversity (Eng.variety, in the sense of the possibility of simultaneous processing
of different types of structured and semi-structured data). It a most frequently
indicated as a basic principle of processing big data SN-architecture (Eng. Shared
Nothing Architecture), providing massive and parallel processing, scalable without
degradation into hundreds or thousands of processing centers. At the same time,
McKinsey, except for the NoSQL, MapReduce, Hadoop, R, technologies considered by
most analysts includes the context of applicability to handle big data and the
Business Intelligence technologies and relational database management systems with
the SQL language support. In December 2010, the ORACLE company issued the fist in
the world the open database management system in real time. For example, using the
sensors mounted on the equipment in the field, the field system can collect the
operating data and analyze the key parameters of the wells. This helps to control
the operation of a more proactive way planning the preventative servicing plan and
avoiding breakdowns of the equipment.

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The knowledge management systems allow you to record the experience of the
employees and to create "virtual experts" to manage the actions of the operators
in relatively simple situations. As a result, part of the load is removed from the
actual experts who can be engaged in more important and complex cases. In the
construction of an smart field there are its own problems. If in many new fields
the modern control equipment is installed, the older ones often provide only a
limited set of data. In fact, part of the key information, as before, it collected
in the paper. And even if the data are collected electronically, most companies
store them in the isolated computer systems, which are often difficult to
"communicate" with each other.
The solution is to find a way to integrate all the systems and to make the
technology infrastructure the source of profits, not disappointment. To be
effectively analyzed the data must be stored in one location and in a standardized
form. This will enable to avoid conflicts arising from the storage of data in the
isolated systems. A smart field is not just the data. With the help of modern
technology the original data from the field are converted into the meaningful
information, based on which, the experts can increase production, reduce costs and
optimize operations. The Oracle is a leader in the processing of big data. Figures
16.1, 16.2, 16.3 describe brief the schemes of the traditional data processing and
the processing of big data by the Oracle. [4] [10]
16.2 Systems of data base management in real time

Systems of data base management. Basic ideas of modern information


technology are based on the concept of databases (DB). The systems of data base
management in real time, in contrast to the conventional database management have
time constraints on transaction execution, that is, the data must be actual and
return at a clearly defined period of time, not to lose their value by the time
the transaction is completed. A particular type of the database management systems
in real time are the systems with a multi-level access security (Multi Level
Security), the users of whack have different levels of access and work only with
the groups of objects of a definite level of confidentiality. Such systems are
used in the ministries of defense, aviation systems and automated process of
trading in stock markets. When designing a database management system in real time

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with the MLS it is important not only to achieve the criteria of security, but
also the preservation of the existing criterion of efficiency, is the amount of
the missed deadlines.
The purpose of the systems operating in real time is the interaction with the
objects of the external (relative to the system) world in the rate of processes
taking place in these objects. This is due to the fact that the input signal in
such systems usually corresponds to, some changes in the physical process, and the
output signal (most often a process control signal) must be associated with these
changes in a certain period of time. This time is often referred to as the
response time of the system, it is used to describe the SRT. The external events
to which the system responds, in general, occur at random times. The processing of
any upcoming events is to perform a sequence of actions, in advance limited by
time frames. For example, an external event may be the availability of the data
from the asynchronously operating device, which is not directly controlled by the
operator.
The main functions of the systems of data base management in real time.
Defining the data. The database management system should allow the definition
of the data (external schemes, conceptual and internal schemes corresponding
images). For this purpose the database management system includes a language
processor for various languages of the data definitions.
Data processing. The DBMS should handle the requests of a user for the
selection and modification of the data as well. For this purpose the database
includes the components of the language processor of the data processing.
Data security and integrity. The DBMS should monitor the requests and prevent
the attempts to freak the security and integrity.
Data recovery and duplication. The DBMS should provide the data recovery
after disturbances.
Data Dictionary. The DBMS must provide a function of the data dictionary. The
dictionary can be considered as a system database that contains the information
about the data of the user’s database, that is, contains definitions of other
objects in the system. The dictionary is integrated into the database defined by
it and, therefore, contains a description of itself.
Performance. The DBMS must function at the peak performance.
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Usually the modern database management system contains the following
components: nucleus, which is responsible for data management in the external and
operative memory and logging; CPU database language that optimizes the requests to
retrieve and update the data, and to create, as a rule, the machine-independent
executable native code; the subsystem of the support of the execution time that
interprets the programs of the data manipulation, creating a user’s interface
with a DBMS; as well as the utilities (external utilities), providing a number of
options for the maintenance of the information system.
Means of database organization. The database management enables organize the
operation with the remote offices within a single information space in order to
obtain the information about the state of affairs in the geographically remote
subdivisions of the organization, and for the employees to obtain promptly the
necessary information from the central computer. The requirements for the
database: the monitoring of the integrity of the transmitted data; the use of
various communication channels; the ensuring the efficient loading of the whole
system; a completeness of the data, representing that is, the data in the database
should adequately represent all the information about the object and they should
be sufficient for the data processing systems; the insurance of the preservation
of the information when processing it; the provision of the access to data; the
integrity of the database, that is, the data must be stored in their processing by
the data processing systems; the flexibility of the data structure, that is the DB
should allow to change the data structure without disturbing its integrity and
completeness when outer conditions change; the feasibility. There should be an
objective presentation of a variety of objects, their properties and relations;
the availability, that is, the database must provide a differentiated access of
the users to the data.
The DBMS processes the information that is in the database. It must meet the
following requirements:
1. data independence, flexibility, data protection;
2. a position to support both centralized and distributed database;
3. to protect the database from the mismatch in the mode of public access.
The main tools in the database management systems are: job descriptions of
the database structure; the construction of the screen forms for data entry,

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viewing and processing in on-line; the tools for creating the requests to retrieve
the data under specified conditions; means of reporting from the database to print
the processing results in the user is form; means of reporting from the database
to print the processing results in a user’s form; the language tools - macros,
built in algorithmic language (Dbase, Visual Basic, etc.), a request language
(SQL), etc.; the tools for creating the user’s applications (application
generator, tools for creating menus and control panel applications) that enable to
fix various operations with the database in a single process.
The database management system can have the including or basic programming
language. In the DBMS with the host language its own algorithmic language, is used
allowing except the data manipulation operations to perform various calculations
and data processing. The standard relational request language is a SQL structured
request language [2], [4].

16.3 Supercomputer in modeling

The year 1976 can perhaps be called beginning of the era of supercomputers,
when the first Cray vector system 1 appeared. Working with a limited set of
applications at that time, the Cray 1 showed such impressive results when compared
to the conventional systems, that it deserved the name "supercomputer" and
determined the development of the industry of high-tech performance computing for
many years. But more than two decades of the joint evolution of the architectures
and the software systems on the market there appeared the systems with radically
different characteristics, so the concept of the "supercomputer" became a multi-
valued and had to be revised repeatedly.
The attempts to define a supercomputer relying only on the performance have
led to the need to continually raise the bar that separates it from a workstation
or even from a common desktop computer. Only in the last 15 years, conditions have
been changed several times. By definition, of the Oxford Dictionary of Computer
Science in 1986, in order to get this proud name, the capacity should be of 10
Mflops (millions of operations with a floating comma per second). In the early
90's the mark of 200 Mflops, was overcome followed by 1 GFLOPS.

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Oil, gas and supercomputers. The efficiency of operations in the oil and gas
industry is directly related to the use of powerful supercomputers to solve large-
scale computational tasks ensuring the quality of the search and exploration of
oil and gas fields, the increase of the productivity of the existing wells and the
reduction of environmental damage in their development. Nowadays all over the
world everyone is well aware that the improved efficiency of oil and gas industry
is directly dependent on the power of the applied high by efficient computing
systems. Out of 500 most powerful supercomputers in the world their application in
geophysics by oil and gas service companies in exploration, prospecting and
development tanks third in the use. In order to find and develop oil and gas
fields effectively, the geophysicists analyze the results of applying various
physical methods of remote sensing data jointly with the data of prospecting,
exploration and production wells, as well as diverse geological information.
Among the geophysical research methods seismic, electromagnetic and
gravitational can be noted. At present the seismic exploration in, the search for
oil and gas, is mainly used. The idea of the method is that on the earth surface
(or the sea surface) the artificial, for example, by explosion elastic waves, are
stimulated which are then recorded on the earth surface by the geophones, special
devices. The waves reflected from the boundaries of the rocks with different
physical properties carry the information about these properties.
The process of extracting informatio