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Narthang

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63.3(5)
89

89

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ISBN 9785-901941-23-2
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63.3(5)

C.. , 2010
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ISBN 9785-901941-23-2

................................................................................................. 5
1. ............................................ 7
2. ...............................................................14
3. .......................................................................45
4. .................................................... 86
5. ....................................................................... 113
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7. ................................. 163
8. .................. 211
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Halperin et al., 1998, p.237437.
Wu et al., 2005, p.598604.
Niermeyer et al., 1995, p.12481252; Wiley, 2004.
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, 2003. . 129.
Berzin, 2000.

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7

.. ...
, , 2005.
Smith, 1996, p.117.

50

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Ya Hanzhang, 1994, p. 73 . : , , 2005.


, 2003.
, 1996.
, , 2005.
Kolmas, 1967.

3.

51

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, 2003.
, , 2005.
, 2003, . 146.

52

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., .: The rebel Dalai Lama...


, , 2005.
: ....
Tibet and Manchu, 2008, p.1920.
, , 2005.

3.

53

. . 1718 . . -
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, 2003, . 149.
, 2001, . 168.
, 2003, . 150.
Smith, 1996, p.126.

54

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-).
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1
2
3
4
5
6
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, , 2005.
, 2001.
, 2003.
, 2001, . 176.
Smith, 1996, p.126.
.
, , 2005.

3.

55

.
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56

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, 2003, . 158
, 2003, . 160.

3.

57

.3
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, 1981, . 13.
, 1993 . .: , , 2005. ,
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5
, 2003.
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, 2003.
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, 2003, . 163.
8
, 1994.
4

58

.. .

, .
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1
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, 1972 . : , , 2005.
: , 2001, . 40.

3.

59

:
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1783 . . , .6 . - VIII,
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.
1775 . , ,
. , 3
4
5
6

Tibet and Manchu, 2008, p.45.


A 60-point commentary...
Tibet and Manchu, 2009, p.59.
Ran, 1991.

60

.. .

.1 .
, -, .
- .
. .
,
.
. , .
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1
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, , 2005.
, 2003.
, 2003.

3.

61

, . ,
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. ,
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6
7
8

, 2003.
, 2003.
, 2003.
, 2003.
, 1978.

62

.. .

, : , , , ... , -, ,
.
,
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-. :

1
2
3
4

Ya Han Chang, 1991 . : : , 1993.


, 2003.
, 2003.
Ya Han Chang, 1991 . : : , 1993.

3.

63

.5
1792 . , , .6

: .
. . .
. . ,
. , , ,
,
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39 .7
- - ( 1822, 1841, 1857, 1858
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(. 10). , , - IX,
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.

, .
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5
6
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, 2003.
, 2003, . 119.
, 2003, . 121122.

64

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. , 1796 . ,
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.

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1
2
3

, 2003.
, 2003.
, 2003.

3.

65


, 1814 .4
, , . 1807 . .5
.
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: , , . 1832 .
. 1834 . .

-
.
XIX .
.
.
, .6 ,
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,
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, .7 .

. XIX . - , ,
. .
. . , 1839 .
, .

. , ,
.
.
, (), 4
5
6
7

Yeh, 2003, p.499523.


, 2003; Smith, 1995, p.137138.
, , 2005.
Van Walt, 1987.

66

.. .

.
, .
, 1841 .
. , ,
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.
1814, 1840, 1842 1846 . . :
. 1852 . .
1853 .
, 1
2
3

, 2003.
, 2004.
, , 2005.

3.

67

. , 1855 .
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,
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.
, .
1862 1871 .
, 1871 1873 . .
4
5
6
7

Tibet and Manchu, 2008, p.65.


, , 2005.
., ., , 1985.
...

68

.. .


- II. ,
1875 . .
XIX . , .. , ,
,
.1
, . 1863
1877 ., , , . .
. XIX .
,
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.
, . ,
,
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.5 , . . 1887 . - -,
.. ,
. 1860- . , .
.6 , .
.
, 1
2
3
4
5
6

Van Walt, 1987.


Smith, 1996, p.141.
, 1901; . 1906.
, 2003.
, 1956.
, 2003.

3.

69

. ,
20 .
. ,
.
1876 .
, .
.7 , . , , , , 1858 .,
,
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,
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.
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, - 1890 .
: .
,
, . . ,
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1720 .11
1895 . - III (18761933). .
- .
7

Van Walt, 1987.


, 1992; , 2003.
9
, 1906.
10
, 2003.
11
., ., , 1906.
8

70

.. .


.1
,
.
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. -
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,
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. ,
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1
2
3
4
5

, 1906.
, , 2005.
., , 1893, . 183215.
Van Walt, 1987.
- , 1891, . 151.

3.

71

, ,
(
).

, .
,
.
. ,
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XI . . -
(18541938), -
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. 1902 . -
, . 1902 .
.8 , 1902 . ,
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,
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.9 , . , , . ,

.
6
7
8
9

. : , 2003.
Bell, 1992, p.62.
Shaumian, 2000.
Shaumian, 2000.

72

.. .

, ,
1890 ., .1 , .
2 1903 .
, ,
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()
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, 8
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.
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.
6 1903 . .
1903 ., , , - .4
1
2
3
4

Shaumian, 2000.
Shaumian, 2000.
Shaumian, 2000.
, 1906, . 3749.

3.

73

(, 1906)

.. , . 1903 . VII. , .
: , ,
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. 1904 . .

. 500 , 300
, . , , , .
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74

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.
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. - . 27
1904 . . ( -)
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1
2
3
4
5
6

, 2003, . 225.
, 1906, . 203.
Ran, 1991, p.12.
, 1906, . 195.
, 1906, . 248249.
, 2003, . 227.

3.

75

. - ,
.
II.
.. .7 - ,
.
.8 -

,
.
,
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,

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.
, .
. , 7

, 2004.
Laird, 2006, p.225.
9
.: , , 2009, . 5964.
10
, , 2000, .37.
11
, 1996, . 138.
8

.. .

76

- XIII,
(, 1906)

- .
-, .1 ,
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-.
. . , , : .

-, .2 ,
, 7 1904 .
. .
,
, - 1890 . 1893 ., , 500 . ,
.3 . 9

1
2
3

Shaumian, 2000.
.: , 1906, . 342.
, 1906; , , 2005.

3.

77

, ,
,
.4 . . 5 ( )
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,
, . 3 1906 . . 6 1914 . 5 ,
.
, .
. 200 , . .
, , , . ,
.
23
1904 ., ,
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,
.
. .
1904 ., - , VII .. ( )
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: , .7

: . , II, .

4
5
6
7

Van Walt, 1987, p.35.


, 2003.
Shaumian, 2000.
, 2006.

78

.. .

-. 1905 . , , .
. 27 1906 . , . ,
. , .1
-
. ,
- .2
31 1907 .
, .
, , .

.
, .
.
. ,
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, . ,
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, .5
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-) .7 1904 .
, ,
1

Lamb, 1966, p.301 . : Van Walt, 1987, p.38.


Political & Secret les of the India Oce, London/10/147, Bell to Government of India, 16
May 1910, Inclosure Tsongdu to Bell . : Van Walt, 1987, p.38.
3
Van Walt, 1987.
4
, , 1975.
5
Sperling, 2003, p.70.
6
, 1947.
7
Sperling, 2003, p.70.
2

3.

79

, .
, .
. .

, . , .
:
, , ,
.
1905 . . , . , , - .
, .8 ,
1905 . -
. 7500 . 322
.9 , .
. ,
. , .
, ,
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-.11
. . .12 1906 . 43 .
-,
, , ,
,
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.14 1907 . 8

Sperling, 2003, p.7375.


, 2003, . 237.
10
, 1956.
11
, 2003, . 238239.
12
Kolmas, 1967.
13
Kolmas, 1967; Sperling, 2003.
14
, , 2005.
9

80

.. .

. 1907 1908 .
.1
. .
1908 ., 1906 .,
,
. .. , .2
: - , .3
,
, , , .

. .4
, .5
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.
II, -
, . .6
.
, . ,
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. 1906 .
, .

, .7 - . 27 1908 . ,
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Shaumian, 2000.
, 2005.
Shaumian, 2000.
, 2003, . 238.
Van Walt, 1987.
, 2006, . 420.
, 2003.

3.

81

, . - .8 ,
, , - . -
,
.9 - , , , .10
,
.
, , , - .11
.
, . , ,
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.
15
, .13 -
, (
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. , , ,
.
1908 . - .
,
. 1909 .
8

Smith, 1996, p.166; , 2006.


, 1985, . 256.
10
, 2006.
11
, 2003.
12
, 1985.
13
...
14
Smith, 1996, p.167.
9

82

.. .

, 1908 .1 .
15 .
, 200
.
.2 1910 . () (120 ) ,
.
, ( ).
1909 . - . , . ,
. 1 . .3 , , . 1910 .
2700 . - .
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, . ,
-, .
25 1910 . , - ,
, .5 ,

,
,
. , , ,
- -

1
2
3
4
5

, 2003.
Shaumian, 2000.
Van Walt, 1987.
, 2003.
.: , 2005, . 135137.

3.

83

. :
, .
,
-,
.6
() ,
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- IX.
-, . .
, :
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.
.
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.9
1910 . - III ,

1904 .10 ,
,
. 1910 . .. , 1912 . .. . - II,
6

, 2005, . 143.
Bell, 1992, p.114.
8
Van Walt, 1987.
9
, 2003, . 249250.
10
, 2003.
7

.. .

84

.1 , ,
. , , -
.

, . 19061910 . .. .
.. .
. , , : .
, . ,
.

* * *
. .
XIX ., .
19031904 .
. ,
,
. . ,
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.
. ..
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,
.
1
2
3

.: , 2005, . 166167.
Van Walt, 1987, p.39.
, 2006.

3.

85

. ,
. (, .) , .
, .
, -
.
( ), .
.

1911 . , . . ,
.1 .2 , ,
,
. 1911 . , ,
. , 250 .
. -
, .
. 1912 . , .
, 14361444 . 1917 .
, .

: . .
. .3
, . , .
.
. . 8 19
1912 . . ,
, 1
2
3

Macdonald, 1932.
, 2003, . 251.
, , 2005.

4.

87

.
20 . .
4 1912 . . :4 1. . 2.
200 . 3. . 4. . 5. ,
, . 500
.

.5 , - . 14 , 16 .
,
. 6 1913 . ,
, . 1913 .
. 1914 .
.
1912 . . 8 1912 . ,

:6
, , ,
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,
,
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<...>
4
5
6

, 1992.
Van Walt, 1987.
.: , 2005, . 178179.

88

.. .

, , , , .
,
, - . , . .
,
.

. , .1 ,
. .
, - , -
.2
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- ( ) 29 1911 . . - . , ,
,
, . ,
, ,
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11 1913 . - , ,
, , , ,
,
...
.4 -
- .
, , , , 1
2
3
4

China can not have Tibet, 1912.


, 2003, . 259.
. : , 1999, . 103.
Van Walt, 1987, p.320321.

4.

89

, . - .
.. .
.5 - . -

. .
,
. .
23 1913 . - III . . , :6
, -, ,
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.
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.
.
.
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.
,
.
.
. . , ,
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5
6

, , 2005.
. : , 2003, . 260262.

90

.. .

,
:
(1) .
,
, , .
(2) .
, . ,
, , , () .
(3) , , , .
,
,

, . ,
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.
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, . , ,
. . .

. .

4.

91

, , .
, .
, .
1951 . .1 ,
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, , , .
-
.
, .3
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. 3 1913 . . , .
, ,
.
, :4
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.
. - . . : ,
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.5
, ,
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.
1
2
3
4
5

Shakya, 1999.
Ya Hanzhang, 1993 . : , , 2005.
, , 2005.
, 2003, . 267.
Van Walt, 1987.

92

.. .

, .
. .1
- . . 24 25 1914 . , .
27 1914 . , , . . 2 : , ,
,
, (
-),
.
. - .2
300 .
. . 9 ,
( ) , .
, ,
: . , 90 .
- .3
, .
.

3 1914 . : , , ,

; , ,
, , .4 , ,
, - :
, .
1
2
3
4

, 2003, . 268.
, 1992, . 265267.
Ran, 1991.
Van Walt, 1987, p.58.

4.

93

. , . 1914 . (
), ( ) , .
.
- ,
.
. ,
,
, , .
.. ,

1907 . ,
.5 , , , , .
. ,
.
6 1916 . , . .
,
. 1917 .
.6
(1886
1959), .
, .
, . , .7
1917 . ,
16 1918 . , 1918 .
() . 19 1918 .
.
. . ().
, 5
6
7

, 2006.
, , 2005.
Bell, 1992, p.193.

94

.. .

, . ,
. 10 1918 .

31 .
1919 . , . .
,
. 1920 . ,
.
, . 1919 .
, --
1915 .
. ( ) ,
. ,
.
.1
1920 . .. -.
,
, -
VIII. ,
, . ,
, . -; .
, . .
1920 . , , .2
, . 1921 .
. , , .
1921 . 1- . , 2-

1
2

Van Walt, 1987.


, 2009, . 294.

4.

95

1922 ., , .3
. .4 ,
. ,
, . . ,
, .
. , III
. .
(. 6). ,
, . , ( ), ( ), - ( ) .
, -.
.5
, , , . , ...
,
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.6 - . ,
, 1925 . . . .
, .7
, , .
.
. , 1927 . .. , .
.. , , 3
4
5
6
7

. : Van Walt, 1987, p.88.


.: , 2007, . 90109.
, 2004.
, 2006.
, 2003.

96

.. .

. .. - V ,
- , , ,
.1
, . ,
.
1920- . . 1921 .
, .2
,
. . ,
. .
1924 . .. , , .
. .. . .
1020 .
. 1925 .

, 1926 . . - III .
. , .
- VIII. , - ,

. 1930- . -
, - .3
- .
, . , , .
1928 . .

. 1914 .
(
, 1912 .). , , - III.
1
2
3

, 2006, 2008.
Van Walt, 1987.
, 2006.

4.

97

.4 , -. 1928 1930 .
-, 1933 . 5.
:
- IX . - ,
.6
-
.
,
. -

.7 , .
1930 .
. -,
1932 .
. , .
, , .
. , .8
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Survey of Tibet Autonomous Region, 1984 . : : , 1993.
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Promises and lies, 2001.
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Promises and lies, 2001.
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Promises and lies, 2001
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7.

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Promises and lies, 2001.
Le, 1985 . : Goldstein, 2007, p.225226.
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: , 1993.
, 2003; Promises and lies, 2001
-, 1992, 2000.

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Goldstein, 2007, p.352.
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Goldstein, 2007, p. 309310.
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7.

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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.3940.
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. : Tibet: 19501967. 1968, p.491.
Goldstein, 2007, p.181184.
Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.3637.
Shakya, 1999, p.134.
Norbu, 1999, p. 112121.

7.

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, , 2005.
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Andrugzang, 1973, p.11.
, 2000, . 318.
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Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic, 1960.


, 2000, . 318.
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, 2000, . 318.
Shakya, 1999, p.143.
Secret: CTC releases documents...

8.

213


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Wang et al., 1997, p.232.
9
, 2000, . 318.
10
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11
Shakya, 1997.
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8

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6
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, 06.09.1956, National Archives 793B.00/9656 . : Smith,
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Norbu, 2006.
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Andrugtsang, 1973.
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Smith, 1996, p.407.
8
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-, 1992.
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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.3738.
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The Question of Tibet, 1959, p.38.
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, 2000, . 319.
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Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic, 1960, p.4344.


Smith, 1996, p.404.
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Trikamdas, 4 June 1959.
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Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic, 1960, p.196
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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.4849.
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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.55.
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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.6266; National uprising...
Brief introduction of Chushi Gangdruk...
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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.91.
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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.7273.
Brief introduction of Chushi Gangdruk...
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.. .

230

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Andrugtsang, 1973, p.7091 .


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231

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Ling, 1964, p.322, 332.


. : Tibet: 19501967. 1968, p.322323.
Smith, 1996, p. 442443.
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The Question of Tibet, 1959, p.4143.
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Norbu J. March winds...


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. : Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...


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-, 2000.
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, 2003
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.. .

236

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(DIIR Archive, Central Tibetan Administration)

, .1 , , . 1958 . , -.
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The Question of Tibet, 1959, p.13.


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5
6
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8
9

Jiang Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...


.: , 1959, . 187190.
, , 2005.
Shakya, 1999, p.194.
, 1978.

238

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.: , 1959, . 3035.
Wang et al., 1997.
Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...
, 1978.
Norbu J. March winds...
Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...
Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.21.

8.

239

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Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.52.


, 2003.
10
Liu M. When heaven shed blood...
11
Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...
12
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.5.
13
.
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14
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.45.
9

240

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Norbu J. March winds...


Norbu J. March winds...
, , 2005.
-, 1992, 2000.
Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.2931.
Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...
Shakya, 1999, p.203204.
Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.53.
Phuntsok, 1992.

8.

241

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Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...


Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.31.
, 2005, . 178.
. : Smith, 1996, p.451.
Khetsun, 2008.
Smith, 1996, p.452.

242

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1
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, 1959.
Shakya, 1999, p.204.
Wang et al., 1997, p.246247.
Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...
His Holiness the Panchen Lama...
Shakya, 1999, p.201202.
Andrugtsang, 1973, p.102103.

8.

243

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8

Ji Youcuan, 1993, p.87 . : Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion.., p.91.


Smith, 1996, p.480482.
10
.: , 1959, . 13.
11
, 1959, . 1
12
, 1959, . 417.
13
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9

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8.

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, 1959, . 195197.
, 2000, . 323.
, 2003.
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246

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6
Ji Youquan, 1993; Knaus, 1999 . : Blondeau, Buetrille, 2008, p.89.
7
, 1978.
8
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9
His Holiness's Middle Way Approach...
10
, 2003.
2

8.

247

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Norbu, 1999, p.156157.
14
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15
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248

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Wang et al., 1997, p.249.


Panchen Lama, 1997, p.100.
, 2004.
Norbu, 2006.
Sonam, 2007.

8.

249

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, 1984.
Brief introduction of Chushi Gangdruk...
Sonam, 2007.
., 1975.
Van Walt, 1987.
Wang et al., 1997.

8.

251

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8

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, 2001 (2), . 99.


Jian Ch. The Tibetan rebellion...
, 1980, . 48.
, 1980, . 121.
, 1959.

8.

253

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Shakya, 1999, p.244245.


, 1959, . 67.
8
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11
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.37.
7

254

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Tibet: 19501967. 1968, p.388389.


Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.6364.
Shakya, 1999, p.245.
.. ...
Shakya, 1999, p.256.
Shakya, 1999, p.250253.
Smith, 1996, p.472473.

8.

255

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, 1978.
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Knuth, 2003, p.220.
11
, 2006, . 97.
12
Tibet: a Human Development, 2007.
13
Smith, 1996, p.477478.
14
., ., , , 2007.
9

256

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Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic, 1960, p.33.


Shakya, 1999, p.248, 257.
Tibet: 19501967. 1968, p.396.
, 1978.
Goldstein et al., 2009, p.74.
, 2000, . 327.

8.

257

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Panchen Lama, 1997, p.110.


, 1978.
9
., 1975.
10
. . ...
11
., Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.84, 94.
12
Smith, 1996, p.488.
13
Sautman, 2008, p.239.
14
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.2627, 30, 112113.
8

258

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8.

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Yang, 1996 . : Blondeau, Buetrille, 2008, p.143.


Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.56.
Tibet, 2007.
Panchen Lama, 1997.
Smith, 1996, p.472473.

260

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Barnett, 1997, p.xvii.

8.

261

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His Holiness the Panchen Lama...


Panchen Lama, 1997, p.64.
Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.9092; Khetsun, 2008.
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.13.
Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.6671.

262

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Shakya, 1999.
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.37.

8.

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. : , , 2007, . 255.
.: Samsara, a Tibetan human rights archive...

264

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Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.79.


Victim of Chinese torture...
Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.6880.

8.

265

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: , 1993.
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Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.9396.
Khetsun, 2008.
His Holiness the Panchen Lama...

266

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1

Shakya, 2002.
Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.96.
3 , 1952, .4459, 70, 72.
4
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2

8.

267

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Panchen Lama, 1997.


Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.121.
7
Norbu, 1999, p. 186187.
8
., Parenti M. Friendly feudalism...
9
Tibet Under Chinese..., 1976, p.56, 88.
10
, 1962, . 4143.
6

268

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, 1962, . 5564.

8.

269

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700, 1200 400.
1980 ., - .8
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1

Shakya Ts. Tibet and China...


Panchen Lama, 1997, p.40.
3
Ling, 1964.
4
. : Smith, 1996, p.474.
5
., Brieng paper...
6
Harris, . : Kolas, Thowsen, 2005, p.46.
7
Strong, 1959.
8
2001 . 800 (, , 2005).
9
Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.7275; Puntshok, 1998, p.24.
10
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.52.
2

8.

271

2500 , . 70 .
97%. , , .
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, 1976, . 272.
, 1962, . 14.
Parenti M. Friendly feudalism...
., 1975.
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.4950.

272

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Panchen Lama, 1997, p.5455.

8.

273

, .
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Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.56.


Ely M. The true story...
Puntshok, 1998, p.2226.
Smith, 2008.
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.5051.

274

.. .

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: , 1993.
Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.80; Smith, 2008, p.116; Smith W. Congressional panel...

8.

275

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Panchen Lama, 1997, p.5657.
5
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6
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.5758.
4

276

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Panchen Lama, 1997.


Panchen Lama, 1997, p.6566.
3
Puntshok, 1998.
4
: , 1993.
5
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6
Puntshok, 1998, p.24.
2

8.

277

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8.

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-, 1992, . 234.
Norbu, 1999.
Shakya, 1999, p.298299.

8.

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8
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9
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Shakya, 1999, p.306.
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Tibet: 19501967. 1968, p.493, 518.


Shakya, 1999, p.304.
: , 1993.
., ., , 2008, . 200208.
-, 1995, . 24.
, 1978.

8.

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Taklha, 2001, p.92.

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-, 1992, . 182.
, 1976, 1978.
Panchen Lama, 1997, p.98.

8.

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Smith, 2008, p.125131.
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Laird, 2006, p.4041.
, 2004, . 283.

9.

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Smith, 2008, p.129132.
Laird, 2006, p.346.

296

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Shakya, 1999, p.512.

9.

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Ho, 2006, p.6971.
. : , 1980, . 203204.
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3
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Smith, 2008, p.129130.

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(Woeser, 2006/permission from Woeser)

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. 1966 .
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, 2004.
Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.178.
Kalovski I. The true face...
Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.162.

9.

301

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Norbu, 1999, p. 275; Tibet: 19501967. 1968, p.607.

9.

303

1966 . (Woeser, 2006/permission from Woeser).


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Shakya, 1999, p.322.
His Holiness the Panchen Lama....
Hilton, 1999, p.162 . : ( ).

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Thinley, 1996, p.2124.


, 2004.

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Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.135137; Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.117120.
Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.112116.

306

.. .

1966 . (Woeser, 2006/permission from Woeser). , ,


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,

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Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.127128.


, 1970, . 40.

9.

307

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,

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Smith, 1996, p.561.

.. .

308

, 1993 .
(DIIR Archive, Central Tibetan Administration)

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Tsering, 1985, p.1415.


: , 1993.
Buttereld, 1979.

9.

309

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permission from Woeser):
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Tibet 2002.
Norbu, 1999.

9.

311


(Woeser, 2006/permission from Woeser)

312

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.. ...
, 1995, p.14.
Panchen Lama X. The Panchen Lama's Last Speech...
Tibet: 19501967. 1968, p.609.

9.

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The lost kingdom of Guge...


Govinda, 2002, p.153183.

9.

315

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, .

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Knuth, 2003, p.220 .. Kewley, 1990, Aldridge, 1999, Harrer, 1985 .;
...
5
Smith, 2008, p.126.
4

316

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9.

317

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(: Alex Catanese); 4 (: Jose Ignacio Cabezon); 5 (:
Alex Catanese); 6 (: Alex Catanese).

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Smith, 2008.
Smith, 2008.
...
Smith, 2008, p.114, 545.
Ribhur Tulku, 1988, p.112.
Smith, 2008, p.116117.

9.

319

( .: Shiyou Ching Rhru Thea


) 5 600 . .7 1973 .
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Ribhur Tulku, 1988.


Smith, 2008, p.116117.

320

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Wren, 1983.
Laird, 2006.
Smith, 2008, p.116.
...
, 2004.

9.

321

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, 1970, . 245.
Goldstein et al., 2009.
8
Goldstein et al., 2009.
9
Founding of Tibet's Revolutionary Rebels Red Guards, December 1966 . :
Kalovski I. The true face...
10
, 1970, . 149150.
11
, 1978.
12
, 1978; Goldstein et al., 2009.
7

322

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1
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Shakya, 1999, p.328.


Goldstein et al., 2009.
, 1978.

9.

323

.4 . , 1966 . 1967 .
15 3 . .5
38 .
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, .6
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,
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165 .10
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, 1978.
Goldstein et al., 2009.
6
Shakya, 1999, p.336337.
7
, 1978.
8
Shakya, 1999, p.341.
9
Goldstein et al., 2009.
10
Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.123.
5

324

.. .

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Goldstein et al., 2009.


, 1978.
.: Goldstein et al., 2009, p. 5257.

9.

325


. .
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5
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8

Van Walt, 1987.


, 1978.
Goldstein et al., 2009, p.9091.
Goldstein et al., 2009, p.64, 172181.
Smith, 1994, p.68.

326

.. .

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.
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Goldstein, 1994, p.9495.


...
, 1978.
Shakya, 1999, p.308310.
Tibet: a Human Development, 2007.
Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.132133.

9.

327

, . 1968 . . . .

. 1968 1973 .7 ,
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.
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: , 1993.
Shakya, 1999, p.311.
9
, 1962, . 168170.
10
, 1978.
11
1974 ., 1977.
12
, 1996; Tenpa Soepa, 2008, p.133134.
8

328

.. .

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Tibet Under Chinese, 1976.


, 1978.
, 1978.
- ...
, 2001.

9.

329

. <...> ! -
!6
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- . . 1969 ., 60 100
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19711975 . 1200 6

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, 1969; ...; http://www.damanski-zhenbao.ru/.
8
Tibet Under Chinese, 1976, p.124.
9
Shakya, 1999, p.376.
10
., 1975.
11
, 16.11.1977 . : , 1996, . 8.
12
, , 2005.
13
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7

330

.. .

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2
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Smith, 2008.
Blondeau, Buetrille, 2008, p.227228.
., 1975; , 1978.
Hsin, 1972, p.22.
1975 ., 1978.
, , 1971, . 142148.

9.

331

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Shakya, 1999.
, 1978.
p.: Goldstein et al., 2009; Shakya, 1999; Shakya Ts. Blood in the snows...
, , 2005.

9.

333


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Shakya, 1999, p.516.


...
, 1977, . 210.
Questions pertaining to Tibet...
. ...

9.

335


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Great Changes, 1972, ..; , 2004, . 373.
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10
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336

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., Baker M. 2007.
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, 1966, . 121.
, 2005, . 118119.
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. ...
., Sautman B. How repressive...; The myth of Tibet...

9.

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Department of Population...
, 1923, . 413.
Sautman, 2008, p.240.
Bell, 1992.
, 2004, . 35.
Secret: CTC releases documents...
. : Yan Hao, 2000, p.14.
Yan Hao, 2000.

9.

339

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. : Sautman, 2008, p.238.
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, 2004, . 408414; French, 2008.
10

340

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2
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The population atlas of China, 1987 . : Norbu, 2003, p.612.


. : Source list...
, 1978.
Yan Hao, 2000.
, , 1993 . : Yan Hao, 2000.

9.

341

3,848 . ( 53,86%). , ,
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Sautman, 2008, p.241242.


Becker, 1996, . : Blondeau, Buetrille, 2008, p.89.
His Holiness the Panchen Lama...

342

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Panchen Lama, 1997, p.xv-xvi.


Parenti M. Friendly feudalism...
Sautman, 2008, p.245246.

9.

343

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Blondeau, Buetrille, 2008, p.73.

9.

345

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10.

351

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Smith, 1996, p.569.
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Smith, 1996, p.582583.


Shakya, 2002.
Karmel S.M. Ethnic tension...
Shakya, 1999.
His Holiness the Panchen Lamas Warning to China...

10.

353

1959 . , . ,
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354

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, , 2005.
Gyalo Thondup reconrms Deng Xiaopings oer...
-, 1992, . 230231.
Smith, 1996, p.567.
-, 1992, . 230231.
: , 1993; Tibet 2002.

10.

355

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8

356

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.: Worldwide Tibet Movement...


-, 1992, . 248.

10.

357

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358

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10.

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: , 1993.
Tibetan exile monasteries...
Decision of History, 2008, p.3.

360

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, 2007.

10.

361

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The New Times, 2008.
7
: , 1993; Smith, 1996, p.617.
8
Events in Lhasa March 2nd-10th 1989, Tang Daxian, London: TIN, 1990, June 15 .
: : , 1993.
9
...
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362

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: , 1993.
Marshall, 1999, p.6 . : , 2001.
Behind bars: prison conditions in Tibet...
Atmosphere of martial law ...
A Tibetan arrested in Lithang...
. .

10.

363

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2007; . ...


8
.: Uprising in Tibet 2008...
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Uprising in Tibet 2008, p.103.
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10.

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Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2008, p.2130.
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.: Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2008, p.102104.
4
.: Human Rights Situation in Tibet: Annual Report 2008, p.117118.
5
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10.

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10.

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Tibet: a Human Development, 2007.
10

418

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Tibet: a Human Development, 2007.

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. : , 1979, . 166.
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, 1979, . 206.
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11. ?

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Van Walt, 1987.


List of tributaries of Imperial China...
, 1912.
Esherick, 2006, p.232.

11. ?

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11. ?

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11. ?

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11. ?

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Zhao Suisheng, 2004, p.215240.
, 2005.

484

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Sperling, 2004.
, 2003.
Maps of Tibet, 2008.
: ...

11. ?

485

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Van Walt, 1987.


Van Walt, 1987.
Sperling, 2004; The Mongols and Tibet, 2009.
A 60-point commentary...

11. ?

487

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The Mongols and Tibet, 2009, p.34 and map.
Van Walt, 1987.

488

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.: Laird, 2006, p.170.
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490

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, 2005, . 114116.
, , 2005.
A 60-point commentary...

11. ?

491

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, 2008, . 4146.
, 2003, . 125.
A 60 point commentary...
.: A 60-point commentary...

492

.. .

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, 2003.
Van Walt, 1987.
Van Walt, 1987.
Goldstein, 2003, p.536.

11. ?

493

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Bell, 1992, p.215.


Van Walt, 1987, p.32.
7
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Van Walt, 1987.
9
Van Walt, 1987.
10
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6

494

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Van Walt, 1987.
...

11. ?

495

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Van Walt, 1987.
...

11. ?

497

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, 2000, . 31.
, 2008, . 4146.
, 2000, . 450.

498

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, , 2008, . 6886; Kuzmin, in press.


Van Walt, 1987.

11. ?

499

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Van Walt, 1987.


Van Walt, 1987.
...
Van Walt, 1987, p.154.
Van Walt, 1987, p.153155.

500

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Van Walt, 1987.


U.N. Doc. A/CONF. 39/27 (1969), 8.I.L.M. 679 (1969). Done at Vienna on 23 May 1969,
entered into force on 27 January 1980 . : Van Walt, 2007, p.98.
3
. : Van Walt, 1987, p.153.
4
Van Walt, 1987.
2

11. ?

501

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His Holiness's Middle Way Approach...


Smith, 1996, p.320.
Song, 2007, p.3940.

502

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11. ?

503

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Van Walt, 1987.


: , 1993.
4
Session on Tibet: Verdict. Permanent Tribunal of Peoples. Strasbourg. 1992. 20 Nov., p.15,
23 . : : , 1993.
5
International Lawyers' Statement on Tibet. London, 1993, 10 Jan., . 68 . : :
, 1993.
3

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Van Walt, 1987, p.188.

11. ?

505

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A 60-point commentary...
, 2009, . 36.
Van Walt, 1987.

506

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11. ?

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Tibet: the international mistake...

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Palden Gyatso, 1997, p.13.


Norbu, 1998, p.2426.

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Panchen Lama, 1997, p. 6970, 52.

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SUMMARY
Hidden Tibet. History of Independence and Occupation. Sergius L. Kuzmin. 2010.
St. Petersburg, Narthang. Tibet is a land of mysteries. They are not only in religion
and occultism: its history remains hidden in a large part. This book disproves some
erroneous views on history and religion of the Tibetans. Tibet has never been a
part of any other state. At the time when China was an inseparable part of Mongolian Yuan Empire and Manchu Qing Empire, Tibet was a separate country but
not a part of these empires. It was not a part of Chinese Tang and Ming empires.
Statements that Tibet was a part of neighboring empires is related to ancient Chinese conception of the emperor's global power. Its principles are being wrongfully
transferred onto a nation state model in post-revolution China. Inclusion of Tibet
into the People's Republic of China was not legitimate. Tibet is an occupied country. The book traces history of the Tibetan statehood from ancient times to our
days, describes life of the Tibetans at the times of Feudalism and Socialism, coercive inclusion of Tibet into People's Republic of China, suppression of national
liberation movement, destruction of civilization of the Tibetans, Cultural Revolution and subsequent reforms. Many pictures and data concerning these events are
published for the rst time.

HIDDEN TIBET
HISTORY OF INDEPENDENCE AND OCCUPATION
Sergius L. Kuzmin

CONTENTS

Introduction .................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 1. Geography and Origin of the Tibetans .............................................. 7
Chapter 2. Antiquity and Middle Ages ..............................................................14
Chapter 3. Epoch of the Qing Empire ...............................................................45
Chapter 4. Last Years of Independence ............................................................ 86
Chapter 5. Religion and Culture .................................................................... 113
Chapter 6. State, Society and Economy .......................................................... 135
Chapter 7. Peaceful Liberation and Its Consequences .................................. 163
Chapter 8. From the People's Uprising to the Cultural Revolution ................... 211
Chapter 9. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Results of the Mao Period ..288
Chapter 10. Reconstruction and Modernization .............................................348
Tibetan People's Struggle, the Dalai Lama and Tibetan Refugees ................ 354
Religion................................................................................................... 388
Autonomy and Demography ...................................................................... 413
Language, Education, and Culture............................................................ 423
Condition of Natural Environment ............................................................ 428
Economy ................................................................................................. 433
Militarization .......................................................................................... 438
Living Standard and Health Care ............................................................. 440
Chapter 11. Tibet, an Inseparable Part of China? ...........................................444
Statehood in International Law and in Chinese Tradition ........................... 444
On China and Chinese Dynasties .......................................................... 455
Solution of Ethnic Problem in China.......................................................... 473
Status of Tibet: a Historical Retrospective .................................................. 484
Chapter 12. Decline of Tibetan and Mongolian Civilization? ..........................508
References ................................................................................................... 515
Summary .....................................................................................................543

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