Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

. . .

77 - 4 8211. 042 1200025. ISSN 1994-0408

-
-

# 06, 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712240
..1, ..1,2, ..1, ..1
629.7.05

, 1 . .. ,
2
. ..


, -
(). -


. 1985-1986 .
-7 [1].
-1 (113), -
.
-1 14520000 10 .
1,06 [2].

-1 , -
.
-1
( 1,54 ) -11. -
-11 6010000 10 [3].
Space Shuttle (Hand
Held Lidar HHL) [4].

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 247
,

(. . 1). ,
, ,
(), . -11
60 .

. 1. -11

()
-
- (), , -
. , -
0,1 , .

1. -
, -
. -
, -
.
( )
, -
.

( 6 ) -
,
.

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 248

().
.

(0,15000 )
.
-
. -
( ), -
, , -
.
.
-
: , -
.

.
, .
, 1,541,57 .

. , ,
310 [3] ( ). -
,
100...200 . -
1005000 , -
.

2. - -


.

, . -

, .
, -
, [5].
,
.
()

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 249
, ,
[6,7].
(-)
.
[6]

, .
[6,7] -
, , .
( -
),

Ri i ( x) , (1)
i

Ri ; i . (1),
, -
.
[8] -
- . -
. -


D D f m V
i 1 2 0 0 0 K K K , (2)
D1 0 D2 f 0 m V
D1 ; D2 ; f
; m ; V ; K , -
; K , -
; K -
, ; 0
. -
, , .
i
. (2) -,
. -
. -
-
.

,

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 250
.
,
. -
(. )
2 , ,
.
K . -
, K = 0,5.
, K = 1.
-
K = 1, K = 0,1, -
.
K = 0,5, -
, K = 1.
-1, -11 ,
i . 1. -
, .
1.


,
,

, i

-1 [6,7] 20 000 145 0,2 2,5 221226116 + 4,55106


-11 [7] 10 000 60 0,15 2,1 22620391 + + 6,81105
5 000 0,1 0,33 3,9 150200100 + + 1,35101

-
. -
, , -
45 .

, . -
, .
( ) -
[9], Jenoptik AG Defense & Civil Systems () [10] FLIR Systems,
Inc. () [11].
(2).
-
, -

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 251
. K, -
. ,
, -
.
, -
. [9-11] -
,
, ( ),
.

D D m V
i 1 2 0 D0 0 0 0
D1 0 D2 D 0 m V
K K K K , (3)
D ; ;
; K
.
,
i . 2. -
-
. K K -
, K = 1 K = 0,5, -
. -
K = 1, K = 0,1.

2.

. ,

,
. ,

. -

.
,

-12
12 000 200,0 1,5 2,33 135,0 4,00 270105116 5,611012
[9]
ELEM-DP
10k LRF 10 000 200,0 5,0 0,50 192,0 1,60 22360124 + 1,051011
[10]
MLR-2K
5 000 25,0 1,0 0,70 1,5 0,13 335489 + 4,86106
[11]
5 000 0,1 5,0 6,00 25,0 3,90 150200100 + + + + 8,78106

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 252
3, -
, (
).
.

3. -

, -
-
. -1 D = 10 -
Dmin = 145 , -11 D = 10 Dmin = 60 . -
D = 7,25 D = 3,0 .
,
.
-
.
-
,
D1 D2

t , (4)
t = t2 t1, (5)
D1, D2 t1, t2.
(4) , -
D t .

2 D2 2t
2 2 2 2
2 t t . (6)
, D t << D.
(6),
2 D
. (7)
t 2
(4) , -
D t
. -
D = 10,0 . D < 1,0 ,
( -
)
[12,13].

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 253
, -
, -
(. 3), .
3. ,

5000400 400100
D0, 25020 205
, / 0,5 0,1
D, 0,35 0,07
t -
,
D = 10,0 5,31 11,89
D = 5,0 3,76 8,41
D = 1,0 1,68 3,76


N . -
, N , -
. -

2 D

N t 2 , (8)

2
D
N 2
2 . (9)

t
, D
N , , .
Dmax = 200 ,
-
Dmin = 150100 . 3 =
0,1 /.
-
, -
f 20 . t = 1,0 , -
f = 20 D = 0,32 , -
, D =
10,0 f = 20 .
-
, 1,06 -
.
. [14] -
-

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 254
. ,
, -
( , ) -
.

f 3600
, (10)
N
f ; N , -
.

() ,

P(t) = et, (11)
; t [t0, Tf]
, ; t0 ; Tf .
t = 1 . -
N = 109
[14], = 1,5 [5]. D = 0,1 / t
. 2.

. 2. D = 0,1 /:
1 t = 1,0 ; 2 t = 1,5 ; 3 t = 2,0

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 255
, D .
D (
).
, .
, -
. -
*,
(**) (*). (12)
(12) , * -
[15].
() = { | , i () i ()}. (13)
-
. i, i [1, k]
* D
k k

ii ( x* ) min i i ( x) ,
i 1
xDx
i 1
(14)

* .
P(t) 0,999, -
D 0,9 . , -
, -
.
P(t) = 0,9993 [16].
, ,
P(t) = 0,9999, -
P(t) = 0,999 P(t) = 0,9991.
, , D t
(5000...400 400...100 ) . 4.
4. , D t
P(t) = 0,9993 P(t) = 0,9991
= 0,5 / = 0,1 / = 0,5 / = 0,1 /
D t D t D t D t
4,03 1,0 0,80 1,0 4,56 1,0 0,91 1,0
11,11 1,5 2,22 1,5 12,60 1,5 2,52 1,5
22,77 2,0 4,55 2,0 25,83 2,0 5,16 2,0

4 ,
400...100 .
5000400 D ,
400...100 D ( t = 1,0 ).

, .

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 256
400200
. -
1,52
-
( 2).
D = 0,8...0,9
t = 1,0 D = 2,2...2,5 t = 1,5 .

(), , -
50000
20 [17]. ( = 2,0105 1/) P(t) = 0,99997.

4.
, -
1
[17-19].
, ( = 6 ).

[20].
, -
, (. 3).

. 3.

1007030 ,
.

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 257
, -
( 5000 30 ).

4 D 2 q
, (15)
d 2
q /; d ;
( ); -
() ; , -
.
(),
. , -
,
.
, ,
i
, (16)

i ; .

= t, (17)
t .
t = 20 i = 200 = 0,9 /
= 4,441015 .
d = 6,9 ; = = 0,8. -
-
.
= 0,5.
/ q =
710 [20], q = 3 [12].
, -
, -
h, (
h = 4 ). , [20]
4 D 3 q
. (18)
1,9 h d 2
.
.

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 258
S S
D4 , (19)
q
S ; ;
S ; ;
.
/ -
-
. 5.
5. /
( 2,54 10,
,
= 0,85)
2,93 (q = 10,0) 2,21 (q = 10,0)
1,00 18,26 (q = 10,0)
5,00 (q = 3,4) 3,31 (q = 3,0)
4,47 (q = 10,0) 2,94 (q = 10,0)
2,33 22,56 (q = 10,0)
5,00 (q = 8,0) 4,39 (q = 3,0)
3,16 (q = 10,0)
2,91 5,00 (q = 10,0) 23,85 (q = 10,0)
4,72 (q = 3,0)
11,50 9,93 (q = 10,0) 5,00 (q = 10,0) 33,63 (q = 10,0)

, ( = 1,0 ) -
, -
/ ( ).

5.
-
-
.
.
. -
(
). , -
- -
( ), . 4.
. 4 : d ; d
; b
; r ; S
, .

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 259
. 4.


d = 2(d + D). (20)
, -

d
0, b r
2
S d d
, b r b . (21)
S 2 2
d
1, b r
2
S -
, [21], , -
,
, -
:
2 d 2 2 d 2
2 b r 2 b r 2
d
S arcco s 4 r 2 arcco s 4
4 b d
2 b r


1 d d d d
b r b r b r b r .
2 2 2 2 2 (22)

(20)-(22), , -
, .. -

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 260
,
.

(19):
S S
. (23)
D 4
70 , -
= 4,44108 .
b . 5.
, d = 6 .

. 5. : 1 = 11,5 , b = 31 ; 2 = 2,91 , b = 31 ;
3 = 2,33 , b = 31 ; 4 = 11,5 , b = 39 ; 5

, b = 31
2,33 .
b = 39 178 342 ,
= 11,5
. ,
, /,
.

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 261
6.
[19]
, . -
-

P
f , (24)
E (1)
; ; .
-
, 33 % ,
= 8,25 .
( = 0,01) 11,5 , -
f = 7,25
.

1,06 1,57 ( = 0,1), -
. = 11,5 f = 79,7 .
( = 0,2) = 1,0 f = 2062,5 .
-
, .
,

D t P(t ) m0
i D 0 , (25)
D
0 D0 t 0 m
P (t )
D , ; D -
; t
; (t) ; m .
-
.
= 0,1 /
.
i . 6.

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 262
6.

5,00 1,08 2,0 0,99996 0,3 0,168


5,00 1,74 1,5 0,99957 0,6 0,181
2,21 3,21 1,0 0,99997 2,0 0,066

,
() , -
. ,
, -
. , - ,
.
-

. ,
2, .. -
.


-
- (), -
. , -
, , -
.
-
,
. , P(t) = 0,999 -
t = 1,0 -
D = 0,8...0,9 . -
t = 1,5 P(t) =
0,999 D = 2,2...2,5 .
5
-

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 263
.
= 11,5 -
5 / q = 10.
30 .

-
. ,
, b = 39
= 11,5 .

.
.

.


1. ..
//
. . .. . . . 2013. 11.
: http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/654681.html ( 15.01.2014).
2. .., .., .. : .
. .: , 2012. 232 .
3. . . 11. -
/ . . .. . .: , 2005. 720 .
4. Goodman J.L. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous. :
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20110023479.pdf (
01.03.2014).
5. .. , .
: , 1998. 336 .
6. .., .. -
// . . ..
. . . 2013. 4. :
http://technomag.edu.ru/doc/574259.html ( 03.06.2013).
7. .., ..
// .
2013. 1. . 38-43.
8. .. - // -
. . .. . . . 2013. 8.
: http://sntbul.bmstu.ru/doc/580267.html ( 23.10.2013).

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 264
9. - -
// : . -
: http://www.grpz.ru/production/civil/laser/15/ ( 01.03.2014).
10. Jenoptik Diode-pumped Er: Glass ELEM-DP 10k LRF. :
http://www.idssi.com/products/lrf/elem/elem-dp10k.aspx#.UxEKe-N_uNA ( -
01.03.2014).
11. K-Series Laser Rangefinders. : http://cvs.flir.com/laser-rangefinder-mlr2k
( 01.03.2014).
12. .., .. -
// . 2003. .1, 2. . 59-65.
13. ., ., .
// : , , . 2008. 3. .118-123.
14. ..
// . . .. .
. . 2014. 2. : http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/699720.html
( 31.03.2014).
15. .. : .
2- ., . . .: , 2004. 176 .
16. .., .., .. -
-
// . 2011. . 78, 10. . 4-9.
17. // -: . :
http://www.ntoire-polus.ru/products_low_ili.html ( 27.02.2014).
18. LIDAR-Erbium-Pulsed-Fiber-Lasers. : http://www.vgen.com/wp-
content/uploads/LIDAR-Erbium-Pulsed-Fiber-Lasers.pdf ( 27.02.2014).
19. .., .., ..
// .
. .. . . . 2013. 8. :
http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/609292.html ( 20.08.2013).
20. .., .. -
: .
, 2002. 38 . : http://de.ifmo.ru/bk_netra/start.php?bn=27
( 19.01.2012).
21. Circle-Circle Intersection // MathWorld: website. :
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Circle-CircleIntersection.html (
03.03.2014).

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 265
Study of efficiency and optimization parameters of laser device for
measuring the range rate of a spacecraft
# 06, June 2014
DOI: 10.7463/0614.0712240
E.I. Starovoitov1, N.E. Zubov1,2, V.V. Ivashov1, A.V. Nikulchin1
1
S.P. Korolev Rocket And Space Corporation Energia, Korolev, Moscow area, 141070, Rus-
sian Federation
2
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 105005, Moscow, Russian Federation

To replace the hand-held laser rangefinders on board transport spacecraft (SC) a laser
rangefinder-speedometer (LRS) is developed and installed in the unpressurized area of SC to de-
termine automatically the range rate. Crew, turning the active spacecraft by the video image that
is formed by a docking camera, manually provides guidance of LRS to the passive SC. Using a
generalized function of efficiency was estimated LRS characteristics. Comparison with the re-
sults of existing analogues shows that the LRS has the highest efficiency. As a result of relation-
ship analysis of measuring speed and reliability accuracy of LRS laser source, Pareto sets are
obtained, which enable providing the optimal operation conditions of a device It is found that the
reliability function of LRS, which is equal to 0.999, is ensured at 1.0 s averaging time of range
measurement and 0.8...0.9 m range measurement error. Increasing the averaging time of range
measurement up to 1.5 s allows reliability function equal to 0.999 with the range measurement
error of 2.5...2.5 m. Energy calculations are performed for 5 km range measurements on space
complex with a complicated configuration such as the International Space Station (ISS) for the
maximum and minimum value of the effective reflection area. When the laser pulse energy is
11.5 mJ for measurements of diffusely reflected signal at ranges of 5 km at least a signal/noise
ratio is no less than 10. With LRS illuminating the angular reflector, a measurement range is of
over 30 km. Because of a large number of the angular reflectors on the ISS body is considered
the use of the geometric factor to protect the photo-detector overload when receiving a signal
from the nearby angular reflector. It is found that when the length of the base between the receiv-
ing and transmitting optical apertures is equal to 39 mm, a photo-detector is protected from the
overload at the pulse energies up to 11.5 mJ. The results of efficiency evaluation using the gen-
eralized functions for different types of laser sources are presented. Optical parametric oscillator

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 266
based on a neodymium laser with diode pumping has the highest efficiency. With increasing
pulse energy and reducing weight and size characteristics of fiber lasers, they may be used in
LRS instead of solid-state lasers.

Publications with keywords: reliability, space vehicle, Laser rangefinder, reliability function,
laser speedometer
Publications with words: reliability, space vehicle, Laser rangefinder, reliability function, la-
ser speedometer

References
1. Starovoytov E.I. [Historical aspects of the development and principles of construction of air-
borne laser radar systems for the rendezvous and docking of spacecraft]. Nauka i
obrazovanie MGTU im. N.E. Baumana - Science and Education of the Bauman MSTU, 2013,
no. 11. Available at: http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/654681.html , accessed 15.01.2014. (in
Russian).
2. Goncharov A.D., Gromov A.V., Zinov'ev V.V. Pribory artilleriyskoy razvedki [Devices of
artillery reconnaissance]. St. Petersburg, ITMO University Publ., 2012. 232 p. (in Russian).
3. Ivanov S.B., ed. Arms and Technologies of Russia. Vol. 11. Optoelectronic Systems and Laser
Equipment. Moscow, Publishing House Weapons and Technology, 2005. 720 p. (in Rus-
sian).
4. Goodman J.L. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous. NASA, Lyndon B. Jonson Space Center,
Houston, Texas, 2011. Available at:
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20110023479.pdf , accessed 01.05.2014.
5. Borovikov S.M. Teoreticheskie osnovy konstruirovaniya, tekhnologii i nadezhnosti [Theoreti-
cal foundations of design, technology and reliability]. Minsk, Dizayn PRO Publ., 1998. 336 p.
(in Russian).
6. Starovoytov E.I., Savchuk D.V. [Pareto optimization of parameters of onboard laser ranging
systems of spacecraft]. Nauka i obrazovanie MGTU im. N.E. Baumana - Science and Educa-
tion of the Bauman MSTU, 2013, no. 4. DOI: 10.7463/0413.0574259 (in Russian).
7. Starovoytov E.I., Savchuk D.V. [Study and optimization of using retroreflectors to localize
space objects]. Kosmicheskaya tekhnika i tekhnologii, 2013, no. 1, pp. 38-43. (in Russian).
8. Demidov DV [Search-surveillance optical finders]. Molodezhnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy
vestnik. MGTU im. N.E. Baumana - Youth Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Bauman
MSTU, 2013, no. 8. Available at: http://sntbul.bmstu.ru/doc/580267.html , accessed
23.10.2013. (in Russian).

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 267
9. Lazernyy dal'nomer s sinkhronnym nakopleniem ekho-signalov i vstroennym televizionnym
kanalom [Laser rangefinder with simultaneous accumulation of echo signals and built-in TV
channel]. Ryazan State Instrument-making Enterprise (RSIE): website. Available at:
http://www.grpz.ru/production/civil/laser/15/ , accessed 01.03.2014. (in Russian).
10. Jenoptik Diode-pumped Er: Glass ELEM-DP 10k LRF. Available at:
http://www.idssi.com/products/lrf/elem/elem-dp10k.aspx#.UxEKe-N_uNA , accessed
01.03.2014.
11. K-Series Laser Rangefinders. Available at: http://cvs.flir.com/laser-rangefinder-mlr2k , ac-
cessed 01.03.2014.
12. Stavrov A.A., Pozdnyakov M.G. [Pulsed laser rangefinders for optical location systems].
Doklady BGUIR, 2003, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 59-65. (in Russian).
13. Vil'ner V., Laryushin A., Rud' E. [Methods for Increasing Impulse Lasers Range-Finders
Accuracy]. Elektronika: nauka, tekhnologiya, biznes, 2008, no. 3, pp. 118-123.
14. Starovoytov E.I. [Reliability analysis of onboard laser ranging systems for control systems by
movement of spacecraft]. Nauka i obrazovanie MGTU im. N.E. Baumana - Science and Edu-
cation of the Bauman MSTU, 2014, no. 2. DOI: 10.7463/0214.0699720 . (in Russian).
15. Nogin V.D. Priniatie reshenii v mnogokriterial'noi srede: kolichestvennyi podkhod [Decision
making in multicriteria environment: a quantitative approach]. Moscow, FIZMATLIT Publ.,
2004. 176 p. (in Russian).
16. Polyakov V.M., Pokrovskiy V.P., Soms L.N. [Laser transmission module with a switchable
directional pattern for the rangefinder of the PhobosGround spacecraft]. Opticheskiy zhurnal,
2011, vol. 78, no. 10, pp. 4-9. (English translation: Journal of Optical Technology, 2011, vol.
78, no. 10, pp. 640-643. DOI: 10.1364/JOT.78.000640 ).
17. Impul'snye itterbievye lazery [Pulsed Ytterbium fiber laser]. NTO IRE-Polyus: website.
Available at: http://www.ntoire-polus.ru/products_low_ili.html , accessed 27.02.2014. (in
Russian).
18. LIDAR-Erbium-Pulsed-Fiber-Lasers. Available at: http://www.vgen.com/wp-
content/uploads/LIDAR-Erbium-Pulsed-Fiber-Lasers.pdf , accessed 27.02.2014.
19. Starovoytov E.I., Savchuk D.V., Zubov N.E. [Selection of lasers for increasing the range of
onboard laser ranging systems of space vehicles]. Nauka i obrazovanie MGTU im. N.E.
Baumana - Science and Education of the Bauman MSTU, 2013, no. 8. DOI:
10.7463/0813.0609292 (in Russian).

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 268
20. Nazarov V.N., Balashov I.F. Energeticheskaia otsenka impul'snykh lazernykh dal'nomerov
[Energy assessment of pulsed laser range finders]. SPbGU ITMO, 2002. 38 p. Available at:
http://de.ifmo.ru/bk_netra/start.php?bn=27 , accessed 01.05.2014). (in Russian).
21. Circle-Circle Intersection. MathWorld: website. Available at:
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Circle-CircleIntersection.html , accessed 01.05.2014).

http://technomag.bmstu.ru/doc/712240.html 269

Оценить