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# 1. . .

2. . . . . . . .
3. () . . . . .
4. ()
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. . . . . . . . .
9. D0 . . . . . . . . . .
10. .
S 0 (Rn ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. . . . . . .
12. . . . .
13. . .

5
11
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146

, 2006
. . . . :
, 1 7, , 8 13, .

,
. , , .
. , , . ,
(
) .
,
.

,

.
.

1.

, , , . . a A
, a ( ,
) A. A B A B, A B .
() -

, ,
A B = B A,
A B = B A,

(A B) C = A (B C),
(A B) C = A (B C),

(A B) C = (A C) (B C),
(A B) C) = (A C) (B C).
C = A\B ( A B) A B
A,
B. A B
AB = (A\B) (B\A).
. , AB = (A B)\(A B).
, M , (, A M), M\A A ( M) CA. , , M,
() , , .
:
1.
/[
\
M
A = (M\A )
(1.1)

2.
/\
[
M
A = (M\A )

(1.2)

( ) .
. A B . A B
{(a, b) : a A, b B}. ( ) A B.

. .
,
X X ,
X. R R1 , R1 =
{(y, x) : (x, y) R}. RS R S , (x, z) , (x, y) S
(y, z) R y. , ,
, ,
. , (RS)1 = S 1 R1 ).
(X) = {(x, x) : x X}.
(X) R, R .
R , R = R1 . R , (x, y) R
(y, x) R, x = y. R ,
RR R.
, .
, , , X , .
. M N
. , M f , N ,
x M
y = f (x) N . f : M 7 N . ,
f M N , ( {(x, f (x)) :
x M, f (x) N }) ,
1) M ;
2) (x, y) (x, z) f , y = z.
A M ; {y = f (x) N , x A}
A f (A).
B N ; f 1 (B)
M , B.
f 1 (B) M B.
f (M ) = N , , f
M N (). f (M ) N , f

M N . x1 x2 M f (x1 ) f (x2 ) N , f . f : M 7 N ,
,
M N .
. f 1 f (M )? f
? A B M .
:
f 1 (A B) = f 1 (A) f 1 (B),
f 1 (A B) = f 1 (A) f 1 (B),
f 1 (A B) = f 1 (A) f 1 (B).
f (A B) = f (A) f (B); f (A B) = f (A) f (B)?
. M
, M .

(), M M (). . ,
: ,
1.
R. (a, b) R, a b
. ,
. ,
.
S
. M = M M1 M2 =
1 6= 2 ,
[
R=
M M M M

. , R M
Ma = {y M : (a, y) R}. Ma Mb , . .

,
1.1. ( )
, (), , .
M ,
R MM . 6, a 6 b , (a, b) R.
a , b a
b. , a 6 b a 6= b a < b , a b b a.
:
1.
, a 6 b ,
a = b.
2. C[a, b]
[a, b]. f 6 g , f (x) 6
g(x) x, a 6 x 6 b. (?),
.
3.
: (M1 6 M2 , M1 M2 ).
x M
() A,
y A y 6 x ( x 6 y). M
() A. () a M (
) A, () y a 6 y(a > y). ,
, , . ()
, , ().
a A ()
A, A a, x A
x > a, x = a ( A a,
x A x 6 a, x = a).

10

1.2.
M ,
, , .
, A M B (
y A). B , b. , b ( )
B. , b A, b A.
b B, b
A. , b
A.
, M , a, b M , a 6 b,
b 6 a. ,
, M , , , M .
, . , , [0, 1] ..
, .
.
.
( ).
.
M , M
.
.
.

11

. A A M M . f A
M , A
x M .

2.

X T, , :
1) T X T;
2) A, B T, A B T;
3)
S A T I,
I A T.
T X. ,
(X, T). X ( T
X) (T X).
X . , T1 T2 , T1 T2 ,
T2 (, ), T1 ).
V X x V ,
U , x U V .
2.1. A X
,
.
, A , , x A A. A Vx A , Sx A Ux Vx A. xA Ux = A.
x ( ) A (X, T),
x x A.

12

A
, CA = X\A .
2.2. A X
, .
, A x
/ A, x CA , CA , x
A. , A
. , A X
. x CA Ux : Ux A = , x
/ A
, A. Ux CA
, , CA . A .
(1.1) (1.2) , , . , , A X, .
A A.
, A.
2.3. A .
, A A. .
x A X A, A . A A int A.
A ( A) , A, X\A,
int A.
A = A\
, ; ,
.
.
(X, T)
X , .
, , , .

13

. x X {xn X}, x
, ,
. ,
{xn } x.

.
. . ? . ,
xn = n xn = n1 . ,
?
, , X .
. ( ), x, y, x 6= y,
O1 O2 , x O1 ,
y O2 O1 O2 = .
. ,
, , .
B T,
B T x X U V B , x V U .
2.4. B T
T,
T B.
, B T U T.
V = { : B, U }, V U .
x U ; B W , x W
U . , x V , , U V ,
U = V . . B T T
B. U T x U ,
B,
U , V , x V U .
B T.

14

Nx X
x X, U Nx
x Vx U Nx , U Vx . , B
T, B,
x, x.
, ,
.
, , , .
B X = {U : U
B}. .
X? . !
. X 1, 2, 3,
B A = {1, 2}, B = {2, 3}, , X. ,

X.
2.1. B X = {U : U B}
, U , V
x U V
W B, x W W U V .
, B , U , V x U V . U V ,
B , x
U V . , B
T B. , T X.
1) T
( ) B, T.
2) , U , V T
T. x U V , B
U 0 V 0 , x U 0 U x V 0 V .
( ) B W , x
W U 0 V 0 U V . , U V

15

B. 1) 2) , T
.
(X, T)
B T. ?
, U x U
Ux B, x Ux U . ,
S , U = xU Ux , B
T.
.
A X.
X ,
A ?
2.2. A X , X = {U : U A}. A
X .
, B
A, B B. , B . ,
, A.
A B.
X Y . () f X
Y x0 X,
Vy0 y0 = f (x0 ) Ux0
x0 , f (Ux0 ) Vy0 . f : X 7 Y
, x X.
2.3. (X, T) (Y, B) . f : X 7 Y
, , A =
f 1 (B) ( B) B Y
( T).
. f B Y
. x A = f 1 (B)

16

y = f (x), B y, Ux x, f (Ux ) B,
Ux A. , A . . A = f 1 (B)
, B Y . x X Vy y = f (x). x f 1 (Vy ) , , f 1 (Vy ) x,
Vy .
, B (
f 1 (B), B B) X. G (G = f 1 (B)).
. 1. , f : X 7 Y
, G
T.
2. , f : X 7 Y
, Y
X.
. .
3. () ()?
. :

 X = [0, 1)
A = 21 , 1 .
f X Y ,
, f f 1 . X Y .
,
x A Rn , A
xn , n = 1, 2, . . . , x.
, , ,
.
2.1 ( . .). X
(t) [0, 1].
U = U(0 ,t1 ,...,tn ,) X 0 (t) X
t1 , t1 , . . . , tn ,
> 0, X,
|(ti ) 0 (ti )| < ,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

17

, . A X ( (t)),
1,
[0, 1], 0. , 0 (t) 0
A. (t) A 0 (t),
t0 , (t) 1 (
),
U(0 ,t0 , 21 ) .
. , a b c (a 6 c, b 6 c), .
I . X () I X. {x }I .
2.2. X x
X. x .
.
, I , X.
.
. {x }I
x X ( x x), U x
I , x U > .
I 0 > , x0
U , , x x .
. X . {x }I X
( x x x y, x = y).
2.5. A X . x A
, {x }I ,
x A x x.
. x A I
x (U1 6 U2 , U1 U2 ).

18

U I xU AU . {xU }U I
xU x. .
. {x }I {y }J , F : I 7 J :
1) x = yF () I;
2) 0 J 0 I, > 0
, F () > 0 .
2.6. y0 X {y }J
, - y0 .
.
I = {(, U ) : J, U y0 : y U }, y0 y0 . , {x(,U ) =
y }(,U )I .
2.7. X Y . f : X 7 Y ,
{x }I X , , x x, {f (x )}I Y
y = f (x).
. f , .
, 2.3.
X
, . () .
. G XT n
, i=1 Ai
.
2.4. X , ,

.

19

. X G . U = X\G , ,
Ui X; X ,
U
T
, G . , UT X.
G = X\U , , G = , , {G } .
Gi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n, ,
Ui .
1. X , .
, A =
{x1 , x2 , . . . }, . An =
{xn , . . . } , , X .
2. .
, X F X
.
F F
T. F F , , X,
F 6= . F .
2.8. .
, K X y
/ K.
x K Ux x Vy,x ,
Ux Vy,x = . Ux K
Ux1 , Ux2 , . . . , Uxn .
V = Vy,x1 Vy,x2 Vy,xn ,

y V,

## V Ux1 Ux2 Uxn K. , y

K, K = K.
2.5. .

20

. X
f Y . {V } f (X) Y
f (X) . U = f 1 (V ). {U } X. ( )
U1 , U2 , . . . , Un . Vi ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , n, f (X). , f (X)
.
. f X Y , f 1 .
, F X V =
f (F ) Y . V , , Y , f 1
F X .
f 1 .
. (X, T) , .
. 1) ,
X R1 ( ,
) .
2) ( ). X . . X = X {}, , /O
X. O X ,
O X, O X \O ( X). ,
X .
X
. , .
x X Ax , : 1) A Ax x; 2)
A, B Ax , C Ax , C A B.

21

X . O X
, x O
A Ax , A O.
2.9.
X .
. Ax
x? , Ax
x? , . .
2.10. A Ax
C A , x C y C B Ay , B C , Ax
x.
, SA , X = {U : U A},
A B
X. A .
. {T , I}
X.T
1) , T = I T , . (
, T = ).
2) ,
.
. X, .
3) ,
. .
.
S G = I T .
1) 3) ,
X , .
X , {(X , T ), I} {f , I} f :

22

X 7 X . X {(X , f ), I} , f .
{f1 (U ), I, U T }.
, {g , I} g : X 7 X, X {(X , g ), I} X, g .
V X,
g1 (V ) T a I.
. (X, T)
A X. A
TA = {U A : U T}. A
TA X.
A X; f : A 7 X,
( A X);
A X. ,
, f .
. E g : E 7 X , g(E) A.
:
g

- X
-

A
, h , g
.
.
X.
(x, y),
x, y X, ( X X,) :
1) (x, y) = 0 , x = y;
2) (x, y) = (y, x) ();
3) (x, y) 6 (x, z) + (z, y) x, y, z X (
).

23

(x, y) x y.
r > 0; Br (x) = {y X : (y, x) < r}

r x. Bx =


B n1 (x), n = 1, 2, . . . . , U1 U2 Bx , U3 Bx , U3 U1 U2 .
, O X ,
x O, U Bx : U O. , Br (x)
. , y Br (x),
(x, y) < r, < r (x, y) By () Br (x),
z By () (z, x) 6 (x, y) + (y, z) < r.
, Bx x. ,
z Br (x) Bs (y)
Bt (z) t = min{r (x, z), s (y, z)}, ,
X
T ( ,
). , (X, T) (x, y).
, B r (x) = {y : (y, x) 6 r}
() . .
A, B X. x A (A, x) =
inf{(y, x) : y A},
(A, B) = inf{(x, y) : x A, y B}. A
sup{(x, y) : x A, y A}.
. , :
1) ( ). ,
(x, y) (u, z) 6 (x, u) + (y, z).
, |(x, y) (y, z)| 6 (x, z).
2) (A, x) X R1 .
3) x A, xn x, xn A.
4) A = {x : (A, x) = 0}
. 1.
5) , .

24

. r 6 1
. (X, ) ,
(X, d(x, y)), d(x, y) = min{1, (x, y)}. a + b > c, min{1, a} + min{1, b} > min{1, c}
a = (x, z), b = (y, z) c = (x, y), d(x, y) .
6)
( x X ).
. x X
, .
, ,
( ).
7) f (t) ()
[0, +), f (t) = 0
t = 0, . , ( {(t, y) : y 6 f (t)}) . ,
f (t + ) 6 f (t) + f ( ) t, [0, ). ,
f (t) ,
.
8) f (t) () , 7). (X, (x, y)) ;
(X, f ((x, y))) ,
(X, ). ,
t
f (t) = 1+t
.
9) X ; (x, y) = 0, x = y (x, y) = 1, x 6= y. X
? , ?
10) n (x, y), n = 1, 2, . . . , X.

X
1 i (x, y)
d(x, y) =
2n 1 + i (x, y)
i=1
? ?
X (. ). (x, y)
X ,
x, y, z X, (x z, y z) = (x, y).

25

11) d(x, y)
X, x X
n d(nx, 0) 6 nd(x, 0).
.
d(nx, 0) 6

n
X

k=1

## 12. {xn } 0 X d(x, y), an ,

an +, an xn 0 n .
. d(xn , 0) 0, nk , d(xn , 0) < k1N
n > nk . a1 = 1 n < n1 an = k N 1
nk 6 n < nk+1 . n ,
d(an xn , 0) = d(k N 1 xn , 0) 6 k N 1 d(xn , 0) <

1
0.
k n

.
X 1 (x, y) 2 (x, y).
X , . , (X, T1 ) , , (X, T2 ), , .
{xn } (X, )
,
: > 0 N , (xn , xm ) < n > N
m > N .
. .
,
. .
. (X, ),
, .

26

( C[a, b]). , ,
[a, b],
(f (t), g(t)) = max |g(t) f (t)|
a6t6b

.
. {xn (t)} ,

## N : sup |xn (t) xm (t)| < m, n > N,

a6t6b

. ( )
x(t) .
, ,
(X, )
.
2.1.
,
,
, .
. X B r1 (x1 ) B r2 (x2 )
B r3 (x3 ) xn rn 0. {xn }
, (xn , xm ) < rn Tm > n.
x = limn xn , x n Bn , Bn
xi i > n. x
B n , , x B n n.
, {xn } ;
, .
xn1 , (xn , xn1 ) < 21 n > n1 ,
B1 1 xn1 . , xn2 , n2 > n1 (xn , xn2 ) < 212 n > n2 .
xn2 B2 21 .
xn1 , xn2 , . . . , xnk (n1 < n2 < < nk ), 1
xnk+1 , nk+1 > nk (xn , xnk+1 ) < 2k+1

n > xnk+1 . Bk+1 xnk+1
21k , Bk , , Bk

27

1
2k1
. x , {xnk }. , ,
, limn xn = x.

2.11. X , ,
{xn X , n = 1, 2, . . . }
.
. , . 1 2.4. . , G X
( ). ,
, 6 . ; n
xn , n1 xn
G.
{xn } ,
, a. U G ,
a.
B (a)
 a. n n1 6 2 xn
1
n , B (a), , U . .
, > 0 X
. , x1 B (x1 )
. X = B (x1 ), , , x2 6= B (x1 ). B (x2 )
B (x1 ) B (x2 ). X,
, ,
x3 6= B (x1 ) B (x2 ). B (x3 )
x3 . .
Sn
{B (xn ), n = 1, 2, . . . , }. X = i=1 B (xi ),
, , .
, {xn },
( > ,

28

()

.
,
. , X.
. X . M X , M ,
M .
. M X ( X), X .
, M X
, M
.
(X, )) (Y, 0 ) f
X Y , (x, z) =
(f (x), f (z)) x, z X. f ,
.
. (X, ) .
(X , ) (X, ), :
1) (X, ) (X , );
2) (X, ) (X , ) (X = X ).
2.6.
, , .
., , [1].
( ).

## x11 , x12 , . . . , x1n , . . . y 1

x21 , x22 , . . . , x2n , . . . y 2
.....................
{y n } y. , ,
x1n1 , x2n2 , . . . , xknk , . . . , y. .

()

29

3.
()
K R,
C.
()
. L x, y, z, . . . ( ) K,

1) (
+) , x L
y L x + y L, :
a) x + y = y + x ();
b) x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z ();
c) L {0} , x L x + {0} = x
( );
d) x L x L ,
x + (x) = {0} ( ).
2) K x L
x L ( ),
a) (x) = ()x;
b) 1 x = x x L;
c) ( + )x = x + x;
d) (x + y) = x + y ().
, 0 x = {0}. , x + {0} = x = 1 x =
(1 + 0)x = x + 0 x. x , .
{0} 0.
K = C, , K = R, .
, C[a, b] [a, b]
.
A L ,
X
i xi = 0 1 = = n = 0
16i6n

30

()

n x1 , x2 , . . . , xn A.
, L
A, ( )
L.
3.1 ( ). A L. B L , A B .
. M L. , A . . , N M, N
. A
B. L
B, , , , x,
, N
B {x} B.
.
M L
L, x, y M , x + y M ,
x M , M + M M M M
. , S L.

P

x
,

i , xi S
i
i
i
L S. , L ,
.
L0 L. R
LL : (x, y) R, xy L0 . (, ).
L ( ).

L/L0 . (
, L/L0 x y
, x + y, ,

()

31

## x). , L/L0 . L/L0

L0 L.
L0 , , m; L
x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ,
Pm x
L x = i=1 i xi + y. i , i =
1, 2, . . . , m , y L0 . , L/L0
, m 1 , . . . , m . , x
L
Pm,
x, , = i=1 i i .
xi i . ,
x,
Pm (
i=1 i xi ) L0 .
.
f , L . x L f (x). f ,
1) f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) x, y L ();
2) f (x) = f (x) ().
3.1. y(t) , x(t) [a, b]; f (x) =
Rb
y(t)x(t) dt a
C[a, b]. f (x) = x(0) -. (, [a, b] 0).
. ,

. L
L# .
f (x) ,
x L, f (x) = 0, . . f
Ker f . f 6 0, Ker f 1. , f (x0 ) = 1;
x L, y = x f (x)x0 . f (y) = 0, y Ker f .

32

()

. , x x = x0 + y, y Ker f , x0 .
, x1 x2
L0 , f (x1 ) =
f (x2 ). , L/L0 .
Ker f , , . , L0 1, f , Ker f = L0 . , x0 6= L0 . x L
x = x0 + y, y L0 . . . f (x) = .
. .
. L0 - L 1; L L0 ,
L0 ( L0 , 0).
M L0 , L0
x0 L:
M = L0 + x0 = {y : y = x + x0 , x L0 }.
f (x) 6 0, Mf = {x : f (x) = 1} , Ker f . , M -
, L0 0, f , M = {x : f (x) = 1}.
, M = L0 + x0 , x0 L.
x L x = x0 + y, y L0 .
f (x) = . , .
,
3.1. , L, L, .

()

33

. ()
X K, K , T .
(X, T) ,
1) (x, y) 7 x + y X X X ;
2) (, x) 7 x K X X .
, x y X U x + y Ux Uy x y
, , , x0 Ux y 0 Uy , , x0 + y 0 U . , K x X
U x Ux
x , , x0 Ux | 0 | < ,
, 0 x0 U .
,
. a X f : f (x) = x + a
X , B , a + B a.
, X . U (),
U + a a, x U + a
, x a U . , ,
, .
6= 0 f : f (x) = x X , U , U
.
. A X
, x X
, x A > .
. A L , x A x A , || 6 1. (
).
A {x :
x A, || 6 1}.

34

()

. , :

; A B , A + B .
3.2. X , X ,
:
B , U B:
1) U ;
2) V B, V + V U ;
. X x X f () =
x. f = 0, U { : || < },
U . x U , x U || > 1 .
.
h(, x) = x (, x) = (0, 0),
U V > 0 , x U
|| 6 x V . ,
V U
S
|| < . W = ||< V . , W W U . ,
.
, g(x, y) = x + y (x, y) = (0, 0),
U
V1 V2 ( )
, x + y U x V1 y V2 .
V = V1 V2 . , V + V U .
. , ( ).
, (x, y) 7 x + y .
(x0 , y0 ). , (x, y) 7 x + y
. 2.
(, x) 7 x. (0 , x0 ) 0 = x x0 = x. U B
0 x0 + U 0 x0 . , V ,
x 0 x0 + U

| 0 | < ,

x x0 + V,

()

35

(0 + )(x0 + x) 0 x0 + U , || <
x V .
x0 + 0 x + x U.

(3.1)

2 , W B ( ) , W + W + W U . W , 0 , x0 W || < 0 .
(3.1) W , x W
|| < 1 ( W ). (3.1). 2n > 0 . 2 , Wn B , 2n Wn W . x Wn ,
0 x = 2n0 2n Wn W ( W ).
V = Wn = min{1, 0 }, .
3.2. X ,
x X , x 6= 0,
U B , x
/ U.
, X x 6= 0, U
B, x. x 6= y,
U B, x y, 3.2
V , V + V U .
x + V y + V x y, ,
z (x + V ) (y + V ),
x y = (z y) (z x) V V = V + V U.
3.3. X x .
. x = 0 F , x 6= F . U = X\F .
0 U , 3.2
W , W W U . , W U .
y W ; y, , y + W ,
z W . , z y W ,
y W W U . , W X\W
0 F .
. X . , X T1 ,
x1 6= x2 U x1 , x2
/ U.

36

()

X T1 ,
. ().
, X T2 ,
x1 6= x2 U1 , x1 U1 , U2 ,
x2 U2 , , U1 U2 = . (
.)
, X T3 , x X K X , x
/ K, U1 , x U1 , U2 , K U2 , ,
U1 U2 = .
, , X T4 ,
K1 K2 , K1 K2 = ,
U1 , K1 U1 , U2 , K2 U2 ,
, U1 U2 = .
3.2 , T1 T2 .
3.3 , T3
. T4 ,

3.4. K C X , K ,
C K C = . V , (K + V ) (C + V ) = .
, x K, x
/ C,
Ux , x+Ux C = .
3.2 , Vx ,
Vx + Vx + Vx Ux . , (x + Vx + Vx ) (C +
Vx ) = . K

Sn
(x
+
Vxi ). V =

x
,
x
,
.
.
.
,
x
,

1
2
n
i
i=1
Tn
i=1 Vxi .
K +V

n
[
i=1

(xi + Vxi + V )

n
[

i=1

## (xi + Vxi + Vxi )

C + V , .
. A
X ,
, U X s > 0, A tU t > s.

()

37

. 1) V X 1 > 2 > , n 0
n , {n V : n = 1, 2, . . . } . .
. , U , s > 0, V tU t > s. n
, sn < 1, V 1n U . U n V , .
2) K X . .
. , U V

, V U .
S
3.2 K n=1 nV . K ,
n1 < n2 < < ns , K n1 V n2 V ns V = ns V .
( V .)
K tB tU t > ns .
(X, T)
B .
. {x X, I} , U B
0 I , x x U , , > 0 .
. ,
.
3.5. .
( ).
,
( ). , X
,
.
, X
(x, y). , , {x X, I} . ( ) {n I, n = 1, 2, . . . }

1
(x , x ) 6
, > n ;
n+1 > n .
n

38

()

(, {xn } {x ,
I}.) , {xn , n = 1, 2, . . . } .
xn x0 ,
n

(xn , x0 ) 0.
n

> 0,
N , (xn , x0 ) 6 .
n > max N, 1 ,
(x , x0 ) 6 (x , xn ) + (xn , x0 ) 6 2,
.
3.6. X M , M X .
. x M , 2.5
{x , I} x
x M . {x , I} M
M M . ,
x M.
. 3.6 X ,
M , M X. ().
. 1. , (
) .
. , {xn , n = 1, 2, . . . } V W
, V +V W . N , xn xN +V
n > N . s > 1, xN sV ( ); xn sV + V sV + sV sW
n > N . , t , xn tW
n.
2. A
X , , xn A
n 0, n , n xn 0 n . .

()

39

. . A V , t A tV .
n 0, N , tn < 1 n > N .
xn A, t1 A V V , n xn V
n > N . , n xn 0.
. A ,
V rn ,
rn V A. xn A
, xn
/ rn V . rn1 xn V , , r1n xn .
3. X . x X, x 6= 0, A = {nx :
n = 1, 2, . . . }. , A ( , , {0},
X ).
. V , x
/ V,
nx
/ nV . , A
nV .
X Y F :
X 7 Y . ,
. ,
.
4. , f X
X K.
. , A x A.
A x .
f (a) = 1, > 0 , a A x
|| 6 , f (a) f (A x), f (x) + f (A)
|| 6 . f (x) x A f (A)
. , f (A) .
3.7. M X , M X .
. x, y M U . V , V + V U .

40

()

, x + V y + V M , x + y + U
M + M = M . , x + y M .
, , : X
, . , L L , ,
, 1, L

L = L, L = X.
3.3. F X . :
a) F (x) ;
b) Ker F ;
c) Ker F X ;
d) F .
. a)b). Ker F = F 1 (0), {0}
, F
Ker F .
b)c). F , Ker F 6=
X, c).
c)d). c) Ker F
,
(x + V ) Ker F =

(3.2)

x X V . F (V ) (C R), F (V ) , d) , F (V ) = C, y V ,
F (y) = F (x). (3.2).
d)a). |F (x)| < M x V ( V
) M . > 0


V ; |F (x)| < x W . ,
W = M
F , , .

. , ,
( ), , .

()

41

## p (R1 ), 0 < p < 1.

3.2 L
(
R1 )
. ,
(
2

C e 2 |t|2 |t| < ,
(t) =
(3.3)
0
|t| > ,
R
C , (t) dt = 1. R
p (R1 ),
1 (t) = (t). (f ) = |f (t)|p dt. L

1
0 < p < 1, C0 (R ) (f, g),
(f, g) = (f g). ,
(f +g) 6 (f )+(g), ( + )p 6 p + p , 0 < p < 1, > 0,
> 0.


1

Un = f Lp : (f, 0) = (f ) <
,
n = 1, 2, . . . .
n
C0 (R1 )

, 3.2, p (,
L
). ,
.
1. n (t) = n(nt), (t) , . (3.3).

Z
Z
(n (t )) = n (t ) dt = n (t) dt
Z
Z
p p
p1
= n (nt) dt = n
p (t) dt 0. (3.4)
n

p .
, n (t ) 0 L
p 2. f L
,
Z
p n .
f ()n (t ) d f (t) L
(3.5)


Z
Z  
Z 

f ()n(ntn) d = f
(nt) d = f
+t () d.
n
n

42

()

, f (t) ,
, n (,
),
p.
L
p.
3. F [f ] L
, n = 1, 2, . . .
Z
 Z
F
f ()n (t ) d = f ()F [n (t )] d.
(3.6)
, n, ;
Z
f ()n (t ) d = lim

N
X

f (k )n (t k )k .

k=1

t ,
, t. p.
, , L
F , (3.6).
4. F ,
Z

F [f ] = lim F
f ()n (t ) d =
n
Z
= lim
f ()F [n (t )] d = 0.
n

(3.4) (3.6).

4.
()
x y L.

x + y,

, > 0,

+ = 1,

L, x y
().

()

43

. M L , .
. L , s, t , A, B L.
T 1) M . , M =
M ,
( )
.
2) 2A A + A. , 2A 6= A + A.
3) A , (s + t)A = sA + tA
s t. , 2A = A + A.
L . A L,
, A,
A. ,

ch A. A P A, P

x , > 0,
= 1 {x }
A,

ch A = y : y = 1 x1 + + N xN ,
N
X


= 1, > 0, x A, N = 1, 2, . . . .

=1

. (), .
, , .
, X B ,
( , X ).
U B V U , , ,
V1 V . ( , h(, x) = x (, x) = (0, 0), . 3.2.) V1 .

44

()

.
. , A , x y A,
x+y A , ||+|| 6 1.
S V , I .
I V V . (
.)
. ,


N
N
[
X
X
V = x : x =
i xi ,
|i | 6 1, xi Vi , N = 1, 2, . . . .

i=1

i=1

(4.1)
4.1. X , X , , , B :
1) U B ;
2) U B V B , V 21 U .
,
2 3.2. 2) , U , 12 U + 12 U U .
1. E X B X, ,
1), 2)
3) U B V B W B ,
W U V , X
, B .
, x X
x + B. ,
2.10. , 3.2, , .
2. X. X , ,

()

45

. X
,

Vi ,

> 0,

Vi .

(4.2)

16i6n

, B (4.2) , B , X .
, , .
4.1. , .
, , , . A , a, b A
|| + || 6 1. U V , V + V U .
x A (a + V ) y A (b + V ),
x + y (A + A) (a + b + V + V )
A (a + b + V + V ) A (a + b + U ).
A .
, a + b A,
. () p L , x, y L
C R ( , L
):
1) p(x) > 0;
2) p(x) = ||p(x);
3) p(x + y) 6 p(x) + p(y).
, p(0) = 0, , x 6= 0, p(x) = 0. , {p1 (0)} L. ,
p(x) = 0 , x = 0, p(x) .

46

()

, 3)
p(x) = p(y + x y) 6 p(y) + p(x y),
p(y) = p(x + y x) 6 p(x) + p(y x),

|p(x) p(y)| 6 p(x y).

(4.3)

, ,
4.2. p L. > 0
{x L : p(x) < }

{x L : p(x) 6 }

(4.4)

.
. A L
; p(x),
p(x) = inf{ : > 0, x A},

(4.5)

,
{x : p(x) < 1} A {x : p(x) 6 1}.

(4.6)

. p . A, (4.4), x, y A
r + t = 1, r, t > 0. 2) 3) p(rx + ty) 6
rp(x) + tp(y) 6 , A . 2). , A . y L
y = p(y)
; > y , p(y) 6 , y A.
. p (4.5); , A , p(x)
x L . 1) 2) . .
xi L, i = 1, 2, > 0. ri ,
p(xi ) < ri < p(xi ) + , xrii A. r = r1 + r2
xr11 xr22 . A , ,
x1 + x2
r1 x1
r2 x2
=
+
r
r r1
r r2

A,

()

47

,
pA (x1 + x2 ) 6 r = r1 + r2 < p(x1 ) + + p(x2 ) + .
p(x). (4.6) .
p, A (4.5),
A. pA (x);
,
pA (x) = inf{ : > 0, x A},
(4.7)
, 6= 0,
A 1
||
p(x). B , pB (x), AB
sup{pA (x), pB (x)}. A B, pB (x) 6 pA (x) x L.
. :
1) A = L, pL (x) 0;
2) A Rn r, pA (x) =
x.

kxk
r ,

kxk

X . , p(x)
{x X : p(x) < } {x X : p(x) 6 }
> 0 . , A X
( ), (4.7),
(4.6).
.
B X A B ,
U B
V1 , V2 , . . . , Vn , A, > 0 , (V1
Vn ) U . Q {pV (x),
V A}. ,


x X : sup pi (x) 6 , > 0 ,
(4.8)
16i6n

48

()

pi (x), i = 1, 2, . . . , n, Q.
,
,
(4.8).
. X Q , X ,
(4.8).
, X ,
x X, x 6= 0, p(x) Q , p(x) 6= 0.
X , Q . X
. Q {qi (x),
i = 1, 2, . . . } qi (x) = maxj6i pj (x), i = 1, 2, . . . , , qi+1 6 qi , i = 1, 2, . . . .
4.2. A X
, p(x) Q
A.
, , A X . p Q. V = {x :
p(x) < 1} = 1, n = 1 p = p1 , A kV
k. p(x) < k x A. .
p Q A
U . pi , i = 1, 2, . . . , n, , , (4.9)
pi U . Mi ,
pi (x) < Mi x A, 1 6 i 6 n. , A mU
m > max{M1 , . . . , Mn }. , A .
4.3. X
p(x) ,
.
pU (x) U , U
. {x : pU (x) < 1} U ,
{x : pU (x) 6 1} .
. p ,
> 0 V ,

()

49

## p(x) < . , a X, |p(x) p(a)| 6

p(x a) < x a + V .
U ,
> 0 pU (x) 6 x U , pU (x) X. . pU
, V = {x : pU (x) < 1} (
(1, 1)) V U . U . ,
V = {x : pU (x) 6 1}. , V . x W , , 0 < < 1
x W ( W ).
(1 )x x + W ;

## p((1 )x) = (1 )p(x) 6 (1 ) < 1,

(1 )x V , , x + W V .
, x V . , V V . , x V ,
W , x + W V , ,
0 < < 1 x W . (1 + )x V , p((1 + )x) 6 1.
pU (x) < 1, x V . , V U V ,
, V U U = V .
. p(x) Ap = {x :
p(x) < 1} O, O Ap ,
p(x) .
, x O, x Ap ,
12 x + 12 O Ap ( Ap ).
, Ap U . p(x) 6 pU (x) x X.
, p(x) , .
, f (x) X ,
c {x : f (x) < c} .
, , p(x)
, .
, -, Q , X. , p(x) Q .
, q(x) ,
, {p1 (x), p2 (x), . . . , pn (x)} Q C ,

50

()

## q(x) 6 C max pi (x),

16i6n

x X.

(4.9)

, X
p1 (x) 6 p2 (x) 6 ,
X , (4.9) .
q(x) , N C ,
q(x) 6 CpN (x),

x X.

(4.10)

## f (x) X; q(x) = |f (x)|

X. , f (x) ,
q(x) . ,
4.4. f (x) X
,
pi (x) Q, i = 1, 2, . . . , n, C ,
|f (x)| 6 C max pi (x),
16i6n

x X.

(4.11)

.
4.5. E X , Q1 Q2 , E X , .
A E X .
A : E 7 X , p(x) Q2 C q(x) Q1
,
p(A(x)) 6 Cq(x) x E.
(4.12)
X M . f :
X 7 X/M , X X 7 X/M
, f (x) , x, f (x) = x + M . . B
; {f (U ) : U B}
X/M , . X/M , , . . U f 1 (f (U )) U B,

()

51

f . X/M , f .
pU U ;
q(), = x + M , f (U )

q() = inf{ : > 0, f (U )} =
= inf inf{ : > 0, x U } = inf{pU (x) : x }.
x

. , , , M .
, X/M , ,
, f 1 (0) = M , , f .
, M X 6= 0
X/M ; x , x
/ M .
U , x + U M = .
, x
/ M + U ,
/ f (U ),
X/M .
X (
), M , X/M , . X ,
M , X/M kk = inf{kxk :
x }.
g X E, g M
. g g = h f , h : X/M 7 E. (,
g(x) = g(x + M ) = g(f (x)) h().) ,
:
g

- E
-

X/M
g ,
V E,
g 1 (V ) = (h f )1 (V ) = f 1 (h1 (V ))

52

()

X, h1 (V )
X/M . g , h .
4.6. g X E
g = h f , h X/g 1 (0) E , f X X/g 1 (0). g
, h.

I Q
(X , T ). {X :
I} x = {x() :
I} ( x = x : I) ,
x X I. X - . P (x) - P (x) = x .
:
0 U T0 X0 , P1
(U ) 0
(, 0 -
U , X , I, 6= 0 ).
( 0 , U )
. B
.
\
P1 (U ) = {x : x U J},
J

J I U
X J.
. ,
, . P (x) .

()

53

,
(,
). ,
, .
Q
, X , I, , {X :
I} .
X .
. E , g : E 7 X , Q
I;
h : E 7 I X ,

- X
-

E
-

. h , g ,
I, .
, p(x), ,
p(x) = 0, , x = 0, . : p(x) kxk. , , .
,
(x, y) = kx yk. . , . ,
, .
, Br = {x X :
kxk < r, r > 0}, , r = n1 , n = 1, 2, . . . .
3.3 , f (x)
X, , (kxk 6 1).

54

()

kf k = supkxk61 |f (x)| . :
kf k = sup
x6=0

|f (x)|
;
kxk

|f (x)| 6 kf k kxk.

(4.13)

.
[1, 1] C([1, 1]) kxk = supt |x(t)| (t), ((t), x) =
x(0).
X , ,
. , kxk1 kxk2 X
, k1 k2 ,
kxk2 6 k1 kxk1 ,

kxk1 6 k2 kxk2

x X.

, , , (, ) , .
. X1 X2
X k k1
kk2 , X1 X2 .
.
X , M N - . , K R, C.
() M K N .
. M X, K N . (K N
RN , CN .)
4.7. X
K M N .
K N (RN CN ) M .
N .
N = 1 F : R 7 M ,
F (1) = u M ; F (a) = au. M , , F

()

55

, F 1
{0}, X ( , M ) X ( M ).
3.3 .
, N 1 . , , , N 1 , , K N , , (. 3.6).
, N - , N 1 (. 3.3). F : K N 7 M .
{e1 , . . . , eN } K N . F (ei ) = ui , i = 1, . . . , N .
PN
a = (a1 , . . . , aN ) K N , F (a) =
i=1 ai ui ,
M ,
F . F , {u1 , . . . , uN }
M .
i (u), i = 1, . . . , N M , u M PN
u = i=1 i (u)ui .
, i . u M ;
F 1 (u) = (1 (u), . . . , N (u)), F 1 .
N .
1. , X , () .
2.
.
X .
? ? .
4.8. X , .
. X , {x : kxk < 1}

. . V
X.
U , ( ) .

56

()

## {rU , r > 0} . kxk = p(x), x X, p U .

x 6= 0, x
/ rU r > 0 , , r 6 p(x) = kxk. ,
.
4.9. X
, .
X ,
.
. X , ,
. . X . {Un }. pn (x)
.
P
f (x) = n=1 2n inf{pn (x), 1};
f (x + y) 6 f (x) + f (y),

f (x) = f (x)

## f (x) = 0, pn (x) = 0 n , , x = 0 ( X ). d(x, y) = f (x y) . Vn = {x :

f (x) < 2n } . Vn ( pn , , f , ).
, Vn Un ( x 6= Un , pn (x) > 1,
f (x) > 2n ). , d(x, y) X .
. X .
X ,
{(X , T ), I} , f I X X . X ,
, , f .
. B
X , f1 (V ), V B I
B X.

()

57

X, , . X
{(X , T ), I}. T
(X , T ) I f1 (0) = {0},
X .
I , {(X , T ),
I} 6 g : X 7 X , g = g g
Q,
> > . X X ,
x = (x ), I,
x = g (x ) 6 . ,
Q X, X

Q {(X , T ), f , I}, f
X p : 6 X X . X
{X , I} g . ( X = lim g X .)
. X {(X , T ), I}
g f : X 7 X , , - Y , ` : Y 7 X , I, , (
1 > 2 )
`1
- X
Y
1

` 2

g 2 1

X2
. h : Y 7 X ,
`

- X
-

Y
-

X
.
, .

.

58

()

X , I,
b 6 , X X T X.
T ( ). , g X
X , {(X , T ), I},
T g X = I X
X X .

.
,
, g .
4.10. .
Q
. X = lim g X F = X . X , F , , X F , X (.
3.6). , X F .
(, ) I I , 6 ;
V F , {x : x g (x ) = 0}.
X V -
p gT
p F X , V
. , X = 6 V F .
4.3. .
. X , B =
{U , I} ,
I , > ,
U U . pU (x) p (x) U F = X/p1
(0). ,
kx + p1
(0)k
=
p(x).
> , p (x) > p (x),

1
1
p1
(0)

p
(0)
,
, X/p1

## (0) 7 X/p (0).

g :
F 7 F . , g g = g > > .
M Q
F , I, g . , M F . x X.
h(x) = {x f (x), I}, f : X 7 X/p1
(0)

()

59

X . , h : X 7 M .

f

X
f

- X/p1
(0)
g

X/p1
(0)
, h . , f (x) = 0
I, p (x) = 0, X ,
x = 0.
, h X M . ,
{x , I} M , x = g x > .
x = x
+ p1
X
(0), x
x
+ p1
+ p1
(0) x
(0) > ,
Tn
x
i=1 xi {i }. , {x } X.
X ,
- x X. , h(x) = {x }.
X M , , X, M f : X 7 F p : M 7 F . ( X
M
Q .)
, F , , : 1) Q
Fb , Fb F
k k ; 2) g Fb ; 3) M M
( X), .
, 4.3 ,
, .
. ,
. k k1 k k2 ,
X, , x X, = 1, 2, . . . ,

60

()

,
.
X
, kxk1 6 kxk2 , x X. , . X
, X1 X X2
, x X2 ( )
x X, = 1, 2, . . . .
, x X1 .
, X2
X1 . ,
.
4.11. X (kxk1 6 Ckxk2 ),
X1 X2 X
, X2 X1 .
4.3

4.12. X , , X .
, X .
4.1. C 1 ([a, b]) ( [a, b] f (t))
kf k1 = max |f (t)|,
t[a,b]

## kf k2 = max {|f (t)| + |f 0 (t)|}.

t[a,b]

, .
kf k1 = max |f (t)|,
t[a,b]

t[a,b]

61

## f (t), ( f0 (a) = 1). ,

,
, .
, , ,
kk3 = max{kk1 , kk2 } , .
A X
(X , T , I) X , f (A)
X I. ( f
X X .)

5.
L0 L L0 f0 .
f , L, f0 , f (x) = f0 (x)
x L0 .
5.1. p L L0 . f0
L0 , p,

f0 (x) 6 p(x) x L0 ,
(5.1)
f0 f
L, p L.
. L1 ,
L0 z
/ L0 . L1
z +x, x L0 . , f0 L1 (5.1) L1 .
, f1 ,
f1 (z + x) = f1 (z) + f0 (x) = c + f0 (x) 6 p(z + x).
f1 (z) = c ( c ),
> 0




 
 
x
x
x
x
+c6p
+z
c 6 p
+ z f0
,
f0

62

< 0




 
 
x
x
x
x
f0
+ c > p z
c > p z f0
.

, c,
. y 0 y 00 L0 .
f0 (y 00 ) f0 (y 0 ) 6 p((y 00 + z) (y 0 + z)) 6 p(y 00 + z) + p(y 0 z)

## f0 (y 00 ) + p(y 00 + z) > f0 (y 0 ) p(y 0 z).

(5.2)

,
p(z) 6 f0 (y 00 ) + p(y 00 + z),

## 0 6 p(y 0 ) f0 (y 0 ) 6 p(y 0 z) + p(z) f0 (y 0 ),

y 00 , y 0 L0 , (5.2)
c00 = inf
(f0 (y 00 ) + p(y 00 + z)) > c0 = sup(f0 (y 0 ) p(y 0 z)).
00
y

y0

00

## p(z) 6 c p(z) > c . c ,

c0 6 c 6 c00 , L0 L1 L0 .
F f0 , (5.1). () F0 ( , f 0 F0 f 0
. F ,
. , f0 , (5.1)
L.
( )
, .

63

.
5.2. p L L0 . f0 L0 ,
|f0 (x)| 6 p(x)

x L0 ,

(5.3)

f ,
L
|f (x)| 6 p(x)

x L,

f (x) = f0 (x)

x L0 .
(5.4)

. `(x) = Re f0 (x). L0 .
`(ix) = Re f0 (ix) = Re if0 (x) = Im f0 (x), f0 (x) =
`(x) i`(ix),
`(x) = | Re f0 (x)| 6 |f0 (x)| 6 p(x),

x L0 .

f1 (x) L ,
f1 (x) 6 p(x) x L

f1 (x) = `(x) x L0 .

(5.5)

## f (x) = f1 (x) if1 (ix), Re f (x) = f1 (x). ,

f (x) = `(x) i`(ix) = f0 (x) x L0 .
f (ix) = f1 (ix) if1 (x) = i(f1 (x) if1 (ix)) = if (x),
f (x) L, |f (x)| 6 p(x).
, , x0
|f (x0 )| > p(x0 ). f (x0 ) = rei ,
r > 0. y0 = ei x0
f1 (y0 ) = Re f (y0 ) = Re ei f (x0 ) = r > p(x0 ) = p(ei x0 ) = p(y0 ).
(5.5). .

.
. :
1) M X x0 6= M ;
f ,
f (x0 ) = 1, f (x) = 0 x M .

64

. L = {x : x0 + x, x M }
f (x) = L. f L M . ,
, f , . 3.3.
.
2) f M X;
g , g = f M .
. , , f M x0 M , f (x0 ) = 1.
M0 = {x M : f (x) = 0}. , x0 6= M0 .
, g, g(x0 ) = 1,
g(x) = 0 x M0 . x M , x f (x)x0 M0 ,

## g(x) f (x) = g(x) f (x)g(x0 ) = g(x f (x)x0 ) = 0.

. X xi X, i =
1, . . . , N , . ci C,
i = 1, . . . , N . f X
,
f (xi ) = ci , i = 1, 2, . . . , N.
. M
{xi , i = 1, . . . , N }. f M (M CN ). f M
(. 4.5 ), 2 .
3) a X
p(x) X f , |f (x)| 6 p(x) f (a) = p(a).
. ,
{a} f (a) = p(a) f X.

6.
, A X (X, T), . X
(),

65

.
X.
(X, T).
A X X,
x A Ux Tx y Ux
Uy Ty , Uy A = . (.)
6.1 (). X
, .
S
. , X = n=1 Mn ,
Mn . S0
1. M1 , S1 12 , S1 S0
S1 M1 = . M2 , S1 S2 31 , S2 M2 =
..
Sn ,
T , Sn Mn = . 2.1 n=1 Sn
x. S
S
Mn ,
, x
/ n Mn , X 6= n Mn . . .

X , . X , .
() . , , , (. 4.3). p(x) ;
B = {x : p(x) 6 1} . X , B . ,
p(x) . , , , .
.

66

X , X, , .
,
( )
{f , I} X,
f (x) = supI f (x) .
,
[
{x : f (x) > c} =
{x : f (x) > c}.
I

6.1. X , , .
, S
B pB (x)
. X = n=1 {x : pB (x) 6 n}, B
. X , n
{x : pB (x) 6 n} , pB (x)
. (. 4.3.)
.
6.2. ( ) . ,
.
, .
6.3. X {f , I} X ,
sup |f (x)| <

x X .

p(x) X ,
|f (x)| 6 p(x),

x X.

(6.1)

## . p(x) = supI |f (x)|. . . |f (x)| ,

sup |f (x)| . .
(6.1) (4.9).

67

1. X {fn (x), n =
1, 2, . . . } ,
fn (x) f (x),

x X.

(6.2)

f (x) X .
. ,
sup fn (x) <

x X.

## , 6.3 p(x) , |fn (x)| 6 p(x) x X.

( n ) 4.4, .
2. X , I {fk (x), k I} X .
sup |fk (x)| <

x X,

(6.3)

k>0

limk fk (y) = Cy {y B}
X ,
fk (y) Cy ,

y B,

B = X.

(6.4)

fk (x) f (x)

x X,

(6.5)

f X .
. (6.3) 6.3 , p(x) ,
|fk (x)| 6 p(x) x X k I.
x X > 0 y B , p(x y) 6 (
B X).
|fk1 (x) fk2 (x)| 6 |fk1 (x y)| + |fk1 (y) fk2 (y)| + |fk2 (y x)| 6
6 + |fk1 (y) fk2 (y)| + .
(6.6)

68

## (6.4) k0 , |fk1 (y) fk2 (y)| <

k1 , k2 > k0 . (6.6) k |fk1 (x) fk2 (x)| 6 3.
, fk (x) , ( K ).
limk fk (x) = f (x). 1 f X.
X .
, , , X .
() . p(x), , X, .
6.4.
.
. {Vn , n = 1, 2, . . . } , Vn+1 Vn . U ,
. , n0 ,
Vn0 U ( , n10 Vn0 U ). ,
n xn , xn Vn , n1 xn
/ U . ,
{xn , n = 1, 2, . . . } ( xn 0),
U , n
xn
/ nU . . .
, , ,
, .

( ).
6.5. X f . f , {xn , n = 1, 2, . . . } , xn 0, n

f (xn ) 0.
n

69

. 4.5.
. f (x) . p(x) = |f (x)|. . , . . B , f ( ), {xn B} ,
1
p(xn ) = |f (xn )| +. n = |f (xn )| 2 ;
n

n 0, n |f (xn )| + n . ,
n xn 0,
n

|f (n xn )| = n |f (xn )| .
n

7.
7.1. (X , T ), I ,
, g
X S
X , I g (X ) X .
X , g . B
U X , g1 (U ) X I .
. U - X, g , g1 (U ) X , ,
U B. , U B, g1 (U ) X , SU g (X )
. I g (X ) X, U X. , B , . ,
,
g .
. B I X , B,
S
I g (V ),
V B , X.

70

, B X. U
X, g1 (U )
V BS .
I g (V ) B.
, B X.
X
, g , I.
7.2. 7.1,
{X , T } ; X .
. B X. g1 (B)
X . ,
g1 (B) X . 7.1 B
X.
7.3. 7.1,
{X , T } ; X
.
. A
X,
X. B X , g (B ) X,
g . , A g (B ) g1 (A) B , g1 (A),
X , X .
I, A X.

, {X ,
T } X.
7.4. {(Xn , Tn ), n = 1, 2, . . . } (Xn Xn+1 n) ,
Tn+1 Tn S
Xn . X = n=1 Xn .
X
Xn 7 X Tn Xn .
. 7.4, X {Xn , Tn }.

71

7.4 .
7.1. E , M E U
M ; E V ,
U = V M . x0 E\M , V ,
x0 6= V .
. W E , W M U , V W U
V M = U . , , U V M . ,
z V M , z = w + u, w W , u U , || + || 6 1.
w = z u M , = 0,
w M . z U , V M U .
x0 6= M , W ,
(x0 + W ) M . x0 6= V , ,
x0 = w + u, x0 w M x0 w x0 + W ,
W .
. n Vn Xn . ,
{Vn+k }, k = 1, 2, . . . ,
X , Vn+k
S Xn+k Vn+k+1 Xn+k = Vn+k k > 1. ,
V = k>0 Vn+k
T X, V Xn = Vn . ,
Xn , T , , ,
, S
, Tn , , ,
Tn . X = n Xn , , T .
, Xn , Xn Xn+1 .
. Xn n
Xn+1 , X
, Xn .
. T X (. 7.1) , B
Xn , X. . , B
X Xn .

72

## {k1 , k2 , . . . } {xn } B , xn Xkn+1 , xn 6= Xkn . , {Vkn }

Xkn ()
, S
xn 6= Vkn+1 Vkn+1 Xkn = Vkn n.

## V = n=1 Vkn X, n1 xn 6= V , ( {xn } ,

B; n1 xn ). , .
, ,
xn x X ,
n

Xn .
7.5. .
. X
Xn X ,
X z Xn . Xn X,
Wn X, (z + Wn ) Xn = ,
, Wn+1 Wn S
n.
 U

n=1 21 Wn Xn . U X , , U
X. X X, z + U
X , , Xn . ,
U Wn +Xn ; , z +Wn Xn ,
.
, , U Wn + Xn . U U + 21 Wn ,
U
X

r xr ,

xr

16r6s

1
Wr Xr
2

|r | = 1.

16r6s

X
r6n

r xr

X
r6n

Xr Xn

X
r>n

r xr

1
1
r W r W n ,
2
2
r>n
X

73

U 21 Wn + Xn , , U
Wn + Xn . .

1
2 Wn

+ Xn + 12 Wn =

gm

`n

, .
gmn : Xn 7 Xm Xn Xm , m > n, fn Xn 7 X. Y
`n : Xn 7 Y ,
`m
Y 
Xm
Xn
m > n, h : X 7 Y ,
Y 

X
-

fn

`n

Xn
n.
7.1. X {Xn , n = 1, 2, . . . } f X
Y . f
, Xn .
,
( ) .

8. .
. j =
(j1 , . . . , jn ), jk = 0, 1, . . . , k = 1, 2, . . . , n,
, |j| = j1 + + jn , x(t),
t = (t1 , . . . , tn ) Rn
(j)

(t) D x(t) =

t1

j1

tn

jn
x(t).

74

C0 (Rn )
. (. (3.3))
(
1
ce 1|t|2 , |t| < 1,
(t) =
0,
|t| > 1,
R
c , (t) dt = 1. ,
(t) , (t) 6= 0, supp (t) = {t : (t) 6= 0}. 
supp (t) = {t : |t| 6 1}. (t) = 1n t .
8.1. O
K

O. d(K, CO) > K1 = t : d(t, K) 6 4 .
( d(A, B) A
B .) (t) C0 (Rn ), 0 6 (t) 6 1,
1 K K1 .
, ,
Z
(t) =

4 (t )K1 ( ) d,

K1 (t) K1 ,
K1 (t) = 1 t K1 .
, C0 (Rn ) .
C0 (Rn ) , , ,
.
p() = suptRn |(t)|. C0 (Rn )
. . , C0 (Rn ) Cnull , ,
|t| . , Cnull
C0 (Rn ) .
. Cnull ( , ) p(), , {n (t)}
Cnull . ,
( suptRn |(t)|) , , , . (

75

.) , n (t) 0 (t); ,
0 (t) 0 t . > 0. N ,
|N (t) 0 (t)| 6 , t Rn . R , |N (t)| 6
|t| > R. , |0 (t)| 6 2 |t| > R.
C0 (Rn ) Cnull . (t) Cnull ,

, , (t) |t|
n , ( )
C0 (R1 ), | | < 1 | | > 2.
(t) , C0 (Rn )
Z
Z
(t) = (t y)(y) dy = (y 0 )(t + y 0 ) dy 0 .
( .)
Cpred , , (t) c
|t| . , Cnull Cpred . ,
Cpred /Cnull = C.
C . , Cnull
Cpred C.
L (Rn ). ,
A ,
> 0 ,
( mes A = 0).
(t) , E , (t) Rn \E. G.
p() =

inf

sup |(t)|.

## mes E=0 tRn \E

G ( p() = 0, ,
E, mes E = 0, , (t) = 0 Rn \E). , {p1 (0)}
,
.
L (Rn ) G/p1 (0).
. , ,

76

. , :
Cnull Cpred C L (Rn ),
.

N
Cnull
(Rn ) N .

## p() = max sup |(j) (t)|.

|j|6N tRn

C0 (Rn ) .
N
Cnull
(Rn ) N ,
.
, , .
. , {Km ,
m = 1, 2, . . . } Rn , Km ,
Km = int Km ,
K1 b K2 b b Km b Km+1 b . . . ,

Rn =

Km .

m=0

, K Rn
m0 , K b Km m > m0 .
C(Rn ) {Km } Rn . C0 (Rn ) (
) pm () = suptKm |(t)|. C0 (Rn )
C(Rn ) . .

77

E {Km , m = 1, 2, . . . , }
Rn . C0 (Rn )
pN m () = max sup |(j) (t)|,
|j|6N |t|Km

N = 0, 1, . . . ,

m = 1, 2, . . . .

(8.1)
,
. E. E Rn .
E ()

E C N +1 (Rn ) C N (Rn ) C 0 (Rn ),
C N (Rn ) N , (8.1) (N , m =
1, 2, . . . ) . ( C 0 (Rn ) C(Rn ).) E .
S C0 (Rn )
pN () = max sup (1 + |t|2 )N/2 |(j) (t)|,
|j|6N tRn

N = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

(8.2)

S(Rn ). (
S.) S Rn , |t|.
, , .
, S E, S E ( E).
S(Rn ) ()
S SN +1 SN S0 ,
SN N , (8.2) .

78

, SN +1 SN , . ,
SN +1 , SN . , SN +1
SN , SN . SN +1 SN (. 2.11 ).
.
C[K]
K Rn kx(t)k = suptK |x(t)|. M C[K] , C ,
kx(t)k 6 C

x(t) M,

,
> 0 > 0 : t1 , t2 K, |t1 t2 | < =
= kx(t1 ) x(t2 )k < x(t) M.
8.1 (). M C[K] , ,
M .
. [1].
. K = {t : |t| 6 R}
M . .

. {` (t) C N +1 (Rn ),
` = 1, 2, . . . } , R cR ,

(j)
|` (t)| 6 cR |t| < R, |j| 6 N + 1,
{`k (t), k = 1, 2, . . . }
0 (t) C N (Rn ) , `k (t) 0 (t) N Rn ,
K Rn ,
(j)

(j)

`k (t) = 0 (t),

k ,

|j| 6 N,

t K.

79

8.2. SN +1 SN .
, ` (t) SN +1 (Rn ),
(j)

|j| 6 N + 1;

## {`k (t), k = 1, 2, . . . } 0 (t) SN (Rn ) ,

`k (t) 0 (t) N , ,

(j)

## (1 + |t|)N +1) |`k (t)| 6 C,

|j| 6 N + 1.

(8.3)

, `k (t) 0 (t) SN . ,
> 0 k0 , (1 + |t|)N |`k (t)
0 (t)| < k > k0 , t Rn .
, (8.3)
(j)

|t| >

2C

C
,
1 + |t|

|j| 6 N.

(j)

(j)

## (1 + |t|)N |`k (t) 0 (t)| <

,
2

|j| 6 N.

, k0 ,

(j)
(j)
(1 + |t|)N |`k (t) 0 (t)| < , |j| 6 N, k > k0 ,
2
|t| 6 2C
. .
D C0 (Rn ), ?
. D(K) C0 (Rn ),
(t), K.
D(K)
pN () = max sup |(j) (t)| N = 0, 1, . . . .
|j|6N tK

(8.4)

80

D(K) .
K1 K2 , D(K1 ) D(K2 ) .
( ) D(K1 ) D(K2 ) D(K1 )
D(K2 ).
{Km , m = 1, 2, . . . } Rn . D(Rn ) ( D) D(Km ).
D , .
M D ,
- D(Km ) . k (t) D k D,
D(Km ), k (t)
Km m, {k (t)} (8.4).
,
.
D () . {Nk , k = 1, 2, . . . } .
p{Nk } () =

sup Nk max
k=1,2,...

sup

## |j|6Nk tKk \Kk1

|(j) (t)|.

(8.5)

( K0 = .) C0 (Rn )
D{Nk } . , Mk > Nk , k = 1, 2, . . . , D{Mk }
D{Nk } D D{Nk } .
D , 8.2.
8.3. {Nk } {Mk } , D{Mk }
D{Nk } .
. {Mk } ,
:
1) Mk > Nk + 1 k = 1, 2, . . . ;
k
2) M
Nk + k .
{` , ` = 1, 2, . . . }
p{Mk } . , , p{Nk } .
,
p{Mk } (` ) =

sup Mk max
k=1,2,...

sup

## |j|6Mk tKk \Kk1

(j)

|` (t)| 6 C.

81

, Mk
Kk \Kk1 , (
) `m , Kk \Kk1
`m Nk .
1).
, {`m , m = 1, 2, . . . }
p{Nk } , > 0 m0 ,
p{Nk } (`m1 `m2 ) =
= e sup Nk max
k=1,2,...

sup

(j)

(j)

## |`m (t) `m (t)| 6 ,

1

m1 , m2 > m0 .
, , ,
Kk . . b (
),
p{Nk ,k>b} (`m1 `m2 ) 6 p{Nk ,k>b} (`m1 ) + p{Nk ,k>b} (`m2 ).
( ). > 0.
Nk
2) b , M
< C k > b.
k
p{Nk ,k>b} (nm1 ) = sup Nk max
k>b

6 sup
k>b

sup

## |j|6Nk tKk \Kk1

(j)

|`m | 6
1

Nk
(j)
Mk max
sup
|`m | 6 p{Mk } (`m1 ) 6 .
1
Mk
C
|j|6Nk tKk \Kk1

.
Z Z(a). (z) n z1 = x1 + iy1 , . . . , zn =
xn + iyn 6 1 6 a, a > 0,

|z k (z)| 6 Ck ()ea|y|
= Ck1 ,...,kn ()ea(|y1 |++|yn |) ,
k = (k1 , . . . , kn ); kj =
0, 1, 2, . . . . , z k = z1k1 znkn |k| = k1 +k2 + +kn .

82

()
k(z)ka,p = sup |z k (x + iy)|ea|y| ,

p = 0, 1, . . . .

(8.6)

|k|6p

, , Z(a) .
a1 < a2 < < as < ,
as +. , Z(as ) Z(as+1 ) . Z(as ) Z(as+1 ).
Z(as ) Z. , |z k (z)| 6 Ck ()ea()|y| , a(), .
(z) Z , Z(as ) s
. E Z ,
- Z(as ).
. 1) , D
.
. 1 4.1.
2) C00 (R1 )
( < t < +). .
{(t) C00 : |(t)| 6 (t)}, (t)
. ,
(t) . , (t) C00
C00 , (t)

.
3) ( . .) C00 (R1 ) A

 

1
t
1
0 (t) + 0
, k = 1, 2, . . . , m = 1, 2, . . . .
m
k
m
0 (t) C0 , 0 (0) 6= 0.
, (t) 0 A,

83

A.
4) ( . .) C0 (R1 ) . m m + 1 0 (t), 1 (t), . . . , m (t). ,
(t) C0 (Rn ),
|(t)| 6 0 (t),

|0 (t)| 6 1 (t),

...,

## |(m) (t)| 6 m (t).

, D
.
. 2).
. D, D. , .
().
, ( S) Rn O Rn . ,
C0 (O) = { C , supp O}, p() = suptO |(t)|,
O , .
Aq , q = 1, 2, . . . , , Aq = int Aq ,
{Aq } O :
A1 A2 Aq Aq+1 ,

Aq = O.

q=1

, K O q0
, K Aq q > q0 .
C0 (O) (8.3), K Aq ,
.
D(Aq ).
D(O).

O
pqm (x) = sup |x(m) (t)|,
tAq

m = 0, 1, . . . ,

q = 1, 2, . . . ,

84

,
E(O) (
O).
, C0 (O) pq () =
maxtAq |(t)| C(O) O

O.
8.1 H(O). O H(O) {(t)}, t O, .



1
pq () = sup |(t)|, Aq = t : |t| 6 q, d(t, CD) >
.
q
tAq
( d(t, CD) t CD ( D).) , Aq , A
D, d(A, CD) > 0, q , A Aq . , ,
, (
pqm () = sup |(m) (t)|,

m = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

tAq

(m) (t) m- ), ,

Z
(m) m!
( ) d
(t) =
6 m!(2q)m p2q (),
2i
m+1
( t)
1
, . ,
| t| = 2q
. (
), H(O)
.

. , H(O) (
) E(O)
C(O), E(O) C(O)

85

## . H(O) E(O) C(O), E(O)

C(O).
,
DSE

(8.7)

( ).
. ( . [1] [8]).
. A Rn
, > 0
,
.
, .
, - ( ) , ,
, , .
. , ( ..)
. h(t)
, b1 , b2 , . . . , bk
1 , 1 , . . . , k . h(t) ,
Z
Ih

h(t) dt =

k
X

bi |i |,

i=1

|i | i .
C + . f (t) ( ) C + ,

86

## hn % f , Ihn 6 C. f C + If = limn Ihn , hn

, f .
( ) (t), = f g C + .
L. I = If Ig . ,
,
. .
P
8.2 (. ).
k=1 k , k L,
k > 0,


Pn
P
, I

6
C
,

k=1P k
k=1 k

I = k=1 Ik .
. n ,
, In 6 C , I = lim In .
8.3 (). n (t)

|n (t)| 6 0 (t),

0 (t) L,

I = lim In .
8.4 . n > 0 ,
n (t) (t) In 6 C , 0 6 I 6 C .

1
p > 1 q = 1 + p1
, p1 + 1q = 1. = () , (0) = 0, = ()
(, , );
a > 0 b > 0
Z a
Z b
ab <
()d +
() d.
(8.8)
0

87

( = a, = b ).
(8.8) () = p1 () = q1 ,
ap
bq
ab 6
+ .
(8.9)
p
q
R
R
, |f (t)|p dt < |g(t)|q dt < ,
(8.9)
|f (t)|
a= R
1 ,
( |f (t)|p dt) p )

|g(t)|
b= R
1
( |g(t)|q dt) q )

, (
)
 p1  Z
 q1
q
|f (t)| dt
|g(t)| dt

Z

|f (t)g(t)| dt 6

(8.10)

|f + g|p 6 |f |(|f | + |g|)p1 + |g|(|f | + |g|)p1 .
, p 1 =
Z

p
q

(8.11)
p

## (|f | + |g|)p1 = (|f | + |g|) q ,

(p1)q

(|f | + |g|)

 q1
Z
 q1
p
dt
=
(|f | + |g|) dt ,

(8.11) ,
Z

(|f | + |g|)p dt 6

Z

Z
+
Z
=

|f |p dt
p

 p1  Z

 p1  Z

|g| dt
p

|f | dt

(|f | + |g|)(p1)q dt
(p1)q

(|f | + |g|)

 p1

Z
+

|g| dt

 p1 ! Z

 q1
+

 q1
dt

=
p

(|f | + |g|) dt

 q1
.

88

1
p ,
Z

 p1

(|f |+|g|)p dt

Z

(|f + g|) dt

 q1

, , 1 1q =

 p1

(|f | + |g|) dt

Z
6

 p1  Z
 p1 !
p
|f | dt
+
|g| dt
.
p

(8.12)

.
Lp 1 6 p < .
(t), |(t)|p .
.
p

1
p

Z

k(t)kp (I(|| )) =

|(t)| dt

 p1
.

(8.13)

Lp
, ,
. , f g, f (t) = g(t) .. Lp
(8.13), (t)
.
8.4 (-). Lp (Rn ) , .
, fm (t) Lp ,
kfm1 fm2 kp 0.
m1 ,m2

## fmk (t), kfmk+1

fmk kp < 21k . K b Rn , ,
Z
|fmk+1 (t) fmk (t)| dt 6
K

Z

1 dt

6
K

 q1
kfmk+1 (t) fmk (t)kp 6 CK

1
.
2k

89

CK K, p-
R P K
, Rn .
k=1 |fmk+1 (t)
K
P
fmk (t)| dt < , . k=1 |fmk+1 (t)fmk (t)| < .
,
lim

N
X
k=1

## (fmk+1 (t) fmk (t)) = lim fmkN +1 = f0 (t)

N

p
f0 (t) < .. ,
R p pf0 Lp . |f (t)| =
p
| dt 6 M ( , |fmk
limN fmk
N +1
N +1
), |f (t)|p
. , ( ,
) , ,
. .

## 3. , fm (t) f (t) Lp (Rn ),

m
,
f (t) .
4. C0 (Rn )
(8.13) Lp (Rn ).
, C0 Lp . , Lp (
p- )
,
( )
C0 , C0 Lp .
5. Lp , kf (t + h)
f (t)kp 0 h 0.
, > 0. (t) C0 (Rn ) ,
kf (t) (t)kp < 3 ;
kf (t + h) f (t)kp 6 kf (t + h) (t + h)kp +
+ k(t) f (t)kp + k(t + h) (t)kp
3 ,
( , C0 )
3 h.

90

R
. (t) (. (3.3)), (t) dt = 1.
f (t) Lp (Rn ) k (t) = k n (kt).
fk (t) = f (t) k (t) f (t)
k

f (t) k (t) =

Lp (Rn ).

(8.14)

f ()k (t ) d .
R
, , k (t ) d = 1,

Z

6
(f
(t)

f
())
(t

)
d
kf (t) fk (te)kp =
k

p

Z

6 (f (t) f (t h))k (h) dh
6
p
Z
6 kf (t) f (t h)kp k (h) dh.
, 4, .
.
Rn O. Lp (O) Lp (O) .
H , p . x, y H, kxk = (x, x), (x, y) . ,
H H 7 C, :
(x, y) = (y, x);
(x, y) = (x, y);
(x1 + x2 , y) = (x1 , y) + (x2 , y);
(x, x) > 0, (x, x) > 0, x 6= 0.
M H . M = {x H :
(x, y) = 0 y M }. , M .
. M
H ; x H
x = m1 + m2 , m1 M, m2 M .

91

., , [1].
8.5 (). f (x)
H .
a H , f (x) = (x, a).
. M = {x : f (x) = 0}. H, , 1.
M . e M , f (x) = f (e),
f(e)
x = e + m, m M . a = (e,e)
e;

(x, a) =


f(e)
e = f (e) = f (x).
e + m,
(e, e)

. f () L2 (O).
f (t) L2 (O) ,
Z
f () =
f (t)(t) dt, (t) L2 (O).
O

, L2 (Rn )
Z
(, ) =
(t)(t) dt.
O

, (t)
L2 (O) ,
Z
f () =
(t)(t) dt.
O

f (t) = (t).
,
S.
8.1. (8.2)
S :
p1N ()

Z
= max

|j|6N

2 N

(1 + t ) |

(j)

 12
(t)| dt ,
2

N = 1, 2, . . . . (8.15)

D0

92

n = 1 ( ).
Z t

d
2 N/2 (j)
2 N/2 (j)

|(1 + t )
(t)| =
(1 + t )
(t) dt 6
dt

Z +
6
|N t(1 + t2 )N/21 (j) (t)| dt +

 12   Z
 21
dt
2 N
(j)
2
+
N
|(1
+
t
)
|
(t)|
dt
(1 + t2 )
Z
 21 
2 N +1 (j+1)
2
+
|(1 + t )
|
(t)| dt
6

Z
6

p1N ()

2 N/2+1

## 6 max sup |(1 + |t| )

|j|6N tR1

(j)

Z
(t)|

dt
(1 + t2 )

 12
6

pN +2 ().

9. D0
D ( D). () D0 .
. D0 (O), E 0 , S 0 ..
.
f (t)
(f, ).
f D. ?
, . 4.4 4.5, ,
, p() D
, |(f, )| 6 p().

D0

93

. , D D(Km ), {Km , m = 1, 2, . . . }
Rn . , f
, D(Km ) .
K b Rn C
m ,
|(f, )| 6 C max sup |(j) (t)| D(K).
|j|6m tK

(9.1)

, D , f ,
k (t) 0 D , (f, k ) 0 k .
, k (t) 0, k (t) -
D(K) . supp k K K k (t)
.
, f (t) L1,loc (Rn ), K b Rn
f (t) L1 (K). f (t) D
Z
(f, ) = f (t)(t) dt.
(9.2)
,
(t) D K,
Z
Z
|(f, )| 6
|f (t)k(t)| dt 6
|f (t)| dt sup |(t)|.
(9.3)
K

tK

f D.
9.1 (). f1 (t) f2 (t)
L1,loc , (f1 , ) = (f2 , )
D(Rn ). f1 (t) = f2 (t) .
. f (t) = f1 (t) f2 (t).
Z
f (t)(t) dt = 0 (t) D(Rn ).
(9.4)

D0

94

, f (t) = 0 ..
R > 0. fR (t) = 2R (t)f (t),
2R (t) |t| < 2R. ,
fR (t) L1 (Rn ).
k (t) = k n (kt), (t)
R
(. (3.3)) fR,k (t) = fR ( )k (t ) d .
fR,k (t) fR (t) L1 , . (8.14). ,
k

|t| < R k k (t )
2R, |t| < R
Z
Z
fR,k (t) = fR ( )k (t ) d = f ( )2R ( )k (t ) d =
Z
= f ( )k (t ) d = 0.
(9.4).
, |t| < R, k, fR,k (t) 0.
3
fR,km (t), fR (t) .
fR (t) = 0 .. |t| < R. fR (t) = f (t)
. , R ,
.
. (
, ) ,
. , (f, )
(f (t), (t)).
.
1) (t) ( 1 t > 0R 0 t < 0)

## ((t), (t)) = 0 (t) dt.

2) - (t) ((t), (t)) =
(0).
3) P 1t
1
(P , (t)) = lim
0
t
3)


1
t+i0

|t|>

(t)
dt =
t

Z
0

(t) (t)
dt.
t


Z
1
(t)
, (t) = lim
dt.
+0
t + i0
t + i

D0

1
t+i0

95

= P 1t i(t).

. D; R , (t) = 0
|t| > R,


Z R
(t)(t i)
1
, (t) = lim
dt =
+0 R
t + i0
t2 + 2
Z R
((t) (0))(t i) dt
= lim
+
+0 R
t2 + 2
Z R
t i
+ (0) lim
dt =
+0 R t2 + 2
Z R
Z R
(t) (0)

=
dt + i(0) lim
dt =
2 + 2
+0
t
t
R
R


1
R
= P , (t) i(0) lim 2 arctan =
+0
t



1
= P i(t), (t) .
t
4) ,


1
ti0


Z
1
(t)
, (t) = lim
dt.
+0
t i0
t i

1
, ti0
= P 1t + i(t).
5) - (t a)
((t a), (t)) = (a).
,
+1 t = 0. 2;
+1, , ( ) + .
0,


1
1
((t ) (t + )), (t) = lim [() ()] =
0 2
2

## = 0 (0) = ((t), 0 (t)).

( A : D 7 D) A : D0 7 D0

D0

96

(A (f )(t), (t)) = (f (t), A()(t)).

(9.5)

, A D
, D(K), K
Rn (. 7.1).
.
1) a(t) C (Rn ). A :
D 7 a(t)(t) D D. (). ,

## (a(t)f, ) = (f (t), a(t)(t)), D,

.
2) . A (nn)- b Rn . f (t) L1,loc , f (At+b)
L1,loc . D
Z
Z
1
f (At + b)(t) dt =
f (t)(A1 (t b)) dt.
| det A|
(t) 7 | det1 A| (A1 (t b)) D D.
(). f (t) D0 ,
f (At + b)

f (Bt + b), (t) =


1
f (t), (A1 (t b)) ,
| det A|

D.

3) . f (t) C N (Rn ), N
. j = (j1 , j2 , . . . , jn )
, |j| = j1 + + jn ,
Dj

|j|
.
tj1 . . . tjn

D ( |j| 6 N )
Z
Z
Dj f (t) (t) dt = (1)|j| f (t)(j) (t) dt.
(, Dj (t) (j) (t).) (t) 7 (1)|j| Dj (t)
D D. (). f (t) D0 ,
Dj f (t)
(Dj f, ) = (1)|j| (f (t), (j) (t)).

D0

97

.
. n = 1.

ln |t| = P 1t .
1) , t

2) , t (t) = (t).

1
3) , (at + b) = |a|
t + ab , , (at) =
1
|a| (t).
4) . f (t)
C 2 (R1 {t0 }).
()
f


t
f (t) , t0 [f ]t0 =
f (t0 + 0) f (t0 0). :



f (t) =
f (t) + [f ]t0 (t t0 ),
t
t
f 00 (t) = {f 00 (t)} + [f 0 (t)]t0 (t t0 ) + [f (t)]t0 0 (t t0 ).
1
= (t).
5) n = 3. , 4r

. .

, n

;

Z
Z 
v
u
(vu uv) dt =
u
v
ds.
n
n

1
,
, t 6= 0 4r
1
4r = 0. {|t| > }.
1 ikr
6) n = 3. , u = 4r
e
u + k 2 u = (t). 1 ikr
v = 4r
e
. r = |t|, t R3 .

.
(f (t)g(t)) = f g + 2(f, g) + gf,
1
tj |t|
ik|t|

= |t|j3

f=

ik|t|
tj e

1
,
r

g = eikr .

iktj ik|t|
,
|t| e

ik
(f, g) = |t|
. , 5) ,
2e

2ik
ik|t|
2 ik|t|
e
= |t| k e
,


1
ik
2ik k 2
k 2 ik|t|
2
( + k )u =
4(t) 2 2 + 2
+
e
=
4
|t|
|t|
|t|
|t|

## = (t) eik|t| = (t).

D0

98

7) n = 2. , ln |t| = 2(t).
. 5), ,
ln |t| = 0 t 6= 0.
1
8) n > 3. , |t|n2
= (n 2)n (t),
n Rn .

9)
. [0, 1]. 

31 , 23 C(t) = 21 .
1- .
 


2- 19 , 29 79 , 89
C(t) = 14 C(t) = 34 , .
n
C(t) = 2k1
2n , k = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 2 , k- n- . (n = 1, 2, . . . ).

[0, 1]. C(t)
[0, 1]. , [0, 1]. C(t) . , ,
. (,
1.) ,
.
.
C(t)?
:
(C 0 (t), (t)) =

Cj [(j ) (j )],

Cj C(t) [j , j ], .
10) n = 2. ,


2
2

t2
x2


(t |x|) = (t, x).

D0

. (t1 , t2 )

99

(t1 )(t2 ).

2
t1 t2 (t1 , t2 ).




2
2 (t1 , t2 )
(t1 , t2 ), (t1 , t2 ) = (1)2 (t1 , t2 ),
=
t1 t2
t1 t2


Z
Z Z 2
(t1 , 0)
(t1 , t2 )
dt1 =
dt1 dt2 =
=
dt1
t1 t2
t1
0
0
0
= (0, 0) = ((t1 , t2 ), (t1 , t2 ).

t =
,

1 (t1
2

+ t2 ), x =

1 (t1
2

t2 ).

1
(t1 , t2 ) = (t, x),
2

2
2
1 2
2 ,
(t1 , t2 ) =
t1 t2
2 t2
x

(t1 , t2 ) = (t |x|),

.
11) f (t) ,
> 0
f (t) = f (t),

> 0.

(9.6)

( ) .
1
(f, ).
: (f, (t)) = +n
D0
, f D0 Dj g
O,
(f, ) = (1)|j| (g, (j) ) D,

supp O.

## 9.1. f D0 (Rn ). O b Rn g(t) L1 (O) j = (j1 , . . . , jn ) , f = Dj g(t).

. K = O. (9.1)
m
|(f, )| 6 C max sup |(j) (t)|
|j|6m K

supp K.

(9.7)

D0

100

K K1 = {(t1 , . . . , tn ) : ai 6 ti 6 bi , i = 1, . . . , n},
max{|bi ai |} = d.
i

j = (j1 , . . . , jn );

Z t1

(j1 +1,j2 ,...,jn ) (t) dt 6 d sup |(j1 +1,j2 ,...,jn ) (t)|.
|(j) (t)| =
K

a1

(9.7)
1,
Z
|(m+1,...,m+1) (t)| dt.
|(f, )| 6 C1 sup |(m,m,...,m) (t)| 6 C2
tK

K1

, K1 K,
O. ,
Z
|(f, )| 6 C2
|(m+1,...,m+1) (t)| dt 6 C3 k(m+1,...,m+1) (t)k2 .
K1

(9.8)
h : DK 7 L2 (O) h : (t) 7
(m+1,...,m+1) (t). , .
h

DK

- M L2 (O)

(9.8) , g , M .
L2 (O),
g(t) L2 (O) ,
Z
m+1
(g, ) = (1)
g(t)(t) dt, L2 (O).
O

f = gh, ,
Z
(f, ) = (1)(m+1)n
g(t)(m+1,...,m+1) (t) dt
O

D(K).

D0

101

(, ,
O), g(t) L1 (O). .
. g(t) (g(t)
C N (O)) , , m.
D0 f D0
g(t) D0 , g 0 (t) = f (t),
(g 0 (t), (t)) = (g(t), 0 (t)) = (f (t), (t)) D.

(9.9)

,
. (9.9) ,
g
(t) = 0 (t), M
 = {(t) :
0
(t)
=

(t),

D}.

M
=
(t) D :

R
(t) dt = 0 .
Z
Z

(t) dt = 0 (t) dt = (t) = 0,
R
Rt
, (t) dt = 0, (t) = ( ) d .
, M (
1).
R
, (t) D, (t) dt = 1
(t) D.


Z
Z
(t) = (t) (t) (t) dt + (t) (t) dt =
Z
= ( (t))0 + (t) (t) dt,
R
( (t))0 = (t) (t) (t) dt M . , g M D, ( C) (t), (g, ) = C.
Z
Z
0
(g, ) = (g, (t)) + (g, ) (t) dt = (f, ) + C (t) dt.
.

102

D0

. ,
f D0 u D0 m (
m 1). ,
D0 y (m) = f y(t) = u(t) +
Pm1
k
k=0 ck t , ck , k = 0, 1, . . . , m 1.
. m.
O , {Um , m = 1, 2, . . . }
O,
1. Um b O;
S
2. m Um = O;
3. K O
{Um , m = 1, . . . }.
9.2 ( ). O Rn ( Rn ) U1 , . . . , Um , . . . O.
{em (t) D, m = 1, 2, . . . } ,
1. 0 6 em (t) 6 1 m = 1, 2, . . . ;
2. em (t) = 0 Um , (m = 1, 2, . . . );
3. e1 (t) + e2 (t) + + em (t) + 1, t O.
, ,
t, (2), .
.
{Vm },
SO ,
V m Um . , m=2 Um
F1 U1 . V1 ,
F1
U1 , (F1 b V 1 U1 ).
V1 , . . . , Vm1 , V k
Uk , k = 1, . . . , m 1, V1 , . . . , Vm1 , Um , Um+1 , . . .

Sm1
 O.
k=1 Vk
S
k=m+1 Uk Fm , Um . Vm , Fm Um ,
..

D0

103

8.1 m (t) D,

P 0 1, 1 V m 0 Um .
h(t) = m=1 m (t). t O
1 .
em (t) =

m (t)
,
h(t)

m = 1, 2, . . . ,

(9.10)

. .

9.2.
S
O = I OS () 0
0

O = m Om
( Om
O ).
.
{Q
Sk } O, O =
k=0 Qk ,
b Qk b Qk+1 b ,

k = 0, 1, . . . .

Kk = Qk \Qk1 , k = 1, . . . , K0 = Q0 .
t Kk \Kk1 Ut t ,
Ut O ;

Ut b O;

Ut Kk1 = .

K0 Ut
, Kk .
. ( .)
f D0 (Rn ). , f t Rn , Ut ,
(f, ) = 0, D, supp Ut .
9.1. f D0
O,
(f, ) = 0

D,

supp O.

, t O
Ut , (f, ) = 0, D, supp Ut . Ut O. {Om }
{em (t)} . supp O,


 X

X

(f, ) = f (t), (t)
em (t) =
f (t), em (t)(t) = 0.
m=1

m=1

104

D0

O, , ( )
.
. .
. f D0 (Rn )
( supp f ) Rn \O, O
, f . , .

9.3. f D0 ,
E 0 (Rn ) ( f E 0 (Rn )).
. . supp f = K, K
(t) D , (t) = 1 t K.
f  D E :
(t) E f (t), (t)(t) = (f, ). ,
E. (t)(t) (t) E
D(K1 ), K1 = supp , (9.1)
C, m ,
|(f, )| = |(f (t), (t)(t))| 6 C max sup |()(j) | 6
|j|6m tK1

6 C1 max sup |
|j|6m tK1

(j)

(t)|,

( (t)).
, E f (. (8.1)), , E.
f D .
. f E 0 ; K
( {|t| 6 N }) ,
|(f, )| 6 C max sup |(j) (t)|
|j|6m tK

C m. , supp Rn \K,
(f, ) = 0. f .

D0

105

9.4. P f D0 .
supp f = {0}, f (t) = |j|6N cj (j) (t) N cj ,
|j| 6 N .
. , f , f E 0 E,

|(f, )| 6 C max sup | (j) (t)| E.
(9.11)
|j|6M tK

## (t) D (t) = 1 |t| 6 21 (t) = 0 |t| > 1.

D > 0

 

t
(f (t), (t)) = f (t),
(t) =


 
 
 

t
t
((t) TN (t)) + f (t),
TN (t) ,
= f (t),

(9.12)
(j)
P
TN (t) = |j|6N j!(0) tj . (9.12) (9.11), N ( N > 2M + 1). < 1,
( )

 


f (t), t ((t) TN (t)) 6

  
(j)

t
6
((t) TN (t))
6 C max sup

|j|6M |t|<1

C1
max sup |((t) TN (t))(j) | 6 C2 .
M |j|6M |t|<

, t = 0 |t| > .
(9.12) t .
6

(f, ) =

X (j) (0)
(f (t), tj (t))
j!

|j|6N

,
 X

X (j) (0)
(j)
(f, ) =
Cj =
cj (t), (t) .
j!
|j|6N

|j|6N

D0

106

.
, S Rn . s
Z
(S , ) =
(t)(t) ds, D,
S

## (t) L1,loc (S) ( (t) S

).

. S () , n
(t) S.


(S ),
n

Z
=

(t)
S

(t)
ds,
n

D.

, ( ) S.
. S Rn . S+ Rn ,
S, , S
. f (t)
C 1 (S + ) C 1 (S ),
[f ]t0 =

lim

tt0 ,tS+

f (t)

lim

tt0 ,tS

f (t),

t0 S,

t0 . ,
f
=
ti

f
ti


+ [f ]S cos(
n, ti )S ,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n,

 f
n
S. t
() i
, [f ]S (t) f t S, cos(
n, ti )
.
(). . n = 2
S t1 = y(t2 ); (t) D

D0


 

f

, = f,
t1
t1
 Z y(t2 ) Z
Z
= dt2
+

y(t2 )

107


(0t1 )f (t1 , t2 ) dt1 =


Z y(t2 )
y(t2 )0
= dt2 f
+
{ft01 } dt1


Z

f y(t2 )+0 +
{ft01 } dt1 =
y(t2 )
ZZ
Z
=
{ft01 } dt + [f ](y(t2 ),t2 ) (y(t2 ), t2 ) dt2
Z
0
= ({ft1 }, ) + [f ](y(t2 ),t2 ) (y(t2 ), t2 ) cos(
n, t1 ) ds.
Z

, dt2 = cos(
n, t1 ) ds.
f (t) C 2 (S + ) C 2 (S ). ,
 2  


f

2f
f
=
cos(
n, tj )S +
[f ]S cos(
n, ti )S .
+
ti tj
ti tj
ti S
tj
P
n
n =
n, ti ) t i ,
i=1 cos(

 

f

f = {f } +
S +
[f ]S S .
(9.13)
n
S
n

fk
D0 , k = 1, 2, . . . . ,
D0 , D
(fk , ) C .
k

9.5 ( D0 ). fk () D0
C , C = (f0 , ), f0 D0 .
, f0 , D , 1 6.3 f0 ,
f0 D0 .
. fk f0 D0 , Dj fk Dj f0
D0 .

D0

108

,
(Dj f0 , ) = (1)|j| (f0 , Dj ) = (1)|j| lim (fk , Dj ) =
k

= lim (D fk , ).
k

9.6. fn 0 n D0 ,
(fn , ) 0

D.

n 0 p{Nk }
D ,
|(fn , )| 6 n p{Nk } (),

n = 1, 2, . . . ,

D.

(9.14)

(. (8.5)).
. 6.3 p{Nk1 } ,
|(fn , )| 6 p{Nk1 } (),

n = 1, 2, . . . ,

D.

(9.15)

, fn
Dp1 ( D p1 ), p1
P{Nk1 } . (9.15)
. 8.3 p2 p{Nk2 } , Dp2 7 Dp1 . U = { D : p{Nk2 } () 6 1}. ,
fn ( n ) U . A
U Dp1 ( ) > 0. ,
U = { Dp1 : p{Nk1 } ( ) < },
D, A. U1 , . . . , UQ .
N , |(fn , i )| 6 n > N , i = 1, 2, . . . , Q.
U A,
|(fn , )| 6 |(fn , ( i0 ))| + |(fn , i0 )| 6 2,
.
. , fn f ,
I. , D

D0

109

|(f , )| < C I. (
6.3.)
, I = [1, +) D (f , )
I,
(f , ) C
.
. fk f0 D0 , k 0 D k ;

(fk , k ) (f0 , 0 ).
(9.16)
k

,
(fk f0 , k 0 ) = (fk , k ) (f0 , k ) + (fk f0 , 0 )
(9.16) f0 = 0 0 = 0. ,
fk 0, p{Nk } D , (9.14),
k 0, , ,
, p{Nk } (k ) < C C. (9.14) , M ,
|(fk , k )| 6 C k > M .
9.3. fk f0 D0 gk (t) g0 (t) E , gk fk
g0 f0 D0 .
. , D k
gk g0 D.

## (gk fk , ) = (fk , gk ) (f0 , g0 ) = (g0 f0 , ).

k

R
. 1) (t) L1 (Rn ) (t) dt = 1;
 
1
t

(t) D0 (Rn ).
(9.17)
n

0
, (t) D
 
Z
Z
Z
1
t

(t)
dt
=
(t)(t)
dt
=
(t)[(t) (0)] dt +
n

Z
+ (0) (t) dt (0) = ((t), (t).
0

D0

110

, [(t) (0)] n
R R ,
(t)[(t) (0)] dt 0 0 t.
2) , ,
+0
t2
1
e 4 ,
2

(t).
,

1
,
2
t + 2

t
sin2
2
t

1
t

sin t (t) 0.
R
t
. (t)
t sin dt (, A), (A, A) (A, ). , :
Z
sin(N t)dt
= ,
t
Z +A
(t) sin(N t) dt 0 (t) C (R1 )
N +

(.,, [1]).
1
3) , t+i
P 1t i(t).
( ).
4) sk (t) L1,loc , k = 1, 2, . . . ,
K b Rn
s(t). , j k Dj sk (t) Dj s(t) D0 .

. D
Z
Z
(sk , ) =
sk (t)(t) dt
s(t)(t) dt = (s, ).
supp

.
m=1 um (t) .
( D0 )
D0 .
P+
P+
1
imt
5) , 2
= m= (t 2m).
m= e
.
t2
f (t) = 2t 4
2 ( D0 )
.

D0

(: f (t) =

1
2
p (q)

111

P+

1 imt
.)
m= m2 e
q
(1) q! (qp)
= (qp)!
(t),
0

6) t (t)
q > p,
0 . , t(t) = 0, t (t) = (t).
7) tu(t) = 0, t2 u(t) = 0, tp u(t) = 0.

f (x) D0 (Rn ) g(y) D0 (Rm ). h : D(Rn ) D(Rm ) 7 C {, } 7 (f, )(g, ).
, :
D(Rn+m ) 7 C ,
.

D(Rn ) D(Rm )

- C

D(Rn+m )
? D(Rn+m ) 7 D(Rn ) (x, y) 7 (x) = (g(y), (x, y)). .
9.2. (x) D(Rn ),
j
Dj (x) = (g(y), Dxj (x, y)).

(9.18)

## (x, y) 7 (x) D(Rn+m ) D(Rn ).

, x Rn (x, y)
D(Rm ), (x) Rn .
x, xk x; (xk , y) (x, y) D(Rm ).
g(y) , ,
(xk ) = (g(y), (xk , y)) (g(y), (x, y)) = (x),
k

## (x) . , x1 . , h = (h1 , 0, . . . , 0).

,

1
(x, y)
(x + h, y) (x, y)
h1
x1
h1 0

D(Rm ).

D0

112


(x + h) (x)
1
(g(y), (x + h, y)) (g(y), (x, y))
=
h1
h1
h0


(x, y)
g(y),
.
x1
h0
(x,y) 

(x)
x1 = g(y), x1
(9.18). (9.18) (x, y) 7 (x).
D0 (Rn+m ) :

fg


gf


## (x, y) g(y), (f (x), (x, y)) .

(x)(y)
D(Rn+m ). ( 9.4), D(Rn+m ). , f (x) g(y)
D0 (Rn+m ).


f (x) g(y), (x, y) = f (x), (g(y), (x, y)) =

= g(y), (f (x), (x, y)) .
(9.19)
9.4. (x, y) D(Rn+m )
k (x, y) =

N
X

u` (x)v` (y),

u` D(Rn ),

v` (y) D(Rm ),

`=1

D(Rn+m ).
, supp {|x|2 + |y|2 < R2 }.
Pk (x, y), k = 1, . . . , ,
|D D Pk | < k1 || 6 k |x|2 + |y|2 6 8R2 .
(x) (y) , 1 R 2R.
k (x, y) = (x) (y)Pk (x, y) .

D0

113

f (x)
D0 (Rn ), g(y) D0 (Rm ) h(z) D0 (Rk ).
1) f (x) g(y)
. ,
fk 0 D0 (Rn ), fk (x) g(y) 0 D0 (Rn+m ). .
2) : f (x) [g(y) h(z)] = [f (x) g(y)] h(z).
.
3) : Dx [f (x) g(y)] = D f (x) g(y). .
4) : a(x) C (Rn ). a(x)[f (x)
g(y)] = a(x)f (x) g(y). .
5) : (f g)(x + h, y) = f (x + h) g(y). .
6) supp f (x) = A, supp g(y) = B, supp(f (x) g(y)) =
A B. .
7) , g(x, y)
y, f (x) 1(y).
(9.19)


Z
f (x),

(x, y) dy

Z
=

## (f (x), (x, y)) dy

D(Rn+m ).

(9.20)
, (t) = (t1 ) (t2 ) (tn ) ( t =
(t1 , . . . , tn ) Rn ).

## f (x) R g(x) Rn . f ()g(x

) d .. x Rn , f g :
Z
(f g)(x) =

Z
f ()g(x ) d =

g( )f (x ) d = (g f )(x).

## , f, g L1,loc supp f A, supp g B,

A B , R > 0
TR = {(x, y) R2n : x A, y B, |x + y| 6 R}

(9.21)

114

D0

## R2n , f g L1,loc . , , R > 0

Z
ZZ
|f g| dx 6
|f ()| |g(x )| d dx 6
|x|<R
|x|<R
Z
6
|f ()| |g()| d d < .
TR

, f ( g) , TR .
. f Lp , g Lq , p1 + 1q = 1 + 1r ;
kf gkLr 6 kf kLp kgkLq .

.
D () f g ;
Z
Z
(f g, ) = (x) f ()g(x ) d dx =
Z
Z
= f () g(x )(x) dx d =
Z
Z
= f () g()( + ) d d.
. ,

(f g, ) = f (x) g(y), (x + y) , D.
(9.22)
.
, (x + y), ,
D(R2n ) (9.22)
. , f g.
. ,
{k (x) D(Rn ), k = 1, . . . } 1 Rn ,
1. K b Rn N = N (K)
, k (x) = 1 k > N x K;

D0

115

2. {k (x)}
,
|Dj k (x)| < cj ,

x Rn ,

k = 1, 2, . . . .

, ,

k (x) = xk , (x) D, (x) = 1 |x| < 1.
. f, g D0 (Rn ).
(x) D(Rn ) limk f (x) g(y),
k (x, y)(x + y) ,
{k (x, y)}, 1 R2n , D(Rn ),
D0 (Rn ), f g f g.
,
D0 (. 9.5).

. , f , g, h D0 (Rn ) {k } D(R3n ), 1 R3n .
f g h

(f g h, ) = lim f (x) g(y) h(z), k (x; y; z)(x + y + z) ,
k

D(Rn ), .
1) . f g , gf , f g = gf .

.
2) . f g D0 (Rn ) supp f A,
supp g B. f g , supp(f g) A + B.
, supp A + B = .


f (x) g(y), k (x, y)(x + y) = f (x) g(y), k (x, y) ,
k = k (x, y)(x + y). , supp k {(x, y) :
x + y supp }, . , (A B) supp k = ,
,
A B, supp A + B = .

D0

116

3) : f = f = f ? .
4) .
. ,
(1 0 ) = 10 = 0 ,

1 ( 0 ) = 1 = 1.

( , ?) f gh
f g, (f g) h = f g h. , ()
di,j ()
limi,j di,j j limi di,j , , . limj limi di,j =
limi,j di,j . i (x; t) j (x; y) 1 R2n );
i (x; y)j (x + y; z) 1 R3n i, j .

di,j = f (x) g(y) h(z), i (x; y)(x + y; z)(x + y + z) ,
( f g h)
lim di,j = (f g h, ).

i,j

j

j (t) = h(z), j (t; z)(t + z) D(Rn ),

D(Rn ),

f g ( j) :

lim di,j = lim f (x) g(y) h(z), i (x, y)j (x + y; z)(x + y + z)
i
i

= lim f (x) g(y), i (x, y)(h(z), j (x + y; z)(x + y + z))
i

= lim f (x) g(y), i (x; y)j (x + y) = (f g, j ).
i


lim lim di,j = lim (f g)(t), j (t) =

j i


= lim (f g)(t), (h(z), j (t; z)(t + z)) =
j

= lim (f g)(t) h(z), j (t; z)(t + z) =
j

= ((f g) h, ).

D0

117

.
5) . f g ,
j = (j1 , . . . , jn )
(Dj f ) g f (Dj g),
Dj (f g) = (Dj f ) g = f (Dj g).

(9.23)

xi , i = 1, . . . , n. , k (x) 1 k
Rn , k0 (x) + k (x) 1 Rn . .
9.5. f g k (x, y) 1 k
R2n ,

f (x) g(y), k0 (x, y)(x + y) 0, D(Rn ).
k

,

f (x) g(y), k0 (x, y)(x + y) =

= f (x) g(y), (k (x, y) + k0 (x, y))(x + y)

f (x) g(y), k (x, y)(x + y)
k

(f g, ) (f g, ) = 0.
k

.


f 0 (x) g(y), k (x, y)(x + y) =

= f (x) g(y), k0 (x, y)(x + y) + k (x, y)0 (x + y)
k

## (f g, 0 (x)) = ([f g]0 , ).

k

, (9.23).
6) . f 7 f g f , g .
f 7 f g. , f 7 f g,
, D0 D0 . (
(x k) 7 (x k) 1.)

D0

118

7) . f g ,
f (x + h) g(x) h Rn , f (x + h) g(x) =
(f g)(x + h).
, .
-.
A B Rn f (x), g(x)
D0 (Rn ), supp f A supp g B.
R
TA,B
= {(x, y) R2n : x A, y B, |x + y| < R}.

(9.24)

, A - A.
R
9.7. R > 0 TA,B
2n
R , f g


(f g, ) = f (x) g(y), (x)(y)(x + y) , D(Rn ), (9.25)

## (x), (x) C (Rn ),

(
(x) = 1 x A , (x) = 0 x
/ A2 ;
(y) = 1 y B , (y) = 0 y
/ B 2 .

(9.26)

. , > 0
R > 0 TAR ,B .
D(Rn ) (x)(y)(x + y) D(R2n ). ,
k (x, y),
1 R2n , N ,
k (x, y) = 1 (x, y) supp (x)(y)(x + y)

k > N.


(f g, ) = lim f (x) g(y), k (x, y)(x + y) =
k


= lim f (x) g(y), k (x, y)(x)(y)(x + y) =
k

= f (x) g(y), (x)(y)(x + y) .

D0

119

R
1. supp fm A, supp gm B TA,B
0
n
R > 0. fm f0 D (R ) gm g0
D0 (Rn ). fm gm f0 g0 m .

(9.25) 1)
.
2. f D0 (Rn ) g E 0 , f g


(f g, ) = g(y), (f (x), (x + y)) .
(9.27)
, , g
, K, , , (f (x), (x+y))
E(Rn ). (9.25),

(f g, ) = f (x) g(y), (x)(y)(x + y) =

= g(y), (f (x), (x)b(y)(x + y)) =

= g(y), b(y)(f (x), (x)(x + y)) =


= b(y)g(y), (f (x), (x + y)) = g(y), (f (x), (x + y)) .
, (y) = 1 g(y) (
, ).
. f C (Rn ) g E 0 (Rn ),
f g C (Rn ) (9.27) (f eg)(x) =
(g(y), f (x y)).
3. f D0 ( D0 ) fm (x).
,
m (x) = m(mx), (x)
R
( D, ( ) d = 1). fm = f m . m (x)
(x) D0 , 1 9.7 fm = f m f = f
m .
9.8. f D0 D, D
D0 .
, fm C f D0 N (x) DN , N (x) = 1 |x| 6 N 1.
{N (x)fmN (x)} D,
mN N , f D0 ,
lim (N fmN , ) = lim (fmN , N (x)(x)) = lim (fmN , ) = (f, ).

D0

120

Rn ( ) , x , x > 0.
, ,
ch ,
( ch ).
= {x : (x, ) > 0 }

(9.28)

.
. , , :
a)
Rn+ = {x : x1 > 0, . . . , xn > 0},

(Rn+ ) = Rn+ ;

b) Rm+1
V + = {x : x = (x0 , x
) : x0 > |
x|},

(V + ) = V .

pr
. 0
0
, pr pr ,
0
b .
. , ,
= + .
9.6. :
1) ;
2) ch ;
3) int 6= ( );
4) C 0 b int =
(C 0 ) > 0 ,
(, x) > |||x|,

C 0,

x ch .

. ( . [2, . I, 4].)
9.7. .
R > 0 R0 ,
T R = {(x, y) : x , y , |x + y| 6 R}
UR0 R2n .

D0

121

. . xm ym , |xm | + |ym | .
, , , , , |xm | .
|ym | ( |xm + ym | ). ,
m|
, |x
|ym | `, 0 6 ` < ( ` = ,
xm ym ). m
x
m = |xxm
m = |yym
. pr .
| y
m|
, , x
m x
0 pr
ym x
0 pr .


xm
ym |ym |
xm + ym = |xm |
+

< ,
|xm | |ym | |xn |

xm
ym |ym |
+

## |xm | |ym | |xm |


0

m . , , x
0 + y0 ` = 0,
, ` = 1, x
0 =
y0 . ,
{
x0 , < < +} ,
.
D0 ()
. Rn . D0 , , D0 ().
9.9. . f D0 () g D0 (), f g ,
D0 ()

(f g, ) = f (x) g(y), (x)(y)(x + y) , D,
(9.29)
(x) (y) ,
1 (supp f ) (supp g) (supp f )2
(supp g)2 . fm , g D0 () fm
0 m , fm g 0.
9.7
1 , , supp f g + = .

D0

122

, . , D0 ()
( ,
-). 1
. = R+
0
D0 () D+
.
0
,
D+
, < < +,
(
(t)t1
> 0,
()
f =
(9.30)
(N )
f+N
6 0, + N > 0, N .
, f1 = (t), f0 = f10 = 0 (t) = (t), N > 0 fN = (N ) (t). f f = f+ . , > 0,
> 0;
f f =

(t)
()()

y 1 (t y)1 dy =

0
+1 Z 1

(t)t
()()

1 (t )1 d =

(t)t+1
= f+ .
( + )

1 (t )1 d = B(, ) =

()()
.
( + )

6 0 6 0, , m >
n > ,
(m)

(n)

(m+n)

## f f = f+m f+n = (f+m f+n )(m+n) = f++m+n = f+ .

f f = f0 = (t); ,
0
D+
f f .
0
u D+
N > 0 fN u = (N ) (t) u = u(N ) .
N fN N -
.
(fN u)(N ) = fN (fN u) = (fN fN ) u = u = u,

D0

123

fN u N u.
f < 0 > 0.
1

0
. D 2 f , f
. 1) f D+
L1,loc .
:
Z t
1
1
f ()
2

D f = f 21 f = f1 f 12 f =
d.
t 0
t

2)
g(t)
Z t
1
f () d
g(t) =
.
(1 ) 0 (t )
. g = f1 f .
3) f (t) L1,loc (R1 ). n-
Z t Z tn
Z t2
FN (t) =
...
f (t1 ) dt1 . . . dtn .
0

. FN (t) = fn f .
0
4) f (t) L1,loc (R1 ) g(t) D+
.
0
D+ --
a0 u00 (t) + a1 u0 (t) + a2 u(t) + a3

0

## . K(t) u(t) = g(t), K = a0 00 (t) + a1 0 (t) + a2 (t) +

a3 (t) + a4 (t h).
0
5) f g D+
. , (eat f (t)) (eat g(t)) =
at
e (f g)(t).
6) f (t) Rn \{0}, , (t)S S (t). ,
Rn
Z
f (t) (t)S =
()f (t ) dS .
S

124

. S 0 (Rn )

7) (t) E 0 (Rn ).


1
1
Vn (t) = n2 (t), n > 3
V2 (t) = ln
(t) n = 2
|t|
|t|
( n = 2 (t)). ,
D0 (Rn )
n

V (t) = (n 2)

2 2
 (t), n > 3 (V (t) = 2(t) n = 2) .
n2

, (t) , , Vn .
Vn L1,loc
Z
() d
.
Vn (t) =
|t |n2

10. .
S 0 (Rn )

S(Rn ). S 0 (Rn ) . (8.7) (D
S E),
,
E 0 S 0 D0 .
(10.1)
, S(Rn )
( )
N

## pN () = max sup (1 + |t|2 ) 2 |(j) (t)|,

|j|6N tRn

N = 0, 1, . . . .

(10.2)

S(Rn )
SN ( S pN )
S SN +1 SN S0 ,

(10.3)

f S ,
C N ,
|(f, )| 6 CpN () S(Rn ).

(10.4)

. S 0 (Rn )

125

S SN . , S .
f (t)
, (1 + |t|)m |f (t)| < c m c. f (t)
, R f S 0 (f, ) = f (t)(t) dt.
, Rn ,
R , m > 0 (1 +
|t|)m (dt) < . ( , . [1].)
R (, ) = (t) (dt).
f E 0 , f S 0 . S
(f, ) = (f, ), D = 1 f .
S 0 ( A : S 7 S)
A : S 0 7 S 0



A (f )(t), (t) = f (t), A()(t) , S.
(10.5)
, A S S
,
pN , N Q CN , pN (A()) 6
CN pQ (), (. 4.5).
1) . 2
S (, et S,
2
2
et et = 1
/ S).
. a(t) C (Rn ) ( ):
|Dj a(t)| 6 Cj (1 + |t|)mj ,

|j| = 0, 1, . . . .

S. M .

126

. S 0 (Rn )

a(t) M ; A : S 7
a(t)(t) S S. (). ,

(a(t)f, ) = f (t), a(t)(t) , S,
M .
2) . A (n n)- b Rn . (t) 7
1
1
(t b)) S S. ().
| det A| (A
f (t) S 0 ,
f (At + b)

f (Bt + b), (t) =


1
f (t), (A1 (t b)) ,
| det A|

S.

3) . (t) 7 (1)|j|
Dj (t) S S. (). f S 0 ,

(Dj f, ) = (1)|j| (f, Dj ),

S,

S 0 , Dj f .
, D S,
S {k D} , k
S k . (
,

, k (t) = (t) kt , D, (t) = 1,
|t| < 1. , k S.)
S 0 S ,
.
(. 1 6.3).
10.1 ( S 0 ).
fk S 0 S 0 ,
(fk , ) C
k

C = (f, ), f S 0 .

S,

. S 0 (Rn )

127

. fk f0 S 0 ; Dj fk Dj f0
k

D0 . (. 9.5).

6.3
10.2 (. ). {f S 0 (Rn ), J}
,

|(f , )| 6 C f , J, S;
(10.6)
C N ,
|(f , )| 6 CpN (),

J,

S.

(10.7)

, S 0
SN .
10.3. fk S 0 , k = 1, 2, . . . ,
S (fk , ) 0 k ; N k 0 ,
|(fk , )| 6 k PN ()

S(Rn ).

(10.8)

D0 (. 9.6).
D0 S 0 , 8.3 8.1.
. , fk f ,
I. , S
|(f , )| < C I.
, I = [1, +) S (f , )
I,
(f , ) C
.
. fk f0 S 0 , k 0 S k ;

(fk , k ) (f0 , 0 ).
k

S 0
.

128

. S 0 (Rn )

## 10.4. f S 0 (Rn ), g(t) j ,

f (t) = Dj g(t).
9.1, (9.7)
, (8.15).
S 0 (F ) G
,
d, , q , t1 , t2 G,
|t1 t2 | 6 d, G
` 6 |t1 t2 |q .
, G (
d G = q = 1). , , .
F G: F = G. SF (
F ) F
( G F ),
kkN,F = sup (1 + t2 )N/2 |Dj (t)|,

N = 0, 1, . . . .

(10.9)

tF
|j|6N

SF
SF,N +1 SN,F S1,F S0,F ,
SN,F SF N - .
SN +1,F SN,F , N = 0, 1 . . . , . N N 0 > N , SN 0 ,FT SN,F (). SF = N >0 SN,F , , . SF0 (
F ) SF .
f SF0 ,
m C
|(f, )| 6 Ckkm,F ,

SF .

(10.10)

. S 0 (Rn )

129

F .
S 0 (F ) S 0 F .
10.1. S 0 (F ) SF0 .
. [5, . I, . 1.3].
SF0 .
S 0 (F ), F
, .
10.5 ( . .). f S 0 (F ),
F .
X
f=
Dj j (dt),
(10.11)
|j|6N

j (dt) F .
. . . [20].
S 0 f (x) S 0
g(x) S 0 , f g D0 . :
S 0 ? .
1) f S 0 g E 0 . , (. (9.27)),
f g , D0

(f g, ) = g(y), (f (x), (x + y)) .
(10.12)
f S 0 , (x) 7 (f (x), (x + y)) S E. . (10.12) f g S 0 .
S 0 .
, fm f0 S 0 gm g0 E 0 ,
K , supp gm K m,
fm gm f0 g0 .
m

2) Rn . f g S 0 ( f, g S 0 ()),
f g, , D0


(f g, ) = f (x) g(y), (x)(y)(x + y) , S,
(10.13)

130

## C -, |Dj (x)| 6 cj , |Dj (y)| 6 cj ,

1 (supp f ) (supp g) (supp f )2
(supp g)2 (. (9.25)).
(x) 7 (x)(y)(x + y) S(Rn ) S(R2n ) (), f g
S 0 ( S 0 ()).
. , f g
S .


(f g, ) = f (x), (g(y), (x+y)) = g(y), (f (x), (x+y)) . (10.14)
, 7 (f (x), (x +
y)) ( 7 (g(y), (x + y))) S S . .
fm , gm S 0 (), fm f0 gm g0 m
S 0 ; fm gm f0 g0 S 0 .
3) f S 0 S; f S 0 ,
M ,
f = (f (), (t )),

## |Dj (f )(t)| 6 C(1 + t2 )N/2 pN +|j| () (10.15)

C N .
(. (3.3)), m = m(mx) f S 0 .
f m f S 0 (. 1)).
m

(. 3)), f m M . , M S 0 .
M S 0
S ( D). S ( D) S 0 .

11.

S
. L1 (Rn ). (t) L1 (Rn )
Z
def
F [(t)]() = () =
(t)ei(,t) dt, (, t) = 1 t1 + + n tn .
(11.1)

131

F []() , || .
, f L1
R
f (t)ei(t,) dt 0, f (t) = 0 ..
L2 (Rn )
11.1 (). f (t)
L2 (R1 )
Z R
Z R
gR () =
...
f (t)eit dt1 . . . dtn
R

R L2 . gR g
L2 R
Z
Z
|g()|2 d = 2 |f (t)|2 dt.
(11.2)
S(Rn ) ,
()
F []:
Z
F [(t)]() =

(t)ei(,t) dt,

S.

(11.3)

F []() ,
|| . , (t)
,
Z
Dj F []() = (it)j (t)ei(,t) dt = F [(it)j (t)](),
Z
(11.4)
j
F [D (t)]() = (Dj (t))ei(,t) dt = (i)j F []().

Z

N
j
i(,t)

(1 + || ) |D F []()| 6 (1 ) [(it) (t)]e
dt 6
2 N

tRn

## C , pN (F []) 6 p2N +n+1 (),

, F S S. ,
F 1 ,

132

11.1. F () S S .
,
Z
1
1
(t) = F [()](t) =
()ei(,t) d, S. (11.5)
(2)n
( )
n = 1. , 1 sinxAx (x) S 0 A .
(, . 2) 9.3.)
1
2

it

1
() d = lim
A 2

eit () d =

A
Z A

Z
1
eit ) d eix (x) dx =
A 2 A


1 sin(A(t x))
, (x) =
= lim
A
tx
= lim

## = ((t x), (x)) = (t).

,
= F 1 [()](t) =

1
F [()](t).
(2)n

(11.6)

,
Z
1
1
()ei(t,) d =
F [()](t) =
n
(2)
(2)n
Z
1
1
=
()ei(t,) d =
F [()]. (11.7)
n
(2)
(2)n

F 1 [()](t) =

S 0
.
S 0 ,
. S 0 (Rn )
(F [f ], ) = (f, F []),

f S 0,

S.

(11.8)

133

7 F [] , S S, , f 7 F [f ] S 0 S 0 .
, F 1 [f ]
(F 1 [f ], ) = (f, F 1 []).

(11.9)

, f , L1 (Rn ) L2 (Rn ), . ,
F 1 [f ] =

1
F [f (t)],
(2)n

f S 0,

(11.10)

## f (t) , (f (t), (t)) = (f (t), (t)).

,
11.1. f 7 F [f ]
S 0 S 0 .
( ).
1) :
F [f (At)]() =

1
F [f ](A1T ),
|detA|

detA 6= 0.

A 7 AT .
2) :
F [f ]( + h) = F [ei(h,t) f (t)](),

F [f (t + t0 )] = e(,t0 ) F [f ]().

3) :
Dj F [f ]() = F [(it)f (t)](),

## F [Dtj f (t)]() = (i)F [f ]().

11.1.


F [(t t0 )], = (t t0 ), F [] = F [](t0 ) =
Z

= (t)ei(t0 ,t) dt = ei(t0 ,t) , (t) ,
t0 = 0 F [] = 1, = F 1 [1] =
F [1] = (2)n ().

1
(2)n F [1].

134

E 0
, f E 0 S 0 , , . , f , f
SN , ( (10.4)) C N ,

## |(f, )| 6 CpN (), SN .

(11.11)
11.2. f E 0 , F [f ]
M

F [f ]() = f (t), (t)ei(t,) ,
(11.12)
(t) D, 1 f .
. (t) D (t) = 1 f .

## (Dj F [f ], ) = (1)|j| (F [f ], Dj ) = (1)|j| (f, F [Dj ]) =

= (1)|j| (f, (t)(it)j F []) =


Z
= f (t), (t)(it)j ( )ei(,t) d =
Z

=
f (t), (t)(it)j ei(,t) ( ) d.
j = 0 (11.12). ,
(11.12) M . (11.11), (10.2),

|Dj F [f ]()| = |(f (t), (t)(it)j ei(,t) )| 6 CpN (t)(it)j ei(,t) =
= C max sup (1 + t2 )N/2 |Dtj [(t)(t)j ei(,t) ]| 6
|j|6N tRn

6 Cj (1 + ||2 )N/2

(11.13)

Cj > 0. .
6. (11.12) , F [f ]() . ,
|Dj F [f ]( + i)| 6 Cj0 (1 + |z|2 )N/2 eb|| ,

z = + i.

(11.14)

7. , (t) (11.12)
, (f (t), ei(t,) )
f E 0 ei(t,) E.

135

11.2. f S 0 g E 0 . f g S 0
F [f g] = F [f ]F [g].

(11.15)

. (10.12),
(f g, ) = (f (x), (g(y), (x + y))),

S(Rn ).

, (11.8),



Z
(F [f g], ) = (f g, F []) = f (t), g(y), ()ei(x+y,) d
.
, (9.20)
S 0 , F [g] M ,


Z
(F [f g], ) = f (t), (g(y), ei(,y) )ei(t,) () d =


Z
= f (t), F [g]()ei(t,) () d
= (f, F [F [g]]) = (F [f ], F [g]) = (F [f ]F [g], ).
(11.15).
. f S 0 g S, f g M .
(11.15) .
f, g S 0 (); , , f g
S (). (11.15) , F [f ] F [g],
, .
(. 12, (12.9)).
0

. 1)
:
2

1) ea

|t|

2)

a2

1
;
+ t2

(
1 |t| 6 a,
4) f (t) =
0 |t| > a;

2 2

3) ea

(a > 0)

136

:
2a
;
2 + a2

a||
e
;
a

2
e 4a ;
a

2 sin(a)
.

,
2) F [(t)] = () iP 1 .
.
Z
F [(t)] = 0lim

+0

ei(t,+i ) d = 0lim

+0

i
+ 0

S 0.

.
3) F [sign t] = 2iP 1 .
. F [sign t] = F [(t) (t)].
4) F [P 1t ] = 2F 1 [P 1t ] = i sign .
D(R1 )
( ) . (t)
D. , , D(K),
K = [a, +a],
Z
Z a
(z) = F [] = (t)eitz dt =
(t)eitz dt, z = x + iy,
a

z C. , ,
F [(t)](z) ,
Z a

|z j (z)| =
(j) (t)eitz dt 6 Cj ea|y| , j = 0, 1, . . . . (11.16)
a

## , kka,m 6 Ca pam (),

Z(a), (8.6),
D(K),
(8.4). D(K), K = [a, +a],
Z(a). .
D Z.

137

11.2. (z),
j = 0, 1, . . . , (11.16) (
Z(a)),
D([a, a]).
. (t)
Z

1
(t) =
2

(x)eixt dx.

(11.17)

## (x) (11.16) |x|

, (11.17) x ( t).
(t) .
, .
(t) =

1
2

(x + i )ei(x+i )t dx =

1 t
e
=
2

(x + i )eix dx.

(11.18)

, ,
[N, N + i ] [N, N + i ]
N . |t| > a,
q > 0 t = q|t|. | | = q.
(11.16), j = 0 j = 2 (11.18)


C2
ea|y|
ea|y|
|(z)| 6 ea|y| min C0 , 2 6 C
6C
;
2
|z|
1 + |z|
1 + |x|2
Z
1 t +
ea| |
|(t)| 6
e
C
dx = C 0 eq|t|+a| | = C 0 eq(a|t|) .
2
1 + |x|2

C 0 q, q , (t) = 0.
, |t| > a (t) = 0.
, D Z. F 1 (11.17).

138

## Z , D Z ((t) 7 F [] = (z)), , Z. , () D Z ( z). (t + h) Peizh .

q hq
ith
D
(t),
q=0 (it) q! (t) = e
P
q
(q)
Z q=0 (z) hq! =
(z +h) h. D
(t) (t) D, D (t) E 0 (
, , D0 , . 2 9.7), Z
(z), |(z)| 6 C(1+|z|)m eb|y| . ,
.
E 0 , . (11.14).

D0
(F [f ], ) = (f, F []),

Z.

(11.19)

F [f ] Z. Z , F [f ]
.
. , .

12.

## g(t) D0 (Rn ). g(t)

, g(t) E 0 , , , (g(t), ei(t,z) ) z Cn

139

. g(t) L[g].
g E 0 . , (g(t), ei(t,z) ) ,
z Cn , z O Cn .
L[g](z), z O, g.
, , supp g ,
Rn .
Rn
C = int . , (t, y) > 0 t y C.
Cn
Rn + iC = {z = x + iy : x Rn , y C}

(12.1)

T C .
, n = 1 ( ). = [0, +),
C = (0, +), T C = R + iC = {z = x + iy : y > 0}
.
S 0 (). ,
S 0 () S0 ( 10.1).
g S0 . L[g](z)
z T C ,
L[g](z) = (g(t), ei(z,t) ),

z = x + iy,

z T C.

(12.2)

, ei(t,z) S z T C .
g(t)
L[g](z).
, (n = 1) , ,
(g(t), ezt ), z = x + iy, x > 0, z iz.
H(T C ) H (,) (T C ), > 0,
> 0, (, ) ,
T C
|f (z)| 6 Mf (1 + |z|2 )/2 [1 +

1
(y)

],

z = x + iy T C ,

(12.3)

140

kf (z)k(,) = sup
zT C

(1 +

|f (z)|
.
+ (y)]

(12.4)

|z|2 )/2 [1

## H (,) (T C ) . , 0 > , 0 >

0
0
, kf (z)k( , ) 6 2kf (z)k(,) .
0

H (,) (T C ) H ( , ) (T C ),

(12.5)
(,)

. H
(T ) H(T C ). , () .
, S0 H(T C ),
S0 T C ( ) H(T C ).
L[]. .
12.1. g(t) S0 ,
Rn C = int . f (z) =
L[g](z) H(T C ).
. ,
g(t) S0 , . ,
z T C , t , ei(z,t) S , (12.2)
(10.9), N
|f (z)| = |(g(t), ei(z,t) )| 6
6 Ckei(z,t) kN, = C sup (1 + t2 )N/2 |Dtj ei(z,t) | 6
t
|j|6N

t
|j|6N

## + C 00 (1 + |z|2 )N/2 sup |t|N e(y)|t| 6

t
|t|>1

6 C3 (1 + |z|2 )N/2 [1 +

1
].
N (y)

, f H(T C ).

141

12.2.
Rn C = int . f (z) H(T C ),

f (x + iy) f (x)

S 0 (Rn ).

(12.6)

y0
yC 0

C 0 C (
0
pr C pr C ).

.
n = 1. T C {z =
a
x + iy, y > 0} (12.3) |f (z)| 6 Mf (1+|z|)
(
yb
a b), (y) = y.
f (z).

|f

(1)

Z
Z

|f (z)| |dz| 6
(x + iy)| = f (x + iy) d`| 6 Mf

Z
(1 + |z|)a
6 Mf
d` 6
yb

Z y
d
6 M1 (1 + |z|)a1 + M2 (1 + |z|)a2
6
b
1
1
6 M3 (1 + |z|)a3 [1 + b1 ].
y

. x + iy ,
. , ( f (z)).
: i x + i x, x + i x + iy. N -
(N > b + 1)
y1b , x. ,
y = 0. ( -

142

N )
(f (x + iy)(x)) = (1)N (f (N ) (x + iy), (N ) (x)) =
Z
N
= (1)
f (N ) (x + iy)(N ) (x) dx
y0
Z
(1)N f (N ) (x)(N ) (x) dx.
y0

, f (N ) (z) z, (N ) (x) .
f (z) H(T C ) S 0 , f (x).
n > 1 ,
. ,

Z
f (x + iy)(x) dx C S(Rn ),
0

0
0
1
R y pr C , C nb C. () S(R )
() d = 1. (x) S(R )
Z
Z
Z
f (x + iy)(x) dx = () d f (x + y y + iy)(x) dx =
ZZ
=
f (x + ( + i)y)()(x y) dx d.

, N - f (x + y) = +
i ( ), ,
N
= 0. , , , f
S 0 (Rn ).
12.3. f (z) H(T C ); g(t) S0 , L[g(t)](z) = f (z),
F [g(t)](x) = f (x), f (x)
f (z), (12.6).
. ,
(12.3) y int C f (x + iy) S 0 (Rn ) R (x+iy)
dx < .
j, f(iz)
j
gy (t) = e(y,t) Fx1 [f (x + iy)](t, y). ,

143

y. , ` = 1, 2, . . .



gy (t)
f (x + iy)
= t` e(y,t) Fx1 [f (x + iy)] + e(y,t) Fx1
=
y`
y`



if (x + iy)
=
= e(y,t) t` Fx1 [f (x + iy)] + Fx1
x`
= e(y,t) [t` i(it` )]Fx1 [f (x + ty)] = 0.
. , gy (t) g(t)
y
Fx1 [f (x + iy)](t) = e(y,t) g(t) S 0 (Rn ).
(12.7)
y 0, y C 0 b C, ,
S 0 (12.6), , F 1 [f (x)](t) = g(t).
,
T supp g(t) . ,
(t) S(Rn ) supp (t) = . ,
(y, t) 6 |y||t| 6 1 |y| y C, t supp g(t).

(12.8)

(. 9.6, 4, . ,
int = C g , , .)

(g(t), (t)) = Fx1 [f (x + iy)](t), e(y,t) (t) =

= f (x + iy), F 1 [e(y,t) (t)](x) =
Z
Z
1
= f (x + iy)
ei(x,t)+(y,t) (t) dt dx =
(2)n
Z
Z
f (z)
ei(z,t) (j) (t) dt dx.
=
(iz)j

## |(g(t), (t))| 6 M e|y|

Z
Z
f (x + iy)
(j)
|y|

.
(iz)j dx | (t)| dt 6 M1 e

y, , y , , (g(t), (t)) = 0. .

144

,
12.1 ().
f (z) H(T C ), , g(t) S0 . H(T C ) S0 .
f (x + iy) S 0 y 0, y C
F [g] = f (x).
, . . [2] .
. f g S0 . f g S0

L[f g] = L[f ] L[g].

(12.9)

. n = 1, = [0, +), T C
C.
1) f , (9.30),
0
. ,
S0 S+
L[f ] =

1
,
(iz)

y > 0.

0
, g S+
,

## L[g () (t)](z) = (iz) L[g(t)](z).

(12.10)

. > 0, f
Z 1
Z
t
1
1
L[f ](iy) =
ety dt ==
1 e d = .
()
y
()
y
0
0
L[f ](z)
(iz) z = iy, y > 0, ,
. 6 0, + m > 0 m.
(m)

( = 1) (12.7),
L[eita (t)] =

i
,
z+a

L[eita (t)] =

i
,
za

145

L[(t) sin(at)] =

a2

a
,
z2

L[(t) cos(at)] =

iz
.
z2

a2

## 2) J0 (t) tu00 + u0 + tu = 0 u(0) = 1, u0 (0) = 0.

.
. (itu0 )0 + itu =
0 , iz[D(iz u
)] +
u
0
z
2
0
D
u = 0. (z +1)
u = zu
, u = z2 +1 . ,
R
2
= z12 +1 .
ln u
= 12 zdz2 +1 , u
Rt
3) , sin t = 0 J0 ( )J0 (t ) d .
1
. , L[sin t] = 1z
2 ,
.

4) , {ekt , k > 0}
S , = [0, +), S+ .
. . S+
0 (t), , {eyt , y > 0}.
(. 1 5) ,
0
g(t) S+
, (g(t), eyt ) = 0
y > 0, (g, 0 ) 6= 0. , , f (z) = L[g] = (g(t), eizt ) = 0 y > 0 ( C). , f (z) 0,
, g 0. .
5) , g(t) S 0 ,
g(t) = g(t). , g(t)
0
S+
cf+1 , c .
. f (z) = L[g(t)](z) = (g(t), eizt ) g.
0
t 
f (i) = g(t), e = g(t0 ), et =
= +1 (g(t), et ) = +1 f (i).
(t0 = t) g(t).

146

(i)
. , f (iy) = yf+1
f (z) (y > 0) (iz)c +1 . f (z) = (iz)c +1 , c = f (i) = (g(t), et ). ,
g(t) = cf+1 .

13.

n = 1 0
( n > 1
S+
[5]).
0
, S+
0
1
S (R ) .

S+ , [0, +) , t + . S+
kkN,R1 = sup (1 + t2 )N/2 |(j) (t)|.
+

(13.1)

j6N
1
tR+

S+
S+N .
f S 0 , 10.4 N ,
f (t) = DN g(t), g(t) .
0
f S+
, , g(t) = [f fN ](t), fN
, . (9.30).
f , M
0
, f S+M
,
g(t) = (f (), fN (t )),

(13.2)

## N fN (t) S+M t. ().

0
f (t) S+

f(z) = L[f ](z) = (f (t), eitz ),

z = x + iy,

y > 0.

(13.3)

147

## ( , eitz S+ y > 0.) f(z)

|f(x + iy)| 6 C

(1 + |z|)a
,
yb

x R1 ,

y > 0,

(13.4)

a, b C.
( )
. (k)
k . , ( ) , a > 0

(ak)
lim
= C(a),
(13.5)
k+ (k)
a K
(0, +).
(), C(a)
C(ab) = C(a)C(b),
, C(a) = a (, +).
< < + .
, (k) = k .
(k) , k (k)
+ .
( )

13.1 ( ). (t) ; A > 0 ,
t > A

Z
(t) = t exp (t) +


( )
d ,

(13.6)

## (t) (t) [A, +),

(t) c, (t) 0 t +.
. [14].
(13.6),

148

13.1. (k)
. > 0 k0 ,
(
+
a 6 (ak)
a > 1 + k > k0 ,
(k) 6 a
a+ 6

(ak)
(k)

6 a

k0
k

< a < 1 .

. (k)
. ,
1) > 0
(
k + (k) +,
k +;
k (k) 0
2) a
(t + a)
1.
t
(t)
. (13.6).
lim

(13.7)

:
0
(k)
(k) k
(k) ,
k , (k) .



1
k ; k ln k; k ln ln k; k 1 + sin ln ln k ;
2





1
k e ln k ; k 1 1
sin ln k
ln k
. .
0
S+

## . f (t) S 0 (R1 ) (k)

k. ,
f (t) ( )
(k),


1
1
t
f (kt) g(t),
f ( ) g(t),
k S 0 (R1 ),
(k)
(k) k
(13.8)

149

g(t) S 0 (R1 ).
g(t) 0, , f (t) ( ) (k).
1
, (k)
f (kt) g(t),

1
x
F [g](x). f k(k) F [f ] k
(k),
k(k).
, (13.8) g(t) 6 0, (k)
( )
g(t) = Cf+1 (t).

13.1. f S 0
,
1
f (kt) g(t) 6 0 S 0 .
(13.9)
(k)
k+
. , g (13.9)
cf+1 , c .
. (13.9) ,
(g, ) 6= 0. K

 

 
1
1
t
1
t
f (kt),
g(t),
(k)
a
a
a
a
k
a K.



 
(ak)
1
1
t
f (akt), (t) g(t),
(k) (ak)
a
a
k
a K. (13.9)
1
(f (akt), (t)) (g(t), (t)).
(ak)
k
,
g(t), a1
(ak) aK

(k) k
(g, )

t
a


= C(a).

150

. , C(a) = a


 
t
1
= (g(at), (t)) = a (g(t), (t)).
g(t),
a
a

## g(t) , , g(t) = cf+1 ,

. 5) 12.

.
(k), (13.9),

.
13.1. f (t) = (t)eit (k) = k1 . ,
Z
1
(f (kt), (t)) = k
eikt (t) dt =
(k)
0
Z
(0)
(0) 1 ikt 0

e (t) dt
.
=
i
i 0
i
k
, kf (kt) i(t),
(k) .
, . .
0
13.2. f S+

(k), , , < <
+, - f () (t) k (k).

151

, f (kt) = k 1 f (t),

 
1
1
t
()
()
(f
(kt), (t)) = +1
f
(t),
=

k (k)
k
(k)
k

 
t
1
(f f )(t),
=
= +1
k
(k)
k




1
t+
= +1
f (t), f ( ),
=
k
(k)
k




t
1
f (t), f (k ),
+
=
=
k (k)
k




1
t
f (t), f ( ),
+
=
=
k(k)
k

1
1
f (kt), (f ( ), (t + )) =
(f (kt), (t)).
=
(k)
(k)
 , (t) 7 (t) =
f ( ), (t + ) S+ .
().
13.3. (k)
> 1 f (t) t > 0.

f (t)
lim
= A,
(13.10)
t+ (t)
f (t) (k).
. ,
Z
1
1
(f (kt), (t)) =
f (kt)(t) dt C
(k)
(k) 0
k

S+ .

> 0 , > 1, k0
13.1. k > k0 S+
Z
Z k0 /k
1
f (kt)
f (kt)(t) dt =
(t) dt +
(k) 0
(k)
0
 Z 1 Z 1+ Z 
(kt) f (kt)
+
+
+
(t) dt. (13.11)
(k) (kt)
k0 /k
1
1+

152

,
k .
1. k(k) ( > 1),
k

k0 /k

f (kt)
1
(t) dt =
(k)
k(k)

k0

f (t0 )

 0
t
dt0 0.
k
k

0
(
t  kt = t , ,
< const).

k
2. , kk0 < t < 1 ( (kt)

## < const (. (13.10)),

f(kt)
13.1) (kt)
(k) 6 t

(kt f (kt)

|(t)|,
(k) (kt) (t) 6 Ct

Ct |(t)| dt 6

k0 /k

Ct |(t)| dt < .

Z 1
(kt) f (kt)
(t) dt =
k0 /k (k) (kt)

Z 1 
k0 (kt) f (kt)
=
t
(t) dt
k (k) (kt)
k
0
Z 1

At (t) dt.
(13.12)
k

3. 1 < t < 1 +
(kt)
t
(k) k
(kt)
(k) < const. , , k
(13.11).
4. , 1 + < t ( 13.1)
(kt)
+
, 2,
(k) 6 t

(kt) f (kt)

+

|(t)|,
(k) (kt) (t) 6 Ct

153

k (13.11) .
.

0
13.2. f S+
(k) , , N , N + > 1, ,
N - f (N ) (t)
tN (t),

1
tN (t)

f (N ) (t) C.

(13.13)

t+

. (13.13).
13.3, N - f k N (k), 13.2
f (t) (k).
. f (k) ,

1
f (kt), (t) C S+ .
(13.14)
(k)
k+
10.3 (. ) , (13.14) (t) S+N
N . N
1
tN (t)

f (N ) (t) =
=

1
tN (t)

(f fN )(t) =

1
(f (), fN (t )) =
(t)

1
(f (t), fN (1 )) CN .
t
(t)

, N ,
fN (t ) S+M . (13.13).
. N + > 1 . ,
(t)
f (t) = 1+t
2
1 (k) = k 2 ,
1
1
f (t) = t2
1,
1 (t)
1 + (t)2 t

154

f (k) =
(.)

1
k.

,
. , . , . 1
R+ .
0
[d](t) S+ .
[d](1) (t) = (t) d(t) = (t) ,
Z

lim

+0

t+

d( ) 6 (t) 6 lim

+0

d( ).

d.
. , (t)
( ).
13.2. f = [d](t)
1
R+ . f
(k)
,
1
[d](kt) g(t) = cf+1 (t)
(k)
k

0
S+
,

(13.15)

1
c
(t) g (1) (1) = cf+2 (1) =
.
t
t(t)
( + 2)

(13.16)

. , (t)
, + 1 > 0, > 1.
g g (1) (t)
t t > 0. (t) = (t) (t), ,
. (3.3).
(1 t ) 6 (1 t) 6 (1 t + ).

155

(
.)

1
f (k ), (1 ) 6
(k)
Z k0
Z k+0
1
1
(k)
6
[d]( ) 6
[d]( ) 6
6
k(k) 0
k(k)
k(k) 0

1
f (k ), (1 + ) .
(13.17)
6
(k)
> 0


1
f (k ), (1 ) g( ), (1 ) .
(k)
k

(13.18)

,

g (1) (1 2) 6 g( ), (1 ) 6

6 g( ), (1 + ) 6 g (1) (1 + 2).

(13.19)

## > 0 . g (1) (t)

1, , <

(1)

g
(13.20)
(1) g (1) (1 2) < .
2
(13.18) k (k > k )

1



(k) f (k ), (1 ) g( ), (1 ) < 2 .
(13.17), (13.20) (13.19)

(k)

(1)

< , k > k .

g
(1)
k(k)

(13.16).
. 1) ( , ):
f1 (t) = (t) sin(t); f2 (t) = (t) cos(t);
f3 (t) = (t)t sin(t); f4 (t) = (t)t cos(t)?

156

. ,
kf1 (kt) (t),

k 2 f2 (kt) 0 (t),

k 2 f3 (kt) 2 0 (t),

## kf4 (kt) (t)

k+

k+

k+

k+

S 0 (R1 ).
2) , f (t) = (t 2) cos ln t , f (t) .
. , N t0 , f (N ) (t) t > t0 ,
f (N ) (t) = tN rN cos[ln t + N ] + PN 1 (t),

(13.21)

rN > 0, PN 1 (t) N .
0
f S+
0
13.3. f S+

(k) ,

1
f (kt) cf+1 (t)
(k)
k

0
S+
,

(13.22)

,
A)
y
 f (iy) = c;
lim
(13.23)
y+0 1
y
B) M , N r0 ,

r
M

i

## 0 < r 6 r0 , 0 < < . (13.24)

1  f (re ) 6
sinN
r
. .
(13.22).


1
(k)
f (kt), k

157

0
S+
, SN,R1+ (. 10.3 ),




1
izt
izt

(13.25)
(k) f (kt), e
6 Cke kN,R1+ , y > 0,

(. (10.10)). y > 0
keizt kN,R1+ = sup (1 + t2 )N/2 |Dj eizt | 6 sup (1 + t2 )N/2 |(iz)j |eyt 6
t>0
j6N

t>0
j6N

t>0

(1 + |z|2 )N/2
.
yN

## y = |z| sin , (13.25)

(13.24). (13.22) ,
 
1
1 z
f
.
c
+1
k(k)
k
(iz)
k
z = i, k = y 1 , (13.23).
. (13.23) (13.24).
, m ( , , m > N + 3 + 2)
1
k m (k)

f (m) (kt) =

(fm f )(kt) =
 
Z
1
dz
izt z
=
e
f
,
2k m+1 (k)
k (i kz )m
k m (k)

= x + i 1t , < x < +. ,

1
| m
f (m) (kt)| 6 P (t),
k (k)
P (t) , k. ,



Z +
1

xt + i
c1 tm
dx
(m)

f
6
f
(kt)
6
k m (k)
k(k)

m
kt
|(ixt + 1)|



Z
+i
tm1 +
d
f
.
6 c2

2
m/2
k(k) ( + 1)
kt
(13.26)

158

## , > 0 k > k0 > 1, k0

13.1, .
1. kt 6 k0 . t 6 1 (13.4)


1+
+i
f
6M

kt


1+ 2 a/2
(kt)2
=

1 b
kt
2 a/2
ba

= M1 (1 + ) (kt)
6
(
M2 (1 + 2 )a/2
b a > 0,
6
M3 (1 + 2 )a/2 tba b a < 0.
, (k) > Ck k
(, k0 ),
1
c1
6 1+ 6
k(k)
k

c1
k01+
c2 t1+

1 + > 0,
1 + < 0.

, (13.26) (
m)

1

(m)

(kt) 6
k m (k) f
6 Ctm1|ba||1+|

(1 + 2 )a/2
d 6 P (t).
(1 + 2 )m/2

## 2. kt > k0 > 1. , (13.26),

1

(m)

(kt) 6
k m (k) f



Z

d
1
tm (tk) +
+i 6

6 c2
f

2
m/2
(k)
(kt)(kt)
kt
( + 1)

Z +

d
1
m (tk)
i

6 c2 t
f (re ) , (13.27)
(k) ( 2 + 1)m/2 (kt)(kt)

r =

2 +1
,
kt

sin =

1
.
2 +1

159

(13.24),




1
rei =

f
(kt)(kt)
p

1
r

r
2 +1


2 + 1
r1
p
( 2 + 1)N
6 c3 p
.
1
( 2 + 1) 2 ||

1
r

 |f(rei )|

13.1 :

t
(kt)
6 C

(k)
+
t

## kk0 < t < 1 ,

1 < t < 1 + ,
t > 1 + .

(13.28)

, (13.27), ,
k

Z

1
( 2 + 1)N/2 d
(m)
6 M1 tm+

f
(kt)
6 ctm+ .
1

k m (k)
( 2 + 1) 2 ||+m/2
(13.28).
, (t) S+ t +
,
1
k m (k)

(m)

f
(kt), (t) < const.

,


1
f (m) (kt), k > k0
m
k (k)

## S+ . , eyt , 0 < y < k10 ,

k0 > 0.

160

,
1
1
(f (m) (kt), eyt ) = m
((fm f )(kt), eyt )
k m (k)
k (k)
 
1
1
1
1
z


= m+1
((fm f )(t), e k t ) = m+1
f
m
z
k
(k)
k
(k) i k
k z=iy


 
y
y1 k
1r
y
r
c
k 
=
f i
= y  1  f(ir) ,
(k) y1 k
k
r+0 y
r r
r = ky (13.23).
S+ , . 4) . , ; , 2 6.3 . m k m (k) 13.2
f (t) ,
(13.22). .
. f(x) f(z)
H(T R+ ) k(k), f(z) A)
B) .
, F [f(x)](t) = f (t)
(k).
13.3. f = [d](t)
0
S+
. (13.23) (13.24).
, , rei = x + iy, y = r sin ,

Z

r

r i(x+iy)t
i



e
d(t) 6
1 f (re ) = 1
0
r
Z r
r
6 1
etr sin d(t) =
r 0

Z
1 1
c1
1 r sin
y


eyt d(t) 6
.
=
+1
1
1
sin r
y 0
sin

13.1 (13.21). , , .

161

0
13.4. f = [d](t) S+

. ( [d](1) (t) = (t)) 1 (k) ,

(t)
c,
(13.29)
1 (t) t+

,
Z +
1

eyt d(t) c1 .
y+0
1 y1 0

(13.30)

. . (13.29) ,
[d](t) (k) =
1
k (k) ( 13.2), ( A) (13.30).
. (13.30). (k) =
1

k 1 (k), 13.3, .
, c1 = c( + 1).
(13.15), (13.16) (13.30).

[1] . ., . .,
, , ., 1976.
[2] . ., , , ., 1979.
[3] . ., . .,
, , . 1, , ., 1959.
[4] . ., . .,
, , . 2, ,
., 1959.
[5] . ., . ., . ., , , .,
1986.
[6] . ., . ., , , . 4, , .,
1961.
[7] ., ., .,
. , , ., 1976.

162

[8] . ., . , , ., 1960.
[9] .., . ,
, ., 1965.
[10] .., , , ., 1968.
[11] . ., . . ., , , ., 2003.
[12] . ., . .,
, . . . ., 70:6 (2006).
[13] . ., . ., , , ., 1965.
[14] ., , , ., 1985.
[15] ., ., , . 1. , , ., 1977.
[16] ., , , ., 1975.
[17] ., ., , , ., 1967.
[18] ., , , .,
1971.
[19] ., , , ., 1967.
[20] . .,
, , ., 1964.

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